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Sample records for advanced chemiluminescence concepts

  1. Advanced microwave processing concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauf, R.J.; McMillan, A.D.; Paulauskas, F.L. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, TN (United States)

    1995-05-01

    The purpose of this work is to explore the feasibility of several advanced microwave processing concepts to develop new energy-efficient materials and processes. The project includes two tasks: (1) commercialization of the variable-frequency microwave furnace; and (2) microwave curing of polymer composites. The variable frequency microwave furnace, whose initial conception and design was funded by the AIC Materials Program, will allow us, for the first time, to conduct microwave processing studies over a wide frequency range. This novel design uses a high-power traveling wave tube (TWT) originally developed for electronic warfare. By using this microwave source, one can not only select individual microwave frequencies for particular experiments, but also achieve uniform power densities over a large area by the superposition of many different frequencies. Microwave curing of thermoset resins will be studied because it hold the potential of in-situ curing of continuous-fiber composites for strong, lightweight components. Microwave heating can shorten curing times, provided issues of scaleup, uniformity, and thermal management can be adequately addressed.

  2. Advanced microwave processing concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauf, R.J.; McMillan, A.D.; Paulauskas, F.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1997-04-01

    The purpose of this work is to explore the feasibility of several advanced microwave processing concepts to develop new energy-efficient materials and processes. The project includes two tasks: (1) commercialization of the variable-frequency microwave furnace; and (2) microwave curing of polymeric materials. The variable frequency microwave furnace, whose initial conception and design was funded by the AIM Materials Program, allows the authors, for the first time, to conduct microwave processing studies over a wide frequency range. This novel design uses a high-power traveling wave tube (TWT) originally developed for electronic warfare. By using this microwave source, one can not only select individual microwave frequencies for particular experiments, but also achieve uniform power densities over a large area by the superposition of many different frequencies. Microwave curing of various thermoset resins will be studied because it holds the potential of in-situ curing of continuous-fiber composites for strong, lightweight components or in-situ curing of adhesives, including metal-to-metal. Microwave heating can shorten curing times, provided issues of scaleup, uniformity, and thermal management can be adequately addressed.

  3. ADVANCED SULFUR CONTROL CONCEPTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apostolos A. Nikolopoulos; Santosh K. Gangwal; William J. McMichael; Jeffrey W. Portzer

    2003-01-01

    Conventional sulfur removal in integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants involves numerous steps: COS (carbonyl sulfide) hydrolysis, amine scrubbing/regeneration, Claus process, and tail-gas treatment. Advanced sulfur removal in IGCC systems involves typically the use of zinc oxide-based sorbents. The sulfides sorbent is regenerated using dilute air to produce a dilute SO{sub 2} (sulfur dioxide) tail gas. Under previous contracts the highly effective first generation Direct Sulfur Recovery Process (DSRP) for catalytic reduction of this SO{sub 2} tail gas to elemental sulfur was developed. This process is currently undergoing field-testing. In this project, advanced concepts were evaluated to reduce the number of unit operations in sulfur removal and recovery. Substantial effort was directed towards developing sorbents that could be directly regenerated to elemental sulfur in an Advanced Hot Gas Process (AHGP). Development of this process has been described in detail in Appendices A-F. RTI began the development of the Single-step Sulfur Recovery Process (SSRP) to eliminate the use of sorbents and multiple reactors in sulfur removal and recovery. This process showed promising preliminary results and thus further process development of AHGP was abandoned in favor of SSRP. The SSRP is a direct Claus process that consists of injecting SO{sub 2} directly into the quenched coal gas from a coal gasifier, and reacting the H{sub 2}S-SO{sub 2} mixture over a selective catalyst to both remove and recover sulfur in a single step. The process is conducted at gasifier pressure and 125 to 160 C. The proposed commercial embodiment of the SSRP involves a liquid phase of molten sulfur with dispersed catalyst in a slurry bubble-column reactor (SBCR).

  4. Advanced Welding Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    Four advanced welding techniques and their use in NASA are briefly reviewed in this poster presentation. The welding techniques reviewed are: Solid State Welding, Friction Stir Welding (FSW), Thermal Stir Welding (TSW) and Ultrasonic Stir Welding.

  5. Advanced tokamak concepts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oomens, A. A. M.

    1998-01-01

    From a discussion of fusion reactor designs based on today's well-established experience gained in the operation of large tokamaks, it is concluded that such reactors are economically not attractive. The physics involved in the various options for concept improvement is described and the main e

  6. Advanced tokamak concepts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oomens, A. A. M.

    1996-01-01

    From a discussion of fusion reactor designs based on today's well-established experience gained in the operation of large tokamaks, it is concluded that such reactors are economically not attractive. The physics involved in the various options for concept improvement is described and the main e

  7. Advanced nuclear thermal propulsion concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Steven D.

    1993-11-01

    In 1989, a Presidential directive created the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) which had a goal of placing mankind on Mars in the early 21st century. The SEI was effectively terminated in 1992 with the election of a new administration. Although the initiative did not exist long enough to allow substantial technology development, it did provide a venue, for the first time in 20 years, to comprehensively evaluate advanced propulsion concepts which could enable fast, manned transits to Mars. As part of the SEI based investigations, scientists from NASA, DoE National Laboratories, universities, and industry met regularly and proceeded to examine a variety of innovative ideas. Most of the effort was directed toward developing a solid-core, nuclear thermal rocket and examining a high-power nuclear electric propulsion system. In addition, however, an Innovative Concepts committee was formed and charged with evaluating concepts that offered a much higher performance but were less technologically mature. The committee considered several concepts and eventually recommended that further work be performed in the areas of gas core fission rockets, inertial confinement fusion systems, antimatter based rockets, and gas core fission electric systems. Following the committee's recommendations, some computational modeling work has been performed at Los Alamos in certain of these areas and critical issues have been identified.

  8. Advanced nuclear thermal propulsion concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Steven D.

    1993-01-01

    In 1989, a Presidential directive created the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) which had a goal of placing mankind on Mars in the early 21st century. The SEI was effectively terminated in 1992 with the election of a new administration. Although the initiative did not exist long enough to allow substantial technology development, it did provide a venue, for the first time in 20 years, to comprehensively evaluate advanced propulsion concepts which could enable fast, manned transits to Mars. As part of the SEI based investigations, scientists from NASA, DoE National Laboratories, universities, and industry met regularly and proceeded to examine a variety of innovative ideas. Most of the effort was directed toward developing a solid-core, nuclear thermal rocket and examining a high-power nuclear electric propulsion system. In addition, however, an Innovative Concepts committee was formed and charged with evaluating concepts that offered a much higher performance but were less technologically mature. The committee considered several concepts and eventually recommended that further work be performed in the areas of gas core fission rockets, inertial confinement fusion systems, antimatter based rockets, and gas core fission electric systems. Following the committee's recommendations, some computational modeling work has been performed at Los Alamos in certain of these areas and critical issues have been identified.

  9. Advanced fusion concepts: project summaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-12-01

    This report contains descriptions of the activities of all the projects supported by the Advanced Fusion Concepts Branch of the Office of Fusion Energy, US Department of Energy. These descriptions are project summaries of each of the individual projects, and contain the following: title, principle investigators, funding levels, purpose, approach, progress, plans, milestones, graduate students, graduates, other professional staff, and recent publications. Information is given for each of the following programs: (1) reverse-field pinch, (2) compact toroid, (3) alternate fuel/multipoles, (4) stellarator/torsatron, (5) linear magnetic fusion, (6) liners, and (7) Tormac. (MOW)

  10. Advancing Uncertainty: Untangling and Discerning Related Concepts

    OpenAIRE

    Janice Penrod

    2002-01-01

    Methods of advancing concepts within the qualitative paradigm have been developed and articulated. In this section, I describe methodological perspectives of a project designed to advance the concept of uncertainty using multiple qualitative methods. Through a series of earlier studies, the concept of uncertainty arose repeatedly in varied contexts, working its way into prominence, and warranting further investigation. Processes of advanced concept analysis were used to initiate the formal in...

  11. Advances in the use of acidic potassium permanganate as a chemiluminescence reagent: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adcock, Jacqui L.; Barnett, Neil W.; Barrow, Colin J.; Francis, Paul S., E-mail: psf@deakin.edu.au

    2014-01-07

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •Analytical applications of acidic potassium permanganate chemiluminescence. •Discussion of emitting species and light-producing reaction pathways. •Influence of enhancers such as polyphosphates, formaldehyde and sulfite. •Clinical, forensic, food science, agricultural and environmental applications. -- Abstract: We review the analytical applications of acidic potassium permanganate chemiluminescence published since our previous comprehensive review in mid-2007 to early 2013. This includes a critical evaluation of evidence for the emitting species, the influence of additives such as polyphosphates, formaldehyde, sulfite, thiosulfate, lanthanide complexes and nanoparticles, the development of a generalized reaction mechanism, and the use of this chemistry in pharmaceutical, clinical, forensic, food science, agricultural and environmental applications.

  12. Towards Advanced Interaction Design Concepts

    OpenAIRE

    Dijkman, Remco; Dirgahayu, Teduh; Quartel, Dick

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we analyse the interaction mechanisms provided by Web Services technology and by CORBA. Specifically we analyse the request/response, callback, polling and (multicasr) message passing mechanisms. As a result we present Coloured Petri Nets that capture the behaviour of these mechanisms precisely. Based on our analysis we define concepts for representing the Web Services and CORBA interactions in a suitable and platform independent manner. These concepts can be used for platfonn i...

  13. Recent advances in chemiluminescence detection coupled with capillary electrophoresis and microchip capillary electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuxuan; Huang, Xiangyi; Ren, Jicun

    2016-01-01

    CE is an ideal analytical method for extremely volume-limited biological microenvironments. However, the small injection volume makes it a challenge to achieve highly sensitive detection. Chemiluminescence (CL) detection is characterized by providing low background with excellent sensitivity because of requiring no light source. The coupling of CL with CE and MCE has become a powerful analytical method. So far, this method has been widely applied to chemical analysis, bioassay, drug analysis, and environment analysis. In this review, we first introduce some developments for CE-CL and MCE-CL systems, and then put the emphasis on the applications in the last 10 years. Finally, we discuss the future prospects.

  14. Advanced Accelerator Concepts Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wurtele, Jonathan S.

    2014-05-13

    A major focus of research supported by this Grant has been on the ALPHA antihydrogen trap. We first trapped antihydrogen in 2010 and soon thereafter demonstrated trapping for 1000s. We now have observed resonant quantum interactions with antihydrogen. These papers in Nature and Nature Physics report the major milestones in anti-atom trapping. The success was only achieved through careful work that advanced our understanding of collective dynamics in charged particle systems, the development of new cooling and diagnostics, and in- novation in understanding how to make physics measurements with small numbers of anti-atoms. This research included evaporative cooling, autoresonant excitation of longitudinal motion, and centrifugal separation. Antihydrogen trapping by ALPHA is progressing towards the point when a important theories believed by most to hold for all physical systems, such as CPT (Charge-Parity-Time) invariance and the Weak Equivalence Principle (matter and antimatter behaving the same way under the influence of gravity) can be directly tested in a new regime. One motivation for this test is that most accepted theories of the Big Bang predict that we should observe equal amounts of matter and antimatter. However astrophysicists have found very little antimatter in the universe. Our experiment will, if successful over the next seven years, provide a new test of these ideas. Many earlier detailed and beautiful tests have been made, but the trapping of neutral antimatter allows us to explore the possibility of direct, model-independent tests. Successful cooling of the anti atoms, careful limits on systematics and increased trapping rates, all planned for our follow-up experiment (ALPHA-II) will reach unrivaled precision. CPT invariance implies that the spectra of hydrogen and antihydrogen should be identical. Spectra can be measured in principle with great precision, and any di erences we might observe would revolutionize fundamental physics. This is the

  15. 2nd European Advanced Accelerator Concepts Workshop

    CERN Document Server

    Assmann, Ralph; Grebenyuk, Julia

    2016-01-01

    The European Advanced Accelerator Concepts Workshop has the mission to discuss and foster methods of beam acceleration with gradients beyond state of the art in operational facilities. The most cost effective and compact methods for generating high energy particle beams shall be reviewed and assessed. This includes diagnostics methods, timing technology, special need for injectors, beam matching, beam dynamics with advanced accelerators and development of adequate simulations. This workshop is organized in the context of the EU-funded European Network for Novel Accelerators (EuroNNAc2), that includes 52 Research Institutes and universities.

  16. CONCEPT OF ADVANCED FLEXIBLE USE OF AIRSPACE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleksandr Luppo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Concept of Flexible Use of Airspace (FUA allows to eliminate many problems on the basis of civil-military coordination, but there are still a lot of areas for improvement. These improvements will be implemented in the Advanced Flexible Use of Airspace (AFUA concept. Methods: We examine the airspace structure in the frames of AFUA concept, which includes variable profile areas, temporary reserved and temporary segregated areas, danger or restricted areas. Mission Trajectory in AFUA which allows designing ad-hoc structures delineation at short notice is also examined. Regarding the performance enhancements of AFUA we compare these with FUA concept. Examination of AFUA structure gives us better view of the functions and opportunities of this concept. Result: AFUA concept provides many advantages for the civil aviation stakeholders and includes many other positive sides. Variable Profile Areas provide more flexibility, particularly in a high density traffic area and any combination of basic volume possible. Collaborative decision-making will increase the situational awareness of both parties and help to decrease the transit between airbases and training areas, allows military to use larger airspaces for missions on an absolute time-limited basis. As a result of mission trajectory implementation in AFUA concept general air traffic crossing are possible in all type of airspace structures, after coordination or under specific permanent agreements. The use of Centralized AFUA Services will allow the central collection, integration and provision of ASM data in support of continuous collaborative network processes, in such a way improving operational performance during the planning and execution phases (predictability, flexibility, better use of capacity, enhanced flight efficiency, real time sharing of information, better management of available airspace. Discussion: Given the important contribution that AFUA brings into air traffic management

  17. Radar foundations for imaging and advanced concepts

    CERN Document Server

    Sullivan, Roger

    2004-01-01

    Through courses internally taught at IDA, Dr. Roger Sullivan has devised a book that brings readers fully up to speed on the most essential quantitave aspects of general radar in order to introduce study of the most exciting and relevant applications to radar imaging and advanced concepts: Synthetic Aperture Radar (4 chapters), Space-time Adaptive Processing, moving target indication (MTI), bistatic radar, low probability of intercept (LPI) radar, weather radar, and ground-penetrating radar. Whether you're a radar novice or experienced professional, this is an essential refer

  18. Advanced Gasifier Pilot Plant Concept Definition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steve Fusselman; Alan Darby; Fred Widman

    2005-08-31

    This report presents results from definition of a preferred commercial-scale advanced gasifier configuration and concept definition for a gasification pilot plant incorporating those preferred technologies. The preferred commercial gasifier configuration was established based on Cost Of Electricity estimates for an IGCC. Based on the gasifier configuration trade study results, a compact plug flow gasifier, with a dry solids pump, rapid-mix injector, CMC liner insert and partial quench system was selected as the preferred configuration. Preliminary systems analysis results indicate that this configuration could provide cost of product savings for electricity and hydrogen ranging from 15%-20% relative to existing gasifier technologies. This cost of product improvement draws upon the efficiency of the dry feed, rapid mix injector technology, low capital cost compact gasifier, and >99% gasifier availability due to long life injector and gasifier liner, with short replacement time. A pilot plant concept incorporating the technologies associated with the preferred configuration was defined, along with cost and schedule estimates for design, installation, and test operations. It was estimated that a 16,300 kg/day (18 TPD) pilot plant gasifier incorporating the advanced gasification technology and demonstrating 1,000 hours of hot-fire operation could be accomplished over a period of 33 months with a budget of $25.6 M.

  19. Advanced High Voltage Power Device Concepts

    CERN Document Server

    Baliga, B Jayant

    2012-01-01

    Advanced High Voltage Power Device Concepts describes devices utilized in power transmission and distribution equipment, and for very high power motor control in electric trains and steel-mills. Since these devices must be capable of supporting more than 5000-volts in the blocking mode, this books covers operation of devices rated at 5,000-V, 10,000-V and 20,000-V. Advanced concepts (the MCT, the BRT, and the EST) that enable MOS-gated control of power thyristor structures are described and analyzed in detail. In addition, detailed analyses of the silicon IGBT, as well as the silicon carbide MOSFET and IGBT, are provided for comparison purposes. Throughout the book, analytical models are generated to give a better understanding of the physics of operation for all the structures. This book provides readers with: The first comprehensive treatment of high voltage (over 5000-volts) power devices suitable for the power distribution, traction, and motor-control markets;  Analytical formulations for all the device ...

  20. Technology and applications of advanced accelerator concepts

    CERN Document Server

    Chou, Weiren

    2016-01-01

    Since its invention in the 1920s, particle accelerators have made tremendous progress in accelerator science, technology and applications. However, the fundamental acceleration principle, namely, to apply an external radiofrequency (RF) electric field to accelerate charged particles, remains unchanged. As this method (either room temperature RF or superconducting RF) is approaching its intrinsic limitation in acceleration gradient (measured in MeV/m), it becomes apparent that new methods with much higher acceleration gradient (measured in GeV/m) must be found for future very high energy accelerators as well as future compact (table-top or room-size) accelerators. This volume introduces a number of advanced accelerator concepts (AAC) — their principles, technologies and potential applications. For the time being, none of them stands out as a definitive direction in which to go. But these novel ideas are in hot pursuit and look promising. Furthermore, some AAC requires a high power laser system. This has the ...

  1. Advanced Wind Turbine Drivetrain Concepts. Workshop Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2010-12-01

    This report presents key findings from the Department of Energy’s Advanced Drivetrain Workshop, held on June 29-30, 2010, to assess different advanced drivetrain technologies, their relative potential to improve the state-of-the-art in wind turbine drivetrains, and the scope of research and development needed for their commercialization in wind turbine applications.

  2. Advanced tokamak concepts and reactor designs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oomens, A. A. M.

    2000-01-01

    From a discussion of fusion reactor designs based on today's well-established experience gained in the operation of large tokamaks, it is concluded that such reactors are economically not attractive. The physics involved in the various options for concept improvement is described, some examples

  3. An Overview of Advanced Concepts for Launch

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-09

    Physics No known feasible concepts. --- •Save $ “Now”. Solar Thermal Upper Stage. •Build “Now”. NTP Upper Stage, Gun Launch. •Research Now. BEP ...Save $ “Now”. NONE. •Build “Now”. Gun Launch. •Research Now. BEP (Laser, Microwave), Launch Assist, Adv. Propellants. •Alternative Missions

  4. Advanced Interval Management (IM) Concepts of Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barmore, Bryan E.; Ahmad, Nash'at N.; Underwood, Matthew C.

    2014-01-01

    This document provides a high-level description of several advanced IM operations that NASA is considering for future research and development. It covers two versions of IM-CSPO and IM with Wake Mitigation. These are preliminary descriptions to support an initial benefits analysis

  5. Workshop II: Nanotechnology and Advanced Cell Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Workshop focused on few emerging concepts(beyond tandem cells): 1. Engineering incident sun spectrum and transparency losses a) Nano emitters (dot concentrator); b) Surface plasmonics; c) Up converters; d) Down converter. 2. Intermediate band solar cells a) Efficiency projections (detail energy balance projections); b) Inserting 0,1 and 2D semiconductor structures in solar cells 3. Polymer and hybrid cells a) Nanotubes/dot polymers; b) Exciton dissociation.

  6. Advanced concepts in particle and field theory

    CERN Document Server

    Hübsch, Tristan

    2015-01-01

    Uniting the usually distinct areas of particle physics and quantum field theory, gravity and general relativity, this expansive and comprehensive textbook of fundamental and theoretical physics describes the quest to consolidate the basic building blocks of nature, by journeying through contemporary discoveries in the field, and analysing elementary particles and their interactions. Designed for advanced undergraduates and graduate students and abounding in worked examples and detailed derivations, as well as including historical anecdotes and philosophical and methodological perspectives, this textbook provides students with a unified understanding of all matter at the fundamental level. Topics range from gauge principles, particle decay and scattering cross-sections, the Higgs mechanism and mass generation, to spacetime geometries and supersymmetry. By combining historically separate areas of study and presenting them in a logically consistent manner, students will appreciate the underlying similarities and...

  7. Advanced Concepts for Underwater Acoustic Channel Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etter, P. C.; Haas, C. H.; Ramani, D. V.

    2014-12-01

    This paper examines nearshore underwater-acoustic channel modeling concepts and compares channel-state information requirements against existing modeling capabilities. This process defines a subset of candidate acoustic models suitable for simulating signal propagation in underwater communications. Underwater-acoustic communications find many practical applications in coastal oceanography, and networking is the enabling technology for these applications. Such networks can be formed by establishing two-way acoustic links between autonomous underwater vehicles and moored oceanographic sensors. These networks can be connected to a surface unit for further data transfer to ships, satellites, or shore stations via a radio-frequency link. This configuration establishes an interactive environment in which researchers can extract real-time data from multiple, but distant, underwater instruments. After evaluating the obtained data, control messages can be sent back to individual instruments to adapt the networks to changing situations. Underwater networks can also be used to increase the operating ranges of autonomous underwater vehicles by hopping the control and data messages through networks that cover large areas. A model of the ocean medium between acoustic sources and receivers is called a channel model. In an oceanic channel, characteristics of the acoustic signals change as they travel from transmitters to receivers. These characteristics depend upon the acoustic frequency, the distances between sources and receivers, the paths followed by the signals, and the prevailing ocean environment in the vicinity of the paths. Properties of the received signals can be derived from those of the transmitted signals using these channel models. This study concludes that ray-theory models are best suited to the simulation of acoustic signal propagation in oceanic channels and identifies 33 such models that are eligible candidates.

  8. Advanced Optical Burst Switched Network Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nejabati, Reza; Aracil, Javier; Castoldi, Piero; de Leenheer, Marc; Simeonidou, Dimitra; Valcarenghi, Luca; Zervas, Georgios; Wu, Jian

    In recent years, as the bandwidth and the speed of networks have increased significantly, a new generation of network-based applications using the concept of distributed computing and collaborative services is emerging (e.g., Grid computing applications). The use of the available fiber and DWDM infrastructure for these applications is a logical choice offering huge amounts of cheap bandwidth and ensuring global reach of computing resources [230]. Currently, there is a great deal of interest in deploying optical circuit (wavelength) switched network infrastructure for distributed computing applications that require long-lived wavelength paths and address the specific needs of a small number of well-known users. Typical users are particle physicists who, due to their international collaborations and experiments, generate enormous amounts of data (Petabytes per year). These users require a network infrastructures that can support processing and analysis of large datasets through globally distributed computing resources [230]. However, providing wavelength granularity bandwidth services is not an efficient and scalable solution for applications and services that address a wider base of user communities with different traffic profiles and connectivity requirements. Examples of such applications may be: scientific collaboration in smaller scale (e.g., bioinformatics, environmental research), distributed virtual laboratories (e.g., remote instrumentation), e-health, national security and defense, personalized learning environments and digital libraries, evolving broadband user services (i.e., high resolution home video editing, real-time rendering, high definition interactive TV). As a specific example, in e-health services and in particular mammography applications due to the size and quantity of images produced by remote mammography, stringent network requirements are necessary. Initial calculations have shown that for 100 patients to be screened remotely, the network

  9. Overview of an Advanced Hypersonic Structural Concept Test Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Craig A.; Hudson, Larry D.; Piazza, Anthony

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation provides an overview of hypersonics M&S advanced structural concepts development and experimental methods. The discussion on concepts development includes the background, task objectives, test plan, and current status of the C/SiC Ruddervator Subcomponent Test Article (RSTA). The discussion of experimental methods examines instrumentation needs, sensors of interest, and examples of ongoing efforts in the development of extreme environment sensors.

  10. AREAL test facility for advanced accelerator and radiation source concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsakanov, V.M., E-mail: tsakanov@asls.candle.am [CANDLE Synchrotron Research Institute, 0040 Yerevan (Armenia); Amatuni, G.A.; Amirkhanyan, Z.G.; Aslyan, L.V.; Avagyan, V.Sh.; Danielyan, V.A.; Davtyan, H.D.; Dekhtiarov, V.S.; Gevorgyan, K.L.; Ghazaryan, N.G.; Grigoryan, B.A.; Grigoryan, A.H.; Hakobyan, L.S. [CANDLE Synchrotron Research Institute, 0040 Yerevan (Armenia); Haroutiunian, S.G. [Yerevan State University, 0025 Yerevan (Armenia); Ivanyan, M.I.; Khachatryan, V.G.; Laziev, E.M. [CANDLE Synchrotron Research Institute, 0040 Yerevan (Armenia); Manukyan, P.S. [State Engineering University of Armenia, 0009 Yerevan (Armenia); Margaryan, I.N.; Markosyan, T.M. [CANDLE Synchrotron Research Institute, 0040 Yerevan (Armenia); and others

    2016-09-01

    Advanced Research Electron Accelerator Laboratory (AREAL) is a 50 MeV electron linear accelerator project with a laser driven RF gun being constructed at the CANDLE Synchrotron Research Institute. In addition to applications in life and materials sciences, the project aims as a test facility for advanced accelerator and radiation source concepts. In this paper, the AREAL RF photoinjector performance, the facility design considerations and its highlights in the fields of free electron laser, the study of new high frequency accelerating structures, the beam microbunching and wakefield acceleration concepts are presented.

  11. Advanced laser sensing receiver concepts based on FPA technology.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobson, P. L. (Phillip L.); Petrin, R. R. (Roger R.); Jolin, J. L. (John L.); Foy, B. R. (Bernard R.); Lowrance, J. L.; Renda, G. (George)

    2002-01-01

    The ultimate performance of any remote sensor is ideally governed by the hardware signal-to-noise capability and allowed signal-averaging time. In real-world scenarios, this may not be realizable and the limiting factors may suggest the need for more advanced capabilities. Moving from passive to active remote sensors offers the advantage of control over the illumination source, the laser. Added capabilities may include polarization discrimination, instantaneous imaging, range resolution, simultaneous multi-spectral measurement, or coherent detection. However, most advanced detection technology has been engineered heavily towards the straightforward passive sensor requirements, measuring an integrated photon flux. The need for focal plane array technology designed specifically for laser sensing has been recognized for some time, but advances have only recently made the engineering possible. This paper will present a few concepts for laser sensing receiver architectures, the driving specifications behind those concepts, and test/modeling results of such designs.

  12. Systems analysis and futuristic designs of advanced biofuel factory concepts.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chianelli, Russ; Leathers, James; Thoma, Steven George; Celina, Mathias Christopher; Gupta, Vipin P.

    2007-10-01

    The U.S. is addicted to petroleum--a dependency that periodically shocks the economy, compromises national security, and adversely affects the environment. If liquid fuels remain the main energy source for U.S. transportation for the foreseeable future, the system solution is the production of new liquid fuels that can directly displace diesel and gasoline. This study focuses on advanced concepts for biofuel factory production, describing three design concepts: biopetroleum, biodiesel, and higher alcohols. A general schematic is illustrated for each concept with technical description and analysis for each factory design. Looking beyond current biofuel pursuits by industry, this study explores unconventional feedstocks (e.g., extremophiles), out-of-favor reaction processes (e.g., radiation-induced catalytic cracking), and production of new fuel sources traditionally deemed undesirable (e.g., fusel oils). These concepts lay the foundation and path for future basic science and applied engineering to displace petroleum as a transportation energy source for good.

  13. Validation Database Based Thermal Analysis of an Advanced RPS Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balint, Tibor S.; Emis, Nickolas D.

    2006-01-01

    Advanced RPS concepts can be conceived, designed and assessed using high-end computational analysis tools. These predictions may provide an initial insight into the potential performance of these models, but verification and validation are necessary and required steps to gain confidence in the numerical analysis results. This paper discusses the findings from a numerical validation exercise for a small advanced RPS concept, based on a thermal analysis methodology developed at JPL and on a validation database obtained from experiments performed at Oregon State University. Both the numerical and experimental configurations utilized a single GPHS module enabled design, resembling a Mod-RTG concept. The analysis focused on operating and environmental conditions during the storage phase only. This validation exercise helped to refine key thermal analysis and modeling parameters, such as heat transfer coefficients, and conductivity and radiation heat transfer values. Improved understanding of the Mod-RTG concept through validation of the thermal model allows for future improvements to this power system concept.

  14. Development of environmentally advanced hydropower turbine system design concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franke, G.F.; Webb, D.R.; Fisher, R.K. Jr. [Voith Hydro, Inc. (United States)] [and others

    1997-08-01

    A team worked together on the development of environmentally advanced hydro turbine design concepts to reduce hydropower`s impact on the environment, and to improve the understanding of the technical and environmental issues involved, in particular, with fish survival as a result of their passage through hydro power sites. This approach brought together a turbine design and manufacturing company, biologists, a utility, a consulting engineering firm and a university research facility, in order to benefit from the synergy of diverse disciplines. Through a combination of advanced technology and engineering analyses, innovative design concepts adaptable to both new and existing hydro facilities were developed and are presented. The project was divided into 4 tasks. Task 1 investigated a broad range of environmental issues and how the issues differed throughout the country. Task 2 addressed fish physiology and turbine physics. Task 3 investigated individual design elements needed for the refinement of the three concept families defined in Task 1. Advanced numerical tools for flow simulation in turbines are used to quantify characteristics of flow and pressure fields within turbine water passageways. The issues associated with dissolved oxygen enhancement using turbine aeration are presented. The state of the art and recent advancements of this technology are reviewed. Key elements for applying turbine aeration to improve aquatic habitat are discussed and a review of the procedures for testing of aerating turbines is presented. In Task 4, the results of the Tasks were assembled into three families of design concepts to address the most significant issues defined in Task 1. The results of the work conclude that significant improvements in fish passage survival are achievable.

  15. Design and analysis of advanced flight planning concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorensen, John A.

    1987-01-01

    The objectives of this continuing effort are to develop and evaluate new algorithms and advanced concepts for flight management and flight planning. This includes the minimization of fuel or direct operating costs, the integration of the airborne flight management and ground-based flight planning processes, and the enhancement of future traffic management systems design. Flight management (FMS) concepts are for on-board profile computation and steering of transport aircraft in the vertical plane between a city pair and along a given horizontal path. Flight planning (FPS) concepts are for the pre-flight ground based computation of the three-dimensional reference trajectory that connects the city pair and specifies the horizontal path, fuel load, and weather profiles for initializing the FMS. As part of these objectives, a new computer program called EFPLAN has been developed and utilized to study advanced flight planning concepts. EFPLAN represents an experimental version of an FPS. It has been developed to generate reference flight plans compatible as input to an FMS and to provide various options for flight planning research. This report describes EFPLAN and the associated research conducted in its development.

  16. Chemiluminescence multichannel immunosensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yacoub-George, E.; Scheithauer, W.; Koppi, A.; Meixner, L.; Drost, S. [Fraunhofer Inst. fuer Mikroelektronische Schaltungen und Systeme (IMS), Muenchen (Germany); Wolf, H. [Regensburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Medical Microbiology and Hygiene

    2001-07-01

    An automated chemiluminescence multichannel immunosensor for the parallel detection of three different substances is presented. The system is based on the chemiluminescence capillary ELISA technique in combination with a miniaturised fluidics system. Fused silica capillaries (FSC) are used as support for the immobilized antibodies. The sensing component consists of three stripe photodiodes. An integrated flow-through system ensures automation of the assay cycles. Data on the detection of the bacterial toxin staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB), the bacteriophage M13 and Escherichia coli O157:H7 are presented. (orig.)

  17. Advanced Gas Storage Concepts: Technologies for the Future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeway, Katy (PB-KBB Inc.); Rogers, R.E. (Mississippi State University); DeVries, Kerry L.; Nieland, Joel D.; Ratigan, Joe L.; Mellegard, Kirby D. (RESPEC)

    2000-02-01

    This full text product includes: 1) A final technical report titled Advanced Underground Gas Storage Concepts, Refrigerated-Mined Cavern Storage and presentations from two technology transfer workshops held in 1998 in Houston, Texas, and Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (both on the topic of Chilled Gas Storage in Mined Caverns); 2) A final technical report titled Natural Gas Hydrates Storage Project, Final Report 1 October 1997 - 31 May 1999; 3) A final technical report titled Natural Gas Hydrates Storage Project Phase II: Conceptual Design and Economic Study, Final Report 9 June - 10 October 1999; 4) A final technical report titled Commerical Potential of Natural Gas Storage in Lined Rock Caverns (LRC) and presentations from a DOE-sponsored workshop on Alternative Gas Storage Technologies, held Feb 17, 2000 in Pittsburgh, PA; and 5) Phase I and Phase II topical reports titled Feasibility Study for Lowering the Minimum Gas Pressure in Solution-Mined Caverns Based on Geomechanical Analyses of Creep-Induced Damage and Healing.

  18. Advanced steel body concepts for automotive lightweight design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrmann, H.G. [DaimlerChrysler AG, Stuttgart (Germany). Research Body and Powertrain

    2005-07-01

    Lightweight design is a must for future vehicle concepts due to the self-commitment on the reduction of fleet consumption. Body concepts for mid- and high-volume vehicles demand smart lightweight solutions without increasing costs and without sacrificing the high level of safety (e.g. future passive safety standards). Furthermore, all lightweight activities have to comply with requirements in terms of reliability (no additional efforts for maintenance), NVH (no additional weight for e.g. damping) and future stricter recycling quotas. Successful lightweight design solutions are determined by the best relation between weight-saving and additional costs as a function of the annual production volume. Using advanced high-strength steels (TWIP-steels) seems to be a very promising approach for cost-optimized lightweight design of body structures. In addition, by applying bionic optimization, the weight of body-structures can be significantly reduced. As a consequence, only a holistic approach for lightweight design combining the three areas materials, design and manufacturing is needed in order to use the full potential of cost-optimized weight-reduction. (orig.)

  19. Reagentless chemiluminescence-based fiber optic sensors for regenerative life support in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwater, James E.; Akse, James R.; DeHart, Jeffrey; Wheeler, Richard R., Jr.

    1995-04-01

    The initial feasibility demonstration of a reagentless chemiluminescence based fiber optic sensor technology for use in advanced regenerative life support applications in space and planetary outposts is described. The primary constraints for extraterrestrial deployment of any technology are compatibility with microgravity and hypogravity environments; minimal size, weight, and power consumption; and minimal use of expendables due to the great expense and difficulty inherent to resupply logistics. In the current research, we report the integration of solid state flow through modules for the production of aqueous phase reagents into an integrated system for the detection of important analytes by chemiluminescence, with fiber optic light transmission. By minimizing the need for resupply expendables, the use of solid phase modules makes complex chemical detection schemes practical. For the proof of concept, hydrogen peroxide and glucose were chosen as analytes. The reaction is catalyzed by glucose oxidase, an immobilized enzyme. The aqueous phase chemistry required for sensor operation is implemented using solid phase modules which adjust the pH of the influent stream, catalyze the oxidation of analyte, and provide the controlled addition of the luminophore to the flowing aqueous stream. Precise control of the pH has proven essential for the long-term sustained release of the luminophore. Electrocatalysis is achieved using a controlled potential across gold mesh and gold foil electrodes which undergo periodic polarity reversals. The development and initial characterization of performance of the reagentless fiber optic chemiluminescence sensors are presented in this paper.

  20. Advanced storage concepts for solar and low energy buildings, IEA-SHC Task 32. Slutrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schultz, J.M.; Andersen, Elsa; Furbo, S.

    2008-01-15

    This report reports on the results of the activities carried through in connection with the Danish part of the IEA SHC Task 32 project: Advanced Storage Concepts for Solar and Low Energy Buildings. The Danish involvement has focused on Subtask C: Storage Concepts Based on Phase Change Materials and Subtask D: Storage Concepts Based on Advanced Water Tanks and Special Devices. The report describes activities concerning heat-of-fusion storage and advanced water storage. (BA)

  1. Advanced Concept Exploration for Fast Ignition Science Program, Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephens, Richard Burnite [General Atomics; McLean, Harry M. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory; Theobald, Wolfgang [Laboratory for Laser Energetics; Akli, Kramer U. [The Ohio State University; Beg, Farhat N. [University of California, San Diego; Sentoku, Yasuhiko [University of Nevada, Reno; Schumacher, Douglass W. [The Ohio State University; Wei, Mingsheng [General Atomics

    2013-09-04

    The Fast Ignition (FI) Concept for Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) has the potential to provide a significant advance in the technical attractiveness of Inertial Fusion Energy reactors. FI differs from conventional “central hot spot” (CHS) target ignition by decoupling compression from heating: using a laser (or heavy ion beam or Z pinch) drive pulse (10’s of nanoseconds) to create a dense fuel and a second, much shorter (~10 picoseconds) high intensity pulse to ignite a small volume within the dense fuel. The physics of fast ignition process was the focus of our Advanced Concept Exploration (ACE) program. Ignition depends critically on two major issues involving Relativistic High Energy Density (RHED) physics: The laser-induced creation of fast electrons and their propagation in high-density plasmas. Our program has developed new experimental platforms, diagnostic packages, computer modeling analyses, and taken advantage of the increasing energy available at laser facilities to advance understanding of the fundamental physics underlying these issues. Our program had three thrust areas: • Understand the production and characteristics of fast electrons resulting from FI relevant laser-plasma interactions and their dependence on laser prepulse and laser pulse length. • Investigate the subsequent fast electron transport in solid and through hot (FI-relevant) plasmas. • Conduct and understand integrated core-heating experiments by comparison to simulations. Over the whole period of this project (three years for this contract), we have greatly advanced our fundamental understanding of the underlying properties in all three areas: • Comprehensive studies on fast electron source characteristics have shown that they are controlled by the laser intensity distribution and the topology and plasma density gradient. Laser pre-pulse induced pre-plasma in front of a solid surface results in increased stand-off distances from the electron origin to the high density

  2. A CONCEPT FOR NEXT STEP ADVANCED TOKAMAK FUSION DEVICE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    A concept is introduced for initiating the design study of a special class of tokamak,which has a magnetic confinement configuration intermediate between contemporary advanced tokamak and the recently established spherical torus (ST,also well known by the name "spherical tokamak").The leading design parameter in the present proposal is a dimensionless geometrical parameter, the machine aspect ratio A=R0/a0=2.0,where the parameters a0 and R0 denote,respectively,the plasma (equatorial) minor radius and the plasma major radius.The aim of this choice is to technologically and experimentally go beyond the aspect ratio frontier (R0/a0≈2.5) of present day tokamaks and enter a broad unexplored domain existing on the (a0,R0) parameter space in current international tokamak database,between the data region already moderately well covered by the advanced conventional tokamaks and the data region planned to be covered by STs.Plasma minor radius a0 has been chosen to be the second basic design parameter, and consequently,the plasma major radius R0 is regarded as a dependent design parameter.In the present concept,a nominal plasma minor radius a0=1.2m is adopted to be the principal design value,and smaller values of a0 can be used for auxiliary design purposes,to establish extensive database linkage with existing tokamaks.Plasma minor radius can also be adjusted by mechanical and/or electromagnetic means to smaller values during experiments,for making suitable data linkages to existing machines with higher aspect ratios and smaller plasma minor radii.The basic design parameters proposed enable the adaptation of several confinement techniques recently developed by STs,and thereby a specially arranged central-bore region inside the envisioned tokamak torus,with retrieved space in the direction of plasma minor radius,will be available for technological adjustments and maneuverings to facilitate implementation of engineering instrumentation and real time high

  3. Advanced fusion MHD power conversion using the CFAR (compact fusion advanced Rankine) cycle concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffman, M.A.; Campbell, R.; Logan, B.G. (California Univ., Davis, CA (USA); Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (USA))

    1988-10-01

    The CFAR (compact fusion advanced Rankine) cycle concept for a tokamak reactor involves the use of a high-temperature Rankine cycle in combination with microwave superheaters and nonequilibrium MHD disk generators to obtain a compact, low-capital-cost power conversion system which fits almost entirely within the reactor vault. The significant savings in the balance-of-plant costs are expected to result in much lower costs of electricity than previous concepts. This paper describes the unique features of the CFAR cycle and a high- temperature blanket designed to take advantage of it as well as the predicted performance of the MHD disk generators using mercury seeded with cesium. 40 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  4. Fiber-Reinforced-Foam (FRF) Core Composite Sandwich Panel Concept for Advanced Composites Technologi

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Fiber-Reinforced-Foam (FRF) Core Composite Sandwich Panel Concept for Advanced Composites Technologies Project - Preliminary Manufacturing Demonstration Articles for Ares V Payload Shroud Barrel Acreage Structure

  5. A New Concept for Advanced Heterogeneous Metal Catalysts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Bo-Qing

    2004-01-01

    Oxide-supported metal catalysts, having always nano-sized structures in which the metal catalysts are prepared as highly dispersed nano-crystals (typically 1-20 nm) on support oxide particles that are often one to several orders of magnitude larger than the metal nano-particles, are an important class of heterogeneous metal catalysts that finds many applications in chemical/petrochemical industries, in environmental protection, in chemical sensors and in the manufacture of fine and special chemicals. It is believed that catalysis by supported metals is the oldest application of nanotechnology. The literature has been rich in nano-size effect of metal nanoparticles in the metal/oxide catalysts. However, it is until recently that the development of size-controlled synthesis of oxide nanoparticles has made it possible to study the nano-size effect of oxide-support particles. When the particle sizes of an oxide support are reduced to become comparable to the sizes of the active metal nanoparticles, the oxide could deviate dramatically from its function as a conventional support. Such metal/oxide catalysts consisting of comparably sized metal and oxide nanocrystals are better called metal/oxide nanocomposite catalysts or catalytic nanoarchitectures.In this presentation, several attempts with reducing the particle size of oxide supports (ZrO2, TiO2,MgO, Al2O3) to approach the metal/oxide nanocomposite concept will be discussed to emphasize the importance of the support size effect. Examples will be given on characteristics of nanocomposite Ni/oxide catalysts for the reforming of natural gas with CO2 and/or steam, and on Au/oxide catalysts for CO oxidation and hydrogenation of unsaturated organic compounds. It will be emphasized that systematic investigations into the size effects of both the metal and oxide nanoparticles approaching the metal/oxide nanocomposite concept can lead to advanced heterogeneous metal catalysts.Moreover, intensive practice of the nanocomposite

  6. The Advanced Patricle-astrophysics Telescope (APT) Mission Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, James

    2017-01-01

    The Advanced Pair Telescope (APT) is a concept for a probe-class gamma-ray mission aimed at two primary science objects: (1) providing sensitivity to thermal-WIMP dark matter over the entire natural range of annihilation cross-sections and masses and (2) identifying short GRBs or gravity wave sources by detecting and localizing MeV gamma-ray transients. The instrument combines a pair tracker and Compton telescope in one simple monolithic design. By using scintillating fibers for the tracker and wavelength-shifting fibers to readout CsI detectors, the instrument could achieve an order of magnitude improvement in sensitivity compared with Fermi at GeV energies, and several orders of magnitude improvement in MeV sensitivity compared to Comptel. The instrument would have roughly the same number of electronic channels as Fermi, but would provide an effective area of 12m2, and a geometry factor of 100 m2 str. The same CsI detectors used in the tracker/Compton telescope could be used for detection of high-energy transition radiation for measurements of light cosmic-ray abundances, making this a multi-purpose astro-particle physics observatory. The instantaneous all-sky sensitivity would provide a capability almost unique over the entire electromagnetic spectrum, providing a critical component of multi-messenger studies of the universe. We acknowledge support from the Washington University McDonnell Center for the Space Sciences.

  7. Conceptual design study advanced concepts test (ACT) facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaloudek, F.R.

    1978-09-01

    The Advanced Concepts Test (ACT) Project is part of program for developing improved power plant dry cooling systems in which ammonia is used as a heat transfer fluid between the power plant and the heat rejection tower. The test facility will be designed to condense 60,000 lb/hr of exhaust steam from the No. 1 turbine in the Kern Power Plant at Bakersfield, CA, transport the heat of condensation from the condenser to the cooling tower by an ammonia phase-change heat transport system, and dissipate this heat to the environs by a dry/wet deluge tower. The design and construction of the test facility will be the responsibility of the Electric Power Research Institute. The DOE, UCC/Linde, and the Pacific Northwest Laboratories will be involved in other phases of the project. The planned test facilities, its structures, mechanical and electrical equipment, control systems, codes and standards, decommissioning requirements, safety and environmental aspects, and energy impact are described. Six appendices of related information are included. (LCL)

  8. Investigations and advanced concepts on gyrotron interaction modeling and simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avramidis, K. A.

    2015-12-01

    In gyrotron theory, the interaction between the electron beam and the high frequency electromagnetic field is commonly modeled using the slow variables approach. The slow variables are quantities that vary slowly in time in comparison to the electron cyclotron frequency. They represent the electron momentum and the high frequency field of the resonant TE modes in the gyrotron cavity. For their definition, some reference frequencies need to be introduced. These include the so-called averaging frequency, used to define the slow variable corresponding to the electron momentum, and the carrier frequencies, used to define the slow variables corresponding to the field envelopes of the modes. From the mathematical point of view, the choice of the reference frequencies is, to some extent, arbitrary. However, from the numerical point of view, there are arguments that point toward specific choices, in the sense that these choices are advantageous in terms of simulation speed and accuracy. In this paper, the typical monochromatic gyrotron operation is considered, and the numerical integration of the interaction equations is performed by the trajectory approach, since it is the fastest, and therefore it is the one that is most commonly used. The influence of the choice of the reference frequencies on the interaction simulations is studied using theoretical arguments, as well as numerical simulations. From these investigations, appropriate choices for the values of the reference frequencies are identified. In addition, novel, advanced concepts for the definitions of these frequencies are addressed, and their benefits are demonstrated numerically.

  9. NASA Advanced Explorations Systems: Concepts for Logistics to Living

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shull, Sarah A.; Howe, A. Scott; Flynn, Michael T.; Howard, Robert

    2012-01-01

    , Howard 2010]. Several of the L2L concepts that have shown the most potential in the past are based on NASA cargo transfer bags (CTBs) or their equivalents which are currently used to transfer cargo to and from the ISS. A high percentage of all logistics supplies are packaging mass and for a 6-month mission a crew of four might need over 100 CTBs. These CTBs are used for on-orbit transfer and storage but eventually becomes waste after use since down mass is very limited. The work being done in L2L also considering innovative interior habitat construction that integrate the CTBs into the walls of future habitats. The direct integration could provide multiple functions: launch packaging, stowage, radiation protection, water processing, life support augmentation, as well as structure. Reuse of these CTBs would reduce the amount of waste generated and also significantly reduce future up mass requirements for exploration missions. Also discussed here is the L2L water wall , an innovative reuse of an unfolded CTB as a passive water treatment system utilizing forward osmosis. The bags have been modified to have an inner membrane liner that allows them to purify wastewater. They may also provide a structural water-wall element that can be used to provide radiation protection and as a structural divider. Integration of the components into vehicle/habitat architecture and consideration of operations concepts and human factors will be discussed. In the future these bags could be designed to treat wastewater, concentrated brines, and solid wastes, and to dewater solid wastes and produce a bio-stabilized construction element. This paper will describe the follow-on work done in design, fabrication and demonstrations of various L2L concepts, including advanced CTBs for reuse/repurposing, internal outfitting studies and the CTB-based forward osmosis water wall.

  10. High-pressure propulsion - advanced concepts for cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoerman, Leonard

    The state-of-the-art liquid propellant cooled combustion chambers utilized in the space shuttle are third-generation designs which have evolved from a continuing demand for higher operating pressure and aircraft-type reusability. History has shown that major advances in cooling occur in approximately ten-year cycles, with each cycle providing a nominal 400% increase in operating pressure and/or a higher degree of reusability. The previous technologies include the first-generation double-wall steel jackets used in the 220 psi V-2 and Aerobee, and the second generation wire-wrapped double tapered tubular assemblies typical of the 800 psi Titan I, II, and III, and 1000 psi F-1 engines. The third-generation designs utilize milled slot, high thermal conductivity liners and electrodeposited nickel closures. The space shuttle main engine operating at 3200 psia is adequate for individual flights; however, the desired goal of 55 service-free missions has yet to be realized. Future single-stage-to-orbit propulsion concepts can benefit from a further increase in operating pressures to 6000 to 10,000 psi combined with engine reuse capabilities in excess of the 55 flight goals of the space shuttle. A fourth-generation approach will be required to attain these more ambitious goals. These new designs will require a combination of cooling processes, including regenerative and transpiration, combined with improved high-temperature materials and new fabrication techniques. The limitations of the third-generation designs, the impact of propellant/coolant selection, and the approaches for the coming fourth-generation cooling technologies are discussed.

  11. Recent advances in autoimmune pancreatitis: concept, diagnosis, and pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okazaki, Kazuichi; Uchida, Kazushige; Fukui, Toshiro

    2008-01-01

    Recent advances support the concept of autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) as a unique systemic disease, because it shows occasional extrapancreatic lesions such as sclerosing cholangitis, sclerosing sialoadenitis, and retroperitoneal fibrosis, pathological features similar to those of fibrosis, and abundant infiltration of IgG4-positive plasma cells, and it is steroid responsive. Based on these findings, several diagnostic criteria have been proposed. Although AIP is accepted worldwide as a unique clinical entity, its pathogenetic mechanism remains unclear. To clarify its pathogenesis, its genetic background, humoral immunity, candidate target antigens including self-antigens and molecular mimicry by microbes, and cellular immunity including regulatory T cells, the complement system, and experimental models are reviewed. On the basis of this review, we hypothesize that the pathogenesis of AIP involves a biphasic mechanism consisting of "induction" and "progression." In the early stage, the initial response to self-antigens [lactoferrin, carbonic anhydrase (CA)-II, CA-IV, pancreatic secretory trypsin inhibitor, and alpha-fodrin] and molecular mimicry (Helicobacter pylori) are induced by decreased naïve regulatory T cells (Tregs), and T-helper (Th) 1 cells release proinflammatory cytokines [interferon-gamma, interleukin (IL)-1beta, IL-2, and tumor necrosis factor alpha]. In the chronic stage, progression is supported by increased memory Tregs and Th2 immune responses. The classical complement system pathway may be activated by the IgG1 immune complex. As Tregs seem to play an important role in progression as well as in induction of the disease, further studies are necessary to clarify the pathogenesis of AIP.

  12. Advanced Concept Exploration for Fast Ignition Science Program, Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephens, Richard Burnite [General Atomics; McLean, Harry M. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory; Theobald, Wolfgang [Laboratory for Laser Energetics; Akli, Kramer U. [The Ohio State University; Beg, Farhat N. [University of California, San Diego; Sentoku, Yasuhiko [University of Nevada, Reno; Schumacher, Douglass W. [The Ohio State University; Wei, Mingsheng [General Atomics

    2013-09-04

    The Fast Ignition (FI) Concept for Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) has the potential to provide a significant advance in the technical attractiveness of Inertial Fusion Energy reactors. FI differs from conventional “central hot spot” (CHS) target ignition by decoupling compression from heating: using a laser (or heavy ion beam or Z pinch) drive pulse (10’s of nanoseconds) to create a dense fuel and a second, much shorter (~10 picoseconds) high intensity pulse to ignite a small volume within the dense fuel. The physics of fast ignition process was the focus of our Advanced Concept Exploration (ACE) program. Ignition depends critically on two major issues involving Relativistic High Energy Density (RHED) physics: The laser-induced creation of fast electrons and their propagation in high-density plasmas. Our program has developed new experimental platforms, diagnostic packages, computer modeling analyses, and taken advantage of the increasing energy available at laser facilities to advance understanding of the fundamental physics underlying these issues. Our program had three thrust areas: • Understand the production and characteristics of fast electrons resulting from FI relevant laser-plasma interactions and their dependence on laser prepulse and laser pulse length. • Investigate the subsequent fast electron transport in solid and through hot (FI-relevant) plasmas. • Conduct and understand integrated core-heating experiments by comparison to simulations. Over the whole period of this project (three years for this contract), we have greatly advanced our fundamental understanding of the underlying properties in all three areas: • Comprehensive studies on fast electron source characteristics have shown that they are controlled by the laser intensity distribution and the topology and plasma density gradient. Laser pre-pulse induced pre-plasma in front of a solid surface results in increased stand-off distances from the electron origin to the high density

  13. NASA's Advanced Information Systems Technology (AIST) Program: Advanced Concepts and Disruptive Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, M. M.; Moe, K.; Komar, G.

    2014-12-01

    NASA's Earth Science Technology Office (ESTO) manages a wide range of information technology projects under the Advanced Information Systems Technology (AIST) Program. The AIST Program aims to support all phases of NASA's Earth Science program with the goal of enabling new observations and information products, increasing the accessibility and use of Earth observations, and reducing the risk and cost of satellite and ground based information systems. Recent initiatives feature computational technologies to improve information extracted from data streams or model outputs and researchers' tools for Big Data analytics. Data-centric technologies enable research communities to facilitate collaboration and increase the speed with which results are produced and published. In the future NASA anticipates more small satellites (e.g., CubeSats), mobile drones and ground-based in-situ sensors will advance the state-of-the-art regarding how scientific observations are performed, given the flexibility, cost and deployment advantages of new operations technologies. This paper reviews the success of the program and the lessons learned. Infusion of these technologies is challenging and the paper discusses the obstacles and strategies to adoption by the earth science research and application efforts. It also describes alternative perspectives for the future program direction and for realizing the value in the steps to transform observations from sensors to data, to information, and to knowledge, namely: sensor measurement concepts development; data acquisition and management; data product generation; and data exploitation for science and applications.

  14. Chemiluminescence and bioluminescence microbe detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, R. E.; Chappelle, E.; Picciolo, G. L.; Jeffers, E. L.; Thomas, R. R.

    1978-01-01

    Automated biosensors for online use with NASA Water Monitoring System employs bioluminescence and chemiluminescence techniques to rapidly measure microbe contamination of water samples. System eliminates standard laboratory procedures requiring time duration of 24 hours or longer.

  15. Chemiluminescence methods (present and future)

    OpenAIRE

    2002-01-01

    This article provides a general review of chemiluminescent methods in some of their recent applications in drug analysis, sea water analysis or antioxidant activity of natural and synthetic products (including olive oil). Practical considerations are not included in the review since the main interest is to state, through the aforementioned applications, that chemiluminescence has been, is, and will be a versatile tool for Analytical Chemistry in future years.Este artículo da una visi&#...

  16. Concepts and recent advances in generalized information measures and statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Kowalski, Andres M

    2013-01-01

    Since the introduction of the information measure widely known as Shannon entropy, quantifiers based on information theory and concepts such as entropic forms and statistical complexities have proven to be useful in diverse scientific research fields. This book contains introductory tutorials suitable for the general reader, together with chapters dedicated to the basic concepts of the most frequently employed information measures or quantifiers and their recent applications to different areas, including physics, biology, medicine, economics, communication and social sciences. As these quantif

  17. Concept Development for Advanced Spaceborne Synthetic Aperture Radar Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The effort will focus on P-Band and L-band polarimetric radar architectures that employ advanced and innovative techniques to increase the science value of the...

  18. Reference Operational Concepts for Advanced Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hugo, Jacques Victor [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Farris, Ronald Keith [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-09-01

    This report represents the culmination of a four-year research project that was part of the Instrumentation and Control and Human Machine Interface subprogram of the DOE Advanced Reactor Technologies program.

  19. Advanced Turbine Systems Program industrial system concept development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gates, S. [Solar Turbines Inc., San Diego, CA (United States)

    1995-10-01

    The objective of Phase II of the Advanced Turbine Systems Program is to develop conceptual designs of gas fired advanced turbine systems that can be adapted for operation on coal and biomass fuels. The technical, economic, and environmental performance operating on natural gas and in a coal fueled mode is to be assessed. Detailed designs and test work relating to critical components are to be completed and a market study is to be conducted.

  20. Recent Advance in Chemiluminescence Assay and Its Biochemical Applications%化学发光在生化分析中的应用研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘萌; 王子月; 张春阳

    2016-01-01

    化学发光分析是利用化学发光反应的发光现象,对化学发光物质由激发态跃迁回基态时发出的光信号进行测量的一种分析方法。化学发光分析具有无需外来光源、灵敏度高、操作方便、分析快速以及易于实现自动化等优点,可与其它分析技术联用,在临床检验、药物分析和环境监测等领域具有广泛应用。近年来,纳米材料、生物芯片及微流控技术的引入促进了化学发光分析技术的发展。本文综述了化学发光分析与高效液相色谱、毛细管电泳、量子点、微流控芯片和微阵列、以及滚环扩增、等温指数扩增和两级等温扩增联用技术的发展,介绍了化学发光分析技术在DNA、生物小分子、生物酶、蛋白质和金属离子检测中的应用研究进展,并展望了其发展趋势。%Chemiluminescence ( CL) assay is able to measure the optical signal emitted from the CL reagents as a result of the transition from the excited state back to the ground state. CL assay has significant advantages such as no external light source, high sensitivity, convenient operation, rapid analysis and easy automation, and has wide applications in clinical test, drug analysis and environmental monitoring. Recently, the introduction of nanomaterials, biochip and microfluidic techniques promote the development of CL assay. In this review, we summarize the recent progress in CL assay with the integration of high performance liquid chromatography, capillary electrophoresis, quantum dots, microfluidic chips, microarrays, rolling circle amplification, isothermal exponential amplification, and two-stage isothermal amplification for the detection of DNA, small biological molecules, enzymes, proteins and metal ions. We also give a summary of its future directions and highlight its potential applications.

  1. [Advance Directives: theoretical concept and practical significance in the USA].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollmann, J; Pfaff, M

    2003-07-01

    The article examines on the basic of empirical data the discrepancy between the theoretical demand and the practical role of advance directives. Often advance directives have no influence on medical decision-making in clinical care of critically ill patients. The vague language of the widely used standard living wills and the lack of physician-patient communication in the process of delivering an advance directives are contributing factors. However, many physicians even disregard patients' preferences in concrete and meaningful living wills at the end of life. Besides the lack of information many even seriously ill patients do not deliver an advance because they misjudge their medical prognosis and life expectancy. Often the communication between patients and doctors are blocked because they expect from the each other the first step to talk about end of life decisions and advance directives. In this context physicians claim lack of time, training in communication skills and their discomfort in talking about death and dying with their patients.

  2. Advanced transportation concept for round-trip space travel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Chen-Wan L.

    1988-01-01

    A departure from the conventional concept of round-trip space travel is introduced. It is shown that a substantial reduction in the initial load required of the Shuttle or other launch vehicle can be achieved by staging the ascent orbit and leaving fuel for the return trip at each stage of the orbit. Examples of round trips from a low-inclination LEO to a high-inclination LEO and from an LEO to a GEO are used to show the merits of the new concept. Potential problem areas and research needed for the development of an efficient space transportation network are discussed.

  3. Advanced radiator concepts utilizing honeycomb panel heat pipes (stainless steel)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleischman, G. L.; Tanzer, H. J.

    1985-08-01

    The feasibility of fabricating and processing moderate temperature range heat pipes in a low mass honeycomb sandwich panel configuration for highly efficient radiator fins for the NASA space station was investigated. A variety of honeycomb panel facesheet and core-ribbon wick concepts were evaluated within constraints dictated by existing manufacturing technology and equipment. Concepts evaluated include: type of material, material and panel thicknesses, wick type and manufacturability, liquid and vapor communication among honeycomb cells, and liquid flow return from condenser to evaporator facesheet areas. In addition, the overall performance of the honeycomb panel heat pipe was evaluated analytically.

  4. Technological advances in perioperative monitoring: Current concepts and clinical perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilkoti, Geetanjali; Wadhwa, Rachna; Saxena, Ashok Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Minimal mandatory monitoring in the perioperative period recommended by Association of Anesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland and American Society of Anesthesiologists are universally acknowledged and has become an integral part of the anesthesia practice. The technologies in perioperative monitoring have advanced, and the availability and clinical applications have multiplied exponentially. Newer monitoring techniques include depth of anesthesia monitoring, goal-directed fluid therapy, transesophageal echocardiography, advanced neurological monitoring, improved alarm system and technological advancement in objective pain assessment. Various factors that need to be considered with the use of improved monitoring techniques are their validation data, patient outcome, safety profile, cost-effectiveness, awareness of the possible adverse events, knowledge of technical principle and ability of the convenient routine handling. In this review, we will discuss the new monitoring techniques in anesthesia, their advantages, deficiencies, limitations, their comparison to the conventional methods and their effect on patient outcome, if any.

  5. Advanced Level Physics Students' Conceptions of Quantum Physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashhadi, Azam

    This study addresses questions about particle physics that focus on the nature of electrons. Speculations as to whether they are more like particles or waves or like neither illustrate the difficulties with which students are confronted when trying to incorporate the concepts of quantum physics into their overall conceptual framework. Such…

  6. CFD evaluation of an advanced thrust vector control concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiarn, Weihnurng; Cavalleri, Robert

    1990-01-01

    A potential concept that can offer an alternate method for thrust vector control of the Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Booster is the use of a cylindrical probe that is inserted (on demand) through the wall of the rocket nozzle. This Probe Thrust Vector Control (PTVC) concept is an alternate to that of a gimbaled nozzle or a Liquid Injection Thrust Vector (LITVC) system. The viability of the PTVC concept can be assessed either experimentally and/or with the use of CFD. A purely experimental assessment can be time consuming and expensive, whereas a CFD assessment can be very time- and cost-effective. Two key requirements of the proposed concept are PTVC vectoring performance and the active cooling requirements for the probe to maintain its thermal and structural integrity. An active thermal cooling method is the injection of coolant around the pheriphery of the probe. How much coolant is required and how this coolant distributes itself in the flow field is of major concern. The objective of the work reported here is the use of CFD to answer these question and in the design of test hardware to substantiate the results of the CFD predictions.

  7. Report on the Lake Arrowhead workshop on advanced acceleration concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pellegrini, C.

    1989-03-01

    We review the present status of the field of New Acceleration Concepts, as presented at the Lake Arrowhead workshop, held at the beginning of 1989. Many new and promising results have been obtained recently, and the field is actively developing. We discuss briefly some of the main results presented at the workshop. 43 refs., 2 tabs.

  8. Fostering Visions for the Future: A Review of the NASA Institute for Advanced Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    The NASA Institute for Advanced Concepts (NIAC) was formed in 1998 to provide an independent source of advanced aeronautical and space concepts that could dramatically impact how NASA develops and conducts its missions. Until the program's termination in August 2007, NIAC provided an independent open forum, a high-level point of entry to NASA for an external community of innovators, and an external capability for analysis and definition of advanced aeronautics and space concepts to complement the advanced concept activities conducted within NASA. Throughout its 9-year existence, NIAC inspired an atmosphere for innovation that stretched the imagination and encouraged creativity. As requested by Congress, this volume reviews the effectiveness of NIAC and makes recommendations concerning the importance of such a program to NASA and to the nation as a whole, including the proper role of NASA and the federal government in fostering scientific innovation and creativity and in developing advanced concepts for future systems. Key findings and recommendations include that in order to achieve its mission, NASA must have, and is currently lacking, a mechanism to investigate visionary, far-reaching advanced concepts. Therefore, a NIAC-like entity should be reestablished to fill this gap.

  9. An advanced concept that promises ecological and economic viability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, B. R.; Sedgwick, T. A.; Urie, D. M.

    1976-01-01

    The actuality of supersonic commercial service being provided by Concorde is demonstrating to the world the advantages offered by supersonic travel for both business and recreation. Public acceptance will gradually and persistently stimulate interest to proceed with a second generation design that meets updated economic and ecological standards. It is estimated that this concept could operate profitably on world-wide routes with a revenue structure based upon economy fares. Airplanes will meet all present day ecological requirements regarding noise and emissions.

  10. Quality of experience advanced concepts, applications and methods

    CERN Document Server

    Raake, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    This pioneering book develops definitions and concepts related to Quality of Experience in the context of multimedia- and telecommunications-related applications, systems and services, and applies these to various fields of communication and media technologies. The editors bring together numerous key-protagonists of the new discipline “Quality of Experience” and combine the state-of-the-art knowledge in one single volume. 

  11. A Novel superconducting toroidal field magnet concept using advanced materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, J.

    1992-03-01

    The plasma physics database indicates that two distinct approaches to tokamak design may lead to commercial fusion reactors: low Aspect ratio, high plasma current, relatively low magnetic field devices, and high Aspect ratio, high field devices. The former requires significant enhancements in plasma performance, while the latter depends primarily upon technology development. The key technology for the commercialization of the high-field approach is large, high magnetic field superconducting magnets. In this paper, the physics motivation for the high field approach and key superconducting magnet (SCM) development issues are reviewed. Improved SCM performance may be obtained from improved materials and/or improved engineering. Superconducting materials ranging from NbTi to high- T c oxides are reviewed, demonstrating the broad range of potential superconducting materials. Structural material options are discussed, including cryogenic steel alloys and fiber-reinforced composite materials. Again, the breadth of options is highlighted. The potential for improved magnet engineering is quantified in terms of the Virial Theorem Limit, and two examples of approaches to highly optimized magnet configurations are discussed. The force-reduced concept, which is a finite application of the force-free solutions to Ampere's Law, appear promising for large SCMs but may be limited by the electromagnetics of a fusion plasma. The Solid Superconducting Cylinder (SSC) concept is proposed. This concept combines the unique properties of high- T c superconductors within a low- T c SCM to obtain (1) significant reductions in the structural material volume, (2) a decoupling of the tri-axial (compressive and tensile) stress state, and (3) a demountable TF magnet system. The advantages of this approach are quantified in terms of a 24 T commercial reactor TF magnet system. Significant reductions in the mechanical stress and the TF radial build are demonstrated.

  12. Knowledge based systems advanced concepts, techniques and applications

    CERN Document Server

    1997-01-01

    The field of knowledge-based systems (KBS) has expanded enormously during the last years, and many important techniques and tools are currently available. Applications of KBS range from medicine to engineering and aerospace.This book provides a selected set of state-of-the-art contributions that present advanced techniques, tools and applications. These contributions have been prepared by a group of eminent researchers and professionals in the field.The theoretical topics covered include: knowledge acquisition, machine learning, genetic algorithms, knowledge management and processing under unc

  13. Cogeneration power plant concepts using advanced gas turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huettenhofer, K.; Lezuo, A. [Siemens Power Generation, Erlangen (Germany)

    2001-07-01

    Cogeneration of heat and power (CHP) is undeniably the environmentally most favourable way of making efficient use of energy in the power generation industry. Cogeneration is also particularly appreciated by political decision makers because of its high yield from primary energy sources, and thus its contribution to the protection of the environment and the conservation of resources. Advanced gas turbines, along with an intelligent power plant design consisting of pre-engineered, modular power plant items, will help cogeneration to play an important role in future energy markets also from an economic point of view. (orig.)

  14. Proof-of-concept and advancement of the CellFlux concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odenthal, Christian; Steinmann, Wolf-Dieter

    2016-05-01

    The CellFlux storage system is a new concept for reducing the costs of medium to high temperature thermal energy storage. Initially designed for solar thermal power plants, the concept is suitable for industrial processes and power to heat applications as well. This paper gives first results of a new pilot scale plant set up at DLR in Stuttgart as a proof of concept. Experimental results are used for the validation of a simplified model. The model is apllied to calculate pareto optimal storage configurations in terms of necessary storage mass and exergetic efficiency, suitable for two types of solar thermal power plants. Particularly for applications having larger temperature differences, high exergetic efficiencies at low costs for the storage material can be achieved.

  15. Advances in sliding mode control concept, theory and implementation

    CERN Document Server

    Janardhanan, S; Spurgeon, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    The sliding mode control paradigm has become a mature technique for the design of robust controllers for a wide class of systems including nonlinear, uncertain and time-delayed systems. This book is a collection of plenary and invited talks delivered at the 12th IEEE International Workshop on Variable Structure System held at the Indian Institute of Technology, Mumbai, India in January 2012. After the workshop, these researchers were invited to develop book chapters for this edited collection in order to reflect the latest results and open research questions in the area. The contributed chapters have been organized by the editors to reflect the various themes of sliding mode control which are the current areas of theoretical research and applications focus; namely articulation of the fundamental underpinning theory of the sliding mode design paradigm, sliding modes for decentralized system representations, control of time-delay systems, the higher order sliding mode concept, results applicable to nonlinear an...

  16. Near-Infrared Intraoperative Chemiluminescence Imaging

    KAUST Repository

    Büchel, Gabriel E.

    2016-08-03

    Intraoperative imaging technologies recently entered the operating room, and their implementation is revolutionizing how physicians plan, monitor, and perform surgical interventions. In this work, we present a novel surgical imaging reporter system: intraoperative chemiluminescence imaging (ICI). To this end, we have leveraged the ability of a chemiluminescent metal complex to generate near-infrared light upon exposure to an aqueous solution of Ce4+ in the presence of reducing tissue or blood components. An optical camera spatially resolves the resulting photon flux. We describe the construction and application of a prototype imaging setup, which achieves a detection limit as low as 6.9pmolcm-2 of the transition-metal-based ICI agent. As a proof of concept, we use ICI for the invivo detection of our transition metal tracer following both systemic and subdermal injections. The very high signal-to-noise ratios make ICI an interesting candidate for the development of new intraoperative imaging technologies. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Teaching advanced science concepts through Freshman Research Immersion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahila, M. J.; Amey-Proper, J.; Jones, W. E.; Stamp, N.; Piper, L. F. J.

    2017-03-01

    We have developed a new introductory physics/chemistry programme that teaches advanced science topics and practical laboratory skills to freshmen undergraduate students through the use of student-led, bona fide research activities. While many recent attempts to improve college-level physics education have focused on integrating interactive demonstrations and activities into traditional passive lectures, we have taken the idea of active-learning several steps further. Working in conjunction with several research faculty at Binghamton University, we have created a programme that puts undergraduate students on an accelerated path towards working in real research laboratories performing publishable research. Herein, we describe in detail the programme goals, structure, and educational content, and report on our promising initial student outcomes.

  18. Advanced Turbine Systems Program industrial system concept development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gates, S.

    1995-12-31

    Solar approached Phase II of ATS program with the goal of 50% thermal efficiency. An intercolled and recuperated gas turbine was identified as the ultimate system to meet this goal in a commercial gas turbine environment. With commercial input from detailed market studies and DOE`s ATS program, Solar redefined the company`s proposed ATS to fit both market and sponsor (DOE) requirements. Resulting optimized recuperated gas turbine will be developed in two sizes, 5 and 15 MWe. It will show a thermal efficiency of about 43%, a 23% improvement over current industrial gas turbines. Other ATS goals--emissions, RAMD (reliability, availability, maintainability, durability), cost of power--will be met or exceeded. During FY95, advanced development of key materials, combustion and component technologies proceeded to the point of acceptance for inclusion in ATS Phase III.

  19. ADVANCED SULFUR CONTROL CONCEPTS FOR HOT-GAS DESULFURIZATION TECHNOLOGY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. LOPEZ ORTIZ; D.P. HARRISON; F.R. GROVES; J.D. WHITE; S. ZHANG; W.-N. HUANG; Y. ZENG

    1998-10-31

    This research project examined the feasibility of a second generation high-temperature coal gas desulfurization process in which elemental sulfur is produced directly during the sorbent regeneration phase. Two concepts were evaluated experimentally. In the first, FeS was regenerated in a H2O-O2 mixture. Large fractions of the sulfur were liberated in elemental form when the H2O-O2 ratio was large. However, the mole percent of elemental sulfur in the product was always quite small (<<1%) and a process based on this concept was judged to be impractical because of the low temperature and high energy requirements associated with condensing the sulfur. The second concept involved desulfurization using CeO2 and regeneration of the sulfided sorbent, Ce2O2S, using SO2 to produce elemental sulfur directly. No significant side reactions were observed and the reaction was found to be quite rapid over the temperature range of 500°C to 700°C. Elemental sulfur concentrations (as S2) as large as 20 mol% were produced. Limitations associated with the cerium sorbent process are concentrated in the desulfurization phase. High temperature and highly reducing coal gas such as produced in the Shell gasification process are required if high sulfur removal efficiencies are to be achieved. For example, the equilibrium H2S concentration at 800°C from a Shell gas in contact with CeO2 is about 300 ppmv, well above the allowable IGCC specification. In this case, a two-stage desulfurization process using CeO2 for bulk H2S removal following by a zinc sorbent polishing step would be required. Under appropriate conditions, however, CeO2 can be reduced to non-stoichiometric CeOn (n<2) which has significantly greater affinity for H2S. Pre-breakthrough H2S concentrations in the range of 1 ppmv to 5 ppmv were measured in sulfidation tests using CeOn at 700°C in highly reducing gases, as measured by equilibrium O2 concentration, comparable to the Shell gas. Good sorbent durability was indicated in

  20. Priorities for Advancing the Concept of New Ruralism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galen Newman

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Civic expansion and land use migrations to urban peripheries can accelerate the conversion of agricultural land uses. Widespread trepidation concerning urban sprawl has led to innovative frameworks for conserving or enhancing farmland. New Ruralism is one such framework, linking farmland preservation with developmental plans to reduce farmland conversion and low density development. Although the concept is still evolving, recent support for New Ruralism has grown. One of the most important factors in creating a New Ruralism-based development is coherent policy for permanent agricultural preserves. These preserves require the simultaneous, careful planning of land preservation balanced with the location of future development. This paper discusses the current condition of farmland loss and reviews issues and challenges associated with farmland preservation with existing New Ruralism developments. The goal is to synthesize this information into recommendations for increasing farmland preservation opportunities in New Ruralism-based developments. A more comprehensive definition for New Ruralism is presented, accompanied by several priorities for maximizing the economic, environmental, and cultural viability of New Ruralism-based farmland preserves.

  1. Advanced Direct Liquefaction Concepts for PETC Generic Units - Phase II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1997-09-01

    Reported here are the results of Laboratory and Bench- Scale experiments and supporting technical and economic assessments conducted under DOE Contract No. DE- AC22- 91PC91040 during the period April 1, 1997 to June 30, 1997. This contract is with the University of Kentucky Research Foundation which supports work with the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research, CONSOL, Inc., LDP Associates, and Hydrocarbon Technologies, Inc. This work involves the introduction into the basic two stage liquefaction process several novel concepts which includes dispersed lower- cost catalysts, coal cleaning by oil agglomeration, and distillate hydrotreating and dewaxing. This report includes a data analysis of the ALC- 2 run which was the second continuous run in which Wyodak Black Thunder coal was fed to a two kg/ h bench- scale unit. One of the objectives of that run was to determine the relative activity of several Mo- based coal impregnated catalyst precursors. The precursors included ammonium heptamolybdate (100 mg Mo/ kg dry coal), which was used alone as well as in combination with ferrous sulfate (1% Fe/ dry coal) and nickel sulfate (50 mg Ni/ kg dry coal). The fourth precursor that was tested was phosphomolybdic acid which was used at a level of 100 mg Mo/ kg dry coal. Because of difficulties in effectively separating solids from the product stream, considerable variation in the feed stream occurred. Although the coal feed rate was nearly constant, the amount of recycle solvent varied which resulted in wide variations of resid, unconverted coal and mineral matter in the feed stream. Unfortunately, steady state was not achieved in any of the four conditions that were run. Earlier it was reported that Ni- Mo catalyst appeared to give the best results based upon speculative steady- state yields that were developed.

  2. Earth's Critical Zone and hydropedology: concepts, characteristics, and advances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Lin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The Critical Zone (CZ is a holistic framework for integrated studies of water with soil, rock, air, and biotic resources in the near-surface terrestrial environment. This most heterogeneous and complex region of the Earth ranges from the vegetation top to the aquifer bottom, with a highly variable thickness globally and a yet-to-be clearly defined lower boundary of active water cycle. Interfaces among different compartments in the CZ are critical, which provide fertile ground for interdisciplinary research. The reconciliation of coupled geological and biological cycles (vastly different in space and time scales is essential to understanding the complexity and evolution of the CZ. Irreversible evolution, coupled cycling, interactive layers, and hierarchical heterogeneity are the characteristics of the CZ, suggesting that forcing, coupling, interfacing, and scaling are grand challenges for advancing CZ science. Hydropedology – the science of the behaviour and distribution of soil-water interactions in contact with mineral and biological materials in the CZ – is an important contributor to CZ study. The pedosphere is the foundation of the CZ, which represents a geomembrance across which water and solutes, as well as energy, gases, solids, and organisms are actively exchanged with the atmosphere, biosphere, hydrosphere, and lithosphere, thereby creating a life-sustaining environment. Hydropedology emphasizes in situ soils in the landscape setting, where distinct pedogenic features and soil-landscape relationships are essential to understanding interactive pedologic and hydrologic processes. Both CZ science and hydropedology embrace an evolutionary and holistic worldview, which offers stimulating opportunities through steps such as integrated systems approach, evolutionary mapping-monitoring-modeling framework, and fostering a global alliance. Our capability to predict the behaviour and evolution of the CZ in response to changing environment can

  3. Advanced Direct Liquefaction Concepts for PETC Generic Units - Phase II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1997-12-01

    The results of Laboratory and Bench-Scale experiments and supporting technical and economic assessments conducted under DOE Contract No. DE-AC22-91PC91040 are reported for the period July 1, 1997 to September 30, 1997. This contract is with the University of Kentucky Research Foundation which supports work with the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research, CONSOL, Inc., LDP Associates, and Hydrocarbon Technologies, Inc. This work involves the introduction into the basic two stage liquefaction process several novel concepts which include dispersed lower-cost catalysts, coal cleaning by oil agglomeration, and distillate hydrotreating and dewaxing. Results are reported from experiments in which various methods were tested to activate dispersed Mo precursors. Several oxothiomolybdates precursors having S/Mo ratios from two to six were prepared. Another having a S/Mo ratio of eleven was also prepared that contained an excess of sulfur. In the catalyst screening test, none of these precursors exhibited an activity enhancement that might suggest that adding sulfur into the structure of the Mo precursors would be beneficial to the process. In another series of experiments, AHM impregnated coal slurried in the reaction mixture was pretreated withH S/H under pressure and successively heated for 30 min at 120, 250 2 2 and 360 C. THF conversions in the catalyst screening test were not affected while resid conversions o increased such that pretreated coals impregnated with 100 ppm Mo gave conversions equivalent to untreated coals impregnated with 300 ppm fresh Mo. Cobalt, nickel and potassium phosphomolybdates were prepared and tested as bimetallic precursors. The thermal stability of these compounds was evaluated in TG/MS to determine whether the presence of the added metal would stabilize the Keggin structure at reaction temperature. Coals impregnated with these salts showed the Ni and Co salts gave the same THF conversion as PMA while the Ni salt gave higher

  4. ADVANCED UNDERGROUND GAS STORAGE CONCEPTS REFRIGERATED-MINED CAVERN STORAGE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-09-01

    Limited demand and high cost has prevented the construction of hard rock caverns in this country for a number of years. The storage of natural gas in mined caverns may prove technically feasible if the geology of the targeted market area is suitable; and economically feasible if the cost and convenience of service is competitive with alternative available storage methods for peak supply requirements. It is believed that mined cavern storage can provide the advantages of high delivery rates and multiple fill-withdrawal cycles in areas where salt cavern storage is not possible. In this research project, PB-KBB merged advanced mining technologies and gas refrigeration techniques to develop conceptual designs and cost estimates to demonstrate the commercialization potential of the storage of refrigerated natural gas in hard rock caverns. Five regions of the U.S.A. were studied for underground storage development and PB-KBB reviewed the literature to determine if the geology of these regions was suitable for siting hard rock storage caverns. Area gas market conditions in these regions were also studied to determine the need for such storage. Based on an analysis of many factors, a possible site was determined to be in Howard and Montgomery Counties, Maryland. The area has compatible geology and a gas industry infrastructure for the nearby market populous of Baltimore and Washington D.C.. As Gas temperature is lowered, the compressibility of the gas reaches an optimum value. The compressibility of the gas, and the resultant gas density, is a function of temperature and pressure. This relationship can be used to commercial advantage by reducing the size of a storage cavern for a given working volume of natural gas. This study looks at this relationship and and the potential for commercialization of the process in a storage application. A conceptual process design, and cavern design were developed for various operating conditions. Potential site locations were considered

  5. Proceedings of the Workshop on Advanced Network and Technology Concepts for Mobile, Micro, and Personal Communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Lori (Editor)

    1991-01-01

    The Workshop on Advanced Network and Technology Concepts for Mobile, Micro, and Personal Communications was held at NASA's JPL Laboratory on 30-31 May 1991. It provided a forum for reviewing the development of advanced network and technology concepts for turn-of-the-century telecommunications. The workshop was organized into three main categories: (1) Satellite-Based Networks (L-band, C-band, Ku-band, and Ka-band); (2) Terrestrial-Based Networks (cellular, CT2, PCN, GSM, and other networks); and (3) Hybrid Satellite/Terrestrial Networks. The proceedings contain presentation papers from each of the above categories.

  6. Chemiluminescent Detection of Enzymatically Produced H2S

    OpenAIRE

    Bailey, T. Spencer; Pluth, Michael D.

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has emerged as an important biological signaling molecule. To better understand the multifaceted biological roles of H2S, the development of selective and sensitive biocompatible assays for H2S is becoming increasingly important. Motivated by these challenges, our laboratory is developing new methods to further detect and monitor biological H2S. Here, we describe in detail our recent advances in the development and the use of chemiluminescence-based H2S sensors to assis...

  7. Development of a metal-clad advanced composite shear web design concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laakso, J. H.

    1974-01-01

    An advanced composite web concept was developed for potential application to the Space Shuttle Orbiter main engine thrust structure. The program consisted of design synthesis, analysis, detail design, element testing, and large scale component testing. A concept was sought that offered significant weight saving by the use of Boron/Epoxy (B/E) reinforced titanium plate structure. The desired concept was one that was practical and that utilized metal to efficiently improve structural reliability. The resulting development of a unique titanium-clad B/E shear web design concept is described. Three large scale components were fabricated and tested to demonstrate the performance of the concept: a titanium-clad plus or minus 45 deg B/E web laminate stiffened with vertical B/E reinforced aluminum stiffeners.

  8. Recognizing and Managing Complexity: Teaching Advanced Programming Concepts and Techniques Using the Zebra Puzzle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crabtree, John; Zhang, Xihui

    2015-01-01

    Teaching advanced programming can be a challenge, especially when the students are pursuing different majors with diverse analytical and problem-solving capabilities. The purpose of this paper is to explore the efficacy of using a particular problem as a vehicle for imparting a broad set of programming concepts and problem-solving techniques. We…

  9. Advanced Planning Concepts in the Closed-Loop Container Network of ARN

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Le Blanc, H.M.; van Krieken, M.G.C.; Krikke, H.R.; Fleuren, H.A.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we discuss a real-life case study in the optimization of the logistics network for the collection of containers from end-of-life vehicle dismantlers in the Netherlands.Advanced planning concepts like dynamic assignment of dismantlers to logistic service providers are analyzed by a simu

  10. An Exploration of Learners' Conceptions of Language, Culture, and Learning in Advanced-Level Spanish Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drewelow, Isabelle; Mitchell, Claire

    2015-01-01

    This article reports on an exploratory study, which examines learners' rating of culture in relation to other concepts in advanced Spanish courses and their justification of the ratings attributed. Open-ended responses, elicited from a questionnaire completed by 179 respondents, were analysed line by line using an interpretive approach. Data…

  11. Advanced Monobore Concept, Development of CFEX Self-Expanding Tubular Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeff Spray

    2007-09-30

    The Advanced Monobore Concept--CFEX{copyright} Self-Expanding Tubular Technology Development was a successfully executed fundamental research through field demonstration project. This final report is presented as a progression, according to basic technology development steps. For this project, the research and development steps used were: concept development, engineering analysis, manufacturing, testing, demonstration, and technology transfer. The CFEX{copyright} Technology Development--Advanced Monobore Concept Project successfully completed all of the steps for technology development, covering fundamental research, conceptual development, engineering design, advanced-level prototype construction, mechanical testing, and downhole demonstration. Within an approximately two year period, a partially defined, broad concept was evolved into a substantial new technological area for drilling and production engineering applicable a variety of extractive industries--which was also successfully demonstrated in a test well. The demonstration achievement included an actual mono-diameter placement of two self-expanding tubulars. The fundamental result is that an economical and technically proficient means of casing any size of drilling or production well or borehole is indicated as feasible based on the results of the project. Highlighted major accomplishments during the project's Concept, Engineering, Manufacturing, Demonstration, and Technology Transfer phases, are given.

  12. A Framework for Human Performance Criteria for Advanced Reactor Operational Concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacques V Hugo; David I Gertman; Jeffrey C Joe

    2014-08-01

    This report supports the determination of new Operational Concept models needed in support of the operational design of new reactors. The objective of this research is to establish the technical bases for human performance and human performance criteria frameworks, models, and guidance for operational concepts for advanced reactor designs. The report includes a discussion of operating principles for advanced reactors, the human performance issues and requirements for human performance based upon work domain analysis and current regulatory requirements, and a description of general human performance criteria. The major findings and key observations to date are that there is some operating experience that informs operational concepts for baseline designs for SFR and HGTRs, with the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II) as a best-case predecessor design. This report summarizes the theoretical and operational foundations for the development of a framework and model for human performance criteria that will influence the development of future Operational Concepts. The report also highlights issues associated with advanced reactor design and clarifies and codifies the identified aspects of technology and operating scenarios.

  13. Advanced EVA Capabilities: A Study for NASA's Revolutionary Aerospace Systems Concept Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Stephen J.

    2004-01-01

    This report documents the results of a study carried out as part of NASA s Revolutionary Aerospace Systems Concepts Program examining the future technology needs of extravehicular activities (EVAs). The intent of this study is to produce a comprehensive report that identifies various design concepts for human-related advanced EVA systems necessary to achieve the goals of supporting future space exploration and development customers in free space and on planetary surfaces for space missions in the post-2020 timeframe. The design concepts studied and evaluated are not limited to anthropomorphic space suits, but include a wide range of human-enhancing EVA technologies as well as consideration of coordination and integration with advanced robotics. The goal of the study effort is to establish a baseline technology "road map" that identifies and describes an investment and technical development strategy, including recommendations that will lead to future enhanced synergistic human/robot EVA operations. The eventual use of this study effort is to focus evolving performance capabilities of various EVA system elements toward the goal of providing high performance human operational capabilities for a multitude of future space applications and destinations. The data collected for this study indicate a rich and diverse history of systems that have been developed to perform a variety of EVA tasks, indicating what is possible. However, the data gathered for this study also indicate a paucity of new concepts and technologies for advanced EVA missions - at least any that researchers are willing to discuss in this type of forum.

  14. THE 13TH ADVANCED ACCELERATOR CONCEPTS WORKSHOP (AAC'8)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leemans, Wim [UC Berkeley; Schroder, Carl B.; Esarey, Eric

    2008-07-15

    The Thirteenth Workshop on Advanced Accelerator Concepts (AAC) was held from July 27 to August 2, 2008 at the Chaminade Conference Center in Santa Cruz, California, USA, organized by the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and the University of California at Berkeley. There were unprecedented levels of interest in the 2008 AAC Workshop, and participation was by invitation, with 215 workshop attendees, including 58 students. Reflecting the world-wide growth of the advanced accelerator community, there was significant international participation, with participants from twelve countries attending.

  15. Waste-to-energy advanced cycles and new design concepts for efficient power plants

    CERN Document Server

    Branchini, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    This book provides an overview of state-of-the-art technologies for energy conversion from waste, as well as a much-needed guide to new and advanced strategies to increase Waste-to-Energy (WTE) plant efficiency. Beginning with an overview of municipal solid waste production and disposal, basic concepts related to Waste-To-Energy conversion processes are described, highlighting the most relevant aspects impacting the thermodynamic efficiency of WTE power plants. The pervasive influences of main steam cycle parameters and plant configurations on WTE efficiency are detailed and quantified. Advanc

  16. Advanced transportation system study: Manned launch vehicle concepts for two way transportation system payloads to LEO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, James B.

    1993-12-01

    The purpose of the Advanced Transportation System Study (ATSS) task area 1 study effort is to examine manned launch vehicle booster concepts and two-way cargo transfer and return vehicle concepts to determine which of the many proposed concepts best meets NASA's needs for two-way transportation to low earth orbit. The study identified specific configurations of the normally unmanned, expendable launch vehicles (such as the National Launch System family) necessary to fly manned payloads. These launch vehicle configurations were then analyzed to determine the integrated booster/spacecraft performance, operations, reliability, and cost characteristics for the payload delivery and return mission. Design impacts to the expendable launch vehicles which would be required to perform the manned payload delivery mission were also identified. These impacts included the implications of applying NASA's man-rating requirements, as well as any mission or payload unique impacts. The booster concepts evaluated included the National Launch System (NLS) family of expendable vehicles and several variations of the NLS reference configurations to deliver larger manned payload concepts (such as the crew logistics vehicle (CLV) proposed by NASA JSC). Advanced, clean sheet concepts such as an F-1A engine derived liquid rocket booster (LRB), the single stage to orbit rocket, and a NASP-derived aerospace plane were also included in the study effort. Existing expendable launch vehicles such as the Titan 4, Ariane 5, Energia, and Proton were also examined. Although several manned payload concepts were considered in the analyses, the reference manned payload was the NASA Langley Research Center's HL-20 version of the personnel launch system (PLS). A scaled up version of the PLS for combined crew/cargo delivery capability, the HL-42 configuration, was also included in the analyses of cargo transfer and return vehicle (CTRV) booster concepts. In addition to strictly manned payloads, two-way cargo

  17. Recognizing and Managing Complexity: Teaching Advanced Programming Concepts and Techniques Using the Zebra Puzzle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xihui "Paul" Zhang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Teaching advanced programming can be a challenge, especially when the students are pursuing different majors with diverse analytical and problem-solving capabilities. The purpose of this paper is to explore the efficacy of using a particular problem as a vehicle for imparting a broad set of programming concepts and problem-solving techniques. We present a classic brain teaser that is used to communicate and demonstrate advanced software development concepts and techniques. Our results show that students with varied academic experiences and goals, assuming at least one procedural/structured programming pre-requisite, can benefit from and also be challenged by such an exercise. Although this problem has been used by others in the classroom, we believe that our use of this problem in imparting such a broad range of topics to a diverse student population is unique.

  18. Aeroelastic Modelling and Comparison of Advanced Active Flap Control Concepts for Load Reduction on the Upwind 5MW Wind Turbine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barlas, A.; Van Kuik, G.A.M.

    2009-01-01

    A newly developed comprehensive aeroelastic model is used to investigate active flap concepts on the Upwind 5MW reference wind turbine. The model is specially designed to facilitate distributed control concepts and advanced controller design. Different concepts of centralized and distributed control

  19. Aeroelastic modelling and comparison of advanced active flap control concepts for load reduction on the Upwind 5MW wind turbine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barlas, A.; van Kuik, G.A.M.

    2009-01-01

    A newly developed comprehensive aeroelastic model is used to investigate active flap concepts on the Upwind 5MW reference wind turbine. The model is specially designed to facilitate distributed control concepts and advanced controller design. Different concepts of centralized and distributed control

  20. Yttrium-90 Radioembolization of Hepatocellular Carcinoma-Performance, Technical Advances, and Future Concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molvar, Christopher; Lewandowski, Robert

    2015-12-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a lethal tumor, claiming over half a million lives per year. Treatment of HCC is commonly performed without curative intent, and palliative options dominate, including catheter-based therapies, namely, transarterial chemoembolization and yttrium-90 ((90)Y) radioembolization. This review will showcase the performance of (90)Y radioembolization for the treatment of HCC, focusing on recent seminal data and technical advances. In particular, novel radioembolization treatment concepts are discussed and compared with conventional HCC therapy.

  1. Study of advanced composite structural design concepts for an arrow wing supersonic cruise configuration, task 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    A structural design study was conducted to assess the relative merits of structural concepts using advanced composite materials for an advanced supersonic aircraft cruising at Mach 2.7. The configuration and structural arrangement developed during Task I and II of the study, was used as the baseline configuration. Allowable stresses and strains were established for boron and advanced graphite fibers based on projected fiber properties available in the next decade. Structural concepts were designed and analyzed using graphite polyimide and boron polyimide, applied to stiffened panels and conventional sandwich panels. The conventional sandwich panels were selected as the structural concept to be used on the wing structure. The upper and lower surface panels of the Task I arrow wing were redesigned using high-strength graphite polyimide sandwich panels over the titanium spars and ribs. The ATLAS computer system was used as the basis for stress analysis and resizing the surface panels using the loads from the Task II study, without adjustment for change in aeroelastic deformation. The flutter analysis indicated a decrease in the flutter speed compared to the baseline titanium wing design. The flutter analysis indicated a decrease in the flutter speed compared to the baseline titanium wing design. The flutter speed was increased to that of the titanium wing, with a weight penalty less than that of the metallic airplane.

  2. NASA Advanced Concepts Office, Earth-To-Orbit Team Design Process and Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, Eric D.; Garcia, Jessica; Threet, Grady E., Jr.; Phillips, Alan

    2013-01-01

    The Earth-to-Orbit Team (ETO) of the Advanced Concepts Office (ACO) at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is considered the pre-eminent "go-to" group for pre-phase A and phase A concept definition. Over the past several years the ETO team has evaluated thousands of launch vehicle concept variations for a significant number of studies including agency-wide efforts such as the Exploration Systems Architecture Study (ESAS), Constellation, Heavy Lift Launch Vehicle (HLLV), Augustine Report, Heavy Lift Propulsion Technology (HLPT), Human Exploration Framework Team (HEFT), and Space Launch System (SLS). The ACO ETO Team is called upon to address many needs in NASA's design community; some of these are defining extremely large trade-spaces, evaluating advanced technology concepts which have not been addressed by a large majority of the aerospace community, and the rapid turn-around of highly time critical actions. It is the time critical actions, those often limited by schedule or little advanced warning, that have forced the five member ETO team to develop a design process robust enough to handle their current output level in order to meet their customer's needs. Based on the number of vehicle concepts evaluated over the past year this output level averages to four completed vehicle concepts per day. Each of these completed vehicle concepts includes a full mass breakdown of the vehicle to a tertiary level of subsystem components and a vehicle trajectory analysis to determine optimized payload delivery to specified orbital parameters, flight environments, and delta v capability. A structural analysis of the vehicle to determine flight loads based on the trajectory output, material properties, and geometry of the concept is also performed. Due to working in this fast-paced and sometimes rapidly changing environment, the ETO Team has developed a finely tuned process to maximize their delivery capabilities. The objective of this paper is to describe the interfaces

  3. Design Concept of Advanced Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactor and Related R&D in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeong-il Kim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Korea imports about 97% of its energy resources due to a lack of available energy resources. In this status, the role of nuclear power in electricity generation is expected to become more important in future years. In particular, a fast reactor system is one of the most promising reactor types for electricity generation, because it can utilize efficiently uranium resources and reduce radioactive waste. Acknowledging the importance of a fast reactor in a future energy policy, the long-term advanced SFR development plan was authorized by KAEC in 2008 and updated in 2011 which will be carried out toward the construction of an advanced SFR prototype plant by 2028. Based upon the experiences gained during the development of the conceptual designs for KALIMER, KAERI recently developed advanced sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR design concepts of TRU burner that can better meet the generation IV technology goals. The current status of nuclear power and SFR design technology development program in Korea will be discussed. The developments of design concepts including core, fuel, fluid system, mechanical structure, and safety evaluation have been performed. In addition, the advanced SFR technologies necessary for its commercialization and the basic key technologies have been developed including a large-scale sodium thermal-hydraulic test facility, super-critical Brayton cycle system, under-sodium viewing techniques, metal fuel development, and developments of codes, and validations are described as R&D activities.

  4. Chemiluminescence methods (present and future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navas, M. J.

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available This article provides a general review of chemiluminescent methods in some of their recent applications in drug analysis, sea water analysis or antioxidant activity of natural and synthetic products (including olive oil. Practical considerations are not included in the review since the main interest is to state, through the aforementioned applications, that chemiluminescence has been, is, and will be a versatile tool for Analytical Chemistry in future years.Este artículo da una visión general de los métodos de quimiluminiscencia en algunas de las aplicaciones más recientes en análisis de drogas, análisis del agua marina o la actividad antioxidante de productos naturales y de síntesis (incluyendo el aceite de oliva. Las consideraciones prácticas no están incluidas ya que el principal interés es establecer, a través de las aplicaciones mencionadas, que la quimiluminiscencia ha sido, es y será en los próximos años una herramienta versátil de la Química Analítica.

  5. Advanced Scintillator Detector Concept (ASDC): A Concept Paper on the Physics Potential of Water-Based Liquid Scintillator

    CERN Document Server

    Alonso, J R; Bergevin, M; Bernstein, A; Bignell, L; Blucher, E; Calaprice, F; Conrad, J M; Descamps, F B; Diwan, M V; Dwyer, D A; Dye, S T; Elagin, A; Feng, P; Grant, C; Grullon, S; Hans, S; Jaffe, D E; Kettell, S H; Klein, J R; Lande, K; Learned, J G; Luk, K B; Maricic, J; Marleau, P; Mastbaum, A; McDonough, W F; Oberauer, L; Gann, G D Orebi; Rosero, R; Rountree, S D; Sanchez, M C; Shaevitz, M H; Shokair, T M; Smy, M B; Strait, M; Svoboda, R; Tolich, N; Vagins, M R; van Bibber, K A; Viren, B; Vogelaar, R B; Wetstein, M J; Winslow, L; Wonsak, B; Worcester, E T; Wurm, M; Yeh, M; Zhang, C

    2014-01-01

    The recent development of Water-based Liquid Scintillator (WbLS), and the concurrent development of high-efficiency and high-precision-timing light sensors, has opened up the possibility for a new kind of large-scale detector capable of a very broad program of physics. The program would include determination of the neutrino mass hierarchy and observation of CP violation with long-baseline neutrinos, searches for proton decay, ultra-precise solar neutrino measurements, geo- and supernova neutrinos including diff?use supernova antineutrinos, and neutrinoless double beta decay. We outline here the basic requirements of the Advanced Scintillation Detector Concept (ASDC), which combines the use of WbLS, doping with a number of potential isotopes for a range of physics goals, high efficiency and ultra-fast timing photosensors, and a deep underground location. We are considering such a detector at the Long Baseline Neutrino Facility (LBNF) far site, where the ASDC could operate in conjunction with the liquid argon t...

  6. Work Domain Analysis Methodology for Development of Operational Concepts for Advanced Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hugo, Jacques [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-05-01

    This report describes a methodology to conduct a Work Domain Analysis in preparation for the development of operational concepts for new plants. This method has been adapted from the classical method described in the literature in order to better deal with the uncertainty and incomplete information typical of first-of-a-kind designs. The report outlines the strategy for undertaking a Work Domain Analysis of a new nuclear power plant and the methods to be used in the development of the various phases of the analysis. Basic principles are described to the extent necessary to explain why and how the classical method was adapted to make it suitable as a tool for the preparation of operational concepts for a new nuclear power plant. Practical examples are provided of the systematic application of the method and the various presentation formats in the operational analysis of advanced reactors.

  7. BALANCED SCORECARD AS AN ADVANCED MANAGEMENT CONCEPT WITHIN THE INTEGRATED QUALITY MANAGEMENT MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevan Zivojinovic

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The significance of >Integratedquality management< (IQM model, originating form St.Gallen-model, is reflected in the need for synergic application of new and advanced concepts of management theory and practise. Balanced score card (BSC within IQM model becomes a catalyst of business success for a modern organization by focusing on organizational variables-business strategy, organization structure and corporate culture. BSC is the leading system of performance tracking and strategy implementation, consistent with other management concepts and methods for managing process improvement. Through BSC, IQM processes' activities correlate with organization business results. BSC management processes enable integration of all decision-making levels, from institutional via strategic to operative, in the process starting from planing, i.e. formulating and implementation of strategy, to feed back by performance measurement and control.

  8. Study of advanced composite structural design concepts for an arrow wing supersonic cruise configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, M. J.; Grande, D. L.

    1978-01-01

    Based on estimated graphite and boron fiber properties, allowable stresses and strains were established for advanced composite materials. Stiffened panel and conventional sandwich panel concepts were designed and analyzed, using graphite/polyimide and boron/polyimide materials. The conventional sandwich panel was elected as the structural concept for the modified wing structure. Upper and lower surface panels of the arrow wing structure were then redesigned, using high strength graphite/polyimide sandwich panels, retaining the titanium spars and ribs from the prior study. The ATLAS integrated analysis and design system was used for stress analysis and automated resizing of surface panels. Flutter analysis of the hybrid structure showed a significant decrease in flutter speed relative to the titanium wing design. The flutter speed was increased to that of the titanium design by selective increase in laminate thickness and by using graphite fibers with properties intermediate between high strength and high modulus values.

  9. Development and proof-testing of advanced absorption refrigeration cycle concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Modahl, R.J.; Hayes, F.C. (Trane Co., La Crosse, WI (United States). Applied Unitary/Refrigeration Systems Div.)

    1992-03-01

    The overall objectives of this project are to evaluate, develop, and proof-test advanced absorption refrigeration cycles that are applicable to residential and commercial heat pumps for space conditioning. The heat pump system is to be direct-fired with natural gas and is to use absorption working fluids whose properties are known. Target coefficients of performance (COPs) are 1.6 at 47{degrees}F and 1.2 at 17{degrees} in the heating mode, and 0.7 at 95{degree}F in the cooling mode, including the effect of flue losses. The project is divided into three phases. Phase I entailed the analytical evaluation of advanced cycles and included the selection of preferred concepts for further development. Phase II involves the development and testing of critical components and of a complete laboratory breadboard version of the selected system. Phase III calls for the development of a prototype unit and is contingent on the successful completion of Phase II. This report covers Phase I work on the project. In Phase 1, 24 advanced absorption cycle/fluid combinations were evaluated, and computer models were developed to predict system performance. COP, theoretical pump power, and internal heat exchange were calculated for each system, and these calculations were used as indicators of operating and installed costs in order to rank the relative promise of each system. The highest ranking systems involve the cycle concept of absorber/generator heat exchange, generator heat exchanger/absorber heat exchange, regeneration, and resorption/desorption, in combination with the NH{sub 3}/H{sub 2}O/LiBr ternary absorption fluid mixture or with the NH{sub 3}/H{sub 2}O binary solution. Based upon these conclusions, the recommendation was made to proceed to Phase II, the laboratory breadboard proof-of- concept.

  10. DEVELOPMENT OF OPERATIONAL CONCEPTS FOR ADVANCED SMRs: THE ROLE OF COGNITIVE SYSTEMS ENGINEERING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacques Hugo; David Gertman

    2014-04-01

    Advanced small modular reactors (AdvSMRs) will use advanced digital instrumentation and control systems, and make greater use of automation. These advances not only pose technical and operational challenges, but will inevitably have an effect on the operating and maintenance (O&M) cost of new plants. However, there is much uncertainty about the impact of AdvSMR designs on operational and human factors considerations, such as workload, situation awareness, human reliability, staffing levels, and the appropriate allocation of functions between the crew and various automated plant systems. Existing human factors and systems engineering design standards and methodologies are not current in terms of human interaction requirements for dynamic automated systems and are no longer suitable for the analysis of evolving operational concepts. New models and guidance for operational concepts for complex socio-technical systems need to adopt a state-of-the-art approach such as Cognitive Systems Engineering (CSE) that gives due consideration to the role of personnel. This approach we report on helps to identify and evaluate human challenges related to non-traditional concepts of operations. A framework - defining operational strategies was developed based on the operational analysis of Argonne National Laboratory’s Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II), a small (20MWe) sodium-cooled reactor that was successfully operated for thirty years. Insights from the application of the systematic application of the methodology and its utility are reviewed and arguments for the formal adoption of CSE as a value-added part of the Systems Engineering process are presented.

  11. Advanced Supersonic Nozzle Concepts: Experimental Flow Visualization Results Paired With LES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Matthew; Magstadt, Andrew; Stack, Cory; Gaitonde, Datta; Glauser, Mark; Syracuse University Team; The Ohio State University Team

    2015-11-01

    Advanced supersonic nozzle concepts are currently under investigation, utilizing multiple bypass streams and airframe integration to bolster performance and efficiency. This work focuses on the parametric study of a supersonic, multi-stream jet with aft deck. The single plane of symmetry, rectangular nozzle, displays very complex and unique flow characteristics. Flow visualization techniques in the form of PIV and schlieren capture flow features at various deck lengths and Mach numbers. LES is compared to the experimental results to both validate the computational model and identify limitations of the simulation. By comparing experimental results to LES, this study will help create a foundation of knowledge for advanced nozzle designs in future aircraft. SBIR Phase II with Spectral Energies, LLC under direction of Barry Kiel.

  12. Draft Function Allocation Framework and Preliminary Technical Basis for Advanced SMR Concepts of Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacques Hugo; John Forester; David Gertman; Jeffrey Joe; Heather Medema; Julius Persensky; April Whaley

    2013-08-01

    This report presents preliminary research results from the investigation into the development of new models and guidance for Concepts of Operations in advanced small modular reactor (AdvSMR) designs. AdvSMRs are nuclear power plants (NPPs), but unlike conventional large NPPs that are constructed on site, AdvSMRs systems and components will be fabricated in a factory and then assembled on site. AdvSMRs will also use advanced digital instrumentation and control systems, and make greater use of automation. Some AdvSMR designs also propose to be operated in a multi-unit configuration with a single central control room as a way to be more cost-competitive with existing NPPs. These differences from conventional NPPs not only pose technical and operational challenges, but they will undoubtedly also have regulatory compliance implications, especially with respect to staffing requirements and safety standards.

  13. Advance directives in english and French law: different concepts, different values, different societies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Ruth Judith

    2014-03-01

    In Western societies advance directives are widely recognised as important means to extend patient self-determination under circumstances of incapacity. Following other countries, England and France have adopted legislation aiming to clarify the legal status of advance directives. In this paper, I will explore similarities and differences in both sets of legislation, the arguments employed in the respective debates and the socio-political structures on which these differences are based. The comparison highlights how different legislations express different concepts emphasising different values accorded to the duty to respect autonomy and to protect life, and how these differences are informed by different socio-political contexts. Furthermore each country associates different ethical concerns with ADs which raise doubts about whether these directives are a theoretical idea which is hardly applicable in practice.

  14. Advanced direct liquefaction concepts for PETC generic units. Final report, Phase I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-03-01

    The Advanced Concepts for Direct Coal Liquefaction program was initiated by the Department of Energy in 1991 to develop technologies that could significantly reduce the cost of producing liquid fuels by the direct liquefaction of coal. The advanced 2-stage liquefaction technology that was developed at Wilsonville over the past 10 years has contributed significantly toward decreasing the cost of producing liquids from coal to about $33/bbl. It remains, however, the objective of DOE to further reduce this cost to a level more competitive with petroleum based products. This project, among others, was initiated to investigate various alternative approaches to develop technologies that might ultimately lead to a 25 % reduction in cost of product. In this project a number of novel concepts were investigated, either individually or in a coupled configuration that had the potential to contribute toward meeting the DOE goal. The concepts included mature technologies or ones closely related to them, such as coal cleaning by oil agglomeration, fluid coking and distillate hydrotreating and dewaxing. Other approaches that were either embryonic or less developed were chemical pretreatment of coal to remove oxygen, and dispersed catalyst development for application in the 2-stage liquefaction process. This report presents the results of this project. It is arranged in four sections which were prepared by participating organizations responsible for that phase of the project. A summary of the overall project and the principal results are given in this section. First, however, an overview of the process economics and the process concepts that were developed during the course of this program is presented.

  15. Analytical Applications of Bioluminescence and Chemiluminescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chappelle, E. W. (Editor); Picciolo, G. L. (Editor)

    1975-01-01

    Bioluminescence and chemiluminescence studies were used to measure the amount of adenosine triphosphate and therefore the amount of energy available. Firefly luciferase - luciferin enzyme system was emphasized. Photometer designs are also considered.

  16. The Effects of Using Concept Mapping for Improving Advanced Level Biology Students' Lower- and Higher-Order Cognitive Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bramwell-Lalor, Sharon; Rainford, Marcia

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports on teachers' use of concept mapping as an alternative assessment strategy in advanced level biology classes and its effects on students' cognitive skills on selected biology concepts. Using a mixed methods approach, the study employed a pre-test/post-test quasi-experimental design involving 156 students and 8 teachers from…

  17. Native vs photoinduced chemiluminescence in dimethoate determination

    OpenAIRE

    Catalá Icardo, Mónica; López Paz, José Luis; CHOVES BARÓN, CRISTINA; Pena Badena, A.

    2012-01-01

    The determination of dimethoate using either its native chemiluminescent (CL) properties or its photoinduced chemiluminescence obtained by irradiation with a 15W low-pressure mercury lamp was studied. Thereby, two flow injection systems (FIA) with and without irradiation were exhaustively optimized and their analytical characteristics studied. Better sensitivity and selectivity was found in absence of irradiation, due to the enhancing effect of hexadecylpyridinium chloride (HPC), which acted ...

  18. Draft Function Allocation Framework and Preliminary Technical Basis for Advanced SMR Concepts of Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacques Hugo; John Forester; David Gertman; Jeffrey Joe; Heather Medema; Julius Persensky; April Whaley

    2013-04-01

    This report presents preliminary research results from the investigation in to the development of new models and guidance for concepts of operations (ConOps) in advanced small modular reactor (aSMR) designs. In support of this objective, three important research areas were included: operating principles of multi-modular plants, functional allocation models and strategies that would affect the development of new, non-traditional concept of operations, and the requiremetns for human performance, based upon work domain analysis and current regulatory requirements. As part of the approach for this report, we outline potential functions, including the theoretical and operational foundations for the development of a new functional allocation model and the identification of specific regulatory requirements that will influence the development of future concept of operations. The report also highlights changes in research strategy prompted by confirmationof the importance of applying the work domain analysis methodology to a reference aSMR design. It is described how this methodology will enrich the findings from this phase of the project in the subsequent phases and help in identification of metrics and focused studies for the determination of human performance criteria that can be used to support the design process.

  19. Advanced payload concepts and system architecture for emerging services in Indian National Satellite Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramanian, E. P.; Rao, N. Prahlad; Sarkar, S.; Singh, D. K.

    2008-07-01

    Over the past two decades Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) has developed and operationalized satellites to generate a large capacity of transponders for telecommunication service use in INSAT system. More powerful on-board transmitters are built to usher-in direct-to-home broadcast services. These have transformed the Satcom application scenario in the country. With the proliferation of satellite technology, a shift in the Indian market is witnessed today in terms of demand for new services like Broadband Internet, Interactive Multimedia, etc. While it is imperative to pay attention to market trends, ISRO is also committed towards taking the benefits of technological advancement to all round growth of our population, 70% of which dwell in rural areas. The initiatives already taken in space application related to telemedicine, tele-education and Village Resource Centres are required to be taken to a greater height of efficiency. These targets pose technological challenges to build a large capacity and cost-effective satellite system. This paper addresses advanced payload concepts and system architecture along with the trade-off analysis on design parameters in proposing a new generation satellite system capable of extending the reach of the Indian broadband structure to individual users, educational and medical institutions and enterprises for interactive services. This will be a strategic step in the evolution of INSAT system to employ advanced technology to touch every human face of our population.

  20. Advanced Technology Subsonic Transport Study: N+3 Technologies and Design Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymer, Daniel P.; Wilson, Jack; Perkins, H. Douglas; Rizzi, Arthur; Zhang, Mengmeng; RamirezPuentes, Alfredo

    2011-01-01

    Conceptual Research Corporation, the Science of the Possible, has completed a two-year study of concepts and technologies for future airliners in the 180-passenger class. This NASA-funded contract was primarily focused on the ambitious goal of a 70 percent reduction in fuel consumption versus the market-dominating Boeing 737-800. The study is related to the N+3 contracts awarded in 2008 by NASA s Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate to teams led by Boeing, GE Aviation, MIT, and Northrop Grumman, but with more modest goals and funding. CRC s contract featured a predominant emphasis on propulsion and fuel consumption, but since fuel consumption depends upon air vehicle design as much as on propulsion technology, the study included notional vehicle design, analysis, and parametric studies. Other NASA goals including NOx and noise reduction are of long-standing interest but were not highlighted in this study, other than their inclusion in the propulsion system provided to CRC by NASA. The B-737-800 was used as a benchmark, parametric tool, and design point of departure. It was modeled in the RDS-Professional aircraft design software then subjected to extensive parametric variations of parasitic drag, drag-due-to-lift, specific fuel consumption, and unsized empty weight. These studies indicated that the goal of a 70 percent reduction in fuel consumption could be attained with roughly a 30 percent improvement in all four parameters. The results were then fit to a Response Surface and coded for ease of use in subsequent trade studies. Potential technologies to obtain such savings were identified and discussed. More than 16 advanced concept designs were then prepared, attempting to investigate almost every possible emerging concept for application to this class airliner. A preliminary assessment of these concepts was done based on their total wetted area after design normalization of trimmed maximum lift. This assessment points towards a Tailless Airliner concept which

  1. Improvement of environmental aspects of thermal power plant operation by advanced control concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikulandrić Robert

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The necessity of the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, as formulated in the Kyoto Protocol, imposes the need for improving environmental aspects of existing thermal power plants operation. Improvements can be reached either by efficiency increment or by implementation of emission reduction measures. Investments in refurbishment of existing plant components or in plant upgrading by flue gas desulphurization, by primary and secondary measures of nitrogen oxides reduction, or by biomass co-firing, are usually accompanied by modernisation of thermal power plant instrumentation and control system including sensors, equipment diagnostics and advanced controls. Impact of advanced control solutions implementation depends on technical characteristics and status of existing instrumentation and control systems as well as on design characteristics and actual conditions of installed plant components. Evaluation of adequacy of implementation of advanced control concepts is especially important in Western Balkan region where thermal power plants portfolio is rather diversified in terms of size, type and commissioning year and where generally poor maintenance and lack of investments in power generation sector resulted in high greenhouse gases emissions and low efficiency of plants in operation. This paper is intended to present possibilities of implementation of advanced control concepts, and particularly those based on artificial intelligence, in selected thermal power plants in order to increase plant efficiency and to lower pollutants emissions and to comply with environmental quality standards prescribed in large combustion plant directive. [Acknowledgements. This paper has been created within WBalkICT - Supporting Common RTD actions in WBCs for developing Low Cost and Low Risk ICT based solutions for TPPs Energy Efficiency increasing, SEE-ERA.NET plus project in cooperation among partners from IPA SA - Romania, University of Zagreb - Croatia and Vinca

  2. AICD -- Advanced Industrial Concepts Division Biological and Chemical Technologies Research Program. 1993 Annual summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petersen, G.; Bair, K.; Ross, J. [eds.

    1994-03-01

    The annual summary report presents the fiscal year (FY) 1993 research activities and accomplishments for the United States Department of Energy (DOE) Biological and Chemical Technologies Research (BCTR) Program of the Advanced Industrial Concepts Division (AICD). This AICD program resides within the Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) of the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EE). The annual summary report for 1993 (ASR 93) contains the following: A program description (including BCTR program mission statement, historical background, relevance, goals and objectives), program structure and organization, selected technical and programmatic highlights for 1993, detailed descriptions of individual projects, a listing of program output, including a bibliography of published work, patents, and awards arising from work supported by BCTR.

  3. Chemiluminescence of iron-chlorophyllin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagoshi, Toshimasa; Ohno, Osamu; Kotake, Tomohiko; Igarashi, Shukuro

    2005-01-01

    The iron-chlorophyllin complex was found to be chemiluminescent (CL) in an acetonitrile (22%)/water mixed solvent. In the presence of hydrogen peroxide, when iron-chlorophyllin was added to the mixed solvent, a sharp CL signal immediately appeared. Also, analysis of the absorption spectra revealed decomposition of iron-chlorophyllin (based on decrease in absorbance at 396 nm), hence iron-chlorophyllin is the CL substance. Moreover, the CL intensity decreased in the presence of potassium thiocyanate (KSCN), indicating that the axial coordinative position of iron-chlorophyllin acts as a point of catalytic activation. In addition, when fluorophores were present with iron-chlorophyllin CL, their CL intensity values were similar to or greater than that of the well-known trichlorophenylperoxalate ester (TCPO) CL. Thus, during the decomposition reaction of iron-chlorophyllin, the latter transfers its energy to the coexisting fluorophores. Moreover, since the decomposed compound in this CL reaction had a fluorescence, it was found that the iron-chlorophyllin also functions as an energy donor. Therefore, the iron-chlorophyllin complex acts not only as a CL substance, but also as a catalyst and energy donor in the reaction.

  4. Native vs photoinduced chemiluminescence in dimethoate determination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catala-Icardo, M., E-mail: mocaic@qim.upv.es [Instituto de investigacion para la Gestion Integrada de Zonas Costeras (IGIC), Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, C/Paranimf n Degree-Sign 1, 46730 Grao de Gandia, Valencia (Spain); Lopez-Paz, J.L.; Choves-Baron, C.; Pena-Badena, A. [Instituto de investigacion para la Gestion Integrada de Zonas Costeras (IGIC), Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, C/Paranimf n Degree-Sign 1, 46730 Grao de Gandia, Valencia (Spain)

    2012-01-13

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Comparison between native and photoinduced chemiluminescence of dimethoate. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hexadecylpyridinium enhanced greatly the chemiluminescence. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Solid phase extraction allowed the successful determination of dimethoate in water. - Abstract: The determination of dimethoate using either its native chemiluminescent (CL) properties or its photoinduced chemiluminescence obtained by irradiation with a 15 W low-pressure mercury lamp was studied. Thereby, two flow injection systems (FIA) with and without irradiation were exhaustively optimized and their analytical characteristics studied. Better sensitivity and selectivity was found in absence of irradiation, due to the enhancing effect of hexadecylpyridinium chloride (HPC), which acted as a sensitizer. In the developed FIA-CL system, the alkaline hydrolysis of dimethoate with NaOH was performed on-line in presence of HPC. The oxidation of the product of hydrolysis with Ce(IV) in hydrochloric medium induced chemiluminescence. The method provided a limit of detection of only 0.05 ng mL{sup -1} without any pre-treatment. However, the combination with solid phase extraction allowed the removal of some potential interferents as well as the preconcentration of the pesticide. Finally, the developed method was successfully applied to natural waters with recoveries between 95 and 108%.

  5. Comparison of Chemiluminescence vs. Infrared Techniques for Detection of Fetuin-A in Saliva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, Suresh T; Graff, Emily; Judd, Robert L; Kothari, Vishal

    2015-01-01

    The western blotting technique for transfer and detection of proteins, named following the discovery of southern and northern blotting for DNA- and RNA-blotting, respectively, has traditionally relied on the use of X-ray films to capture chemiluminescence. Recent advancements use super-cooled charge coupled devices (CCD) cameras to capture both chemiluminescence and fluorescence images, which exhibit a greater dynamic range compared to traditional X-ray film. Chemiluminescence detected by a CCD camera records photons and displays an image based on the amount of light generated as a result of a dynamic chemical reaction. Fluorescent detection with a CCD camera, on the other hand, is measured in a static state. Despite this advantage, researchers continue to widely use chemiluminescent detection methods due to the generally poor performance of fluorophores in the visible spectrum. Infrared imaging systems offer a solution to the dynamic reactions of chemiluminescence and the poor performance of fluorophores detected in the visible spectrum, by imaging fluorophores in the infrared spectrum. Infrared imaging is static, has a wide linear range, high sensitivity, and reduced autofluorescence and light scatter. A distinct advantage of infrared imaging is the ability to detect two target proteins simultaneously on the same blot which increases accuracy of quantification and comparison, while minimizing the need for stripping and reprobing. Here, we compare the methodology for chemiluminescent (UVP BioChemi) and infrared (UVP Odyssey) detection of salivary total and phosphorylated fetuin-A, a multifunctional protein associated with cardio-metabolic risk, and discuss the advantages and disadvantages of these methodologies.

  6. Technology Alignment and Portfolio Prioritization (TAPP): Advanced Methods in Strategic Analysis, Technology Forecasting and Long Term Planning for Human Exploration and Operations, Advanced Exploration Systems and Advanced Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funaro, Gregory V.; Alexander, Reginald A.

    2015-01-01

    The Advanced Concepts Office (ACO) at NASA, Marshall Space Flight Center is expanding its current technology assessment methodologies. ACO is developing a framework called TAPP that uses a variety of methods, such as association mining and rule learning from data mining, structure development using a Technological Innovation System (TIS), and social network modeling to measure structural relationships. The role of ACO is to 1) produce a broad spectrum of ideas and alternatives for a variety of NASA's missions, 2) determine mission architecture feasibility and appropriateness to NASA's strategic plans, and 3) define a project in enough detail to establish an initial baseline capable of meeting mission objectives ACO's role supports the decision­-making process associated with the maturation of concepts for traveling through, living in, and understanding space. ACO performs concept studies and technology assessments to determine the degree of alignment between mission objectives and new technologies. The first step in technology assessment is to identify the current technology maturity in terms of a technology readiness level (TRL). The second step is to determine the difficulty associated with advancing a technology from one state to the next state. NASA has used TRLs since 1970 and ACO formalized them in 1995. The DoD, ESA, Oil & Gas, and DoE have adopted TRLs as a means to assess technology maturity. However, "with the emergence of more complex systems and system of systems, it has been increasingly recognized that TRL assessments have limitations, especially when considering [the] integration of complex systems." When performing the second step in a technology assessment, NASA requires that an Advancement Degree of Difficulty (AD2) method be utilized. NASA has used and developed or used a variety of methods to perform this step: Expert Opinion or Delphi Approach, Value Engineering or Value Stream, Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP), Technique for the Order of

  7. Final Project Report "Advanced Concept Exploration For Fast Ignition Science Program"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    STEPHENS, Richard B.; McLEAN, Harry M.; THEOBALD, Wolfgang; AKLI, Kramer; BEG, Farhat N.; SENTOKU, Yasuiko; SCHUMACHER, Douglas; WEI, Mingsheng S.

    2014-01-31

    The Fast Ignition (FI) Concept for Inertial Confinement Fusion has the potential to provide a significant advance in the technical attractiveness of Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) reactors. FI differs from conventional “central hot spot” (CHS) target ignition by decoupling compression from heating: using the laser (or heavy ion beam or Z pinch) drive pulse (10’s of ns) to create a dense fuel and a second, much shorter (~10 ps) high intensity pulse to ignite a small region of it. There are two major physics issues concerning this concept; controlling the laser-induced generation of large electron currents and their propagation through high density plasmas. This project has addressed these two significant scientific issues in Relativistic High Energy Density (RHED) physics. Learning to control relativistic laser matter interaction (and the limits and potential thereof) will enable a wide range of applications. While these physics issues are of specific interest to inertial fusion energy science, they are also important for a wide range of other HED phenomena, including high energy ion beam generation, isochoric heating of materials, and the development of high brightness x-ray sources. Generating, controlling, and understanding the extreme conditions needed to advance this science has proved to be challenging: Our studies have pushed the boundaries of physics understanding and are at the very limits of experimental, diagnostic, and simulation capabilities in high energy density laboratory physics (HEDLP). Our research strategy has been based on pursuing the fundamental physics underlying the Fast Ignition (FI) concept. We have performed comprehensive study of electron generation and transport in fast-ignition targets with experiments, theory, and numerical modeling. A major issue is that the electrons produced in these experiments cannot be measured directly—only effects due to their transport. We focused mainly on x-ray continuum photons from bremsstrahlung

  8. Proceedings of the International Symposium on Dynamics of Fluids in Fractured Rocks: Concepts and Recent Advances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faybishenko, B. (ed.)

    1999-02-01

    This publication contains extended abstracts of papers presented at the International Symposium ''Dynamics of Fluids in Fractured Rocks: Concepts and Recent Advances'' held at Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory on February 10-12, 1999. This Symposium is organized in Honor of the 80th Birthday of Paul A. Witherspoon, who initiated some of the early investigations on flow and transport in fractured rocks at the University of California, Berkeley, and at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. He is a key figure in the development of basic concepts, modeling, and field measurements of fluid flow and contaminant transport in fractured rock systems. The technical problems of assessing fluid flow, radionuclide transport, site characterization, modeling, and performance assessment in fractured rocks remain the most challenging aspects of subsurface flow and transport investigations. An understanding of these important aspects of hydrogeology is needed to assess disposal of nu clear wastes, development of geothermal resources, production of oil and gas resources, and remediation of contaminated sites. These Proceedings of more than 100 papers from 12 countries discuss recent scientific and practical developments and the status of our understanding of fluid flow and radionuclide transport in fractured rocks. The main topics of the papers are: Theoretical studies of fluid flow in fractured rocks; Multi-phase flow and reactive chemical transport in fractured rocks; Fracture/matrix interactions; Hydrogeological and transport testing; Fracture flow models; Vadose zone studies; Isotopic studies of flow in fractured systems; Fractures in geothermal systems; Remediation and colloid transport in fractured systems; and Nuclear waste disposal in fractured rocks.

  9. Organization of the 16th Advanced Accelerator Concepts (AAC) Workshop by Stanford University

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Zhirong [Stanford Univ., CA (United States); Hogan, Mark [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

    2015-09-30

    Essentially all we know today and will learn in the future about the fundamental nature of matter is derived from probing it with directed beams of particles such as electrons, protons, neutrons, heavy ions, and photons. The resulting ability to “see” the building blocks of matter has had an immense impact on society and our standard of living. Over the last century, particle accelerators have changed the way we look at nature and the universe we live in and have become an integral part of the Nation’s technical infrastructure. Today, particle accelerators are essential tools of modern science and technology. The cost and capabilities of accelerators would be greatly enhanced by breakthroughs in acceleration methods and technology. For the last 32 years, the Advanced Accelerator Concepts (AAC) Workshop has acted as the focal point for discussion and development of the most promising acceleration physics and technology. It is a particularly effective forum where the discussion is leveraged and promoted by the unique and demanding feature of the AAC Workshop: the working group structure, in which participants are asked to consider their contributions in terms of even larger problems to be solved. The 16th Advanced Accelerator Concepts (AAC2014) Workshop was organized by Stanford University from July 13 - 18, 2014 at the Dolce Hays Mansion in San Jose, California. The conference had a record 282 attendees including 62 students. Attendees came from 11 countries representing 66 different institutions. The workshop format consisted of plenary sessions in the morning with topical leaders from around the world presenting the latest breakthroughs to the entire workshop. In the late morning and afternoons attendees broke out into eight different working groups for more detailed presentations and discussions that were summarized on the final day of the workshop. In addition, there were student tutorial presentations on two afternoons to provide in depth education and

  10. Parabolic Flight Investigation for Advanced Exercise Concept Hardware Hybrid Ultimate Lifting Kit (HULK)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, A. S.; Funk, J. H.; Funk, N. W.; Sheehan, C. C.; Humphreys, B. T.; Perusek, G. P.

    2015-01-01

    Long-duration space flight poses many hazards to the health of the crew. Among those hazards is the physiological deconditioning of the musculoskeletal and cardiovascular systems due to prolonged exposure to microgravity. To combat this erosion of physical condition space flight may take on the crew, the Human Research Program (HRP) is charged with developing Advanced Exercise Concepts to maintain astronaut health and fitness during long-term missions, while keeping device mass, power, and volume to a minimum. The goal of this effort is to preserve the physical capability of the crew to perform mission critical tasks in transit and during planetary surface operations. The HULK is a pneumatic-based exercise system, which provides both resistive and aerobic modes to protect against human deconditioning in microgravity. Its design targeted the International Space Station (ISS) Advanced Resistive Exercise Device (ARED) high level performance characteristics and provides up to 600 foot pounds resitive loading with the capability to allow for eccentric to concentric (E:C) ratios of higher than 1:1 through a DC motor assist component. The device's rowing mode allows for high cadence aerobic activity. The HULK parabolic flight campaign, conducted through the NASA Flight Opportunities Program at Ellington Field, resulted in the creation of device specific data sets including low fidelity motion capture, accelerometry and both inline and ground reaction forces. These data provide a critical link in understanding how to vibration isolate the device in both ISS and space transit applications. Secondarily, the study of human exercise and associated body kinematics in microgravity allows for more complete understanding of human to machine interface designs to allow for maximum functionality of the device in microgravity.

  11. Advanced Concepts for Pressure-Channel Reactors: Modularity, Performance and Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffey, Romney B.; Pioro, Igor L.; Kuran, Sermet

    Based on an analysis of the development of advanced concepts for pressure-tube reactor technology, we adapt and adopt the pressure-tube reactor advantage of modularity, so that the subdivided core has the potential for optimization of the core, safety, fuel cycle and thermal performance independently, while retaining passive safety features. In addition, by adopting supercritical water-cooling, the logical developments from existing supercritical turbine technology and “steam” systems can be utilized. Supercritical and ultra-supercritical boilers and turbines have been operating for some time in coal-fired power plants. Using coolant outlet temperatures of about 625°C achieves operating plant thermal efficiencies in the order of 45-48%, using a direct turbine cycle. In addition, by using reheat channels, the plant has the potential to produce low-cost process heat, in amounts that are customer and market dependent. The use of reheat systems further increases the overall thermal efficiency to 55% and beyond. With the flexibility of a range of plant sizes suitable for both small (400 MWe) and large (1400 MWe) electric grids, and the ability for co-generation of electric power, process heat, and hydrogen, the concept is competitive. The choice of core power, reheat channel number and exit temperature are all set by customer and materials requirements. The pressure channel is a key technology that is needed to make use of supercritical water (SCW) in CANDU®1 reactors feasible. By optimizing the fuel bundle and fuel channel, convection and conduction assure heat removal using passive-moderator cooling. Potential for severe core damage can be almost eliminated, even without the necessity of activating the emergency-cooling systems. The small size of containment structure lends itself to a small footprint, impacts economics and building techniques. Design features related to Canadian concepts are discussed in this paper. The main conclusion is that development of

  12. Advanced Concept Studies for Supersonic Commercial Transports Entering Service in the 2018 to 2020 Period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgenstern, John; Norstrud, Nicole; Sokhey, Jack; Martens, Steve; Alonso, Juan J.

    2013-01-01

    Lockheed Martin Aeronautics Company (LM), working in conjunction with General Electric Global Research (GE GR), Rolls-Royce Liberty Works (RRLW), and Stanford University, herein presents results from the "N+2 Supersonic Validations" contract s initial 22 month phase, addressing the NASA solicitation "Advanced Concept Studies for Supersonic Commercial Transports Entering Service in the 2018 to 2020 Period." This report version adds documentation of an additional three month low boom test task. The key technical objective of this effort was to validate integrated airframe and propulsion technologies and design methodologies. These capabilities aspired to produce a viable supersonic vehicle design with environmental and performance characteristics. Supersonic testing of both airframe and propulsion technologies (including LM3: 97-023 low boom testing and April-June nozzle acoustic testing) verified LM s supersonic low-boom design methodologies and both GE and RRLW's nozzle technologies for future implementation. The N+2 program is aligned with NASA s Supersonic Project and is focused on providing system-level solutions capable of overcoming the environmental and performance/efficiency barriers to practical supersonic flight. NASA proposed "Initial Environmental Targets and Performance Goals for Future Supersonic Civil Aircraft". The LM N+2 studies are built upon LM s prior N+3 100 passenger design studies. The LM N+2 program addresses low boom design and methodology validations with wind tunnel testing, performance and efficiency goals with system level analysis, and low noise validations with two nozzle (GE and RRLW) acoustic tests.

  13. Advances and New Concepts in Alcohol-Induced Organelle Stress, Unfolded Protein Responses and Organ Damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Ji

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol is a simple and consumable biomolecule yet its excessive consumption disturbs numerous biological pathways damaging nearly all organs of the human body. One of the essential biological processes affected by the harmful effects of alcohol is proteostasis, which regulates the balance between biogenesis and turnover of proteins within and outside the cell. A significant amount of published evidence indicates that alcohol and its metabolites directly or indirectly interfere with protein homeostasis in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER causing an accumulation of unfolded or misfolded proteins, which triggers the unfolded protein response (UPR leading to either restoration of homeostasis or cell death, inflammation and other pathologies under severe and chronic alcohol conditions. The UPR senses the abnormal protein accumulation and activates transcription factors that regulate nuclear transcription of genes related to ER function. Similarly, this kind of protein stress response can occur in other cellular organelles, which is an evolving field of interest. Here, I review recent advances in the alcohol-induced ER stress response as well as discuss new concepts on alcohol-induced mitochondrial, Golgi and lysosomal stress responses and injuries.

  14. A review of design concepts for the Advanced Fluids Module (AFM) project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Myron E.; Tschen, Peter S.

    1993-01-01

    This paper reviews preliminary fluid module design concepts for the Advanced Fluids Module (AFM) project. The objective of this effort is to provide a facility that can handle a wide variety of fluids experiments. Sample science requirements were written and conceptual designs were subsequently generated during the last year. Experiments from the following fluid physics subject areas were used as conceptual design drivers: static and dynamic interfacial phenomena; bubble/droplet thermocapillary migration; surface tension convection and instabilities; thermal/solutal convection; pool boiling; and multiphase flow. After the conceptual designs were completed, the next phase attempted to combine experiments capabilities into a multipurpose, multiuser apparatus configured for the Space Station Freedom. It was found that all the fluid subject areas considered could be accommodated by three basic types of fluids modules. These modules are the Static Fluid Cell Module, the Dynamic Fluid Cell Module, and the Multiphase Flow Module. Descriptions of these preliminary modules designs and their particular sub-systems (e.g., fluid and thermal systems) are discussed. These designs will be refined as the nature of the flight program becomes clearer over the next six to twelve months.

  15. GTOC8: Results and Methods of ESA Advanced Concepts Team and JAXA-ISAS

    CERN Document Server

    Izzo, Dario; Märtens, Marcus; Getzner, Ingmar; Nowak, Krzysztof; Heffernan, Anna; Campagnola, Stefano; Yam, Chit Hong; Ozaki, Naoya; Sugimoto, Yoshihide

    2016-01-01

    We consider the interplanetary trajectory design problem posed by the 8th edition of the Global Trajectory Optimization Competition and present the end-to-end strategy developed by the team ACT-ISAS (a collaboration between the European Space Agency's Advanced Concepts Team and JAXA's Institute of Space and Astronautical Science). The resulting interplanetary trajectory won 1st place in the competition, achieving a final mission value of $J=146.33$ [Mkm]. Several new algorithms were developed in this context but have an interest that go beyond the particular problem considered, thus, they are discussed in some detail. These include the Moon-targeting technique, allowing one to target a Moon encounter from a low Earth orbit; the 1-$k$ and 2-$k$ fly-by targeting techniques, enabling one to design resonant fly-bys while ensuring a targeted future formation plane% is acquired at some point after the manoeuvre ; the distributed low-thrust targeting technique, admitting one to control the spacecraft formation plane...

  16. Lessons learned from U.S. Department of Defense 911-Bio Advanced Concept Technology Demonstrations.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldwin, T.; Gasper, W.; Lacher, L.; Newsom, D.; Yantosik, G.

    1999-07-06

    The US Department of Defense (DoD), in cooperation with other federal agencies, has taken many initiatives to improve its ability to support civilian response to a domestic biological terrorism incident. This paper discusses one initiative, the 911-Bio Advanced Concept Technology Demonstrations (ACTDs), conducted by the Office of the Secretary of Defense during 1997 to better understand: (1) the capability of newly developed chemical and biological collection and identification technologies in a field environment; (2) the ability of specialized DoD response teams to use these new technologies within the structure of cooperating DoD and civilian consequence management organizations; and (3) the adequacy of current modeling tools for predicting the dispersal of biological hazards. This paper discusses the experience of the ACTDs from the civilian community support perspective. The 911-Bio ACTD project provided a valuable opportunity for DoD and civilian officials to learn how they should use their combined capabilities to manage the aftermath of a domestic biological terrorism incident.

  17. 40 CFR 1065.270 - Chemiluminescent detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Chemiluminescent detector. 1065.270 Section 1065.270 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION... with a bypass line if it is needed to facilitate this verification. (d) Humidity effects. You...

  18. Predicted reliability of aerospace electronics: Application of two advanced probabilistic concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suhir, E.

    Two advanced probabilistic design-for-reliability (PDfR) concepts are addressed and discussed in application to the prediction, quantification and assurance of the aerospace electronics reliability: 1) Boltzmann-Arrhenius-Zhurkov (BAZ) model, which is an extension of the currently widely used Arrhenius model and, in combination with the exponential law of reliability, enables one to obtain a simple, easy-to-use and physically meaningful formula for the evaluation of the probability of failure (PoF) of a material or a device after the given time in operation at the given temperature and under the given stress (not necessarily mechanical), and 2) Extreme Value Distribution (EVD) technique that can be used to assess the number of repetitive loadings that result in the material/device degradation and eventually lead to its failure by closing, in a step-wise fashion, the gap between the bearing capacity (stress-free activation energy) of the material or the device and the demand (loading). It is shown that the material degradation (aging, damage accumulation, flaw propagation, etc.) can be viewed, when BAZ model is considered, as a Markovian process, and that the BAZ model can be obtained as the ultimate steady-state solution to the well-known Fokker-Planck equation in the theory of Markovian processes. It is shown also that the BAZ model addresses the worst, but a reasonably conservative, situation. It is suggested therefore that the transient period preceding the condition addressed by the steady-state BAZ model need not be accounted for in engineering evaluations. However, when there is an interest in understanding the transient degradation process, the obtained solution to the Fokker-Planck equation can be used for this purpose. As to the EVD concept, it attributes the degradation process to the accumulation of damages caused by a train of repetitive high-level loadings, while loadings of levels that are considerably lower than their extreme values do not contribute

  19. Advances in oxygen pumping concept with Bimevox; Progres dans le concept de pompe a oxygene utilisant les Bimevox

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mairesse, G. [Universite des Sciences et technologies de Lille, Lab. de Cristallochimie et Physicochimie du Solide, ESA CNRS 8012, 59 - Villeneuve d' Ascq (France)

    1999-11-01

    The BIMEVOX family of materials exhibits specific properties as electrolytes as well as oxygen electrodes. The high oxide anion diffusion observed at moderate temperature results from the synergy between the highly polarizable lone pair of the Bi{sup III} cation in the vicinity of the V-O diffusion slab on the one hand, and the flexibility of this V-O network on the other hand. Moreover, the same material is able, under imposed polarisation, to self convert reversibly and dynamically from electrolyte to electrode. All these specific characteristics lead to a new concept of ceramic oxygen generator based on a unique material. (author)

  20. Liminality in cultural transition: applying ID-EA to advance a concept into theory-based practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, Martha B; Reed, Pamela G

    2015-01-01

    As global migration increases worldwide, nursing interventions are needed to address the effects of migration on health. The concept of liminality emerged as a pivotal concept in the situation-specific theory of well-being in refugee women experiencing cultural transition. As a relatively new concept in the discipline of nursing, liminality is explored using a method, called ID-EA, which we developed to advance a theoretical concept for application to nursing practice. Liminality in the context of cultural transition is further developed using the five steps of inquiry of the ID-EA method. The five steps are as follows: (1) inductive inquiry: qualitative research, (2) deductive inquiry: literature review, (3) synthesis of inductive and deductive inquiry, (4) evaluation inquiry, and (5) application-to-practice inquiry. The overall goal of this particular work was to develop situation-specific, theory-based interventions that facilitate cultural transitions for immigrants and refugees.

  1. Chemiluminescent Detection of Enzymatically Produced H2S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, T. Spencer; Pluth, Michael D.

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has emerged as an important biological signaling molecule. To better understand the multifaceted biological roles of H2S, the development of selective and sensitive biocompatible assays for H2S is becoming increasingly important. Motivated by these challenges, our laboratory is developing new methods to further detect and monitor biological H2S. Here, we describe in detail our recent advances in the development and the use of chemiluminescence-based H2S sensors to assist other investigators with use of these chemical tools. We highlight the use of these tools use by displaying their selectivity and high sensitivity toward H2S and provide examples of assays we have developed to detect enzymatically produced H2S. PMID:25725517

  2. Final Project Report "Advanced Concept Exploration For Fast Ignition Science Program"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    STEPHENS, Richard B.; McLEAN, Harry M.; THEOBALD, Wolfgang; AKLI, Kramer; BEG, Farhat N.; SENTOKU, Yasuiko; SCHUMACHER, Douglas; WEI, Mingsheng S.

    2014-01-31

    The Fast Ignition (FI) Concept for Inertial Confinement Fusion has the potential to provide a significant advance in the technical attractiveness of Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) reactors. FI differs from conventional “central hot spot” (CHS) target ignition by decoupling compression from heating: using the laser (or heavy ion beam or Z pinch) drive pulse (10’s of ns) to create a dense fuel and a second, much shorter (~10 ps) high intensity pulse to ignite a small region of it. There are two major physics issues concerning this concept; controlling the laser-induced generation of large electron currents and their propagation through high density plasmas. This project has addressed these two significant scientific issues in Relativistic High Energy Density (RHED) physics. Learning to control relativistic laser matter interaction (and the limits and potential thereof) will enable a wide range of applications. While these physics issues are of specific interest to inertial fusion energy science, they are also important for a wide range of other HED phenomena, including high energy ion beam generation, isochoric heating of materials, and the development of high brightness x-ray sources. Generating, controlling, and understanding the extreme conditions needed to advance this science has proved to be challenging: Our studies have pushed the boundaries of physics understanding and are at the very limits of experimental, diagnostic, and simulation capabilities in high energy density laboratory physics (HEDLP). Our research strategy has been based on pursuing the fundamental physics underlying the Fast Ignition (FI) concept. We have performed comprehensive study of electron generation and transport in fast-ignition targets with experiments, theory, and numerical modeling. A major issue is that the electrons produced in these experiments cannot be measured directly—only effects due to their transport. We focused mainly on x-ray continuum photons from bremsstrahlung

  3. The Effects of Using Concept Mapping for Improving Advanced Level Biology Students' Lower- and Higher-Order Cognitive Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bramwell-Lalor, Sharon; Rainford, Marcia

    2014-03-01

    This paper reports on teachers' use of concept mapping as an alternative assessment strategy in advanced level biology classes and its effects on students' cognitive skills on selected biology concepts. Using a mixed methods approach, the study employed a pre-test/post-test quasi-experimental design involving 156 students and 8 teachers from intact classes. A researcher-constructed Biology Cognitive Skills Test was used to collect the quantitative data. Qualitative data were collected through interviews and students' personal documents. The data showed that the participants utilized concept mapping in various ways and they described positive experiences while being engaged in its use. The main challenge cited by teachers was the limited time available for more consistent use. The results showed that the use of concept mapping in advanced level biology can lead to learning gains that exceed those achieved in classes where mainly traditional methods are used. The students in the concept mapping experimental groups performed significantly better than their peers in the control group on both the lower-order (F(1) = 21.508; p < .001) and higher-order (F(1) = 42.842, p < .001) cognitive items of the biology test. A mean effect size of .56 was calculated representing the contribution of treatment to the students' performance on the test items.

  4. Advanced Electroactive Single Crystal and Polymer Actuator Concepts for Passive Optics Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — TRS Technologies proposes large stroke and high precision piezoelectric single crystal and electroactive polymer actuator concepts?HYBrid Actuation System (HYBAS)...

  5. Advanced Information Processing System (AIPS) proof-of-concept system functional design I/O network system services

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    The function design of the Input/Output (I/O) services for the Advanced Information Processing System (AIPS) proof of concept system is described. The data flow diagrams, which show the functional processes in I/O services and the data that flows among them, are contained. A complete list of the data identified on the data flow diagrams and in the process descriptions are provided.

  6. Improved best estimate plus uncertainty methodology including advanced validation concepts to license evolving nuclear reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unal, Cetin [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Williams, Brian [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mc Clure, Patrick [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Nelson, Ralph A [IDAHO NATIONAL LAB

    2010-01-01

    Many evolving nuclear energy programs plan to use advanced predictive multi-scale multi-physics simulation and modeling capabilities to reduce cost and time from design through licensing. Historically, the role of experiments was primary tool for design and understanding of nuclear system behavior while modeling and simulation played the subordinate role of supporting experiments. In the new era of multi-scale multi-physics computational based technology development, the experiments will still be needed but they will be performed at different scales to calibrate and validate models leading predictive simulations. Cost saving goals of programs will require us to minimize the required number of validation experiments. Utilization of more multi-scale multi-physics models introduces complexities in the validation of predictive tools. Traditional methodologies will have to be modified to address these arising issues. This paper lays out the basic aspects of a methodology that can be potentially used to address these new challenges in design and licensing of evolving nuclear technology programs. The main components of the proposed methodology are verification, validation, calibration, and uncertainty quantification. An enhanced calibration concept is introduced and is accomplished through data assimilation. The goal is to enable best-estimate prediction of system behaviors in both normal and safety related environments. To achieve this goal requires the additional steps of estimating the domain of validation and quantification of uncertainties that allow for extension of results to areas of the validation domain that are not directly tested with experiments, which might include extension of the modeling and simulation (M&S) capabilities for application to full-scale systems. The new methodology suggests a formalism to quantify an adequate level of validation (predictive maturity) with respect to required selective data so that required testing can be minimized for cost

  7. Native vs photoinduced chemiluminescence in dimethoate determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalá-Icardo, M; López-Paz, J L; Choves-Barón, C; Peña-Bádena, A

    2012-01-13

    The determination of dimethoate using either its native chemiluminescent (CL) properties or its photoinduced chemiluminescence obtained by irradiation with a 15 W low-pressure mercury lamp was studied. Thereby, two flow injection systems (FIA) with and without irradiation were exhaustively optimized and their analytical characteristics studied. Better sensitivity and selectivity was found in absence of irradiation, due to the enhancing effect of hexadecylpyridinium chloride (HPC), which acted as a sensitizer. In the developed FIA-CL system, the alkaline hydrolysis of dimethoate with NaOH was performed on-line in presence of HPC. The oxidation of the product of hydrolysis with Ce(IV) in hydrochloric medium induced chemiluminescence. The method provided a limit of detection of only 0.05 ng mL(-1) without any pre-treatment. However, the combination with solid phase extraction allowed the removal of some potential interferents as well as the preconcentration of the pesticide. Finally, the developed method was successfully applied to natural waters with recoveries between 95 and 108%.

  8. Advanced Wind Turbine Drivetrain Concepts: Workshop Report, June 29-30, 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DOE, EERE

    2010-12-01

    This report presents key findings from the Department of Energy's Advanced Drivetrain Workshop, held on June 29-30, 2010 in Broomfield, Colorado, to assess different advanced drivetrain technologies, their relative potential to improve the state-of-the-art in wind turbine drivetrains, and the scope of research and development needed for their commercialization in wind turbine applications.

  9. Duct wall impedance control as an advanced concept for acoustic suppression enhancement. [engine noise reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, P. D.

    1978-01-01

    A systems concept procedure is described for the optimization of acoustic duct liner design for both uniform and multisegment types. The concept was implemented by the use of a double reverberant chamber flow duct facility coupled with sophisticated computer control and acoustic analysis systems. The optimization procedure for liner insertion loss was based on the concept of variable liner impedance produced by bias air flow through a multilayer, resonant cavity liner. A multiple microphone technique for in situ wall impedance measurements was used and successfully adapted to produce automated measurements for all liner configurations tested. The complete validation of the systems concept was prevented by the inability to optimize the insertion loss using bias flow induced wall impedance changes. This inability appeared to be a direct function of the presence of a higher order energy carrying modes which were not influenced significantly by the wall impedance changes.

  10. Advanced Melting Technologies: Energy Saving Concepts and Opportunities for the Metal Casting Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2005-11-01

    The study examines current and emerging melting technologies and discusses their technical barriers to scale-up issues and research needed to advance these technologies, improving melting efficiency, lowering metal transfer heat loss, and reducing scrap.

  11. Real-time chemiluminescence imaging using nano-lantern probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, Yoshiyuki; Nagai, Takeharu

    2014-01-01

    Chemiluminescence imaging can be performed without excitation light sources at various spatial levels ranging from a single cell to the whole body. Thus far, chemiluminescence imaging has been primarily performed with long exposure times because of weak signals, resulting in low temporal resolution. Recently, the brightest-known chemiluminescent proteins--Nano-lantern and Nano-lantern-based functional indicators--have been developed. Nano-lantern probes break the limitation of temporal resolution and enable chemiluminescence imaging of living samples such as cells, plants, and small animals at video rates. This unit describes one protocol for observation of a freely moving unshaved mouse transplanted with Nano-lantern-expressing tumor cells, and another for compatible use of optogenetic tools and a Nano-lantern calcium indicator. Both protocols utilize the synchronization of illumination and camera acquisition sessions, thereby enabling real-time chemiluminescence imaging.

  12. Inkjet nanoinjection for high-thoughput chemiluminescence immunoassay on multicapillary glass plate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fengming; Mao, Sifeng; Zeng, Hulie; Xue, Shuhua; Yang, Jianmin; Nakajima, Hizuru; Lin, Jin-Ming; Uchiyama, Katsumi

    2013-08-06

    We report a novel chemiluminescence diagnosis system for high-throughput human IgA detection by inkjet nanoinjection on a multicapillary glass plate. As proof-of-concept, microhole-based polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) sheets were aligned on a multicapillary glass plate to form a microwell array as microreactors for enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The multicapillary glass plate was utilized as a switch that controlled the holding/passing of the solution. Further, anti-IgA-labeled polystyrene (PS) microbeads was assembled into the microwell array, and an inkjet nanoinjection was specially used to distribute the sample and reagent solution for chemiluminescence ELISA, enabling high-throughput detection of human IgA. As a result, the performance of human IgA tests revealed a wider range for the calibration curve and a lower limit of detection (LOD) of 0.1 ng mL(-1) than the ELISA by a standard 96-well plate. The analysis time and reagent consumption were significantly decreased. The IgA concentrations in saliva samples were determined after 10000-fold dilution by the developed ELISA system showing comparable results by conventional immune assay with 96-wells. Thus, we believe that the inkjet nanoinjection for high-throughput chemiluminescence immunoassay on a multicapillary glass plate will be promising in disease diagnosis.

  13. Development of Proof-of-Concept Units for the Advanced Medium-Sized Mobile Power Sources (AMMPS) Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andriulli, JB

    2002-04-03

    The purpose of this report is to document the development of the proof-of-concept units within the Advanced Medium-sized Mobile Power Sources (AMMPS) program. The design used a small, lightweight diesel engine, a permanent magnet alternator, power electronics and digital controls as outlined in the philosophy detailed previously. One small proof-of-concept unit was completed and delivered to the military. The unit functioned well but was not optimized at the time of delivery to the military. A tremendous amount of experience was gained during this phase that can be used in the development of any follow-on AMMPS production systems. Lessons learned and recommendations for follow-on specifications are provided. The unit demonstrated that significant benefits are possible with the new design philosophy. Trade-offs will have to be made but many of the advantages appear to be within the technical grasp of the market.

  14. Development and proof-testing of advanced absorption refrigeration cycle concepts. Report on Phases 1 and 1A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Modahl, R.J.; Hayes, F.C. [Trane Co., La Crosse, WI (United States). Applied Unitary/Refrigeration Systems Div.

    1992-03-01

    The overall objectives of this project are to evaluate, develop, and proof-test advanced absorption refrigeration cycles that are applicable to residential and commercial heat pumps for space conditioning. The heat pump system is to be direct-fired with natural gas and is to use absorption working fluids whose properties are known. Target coefficients of performance (COPs) are 1.6 at 47{degrees}F and 1.2 at 17{degrees} in the heating mode, and 0.7 at 95{degree}F in the cooling mode, including the effect of flue losses. The project is divided into three phases. Phase I entailed the analytical evaluation of advanced cycles and included the selection of preferred concepts for further development. Phase II involves the development and testing of critical components and of a complete laboratory breadboard version of the selected system. Phase III calls for the development of a prototype unit and is contingent on the successful completion of Phase II. This report covers Phase I work on the project. In Phase 1, 24 advanced absorption cycle/fluid combinations were evaluated, and computer models were developed to predict system performance. COP, theoretical pump power, and internal heat exchange were calculated for each system, and these calculations were used as indicators of operating and installed costs in order to rank the relative promise of each system. The highest ranking systems involve the cycle concept of absorber/generator heat exchange, generator heat exchanger/absorber heat exchange, regeneration, and resorption/desorption, in combination with the NH{sub 3}/H{sub 2}O/LiBr ternary absorption fluid mixture or with the NH{sub 3}/H{sub 2}O binary solution. Based upon these conclusions, the recommendation was made to proceed to Phase II, the laboratory breadboard proof-of- concept.

  15. Conceptual design of advanced central receiver power systems sodium-cooled receiver concept. Volume 1. Executive summary. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-06-01

    The conceptual design of an advanced central receiver power system using liquid sodium as a heat transport medium has been completed by a team consisting of the Energy Systems Group (prime contractor), McDonnell Douglas, Stearns-Roger, The University of Houston, and Salt River Project. The purpose of this study was to determine the technical and economic advantages of this concept for commercial-scale power plants. This final report covers all tasks of the project. These tasks were as follows: (1) review and analysis of preliminary specification; (2) parametric analysis; (3) select commercial configuration; (4) commercial plant conceptual design; (5) assessment of commercial plant; (6) advanced central receiver power system development plan; (7) program plan; (8) reports and data; (9) program management; and (10) safety analysis. A programmatic overview of the accomplishments of this program is given. The 100-MW conceptual commercial plant, the 281-MW optimum plant, and the 10-MW pilot plant are described. (WHK)

  16. A Model for Infusing Energy Concepts into Vocational Education Programs. Advanced Solar Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delta Vocational Technical School, Marked Tree, AR.

    This instructional unit consists of materials designed to help students understand terms associated with solar energy; identify components of advanced solar systems; and identify applications of solar energy in business, industry, agriculture, and photovoltaics. Included in the unit are the following materials: suggested activities, instructional…

  17. Advanced Concepts of the Propulsion System for the Futuristic Gun Ammunition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.S. Darnse

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available This review paper reports various concepts of the gun propulsion system to meet the goal of the futuristic hypervelocity projectiles. The nonconventional concepts, such as liquid gun propellant, rail gun, coil gun, electrothermal gun, electrothermal chemical gun along with conventional energetic solid gun propellant have been discussed. Even though muzzle velocity around 2000 m/s has been claimed to be achieved using such nonconventional propulsion systems, it will take quite some time before such systems are in regular use in the battlefield. Hence, solid gun propellants containing novel energetic ingredients (binders, plasticisers, and oxidisers would continue to be used in the near future and are expected to meet the requirements of the futuristic gun ammunition.

  18. Advanced Concepts: Enabling Future AF Missions Through the Discovery and Demonstration of Emerging Revolutionary Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-03

    Laboratory Ar Argon AU Astronomical Unit BEP Beamed Energy Propulsion CBCF Carbon-Bonded-Carbon-Fiber CFD Computational Fluid Dynamics COTS...were identified including: gun launch, microwave and laser beamed energy propulsion ( BEP ), and high performance upper stages such as solar thermal...propulsion systems. Only one of the BEP concepts, microwave thrust augmentation of solid rocket motors, was pursued due to budgetary and time

  19. [Chemiluminescence spectroscopic analysis of homogeneous charge compression ignition combustion processes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hai-feng; Yao, Ming-fa; Jin, Chao; Zhang, Peng; Li, Zhe-ming; Zheng, Zun-qing

    2010-10-01

    To study the combustion reaction kinetics of homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) under different port injection strategies and intake temperature conditions, the tests were carried out on a modified single-cylinder optical engine using chemiluminescence spectroscopic analysis. The experimental conditions are keeping the fuel mass constant; fueling the n-heptane; controlling speed at 600 r x min(-1) and inlet pressure at 0.1 MPa; controlling inlet temperature at 95 degrees C and 125 degrees C, respectively. The results of chemiluminescence spectrum show that the chemiluminescence is quite faint during low temperature heat release (LTHR), and these bands spectrum originates from formaldehyde (CH2O) chemiluminescence. During the phase of later LTHR-negative temperature coefficient (NTC)-early high temperature heat release (HTHR), these bands spectrum also originates from formaldehyde (CH2O) chemiluminescence. The CO--O* continuum is strong during HTHR, and radicals such as OH, HCO, CH and CH2O appear superimposed on this CO--O* continuum. After the HTHR, the chemiluminescence intensity is quite faint. In comparison to the start of injection (SOI) of -30 degrees ATDC, the chemiluminescence intensity is higher under the SOI = -300 degrees ATDC condition due to the more intense emissions of CO--O* continuum. And more radicals of HCO and OH are formed, which also indicates a more intense combustion reaction. Similarly, more intense CO--O* continuum and more radicals of HCO and OH are emitted under higher intake temperature case.

  20. Advanced storage concepts for solar thermal systems in low energy buildings. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furbo, S.; Andersen, Elsa; Schultz, Joergen M.

    2006-04-07

    The aim of Task 32 is to develop new and advanced heat storage systems which are economic and technical suitable as long-term heat storage systems for solar heating plants with a high degree of coverage. The project is international and Denmark's participation has focused on Subtask A, C, and D. In Subtask A Denmark has contributed to a status report about heat storage systems. In Subtask C Denmark has focused on liquid thermal storage tanks based on NaCH{sub 3}COO?3H{sub 2}O with a melting point of 58 deg. C. Theoretical and experimental tests have been conducted in order to establish optimum conditions for storage design. In Subtask D theoretical and experimental tests of optimum designs for advanced water tanks for solar heating plants for combined space heating and domestic hot water have been conducted. (BA)

  1. Development of advanced NO sub x control concepts for coal-fired utility boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newhall, J.; England, G.; Seeker, W.R.

    1991-12-23

    Energy and Environmental Research Corporation (EER) is currently conducting a test program to develop an advanced NO{sub x} control method utilizing reburning, promoted selective noncatalytic agent injection. The study will consist of fundamental and process testing over a large enough range of operating parameters to significantly reduce the risk of a full scale demonstration project. The test plan for the fundamental testing phase of the program is presented here.

  2. Advancing Empirical Approaches to the Concept of Resilience: A Critical Examination of Panarchy, Ecological Information, and Statistical Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Kharrazi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Despite its ambiguities, the concept of resilience is of critical importance to researchers, practitioners, and policy-makers in dealing with dynamic socio-ecological systems. In this paper, we critically examine the three empirical approaches of (i panarchy; (ii ecological information-based network analysis; and (iii statistical evidence of resilience to three criteria determined for achieving a comprehensive understanding and application of this concept. These criteria are the ability: (1 to reflect a system’s adaptability to shocks; (2 to integrate social and environmental dimensions; and (3 to evaluate system-level trade-offs. Our findings show that none of the three currently applied approaches are strong in handling all three criteria. Panarchy is strong in the first two criteria but has difficulty with normative trade-offs. The ecological information-based approach is strongest in evaluating trade-offs but relies on common dimensions that lead to over-simplifications in integrating the social and environmental dimensions. Statistical evidence provides suggestions that are simplest and easiest to act upon but are generally weak in all three criteria. This analysis confirms the value of these approaches in specific instances but also the need for further research in advancing empirical approaches to the concept of resilience.

  3. AVID - A design system for technology studies of advanced transportation concepts. [Aerospace Vehicle Interactive Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhite, A. W.; Rehder, J. J.

    1979-01-01

    The basic AVID (Aerospace Vehicle Interactive Design) is a general system for conceptual and preliminary design currently being applied to a broad range of future space transportation and spacecraft vehicle concepts. AVID hardware includes a minicomputer allowing rapid designer interaction. AVID software includes (1) an executive program and communication data base which provide the automated capability to couple individual programs, either individually in an interactive mode or chained together in an automatic sequence mode; and (2) the individual technology and utility programs which provide analysis capability in areas such as graphics, aerodynamics, propulsion, flight performance, weights, sizing, and costs.

  4. Materials technology for an advanced space power nuclear reactor concept: Program summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gluyas, R. E.; Watson, G. K.

    1975-01-01

    The results of a materials technology program for a long-life (50,000 hr), high-temperature (950 C coolant outlet), lithium-cooled, nuclear space power reactor concept are reviewed and discussed. Fabrication methods and compatibility and property data were developed for candidate materials for fuel pins and, to a lesser extent, for potential control systems, reflectors, reactor vessel and piping, and other reactor structural materials. The effects of selected materials variables on fuel pin irradiation performance were determined. The most promising materials for fuel pins were found to be 85 percent dense uranium mononitride (UN) fuel clad with tungsten-lined T-111 (Ta-8W-2Hf).

  5. Compensatory extension of gestation length with advance of conception in red deer (Cervus elaphus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Andrés José; Landete-Castillejos, Tomás; Carrión, Débora; Gaspar-López, Enrique; Gallego, Laureano

    2006-01-01

    Calving date in many mammals is matched to the time of greatest food availability. Out of season calving results in heavy penalties in terms of own and offspring survival or body condition. This study examined whether gestation length is affected by advancing fertilisation. Thirty-six red deer hinds (of the Iberian and Scottish subspecies) were subjected to a synchronisation treatment of oestrus, ovulation, and artificial insemination on three dates, with remaining non-pregnant females mated with an intact male in a last group. Gestation was longer the more the fertilisation was advanced; gestation lasted 241.5+/-1.3 days (d) in the first group, 237.4+/-1.2 d in the second, 235.1+/-1.3 d in the third, and 231.2+/-1.6 d in the last. Mean gestation lasted 234.2+/-0.7 d. Hinds gained less weight during gestation the more the fertilisation was advanced. The difference was due at least in part to net body weight of the hind after calving compared to that at mating, and calves did not differ in birth weight. As early born calves suffer greater mortality in the field, this enlargening of gestation might be a compensatory response of the hinds to match calving with food availability. Under natural conditions, similar small modifications of gestation length may help hinds to overcome short-term adverse conditions for calving. Because calf mortality is correlated with birth weight, hinds may have kept calf birth weight constant at the expense of greater body weight loss.

  6. Safety physics inter-comparison of advanced concepts of critical reactors and ADS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slessarev, I. [CEA Cadarache, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France). Dept. d' Etudes des Reacteurs

    2001-07-01

    Enhanced safety based on the principle of the natural ''self-defence'' is one of the most desirable features of innovative nuclear systems (critical or sub-critical) regarding both TRU transmutation and ''clean'' energy producer concepts. For the evaluation of the ''self-defence'' domain, the method of the asymptotic reactivity balance has been generalised. The promising option of Hybrids systems (that use a symbiosis of fission and spallation in sub-critical cores) which could benefit the advantages of both Accelerated Driven Systems of the traditional type and regular critical systems, has been advocated. General features of Hybrid dynamics have been presented and analysed. It was demonstrated that an external neutron source of Hybrids can expand the inherent safety potential significantly. This analysis has been applied to assess the safety physics potential of innovative concepts for prospective nuclear power both for energy producers and for transmutation. It has been found, that safety enhancement goal defines a choice of sub-criticality of Hybrids. As for energy producers with Th-fuel cycle, a significant sub-criticality level is required due to a necessity of an improvement of neutronics together with safety enhancement task. (author)

  7. Accuracy Improvement Capability of Advanced Projectile Based on Course Correction Fuze Concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Elsaadany

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Improvement in terminal accuracy is an important objective for future artillery projectiles. Generally it is often associated with range extension. Various concepts and modifications are proposed to correct the range and drift of artillery projectile like course correction fuze. The course correction fuze concepts could provide an attractive and cost-effective solution for munitions accuracy improvement. In this paper, the trajectory correction has been obtained using two kinds of course correction modules, one is devoted to range correction (drag ring brake and the second is devoted to drift correction (canard based-correction fuze. The course correction modules have been characterized by aerodynamic computations and flight dynamic investigations in order to analyze the effects on deflection of the projectile aerodynamic parameters. The simulation results show that the impact accuracy of a conventional projectile using these course correction modules can be improved. The drag ring brake is found to be highly capable for range correction. The deploying of the drag brake in early stage of trajectory results in large range correction. The correction occasion time can be predefined depending on required correction of range. On the other hand, the canard based-correction fuze is found to have a higher effect on the projectile drift by modifying its roll rate. In addition, the canard extension induces a high-frequency incidence angle as canards reciprocate at the roll motion.

  8. Accuracy improvement capability of advanced projectile based on course correction fuze concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsaadany, Ahmed; Wen-jun, Yi

    2014-01-01

    Improvement in terminal accuracy is an important objective for future artillery projectiles. Generally it is often associated with range extension. Various concepts and modifications are proposed to correct the range and drift of artillery projectile like course correction fuze. The course correction fuze concepts could provide an attractive and cost-effective solution for munitions accuracy improvement. In this paper, the trajectory correction has been obtained using two kinds of course correction modules, one is devoted to range correction (drag ring brake) and the second is devoted to drift correction (canard based-correction fuze). The course correction modules have been characterized by aerodynamic computations and flight dynamic investigations in order to analyze the effects on deflection of the projectile aerodynamic parameters. The simulation results show that the impact accuracy of a conventional projectile using these course correction modules can be improved. The drag ring brake is found to be highly capable for range correction. The deploying of the drag brake in early stage of trajectory results in large range correction. The correction occasion time can be predefined depending on required correction of range. On the other hand, the canard based-correction fuze is found to have a higher effect on the projectile drift by modifying its roll rate. In addition, the canard extension induces a high-frequency incidence angle as canards reciprocate at the roll motion.

  9. Advanced Concepts for Ultrahigh Brightness and Low Temperature Beams. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wurtele, Jonathan S. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Fajans, Joel [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-06-01

    This grant supported research on techniques to manipulate and combine positrons and antiprotons to synthesize, and to probe, antihydrogen. The majority of the research was conducted as part of the ALPHA Collaboration at CERN. Using ideas and techniques from accelerator physics, we proposed a new method for measuring the the gravitational attraction of antihydrogen to the Earth's field. ALPHA reported the first precision charge measurement on antihydrogen and a crude bound on its gravitational dynamics in the Earth's field. We proposed using a stochastic acceleration method to measure any putative charge of antihydrogen and built numerical models of the mixing of antiprotons and positrons. Further research included proposing the radiator-first concept for operating an X-ray free electron laser driven by a high repetition rate bunch source and studying scattering in passive foil-based ion focusing systems.

  10. Experiments in advanced control concepts for space robotics - An overview of the Stanford Aerospace Robotics Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollars, M. G.; Cannon, R. H., Jr.; Alexander, H. L.; Morse, D. F.

    1987-01-01

    The Stanford University Aerospace Robotics Laboratory is actively developing and experimentally testing advanced robot control strategies for space robotic applications. Early experiments focused on control of very lightweight one-link manipulators and other flexible structures. The results are being extended to position and force control of mini-manipulators attached to flexible manipulators and multilink manipulators with flexible drive trains. Experimental results show that end-point sensing and careful dynamic modeling or adaptive control are key to the success of these control strategies. Free-flying space robot simulators that operate on an air cushion table have been built to test control strategies in which the dynamics of the base of the robot and the payload are important.

  11. Determination of ribavirin by flow injection chemiluminescence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Juqing Jin; Yuhai Tang; Langchong He; Hong Yao; Yuanyuan Sun

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To establish a rapid and precise continuous flow-injection chemiluminescence (CL) method to determine ribavirin. Methods: The ribavirin could restrain strongly CL reaction of luminol in sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solution with potassium chlorate(KClO3). The different experimental parameters affecting the CL intensity were studied carefully. Results:Under optimum conditions(The concentrations of luminol,KClO3, and NaOH were at 0.1 mmol/L,0.5 μmol/L,and 0.2 mol/L, respectively), the linear range of the working curves was 0.01-7.00 μg/ml with a detection limit of 0.004 μg/ml. Conclusion: The method is simple, rapid and sensitive, and successfully applied to the determination of ribavirin in pharmaceutical preparations and biological fluids.

  12. Chemiluminescent solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) and interations with intact skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breidenich, Jennifer; Patrone, Julia; Kelly, Lisa; Benkoski, Jason; Le, Huong; Sample, Jennifer

    2009-08-01

    We report the synthesis and characterization of a novel nanoparticle formulation designed for skin penetration for the purpose of skin imaging. Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs), a drug delivery vehicle, were used as the matrix for targeted delivery of peroxide-sensitive chemiluminescent compounds to the epidermis. Luminol and oxalate were chosen as the chemiluminescent test systems, and a formulation was determined based upon non-toxic components, lotion-like properties, and longevity/visibility of a chemiluminescent signal. The luminescence lifetime was extended in the lipid formulation in comparison to the chemiluminescent system in solution. When applied to porcine skin, our formulation remained detectable relative to negative and positive controls. Initial MTT toxicity testing using HepG2 cells have indicated that this formulation is relatively non-toxic. This formulation could be used to image native peroxides present in tissue that may be indicative of skin disease.

  13. Heat-Pipe Development for Advanced Energy Transport Concepts Final Report Covering the Period January 1999 through September 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R.S.Reid; J.F.Sena; A.L.Martinez

    2002-10-01

    This report summarizes work in the Heat-pipe Technology Development for the Advanced Energy Transport Concepts program for the period January 1999 through September 2001. A gas-loaded molybdenum-sodium heat pipe was built to demonstrate the active pressure-control principle applied to a refractory metal heat pipe. Other work during the period included the development of processing procedures for and fabrication and testing of three types of sodium heat pipes using Haynes 230, MA 754, and MA 956 wall materials to assess the compatibility of these materials with sodium. Also during this period, tests were executed to measure the response of a sodium heat pipe to the penetration of water.

  14. Advanced target concepts for production of radioactive ions and neutrino beams

    CERN Document Server

    Ravn, H L

    2003-01-01

    The 1-20 MW of proton beam power which modern accelerator technology put at our disposal for production of intense secondary beams presents a major technically challenge to the production targets. A conceptual design is presented for a high-power pion production target and collection system, which was originally suggested to be used as the source for the proposed CERN muon-neutrino factory. It will be shown that the major parts of this target could also serve as an efficient spallation neutron source for production of 6He and fission products in the two-step converter-target concept. The heart of the system consists of a free surface Mercury jet with a high axial velocity, which allows the heat to be carried away efficiently from the production region. For the neutrino factory the secondary pions are collected and injected into the pion decay-channel by means of a magnetic horn. For the radioactive ion-beam facility the Hg-jet is surrounded by the high-temperature ISOL production-target. The suggested mechani...

  15. Challenging and Future of Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition Engines; an Advanced and Novel Concepts Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkelawy, Medhat; Yu-Sheng, Zhang; Hagar, Alm El-Din; Yu, Jing-Zhou

    The potential of HCCI combustion to reduce the internal combustion engines exhaust emissions, particularly NOX and soot emissions, and to delimit the application range of this technique as well as a detailed analysis of previous and current results of combustion chemistry, emission behaviors, the challenging facing this technique, and all controlling parameters including transient states are introduced. From HCCI combustion chemistry and emissions analysis it was found that, the heavy fuels displays two-stage heat release or two stage combustion process involving low temperature oxidation (LTO) stage followed by high temperature oxidation (HTO) stage separated by a time delay between them is attributed to negative temperature coefficient (NTC), the advantage of NOX emissions reduction from HCCI engine diminishing at high load condition, HC production is reduced with increasing the engine load, and the soot ejection is negligible during all operating conditions. Valve timing, compression ratio, inlet air temperature, and EGR show an advanced control on the HCCI combustion behaviors over a wide range of speed and load. The use of EGR in HCCI operation is limited at EGR-rates about 70% at this point the reaction rates and ignition timing are so much reduced and retarded, respectively, and leads to misfiring and production of HC-emissions. Homogenization of fuel, air, and recycled burnt gases prior to ignition in addition to the control of ignition and combustion timing, and heat release rates are obstructs that must be overcome in order to realize the advantages of HCCI engine in the future.

  16. Feasibility and Safety Assessment for Advanced Reactor Concepts Using Vented Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, Andrew [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States). Nuclear Engineering and Radiation Health Physics; Matthews, Topher [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States); Lenhof, Renae [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States); Deason, Wesley [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States); Harter, Jackson [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States)

    2015-01-16

    Recent interest in fast reactor technology has led to renewed analysis of past reactor concepts such as Gas Fast Reactors and Sodium Fast Reactors. In an effort to make these reactors more economic, the fuel is required to stay in the reactor for extended periods of time; the longer the fuel stays within the core, the more fertile material is converted into usable fissile material. However, as burnup of the fuel-rod increases, so does the internal pressure buildup due to gaseous fission products. In order to reach the 30 year lifetime requirements of some reactor designs, the fuel pins must have a vented-type design to allow the buildup of fission products to escape. The present work aims to progress the understanding of the feasibility and safety issues related to gas reactors that incorporate vented fuel. The work was separated into three different work-scopes: 1. Quantitatively determine fission gas release from uranium carbide in a representative helium cooled fast reactor; 2. Model the fission gas behavior, transport, and collection in a Fission Product Vent System; and, 3. Perform a safety analysis of the Fission Product Vent System. Each task relied on results from the previous task, culminating in a limited scope Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) of the Fission Product Vent System. Within each task, many key parameters lack the fidelity needed for comprehensive or accurate analysis. In the process of completing each task, the data or methods that were lacking were identified and compiled in a Gap Analysis included at the end of the report.

  17. Advanced combustor design concepts to control NO{sub x} and air toxics. Quarterly report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pershing, D.W.; Lighty, J.; Veranth, J. [Utah Univ., Salt Lake City, UT (United States). Coll. of Engineering; Sarofim, A.; Goel, S. [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1995-04-28

    The University of Utah, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Reaction Engineering International (REI) and ABB/Combustion Engineering have joined together in this research proposal to develop fundamental understanding regarding the impact of fuel and combustion changes on ignition stability and flame characteristics because these critically affect: NO{sub x} emissions, carbon burnout, and emissions of air toxics; existing laboratory and bench scale facilities are being used to generate critical missing data which will be used to improve the NO{sub x} and carbon burnout submodels in comprehensive combustion simulation tools currently being used by industrial boiler manufacturers. To ensure effective and timely transfer of This technology, a major manufacturer (ABB) and a combustion model supplier (REI) have been included as part of the team from the early conception of the proposal. ABB/Combustion Engineering is providing needed fundamental data on the extent of volatile evolution from commercial coals as well as background information on current design needs in industrial practice. MIT is responsible for the development of an improved char nitrogen oxidation model which will ultimately be incorporated into an enhanced NO{sup x} submodel. Reaction Engineering International is providing the lead engineering staff for the experimental studies and an overall industrial focus for the work based on their use of the combustion simulation tools for a wide variety of industries. The University of Utah is conducting bench scale experimentation to (1) investigate alternative methods for enhancing flame stability to reduce NO{sub x} emissions and (2) characterize air toxic emissions under ultralow NO{sub x} conditions. Accomplishments for this quarter are presented to the solid sampling system and char nitrogen modeling.

  18. Atmospheric fluidized bed combustion advanced system concepts applicable to small industrial and commercial markets. Topical report, Level 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ake, T.R.; Dixit, V.B.; Mongeon, R.K.

    1992-09-01

    As part of an overall strategy to promote FBC coal combustion and to improve the marketability of the eastern coals, the US Department of Energy`s Morgantown Energy Research Center awarded a three level contract to Riley Stoker Corporation to develop advanced Multi Solids Fluidized Bed (MSFB) boiler designs. The first level of this contract targeted the small package boiler (10,000--50,000 lb/hr steam) and industrial size boiler (75,000--150,000 lb/hr steam) markets. Two representative sizes, 30,000 lb/hr and 110,000 lb/hr of steam, were selected for the two categories for a detailed technical and economic evaluation. Technically, both the designs showed promise, however, the advanced industrial design was favored on economic considerations. It was thus selected for further study in the second level of the contract. Results of this Level-2 effort, presented in this report, consisted of testing the design concept in Riley`s 4.4 MBtu/hr pilot MSFB facility located at Riley Research Center in Worcester, Mass. The design and economics of the proof of concept facility developed in Level-1 of the contract were then revised in accordance with the findings of the pilot test program. A host site for commercial demonstration in Level-3 of the contract was also secured. It was determined that co-firing coal in combination with paper de-inking sludge will broaden the applicability of the design beyond conventional markets. International Paper (IP), the largest paper company in the world, is willing to participate in this part of the program. IP has offered its Hammermill operation at Lockhaven, Pa, site of a future paper de-inking plant, for the proof of concept installation. This plant will go in operation in 1994. It is recommended that METC proceed to the commercial demonstration of the design developed. The approach necessary to satisfy the needs of the customer while meeting the objectives of this program is presented along with a recommended plan of action.

  19. Advanced Offshore Wind Turbine/Foundation Concept for the Great Lakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Afjeh, Abdollah A. [Univ. of Toledo, OH (United States); Windpower, Nautica [Nautica Windpower, Olmsted Falls, OH (United States); Marrone, Joseph [OCC COWI, Vancouver (Canada); Wagner, Thomas [Nautica Windpower, Olmsted Falls, OH (United States)

    2013-08-29

    This project investigated a conceptual 2-bladed rotor wind turbine design and assessed its feasibility for installation in the Great Lakes. The levelized cost of energy was used for this purpose. A location in Lake Erie near the coast of Cleveland, Ohio was selected as the application site. The loading environment was defined using wind and wave data collected at a weather station in Lake Erie near Cleveland. In addition, the probability distributions of the annual significant wave height and wind speed were determined. A model of the dependence of the above two quantities was also developed and used in the study of wind turbine system loads. Loads from ice floes and ridges were also included.The NREL 5 MW 3-bladed rotor wind turbine concept was used as the baseline design. The proposed turbine design employs variable pitch blade control with tip-brakes and a teeter mechanism. The rotor diameter, rated power and the tower dimensions were selected to closely match those of the NREL 5 MW wind turbine.A semi-floating gravity base foundation was designed for this project primarily to adapt to regional logistical constraints to transport and install the gravity base foundation. This foundation consists of, from bottom to top, a base plate, a buoyancy chamber, a taper zone, a column (with ice cone), and a service platform. A compound upward-downward ice cone was selected to secure the foundation from moving because of ice impact.The turbine loads analysis was based on International ElectroTechnical Committee (IEC) Standard 61400-1, Class III winds. The NREL software FAST was the primary computational tool used in this study to determine all design load cases. An initial set of studies of the dynamics of wind turbines using Automatic Dynamic Analysis of Mechanical Systems (ADAMS) demonstrated that FAST and ADAMS load predictions were comparable. Because of its relative simplicity and short run times, FAST was selected for this study. For ice load calculations, a method

  20. Advanced Underground Gas Storage Concepts: Refrigerated-Mined Cavern Storage, Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none

    1998-09-30

    Over the past 40 years, cavern storage of LPG's, petrochemicals, such as ethylene and propylene, and other petroleum products has increased dramatically. In 1991, the Gas Processors Association (GPA) lists the total U.S. underground storage capacity for LPG's and related products of approximately 519 million barrels (82.5 million cubic meters) in 1,122 separate caverns. Of this total, 70 are hard rock caverns and the remaining 1,052 are caverns in salt deposits. However, along the eastern seaboard of the U.S. and the Pacific northwest, salt deposits are not available and therefore, storage in hard rocks is required. Limited demand and high cost has prevented the construction of hard rock caverns in this country for a number of years. The storage of natural gas in mined caverns may prove technically feasible if the geology of the targeted market area is suitable; and economically feasible if the cost and convenience of service is competitive with alternative available storage methods for peak supply requirements. Competing methods include LNG facilities and remote underground storage combined with pipeline transportation to the area. It is believed that mined cavern storage can provide the advantages of high delivery rates and multiple fill withdrawal cycles in areas where salt cavern storage is not possible. In this research project, PB-KBB merged advanced mining technologies and gas refrigeration techniques to develop conceptual designs and cost estimates to demonstrate the commercialization potential of the storage of refrigerated natural gas in hard rock caverns. DOE has identified five regions, that have not had favorable geological conditions for underground storage development: New England, Mid-Atlantic (NY/NJ), South Atlantic (DL/MD/VA), South Atlantic (NC/SC/GA), and the Pacific Northwest (WA/OR). PB-KBB reviewed published literature and in-house databases of the geology of these regions to determine suitability of hard rock formations for siting

  1. ROBOTICALLY ENHANCED ADVANCED MANUFACTURING CONCEPTS TO OPTIMIZE ENERGY, PRODUCTIVITY, AND ENVIRONMENTAL PERFORMANCE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larry L. Keller; Joseph M. Pack; Robert V. Kolarik II

    2007-11-05

    In the first phase of the REML project, major assets were acquired for a manufacturing line for follow-on installation, capability studies and optimization. That activity has been documented in the DE-FC36-99ID13819 final report. In this the second phase of the REML project, most of the major assets have been installed in a manufacturing line arrangement featuring a green cell, a thermal treatment cell and a finishing cell. Most of the secondary and support assets have been acquired and installed. Assets have been integrated with a commercial, machine-tending gantry robot in the thermal treatment cell and with a low-mass, high-speed gantry robot in the finish cell. Capabilities for masterless gauging of product’s dimensional and form characteristics were advanced. Trial production runs across the entire REML line have been undertaken. Discrete event simulation modeling has aided in line balancing and reduction of flow time. Energy, productivity and cost, and environmental comparisons to baselines have been made. Energy The REML line in its current state of development has been measured to be about 22% (338,000 kVA-hrs) less energy intensive than the baseline conventional low volume line assuming equivalent annual production volume of approximately 51,000 races. The reduction in energy consumption is largely attributable to the energy reduction in the REML thermal treatment cell where the heating devices are energized on demand and are appropriately sized to the heating load of a near single piece flow line. If additional steps such as power factor correction and use of high-efficiency motors were implemented to further reduce energy consumption, it is estimated, but not yet demonstrated, that the REML line would be about 30% less energy intensive than the baseline conventional low volume line assuming equivalent annual production volume. Productivity The capital cost of an REML line would be roughly equivalent to the capital cost of a new conventional line. The

  2. Earth's Critical Zone and hydropedology: concepts, characteristics, and advances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. S. Lin

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The Critical Zone (CZ is a holistic framework for integrated studies of water with soil, rock, air, and biotic resources in terrestrial environments. This is consistent with the recognition of water as a unifying theme for research on complex environmental systems. The CZ ranges from the top of the vegetation down to the bottom of the aquifer, with a highly variable thickness (from <0.001 to >10 km. The pedosphere is the foundation of the CZ, which represents a geomembrance across which water and solutes, as well as energy, gases, solids, and organisms are actively exchanged with the atmosphere, biosphere, hydrosphere, and lithosphere to create a life-sustaining environment. Hydropedology – the science of the behaviour and distribution of soil-water interactions in contact with mineral and biological materials in the CZ – is an important contributor to CZ research. This article reviews and discusses the basic ideas and fundamental features of the CZ and hydropedology, and suggests ways for their advances. An "outward" growth model, instead of an "inward" contraction, is suggested for propelling soil science forward. The CZ is the right platform for synergistic collaborations across disciplines. The reconciliation of the geological (or "big" cycle and the biological (or "small" cycle that are orders of magnitude different in space and time is a key to understanding and predicting complex CZ processes. Because of the layered nature of the CZ and the general trend of increasing density with depth, response and feedback to climate change take longer from the above-ground zone down to the soil zone and further to the groundwater zone. Interfaces between layers and cycles are critical controls of the landscape-soil-water-ecosystem dynamics, which present fertile grounds for interdisciplinary research. Ubiquitous heterogeneity in the CZ can be addressed by environmental gradients and landscape patterns, where hierarchical structures control the

  3. A new modular chemiluminescence immunoassay analyser evaluated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ognibene, A; Drake, C J; Jeng, K Y; Pascucci, T E; Hsu, S; Luceri, F; Messeri, G

    2000-03-01

    Thyrotropin (TSH), free thyroxine (fT4) and testosterone assays have been used as a probe to evaluate the performances of a new modular chemiluminescence (CL) immunoassay analyser, the Abbott Architect 2000. The evaluation was run in parallel on other systems that use CL as the detection reaction: DPC Immulite, Chiron Diagnostics ACS-180 and ACS Centaur (TSH functional sensitivity only). TSH functional sensitivity was 0.0012, 0.009, 0.033 and 0.039 mU/I for the Architect, Immulite, ACS Centaur and ACS-180, respectively. Testosterone functional sensitivity was 0.38, 3.7 and 2.0 nmol/l for Architect, Immulite and ACS-180, respectively. Good correlation was obtained between the ACS-180 and Architect for all assays. The Immulite correlation did not agree well with the Architect or ACS-180 for fT4 and testosterone but was in good agreement for TSH. Regarding fT4 and testosterone, equilibrium dialysis and isotopic dilution gas-chromatography mass-spectrometry (GC-MS) respectively were used as reference methods. For both within- and between-run precision, the Architect showed the best reproducibility for all three analytes (CV < 6%).

  4. Quantifying acoustic damping using flame chemiluminescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boujo, E.; Denisov, A.; Schuermans, B.; Noiray, N.

    2016-12-01

    Thermoacoustic instabilities in gas turbines and aeroengine combustors falls within the category of complex systems. They can be described phenomenologically using nonlinear stochastic differential equations, which constitute the grounds for output-only model-based system identification. It has been shown recently that one can extract the governing parameters of the instabilities, namely the linear growth rate and the nonlinear component of the thermoacoustic feedback, using dynamic pressure time series only. This is highly relevant for practical systems, which cannot be actively controlled due to a lack of cost-effective actuators. The thermoacoustic stability is given by the linear growth rate, which results from the combination of the acoustic damping and the coherent feedback from the flame. In this paper, it is shown that it is possible to quantify the acoustic damping of the system, and thus to separate its contribution to the linear growth rate from the one of the flame. This is achieved by post-processing in a simple way simultaneously acquired chemiluminescence and acoustic pressure data. It provides an additional approach to further unravel from observed time series the key mechanisms governing the system dynamics. This straightforward method is illustrated here using experimental data from a combustion chamber operated at several linearly stable and unstable operating conditions.

  5. Luminol-potassium permanganate chemiluminescence system for the determination of three anthracycline antibiotics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Objective To establish a flow-injection chemiluminescence method for the determination of doxorubicin,epirubicin and mitoxantrone and study its reaction mechanism.Methods In alkaline medium,chemiluminescence of luminol-potassium permanganate system could be inhibited obviously by anthracycline antibiotics.Combined with flow-injection technique,a new chemiluminescence method for determining the anthracycline antibiotics was set up.The chemiluminescence mechanism of the luminol-potassium permanganate system w...

  6. Equipment concept design and development plans for microgravity science and applications research on space station: Combustion tunnel, laser diagnostic system, advanced modular furnace, integrated electronics laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhran, M. L.; Youngblood, W. W.; Georgekutty, T.; Fiske, M. R.; Wear, W. O.

    1986-01-01

    Taking advantage of the microgravity environment of space NASA has initiated the preliminary design of a permanently manned space station that will support technological advances in process science and stimulate the development of new and improved materials having applications across the commercial spectrum. Previous studies have been performed to define from the researcher's perspective, the requirements for laboratory equipment to accommodate microgravity experiments on the space station. Functional requirements for the identified experimental apparatus and support equipment were determined. From these hardware requirements, several items were selected for concept designs and subsequent formulation of development plans. This report documents the concept designs and development plans for two items of experiment apparatus - the Combustion Tunnel and the Advanced Modular Furnace, and two items of support equipment the Laser Diagnostic System and the Integrated Electronics Laboratory. For each concept design, key technology developments were identified that are required to enable or enhance the development of the respective hardware.

  7. Application of Design of Experiments and Surrogate Modeling within the NASA Advanced Concepts Office, Earth-to-Orbit Design Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwack, Mathew R.; Dees, Patrick D.; Holt, James B.

    2016-01-01

    Decisions made during early conceptual design have a large impact upon the expected life-cycle cost (LCC) of a new program. It is widely accepted that up to 80% of such cost is committed during these early design phases. Therefore, to help minimize LCC, decisions made during conceptual design must be based upon as much information as possible. To aid in the decision making for new launch vehicle programs, the Advanced Concepts Office (ACO) at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) provides rapid turnaround pre-phase A and phase A concept definition studies. The ACO team utilizes a proven set of tools to provide customers with a full vehicle mass breakdown to tertiary subsystems, preliminary structural sizing based upon worst-case flight loads, and trajectory optimization to quantify integrated vehicle performance for a given mission. Although the team provides rapid turnaround for single vehicle concepts, the scope of the trade space can be limited due to analyst availability and the manpower requirements for manual execution of the analysis tools. In order to enable exploration of a broader design space, the ACO team has implemented an advanced design methods (ADM) based approach. This approach applies the concepts of design of experiments (DOE) and surrogate modeling to more exhaustively explore the trade space and provide the customer with additional design information to inform decision making. This paper will first discuss the automation of the ACO tool set, which represents a majority of the development effort. In order to fit a surrogate model within tolerable error bounds a number of DOE cases are needed. This number will scale with the number of variable parameters desired and the complexity of the system's response to those variables. For all but the smallest design spaces, the number of cases required cannot be produced within an acceptable timeframe using a manual process. Therefore, automation of the tools was a key enabler for the successful

  8. Advanced platelet-rich fibrin: a new concept for cell-based tissue engineering by means of inflammatory cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanaati, Shahram; Booms, Patrick; Orlowska, Anna; Kubesch, Alica; Lorenz, Jonas; Rutkowski, Jim; Landes, Constantin; Sader, Robert; Kirkpatrick, Cj; Choukroun, Joseph

    2014-12-01

    Choukroun's platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) is obtained from blood without adding anticoagulants. In this study, protocols for standard platelet-rich fibrin (S-PRF) (2700 rpm, 12 minutes) and advanced platelet-rich fibrin (A-PRF) (1500 rpm, 14 minutes) were compared to establish by histological cell detection and histomorphometrical measurement of cell distribution the effects of the centrifugal force (speed and time) on the distribution of cells relevant for wound healing and tissue regeneration. Immunohistochemistry for monocytes, T and B -lymphocytes, neutrophilic granulocytes, CD34-positive stem cells, and platelets was performed on clots produced from four different human donors. Platelets were detected throughout the clot in both groups, although in the A-PRF group, more platelets were found in the distal part, away from the buffy coat (BC). T- and B-lymphocytes, stem cells, and monocytes were detected in the surroundings of the BC in both groups. Decreasing the rpm while increasing the centrifugation time in the A-PRF group gave an enhanced presence of neutrophilic granulocytes in the distal part of the clot. In the S-PRF group, neutrophils were found mostly at the red blood cell (RBC)-BC interface. Neutrophilic granulocytes contribute to monocyte differentiation into macrophages. Accordingly, a higher presence of these cells might be able to influence the differentiation of host macrophages and macrophages within the clot after implantation. Thus, A-PRF might influence bone and soft tissue regeneration, especially through the presence of monocytes/macrophages and their growth factors. The relevance and feasibility of this tissue-engineering concept have to be proven through in vivo studies.

  9. Molecular beam chemiluminescence studies of the NO + O/sub 3/ reaction and modeling of global NO/sub 2/ distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kowalczyk, M.

    1980-11-01

    The results of a crossed molecular beam study of the chemiluminescent reaction NO + 0/sub 3/ ..-->.. NO/sub 2/ + 0/sub 2/ are discussed. The chemiluminescence as a function of collision energy and an excitation function were obtained using a translationally cooled supersonic NO beam. An investigation into the role of the internal energy states using an effusive NO beam and a supersonic O/sub 3/ beam has been presented. The results show that chemiluminescence enhancement occurs when high and low temperature NO experiments are compared. The role that other energy modes may have is discussed. The observed enhancement is consistent with the concept that the chemiluminescence cross section increases with NO molecular rotation for low J states. The second part discusses the role of NO/sub 2/ in preserving a global ozone balance. NO/sub 2/ vertical profiles based on Noxon's (1979) column measurements were derived. The method of instantaneous rates was used to calculate the rate of ozone production and destruction by O/sub x/ and NO/sub x/ on a grid that covered the entire globe. The results were presented as a function of altitude and latitude in contour plots.

  10. A proof-of-concept implementation of a unit-based advanced practice registered nurse (APRN) role: structural empowerment, role clarity and team effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feistritzer, Nancye R; Jones, Pam O

    2014-03-01

    The quest for decreased cost of care and improved outcomes has created the need for highly effective clinical roles and teams. This article describes the role of a unit-based advanced practice registered nurse (APRN) within a proof-of-concept implementation of a new care delivery model, the Vanderbilt Anticipatory Care Team. Role clarity is central to both structural empowerment of the APRN and team effectiveness. A modified PeaceHealth Team Development Measure tool measured baseline role clarity as a component of overall team effectiveness. A role description for the unit-based APRN based on a comprehensive assessment of the proof-of-concept unit is provided.

  11. Conceptual design of advanced central receiver power systems sodium-cooled receiver concept. Volume 4. Commercial and pilot plant cost data. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-03-01

    This volume of the advanced central receiver final report presents the cost data using the cost breakdown structure identified in the preliminary specification. Cost summaries are presented in the following sections for the 100-MWe and 281-MWe commercial plant and a 10-MWe pilot plant. Cost substantiation data for this volume are presented in the appendices. Other cost summary data include Nth plant data for the 100-MWe and 281-MWe commercial plants, and a summary for the alternative concept air-rock storage system. The main description of the plant costing technique occurs as part of Section II for the 100-MWe baseline concept.

  12. Ultraweak chemiluminescence of rice seeds during accelerated aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wenli; Xing, Da; He, Yonghong

    2002-04-01

    Ultraweak Chemiluminescence (UCL) studies of different aging degree of rice (Oryza sativa L.) seeds stored in a high temperature 40 degree(s)C and high relative humidity 90% environment (0 day, 8 days, 15 days, and 22 days) were carried out. We firstly observed that aging degree of rice seeds was positive correlation with ultraweak chemiluminescence during the early imbibition (0-1h). Addition of water to rice seeds stimulates ultraweak chemiluminescence, the intensity of which depends upon aging degree of seeds. The shorter the seed accelerated aging time was, the higher the intensity of the UCL in the early imbibition period, the lower hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) concentration of rice seeds, the higher percentage seed germination. The germination and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity of dry rice seeds was obvious positive correlation with the intensity of UCL. While catalase (CAT) activity of rice seeds was determined. Mechanism of ultraweak chemiluminescence was discussed. It was concluded that the store time of rice seeds could be judged from their UCL characters during the early imbibition period, which might be a way to examine vigor of seeds.

  13. Tandem chemiluminescence-flow injection analysis for dimethoate determination.

    OpenAIRE

    Catalá Icardo, Mónica; López Paz, José Luis; CHOVES BARÓN, CRISTINA

    2010-01-01

    Ministry of Education and Science [CTM2006-11991] FEDER funds Catalá Icardo, M.; López Paz, JL.; Choves Barón, C. (2010). Tandem chemiluminescence-flow injection analysis for dimethoate determination. Luminescence. 25:235-236. doi:10.1002/bio.1217. Senia 235 236 25

  14. Chemiluminescent reductive acridinium triggering (CRAT)-mechanism and applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zomer, Bert; Colle, Loes; Jedynska, Aleksandra; Pasterkamp, Gerard; Kooter, Ingeborg; Bloemen, Henk

    2011-01-01

    Acridinium esters traditionally are triggered using basic hydrogen peroxide. By serendipity, we have found that acridinium esters can also be triggered with emission of chemiluminescence by reductive triggering, e.g., by zinc metal or reduced forms of ferric and cupric salts. Furthermore, organic re

  15. Field-flow fractionation of cells with chemiluminescence detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melucci, Dora; Roda, Barbara; Zattoni, Andrea; Casolari, Sonia; Reschiglian, Pierluigi; Roda, Aldo

    2004-11-12

    Field-flow fractionation is a separation technique characterized by a retention mechanism which makes it suitable for sorting cells over a short analysis time, with low sample carry-over and preserving cell viability. Thanks to its high sensitivity, chemiluminescence detection is suitable for the quantification of just a few cells expressing chemiluminescence or bioluminescence. In this work, different formats for coupling gravitational field-flow fractionation and chemiluminescence detection are explored to achieve ultra-sensitive cell detection in the framework of cell sorting. The study is carried out using human red blood cells as model sample. The best performance is obtained with the on-line coupling format, performed in post-column flow-injection mode. Red cells are isolated from diluted whole human blood in just a few minutes and detected using the liquid phase chemiluminescent reaction of luminol catalysed by the red blood cell heme. The limit of detection is a few hundred injected cells. This is lower than the limit of detection usually achieved by means of conventional colorimetric/turbidimetric methods, and it corresponds to a red blood cell concentration in the injected sample of five orders of magnitude lower than in whole blood.

  16. Investigation of Chemiluminescence with Electrogenerated Reagents and Its Analytical Application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    章竹君; 李保新; 郑行望

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, studies on chemiluminescence (CL) systems with electrogenerated reagents, including BrO-, ClO-, Br2, [Cu-(HIO6)2]5-, H2O2, Mn3+, Co3+ and Ag2+, are described.The analytical applications of the CL system with electrogenerated reagents are reviewed.

  17. Chemiluminescent ozone, NO, and NO/sub 2/ detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    van Heusden, S.

    1974-07-05

    Autonomous apparatuses for the measurement of the ozone, nitric oxide and nitrogen dioxide concentrations in the air by chemiluminescent technique, developed for use in the Dutch air quality monitoring network, are described. One ozone detector, using ethene for the chemiluminescent reaction of ozone, has a maximum at 420 nanom, and has a detection range from 2 ppB to 1,000 ppM. The error amounts to 3%, and the time required for measurement can be reduced to 0.1 sec. Another ozone detector uses gallic acid with Rhodamine B on silica gel for the chemiluminescent reaction with an emission maximum at 560 nanom. This detector can be used for a concentration range of 0.1 ppB to 400 ppB. Normal concentrations of sulfur dioxide, nitric oxide, nitrogen dioxide, methane, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide do not interfere with the determination. A chemiluminescent detector for the joint determination of NO and NO/sub 2/ oxidizes NO to NO/sub 2/ by means of ozone, while the NO/sub 2/ originally present in the air is reduced to NO for the determination of the total nitrogen oxide content at an emission peak at 1200 nanom. No interference due to SO/sub 2/, CH/sub 4/, O/sub 3/, CO, or CO/sub 2/ was observed. The range of measurement extends from 2 ppB to 50 ppM. Another chemiluminescent analyzer for ozone, NO, and NO/sub 2/ uses gallic acid and Rhodamine B for the determination of ozone, while NO/sub 2/ is decomposed to NO and native oxygen and further to O/sub 3/ by photolysis under ultraviolet irradiation, and NO is oxidized to NO/sub 2/ by a solid reagent for subsequent reaction to ozone. The limits of detectability are 0.5 ppB for nitrogen oxides and 0.1 ppB for ozone, the upper limit being 150 ppB. All these chemiluminescent detectors comprise photomultipliers and are suitable for autonomous operation for 2 to 3 mo.

  18. A novel chemiluminescence method for the determination of ergometrine maleate in serum sample without chemiluminescence reagent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yufei; Zhang, Zhujun; Li, Gongke

    2010-04-15

    In this paper, a novel flow injection-chemiluminescence (FI-CL) method was proposed for the determination of ergometrine maleate in serum. The new CL reaction was based on the direct oxidation of ergometrine maleate by the complex of metal chelate diperiodatocuprate(III) (K(5)[Cu(HIO(6))(2)]) in an alkaline medium. The CL intensity was enhanced in the presence of ascorbic acid. Hereby under the optimum conditions, ergometrine maleate was determined over the range of 4.0 x 10(-9) gm L(-1) to 4.0 x 10(-7) gm L(-1) with a limit of detection (3 sigma) of 1.1 x 10(-9) gm L(-1). The relative standard deviation (R.S.D.) was 2.1% for 8.0 x 10(-9) gm L(-1) ergometrine maleate (n=7). The sensitive method was successfully applied to the direct determination of ergometrine maleate (ng mL(-1)) in pharmaceutical injection and serum samples. The mechanism of the reactions was also discussed.

  19. Chemiluminescence assay of lipase activity using a synthetic substrate as proenhancer for luminol chemiluminescence reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichibangase, Tomoko; Ohba, Yoshihito; Kishikawa, Naoya; Nakashima, Kenichiro; Kuroda, Naotaka

    2004-01-01

    A novel chemiluminescence (CL) assay method for lipase (triacylglycerol lipase, E.C.3.1.1.3) activity was developed by using the lauric acid ester of 2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-4,5-diphenylimidazole (HDI) as a substrate. The method is based on the enhanced CL reaction of luminol-hydrogen peroxide-horseradish peroxidase (HRP) with HDI that is liberated from the substrate by enzymatic hydrolysis. To simplify the assay procedure, both the hydrolysis of the substrate and the enhanced CL reaction were performed in the same reaction mixture. Lipases from Candida cylindracea and porcine pancreas were successfully determined with the detection limits (blank signal + 3 SD) of 0.05 and 50.0 mU/tube, respectively. The method is simple and rapid, permitting the completion of single assay within 5 min. The reproducibilities obtained with replicate assays were relative standard deviations (RSDs) of 4.7% for within-day and 6.0% for between-day assays.

  20. Advancing Empirical Approaches to the Concept of Resilience: A Critical Examination of Panarchy, Ecological Information, and Statistical Evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Kharrazi; Fath, Brian D.; Harald Katzmair

    2016-01-01

    Despite its ambiguities, the concept of resilience is of critical importance to researchers, practitioners, and policy-makers in dealing with dynamic socio-ecological systems. In this paper, we critically examine the three empirical approaches of (i) panarchy; (ii) ecological information-based network analysis; and (iii) statistical evidence of resilience to three criteria determined for achieving a comprehensive understanding and application of this concept. These criteria are the ability: (...

  1. Detection of gamma irradiated pepper and papain by chemiluminescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sattar, Abdus; Delincée, H.; Diehl, J. F.

    Chemiluminescence (CL) measurements of black pepper and of papain using luminol and lucigenin reactions were studied. Effects of grinding, irradiation (5-20 kGy) and particle size (750-140 μm) on CL of pepper, and of irradiation (10-30 kGy) on CL of papain, were investigated. All the tested treatments affected the luminescence response in both the luminol and lucigenin reactions; however, the pattern of changes in each case, was inconsistent. Optimum pepper size for maximum luminescence was 560 μm, and optimum irradiation doses were >15 kGy for pepper and >20 kGy for papain. Chemiluminescence may possibly be used as an indicator or irradiation treatment for pepper and papain at a dose of 10 kGy or higher, but further research is needed to establish the reliability of this method.

  2. [Decrease of singlet oxygen chemiluminescence by the presence of carnosine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svachko, A G; Formaziuk, V E; Sergienko, V I

    1990-08-01

    To test antiradical medicines effect the chemical production of singlet oxygen (NaClO + H2O2) was investigated. The quantity singlet oxygen chemiluminescence was decreased in the presence of Japanese Catalin and Chine Baineiting, antirheumatic Voltaren and less strong Finish Catachrome and Carnosine. American Quinax does not possess such an effect. One of the possible starting mechanisms causing different diseases (atherosclerosis, cataract etc.) is destruction of biomembranes by active forms of oxygen.

  3. [Report from the Committee for Advanced Therapies (CAT). Pitfalls on the way from concept to medical treatment with advanced therapy medicinal products].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiss, M; Büttel, I C; Schneider, C K

    2011-07-01

    Advanced therapy medicinal products (ATMP) are highly innovative and complex medicines. They comprise gene therapy medicinal products, somatic cell therapy medicinal products, and tissue-engineered products (TEP). With the European Regulation on ATMP that came into force in 2008, a consolidated regulatory framework was created, where the Committee for Advanced Therapies (CAT) at the European Medicines Agency (EMA) plays a central role. This article discusses pitfalls and challenges that the CAT has experienced in its discussions of various procedures. Often ATMPs are developed by small and medium-sized enterprises (SME) which also face nonscientific challenges. The CAT wishes to meet these challenges on a scientific and regulatory level during its 2010-2015 work program.

  4. How Do Concept-Maps Function for Reading Comprehension Improvement of Iranian Advanced EFL Learners of Both Genders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaghaninejad, Mohammad Saber; Arefinejad, Mansour

    2015-01-01

    This study was an attempt to examine the effect of concept mapping on reading comprehension of Iranian EFL learners. Pretest-posttest design was employed to scrutinize the possible improvement of the study's participants who were male and female learners whose ages ranged from 19 to 40 and had taken general English courses at Islamic Azad…

  5. Hybridization of natural systems with advanced treatment processes for organic micropollutant removals: new concepts in multi-barrier treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudhakaran, Sairam; Maeng, Sung Kyu; Amy, Gary

    2013-07-01

    Organic micropollutants (OMPs) represent a major constraint in drinking water supply. In the past, emphasis has been on individual treatment processes comprising conventional treatment (coagulation, sedimentation, and filtration) followed by advanced treatment processes (adsorption, ion-exchange, oxidation, and membrane separation). With the depletion of water resources and high demand for power and chemical usage, efforts need to be made to judiciously use advanced treatment processes. There is a new interest in multiple barriers with synergies in which two coupled processes can function as a hybrid process. Within the context of this paper, the hybrid processes include a natural treatment process coupled with an advanced process. Pilot/full-scale studies have shown efficient removal of OMPs by these hybrid processes. With this hybridization, the usage of resources such as power and chemicals can be reduced. In this study, coupling/hybridization of aquifer recharge and recovery (ARR) with oxidation (O3), advanced oxidation process which involves OH radicals (AOP), nanofiltration (NF), reverse osmosis (RO) and granular activated carbon (GAC) adsorption for OMP removal was studied. O3 or AOP as a pre-treatment and GAC, NF, RO, or UV/chlorination as a post-treatment to ARR was studied. NF can be replaced by RO for removal of OMPs since studies have shown similar performance of NF to RO for removal of many OMPs, thereby reducing costs and providing a more sustainable approach.

  6. Hybridization of natural systems with advanced treatment processes for organic micropollutant removals: New concepts in multi-barrier treatment

    KAUST Repository

    Sudhakaran, Sairam

    2013-07-01

    In the past, emphasis has been on individual treatment processes comprising conventional treatment (coagulation, sedimentation, and filtration) followed by advanced treatment processes (adsorption, ion-exchange, oxidation, and membrane separation). With the depletion of water resources and high demand for power and chemical usage, efforts need to be made to judiciously use advanced treatment processes. There is a new interest in multiple barriers with synergies in which two coupled processes can function as a hybrid process. Within the context of this paper, the hybrid processes include a natural treatment process coupled with an advanced process. Pilot/full-scale studies have shown efficient removal of OMPs by these hybrid processes. With this hybridization, the usage of resources such as power and chemicals can be reduced. In this study, coupling/hybridization of aquifer recharge and recovery (ARR) with oxidation (O3), advanced oxidation process which involves OH radicals (AOP), nanofiltration (NF), reverse osmosis (RO) and granular activated carbon (GAC) adsorption for OMP removal was studied. O3 or AOP as a pre-treatment and GAC, NF, RO, or UV/chlorination as a post-treatment to ARR was studied. NF can be replaced by RO for removal of OMPs since studies have shown similar performance of NF to RO for removal of many OMPs, thereby reducing costs and providing a more sustainable approach. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Investigating the Effect of Different Verbal Formats of Advance Organizers on Third Graders' Understanding of Heat Transfer Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Hsueh-Hua; Liu, Han-Chin

    2014-01-01

    The emergence of computer and multimedia technology change the forms of instructional materials and instructional design plays an important role on student learning outcome in multimedia learning. Research has found that using advance organizers has the potential for achieving learning objectives. Thus, this study investigated how using different…

  8. Investigating the Effect of Different Verbal Formats of Advance Organizers on Third Graders' Understanding of Heat Transfer Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Hsueh-Hua; Liu, Han-Chin

    2014-01-01

    The emergence of computer and multimedia technology change the forms of instructional materials and instructional design plays an important role on student learning outcome in multimedia learning. Research has found that using advance organizers has the potential for achieving learning objectives. Thus, this study investigated how using different…

  9. Investigation on the spontaneous combustion of refuse-derived fuels during storage using a chemiluminescence technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matunaga, Atsushi; Yasuhara, Akio; Shimizu, Yoshitada; Wakakura, Masahide; Shibamoto, Takayuki

    2008-12-01

    Refuse-derived fuel (RDF), a high-caloric material, is used by various combustion processes, such as power plants, as alternative fuel. Several explosion accidents, however, possibly initiated by the spontaneous combustion of stored RDF, have been reported in Japan. Therefore the spontaneous combustion of RDF prepared from domestic garbage was investigated using chemiluminescence. RDF samples were heated either under air or under nitrogen for 1, 2, or 4 h at 120 or 140 degrees C and then cooled by an air or nitrogen stream. All RDF samples exhibited chemiluminescence. In air-treated RDF samples (heated and cooled by air), chemiluminescence after ageing was shown to be slightly lower than before ageing, whereas in nitrogen-treated samples (both heated and cooled by nitrogen) chemiluminescence decreased significantly after ageing. When nitrogen was replaced with air during aging, however, a sudden increase of chemiluminescence was observed. On the other hand, when cooling was done with air, chemiluminescence increased. Higher chemiluminescence was also observed during high-temperature treatment. Further experiments on cellulose, one of the major components of domestic garbage, exhibited similar chemiluminescence patterns to those of RDF when treated by the same methods as those used for RDF ageing. Chemiluminescence from cellulose increased significantly when the atmospheric gas was changed from nitrogen to air, suggesting that oxygen in the air promoted the formation of hydroperoxide from cellulose. Therefore, it is hypothesized that cellulose plays an important role in the formation of chemiluminescence from RDF. The formation of chemiluminescence indicated that radicals are formed from RDF by oxidation or thermal degradation at room or atmospheric temperatures and may subsequently lead to spontaneous combustion.

  10. Effect of Saliva on Measurement of Chemiluminescence by a Micro-Reactor Incorporating a Micro-Channel

    OpenAIRE

    Tsukagoshi, Kazuhiko; Fukumoto, Kazuaki; Nakajima, Riichiro; Yamashita, Kenichi; Maeda, Hideaki

    2007-01-01

    Effect of saliva on measurement of chemiluminescence was examined by a micro-reactor incorporating a micro-channel. Sodium hypochlorite and hydrogen peroxide solutions were delivered into a micro-channel developed in a micro-reactor by a syringe pump, providing a laminar flow liquid-liquid interface in the channel and leading to chemiluminescence from singlet oxygen. It was found under certain conditions including saliva that ca. 5% chemiluminescence of the total chemiluminescence was lost in...

  11. Advancing the activity cliff concept [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/1wf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye Hu

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The activity cliff concept has experienced increasing interest in medicinal chemistry and chemoinformatics. Activity cliffs have originally been defined as pairs of structurally similar compounds that are active against the same target but have a large difference in potency. Activity cliffs are relevant for structure-activity relationship (SAR analysis and compound optimization because small chemical modifications can be deduced from cliffs that result in large-magnitude changes in potency. In addition to studying activity cliffs on the basis of individual compounds series, they can be systematically identified through mining of compound activity data. This commentary aims to provide a concise yet detailed picture of our current understanding of activity cliffs. It is also meant to introduce the further refined activity cliff concept to a general audience in drug development.

  12. Recent advances in the concept and diagnosis of autoimmune pancreatitis and IgG4-related disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okazaki, Kazuichi; Uchida, Kazushige; Koyabu, Masanori; Miyoshi, Hideaki; Takaoka, Makoto

    2011-03-01

    Recent studies have suggested the existence of two subtypes of autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP): type 1 AIP, related to IgG4 (lymphoplasmacytic sclerosing pancreatitis); and type 2 AIP, related to a granulocytic epithelial lesion (idiopathic duct-centric chronic pancreatitis). Compared with type 2 AIP, the clinicopathological features of type 1 AIP, with increased serum IgG4/IgE levels, abundant infiltration of IgG4 + plasmacytes and lymphocytes, autoantibodies, and steroid responsiveness, are more suggestive of abnormal immunity such as allergy or autoimmunity. Moreover, patients with type 1 AIP often have extrapancreatic lesions, such as sclerosing cholangitis, sclerosing sialadenitis, or retroperitoneal fibrosis, showing pathological features similar to those of the pancreatic lesions. Based on these findings, an international concept of and diagnostic criteria for AIP have been proposed recently. Of interest, many synonyms have been proposed for the conditions of AIP and extrapancreatic lesions associated with IgG4, such as "multifocal idiopathic fibrosclerosis," "IgG4-related autoimmune disease," "IgG4-related sclerosing disease," "systemic IgG4-related plasmacytic syndrome (SIPS)," and "IgG4-related multiorgan lymphoproliferative syndrome," all of which may refer to the same conditions. Therefore, the Japanese Research Committee for "Systemic IgG4-Related Sclerosing Disease" proposed a disease concept and clinical diagnostic criteria based on the concept of multifocal fibrosclerosing disease, in 2009, in which the term "IgG4-related disease" was agreed upon as a minimal consensus to cover these conditions. Although the significance of IgG4 in the development of "IgG4-related disease" remains unclear, we have proposed a hypothesis for the development of type 1 AIP, one of the IgG4-related diseases. The concept and diagnostic criteria of "IgG4-related disease" will be changed in accordance with future studies.

  13. Investigation of Advanced Counterrotation Blade Configuration Concepts for High Speed Turboprop Systems. Task 3: Advanced Fan Section Grid Generator Final Report and Computer Program User's Manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crook, Andrew J.; Delaney, Robert A.

    1991-01-01

    A procedure is studied for generating three-dimensional grids for advanced turbofan engine fan section geometries. The procedure constructs a discrete mesh about engine sections containing the fan stage, an arbitrary number of axisymmetric radial flow splitters, a booster stage, and a bifurcated core/bypass flow duct with guide vanes. The mesh is an h-type grid system, the points being distributed with a transfinite interpolation scheme with axial and radial spacing being user specified. Elliptic smoothing of the grid in the meridional plane is a post-process option. The grid generation scheme is consistent with aerodynamic analyses utilizing the average-passage equation system developed by Dr. John Adamczyk of NASA Lewis. This flow solution scheme requires a series of blade specific grids each having a common axisymmetric mesh, but varying in the circumferential direction according to the geometry of the specific blade row.

  14. Advanced Concept Studies for Supersonic Commercial Transports Entering Service in the 2018-2020 Period Phase 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgenstern, John; Buonanno, Michael; Yao, Jixian; Murugappan, Mugam; Paliath, Umesh; Cheung, Lawrence; Malcevic, Ivan; Ramakrishnan, Kishore; Pastouchenko, Nikolai; Wood, Trevor; Martens, Steve; Viars, Phil; Tersmette, Trevor; Lee, Jason; Simmons, Ron; Plybon, David; Alonso, Juan; Palacios, Francisco; Lukaczyk, Trent; Carrier, Gerald

    2015-01-01

    Lockheed Martin Aeronautics Company (LM), working in conjunction with General Electric Global Research (GE GR) and Stanford University, executed a 19 month program responsive to the NASA sponsored "N+2 Supersonic Validation: Advanced Concept Studies for Supersonic Commercial Transports Entering Service in the 2018-2020 Period" contract. The key technical objective of this effort was to validate integrated airframe and propulsion technologies and design methodologies necessary to realize a supersonic vehicle capable of meeting the N+2 environmental and performance goals. The N+2 program is aligned with NASA's Supersonic Project and is focused on providing system level solutions capable of overcoming the efficiency, environmental, and performance barriers to practical supersonic flight. The N+2 environmental and performance goals are outlined in the technical paper, AIAA-2014-2138 (Ref. 1) along with the validated N+2 Phase 2 results. Our Phase 2 efforts built upon our Phase 1 studies (Ref. 2) and successfully demonstrated the ability to design and test realistic configurations capable of shaped sonic booms over the width of the sonic boom carpet. Developing a shaped boom configuration capable of meeting the N+2 shaped boom targets is a key goal for the N+2 program. During the LM Phase 1 effort, LM successfully designed and tested a shaped boom trijet configuration (1021) capable of achieving 85 PLdB under track (forward and aft shock) and up to 28 deg off-track at Mach 1.6. In Phase 2 we developed a refined configuration (1044-2) that extended the under 85 PLdB sonic boom level over the entire carpet of 52 deg off-track at a cruise Mach number of 1.7. Further, the loudness level of the configuration throughout operational conditions calculates to an average of 79 PLdB. These calculations rely on propagation employing Burger's (sBOOM) rounding methodology, and there are indications that the configuration average loudness would actually be 75 PLdB. We also added

  15. Concept - or no concept

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsteinsson, Uffe

    1999-01-01

    Discussion about concept in industrial companies. A method for mapping of managerial concept in specific area is shown......Discussion about concept in industrial companies. A method for mapping of managerial concept in specific area is shown...

  16. Design concepts and advanced telerobotics development for facilities in the back end of the nuclear fuel cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feldman, M.J.

    1987-01-01

    In the Fuel Recycle Division at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, a comprehensive remote systems development program has existed for the past seven years. The new remote technology under development is expected to significantly improve remote operations by extending the range of tasks accomplished by remote means and increasing the efficiency of remote work undertaken. Five areas of the development effort are primary contributors to the goal of higher operating efficiency for major facilities for the back end of the nuclear fuel cycle. These areas are the single-cell concept, the low-flow ventilation concept, television viewing, equipment-mounting racks, and force-reflecting manipulation. These somewhat innovative directions are products of a design process where the technical scenario to be accomplished, the remote equipment to accomplish the scenario, and the facility design to house the equipment, are considered in an iterative design process to optimize performance, maximize long-term costs effectiveness, and minimize initial capital outlay. 14 refs., 3 figs.

  17. Chemiluminescence enzyme immunoassay using ProteinA-bacterial magnetite complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsunaga, Tadashi; Sato, Rika; Kamiya, Shinji; Tanaka, Tsuyosi; Takeyama, Haruko

    1999-04-01

    Bacterial magnetic particles (BMPs) which have ProteinA expressed on their surface were constructed using magA which is a key gene in BMP biosynthesis in the magnetic bacterium Magnetospirillum sp. AMB-1. Homogenous chemiluminescence enzyme immunoassay using antibody bound ProteinA-BMP complexes was developed for detection of human IgG. A good correlation between the luminescence yield and the concentration of human IgG was obtained in the range of 1-10 3 ng/ml.

  18. Synthesis and properties of differently charged chemiluminescent acridinium ester labels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natrajan, Anand; Sharpe, David

    2013-02-14

    Chemiluminescent acridinium dimethylphenyl esters containing N-sulfopropyl groups in the acridinium ring are highly sensitive, hydrophilic labels that are used in automated immunoassays for clinical diagnostics. Light emission from these labels is triggered with alkaline peroxide in the presence of a cationic surfactant. At physiological pH, N-sulfopropyl acridinium esters exist as water adducts that are commonly referred to as pseudobases. Pseudobase formation, which results from addition of water to the zwitterionic N-sulfopropyl acridinium ring, neutralizes the positive charge on the acridinium nitrogen and imparts a net negative charge to the label due to the sulfonate moiety. As a consequence, N-sulfopropyl acridinium ester conjugates of small molecule haptens as well as large molecules such as proteins gain negative charges at neutral pH. In the current study, we describe the synthesis and properties of two new hydrophilic acridinium dimethylphenyl ester labels where the net charge in the labels was altered. In one label, the structure of the hydrophilic N-alkyl group attached to the acridinium ring was changed so that the pseudobase of the label contains no net charge. In the second acridinium ester, two additional negative charges in the form of sulfopropyl groups were added to the acridinium ring to make this label's pseudobase strongly anionic. Chemiluminescence measurements of these labels, as well as their conjugates of an antibody with a neutral pI, indicate that acridinium ester charge while having a modest effect on emission kinetics has little influence on light output. However, our results demonstrate that acridinium ester charge can affect protein pI, apparent chemiluminescence stability and non-specific binding of protein conjugates to microparticles. These results emphasize the need for careful consideration of acridinium ester charge in order to optimize reagent stability and performance in immunoassays. In the current study, we observed that

  19. Stimulation of chemiluminescence by synthetic muramyl dipeptide and analogs.

    OpenAIRE

    Masihi, K N; Azuma, I; Brehmer, W; Lange, W.

    1983-01-01

    The effect on respiratory burst of murine splenic cells after in vitro exposure to synthetic muramyl dipeptide (MDP) and 6-O-acyl and quinonyl derivatives was studied at an early phase of interaction by luminol-dependent chemiluminescence (CL) in response to stimulation by zymosan. The MDP molecule enhanced CL, but the degree of CL response varied with the kinds of fatty acids introduced in the chemical structure of synthetic glycopeptide analogs. A 6-O-acyl derivative possessing an alpha-bra...

  20. Parabens determination in cosmetic and personal care products exploiting a multi-syringe chromatographic (MSC) system and chemiluminescent detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodas, Melisa; Portugal, Lindomar A; Avivar, Jessica; Estela, José Manuel; Cerdà, Víctor

    2015-10-01

    Parabens are widely used in dairy products, such as in cosmetics and personal care products. Thus, in this work a multi-syringe chromatographic (MSC) system is proposed for the first time for the determination of four parabens: methylparaben (MP), ethylparaben (EP), propylparaben (PP) and butylparaben (BP) in cosmetics and personal care products, as a simpler, practical, and low cost alternative to HPLC methods. Separation was achieved using a 5mm-long precolumn of reversed phase C18 and multi-isocratic separation, i.e. using two consecutive mobile phases, 12:88 acetonitrile:water and 28:72 acetonitrile:water. The use of a multi-syringe buret allowed the easy implementation of chemiluminescent (CL) detection after separation. The chemiluminescent detection is based on the reduction of Ce(IV) by p-hydroxybenzoic acid, product of the acid hydrolysis of parabens, to excite rhodamine 6G (Rho 6G) and measure the resulting light emission. Multivariate designs combined with the concepts of multiple response treatments and desirability functions have been employed to simultaneously optimize and evaluate the responses. The optimized method has proved to be sensitive and precise, obtaining limits of detection between 20 and 40 µg L(-1) and RSD <4.9% in all cases. The method was satisfactorily applied to cosmetics and personal care products, obtaining no significant differences at a confidence level of 95% comparing with the HPLC reference method.

  1. СHANGES IN PARAMETERS OF LUMINOL-DEPENDENT AND LUCIGENIN-DEPENDENT CHEMILUMINESCENCE OF PERIPHERAL BLOOD NEUTROPHILS IN PATIENTS WITH BLADDER CANCER IN THE DISEASE DYNAMICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. M. Kurtasova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The study deals with parameters of luminol-dependent and lucigenin-dependent chemiluminescence (CL of peripheral blood neutrophils from patients with bladder cancer (BC prior to surgical treatment. We examined sixty patients (45 to 55 years old with advanced bladder cancer (TNM prior to the operation, and forty-six patients at 10 days after surgical treatment. A control group consisted of 56 healthy donors. Luminol-dependent and lucigenin-dependent chemiluminescence of blood neutrophils was assessed according to De Sole et al. (1983. Chemiluminescence assays of peripheral blood neutrophils from the patients with bladder cancer revealed changes in production of reactive oxygen species (ROS, both for initial stage of oxidation reaction, and total level of active oxygen radicals. We have found disturbed values of primary-to-secondary ROS ratio in the cells. In the patients with bladder cancer, some changes in oxidative metabolism of the blood neutrophils have been registered. These alterations may play an important role in promotion of potential effector cell functions, thus, probably, affecting the whole-scale development of a cytopathic effect exerted by neutrophilic granulocytes. 

  2. Advances in integrated and sustainable supply chain planning concepts, methods, tools and solution approaches toward a platform for industrial practice

    CERN Document Server

    Laínez-Aguirre, José Miguel

    2015-01-01

    Decision making at the enterprise level often encompass not only production operations and  product R&D, but other strategic functions such as financial planning and marketing. With the aim of maximizing growth and a firm’s value, companies often focus on co-ordinating these functional components as well as traditional hierarchical decision levels. Understanding this interplay can enhance enterprise capabilities of adaptation and response to uncertainties arising from internal processes as well as the external environment. This book presents concepts, methods, tools and solutions based on mathematical programming, which provides the quantitative support needed for integrated decision-making and ultimately for improving the allocation of overall corporate resources (e.g., materials, cash and personnel). Through a systems perspective, the integrated planning of the supply chain also promotes activities of reuse, reduction and recycling for achieving more sustainable environmental impacts of production/di...

  3. Reduction of Thermal Residual Stresses in Advanced Metallic Composites Based upon a Compensating/Compliant Layer Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, S. M.; Arya, V. K.; Melis, M. E.

    1992-01-01

    A detailed parametric study is carried out to investigate the viability of the recently proposed compensating/compliant layer concept (i.e., the insertion of an interface material between SiC fiber and metal matrix to reduce or eliminate the residual stress buildup during cooling of the composite). The study uses a finite-element concentric cylinder model with generalized plane strain end conditions and free boundary conditions, assuming the SiC fiber to be isotropic and linear elastic and the compliant layer cylinder and matrix (Ti3Al + Nb) cylinder to be isotropic and bilinear elastic-plastic. Results show that a compensating/compliant layer acts to reduce in-plane residual stresses within the fiber and the matrix and, therefore, reduces radial cracking. However, this decrease in in-plane stresses is accompanied by an increase of longitudinal stress, which may initiate longitudinal cracking.

  4. Earth Observing System/Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (EOS/AMSU-A): Software concept document

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwantje, Robert

    1994-01-01

    This document presents the concept for two separate but closely related software systems. The first is the special test equipment (STE) software used at Aerojet for AMSU-A instrument testing, and the second is the workstation software used at the spacecraft integration facility to monitor the AMSU-A instrument when installed on the spacecraft. The primary use of the STE software is to monitor the data output from the AMSU-A instruments, to command the instruments, and to perform automated thermal-vacuum calibration testing. The primary use of the workstation software is to monitor the AMSU-A instrument's performance through an Ethernet link during the instrument/spacecraft integration process.

  5. Advances in alloimmune thrombocytopenia: perspectives on current concepts of human platelet antigens, antibody detection strategies, and genotyping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Tomoya; Hirayama, Fumiya

    2015-07-01

    Alloimmunisation to platelets leads to the production of antibodies against platelet antigens and consequently to thrombocytopenia. Numerous molecules located on the platelet surface are antigenic and induce immune-mediated platelet destruction with symptoms that can be serious. Human platelet antigens (HPA) cause thrombocytopenias, such as neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia, post-transfusion purpura, and platelet transfusion refractoriness. Thirty-four HPA are classified into 28 systems. Assays to identify HPA and anti-HPA antibodies are critically important for preventing and treating thrombocytopenia caused by anti-HPA antibodies. Significant progress in furthering our understanding of HPA has been made in the last decade: new HPA have been discovered, antibody-detection methods have improved, and new genotyping methods have been developed. We review these advances and discuss issues that remain to be resolved as well as future prospects for preventing and treating immune thrombocytopenia.

  6. Euler Technology Assessment - SPLITFLOW Code Applications for Stability and Control Analysis on an Advanced Fighter Model Employing Innovative Control Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Keith J.

    1998-01-01

    This report documents results from the NASA-Langley sponsored Euler Technology Assessment Study conducted by Lockheed-Martin Tactical Aircraft Systems (LMTAS). The purpose of the study was to evaluate the ability of the SPLITFLOW code using viscous and inviscid flow models to predict aerodynamic stability and control of an advanced fighter model. The inviscid flow model was found to perform well at incidence angles below approximately 15 deg, but not as well at higher angles of attack. The results using a turbulent, viscous flow model matched the trends of the wind tunnel data, but did not show significant improvement over the Euler solutions. Overall, the predictions were found to be useful for stability and control design purposes.

  7. Highly sensitive flow-injection chemiluminescence determination of pyrogallol compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanwal, Shamsa; Fu, Xiaohong; Su, Xingguang

    2009-12-01

    A highly sensitive flow-injection chemiluminescent method for the direct determination of pyrogallol compounds has been developed. Proposed method is based on the enhanced effect of pyrogallol compounds on the chemiluminescence signals of KMnO 4-H 2O 2 system in slightly alkaline medium. Three important pyrogallol compounds, pyrogallic acid, gallic acid and tannic acid, have been detected by this method, and the possible mechanism of the CL reaction is also discussed. The proposed method is simple, convenient, rapid (60 samples h -1), and sensitive, has a linear range of 8 × 10 -10 mol L -1 to 1 × 10 -5 mol L -1, for pyrogallic acid, with a detection limit of 6 × 10 -11 mol L -1, 4 × 10 -8 mol L -1 to 5 × 10 -3 mol L -1 for gallic acid with a detection limit of 9 × 10 -10 mol L -1, and 8 × 10 -8 mol L -1 to 5 × 10 -2 mol L -1 for tannic acid, with a detection limit of 2 × 10 -9 mol L -1, respectively. The relative standard deviation (RSD, n = 15) was 0.8, 1.1 and 1.3% for 5 × 10 -6 mol L -1 pyrogallic acid, gallic acid and tannic acid, respectively. The proposed method was successfully applied to the determination of pyrogallol compounds in tea and coffee samples.

  8. Chemiluminescence assay for the detection of biological warfare agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langry, K; Horn, J

    1999-11-05

    A chemiluminescent homogeneous immunoassay and a hand-size multiassay reader are described that could be used for detecting biological materials. The special feature of the assay is that it employs two different antibodies that each bind to a unique epitope on the same antigen. Each group of epitope-specific antibodies has linked to it an enzyme of a proximal-enzyme pair. One enzyme of the pair utilizes a substrate in high concentration to produce a second substrate required by the second enzyme. This new substrate enables the second enzyme to function. The reaction of the second enzyme is configured to produce light. This chemiluminescence is detected with a charge-coupled device (CCD) camera. The proximal pair enzymes must be in close proximity to one another to allow the second enzyme to react with the product of the first enzyme. This only occurs when the enzyme-linked antibodies are attached to the antigen, whether antigen is a single protein with multiple epitopes or the surface of a cell with a variety of different antigens. As a result of their juxtaposition, the enzymes produce light only in the presence of the biological material. A brief description is given as to how this assay could be utilized in a personal bio-agent detector system.

  9. Selective Detection of Neurotransmitters by Fluorescence and Chemiluminescence Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziqiang Wang; Edward S. Yeung

    2001-08-06

    In recent years, luminescence imaging has been widely employed in neurochemical analysis. It has a number of advantages for the study of neuronal and other biological cells: (1) a particular molecular species or cellular constituent can be selectively visualized in the presence of a large excess of other species in a heterogeneous environment; (2) low concentration detection limits can be achieved because of the inherent sensitivity associated with fluorescence and chemiluminescence; (3) low excitation intensities can be used so that long-term observation can be realized while the viability of the specimen is preserved; and (4) excellent spatial resolution can be obtained with the light microscope so subcellular compartments can be identified. With good sensitivity, temporal and spatial resolution, the flux of ions and molecules and the distribution and dynamics of intracellular species can be measured in real time with specific luminescence probes, substrates, or with native fluorescence. A noninvasive detection scheme based on glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) enzymatic assay combined with microscopy was developed to measure the glutamate release in cultured cells from the central nervous system (CNS). The enzyme reaction is very specific and sensitive. The detection limit with CCD imaging is down to {micro}M levels of glutamate with reasonable response time. They also found that chemiluminescence associated with the ATP-dependent reaction between luciferase and luciferin can be used to image ATP at levels down to 10 nM in the millisecond time scale. Similar imaging experiments should be feasible in a broad spectrum of biological systems.

  10. An advanced thin foil sensor concept for heat flux and heat transfer measurements in fully turbulent flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mocikat, H.; Herwig, H.

    2007-02-01

    A double layer hot film with two 10 μm nickel foils, separated by a 25 μm polyimide foil is used as a multi-purpose sensor. Each foil can be operated as a (calibrated) temperature sensor in its passive mode by imposing an electric current small enough to avoid heating by dissipation of electrical energy. Alternatively, however, each foil can also serve as a heater in an active mode with electric currents high enough to cause Joule heating. This double foil sensor can be used as a conventional heat flux sensor in its passive mode when mounted on an externally heated surface. Together with the wall and free stream temperature this measured heat flux will provide the local heat transfer coefficient h = dot{q}w/left(Tw - T_{infty}right). In fully turbulent flows it alternatively can be operated in an active mode on a cold, i.e. not externally heated surface. Then, by heating the upper foil, a local heat transfer is initiated from which the local heat transfer coefficient h can be determined, once the lower foil is heated to the same temperature as the upper one, thus acting as a counter-heater. The overall concept behind this mode of measurement is based on the local character of heat transfer in fully turbulent flows which turns out to be almost independent of the upstream thermal events.

  11. Large-Scale Liquid Hydrogen Tank Rapid Chill and Fill Testing for the Advanced Shuttle Upper Stage Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flachbart, R. H.; Hedayat, A.; Holt, K. A.; Sims, J.; Johnson, E. F.; Hastings, L. J.; Lak, T.

    2013-01-01

    Cryogenic upper stages in the Space Shuttle program were prohibited primarily due to a safety risk of a 'return to launch site' abort. An upper stage concept addressed this concern by proposing that the stage be launched empty and filled using shuttle external tank residuals after the atmospheric pressure could no longer sustain an explosion. However, only about 5 minutes was allowed for tank fill. Liquid hydrogen testing was conducted within a near-ambient environment using the multipurpose hydrogen test bed 638.5 ft3 (18m3) cylindrical tank with a spray bar mounted longitudinally inside. Although the tank was filled within 5 minutes, chilldown of the tank structure was incomplete, and excessive tank pressures occurred upon vent valve closure. Elevated tank wall temperatures below the liquid level were clearly characteristic of film boiling. The test results have substantial implications for on-orbit cryogen transfer since the formation of a vapor film would be much less inhibited due to the reduced gravity. However, the heavy tank walls could become an asset in normal gravity testing for on-orbit transfer, i.e., if film boiling in a nonflight weight tank can be inhibited in normal gravity, then analytical modeling anchored with the data could be applied to reduced gravity environments with increased confidence.

  12. Design Concepts, Fabrication and Advanced Characterization Methods of Innovative Piezoelectric Sensors Based on ZnO Nanowires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araneo, Rodolfo; Rinaldi, Antonio; Notargiacomo, Andrea; Bini, Fabiano; Pea, Marialilia; Celozzi, Salvatore; Marinozzi, Franco; Lovat, Giampiero

    2014-12-08

    Micro- and nano-scale materials and systems based on zinc oxide are expected to explode in their applications in the electronics and photonics, including nano-arrays of addressable optoelectronic devices and sensors, due to their outstanding properties, including semiconductivity and the presence of a direct bandgap, piezoelectricity, pyroelectricity and biocompatibility. Most applications are based on the cooperative and average response of a large number of ZnO micro/nanostructures. However, in order to assess the quality of the materials and their performance, it is fundamental to characterize and then accurately model the specific electrical and piezoelectric properties of single ZnO structures. In this paper, we report on focused ion beam machined high aspect ratio nanowires and their mechanical and electrical (by means of conductive atomic force microscopy) characterization. Then, we investigate the suitability of new power-law design concepts to accurately model the relevant electrical and mechanical size-effects, whose existence has been emphasized in recent reviews.

  13. Design Concepts, Fabrication and Advanced Characterization Methods of Innovative Piezoelectric Sensors Based on ZnO Nanowires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo Araneo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Micro- and nano-scale materials and systems based on zinc oxide are expected to explode in their applications in the electronics and photonics, including nano-arrays of addressable optoelectronic devices and sensors, due to their outstanding properties, including semiconductivity and the presence of a direct bandgap, piezoelectricity, pyroelectricity and biocompatibility. Most applications are based on the cooperative and average response of a large number of ZnO micro/nanostructures. However, in order to assess the quality of the materials and their performance, it is fundamental to characterize and then accurately model the specific electrical and piezoelectric properties of single ZnO structures. In this paper, we report on focused ion beam machined high aspect ratio nanowires and their mechanical and electrical (by means of conductive atomic force microscopy characterization. Then, we investigate the suitability of new power-law design concepts to accurately model the relevant electrical and mechanical size-effects, whose existence has been emphasized in recent reviews.

  14. Development of advanced material composites for use as internal insulation for LH2 tanks (gas layer concept)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gille, J. P.

    1972-01-01

    A program is described that was conducted to develop an internal insulation system for potential application to the liquid hydrogen tanks of a reusable booster, where the tanks would be subjected to repeated high temperatures. The design of the internal insulation is based on a unique gas layer concept, in which capillary or surface tension effects are used to maintain a stable gas layer, within a cellular core structure, between the tank wall and the contained liquid hydrogen. Specific objectives were to select materials for insulation systems that would be compatible with wall temperatures of 350 F and 650 F during reentry into the earth's atmosphere, and to fabricate and test insulation systems under conditions simulating the operating environment. A materials test program was conducted to evaluate the properties of candidate materials at elevated temperatures and at the temperature of liquid hydrogen, and to determine the compatibility of the materials with a hydrogen atmosphere at the appropriate elevated temperature. The materials that were finally selected included Kapton polyimide films, silicone adhesives, fiber glass batting, and in the case of the 350 F system, Teflon film.

  15. Gold nanoparticles-based chemiluminescence resonance energy transfer for ultrasensitive detection of melamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Jianxiu; Wang, Yadi; Zhang, Weimin

    2015-01-01

    A turn-on chemiluminescence resonance energy transfer method was fabricated for the determination of melamine by using bis(2,4,6-trichlorophenyl)oxalate-hydrogen peroxide-fluorescein chemiluminescence reaction as a donor and dispersed gold nanoparticles as an acceptor. The chemiluminescence signal of bis(2,4,6-trichlorophenyl)oxalate-hydrogen peroxide-fluorescein reaction decreased significantly in the presence of dispersed gold nanoparticles because the absorption band of dispersed gold nanoparticles perfectly overlapped with the chemiluminescence spectrum. Melamine could induce the aggregation of gold nanoparticles, leading to a dramatic red-shift of the absorption band of dispersed gold nanoparticles. The absorption band of the aggregated gold nanoparticles does not overlap with the chemiluminescence spectrum of the reaction. In such a case, chemiluminescence resonance energy transfer could not happen and the chemiluminescence signal was restored. The procedure allowed the measurement of 3.2×10(-12)-3.2×10(-7) mol/L melamine with a limit of detection of 3×10(-13) mol/L. The method was applied to the determination of melamine in spiked milk samples; with recoveries within the range 94.1-104.2%.

  16. Review of Chemiluminescence as an Optical Diagnostic Tool in High Pressure Unstable Rockets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Tristan L.

    The purpose of this project was to investigate the effects of optical absorption on line-of-sight integrated chemiluminescence measurements in high pressure rockets. The use of chemiluminescent emissions has been used in the past in an effort to characterise the flame reaction zone and the corresponding heat release, however most efforts have been with low pressure or atmospheric flames. Chemiluminescent measurements have been used in the case of the Continuously Variable Resonant Combustor (CVRC) in an attempt to validate a CFD simulation of the same system, although the CVRC operates at a higher pressure. For higher pressure flames it is unclear if such measurements are valid. To bridge the gap between the experimental and numerical data a spectroscopic model was created to study the validity of chemiluminescent based measurements in the CVRC. It was found that the CVRC combustion medium is optically opaque for the chemiluminescent emissions produced by OH* and optically transparent for the chemiluminescent emissions produced by CH*. Unfortunately, the emissions produced by CH* are largely influenced by the emissions produced by CO 2*. As such, both OH* and CH* are poor indicators of the heat release in the CVRC and therefore chemiluminescence measurements are not useful in validating the CVRC CFD simulation.

  17. Dry cooling of power generating stations: a summary of the economic evaluation of several advanced concepts via a design optimization study and a conceptual design and cost estimate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, B.M.; Allemann, R.T.; Faletti, D.W.; Fryer, B.C.; Zaloudek, F.R.

    1976-09-01

    Due to enhanced concern about water supplies and water use priorities, dry cooling systems for thermal power plants are receiving increased consideration, even though electric power from dry-cooled power plants currently costs 10 to 15 percent more than power from wet-cooled plants. A two-year study which analyzed the performance of existing dry-cooled systems and which developed economic and performance models for cost optimization of dry-cooled systems is reported. First, a design optimization code was used to compare the cost of a number of advanced all-dry systems. Then, 5 different dry/wet systems were carried through conceptual design and cost estimating. The results showed for either an all dry or a combination wet-and-dry cooling system, cost optimization can be achieved with an advanced system using ammonia as an intermediate heat exchange fluid (between the turbine and the dry tower), and that development of the ammonia concept should procede in order to provide performance and reliability data for the ammonia system. (LCL)

  18. [Effects of periodontitis and opsonized zymosan on chemiluminescence of blood neutrophils].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zekonis, Gediminas; Ivanauskiene, Egle

    2002-01-01

    The objective of the present investigation was to explore oxidative function of parodontitis patient's blood neutrophils stimulated with opsonized zymosan by method of luminol- and lucigenin-dependent chemiluminescence. The leukocytes for this study were obtained from peripheral venous blood of 16 parodontitis patients and 10 healthy subjects. The luminol-dependent chemiluminescence of stimulated neutrophils of parodontitis patients did not differ (p > 0.05) from control subjects (66,849 +/- 6372 cpm and 61,243 +/- 5240 cpm, respectively). Lucigenin-dependent chemiluminescence of stimulated neutrophils of parodontitis patients was increased (p parodontitis patients was significantly higher (p parodontitis patients possibly can affect parodontal health.

  19. Flow-injection-enhanced chemiluminescence method for the determination of three β-blockers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Objective To develop a rapid,simple and sensitive chemiluminescence method for the determination of three β-blockers (bisoprolol,atenolol and propranolol). Methods The chemiluminescence of cerium (Ⅳ)-sulfite system was obviously sensitized by adding anyone of three β-blockers in acid media. A new chemiluminescence method was set up by combining with flow-injection technique and used to determine the three β-blockers. Results Good linear ranges were obtained at the concentrations of 2.0×10-7g/mL-4.0×10-5g/mL...

  20. 3D-printed and CNC milled flow-cells for chemiluminescence detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spilstead, Kara B; Learey, Jessica J; Doeven, Egan H; Barbante, Gregory J; Mohr, Stephan; Barnett, Neil W; Terry, Jessica M; Hall, Robynne M; Francis, Paul S

    2014-08-01

    Herein we explore modern fabrication techniques for the development of chemiluminescence detection flow-cells with features not attainable using the traditional coiled tubing approach. This includes the first 3D-printed chemiluminescence flow-cells, and a milled flow-cell designed to split the analyte stream into two separate detection zones within the same polymer chip. The flow-cells are compared to conventional detection systems using flow injection analysis (FIA) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), with the fast chemiluminescence reactions of an acidic potassium permanganate reagent with morphine and a series of adrenergic phenolic amines.

  1. Monocyte chemiluminescence and macrophage precursors in the aged.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahashi,Isao

    1985-12-01

    Full Text Available Age-related alterations in the host defense system have been vigorously investigated because of increased susceptibility to infection and neoplasms in the aged. Although monocyte-macrophages form a major part of the cellular defense against microorganisms, the majority of investigations has been limited to neutrophils and lymphocytes. The present study, designed to determine the influence of age on mononuclear phagocytes, revealed no significant decrease in the absolute number of blood monocytes, but did reveal a tendency for the chemiluminescence of blood monocytes to decrease (p less than 0.10 and a significant decrease in the numbers of macrophage precursors (p less than 0.05 in the aged (over 70 year old, in comparison with controls (under 40 years old. On the basis of these findings, functional alterations of monocyte-macrophages seem to participate in the increased susceptibility to infection in the aged.

  2. Chemiluminescent nitrogen detection (CLND) to measure kinetic aqueous solubility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kestranek, Aimee; Chervenak, Andrew; Longenberger, Justin; Placko, Steven

    2013-01-01

    Solubility is the dose-limiting property for in vitro studies, and therefore is a critical physicochemical property to measure in drug discovery. Solubility data can be used to guide lead optimization, troubleshoot erratic bioassay results, and identify potential downstream liabilities such as insufficient solubility for bioassays or oral bioavailability. Typically, early in vitro studies are performed using library compounds prepared as dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) stock solutions, resulting in in vitro test solutions containing DMSO at low concentration (<5% v/v). Since DMSO can affect the apparent solubility, it is desirable to obtain solubility data under conditions mimicking the in vitro study. Kinetic solubility (from DMSO stock solutions) is often preferred over thermodynamic solubility (from dry powder) in early drug discovery. The protocols in this article describe a general procedure for assessing kinetic aqueous solubility of early drug discovery compounds using a miniaturized shake flask method with chemiluminescent nitrogen detection (CLND).

  3. Determination of theophylline concentration in serum by chemiluminescent immunoassay

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Mei-xia; GUAN Cha-ying; CHEN Guang; XIE Xin-you; WU Sheng-hai

    2005-01-01

    Objective: This study aimed to establish chemiluminescent immunoassay (CLIA) for quantitative determination of theophylline levels in human serum. Methods: To measure the concentration of theophylline (n=122) and evaluate the assay.Results: The linear range of the CLIA method was 0.51~40 mg/L (Y=1.02X+0.44, r=0.995). The intra and inter CV (coefficient variance) of CLIA were 3.20% and 3.57%, respectively. The average recovery rate was 102.3%. This method was free from interference by brilirubin (<200 μmol/L), hemoglobin (<10 g/L), and triglycerides (<15 mmol/L). Conclusion: This method is simple, convenient and precise for clinical pharmacokinetics study oftheophylline.

  4. Ester oxidation on an aluminum surface using chemiluminescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, William R., Jr.; Meador, Michael A.; Morales, Wilfredo

    1986-01-01

    The oxidation characteristics of a pure ester (trimethyolpropane triheptanoate) were studied by using a chemiluminescence technique. Tests were run in a thin film microoxidation apparatus with an aluminum alloy catalyst. Conditions included a pure oxygen atmosphere and a temperature range of 176 to 206 C. Results indicated that oxidation of the ester (containing .001 M diphenylanthracene as an intensifier) was accompanied by emission of light. The maximum intensity of light emission was a function of the amount of ester, the concentration of intensifier, and the test temperature. The induction period, or the time to reach one-half of maximum intensity was inversely proportional to test temperature. Decreases in light emission at the later stages of a test were caused by depletion of the intensifier.

  5. Stimulation of chemiluminescence by synthetic muramyl dipeptide and analogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masihi, K N; Azuma, I; Brehmer, W; Lange, W

    1983-04-01

    The effect on respiratory burst of murine splenic cells after in vitro exposure to synthetic muramyl dipeptide (MDP) and 6-O-acyl and quinonyl derivatives was studied at an early phase of interaction by luminol-dependent chemiluminescence (CL) in response to stimulation by zymosan. The MDP molecule enhanced CL, but the degree of CL response varied with the kinds of fatty acids introduced in the chemical structure of synthetic glycopeptide analogs. A 6-O-acyl derivative possessing an alpha-branched fatty acid chain, B30-MDP, stimulated maximum levels of CL activity. High CL responses were obtained with L8-MDP having a short chain of linear fatty acids and with QS-10-MDP-66 containing a ubiquinone compound. CL was also stimulated by MDP and its analogs in the spleen cells of nude mice lacking mature T lymphocytes, but the extent of stimulation was decreased compared with that of normal spleen cells.

  6. Selective chlorine dioxide determination using gas-diffusion flow injection analysis with chemiluminescent detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollowell, D.A.; Gord, J.R.; Gordon, G.; Pacey, G.E.

    1986-06-01

    An automated chemiluminescent technique has been developed utilizing the advantages of gas-diffusion flow injection analysis. A gas-diffusion membrane separates the donor (sampling) stream from the acceptor (detecting) stream and removes ionic interferences. A novel chemiluminescence flow-through detector cell is used to measure the concentration of chlorine dioxide as a function of the intensity of the chemiluminescence produced from its reaction with luminol. The chemiluminescent reagent merges with the analyte directly in front of the photomultiplier tube in order to maximize the sensitivity of the system. The detection limit for chlorine dioxide is approximately 5 ppb. The method is over 1500 times more selective for chlorine dioxide than for chlorine on a mole basis. This method eliminates interference from iron and manganese compounds, as well as other oxychlorinated compounds such as chlorite ion and chlorate ion.

  7. Surface plasmon coupled chemiluminescence during adsorption of oxygen on magnesium surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagemann, Ulrich [Interdisciplinary Center for the Analytics on the Nanoscale (ICAN) and Center for Nanointegration Duisburg-Essen (CENIDE), Carl-Benz-Str. 199, 47057 Duisburg (Germany); Nienhaus, Hermann, E-mail: hermann.nienhaus@uni-due.de [Faculty of Physics, University of Duisburg-Essen and Center for Nanointegration Duisburg-Essen (CENIDE), Lotharstr. 1, 47048 Duisburg (Germany)

    2015-12-28

    The dissociative adsorption of oxygen molecules on magnesium surfaces represents a non-adiabatic reaction exhibiting exoelectron emission, chemicurrent generation, and weak chemiluminescence. Using thin film Mg/Ag/p-Si(111) Schottky diodes with 1 nm Mg on a 10-60 nm thick Ag layer as 2π-photodetectors, the chemiluminescence is internally detected with a much larger efficiency than external methods. The chemically induced photoyield shows a maximum for a Ag film thickness of 45 nm. The enhancement is explained by surface plasmon coupled chemiluminescence, i.e., surface plasmon polaritons are effectively excited in the Ag layer by the oxidation reaction and decay radiatively leading to the observed photocurrent. Model calculations of the maximum absorption in attenuated total reflection geometry support the interpretation. The study demonstrates the extreme sensitivity and the practical usage of internal detection schemes for investigating surface chemiluminescence.

  8. A highly-sensitive multisubstrate-compatible chemiluminescent immunoassay for human fetuin A

    OpenAIRE

    sprotocols

    2015-01-01

    Authors: Sandeep Kumar Vashist ### Abstract We report a highly-sensitive chemiluminescent immunoassay (CIA) for the detection of human fetuin A (HFA), which is based on the leach-proof covalent crosslinking of anti-HFA capture antibodies on 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES)-functionalized 96-well chemiluminescent microtiter plates (CMTP) using 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide hydrochloride and N-hydroxysulfosuccinimide. It has more than 3-fold reduced overall assay du...

  9. Efficient Generation of Chemiluminescence during the reduction of manganese(IV) ions with lactic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsaplev, Yu. B.

    2016-12-01

    The kinetics and mechanism of chemiluminescence during the reduction of manganese(IV) ions with lactic acid in an H2SO4-AcOH medium are studied. Kinetic spectrophotometric measurements are used to determine the profiles of change in the concentrations of Mn(IV) and Mn(III) ions during the reaction. The results from kinetic spectrophotometric measurements are compared to the light yield kinetics. The quantum chemiluminescence and chemiexcitation yields reach record values.

  10. The Application of the NASA Advanced Concepts Office, Launch Vehicle Team Design Process and Tools for Modeling Small Responsive Launch Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Threet, Grady E.; Waters, Eric D.; Creech, Dennis M.

    2012-01-01

    The Advanced Concepts Office (ACO) Launch Vehicle Team at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is recognized throughout NASA for launch vehicle conceptual definition and pre-phase A concept design evaluation. The Launch Vehicle Team has been instrumental in defining the vehicle trade space for many of NASA s high level launch system studies from the Exploration Systems Architecture Study (ESAS) through the Augustine Report, Constellation, and now Space Launch System (SLS). The Launch Vehicle Team s approach to rapid turn-around and comparative analysis of multiple launch vehicle architectures has played a large role in narrowing the design options for future vehicle development. Recently the Launch Vehicle Team has been developing versions of their vetted tools used on large launch vehicles and repackaged the process and capability to apply to smaller more responsive launch vehicles. Along this development path the LV Team has evaluated trajectory tools and assumptions against sounding rocket trajectories and air launch systems, begun altering subsystem mass estimating relationships to handle smaller vehicle components, and as an additional development driver, have begun an in-house small launch vehicle study. With the recent interest in small responsive launch systems and the known capability and response time of the ACO LV Team, ACO s launch vehicle assessment capability can be utilized to rapidly evaluate the vast and opportune trade space that small launch vehicles currently encompass. This would provide a great benefit to the customer in order to reduce that large trade space to a select few alternatives that should best fit the customer s payload needs.

  11. Optical tomography of fluorophores in dense scattering media based on ultrasound-enhanced chemiluminescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, Masaki, E-mail: masaki@tohtech.ac.jp; Kikuchi, Naoto; Sato, Akihiro [Department of Electronics and Intelligent Systems, Tohoku Institute of Technology, Sendai 982-8577 (Japan)

    2015-01-12

    This letter proposes and demonstrates ultrasound-combined optical imaging in dense scattering media. A peroxyoxalate chemiluminescence system that includes fluorophores to chemically excite the pigment is stimulated by ultrasound irradiation with power of less than 0.14 W/cm{sup 2}. Using focused ultrasound, the chemiluminescence is selectively spatially enhanced, which leads to imaging of the pigment when embedded in a light-scattering medium via scanning of the focal point. The ultrasonically enhanced intensity of the chemiluminescence depends on the base intensity of the chemiluminescence without the applied ultrasound irradiation, which thereby enables quantitative determination of the fluorophore concentration. The authors demonstrate the potential of this method to resolve chemiluminescent targets in a dense scattering medium that is comparable to biological tissue. An image was acquired of a chemiluminescent target that included indocyanine green as the fluorophore embedded at a depth of 20 mm in an Intralipid-10% 200 ml/l solution scattering medium (the reduced scattering coefficient was estimated to be approximately 1.3 mm{sup −1}), indicating the potential for expansion of this technique for use in biological applications.

  12. A new primary cleft lip repair technique tailored for Asian patients that combines three surgical concepts: Comparison with rotation--advancement and straight-line methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funayama, Emi; Yamamoto, Yuhei; Furukawa, Hiroshi; Murao, Naoki; Shichinohe, Ryuji; Hayashi, Toshihiko; Oyama, Akihiko

    2016-01-01

    Various techniques have been described for unilateral cleft lip repair. These may be broadly classified into three types of procedure/concept: the straight-line method (SL; Rose-Thompson effect); rotation-advancement (RA; upper-lip Z-plasty); and the triangular flap method (TA; lower-lip Z-plasty). Based on these procedures, cleft lip repair has evolved in recent decades. The cleft lip repair method in our institution has also undergone several changes. However, we have found that further modifications are needed for Asian patients who have wider philtral dimples and columns than Caucasians, while following the principles of the original techniques mentioned above. Here, we have incorporated the advantages of each procedure and propose a refined hybrid operating technique, seeking a more appropriate procedure for Asian patients. To evaluate our new technique, a comparison study was performed to evaluate RA, SL, and our technique. We have used our new technique to treat 137 consecutive cleft lip cases of all types and degrees of severity, with or without a cleft palate, since 2009. In the time since we adopted the hybrid technique, we have observed improved esthetics of the repaired lip. Our technique demonstrated higher glance impression average scores than RA/SL.

  13. DUAL-MODE PROPULSION SYSTEM ENABLING CUBESAT EXPLORATION OF THE SOLAR SYSTEM NASA Innovative Advanced Concepts (NIAC) Phase I Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nathan Jerred; Troy Howe; Adarsh Rajguru; Dr. Steven Howe

    2014-06-01

    -based systems. The second scenario allows for the production of electrical power, which is then available for electric-based propulsion. Additionally, once at location the production of electrical power can be dedicated to the payload’s communication system for data transfer. Ultimately, the proposed dual-mode propulsion platform capitalizes on the benefits of two types of propulsion methods – the thrust of thermal propulsion ideal for quick orbital maneuvers and the specific impulse of electric propulsion ideal for efficient inter-planetary travel. Previous versions of this RTR-based concept have been studied for various applications [NETS 1-3]. The current version of this concept is being matured through a NASA Innovative Advanced Concepts (NIAC) Phase I grant, awarded for FY 2014. In this study the RTR concept is being developed to deliver a 6U CubeSat payload to the orbit of the Saturnian moon - Enceladus. Additionally, this study will develop an entire mission architecture for Enceladus targeting a total allowable launch mass of 1,000 kg.

  14. Fruit ecology: Its concepts, research advances, and research perspectives%果实生态学的概念、研究现状及研究方向

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方伟伟; 于顺利

    2013-01-01

    总结了果实生态学的概念及主要研究内容,对国内外的果实生态学研究领域的进展进行了综述,分析了这些研究尚存在的不足之处,并指出了未来研究的科学问题.迄今为止,果实生态学在果实与种子的关系、果实颜色与环境、果实化学成分与环境、群落果实构成式样的地理分布特征、果实及食果动物的协同进化等方面已经取得了若干进展.果实重量谱等物理性状的空间分异格局及机理、果实化学成分的时空变异格局、果实类型的组成式样及大尺度地理分布格局及其机制的探讨、果实传播与食果动物的协同进化等是未来亟待开展的工作.%This paper introduced the concepts and main research contents of fruit ecology,summarized the related research advances,analyzed the shortcomings and gaps of the extant researches,and pointed out the future research perspectives.So far,some advances have been made in the correlativity between seed and fruit,fruit color and environment,fruit chemical components and environment,and fruit physical properties and geographic distribution pattern,and the coevolution between fruits and frugivores.However,following scientific issues need a further focus in the future:1) the spatial differentiation patterns and their mechanisms of fruit physical traits such as mass spectrum and seed number per fruit,2) the spatial variations and their mechanisms of fruit chemical components,and 3) the large scale geographical distribution patterns of fruit type composition modes and fruit type diversity and their environmental adaptation explanation,and the coevolution between fruit spread and frugivores.

  15. Electrochemistry and electrogenerated chemiluminescence from silicon nanocrystal quantum dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Zhifeng; Quinn, Bernadette M; Haram, Santosh K; Pell, Lindsay E; Korgel, Brian A; Bard, Allen J

    2002-05-17

    Reversible electrochemical injection of discrete numbers of electrons into sterically stabilized silicon nanocrystals (NCs) (approximately 2 to 4 nanometers in diameter) was observed by differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) in N,N'-dimethylformamide and acetonitrile. The electrochemical gap between the onset of electron injection and hole injection-related to the highest occupied and lowest unoccupied molecular orbitals-grew with decreasing nanocrystal size, and the DPV peak potentials above the onset for electron injection roughly correspond to expected Coulomb blockade or quantized double-layer charging energies. Electron transfer reactions between positively and negatively charged nanocrystals (or between charged nanocrystals and molecular redox-active coreactants) occurred that led to electron and hole annihilation, producing visible light. The electrogenerated chemiluminescence spectra exhibited a peak maximum at 640 nanometers, a significant red shift from the photoluminescence maximum (420 nanometers) of the same silicon NC solution. These results demonstrate that the chemical stability of silicon NCs could enable their use as redox-active macromolecular species with the combined optical and charging properties of semiconductor quantum dots.

  16. Chemiluminescence microarrays in analytical chemistry: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidel, Michael; Niessner, Reinhard

    2014-09-01

    Multi-analyte immunoassays on microarrays and on multiplex DNA microarrays have been described for quantitative analysis of small organic molecules (e.g., antibiotics, drugs of abuse, small molecule toxins), proteins (e.g., antibodies or protein toxins), and microorganisms, viruses, and eukaryotic cells. In analytical chemistry, multi-analyte detection by use of analytical microarrays has become an innovative research topic because of the possibility of generating several sets of quantitative data for different analyte classes in a short time. Chemiluminescence (CL) microarrays are powerful tools for rapid multiplex analysis of complex matrices. A wide range of applications for CL microarrays is described in the literature dealing with analytical microarrays. The motivation for this review is to summarize the current state of CL-based analytical microarrays. Combining analysis of different compound classes on CL microarrays reduces analysis time, cost of reagents, and use of laboratory space. Applications are discussed, with examples from food safety, water safety, environmental monitoring, diagnostics, forensics, toxicology, and biosecurity. The potential and limitations of research on multiplex analysis by use of CL microarrays are discussed in this review.

  17. Evaluation of a new chemiluminescence immunoassay for diagnosis of syphilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mo Xiaohui

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To assess the sensitivity, specificity, and feasibility of a new chemiluminescence immunoassay (CLIA in the diagnosis of syphilis. Methods At first, a retrospective study was conducted, using 135 documented cases of syphilis and 30 potentially interfering samples and 80 normal sera. A prospective study was also performed by testing 2, 071 unselected samples for routine screening for syphilis. CLIA was compared with a nontreponemal test (TRUST and a treponemal test (TPPA. Results There was an agreement of 100% between CLIA and TPPA in the respective study. The percentage of agreement among the 245 sera tested was 100.0%. Compared with TPPA, the specificity of CLIA was 99.9% (1817/1819, the sensitivity of CLIA was 100.0% (244/244 in the prospective study. CLIA showed 99.5% agreement with TPPA by testing 2, 071 unselected samples. And CLIA seemed to be more sensitive than TPPA in detecting the samples of primary syphilis. Conclusions CLIA is easy to perform and the indicator results are objective and unequivocal. It may be suitable for large-scale screening as a treponemal test substituted for TPPA.

  18. Capillary electrophoresis-chemiluminescence determination of norfloxacin and prulifloxacin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang Zhongju; Wang Xiaoli [College of Chemistry, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Qin Weidong [College of Chemistry, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China)], E-mail: qinwd@bnu.edu.cn; Zhao Huichun [College of Chemistry, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China)], E-mail: zhaohuichun@bnu.edu.cn

    2008-08-15

    A capillary electrophoresis (CE)-chemiluminescence (CL) method for determining norfloxacin (NFLX) and prulifloxacin (PFLX) was developed based on the enhanced CL intensity of the cerium(IV)-sulfite-fluoroquinolone (FQ) reaction sensitized by terbium(III). The separation was conducted in buffer composed of 20 mM sodium citrate, 4 mM citric acid and 10 mM sodium sulfite at pH 6.1. The CL reagent solution consisted of 2 mM cerium(IV), 4 mM terbium(III) and 1.1 mM hydrochloric acid. NFLX and PFLX were baseline separated within 11 min with detection limits (S/N = 3) of 0.057 and 0.084 {mu}g mL{sup -1}, respectively. The maximum intra- and inter-day relative standard deviations (R.S.D.s) of migration time of the analytes were less than 4.0% and 4.2%, respectively. The proposed method was applied to detect NFLX and PFLX in fortified urine sample and the results were comparable to high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-UV method. Moreover, the high selectivity of the CL detection and the high-separation efficiency of CE render the method the potential of quick analyzing fluoroquinolones in real complex matrix.

  19. Electrogenerated chemiluminescence of anatase TiO₂ nanotubes film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lifen; Lu, Lili; Mo, Yan; Xu, Zemin; Xie, Shunping; Yuan, Hongyan; Xiao, Dan; Choi, Martin M F

    2011-07-15

    Highly ordered titanium dioxide (TiO(2)) nanotubes film was successfully synthesized via anodic oxidation of a Ti foil in an ammonium fluoride-based ethylene glycol solution. The electrogenerated chemiluminescence (ECL) behavior of the resulting TiO(2) nanotubes film was subsequently studied. Strong ECL emission was observed at -1.40V (vs. Ag/AgCl) and the ECL spectrum displayed three emission peaks which were bathochromatically shifted by ca. 140nm as compared to its corresponding photoluminescence (PL) emission peaks, indicating that the surface state plays an important role in the emission process. The ECL emission can also occur in a deareated solution attributing to the surface adsorbed O(2) molecules. The ECL emission intensity was quenched by dopamine and greatly enhanced in the presence of dissolved O(2) and H(2)O(2), making it possible to detect these analytes. The TiO(2) nanotubes film has been successfully applied to determine the dissolved O(2) content in river and pond water samples, the H(2)O(2) concentration in commercial disinfectant samples and the dopamine concentration in commercial dopamine injections with satisfactory results. The plausible ECL mechanisms of TiO(2) nanotubes film in aqueous solution are discussed.

  20. Synthesis and properties of chemiluminescent acridinium ester labels with fluorous tags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natrajan, Anand; Wen, David; Sharpe, David

    2014-06-21

    Acridinium dimethylphenyl esters are highly sensitive chemiluminescent labels that are used in clinical diagnostics. Light emission from these labels is triggered with alkaline peroxide in the presence of the cationic surfactant cetyltrimethylammonium chloride (CTAC). CTAC compresses emission times of these labels to ester chemiluminescence (light yield) is quite sensitive to the polarity of the micellar interface. In the current study, we report the synthesis of new acridinium ester labels with fluorous tags of varying fluorine content and their chemiluminescence in the presence of cationic micelles of CTAC, anionic micelles of sodium perfluorooctanoate (SPFO) as well as mixed micelles of CTAC and SPFO. These studies indicate that in the presence of the mixed micelle system of CTAC and SPFO and at low mole fractions of SPFO, polarity of the mixed micelle interface is lower than that of CTAC leading to a greater enhancement of chemiluminescence for both fluorinated acridinium esters as well as a structurally analogous but non-fluorinated acridinium ester. Chemiluminescence stability of the fluorinated acridinium esters was either comparable to or better than the stability of the non-fluorinated acridinium ester. Non-specific binding to paramagnetic microparticles was higher for fluorinated acridinium esters requiring a surfactant wash to reduce their non-specific binding to the same extent as that observed for the non-fluorinated acridinium ester.

  1. Flow injection chemiluminescence determination of lercanidipine based on N-chlorosuccinimide-eosin Y post-chemiluminescence reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guowei; Zhao, Fang; Gao, Ying

    2014-12-01

    A novel post-chemiluminescence (PCL) reaction was discovered when lercanidipine was injected into the CL reaction mixture of N-chlorosuccinimide with alkaline eosin Y in the presence of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB), where eosin Y was used as the CL reagent and CTAB as the surfactant. Based on this observation, a simple and highly sensitive PCL method combined with a flow injection (FI) technique was developed for the assay of lercanidipine. Under optimum conditions, the CL signal was linearly related to the concentration of lercanidipine in the range 7.0 × 10(-10) to 3.0 × 10(-6)  g/mL with a detection limit of 2.3 × 10(-10) g/mL (3σ). The relative standard deviation (RSD) was 2.1% for 1.0 × 10(-8) g/mL lercanidipine (n = 13). The proposed method had been applied to the estimation of lercanidipine in tablets and human serum samples with satisfactory results. The possible CL mechanism is also discussed briefly.

  2. [Changes in Kinetics of Chemiluminescence of Plasma as a Measure of Systemic Oxidative Stress in Humans].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sozarukova, M M; Polimova, A M; Proskurnina, E V; Vladimirov, Yu A

    2016-01-01

    Oxidative stress is a pathogenetic factor of many diseases. The control of its level is important for early diagnosis and therapy adjustment. In this work, antioxidant status was estimated in blood plasma. In the system of 2,2'-azo-bis(2-amidinopropane)dihydrochloride-luminol a set of chemiluminescence kinetic curve parameters is proposed for oxidative stress level estimation (the latent period τ(lat) and the increasing of analytical signal ΔI(CL)). Uric acid and albumin were shown as the main components that responsible for changes in chemiluminescence kinetic curve of plasma. Serum albumin undergoes oxidative modification in dose-depend manner under the action of UV irradiation, it causes the enhancement of antioxidant properties. Changes in plasma chemiluminescence kinetics are proposed as a measure of oxidative stress in human body.

  3. Effect of fuel type on equivalence ratio measurements using chemiluminescence in premixed flames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orain, Mikaël; Hardalupas, Yannis

    2010-05-01

    Local temporally-resolved measurements of chemiluminescent intensity from OH ∗, CH ∗ and C ∗2 radicals were obtained in premixed counterflow flames operating with propane and prevaporised fuels (isooctane, ethanol and methanol), for different equivalence ratios and strain rates. The results quantified independently the effects of fuel type, strain rate and equivalence ratio on chemiluminescent emissions from flames. The ability of chemiluminescent intensity from OH ∗, CH ∗ and C ∗2 radicals to indicate heat release rate depends strongly on fuel type. The intensity ratio OH ∗/CH ∗ has a monotonic decrease with equivalence ratio for all fuels and can be used to measure equivalence ratio of the reacting mixture. For propane and isooctane, the OH ∗/CH ∗ ratio remains independent of flame strain rate, whereas some dependence is observed for ethanol and methanol.

  4. Integration of Advanced Concepts and Vehicles Into the Next Generation Air Transportation System. Volume 1; Introduction, Key Messages, and Vehicle Attributes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zellweger, Andres; Resnick, Herbert; Stevens, Edward; Arkind, Kenneth; Cotton William B.

    2010-01-01

    Raytheon, in partnership with NASA, is leading the way in ensuring that the future air transportation continues to be a key driver of economic growth and stability and that this system provides an environmentally friendly, safe, and effective means of moving people and goods. A Raytheon-led team of industry and academic experts, under NASA contract NNA08BA47C, looked at the potential issues and impact of introducing four new classes of advanced aircraft into the next generation air transportation system -- known as NextGen. The study will help determine where NASA should further invest in research to support the safe introduction of these new air vehicles. Small uncrewed or unmanned aerial systems (SUAS), super heavy transports (SHT) including hybrid wing body versions (HWB), very light jets (VLJ), and supersonic business jets (SSBJ) are the four classes of aircraft that we studied. Understanding each vehicle's business purpose and strategy is critical to assessing the feasibility of new aircraft operations and their impact on NextGen's architecture. The Raytheon team used scenarios created by aviation experts that depict vehicles in year 2025 operations along with scripts or use cases to understand the issues presented by these new types of vehicles. The information was then mapped into the Joint Planning and Development Office's (JPDO s) Enterprise Architecture to show how the vehicles will fit into NextGen's Concept of Operations. The team also identified significant changes to the JPDO's Integrated Work Plan (IWP) to optimize the NextGen vision for these vehicles. Using a proven enterprise architecture approach and the JPDO s Joint Planning Environment (JPE) web site helped make the leap from architecture to planning efficient, manageable and achievable. Very Light Jets flying into busy hub airports -- Supersonic Business Jets needing to climb and descend rapidly to achieve the necessary altitude Super-heavy cargo planes requiring the shortest common flight

  5. Advanced nanoelectronics

    CERN Document Server

    Ismail, Razali

    2012-01-01

    While theories based on classical physics have been very successful in helping experimentalists design microelectronic devices, new approaches based on quantum mechanics are required to accurately model nanoscale transistors and to predict their characteristics even before they are fabricated. Advanced Nanoelectronics provides research information on advanced nanoelectronics concepts, with a focus on modeling and simulation. Featuring contributions by researchers actively engaged in nanoelectronics research, it develops and applies analytical formulations to investigate nanoscale devices. The

  6. Assay of Cysteine in Human Serum with Quinine-Ce4+ Chemiluminescence System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    A sensitive and selective chemiluminescence (CL) method was developed for the determination of cysteine. This method is based on that the weak CL of cysteine oxidized with cerium (IV) can be greatly enhanced by quinine, and the total cysteine in human serum can be detected through simply diluting with water, showing a simpler analytical characteristic.

  7. Flow injection analysis of ketoprofen based on the order transform second chemiluminescence reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Yafeng; Cao, Guiping; Ge, Chuanqin

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores an order-transform-second-chemiluminescence (OTSCL) method combining the flow injection technique for the determination of ketoprofen. When ketoprofen solution was injected into the mixture after the end of the reaction of alkaline luminol and sodium periodate or sodium periodate solution was injected into the reaction mixture of ketoprofen and alkaline luminol, a new chemiluminescence (CL) reaction was initiated and strong CL signal was detected. A mechanism for the OTSCL has been proposed on the basis of the chemiluminescence kinetic characteristic, UV-visible absorption and chemiluminescent spectra. Under optimal experimental conditions, the CL response is proportional to the concentration of ketoprofen over the range of 2.0 × 10 -7 to 1.0 × 10 -5 mol/L with a correlation coefficient of 0.9950 and a detection limit of 8.0 × 10 -9 mol/L (3 σ). The relative standard deviation for 11 repetitive determinations of 1.0 × 10 -6 mol/L ketoprofen is 2.9%. The utility of this method was demonstrated by determining ketoprofen in pharmaceutical formulations without interference from its potential impurities.

  8. Design and evaluation of capillary electrophoresis in dynamically coated capillaries coupled with chemiluminescence detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Haiyan; Han, Ning; Zhang, Lingyi; Du, Yiping; Zhang, Weibing

    2010-11-08

    A dynamic coating capillary electrophoresis coupled with a simplified on-line chemiluminescence detection system was designed and evaluated. In the proposed system, poly-vinylpyrrolidone was used as dynamic coating substance in the separation buffer to reduce the unwanted protein non-specific adsorption, which was first applied in capillary electrophoresis coupling with on-line chemiluminescence detection. In order to avoid complex processing, an ordinary plastic cuvette was modified as a three-way joint. The chemiluminescence reaction conditions and capillary electrophoresis separation conditions were investigated in detail. The results showed that the coated capillary can be injected protein samples at least 30 times continuously with good repeatability. Under optimal conditions, the chemiluminescence relative intensity was linear with the concentration of hemoglobin in the range of 4-1850 μg mL(-1) and the detection limit was 2.0 μg mL(-1) (S/N=3). The relative standard deviation of migration times and peak heights for 40 μg mL(-1) hemoglobin were 2.5% and 4.1% (n=11) respectively. Interference of matrix effects was overcome by the calibration according to standard addition methods. Afterwards, the method was validated successfully and was applied to detect the concentration of hemoglobin in the serum of haemolytic patients.

  9. Measurement of thyrotropin in clinical and subclinical hyperthyroidism using a new chemiluminescent assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, D S; Ardisson, L J; Meskell, M J

    1989-09-01

    A new commercially available chemiluminescent TSH assay demonstrates an 8- to 10-fold increase in sensitivity over a sensitive immunoradiometric assay, allowing increased ability to distinguish partial from more complete thyrotroph suppression. Sera were analyzed from 145 patients who had TSH concentrations below 0.08 mU/L in the immunoradiometric assay. Most patients with overt hyperthyroidism had undetectable TSH concentrations in the chemiluminescent assay. Three groups of patients were identified, in which a large subgroup had undetectable values in the immunoradiometric assay and detectable values in the chemiluminescent assay (12 of 17 patients under treatment for hyperthyroidism who had recently normalized their serum thyroid hormone levels, 33 of 68 patients taking L-T4, and 4 of 8 patients with endogenous subclinical hyperthyroidism). In addition, several patients with undetectable basal and detectable TRH-stimulated TSH values in the immunoradiometric assay had detectable basal TSH values in the chemiluminescent assay. The utility of first generation TSH immunometric assays was their ability to distinguish hyperthyroidism from euthyroidism. The clinical utility of increasingly sensitive TSH assays will be to distinguish degrees of thyrotroph suppression in subclinical hyperthyroidism.

  10. A novel chemiluminescent immunoassay for detection of Toxoplasma gondii IgG in human sera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holec-Gąsior, Lucyna; Ferra, Bartłomiej; Czechowska, Justyna; Serdiuk, Illia E; Krzymiński, Karol; Kur, Józef

    2016-08-01

    This study describes Toxoplasma gondii IgG chemiluminescent immunoassay (CLIA) based on the use of a novel immunochemical reagents in the form of the conjugates of original acridinium ester (AE) labels attached to antibodies and SAG2-GRA1-ROP1L chimeric antigen and shows that this test is useful for diagnostic purposes.

  11. Evaluation of endotoxin (LPS) activity in bovine blood using neutrophil dependent chemiluminescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the applicability of a neutrophil chemiluminescence-based assay for the measurement of LPS stimulatory activity in bovine whole blood. The assay is based on the capacity for LPS to trigger the respiratory oxidative burst activity (RBA) of autologous neutroph...

  12. Chemiluminescence: Measuring methods. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-05-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning chemiluminescence assays. The citations include sample system design, sample collection, measurement techniques, and sensitivity of the instrumentation. Applications in high altitude air pollution studies are emphasized. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  13. Fabrication technology of chemiluminescent sensitive elements for rocket-borne ozone detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kononkov, V. A.; Lelikova, A. I.; Perov, S. P.

    Attention is given to the technology behind the fabrication of chemiluminescent sensitive elements for rocket-borne ozone detectors. High-silica microporous glass is the basic material required for these detectors. It is noted that the luminophor consists of rhodamine-C and gallic acid, and that the desired ratio of these components depends on the sensitivity of a particular specimen to ozone.

  14. Acidic Potassium Permanganate Chemiluminescence for the Determination of Antioxidant Potential in Three Cultivars of Ocimum basilicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Shivani; Adholeya, Alok; Conlan, Xavier A; Cahill, David M

    2016-03-01

    Ocimum basilicum, a member of the family Lamiaceae, is a rich source of polyphenolics that have antioxidant properties. The present study describes the development and application of an online HPLC-coupled acidic potassium permanganate chemiluminescence assay for the qualitative and quantitative assessment of antioxidants in three cultivars of O. basilicum grown under greenhouse conditions. The chemiluminescence based assay was found to be a sensitive and efficient method for assessment of total and individual compound antioxidant potential. Leaves, flowers and roots were found to be rich reserves of the antioxidant compounds which showed intense chemiluminescence signals. The polyphenolics such as rosmarinic, chicoric, caffeic, p-coumaric, m-coumaric and ferulic acids showed antioxidant activity. Further, rosmarinic acid was found to be the major antioxidant component in water-ethanol extracts. The highest levels of rosmarinic acid was found in the leaves and roots of cultivars "holy green" (14.37; 11.52 mM/100 g DW respectively) followed by "red rubin" (10.02; 10.75 mM/100 g DW respectively) and "subja" (6.59; 4.97 mM/100 g DW respectively). The sensitivity, efficiency and ease of use of the chemiluminescence based assay should now be considered for its use as a primary method for the identification and quantification of antioxidants in plant extracts.

  15. Chemiluminescence in the reaction of ozone with 6-methyluracil in aqueous solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimin, Yu. S.; Khairullina, L. R.; Kutlugil'dina, G. G.; Mustafin, A. G.

    2015-12-01

    Chemiluminescence in the visible part of the spectrum during the oxidation of 6-methyluracil with ozone in aqueous solutions was found. The kinetics of variation of the luminescence intensity was studied in the temperature range 287-333 K, and the activation parameters of the process were determined.

  16. A new label-free strategy for a highly efficient chemiluminescence immunoassay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhanjun; Cao, Yue; Li, Juan; Wang, Juntao; Du, Dan; Hu, Xiaoya; Lin, Yuehe

    2015-10-01

    A new label-free chemiluminescence (CL) immunoassay method is proposed for the cheap, convenient and sensitive detection of proteins through the co-immobilization of a capture antibody and horseradish peroxidase on a sensing interface. The specific immunoreaction on the interface effectively inhibits the enzymatic CL reaction, thus causing a decrease in CL signals.

  17. Soot and chemiluminescence in diesel combustion of bio-derived, oxygenated and reference fuels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein-Douwel, R.J.H.; Donkerbroek, A.J.; Vliet, A.P. van; Boot, M.D.; Somers, L.M.T.; Baert, R.S.G.; Dam, N.J.; Meulen, J.J. ter

    2009-01-01

    High-speed imaging, spectroscopy and thermodynamical characterization are applied to an optically accessible, heavy-duty diesel engine in order to compare sooting and chemiluminescence behaviour of bio-derived, oxygenated fuels and various reference fuels. The fuels concerned include the bio-derived

  18. AdvancED Flex 4

    CERN Document Server

    Tiwari, Shashank; Schulze, Charlie

    2010-01-01

    AdvancED Flex 4 makes advanced Flex 4 concepts and techniques easy. Ajax, RIA, Web 2.0, mashups, mobile applications, the most sophisticated web tools, and the coolest interactive web applications are all covered with practical, visually oriented recipes. * Completely updated for the new tools in Flex 4* Demonstrates how to use Flex 4 to create robust and scalable enterprise-grade Rich Internet Applications.* Teaches you to build high-performance web applications with interactivity that really engages your users.* What you'll learn Practiced beginners and intermediate users of Flex, especially

  19. Concept Maps

    OpenAIRE

    Schwendimann, Beat Adrian

    2014-01-01

    A concept map is a node-link diagram showing the semantic relationships among concepts. The technique for constructing concept maps is called "concept mapping". A concept map consists of nodes, arrows as linking lines, and linking phrases that describe the relationship between nodes. Two nodes connected with a labeled arrow are called a proposition. Concept maps are versatile graphic organizers that can represent many different forms of relationships between concepts. The relationship between...

  20. Luminol/antibody labeled gold nanoparticles for chemiluminescence immunoassay of carcinoembryonic antigen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang Xiaoyan, E-mail: yangxiaoyan_zh@126.com [Key Laboratory of Eco-chemical Engineering, Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Qingdao University of Science and Technology, Qingdao 266042 (China); Guo Yingshu; Wang Aiguo [Key Laboratory of Eco-chemical Engineering, Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Qingdao University of Science and Technology, Qingdao 266042 (China)

    2010-05-07

    A facile strategy by loading luminol and secondary antibody on gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) was described in the present work. The as-prepared luminol/antibody labeled Au NPs conjugates (LAAu NPs) were used as the chemiluminescent probe for the detection of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) in serum. The LAAu NPs were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), UV-vis spectrophotometry (UV-vis), and chemiluminescent method. Stable and efficient chemiluminescence (CL) was obtained when luminol molecules and secondary antibodies were coimmobilized on the Au NPs by using hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) as an oxidant, horseradish peroxidase (HRP) as a catalyst, and 4-(4'-iodo)phenylphenol (IPP) as an enhancer. The LAAu NPs were further evaluated via a sandwich-type CL immunoassay of CEA in serum. In this protocol, the CEA analyte was captured by the primary antibody immobilized on the surface of magnetic beads, and then was sandwiched by the secondary antibody loaded on luminol-labeled Au NPs. The chemiluminescent intensity was proportional to the concentration of CEA over the range of 5.0 x 10{sup -10} to 5.0 x 10{sup -8} g mL{sup -1} and 5.0 x 10{sup -9} to 2.0 x 10{sup -8} g mL{sup -1} by using HRP and Co{sup 2+} as catalysts, respectively. The present chemiluminescent immunoassay based on the luminol/antibody labeled Au NPs conjugates has offered great promise for simple, highly biocompatible, and cost-effective analysis of biological samples.

  1. Molecularly imprinted polymer grafted paper-based multi-disk micro-disk plate for chemiluminescence detection of pesticide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shoumei; Ge, Lei; Li, Long; Yan, Mei; Ge, Shenguang; Yu, Jinghua

    2013-12-15

    The detection of pesticides has attracted considerable attention in numerous fields, such as environmental monitoring and food safety. Although traditional sensors for pesticides have been widely explored due to their high sensitivity and specificity, it is still challenging to develop a low-cost, portable, fast, and easy-to-use detection method for the public use at home or in the field. To address these challenges, herein, we report a novel paper-based molecular imprinted polymer (MIP)-grafted multi-disk micro-disk plate (P-MIP-MMP) for sensitive and specific chemiluminescence (CL) detection of pesticides through an indirect competitive assay using 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) as a proof-of-concept analyte. The MIP-grafted paper disks were prepared by a simple in situ polymerization of MIP layer on the surface of cellulose fibers in paper. The quantification mechanism of this P-MIP-MMP is based on a competition between free 2,4-D and tobacco peroxidase (TOP) labeled 2,4-D and the enzyme catalyzed CL emission from the luminol-TOP-H2O2 CL system. At optimal conditions, this P-MIP-MMP can detect 2,4-D at the concentration of femtomolar level. This approach provided a powerful protocol for simple, low-cost, rapid, and high-throughput detection of pesticides in real samples with satisfactory results for use in areas such as food inspection and environmental monitoring.

  2. The Practice of Inclusive Development Concepts in the Advanced Mathematics Teaching%包容性发展理念在高等数学教学中的实践

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董卫; 张清年

    2012-01-01

    The concepts of inclusive development are characterized by object universality and target diversification. This paper deals with the practice of inclusive development concepts in the advanced mathematics teaching from four aspects: how to improve students'social practice ability, capability of innovation and lifelong learning, and how to ameliorate the examination appraisals system.%包容性发展理念的对象具有普遍性和目标多样化的特征。在教学过程中,要从社会实践能力培养、创新能力培养、改进考试考查评价体系和终身学习能力培养等四个方面入手,将包容性发展理念真正应用于高等数学的教学实践中。

  3. Framework Programmable Platform for the Advanced Software Development Workstation (FPP/ASDW). Demonstration framework document. Volume 1: Concepts and activity descriptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Richard J.; Blinn, Thomas M.; Dewitte, Paul S.; Crump, John W.; Ackley, Keith A.

    1992-01-01

    The Framework Programmable Software Development Platform (FPP) is a project aimed at effectively combining tool and data integration mechanisms with a model of the software development process to provide an intelligent integrated software development environment. Guided by the model, this system development framework will take advantage of an integrated operating environment to automate effectively the management of the software development process so that costly mistakes during the development phase can be eliminated. The Advanced Software Development Workstation (ASDW) program is conducting research into development of advanced technologies for Computer Aided Software Engineering (CASE).

  4. Bio-bar-code functionalized magnetic nanoparticle label for ultrasensitive flow injection chemiluminescence detection of DNA hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Sai; Zhou, Hong; Zhang, Shusheng

    2009-10-07

    A signal amplification strategy based on bio-bar-code functionalized magnetic nanoparticles as labels holds promise to improve the sensitivity and detection limit of the detection of DNA hybridization and single-nucleotide polymorphisms by flow injection chemiluminescence assays.

  5. Development and characterization of a microfluidic glucose sensing system based on an enzymatic microreactor and chemiluminescence detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moon, B. -U; de Vries, M. G.; Westerink, B. H. C.; Verpoorte, E.

    2012-01-01

    Chemiluminescence detection was developed as an alternative to amperometric detection for glucose analysis in a portable, microfluidics-based continuous glucose monitoring system. Amperometric detection allows easy determination of hydrogen peroxide, a product of the glucose oxidase-catalyzed reacti

  6. Simultaneous Determination of Gold and Platinum by Double Artificial Neural Network Analysis with Flow-injection Chemiluminescence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming Yang LIU; Hai Tao ZHANG; Jun Feng LI; Shu Gui CHEN; Hong Yan WANG

    2006-01-01

    A highly sensitive double artificial neural network (DANN) analysis with flow-injection chemiluminescence (FI-CL) has been developed to simultaneously determine the trace amounts of the gold and platinum in simulated mixed samples, without the boring process.

  7. Advanced Jet Noise Exhaust Concepts in NASA's N+2 Supersonics Validation Study and the Environmentally Responsible Aviation Project's Upcoming Hybrid Wing Body Acoustics Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Brenda S.; Doty, Mike

    2012-01-01

    Acoustic and flow-field experiments were conducted on exhaust concepts for the next generation supersonic, commercial aircraft. The concepts were developed by Lockheed Martin (LM), Rolls-Royce Liberty Works (RRLW), and General Electric Global Research (GEGR) as part of an N+2 (next generation forward) aircraft system study initiated by the Supersonics Project in NASA s Fundamental Aeronautics Program. The experiments were conducted in the Aero-Acoustic Propulsion Laboratory at the NASA Glenn Research Center. The exhaust concepts presented here utilized lobed-mixers and ejectors. A powered third-stream was implemented to improve ejector acoustic performance. One concept was found to produce stagnant flow within the ejector and the other produced discrete-frequency tones (due to flow separations within the model) that degraded the acoustic performance of the exhaust concept. NASA's Environmentally Responsible Aviation (ERA) Project has been investigating a Hybrid Wing Body (HWB) aircraft as a possible configuration for meeting N+2 system level goals for noise, emissions, and fuel burn. A recently completed NRA led by Boeing Research and Technology resulted in a full-scale aircraft design and wind tunnel model. This model will be tested acoustically in NASA Langley's 14-by 22-Foot Subsonic Tunnel and will include dual jet engine simulators and broadband engine noise simulators as part of the test campaign. The objectives of the test are to characterize the system level noise, quantify the effects of shielding, and generate a valuable database for prediction method development. Further details of the test and various component preparations are described.

  8. Advancement of the climate dual strategy. New concepts for a globally effective climate protection; Weiterentwicklung der baden-wuerttembergischen Klimadoppelstrategie. Neue Konzepte fuer einen global wirksamen Klimaschutz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-10-15

    The Baden-Wuerttemberg Council on Sustainable Development (Stuttgart, Federal Republic of Germany) presents a climate expert report with new concepts for a globally effective climate protection. First of all, the development of the global emissions of carbon dioxide since 1990 is described. The development of the global emissions of carbon dioxide up to 2050 is forecasted. Four general criteria (effectiveness, efficiency, fairness and acceptance) for a comparative evaluation of climate protection concepts are introduced. A proposal for solution on the basis of a globally effective cap-and-trade system as well as an identical scenario as an alternative with respect to the implementation are described. This alternative scenario is based on a cap-and-trade system but it develops on the basis of national self-commitment in accordance with an incentive and sanctionative system. Both implementation proposals are compared. Recommendations of the national government Baden-Wuerttemberg are given.

  9. Development of advanced NO{sub x} control concepts for coal-fired utility boilers. Quarterly technical progress report No. 2, January 1--March 31, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newhall, J.; England, G.; Seeker, W.R.

    1991-12-23

    Energy and Environmental Research Corporation (EER) is currently conducting a test program to develop an advanced NO{sub x} control method utilizing reburning, promoted selective noncatalytic agent injection. The study will consist of fundamental and process testing over a large enough range of operating parameters to significantly reduce the risk of a full scale demonstration project. The test plan for the fundamental testing phase of the program is presented here.

  10. Advanced calculus

    CERN Document Server

    Nickerson, HK; Steenrod, NE

    2011-01-01

    ""This book is a radical departure from all previous concepts of advanced calculus,"" declared the Bulletin of the American Mathematics Society, ""and the nature of this departure merits serious study of the book by everyone interested in undergraduate education in mathematics."" Classroom-tested in a Princeton University honors course, it offers students a unified introduction to advanced calculus. Starting with an abstract treatment of vector spaces and linear transforms, the authors introduce a single basic derivative in an invariant form. All other derivatives - gradient, divergent, curl,

  11. Chemiluminescence assay for catechin based on generation of hydrogen peroxide in basic solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arakawa, Hidetoshi; Kanemitsu, Mahina; Tajima, Noriko; Maeda, Masako

    2002-11-20

    We have determined that the catechin group in basic solution efficiently produces hydrogen peroxide; moreover, a highly sensitive analysis methodology was developed to measure catechin employing a peroxalate chemiluminescence detection system. Identification of hydrogen peroxide generated by catechin was determined by ESR as well as peroxalate chemiluminescence using catalase and SOD. As a result, catechin-generated superoxide by electron reduction to dissolved oxygen in basic solution, followed by production of hydrogen peroxide through dismutation reaction. This method could measure several tea catechins, (+)-catechin (CC), (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCg), (-)-epicatechin-3-gallate (ECG) and gallic acid, with measurement range from 10{sup -7} to 10{sup -3} mol/l and sensitivity of 10{sup -8} mol/l. This method was also applied to the determination of total catechin levels in green tea, black tea and roasted green tea.

  12. Chemiluminescent Nanomicelles for Imaging Hydrogen Peroxide and Self-Therapy in Photodynamic Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Chen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogen peroxide is a signal molecule of the tumor, and its overproduction makes a higher concentration in tumor tissue compared to normal tissue. Based on the fact that peroxalates can make chemiluminescence with a high efficiency in the presence of hydrogen peroxide, we developed nanomicelles composed of peroxalate ester oligomers and fluorescent dyes, called peroxalate nanomicelles (POMs, which could image hydrogen peroxide with high sensitivity and stability. The potential application of the POMs in photodynamic therapy (PDT for cancer was also investigated. It was found that the PDT-drug-loaded POMs were sensitive to hydrogen peroxide, and the PDT drug could be stimulated by the chemiluminescence from the reaction between POMs and hydrogen peroxide, which carried on a self-therapy of the tumor without the additional laser light resource.

  13. Recent analytical applications of nanoparticle sensitized lucigenin and luminol chemiluminescent reactions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S M Wabaidur; Mu Naushad; Z A Alothman

    2012-02-01

    There is an ever-increasing demand for rapid, sensitive, cost effective and selective detection methods for the analysis of many essential compounds.When chemiluminescence has been introduced to analytical chemistry as a detection technique, it has been shown to meet many of these requirements. This method has become a powerful tool for the determination of many compounds. Using this method, low detection limits can be obtained with simple and inexpensive instrumentation. Coupled with flow injection technique the method has become more popular for wider applications. Since many excellent reviews on the chemiluminogenic techniques have appeared in the literature in recent years, the present paper does not intend to cover the exhaustive studies in this area, but will selectively describe the analytical applications of nanoparticle sensitized lucigenin and luminol chemiluminescent reactions and evaluate their recent progress together with our present work.

  14. Bioinspired photonic structures by the reflector layer of firefly lantern for highly efficient chemiluminescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Linfeng; Shi, Xiaodi; Li, Mingzhu; Hu, Junping; Sun, Shufeng; Su, Bin; Wen, Yongqiang; Han, Dong; Jiang, Lei; Song, Yanlin

    2015-08-01

    Fireflies have drawn considerable attention for thousands of years due to their highly efficient bioluminescence, which is important for fundamental research and photonic applications. However, there are few reports on the reflector layer (RL) of firefly lantern, which contributes to the bright luminescence. Here we presented the detailed microstructure of the RL consisting of random hollow granules, which had high reflectance in the range from 450 nm to 800 nm. Inspired by the firefly lantern, artificial films with high reflectance in the visible region were fabricated using hollow silica microparticles mimicking the structure of the RL. Additionally, the bioinspired structures provided an efficient RL for the chemiluminescence system and could substantially enhance the initial chemiluminescence intensity. The work not only provides new insight into the bright bioluminescence of fireflies, but also is importance for the design of photonic materials for theranostics, detection, and imaging.

  15. Analysis of Phenolic Compounds in Coke Plant Wastewater by Capillary Zone Electrophoresis with Inhibited Chemiluminescence Detection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiang Dong XU; Yong Gang HU; Ze Yu YANG

    2006-01-01

    A capillary electrophoresis(CE) with on-line inhibited chemiluminescence (CL) detection was firstly used for the simultaneous analysis of benzenediol isomers and phenol. It is based on the quenching effect of benzenediol isomers and phenol on the chemiluminescence reaction of luminol with potassium ferricyanide in sodium hydroxide medium. Under the optimum conditions, the four phenols were baseline separated and detected in less than 10 min.The detection limits (S/N=3) for hydroquinone, resorcinol, catechol and phenol were 2.9×10-8mol/L, 3.7×10-7 mol/L, 8.4×10-8 mol/L and 4.4×10-6 mol/L, respectively. Finally, the presented method has been successfully applied to real sample.

  16. Evaluation of serum antioxidant activity in patients with liver pathology by the chemiluminescent method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titov, V N; Sazhina, N N

    2014-12-01

    Total antioxidant activity of the serum in patients with liver pathology was assessed by two chemiluminescent methods based on different models of free radical oxidation: Hb-H2O2-luminol and ABAP-luminol. Comparative analysis showed a significant, but not high correlation of the results (r=0.798), which can be explained by different mechanisms of induction of free radicals and effects of various serum components (proteins and bilirubin) on the initiation process. The influence of aphysiological concentration of analyzed values manifested in the Hb-H2O2 model. Disagreement between the results of measurements was more pronounced in patients with abnormally high serum bilirubin content. The results suggested that ABAP-luminol chemiluminescent model is more preferable for evaluation of antioxidant activity in clinical practice.

  17. Kinetics simulation of luminol chemiluminescence based on quantitative analysis of photons generated in electrochemical oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koizumi, Yozo; Nosaka, Yoshio

    2013-08-22

    The kinetics of electrogenerated chemiluminescence (ECL) of luminol at a gold electrode in alkaline solution was investigated by measuring the absolute number of photons emitted in an integrating sphere. The ECL efficiency as the ratio of photon to electric charge was 0.0004 in cyclic voltammography and 0.0005 in chronoamperometry. By numerically solving the rate equations based on a diffusion layer model, the observed time profile of the luminescence intensity could be successfully simulated from the oxidation current of luminol in the chronoamperometry. In the simulation, the rate constant for the oxidation of luminol by superoxide radicals in alkaline solution was determined to be 6 × 10(5) M(-1) s(-1). The present methodology and the achievement could be widely applicable to various analytical techniques using chemiluminescence.

  18. Determination of resveratrol in red wine by solid phase extraction-flow injection chemiluminescence method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    A sensitive flow injection chemiluminescence method has been developed for the detection of resveratrol in red wine based on the fact that resveratrol can greatly enhance chemiluminescence reaction between KMnO4 and HCHO in sulfuric acid medium.Analytes were pre-concentrated on solid sorbents (C18 solid-phase extraction cartridges). Under the optimum conditions, the proposed method allows the measurement of resveratrol over the range of 1.32 × 10-s to 1.32 × 10-5 mol/L with a detection limit of 3.30 × 10-9 mol/L, and the relative standard deviation for 1.32 × 10-5 mol/L resveratrol (n = 11 ) is 3.8%. This method has been successfully applied for the determination of the resveratrol in red wine. Furthermore, the possible reaction mechanism was also discussed.

  19. Chemiluminescence Determination of Benzoic Acid Using A Solid-Phase Verdigris Reactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    A new chemiluminescence flow system has been developed for sequential determina-tion of benzoic acid based on the reaction of the compound with copper carbonate entrapped in a solid-phase reactor. It was found that the unsaturated complex of Cu(II) and benzoic acid (1:1) has strong catalytic effect on the luminol-H2O2 chemiluminescence reaction. The calibration graph is linear over the range of 0.025 ~ 60 μg/mL of benzoic acid, with a relative standard deviation of less than 3.0 %, and the detection limit is 0.01μg@mL-1. The proposed method was applied to the determination of benzoic acid content in different pharmaceutical formulations.

  20. Determination of glyphosate in foodstuff by one novel chemiluminescence-molecular imprinting sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Peini; Yan, Mei; Zhang, Congcong; Peng, Ruixue; Ma, Dongsheng; Yu, Jinghua

    2011-05-01

    A novel chemiluminescence (CL) sensor for the determination of glyphosate (GLY) was made up based on molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP). The molecularly imprinted microspheres (MIMs) with a small dimension which possess extremely high surface-to-volume ratio were synthesized using precipitation polymerization with GLY as template. And then the MIMs were modified on glass sheets, which were placed at the bottom of wells of microplate as the recognizer. Subsequently, a highly selective and high throughput chemiluminescence (CL)-molecular imprinting (MI) sensor for detection of GLY was achieved. Influencing factors were investigated and optimized in detail. The method can perform 96 independent measurements sequentially in 10 min and the limit of detection (LOD) for GLY was 0.046 μg mL -1. The relative standard deviation (RSD) for 11 parallel measurements of GLY was 4.68%. The results show that CL-MI sensor can become a useful analytical technology for quick molecular recognition.

  1. Determination of captopril by high-performance liquid chromatography with direct electrogenerated chemiluminescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yonghua; Zhang, Zhujun; Zhang, Xinfeng

    2013-03-01

    Captopril exhibit electrogenerated chemiluminescence (ECL) in NaNO3 solution when constant current is exerted. Based on this observation, a direct ECL method coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) separation is developed for determination of captopril in human serum. Factors affected the ECL emission are investigated. Under the optimal conditions, the ECL intensity has a linear relationship with the concentration of captopril in the range of 4.0 × 10-6-2.0 × 10-3 g mL-1 and the detection limit is 2 × 10-6 g mL-1 (S/N = 3). Compared with the common electrogenerated chemiluminescence experiments, the developed method need no any other fluorescence additives.

  2. Flow-injection chemiluminescence determination of tryptophan using galangin-potassium permanganate-polyphosphoric acid system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui Chen; Li Li; Min Zhou; Yong Jun Ma

    2008-01-01

    A high sensitive flow-injection chemiluminescence (FI-CL)method for the determination of tryptephan has been developed.The method is based on the chemiluminescence reaction of galangin-potassium perrnanganate-tryptophan in polyphosphoric acid (PPA)media.Under the optimized conditions,tryptophan was determined in the range 0.05-10 μg/mL with the detection limit (30)of 5.0× 10-3 μg/mL.The relative standard deviation (RSD)was 1.0% for 11 replicate determinations of 1.0 μg/mL tryptophan.Three synthetic samples were determined selectively with recoveries in the range from 99.6% to 102.0% in the presence of other amino acids.

  3. Detecting free radicals in sunscreens exposed to UVA radiation using chemiluminescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millington, Keith R; Osmond, Megan J; McCall, Maxine J

    2014-04-05

    One of the current concerns with the application of nanoparticles in sunscreens, and in particular nano-TiO2 and ZnO, is their potential to photogenerate free radicals and reactive oxygen species (ROS) when they absorb ultraviolet wavelengths from sunlight. Free radicals and ROS are known to be associated with UV-induced skin damage and oxidative stress, from which sunscreens are expected to offer significant protection. Here we describe a simple method, based on chemiluminescence emission, for detecting free radicals generated in commercial sunscreens alone, and when applied to various substrates, following exposure to UVA (320-400nm) radiation. This photo-induced chemiluminescence (PICL) technique could be used to optimise sunscreen formulations so as to minimise free radical photogeneration during exposure to sunlight.

  4. H2S Analysis in Biological Samples Using Gas Chromatography with Sulfur Chemiluminescence Detection

    OpenAIRE

    Vitvitsky, Victor; Banerjee, Ruma

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a metabolite and signaling molecule in biological tissues that regulates many physiological processes. Reliable and sensitive methods for H2S analysis are necessary for a better understanding of H2S biology and for the pharmacological modulation of H2S levels in vivo. In this chapter, we describe the use of gas chromatography coupled to sulfur chemiluminescence detection to measure the rates of H2S production and degradation by tissue homogenates at physiologically r...

  5. A Fully Automated Sequential-Injection Analyser for Dual Electrogenerated Chemiluminescence/Amperometric Detection

    OpenAIRE

    Economou, Anastasios; Nika, Maria

    2006-01-01

    This work describes the development of a dedicated, fully automated sequential-injection analysis (SIA) apparatus suitable for simultaneous electrogenerated chemiluminescence (ECL) and amperometric detection. The instrument is composed of a peristaltic pump, a multiposition selection valve, a home-made potentiostat, a thin-layer electrochemical/optical flow-through cell, and a light detector. Control of the experimental sequence and simultaneous data acquisition of the light and the current i...

  6. New method for the photo-chemiluminometric determination of benzoylurea insecticides based on acetonitrile chemiluminescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil García, M D; Martínez Galera, M; Santiago Valverde, R

    2007-03-01

    The viability of tandem photochemical reaction-chemiluminescence detection has been studied for the determination of five benzoylurea insecticides, namely, diflubenzuron, triflumuron, hexaflumuron, lufenuron and flufenoxuron. The 'on-line' photochemical reaction of benzoylurea pesticides provides an enhanced chemiluminescence response of the pesticides during their oxidation by potassium hexacyanoferrate(III) and sodium hydroxide, whose signal increases with the percentage of acetonitrile in the reaction medium. The determination was performed using a photoreactor consisting of a PFA (perfluoroalkoxy) tube reactor coil (5 mx1.6-mm O.D. and 0.8-mm I.D.) and an 8-W xenon lamp. As the yield of the photoderivatization process and the chemiluminescent signals depend on the percentage of acetonitrile, the chromatographic column (a Gemini C18, Phenomenex 150 mmx4.6 mm, 5-microm particle size) was chosen with the aim of using high percentages of this organic solvent in the mobile phase. Previous studies showed that the rate of the chemiluminescent reaction was very fast. Therefore, a modification was carried out in the detector in order to mix the analytes and reactants as near as possible to the measure cell. The optimised method was validated with respect to linearity, precision, limits of detection and quantification accuracy. Under the optimised conditions, linear working range extends three orders of magnitude with the relative standard deviation of intra-day precision below 10% and detection limits between 0.012 and 0.18 microg mL-1, according to the compound. The proposed method has been successfully applied to the determination of benzoylureas in cucumber with good results.

  7. Microfluidic cartridge with integrated array of amorphous silicon photosensors for chemiluminescence detection of viral DNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Zangheri

    2016-03-01

    With this system, taking advantage of oligoprobes specificity, chemiluminescence detectability, and photosensor sensitivity, accurate quantification of target analytes down to 70 pmol L−1 was obtained for each B19 DNA genotype, with high specificity and multiplexing ability. Results confirm the good detection capabilities and assay applicability of the proposed system, prompting the development of innovative portable analytical devices with enhanced sensitivity and multiplexed capabilities.

  8. Mechanisms of bioluminescence, chemiluminescence and of their regulation. Progress report, one year period through March 1976

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seliger, H H

    1976-01-01

    Progress is reported on a 10-yr study of the production and role of excited states in biological systems and the mechanisms involved in bioluminescence and chemoluminescence. An hypothesis of the origin of bioluminescence is presented that is based on the mixed function oxygenase reaction. Techniques of absolute measurements of light intensities and spectral composition were applied in studies of bioluminescence of marine dinoflagellates and the chemiluminescence of carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons as the result of enzymatic hydroxylation. (CH)

  9. Biologic Treatments for Sports Injuries II Think Tank-Current Concepts, Future Research, and Barriers to Advancement, Part 1: Biologics Overview, Ligament Injury, Tendinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaPrade, Robert F; Geeslin, Andrew G; Murray, Iain R; Musahl, Volker; Zlotnicki, Jason P; Petrigliano, Frank; Mann, Barton J

    2016-12-01

    Biologic therapies, including stem cells, platelet-rich plasma, growth factors, and other biologically active adjuncts, have recently received increased attention in the basic science and clinical literature. At the 2015 AOSSM Biologics II Think Tank held in Colorado Springs, Colorado, a group of orthopaedic surgeons, basic scientists, veterinarians, and other investigators gathered to review the state of the science for biologics and barriers to implementation of biologics for the treatment of sports medicine injuries. This series of current concepts reviews reports the summary of the scientific presentations, roundtable discussions, and recommendations from this think tank.

  10. Performance Evaluation of the Concept of Hybrid Heat Pipe as Passive In-core Cooling Systems for Advanced Nuclear Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Yeong Shin; Kim, Kyung Mo; Kim, In Guk; Bang, In Cheol [UNIST, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    As an arising issue for inherent safety of nuclear power plant, the concept of hybrid heat pipe as passive in-core cooling systems was introduced. Hybrid heat pipe has unique features that it is inserted in core directly to remove decay heat from nuclear fuel without any changes of structures of existing facilities of nuclear power plant, substituting conventional control rod. Hybrid heat pipe consists of metal cladding, working fluid, wick structure, and neutron absorber. Same with working principle of the heat pipe, heat is transported by phase change of working fluid inside metal cask. Figure 1 shows the systematic design of the hybrid heat pipe cooling system. In this study, the concept of a hybrid heat pipe was introduced as a Passive IN-core Cooling Systems (PINCs) and demonstrated for internal design features of heat pipe containing neutron absorber. Using a commercial CFD code, single hybrid heat pipe model was analyzed to evaluate thermal performance in designated operating condition. Also, 1-dimensional reactor transient analysis was done by calculating temperature change of the coolant inside reactor pressure vessel using MATLAB. As a passive decay heat removal device, hybrid heat pipe was suggested with a concept of combination of heat pipe and control rod. Hybrid heat pipe has distinct feature that it can be a unique solution to cool the reactor when depressurization process is impossible so that refueling water cannot be injected into RPV by conventional ECCS. It contains neutron absorber material inside heat pipe, so it can stop the reactor and at the same time, remove decay heat in core. For evaluating the concept of hybrid heat pipe, its thermal performance was analyzed using CFD and one-dimensional transient analysis. From single hybrid heat pipe simulation, the hybrid heat pipe can transport heat from the core inside to outside about 18.20 kW, and total thermal resistance of hybrid heat pipe is 0.015 .deg. C/W. Due to unique features of long heat

  11. Micro-plate magnetic chemiluminescence immunoassay and its applications in carcinoembryonic antigen analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    A micro-plate magnetic chemiluminescence immunoassay was developed for rapid and high throughput detection of carcinoembryonic antigens (CEA) in human sera. This method was based on a sandwich immunoreaction of fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-labeled anti-CEA antibodies, CEA antigens, and horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-conjugated anti-CEA antibodies in mi- cro-plate. The immunomagnetic particles coated with anti-FITC antibodies were used as the solid phase for the immunoassay. The separation procedure was carried out by a magnetic plate adaptor and the luminol-hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-HRP system was employed for the chemiluminescence detection. The proposed method combined the advantages of the micro-plate reactor and magnetic particle separation technology with the linear range of 5-250 ng mL·1. The detection limit of CEA was 0.61 ng mL·1. The coefficient of the variation was less than 7% and 13% for intra-assay and inter-assay precision, respectively. Compared with the commercial micro-plate chemiluminescent kit, the proposed method showed a good correlation.

  12. Insights into the antioxidant activity of some flavones on silver nanoparticles using the chemiluminescence method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voicescu, Mariana, E-mail: voicescu@icf.ro [Romanian Academy, Institute of Physical Chemistry “Ilie Murgulescu”, Splaiul Independentei 202, 060021 Bucharest (Romania); Nistor, Cristina L. [Polymer Department, National R and D Institute for Chemistry and Petrochemistry ICECHIM, Splaiul Independentei 202, 060021 Bucharest (Romania); Meghea, Aurelia [University POLITEHNICA of Bucharest, Faculty of Applied Chemistry and Materials Sciences, Polizu 1, 78126 Bucharest (Romania)

    2015-01-15

    The work aims to simulate in vitro the effects caused by oxidation of five hydroxyflavones (HF) (some typical models of flavonols), (3-HF, 6-HF, 7-HF, 3,6-diHF and 3,7-diHF) on silver nanoparticles (SNPs) using the chemiluminescent system luminol–hydrogen peroxide, in phosphate buffer, pH 7.4. The contribution of bovine and human serum albumins to the antioxidant activity of the mentioned flavones, and the effect on the SNPs support, in the chemiluminescent system luminol–hydrogen peroxide, has been also investigated. The results are discussed with relevance to the oxidative stress process. - Highlights: • The effects caused by oxidation of five hydroxiflavones (HF) (3-HF, 6-HF, 7-HF, 3,6-diHF and 3,7-diHF) on silver nanoparticles (SNPs) using the chemiluminescent (CL) system luminol–hydrogen peroxide, in phosphate buffer, pH 7.4. • The contribution of bovine and human serum albumins to the antioxidant activity of the mentioned flavones, and the effect on the SNPs support, in the CL system luminol–hydrogen peroxide, are discussed. • The results have relevance to the oxidative stress process.

  13. A streptavidin functionalized graphene oxide/Au nanoparticles composite for the construction of sensitive chemiluminescent immunosensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Zhanjun, E-mail: zjyang@yzu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Environmental Material and Environmental Engineering of Jiangsu Province, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou 225002 (China); Luo, Shufen; Li, Juan; Shen, Juan; Yu, Suhua; Hu, Xiaoya [Key Laboratory of Environmental Material and Environmental Engineering of Jiangsu Province, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou 225002 (China); Dionysiou, Dionysios D. [Environmental Engineering and Science Program, School of Energy Environmental, Biological and Medical Engineering, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45221-0012 (United States)

    2014-08-11

    Highlights: • A novel streptavidin/GO/AuNPs composite is prepared for immobilizing antibody. • A highly sensitive chemiluminescent immunosensor is constructed for tumor marker. • The immunoassay system shows extremely low detection limit down to picogram level. • This work provides a promising approach for ultrasensitive biosensing applications. - Abstract: In this work, a novel streptavidin functionalized graphene oxide/Au nanoparticles (streptavidin/GO/AuNPs) composite is prepared and for the first time used to construct sensitive chemiluminescent immunosensor for the detection of tumor marker. The streptavidin/GO/AuNPs composite and the immunosensor are characterized using scanning electron microscopy, static water contact angle measurement and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The biofunctionalized composite has large reactive surface area and excellent biocompatibility, thus the capture antibody can be efficiently immobilized on its surface based on the highly selective recognition of streptavidin to biotinylated antibody. Using α-fetoprotein (AFP) as a model, the proposed chemiluminescent immunosensor shows a wide linear range from 0.001 to 0.1 ng mL{sup −1} with an extremely low detection limit down to 0.61 pg mL{sup −1}. The resulting AFP immunosensor shows high detection sensitivity, fast assay speed, acceptable detection and fabrication reproducibility, good specificity and stability. The assay results of serum samples with the proposed method are in an acceptable agreement with the reference values. This work provides a promising biofunctionalized nanostructure for sensitive biosensing applications.

  14. Simultaneous determination of chloramphenicol, florfenicol and florfenicol amine in ham sausage with a hybrid chemiluminescent immunoassay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Xiaoqi; Jiang, Haiyang; Yu, Xuezhi; Zhu, Jinghui; Wang, Xia; Wang, Zhanhui; Niu, Lanlan; Wu, Xiaoping; Shen, Jianzhong

    2013-01-01

    A novel chemiluminescent immunoassay utilising two types of primary antibodies (murine monoclonal antibody and rabbit polyclonal antibody) and two types of horseradish peroxidase-labelled secondary antibodies was established for simultaneously detecting multiple amphenicol residues in ham sausage. After combining the extract procedure of the target amphenicol into one simplified method, this hybrid chemiluminescent immunoassay could screen chloramphenicol (CAP), florfenicol (FF) and its metabolite florfenicol amine (FFA) at the same time by adding the corresponding secondary antibody. Ham sausage samples were analysed by using this hybrid immunoassay, with LODs of CAP being 0.01 μg kg⁻¹, of FF being 2.8 μg kg⁻¹ and of FFA being 3.0 μg kg⁻¹. The applicability of the proposed method has been validated by determining CAP, FF and FFA in ham sausage samples with satisfactory results. Good recoveries and high correlation with traditional enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and LC-MS/MS results illustrated that the developed hybrid chemiluminescent immunoassay could screen high-throughput ultra-trace amphenicol residues effectively at one time.

  15. Selective and Sensitive Chemiluminescence Determination of MCPB: Flow Injection and Liquid Chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meseguer-Lloret, Susana; Torres-Cartas, Sagrario; Catalá-Icardo, Mónica; Gómez-Benito, Carmen

    2016-02-01

    Two new chemiluminescence (CL) methods are described for the determination of the herbicide 4-(4-chloro-o-tolyloxy) butyric acid (MCPB). First, a flow injection chemiluminescence (FI-CL) method is proposed. In this method, MCPB is photodegraded with an ultraviolet (UV) lamp and the photoproducts formed provide a great CL signal when they react with ferricyanide in basic medium. Second, a high-performance liquid chromatography chemiluminescence (HPLC-CL) method is proposed. In this method, before the photodegradation and CL reaction, the MCPB and other phenoxyacid herbicides are separated in a C18 column. The experimental conditions for the FI-CL and HPLC-CL methods are optimized. Both methods present good sensitivity, the detection limits being 0.12 µg L(-1) and 0.1 µg L(-1) (for FI-CL and HPLC-CL, respectively) when solid phase extraction (SPE) is applied. Intra- and interday relative standard deviations are below 9.9%. The methods have been satisfactorily applied to the analysis of natural water samples. FI-CL method can be employed for the determination of MCPB in simple water samples and for the screening of complex water samples in a fast, economic, and simple way. The HPLC-CL method is more selective, and allows samples that have not been resolved with the FI-CL method to be solved.

  16. Chemiluminescent detect of E. coli O157:H7 using immunological method based on magnetic nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhiyang; He, Lei; He, Nongyue; Shi, Zhiyang; Wang, Hua; Li, Song; Liu, Hongna; Li, Xiaolong; Dai, Yabin; Wang, Zhifei

    2010-02-01

    The system of chemiluminescent magnetic enzyme-linked immunoassay was developed. E. coli O157:H7 was sandwiched between rabbits anti-E. coli O157:H7 polyclonal antibody-coated magnetic nanoparticles (immunomagnetic nanoparticles or IMNPs) and mouse anti-E. coli O157:H7 monoclonal antibody. Commercial alkaline phosphatase conjugated horse anti-mouse immunoglobulin (ALP-Ab) was used to bind with the monoclonal antibody, finally the chemiluminescent signals were detected by adding 3-(2'-spiroadamantane)-4-methoxy-4-(3"-phosphoryloxy)phenyl-1,2-dioxetane (AMPPD) which was the substrate reagent of ALP. Different solvents of AMPPD were compared to get an optimal chemiluminescent signal. The effects of sodium borohydride and glycine on blocking the aldehyde groups of IMNPs were compared either, and the specificity and sensitivity of this system for detecting E. coli O157:H7 were researched. The results indicated that Tris buffer was the best solvent of AMPPD, sodium borohydride was better than glycine in blocking IMNPs, and this method was of good specificity when using E. coli Top 10F' and Vibrio cholera as negative controls. The detection limit was 10(3) cells mL(-1) when the antigen solution was 1 mL, and the procedure duration was about 3 h.

  17. Schlieren and OH* chemiluminescence imaging of combustion in a turbulent boundary layer over a solid fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jens, Elizabeth T.; Miller, Victor A.; Cantwell, Brian J.

    2016-03-01

    Combustion in a turbulent boundary layer over a solid fuel is studied using simultaneous schlieren and OH* chemiluminescence imaging. The flow configuration is representative of a hybrid rocket motor combustor. Six different hydrocarbon fuels, including both classical hybrid rocket fuels and a high regression rate fuel (paraffin wax), are burned in an undiluted oxygen free-stream at pressures ranging from atmospheric to 1524.2 kPa (221.1 psi). A detailed explanation of methods for registering the schlieren and OH* chemiluminescence images to one another is presented, and additionally, details of the routines used to extract flow features of interest (like the boundary layer height and flame location) are provided. At atmospheric pressure, the boundary layer location is consistent between all fuels; however, the flame location varies for each fuel. The flame zone appears to be smoothly distributed over the fuel surface at atmospheric pressure. At elevated pressures and correspondingly increased Dahmköhler number (but at constant Reynolds number), flame morphology is markedly different, exhibiting large rollers in a shear layer above the fuel grain and finer structures in the flame. The chemiluminescence intensity is found to be roughly proportional to the fuel burn rate at both atmospheric and elevated chamber pressures.

  18. Validation Procedure for Multiplex Antibiotic Immunoassays Using Flow-Based Chemiluminescence Microarrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Verena Katharina; Meloni, Daniela; Olivo, Fabio; Märtlbauer, Erwin; Dietrich, Richard; Niessner, Reinhard; Seidel, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Small molecules like antibiotics or other pharmaceuticals can be detected and quantified, among others, with indirect competitive immunoassays. With regard to multiplex quantification, these tests can be performed as chemiluminescence microarray immunoassays, in which, in principle, the analyte in the sample and the same substance immobilized on the chip surface compete for a limited number of specific antibody binding sites. The amount of the specific primary antibody that has been bound to the surface is visualized by means of a chemiluminescence reaction.Validated quantitative confirmatory methods for the detection of contaminants, for example drug residues, in food samples usually comprise chromatographic analysis and spectrometric detection, e.g., HPLC-MS, GC-MS, or GC with electron capture detection. Here, we describe a validation procedure (according to the Commission Decision of the European Communities 2002/657/EC) for multiplex immunoassays performed as flow-through chemiluminescence microarrays, using the example of a small molecule microarray for the simultaneous detection of 13 antibiotics in milk. By this means, we suggest to accept multianalyte immunoassays as confirmatory methods as well, to benefit from the advantages of a fast automated method that does not need any pretreatment of the sample. The presented microarray chip is regenerable, so an internal calibration is implemented. Therefore, the analytical results are highly precise, combined with low costs (the aim for commercialization is less than 1 € per analyte per sample, this is significantly less than HPLC-MS).

  19. Development of ultrasensitive direct chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay for determination of aflatoxin M1 in milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vdovenko, Marina M; Lu, Chuan-Chen; Yu, Feng-Yih; Sakharov, Ivan Yu

    2014-09-01

    A direct competitive chemiluminescent enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (CL-ELISA) for detecting aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) was developed. To improve the sensitivity of the assay, a mixture of 3-(10'-phenothiazinyl)-propane-1-sulfonate (SPTZ) and 4-morpholinopyridine (MORPH) was used to enhance peroxidase-induced CL. The concentrations of the coating anti-AFM1 antibody and the conjugate of AFB1 with horseradish peroxidase the conditions of the chemiluminescent assay were varied to optimise the condition of the chemiluminescent assay. The lower detection limit values and dynamic working range of CL-ELISA of AFM1 were 0.001 ng mL(-1) and 0.002-0.0075 ng mL(-1), respectively. A 20-fold dilution of milk samples prevented a matrix effect of the milk and allowed measurement of AFM1 at concentrations below than the maximum acceptable limit. Values of recovery within and between assays were 81.5-117.6% and 86-110.6%, respectively. The results of using the developed CL-ELISA to analyse samples of six brands of milk that were purchased in Taiwan revealed that AFM1 was absent from all studied samples.

  20. Detection of synthetic corticosteroids in bovine urine by chemiluminescence high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez, B I; Feás, X; Lolo, M; Fente, C A; Franco, C M; Cepeda, A

    2005-01-01

    The development of a black market of chemical cocktails for illegal growth promotion in food-producing animals includes substances that are potentially dangerous for human health, such as synthetic corticosteroids. The potential presence of these residues in food makes it necessary to develop rapid and sensitive analytical methodologies to detect such substances, preferably in live animals before they arrive at the market. A chemiluminescence (CL) detection method for the determination of four synthetic corticosteroids (prednisolone, betamethasone, dexamethasone and flumethasone) in bovine urine has been developed. The proposed system, which does not need any derivatization procedure, offers an easy method well suited for routine research. Urine samples were homogenized with methanol:water (50:50, v/v) and centrifuged. The upper layer was collected and Strata X cartridges were used for cleaning up. The purified residues were evaporated to dryness and then redissolved in the mobile phase. Analysis of the extracts was performed using high-performance liquid chromatography with chemiluminescence detection, employing luminol as the CL reagent. The recovery curves, obtained at four spiking levels (different for each corticosteroid), showed that recoveries of at least 70% could be obtained for urine. The chemiluminescence detection procedure afforded satisfactory results with respect to sensitivity and the LOD and LOQ, taken as the first point of the regression curve, ranged from 4 ppb to 65 ppb. The maximum mean RSD was below 13% and below 15% for intra- and inter-day assay, respectively, in all cases.

  1. Design Concepts for the Cherenkov Telescope Array CTA: An Advanced Facility for Ground-Based High-Energy Gamma-Ray Astronomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Actis, M

    2012-04-17

    Ground-based gamma-ray astronomy has had a major breakthrough with the impressive results obtained using systems of imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes. Ground-based gamma-ray astronomy has a huge potential in astrophysics, particle physics and cosmology. CTA is an international initiative to build the next generation instrument, with a factor of 5-10 improvement in sensitivity in the 100 GeV-10 TeV range and the extension to energies well below 100 GeV and above 100 TeV. CTA will consist of two arrays (one in the north, one in the south) for full sky coverage and will be operated as open observatory. The design of CTA is based on currently available technology. This document reports on the status and presents the major design concepts of CTA.

  2. Advances in developing the air-lift drilling technology. Concept of a portal drilling rig - trial of a steerable shaft drilling bit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, W.

    1988-12-01

    The Federal Minister of Research and Technology is supporting a project of Wirth GmbH to develop a new drilling rig suitable for drilling deep shafts from the surface through ground of almost any condition, from unstable formations to solid rock. The development of such drilling rig is based on the blind drilling method with air-assisted reverse circulation. - Various concepts of drilling rigs have been developed in accordance with different planning stages of a combined RD-project. Based on the experience of an extensive R and D program a steerable vertical drilling bit has been developed by which deviations from the vertical can be positively corrected. The prototype of this steerable bit with a diameter of 2.1 m has been tested successfully while drilling a well with a depth of more than 200 m in an open pit coal mine.

  3. Design concepts for the Cherenkov Telescope Array CTA: an advanced facility for ground-based high-energy gamma-ray astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Actis, M.; Agnetta, G.; Aharonian, F.; Akhperjanian, A.; Aleksić, J.; Aliu, E.; Allan, D.; Allekotte, I.; Antico, F.; Antonelli, L. A.; Antoranz, P.; Aravantinos, A.; Arlen, T.; Arnaldi, H.; Artmann, S.; Asano, K.; Asorey, H.; Bähr, J.; Bais, A.; Baixeras, C.; Bajtlik, S.; Balis, D.; Bamba, A.; Barbier, C.; Barceló, M.; Barnacka, A.; Barnstedt, J.; Barres de Almeida, U.; Barrio, J. A.; Basso, S.; Bastieri, D.; Bauer, C.; Becerra, J.; Becherini, Y.; Bechtol, K.; Becker, J.; Beckmann, V.; Bednarek, W.; Behera, B.; Beilicke, M.; Belluso, M.; Benallou, M.; Benbow, W.; Berdugo, J.; Berger, K.; Bernardino, T.; Bernlöhr, K.; Biland, A.; Billotta, S.; Bird, T.; Birsin, E.; Bissaldi, E.; Blake, S.; Blanch, O.; Bobkov, A. A.; Bogacz, L.; Bogdan, M.; Boisson, C.; Boix, J.; Bolmont, J.; Bonanno, G.; Bonardi, A.; Bonev, T.; Borkowski, J.; Botner, O.; Bottani, A.; Bourgeat, M.; Boutonnet, C.; Bouvier, A.; Brau-Nogué, S.; Braun, I.; Bretz, T.; Briggs, M. S.; Brun, P.; Brunetti, L.; Buckley, J. H.; Bugaev, V.; Bühler, R.; Bulik, T.; Busetto, G.; Buson, S.; Byrum, K.; Cailles, M.; Cameron, R.; Canestrari, R.; Cantu, S.; Carmona, E.; Carosi, A.; Carr, J.; Carton, P. H.; Casiraghi, M.; Castarede, H.; Catalano, O.; Cavazzani, S.; Cazaux, S.; Cerruti, B.; Cerruti, M.; Chadwick, P. M.; Chiang, J.; Chikawa, M.; Cieślar, M.; Ciesielska, M.; Cillis, A.; Clerc, C.; Colin, P.; Colomé, J.; Compin, M.; Conconi, P.; Connaughton, V.; Conrad, J.; Contreras, J. L.; Coppi, P.; Corlier, M.; Corona, P.; Corpace, O.; Corti, D.; Cortina, J.; Costantini, H.; Cotter, G.; Courty, B.; Couturier, S.; Covino, S.; Croston, J.; Cusumano, G.; Daniel, M. K.; Dazzi, F.; Angelis, A. De; de Cea Del Pozo, E.; de Gouveia Dal Pino, E. M.; de Jager, O.; de La Calle Pérez, I.; de La Vega, G.; de Lotto, B.; de Naurois, M.; de Oña Wilhelmi, E.; de Souza, V.; Decerprit, B.; Deil, C.; Delagnes, E.; Deleglise, G.; Delgado, C.; Dettlaff, T.; di Paolo, A.; di Pierro, F.; Díaz, C.; Dick, J.; Dickinson, H.; Digel, S. W.; Dimitrov, D.; Disset, G.; Djannati-Ataï, A.; Doert, M.; Domainko, W.; Dorner, D.; Doro, M.; Dournaux, J.-L.; Dravins, D.; Drury, L.; Dubois, F.; Dubois, R.; Dubus, G.; Dufour, C.; Durand, D.; Dyks, J.; Dyrda, M.; Edy, E.; Egberts, K.; Eleftheriadis, C.; Elles, S.; Emmanoulopoulos, D.; Enomoto, R.; Ernenwein, J.-P.; Errando, M.; Etchegoyen, A.; Falcone, A. D.; Farakos, K.; Farnier, C.; Federici, S.; Feinstein, F.; Ferenc, D.; Fillin-Martino, E.; Fink, D.; Finley, C.; Finley, J. P.; Firpo, R.; Florin, D.; Föhr, C.; Fokitis, E.; Font, Ll.; Fontaine, G.; Fontana, A.; Förster, A.; Fortson, L.; Fouque, N.; Fransson, C.; Fraser, G. W.; Fresnillo, L.; Fruck, C.; Fujita, Y.; Fukazawa, Y.; Funk, S.; Gäbele, W.; Gabici, S.; Gadola, A.; Galante, N.; Gallant, Y.; García, B.; García López, R. J.; Garrido, D.; Garrido, L.; Gascón, D.; Gasq, C.; Gaug, M.; Gaweda, J.; Geffroy, N.; Ghag, C.; Ghedina, A.; Ghigo, M.; Gianakaki, E.; Giarrusso, S.; Giavitto, G.; Giebels, B.; Giro, E.; Giubilato, P.; Glanzman, T.; Glicenstein, J.-F.; Gochna, M.; Golev, V.; Gómez Berisso, M.; González, A.; González, F.; Grañena, F.; Graciani, R.; Granot, J.; Gredig, R.; Green, A.; Greenshaw, T.; Grimm, O.; Grube, J.; Grudzińska, M.; Grygorczuk, J.; Guarino, V.; Guglielmi, L.; Guilloux, F.; Gunji, S.; Gyuk, G.; Hadasch, D.; Haefner, D.; Hagiwara, R.; Hahn, J.; Hallgren, A.; Hara, S.; Hardcastle, M. J.; Hassan, T.; Haubold, T.; Hauser, M.; Hayashida, M.; Heller, R.; Henri, G.; Hermann, G.; Herrero, A.; Hinton, J. A.; Hoffmann, D.; Hofmann, W.; Hofverberg, P.; Horns, D.; Hrupec, D.; Huan, H.; Huber, B.; Huet, J.-M.; Hughes, G.; Hultquist, K.; Humensky, T. B.; Huppert, J.-F.; Ibarra, A.; Illa, J. M.; Ingjald, J.; Inoue, Y.; Inoue, S.; Ioka, K.; Jablonski, C.; Jacholkowska, A.; Janiak, M.; Jean, P.; Jensen, H.; Jogler, T.; Jung, I.; Kaaret, P.; Kabuki, S.; Kakuwa, J.; Kalkuhl, C.; Kankanyan, R.; Kapala, M.; Karastergiou, A.; Karczewski, M.; Karkar, S.; Karlsson, N.; Kasperek, J.; Katagiri, H.; Katarzyński, K.; Kawanaka, N.; Kȩdziora, B.; Kendziorra, E.; Khélifi, B.; Kieda, D.; Kifune, T.; Kihm, T.; Klepser, S.; Kluźniak, W.; Knapp, J.; Knappy, A. R.; Kneiske, T.; Knödlseder, J.; Köck, F.; Kodani, K.; Kohri, K.; Kokkotas, K.; Komin, N.; Konopelko, A.; Kosack, K.; Kossakowski, R.; Kostka, P.; Kotuła, J.; Kowal, G.; Kozioł, J.; Krähenbühl, T.; Krause, J.; Krawczynski, H.; Krennrich, F.; Kretzschmann, A.; Kubo, H.; Kudryavtsev, V. A.; Kushida, J.; La Barbera, N.; La Parola, V.; La Rosa, G.; López, A.; Lamanna, G.; Laporte, P.; Lavalley, C.; Le Flour, T.; Le Padellec, A.; Lenain, J.-P.; Lessio, L.; Lieunard, B.; Lindfors, E.; Liolios, A.; Lohse, T.; Lombardi, S.; Lopatin, A.; Lorenz, E.; Lubiński, P.; Luz, O.; Lyard, E.; Maccarone, M. C.; Maccarone, T.; Maier, G.; Majumdar, P.; Maltezos, S.; Małkiewicz, P.; Mañá, C.; Manalaysay, A.; Maneva, G.; Mangano, A.; Manigot, P.; Marín, J.; Mariotti, M.; Markoff, S.; Martínez, G.; Martínez, M.; Mastichiadis, A.; Matsumoto, H.; Mattiazzo, S.; Mazin, D.; McComb, T. J. L.; McCubbin, N.; McHardy, I.; Medina, C.; Melkumyan, D.; Mendes, A.; Mertsch, P.; Meucci, M.; Michałowski, J.; Micolon, P.; Mineo, T.; Mirabal, N.; Mirabel, F.; Miranda, J. M.; Mirzoyan, R.; Mizuno, T.; Moal, B.; Moderski, R.; Molinari, E.; Monteiro, I.; Moralejo, A.; Morello, C.; Mori, K.; Motta, G.; Mottez, F.; Moulin, E.; Mukherjee, R.; Munar, P.; Muraishi, H.; Murase, K.; Murphy, A. Stj.; Nagataki, S.; Naito, T.; Nakamori, T.; Nakayama, K.; Naumann, C.; Naumann, D.; Nayman, P.; Nedbal, D.; Niedźwiecki, A.; Niemiec, J.; Nikolaidis, A.; Nishijima, K.; Nolan, S. J.; Nowak, N.; O'Brien, P. T.; Ochoa, I.; Ohira, Y.; Ohishi, M.; Ohka, H.; Okumura, A.; Olivetto, C.; Ong, R. A.; Orito, R.; Orr, M.; Osborne, J. P.; Ostrowski, M.; Otero, L.; Otte, A. N.; Ovcharov, E.; Oya, I.; Oziȩbło, A.; Paiano, S.; Pallota, J.; Panazol, J. L.; Paneque, D.; Panter, M.; Paoletti, R.; Papyan, G.; Paredes, J. M.; Pareschi, G.; Parsons, R. D.; Paz Arribas, M.; Pedaletti, G.; Pepato, A.; Persic, M.; Petrucci, P. O.; Peyaud, B.; Piechocki, W.; Pita, S.; Pivato, G.; Płatos, Ł.; Platzer, R.; Pogosyan, L.; Pohl, M.; Pojmański, G.; Ponz, J. D.; Potter, W.; Prandini, E.; Preece, R.; Prokoph, H.; Pühlhofer, G.; Punch, M.; Quel, E.; Quirrenbach, A.; Rajda, P.; Rando, R.; Rataj, M.; Raue, M.; Reimann, C.; Reimann, O.; Reimer, A.; Reimer, O.; Renaud, M.; Renner, S.; Reymond, J.-M.; Rhode, W.; Ribó, M.; Ribordy, M.; Rico, J.; Rieger, F.; Ringegni, P.; Ripken, J.; Ristori, P.; Rivoire, S.; Rob, L.; Rodriguez, S.; Roeser, U.; Romano, P.; Romero, G. E.; Rosier-Lees, S.; Rovero, A. C.; Roy, F.; Royer, S.; Rudak, B.; Rulten, C. B.; Ruppel, J.; Russo, F.; Ryde, F.; Sacco, B.; Saggion, A.; Sahakian, V.; Saito, K.; Saito, T.; Sakaki, N.; Salazar, E.; Salini, A.; Sánchez, F.; Sánchez Conde, M. Á.; Santangelo, A.; Santos, E. M.; Sanuy, A.; Sapozhnikov, L.; Sarkar, S.; Scalzotto, V.; Scapin, V.; Scarcioffolo, M.; Schanz, T.; Schlenstedt, S.; Schlickeiser, R.; Schmidt, T.; Schmoll, J.; Schroedter, M.; Schultz, C.; Schultze, J.; Schulz, A.; Schwanke, U.; Schwarzburg, S.; Schweizer, T.; Seiradakis, J.; Selmane, S.; Seweryn, K.; Shayduk, M.; Shellard, R. C.; Shibata, T.; Sikora, M.; Silk, J.; Sillanpää, A.; Sitarek, J.; Skole, C.; Smith, N.; Sobczyńska, D.; Sofo Haro, M.; Sol, H.; Spanier, F.; Spiga, D.; Spyrou, S.; Stamatescu, V.; Stamerra, A.; Starling, R. L. C.; Stawarz, Ł.; Steenkamp, R.; Stegmann, C.; Steiner, S.; Stergioulas, N.; Sternberger, R.; Stinzing, F.; Stodulski, M.; Straumann, U.; Suárez, A.; Suchenek, M.; Sugawara, R.; Sulanke, K. H.; Sun, S.; Supanitsky, A. D.; Sutcliffe, P.; Szanecki, M.; Szepieniec, T.; Szostek, A.; Szymkowiak, A.; Tagliaferri, G.; Tajima, H.; Takahashi, H.; Takahashi, K.; Takalo, L.; Takami, H.; Talbot, R. G.; Tam, P. H.; Tanaka, M.; Tanimori, T.; Tavani, M.; Tavernet, J.-P.; Tchernin, C.; Tejedor, L. A.; Telezhinsky, I.; Temnikov, P.; Tenzer, C.; Terada, Y.; Terrier, R.; Teshima, M.; Testa, V.; Tibaldo, L.; Tibolla, O.; Tluczykont, M.; Todero Peixoto, C. J.; Tokanai, F.; Tokarz, M.; Toma, K.; Torres, D. F.; Tosti, G.; Totani, T.; Toussenel, F.; Vallania, P.; Vallejo, G.; van der Walt, J.; van Eldik, C.; Vandenbroucke, J.; Vankov, H.; Vasileiadis, G.; Vassiliev, V. V.; Vegas, I.; Venter, L.; Vercellone, S.; Veyssiere, C.; Vialle, J. P.; Videla, M.; Vincent, P.; Vink, J.; Vlahakis, N.; Vlahos, L.; Vogler, P.; Vollhardt, A.; Volpe, F.; von Gunten, H. P.; Vorobiov, S.; Wagner, S.; Wagner, R. M.; Wagner, B.; Wakely, S. P.; Walter, P.; Walter, R.; Warwick, R.; Wawer, P.; Wawrzaszek, R.; Webb, N.; Wegner, P.; Weinstein, A.; Weitzel, Q.; Welsing, R.; Wetteskind, H.; White, R.; Wierzcholska, A.; Wilkinson, M. I.; Williams, D. A.; Winde, M.; Wischnewski, R.; Wiśniewski, Ł.; Wolczko, A.; Wood, M.; Xiong, Q.; Yamamoto, T.; Yamaoka, K.; Yamazaki, R.; Yanagita, S.; Yoffo, B.; Yonetani, M.; Yoshida, A.; Yoshida, T.; Yoshikoshi, T.; Zabalza, V.; Zagdański, A.; Zajczyk, A.; Zdziarski, A.; Zech, A.; Ziȩtara, K.; Ziółkowski, P.; Zitelli, V.; Zychowski, P.

    2011-12-01

    Ground-based gamma-ray astronomy has had a major breakthrough with the impressive results obtained using systems of imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes. Ground-based gamma-ray astronomy has a huge potential in astrophysics, particle physics and cosmology. CTA is an international initiative to build the next generation instrument, with a factor of 5-10 improvement in sensitivity in the 100 GeV-10 TeV range and the extension to energies well below 100 GeV and above 100 TeV. CTA will consist of two arrays (one in the north, one in the south) for full sky coverage and will be operated as open observatory. The design of CTA is based on currently available technology. This document reports on the status and presents the major design concepts of CTA.

  4. Recent advances in the concept and pathogenesis of IgG4-related disease in the hepato-bilio-pancreatic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okazaki, Kazuichi; Yanagawa, Masahito; Mitsuyama, Toshiyuki; Uchida, Kazushige

    2014-09-01

    Recent studies have proposed nomenclatures of type 1 autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) (IgG4-related pancreatitis), IgG4-related sclerosing cholangitis (IgG4-SC), IgG4-related cholecystitis, and IgG4-related hepatopathy as IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD) in the hepato-bilio-pancreatic system. In IgG4-related hepatopathy, a novel concept of IgG4-related autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) with the same histopathological features as AIH has been proposed. Among organs involved in IgG4-RD, associations with pancreatic and biliary lesions are most frequently observed, supporting the novel concept of "biliary diseases with pancreatic counterparts." Targets of type 1 AIP and IgG4-SC may be periductal glands around the bile and pancreatic ducts. Based on genetic backgrounds, innate and acquired immunity, Th2-dominant immune status, regulatory T (Treg) or B cells, and complement activation via a classical pathway may be involved in the development of IgG4-RD. Although the role of IgG4 remains unclear in IgG4-RD, IgG4-production is upregulated by interleukin 10 from Treg cells and by B cell activating factor from monocytes/basophils with stimulation of toll-like receptors/nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptors. Based on these findings, we have proposed a hypothesis for the development of IgG4-RD in the hepato-bilio-pancreatic system. Further studies are necessary to clarify the pathogenic mechanism of IgG4-RD.

  5. Concept, Characteristics and Advances of Geographic Knowledge Visualization%地学知识可视化概念特征与研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王伟星; 龚建华

    2009-01-01

    As a new field of visualization,knowledge visualization is to use maps,graphics or images to construct and transfer insights and knowledge between at least two persons.In view of geovisualization,geographic diagram,geoinformatic Tupu,and visual analytics are cutting edge researches on visual and graphic representation and discovery of geographic knowledge.Thus,this paper focuses on the discussion of geographic knowledge visualization in terms of general knowledge visualization and geographic diagram.In the paper,the concept and characteristics of geographic knowledge visualization are mainly explored according to the dual coding theory of representation of mental images and spatial thinking in mental images.Based on the theoretical foundation mentioned above,five formats of geographic knowledge visualization are introduced.Besides geographic knowledge map,they are concept maps,mind maps,cognitive maps,semantic networks and thinking maps.In the end,the practical application of geographic knowledge visualization and its development trend in the fields of geographic knowledge maps' construction,geographic collaborative work,design and implementation of visualization model and related algorithms,and so forth are summarized.%地学知识可视化是将知识可视化研究的理论、技术、方法引入地学研究领域,形成一个新的研究方向.通过分析地学知识可视化国内外研究现状,在总结其研究特点的基础上,对地学知识可视化的定义进行阐述,讨论其概念特征、理论基础以及表达方法,并对其应用研究现状与发展趋势进行概括总结.

  6. Biologic Treatments for Sports Injuries II Think Tank-Current Concepts, Future Research, and Barriers to Advancement, Part 2: Rotator Cuff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Iain R; LaPrade, Robert F; Musahl, Volker; Geeslin, Andrew G; Zlotnicki, Jason P; Mann, Barton J; Petrigliano, Frank A

    2016-03-01

    Rotator cuff tears are common and result in considerable morbidity. Tears within the tendon substance or at its insertion into the humeral head represent a considerable clinical challenge because of the hostile local environment that precludes healing. Tears often progress without intervention, and current surgical treatments are inadequate. Although surgical implants, instrumentation, and techniques have improved, healing rates have not improved, and a high failure rate remains for large and massive rotator cuff tears. The use of biologic adjuvants that contribute to a regenerative microenvironment have great potential for improving healing rates and function after surgery. This article presents a review of current and emerging biologic approaches to augment rotator cuff tendon and muscle regeneration focusing on the scientific rationale, preclinical, and clinical evidence for efficacy, areas for future research, and current barriers to advancement and implementation.

  7. Recent advances in the designing and the equipment of high activity laboratories; Progres recents dans la conception et l'equipement des laboratoires de haute activite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazire, R.; Duhamel, F. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1960-07-01

    The authors described the general principles governing the design of a laboratory for experimenting and handling radioactive substances. The difficulties encountered are of two types: 1) those due to the dangers of external irradiation; 2) those due to the dangers of internal contamination. As an example, the authors describe the French achievements in this field and in particular: - the high-activity laboratories at Saclay; - the laboratory for the examination of irradiated fuels at Saclay; - the 'hot' laboratory of the CEN-Grenoble; - the alpha, beta and gamma laboratories of the CEN-Fontenay-aux-Roses. Finally, the report describes the protective materials used for these installations. (author) [French] Les auteurs exposent quels sont les principes generaux qui president a la conception d'un laboratoire a des travaux et des manipulations sur des substances radioactives. Les difficultes a surmonter sont de deux ordres: 1) celles qui proviennent du danger d'irradiation externe; 2) celles qui proviennent du danger de contamination interne. A titre d'exemple, les auteurs decrivent les realisations francaises dans ce domaine et en particulier: - le laboratoire de haute activite de Saclay, - le laboratoire d'examen des combustibles irradies de Saclay, - le laboratoire chaud du CEN-Grenoble, - les laboratoires alpha, beta, gamma du CEN-Fontenay-aux-Roses. Enfin, le rapport decrit les materiaux de protection mis en oeuvre pour ces realisations. (auteur)

  8. Biologic Treatments for Sports Injuries II Think Tank-Current Concepts, Future Research, and Barriers to Advancement, Part 3: Articular Cartilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zlotnicki, Jason P; Geeslin, Andrew G; Murray, Iain R; Petrigliano, Frank A; LaPrade, Robert F; Mann, Barton J; Musahl, Volker

    2016-04-01

    Focal chondral defects of the articular surface are a common occurrence in the field of orthopaedics. These isolated cartilage injuries, if not repaired surgically with restoration of articular congruency, may have a high rate of progression to posttraumatic osteoarthritis, resulting in significant morbidity and loss of function in the young, active patient. Both isolated and global joint disease are a difficult entity to treat in the clinical setting given the high amount of stress on weightbearing joints and the limited healing potential of native articular cartilage. Recently, clinical interest has focused on the use of biologically active compounds and surgical techniques to regenerate native cartilage to the articular surface, with the goal of restoring normal joint health and overall function. This article presents a review of the current biologic therapies, as discussed at the 2015 American Orthopaedic Society for Sports Medicine (AOSSM) Biologics Think Tank, that are used in the treatment of focal cartilage deficiencies. For each of these emerging therapies, the theories for application, the present clinical evidence, and specific areas for future research are explored, with focus on the barriers currently faced by clinicians in advancing the success of these therapies in the clinical setting.

  9. Investigation of advanced counterrotation blade configuration concepts for high speed turboprop systems. Task 5: Unsteady counterrotation ducted propfan analysis. Computer program user's manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Edward J.; Delaney, Robert A.; Adamczyk, John J.; Miller, Christopher J.; Arnone, Andrea; Swanson, Charles

    1993-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was the development of a time-marching three-dimensional Euler/Navier-Stokes aerodynamic analysis to predict steady and unsteady compressible transonic flows about ducted and unducted propfan propulsion systems employing multiple blade rows. The computer codes resulting from this study are referred to as ADPAC-AOACR (Advanced Ducted Propfan Analysis Codes-Angle of Attack Coupled Row). This report is intended to serve as a computer program user's manual for the ADPAC-AOACR codes developed under Task 5 of NASA Contract NAS3-25270, Unsteady Counterrotating Ducted Propfan Analysis. The ADPAC-AOACR program is based on a flexible multiple blocked grid discretization scheme permitting coupled 2-D/3-D mesh block solutions with application to a wide variety of geometries. For convenience, several standard mesh block structures are described for turbomachinery applications. Aerodynamic calculations are based on a four-stage Runge-Kutta time-marching finite volume solution technique with added numerical dissipation. Steady flow predictions are accelerated by a multigrid procedure. Numerical calculations are compared with experimental data for several test cases to demonstrate the utility of this approach for predicting the aerodynamics of modern turbomachinery configurations employing multiple blade rows.

  10. Hot gas ingestion testing of an advanced STOVL concept in the NASA Lewis 9- by 15-foot Low Speed Wind Tunnel with flow visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johns, Albert L.; Flood, Joseph D.; Strock, Thomas W.; Amuedo, Kurt C.

    1988-01-01

    Advanced Short Takeoff/Vertical Landing (STOVL) aircraft capable of operating from remote sites, damaged runways, and small air capable ships are being pursued for deployment around the turn of the century. To achieve this goal, it is important that the technologies critical to this unique class of aircraft be developed. Recognizing this need, NASA Lewis Research Center, McDonnell Douglas Aircraft, and DARPA defined a cooperative program for testing in the NASA Lewis 9- by 15-foot Low Speed Wind Tunnel (LSWT) to establish a database for hot gas ingestion, one of the technologies critical to STOVL. Results from a test program are presented along with a discussion of the facility modifications allowing this type of testing at modal scale. These modifications to the tunnel include a novel ground plane, an elaborate model support which included 4 degrees of freedom, heated high pressure air for nozzle flow, a suction system exhaust for inlet flow, and tunnel sidewall modifications. Several flow visualization techniques were employed including water mist in the nozzle flows and tufts on the ground plane. Headwind (free-stream) velocity was varied from 8 to 23 knots.

  11. Bio-image warehouse system: concept and implementation of a diagnosis-based data warehouse for advanced imaging modalities in neuroradiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minati, L; Ghielmetti, F; Ciobanu, V; D'Incerti, L; Maccagnano, C; Bizzi, A; Bruzzone, M G

    2007-03-01

    Advanced neuroimaging techniques, such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), chemical shift spectroscopy imaging (CSI), diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), and perfusion-weighted imaging (PWI) create novel challenges in terms of data storage and management: huge amounts of raw data are generated, the results of analysis may depend on the software and settings that have been used, and most often intermediate files are inherently not compliant with the current DICOM (digital imaging and communication in medicine) standard, as they contain multidimensional complex and tensor arrays and various other types of data structures. A software architecture, referred to as Bio-Image Warehouse System (BIWS), which can be used alongside a radiology information system/picture archiving and communication system (RIS/PACS) system to store neuroimaging data for research purposes, is presented. The system architecture is conceived with the purpose of enabling to query by diagnosis according to a predefined two-layered classification taxonomy. The operational impact of the system and the time needed to get acquainted with the web-based interface and with the taxonomy are found to be limited. The development of modules enabling automated creation of statistical templates is proposed.

  12. 结直肠手术中微创技术和理念的进展%Advances in technology and the concept of minimally invasive colorectal surgery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵青川; 李纪鹏; 洪流

    2014-01-01

    ,dexterous procedures can be carried out laparoscopically in small spaces.Moreover,the conception of functionally minimal invasiveness has drawn more and more attention .Not only have surgeons been pursuing smaller incision and trauma, they also try to attain milder stress reaction and faster postoperative recovery.This paper reviews the development of minimally invasive techniques and conceptions in recent years, and gives an outlook of the application of minimally invasive surgery in colorectal operations .

  13. Understanding the fate and biological effects of Ag- and TiO₂-nanoparticles in the environment: The quest for advanced analytics and interdisciplinary concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaumann, Gabriele E; Philippe, Allan; Bundschuh, Mirco; Metreveli, George; Klitzke, Sondra; Rakcheev, Denis; Grün, Alexandra; Kumahor, Samuel K; Kühn, Melanie; Baumann, Thomas; Lang, Friederike; Manz, Werner; Schulz, Ralf; Vogel, Hans-Jörg

    2015-12-01

    Engineered inorganic nanoparticles (EINP) from consumers' products and industrial applications, especially silver and titanium dioxide nanoparticles (NP), are emitted into the aquatic and terrestrial environments in increasing amounts. However, the current knowledge on their environmental fate and biological effects is diverse and renders reliable predictions complicated. This review critically evaluates existing knowledge on colloidal aging mechanisms, biological functioning and transport of Ag NP and TiO2 NP in water and soil and it discusses challenges for concepts, experimental approaches and analytical methods in order to obtain a comprehensive understanding of the processes linking NP fate and effects. Ag NP undergo dissolution and oxidation with Ag2S as a thermodynamically determined endpoint. Nonetheless, Ag NP also undergo colloidal transformations in the nanoparticulate state and may act as carriers for other substances. Ag NP and TiO2 NP can have adverse biological effects on organisms. Whereas Ag NP reveal higher colloidal stability and mobility, the efficiency of NOM as a stabilizing agent is greater towards TiO2 NP than towards Ag NP, and multivalent cations can dominate the colloidal behavior over NOM. Many of the past analytical obstacles have been overcome just recently. Single particle ICP-MS based methods in combination with field flow fractionation techniques and hydrodynamic chromatography have the potential to fill the gaps currently hampering a comprehensive understanding of fate and effects also at a low field relevant concentrations. These analytical developments will allow for mechanistically orientated research and transfer to a larger set of EINP. This includes separating processes driven by NP specific properties and bulk chemical properties, categorization of effect-triggering pathways directing the EINP effects towards specific recipients, and identification of dominant environmental parameters triggering fate and effect of EINP in

  14. 尼采晚期思想的四个关键概念及其意图%Four Key Concepts and Their Intentions in Nietzsche's Advanced Thought

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李咏吟

    2016-01-01

    Nietzsche's advanced thought is mainly embodied in the Will to Power which is synthesized by several notes.Through the investigation of the will of power,Nietzsche emphasizes the significance of the revaluation of the living value.In Nietzsche's opinion,"Nihilism"implies suspecting the old value and exploring the new one and anti-moral or immoral is not to deny all the morals but to affirm Dionysus spirit through the negation of the values of Christianity and Buddhism.Ultimately,Nietzsche establishes the in-ner relationship beween artistic creation and living will,which regards the artistic free survival as the aes-thetic expression of the survival will.%尼采的晚期思想主要体现在若干笔记合成的«权力意志»之中。尼采通过权力意志的考察,强调生存价值重估的意义。在尼采看来,“虚无主义”就是对旧价值的怀疑并寻找新价值的活动;反道德或非道德,并不是否定所有的道德,而是通过对基督价值与佛教价值的否定,肯定酒神精神所代表的生命意志。最终,尼采确立了艺术创造与生存意志的内在联系,将艺术式的自由生存视作生存意志的审美表达。

  15. A new method for immunoassays using field-flow fractionation with on-line, continuous chemiluminescence detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melucci, D; Guardigli, M; Roda, B; Zattoni, A; Reschiglian, P; Roda, A

    2003-06-13

    Chemiluminescence detection has already been combined with different separation techniques such as HPLC and capillary electrophoresis. In this work, it was applied to gravitational field-flow fractionation, a low-cost, flow-assisted separation technique for micronsized particles suited to further on-line detection of the separated analytes. Horseradish peroxidase was used as model sample, either free in solution or immobilized onto micronsized, polystyrene beads. The chemiluminescent substrates were added directly into the mobile phase, and the continuous, steady-state chemiluminescence generated during elution was detected on-line by either a flow-through luminometer or a CCD camera. Ultra-low detection limits, two orders of magnitude lower than those achievable with spectrophotometric detection, were found. The possibility to fully separate and quantitate free and bead-immobilized enzymes is reported, as a step towards the development of multianalyte, ultra-sensitive, micronsized beads-based flow-assisted immunoassays.

  16. Flow-injection chemiluminescence determination of acetylsalicylic acid based on its enhancing effect on the lucigenin–hydrogen peroxide system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wabaidur, S M; Alam, S M; Alothmana, Z A; Eldesokya, Gaber

    2014-09-01

    A sensitive flow-injection chemiluminescence method for the determination of acetylsalicylic acid is described. It is based on the enhanced chemiluminescent emission of the alkaline lucigenin–H2O2 system by acetylsalicylic acid. The difference in chemiluminescent intensity of alkaline lucigenin–H2O2 in the presence of acetylsalicylic acid from that in the absence of acetylsalicylic acid was linear at acetylsalicylic acid concentrations in the range of 0.0029–47.37 μg/mL, with detection and quantification limits of 0.0011 and 0.0029 μg/mL, respectively. The correlation coefficient of the working curve was 0.9983. The relative standard deviation (n = 10) for 25 μg/mL acetylsalicylic acid is 1.95%. All experimental parameters were optimized. The method was successfully applied to the determination of acetylsalicylic acid in pharmaceutical preparations. The recovery results obtained by the method were satisfactory.

  17. Face perception : Concepts, issues and advance%面孔认知:概念、问题及其研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    诸薇娜; 张学杰

    2013-01-01

    Face recognition is a demanding process for both brain and computer. The research of face recognition involves Artificial Intelligence, Machine Vision, Pattern Recognition, Lie - detector, Cognitive Science and Neuroscience. One of important topic in compurter science is how to automatically identify or verify a face of human from digital images or a video source. On the other hand,how the brain understands and interprets the human face is a particular important topic for neuroscience scientists. Here,we introduced the concept,research topics and progress of face perception, especially the functional model of face recognition, the discussion of face - special processes, inverted face effects and familiar face effects. We presented some new research direction in face perception ; unconscious face processing and the perception of face micro - expression.%面孔识别是人类社会生活的重要功能,也是一个复杂的信息处理过程;它既是人工智能、机器视觉、模式识别、测谎领域的重要研究内容,也是认知心理学、认知神经科学、社会心理学等领域的重要研究方向.通过数字图像或者视频来完成自动面孔识别和辨认,是计算机科学领域的一个新的研究方向;而如何理解和解释大脑是如何处理面孔(特别是人类面孔)的研究,也是认知神经科学一个非常重要的领域.该文主要介绍了面孔认知的基本概念、研究的主要问题及相关领域的研究进展;具体从面孔认知模型、面孔特异性研究、面孔倒置效应和熟悉度效应几个方面,回顾了该领域内的一些重要研究成果,并对面孔认知研究的新方向,意识下面孔认知研究和面孔微表情认知研究提出了展望.

  18. Understanding the fate and biological effects of Ag- and TiO{sub 2}-nanoparticles in the environment: The quest for advanced analytics and interdisciplinary concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaumann, Gabriele E., E-mail: schaumann@uni-landau.de [Universität Koblenz-Landau, Institute for Environmental Sciences, Group of Environmental and Soil Chemistry, Fortstr. 7, D-76829 Landau (Germany); Philippe, Allan, E-mail: philippe@uni-landau.de [Universität Koblenz-Landau, Institute for Environmental Sciences, Group of Environmental and Soil Chemistry, Fortstr. 7, D-76829 Landau (Germany); Bundschuh, Mirco, E-mail: mirco.bundschuh@slu.se [Universität Koblenz-Landau, Institute for Environmental Sciences, Group of Ecotoxicology and Environment, Fortstr. 7, D-76829 Landau (Germany); Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Aquatic Sciences and Assessment, Lennart Hjelms väg 9, SE-75007 Uppsala (Sweden); Metreveli, George, E-mail: metreveli@uni-landau.de [Universität Koblenz-Landau, Institute for Environmental Sciences, Group of Environmental and Soil Chemistry, Fortstr. 7, D-76829 Landau (Germany); Klitzke, Sondra, E-mail: sondra.klitzke@tu-berlin.de [Albert-Ludwigs-Universität Freiburg, Institute of Forest Sciences, Chair of Soil Ecology, 79085 Freiburg i.Br. (Germany); Berlin University of Technology, Institute of Ecology, Department of Soil Science, Ernst-Reuter-Platz 1, D-10587 Berlin (Germany); Rakcheev, Denis, E-mail: rakcheev@uni-landau.de [Universität Koblenz-Landau, Institute for Environmental Sciences, Group of Environmental and Soil Chemistry, Fortstr. 7, D-76829 Landau (Germany); Grün, Alexandra, E-mail: alexg@uni-koblenz.de [Universität Koblenz-Landau, Institute for Integrated Natural Sciences, Dept. of Biology, Universitätsstr. 1, D-56070 Koblenz (Germany); and others

    2015-12-01

    Engineered inorganic nanoparticles (EINP) from consumers' products and industrial applications, especially silver and titanium dioxide nanoparticles (NP), are emitted into the aquatic and terrestrial environments in increasing amounts. However, the current knowledge on their environmental fate and biological effects is diverse and renders reliable predictions complicated. This review critically evaluates existing knowledge on colloidal aging mechanisms, biological functioning and transport of Ag NP and TiO{sub 2} NP in water and soil and it discusses challenges for concepts, experimental approaches and analytical methods in order to obtain a comprehensive understanding of the processes linking NP fate and effects. Ag NP undergo dissolution and oxidation with Ag{sub 2}S as a thermodynamically determined endpoint. Nonetheless, Ag NP also undergo colloidal transformations in the nanoparticulate state and may act as carriers for other substances. Ag NP and TiO{sub 2} NP can have adverse biological effects on organisms. Whereas Ag NP reveal higher colloidal stability and mobility, the efficiency of NOM as a stabilizing agent is greater towards TiO{sub 2} NP than towards Ag NP, and multivalent cations can dominate the colloidal behavior over NOM. Many of the past analytical obstacles have been overcome just recently. Single particle ICP-MS based methods in combination with field flow fractionation techniques and hydrodynamic chromatography have the potential to fill the gaps currently hampering a comprehensive understanding of fate and effects also at a low field relevant concentrations. These analytical developments will allow for mechanistically orientated research and transfer to a larger set of EINP. This includes separating processes driven by NP specific properties and bulk chemical properties, categorization of effect-triggering pathways directing the EINP effects towards specific recipients, and identification of dominant environmental parameters triggering

  19. Automated determinations of selenium in thermal power plant wastewater by sequential hydride generation and chemiluminescence detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezoe, Kentaro; Ohyama, Seiichi; Hashem, Md Abul; Ohira, Shin-Ichi; Toda, Kei

    2016-02-01

    After the Fukushima disaster, power generation from nuclear power plants in Japan was completely stopped and old coal-based power plants were re-commissioned to compensate for the decrease in power generation capacity. Although coal is a relatively inexpensive fuel for power generation, it contains high levels (mgkg(-1)) of selenium, which could contaminate the wastewater from thermal power plants. In this work, an automated selenium monitoring system was developed based on sequential hydride generation and chemiluminescence detection. This method could be applied to control of wastewater contamination. In this method, selenium is vaporized as H2Se, which reacts with ozone to produce chemiluminescence. However, interference from arsenic is of concern because the ozone-induced chemiluminescence intensity of H2Se is much lower than that of AsH3. This problem was successfully addressed by vaporizing arsenic and selenium individually in a sequential procedure using a syringe pump equipped with an eight-port selection valve and hot and cold reactors. Oxidative decomposition of organoselenium compounds and pre-reduction of the selenium were performed in the hot reactor, and vapor generation of arsenic and selenium were performed separately in the cold reactor. Sample transfers between the reactors were carried out by a pneumatic air operation by switching with three-way solenoid valves. The detection limit for selenium was 0.008 mg L(-1) and calibration curve was linear up to 1.0 mg L(-1), which provided suitable performance for controlling selenium in wastewater to around the allowable limit (0.1 mg L(-1)). This system consumes few chemicals and is stable for more than a month without any maintenance. Wastewater samples from thermal power plants were collected, and data obtained by the proposed method were compared with those from batchwise water treatment followed by hydride generation-atomic fluorescence spectrometry.

  20. Evaluation of nitrogen dioxide chemiluminescence monitors in a polluted urban environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. J. Molina

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Data from a recent field campaign in Mexico City are used to evaluate the performance of the EPA Federal Reference Method for monitoring the ambient concentrations of NO2. Measurements of NO2 from standard chemiluminescence monitors equipped with molybdenum oxide converters are compared with those from Tunable Infrared Laser Differential Absorption Spectroscopy (TILDAS and Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS instruments. A significant interference in the chemiluminescence measurement is shown to account for up to 50% of ambient NO2 concentration during afternoon hours. As expected, this interference correlates well with non-NOx reactive nitrogen species (NOz as well as with ambient O3 concentrations, indicating a photochemical source for the interfering species. A combination of ambient gas phase nitric acid and alkyl and multifunctional alkyl nitrates is deduced to be the primary cause of the interference. Observations at four locations at varying proximities to emission sources indicate that the percentage contribution of HNO3 to the interference decreases with time as the air parcel ages. Alkyl and multifunctional alkyl nitrate concentrations are calculated to reach concentrations as high as several ppb inside the city, on par with the highest values previously observed in other urban locations. Averaged over the MCMA-2003 field campaign, the chemiluminescence monitor interference resulted in an average measured NO2 concentration up to 22% greater than that from co-located spectroscopic measurements. Thus, this interference has the potential to initiate regulatory action in areas that are close to non-attainment and may mislead atmospheric photochemical models used to assess control strategies for photochemical oxidants.

  1. Chemiluminescence Determination of Molybdenum by on-Line Reduction with a Flow Injection System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The chemiluminescence (CL) reaction between lucigenin (Lu) and molybdenum (Ⅲ) produced by a Jones reductor was investigated using a flow injection system. On the basis of this, a novel method for the determination of trace amount of molybdenum has been established. The emission intensity was linear with molybdenum concentration in the range of 0.1-1000 ng/mL; the detection limit was 0.02 ng/mL molybdenum; the relative standard deviation was less than 2% for the determination of 0.1 ng/mL molybdenum (n=11). The method has been applied successfully to the analysis of trace molybdenum in water and steel samples.

  2. Chemiluminescence of Organic Peroxides. Thermal Generation of an o-Xylylene Peroxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-04-07

    Our efforts to discover new chemiluminescent systems and to probe the mechanism of electronically excited state generation led to the synthesis and...product is a precursor to diketone or ketoester k we carried out the thermolysis of in the presence of maleic anhydride. A 1.Ox]O - 3 I p-xylene solution of... diketone -3- that is essentially the same as in the absence of anhydride. Increasing the maleic anhydride concentration to 1.5x10- 2 M results in the

  3. Flow Injection Analysis of Histidine with Enhanced Electrogenerated Chemiluminescence of Luminol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    A simple and sensitive flow injection method is presented for the determination of histidine based on its enhancement of electrogenerated chemiluminescence (ECL) of luminol. After optimization of the experimental parameters, the working range for histidine was in 1.0 x 10-6 to 1.0 x 10 -3 mol/L with a detection limit (S/N = 3) of 0.56 μmol/L. The relative standard deviation was 1.6% for 11 measurements of 5 x 10 -5 mol/L histidine solution. The proposed method has been successfully applied to the determination of histidine in real pharmaceutical preparation.

  4. Determination of Baicalin in Traditional Chinese Preparation by High Performance Liquid Chromatography with Chemiluminescence Detection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Er Bao LIU; Hong Qing WEI; Xiu Li ZHAO; Xiao Xia LI; Feng Xian JIANG

    2004-01-01

    A new method for the determination of baicalin with HPLC-CL was developed. The method was based on the chemiluminescence reaction between KMnO4 and baicalin sensitized from HCHO. The linear range was 3.7×10-6~9.8×10-5 mol/L with detection limit of 1.7×10-6 mol/L and the relative standard deviation was 2.5 % (Cs=6.6×10-5 mol/L, n=5). The method has been applied to the determination of baicalin in oral administration, injection, Scutellariae radix and granules with good results.

  5. Chemiluminescence detection of organic peroxides in a two-phase system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baj, Stefan; Krawczyk, Tomasz

    2007-02-28

    Potential application of chemiluminescence (CL) reaction of luminol for detection of organic peroxides by HPLC post-column reaction using an immiscible apolar eluent (hexane) with aqueous solution of luminol has been proposed. The positive influence of the addition of an anionic surface-active agent--sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) to the luminol solution on the CL intensity has been observed. The sensitivity of the method is greater for peroxyacid and hydroperoxide tested, and lesser for diacyl peroxide as compared to system with polar eluent miscible with solution of luminol. Our interpretation of observed results based on the extraction efficiency, CL kinetics and microemulsion formation has been suggested.

  6. Chemiluminescence of phthalhydrazide derivatives in organized media: Interactions with surfactants and cyclodextrins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maeztu, Raquel [Departamento de Quimica y Edafologia, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Navarra, 31080 Pamplona (Spain); Gonzalez-Gaitano, Gustavo, E-mail: gaitano@unav.e [Departamento de Quimica y Edafologia, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Navarra, 31080 Pamplona (Spain); Tardajos, Gloria [Departamento de Quimica-Fisica I, Facultad de CC. Quimicas, Universidad Complutense, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Stilbs, Peter [Division of Physical Chemistry and Industrial NMR Centre, Department of Chemistry, Royal Institute of Technology, SE-10044, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2011-04-15

    The chemiluminescent oxidation of some phthalhydrazide derivatives, luminol (LUM), isoluminol (ISOL), N-(4-aminobutyl)-N-ethylisoluminol (ABEI) and N-(6-aminohexyl)-N-ethylisoluminol (AHEI), has been carried out in micellar media and in the presence of natural cyclodextrins (CDs), using Co(II) as catalyst and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} as oxidant. The cationic cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) and, in a lesser extent, the anionic sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) produce quenching in the chemiluminescence (CL) of all the luminophores at concentrations above the cmc, whereas slight enhancements are attained with the non-ionic pentaethylene glycol monododecyl ether (C{sub 12}E{sub 5}). On the contrary, the incorporation of the CDs to the reaction produces a remarkable intensification of the CL. Binding of the luminophores to the macrocycles and the micelles has been studied by Pulsed-Gradient-Spin-Echo-NMR (PGSE-NMR) and fluorescence anisotropy. The cationic CTAB decreases the emission mainly due to charge compensation as a result of the association of the luminophores and the luminescent intermediates to the micelles. The presence of the alkyl substituents of ABEI and AHEI provides an additional hydrophobic contribution to the binding process. SDS quenches this reaction as the micelles retain Co(II) on their anionic layer. The protection and stabilization of these luminophores or their luminescent intermediates provided by the cavities of the CDs make this family of cyclic oligosaccharides much more suitable agents than the surfactants for enhancing the CL in aqueous media for this specific reaction. - Research highlights: Natural cyclodextrins act as boosters of the chemiluminescence of luminol and its derivatives. Cyclodextrins can be successfully employed for improving the possibilities of those applications that make use of the CL of luminol and its derivatives as a detection or quantification method. Ionic and non-ionic surfactants do not either enhance or even quench the

  7. Concept theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjørland, Birger

    2009-01-01

      Concept theory is an extremely broad, interdisciplinary and complex field of research related to many deep fields with very long historical traditions without much consensus. However, information science and knowledge organization cannot avoid relating to theories of concepts. Knowledge...... organizing systems (e.g. classification systems, thesauri and ontologies) should be understood as systems basically organizing concepts and their semantic relations. The same is the case with information retrieval systems. Different theories of concepts have different implications for how to construe......, evaluate and use such systems. Based on "a post-Kuhnian view" of paradigms this paper put forward arguments that the best understanding and classification of theories of concepts is to view and classify them in accordance with epistemological theories (empiricism, rationalism, historicism and pragmatism...

  8. Space Mission Concept Development Using Concept Maturity Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessen, Randii R.; Borden, Chester; Ziemer, John; Kwok, Johnny

    2013-01-01

    Over the past five years, pre-project formulation experts at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) has developed and implemented a method for measuring and communicating the maturity of space mission concepts. Mission concept development teams use this method, and associated tools, prior to concepts entering their Formulation Phases (Phase A/B). The organizing structure is Concept Maturity Level (CML), which is a classification system for characterizing the various levels of a concept's maturity. The key strength of CMLs is the ability to evolve mission concepts guided by an incremental set of assessment needs. The CML definitions have been expanded into a matrix form to identify the breadth and depth of analysis needed for a concept to reach a specific level of maturity. This matrix enables improved assessment and communication by addressing the fundamental dimensions (e.g., science objectives, mission design, technical risk, project organization, cost, export compliance, etc.) associated with mission concept evolution. JPL's collaborative engineering, dedicated concept development, and proposal teams all use these and other CML-appropriate design tools to advance their mission concept designs. This paper focuses on mission concept's early Pre-Phase A represented by CMLs 1- 4. The scope was limited due to the fact that CMLs 5 and 6 are already well defined based on the requirements documented in specific Announcement of Opportunities (AO) and Concept Study Report (CSR) guidelines, respectively, for competitive missions; and by NASA's Procedural Requirements NPR 7120.5E document for Projects in their Formulation Phase.

  9. Chemiluminescence determination of melamine with Luminol-K3Fe(CN)6 system%Chemiluminescence determination of melamine with Luminol-K3Fe(CN)6 system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao- Shuang Tang; Xi-Yan Shi; Yu-Hai Tang; Zhong-Jin Yue; Qi-Qi He

    2011-01-01

    A sensitive chemiluminescence(CL) method was developed for determining melamine in urine and plasma samples based on the fact that melamine can remarkably enhance the chemiluminescence of Luminol-K3 Fe(CN)6 system in alkaline medium. The determination con

  10. Determination of Biotin in Pharmaceutical Formulations by Potassium Permanganate-luminol-CdTe Nanoparticles Chemiluminescence System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TRAORE Zoumana Sékou; SU Xing-guang

    2012-01-01

    A sensitive flow-injection chemiluminescence method was developed for the determination of biotin in the pharmaceutical formulations.The affinity between avidin and biotin was used to adsorb biotin on the polystyrene,with subsequent quantification of biotin based on its ability to enhance the chemiluminescence(CL) signal generated by the redox reaction of potassium permanganate-luminol-CdTe nanoparticles CL system.The investigations prove that apart from 3-aminophthalate,the CdTe quantum dots(QDs) play both catalytic and emitter roles.Under optimum conditions,the linear range for the determination of biotin was 0.01-25 ng/mL with a detection limit of 7.3×10-3ng/mL(S/N=3).The relative standard deviation of 5 ng/L biotin was 2.06%(n=7).The proposed method was used to determine the biotin concentration in the pharmaceutical formulations and the recovery was between 96.4% and 104%.The proposed method is simple,convenient,rapid and sensitive.

  11. A new sensitive flow-injection chemiluminescence method for the determination of H(2)-receptor antagonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yu-Hai; Wang, Nan-Nan; Xiong, Xun-Yu; Xiong, Feng-Mei; Sun, Si-Juan

    2007-01-01

    Based on the chemiluminescence (CL) intensity generated from the potassium ferricyanide [K(3)Fe(CN)(6)]-rhodamine 6G system in sodium hydroxide (NaOH) medium, a new sensitive flow-injection chemiluminescence (FI-CL) method has been developed, validated and applied for the determination of three kinds of H(2)-receptor antagonists: cimetidine (CIMT), ranitidine (RANT) hydrochloride and famotidine (FAMT). Under the optimum conditions, the linear range for the determination was 1.0 x 10(-9)-7.0 x 10(-5) g/ml for CIMT, 1.0 x 10(-9)-5.0 x 10(-5) g/mL for RANT hydrochloride and 5.0 x 10(-9)-7.0 x 10(-5) g/mL for FAMT. During 11 repeated measurements of 1.0 x 10(-6) g/mL sample solutions, the relative standard deviations (RSDs) were all <5%. The detection limit was 8.56 x 10(-10) g/mL for CIMT, 8.69 x 10(-10) g/mL for RANT hydrochloride and 2.35 x 10(-9) g/mL for FAMT (S:N = 3). This method has been successfully implemented for the analysis of H(2)-receptor antagonists in pharmaceuticals.

  12. Correlation between arachidonic acid oxygenation and luminol-induced chemiluminescence in neutrophils: inhibition by diethyldithiocarbamate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabannes, B; Perraut, C; El Habib, R; Moliere, P; Pacheco, Y; Lagarde, M

    1997-04-01

    Neutrophils from allergic subjects were hypersensitive to stimulation by low calcium ionophore concentration (0.15 microM), resulting in an increased formation of leukotriene B4 (LTB4), 5S-hydroxy-6,8,11,14-(E,Z,Z,Z)-eicosatetraenoic acid (5-HETE), and other arachidonic acid metabolites through the 5-lipoxygenase pathway. In parallel, luminol-dependent chemiluminescence was also higher in neutrophils from allergic patients at the basal state and after stimulation by calcium ionophore, revealing an enhancement of radical oxygen species and peroxide production. The activity of glutathione peroxidase, the main enzyme responsible for hydroperoxide reduction, was lowered in these cells. Diethyl-dithiocarbamate (DTC) induced a concentration-dependent decrease in chemiluminescence and arachidonic acid metabolism after neutrophil stimulation. These data show that the elevation of arachidonic acid metabolism in neutrophils from allergic patients is strongly correlated with oxidative status. This elevation may be the consequence of an increased cellular hydroperoxide known to activate 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX) activity and/or an increased arachidonic acid availability, due either to phospholipase A2 (PLA2) activation or inhibition of arachidonate reesterification into phospholipids. Lowering this oxidative status was associated with a concomitant decrease of this metabolism. Our results suggest that the effect of DTC may be the consequence of an inhibition of peroxyl radical and cellular lipid hydroperoxide production. Thus, DTC may modulate arachidonic acid metabolism in neutrophils by modulating the cellular hydroperoxide level.

  13. Evaluation of Antibacterial Enrofloxacin in Eggs by Matrix Solid Phase Dispersion-Flow Injection Chemiluminescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaocui Duan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The study based on the chemiluminescence (CL reaction of potassium ferricyanide and luminol in sodium hydroxide medium, enrofloxacin (ENRO could dramatically enhance CL intensities and incorporated with matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD technique (Florisil used as dispersant, dichloromethane eluted the target compounds. A simple flow injection chemiluminescence (FL-CL method with MSPD technique for determination of ENRO in eggs was described. Under optimal conditions, the CL intensities were linearly related to ENRO concentration ranging from 4.0×10-8 g.L−1 to 5.0×10-5 g.L−1, with a correlation coefficient of 0.9989 and detection limit of 5.0×10-9 g.L−1. The relative standard deviation was 3.6% at an ENRO concentration of 2.0×10-6 g.L−1. Our testing technique can help ensure food safety, and thus, protect public health.

  14. The observation of chemiluminescent NiO* emissions in the laboratory and in the night airglow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. L. Broadfoot

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The recent finding of an orange spectral feature in OSIRIS/Odin spectra of the night airglow near 85 km has raised interest in the origin of the emission. The feature was positively identified as the chemiluminescent FeO* emission where the iron is of meteoric origin. Since the meteorite source of atomic metals in the mesosphere contains both iron and nickel, with Ni being typically 6% of Fe, it is expected that faint emissions involving Ni should also be present in the night airglow. The present study summarizes the laboratory observations of chemiluminescent NiO* emissions and includes a search for the NiO* signature in the night airglow. A faint previously unidentified "continuum" extending longwave of 440 nm has been identified in night airglow spectra obtained with two space-borne limb viewing instruments and through a comparison with laboratory spectra this continuum is identified as arising from the NiO* emission. The FeO* and NiO* emissions both originate from a reaction of the metal atoms with mesospheric ozone and so support the presence of NiO* in the night airglow.

  15. The observation of chemiluminescent NiO* emissions in the laboratory and in the night airglow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. F. J. Evans

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The recent finding of an orange spectral feature in OSIRIS/Odin spectra of the night airglow near 87 km has raised interest in the origin of the emission. The feature was positively identified as the chemiluminescent FeO* emission where the iron is of meteoric origin. Since the meteorite source of atomic metals in the mesosphere contains both iron and nickel, with Ni being typically 6 % of Fe, it is expected that faint emissions involving Ni should also be present in the night airglow. The present study summarizes the laboratory observations of chemiluminescent NiO* emissions and includes a search for the NiO* signature in the night airglow. A very faint previously unidentified "continuum" extending longwave of 440 nm has been detected in the night airglow spectra obtained with two space-borne limb viewing instruments. Through a comparison with laboratory spectra this continuum is identified as arising from the NiO* emission. The altitude profile of the new airglow emission has also been measured. The similarity of the altitude profiles of the FeO* and NiO* emissions also suggests the emission is NiO as both can originate from reaction of the metal atoms with mesospheric ozone. The observed NiO* to FeO* ratio exhibits considerable variability; possible causes of this observed variation are briefly discussed.

  16. Microplate-reader method for the rapid analysis of copper in natural waters with chemiluminescence detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Axel eDurand

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We have developed a method for the determination of copper in natural waters at nanomolar levels. The use of a microplate-reader minimises sample processing time (~ 25 sec per sample, reagent consumption (~ 120 μL per sample and sample volume (~ 700 μL. Copper is detected by chemiluminescence. This technique is based on the formation of a complex between copper and 1,10-phenanthroline and the subsequent emission of light during the oxidation of the complex by hydrogen peroxide. Samples are acidified to pH 1.7 and then introduced directly into a 24-well plate. Reagents are added during data acquisition via two reagent injectors. When trace metal clean protocols are employed, the reproducibility is generally less then 7% on blanks and the detection limit is 0.7 nM for seawater and 0.4 nM for freshwater. More than 100 samples per hour can be analyzed with this technique, which is simple, robust, and amenable to at-sea analysis. Seawater samples from Storm Bay in Tasmania illustrate the utility of the method for environmental science. Indeed other trace metals for which optical detection methods exist (e.g. chemiluminescence, fluorescence and absorbance could be adapted to the microplate-reader.

  17. Exhaled nitric oxide monitoring by quantum cascade laser: comparison with chemiluminescent and electrochemical sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandon, Julien; Högman, Marieann; Merkus, Peter J F M; van Amsterdam, Jan; Harren, Frans J M; Cristescu, Simona M

    2012-01-01

    Fractional exhaled nitric oxide (F(E)NO) is considered an indicator in the diagnostics and management of asthma. In this study we present a laser-based sensor for measuring F(E)NO. It consists of a quantum cascade laser (QCL) combined with a multi-pass cell and wavelength modulation spectroscopy for the detection of NO at the sub-part-per-billion by volume (ppbv, 110(-9)) level. The characteristics and diagnostic performance of the sensor were assessed. A detection limit of 0.5 ppbv was demonstrated with a relatively simple design. The QCL-based sensor was compared with two market sensors, a chemiluminescent analyzer (NOA 280, Sievers) and a portable hand-held electrochemical analyzer (MINO, Aerocrine AB, Sweden). F(E)NO from 20 children diagnosed with asthma and treated with inhaled corticosteroids were measured. Data were found to be clinically acceptable within 1.1 ppbv between the QCL-based sensor and chemiluminescent sensor and within 1.7 ppbv when compared to the electrochemical sensor. The QCL-based sensor was tested on healthy subjects at various expiratory flow rates for both online and offline sampling procedures. The extended NO parameters, i.e. the alveolar region, airway wall, diffusing capacity, and flux were calculated and showed a good agreement with the previously reported values.

  18. Detection of ochratoxin A (OTA) in coffee using chemiluminescence resonance energy transfer (CRET) aptasensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Eun-Jung; Mun, Hyoyoung; Kim, Su-Ji; Shim, Won-Bo; Kim, Min-Gon

    2016-03-01

    We report a chemiluminescence resonance energy transfer (CRET) aptasensor for the detection of ochratoxin A (OTA) in roasted coffee beans. The aptamer sequences used in this study are 5'-DNAzyme-Linker-OTA aptamer-3'-dabcyl. Dabcyl at the end of the OTA aptamer region plays as a quencher in CRET aptasensor. When hemin and OTA are added, the dabcyl-labeled OTA aptamer approaches to the G-quadruplex-hemin complex by formation of the G-quadruplex-OTA complex. The G-quadruplex-hemin complexes possess horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-like activity, and therefore, the HRP-mimicking DNAzyme (HRPzyme) catalyzes peroxidation in the presence of luminol and H2O2. Resonance energy transfer between luminol (donor) and dabcyl (acceptor) enables quenching of chemiluminescence signals. The signal decreases with increasing the concentration of OTA within the range of 0.1-100ngmL(-1) (limit of detection 0.22ngmL(-1)), and the level of recovery of the respective 1ngmL(-1) and 10ngmL(-1) spiked coffee samples was 71.5% and 93.3%. These results demonstrated the potential of the proposed method for OTA analysis in diverse foods.

  19. Exhaled nitric oxide monitoring by quantum cascade laser: comparison with chemiluminescent and electrochemical sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandon, Julien; Högman, Marieann; Merkus, Peter J. F. M.; van Amsterdam, Jan; Harren, Frans J. M.; Cristescu, Simona M.

    2012-01-01

    Fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FENO) is considered an indicator in the diagnostics and management of asthma. In this study we present a laser-based sensor for measuring FENO. It consists of a quantum cascade laser (QCL) combined with a multi-pass cell and wavelength modulation spectroscopy for the detection of NO at the sub-part-per-billion by volume (ppbv, 1∶10-9) level. The characteristics and diagnostic performance of the sensor were assessed. A detection limit of 0.5 ppbv was demonstrated with a relatively simple design. The QCL-based sensor was compared with two market sensors, a chemiluminescent analyzer (NOA 280, Sievers) and a portable hand-held electrochemical analyzer (MINO®, Aerocrine AB, Sweden). FENO from 20 children diagnosed with asthma and treated with inhaled corticosteroids were measured. Data were found to be clinically acceptable within 1.1 ppbv between the QCL-based sensor and chemiluminescent sensor and within 1.7 ppbv when compared to the electrochemical sensor. The QCL-based sensor was tested on healthy subjects at various expiratory flow rates for both online and offline sampling procedures. The extended NO parameters, i.e. the alveolar region, airway wall, diffusing capacity, and flux were calculated and showed a good agreement with the previously reported values.

  20. A chemiluminescent metalloimmunoassay based on silver deposition on colloidal gold labels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zheng-Ping; Liu, Cheng-Hui; Fan, Yong-Shan; Wang, Yu-Cong; Duan, Xin-Rui

    2006-12-15

    A sensitive chemiluminescent (CL) immunoassay of human immunoglobulin (IgG) which combined the inherent high sensitivity of CL analysis with the dramatic signal amplification of silver precipitation on colloidal gold tags was developed. First, the sandwich-type complex was formed in this protocol by the primary antibody immobilized on the polystyrene wells, the analyte in the sample, and the secondary antibody labeled with colloidal gold. Second, the colloidal gold was treated by an Ag(+) reduction solution, which resulted in the catalytic precipitation of silver on the surface of colloidal gold. Third, a large number of Ag(+) were oxidatively released in HNO(3) solution from the silver metal anchored on the sandwich-type complexes and then the human IgG was indirectly determined by a sensitive combined CL reaction of Ag(+)-K(2)S(2)O(8)-Mn(2+)- H(3)PO(4)-luminol. The chemiluminescence intensity depends linearly on the logarithm of the concentration of human IgG over the range of 0.02-50ngml(-1) and detection limit (3sigma) is 0.005ngml(-1) (i.e., approximately 3x10(-14)M, 3amol in 100-mul sample). This assay has been successfully applied to the determination of human IgG in human serum samples and showed great potential for numerous applications in immunoassay.

  1. High throughput heme assay by detection of chemiluminescence of reconstituted horseradish peroxidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Shigekazu; Masuda, Tatsuru

    2009-06-01

    In living organisms, heme is an essential molecule for various biological functions. Recent studies also suggest that heme functions as organelle-derived signal that regulates fundamental cell processes. Furthermore, estimation of heme is widely used for studying various blood disorders. In this regard, development of a rapid, sensitive, and high throughput heme assay has been sought. The most frequently used method of measuring heme by pyridine hemochrome is time, labor, and material intensive, and therefore limiting in its utility for large scale, high throughput analysis. Recently, we reported alternative method that is sensitive and specific to heme, which is based on the ability of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) apo-enzyme to reconstitute with heme to form an active holo-enzyme. Here, we developed high throughput heme assay by performing reactions on multi-well plate with highly sensitive chemiluminescence detection reagents. Detection of chemiluminescence in charged coupled device (CCD)-based gel doc apparatus enables simultaneous measurement of multiple samples. Furthermore, the high sensitivity of this assay allowed a direct measurement of heme in solvent extracts after dilution. This assay is sensitive, quick, provides a large dynamic range, and is well suited for large-scale analysis of heme extracted from minute amount of samples.

  2. l-Tyrosine Contained in Dietary Supplement by Chemiluminescence Reaction of an Iron-Phthalocyanine Complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takao Ohtomo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The chemiluminescence (CL signal immediately appeared when a hydrogen peroxide solution was injected into an iron-phthalocyanine tetrasulfonic acid (Fe-PTS aqueous solution. Moreover, the CL intensity of Fe-PTS decreased by adding L-tyrosine. Based on these results, the determination of trace amounts of L-tyrosine was developed using the quenching-chemiluminescence. The calibration curve of L-tyrosine was obtained in the concentration range of 2.0×10−7 M to 2.0×10−5 M. Moreover, the relative standard deviation (RSD was 1.63 % (=5 for 2.0×10−6 M L-tyrosine, and its detection limits (3σ were 1.81×10−7 M. The spike and recovery experiments for L-tyrosine were performed using a soft drink. Furthermore, the determination of L-tyrosine was applied to supplements containing various kinds of amino acids. Each satisfactory relative recovery was obtained at 98 to 102%.

  3. A comparison of chemiluminescent acridinium dimethylphenyl ester labels with different conjugation sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natrajan, Anand; Wen, David

    2015-03-07

    Chemiluminescent acridinium dimethylphenyl esters are highly sensitive labels that are used in automated assays for clinical diagnosis. Light emission from these labels and their conjugates is triggered by treatment with alkaline peroxide. Conjugation of acridinium ester labels is normally done at the phenol. During the chemiluminescent reaction of these acridinium esters, the phenolic ester is cleaved and the light emitting acridone moiety is liberated from its conjugate partner. In the current study, we report the synthesis of three new acridinium esters with conjugation sites at the acridinium nitrogen and compare their properties with that of a conventional acridinium ester with a conjugation site at the phenol. Our study is the first that provides a direct comparison of the emissive properties of acridinium dimethylphenyl esters (free labels and protein conjugates) with different conjugation sites, one where the light emitting acridone remains attached to its conjugate partner versus conventional labeling which results in cleavage of the acridone from the conjugate. Our results indicate that the conjugation at the acridinium nitrogen, which also alters how the acridinium ring and phenol are oriented with respect to the protein surface, has a minimal impact on emission kinetics and emission spectra. However, this mode of conjugation to three different proteins led to a significant increase in light yield which should be useful for improving the assay sensitivity.

  4. Utility of gold nanoparticles in luminescence determination of trovafloxacin: comparison of chemiluminescence and fluorescence detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alarfaj, Nawal A; El-Tohamy, Maha F

    2015-12-01

    Two novel sensitive sequential injection chemiluminescence analysis and fluorescence methods for trovafloxacin mesylate detection have been developed. The methods were based on the enhancement effect of gold nanoparticles on luminol-ferricyanide-trovafloxacin and europium(III)-trovafloxacin complex systems. The optimum conditions for both detection methods were investigated. The chemiluminescence signal was emitted due to the enhanced effect of gold nanoparticles on the reaction of luminol-ferricyanide-trovafloxacin in an alkaline medium. The response was linear over a concentration range of 1.0 × 10(-9) to 1.0 × 10(-2) mol/L (%RSD = 1.3), (n = 9, r = 0.9991) with a detection limit of 1.7 × 10(-10) mol/L (S/N = 3). The weak fluorescence intensity signal of the oxidation complex of europium(III)-trovafloxacin was strongly enhanced by gold nanoparticles and detected at λex = 330 and λem = 540 nm. Fluorescence detection enabled the determination of trovafloxacin mesylate over a linear range of 1.0 × 10(-8) to 1.0 × 10(-3) mol/L (%RSD = 1.2), (n = 6, r = 0.9993) with a detection limit of 3.3 × 10(-9) mol/L. The proposed methods were successfully applied to the determination of the studied drug in its bulk form and in pharmaceutical preparations. The results were treated statistically and compared with those obtained from other reported methods.

  5. CdS/MoS2 heterojunction-based photoelectrochemical DNA biosensor via enhanced chemiluminescence excitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zang, Yang; Lei, Jianping; Hao, Qing; Ju, Huangxian

    2016-03-15

    This work developed a CdS/MoS2 heterojunction-based photoelectrochemical biosensor for sensitive detection of DNA under the enhanced chemiluminescence excitation of luminol catalyzed by hemin-DNA complex. The CdS/MoS2 photocathode was prepared by the stepwise assembly of MoS2 and CdS quantum dots (QDs) on indium tin oxide (ITO), and achieved about 280% increasing of photocurrent compared to pure CdS QDs electrode due to the formation of heterostructure. High photoconversion efficiency in the photoelectrochemical system was identified to be the rapid spatial charge separation of electron-hole pairs by the extension of electron transport time and electron lifetime. In the presence of target DNA, the catalytic hairpin assembly was triggered, and simultaneously the dual hemin-labeled DNA probe was introduced to capture DNA/CdS/MoS2 modified ITO electrode. Thus the chemiluminescence emission of luminol was enhanced via hemin-induced mimetic catalysis, leading to the physical light-free photoelectrochemical strategy. Under optimized conditions, the resulting photoelectrode was proportional to the logarithm of target DNA concentration in the range from 1 fM to 100 pM with a detection limit of 0.39 fM. Moreover, the cascade amplification biosensor demonstrated high selectivity, desirable stability and good reproducibility, showing great prospect in molecular diagnosis and bioanalysis.

  6. Concept and advances of applied bioremediation for organic pollutants in soil and water%土壤与水体有机污染的生物修复及其应用研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王庆仁; 刘秀梅; 崔岩山; 董艺婷

    2001-01-01

    系统论述了土壤、水有机污染物的主要来源、特点、有机污染生物修复的概念、应用范围、成功实例与研究进展等,特别是对于泄漏石油污染的生物成功降解方法、效果,土壤中易爆炸物如TNT、废水中有机污染物的有效降解等,评价了生物修复所具有的突出优势。对有机、无机污染物降解过程中植物、微生物筛选、基因修饰、分子克隆与转基因植物方面近年来所取得的惊人成果与突破性进展,无疑正激励着人们开拓更大的应用范围。预计不久的将来,更多具有环境净化与生物修复功能的商业性综合技术与高效性工程生物将投入应用。%Major sources and characteristics of organic pollutants in soil and water were systematically reviewed. It deals with the concept, application and advances of bioremediation.The success in biodegradation of petroleum spill, some hazardous pollutants, waste water treatment and other striking results in the field and laboratory were described. The advances in screening, gene modification and genetic engineering etc. have obtained some successful approaches. As more progress made in this area, it is estimated that integrated techniques with more effective engineered plants or microbes will meet peoples' requirement in the future.

  7. Travelling Concepts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Karen-Margrethe

    2013-01-01

    Review of "Travelling Concepts, Metaphors, and Narratives: Literary and Cultural Studies in an Age of Interdisciplinary Research" ed. by Sibylle Baumgarten, Beatrice Michaelis and Ansagar Nünning, Trier; Wissenschaftlicher Verlag Trier, 2012......Review of "Travelling Concepts, Metaphors, and Narratives: Literary and Cultural Studies in an Age of Interdisciplinary Research" ed. by Sibylle Baumgarten, Beatrice Michaelis and Ansagar Nünning, Trier; Wissenschaftlicher Verlag Trier, 2012...

  8. Investigation of RuBPS-Ce(IV) chemiluminescence reaction and its application in determination of two diuretics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xi Juan [College of Chemistry and Molecular Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Ji Xinghu [College of Chemistry and Molecular Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Zhang Shaohong [College of Chemistry and Molecular Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Xiang Fan Vocational and Technical College, Xiangfan 441021 (China); Ai Xinping [College of Chemistry and Molecular Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); He Zhike [College of Chemistry and Molecular Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China)]. E-mail: zhkhe@whu.edu.cn

    2005-06-13

    The chemiluminescence mechanism of tris-(4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthrolinedisulfonic acid)ruthenium(II) (RuBPS)-Ce(IV) system and the effects of two diuretics, hydrochlorothiazide and furosemide, on its chemiluminescence intensity were investigated in detail. It was found that each of the two diuretics could enhance the chemiluminescence emission intensity of RuBPS-Ce(IV) system, based on which, they were sensitively detected by chemiluminescence analysis, respectively. Under the optimum experimental conditions, the linear range and detection limit of hydrochlorothiazide were 2.5 x 10{sup -3} to 6.0 x 10{sup -1} {mu}g ml{sup -1} and 1.0 x 10{sup -3} {mu}g ml{sup -1}, respectively; those of furosemide were 1.0 x 10{sup -2} to 4.0 {mu}g ml{sup -1} and 8.8 x 10{sup -3} {mu}g ml{sup -1}, respectively. The proposed method has been applied to analyze the pharmaceuticals with satisfied results.

  9. Simultaneous determination of chromium(III) and chromium(VI) in aqueous solutions by ion chromatography and chemiluminescence detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammelgaard, Bente; Jøns, O; Nielsen, B

    1992-01-01

    A method for the simultaneous determination of chromium(iii) and chromium(vi) in a flow system based on chemiluminescence was developed. A Dionex cation-exchange guard column was used to separate chromium(iii) from chromium(vi), and chromium(vi) was reduced by potassium sulfite, whereupon both...

  10. Enhanced sensitivity of Cypridina luciferin analog (CLA) chemiluminescence for the detection of O2- with non ionic detergents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Osman, A.M.; Laane, C.; Hilhorst, R.

    2000-01-01

    Superoxide anion-triggered chemiluminescence of Cypridina luciferin analogue (CLA), 2-methyl-6-phenyl-3,7-dohydroimidazo[1,2-]pyrazin-3-one, is enhanced by non-ionic detergents such as Tween 20, Triton X-100 and Tween 80. At the concentration of 0.6øv/v) the largest increase (2.7-fold) of CLA light

  11. Advantages of soybean peroxidase over horseradish peroxidase as the enzyme label in chemiluminescent enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay of sulfamethoxypyridazine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakharov, Ivan Yu; Berlina, Anna N; Zherdev, Anatoly V; Dzantiev, Boris B

    2010-03-24

    An indirect competitive chemiluminescent enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (CL-ELISA) of sulfamethoxypyridazine (SMP) was developed. The conjugates of streptavidin with cationic horseradish peroxidase (HRP) and anionic soybean peroxidase (SbP) were used in CL-ELISA for the detection of biotinylated anti-SMP antibodies. For streptavidin-HRP conjugate-catalyzed chemiluminescence measured 20 s after the initiation of the enhanced chemiluminescence reaction (ECR), the limit of detection (IC(10)), the IC(50) value, and the working range in CL-ELISA of SMP are 0.3, 12.4, and 1.2-85.0 ng/mL, respectively. An increase in the time interval between the ECR initiation and the luminescence measurement results in the loss in the quality of analytical measurements because of the time-dependent quenching of chemiluminescence typical of the HRP-catalyzed ECR. In the case of SbP-based CL-ELISA of SMP, the limit of detection, the IC(50) value, and the working range (0.025, 0.17, and 0.045-0.63 ng/mL, respectively) are better than those for HRP-based CL-ELISA. Furthermore, the analytical parameters of SbP-based CL-ELISA remain unchanged during a long period of time (for at least 30 min). The recovery values from four spiked milk samples with different concentrations of SMP in SbP-based CL-ELISA vary from 70 to 130%.

  12. Egg-Citing! Isolation of Protoporphyrin IX from Brown Eggshells and Its Detection by Optical Spectroscopy and Chemiluminescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Michelle L.; Miller, Tyson A.; Bruckner, Christian

    2011-01-01

    A simple and cost-effective laboratory experiment is described that extracts protoporphyrin IX from brown eggshells. The porphyrin is characterized by UV-vis and fluorescence spectroscopy. A chemiluminescence reaction (peroxyoxalate ester fragmentation) is performed that emits light in the UV region. When the porphyrin extract is added as a fluor…

  13. Microbore liquid chromatography of tertiary amine anticholinergic pharmaceuticals with tris(2,2'-bipyridine)ruthenium(III) chemiluminescence detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holeman, J A; Danielson, N D

    1995-06-01

    The post-column chemiluminescent reaction of six anticholinergic alkaloid compounds with tris(2,2'-bipyridine)ruthenium(III) (Ru(bpy)3(3+)) is applied to microbore high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). At flow rates less than 200 microL/min, the capillary mixing cell in which Ru(bpy)3(3+) and the analyte are mixed directly allows for good light detection. In contrast, a diminished signal occurs at these low flow rates with conventional post-column mixing in a tee. Optimal chemiluminescent pH conditions for atropine, scopolamine, dicyclomine, cyclopentolate, cyclobenzaprine, and procyclidine are determined at moderately basic conditions (pH 7 to 9). 2-Butanone is found to be compatible with the chemiluminescent reaction, whereas tetrahydrofuran and propionitrile cause an increase in background noise and a chemiluminescent signal loss. As 2-butanone is more nonpolar than acetonitrile, it assists in the elution of these hydrophobic anticholinergic compounds. Five anticholinergic compounds are resolved successfully with a PRP-1 polymeric column and a slightly basic mobile phase, but a C8 silica column is better suited for the more hydrophobic compounds (cyclobenzaprine, procyclidine, and dicyclomine).

  14. A fluorescent and chemiluminescent difunctional mesoporous silica nanoparticle as a label for the ultrasensitive detection of cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tao Liang [Key Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry for Life Science of Shaanxi Province, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi' an 710062 (China); Song Chaojun; Sun Yuanjie [Department of Immunology, The Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an 710032 (China); Li Xiaohua; Li Yunyun [Key Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry for Life Science of Shaanxi Province, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi' an 710062 (China); Jin Boquan [Department of Immunology, The Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an 710032 (China); Zhang Zhujun, E-mail: zhangzj@snnu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry for Life Science of Shaanxi Province, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi' an 710062 (China); Yang Kun, E-mail: yangkunkun@fmmu.edu.cn [Department of Immunology, The Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an 710032 (China)

    2013-01-25

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Difunctional amino mesoporous silica nanoparticles (FCMSN) were synthesized. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The fluorescence and chemiluminescence properties of the FCMSN were studied. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The NaIO{sub 4} oxidation method was used for modification of the FCMSN. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Liver cancer 7721 cell was detected. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The specificity affected by FCMSN's amino groups was studied. - Abstract: A new kind of ultrabright fluorescent and chemiluminescent difunctional mesoporous silica nanoparticle (FCMSN) is reported. A luminescent dye, Rhodamine 6G or tris(2,2 Prime -bipyridyl)dichlororuthenium(II) hexahydrate (Rubpy), is doped inside nanochannels of a silica matrix. The hydrophobic groups in the silica matrix avoid the leakage of dye from open channels. The amines groups on the surface of the FCMSN improve the modification performance of the nanoparticle. Because the nanochannels are isolated by a network skeleton of silica, fluorescence quenching based on the inner filter effect of the fluorescent dyes immobilized in nanochannels is weakened effectively. The Quantum Yield of obtained 90 nm silica particles was about 61%. Compared with the fluorescent core-shell nanoparticle, the chemiluminescence reagents can freely enter the nanoparticles to react with fluorescent dyes to create chemiluminescence. The results show that the FCMSN are both fluorescent labels and chemiluminescent labels. In biological applications, the NaIO{sub 4} oxidation method was proven to be superior to the glutaraldehyde method. The amount of amino could affect the specificity of the FCMSN. The fluorescence microscopy imaging demonstrated that the FCMSN is viable for biological applications.

  15. Recent work in advanced hydrogen production concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, D. D.

    1981-03-01

    The hydrogen photoelectrolytic conversion activity investigated the practicability of semiconductor electrolytic devises that use solar energy to decompose water into hydrogen and oxygen in an apparent single step process. The photocatalytic decomposition of inorganic hydrogen compounds; i.e., hydrobromic and hydriodic acids using rhodium organic bridge complexes were also studied. The feasibility of direct high temperature thermal decompositions of water with diffusion processes for separation of the equilibrium mixture of hydrogen and oxygen into usable energy sources was examined.

  16. Advanced Concepts Theory Annual Report 1983.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-05-18

    calculation and theirs is that they excited levels are typically 2 orders of magnitude smaller used the bound-state wave functions of Clementi and...Rev. Lett. 47, 921 1981. v2E. Clementi and C. Roeti, At. Data Nucl. Data Tables L4, ’ 2TFR Group, J. Dubau, and N1. Loulergue. J. Phys. B 12, 1007 177...Lighthill1 3 , and the positions of the ionization-dependent absorption edges are taken from the Hartree-Fock calculations of Clementi and Roetti 14

  17. Advanced Modeling Concepts for Conceptual Design Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Preliminary design of aircraft structures is multidisciplinary, involving knowledge of structural mechanics, aerodynamics, aeroelasticity, structural dynamics and...

  18. Advanced Operating Systems Concepts for BMD Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-06-03

    Results The key results of this work are reported in detail in the attached theses of Branimir Gajic and Debra Lane. In particular, Gajic’s thesis...below: Theses "A Distributed Operating System for BMD Applications," Branimir Gajic, TR-CS-82-4. "A Communications Subsystem Based on a CSMA/CD...Cohen Graduate Assistant Uuaim-’.v :52 ) Debra Lane Graduate Assistant J ’st-i-t: Branimir Gajic Graduate Assistant -w4 Robert Souza Graduate

  19. Advancing Blade Concept (ABC) Technology Demonstrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-04-01

    id5I:~ W Ith coIle t ior, I: a’ tlet- Liou tesýts, t~he 1total blades were iisa edad he ,! l01 ;wnq1 sys"tem11 tests and operationlal checks...Equipment The data acquisition system recording media was a Bell and Howell Model MARS-2000 14-track airborne analog magnetic tape recorder. The magnetic

  20. Test Concept for Advanced Oxidation Techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennedsen, Lars Rønn; Søgaard, Erik Gydesen; Mortensen, Lars

    of conducting screening laboratory and pilot tests prior to onset of full scale treatment of a contaminated site with a given technology. For this purpose, Ramboll has developed a mobile test unit in co-operation with universities and technology suppliers. The unit includes equipment for both standard and more...... of success. Based on the wide selection of different techniques, several screening matrices have been developed in order to make it easier to choose the best suited technique for a given situation. However, these matrices only provide an indication of which technology that might be effective and often...... the assessor ends up with 3 or 4 applicable techniques. In stead of selecting a full scale technique solely based on information collected during a literature research, it is best practice to supplement the remediation screening phase with laboratory and in situ pilot treatability tests. As well...

  1. Advanced Concepts Theory Annual Report 1984.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-06-26

    amu/cm3 ,4c- n is zwmmenrsrate with a density of 109 ions/ cm3 for a pure neon 7 asma . This corresponds approximately to the densities determined...DDST 1 copy ATTN: TITL 4 copies ATTN- RAEV 1 copy * ATTN: STVI I copy Commander 1 Copy Field Command Defense Nuclear Agency Kirtland AFB, New Mexico ...ATTN: Code F31 Air Force Weapons Laboratory I copy each *i Kirtland AFB, New Mexico 87117 ATTN: SUL ATTN: CA ATTN: APL ATTN: Lt. Col. Generosa Deputy

  2. Advanced Concepts for Electron-Ion Collider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yaroslav Derbenev

    2002-08-01

    A superconducting energy recovery linac (ERL) of 5 to 10 GeV was proposed earlier as an alternative to electron storage rings to deliver polarized electron beam for electron-ion collider (EIC). To enhance the utilization efficiency of electron beam from a polarized source, it is proposed to complement the ERL by circulator ring (CR) wherein the injected electrons undergo up to 100 revolutions colliding with the ion beam. In this way, electron injector and linac operate in pulsed current (beam energy recovery) regime of a relatively low average current, while the polarization is still easily delivered and preserved. To make it also easier delivering and manipulating the proton and light ion polarization, twisted (figure 8) synchrotrons are proposed for heavy particle booster and collider ring. Same type of beam orbit can be used then for electron circulator. Electron cooling (EC) of the ion beam is considered an inevitable component of high luminosity EIC (1033/s. cm2 or above). It is recognized that EC also gives a possibility to obtain very short ion bunches, that allows much stronger final focusing. At the same time, short bunches make feasible the crab crossing (and traveling focus for ion beam) at collision points, hence, allow maximizing the collision rate. As a result, one can anticipate the luminosity increase by one or two orders of magnitude.

  3. Advanced Concepts Theory Annual Report 1985.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-04-23

    jis js isi 0 where fis is the fractional population of atomic level i for the plasma 4 species s. Wji s is the net reaction rate describing the...min Improved EFS ModelO . . 2. J.Ambrosiano and J.E.Brandenburg, A1ZFOIL: I Simple, Finite Element " Computer Code to Model Moving Axial Foils, Berkeley

  4. Advanced Concepts and Methods of Approximate Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-12-01

    and L. Valverde. On mode and implication in approximate reasoning. In M.M. Gupta, A. Kandel, W. Bandler , J.B. Kiszka, editors, Approximate Reasoning and...190, 1981. [43] E. Trillas and L. Valverde. On mode and implication in approximate reasoning. In M.M. Gupta, A. Kandel, W. Bandler , J.B. Kiszka

  5. Advanced Concepts Theory Annual Report 1988

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-08-03

    charge-exchange model as envision by Prono et al. is given in figure 1. Ions are injected at the left hand boundary and the ion flux is F, wh-’re F has...mentioned previously, that causes premature switch opening. By using the one-dimensional Boltzmann equation, Prono et al. 3 found both the ion and neutral...as envisioned by Prono et al. We considered protons exchanging with 115 ON FLUX VS. X TIME.: 0. .5E-08 4Ox1D’" / \\JI’~7 \\J 36 - 30- 101 E o 26’IlD

  6. Flight Test of Advanced Digital Control Concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-03-01

    the model (Equation 51). 34 OPTIONII .>-COFY, GMATr, MMArtCOPY, IMATvAMAT, COP’Y, JMAT, BmA, 87, >COPY , FMArNMAT, COPYY GMAT , GMAT Next, EKEY...YCMA;TFFMAT ,COPY, FMAT, AMATY,COPY, MMA-T, EMAr ,74, COPY, CMAT r (ThAT, ’:.COFY LMAT, AMAT YCOPYP NMAT, EMAT,73, COPY, GMAT , BmAr, *::COFY, pmA, AMAT...74, COPY, GMAT , UMA’TLMAT, MMAT, NMA T, MA-T, PFMAT, ’UMATPUMAT Next use CKEY to check the results. C B and CF are substituted into the "simulator

  7. Advanced Microgrid Concepts and Technologies Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    vegetation contacts o Pole -top transformer bushing failure o Pole -top transformer winding failure o Bus capacitor bushing failure o Capacitor problems...desired location in the live power transmission system. The sensor does not require galvanic contact with the energized conductor, allowing for...R. Steele Technology Research Corporation 5250 140th Ave North Clearwater, FL 33760 Tel: (727) 812-0629 msteele@trci.net Mr. Howard J. Taylor

  8. Advanced Concepts Theory Annual Report 1992

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-05-26

    the development of a POS transmission line model with which to study power flow in IES machines, POSIPRS interactions, and energy coupling to PRS...parameters) that create non-Maxwellian distributions. In the first section, we describe the plasma conditions and the methods of study. The second section...simu- lation, this method gave a K-shell yield of 35 KJ which is very close to the 33 KJ obtained from the lookup values. This has added confidence that

  9. Advanced Concepts Theory Annual Report, 1991

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-04-27

    experiments, and the development of a transmission line model with which to study power flow in TES machines, POSIPRS interactions, and energy coupling to PRS...the 11 Q. 30 2c calculation and - 2600 eV in the 2 - 9c calculation. In addition, when the same method used to determine the experimental temperature...time averaged temperature was 800 eV, but the method of Coulter et al13 predicted a temperature of 560 eV. Fig. 13 also shows that the peak electron

  10. Advanced Burner Reactor 1000MWth Reference Concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cahalan, J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Fanning, T. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Farmer, M. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Grandy, C. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Jin, E. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Kim, T. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Kellogg, R. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Krajtl, L. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Lomperski, S. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Moisseytsev, A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Momozaki, Y. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Park, Y. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Reed, C. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Salev, F. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Seidensticker, R. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Sienicki, J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Tang, Y. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Tzanos, C. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Wei, T. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Yang, W. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Chikazawa, Y. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2007-09-30

    The primary mission of the ABR Program is to demonstrate the transmutation of transuranics recovered from the LWR spent fuel, and hence, to validate the benefits of the fuel cycle closure to nuclear waste management. The transmutation, or burning of the transuranics is accomplished by fissioning and this is most effectively done in a fast spectrum. In the thermal spectrum of commercial LWRs, some transuranics capture neutrons and become even heavier transuranics rather than being fissioned. Even with repeated recycling, only about 30% can be transmuted, which is an intrinsic limitation of all thermal spectrum reactors. Only in a fast spectrum can all transuranics be effectively fissioned to eliminate their long-term radiotoxicity and decay heat.

  11. Lateral Concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Gad

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This essay discusses the complex relation between the knowledges and practices of the researcher and his/her informants in terms of lateral concepts. The starting point is that it is not the prerogative of the (STS scholar to conceptualize the world; all our “informants” do it too. This creates the possibility of enriching our own conceptual repertoires by letting them be inflected by the concepts of those we study. In a broad sense, the lateral means that there is a many-to-many relation between domains of knowledge and practice. However, each specific case of the lateral is necessarily immanent to a particular empirical setting and form of inquiry. In this sense lateral concepts are radically empirical since it locates concepts within the field. To clarify the meaning and stakes of lateral concepts, we first make a contrast between lateral anthropology and Latour’s notion of infra-reflexivity. We end with a brief illustration and discussion of how lateral conceptualization can re-orient STS modes of inquiry, and why this matters.

  12. Simultaneous identification and quantification of new psychoactive substances in blood by GC-APCI-QTOFMS coupled to nitrogen chemiluminescence detection without authentic reference standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojanperä, Ilkka; Mesihää, Samuel; Rasanen, Ilpo; Pelander, Anna; Ketola, Raimo A

    2016-05-01

    A novel platform is introduced for simultaneous identification and quantification of new psychoactive substances (NPS) in blood matrix, without the necessity of using authentic reference standards. The instrumentation consisted of gas chromatography (GC) coupled to nitrogen chemiluminescence detection (NCD) and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (APCI-QTOFMS). In this concept, the GC flow is divided in appropriate proportions between NCD for single-calibrant quantification, utilizing the detector's equimolar response to nitrogen, and QTOFMS for accurate mass-based identification. The principle was proven by analyzing five NPS, bupropion, desoxypipradrol (2-DPMP), mephedrone, methylone, and naphyrone, in sheep blood. The samples were spiked with the analytes post-extraction to avoid recovery considerations at this point. All the NPS studies produced a protonated molecule in APCI resulting in predictable fragmentation with high mass accuracy. The N-equimolarity of quantification by NCD was investigated by using external calibration with the secondary standard caffeine at five concentration levels between 0.17 and 1.7 mg/L in blood matrix as five replicates. The equimolarity was on average 98.7%, and the range of individual equimolarity determinations was 76.7-130.1%. The current analysis platform affords a promising approach to instant simultaneous qualitative and quantitative analysis of drugs in the absence of authentic reference standards, not only in forensic and clinical toxicology but also in other bioanalytical applications.

  13. A novel chemiluminescence assay of mitoxantrone based on diperiodatocuprate(III) oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Hanchun; Zhang, Min; Zeng, Wenyuan; Zeng, Xiaoying; Zhang, Zhenzhong

    2014-01-01

    A novel and strong chemiluminescence (CL) of luminol with diperiodatocuprate (K5[Cu(HIO6)2]) was observed in alkaline medium. After the addition of mitoxantrone (MTX) into this system, the CL intensity could be greatly inhibited by MTX. Based on the phenomenon, a sensitive CL method was established for analysis of MTX combining with flow injection technology. Under optimum experimental conditions, the CL intensity was linearly related to the logarithm concentration of MTX from 5.0 × 10-9-1.0 × 10-7 g/ml with the detection limit of 1.1 × 10-9 g/ml (S/N = 3). The relative standard deviation was 1.2% for 5.0 × 10-8 g/ml of MTX. The proposed method was successfully applied for determination of MTX in pharmaceutical preparations and biological fluids. The possible CL reaction mechanism was also discussed briefly.

  14. Development of an Electrogenerated Chemiluminescence Biosensor using Carboxylic acid-functionalized MWCNT and Au Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available A COOH-F-MWCNT-Nafion-Ru(bpy32+-Au-ADH electrogenerated chemi-luminescence (ECLelectrode using COOH-functionalized MWCNT (COOH-F-MWCNT and Au nanoparticles synthesized by the radiation method was fabricated for ethanol sensing. A higher sensing efficiency for ethanol for the ECL biosensor prepared by PAAc-g-MWCNT was measured compared to that of the ECL biosensor prepared by PMAc-g-MWCNT, and purified MWCNT. Experimental parameters affecting ethanol detection were also examined in terms of pH and the content of PAAc-g-MWCNT in Nafion. Little interference of other compounds was observed for the assay of ethanol. Results suggest this ECL biosensor could be applied for ethanol detection in real samples.

  15. Development of an Electrogenerated Chemiluminescence Biosensor using Carboxylic acid-functionalized MWCNT and Au Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piao, Ming-Hua; Yang, Dae-Soo; Yoon, Kuk-Ro; Lee, Seung-Ho; Choi, Seong-Ho

    2009-01-01

    A COOH-F-MWCNT-Nafion-Ru(bpy)(3) (2+)-Au-ADH electrogenerated chemiluminescence (ECL) electrode using COOH-functionalized MWCNT (COOH-F-MWCNT) and Au nanoparticles synthesized by the radiation method was fabricated for ethanol sensing. A higher sensing efficiency for ethanol for the ECL biosensor prepared by PAAc-g-MWCNT was measured compared to that of the ECL biosensor prepared by PMAc-g-MWCNT, and purified MWCNT. Experimental parameters affecting ethanol detection were also examined in terms of pH and the content of PAAc-g-MWCNT in Nafion. Little interference of other compounds was observed for the assay of ethanol. Results suggest this ECL biosensor could be applied for ethanol detection in real samples.

  16. H2S Analysis in Biological Samples Using Gas Chromatography with Sulfur Chemiluminescence Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitvitsky, Victor; Banerjee, Ruma

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a metabolite and signaling molecule in biological tissues that regulates many physiological processes. Reliable and sensitive methods for H2S analysis are necessary for a better understanding of H2S biology and for the pharmacological modulation of H2S levels in vivo. In this chapter, we describe the use of gas chromatography coupled to sulfur chemiluminescence detection to measure the rates of H2S production and degradation by tissue homogenates at physiologically relevant concentrations of substrates. This method allows separation of H2S from other sulfur compounds and provides sensitivity of detection to ~15 pg (or 0.5 pmol) of H2S per injected sample. PMID:25725519

  17. A review of electrogenerated chemiluminescent biosensors for assays in biological matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Erin M; Maddipati, Sai Sujana; Snyder, Sarah M

    2016-10-01

    Electrogenerated chemiluminescence (ECL) is the production of light via electron transfer reactions between electrochemically produced reagents. ECL-based biosensors use specific biological interactions to recognize an analyte and produce a luminescent signal. Biosensors fabricated with novel biorecognition species have increased the number of analytes detected. Some of these analytes include peptides, cells, enzymes and nucleic acids. ECL biosensors are selective, simple, sensitive and have low detection limits. Traditional methods use ruthenium complexes or luminol to generate ECL. Nanomaterials can be incorporated into ECL biosensors to improve efficiency, but also represent a new class of ECL emitters. This article reviews the application of ruthenium complex, luminol and nanomaterial-based ECL biosensors to making measurements in biological matrices over the past 4 years.

  18. Chemiluminescence determination of tetracyclines using Fenton system in the presence europium(III) ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaczmarek, Malgorzata [Department of Rare Earths, Faculty of Chemistry, Adam Mickiewicz University, Grunwaldzka 6, 60 - 780 Poznan (Poland); Lis, Stefan, E-mail: blis@amu.edu.pl [Department of Rare Earths, Faculty of Chemistry, Adam Mickiewicz University, Grunwaldzka 6, 60 - 780 Poznan (Poland)

    2009-04-20

    A new simple chemiluminescent method for the determination of chlortetracycline (Chlor-TC), oxytetracycline (Oxy-TC) and doxycycline (Doxy-TC) is described. This method is based on the europium(III) emission as a result of the energy transfer process from the excited product of the tetracyclines oxidation to the uncomplexed Eu(III). Under the optimum conditions, calibration graphs were obtained for 4 x 10{sup -7} to 2 x 10{sup -5} mol L{sup -1} of Chlor-TC; 2 x 10{sup -7} to 2 x 10{sup -5} mol L{sup -1} of Oxy-TC and 1 x 10{sup -7} to 3 x 10{sup -5} mol L{sup -1} of Doxy-TC. The method was successfully applied to the determination of these drugs in pharmaceutical and veterinary formulation and honey.

  19. Comparison of Uric Acid Quantity with Different Food in Human Urine by Flow Injection Chemiluminescence Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiajia Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the inhibitory effect of uric acid (UA on luminol-Co2+ chemiluminescence (CL system, a sensitive method for the determination of UA at nanomolar level by flow injection (FI CL was proposed. The proposed method was successfully applied to real-time monitoring of UA excretion in human 24 h urine with different food intake, showing that meats, vegetables, and porridge intake caused differential UA excretions of 879, 798, and 742 mg, respectively. It was also found that UA concentrations in urine under the three kinds of food intake simultaneously reached maximum at 2 h after meals with the values of 417, 318, and 288 μg mL−1, respectively. The UA concentration in human serum was also determined by this approach, and the possible mechanism of luminol-Co2+-UA CL reaction was discussed in detail.

  20. A New Immunoassay Method by Capillary Electrophoresis with Enhanced Chemiluminescence Detection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiao Ning WANG; Ji Cun REN

    2005-01-01

    This paper described a new immunoassay method by capillary electrophoresis with enhanced chemiluminescence (CL) detection system based on luminol-hydrogen peroxide reaction catalyzed by horseradish peroxides (HRP). Using para-iodophenol as a CL enhancer, the detection limit of about 1×10-12 mol/L for HRP was achieved, which corresponded to 1.32×10-5U/mL. In optimal conditions, the free HRP-labeled CA125 antibody (Ab*) and the bound enzyme-labeled complex (Ab*-Ag) were well separated by capillary electrophoresis within 4 min.The assay was successfully used to determine the contents of CA125 in human sera, which were associated with ovarian cancer, and the recoveries of the standard addition experiments were 96 to109 %.

  1. Cerium(IV)-based chemiluminescence of phentolamine sensitized by rhodamine 6G

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Weibing; Huang Yuming

    2004-03-24

    A new chemiluminescence (CL) method is proposed for the determination of phentolamine, which is based on the reaction between studied drug and Cerium(IV) (Ce(IV)) in a nitric acid medium and measurement of the CL intensity produced by rhodamine 6G used as a sensitizer. In the optimum conditions, CL intensities are proportional to concentrations of the studied drug over the range 1x10{sup -9}-1x10{sup -6} g/ml with a detection limit of 4x10{sup -10} g/ml. The relative standard deviation (R.S.D.) is 3.4% for 1x10{sup -7} g/ml phentolamine (n=11). The method has been applied to the determination of studied drug in injections and biological fluids with satisfactory results.

  2. Liquid-phase catalytic reactor combined with measurement of hot electron flux and chemiluminescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nedrygailov, Ievgen I.; Lee, Changhwan; Moon, Song Yi; Lee, Hyosun; Park, Jeong Young

    2016-11-01

    Understanding the role of electronically nonadiabatic interactions during chemical reactions on metal surfaces in liquid media is of great importance for a variety of applications including catalysis, electrochemistry, and environmental science. Here, we report the design of an experimental apparatus for detection of the highly excited (hot) electrons created as a result of nonadiabatic energy transfer during the catalytic decomposition of hydrogen peroxide on thin-film metal-semiconductor nanodiodes. The apparatus enables the measurement of hot electron flows and related phenomena (e.g., surface chemiluminescence) as well as the corresponding reaction rates at different temperatures. The products of the chemical reaction can be characterized in the gaseous phase by means of gas chromatography. The combined measurement of hot electron flux, catalytic activity, and light emission can lead to a fundamental understanding of the elementary processes occurring during the heterogeneous catalytic reaction.

  3. Chemiluminescence Sensor for the Determination of Hydroxylamine by Electrostatically Immobilizing Luminol and Periodate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    A novel chemiluminescence(CL) sensor, which can be used for hydroxylamine determination in combination with flow injection analysis, was developed by electrostatically immobilizing luminol and periodate on anion-exchange resin respectively. Hydroxylamine was sensed by its enhancing effect on the weak CL reaction between luminol and periodate, which were eluted from the ion exchange column. The response of the sensor to hydroxylamine was linear in the concentration range of 8.0×10-8-2.0×10-6 mol/L with a detection limit of 4.0×10-8 mol/L hydroxylamine(3σ). The relative standard deviation(RSD) was 2.0% for 9 repetitive determinations at a hydroxylamine concentration of 5.0×10-7 mol/L. The sensor could be reused for over 400 times with a good reproducibility and was used to determine hydroxylamine in wastewater.

  4. Chemiluminescence and Bioluminescence as an Excitation Source in the Photodynamic Therapy of Cancer: A Critical Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhães, Carla M; Esteves da Silva, Joaquim C G; Pinto da Silva, Luís

    2016-08-04

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) of cancer is known for its limited number of side effects, and requires light, oxygen and photosensitizer. However, PDT is limited by poor penetration of light into deeply localized tissues, and the use of external light sources is required. Thus, researchers have been studying ways to improve the effectiveness of this phototherapy and expand it for the treatment of the deepest cancers, by using chemiluminescent or bioluminescent formulations to excite the photosensitizer by intracellular generation of light. The aim of this Minireview is to give a précis of the most important general chemi-/bioluminescence mechanisms and to analyze several studies that apply them for PDT. These studies have demonstrated the potential of utilizing chemi-/bioluminescence as excitation source in the PDT of cancer, besides combining new approaches to overcome the limitations of this mode of treatment.

  5. Direct chemiluminescence of carbon dots induced by potassium ferricyanide and its analytical application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amjadi, Mohammad; Manzoori, Jamshid L; Hallaj, Tooba; Sorouraddin, Mohammad H

    2014-03-25

    The chemiluminescence (CL) of water-soluble fluorescent carbon dots (C-dots) induced by direct chemical oxidation was investigated. C-dots were prepared by solvothermal method and characterized by fluorescence spectra and transmission electron microscopy. It was found that K3Fe(CN)6 could directly oxidize C-dots to produce a relatively intense CL emission. The mechanism of CL generation was investigated based on the fluorescence and CL emission spectra and the effect of radical scavengers on the CL intensity. The inhibitive effect of some metal ions and biologically important molecules on the CL intensity of the system was examined and the potential of the system for the determination of these species at trace levels was studied. In order to evaluate the capability of method to real sample analysis, it was applied to the determination of Cr(VI) and adrenaline in water and injection samples, respectively.

  6. Peroxide induced ultra-weak chemiluminescence and its application in analytical chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Zhen; Chen, Hui; Lin, Jin-Ming

    2013-09-21

    Chemiluminescence (CL), as a sensitive, rapid, and facile analytical method, has been widely applied in environmental monitoring, clinical diagnosis and food safety. Recently, the main challenge and research interest in the CL study have been focused on exploring new CL systems and obtaining new insight into the interaction between CL reagents. The peroxide induced ultra-weak CL reactions are some new arising systems that have received great attention and have been successfully applied in many fields. The peroxide includes hydrogen peroxide, peroxynitrite, peroxymonocarbonate, peroxomonosulphate and so on. This review paper covers the mechanism of the peroxide induced ultra-weak CL and the analytical applications of the CL have also been summarized. The future prospects for the peroxide induced ultra-weak CL are discussed.

  7. Chemiluminescence of the peroxomonosulphate-cobalt(II)-aliphatic monocarboxylic acids system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Min; Zhao, Lixia; Lin, Jin-Ming

    2007-01-01

    A weak chemiluminescence (CL) emission was observed due to the production of singlet oxygen ((1)O(2)) during the decomposition of peroxomonosulphate (HSO(5)(-)) catalysed by cobalt(II). Low molecular mass aliphatic monocarboxylic acids, such as formic, acetic, propionic, butyric and valeric acids, influenced the CL emission, and the reaction of aliphatic monocarboxylic acids with HSO(5)(-)/Co(2+) solution was further investigated using a flow injection analysis (FIA) CL method. The results indicated that the CL intensities of aliphatic monocarboxylic acids were improved with increase in the carbon chain length in the potassium peroxomonosulphate-cobalt(II) sulphate system. Generation of singlet oxygen was confirmed by the fact that the CL emission of aliphatic monocarboxylic acids with the HSO(5)(-)/Co(2+) solution was quenched by NaN(3), and from the CL spectrum of the reaction system. Additionally, a possible mechanism of aliphatic monocarboxylic acids CL emission enhancement was proposed.

  8. A chemiluminescence sensor array for discriminating natural sugars and artificial sweeteners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Weifen; Kong, Hao; Wang, He; Zhang, Yantu; Zhang, Sichun; Zhang, Xinrong

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we report a chemiluminescence (CL) sensor array based on catalytic nanomaterials for the discrimination of ten sweeteners, including five natural sugars and five artificial sweeteners. The CL response patterns ("fingerprints") can be obtained for a given compound on the nanomaterial array and then identified through linear discriminant analysis (LDA). Moreover, each pure sweetener was quantified based on the emission intensities of selected sensor elements. The linear ranges for these sweeteners lie within 0.05-100 mM, but vary with the type of sweetener. The applicability of this array to real-life samples was demonstrated by applying it to various beverages, and the results showed that the sensor array possesses excellent discrimination power and reversibility.

  9. Chemiluminescence Sensor for the Determination of Hydroxylamine by Electrostatically Immobilizing Luminol and Periodate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANGSi-Chun; ZHOUGuo-jun; JUHuang-xian

    2003-01-01

    A novel chemiluminescence(CL)sensor,which can be used for hydroxylamine determination in combination with flow injection analysis.was developed by electrostatically immobilizing luminol and periodate on anion-exchange resin respectively.Hydroxylamine was sensed by its enhacing effect on the weak CL reaction between luminol and periodate,which were eluted from the ion exchange column.the response of the sensor to hydroxylamine was lincar in the concentration range of 8.0×10-3~2.0×10-8mol/L with a detection limit of 4.0×10-8mol/L hydroxylamine(3σ).The relative standard deviation(RSD) was 2.0% for 9 repetitive detimes with a good reproducibility and was used to determine hydroxylamine in wastewater.

  10. Applications of capillary electrophoresis with chemiluminescence detection in clinical, environmental and food analysis. A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lara, Francisco J.; Airado-Rodríguez, Diego; Moreno-González, David; Huertas-Pérez, José F.; García-Campaña, Ana M., E-mail: amgarcia@ugr.es

    2016-03-24

    This paper reviews the latest developments and analytical applications of chemiluminescence detection coupled to capillary electrophoresis (CE-CL). Different sections considering the most common CL systems have been included, such as the tris(2,2′-bipyridine)ruthenium(II) system, the luminol and acridinium derivative reactions, the peroxyoxalate CL or direct oxidations. Improvements in instrumental designs, new strategies for improving both resolution and sensitivity, and applications in different fields such as clinical, pharmaceutical, environmental and food analysis have been included. This review covers the literature from 2010 to 2015. - Highlights: • An up-to-date critical review about the evolution of CE-CL is presented. • Tris(2,2′-bipyridine)ruthenium(II) and luminol as the most used CL systems. • Instrumental designs and strategies for improving resolution and sensitivity. • Applications in clinical, pharmaceutical, environmental and food analysis.

  11. Design a New Strategy Based on Nanoparticle-Enhanced Chemiluminescence Sensor Array for Biothiols Discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahrajabian, Maryam; Hormozi-Nezhad, M. Reza

    2016-08-01

    Array-based sensor is an interesting approach that suggests an alternative to expensive analytical methods. In this work, we introduce a novel, simple, and sensitive nanoparticle-based chemiluminescence (CL) sensor array for discrimination of biothiols (e.g., cysteine, glutathione and glutathione disulfide). The proposed CL sensor array is based on the CL efficiencies of four types of enhanced nanoparticle-based CL systems. The intensity of CL was altered to varying degrees upon interaction with biothiols, producing unique CL response patterns. These distinct CL response patterns were collected as “fingerprints” and were then identified through chemometric methods, including linear discriminant analysis (LDA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA). The developed array was able to successfully differentiate between cysteine, glutathione and glutathione disulfide in a wide concentration range. Moreover, it was applied to distinguish among the above analytes in human plasma.

  12. Chemiluminescence-based multivariate sensing of local equivalence ratios in premixed atmospheric methane-air flames

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tripathi, Markandey M.; Krishnan, Sundar R.; Srinivasan, Kalyan K.; Yueh, Fang-Yu; Singh, Jagdish P.

    2011-09-07

    Chemiluminescence emissions from OH*, CH*, C2, and CO2 formed within the reaction zone of premixed flames depend upon the fuel-air equivalence ratio in the burning mixture. In the present paper, a new partial least square regression (PLS-R) based multivariate sensing methodology is investigated and compared with an OH*/CH* intensity ratio-based calibration model for sensing equivalence ratio in atmospheric methane-air premixed flames. Five replications of spectral data at nine different equivalence ratios ranging from 0.73 to 1.48 were used in the calibration of both models. During model development, the PLS-R model was initially validated with the calibration data set using the leave-one-out cross validation technique. Since the PLS-R model used the entire raw spectral intensities, it did not need the nonlinear background subtraction of CO2 emission that is required for typical OH*/CH* intensity ratio calibrations. An unbiased spectral data set (not used in the PLS-R model development), for 28 different equivalence ratio conditions ranging from 0.71 to 1.67, was used to predict equivalence ratios using the PLS-R and the intensity ratio calibration models. It was found that the equivalence ratios predicted with the PLS-R based multivariate calibration model matched the experimentally measured equivalence ratios within 7%; whereas, the OH*/CH* intensity ratio calibration grossly underpredicted equivalence ratios in comparison to measured equivalence ratios, especially under rich conditions ( > 1.2). The practical implications of the chemiluminescence-based multivariate equivalence ratio sensing methodology are also discussed.

  13. Magnetic-particle-based, ultrasensitive chemiluminescence enzyme immunoassay for free prostate-specific antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ruping; Wang, Cheng; Jiang, Quan; Zhang, Wei; Yue, Zhao; Liu, Guohua

    2013-11-01

    We report a magnetic-particle (MMP)-based chemiluminescence enzyme immunoassay (CLEIA) for free prostate-specific antigen (f-PSA) in human serum. In this method, the f-PSA is sandwiched between the anti-PSA antibody coated MMPs and alkaline phosphatase (ALP)-labeled anti-f-PSA antibody. The signal produced by the emitted photons from the chemiluminescent substrate (4-methoxy-4-(3-phosphatephenyl)-spiro-(1,2-dioxetane-3,2'-adamantane)) is directly proportional to the amount of f-PSA in a sample. The present MMP-based assay can detect f-PSA in the range of 0.1-30 ng mL(-1) with the detection limit of 0.1 ng mL(-1). The linear detection range could match the concentration range within the "diagnostic gray zone" of serum f-PSA levels (4-10 ng mL(-1)). The detection limit was sufficient for measuring clinically relevant f-PSA levels (>4 ng mL(-1)). Furthermore, the method was highly selective; it was unaffected by cross-reaction with human glandular kallikrein-2, a kallikrein-like serine protease that is 80% similar to f-PSA. The proposed method was finally applied to determine f-PSA in 40 samples of human sera. Results obtained using the method showed high correlation with those obtained using a commercially available microplate CLEIA kit (correlation coefficient, 0.9821). This strategy shows great potential application in the fabrication of diagnostic kits for determining f-PSA in serum.

  14. Stimulus-response mesoporous silica nanoparticle-based chemiluminescence biosensor for cocaine determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhonghui; Tan, Yue; Xu, Kefeng; Zhang, Lan; Qiu, Bin; Guo, Longhua; Lin, Zhenyu; Chen, Guonan

    2016-01-15

    Mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSN) based controlled release system had been coupled with diverse detection technologies to establish biosensors for different targets. Chemiluminescence (CL) system of luminol/H2O2 owns the characters of simplicity, low cost and high sensitivity, but the targets of which are mostly focused on some oxidants or which can participate in a chemical reaction that yields a product with a role in the CL reaction. In this study, chemiluminescent detection technique had been coupled with mesoporous silica-based controlled released system for the first time to develop a sensitive biosensor for the target which does not cause effect to the CL system itself. Cocaine had been chosen a model target, the MSN support was firstly loaded with glucose, then the positively charged MSN interacted with negatively charged oligonucleotides (the aptamer cocaine) to close the mesopores of MSN. At the present of target, cocaine binds with its aptamer with high affinity; the flexible linear aptamer structured will become stems structured through currently well-defined non-Waston-Crick interactions and causes the releasing of entrapped glucose into the solution. With the assistant of glucose oxidase (GOx), the released glucose can react with the dissolved oxgen to produce gluconic acid and H2O2, the latter can enhance the CL of luminol in the NaOH solution. The enhanced CL intensity has a relationship with the cocaine concentration in the range of 5.0-60μM with the detection limit of 1.43μM. The proposed method had been successfully applied to detect cocaine in serum samples with high selectivity. The same strategy can be applied to develop biosensors for different targets.

  15. Evaluation of nitrogen dioxide chemiluminescence monitors in a polluted urban environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. J. Dunlea

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Data from a recent field campaign in Mexico City are used to evaluate the performance of the EPA Federal Reference Method for monitoring ambient concentrations of NO2. Measurements of NO2 from standard chemiluminescence monitors equipped with molybdenum oxide converters are compared with those from Tunable Infrared Laser Differential Absorption Spectroscopy (TILDAS and Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS instruments. A significant interference in the chemiluminescence measurement is shown to account for up to 50% of ambient NO2 concentration during afternoon hours. As expected, this interference correlates well with non-NOx reactive nitrogen species (NOz as well as with ambient O3 concentrations, indicating a photochemical source for the interfering species. A combination of ambient gas phase nitric acid and alkyl and multifunctional alkyl nitrates is deduced to be the primary cause of the interference. Observations at four locations at varying proximities to emission sources indicate that the percentage contribution of HNO3 to the interference decreases with time as the air parcel ages. Alkyl and multifunctional alkyl nitrate concentrations are calculated to be reach concentrations as high as several ppb inside the city, on par with the highest values previously observed in other urban locations. Averaged over the MCMA-2003 field campaign, the CL NOx monitor interference resulted in an average measured NO2 concentration up to 22% greater than that from co-located spectroscopic measurements. Thus, this interference has the potential to initiate regulatory action in areas that are close to non-attainment and may mislead atmospheric photochemical models used to assess control strategies for photochemical oxidants.

  16. Astrophysical Concepts

    CERN Document Server

    Harwit, Martin

    2006-01-01

    This classic text, aimed at senior undergraduates and beginning graduate students in physics and astronomy, presents a wide range of astrophysical concepts in sufficient depth to give the reader a quantitative understanding of the subject. Emphasizing physical concepts, the book outlines cosmic events but does not portray them in detail: it provides a series of astrophysical sketches. For this fourth edition, nearly every part of the text has been reconsidered and rewritten, new sections have been added to cover recent developments, and others have been extensively revised and brought up to date. The book begins with an outline of the scope of modern astrophysics and enumerates some of the outstanding problems faced in the field today. The basic physics needed to tackle these questions are developed in the next few chapters using specific astronomical processes as examples. The second half of the book enlarges on these topics and shows how we can obtain quantitative insight into the structure and evolution of...

  17. Occupational Functionality: A Concept Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combs, Bryan; Heaton, Karen

    2016-08-01

    Occupational health nursing has evolved since the late 19th century and, with the inclusion of advanced practice nursing, has become essential to the health and safety of workers. A key component of the knowledge required of advanced practice occupational health nurses is an understanding of what it means for workers to be fit for duty The definition or concept of being fit for duty varies depending on the point-of-view of the health care provider. Health care providers across all professions must have a consistent understanding of what it means to be fit for duty Literature shows that professions and specialties that often collaborate have varying ideas about what it means to be fit for duty These differences highlight the need for a consistent concept that can be used across professions, is holistic, and incorporates other concepts critical to all points of view. To better understand fit for duty, a concept analysis, using the Walker and Avant framework, focused on the concept of occupational functionality (OF). Occupational functionality is best defined as the qualities of being suited to serve an occupational purpose efficiently and effectively within the physical, occupational, environmental, and psychological demands of a unique work setting. This concept analysis offers an initial step in understanding fit for duty and gives health care providers a concept that can be used across disciplines.

  18. Effect of Concept Attainment Model on Acquisition of Physics Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Amit; Mathur, Madhu

    2013-01-01

    Teaching a subject like physics needs special teaching methods. It has been felt that in spite of strenuous efforts of physics teacher, students fail to grasp the certain concepts of subject, which lead disinterest among students towards physics. More ever students are often unable to apply their knowledge to advance studies. Therefore there is a…

  19. Advanced linear algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Cooperstein, Bruce

    2015-01-01

    Advanced Linear Algebra, Second Edition takes a gentle approach that starts with familiar concepts and then gradually builds to deeper results. Each section begins with an outline of previously introduced concepts and results necessary for mastering the new material. By reviewing what students need to know before moving forward, the text builds a solid foundation upon which to progress. The new edition of this successful text focuses on vector spaces and the maps between them that preserve their structure (linear transformations). Designed for advanced undergraduate and beginning graduate stud

  20. Rapid determination of Papaver somniferum alkaloids in process streams using monolithic column high-performance liquid chromatography with chemiluminescence detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costin, Jason W. [School of Life and Environmental Sciences, Deakin University, Geelong, Victoria 3217 (Australia); Lewis, Simon W. [Department of Applied Chemistry, Curtin University of Technology, Perth, WA 6845 (Australia); Purcell, Stuart D. [GlaxoSmithKline, Port Fairy, Victoria 3284 (Australia); Waddell, Lucy R. [GlaxoSmithKline, Port Fairy, Victoria 3284 (Australia); Francis, Paul S. [School of Life and Environmental Sciences, Deakin University, Geelong, Victoria 3217 (Australia); Barnett, Neil W. [School of Life and Environmental Sciences, Deakin University, Geelong, Victoria 3217 (Australia)]. E-mail: barnie@deakin.edu.au

    2007-07-30

    We have combined high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) separations using a monolithic column with acidic potassium permanganate and tris(2,2'-bipyridyl)ruthenium(II) chemiluminescence detection in a rapid and highly sensitive method to monitor the process of extracting opiate alkaloids from Papaver somniferum. Due to the high flow rates allowed with the monolithic column and the inherent selectivity of the chemiluminescence reactions, the four predominant alkaloids - morphine, codeine, oripavine and thebaine - were determined in less than 2 min. The results obtained with numerous process samples compared favourable with those of the standard HPLC methodology. Limits of detection were 1 x 10{sup -10} M, 5 x 10{sup -10} M, 5 x 10{sup -10} M and 1 x 10{sup -9} M, for morphine, codeine, oripavine and thebaine, respectively.

  1. Kinetics of nonstationary chemiluminescence during the inhibited oxidation of hydrocarbons and determination of the rate constants for peroxy radical decay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rusina, I.F.; Emanuel, N.M.; Gagarina, A.B.

    1986-05-01

    This paper presents the results of a theoretical analysis of the kinetics of the nonstationary inhibited chemiluminescence and suggests a method for determining the absolute value of the rate constants for the recombination of peroxy radicals and for their removal by reaction with an inhibitor. From the rate curve for the chemiluminescence in the nonstationary regime following the introduction of an inhibitor it is possible simultaneously and independently to determine the absolute values of the rate constants for recombination of the peroxy radicals and their destruction by the inhibitor. Equations are obtained for calculating the time to establish the quasistationary concentration of peroxy radicals and of radicals formed from the inhibitor, using known values of the constants.

  2. Partial least squares and principal components analysis of wine vintage by high performance liquid chromatography with chemiluminescence detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellomarino, S A; Parker, R M; Conlan, X A; Barnett, N W; Adams, M J

    2010-09-23

    HPLC with acidic potassium permanganate chemiluminescence detection was employed to analyse 17 Cabernet Sauvignon wines across a range of vintages (1971-2003). Partial least squares regression analysis and principal components analysis was used in order to investigate the relationship between wine composition and vintage. Tartaric acid, vanillic acid, catechin, sinapic acid, ethyl gallate, myricetin, procyanadin B and resveratrol were found to be important components in terms of differences between the vintages.

  3. Effect of size of man-made and natural mineral fibers on chemiluminescent response in human monocyte-derived macrophages.

    OpenAIRE

    2001-01-01

    Fiber size is an important factor in the tumorigenicity of various mineral fibers and asbestos fibers in animal experiments. We examined the time course of the ability to induce lucigenin-dependent chemiluminescence (CL) from human monocyte-derived macrophages exposed to Japan Fibrous Material standard reference samples (glass wool, rock wool, micro glass fiber, two types of refractory ceramic fiber, refractory mullite fiber, potassium titanium whisker, silicon carbide whisker, titanium oxide...

  4. Study on Enhancement Principle and Stabilization for the Luminol-H2O2-HRP Chemiluminescence System.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lihua Yang

    Full Text Available A luminol-H2O2-HRP chemiluminescence system with high relative luminescent intensity (RLU and long stabilization time was investigated. First, the comparative study on the enhancement effect of ten compounds as enhancers to the luminol-H2O2-HRP chemiluminescence system was carried out, and the results showed that 4-(imidazol-1-ylphenol (4-IMP, 4-iodophenol (4-IOP, 4-bromophenol (4-BOP and 4-hydroxy-4'-iodobiphenyl (HIOP had the best performance. Based on the experiment, the four enhancers were dissolved in acetone, acetonitrile, methanol, and dimethylformamide (DMF with various concentrations, the results indicated that 4-IMP, 4-IOP, 4-BOP and HIOP dissolved in DMF with the concentrations of 0.2%, 3.2%, 1.6% and 3.2% could get the highest RLU values. Subsequently, the influences of pH, ionic strength, HRP, 4-IMP, 4-IOP, 4-BOP, HIOP, H2O2 and luminol on the stabilization of the luminol-H2O2-HRP chemiluminescence system were studied, and we found that pH value, ionic strength, 4-IMP, 4-IOP, 4-BOP, HIOP, H2O2 and luminol have little influence on luminescent stabilization, while HRP has a great influence. In different ranges of HRP concentration, different enhancers should be selected. When the concentration is within the range of 0~6 ng/mL, 4-IMP should be selected. When the concentration of HRP ranges from 6 to 25 ng/mL, 4-IOP was the best choice. And when the concentration is within the range of 25~80 ng/mL, HIOP should be selected as the enhancer. Finally, the three well-performing chemiluminescent enhanced solutions (CESs have been further optimized according to the three enhancers (4-IMP, 4-IOP and HIOP in their utilized HRP concentration ranges.

  5. Chemiluminescence of creatinine/H2O2/Co(2+) and its application for selective creatinine detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanif, Saima; John, Peter; Gao, Wenyue; Saqib, Muhammad; Qi, Liming; Xu, Guobao

    2016-01-15

    Creatinine is an important biomarker in clinical diagnosis and biomonitoring programs as well as urinary metabolomic/metabonomics research. Current methods are either nonselective, time consuming or require heavy and expensive instruments. In this study, chemiluminescence of creatinine with hydrogen peroxide has been reported for the first time, and its chemiluminescence is remarkably enhanced in the presence of cobalt ions. By utilizing these phenomena, we have developed a sensitive and selective chemiluminescence method for creatinine determination by coupling with flow injection analysis. The calibration curve is linear in the range of 1×10(-7)-3×10(-5)mol/L with a limit of detection (S/N=3) of 7.2×10(-8)mol/L, which is adequate for detecting creatinine in the clinically accepted range. The relative standard deviation for seven measurements of 3×10(-5)mol/L creatinine is 1.2%. The chemiluminescence method was then utilized to detect creatinine in human urine samples after simple dilution with water. It takes less than 1min each measurement and the recoveries for spiked urine samples were 100-103%. The interference study demonstrates that some common species in urine, such as amino acids, ascorbic acid and creatine, have negligible effects on creatinine detection. The present method does not use expensive instruments, enzymes and separation technique. This method has the advantages of sensitivity, selectivity, simplicity, rapidity, and low cost. It holds great promise for basic or comprehensive metabolic panel, drug screening, anti-dopping, and urinary metabolomic/metabonomics research.

  6. A Capillary Electrophoresis Detection Scheme for Water-soluble Vitamins Based on Luminol - BrO- Chemiluminescence System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    A novel chemiluminescence detection scheme has been developed for detecting water-soluble vitamins following capillary electrophoresis (CE) separation. This detection was based on the inhibitory effect of vitamins on the CL reaction between luminol and BrO- in basic aqueous solution. Detection of vitamins was accomplished with a borate-based background electrolyte at pH 9.2. The luminol was used as a component of the separation carrier electrolyte.

  7. Analyzer for measurement of nitrogen oxide concentration by ozone content reduction in gas using solid state chemiluminescent sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chelibanov, V. P.; Ishanin, G. G.; Isaev, L. N.

    2014-05-01

    Role of nitrogen oxide in ambient air is described and analyzed. New method of nitrogen oxide concentration measurement in gas phase is suggested based on ozone concentration measurement with titration by nitrogen oxide. Research of chemiluminescent sensor composition is carried out on experimental stand. The sensor produced on the base of solid state non-activated chemiluminescent composition is applied as ozone sensor. Composition is put on the surface of polymer matrix with developed surface. Sensor compositions includes gallic acid with addition of rodamine-6G. Model of interaction process between sensor composition and ozone has been developed, main products appeared during reaction are identified. The product determining the speed of luminescense appearance is found. This product belongs to quinone class. Then new structure of chemiluminescent composition was suggested, with absence of activation period and with high stability of operation. Experimental model of gas analyzer was constructed and operation algorithm was developed. It was demonstrated that developed NO measuring instrument would be applied for monitoring purposes of ambient air. This work was partially financially supported by Government of Russian Federation, Grant 074-U01

  8. Inhibition of chemiluminescence and chemotactic activity of phagocytes in vitro by the extracts of selected medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jantan, Ibrahim; Harun, Nurul Hikmah; Septama, Abdi Wira; Murad, Shahnaz; Mesaik, M A

    2011-04-01

    The methanol extracts of 20 selected medicinal plants were investigated for their effects on the respiratory burst of human whole blood, isolated human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) and isolated mice macrophages using a luminol/lucigenin-based chemiluminescence assay. We also tested the effect of the extracts on chemotactic migration of PMNs using the Boyden chamber technique. The extracts of Curcuma domestica L., Phyllanthus amarus Schum & Thonn and C. xanthorrhiza Roxb. were the samples producing the strongest oxidative burst of PMNs with luminol-based chemiluminescence, with IC(50) values ranging from 0.5 to 0.7 μg/ml. For macrophage cells, the extracts which showed strong suppressive activity for luminol-based chemiluminescence were C. xanthorrhiza and Garcinia mangostana L. Among the extracts studied, C. mangga Valton & Vazsjip, Piper nigrum L. and Labisia pumila var. alata showed strong inhibitory activity on lucigenin-amplified oxidative burst of PMNs, with IC(50) values ranging from 0.9 to 1.5 μg/ml. The extracts of Zingiber officinale Rosc., Alpinia galangal (L.) Willd and Averrhoa bilimbi Linn showed strong inhibition on the chemotaxic migration of cells, with IC(50) values comparable to that of ibuprofen (1.5 μg/ml). The results suggest that some of these plants were able to modulate the innate immune response of phagocytes at different steps, emphasizing their potential as a source of new immunomodulatory agents.

  9. High-performance liquid chromatographic assay of parabens in wash-off cosmetic products and foods using chemiluminescence detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Qunlin [Department of Chemistry, University of Science and Technology of China, Jinzai Road 96, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Lian Mei [Department of Chemistry, University of Science and Technology of China, Jinzai Road 96, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Liu Lijuan [Department of Chemistry, University of Science and Technology of China, Jinzai Road 96, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Cui Hua [Department of Chemistry, University of Science and Technology of China, Jinzai Road 96, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China)]. E-mail: hcui@ustc.edu.cn

    2005-04-29

    A new method for the simultaneous determination of parabens including methylparaben, ethylparaben, propylparaben, and butylparaben by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with chemiluminescence detection was developed. The procedure was based on the chemiluminescent enhancement by parabens of the cerium(IV)-rhodamine 6G system in the strong sulfuric acid medium. The good separation of parabens was carried out with an isocratic elution using a mixture of methanol and water (60:40, v/v) within 8.5 min. Under the optimized conditions, a linear working range extends three orders of magnitude with the relative standard deviations of intra- and inter-day precision below 4.5%, and the detection limits were 1.9 x 10{sup -9}, 2.7 x 10{sup -9}, 3.9 x 10{sup -9}, and 5.3 x 10{sup -9} g ml{sup -1} for methylparaben, ethylparaben, propylparaben, and butylparaben, respectively. The chemiluminescence reaction was well compatible with the mobile phase of high-performance liquid chromatography. The proposed method has been successfully applied to the assay of parabens in wash-off cosmetic products and foods with the minimal sample preparation.

  10. Microspot-based ELISA in microfluidics: chemiluminescence and colorimetry detection using integrated thin-film hydrogenated amorphous silicon photodiodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novo, Pedro; Prazeres, Duarte Miguel França; Chu, Virginia; Conde, João Pedro

    2011-12-07

    Microfluidic technology has the potential to decrease the time of analysis and the quantity of sample and reactants required in immunoassays, together with the potential of achieving high sensitivity, multiplexing, and portability. A lab-on-a-chip system was developed and optimized using optical and fluorescence microscopy. Primary antibodies are adsorbed onto the walls of a PDMS-based microchannel via microspotting. This probe antibody is then recognised using secondary FITC or HRP labelled antibodies responsible for providing fluorescence or chemiluminescent and colorimetric signals, respectively. The system incorporated a micron-sized thin-film hydrogenated amorphous silicon photodiode microfabricated on a glass substrate. The primary antibody spots in the PDMS-based microfluidic were precisely aligned with the photodiodes for the direct detection of the antibody-antigen molecular recognition reactions using chemiluminescence and colorimetry. The immunoassay takes ~30 min from assay to the integrated detection. The conditions for probe antibody microspotting and for the flow-through ELISA analysis in the microfluidic format with integrated detection were defined using antibody solutions with concentrations in the nM-μM range. Sequential colorimetric or chemiluminescence detection of specific antibody-antigen molecular recognition was quantitatively detected using the photodiode. Primary antibody surface densities down to 0.182 pmol cm(-2) were detected. Multiplex detection using different microspotted primary antibodies was demonstrated.

  11. Which one of the two common reporter systems is more suitable for chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay: alkaline phosphatase or horseradish peroxidase?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Songcheng; Yu, Fei; Liu, Lie; Zhang, Hongquan; Zhang, Zhenzhong; Qu, Lingbo; Wu, Yongjun

    2016-05-01

    Alkaline phosphatase and horseradish peroxidase are the most commonly used reporter systems in chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay (CLEIA). Which one, therefore, would be better when establishing a CLEIA method for a new target substance? There was no standard answer. In this study, both reporters were compared systematically including luminescence kinetics, conjugation methods, optimal condition and detection performance, using two common drugs, SD-methoxy-pyrimidine and enrofloxacin, as determination objects. The results revealed that there was much difference between the luminescence kinetics of the two systems. However, there was little difference between these systems when detecting the same substance, including in optimal conditions and determination of performance. Both reporters were suitable for establishing chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassays. Therefore, the choice of alkaline phosphatase or horseradish peroxidase as the reporter system in chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassays depends on availability. Conversely, these two report systems could be applied in simultaneous analysis of multicomponents due to their different optical behaviors and similar performances. But attention should be paid to conjugation method and coating buffer, which affected the luminescent intensity of different determination targets.

  12. Laminated paper-based analytical devices (LPAD) with origami-enabled chemiluminescence immunoassay for cotinine detection in mouse serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Cassano, Christopher L; Xu, Xin; Fan, Z Hugh

    2013-11-01

    Laminated paper-based analytical devices (LPAD) with origami-enabled chemiluminescence immunoassay have been developed for the detection of cotinine, a secondhand smoke (SHS) biomarker. The devices were fabricated by a craft-cutter to define flow channels, followed by lamination. This approach of cutting/lamination to fabricate LPAD is very similar to making an identification card, offering advantages in simplicity and rugged backing when compared to the common method of patterning paper using SU-8 or wax. We also developed a protocol of localized incision and paper-folding to isolate the detection zone from flow channels; the simple origami step eliminated possible reagent diffusion and flow during antibody immobilization steps and numerous washings. By incorporating luminol-based chemiluminescence for detecting horseradish peroxidase-conjugated cotinine, we employed origami-enabled LPAD to detect cotinine in mouse serum using competitive immunoassay. The detection limit was determined to be 5 ng/mL, a clinically relevant concentration. We believe that LPAD with chemiluminescence detection provides a new platform of low cost and sensitive assays for cotinine detection.

  13. Method of an integrated and advanced evaluation of vulnerability. Conceptional-methodical fundamentals and examplary implementation for the water household, power generation and energetic utilisation of wood under climatic change; Methode einer integrierten und erweiterten Vulnerabilitaetsbewertung. Konzeptionell-methodische Grundlagen und exemplarische Umsetzung fuer Wasserhaushalt, Stromerzeugung und energetische Nutzung von Holz unter Klimawandel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weisz, Helga; Koch, Hagen; Lasch, Petra [Potsdam-Institut fuer Klimafolgenforschung e.V. (Germany)] [and others

    2013-07-15

    Actually, in Germany there are more than hundred investigations on the consequences of the climatic change. It is difficult to evaluate the vulnerability of Germany against the climatic change. Under this aspect, the authors of the contributions report on a method of an integrated and advanced evaluation of vulnerability: Conceptional-methodical fundamentals and exemplary implementation for water household, power generation and energetic utilization of wood under climatic change.

  14. Advanced Carbothermal Electric Reactor Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The overall objective of the Phase 1 effort was to demonstrate the technical feasibility of the Advanced Carbothermal Electric (ACE) Reactor concept. Unlike...

  15. Chemiluminescence determination of didanosine%化学发光法测定去羟肌苷

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李建军; 郑伟; 屈凌波; 杨冉

    2009-01-01

    To develop a method for the determination of didanosine by chemiluminescence (CL). Didanosine can greatly inhibit the intensity of the chemiluminescence reaction between KMnO4 and sulphite in a nitric acid medium, and there was a good linear relationship between the inhibition and the concentration of didanosine. Based on this phenomenon, didanosine was determined. The linear range of didanosine was 4.0×10~(-7)~1.0×10~(-4) g/mL and the limit of detection was 9.6×10~(-8) g/mL. The relative standard deviation (re=11) was 2.0% for 8.0×10~(-5) g/mL didanosine. The method could be applied to the determination of didanosine in capsule due to its simplicity, high efficiency and high sensitivity.%建立了快速检测去羟肌苷的化学发光方法. 在HNO3介质中, 去羟肌苷对KMnO_4-Na_2SO_3化学发光体系有较强的抑制作用, 且抑制的程度与去羟肌苷的质量浓度在一定范围内呈良好的线性关系, 据此可以测定去羟肌苷含量. 方法的线性范围为4.0×10~(-7)~1.0×10~(-4) g/mL, 检出限为9.6×10~(-8) g/mL. 对8.0×10~(-5) g/mL去羟肌苷测定的相对标准偏差为2.0% (n=11). 方法适用于胶囊中去羟肌苷的含量测定.

  16. Highly sensitive multianalyte immunochromatographic test strip for rapid chemiluminescent detection of ractopamine and salbutamol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Hongfei; Han, Jing; Yang, Shijia; Wang, Zhenxing; Wang, Lin; Fu, Zhifeng, E-mail: fuzf@swu.edu.cn

    2014-08-11

    Graphical abstract: A multianalyte immunochromatographic test strip was developed for the rapid detection of two β{sub 2}-agonists. Due to the application of chemiluminescent detection, this quantitative method shows much higher sensitivity. - Highlights: • An immunochromatographic test strip was developed for detection of multiple β{sub 2}-agonists. • The whole assay process can be completed within 20 min. • The proposed method shows much higher sensitivity due to the application of CL detection. • It is a portable analytical tool suitable for field analysis and rapid screening. - Abstract: A novel immunochromatographic assay (ICA) was proposed for rapid and multiple assay of β{sub 2}-agonists, by utilizing ractopamine (RAC) and salbutamol (SAL) as the models. Owing to the introduction of chemiluminescent (CL) approach, the proposed protocol shows much higher sensitivity. In this work, the described ICA was based on a competitive format, and horseradish peroxidase-tagged antibodies were used as highly sensitive CL probes. Quantitative analysis of β{sub 2}-agonists was achieved by recording the CL signals of the probes captured on the two test zones of the nitrocellulose membrane. Under the optimum conditions, RAC and SAL could be detected within the linear ranges of 0.50–40 and 0.10–50 ng mL{sup −1}, with the detection limits of 0.20 and 0.040 ng mL{sup −1} (S/N = 3), respectively. The whole process for multianalyte immunoassay of RAC and SAL can be completed within 20 min. Furthermore, the test strip was validated with spiked swine urine samples and the results showed that this method was reliable in measuring β{sub 2}-agonists in swine urine. This CL-based multianalyte test strip shows a series of advantages such as high sensitivity, ideal selectivity, simple manipulation, high assay efficiency and low cost. Thus, it opens up new pathway for rapid screening and field analysis, and shows a promising prospect in food safety.

  17. Sources of uncertainty in eddy covariance ozone flux measurements made by dry chemiluminescence fast response analysers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. B. A. Muller

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Eddy covariance ozone flux measurements are the most direct way to estimate ozone removal near the surface. Over vegetated surfaces, high quality ozone fluxes are required to probe the underlying processes for which it is necessary to separate the flux into the components of stomatal and non-stomatal deposition. Detailed knowledge of the processes that control non-stomatal deposition is limited and more accurate ozone flux measurements are needed to quantify this component of the deposited flux. We present a systematic intercomparison study of eddy covariance ozone flux measurements made using two fast response dry chemiluminescence analysers. Ozone deposition was measured over a well characterised managed grassland near Edinburgh, Scotland, during August 2007. A data quality control procedure specific to these analysers is introduced. Absolute ozone fluxes were calculated based on the relative signals of the dry chemiluminescence analysers using three different calibration methods and the results are compared for both analysers. It is shown that the error in the fitted parameters required for the flux calculations provides a substantial source of uncertainty in the fluxes. The choice of the calculation method itself can also constitute an uncertainty in the flux as the calculated fluxes by the three methods do not agree within error at all times. This finding highlights the need for a consistent and rigorous approach for comparable data-sets, such as e.g. in flux networks. Ozone fluxes calculated by one of the methods were then used to compare the two analysers in more detail. This systematic analyser comparison reveals half-hourly flux values differing by up to a factor of two at times with the difference in mean hourly flux ranging from 0 to 23% with an error in the mean daily flux of ±12%. The comparison of analysers shows that the agreement in fluxes is excellent for some days but that there is an underlying uncertainty as a result of

  18. Evolution of the tandem mirror reactor concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlson, G.A.; Logan, B.G.

    1982-03-09

    We discuss the evolution of the tandem mirror reactor concept from the original conceptual reactor design (1977) through the first application of the thermal barrier concept to a reactor design (1979) to the beginning of the Mirror Advanced Reactor Study (1982).

  19. A novel chemiluminescence reaction system for the determination of norfloxacin with Ag(III) complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hanwen; Chen, Peiyun; Wang, Fei

    2009-10-01

    A novel chemiluminescence (CL) system for the determination of norfloxacin (NFLX) is developed based on the direct CL reaction of [Ag(HIO 6) 2] 5--H 2SO 4-NFLX system. The possible mechanism of CL emission and enhancing effect was discussed by comparing UV, fluorescence and CL spectra. [Ag(HIO 6) 2] 5- in the presence of H 2SO 4 could produce CL emission at 490 nm, this might be caused by the excited state (O 2) 2*. The enhancing effect of NFLX may be produced through an intermolecular energy transfer from part of (O 2) 2* to NFLX molecule and complex of Ag 3+ and NFLX. The CL intensity emission intensity was linear in the range 1.34 × 10 -8 to 5.44 × 10 -6 g mL -1 with correlation coefficient of 0.9982. The detection limit (s/n = 3) was 3.10 × 10 -9 g mL -1. The recovery was in the range of 90.0-104% with the RSD of 1.1-2.8%. The proposed flow injection CL method was applied satisfactorily for the determination of NFLX in capsule, human serum and urine.

  20. Nitrogen doped graphene quantum dots based long-persistent chemiluminescence system for ascorbic acid imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hongjun; Wang, Qin; Shen, Qinpeng; Liu, Xin; Li, Wang; Nie, Zhou; Yao, Shouzhuo

    2017-05-15

    High photo-intensity and sluggish flight attenuation are important to highly sensitive chemluminescence imaging. Herein, we present a copper ion catalyzed long-persistent chemiluminescent imaging system of nitrogen-doped graphene quantum dots (NGQDs) for ascorbic acid detection in fruit. NGQDs as luminescent probe are fabricated, emitting out chemluminescence with the direct oxidation by H2O2. In addition, Cu(2+) ion enlarges over two order magnitudes of NGQDs CL intensity (214 times) due to its catalyzed Fenton-like reaction for H2O2 decomposition, and displaying unique specificity against other metal ions. As a result, the twinkling luminescence of NGQDs is boosted and changes to hold persistent with small decay in the presence of copper ion exhibiting potential for CL imaging. As an imaging model, a visual sensor based on Cu(2+)/NGQDs/H2O2 is developed for AA quantitative monitoring with a limit of detection (LOD) of 0.5μM (S/N=3) and applied in real AA detection in fruit. The CL imaging method demonstrated with high stability and proper sensitivity would provide a convenient and visual tool for AA determination, displaying promising candidates for imaging sensing.

  1. Electrogenerated chemiluminescent behavior of MCLA at an indium-tin-oxide electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Zhihuang [MOE Key Laboratory of Analysis and Detection Technology for Food Safety, and Department of Chemistry, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou, Fujian 350002 (China); Wang Jian [MOE Key Laboratory of Analysis and Detection Technology for Food Safety, and Department of Chemistry, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou, Fujian 350002 (China); Lin Zhengyu [MOE Key Laboratory of Analysis and Detection Technology for Food Safety, and Department of Chemistry, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou, Fujian 350002 (China); Chen Guonan [MOE Key Laboratory of Analysis and Detection Technology for Food Safety, and Department of Chemistry, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou, Fujian 350002 (China)]. E-mail: gnchen@fzu.edu.cn

    2006-08-15

    In this paper, the electrogenerated chemiluminescence (ECL) behavior of 6-(4-methoxyphenyl)-2-methylimidazo[1,2-a]pyrazin-3(7H)-one (MCLA) at an indium-tin-oxide (ITO) electrode in phosphate buffer solution has been investigated when linear sweep voltammetry was applied. The optimum chemical conditions and electrochemical parameters for this ECL system have been investigated in detail. Under the optimum conditions, it was found that the ECL intensity was linear with the concentration of MCLA in the range of 6.0 x 10{sup -7} to 1.0 x 10{sup -5} mol/L, and its detection limit for MCLA was 2.0 x 10{sup -7} mol/L. The possible mechanism for ECL of MCLA at the ITO electrode was also discussion. Furthermore, it was found that some sophora flavescens, such as matrine and oxymatrine, might enhance the ECL intensity of MCLA. Therefore, it is possible to develop a new ECL method for determination of matrine and oxymatrine.

  2. Carbon nanofiber-based luminol-biotin probe for sensitive chemiluminescence detection of protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baj, Stefan; Krawczyk, Tomasz; Pradel, Natalia; Azam, Md Golam; Shibata, Takayuki; Dragusha, Shpend; Skutil, Krzysztof; Pawlyta, Miroslawa; Kai, Masaaki

    2014-01-01

    A carbon nanofiber-based luminol-biotin probe was synthesized for the sensitive chemiluminescence (CL) detection of a target protein by grafting luminol and biotin onto an oxidized carbon nanofiber. This carbon nanofiber was prepared by chemical vapor-deposition with methane in the presence of the Ni-Cu-MgO catalyst, which was followed by oxidization with HNO3-H2SO4 to produce a carboxyl group on the surface of the nanofiber. The material was grafted with luminol and biotin by means of a standard carbodiimide activation of COOH groups to produce corresponding amides. The substance was water-soluble and thus could be utilized as a sensitive CL probe for a protein assay. The probe showed highly specific affinity towards the biotin-labeled antibody via a streptavidin-biotin interaction. The detection limit for this model assay was approximately 0.2 pmol of the biotinized IgG spotted on a polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membrane. Nonspecific binding to other proteins was not observed. Therefore, the synthesized carbon nanofiber-based CL probe may be useful for a sensitive and specific analysis of the target protein.

  3. Improvement on simultaneous determination of chromium species in aqueous solution by ion chromatography and chemiluminescence detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammelgaard, Bente; Liao, Y.P.; Jons, O.

    1997-01-01

    A sensitive method for the simultaneous determination of chromium(III) and chromium(VI) was chromatography and chemiluminescence detection. Two Dionex ion-exchange guard columns in series, CG5 and AG7, were used to separate chromium(III) from chromium(VI). Chromium(VI) was reduced by potassium......, the stabilities of reductant and luminol solutions were studied. The linear range of the calibration curve for chromium(III) and chromium(VI) was 1-400 mu g l(-1). The detection limit was 0.12 mu g l(-1) for chromium(III) and 0.09 mu g l(-1) for chromium(VI), respectively. The precision at the 20 mu g l(-1) level...... was 1.4% for chromium(III) and 2.5% for chromium(VI), respectively. The accuracy of the chromium(III) determination was determined by analysis of the NIST standard reference material 1643c, Trace elements in water with the result 19.1 +/- 1.0 mu g Cr(III) l(-1) (certified value 19.0 +/- 0.6 mu g Cr...

  4. Study on immunocapture-chemiluminescence assay of lipase activity in a biological sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichibangase, Tomoko; Hamabe, Chie; Ohba, Yoshihito; Kishikawa, Naoya; Nakashima, Kenichiro; Kayamori, Yuzo; Kang, Dongchon; Hamasaki, Naotaka; Kuroda, Naotaka

    2006-01-01

    A new approach for the determination of lipase (triacylglycerol lipase, EC.3.1.1.3) activity in a biological sample was investigated by combining an immunocapture technique with a chemiluminescence (CL) assay method in order to eliminate interference with CL detection. The proposed method consists of an immunocapture step to trap lipase and a subsequent step for CL detection of the activity of the captured lipase. The CL detection is based on the luminol-hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2))-horseradish peroxidase (HRP) reaction and utilizes a proenhancer substrate [a lauric acid ester of 2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-4,5-diphenylimidazole (HDI)] which liberates an active enhancer, HDI, by enzymatic hydrolysis. A polyclonal antibody prepared with porcine pancreas lipase was used for the immunocapture. The proposed immunocapture-CL method effectively eliminated the interference with the CL reaction from biological components and enabled the determination of spiked porcine pancreas lipase activity in serum samples in the range 0.41-1.1 U(HDI) (1 U(HDI) corresponds to the amount which liberates 1 pmol HDI/min at 37 degrees C from the substrate). The method was further applied to the assay of the activity for human pancreas lipase in serum and the results showed good correlation (r = 0.871) with those by the conventional colorimetric method.

  5. Flow Injection Analysis with Chemiluminescence detection for Determination of Two Phenothiazines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hijran S. Jabbar

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A new flow injection analysis-chemiluminescence (FIA-CL method for determination of two phenothiazine derivatives "chlorpromazine hydrochloride (CPZ and promethazine hydrochloride (PTZ" described. The redox reaction between Fe(III and phenothiazines was taken as a base of this new method. A well-defined volume of CPZ or PTZ and luminol solution is injected simultaneously by means of two injection valves in accordance with the merging zone principle. Calibration graphs were constructed in the range of (0.05 – 1.4μg/ml for CPZ with correlation coefficient of (0.9972 and in the range of (0.5 – 40μg/ml for PTZ with correlation coefficient of (0.9978. The precision and accuracy of the method were checked by calculation of relative standard deviation (RSD and relative error percentage (%E for two different levels of concentrations. The method was relatively free from common excipients and it is applied successfully for the determination of CPZ and PTZ in pharmaceutical formulations. The results obtained were in good agreement with those obtained by a reference method in British Pharmacopoeia.

  6. Simultaneous chemiluminescence determination of thebaine and noscapine using support vector machine regression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ensafi, Ali A.; Hasanpour, F.; Khayamian, T.; Mokhtari, A.; Taei, M.

    2010-02-01

    In this work, a batch chemiluminescence (CL) method has been proposed for the simultaneous determination of two structurally similar alkaloids, noscapine and thebaine. The method is based on the kinetic distinction of the CL reactions of noscapine and thebaine with Ru(bipy) 32+ and Ce(IV) system in a sulfuric acid medium. The least squared support vector machine (LS-SVM) regression was applied for relating the concentrations of both compounds to their CL profiles. The parameters of the model consisting of σ2 and γ were optimized by constructing LS-SVM models with all possible combinations of these two parameters to select the model with the minimum root mean squared error of cross validation (RMSECV) as the best. The parameters of this model were then selected as optimized values. Under the optimized experimental conditions for both compounds, the detection limits obtained using the LS-SVM regression were 0.08 and 0.1 μmol L -1 for noscapine and thebaine, respectively. The proposed method was utilized for the simultaneous determination of the compounds in pharmaceutical formulations and plasma samples with satisfactory results.

  7. Enhanced chemiluminescence detection of glutathione based on isoluminol-PSM nanoparticles probe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Xiaoting; Wang, Wei; Li, Xiaoqian; Chen, Yaoyao; Ding, Caifeng

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, a new chemiluminescence (CL) strategy was constructed for the determination of physiological thiols by using an isoluminol labeled nano-probe. The amino group on the surface of the magnetic beads (MBs) were converted into pyridyl disulfide groups by treatment with N-succinimidyl-3-(2-pyridyldithio)propionate (SPDP), in the meantime, isoluminol and thiolated signal DNA were labeled on the surface of the polystyrene microspheres (PSMs). By treating the SPDP activated MBs with the modified PSMs, isoluminol molecules on the surface of the PSMs, along with the thiolated signal DNA, were attached to the surface of the MBs through disulfide bonds to form a CL probe. In the presence of glutathione (GSH), the disulfide bonds could be cleaved readily. The isoluminol molecules modified on the surface of the PSMs released from the CL probes were detached by magnetic separation and transferred to the dark closet for CL detection of isoluminol-H2O2-HRP system. Using GSH detection as a model, we prove a linear dose response in the range from 5 × 10(-10) to 8 × 10(-8)M. The detection limit of this trial for GSH determined is 5 × 10(-10)M. The proposed design was successfully applied to the extracts of K562 cell for intracellular thiols detection, the average amount of thiols was about 4.114 × 10(-13)M per K562 cell.

  8. Oscillating chemiluminescence in rhodamine B-induced Belousov-Zhabotinsky reaction catalyzed by Ce(Ⅳ)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DUAN ChunFeng; LIU GuangMing; ZHANG ZhiFeng; CUI Hua

    2009-01-01

    It was found that rhodamine B could induce oscillating chemiluminescence (OCL) from the Ce4+-cata-lyzed Belousov-Zhabotinsky reaction. This new OCL system, i.e., rhodamine B-malonic acid-bromate-Ce(IV)-sulfuric acid, exhibited two clearly distinguished emission peaks in each oscillation period. The initial concentrations of the reactants strongly influenced the oscillation pattern. For the study of the CL mechanism, a platform for a versatile and simultaneous potential and CL measurement was estab-lished to compare the potential oscillation with the CL oscillation behavior of this system. The CL spectra, UV-visible absorption spectra and time-resolved fluorescence spectra of this OCL system were studied. A possible, simplified mechanism for the OCL is proposed. It is suggested that the generation of the two CL peaks is likely due to the oxidation of the intermediate of rhodamine B by Co(IV) and Br2, respectively. This work provided a new method and platform to research the complex chemical oscilla-tions.

  9. Gold Magnetic Nanoparticles-based Chemiluminescent Immunoassay for Detection of Chloramphenicol in Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Linyu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available chemiluminescent immunoassays (CLIA based on gold magnetic nanoparticles (Au-MNPs were developed for rapid analysis of chloramphen icol (CAP in milk sample. Anti-CAP antibodies were immobilized on the surfaces of Au-MNPs, luminol (Method I and 2′,6′-DiMethylcarbonylphenyl-10-sulfopropylacridinium-9-carboxylate 4′-NHS Ester, (NSP-DMAE-NHS, Method II were exploited in competitive CLIA for CAP detection in milk using a homemade luminescent measurement system. The sensitivities and limits of detection (LODs of the two methods were obtained according to the inhibition curves. It indicated that NSP-DMAE-NHS as luminescence reagent (reaction II was more sensitive and effective than luminol (reaction I. The LOD of reaction II reached 0.008 ng/ml while it was 4 ng/ml in reaction I. Moreover, the linear range of the inhibition curve of the former was wider than that of the latter. Such results indicated that the proposed CLIA stratery employing NSP-DMAE-NHS was more sensitive than other immunoassay method for CAP detection.

  10. Chemiluminescence imaging for microRNA detection based on cascade exponential isothermal amplification machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yongjie; Li, Dandan; Cheng, Wei; Hu, Rong; Sang, Ye; Yin, Yibing; Ding, Shijia; Ju, Huangxian

    2016-09-14

    A novel G-quadruplex DNAzyme-driven chemiluminescence (CL) imaging method was developed for ultrasensitive and specific detection of miRNA based on the cascade exponential isothermal amplification reaction (EXPAR) machinery. A structurally tailored hairpin probe switch was designed to selectively recognise miRNA and form hybridisation products to trigger polymerase and nicking enzyme machinery, resulting in the generation of product I, which was complementary to a region of the functional linear template. Then, the response of the functional linear template to the generated product I further activated the exponential isothermal amplification machinery, leading to synthesis of numerous horseradish peroxidase mimicking DNAzyme units for CL signal transduction. The amplification paradigm generated a linear response from 10 fM to 100 pM, with a low detection limit of 2.91 fM, and enabled discrimination of target miRNA from a single-base mismatched target. The developed biosensing platform demonstrated the advantages of isothermal, homogeneous, visual detection for miRNA assays, offering a promising tool for clinical diagnosis.

  11. Flow-injection determination of isoniazid using sodium dichloroisocyanurate- and trichloroisocyanuric acid-luminol chemiluminescence systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safavi, A; Karimi, M A; Hormozi Nezhad, M R

    2004-06-01

    A chemiluminescent (CL) method for the determination of isoniazid is described. The method is based on the CL generated during the oxidation of luminol by sodium dichloroisocyanurate (SDCC) and trichloroisocyanuric acid (TCCA) in alkaline medium. It was found that isoniazid greatly enhances this CL intensity when present in the luminol solution. Based on this observation, a new flow-injection CL method for the determination of isoniazid has been proposed in this paper. The detection limits were 2 and 3 ng ml(-1) isoniazid for the SDCC-luminol and TCCA-luminol CL systems, respectively. The relative CL intensity was linear with the isoniazid concentration in the range of 4-100 and 100-200 ng ml(-1) for the SDCC-luminol CL system, and 6-200 and 200-1000 ng ml(-1) for the TCCA-luminol CL system. The results obtained for the assay of pharmaceutical preparations compared well with those obtained by the official methods and demonstrated good accuracy and precision.

  12. Flow injection chemiluminescence determination of hydrazine by oxidation with chlorinated isocyanurates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safavi, Afsaneh; Karimi, Mohammad Ali

    2002-10-16

    A rapid and sensitive flow injection chemiluminescence (CL) method is described for the determination of hydrazine based on the CL generated during its reaction with either sodium dichloroisocyanurate (SDCC) or trichloroisocyanuric acid (TCCA) in alkaline medium. The emission intensity is greatly enhanced if dichlorofluorescein (DCF) as sensitizer is present in the reaction medium. The presence of citrate prevents the precipitation of some cations in the reaction medium and also causes an enhancement in emission intensity. The effect of analytical and flow injection variables on these CL systems and determination of hydrazine are discussed. The optimum parameters for the determination of hydrazine were studied and were found to be the following: SDCC and TCCA both 1x10(-3) M; NaOH, 2x10(-1) M; DCF, 5x10(-6) M; citrate, 1x10(-3) M and flow rate, 3.8 ml min(-1). The optimized method yielded 3sigma detection limits of 2x10(-7) and 3x10(-7) M for hydrazine with SDCC and TCCA oxidants, respectively. The method is simple, fast, sensitive, and precise and was applied to the determination of hydrazine in water samples.

  13. Determination of catecholamines by ion chromatography coupled to acidic potassium permanganate chemiluminescence detection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong Wei Wu; Mei Lan Chen; Dan Shou; Yan Zhu

    2012-01-01

    A simple,fast,sensitive,highly selective and eco-friendly analytical method for the determination of catecholamines in human urine by ion chromatography (IC) with chemiluminescence (CL) detection was described in this paper.Using 12 mmoi/L H2SO4 without any organic additive as eluent,three catecholamines including epinephrine (EP),norepinephrine (NE) and dopamine (DA)were well separated on a cation-exchange column.The CL detection was based on the reaction of analytes with acidic potassium permanganate in the presence of formaldehyde as an enhancer.The absence of methanol and acetonitrile in eluent made the proposed method more sensitive and eco-friendly.Under the optimal conditions,the linear range of the proposed method was in the range of 0.02-0.5 μg/mL.The limit of detection (LOD) was in the range of 0.6 and 5.1 μg/L.The relative standard deviations (RSD) for 0.1 μg/mL mixed standard solution were in the range of 0.8-1.9% (n =11).The method has been applied to the determination of catecholamines in human urine successfully.Excellent spiked recoveries were achieved for catecholamines ranged from 91.2% to 112.7%.

  14. A fast and precise chemiluminescence ozone detector for eddy flux and airborne application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Zahn

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available A commercially available dry chemiluminescence (CI instrument for fast and precise measurement of ozone (O3 is specified. The sensitivity is ~9000 counts s−1 per ppbv of ozone. Its precision is entirely determined by the number of photons reaching the detector (being a photomultiplier, i.e. is quantum-noise limited. The relative precision (ΔO3/O3 in % thus follows Poisson statistics and scales with the square root of the measurement frequency f and with the inverse O3 mixing ratio: ΔO3/O3f0.5 · O3−0.5. At typical O3 mixing ratios between 10 and 100 ppbv (and 1 bar, the precision is 0.3–1.0% at f = 10 Hz. The maximum measurement frequency is 50 Hz. The mechanical and electronic set-up as well as the instrument performance is described. Recommendations on the adequate inlet tube configuration (inlet tube length, sampling flow and on the way of calibration at stationary ground-based platforms and onboard aircraft are given.

  15. Direct monitoring changes of salbutamol concentration in serum by chemiluminescent imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Canli; Zhang, Ruichao; Na, Na; Delanghe, Joris R; Ouyang, Jin

    2011-07-15

    We report in this manuscript, the use of direct ammonium persulfate-enhanced chemiluminescence (CL) imaging, to monitor changes to measure serum salbutamol concentration in subjects of different haptoglobin (Hp) phenotypes at different dosing time. It was noted that CL generated from Hp was decreased due to salbutamol's reducibility, which was used for monitoring salbutamol concentration in serum. The serum from the subjects treated by oral administration of salbutamol, was collected at different dosing time and was separated by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) prior to the CL detection. According to CL images, samples were separated into three groups based on the Hp phenotypes. The curves of CL signal intensity versus time were obtained for each group, and we demonstrated that there were more significant variables on binding ability between groups. The maximum salbutamol concentration in the serum appeared after 4h, which was in agreement with the literature. In addition, the binding constants of salbutamol to Hp were determined by a fluorescence-based method, whose results were in agreement with the phenomenon of the greater salbutamol metabolism rate for Group Hp 1-1 than Group Hp 2-2. The presented method can monitor changes of salbutamol concentration in serum directly, making the procedures much simple, convenient, rapid and has the property of lower cost. It provided us with excellent reference information for the individual dosage regimen of different Hp groups, which hopefully could become a potential method for further pharmaceutical research.

  16. Chemiluminescence of neutrophiles stimulated by opsonized Zymosan in children with bronchial asthma and pneumonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewandowicz-Uszynska, A.; Jankowski, A.

    2004-08-01

    Oxygen metabolism of neutrophils after stimulation with opsonized zymosan was examined using chemiluminescence test (in the presence of the patient serum or pooled serum). Into the study 37 children aged from 2 to 12 years were enrolled (20 girls and 17 boys). 10 healthy volunteers comprised the control group (group III). Two groups of patients were established: group I -- children with bronchial asthma (without infection), group II -- children with pneumonia. The examination in both groups was performed twice -- in acute phase and in remission period. The group I in acute phase comprised 16 children and in remission phase 9 children, group II - 21 children in acute phase and 9 children in remission phase, respectively. The following parameters of CL were estimated average value of so called spontaneous CL, maximal excitation of neutrophils after stimulation by zymogen (CLmax), time of zymosan opsonization. The following results were obtained: increased spontaneous CL and CLmax (at the presence of both sera) in acute phase of bronchial asthma and pneumonia in comparison to the control group. In the period of remission both these parameters were insignificantly decreased. The longest time of zymosan opsonization in acute period of disease was observed in children with pneumonia (18 min.). This time did not change during remission phase. Only slightly longer time of opsonization was observed in the patients from group I (in exacerbation) (15 min) than in the control group (13,1 min). This time was prolonged in the clinical remission (20 min).

  17. The Chemiluminescence and Structure Properties of Normal/Inverse Diffusion Flames

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The flame emission spectrometry was applied to detect the distribution of excited radicals in two types CH4/O2 coflow jet diffusion flames (normal and inverse diffusion flames. Combining the image analysis along with the spectrometry, the chemiluminescence and structure characteristics of these diffusion flames were investigated. The results show that the inverse diffusion flame (IDF with relatively high inlet oxygen velocity is composed of two regions: a bright base and a tower on top of the base, which is quite different from the normal diffusion flame (NDF. The flame is divided into two regions along the flame axis based on maximum OH* position (Region I: initial reaction zone; Region II: further oxidation zone. The degree of the further oxidization taking place in Region II is obvious in accordance with OH* distribution, which is the main difference in reaction zone between fuel-rich condition and fuel-lean condition for NDFs. For IDFs, the change of OH* distribution with increasing equivalence O/C ratio ([O/C]e in Region II is not conspicuous. More OH* and CH* are generated in IDFs, due to the inner high-speed O2 flow promoting the mixing of fuel and oxygen to a certain extent.

  18. An ultrasensitive electrogenerated chemiluminescence-based immunoassay for specific detection of Zika virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, Dhiraj; Bastola, Pradip; Le, Linda; Paul, Amber M.; Fernandez, Estefania; Diamond, Michael S.; Miao, Wujian; Bai, Fengwei

    2016-01-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) is a globally emerging mosquito-transmitted flavivirus that can cause severe fetal abnormalities, including microcephaly. As such, highly sensitive, specific, and cost-effective diagnostic methods are urgently needed. Here, we report a novel electrogenerated chemiluminescence (ECL)-based immunoassay for ultrasensitive and specific detection of ZIKV in human biological fluids. We loaded polystyrene beads (PSB) with a large number of ECL labels and conjugated them with anti-ZIKV monoclonal antibodies to generate anti-ZIKV-PSBs. These anti-ZIKV-PSBs efficiently captured ZIKV in solution forming ZIKV-anti-ZIKV-PSB complexes, which were subjected to measurement of ECL intensity after further magnetic beads separation. Our results show that the anti-ZIKV-PSBs can capture as little as 1 PFU of ZIKV in 100 μl of saline, human plasma, or human urine. This platform has the potential for development as a cost-effective, rapid and ultrasensitive assay for the detection of ZIKV and possibly other viruses in clinical diagnosis, epidemiologic and vector surveillance, and laboratory research. PMID:27554037

  19. Study on the interaction of catalase with pesticides by flow injection chemiluminescence and molecular docking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Xijuan; Wang, Zhuming; Chen, Donghua; Luo, Kai; Xiong, Xunyu; Song, Zhenghua

    2014-08-01

    The interaction mechanisms of catalase (CAT) with pesticides (including organophosphates: disulfoton, isofenphos-methyl, malathion, isocarbophos, dimethoate, dipterex, methamidophos and acephate; carbamates: carbaryl and methomyl; pyrethroids: fenvalerate and deltamethrin) were first investigated by flow injection (FI) chemiluminescence (CL) analysis and molecular docking. By homemade FI-CL model of lg[(I0-I)/I]=lgK+nlg[D], it was found that the binding processes of pesticides to CAT were spontaneous with the apparent binding constants K of 10(3)-10(5) L mol(-1) and the numbers of binding sites about 1.0. The binding abilities of pesticides to CAT followed the order: fenvalerate>deltamethrin>disulfoton>isofenphos-methyl>carbaryl>malathion>isocarbophos>dimethoate>dipterex>acephate>methomyl>methamidophos, which was generally similar to the order of determination sensitivity of pesticides. The thermodynamic parameters revealed that CAT bound with hydrophobic pesticides by hydrophobic interaction force, and with hydrophilic pesticides by hydrogen bond and van der Waals force. The pesticides to CAT molecular docking study showed that pesticides could enter into the cavity locating among the four subdomains of CAT, giving the specific amino acid residues and hydrogen bonds involved in CAT-pesticides interaction. It was also found that the lgK values of pesticides to CAT increased regularly with increasing lgP, Mr, MR and MV, suggesting that the hydrophobicity and steric property of pesticide played essential roles in its binding to CAT.

  20. Effect of tert-butyl hydroperoxide addition on spontaneous chemiluminescence in brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azorin, I; Bella, M C; Iborra, F J; Fornas, E; Renau-Piqueras, J

    1995-12-01

    It is well known that light emission is related to lipid peroxidation in biological material, and that this process occurs spontaneously in the brain. tert-Butyl hydroperoxide (tBHP) is an organic peroxide widely used as initiator of free radical production in several biological systems. However, the prooxidant capacity of this compound remins unclear. To clarify its role in brain spontaneous autooxidation, rat brain homogenates were incubated with and without tBHP. Light emission and lipid peroxidation were measured by luminometry and the TBARs test, respectively. Several inhibitors of free radical-induced lipid peroxidation were also used. These inhibitors included ascorbate, EDTA, and desferrioxamine. Our results indicate that the pattern of light emission spontaneously produced in brain was different from that observed after the addition of tBHP to the homogenates, and that these differences depended on the tBHP concentration. The main difference was that tBHP caused a rapid light emission that reached its maximum more quickly than in the case of spontaneous emission. Addition of ascorbate resulted in an increase in chemiluminescence in presence of tBHP. In contrast, EDTA and desferrioxamine inhibited light emission in homogenates both with and without tBHP. The results of MDA determination were similar to those described, including the effect of inhibitors. A common feature in MDA and luminometric determinations was the dispersion of data. In conclusion, these results suggest that tBHP, under specific conditions, modify the kinetic pattern of brain spontaneous autooxidation.

  1. Chemiluminescence detector based on a single planar transparent digital microfluidic device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xiangyu; Zhang, Kaidi; Pan, Jian; Chen, Guoping; Liu, Ai-Qun; Fan, Shih-Kang; Zhou, Jia

    2013-07-21

    We report on a compact and portable prototype of chemiluminescence detector based on a single planar single polar transparent electrowetting-on-dielectrics (EWOD) device. The coupling ground model was proposed to build the EWOD device, which could be driven under a single polar voltage. Such a design not only simplified the chip construction and control circuit, but also had the potential for the ball-like droplet to focus the fluorescence and enhance the detection sensitivity. Simulations and experiments both confirmed that the greater the contact angle, the stronger the detected optical signal, and thus the higher the sensitivity. The sensitivity of the prototype detector to H2O2 was 5.45 mV (mmol L(-1))(-1) and the detection limit was 0.01 mmol L(-1) when the contact angle of the EWOD surface was 120°. To further increase the sensitivity and decrease the detection limit, the contact angle of the EWOD device could be increased and the dark current of the photomultiplier decreased. The prototype shows potential applications as highly sensitive, cost effective and portable immuno-detectors, especially as a blood glucose monitor.

  2. Flow injection-chemiluminescence determination of ascorbic acid based on luminol–ferricyanide–gold nanoparticles system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, Yong Ping, E-mail: dongyp@ahut.edu.cn [School of chemistry and chemical engineering, Anhui University of Technology, Maanshan, China, 243002 (China); Gao, Ting Ting; Chu, Xiang Feng; Chen, Jun [School of chemistry and chemical engineering, Anhui University of Technology, Maanshan, China, 243002 (China); Wang, Cheng Ming, E-mail: chmwang@ustc.edu.cn [Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Science at the Microscale, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, China, 230026 (China)

    2014-10-15

    A novel flow-injection chemiluminescence (CL) method for the determination of ascorbic acid (AA) is proposed, based upon its enhancing effect on the CL reaction of luminol with ferricyanide catalyzed by gold nanoparticles in alkaline solution. Different sizes gold nanoparticles exhibited different catalyzing effect towards luminol CL and 38 nm gold nanoparticles exhibited the best enhancing effect. Under the optimal experimental conditions, a linear relationship was obtained between the CL intensity and the concentration of ascorbic acid in the range of 1.0×10{sup −10}–1.0×10{sup −6} mol L{sup −1}. The detection limit was 2.0×10{sup –11} mol {sup −1} and the relative standard deviation for 1.0×10{sup −6} mol L{sup −1} ascorbic acid was 0.71% (n=10). This method has been successfully applied in the determination of ascorbic acid in several real samples. - Highlights: • Gold nanoparticles could enhance luminol–K{sub 3}Fe(CN){sub 6} CL signal. • 38 nm gold nanoparticles exhibited the best catalyzing effect. • Ascorbic acid could further enhance luminol–K{sub 3}Fe(CN){sub 6}–gold nanoparticles CL. • Ascorbic acid could be detected sensitively based on its enhancing effect.

  3. Plasma treatment of paper for protein immobilization on paper-based chemiluminescence immunodevice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Mei; Li, Huifang; Liu, Wei; Guo, Yumei; Chu, Weiru

    2016-05-15

    A novel protein immobilization method based on plasma treatment of paper on the low-cost paper-based immunodevice was established in this work. By using a benchtop plasma cleaner, the paper microzone was treated by oxygen plasma treatment for 4 min and then the antibody can be directly immobilized on the paper surface. Aldehyde group was produced after the plasma treatment, which can be verified from the fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) spectra and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) spectra. By linked to aldehyde group, the antibody can be immobilized on the paper surface without any other pretreatment. A paper-based immunodevice was introduced here through this antibody immobilization method. With sandwich chemiluminescence (CL) immunoassay method, the paper-based immunodevice was successfully performed for carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) detection in human serum with a linear range of 0.1-80.0 ng/mL. The detection limit was 0.03 ng/mL, which was 30 times lower than the clinical CEA level. Comparing to the other protein immobilization methods on paper-based device, this strategy was faster and simpler and had potential applications in point-of-care testing, public health and environmental monitoring.

  4. New bienzymatic strategy for glucose determination by immobilized-gold nanoparticle-enhanced chemiluminescence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Bienzymatic biosensor for the determination of glucose by flow injection chemiluminescence(CL) de-tection was proposed.Hybrids of gold nanoparticles(GNPs) and chitosan were chosen as the immobi-lization matrix of glucose oxidase(GOD) and horseradish peroxidase(HRP) to fabricate the biosensors with silane-pretreated glass microbeads.After the enzyme catalyzing oxidation of glucose in GOD biosensor,the produced H2O2 flowed into HRP biosensor to react with luminol.The doped GNPs in chitosan were found to enhance the classical CL reaction of luminol-H2O2-HRP.The CL enhancement was investigated in detail by CL and UV-visible spectrum.Under the optimized experimental conditions,glucose could be determined in a linear range from 0.01 to 6.0 mmol/L with a detection limit of 5.0 μmol/L at 3σ.The accuracy of the proposed method was examined by detecting the glucose level in four clinical serum samples from hospital.The proposed method provides a new alternative to deter-mine glucose.

  5. New bienzymatic strategy for glucose determination by immobilized-gold nanoparticle-enhanced chemiluminescence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN JieHua; ZHANG Hui; ZHANG ShuSheng

    2009-01-01

    Bienzymatic biosensor for the determination of glucose by flow injection chemiluminescence (CL) de-tection was proposed. Hybrids of gold nanoparticles (GNPs) and chitosan were chosen as the immobi-lization matrix of glucose oxidase (GOD) and horseradish peroxidase (HRP) to fabricate the biosensors with silane-pretreated glass mierobeads. After the enzyme catalyzing oxidation of glucose in GOD biosensor, the produced H2O2 flowed into HRP biosensor to react with luminol. The doped GNPs in chitosan were found to enhance the classical CL reaction of luminol-H2O2-HRP. The CL enhancement was investigated in detail by CL and UV-visible spectrum. Under the optimized experimental conditions, glucose could be determined in a linear range from 0.01 to 6.0 mmol/L with a detection limit of 5.0 μmol/L at 3σ. The accuracy of the proposed method was examined by detecting the glucose level in four clinical serum samples from hospital. The proposed method provides a new alternative to deter-mine glucose.

  6. Chemiluminescence behavior of sodium hydrogen carbonate in the potassium permanganate-hydrogen peroxide reaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Chemiluminescence (CL) phenomenon of hydrogen peroxide with potassium permanganate in the presence of sodium hydrogen carbonate was reported.Effects of the surfactant on the CL system were investigated.Nonionic surfactants could effectively increase the CL signal.Radical scavengers and organic reagents such as nitro blue tetrazolium chloride (NBT),cytochrome c,sodium azide,ascorbic acid,thiourea,tert-butanol and dimethyl sulphoxide were used to study the emitting species.CL emission spectrum was recorded and the results showed that the maximal emission wavelengths of NaHCO3-H2O2-KMnO4 system were 440 and 634 nm.The mechanism was discussed based on electron spin resonance (ESR) spectra,fluorescence spectra and UV-vis absorption spectra.The addition of rhodamine B or uranine into this CL system enhanced the CL signal.It was due to part of the energy transfer from singlet oxygen and excited triplet dimers of two CO2 molecules to rhodamine B or uranine.The CL could be induced by excited rhodamine B or uranine.

  7. A chemiluminescence-based continuous flow aqueous ozone analyzer using photoactivated chromotropic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takayanagi, Toshio; Dasgupta, Purnendu K

    2005-05-15

    Ozone has become the oxidant of choice for water disinfection, especially in large water treatment facilities. This paper describes a fast and sensitive method for the determination of ozone content by reaction with photoactivated chromotropic acid (CA, 4,5-dihydroxynaphthalene-2,7-disulfonic acid), which results in intense chemiluminescence (CL). Freshly ozonated water from a recirculating ozonizer/reservoir is injected into a carrier stream of deionized water in the flow-injection mode. This flow mixes with a stream of photoactivated CA solution in a spiral cell placed directly on top of an inexpensive miniature (8mm diameter active area) photomultiplier tube (PMT). Alkaline CA is photoactivated by passing it through a FEP-Teflon((R)) coil (residence time approximately 50s) wrapped around a 1W UV lamp emitting at 254nm; without photoactivation, the signal is approximately 70-fold lower. The S/N=3 limit of detection for aqueous ozone is 3mugl(-1) and good response slope is obtained up to an ozone concentration of 1.4mgl(-1), the highest that could be made in this study. The response obeyed a quadratic equation with r(2)=0.9984. No interference from permanganate ion is observed. The proposed system was applied to the monitoring of ozonation status of a playa lake water that exhibited significant ozone demand.

  8. Determination of iodide using flow injection with acidic potassium permanganate chemiluminescence detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaqoob, Mohammad; Atiq-ur-Rehman; Waseem, Amir; Nabi, Abdul

    2006-01-01

    A simple and rapid flow-injection method is described for the determination of iodide, based on potassium permanganate chemiluminescence detection via oxidation of formaldehyde in aqueous hydrochloric acid. The calibration graph was linear over the range 1.0-12 x 10(-6) mol/L (r2 = 0.9955) with relative standard deviations (n = 4) in the range 1.0-3.5%. The detection limit (3sigma) was 1.0 x 10(-7) mol/L, with sample throughput of 120/h. The effect of interfering cations [Ca(II), Mg(II), Ni(II), Fe(II), Fe(III) and Pb(II)] and anions (Cl-, SO4(2-), PO4(3-), NO3-, NO2-, F- and SO3(2-)) were studied. The method was applied to iodized salt samples and the results obtained in the range 0.03 +/- 0.005 - 0.10 +/- 0.006 mg I/g were in reasonable agreement with the amount labelled. The method was statistically compared with the results obtained by titration; no significant disagreement at 95% confidence was observed.

  9. Determination of Prometryn in Vetiver Grass and Water Using Gas Chromatography-Nitrogen Chemiluminescence Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shixian; Li, Yongmei; Lv, Ping; Punamiya, Pravin; Sarkar, Dibyendu; Dan, Youming; Ma, Junrong; Zheng, Yi

    2016-02-01

    Nitrogen chemiluminescence detector (NCD) is a nitrogen-specific detector that responds to ammonia, hydrazine, hydrogen cyanide and nitrogen oxide. A method to analyze the herbicide prometryn in plant and water samples was developed using gas chromatograph (GC) coupled with NCD. Extracts from plant (vetiver grass) and water matrices were analyzed for prometryn using an Agilent 7890A GC coupled with an Agilent 255 NCD in a split injection mode with a ratio of 2 : 1. Separation was carried out at 200°C and combustion at 1,018°C with H2 and O2 following optimized method development conditions. The percent recovery of prometryn in the two different matrices tested ranged from 81 to 107%, with relative standard deviations varying from 0.10 to 3.30% for spiked samples. Detection limit of the proposed method was 0.02 µg mL(-1) and the limit of quantification was 0.06 µg mL(-1). The proposed GC-NCD method was successfully applied to determine prometryn extracted from plant and water samples without potential interference of S-triazine, a pesticide from the same group.

  10. Direct determination of acrylamide in food by gas chromatography with nitrogen chemiluminescence detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weijun, Yao

    2015-07-01

    A method of gas chromatography with nitrogen chemiluminescence detection and using standard addition is described for the determination of acrylamide in heat-processed foods. Using a modified QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe) sample preparation method removes the acrylamide precursors completely, and the risk of overestimating acrylamide concentration due to additional analyte formation in the hot gas chromatograph inlet is also avoided. Sample preparation is rapid and inexpensive. A Deans switch device is utilized to heart-cut acrylamide and to prevent interferences from the solvent and matrix from reaching the detector. The pre-column is backflushed at high temperature to maintain a clean baseline and shorten the cycle time compared to baking out the column. Quantitation using standard addition is employed for compensation of potential variability in the acrylamide extraction efficiency in acetonitrile. The limit of detection and the limit of the quantification obtained for this method are 27 and 81 μg/kg, respectively, in food samples (equivalent to 3.5 and 10.6 μg/L in acetonitrile, respectively), and the linear range is 76-9697 μg/kg in food samples (equivalent to 10-1280 μg/L in acetonitrile) with an R(2) value of 0.9999.

  11. Comparing ultraweak bio-chemiluminescence emission in wounded green and etiolated soybean cotyledons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, WenLi; Zhou, Quan; Li, Ling; Xing, Da; Van Wijk, Roeland; Tang, YongHong

    2006-02-01

    Ultraweak bio-chemiluminescence (UBC) from germinating soybean (Glycine max L. Merr) cotyledon under mechanical wounding was observed by a high sensitivity imaging system based on an intensified charge couple device (ICCD) detector or a high sensitive single photon counter (SPC) device. The UBC imaging showed that the intensity of UBC at the injury location on a wounded green cotyledon was greater than on a wounded etiolated cotyledon. Based on results with a SPC UBC intensity of wounded green cotyledon was high at first and then gradually decreased. The emission spectrum of wounded green cotyledon had a greater proportion of red light. The increase in UBC of wounded etiolated soybean cotyledon was less than that of green ones. The emission spectrum of wounded etiolated cotyledon had a greater amount of orange light. The data suggest that most of the UBC in green cotyledon was due to damaged chloroplasts and mitochondria. Our data suggest that oxidation of damage's tissue lead to the production of ROS. Electronic excitation energy was transfered from the excited molecules by ROS to Chl-a in the thylakoid membranes, so the intensity of UBC in the wounded soybean green cotyledon was obviously higher than in the wounded etiolated soybean cotyledon.

  12. Chemiluminescence Imaging of Superoxide Anion Detects Beta-Cell Function and Mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronsart, Laura L; Stokes, Christian; Contag, Christopher H

    2016-01-01

    Superoxide anion is produced during normal cellular respiration and plays key roles in cellular physiology with its dysregulation being associated with a variety of diseases. Superoxide anion is a short-lived molecule and, therefore, its homeostatic regulation and role in biology and disease requires dynamic quantification with fine temporal resolution. Here we validated coelenterazine as a reporter of intracellular superoxide anion concentration and used it as a dynamic measure both in vitro and in vivo. Chemiluminescence was dependent upon superoxide anion levels, including those produced during cellular respiration, and concentrations varied both kinetically and temporally in response to physiologically relevant fluctuations in glucose levels. In vivo imaging with coelenterazine revealed that beta cells of the pancreas have increased levels of superoxide anion, which acted as a measure of beta-cell function and mass and could predict the susceptibility of mice to diabetes mellitus. Glucose response and regulation are key elements of cellular physiology and organismal biology, and superoxide anion appears to play a fundamental and dynamic role in both of these processes.

  13. Effect of the luminol signal enhancer on the chemiluminescence intensity and kinetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang Yanli [College of Public Health, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450001 (China); Department of Chemistry, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450001 (China); Yu Fei; Yu Songcheng [College of Public Health, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450001 (China); Wu Yongjun, E-mail: wuyongjun@zzu.edu.cn [College of Public Health, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450001 (China); Department of Chemistry, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450001 (China); Zhang Hongquan [College of Public Health, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450001 (China); Qu Lingbo [Department of Chemistry, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450001 (China)

    2012-04-15

    The novel p-phenol derivatives, 4-(1-imidazolyl)-phenol, 4-hydroxybiphenyl, 4-hydroxy-4 Prime -iodobiphenyl were employed as highly potent signal enhancers of luminol-hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2})-horseradish peroxidase (HRP) chemiluminescence (CL) system. The CL reaction conditions were optimized, and the enhancement characteristics of these enhancers were compared with each other. The employment of these molecules greatly affected important assay parameters. Practically, the use of a novel enhancer, even a slightly change of the structure (or concentration) of 4-substituted phenol derivative, could affect assay properties quite dramatically. Furthermore, the use of different enhancers in the luminol-H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-HRP system can affect not only the intensity of the CL signal, which is well known, but also its kinetics. The experiment data indicated that the stronger intensity was combined with a more rapid decrease of the CL signal. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 4-IMP, 4-BIP and HIOP take on different signal enhancement and light kinetics. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The employment of 4-BIP resulted in a significant improvement of the detection limit. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The magnitude of the signal enhancement was about 2.5-fold in the same system.

  14. Selectivity and potential interference from phenolic compounds in chemiluminescence methods for the determination of synephrine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Paul S; Brown, Allyson J; Bellomarino, Sara A; Taylor, Amelia M; Slezak, Teo; Barnett, Neil W

    2009-01-01

    Three recently reported chemiluminescence methods (based on reactions with alkaline luminol and hexacyanoferrate(III); acidic cerium(IV) and rhodamine B; and acidic permanganate with polyphosphates) for the determination of synephrine were re-evaluated in terms of their selectivity towards this analyte in comparison to other phenolic compounds. A fourth reagent system, acidic soluble manganese(IV) and formaldehyde, was also examined. Each set of reagents was sensitive towards synephrine (limits of detection were 3 x 10(-9), 5 x 10(-8), 1 x 10(-8) and 1 x 10(-8) mol/L, respectively) but also responded with numerous other phenolic compounds, including some that are present in citrus fruit extracts, dietary supplements and/or biological fluids. It is therefore recommended that the determination of synephrine in these matrices should incorporate physical separation of sample components (e.g. chromatography or electrophoresis). In more general terms, this study illustrates that accurate percentage recoveries for an analyte in spiked samples (without validation against another analytical method) are insufficient to confirm the analytical utility of new flow-injection analysis (FIA) procedures.

  15. High sensitivity chemiluminescence enzyme immunoassay for detecting staphylococcal enterotoxin A in multi-matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chunmei; Liu, Zhijia; Li, Yongming; Li, Qi; Song, Chaojun; Xu, Zhuwei; Zhang, Yun; Zhang, Yusi; Ma, Ying; Sun, Yuanjie; Chen, Lihua; Fang, Liang; Yang, Angang; Yang, Kun; Jin, Boquan

    2013-09-24

    In this study, detection of staphylococcal enterotoxin A (SEA) in multi-matrices using a highly sensitive and specific microplate chemiluminescence enzyme immunoassay (CLEIA) has been established. A pair of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) was selected from 37 anti-SEA mAbs by pairwise analysis, and the experimental conditions of the CLEIA were optimized. This CLEIA exhibited high performance with a wide dynamic range from 6.4 pg mL(-1) to 1600 pg mL(-1), and the measured low limit of detection (LOD) was 3.2 pg mL(-1). No cross-reactivity was observed when this method was applied to test SEB, SEC1, and SED. It has also been successfully applied for analyzing SEA in a variety of environmental, biological, and clinical matrices, such as sewage, tap water, river water, roast beef, peanut butter, cured ham, 10% nonfat dry milk, milk, orange juice, human urine, and serum. Thus, the highly sensitive and SEA-specific CLEIA should make it attractive for quantifying SEA in public health and diagnosis in near future.

  16. Highly sensitive chemiluminescence technology for protein detection using aptamer-based rolling circle amplification platform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-Juan Cao; Qian-Wen Peng; Xue Qiu; Cai-Yun Liu; Jian-Zhong Lu

    2011-01-01

    A robust, selective and highly sensitive chemiluminescent (CL) platform for protein assay was presented in this paper. This novel CL approach utilized rolling circle amplification (RCA) as a signal enhancement technique and the 96-well plate as the immobilization and separation carrier. Typically, the antibody immobilized on the surface of 96-well plate was sandwiched with the protein target and the aptamer-primer sequence. This aptamer-primer sequence was then employed as the primer of RCA. Based on this design, a number of the biotinylated probes and streptavidin-horseradish peroxidase (SA-HRP) were captured on the plate, and the CL signal was amplified. In summary, our results demonstrated a robust biosensor with a detection limit of 10 fM that is easy to be established and utilized, and devoid of light source. Therefore, this new technique .will broaden the perspective for future development of DNA-based biosensors for the detection of other protein biomarkers related to clinical diseases, by taking advantages of high sensitivity and selectivity.

  17. Aptamer-molecularly imprinted sensor base on electrogenerated chemiluminescence energy transfer for detection of lincomycin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuhuai; Liu, Chunhua; Yin, Guihao; Zhang, Qun; Luo, Jinhui; Wu, Nanchun

    2017-05-15

    In this study, a biosensor with a dual recognition system comprising a molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) and aptamers selective for lincomycin was fabricated. The MIP was synthesized by electropolymerization of carbon dots (C-dots)-tagged DNA aptamers combined with lincomycin and o-aminophenol on the gold-nanoparticle-functionalized graphene oxide (Au-GO)-modified electrode. Electrogenerated chemiluminescence (ECL) resonance energy transfer was observed between Au-GO and C-dots. After the C-dots accepted the energy, they acted as a signal indicator and exhibited enhanced signal intensity in the presence of target lincomycin. When lincomycin was competitively bound to DNA aptamers and MIP, it blocked the transfer of energy, and a decreased ECL signal was observed. Hence, a dual recognition method for the detection of lincomycin is realized. Using this strategy, the sensor exhibited a linear ECL response to lincomycin at concentrations from 5.0 × 10 (-12) mol/L to 1.0 × 10 (-9) mol/L. The detection limit of this assay was found to be 1.6 × 10 (-13) mol/L. This method was utilized to determine lincomycin residuals in meat samples with satisfactory results.

  18. Determination of Melatonin in Rat Pineal Gland and Drug with Flow-Injection Chemiluminescence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI,Shou-Lian; ZHAO,LI-Xia; CHENG,Xiang-Lei; LIN,Jin-Ming

    2007-01-01

    A flow-injection chemiluminescence(CL)method for the determination of melatonin based on the CL reaction of melatonin with hydrogen peroxide and sodium hypochlorite(NaOCl)in a basic alkaline solution was developed.The possible CL mechanism has been discussed,and a proposal for the reaction pathway was given that singlet oxygen was clarified to be produced in this reaction system and was responsible for the CL emission.Under the optimized conditions.the linear concentration range of application was 1.0 X 10-7-2.5×10-4 mol·L-1 with a detection Iimit of 5.0X 10-8 mol·L-1(S/N=3).The relative standard deviation for eight repeated measurements of 1.0×10-6 mol·L-1 melatonin was 2.8%.The interferences of several important biological substances.some indole compound,cations and anions were studied.No interference was found for the anions,glucose,starch,most of cations and low concentration(less than 3.0×10-6 mol·L-1)of some biological substances and indole compound.The method was applied to the determination of melatonin in rat pineal gland and drug with satisfactory results.The sample throughput was 90 injections per hour.

  19. Oxidation of ethyl ether on borate glass: chemiluminescence, mechanism, and development of a sensitive gas sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jing; Xu, Kailai; Jia, Yunzhen; Lv, Yi; Li, Yubao; Hou, Xiandeng

    2008-11-01

    A gas sensor was developed by using the chemiluminescence (CL) emission from the oxidation of ethyl ether by oxygen in the air on the surface of borate glass. Theoretical calculation, together with experimental investigation, revealed the main CL reactions: ethyl ether is first oxidized to acetaldehyde and then to acetic acid, during which main luminous intermediates such as CH 3CO (*) are generated and emit light with a peak at 493 nm. At a reaction temperature of 245 degrees C, the overall maximal emission was found at around 460 nm, and the linear range of the CL intensity versus the concentration of ethyl ether was 0.12-51.7 microg mL (-1) ( R = 0.999, n = 7) with a limit of detection (3sigma) of 0.04 microg mL (-1). Interference from foreign substances including alcohol (methanol, ethanol and isopropanol), acetone, ethyl acetate, n-hexane, cyclohexane, dichloromethane, or ether ( n-butyl ether, tetrahydrofuran, propylene oxide, isopropyl ether and methyl tert-butyl ether) was not significant except a minimal signal from n-butyl ether (ethyl ether.

  20. Advanced Hydrogen Turbine Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marra, John [Siemens Energy, Inc., Orlando, FL (United States)

    2015-09-30

    Under the sponsorship of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratories, Siemens has completed the Advanced Hydrogen Turbine Development Program to develop an advanced gas turbine for incorporation into future coal-based Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) plants. All the scheduled DOE Milestones were completed and significant technical progress was made in the development of new technologies and concepts. Advanced computer simulations and modeling, as well as subscale, full scale laboratory, rig and engine testing were utilized to evaluate and select concepts for further development. Program Requirements of: A 3 to 5 percentage point improvement in overall plant combined cycle efficiency when compared to the reference baseline plant; 20 to 30 percent reduction in overall plant capital cost when compared to the reference baseline plant; and NOx emissions of 2 PPM out of the stack. were all met. The program was completed on schedule and within the allotted budget

  1. Mathematical concepts

    CERN Document Server

    Jost, Jürgen

    2015-01-01

    The main intention of this book is to describe and develop the conceptual, structural and abstract thinking of mathematics. Specific mathematical structures are used to illustrate the conceptual approach; providing a deeper insight into mutual relationships and abstract common features. These ideas are carefully motivated, explained and illustrated by examples so that many of the more technical proofs can be omitted. The book can therefore be used: ·         simply as an overview of the panorama of mathematical structures and the relations between them, to be supplemented by more detailed texts whenever you want to acquire a working knowledge of some structure ·         by itself as a first introduction to abstract mathematics ·         together with existing textbooks, to put their results into a more general perspective ·         to gain a new and hopefully deeper perspective after having studied such textbooks Mathematical Concepts has a broader scope and is less detaile...

  2. Advanced composite structural concepts and materials technologies for primary aircraft structures: Advanced material concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Kreisler S. Y.; Landis, Abraham L.; Chow, Andrea W.; Hamlin, Richard D.

    1993-01-01

    To achieve acceptable performance and long-term durability at elevated temperatures (350 to 600 F) for high-speed transport systems, further improvements of the high-performance matrix materials will be necessary to achieve very long-term (60,000-120,000 service hours) retention of mechanical properties and damage tolerance. This report emphasizes isoimide modification as a complementary technique to semi-interpenetrating polymer networks (SIPN's) to achieve greater processibility, better curing dynamics, and possibly enhanced thermo-mechanical properties in composites. A key result is the demonstration of enhanced processibility of isoimide-modified linear and thermo-setting polyimide systems.

  3. Enhancement of protein kinase C activity and chemiluminescence intensity in mitochondria isolated from the kidney cortex of rats treated with cephaloridine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohda, Yuka; Gemba, Munekazu

    2002-08-01

    The development of nephrotoxicity induced by cephaloridine (CER) has been reported to be due to reactive oxygen species (ROS). Protein kinase C (PKC) has been suggested to modulate the generation of ROS. We investigated the possible participation of ROS generation assessed by chemiluminescence (CL) and PKC activity in rat kidney cortical mitochondria in the development of CER-induced nephrotoxicity. We first evaluated the magnitude of the nephrotoxic damage caused by CER in rats. The plasma parameters and ultrastructural morphology changes were increased markedly 24hr after the treatment of rats with CER. We demonstrated that the treatment of rats with CER clearly evoked not only enhancement of Cypridina luciferin analog (CLA)-dependent CL intensity, but also the activation of PKC in mitochondria isolated from the kidney cortex of rats 1.5 and 3.5 hr after injection of the drug. These changes were detected in advance of those observed in plasma and by electron microscopy. The increase in CLA-dependent CL intensity detected in the kidney cortical mitochondria 1.5 and 3.5 hr after injection of CER was inhibited completely by the addition of superoxide dismutase, suggesting the generation of superoxide anion in these mitochondria during the early stages of CER-induced nephrotoxicity. These results suggest that the activation of PKC and the enhancement of superoxide anion generation in kidney cortical mitochondria precede the increases in plasma parameters and the electron micrographic changes indicative of renal dysfunction in rats treated with CER. Additionally, they suggest a possible relationship between PKC activation in mitochondria and free radical-induced CER nephrotoxicity in rats.

  4. Economics Foundations for an Entrepreneurial Marketing Concept

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duus, Henrik Johannsen

    1997-01-01

    This article examines developments in economics and strategic management theory and discusses their implications for marketing. Recent advances in economic theory have suggested new inputs to marketing management theory and practice. With the advance of the “new economic theories” of the firm...... and its strategy, parts of the essence of the marketing concept are being challenged. This article proposes that a new entrepreneurial marketing concept based on an ex-ante supply-push conception of marketing, and which focuses on future market demands and the future capabilities of the firm...

  5. Electrogenerated chemiluminescence biosensor with alcohol dehydrogenase and tris(2,2'-bipyridyl)ruthenium (II) immobilized in sol-gel hybrid material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhiai; Guo, Zhihui; Dong, Shaojun

    2005-09-15

    An ethanol biosensor based on electrogenerated chemiluminescence detection was developed. Electrogenerated chemiluminescence reagent tris(2,2'-bipyridyl)ruthenium (II) and alcohol dehydrogenase were immobilized in the same sol-gel hybrid film. The copolymer poly(vinyl alcohol) with 4-vinylpyridine and cation exchanger Nafion were incorporated into sol-gel film to provide the microenvironment for retaining the activity of enzyme and immobilize tris(2,2'-bipyridyl)ruthenium (II). The design was simpler than the previous two-layer format. The experimental conditions, such as scan rate, pH and concentration of the cofactor were investigated. The intensity of electrogenerated chemiluminescence increased linearly with ethanol concentration from 2.5x10(-5) to 5.0x10(-2) M and detection limit was 1.0x10(-5) M. The prepared biosensor exhibited high sensitivity, wide linear range and good stability.

  6. Free Radical Production in Immune Cell Systems Induced by Ti, Ti6Al4V and SS Assessed by Chemiluminescence Probe Pholasin Assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra C. P. Cachinho

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The oxidative burst of human blood cells in the presence of different metal materials was investigated using chemiluminescence assay. Commercial pure titanium (Ti, titanium alloy (Ti6Al4V, and stainless steel 316L (SS in particulate form with <20 μm in size were used. The effect of particulate materials opsonisation on the upregulation of the respiratory burst production by blood cells was also assessed. The largest chemiluminescence response was achieved after simultaneous injection of the stimulants fMLP+PMA. Moreover, Ti and SS induced a greater inflammatory reaction compared to Ti6Al4V, since the respiratory burst mounted was higher for both materials after opsonisation treatment. These results suggest that in vitro chemiluminescence response and respiratory burst measurements proved to be composition and treatment dependent.

  7. Landfilling: Concepts and Challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Scharff, H.; Hjelmar, O.

    2011-01-01

    Landfilling of waste historically has been the main management route for waste, and in many parts of the world it still is. Landfills have developed from open polluting dumps to modern highly engineered facilities with sophisticated control measures and monitoring routines. However, in spite of all...... new approaches and technological advancement the landfill still is a long lasting accumulation of waste in the environment. Much of current landfill design and technology has been introduced as a reaction to problems encountered at actual landfills. The solution was in many cases sought in isolation...... to understand the concepts, the processes and the long-term aspects of landfilling. This chapter describes the main conceptual aspects of landfilling. The historical development is presented and key issues of time frames, mass balances and technical approaches are discussed. The environmental issues...

  8. Microplate chemiluminescence enzyme immunoassay for the quantitative evaluation of carbohydrate antigen 72-4 in human serum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN Hui; WANG Xu; XIN TianBing; GAO Peng; LIN JinMing; LIANG ShuXuan

    2008-01-01

    A highly sensitive and specific microplate chemiluminescence enzyme immunoassay (CLEIA) was de-veloped for the quantitative evaluation of carbohydrate antigen 72-4 (CA72-4) in human serum, using luminol-H2O2 catalyzed by horseradish peroxidase (HRP) as the chemiluminescence system. The sim-ple and quick determination was accomplished through a sandwich reaction mode. Several physico-chemical parameters of the immunoreaction, including incubation conditions, antibody coating condi-tions, dilution ratio of anti-CA72-4-HRP conjugate, and chemiluminescence reaction time, were studied and optimized. The proposed method exhibited a linear range of 0-200 U/mL with correlation coeffi-cient and detection limit of 0.9995 and 0.18 U/mL, respectively. The inter-assay and intra-assay coeffi-cients of variation (CV) were both less than 10%. The average recovery of two clinical sera with low and high concentration CA72-4 was 99.3% and 98.7%, respectively. Normal tumor markers, including AFP, CEA, CA2.4-2, CA19-9 and CA15-3, did not cross-react with each other. The method's stability was evaluated by assessing its analytical performance after storing the immunoreagents at 4℃ and 37℃ for 7 days. Little difference was found, indicating satisfactory stability of the method. The present method has been successfully applied to the detection of CA72-4 human serum, and showed a good correlation with the commercially available ELISA kit (r2=0.9383). This method showed great potential in the fabrication of diagnostic kit for CA72-4, and could be well used in diagnosis of cancer in clinical practice.

  9. Evaluation of a new serological test for syphilis based on chemiluminescence assay in a tertiary care hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aseem K Tiwari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Syphilis is a transfusion transmissible infections and it is mandatory to do serological test for syphilis (STS on all donor blood samples. STS is usually based on detection of antibodies against the cardiolipin-lecithin antigen or against the Treponema-specific antigen. STS with good sensitivity and specificity helps enhance blood safety and consolidation of STS along with other transfusion transmittable infections such as human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis-C virus, and hepatitis-B virus helps in reducing the errors and enhances efficiency. Aims: This study was designed to evaluate the performance of newly introduced VITROS ® syphilis Treponema pallidum agglutination (TPA assay based on enhanced chemiluminescence principle for its analytical performance for use as a STS on donor blood samples at a tertiary care health center in National Capital Region, India. Materials and Methods: A total of 108 random blood units collected from the donors (both voluntary and replacement donors and 28 known syphilis sero-reactive samples stored at −20°C, were used to evaluate the performance of VITROS ® syphilis TPA assay based on enhanced chemiluminescence assay on VITROS ® ECiQ immunodiagnostics system along with its analytical performance in terms of its sensitivity, precision, cross-reactivity and interference studies. Results: VITROS ® syphilis TPA showed 100% sensitivity and specificity with precision (20 days study of <10% co-efficient of variation. There was no cross-reactivity with other viral and auto-immune antibodies. No interference was observed from endogenous interfering substances like free hemoglobin or fats. Conclusions: Performance of the VITROS ® syphilis TPA assay meets the requirements for its use as STS in blood bank, thus allowing consolidation with other transfusion transmittable infections screening assay on chemiluminescence platform, which is highly valuable for optimizing workflow and efficiency.

  10. An enhanced chemiluminescence resonance energy transfer aptasensor based on rolling circle amplification and WS2 nanosheet for Staphylococcus aureus detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Liling; Gu, Huajie; Duan, Nuo; Wu, Shijia; Ma, Xiaoyuan; Xia, Yu; Tao, Zui; Wang, Zhouping

    2017-03-22

    A chemiluminescence resonance energy transfer aptasensor was fabricated for the detection of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) with Co(2+) enhanced N-(aminobutyl)-N-(ethylisoluminol) (ABEI) functional flowerlike gold nanoparticles (Co(2+)/ABEI-AuNFs) as donor and WS2 nanosheet as acceptor. In the presence of S. aureus, rolling circle amplification (RCA) can be started. Partially complementary sequence of RCA product functional ABEI-AuNFs (cDNA-ABEI-AuNFs) were then annealed to multiple sites of the RCA product to form duplex complex. This complex is less adsorbed onto the WS2 nanosheet, thus attenuating the quenching of ABEI-AuNFs chemiluminescence by WS2 nanosheet. In the absence of target S. aureus (and hence the absence of RCA and duplex formation), the free cDNA-ABEI-AuNFs is completely adsorbed onto the WS2 nanosheet and chemiluminescence quenching ensues. Under optimal conditions, the logarithmic correlation between the concentration of S. aureus and the CL signal was found to be linear within the range of 50 cfu/mL to 1.5 × 10(5) cfu/mL (R(2) = 0.9913). The limits of detection of the developed method were found to be 15 cfu/mL for S. aureus. The selectivity and the capability of the biosensor in meat samples were also studied. Therefore, this simple and easy operation method can be used to detect S. aureus with high sensitivity and specificity.

  11. Real time imaging of live cell ATP leaking or release events by chemiluminescence microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yun [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2008-12-18

    The purpose of this research was to expand the chemiluminescence microscopy applications in live bacterial/mammalian cell imaging and to improve the detection sensitivity for ATP leaking or release events. We first demonstrated that chemiluminescence (CL) imaging can be used to interrogate single bacterial cells. While using a luminometer allows detecting ATP from cell lysate extracted from at least 10 bacterial cells, all previous cell CL detection never reached this sensitivity of single bacteria level. We approached this goal with a different strategy from before: instead of breaking bacterial cell membrane and trying to capture the transiently diluted ATP with the firefly luciferase CL assay, we introduced the firefly luciferase enzyme into bacteria using the modern genetic techniques and placed the CL reaction substrate D-luciferin outside the cells. By damaging the cell membrane with various antibacterial drugs including antibiotics such as Penicillins and bacteriophages, the D-luciferin molecules diffused inside the cell and initiated the reaction that produces CL light. As firefly luciferases are large protein molecules which are retained within the cells before the total rupture and intracellular ATP concentration is high at the millmolar level, the CL reaction of firefly luciferase, ATP and D-luciferin can be kept for a relatively long time within the cells acting as a reaction container to generate enough photons for detection by the extremely sensitive intensified charge coupled device (ICCD) camera. The result was inspiring as various single bacterium lysis and leakage events were monitored with 10-s temporal resolution movies. We also found a new way of enhancing diffusion D-luciferin into cells by dehydrating the bacteria. Then we started with this novel single bacterial CL imaging technique, and applied it for quantifying gene expression levels from individual bacterial cells. Previous published result in single cell gene expression quantification

  12. Electrogenerated chemiluminescence of Si quantum dots in neutral aqueous solution and its biosensing application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yong-Ping; Wang, Jiao; Peng, Ying; Zhu, Jun-Jie

    2017-03-15

    Electrogenerated chemiluminescence (ECL) of semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) has been considered as a powerful technique in the fabrication of biosensor, however, high-toxicity of heavy metal ion containing in QDs severely limits their further applications, and the search for the alternative benign nanomaterials with high ECL efficiency is urgent. Herein, ECL behavior of eco-friendly silicon quantum dots (SiQDs) was reported in neutral aqueous condition. Stable and intense cathodic ECL emission was obtained in phosphate buffer solution (PBS) with K2S2O8 as coreactant. ECL resonance energy transfer (ECL-RET) system was established with SiQDs ECL as energy donor and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) as energy acceptor, based on which a novel ECL biosensor was fabricated. AuNPs was connected at the terminal of hairpin DNA to form a signal probe. When the probe was modified on SiQDs, ECL-RET occurred due to the short distance between AuNPs and SiQDs, resulting in the apparent decrease of ECL signal. Target DNA can open the loop of hairpin DNA, and move AuNPs away from the electrode surface. As a result, the ECL-RET process was hampered, and the ECL emission resumed. The increased ECL signals varied linearly with the target DNA concentrations in the range of 0.1fM to 1pM with the detection limit of 0.016fM (3σ). The proposed ECL sensor exhibited highly sensitivity and good selectivity in the detection of target DNA.

  13. Comparison of chemiluminescent immunoassay and ELISA for measles IgG and IgM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Ory, Fernando; Minguito, Teodora; Balfagón, Pilar; Sanz, Juan C

    2015-08-01

    In the context of measles elimination, the identification of recent infections is important for clinical laboratories. Serological diagnosis is achieved by detecting specific IgG and IgM. Recently an automated chemiluminescent immunoassay (CLIA) (Liaison, DiaSorin, Italy) has been used to quantify the measles antibody. The aim of this study was to compare this assay with Enzygnost ELISA (Siemens, Germany), with final classification of discrepancies by indirect immunofluorescence (Euroimmun, Germany). For measles IgM, 204 sera were analyzed: 50 IgM-positive, 104 IgM-negative/IgG-positive, and 50 from other viral infections (B19V, rubella, mumps, CMV, and EBV). For the measles IgG assay, 162 samples were tested: 106 were positive and 56 were negative. For measles IgM, the sensitivity and specificity of CLIA against ELISA were 94% (95% CI: 83.2-98.6) and 100% (95% CI: 97.1-100), respectively; the corrected figures after the final classification of discrepancies were 100% (95% CI: 91.0-100) and 99.4% (95% CI: 96.1-100), respectively. In relation to IgG, the sensitivity and specificity of CLIA against ELISA were, respectively, 97.2% (95% CI: 91.7-99.4) and 92.9% (95% CI: 82.5-97.7), and 95.5% (95% CI: 89.5-98.3) and 100% (95% CI: 91.8-100) after the final classification. CLIA showed excellent sensitivity and specificity in detecting measles IgG and IgM antibodies, eliminating the need to aliquot specimens before carrying out the assay.

  14. Application of optimized chemiluminescence assay for determination of the antioxidant capacity of herbal extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogačnik, Lea; Ulrih, Nataša Poklar

    2012-01-01

    A chemiluminescence (CL) assay for the determination of antioxidant capacity (AOC) has been optimized and applied to analyses of herbal extracts in the present study. The optimal concentrations of reagents (luminol, H2O2, horseradish peroxidase) have been determined, as well as the optimal reaction conditions (wavelength, pH, temperature, sample volume). All of the measurements were performed at the emission maximum of the oxidized form of luminol (425 nm). The optimal concentrations of the reagents were determined as follows: 1.6 mmol/L luminol, 7.5 mmol/L H2O2 and 0.14 U/mL horseradish peroxidase activity in the reaction mixture. Analyses were carried out in phosphate buffer, pH 7.4, at room temperature. With the optimized CL assay, the AOCs of various water and methanol herbal extracts were determined (dog rose hips, plantain leaves and coltsfoot and thyme flowers) and the results were compared to those obtained by other classical methods for the evaluation of antioxidants. Strong correlations (r > 0.9) with the Folin-Ciocalteau assay and the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH)(●) assay are confirmed, although there is no correlation between AOC and the concentration of ascorbic acid in the samples analysed. This optimized CL assay is simple, rapid and reliable, and it represents a good alternative to classical methods (Folin-Ciocalteau, DPPH(●)) for the determination of AOC of herbal extracts and other food samples.

  15. Paper-based chromatographic chemiluminescence chip for the detection of dichlorvos in vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Kou, Juan; Xing, Huizhong; Li, Baoxin

    2014-02-15

    Paper chromatography was a big breakthrough in the early of 20th century but it is rarely used due to the long separation time and the diffusion on the sample spots. In this work, for the first time, a paper-based chemiluminescence (CL) analytical device combined with paper chromatography was developed for the determination of dichlorvos (DDV) in vegetables without complicated sample pretreatment. The paper chromatography separation procedure can be accomplished in 12 min on a paper support (0.8 × 7.0 cm(2)) by using 5 µL sample spotted on it. After sample developing, the detection area (0.8 × 1.0 cm(2)) was cut and inserted between two layers of water-impermeable single-sided adhesive tapes. The paper-based chip was made by attaching the middle layer of paper onto the bottom layer. Then it was covered by another tape layer, which was patterned by the cutting method to form a square hole (0.8 × 1.0 cm(2)) in it. 10 μL mixed solution of luminol and H2O2 was dropped on the detection area to produce CL. A linear relationship was obtained between the CL intensity and the concentrations of DDV in the range between 10.0 ng mL(-1) and 1.0 μg mL(-1)and the detection limit was 3.6 ng mL(-1). Water-soluble metal ions and vitamins can be developed at different spatial locations relative to DDV, eliminating interference with DDV during detection. The paper-based chromatographic chip can be successfully used for the determination of DDV without complicated sample preparation in vegetables. This study should, therefore, be suitable for rapid and sensitive detection of trace levels of organophosphate pesticides in environmental and food samples.

  16. Pharmacokinetic of pseudoephedrine in rat serum with luminol-pepsin chemiluminescence system by flow injection analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Kai; Li, Yajuan; Zheng, Xiaohui; Song, Zhenghua

    2015-02-01

    Pepsin (Pep) accelerated the electron transferring rate of excited 3-aminophathlate and enhanced luminol-dissolved oxygen chemiluminescence (CL) intensity, and the flow injection (FI) luminol-Pep CL system was first developed. It was found that the CL intensity of luminol-Pep reaction could be remarkably inhibited by pseudoephedrine (PE); the decrement of CL intensity was linear to the logarithm of PE concentration in the range of 0.1∼100.0 nmol L(-1) with a detection limit of 0.03 nmol mL(-1) (3σ). At a flow rate of 2.0 mL min(-1), the complete process including washing and sampling was performed within 40 s, offering a sample throughput of 90 h(-1). This proposed method was successfully applied to determining PE in rat serum for 18 h after intragastric administration with the elimination ratio of 42.34 % and recoveries from 90.3 to 110.6 %. The pharmacokinetic results showed that PE could be rapidly absorbed into serum with peak concentration (C max) of 1.45 ± 0.18 g L(-1) at the time (T max) of 1.49 ± 0.02 h; the absorption half-life (0.35 ± 0.04 h), elimination half-life (1.86 ± 0.24 h), the area under curve (109.81 ± 6.03 mg L(-1) h(-1)), mean residence time (3.82 ± 0.27 h), and elimination rate constant (2.26 ± 0.23 L g(-1) h(-1)) in rats vivo were derived, respectively. The possible CL mechanism of luminol-Pep-PE reaction was discussed by FI-CL, fluorescence, and molecular docking (MD) methods.

  17. Rapid determination of vitamin B12 concentration with a chemiluminescence lab on a chip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lok, Khoi Seng; Abdul Muttalib, Siti Zubaidah binte; Lee, Peter Peng Foo; Kwok, Yien Chian; Nguyen, Nam-Trung

    2012-07-07

    This paper reports a novel method for the rapid determination of vitamin B(12) concentration in a continuous-flow lab-on-a-chip system. This new method is based on luminol-peroxide chemiluminescence (CL) assays for the detection of cobalt(II) ions in vitamin B(12) molecules. The lab-on-a-chip device consisted of two passive micromixers acting as microreactors and a double spiral microchannel network serving as an optical detection region. This system could operate in two modes. In the first mode, samples are acidified and evaluated directly in the microchip. In the second mode, samples are treated externally by acidification prior to detection in the microchip. In the first mode, the linear range obtained was between 1.00 ng ml(-1) to 10 μg ml(-1), R(2) = 0.996, with a relative standard deviation (RSD) of 1.23 to 2.31% (n = 5) and a limit of detection (lod) of 0.368 pg ml(-1). The minimum sample volume required and the analytical time were 30 μl and 3.6 s, respectively. In the second mode, the linear range obtained was between 0.10 ng ml(-1) to 10 μg ml(-1), R(2) = 0.994, with the RSD of 0.90 to 2.32% (n = 6) and a lod of 0.576 pg ml(-1). The minimum sample and the analytical time required were 50 μl and 6 s, respectively. The lab on a chip working in mode II was successfully used for the determination of vitamin B(12) concentrations in nutritional supplemental tablets and hen egg yolks.

  18. Serum dosage of CPK-MB in dogs with ST deviation by chemiluminescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André L.F. Santos

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Although frequently in humans, hypoxic and ischemic heart diseases are poorly documented in dogs, with only few reports of acute myocardial infarction (AMI in this species. Some electrocardiographic findings might suggest myocardium hypoxia/ischemia, like ST segment elevation or depression, but there are no studies showing whether deviations in ST segment are associated to myocardial injury and serum increase of creatine phosphokinase (CPK-MB. In order to investigate possible myocardial cells injury in poor perfusion conditions, 38 dogs were studied, 20 with normal electrocardiogram and 18 with ST segment elevation or depression, recorded in lead II, at a paper speed of 50 mm/sec and N sensibility (1mV=1cm. Serum measurement of creatine phosphokinase isoenzyme MB (CPK-MB in normal dogs (group 1 determined control values (in ng/mL, which were compared to those obtained from dogs with deviation (group 2, which allowed confirmation or not of myocardial injury. CPK-MB mean values obtained from dogs in groups 1 and 2 were 0.540ng/ml (SD±0.890ng/mL and 0.440ng/mL (SD±1.106, respectively. At a significance level of 5%, the relation of CPK-MB with age, mass and total creatine phosphokinase (CPK-T was not significant in groups 1 and 2. CPK-MB showed no difference, at 5% level, between groups 1 and 2. In conclusion, it is possible to use the human chemiluminescent immunometric assay kit in canine species and that hypoxia/ischemia revealed by ST segment deviation does not mean significant myocardium injury.

  19. Determination of sulpiride in pharmaceutical preparations and biological fluids using a Cr (III) enhanced chemiluminescence method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Muhammad Naeem; Jan, Muhammad Rasul; Shah, Jasmin; Lee, Sang Hak; Kim, Young Ho

    2013-01-01

    A highly sensitive and simple method for identifying sulpiride in pharmaceutical formulations and biological fluids is presented. The method is based on increased chemiluminescence (CL) intensity of a luminol-H2O2 system in response to the addition of Cr (III) under alkaline conditions. The CL intensity of the luminol-H2O2-Cr (III) system was greatly enhanced by the addition of sulpiride and the CL intensity was proportional to the concentration of sulpiride in a sample solution. Various parameters affecting the CL intensity were systematically investigated and optimized for determination of the sulpiride in a sample. Under the optimum conditions, the CL intensity was proportional to the concentration of sulpiride in the range of 0.068-4.0 µg/mL, with a good correlation coefficient of 0.997. The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) were found to be 8.50 × 10(-6) µg/mL and 2.83 × 10(-5) µg/mL, respectively. The method presented here produced good reproducibility with a relative standard deviation (RSD) of 2.70% (n = 7). The effects of common excipients and metal ions were studied for their interference effect. The method was validated statistically through recovery studies and successfully applied for the determination of sulpiride in pure form, pharmaceutical preparations and spiked human plasma samples. The percentage recoveries were found to range from 99.10 to 100.05% for pure form, 98.12 to 100.18% for pharmaceutical preparations and 97.9 to 101.4% for spiked human plasma.

  20. Magnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticle catalyzed chemiluminescence for detection of nitric oxide in living cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huiliang; Li, Mei; Wang, Bing; Wang, Meng; Kurash, Ibrahim; Zhang, Xiangzhi; Feng, Weiyue

    2016-08-01

    Direct and real-time measurement of nitric oxide (NO) in biological media is very difficult due to its transient nature. Fe3O4 nanoparticles (nanoFe3O4) because of their unique catalytic activities have attracted much attention as catalysts in a variety of organic and inorganic reactions. In this work, we have developed a magnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticle-based rapid-capture system for real-time detection of cellular NO. The basic principle is that the nanoFe3O4 can catalyze the decomposition of H2O2 in the system to generate superoxide anion (O2 (·-)) and the O2 (·-) can serve as an effective NO(·) trapping agent yielding peroxynitrite oxide anion, ONOO(-). Then the concentration of NO in cells can be facilely determined via peroxynitrite-induced luminol chemiluminescence. The linear range of the method is from 10(-4) to 10(-8) mol/L, and the detection of limit (3σ, n = 11) is as low as 3.16 × 10(-9) mol/L. By using this method, the NO concentration in 0.1 and 0.5 mg/L LPS-stimulated BV2 cells was measured as 4.9 and 11.3 μM, respectively. Surface measurements by synchrotron X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (SRXPS) and scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM) demonstrate the catalytic mechanism of the nanoFe3O4-based system is that the significantly excess Fe(II) exists on the surface of nanoFe3O4 and mediates the rapid heterogeneous electron transfer, thus presenting a new Fe2O3 phase on the surface.