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Sample records for advanced chemiluminescence concepts

  1. Advanced nuclear propulsion concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howe, S.D. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1994-12-31

    A preliminary analysis has been carried out for two potential advanced nuclear propulsion systems: a contained pulsed nuclear propulsion engine and an antiproton initiated ICF system. The results of these studies indicate that both concepts have a high potential to help enable manned planetary exploration but require substantial development.

  2. Advanced Accelerator Concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This conference proceedings represent the results of theThird Advanced Accelerator Concepts Workshop held in PortJefferson, New York. The workshop was sponsored by the U.S.Department of Energy, the Office of Navel Research and BrookhavenNational Laboratory. The purpose was to assess new techniques forproduction of ultra-high gradient acceleration and to addressengineering issues in achieving this goal. There are eighty-onepapers collected in the proceedings and all have been abstractedfor the database

  3. Advanced microwave processing concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauf, R.J.; McMillan, A.D.; Paulauskas, F.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1997-04-01

    The purpose of this work is to explore the feasibility of several advanced microwave processing concepts to develop new energy-efficient materials and processes. The project includes two tasks: (1) commercialization of the variable-frequency microwave furnace; and (2) microwave curing of polymeric materials. The variable frequency microwave furnace, whose initial conception and design was funded by the AIM Materials Program, allows the authors, for the first time, to conduct microwave processing studies over a wide frequency range. This novel design uses a high-power traveling wave tube (TWT) originally developed for electronic warfare. By using this microwave source, one can not only select individual microwave frequencies for particular experiments, but also achieve uniform power densities over a large area by the superposition of many different frequencies. Microwave curing of various thermoset resins will be studied because it holds the potential of in-situ curing of continuous-fiber composites for strong, lightweight components or in-situ curing of adhesives, including metal-to-metal. Microwave heating can shorten curing times, provided issues of scaleup, uniformity, and thermal management can be adequately addressed.

  4. Advanced microwave processing concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauf, R.J.; McMillan, A.D.; Paulauskas, F.L. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, TN (United States)

    1995-05-01

    The purpose of this work is to explore the feasibility of several advanced microwave processing concepts to develop new energy-efficient materials and processes. The project includes two tasks: (1) commercialization of the variable-frequency microwave furnace; and (2) microwave curing of polymer composites. The variable frequency microwave furnace, whose initial conception and design was funded by the AIC Materials Program, will allow us, for the first time, to conduct microwave processing studies over a wide frequency range. This novel design uses a high-power traveling wave tube (TWT) originally developed for electronic warfare. By using this microwave source, one can not only select individual microwave frequencies for particular experiments, but also achieve uniform power densities over a large area by the superposition of many different frequencies. Microwave curing of thermoset resins will be studied because it hold the potential of in-situ curing of continuous-fiber composites for strong, lightweight components. Microwave heating can shorten curing times, provided issues of scaleup, uniformity, and thermal management can be adequately addressed.

  5. ADVANCED SULFUR CONTROL CONCEPTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apostolos A. Nikolopoulos; Santosh K. Gangwal; William J. McMichael; Jeffrey W. Portzer

    2003-01-01

    Conventional sulfur removal in integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants involves numerous steps: COS (carbonyl sulfide) hydrolysis, amine scrubbing/regeneration, Claus process, and tail-gas treatment. Advanced sulfur removal in IGCC systems involves typically the use of zinc oxide-based sorbents. The sulfides sorbent is regenerated using dilute air to produce a dilute SO{sub 2} (sulfur dioxide) tail gas. Under previous contracts the highly effective first generation Direct Sulfur Recovery Process (DSRP) for catalytic reduction of this SO{sub 2} tail gas to elemental sulfur was developed. This process is currently undergoing field-testing. In this project, advanced concepts were evaluated to reduce the number of unit operations in sulfur removal and recovery. Substantial effort was directed towards developing sorbents that could be directly regenerated to elemental sulfur in an Advanced Hot Gas Process (AHGP). Development of this process has been described in detail in Appendices A-F. RTI began the development of the Single-step Sulfur Recovery Process (SSRP) to eliminate the use of sorbents and multiple reactors in sulfur removal and recovery. This process showed promising preliminary results and thus further process development of AHGP was abandoned in favor of SSRP. The SSRP is a direct Claus process that consists of injecting SO{sub 2} directly into the quenched coal gas from a coal gasifier, and reacting the H{sub 2}S-SO{sub 2} mixture over a selective catalyst to both remove and recover sulfur in a single step. The process is conducted at gasifier pressure and 125 to 160 C. The proposed commercial embodiment of the SSRP involves a liquid phase of molten sulfur with dispersed catalyst in a slurry bubble-column reactor (SBCR).

  6. Advanced fusion concepts program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    While the prospects for the eventual development of a tokamak-based fusion reactor appear promising at the present time, the Department of Energy maintains a vigorous program in alternate magnetic fusion concepts. Several of the concepts presently supported include the toroidal reversed field pinch, Tormac, Elmo Bumpy Torus, and various linear options. Recent technical accomplishments and program evaluations indicate that the possibility now exists for undertaking the next development stage, a proof-of-principle experiment, for a few of the most promising alternate concepts

  7. Advanced Welding Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    Four advanced welding techniques and their use in NASA are briefly reviewed in this poster presentation. The welding techniques reviewed are: Solid State Welding, Friction Stir Welding (FSW), Thermal Stir Welding (TSW) and Ultrasonic Stir Welding.

  8. Advanced tokamak concepts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oomens, A. A. M.

    1998-01-01

    From a discussion of fusion reactor designs based on today's well-established experience gained in the operation of large tokamaks, it is concluded that such reactors are economically not attractive. The physics involved in the various options for concept improvement is described and the main e

  9. Advanced tokamak concepts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oomens, A. A. M.

    1996-01-01

    From a discussion of fusion reactor designs based on today's well-established experience gained in the operation of large tokamaks, it is concluded that such reactors are economically not attractive. The physics involved in the various options for concept improvement is described and the main e

  10. Advanced fusion concepts project summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The activities of all the projects supported by the Advanced Fusion Concepts Branch of the Office of Fusion Energy, DOE, are described. These descriptions are project summaries of each of the individual projects, and contain title, persons responsible, funding, purpose, approach, recent progress, future plans, planned milestones, graduate students and other staff, and recent publications

  11. Advanced fusion concepts: project summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains descriptions of the activities of all the projects supported by the Advanced Fusion Concepts Branch of the Office of Fusion Energy, US Department of Energy. These descriptions are project summaries of each of the individual projects, and contain the following: title, principle investigators, funding levels, purpose, approach, progress, plans, milestones, graduate students, graduates, other professional staff, and recent publications. Information is given for each of the following programs: (1) reverse-field pinch, (2) compact toroid, (3) alternate fuel/multipoles, (4) stellarator/torsatron, (5) linear magnetic fusion, (6) liners, and (7) Tormac

  12. Advances in the use of acidic potassium permanganate as a chemiluminescence reagent: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adcock, Jacqui L.; Barnett, Neil W.; Barrow, Colin J.; Francis, Paul S., E-mail: psf@deakin.edu.au

    2014-01-07

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •Analytical applications of acidic potassium permanganate chemiluminescence. •Discussion of emitting species and light-producing reaction pathways. •Influence of enhancers such as polyphosphates, formaldehyde and sulfite. •Clinical, forensic, food science, agricultural and environmental applications. -- Abstract: We review the analytical applications of acidic potassium permanganate chemiluminescence published since our previous comprehensive review in mid-2007 to early 2013. This includes a critical evaluation of evidence for the emitting species, the influence of additives such as polyphosphates, formaldehyde, sulfite, thiosulfate, lanthanide complexes and nanoparticles, the development of a generalized reaction mechanism, and the use of this chemistry in pharmaceutical, clinical, forensic, food science, agricultural and environmental applications.

  13. Advancing Uncertainty: Untangling and Discerning Related Concepts

    OpenAIRE

    Janice Penrod

    2002-01-01

    Methods of advancing concepts within the qualitative paradigm have been developed and articulated. In this section, I describe methodological perspectives of a project designed to advance the concept of uncertainty using multiple qualitative methods. Through a series of earlier studies, the concept of uncertainty arose repeatedly in varied contexts, working its way into prominence, and warranting further investigation. Processes of advanced concept analysis were used to initiate the formal in...

  14. Advanced Concepts: Aneutronic Fusion Power and Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, John J.

    2012-01-01

    Aneutronic Fusion for In-Space thrust, power. Clean energy & potential nuclear gains. Fusion plant concepts, potential to use advanced fuels. Methods to harness ionic momentum for high Isp thrust plus direct power conversion into electricity will be presented.

  15. Advanced PWR fuel design concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For nearly 15 years, Combustion Engineering has provided pressurized water reactor fuel with the features most suppliers are now introducing in their advanced fuel designs. Zircaloy grids, removable upper end fittings, large fission gas plenum, high burnup, integral burnable poisons and sophisticated analytical methods are all features of C-E standard fuel which have been well proven by reactor performance. C-E's next generation fuel for pressurized water reactors features 24-month operating cycles, optimal lattice burnable poisons, increased resistance to common industry fuel rod failure mechanisms, and hardware and methodology for operating margin improvements. Application of these various improvements offer continued improvement in fuel cycle economics, plant operation and maintenance. (author)

  16. Advanced Accelerator Concepts Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wurtele, Jonathan S.

    2014-05-13

    A major focus of research supported by this Grant has been on the ALPHA antihydrogen trap. We first trapped antihydrogen in 2010 and soon thereafter demonstrated trapping for 1000s. We now have observed resonant quantum interactions with antihydrogen. These papers in Nature and Nature Physics report the major milestones in anti-atom trapping. The success was only achieved through careful work that advanced our understanding of collective dynamics in charged particle systems, the development of new cooling and diagnostics, and in- novation in understanding how to make physics measurements with small numbers of anti-atoms. This research included evaporative cooling, autoresonant excitation of longitudinal motion, and centrifugal separation. Antihydrogen trapping by ALPHA is progressing towards the point when a important theories believed by most to hold for all physical systems, such as CPT (Charge-Parity-Time) invariance and the Weak Equivalence Principle (matter and antimatter behaving the same way under the influence of gravity) can be directly tested in a new regime. One motivation for this test is that most accepted theories of the Big Bang predict that we should observe equal amounts of matter and antimatter. However astrophysicists have found very little antimatter in the universe. Our experiment will, if successful over the next seven years, provide a new test of these ideas. Many earlier detailed and beautiful tests have been made, but the trapping of neutral antimatter allows us to explore the possibility of direct, model-independent tests. Successful cooling of the anti atoms, careful limits on systematics and increased trapping rates, all planned for our follow-up experiment (ALPHA-II) will reach unrivaled precision. CPT invariance implies that the spectra of hydrogen and antihydrogen should be identical. Spectra can be measured in principle with great precision, and any di erences we might observe would revolutionize fundamental physics. This is the

  17. Advanced Fusion Concepts project summaries. FY 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains descriptions of the activities of all the projects supported by the Advanced Fusion Concepts Branch of the Office of Fusion Energy, US Department of Energy. These descriptions are project summaries of each of the individual projects, and contain the following: title, principle investigators, funding levels, purpose, approach, progress, plans, milestones, graduate studients, graduates, other professional staff, and recent publications. The individual project summaries are prepared by the principle investigators in collaboration with the Advanced Fusion Concepts (AFC) Branch. In addition to the project summaries, statements of branch objectives, and budget summaries are also provided

  18. Advanced fusion concepts project summaries: 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains descriptions of the activities of all the projects supported by the Advanced Fusion Concepts Branch of the Office of Fusion Energy, US Department of Energy. These descriptions are project summaries of each of the individual projects, and contain the following: title, principle investigators, funding levels, purpose, approach, progress, plans, milestones, graduate students, graduates, other professional staff, and recent publications

  19. Advanced Fusion Concepts project summaries, FY 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains descriptions of the activities of all the projects supported by the Advanced Fusion Concepts Branch of the Office of Fusion Energy, U.S. Department of Energy. These descriptions are project summaries of each of the individual projects, and contain the following: title, principle investigators, funding levels, purpose, approach, progress, plans, milestones, graduate students, graduates, other professional staff, and recent publications

  20. Research Opportunities in Advanced Aerospace Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Gregory S.; Bangert, Linda S.; Garber, Donald P.; Huebner, Lawrence D.; McKinley, Robert E.; Sutton, Kenneth; Swanson, Roy C., Jr.; Weinstein, Leonard

    2000-01-01

    This report is a review of a team effort that focuses on advanced aerospace concepts of the 21st Century. The paper emphasis advanced technologies, rather than cataloging every unusual aircraft that has ever been attempted. To dispel the myth that "aerodynamics is a mature science" an extensive list of "What we cannot do, or do not know" was enumerated. A zeit geist, a feeling for the spirit of the times, was developed, based on existing research goals. Technological drivers and the constraints that might influence these technological developments in a future society were also examined. The present status of aeronautics, space exploration, and non-aerospace applications, both military and commercial, including enabling technologies are discussed. A discussion of non-technological issues affecting advanced concepts research is presented. The benefit of using the study of advanced vehicles as a tool to uncover new directions for technology development is often necessary. An appendix is provided containing examples of advanced vehicle configurations currently of interest.

  1. 2nd European Advanced Accelerator Concepts Workshop

    CERN Document Server

    Assmann, Ralph; Grebenyuk, Julia

    2016-01-01

    The European Advanced Accelerator Concepts Workshop has the mission to discuss and foster methods of beam acceleration with gradients beyond state of the art in operational facilities. The most cost effective and compact methods for generating high energy particle beams shall be reviewed and assessed. This includes diagnostics methods, timing technology, special need for injectors, beam matching, beam dynamics with advanced accelerators and development of adequate simulations. This workshop is organized in the context of the EU-funded European Network for Novel Accelerators (EuroNNAc2), that includes 52 Research Institutes and universities.

  2. Advanced fusion concepts project summaries, FY 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarizes all the projects supported by the Advanced Fusion Concepts Branch of the Applied Plasma Physics Division of the Office of Fusion Energy, US Department of Energy. Each project summary was written by the respective principal investigator using the format: title, principal investigators, funding levels, purpose, approach, progress, plans, milestones, graduate students, graduates, other professional staff, and recent publications. This report is organized into three sections: Section one contains five summaries describing work in the reversed-field pinch program being performed by a diversified group of contractors, these include a national laboratory, a private company, and several universities. Section two contains eight summaries of work from the compact toroid area which encompasses field-reversed configurations, spheromaks, and heating and formation experiments. Section three contains summaries from two other programs, a density Z-pinch experiment and high-beta Q machine experiment. The intent of this collection of project summaries is to help the contractors of the Advanced Fusion Concepts Branch understand their relationship with the rest of the branch's activities. It is also meant to provide background to those outside the program by showing the range of activities of interest of the Advanced Fusion Concepts Branch

  3. Penn State advanced light water reactor concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The accident at Three Mile Island heightened concerns over the safety of nuclear power. In response to these concerns, a research group at the Pennsylvania State University (Penn State) undertook the conceptual design of an advanced light water reactor (ALWR) under sponsorship of the US Dept. of Energy (DOE). The design builds on the literally hundreds of years worth of experience with light water reactor technology. The concept is a reconfigured pressurized water reactor (PWR) with the capability of being shut down to a safe condition simply by removing all ac power, both off-site and on-site. Using additional passively activated heat sinks and replacing the pressurizer with a pressurizing pump system, the concept essentially eliminates the concerns of core damage associated with a total station blackout. Evaluation of the Penn State ALWR concept has been conducted using the EPRI Modular Modeling System (MMS). Results show that a superior response to normal operating transients can be achieved in comparison to the response with a conventional PWR pressurizer. The DOE-sponsored Penn State ALWR concept has evolved into a significant reconfiguration of a PWR leading to enhanced safety characteristics. The reconfiguration has touched a number of areas in overall plant design including a shutdown turbine in the secondary system, additional passively activated heat sinks, a unique primary side pressurizing concept, a low pressure cleanup system, reactor building layout, and a low power density core design

  4. CONCEPT OF ADVANCED FLEXIBLE USE OF AIRSPACE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleksandr Luppo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Concept of Flexible Use of Airspace (FUA allows to eliminate many problems on the basis of civil-military coordination, but there are still a lot of areas for improvement. These improvements will be implemented in the Advanced Flexible Use of Airspace (AFUA concept. Methods: We examine the airspace structure in the frames of AFUA concept, which includes variable profile areas, temporary reserved and temporary segregated areas, danger or restricted areas. Mission Trajectory in AFUA which allows designing ad-hoc structures delineation at short notice is also examined. Regarding the performance enhancements of AFUA we compare these with FUA concept. Examination of AFUA structure gives us better view of the functions and opportunities of this concept. Result: AFUA concept provides many advantages for the civil aviation stakeholders and includes many other positive sides. Variable Profile Areas provide more flexibility, particularly in a high density traffic area and any combination of basic volume possible. Collaborative decision-making will increase the situational awareness of both parties and help to decrease the transit between airbases and training areas, allows military to use larger airspaces for missions on an absolute time-limited basis. As a result of mission trajectory implementation in AFUA concept general air traffic crossing are possible in all type of airspace structures, after coordination or under specific permanent agreements. The use of Centralized AFUA Services will allow the central collection, integration and provision of ASM data in support of continuous collaborative network processes, in such a way improving operational performance during the planning and execution phases (predictability, flexibility, better use of capacity, enhanced flight efficiency, real time sharing of information, better management of available airspace. Discussion: Given the important contribution that AFUA brings into air traffic management

  5. Radar foundations for imaging and advanced concepts

    CERN Document Server

    Sullivan, Roger

    2004-01-01

    Through courses internally taught at IDA, Dr. Roger Sullivan has devised a book that brings readers fully up to speed on the most essential quantitave aspects of general radar in order to introduce study of the most exciting and relevant applications to radar imaging and advanced concepts: Synthetic Aperture Radar (4 chapters), Space-time Adaptive Processing, moving target indication (MTI), bistatic radar, low probability of intercept (LPI) radar, weather radar, and ground-penetrating radar. Whether you're a radar novice or experienced professional, this is an essential refer

  6. Advanced Gasifier Pilot Plant Concept Definition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steve Fusselman; Alan Darby; Fred Widman

    2005-08-31

    This report presents results from definition of a preferred commercial-scale advanced gasifier configuration and concept definition for a gasification pilot plant incorporating those preferred technologies. The preferred commercial gasifier configuration was established based on Cost Of Electricity estimates for an IGCC. Based on the gasifier configuration trade study results, a compact plug flow gasifier, with a dry solids pump, rapid-mix injector, CMC liner insert and partial quench system was selected as the preferred configuration. Preliminary systems analysis results indicate that this configuration could provide cost of product savings for electricity and hydrogen ranging from 15%-20% relative to existing gasifier technologies. This cost of product improvement draws upon the efficiency of the dry feed, rapid mix injector technology, low capital cost compact gasifier, and >99% gasifier availability due to long life injector and gasifier liner, with short replacement time. A pilot plant concept incorporating the technologies associated with the preferred configuration was defined, along with cost and schedule estimates for design, installation, and test operations. It was estimated that a 16,300 kg/day (18 TPD) pilot plant gasifier incorporating the advanced gasification technology and demonstrating 1,000 hours of hot-fire operation could be accomplished over a period of 33 months with a budget of $25.6 M.

  7. ASME Material Challenges for Advanced Reactor Concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piyush Sabharwall; Ali Siahpush

    2013-07-01

    This study presents the material Challenges associated with Advanced Reactor Concept (ARC) such as the Advanced High Temperature Reactor (AHTR). ACR are the next generation concepts focusing on power production and providing thermal energy for industrial applications. The efficient transfer of energy for industrial applications depends on the ability to incorporate cost-effective heat exchangers between the nuclear heat transport system and industrial process heat transport system. The heat exchanger required for AHTR is subjected to a unique set of conditions that bring with them several design challenges not encountered in standard heat exchangers. The corrosive molten salts, especially at higher temperatures, require materials throughout the system to avoid corrosion, and adverse high-temperature effects such as creep. Given the very high steam generator pressure of the supercritical steam cycle, it is anticipated that water tube and molten salt shell steam generators heat exchanger will be used. In this paper, the ASME Section III and the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Section VIII requirements (acceptance criteria) are discussed. Also, the ASME material acceptance criteria (ASME Section II, Part D) for high temperature environment are presented. Finally, lack of ASME acceptance criteria for thermal design and analysis are discussed.

  8. Advanced High Voltage Power Device Concepts

    CERN Document Server

    Baliga, B Jayant

    2012-01-01

    Advanced High Voltage Power Device Concepts describes devices utilized in power transmission and distribution equipment, and for very high power motor control in electric trains and steel-mills. Since these devices must be capable of supporting more than 5000-volts in the blocking mode, this books covers operation of devices rated at 5,000-V, 10,000-V and 20,000-V. Advanced concepts (the MCT, the BRT, and the EST) that enable MOS-gated control of power thyristor structures are described and analyzed in detail. In addition, detailed analyses of the silicon IGBT, as well as the silicon carbide MOSFET and IGBT, are provided for comparison purposes. Throughout the book, analytical models are generated to give a better understanding of the physics of operation for all the structures. This book provides readers with: The first comprehensive treatment of high voltage (over 5000-volts) power devices suitable for the power distribution, traction, and motor-control markets;  Analytical formulations for all the device ...

  9. Advanced Nacelle Acoustic Lining Concepts Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielak, G.; Gallman, J.; Kunze, R.; Murray, P.; Premo, J.; Kosanchick, M.; Hersh, A.; Celano, J.; Walker, B.; Yu, J.; Parrott, Tony L. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The work reported in this document consisted of six distinct liner technology development subtasks: 1) Analysis of Model Scale ADP Fan Duct Lining Data (Boeing): An evaluation of an AST Milestone experiment to demonstrate 1995 liner technology superiority relative to that of 1992 was performed on 1:5.9 scale model fan rig (Advanced Ducted Propeller) test data acquired in the NASA Glenn 9 x 15 foot wind tunnel. The goal of 50% improvement was deemed satisfied. 2) Bias Flow Liner Investigation (Boeing, VCES): The ability to control liner impedance by low velocity bias flow through liner was demonstrated. An impedance prediction model to include bias flow was developed. 3) Grazing Flow Impedance Testing (Boeing): Grazing flow impedance tests were conducted for comparison with results achieved at four different laboratories. 4) Micro-Perforate Acoustic Liner Technology (BFG, HAE, NG): Proof of concept testing of a "linear liner." 5) Extended Reaction Liners (Boeing, NG): Bandwidth improvements for non-locally reacting liner were investigated with porous honeycomb core test liners. 6) Development of a Hybrid Active/Passive Lining Concept (HAE): Synergism between active and passive attenuation of noise radiated by a model inlet was demonstrated.

  10. Imaging spectrometer - An advanced multispectral imaging concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellman, J. B.; Breckinridge, J. B.; Kupferman, P. N.; Salazar, R.

    1982-01-01

    The concept of an imaging spectrometer, which is being studied as a potential Space Shuttle experiment, is evaluated as a 'push-broom' imager that includes a spectrometer to disperse each line of imaging information into its spectral components. Using this instrument, the dispersed energy falls upon a two-dimensional focal plane array that detects both spatial and spectral information. As the line field of view is advanced over the earth by the motion of the spacecraft, the focal plane is read out constantly, which produces 'push-broom' images at multiple wavelengths. Ground instantaneous fields of view of 10 m in the visual and 20 m in the infrared are provided by the system, at a spectral resolution of 20 nm over the range from 0.4-2.5 microns. The system utilizes a triple-pass Schmidt optical system with a mosaic focal plane. A subset of the data stream is selected and encoded for transmission by the use of onboard processing.

  11. Technical and economic evaluation of advanced air cargo system concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, A. H., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    The paper reviews NASA air cargo market studies, reports on NASA and NASA-sponsored studies of advanced freighter concepts, and identifies the opportunities for the application of advanced technology. The air cargo market is studied to evaluate the timing for, and the potential market response to, advanced technology aircraft. The degree of elasticity in future air freight markets is also being investigated, since the demand for a new aircraft is most favorable in a price-sensitive environment. Aircraft design studies are considered with attention to mission and design requirements, incorporation of advanced technologies in transport aircraft, new cargo aircraft concepts, advanced freighter evaluation, and civil-military design commonality.

  12. Advanced sunflower antenna concept development. [stowable reflectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, J. S.

    1980-01-01

    The feasibility of stowing large solid antenna reflectors in the shuttle was demonstrated for applications with 40 foot apertures at frequencies of 100 GHz. Concepts allowing extension of the basic concept to 80-foot apertures operable at 60 GHz were identified.

  13. Advanced Wind Turbine Drivetrain Concepts. Workshop Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2010-12-01

    This report presents key findings from the Department of Energy’s Advanced Drivetrain Workshop, held on June 29-30, 2010, to assess different advanced drivetrain technologies, their relative potential to improve the state-of-the-art in wind turbine drivetrains, and the scope of research and development needed for their commercialization in wind turbine applications.

  14. Advanced tokamak concepts and reactor designs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oomens, A. A. M.

    2000-01-01

    From a discussion of fusion reactor designs based on today's well-established experience gained in the operation of large tokamaks, it is concluded that such reactors are economically not attractive. The physics involved in the various options for concept improvement is described, some examples

  15. Advanced Interval Management (IM) Concepts of Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barmore, Bryan E.; Ahmad, Nash'at N.; Underwood, Matthew C.

    2014-01-01

    This document provides a high-level description of several advanced IM operations that NASA is considering for future research and development. It covers two versions of IM-CSPO and IM with Wake Mitigation. These are preliminary descriptions to support an initial benefits analysis

  16. Workshop II: Nanotechnology and Advanced Cell Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Workshop focused on few emerging concepts(beyond tandem cells): 1. Engineering incident sun spectrum and transparency losses a) Nano emitters (dot concentrator); b) Surface plasmonics; c) Up converters; d) Down converter. 2. Intermediate band solar cells a) Efficiency projections (detail energy balance projections); b) Inserting 0,1 and 2D semiconductor structures in solar cells 3. Polymer and hybrid cells a) Nanotubes/dot polymers; b) Exciton dissociation.

  17. Low-temperature chemiluminescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The literary data on solid phase chemiluminescence reactions in cryogenic matrices of nitrogen and nobel gases in the 4.2-45 deg K temperature range as well as in hydrocarbon matrices at 77 deg K and higher are generalized. The mechanisms, kinetics and chemiluminescence of low-temperature chemical, radiation chemical and electrochemical reactions with the participation of uranium and xenon compounds in frozen sulfuric acid solutions, reactiong with the participation of NaBH4 and ruthenium complexes in frozen aqueous and organic solutions in 77-273 deg K are considered. the possibility of using low-temperature chemiluminescence to study the kinetics of heating and cooling is discussed

  18. Advanced concepts in particle and field theory

    CERN Document Server

    Hübsch, Tristan

    2015-01-01

    Uniting the usually distinct areas of particle physics and quantum field theory, gravity and general relativity, this expansive and comprehensive textbook of fundamental and theoretical physics describes the quest to consolidate the basic building blocks of nature, by journeying through contemporary discoveries in the field, and analysing elementary particles and their interactions. Designed for advanced undergraduates and graduate students and abounding in worked examples and detailed derivations, as well as including historical anecdotes and philosophical and methodological perspectives, this textbook provides students with a unified understanding of all matter at the fundamental level. Topics range from gauge principles, particle decay and scattering cross-sections, the Higgs mechanism and mass generation, to spacetime geometries and supersymmetry. By combining historically separate areas of study and presenting them in a logically consistent manner, students will appreciate the underlying similarities and...

  19. Advanced Concepts for Underwater Acoustic Channel Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etter, P. C.; Haas, C. H.; Ramani, D. V.

    2014-12-01

    This paper examines nearshore underwater-acoustic channel modeling concepts and compares channel-state information requirements against existing modeling capabilities. This process defines a subset of candidate acoustic models suitable for simulating signal propagation in underwater communications. Underwater-acoustic communications find many practical applications in coastal oceanography, and networking is the enabling technology for these applications. Such networks can be formed by establishing two-way acoustic links between autonomous underwater vehicles and moored oceanographic sensors. These networks can be connected to a surface unit for further data transfer to ships, satellites, or shore stations via a radio-frequency link. This configuration establishes an interactive environment in which researchers can extract real-time data from multiple, but distant, underwater instruments. After evaluating the obtained data, control messages can be sent back to individual instruments to adapt the networks to changing situations. Underwater networks can also be used to increase the operating ranges of autonomous underwater vehicles by hopping the control and data messages through networks that cover large areas. A model of the ocean medium between acoustic sources and receivers is called a channel model. In an oceanic channel, characteristics of the acoustic signals change as they travel from transmitters to receivers. These characteristics depend upon the acoustic frequency, the distances between sources and receivers, the paths followed by the signals, and the prevailing ocean environment in the vicinity of the paths. Properties of the received signals can be derived from those of the transmitted signals using these channel models. This study concludes that ray-theory models are best suited to the simulation of acoustic signal propagation in oceanic channels and identifies 33 such models that are eligible candidates.

  20. AREAL test facility for advanced accelerator and radiation source concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsakanov, V. M.; Amatuni, G. A.; Amirkhanyan, Z. G.; Aslyan, L. V.; Avagyan, V. Sh.; Danielyan, V. A.; Davtyan, H. D.; Dekhtiarov, V. S.; Gevorgyan, K. L.; Ghazaryan, N. G.; Grigoryan, B. A.; Grigoryan, A. H.; Hakobyan, L. S.; Haroutiunian, S. G.; Ivanyan, M. I.; Khachatryan, V. G.; Laziev, E. M.; Manukyan, P. S.; Margaryan, I. N.; Markosyan, T. M.; Martirosyan, N. V.; Mehrabyan, Sh. A.; Mkrtchyan, T. H.; Muradyan, L. Kh.; Nikogosyan, G. H.; Petrosyan, V. H.; Sahakyan, V. V.; Sargsyan, A. A.; Simonyan, A. S.; Toneyan, H. A.; Tsakanian, A. V.; Vardanyan, T. L.; Vardanyan, A. S.; Yeremyan, A. S.; Zakaryan, S. V.; Zanyan, G. S.

    2016-09-01

    Advanced Research Electron Accelerator Laboratory (AREAL) is a 50 MeV electron linear accelerator project with a laser driven RF gun being constructed at the CANDLE Synchrotron Research Institute. In addition to applications in life and materials sciences, the project aims as a test facility for advanced accelerator and radiation source concepts. In this paper, the AREAL RF photoinjector performance, the facility design considerations and its highlights in the fields of free electron laser, the study of new high frequency accelerating structures, the beam microbunching and wakefield acceleration concepts are presented.

  1. Preliminary design concepts of an advanced integral reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An integral reactor on the basis of PWR technology is being conceptually developed at KAERI. Advanced technologies such as intrinsic and passive safety features are implemented in establishing the design concepts of the reactor to enhance the safety and performance. Research and development including laboratory-scale tests are concurrently underway for confirming the technical adoption of those concepts to the rector design. The power output of the reactor will be in the range of 100MWe to 600MWe which is relatively small compared to the existing loop type reactors. The detailed analysis to assure the design concepts is in progress. (author). 3 figs, 1 tab

  2. Preliminary design concept of an advanced integral reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An integral reactor on the basis of PWR technology is being conceptually developed at KAERI. Advanced technologies such as intrinsic and passive safety features are implemented in establishing the design concepts of the reactor to enhance the safety and performance. Research and development including laboratory-scale tests are concurrently underway for confirming the technical adoption of those concepts to the reactor design. The power output of the reactor will be in the range of 100MWe to 600MWe which is relatively small compared to the existing loop type reactors. The detailed analysis to assure the design concepts is in progress. (author)

  3. SIRIUS : An Advanced Concept For Photo-Interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit, Jean L.

    1984-01-01

    With the renovation of its fleet of reconnaissance aircraft, typified by the adoption of a special version of the MIRAGE Fl tactical support aircraft, the French Air Force wanted to rethink all the received reconnaissance concepts by completely renewing its: - sensors, - interpretation equipment, and by adopting advanced systems for : - mission preparation and planning, - stand-off reconnaissance, and - accelerated data access.

  4. Identification of improvements of advanced light water reactor concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The scope of this report is to identify the improvement of reactor developments with respect to reactor safety. This includes the collection of non-proprietary information on the description of the advanced design characteristics, especially summary design descriptions and general publications. This documentation is not intended to include a safety evaluation of the advanced concepts; however, it is structured in such a way that it can serve as a basis for a future safety evaluation. This is taken into account in the structure of the information regarding the distinction of the various concepts with respect to their 'advancement' and the classification of design characteristics according to some basic safety aspects. The overall description concentrates on those features which are relevant to safety. Other aspects, such as economy, operational features, maintenance, the construction period, etc...are not considered explicitly in this report

  5. Advanced laser sensing receiver concepts based on FPA technology.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobson, P. L. (Phillip L.); Petrin, R. R. (Roger R.); Jolin, J. L. (John L.); Foy, B. R. (Bernard R.); Lowrance, J. L.; Renda, G. (George)

    2002-01-01

    The ultimate performance of any remote sensor is ideally governed by the hardware signal-to-noise capability and allowed signal-averaging time. In real-world scenarios, this may not be realizable and the limiting factors may suggest the need for more advanced capabilities. Moving from passive to active remote sensors offers the advantage of control over the illumination source, the laser. Added capabilities may include polarization discrimination, instantaneous imaging, range resolution, simultaneous multi-spectral measurement, or coherent detection. However, most advanced detection technology has been engineered heavily towards the straightforward passive sensor requirements, measuring an integrated photon flux. The need for focal plane array technology designed specifically for laser sensing has been recognized for some time, but advances have only recently made the engineering possible. This paper will present a few concepts for laser sensing receiver architectures, the driving specifications behind those concepts, and test/modeling results of such designs.

  6. Systems analysis and futuristic designs of advanced biofuel factory concepts.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chianelli, Russ; Leathers, James; Thoma, Steven George; Celina, Mathias Christopher; Gupta, Vipin P.

    2007-10-01

    The U.S. is addicted to petroleum--a dependency that periodically shocks the economy, compromises national security, and adversely affects the environment. If liquid fuels remain the main energy source for U.S. transportation for the foreseeable future, the system solution is the production of new liquid fuels that can directly displace diesel and gasoline. This study focuses on advanced concepts for biofuel factory production, describing three design concepts: biopetroleum, biodiesel, and higher alcohols. A general schematic is illustrated for each concept with technical description and analysis for each factory design. Looking beyond current biofuel pursuits by industry, this study explores unconventional feedstocks (e.g., extremophiles), out-of-favor reaction processes (e.g., radiation-induced catalytic cracking), and production of new fuel sources traditionally deemed undesirable (e.g., fusel oils). These concepts lay the foundation and path for future basic science and applied engineering to displace petroleum as a transportation energy source for good.

  7. PNC`s proposal on the Advanced Fuel Recycle concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamiya, Masayoshi; Shinoda, Yoshihiko; Ojima, Hisao [Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Works

    1998-03-01

    MOX fuel for FBR is allowed to contain impurities within several thousand ppm, which means less than 1000 of decontamination factor (DF) in reprocessing is enough for Pu and U recycle use. The Advanced Fuel Recycle proposed by PNC is on this basis. The concept consists of innovations on both MOX fuel fabrication and aqueous reprocessing technologies based on the Purex process and it is believed that successful optimization of fuel cycle interface condition is the key issue to realize the concept. The lower DF such as 1000 can be easily obtained by the simplified Purex flowsheet which has no purification steps. However, new subject arises in MOX fuel fabrication, that is, fabrication is conducted in the shielding cell using equipment which is maintained remotely. A simplified fabrication technology becomes essential to establish the remote maintenance system and is one of the critical path for achieving the Advanced Fuel Recycle. The PNC`s proposal on the advanced fuel recycle concept consists of modified PUREX process having single extraction cycle and crystallization, Remote fuel fabrication such as gelation and vibro-packing. In the Advanced Fuel Recycle concept, as it is low DF cycle system, all processes should be installed in remote maintenance cells. Then both reprocessing and fabrication facility would be able to be integrated into a same building. Integrated fuel cycle plant has several merits. No transportation of nuclear material between reprocessing and fabrication enhances non-proriferation aspect in addition to the low-DF concept. Cost performance is also improved because of optimization and rationalization of auxiliary equipment, and so on. (author)

  8. Validation Database Based Thermal Analysis of an Advanced RPS Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balint, Tibor S.; Emis, Nickolas D.

    2006-01-01

    Advanced RPS concepts can be conceived, designed and assessed using high-end computational analysis tools. These predictions may provide an initial insight into the potential performance of these models, but verification and validation are necessary and required steps to gain confidence in the numerical analysis results. This paper discusses the findings from a numerical validation exercise for a small advanced RPS concept, based on a thermal analysis methodology developed at JPL and on a validation database obtained from experiments performed at Oregon State University. Both the numerical and experimental configurations utilized a single GPHS module enabled design, resembling a Mod-RTG concept. The analysis focused on operating and environmental conditions during the storage phase only. This validation exercise helped to refine key thermal analysis and modeling parameters, such as heat transfer coefficients, and conductivity and radiation heat transfer values. Improved understanding of the Mod-RTG concept through validation of the thermal model allows for future improvements to this power system concept.

  9. Development of environmentally advanced hydropower turbine system design concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A team worked together on the development of environmentally advanced hydro turbine design concepts to reduce hydropower''s impact on the environment, and to improve the understanding of the technical and environmental issues involved, in particular, with fish survival as a result of their passage through hydro power sites. This approach brought together a turbine design and manufacturing company, biologists, a utility, a consulting engineering firm and a university research facility, in order to benefit from the synergy of diverse disciplines. Through a combination of advanced technology and engineering analyses, innovative design concepts adaptable to both new and existing hydro facilities were developed and are presented. The project was divided into 4 tasks. Task 1 investigated a broad range of environmental issues and how the issues differed throughout the country. Task 2 addressed fish physiology and turbine physics. Task 3 investigated individual design elements needed for the refinement of the three concept families defined in Task 1. Advanced numerical tools for flow simulation in turbines are used to quantify characteristics of flow and pressure fields within turbine water passageways. The issues associated with dissolved oxygen enhancement using turbine aeration are presented. The state of the art and recent advancements of this technology are reviewed. Key elements for applying turbine aeration to improve aquatic habitat are discussed and a review of the procedures for testing of aerating turbines is presented. In Task 4, the results of the Tasks were assembled into three families of design concepts to address the most significant issues defined in Task 1. The results of the work conclude that significant improvements in fish passage survival are achievable

  10. Development of environmentally advanced hydropower turbine system design concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franke, G.F.; Webb, D.R.; Fisher, R.K. Jr. [Voith Hydro, Inc. (United States)] [and others

    1997-08-01

    A team worked together on the development of environmentally advanced hydro turbine design concepts to reduce hydropower`s impact on the environment, and to improve the understanding of the technical and environmental issues involved, in particular, with fish survival as a result of their passage through hydro power sites. This approach brought together a turbine design and manufacturing company, biologists, a utility, a consulting engineering firm and a university research facility, in order to benefit from the synergy of diverse disciplines. Through a combination of advanced technology and engineering analyses, innovative design concepts adaptable to both new and existing hydro facilities were developed and are presented. The project was divided into 4 tasks. Task 1 investigated a broad range of environmental issues and how the issues differed throughout the country. Task 2 addressed fish physiology and turbine physics. Task 3 investigated individual design elements needed for the refinement of the three concept families defined in Task 1. Advanced numerical tools for flow simulation in turbines are used to quantify characteristics of flow and pressure fields within turbine water passageways. The issues associated with dissolved oxygen enhancement using turbine aeration are presented. The state of the art and recent advancements of this technology are reviewed. Key elements for applying turbine aeration to improve aquatic habitat are discussed and a review of the procedures for testing of aerating turbines is presented. In Task 4, the results of the Tasks were assembled into three families of design concepts to address the most significant issues defined in Task 1. The results of the work conclude that significant improvements in fish passage survival are achievable.

  11. Structural Configuration Systems Analysis for Advanced Aircraft Fuselage Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, Vivek; Welstead, Jason R.; Quinlan, Jesse R.; Guynn, Mark D.

    2016-01-01

    Structural configuration analysis of an advanced aircraft fuselage concept is investigated. This concept is characterized by a double-bubble section fuselage with rear mounted engines. Based on lessons learned from structural systems analysis of unconventional aircraft, high-fidelity finite-element models (FEM) are developed for evaluating structural performance of three double-bubble section configurations. Structural sizing and stress analysis are applied for design improvement and weight reduction. Among the three double-bubble configurations, the double-D cross-section fuselage design was found to have a relatively lower structural weight. The structural FEM weights of these three double-bubble fuselage section concepts are also compared with several cylindrical fuselage models. Since these fuselage concepts are different in size, shape and material, the fuselage structural FEM weights are normalized by the corresponding passenger floor area for a relative comparison. This structural systems analysis indicates that an advanced composite double-D section fuselage may have a relative structural weight ratio advantage over a conventional aluminum fuselage. Ten commercial and conceptual aircraft fuselage structural weight estimates, which are empirically derived from the corresponding maximum takeoff gross weight, are also presented and compared with the FEM- based estimates for possible correlation. A conceptual full vehicle FEM model with a double-D fuselage is also developed for preliminary structural analysis and weight estimation.

  12. Composite Structure Modeling and Analysis of Advanced Aircraft Fuselage Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, Vivek; Sorokach, Michael R.

    2015-01-01

    NASA Environmentally Responsible Aviation (ERA) project and the Boeing Company are collabrating to advance the unitized damage arresting composite airframe technology with application to the Hybrid-Wing-Body (HWB) aircraft. The testing of a HWB fuselage section with Pultruded Rod Stitched Efficient Unitized Structure (PRSEUS) construction is presently being conducted at NASA Langley. Based on lessons learned from previous HWB structural design studies, improved finite-element models (FEM) of the HWB multi-bay and bulkhead assembly are developed to evaluate the performance of the PRSEUS construction. In order to assess the comparative weight reduction benefits of the PRSEUS technology, conventional cylindrical skin-stringer-frame models of a cylindrical and a double-bubble section fuselage concepts are developed. Stress analysis with design cabin-pressure load and scenario based case studies are conducted for design improvement in each case. Alternate analysis with stitched composite hat-stringers and C-frames are also presented, in addition to the foam-core sandwich frame and pultruded rod-stringer construction. The FEM structural stress, strain and weights are computed and compared for relative weight/strength benefit assessment. The structural analysis and specific weight comparison of these stitched composite advanced aircraft fuselage concepts demonstrated that the pressurized HWB fuselage section assembly can be structurally as efficient as the conventional cylindrical fuselage section with composite stringer-frame and PRSEUS construction, and significantly better than the conventional aluminum construction and the double-bubble section concept.

  13. New Developments in the Simulation of Advanced Accelerator Concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul, K.; Cary, J.R.; Cowan, B.; Bruhwiler, D.L.; Geddes, C.G.R.; Mullowney, P.J.; Messmer, P.; Esarey, E.; Cormier-Michel, E.; Leemans, W.P.; Vay, J.-L.

    2008-09-10

    Improved computational methods are essential to the diverse and rapidly developing field of advanced accelerator concepts. We present an overview of some computational algorithms for laser-plasma concepts and high-brightness photocathode electron sources. In particular, we discuss algorithms for reduced laser-plasma models that can be orders of magnitude faster than their higher-fidelity counterparts, as well as important on-going efforts to include relevant additional physics that has been previously neglected. As an example of the former, we present 2D laser wakefield accelerator simulations in an optimal Lorentz frame, demonstrating>10 GeV energy gain of externally injected electrons over a 2 m interaction length, showing good agreement with predictions from scaled simulations and theory, with a speedup factor of ~;;2,000 as compared to standard particle-in-cell.

  14. Reagentless chemiluminescence-based fiber optic sensors for regenerative life support in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwater, James E.; Akse, James R.; DeHart, Jeffrey; Wheeler, Richard R., Jr.

    1995-04-01

    The initial feasibility demonstration of a reagentless chemiluminescence based fiber optic sensor technology for use in advanced regenerative life support applications in space and planetary outposts is described. The primary constraints for extraterrestrial deployment of any technology are compatibility with microgravity and hypogravity environments; minimal size, weight, and power consumption; and minimal use of expendables due to the great expense and difficulty inherent to resupply logistics. In the current research, we report the integration of solid state flow through modules for the production of aqueous phase reagents into an integrated system for the detection of important analytes by chemiluminescence, with fiber optic light transmission. By minimizing the need for resupply expendables, the use of solid phase modules makes complex chemical detection schemes practical. For the proof of concept, hydrogen peroxide and glucose were chosen as analytes. The reaction is catalyzed by glucose oxidase, an immobilized enzyme. The aqueous phase chemistry required for sensor operation is implemented using solid phase modules which adjust the pH of the influent stream, catalyze the oxidation of analyte, and provide the controlled addition of the luminophore to the flowing aqueous stream. Precise control of the pH has proven essential for the long-term sustained release of the luminophore. Electrocatalysis is achieved using a controlled potential across gold mesh and gold foil electrodes which undergo periodic polarity reversals. The development and initial characterization of performance of the reagentless fiber optic chemiluminescence sensors are presented in this paper.

  15. Advanced Gas Storage Concepts: Technologies for the Future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeway, Katy (PB-KBB Inc.); Rogers, R.E. (Mississippi State University); DeVries, Kerry L.; Nieland, Joel D.; Ratigan, Joe L.; Mellegard, Kirby D. (RESPEC)

    2000-02-01

    This full text product includes: 1) A final technical report titled Advanced Underground Gas Storage Concepts, Refrigerated-Mined Cavern Storage and presentations from two technology transfer workshops held in 1998 in Houston, Texas, and Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (both on the topic of Chilled Gas Storage in Mined Caverns); 2) A final technical report titled Natural Gas Hydrates Storage Project, Final Report 1 October 1997 - 31 May 1999; 3) A final technical report titled Natural Gas Hydrates Storage Project Phase II: Conceptual Design and Economic Study, Final Report 9 June - 10 October 1999; 4) A final technical report titled Commerical Potential of Natural Gas Storage in Lined Rock Caverns (LRC) and presentations from a DOE-sponsored workshop on Alternative Gas Storage Technologies, held Feb 17, 2000 in Pittsburgh, PA; and 5) Phase I and Phase II topical reports titled Feasibility Study for Lowering the Minimum Gas Pressure in Solution-Mined Caverns Based on Geomechanical Analyses of Creep-Induced Damage and Healing.

  16. Advanced steel body concepts for automotive lightweight design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrmann, H.G. [DaimlerChrysler AG, Stuttgart (Germany). Research Body and Powertrain

    2005-07-01

    Lightweight design is a must for future vehicle concepts due to the self-commitment on the reduction of fleet consumption. Body concepts for mid- and high-volume vehicles demand smart lightweight solutions without increasing costs and without sacrificing the high level of safety (e.g. future passive safety standards). Furthermore, all lightweight activities have to comply with requirements in terms of reliability (no additional efforts for maintenance), NVH (no additional weight for e.g. damping) and future stricter recycling quotas. Successful lightweight design solutions are determined by the best relation between weight-saving and additional costs as a function of the annual production volume. Using advanced high-strength steels (TWIP-steels) seems to be a very promising approach for cost-optimized lightweight design of body structures. In addition, by applying bionic optimization, the weight of body-structures can be significantly reduced. As a consequence, only a holistic approach for lightweight design combining the three areas materials, design and manufacturing is needed in order to use the full potential of cost-optimized weight-reduction. (orig.)

  17. Chemiluminescence immunoassay for chloramphenicol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A simple, solid-phase chemiluminescence immunoassay (CLIA) for the measurement of Chloramphenicol(CAP) in foodstuffs is described. A rabbit anti-CAP IgG is passively adsorbed onto the walls of polypropylene plates. The labeled conjugant is horseradish peroxidase(HRP) conjugate of CAP. Luminol solution is used as the substrate of HRP. The light yield is inversely proportional to the concentration of CAP. The method has a similar sensitivity (0.05 ng/mL), specificity, precision, and accuracy to a conventional enzyme immunoassay (EIA). The intra-assay and inter-assay CVs of ten samples were <8 and <20%, respectively, and the analytical recovery of the method was 87% 100%. The experimental correlation coefficient of dilution was found to be 0.999 using milk supernatant as buffer. The assay range for the method was 0.1-10 ng/mL, and it displayed good linearity. (authors)

  18. Chemiluminescence and bioluminescence microbe detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, R. E.; Chappelle, E.; Picciolo, G. L.; Jeffers, E. L.; Thomas, R. R.

    1978-01-01

    Automated biosensors for online use with NASA Water Monitoring System employs bioluminescence and chemiluminescence techniques to rapidly measure microbe contamination of water samples. System eliminates standard laboratory procedures requiring time duration of 24 hours or longer.

  19. Chemiluminescent prediction of service life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassell, J. A.; Mendenhall, G. D.; Nathan, R. A.

    1976-01-01

    Technique can be used to predict polymer degradation under actual expected-use conditions, without imposing artificial conditions. Smooth or linear correlations are obtained between chemiluminescence and physical properties of purified polymer gums.

  20. A New Chemiluminescent Triazine Reagent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A new chemiluminescent reagent 7-(4,6-dichloro-1,3,5-triazinylamino)-4-methyl-coumarin (DTMC) was synthesized by linking 7-amino-4-methylcoumarin to cyanuric chloride at 0-5 ° C, and with it a novel chemiluminescence method was developed for the determination of hydrogen peroxide. The selectivity of this method is high, and most of the transition metal ions have no effect on the determination of H2O2.

  1. Advanced concepts in ground thermal energy storage systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Kevin David

    In recent years, ground thermal energy storage has become a topic of interest in the energy community for solar thermal energy storage systems, ground sourced heat pump systems, and data center thermal management systems due to an increase in the energy efficiency of such systems utilizing the ground as a thermal reservoir. The most common method for transferring thermal energy to the ground formation is the geothermal borehole. This dissertation presents the state of the art in geothermal borehole modeling and derives novel analytical functions to model advanced concepts concerning their operation. The novel solutions derived allow a geothermal borehole designer to better understand and design ground energy storage systems. The state of the art in geothermal borehole modeling is the stationary line source solution which is limited to boreholes operating without groundwater flow. Novel solutions for modeling a geothermal borehole with groundwater advection are presented through derivation of a transient moving line source solution as well as a transient moving cylindrical surface source solution. These solutions are applied to model a specific type of open loop geothermal borehole called a standing column well with groundwater advection and are compared to empirical and numerical data for validation. The dissertation then moves into derivation of a property determination method for geothermal boreholes with groundwater advection. The traditional property determination method used to obtain ground formation properties is based on the stationary transient line source method and fails in the presence of groundwater flow. The proposed novel property determination method calculates the thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity, and superficial flow velocity of groundwater within a ground formation. These methods and solutions are novel tools allowing for geothermal borehole designers to grasp a better understanding of the systems they are designing as well as open other

  2. A CONCEPT FOR NEXT STEP ADVANCED TOKAMAK FUSION DEVICE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    A concept is introduced for initiating the design study of a special class of tokamak,which has a magnetic confinement configuration intermediate between contemporary advanced tokamak and the recently established spherical torus (ST,also well known by the name "spherical tokamak").The leading design parameter in the present proposal is a dimensionless geometrical parameter, the machine aspect ratio A=R0/a0=2.0,where the parameters a0 and R0 denote,respectively,the plasma (equatorial) minor radius and the plasma major radius.The aim of this choice is to technologically and experimentally go beyond the aspect ratio frontier (R0/a0≈2.5) of present day tokamaks and enter a broad unexplored domain existing on the (a0,R0) parameter space in current international tokamak database,between the data region already moderately well covered by the advanced conventional tokamaks and the data region planned to be covered by STs.Plasma minor radius a0 has been chosen to be the second basic design parameter, and consequently,the plasma major radius R0 is regarded as a dependent design parameter.In the present concept,a nominal plasma minor radius a0=1.2m is adopted to be the principal design value,and smaller values of a0 can be used for auxiliary design purposes,to establish extensive database linkage with existing tokamaks.Plasma minor radius can also be adjusted by mechanical and/or electromagnetic means to smaller values during experiments,for making suitable data linkages to existing machines with higher aspect ratios and smaller plasma minor radii.The basic design parameters proposed enable the adaptation of several confinement techniques recently developed by STs,and thereby a specially arranged central-bore region inside the envisioned tokamak torus,with retrieved space in the direction of plasma minor radius,will be available for technological adjustments and maneuverings to facilitate implementation of engineering instrumentation and real time high

  3. Advanced storage concepts for solar and low energy buildings, IEA-SHC Task 32. Slutrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schultz, J.M.; Andersen, Elsa; Furbo, S.

    2008-01-15

    This report reports on the results of the activities carried through in connection with the Danish part of the IEA SHC Task 32 project: Advanced Storage Concepts for Solar and Low Energy Buildings. The Danish involvement has focused on Subtask C: Storage Concepts Based on Phase Change Materials and Subtask D: Storage Concepts Based on Advanced Water Tanks and Special Devices. The report describes activities concerning heat-of-fusion storage and advanced water storage. (BA)

  4. A New Concept for Advanced Heterogeneous Metal Catalysts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Bo-Qing

    2004-01-01

    Oxide-supported metal catalysts, having always nano-sized structures in which the metal catalysts are prepared as highly dispersed nano-crystals (typically 1-20 nm) on support oxide particles that are often one to several orders of magnitude larger than the metal nano-particles, are an important class of heterogeneous metal catalysts that finds many applications in chemical/petrochemical industries, in environmental protection, in chemical sensors and in the manufacture of fine and special chemicals. It is believed that catalysis by supported metals is the oldest application of nanotechnology. The literature has been rich in nano-size effect of metal nanoparticles in the metal/oxide catalysts. However, it is until recently that the development of size-controlled synthesis of oxide nanoparticles has made it possible to study the nano-size effect of oxide-support particles. When the particle sizes of an oxide support are reduced to become comparable to the sizes of the active metal nanoparticles, the oxide could deviate dramatically from its function as a conventional support. Such metal/oxide catalysts consisting of comparably sized metal and oxide nanocrystals are better called metal/oxide nanocomposite catalysts or catalytic nanoarchitectures.In this presentation, several attempts with reducing the particle size of oxide supports (ZrO2, TiO2,MgO, Al2O3) to approach the metal/oxide nanocomposite concept will be discussed to emphasize the importance of the support size effect. Examples will be given on characteristics of nanocomposite Ni/oxide catalysts for the reforming of natural gas with CO2 and/or steam, and on Au/oxide catalysts for CO oxidation and hydrogenation of unsaturated organic compounds. It will be emphasized that systematic investigations into the size effects of both the metal and oxide nanoparticles approaching the metal/oxide nanocomposite concept can lead to advanced heterogeneous metal catalysts.Moreover, intensive practice of the nanocomposite

  5. Advanced transportation system studies. Alternate propulsion subsystem concepts: Propulsion database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levack, Daniel

    1993-01-01

    The Advanced Transportation System Studies alternate propulsion subsystem concepts propulsion database interim report is presented. The objective of the database development task is to produce a propulsion database which is easy to use and modify while also being comprehensive in the level of detail available. The database is to be available on the Macintosh computer system. The task is to extend across all three years of the contract. Consequently, a significant fraction of the effort in this first year of the task was devoted to the development of the database structure to ensure a robust base for the following years' efforts. Nonetheless, significant point design propulsion system descriptions and parametric models were also produced. Each of the two propulsion databases, parametric propulsion database and propulsion system database, are described. The descriptions include a user's guide to each code, write-ups for models used, and sample output. The parametric database has models for LOX/H2 and LOX/RP liquid engines, solid rocket boosters using three different propellants, a hybrid rocket booster, and a NERVA derived nuclear thermal rocket engine.

  6. Investigations and advanced concepts on gyrotron interaction modeling and simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avramidis, K. A.

    2015-12-01

    In gyrotron theory, the interaction between the electron beam and the high frequency electromagnetic field is commonly modeled using the slow variables approach. The slow variables are quantities that vary slowly in time in comparison to the electron cyclotron frequency. They represent the electron momentum and the high frequency field of the resonant TE modes in the gyrotron cavity. For their definition, some reference frequencies need to be introduced. These include the so-called averaging frequency, used to define the slow variable corresponding to the electron momentum, and the carrier frequencies, used to define the slow variables corresponding to the field envelopes of the modes. From the mathematical point of view, the choice of the reference frequencies is, to some extent, arbitrary. However, from the numerical point of view, there are arguments that point toward specific choices, in the sense that these choices are advantageous in terms of simulation speed and accuracy. In this paper, the typical monochromatic gyrotron operation is considered, and the numerical integration of the interaction equations is performed by the trajectory approach, since it is the fastest, and therefore it is the one that is most commonly used. The influence of the choice of the reference frequencies on the interaction simulations is studied using theoretical arguments, as well as numerical simulations. From these investigations, appropriate choices for the values of the reference frequencies are identified. In addition, novel, advanced concepts for the definitions of these frequencies are addressed, and their benefits are demonstrated numerically.

  7. Conceptual design study advanced concepts test (ACT) facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaloudek, F.R.

    1978-09-01

    The Advanced Concepts Test (ACT) Project is part of program for developing improved power plant dry cooling systems in which ammonia is used as a heat transfer fluid between the power plant and the heat rejection tower. The test facility will be designed to condense 60,000 lb/hr of exhaust steam from the No. 1 turbine in the Kern Power Plant at Bakersfield, CA, transport the heat of condensation from the condenser to the cooling tower by an ammonia phase-change heat transport system, and dissipate this heat to the environs by a dry/wet deluge tower. The design and construction of the test facility will be the responsibility of the Electric Power Research Institute. The DOE, UCC/Linde, and the Pacific Northwest Laboratories will be involved in other phases of the project. The planned test facilities, its structures, mechanical and electrical equipment, control systems, codes and standards, decommissioning requirements, safety and environmental aspects, and energy impact are described. Six appendices of related information are included. (LCL)

  8. NASA Advanced Explorations Systems: Concepts for Logistics to Living

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shull, Sarah A.; Howe, A. Scott; Flynn, Michael T.; Howard, Robert

    2012-01-01

    , Howard 2010]. Several of the L2L concepts that have shown the most potential in the past are based on NASA cargo transfer bags (CTBs) or their equivalents which are currently used to transfer cargo to and from the ISS. A high percentage of all logistics supplies are packaging mass and for a 6-month mission a crew of four might need over 100 CTBs. These CTBs are used for on-orbit transfer and storage but eventually becomes waste after use since down mass is very limited. The work being done in L2L also considering innovative interior habitat construction that integrate the CTBs into the walls of future habitats. The direct integration could provide multiple functions: launch packaging, stowage, radiation protection, water processing, life support augmentation, as well as structure. Reuse of these CTBs would reduce the amount of waste generated and also significantly reduce future up mass requirements for exploration missions. Also discussed here is the L2L water wall , an innovative reuse of an unfolded CTB as a passive water treatment system utilizing forward osmosis. The bags have been modified to have an inner membrane liner that allows them to purify wastewater. They may also provide a structural water-wall element that can be used to provide radiation protection and as a structural divider. Integration of the components into vehicle/habitat architecture and consideration of operations concepts and human factors will be discussed. In the future these bags could be designed to treat wastewater, concentrated brines, and solid wastes, and to dewater solid wastes and produce a bio-stabilized construction element. This paper will describe the follow-on work done in design, fabrication and demonstrations of various L2L concepts, including advanced CTBs for reuse/repurposing, internal outfitting studies and the CTB-based forward osmosis water wall.

  9. High-pressure propulsion - advanced concepts for cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoerman, Leonard

    The state-of-the-art liquid propellant cooled combustion chambers utilized in the space shuttle are third-generation designs which have evolved from a continuing demand for higher operating pressure and aircraft-type reusability. History has shown that major advances in cooling occur in approximately ten-year cycles, with each cycle providing a nominal 400% increase in operating pressure and/or a higher degree of reusability. The previous technologies include the first-generation double-wall steel jackets used in the 220 psi V-2 and Aerobee, and the second generation wire-wrapped double tapered tubular assemblies typical of the 800 psi Titan I, II, and III, and 1000 psi F-1 engines. The third-generation designs utilize milled slot, high thermal conductivity liners and electrodeposited nickel closures. The space shuttle main engine operating at 3200 psia is adequate for individual flights; however, the desired goal of 55 service-free missions has yet to be realized. Future single-stage-to-orbit propulsion concepts can benefit from a further increase in operating pressures to 6000 to 10,000 psi combined with engine reuse capabilities in excess of the 55 flight goals of the space shuttle. A fourth-generation approach will be required to attain these more ambitious goals. These new designs will require a combination of cooling processes, including regenerative and transpiration, combined with improved high-temperature materials and new fabrication techniques. The limitations of the third-generation designs, the impact of propellant/coolant selection, and the approaches for the coming fourth-generation cooling technologies are discussed.

  10. Advanced Concept Exploration for Fast Ignition Science Program, Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephens, Richard Burnite [General Atomics; McLean, Harry M. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory; Theobald, Wolfgang [Laboratory for Laser Energetics; Akli, Kramer U. [The Ohio State University; Beg, Farhat N. [University of California, San Diego; Sentoku, Yasuhiko [University of Nevada, Reno; Schumacher, Douglass W. [The Ohio State University; Wei, Mingsheng [General Atomics

    2013-09-04

    The Fast Ignition (FI) Concept for Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) has the potential to provide a significant advance in the technical attractiveness of Inertial Fusion Energy reactors. FI differs from conventional “central hot spot” (CHS) target ignition by decoupling compression from heating: using a laser (or heavy ion beam or Z pinch) drive pulse (10’s of nanoseconds) to create a dense fuel and a second, much shorter (~10 picoseconds) high intensity pulse to ignite a small volume within the dense fuel. The physics of fast ignition process was the focus of our Advanced Concept Exploration (ACE) program. Ignition depends critically on two major issues involving Relativistic High Energy Density (RHED) physics: The laser-induced creation of fast electrons and their propagation in high-density plasmas. Our program has developed new experimental platforms, diagnostic packages, computer modeling analyses, and taken advantage of the increasing energy available at laser facilities to advance understanding of the fundamental physics underlying these issues. Our program had three thrust areas: • Understand the production and characteristics of fast electrons resulting from FI relevant laser-plasma interactions and their dependence on laser prepulse and laser pulse length. • Investigate the subsequent fast electron transport in solid and through hot (FI-relevant) plasmas. • Conduct and understand integrated core-heating experiments by comparison to simulations. Over the whole period of this project (three years for this contract), we have greatly advanced our fundamental understanding of the underlying properties in all three areas: • Comprehensive studies on fast electron source characteristics have shown that they are controlled by the laser intensity distribution and the topology and plasma density gradient. Laser pre-pulse induced pre-plasma in front of a solid surface results in increased stand-off distances from the electron origin to the high density

  11. Advanced-power-reactor design concepts and performance characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davison, H. W.; Kirchgessner, T. A.; Springborn, R. H.; Yacobucci, H. G.

    1974-01-01

    Five reactor cooling concepts which allow continued reactor operation following a single rupture of the coolant system are presented for application with the APR. These concepts incorporate convective cooling, double containment, or heat pipes to ensure operation after a coolant line rupture. Based on an evaluation of several control system concepts, a molybdenum clad, beryllium oxide sliding reflector located outside the pressure vessel is recommended.

  12. NASA's Advanced Information Systems Technology (AIST) Program: Advanced Concepts and Disruptive Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, M. M.; Moe, K.; Komar, G.

    2014-12-01

    NASA's Earth Science Technology Office (ESTO) manages a wide range of information technology projects under the Advanced Information Systems Technology (AIST) Program. The AIST Program aims to support all phases of NASA's Earth Science program with the goal of enabling new observations and information products, increasing the accessibility and use of Earth observations, and reducing the risk and cost of satellite and ground based information systems. Recent initiatives feature computational technologies to improve information extracted from data streams or model outputs and researchers' tools for Big Data analytics. Data-centric technologies enable research communities to facilitate collaboration and increase the speed with which results are produced and published. In the future NASA anticipates more small satellites (e.g., CubeSats), mobile drones and ground-based in-situ sensors will advance the state-of-the-art regarding how scientific observations are performed, given the flexibility, cost and deployment advantages of new operations technologies. This paper reviews the success of the program and the lessons learned. Infusion of these technologies is challenging and the paper discusses the obstacles and strategies to adoption by the earth science research and application efforts. It also describes alternative perspectives for the future program direction and for realizing the value in the steps to transform observations from sensors to data, to information, and to knowledge, namely: sensor measurement concepts development; data acquisition and management; data product generation; and data exploitation for science and applications.

  13. Advanced composites structural concepts and materials technologies for primary aircraft structures: Design/manufacturing concept assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Robert L.; Bayha, Tom D.; Davis, HU; Ingram, J. ED; Shukla, Jay G.

    1992-01-01

    Composite Wing and Fuselage Structural Design/Manufacturing Concepts have been developed and evaluated. Trade studies were performed to determine how well the concepts satisfy the program goals of 25 percent cost savings, 40 percent weight savings with aircraft resizing, and 50 percent part count reduction as compared to the aluminum Lockheed L-1011 baseline. The concepts developed using emerging technologies such as large scale resin transfer molding (RTM), automatic tow placed (ATP), braiding, out-of-autoclave and automated manufacturing processes for both thermoset and thermoplastic materials were evaluated for possible application in the design concepts. Trade studies were used to determine which concepts carry into the detailed design development subtask.

  14. Concepts and recent advances in generalized information measures and statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Kowalski, Andres M

    2013-01-01

    Since the introduction of the information measure widely known as Shannon entropy, quantifiers based on information theory and concepts such as entropic forms and statistical complexities have proven to be useful in diverse scientific research fields. This book contains introductory tutorials suitable for the general reader, together with chapters dedicated to the basic concepts of the most frequently employed information measures or quantifiers and their recent applications to different areas, including physics, biology, medicine, economics, communication and social sciences. As these quantif

  15. Reference Operational Concepts for Advanced Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hugo, Jacques Victor [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Farris, Ronald Keith [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-09-01

    This report represents the culmination of a four-year research project that was part of the Instrumentation and Control and Human Machine Interface subprogram of the DOE Advanced Reactor Technologies program.

  16. Concept Development for Advanced Spaceborne Synthetic Aperture Radar Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The effort will focus on P-Band and L-band polarimetric radar architectures that employ advanced and innovative techniques to increase the science value of the...

  17. Advanced Turbine Systems Program industrial system concept development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gates, S. [Solar Turbines Inc., San Diego, CA (United States)

    1995-10-01

    The objective of Phase II of the Advanced Turbine Systems Program is to develop conceptual designs of gas fired advanced turbine systems that can be adapted for operation on coal and biomass fuels. The technical, economic, and environmental performance operating on natural gas and in a coal fueled mode is to be assessed. Detailed designs and test work relating to critical components are to be completed and a market study is to be conducted.

  18. Advanced transportation concept for round-trip space travel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Chen-Wan L.

    1988-01-01

    A departure from the conventional concept of round-trip space travel is introduced. It is shown that a substantial reduction in the initial load required of the Shuttle or other launch vehicle can be achieved by staging the ascent orbit and leaving fuel for the return trip at each stage of the orbit. Examples of round trips from a low-inclination LEO to a high-inclination LEO and from an LEO to a GEO are used to show the merits of the new concept. Potential problem areas and research needed for the development of an efficient space transportation network are discussed.

  19. [Advance Directives: theoretical concept and practical significance in the USA].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollmann, J; Pfaff, M

    2003-07-01

    The article examines on the basic of empirical data the discrepancy between the theoretical demand and the practical role of advance directives. Often advance directives have no influence on medical decision-making in clinical care of critically ill patients. The vague language of the widely used standard living wills and the lack of physician-patient communication in the process of delivering an advance directives are contributing factors. However, many physicians even disregard patients' preferences in concrete and meaningful living wills at the end of life. Besides the lack of information many even seriously ill patients do not deliver an advance because they misjudge their medical prognosis and life expectancy. Often the communication between patients and doctors are blocked because they expect from the each other the first step to talk about end of life decisions and advance directives. In this context physicians claim lack of time, training in communication skills and their discomfort in talking about death and dying with their patients.

  20. Technological advances in perioperative monitoring: Current concepts and clinical perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilkoti, Geetanjali; Wadhwa, Rachna; Saxena, Ashok Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Minimal mandatory monitoring in the perioperative period recommended by Association of Anesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland and American Society of Anesthesiologists are universally acknowledged and has become an integral part of the anesthesia practice. The technologies in perioperative monitoring have advanced, and the availability and clinical applications have multiplied exponentially. Newer monitoring techniques include depth of anesthesia monitoring, goal-directed fluid therapy, transesophageal echocardiography, advanced neurological monitoring, improved alarm system and technological advancement in objective pain assessment. Various factors that need to be considered with the use of improved monitoring techniques are their validation data, patient outcome, safety profile, cost-effectiveness, awareness of the possible adverse events, knowledge of technical principle and ability of the convenient routine handling. In this review, we will discuss the new monitoring techniques in anesthesia, their advantages, deficiencies, limitations, their comparison to the conventional methods and their effect on patient outcome, if any.

  1. Advanced Level Physics Students' Conceptions of Quantum Physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashhadi, Azam

    This study addresses questions about particle physics that focus on the nature of electrons. Speculations as to whether they are more like particles or waves or like neither illustrate the difficulties with which students are confronted when trying to incorporate the concepts of quantum physics into their overall conceptual framework. Such…

  2. Report on the Lake Arrowhead workshop on advanced acceleration concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pellegrini, C.

    1989-03-01

    We review the present status of the field of New Acceleration Concepts, as presented at the Lake Arrowhead workshop, held at the beginning of 1989. Many new and promising results have been obtained recently, and the field is actively developing. We discuss briefly some of the main results presented at the workshop. 43 refs., 2 tabs.

  3. Fostering Visions for the Future: A Review of the NASA Institute for Advanced Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    The NASA Institute for Advanced Concepts (NIAC) was formed in 1998 to provide an independent source of advanced aeronautical and space concepts that could dramatically impact how NASA develops and conducts its missions. Until the program's termination in August 2007, NIAC provided an independent open forum, a high-level point of entry to NASA for an external community of innovators, and an external capability for analysis and definition of advanced aeronautics and space concepts to complement the advanced concept activities conducted within NASA. Throughout its 9-year existence, NIAC inspired an atmosphere for innovation that stretched the imagination and encouraged creativity. As requested by Congress, this volume reviews the effectiveness of NIAC and makes recommendations concerning the importance of such a program to NASA and to the nation as a whole, including the proper role of NASA and the federal government in fostering scientific innovation and creativity and in developing advanced concepts for future systems. Key findings and recommendations include that in order to achieve its mission, NASA must have, and is currently lacking, a mechanism to investigate visionary, far-reaching advanced concepts. Therefore, a NIAC-like entity should be reestablished to fill this gap.

  4. Advanced in the neutron feedback ICF reactor concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results are reviewed and updated from an earlier design study of a novel nuclear-pumped flashlamp laser (NP-FL) inertial fusion energy (IFE) power reactor based on the neutron feedback concept for IFE. This concept includes nuclear pumping of the laser flashlamp, a D-T seeded D-3He target and magnetic protection of the first wall of the reactor chamber coupled with direct conversion of deflected charged particles. Advantages include an increased overall plant efficiency due to improved energy coupling via neutron feedback, increased thermal-to-electric energy conversion efficiency, and lower neutron activation and waste. These factors are reflected in a driver energy of 5 MJ and a target gain of only 50 for a 53 % efficient 1000-MWe power plant operating at 6 Hz, novel components involved. However, they require further technological development. Consequently, the NP-FL plant appears to provide a very attractive 'second-generation' IFE reactor. (authors)

  5. Quality of experience advanced concepts, applications and methods

    CERN Document Server

    Raake, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    This pioneering book develops definitions and concepts related to Quality of Experience in the context of multimedia- and telecommunications-related applications, systems and services, and applies these to various fields of communication and media technologies. The editors bring together numerous key-protagonists of the new discipline “Quality of Experience” and combine the state-of-the-art knowledge in one single volume. 

  6. Advanced SFR Concept Based on PRISM and KALIMER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor has been recognized as one of the promising nuclear options for generating electricity with efficient uranium resource utilization and reduction of radioactive wastes from nuclear power plants. This paper compares design features, identifies differences between KALIMER-600 and S-PRISM sodium-cooled reactors, and derives R and D requirements in order to explore the possibility of developing a novel SFR concept. (author)

  7. A Novel superconducting toroidal field magnet concept using advanced materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, J.

    1992-03-01

    The plasma physics database indicates that two distinct approaches to tokamak design may lead to commercial fusion reactors: low Aspect ratio, high plasma current, relatively low magnetic field devices, and high Aspect ratio, high field devices. The former requires significant enhancements in plasma performance, while the latter depends primarily upon technology development. The key technology for the commercialization of the high-field approach is large, high magnetic field superconducting magnets. In this paper, the physics motivation for the high field approach and key superconducting magnet (SCM) development issues are reviewed. Improved SCM performance may be obtained from improved materials and/or improved engineering. Superconducting materials ranging from NbTi to high- T c oxides are reviewed, demonstrating the broad range of potential superconducting materials. Structural material options are discussed, including cryogenic steel alloys and fiber-reinforced composite materials. Again, the breadth of options is highlighted. The potential for improved magnet engineering is quantified in terms of the Virial Theorem Limit, and two examples of approaches to highly optimized magnet configurations are discussed. The force-reduced concept, which is a finite application of the force-free solutions to Ampere's Law, appear promising for large SCMs but may be limited by the electromagnetics of a fusion plasma. The Solid Superconducting Cylinder (SSC) concept is proposed. This concept combines the unique properties of high- T c superconductors within a low- T c SCM to obtain (1) significant reductions in the structural material volume, (2) a decoupling of the tri-axial (compressive and tensile) stress state, and (3) a demountable TF magnet system. The advantages of this approach are quantified in terms of a 24 T commercial reactor TF magnet system. Significant reductions in the mechanical stress and the TF radial build are demonstrated.

  8. Knowledge based systems advanced concepts, techniques and applications

    CERN Document Server

    1997-01-01

    The field of knowledge-based systems (KBS) has expanded enormously during the last years, and many important techniques and tools are currently available. Applications of KBS range from medicine to engineering and aerospace.This book provides a selected set of state-of-the-art contributions that present advanced techniques, tools and applications. These contributions have been prepared by a group of eminent researchers and professionals in the field.The theoretical topics covered include: knowledge acquisition, machine learning, genetic algorithms, knowledge management and processing under unc

  9. Cogeneration power plant concepts using advanced gas turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huettenhofer, K.; Lezuo, A. [Siemens Power Generation, Erlangen (Germany)

    2001-07-01

    Cogeneration of heat and power (CHP) is undeniably the environmentally most favourable way of making efficient use of energy in the power generation industry. Cogeneration is also particularly appreciated by political decision makers because of its high yield from primary energy sources, and thus its contribution to the protection of the environment and the conservation of resources. Advanced gas turbines, along with an intelligent power plant design consisting of pre-engineered, modular power plant items, will help cogeneration to play an important role in future energy markets also from an economic point of view. (orig.)

  10. Proof-of-concept and advancement of the CellFlux concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odenthal, Christian; Steinmann, Wolf-Dieter

    2016-05-01

    The CellFlux storage system is a new concept for reducing the costs of medium to high temperature thermal energy storage. Initially designed for solar thermal power plants, the concept is suitable for industrial processes and power to heat applications as well. This paper gives first results of a new pilot scale plant set up at DLR in Stuttgart as a proof of concept. Experimental results are used for the validation of a simplified model. The model is apllied to calculate pareto optimal storage configurations in terms of necessary storage mass and exergetic efficiency, suitable for two types of solar thermal power plants. Particularly for applications having larger temperature differences, high exergetic efficiencies at low costs for the storage material can be achieved.

  11. Advances in sliding mode control concept, theory and implementation

    CERN Document Server

    Janardhanan, S; Spurgeon, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    The sliding mode control paradigm has become a mature technique for the design of robust controllers for a wide class of systems including nonlinear, uncertain and time-delayed systems. This book is a collection of plenary and invited talks delivered at the 12th IEEE International Workshop on Variable Structure System held at the Indian Institute of Technology, Mumbai, India in January 2012. After the workshop, these researchers were invited to develop book chapters for this edited collection in order to reflect the latest results and open research questions in the area. The contributed chapters have been organized by the editors to reflect the various themes of sliding mode control which are the current areas of theoretical research and applications focus; namely articulation of the fundamental underpinning theory of the sliding mode design paradigm, sliding modes for decentralized system representations, control of time-delay systems, the higher order sliding mode concept, results applicable to nonlinear an...

  12. Advanced Turbine Systems Program industrial system concept development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gates, S.

    1995-12-31

    Solar approached Phase II of ATS program with the goal of 50% thermal efficiency. An intercolled and recuperated gas turbine was identified as the ultimate system to meet this goal in a commercial gas turbine environment. With commercial input from detailed market studies and DOE`s ATS program, Solar redefined the company`s proposed ATS to fit both market and sponsor (DOE) requirements. Resulting optimized recuperated gas turbine will be developed in two sizes, 5 and 15 MWe. It will show a thermal efficiency of about 43%, a 23% improvement over current industrial gas turbines. Other ATS goals--emissions, RAMD (reliability, availability, maintainability, durability), cost of power--will be met or exceeded. During FY95, advanced development of key materials, combustion and component technologies proceeded to the point of acceptance for inclusion in ATS Phase III.

  13. Advanced sulfur control concepts for hot-gas desulfurization technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This research project examined the feasibility of a second generation high-temperature coal gas desulfurization process in which elemental sulfur is produced directly during the sorbent regeneration phase. Two concepts were evaluated experimentally. In the first, FeS was regenerated in a H2O-O2 mixture. Large fractions of the sulfur were liberated in elemental form when the H2O-O2 ratio was large. However, the mole percent of elemental sulfur in the product was always quite small (<<1%) and a process based on this concept was judged to be impractical because of the low temperature and high energy requirements associated with condensing the sulfur. The second concept involved desulfurization using CeO2 and regeneration of the sulfided sorbent, Ce2O2S, using SO2 to produce elemental sulfur directly. No significant side reactions were observed and the reaction was found to be quite rapid over the temperature range of 500C to 700C. Elemental sulfur concentrations (as S2) as large as 20 mol% were produced. Limitations associated with the cerium sorbent process are concentrated in the desulfurization phase. High temperature and highly reducing coal gas such as produced in the Shell gasification process are required if high sulfur removal efficiencies are to be achieved. For example, the equilibrium H2S concentration at 800C from a Shell gas in contact with CeO2 is about 300 ppmv, well above the allowable IGCC specification. In this case, a two-stage desulfurization process using CeO2 for bulk H2S removal following by a zinc sorbent polishing step would be required. Under appropriate conditions, however, CeO2 can be reduced to non-stoichiometric CeOn (n<2) which has significantly greater affinity for H2S. Pre-breakthrough H2S concentrations in the range of 1 ppmv to 5 ppmv were measured in sulfidation tests using CeOn at 700C in highly reducing gases, as measured by equilibrium O2 concentration, comparable to the Shell gas. Good sorbent durability was indicated in a

  14. ADVANCED SULFUR CONTROL CONCEPTS FOR HOT-GAS DESULFURIZATION TECHNOLOGY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. LOPEZ ORTIZ; D.P. HARRISON; F.R. GROVES; J.D. WHITE; S. ZHANG; W.-N. HUANG; Y. ZENG

    1998-10-31

    This research project examined the feasibility of a second generation high-temperature coal gas desulfurization process in which elemental sulfur is produced directly during the sorbent regeneration phase. Two concepts were evaluated experimentally. In the first, FeS was regenerated in a H2O-O2 mixture. Large fractions of the sulfur were liberated in elemental form when the H2O-O2 ratio was large. However, the mole percent of elemental sulfur in the product was always quite small (<<1%) and a process based on this concept was judged to be impractical because of the low temperature and high energy requirements associated with condensing the sulfur. The second concept involved desulfurization using CeO2 and regeneration of the sulfided sorbent, Ce2O2S, using SO2 to produce elemental sulfur directly. No significant side reactions were observed and the reaction was found to be quite rapid over the temperature range of 500°C to 700°C. Elemental sulfur concentrations (as S2) as large as 20 mol% were produced. Limitations associated with the cerium sorbent process are concentrated in the desulfurization phase. High temperature and highly reducing coal gas such as produced in the Shell gasification process are required if high sulfur removal efficiencies are to be achieved. For example, the equilibrium H2S concentration at 800°C from a Shell gas in contact with CeO2 is about 300 ppmv, well above the allowable IGCC specification. In this case, a two-stage desulfurization process using CeO2 for bulk H2S removal following by a zinc sorbent polishing step would be required. Under appropriate conditions, however, CeO2 can be reduced to non-stoichiometric CeOn (n<2) which has significantly greater affinity for H2S. Pre-breakthrough H2S concentrations in the range of 1 ppmv to 5 ppmv were measured in sulfidation tests using CeOn at 700°C in highly reducing gases, as measured by equilibrium O2 concentration, comparable to the Shell gas. Good sorbent durability was indicated in

  15. Prescriptive concepts for advanced nuclear materials control and accountability systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Networking- and distributed-processing hardware and software have the potential of greatly enhancing nuclear materials control and accountability (MC and A) systems, from both safeguards and process operations perspectives, while allowing timely integrated safeguards activities and enhanced computer security at reasonable cost. A hierarchical distributed system is proposed consisting of groups of terminal and instruments in plant production and support areas connected to microprocessors that are connected to either larger microprocessors or minicomputers. These micros and/or minis are connected to a main machine, which might be either a mainframe or a super minicomputer. Data acquisition, preliminary input data validation, and transaction processing occur at the lowest level. Transaction buffering, resource sharing, and selected data processing occur at the intermediate level. The host computer maintains overall control of the data base and provides routine safeguards and security reporting and special safeguards analyses. The research described outlines the distribution of MC and A system requirements in the hierarchical system and distributed processing applied to MC and A. Implications of integrated safeguards and computer security concepts for the distributed system design are discussed. 10 refs., 4 figs

  16. Advanced concept considerations for STOL short-haul systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweet, H. S.; Renshaw, J. H.

    1975-01-01

    Design, performance, and economic tradeoffs for STOL short-haul systems are presented. The analyses showed that quiet, short-field aircraft can be economically viable and provide benefits to airport congestion and to community noise relief. The objective of the studies was to compare and evaluate propulsive-lift systems and low-wing-loading aircraft provided with ride quality control and gust load alleviation, and to determine fuel consumption and cost tradeoffs, along with recommendations for development of technology, noise criteria, and airport planning. In the low density arena, the optimum aircraft sized for less than 50 passengers have active controls for ride quality and gust alleviation; turboprop propulsion offers significant cost and fuel saving with no appreciable block time penalty for the short typical stage lengths (on the order of 150 miles). In the high density arena, high bypass-ratio fan-powered aircraft, with design cruise speed of 0.7 to 0.75M and range capability to 1500 miles, are considered to be optimum. Field performance of 3000 feet or better can be achieved by the hybrid over-the-wing/internally blown flap concept with viable economics and low fuel consumption. Mechanical flap aircraft with high bypass-ratio engines are indicated to be superior for field lengths of 3500 feet or more. Technology development of propulsive lift is required, and further definition of the best fan-powered engine for low noise and low fuel consumption is needed.

  17. Composite Fan Blade Design for Advanced Engine Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abumeri, Galib H.; Kuguoglu, Latife H.; Chamis, Christos C.

    2004-01-01

    The aerodynamic and structural viability of composite fan blades of the revolutionary Exo-Skeletal engine are assessed for an advanced subsonic mission using the NASA EST/BEST computational simulation system. The Exo-Skeletal Engine (ESE) calls for the elimination of the shafts and disks completely from the engine center and the attachment of the rotor blades in spanwise compression to a rotating casing. The fan rotor overall adiabatic efficiency obtained from aerodynamic analysis is estimated at 91.6 percent. The flow is supersonic near the blade leading edge but quickly transitions into a subsonic flow without any turbulent boundary layer separation on the blade. The structural evaluation of the composite fan blade indicates that the blade would buckle at a rotor speed that is 3.5 times the design speed of 2000 rpm. The progressive damage analysis of the composite fan blade shows that ply damage is initiated at a speed of 4870 rpm while blade fracture takes place at 7640 rpm. This paper describes and discusses the results for the composite blade that are obtained from aerodynamic, displacement, stress, buckling, modal, and progressive damage analyses. It will be demonstrated that a computational simulation capability is readily available to evaluate new and revolutionary technology such as the ESE.

  18. Some Advanced Concepts in Discrete Aerodynamic Sensitivity Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Arthur C., III; Green, Lawrence L.; Newman, Perry A.; Putko, Michele M.

    2003-01-01

    An efficient incremental iterative approach for differentiating advanced flow codes is successfully demonstrated on a two-dimensional inviscid model problem. The method employs the reverse-mode capability of the automatic differentiation software tool ADIFOR 3.0 and is proven to yield accurate first-order aerodynamic sensitivity derivatives. A substantial reduction in CPU time and computer memory is demonstrated in comparison with results from a straightforward, black-box reverse-mode applicaiton of ADIFOR 3.0 to the same flow code. An ADIFOR-assisted procedure for accurate second-rder aerodynamic sensitivity derivatives is successfully verified on an inviscid transonic lifting airfoil example problem. The method requires that first-order derivatives are calculated first using both the forward (direct) and reverse (adjoinct) procedures; then, a very efficient noniterative calculation of all second-order derivatives can be accomplished. Accurate second derivatives (i.e., the complete Hesian matrices) of lift, wave drag, and pitching-moment coefficients are calculated with respect to geometric shape, angle of attack, and freestream Mach number.

  19. Advanced Direct Liquefaction Concepts for PETC Generic Units - Phase II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1997-09-01

    Reported here are the results of Laboratory and Bench- Scale experiments and supporting technical and economic assessments conducted under DOE Contract No. DE- AC22- 91PC91040 during the period April 1, 1997 to June 30, 1997. This contract is with the University of Kentucky Research Foundation which supports work with the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research, CONSOL, Inc., LDP Associates, and Hydrocarbon Technologies, Inc. This work involves the introduction into the basic two stage liquefaction process several novel concepts which includes dispersed lower- cost catalysts, coal cleaning by oil agglomeration, and distillate hydrotreating and dewaxing. This report includes a data analysis of the ALC- 2 run which was the second continuous run in which Wyodak Black Thunder coal was fed to a two kg/ h bench- scale unit. One of the objectives of that run was to determine the relative activity of several Mo- based coal impregnated catalyst precursors. The precursors included ammonium heptamolybdate (100 mg Mo/ kg dry coal), which was used alone as well as in combination with ferrous sulfate (1% Fe/ dry coal) and nickel sulfate (50 mg Ni/ kg dry coal). The fourth precursor that was tested was phosphomolybdic acid which was used at a level of 100 mg Mo/ kg dry coal. Because of difficulties in effectively separating solids from the product stream, considerable variation in the feed stream occurred. Although the coal feed rate was nearly constant, the amount of recycle solvent varied which resulted in wide variations of resid, unconverted coal and mineral matter in the feed stream. Unfortunately, steady state was not achieved in any of the four conditions that were run. Earlier it was reported that Ni- Mo catalyst appeared to give the best results based upon speculative steady- state yields that were developed.

  20. Earth's Critical Zone and hydropedology: concepts, characteristics, and advances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Lin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The Critical Zone (CZ is a holistic framework for integrated studies of water with soil, rock, air, and biotic resources in the near-surface terrestrial environment. This most heterogeneous and complex region of the Earth ranges from the vegetation top to the aquifer bottom, with a highly variable thickness globally and a yet-to-be clearly defined lower boundary of active water cycle. Interfaces among different compartments in the CZ are critical, which provide fertile ground for interdisciplinary research. The reconciliation of coupled geological and biological cycles (vastly different in space and time scales is essential to understanding the complexity and evolution of the CZ. Irreversible evolution, coupled cycling, interactive layers, and hierarchical heterogeneity are the characteristics of the CZ, suggesting that forcing, coupling, interfacing, and scaling are grand challenges for advancing CZ science. Hydropedology – the science of the behaviour and distribution of soil-water interactions in contact with mineral and biological materials in the CZ – is an important contributor to CZ study. The pedosphere is the foundation of the CZ, which represents a geomembrance across which water and solutes, as well as energy, gases, solids, and organisms are actively exchanged with the atmosphere, biosphere, hydrosphere, and lithosphere, thereby creating a life-sustaining environment. Hydropedology emphasizes in situ soils in the landscape setting, where distinct pedogenic features and soil-landscape relationships are essential to understanding interactive pedologic and hydrologic processes. Both CZ science and hydropedology embrace an evolutionary and holistic worldview, which offers stimulating opportunities through steps such as integrated systems approach, evolutionary mapping-monitoring-modeling framework, and fostering a global alliance. Our capability to predict the behaviour and evolution of the CZ in response to changing environment can

  1. Advanced materials and concepts for energy storage devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Shiang Jen

    Over the last decade, technological progress and advances in the miniaturization of electronic devices have increased demands for light-weight, high-efficiency, and carbon-free energy storage devices. These energy storage devices are expected to play important roles in automobiles, the military, power plants, and consumer electronics. Two main types of electrical energy storage systems studied in this research are Li ion batteries and supercapacitors. Several promising solid state electrolytes and supercapacitor electrode materials are investigated in this research. The first section of this dissertation is focused on the novel results on pulsed laser annealing of Li7La3Zr2O12 (LLZO). LLZO powders with a tetragonal structure were prepared by a sol-gel technique, then a pulsed laser annealing process was employed to convert the tetragonal powders to cubic LLZO without any loss of lithium. The second section of the dissertation reports on how Li5La 3Nb2O12 (LLNO) was successfully synthesized via a novel molten salt synthesis (MSS) method at the relatively low temperature of 900°C. The low sintering temperature prevented the loss of lithium that commonly occurs during synthesis using conventional solid state or wet chemical reactions. The second type of energy storage device studied is supercapacitors. Currently, research on supercapacitors is focused on increasing their energy densities and lowering their overall production costs by finding suitable electrode materials. The third section of this dissertation details how carbonized woods electrodes were used as supercapacitor electrode materials. A high energy density of 45.6 Wh/kg and a high power density of 2000 W/kg were obtained from the supercapacitor made from carbonized wood electrodes. The high performance of the supercapacitor was discovered to originate from the hierarchical porous structures of the carbonized wood. Finally, the fourth section of this dissertation is on the electrochemical effects of

  2. ADVANCED UNDERGROUND GAS STORAGE CONCEPTS REFRIGERATED-MINED CAVERN STORAGE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-09-01

    Limited demand and high cost has prevented the construction of hard rock caverns in this country for a number of years. The storage of natural gas in mined caverns may prove technically feasible if the geology of the targeted market area is suitable; and economically feasible if the cost and convenience of service is competitive with alternative available storage methods for peak supply requirements. It is believed that mined cavern storage can provide the advantages of high delivery rates and multiple fill-withdrawal cycles in areas where salt cavern storage is not possible. In this research project, PB-KBB merged advanced mining technologies and gas refrigeration techniques to develop conceptual designs and cost estimates to demonstrate the commercialization potential of the storage of refrigerated natural gas in hard rock caverns. Five regions of the U.S.A. were studied for underground storage development and PB-KBB reviewed the literature to determine if the geology of these regions was suitable for siting hard rock storage caverns. Area gas market conditions in these regions were also studied to determine the need for such storage. Based on an analysis of many factors, a possible site was determined to be in Howard and Montgomery Counties, Maryland. The area has compatible geology and a gas industry infrastructure for the nearby market populous of Baltimore and Washington D.C.. As Gas temperature is lowered, the compressibility of the gas reaches an optimum value. The compressibility of the gas, and the resultant gas density, is a function of temperature and pressure. This relationship can be used to commercial advantage by reducing the size of a storage cavern for a given working volume of natural gas. This study looks at this relationship and and the potential for commercialization of the process in a storage application. A conceptual process design, and cavern design were developed for various operating conditions. Potential site locations were considered

  3. The Space Weather Observation Network (SWON) Concept - Inauguration of the DLR Advanced Study Group

    OpenAIRE

    Maiwald, Volker; Weiß, André; Quantius, Dominik; Schubert, Daniel; Jansen, Frank

    2011-01-01

    The DLR Advanced Study Group (ASG) is a team of engineers and scientists that investigates visionary or unusual aerospace concepts regarding their feasibility and applicability to scientific problems, in an attempt to erase the “fiction” from the “science fiction” of scientifically valid ideas and make them rigorous science. To achieve this, the ASG uses established processes and new approaches for concept analysis, like so called Concurrent Evaluation sessions. One of the first ideas investi...

  4. Proceedings of the Workshop on Advanced Network and Technology Concepts for Mobile, Micro, and Personal Communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Lori (Editor)

    1991-01-01

    The Workshop on Advanced Network and Technology Concepts for Mobile, Micro, and Personal Communications was held at NASA's JPL Laboratory on 30-31 May 1991. It provided a forum for reviewing the development of advanced network and technology concepts for turn-of-the-century telecommunications. The workshop was organized into three main categories: (1) Satellite-Based Networks (L-band, C-band, Ku-band, and Ka-band); (2) Terrestrial-Based Networks (cellular, CT2, PCN, GSM, and other networks); and (3) Hybrid Satellite/Terrestrial Networks. The proceedings contain presentation papers from each of the above categories.

  5. Quality Nursing Care for Hospitalized Patients with Advanced Illness: Concept Development

    OpenAIRE

    Izumi, Shigeko; Baggs, Judith G.; Knafl, Kathleen A.

    2010-01-01

    The quality of nursing care as perceived by hospitalized patients with advanced illness has not been examined. A concept of quality nursing care for this population was developed by integrating the literature on constructs defining quality nursing care with empirical findings from interviews of 16 patients with advanced illness. Quality nursing care was characterized as competence and personal caring supported by professionalism and delivered with an appropriate demeanor. Although the attribu...

  6. BASIC PRINCIPLES AND CONCEPTS UNDERLYING RECENT ADVANCES IN MRI OF THE DEVELOPING BRAIN

    OpenAIRE

    Panigrahy, Ashok; Borzage, Matthew; Blüml, Stefan

    2010-01-01

    Over the last decade, magnetic resonance imaging has become an essential tool in the evaluation of both in vivo human brain development and perinatal brain injury. Recent technology including MR compatible neonatal incubators, neonatal head coils, advanced MR pulse sequences and 3T field strength magnets allow high quality MR imaging studies to be performed on sick neonates. This article will review basic principles and concepts underlying recent advances in MR spectroscopy, diffusion, perfus...

  7. Chemiluminescence methods (present and future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navas, M. J.

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available This article provides a general review of chemiluminescent methods in some of their recent applications in drug analysis, sea water analysis or antioxidant activity of natural and synthetic products (including olive oil. Practical considerations are not included in the review since the main interest is to state, through the aforementioned applications, that chemiluminescence has been, is, and will be a versatile tool for Analytical Chemistry in future years.Este artículo da una visión general de los métodos de quimiluminiscencia en algunas de las aplicaciones más recientes en análisis de drogas, análisis del agua marina o la actividad antioxidante de productos naturales y de síntesis (incluyendo el aceite de oliva. Las consideraciones prácticas no están incluidas ya que el principal interés es establecer, a través de las aplicaciones mencionadas, que la quimiluminiscencia ha sido, es y será en los próximos años una herramienta versátil de la Química Analítica.

  8. Development of a metal-clad advanced composite shear web design concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laakso, J. H.

    1974-01-01

    An advanced composite web concept was developed for potential application to the Space Shuttle Orbiter main engine thrust structure. The program consisted of design synthesis, analysis, detail design, element testing, and large scale component testing. A concept was sought that offered significant weight saving by the use of Boron/Epoxy (B/E) reinforced titanium plate structure. The desired concept was one that was practical and that utilized metal to efficiently improve structural reliability. The resulting development of a unique titanium-clad B/E shear web design concept is described. Three large scale components were fabricated and tested to demonstrate the performance of the concept: a titanium-clad plus or minus 45 deg B/E web laminate stiffened with vertical B/E reinforced aluminum stiffeners.

  9. An Exploration of Learners' Conceptions of Language, Culture, and Learning in Advanced-Level Spanish Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drewelow, Isabelle; Mitchell, Claire

    2015-01-01

    This article reports on an exploratory study, which examines learners' rating of culture in relation to other concepts in advanced Spanish courses and their justification of the ratings attributed. Open-ended responses, elicited from a questionnaire completed by 179 respondents, were analysed line by line using an interpretive approach. Data…

  10. Advanced Planning Concepts in the Closed-Loop Container Network of ARN

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Le Blanc, H.M.; van Krieken, M.G.C.; Krikke, H.R.; Fleuren, H.A.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we discuss a real-life case study in the optimization of the logistics network for the collection of containers from end-of-life vehicle dismantlers in the Netherlands.Advanced planning concepts like dynamic assignment of dismantlers to logistic service providers are analyzed by a simu

  11. Teaching Advanced Concepts in Computer Networks: VNUML-UM Virtualization Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Martinez, A.; Pereniguez-Garcia, F.; Marin-Lopez, R.; Ruiz-Martinez, P. M.; Skarmeta-Gomez, A. F.

    2013-01-01

    In the teaching of computer networks the main problem that arises is the high price and limited number of network devices the students can work with in the laboratories. Nowadays, with virtualization we can overcome this limitation. In this paper, we present a methodology that allows students to learn advanced computer network concepts through…

  12. Advanced Monobore Concept, Development of CFEX Self-Expanding Tubular Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeff Spray

    2007-09-30

    The Advanced Monobore Concept--CFEX{copyright} Self-Expanding Tubular Technology Development was a successfully executed fundamental research through field demonstration project. This final report is presented as a progression, according to basic technology development steps. For this project, the research and development steps used were: concept development, engineering analysis, manufacturing, testing, demonstration, and technology transfer. The CFEX{copyright} Technology Development--Advanced Monobore Concept Project successfully completed all of the steps for technology development, covering fundamental research, conceptual development, engineering design, advanced-level prototype construction, mechanical testing, and downhole demonstration. Within an approximately two year period, a partially defined, broad concept was evolved into a substantial new technological area for drilling and production engineering applicable a variety of extractive industries--which was also successfully demonstrated in a test well. The demonstration achievement included an actual mono-diameter placement of two self-expanding tubulars. The fundamental result is that an economical and technically proficient means of casing any size of drilling or production well or borehole is indicated as feasible based on the results of the project. Highlighted major accomplishments during the project's Concept, Engineering, Manufacturing, Demonstration, and Technology Transfer phases, are given.

  13. Design concepts and advanced manipulator development for nuclear fuel cycle facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the Fuel Recycle Division, Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, a comprehensive remote systems development program has existed for the past seven years. The new remote technology under development is expected to significantly improve remote operations by extending the range of tasks accomplished by remote means and increasing the efficiency of remote work undertaken. The application of advanced manipulation is viewed as an essential part of a series of design directions whose sum describes a somewhat unique blend of old and new technology. A design direction based upon the Teletec concept is explained and recent progress in the development of an advanced servomanipulator-based maintenance concept is summarized to show that a new generation of remote systems is feasible through advanced technology. 14 refs., 14 figs

  14. Down Selection of the Design Options for an Advanced Gen IV SFR Concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yong Bum; Lee, D. U.; Kim, Y. I.; Won, B. C.; Hahn, Do Hee

    2008-11-15

    Several design concepts for incorporating those concepts into a Generation IV SFR reactor concept were proposed, based on the KALIMER-600 design developed previously by KAERI. Those concepts were suggested to define capacity, conversion ratio, cladding material, number of loops for a heat transport system and turbine type. This report addresses the main results and progress achieved this year in each research and development work for specifying each concept finally next year. The capacity of a breakeven core was defined to be 1200 MWe taking into account a TRU inventory and a discharge burnup from the viewpoint of fuel utilization. For the breakeven core specification, an enrichment split core configuration having the advantage of better neutronic economics and simpler fuel fabrication, has been selected and its core design is being carried out. Total twenty specimens for the first and second candidate alloys were designed and manufactured to develop a new cladding alloy. For those alloy specimens, a mechanical performance was evaluated and a microscopic structure has been observed. A candidate for a new cladding alloy will finally be determined following the evaluation of the third candidate alloy next year. In terms of less component units per loop and a smaller installation space, a two-loop heat transport system was selected and its detailed configuration is being developed. For defining a steam generator concept, a double walled tube type was selected from the viewpoint of reliability, economics and manufacture capability of a steam generator. A steam generator type will finally be determined to be either a straight tube type or a helical tube type, judging advances achieved in future development of the steam generator concepts. A Rankine cycle concept established well was given preference as a reference concept for BOP. A S-CO{sub 2} Brayton cycle concept newly developed as an advanced concept needs a long-term R and D work and experimental verification to

  15. Advanced Spacesuit Portable Life Support System Packaging Concept Mock-Up Design & Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    O''Connell, Mary K.; Slade, Howard G.; Stinson, Richard G.

    1998-01-01

    A concentrated development effort was begun at NASA Johnson Space Center to create an advanced Portable Life Support System (PLSS) packaging concept. Ease of maintenance, technological flexibility, low weight, and minimal volume are targeted in the design of future micro-gravity and planetary PLSS configurations. Three main design concepts emerged from conceptual design techniques and were carried forth into detailed design, then full scale mock-up creation. "Foam", "Motherboard", and "LEGOtm" packaging design concepts are described in detail. Results of the evaluation process targeted maintenance, robustness, mass properties, and flexibility as key aspects to a new PLSS packaging configuration. The various design tools used to evolve concepts into high fidelity mock ups revealed that no single tool was all encompassing, several combinations were complimentary, the devil is in the details, and, despite efforts, many lessons were learned only after working with hardware.

  16. Advanced Space Transportation Concepts and Propulsion Technologies for a New Delivery Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, John W.; McCleskey, Carey M.; Rhodes, Russel E.; Lepsch, Roger A.; Henderson, Edward M.; Joyner, Claude R., III; Levack, Daniel J. H.

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes Advanced Space Transportation Concepts and Propulsion Technologies for a New Delivery Paradigm. It builds on the work of the previous paper "Approach to an Affordable and Productive Space Transportation System". The scope includes both flight and ground system elements, and focuses on their compatibility and capability to achieve a technical solution that is operationally productive and also affordable. A clear and revolutionary approach, including advanced propulsion systems (advanced LOX rich booster engine concept having independent LOX and fuel cooling systems, thrust augmentation with LOX rich boost and fuel rich operation at altitude), improved vehicle concepts (autogeneous pressurization, turbo alternator for electric power during ascent, hot gases to purge system and keep moisture out), and ground delivery systems, was examined. Previous papers by the authors and other members of the Space Propulsion Synergy Team (SPST) focused on space flight system engineering methods, along with operationally efficient propulsion system concepts and technologies. This paper continues the previous work by exploring the propulsion technology aspects in more depth and how they may enable the vehicle designs from the previous paper. Subsequent papers will explore the vehicle design, the ground support system, and the operations aspects of the new delivery paradigm in greater detail.

  17. A Framework for Human Performance Criteria for Advanced Reactor Operational Concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacques V Hugo; David I Gertman; Jeffrey C Joe

    2014-08-01

    This report supports the determination of new Operational Concept models needed in support of the operational design of new reactors. The objective of this research is to establish the technical bases for human performance and human performance criteria frameworks, models, and guidance for operational concepts for advanced reactor designs. The report includes a discussion of operating principles for advanced reactors, the human performance issues and requirements for human performance based upon work domain analysis and current regulatory requirements, and a description of general human performance criteria. The major findings and key observations to date are that there is some operating experience that informs operational concepts for baseline designs for SFR and HGTRs, with the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II) as a best-case predecessor design. This report summarizes the theoretical and operational foundations for the development of a framework and model for human performance criteria that will influence the development of future Operational Concepts. The report also highlights issues associated with advanced reactor design and clarifies and codifies the identified aspects of technology and operating scenarios.

  18. Analytical Applications of Bioluminescence and Chemiluminescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chappelle, E. W. (Editor); Picciolo, G. L. (Editor)

    1975-01-01

    Bioluminescence and chemiluminescence studies were used to measure the amount of adenosine triphosphate and therefore the amount of energy available. Firefly luciferase - luciferin enzyme system was emphasized. Photometer designs are also considered.

  19. Waste-to-energy advanced cycles and new design concepts for efficient power plants

    CERN Document Server

    Branchini, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    This book provides an overview of state-of-the-art technologies for energy conversion from waste, as well as a much-needed guide to new and advanced strategies to increase Waste-to-Energy (WTE) plant efficiency. Beginning with an overview of municipal solid waste production and disposal, basic concepts related to Waste-To-Energy conversion processes are described, highlighting the most relevant aspects impacting the thermodynamic efficiency of WTE power plants. The pervasive influences of main steam cycle parameters and plant configurations on WTE efficiency are detailed and quantified. Advanc

  20. Yttrium-90 Radioembolization of Hepatocellular Carcinoma-Performance, Technical Advances, and Future Concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molvar, Christopher; Lewandowski, Robert

    2015-12-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a lethal tumor, claiming over half a million lives per year. Treatment of HCC is commonly performed without curative intent, and palliative options dominate, including catheter-based therapies, namely, transarterial chemoembolization and yttrium-90 ((90)Y) radioembolization. This review will showcase the performance of (90)Y radioembolization for the treatment of HCC, focusing on recent seminal data and technical advances. In particular, novel radioembolization treatment concepts are discussed and compared with conventional HCC therapy.

  1. Study of advanced composite structural design concepts for an arrow wing supersonic cruise configuration, task 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    A structural design study was conducted to assess the relative merits of structural concepts using advanced composite materials for an advanced supersonic aircraft cruising at Mach 2.7. The configuration and structural arrangement developed during Task I and II of the study, was used as the baseline configuration. Allowable stresses and strains were established for boron and advanced graphite fibers based on projected fiber properties available in the next decade. Structural concepts were designed and analyzed using graphite polyimide and boron polyimide, applied to stiffened panels and conventional sandwich panels. The conventional sandwich panels were selected as the structural concept to be used on the wing structure. The upper and lower surface panels of the Task I arrow wing were redesigned using high-strength graphite polyimide sandwich panels over the titanium spars and ribs. The ATLAS computer system was used as the basis for stress analysis and resizing the surface panels using the loads from the Task II study, without adjustment for change in aeroelastic deformation. The flutter analysis indicated a decrease in the flutter speed compared to the baseline titanium wing design. The flutter analysis indicated a decrease in the flutter speed compared to the baseline titanium wing design. The flutter speed was increased to that of the titanium wing, with a weight penalty less than that of the metallic airplane.

  2. NASA Advanced Concepts Office, Earth-To-Orbit Team Design Process and Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, Eric D.; Garcia, Jessica; Beers, Benjamin; Philips, Alan; Holt, James B.; Threet, Grady E., Jr.

    2013-01-01

    The Earth to Orbit (ETO) Team of the Advanced Concepts Office (ACO) at NASA Marshal Space Flight Center (MSFC) is considered the preeminent group to go to for prephase A and phase A concept definition. The ACO team has been at the forefront of a multitude of launch vehicle studies determining the future direction of the Agency as a whole due, in part, to their rapid turnaround time in analyzing concepts and their ability to cover broad trade spaces of vehicles in that limited timeframe. Each completed vehicle concept includes a full mass breakdown of each vehicle to tertiary subsystem components, along with a vehicle trajectory analysis to determine optimized payload delivery to specified orbital parameters, flight environments, and delta v capability. Additionally, a structural analysis of the vehicle based on material properties and geometries is performed as well as an analysis to determine the flight loads based on the trajectory outputs. As mentioned, the ACO Earth to Orbit Team prides themselves on their rapid turnaround time and often need to fulfill customer requests within limited schedule or little advanced notice. Due to working in this fast paced environment, the ETO team has developed some finely honed skills and methods to maximize the delivery capability to meet their customer needs. This paper will describe the interfaces between the 3 primary disciplines used in the design process; weights and sizing, trajectory, and structural analysis, as well as the approach each discipline employs to streamline their particular piece of the design process.

  3. Design Concept of Advanced Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactor and Related R&D in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeong-il Kim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Korea imports about 97% of its energy resources due to a lack of available energy resources. In this status, the role of nuclear power in electricity generation is expected to become more important in future years. In particular, a fast reactor system is one of the most promising reactor types for electricity generation, because it can utilize efficiently uranium resources and reduce radioactive waste. Acknowledging the importance of a fast reactor in a future energy policy, the long-term advanced SFR development plan was authorized by KAEC in 2008 and updated in 2011 which will be carried out toward the construction of an advanced SFR prototype plant by 2028. Based upon the experiences gained during the development of the conceptual designs for KALIMER, KAERI recently developed advanced sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR design concepts of TRU burner that can better meet the generation IV technology goals. The current status of nuclear power and SFR design technology development program in Korea will be discussed. The developments of design concepts including core, fuel, fluid system, mechanical structure, and safety evaluation have been performed. In addition, the advanced SFR technologies necessary for its commercialization and the basic key technologies have been developed including a large-scale sodium thermal-hydraulic test facility, super-critical Brayton cycle system, under-sodium viewing techniques, metal fuel development, and developments of codes, and validations are described as R&D activities.

  4. To MARS and Beyond with Nuclear Power - Design Concept of Korea Advanced Nuclear Thermal Engine Rocket

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nam, Seung Hyun; Chang, Soon Heung [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    The President Park of ROK has also expressed support for space program promotion, praising the success of NARO as evidence of a positive outlook. These events hint a strong signal that ROK's space program will be accelerated by the national eager desire. In this national eager desire for space program, the policymakers and the aerospace engineers need to pay attention to the advanced nuclear technology of ROK that is set to a major world nuclear energy country, even exporting the technology. The space nuclear application is a very much attractive option because its energy density is the most enormous among available energy sources in space. This paper presents the design concept of Korea Advanced Nuclear Thermal Engine Rocket (KANuTER) that is one of the advanced nuclear thermal rocket engine developing in Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST) for space application. Solar system exploration relying on CRs suffers from long trip time and high cost. In this regard, nuclear propulsion is a very attractive option for that because of higher performance and already demonstrated technology. Although ROK was a late entrant into elite global space club, its prospect as a space racer is very bright because of the national eager desire and its advanced technology. Especially it is greatly meaningful that ROK has potential capability to launch its nuclear technology into space as a global nuclear energy leader and a soaring space adventurer. In this regard, KANuTER will be a kind of bridgehead for Korean space nuclear application.

  5. Advanced Scintillator Detector Concept (ASDC): A Concept Paper on the Physics Potential of Water-Based Liquid Scintillator

    CERN Document Server

    Alonso, J R; Bergevin, M; Bernstein, A; Bignell, L; Blucher, E; Calaprice, F; Conrad, J M; Descamps, F B; Diwan, M V; Dwyer, D A; Dye, S T; Elagin, A; Feng, P; Grant, C; Grullon, S; Hans, S; Jaffe, D E; Kettell, S H; Klein, J R; Lande, K; Learned, J G; Luk, K B; Maricic, J; Marleau, P; Mastbaum, A; McDonough, W F; Oberauer, L; Gann, G D Orebi; Rosero, R; Rountree, S D; Sanchez, M C; Shaevitz, M H; Shokair, T M; Smy, M B; Strait, M; Svoboda, R; Tolich, N; Vagins, M R; van Bibber, K A; Viren, B; Vogelaar, R B; Wetstein, M J; Winslow, L; Wonsak, B; Worcester, E T; Wurm, M; Yeh, M; Zhang, C

    2014-01-01

    The recent development of Water-based Liquid Scintillator (WbLS), and the concurrent development of high-efficiency and high-precision-timing light sensors, has opened up the possibility for a new kind of large-scale detector capable of a very broad program of physics. The program would include determination of the neutrino mass hierarchy and observation of CP violation with long-baseline neutrinos, searches for proton decay, ultra-precise solar neutrino measurements, geo- and supernova neutrinos including diff?use supernova antineutrinos, and neutrinoless double beta decay. We outline here the basic requirements of the Advanced Scintillation Detector Concept (ASDC), which combines the use of WbLS, doping with a number of potential isotopes for a range of physics goals, high efficiency and ultra-fast timing photosensors, and a deep underground location. We are considering such a detector at the Long Baseline Neutrino Facility (LBNF) far site, where the ASDC could operate in conjunction with the liquid argon t...

  6. US long distance fiber optic networks: Technology, evolution and advanced concepts. Volume 3: Advanced networks and economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    This study projects until 2000 the evolution of long distance fiber optic networks in the U.S. Volume 1 is the executive Summary. Volume 2 focuses on fiber optic components and systems that are directly related to the operation of long-haul networks. Optimistic, pessimistic and most likely scenarios of technology development are presented. The activities of national and regional companies implementing fiber long haul networks are also highlighted, along with an analysis of the market and regulatory forces affecting network evolution. Volume 3 presents advanced fiber optic network concept definitions. Inter-LATA traffic is quantified and forms the basis for the construction of 11-, 15-, 17-, and 23-node networks. Using the technology projections from Volume 2, a financial model identifies cost drivers and determines circuit mile costs between any two LATAs. A comparison of fiber optics with alternative transmission concludes the report.

  7. Comparison of Chemiluminescence vs. Infrared Techniques for Detection of Fetuin-A in Saliva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, Suresh T; Graff, Emily; Judd, Robert L; Kothari, Vishal

    2015-01-01

    The western blotting technique for transfer and detection of proteins, named following the discovery of southern and northern blotting for DNA- and RNA-blotting, respectively, has traditionally relied on the use of X-ray films to capture chemiluminescence. Recent advancements use super-cooled charge coupled devices (CCD) cameras to capture both chemiluminescence and fluorescence images, which exhibit a greater dynamic range compared to traditional X-ray film. Chemiluminescence detected by a CCD camera records photons and displays an image based on the amount of light generated as a result of a dynamic chemical reaction. Fluorescent detection with a CCD camera, on the other hand, is measured in a static state. Despite this advantage, researchers continue to widely use chemiluminescent detection methods due to the generally poor performance of fluorophores in the visible spectrum. Infrared imaging systems offer a solution to the dynamic reactions of chemiluminescence and the poor performance of fluorophores detected in the visible spectrum, by imaging fluorophores in the infrared spectrum. Infrared imaging is static, has a wide linear range, high sensitivity, and reduced autofluorescence and light scatter. A distinct advantage of infrared imaging is the ability to detect two target proteins simultaneously on the same blot which increases accuracy of quantification and comparison, while minimizing the need for stripping and reprobing. Here, we compare the methodology for chemiluminescent (UVP BioChemi) and infrared (UVP Odyssey) detection of salivary total and phosphorylated fetuin-A, a multifunctional protein associated with cardio-metabolic risk, and discuss the advantages and disadvantages of these methodologies.

  8. BALANCED SCORECARD AS AN ADVANCED MANAGEMENT CONCEPT WITHIN THE INTEGRATED QUALITY MANAGEMENT MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevan Zivojinovic

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The significance of >Integratedquality management< (IQM model, originating form St.Gallen-model, is reflected in the need for synergic application of new and advanced concepts of management theory and practise. Balanced score card (BSC within IQM model becomes a catalyst of business success for a modern organization by focusing on organizational variables-business strategy, organization structure and corporate culture. BSC is the leading system of performance tracking and strategy implementation, consistent with other management concepts and methods for managing process improvement. Through BSC, IQM processes' activities correlate with organization business results. BSC management processes enable integration of all decision-making levels, from institutional via strategic to operative, in the process starting from planing, i.e. formulating and implementation of strategy, to feed back by performance measurement and control.

  9. Optimization of an Advanced Hybrid Wing Body Concept Using HCDstruct Version 1.2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinlan, Jesse R.; Gern, Frank H.

    2016-01-01

    Hybrid Wing Body (HWB) aircraft concepts continue to be promising candidates for achieving the simultaneous fuel consumption and noise reduction goals set forth by NASA's Environmentally Responsible Aviation (ERA) project. In order to evaluate the projected benefits, improvements in structural analysis at the conceptual design level were necessary; thus, NASA researchers developed the Hybrid wing body Conceptual Design and structural optimization (HCDstruct) tool to perform aeroservoelastic structural optimizations of advanced HWB concepts. In this paper, the authors present substantial updates to the HCDstruct tool and related analysis, including: the addition of four inboard and eight outboard control surfaces and two all-movable tail/rudder assemblies, providing a full aeroservoelastic analysis capability; the implementation of asymmetric load cases for structural sizing applications; and a methodology for minimizing control surface actuation power using NASTRAN SOL 200 and HCDstruct's aeroservoelastic finite-element model (FEM).

  10. Work Domain Analysis Methodology for Development of Operational Concepts for Advanced Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hugo, Jacques [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-05-01

    This report describes a methodology to conduct a Work Domain Analysis in preparation for the development of operational concepts for new plants. This method has been adapted from the classical method described in the literature in order to better deal with the uncertainty and incomplete information typical of first-of-a-kind designs. The report outlines the strategy for undertaking a Work Domain Analysis of a new nuclear power plant and the methods to be used in the development of the various phases of the analysis. Basic principles are described to the extent necessary to explain why and how the classical method was adapted to make it suitable as a tool for the preparation of operational concepts for a new nuclear power plant. Practical examples are provided of the systematic application of the method and the various presentation formats in the operational analysis of advanced reactors.

  11. Study of advanced composite structural design concepts for an arrow wing supersonic cruise configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, M. J.; Grande, D. L.

    1978-01-01

    Based on estimated graphite and boron fiber properties, allowable stresses and strains were established for advanced composite materials. Stiffened panel and conventional sandwich panel concepts were designed and analyzed, using graphite/polyimide and boron/polyimide materials. The conventional sandwich panel was elected as the structural concept for the modified wing structure. Upper and lower surface panels of the arrow wing structure were then redesigned, using high strength graphite/polyimide sandwich panels, retaining the titanium spars and ribs from the prior study. The ATLAS integrated analysis and design system was used for stress analysis and automated resizing of surface panels. Flutter analysis of the hybrid structure showed a significant decrease in flutter speed relative to the titanium wing design. The flutter speed was increased to that of the titanium design by selective increase in laminate thickness and by using graphite fibers with properties intermediate between high strength and high modulus values.

  12. Development and proof-testing of advanced absorption refrigeration cycle concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Modahl, R.J.; Hayes, F.C. (Trane Co., La Crosse, WI (United States). Applied Unitary/Refrigeration Systems Div.)

    1992-03-01

    The overall objectives of this project are to evaluate, develop, and proof-test advanced absorption refrigeration cycles that are applicable to residential and commercial heat pumps for space conditioning. The heat pump system is to be direct-fired with natural gas and is to use absorption working fluids whose properties are known. Target coefficients of performance (COPs) are 1.6 at 47{degrees}F and 1.2 at 17{degrees} in the heating mode, and 0.7 at 95{degree}F in the cooling mode, including the effect of flue losses. The project is divided into three phases. Phase I entailed the analytical evaluation of advanced cycles and included the selection of preferred concepts for further development. Phase II involves the development and testing of critical components and of a complete laboratory breadboard version of the selected system. Phase III calls for the development of a prototype unit and is contingent on the successful completion of Phase II. This report covers Phase I work on the project. In Phase 1, 24 advanced absorption cycle/fluid combinations were evaluated, and computer models were developed to predict system performance. COP, theoretical pump power, and internal heat exchange were calculated for each system, and these calculations were used as indicators of operating and installed costs in order to rank the relative promise of each system. The highest ranking systems involve the cycle concept of absorber/generator heat exchange, generator heat exchanger/absorber heat exchange, regeneration, and resorption/desorption, in combination with the NH{sub 3}/H{sub 2}O/LiBr ternary absorption fluid mixture or with the NH{sub 3}/H{sub 2}O binary solution. Based upon these conclusions, the recommendation was made to proceed to Phase II, the laboratory breadboard proof-of- concept.

  13. Development of Advanced Concept for Shortening Construction Period of ABWR Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Construction of a nuclear power plant (NPP) requires a very long period because of large amount of construction materials and many issues for negotiation among multiple sections. Shortening the construction period advances the date of return on an investment, and can also result in reduced construction cost. Therefore, the study of this subject has a very high priority for utilities. We achieved a construction period of 37 months from the first concrete work to fuel loading (F/L) (51.5 months from the inspection of the foundation (I/F) to the start of commercial operation (C/O)) at the Kashiwazaki-Kariwa NPPs No. 6 and 7 (KK-6/7), which are the first ABWR plants in the world. At TEPCO's next plant, we think that a construction period of less than 36 months (45 months from I/F to C/O) can be realized based on conventional methods such as early start of equipment installation and blocking of equipment to be brought in advance. Furthermore, we are studying the feasibility of a 21.5-month construction period (30 months from I/F to C/O) with advanced ideas and methods. The important concepts for a 21.5-month construction period are adoption of a new building structure that is the steel plate reinforced concrete (SC) structure and promotion of extensive modularization of equipment and building structure. With introducing these new concepts, we are planning the master schedule (M/S) and finding solutions to conflicts in the schedule of area release from building construction work to equipment installation work (schedule-conflicts.) In this report, we present the shortest construction period and an effective method to put it into practice for the conventional general arrangement (GA) of ABWR. In the future, we will continue the study on the improvement of building configuration and arrangements, and make clear of the concept for large composite modules of building structures and equipment. (authors)

  14. DEVELOPMENT OF OPERATIONAL CONCEPTS FOR ADVANCED SMRs: THE ROLE OF COGNITIVE SYSTEMS ENGINEERING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacques Hugo; David Gertman

    2014-04-01

    Advanced small modular reactors (AdvSMRs) will use advanced digital instrumentation and control systems, and make greater use of automation. These advances not only pose technical and operational challenges, but will inevitably have an effect on the operating and maintenance (O&M) cost of new plants. However, there is much uncertainty about the impact of AdvSMR designs on operational and human factors considerations, such as workload, situation awareness, human reliability, staffing levels, and the appropriate allocation of functions between the crew and various automated plant systems. Existing human factors and systems engineering design standards and methodologies are not current in terms of human interaction requirements for dynamic automated systems and are no longer suitable for the analysis of evolving operational concepts. New models and guidance for operational concepts for complex socio-technical systems need to adopt a state-of-the-art approach such as Cognitive Systems Engineering (CSE) that gives due consideration to the role of personnel. This approach we report on helps to identify and evaluate human challenges related to non-traditional concepts of operations. A framework - defining operational strategies was developed based on the operational analysis of Argonne National Laboratory’s Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II), a small (20MWe) sodium-cooled reactor that was successfully operated for thirty years. Insights from the application of the systematic application of the methodology and its utility are reviewed and arguments for the formal adoption of CSE as a value-added part of the Systems Engineering process are presented.

  15. Draft Function Allocation Framework and Preliminary Technical Basis for Advanced SMR Concepts of Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacques Hugo; John Forester; David Gertman; Jeffrey Joe; Heather Medema; Julius Persensky; April Whaley

    2013-08-01

    This report presents preliminary research results from the investigation into the development of new models and guidance for Concepts of Operations in advanced small modular reactor (AdvSMR) designs. AdvSMRs are nuclear power plants (NPPs), but unlike conventional large NPPs that are constructed on site, AdvSMRs systems and components will be fabricated in a factory and then assembled on site. AdvSMRs will also use advanced digital instrumentation and control systems, and make greater use of automation. Some AdvSMR designs also propose to be operated in a multi-unit configuration with a single central control room as a way to be more cost-competitive with existing NPPs. These differences from conventional NPPs not only pose technical and operational challenges, but they will undoubtedly also have regulatory compliance implications, especially with respect to staffing requirements and safety standards.

  16. Advanced Supersonic Nozzle Concepts: Experimental Flow Visualization Results Paired With LES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Matthew; Magstadt, Andrew; Stack, Cory; Gaitonde, Datta; Glauser, Mark; Syracuse University Team; The Ohio State University Team

    2015-11-01

    Advanced supersonic nozzle concepts are currently under investigation, utilizing multiple bypass streams and airframe integration to bolster performance and efficiency. This work focuses on the parametric study of a supersonic, multi-stream jet with aft deck. The single plane of symmetry, rectangular nozzle, displays very complex and unique flow characteristics. Flow visualization techniques in the form of PIV and schlieren capture flow features at various deck lengths and Mach numbers. LES is compared to the experimental results to both validate the computational model and identify limitations of the simulation. By comparing experimental results to LES, this study will help create a foundation of knowledge for advanced nozzle designs in future aircraft. SBIR Phase II with Spectral Energies, LLC under direction of Barry Kiel.

  17. Advanced Hybrid Spacesuit Concept Featuring Integrated Open Loop and Closed Loop Ventilation Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Brian A.; Fitzpatrick, Garret R.; Gohmert, Dustin M.; Ybarra, Rick M.; Dub, Mark O.

    2013-01-01

    A document discusses the design and prototype of an advanced spacesuit concept that integrates the capability to function seamlessly with multiple ventilation system approaches. Traditionally, spacesuits are designed to operate both dependently and independently of a host vehicle environment control and life support system (ECLSS). Spacesuits that operate independent of vehicle-provided ECLSS services must do so with equipment selfcontained within or on the spacesuit. Suits that are dependent on vehicle-provided consumables must remain physically connected to and integrated with the vehicle to operate properly. This innovation is the design and prototype of a hybrid spacesuit approach that configures the spacesuit to seamlessly interface and integrate with either type of vehicular systems, while still maintaining the ability to function completely independent of the vehicle. An existing Advanced Crew Escape Suit (ACES) was utilized as the platform from which to develop the innovation. The ACES was retrofitted with selected components and one-off items to achieve the objective. The ventilation system concept was developed and prototyped/retrofitted to an existing ACES. Components were selected to provide suit connectors, hoses/umbilicals, internal breathing system ducting/ conduits, etc. The concept utilizes a lowpressure- drop, high-flow ventilation system that serves as a conduit from the vehicle supply into the suit, up through a neck seal, into the breathing helmet cavity, back down through the neck seal, out of the suit, and returned to the vehicle. The concept also utilizes a modified demand-based breathing system configured to function seamlessly with the low-pressure-drop closed-loop ventilation system.

  18. Advanced direct liquefaction concepts for PETC generic units. Final report, Phase I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-03-01

    The Advanced Concepts for Direct Coal Liquefaction program was initiated by the Department of Energy in 1991 to develop technologies that could significantly reduce the cost of producing liquid fuels by the direct liquefaction of coal. The advanced 2-stage liquefaction technology that was developed at Wilsonville over the past 10 years has contributed significantly toward decreasing the cost of producing liquids from coal to about $33/bbl. It remains, however, the objective of DOE to further reduce this cost to a level more competitive with petroleum based products. This project, among others, was initiated to investigate various alternative approaches to develop technologies that might ultimately lead to a 25 % reduction in cost of product. In this project a number of novel concepts were investigated, either individually or in a coupled configuration that had the potential to contribute toward meeting the DOE goal. The concepts included mature technologies or ones closely related to them, such as coal cleaning by oil agglomeration, fluid coking and distillate hydrotreating and dewaxing. Other approaches that were either embryonic or less developed were chemical pretreatment of coal to remove oxygen, and dispersed catalyst development for application in the 2-stage liquefaction process. This report presents the results of this project. It is arranged in four sections which were prepared by participating organizations responsible for that phase of the project. A summary of the overall project and the principal results are given in this section. First, however, an overview of the process economics and the process concepts that were developed during the course of this program is presented.

  19. A concept of an advanced inertia fusion reactor; TAKANAWA-I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A concept of an advanced inertia fusion reactor: TAKANAWA-I is proposed. A pellet with DT ignitor and DD major fuel, Pb wet walls, C or SiC blocks for shielding, and SiC vessels in the water pool are employed. This reactor does not need blanckets for T breeding, since T is supplied through DD reaction, and has low induced radioactivities. These and a simple structure might give a hopeful prediction of economical and safe advantages and mitigate difficulties of reactor technologies, especially remote maintenance of the reactor. (author)

  20. Advanced automation concepts applied to Experimental Breeder Reactor-II startup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The major objective of this work is to demonstrate through simulations that advanced liquid-metal reactor plants can be operated from low power by computer control. Development of an automatic control system with this objective will help resolve specific issues and provide proof through demonstration that automatic control for plant startup is feasible. This paper presents an advanced control system design for startup of the Experimental Breeder Reactor-2 (EBR-2) located at Idaho Falls, Idaho. The design incorporates recent methods in nonlinear control with advanced diagnostics techniques such as neural networks to form an integrated architecture. The preliminary evaluations are obtained in a simulated environment by a low-order, valid nonlinear model. Within the framework of phase 1 research, the design includes an inverse dynamics controller, a fuzzy controller, and an artificial neural network controller. These three nonlinear control modules are designed to follow the EBR-2 startup trajectories in a multi-input/output regime. They are coordinated by a supervisory routine to yield a fault-tolerant, parallel operation. The control system operates in three modes: manual, semiautomatic, and fully automatic control. The simulation results of the EBR-2 startup transients proved the effectiveness of the advanced concepts. The work presented in this paper is a preliminary feasibility analysis and does not constitute a final design of an automated startup control system for EBR-2. 14 refs., 43 figs

  1. Chemiluminescence of indole and its derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasil'ev, Rostislav F.; Trofimov, A. V.; Tsaplev, Yuri B.

    2010-02-01

    The results of studies on chemiluminescence of indole and its derivatives are critically analyzed. It is shown that chemical transformations of indoles lead, depending on the structure and experimental conditions, to various electronically excited products and emission of light. Many reactions considered are used as a basis for highly sensitive methods for detection of indoles in biology, medicine, ecology and forensics.

  2. Tribopolymerization: An advanced lubrication concept for automotive engines and systems of the future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furey, M.J. [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ., Blacksburg, VA (United States); Kajdas, C. [Warsaw Univ. of Technology, Plock (Poland); Kaltenbach, K.W. [Triad Investors Corp., Baltimore, MD (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Advanced lubrication technologies based on the concept of tribopolymerization as a mechanism of boundary lubrication are described. Advantages of this approach as well as potential applications which could have an impact on the design, manufacture, and performance of existing and future automotive engines are presented and discussed. Tribopolymerization, a novel concept of molecular design developed by Furey and Kajdas, involves the continuous formation of thin polymeric films on rubbing surfaces; the protective films formed are self-replenishing. The antiwear compounds developed from this technology are effective with metals as well as ceramics and in the liquid as well as vapor phases. Furthermore, they are ashless and contain no harmful phosphorus or sulfur; and many are biodegradable. Thus, potential applications of this technology are diverse and include a variety of cost/performance/energy/environmental advantages. Examples include the following: (a) machining and cutting applications using thin films to reduce friction and ceramic tool wear; (b) the lubrication of ceramic engines (e.g., low heat rejection diesel engines) or ceramic components; (c) the development of ashless lubricants for existing and future automotive engines to reduce exhaust catalyst poisoning and environmental emissions; (d) ashless antiwear or ``lubricity`` additives for fuels, including gasoline, diesel and jet fuel; (e) vapor phase applications of this technology to high temperature gaseous systems or to fuel injector wear problems associated with the use of natural gas engines; and (f) the use of the concept of tribopolymerization as an enabling technology in the development of new engines and new automotive propulsion systems.

  3. Draft Function Allocation Framework and Preliminary Technical Basis for Advanced SMR Concepts of Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacques Hugo; John Forester; David Gertman; Jeffrey Joe; Heather Medema; Julius Persensky; April Whaley

    2013-04-01

    This report presents preliminary research results from the investigation in to the development of new models and guidance for concepts of operations (ConOps) in advanced small modular reactor (aSMR) designs. In support of this objective, three important research areas were included: operating principles of multi-modular plants, functional allocation models and strategies that would affect the development of new, non-traditional concept of operations, and the requiremetns for human performance, based upon work domain analysis and current regulatory requirements. As part of the approach for this report, we outline potential functions, including the theoretical and operational foundations for the development of a new functional allocation model and the identification of specific regulatory requirements that will influence the development of future concept of operations. The report also highlights changes in research strategy prompted by confirmationof the importance of applying the work domain analysis methodology to a reference aSMR design. It is described how this methodology will enrich the findings from this phase of the project in the subsequent phases and help in identification of metrics and focused studies for the determination of human performance criteria that can be used to support the design process.

  4. Generic Repository Concepts and Thermal Analysis for Advanced Fuel Cycles - 12477

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A geologic disposal concept for spent nuclear fuel (SNF) or high-level waste (HLW) consists of three components: waste inventory, geologic setting, and concept of operations. A set of reference geologic disposal concepts has been developed by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Used Fuel Disposition campaign. Reference concepts are identified for crystalline rock, clay/shale, bedded salt, and deep borehole (crystalline basement) geologic settings. These were analyzed for waste inventory cases representing a range of waste types that could be produced by advanced nuclear fuel cycles. Concepts of operation consisting of emplacement mode, repository layout, and engineered barrier descriptions, were selected based on international progress. All of these disposal concepts are enclosed emplacement modes, whereby waste packages are in direct contact with encapsulating engineered or natural materials. Enclosed modes have less capacity to dissipate heat than open modes such as that proposed for a repository at Yucca Mountain. Thermal analysis has identified important relationships between waste package size and capacity, and the duration of surface decay storage needed to meet temperature limits for different disposal concepts. For the crystalline rock and clay/shale repository concepts, a waste package surface temperature limit of 100 deg. C was assumed to prevent changes in clay-based buffer material or clay-rich host rock. Surface decay storage of 50 to 100 years is needed for disposal of high-burnup LWR SNF in 4-PWR packages, or disposal of HLW glass from reprocessing LWR uranium oxide (UOX) fuel. High-level waste (HLW) from reprocessing of metal fuel used in a fast reactor could be disposed after decay storage of 50 years or less. For disposal in salt the rock thermal conductivity is significantly greater, and higher temperatures (200 deg. C) can be tolerated at the waste package surface. Decay storage of 10 years or less is needed for high-burnup LWR SNF in 4-PWR

  5. Generic Repository Concepts and Thermal Analysis for Advanced Fuel Cycles - 12477

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardin, Ernest [Sandia National Laboratories, P.O. Box 5800 MS 0736, Albuquerque, NM 87185 (United States); Blink, James [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, Livermore, CA 94551-0808 (United States); Carter, Joe [Savannah River National Laboratory, Savannah River Site, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States); Fratoni, Massimiliano; Greenberg, Harris; Sutton, Mark [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (United States); Howard, Robert [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, P.O. Box 2008, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    A geologic disposal concept for spent nuclear fuel (SNF) or high-level waste (HLW) consists of three components: waste inventory, geologic setting, and concept of operations. A set of reference geologic disposal concepts has been developed by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Used Fuel Disposition campaign. Reference concepts are identified for crystalline rock, clay/shale, bedded salt, and deep borehole (crystalline basement) geologic settings. These were analyzed for waste inventory cases representing a range of waste types that could be produced by advanced nuclear fuel cycles. Concepts of operation consisting of emplacement mode, repository layout, and engineered barrier descriptions, were selected based on international progress. All of these disposal concepts are enclosed emplacement modes, whereby waste packages are in direct contact with encapsulating engineered or natural materials. Enclosed modes have less capacity to dissipate heat than open modes such as that proposed for a repository at Yucca Mountain. Thermal analysis has identified important relationships between waste package size and capacity, and the duration of surface decay storage needed to meet temperature limits for different disposal concepts. For the crystalline rock and clay/shale repository concepts, a waste package surface temperature limit of 100 deg. C was assumed to prevent changes in clay-based buffer material or clay-rich host rock. Surface decay storage of 50 to 100 years is needed for disposal of high-burnup LWR SNF in 4-PWR packages, or disposal of HLW glass from reprocessing LWR uranium oxide (UOX) fuel. High-level waste (HLW) from reprocessing of metal fuel used in a fast reactor could be disposed after decay storage of 50 years or less. For disposal in salt the rock thermal conductivity is significantly greater, and higher temperatures (200 deg. C) can be tolerated at the waste package surface. Decay storage of 10 years or less is needed for high-burnup LWR SNF in 4-PWR

  6. Advanced payload concepts and system architecture for emerging services in Indian National Satellite Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramanian, E. P.; Rao, N. Prahlad; Sarkar, S.; Singh, D. K.

    2008-07-01

    Over the past two decades Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) has developed and operationalized satellites to generate a large capacity of transponders for telecommunication service use in INSAT system. More powerful on-board transmitters are built to usher-in direct-to-home broadcast services. These have transformed the Satcom application scenario in the country. With the proliferation of satellite technology, a shift in the Indian market is witnessed today in terms of demand for new services like Broadband Internet, Interactive Multimedia, etc. While it is imperative to pay attention to market trends, ISRO is also committed towards taking the benefits of technological advancement to all round growth of our population, 70% of which dwell in rural areas. The initiatives already taken in space application related to telemedicine, tele-education and Village Resource Centres are required to be taken to a greater height of efficiency. These targets pose technological challenges to build a large capacity and cost-effective satellite system. This paper addresses advanced payload concepts and system architecture along with the trade-off analysis on design parameters in proposing a new generation satellite system capable of extending the reach of the Indian broadband structure to individual users, educational and medical institutions and enterprises for interactive services. This will be a strategic step in the evolution of INSAT system to employ advanced technology to touch every human face of our population.

  7. Integral design concepts of advanced water cooled reactors. Proceedings of a technical committee meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Under the sub-programme on non-electrical applications of advanced reactors, the International Atomic Energy Agency has been providing a worldwide forum for exchange of information on integral reactor concepts. Two Technical Committee meetings were held in 1994 and 1995 on the subject where state-of-the-art developments were presented. Efforts are continuing for the development of advanced nuclear reactors of both evolutionary and innovative design, for electricity, co-generation and heat applications. While single purpose reactors for electricity generation may require small and medium sizes under certain conditions, reactors for heat applications and co-generation would be necessary in the small and medium range and need to be located closer to the load centres. The integral design approach to the development of advanced light water reactors has received special attention over the past few years. Several designs are in the detailed design stage, some are under construction, one prototype is in operation. A need has been felt for guidance on a number of issues, ranging from design objectives to the assessment methodology needed to show how integral designs can meet these objectives, and also to identify their advantages and problem areas. The technical document addresses the current status of the design, safety and operational issues of integral reactors and recommends areas for future development

  8. Advanced Technology Subsonic Transport Study: N+3 Technologies and Design Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymer, Daniel P.; Wilson, Jack; Perkins, H. Douglas; Rizzi, Arthur; Zhang, Mengmeng; RamirezPuentes, Alfredo

    2011-01-01

    Conceptual Research Corporation, the Science of the Possible, has completed a two-year study of concepts and technologies for future airliners in the 180-passenger class. This NASA-funded contract was primarily focused on the ambitious goal of a 70 percent reduction in fuel consumption versus the market-dominating Boeing 737-800. The study is related to the N+3 contracts awarded in 2008 by NASA s Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate to teams led by Boeing, GE Aviation, MIT, and Northrop Grumman, but with more modest goals and funding. CRC s contract featured a predominant emphasis on propulsion and fuel consumption, but since fuel consumption depends upon air vehicle design as much as on propulsion technology, the study included notional vehicle design, analysis, and parametric studies. Other NASA goals including NOx and noise reduction are of long-standing interest but were not highlighted in this study, other than their inclusion in the propulsion system provided to CRC by NASA. The B-737-800 was used as a benchmark, parametric tool, and design point of departure. It was modeled in the RDS-Professional aircraft design software then subjected to extensive parametric variations of parasitic drag, drag-due-to-lift, specific fuel consumption, and unsized empty weight. These studies indicated that the goal of a 70 percent reduction in fuel consumption could be attained with roughly a 30 percent improvement in all four parameters. The results were then fit to a Response Surface and coded for ease of use in subsequent trade studies. Potential technologies to obtain such savings were identified and discussed. More than 16 advanced concept designs were then prepared, attempting to investigate almost every possible emerging concept for application to this class airliner. A preliminary assessment of these concepts was done based on their total wetted area after design normalization of trimmed maximum lift. This assessment points towards a Tailless Airliner concept which

  9. Improvement of environmental aspects of thermal power plant operation by advanced control concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikulandrić Robert

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The necessity of the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, as formulated in the Kyoto Protocol, imposes the need for improving environmental aspects of existing thermal power plants operation. Improvements can be reached either by efficiency increment or by implementation of emission reduction measures. Investments in refurbishment of existing plant components or in plant upgrading by flue gas desulphurization, by primary and secondary measures of nitrogen oxides reduction, or by biomass co-firing, are usually accompanied by modernisation of thermal power plant instrumentation and control system including sensors, equipment diagnostics and advanced controls. Impact of advanced control solutions implementation depends on technical characteristics and status of existing instrumentation and control systems as well as on design characteristics and actual conditions of installed plant components. Evaluation of adequacy of implementation of advanced control concepts is especially important in Western Balkan region where thermal power plants portfolio is rather diversified in terms of size, type and commissioning year and where generally poor maintenance and lack of investments in power generation sector resulted in high greenhouse gases emissions and low efficiency of plants in operation. This paper is intended to present possibilities of implementation of advanced control concepts, and particularly those based on artificial intelligence, in selected thermal power plants in order to increase plant efficiency and to lower pollutants emissions and to comply with environmental quality standards prescribed in large combustion plant directive. [Acknowledgements. This paper has been created within WBalkICT - Supporting Common RTD actions in WBCs for developing Low Cost and Low Risk ICT based solutions for TPPs Energy Efficiency increasing, SEE-ERA.NET plus project in cooperation among partners from IPA SA - Romania, University of Zagreb - Croatia and Vinca

  10. Development of a VOR/DME model for an advanced concepts simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinmetz, G. G.; Bowles, R. L.

    1984-01-01

    The report presents a definition of a VOR/DME, airborne and ground systems simulation model. This description was drafted in response to a need in the creation of an advanced concepts simulation in which flight station design for the 1980 era can be postulated and examined. The simulation model described herein provides a reasonable representation of VOR/DME station in the continental United States including area coverage by type and noise errors. The detail in which the model has been cast provides the interested researcher with a moderate fidelity level simulator tool for conducting research and evaluation of navigator algorithms. Assumptions made within the development are listed and place certain responsibilities (data bases, communication with other simulation modules, uniform round earth, etc.) upon the researcher.

  11. AICD -- Advanced Industrial Concepts Division Biological and Chemical Technologies Research Program. 1993 Annual summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petersen, G.; Bair, K.; Ross, J. [eds.

    1994-03-01

    The annual summary report presents the fiscal year (FY) 1993 research activities and accomplishments for the United States Department of Energy (DOE) Biological and Chemical Technologies Research (BCTR) Program of the Advanced Industrial Concepts Division (AICD). This AICD program resides within the Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) of the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EE). The annual summary report for 1993 (ASR 93) contains the following: A program description (including BCTR program mission statement, historical background, relevance, goals and objectives), program structure and organization, selected technical and programmatic highlights for 1993, detailed descriptions of individual projects, a listing of program output, including a bibliography of published work, patents, and awards arising from work supported by BCTR.

  12. A program to develop advanced EBT [ELMO Bumpy Torus] concepts and international collaboration on the Bumpy Torus concept: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This project was undertaken to develop innovative concepts for improving the performance of ELMO Bumpy Torus devices in those aspects of plasma confinement that are particularly relevant to an eventual EBT reactor concept. These include effective magnetic utilization using Andreoletti coils, enhanced confinement using positive ambipolar potentials, and attractive divertor concepts that are compatible with formation and maintenance of ELMO rings. Each of the three major objectives was achieved and, except for the divertor studies, documented for publication and presentation at major scientific meetings. This report provides a brief recapitulation of the major results achieved in the form of a collection of those publications, together with this Introduction

  13. Chemiluminescent Detection of Enzymatically Produced H2S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, T. Spencer; Pluth, Michael D.

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has emerged as an important biological signaling molecule. To better understand the multifaceted biological roles of H2S, the development of selective and sensitive biocompatible assays for H2S is becoming increasingly important. Motivated by these challenges, our laboratory is developing new methods to further detect and monitor biological H2S. Here, we describe in detail our recent advances in the development and the use of chemiluminescence-based H2S sensors to assist other investigators with use of these chemical tools. We highlight the use of these tools use by displaying their selectivity and high sensitivity toward H2S and provide examples of assays we have developed to detect enzymatically produced H2S. PMID:25725517

  14. Technology Alignment and Portfolio Prioritization (TAPP): Advanced Methods in Strategic Analysis, Technology Forecasting and Long Term Planning for Human Exploration and Operations, Advanced Exploration Systems and Advanced Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funaro, Gregory V.; Alexander, Reginald A.

    2015-01-01

    The Advanced Concepts Office (ACO) at NASA, Marshall Space Flight Center is expanding its current technology assessment methodologies. ACO is developing a framework called TAPP that uses a variety of methods, such as association mining and rule learning from data mining, structure development using a Technological Innovation System (TIS), and social network modeling to measure structural relationships. The role of ACO is to 1) produce a broad spectrum of ideas and alternatives for a variety of NASA's missions, 2) determine mission architecture feasibility and appropriateness to NASA's strategic plans, and 3) define a project in enough detail to establish an initial baseline capable of meeting mission objectives ACO's role supports the decision­-making process associated with the maturation of concepts for traveling through, living in, and understanding space. ACO performs concept studies and technology assessments to determine the degree of alignment between mission objectives and new technologies. The first step in technology assessment is to identify the current technology maturity in terms of a technology readiness level (TRL). The second step is to determine the difficulty associated with advancing a technology from one state to the next state. NASA has used TRLs since 1970 and ACO formalized them in 1995. The DoD, ESA, Oil & Gas, and DoE have adopted TRLs as a means to assess technology maturity. However, "with the emergence of more complex systems and system of systems, it has been increasingly recognized that TRL assessments have limitations, especially when considering [the] integration of complex systems." When performing the second step in a technology assessment, NASA requires that an Advancement Degree of Difficulty (AD2) method be utilized. NASA has used and developed or used a variety of methods to perform this step: Expert Opinion or Delphi Approach, Value Engineering or Value Stream, Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP), Technique for the Order of

  15. Proceedings of the International Symposium on Dynamics of Fluids in Fractured Rocks: Concepts and Recent Advances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faybishenko, B. (ed.)

    1999-02-01

    This publication contains extended abstracts of papers presented at the International Symposium ''Dynamics of Fluids in Fractured Rocks: Concepts and Recent Advances'' held at Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory on February 10-12, 1999. This Symposium is organized in Honor of the 80th Birthday of Paul A. Witherspoon, who initiated some of the early investigations on flow and transport in fractured rocks at the University of California, Berkeley, and at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. He is a key figure in the development of basic concepts, modeling, and field measurements of fluid flow and contaminant transport in fractured rock systems. The technical problems of assessing fluid flow, radionuclide transport, site characterization, modeling, and performance assessment in fractured rocks remain the most challenging aspects of subsurface flow and transport investigations. An understanding of these important aspects of hydrogeology is needed to assess disposal of nu clear wastes, development of geothermal resources, production of oil and gas resources, and remediation of contaminated sites. These Proceedings of more than 100 papers from 12 countries discuss recent scientific and practical developments and the status of our understanding of fluid flow and radionuclide transport in fractured rocks. The main topics of the papers are: Theoretical studies of fluid flow in fractured rocks; Multi-phase flow and reactive chemical transport in fractured rocks; Fracture/matrix interactions; Hydrogeological and transport testing; Fracture flow models; Vadose zone studies; Isotopic studies of flow in fractured systems; Fractures in geothermal systems; Remediation and colloid transport in fractured systems; and Nuclear waste disposal in fractured rocks.

  16. Organization of the 16th Advanced Accelerator Concepts (AAC) Workshop by Stanford University

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Zhirong [Stanford Univ., CA (United States); Hogan, Mark [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

    2015-09-30

    Essentially all we know today and will learn in the future about the fundamental nature of matter is derived from probing it with directed beams of particles such as electrons, protons, neutrons, heavy ions, and photons. The resulting ability to “see” the building blocks of matter has had an immense impact on society and our standard of living. Over the last century, particle accelerators have changed the way we look at nature and the universe we live in and have become an integral part of the Nation’s technical infrastructure. Today, particle accelerators are essential tools of modern science and technology. The cost and capabilities of accelerators would be greatly enhanced by breakthroughs in acceleration methods and technology. For the last 32 years, the Advanced Accelerator Concepts (AAC) Workshop has acted as the focal point for discussion and development of the most promising acceleration physics and technology. It is a particularly effective forum where the discussion is leveraged and promoted by the unique and demanding feature of the AAC Workshop: the working group structure, in which participants are asked to consider their contributions in terms of even larger problems to be solved. The 16th Advanced Accelerator Concepts (AAC2014) Workshop was organized by Stanford University from July 13 - 18, 2014 at the Dolce Hays Mansion in San Jose, California. The conference had a record 282 attendees including 62 students. Attendees came from 11 countries representing 66 different institutions. The workshop format consisted of plenary sessions in the morning with topical leaders from around the world presenting the latest breakthroughs to the entire workshop. In the late morning and afternoons attendees broke out into eight different working groups for more detailed presentations and discussions that were summarized on the final day of the workshop. In addition, there were student tutorial presentations on two afternoons to provide in depth education and

  17. Parabolic Flight Investigation for Advanced Exercise Concept Hardware Hybrid Ultimate Lifting Kit (HULK)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, A. S.; Funk, J. H.; Funk, N. W.; Sheehan, C. C.; Humphreys, B. T.; Perusek, G. P.

    2015-01-01

    Long-duration space flight poses many hazards to the health of the crew. Among those hazards is the physiological deconditioning of the musculoskeletal and cardiovascular systems due to prolonged exposure to microgravity. To combat this erosion of physical condition space flight may take on the crew, the Human Research Program (HRP) is charged with developing Advanced Exercise Concepts to maintain astronaut health and fitness during long-term missions, while keeping device mass, power, and volume to a minimum. The goal of this effort is to preserve the physical capability of the crew to perform mission critical tasks in transit and during planetary surface operations. The HULK is a pneumatic-based exercise system, which provides both resistive and aerobic modes to protect against human deconditioning in microgravity. Its design targeted the International Space Station (ISS) Advanced Resistive Exercise Device (ARED) high level performance characteristics and provides up to 600 foot pounds resitive loading with the capability to allow for eccentric to concentric (E:C) ratios of higher than 1:1 through a DC motor assist component. The device's rowing mode allows for high cadence aerobic activity. The HULK parabolic flight campaign, conducted through the NASA Flight Opportunities Program at Ellington Field, resulted in the creation of device specific data sets including low fidelity motion capture, accelerometry and both inline and ground reaction forces. These data provide a critical link in understanding how to vibration isolate the device in both ISS and space transit applications. Secondarily, the study of human exercise and associated body kinematics in microgravity allows for more complete understanding of human to machine interface designs to allow for maximum functionality of the device in microgravity.

  18. GTOC8: Results and Methods of ESA Advanced Concepts Team and JAXA-ISAS

    CERN Document Server

    Izzo, Dario; Märtens, Marcus; Getzner, Ingmar; Nowak, Krzysztof; Heffernan, Anna; Campagnola, Stefano; Yam, Chit Hong; Ozaki, Naoya; Sugimoto, Yoshihide

    2016-01-01

    We consider the interplanetary trajectory design problem posed by the 8th edition of the Global Trajectory Optimization Competition and present the end-to-end strategy developed by the team ACT-ISAS (a collaboration between the European Space Agency's Advanced Concepts Team and JAXA's Institute of Space and Astronautical Science). The resulting interplanetary trajectory won 1st place in the competition, achieving a final mission value of $J=146.33$ [Mkm]. Several new algorithms were developed in this context but have an interest that go beyond the particular problem considered, thus, they are discussed in some detail. These include the Moon-targeting technique, allowing one to target a Moon encounter from a low Earth orbit; the 1-$k$ and 2-$k$ fly-by targeting techniques, enabling one to design resonant fly-bys while ensuring a targeted future formation plane% is acquired at some point after the manoeuvre ; the distributed low-thrust targeting technique, admitting one to control the spacecraft formation plane...

  19. Improved best estimate plus uncertainty methodology including advanced validation concepts to license evolving nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many evolving nuclear energy technologies use advanced predictive multi-scale, multi-physics modeling and simulation (MS) capabilities to reduce the cost and schedule of design and licensing. A new methodology is needed for the validation of these predictive tools. The main components of the proposed methodology are verification, validation, calibration, and uncertainty quantification-steps similar to the components of the traditional US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) licensing approach, with the exception of the calibration step. An enhanced calibration concept is introduced here, and is accomplished through data assimilation. The goal of this methodology is to enable best-estimate prediction of system behaviors in both normal and safety-related environments. This goal requires the additional steps of estimating the domain of validation, and quantification of uncertainties, allowing for the extension of results to areas of the validation domain that are not directly tested with experiments. These might include the extension of the MS capabilities for application to full-scale systems. The new methodology suggests a formalism to quantify an adequate level of validation (predictive maturity) with respect to existing for data, so that required new testing can be minimized, saving cost by demonstrating that further testing will not enhance the quality of the predictive tools. The proposed methodology is at a conceptual level. The document is an extended abstract

  20. Advances and New Concepts in Alcohol-Induced Organelle Stress, Unfolded Protein Responses and Organ Damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Ji

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol is a simple and consumable biomolecule yet its excessive consumption disturbs numerous biological pathways damaging nearly all organs of the human body. One of the essential biological processes affected by the harmful effects of alcohol is proteostasis, which regulates the balance between biogenesis and turnover of proteins within and outside the cell. A significant amount of published evidence indicates that alcohol and its metabolites directly or indirectly interfere with protein homeostasis in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER causing an accumulation of unfolded or misfolded proteins, which triggers the unfolded protein response (UPR leading to either restoration of homeostasis or cell death, inflammation and other pathologies under severe and chronic alcohol conditions. The UPR senses the abnormal protein accumulation and activates transcription factors that regulate nuclear transcription of genes related to ER function. Similarly, this kind of protein stress response can occur in other cellular organelles, which is an evolving field of interest. Here, I review recent advances in the alcohol-induced ER stress response as well as discuss new concepts on alcohol-induced mitochondrial, Golgi and lysosomal stress responses and injuries.

  1. Lessons learned from U.S. Department of Defense 911-Bio Advanced Concept Technology Demonstrations.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldwin, T.; Gasper, W.; Lacher, L.; Newsom, D.; Yantosik, G.

    1999-07-06

    The US Department of Defense (DoD), in cooperation with other federal agencies, has taken many initiatives to improve its ability to support civilian response to a domestic biological terrorism incident. This paper discusses one initiative, the 911-Bio Advanced Concept Technology Demonstrations (ACTDs), conducted by the Office of the Secretary of Defense during 1997 to better understand: (1) the capability of newly developed chemical and biological collection and identification technologies in a field environment; (2) the ability of specialized DoD response teams to use these new technologies within the structure of cooperating DoD and civilian consequence management organizations; and (3) the adequacy of current modeling tools for predicting the dispersal of biological hazards. This paper discusses the experience of the ACTDs from the civilian community support perspective. The 911-Bio ACTD project provided a valuable opportunity for DoD and civilian officials to learn how they should use their combined capabilities to manage the aftermath of a domestic biological terrorism incident.

  2. Predicted reliability of aerospace electronics: Application of two advanced probabilistic concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suhir, E.

    Two advanced probabilistic design-for-reliability (PDfR) concepts are addressed and discussed in application to the prediction, quantification and assurance of the aerospace electronics reliability: 1) Boltzmann-Arrhenius-Zhurkov (BAZ) model, which is an extension of the currently widely used Arrhenius model and, in combination with the exponential law of reliability, enables one to obtain a simple, easy-to-use and physically meaningful formula for the evaluation of the probability of failure (PoF) of a material or a device after the given time in operation at the given temperature and under the given stress (not necessarily mechanical), and 2) Extreme Value Distribution (EVD) technique that can be used to assess the number of repetitive loadings that result in the material/device degradation and eventually lead to its failure by closing, in a step-wise fashion, the gap between the bearing capacity (stress-free activation energy) of the material or the device and the demand (loading). It is shown that the material degradation (aging, damage accumulation, flaw propagation, etc.) can be viewed, when BAZ model is considered, as a Markovian process, and that the BAZ model can be obtained as the ultimate steady-state solution to the well-known Fokker-Planck equation in the theory of Markovian processes. It is shown also that the BAZ model addresses the worst, but a reasonably conservative, situation. It is suggested therefore that the transient period preceding the condition addressed by the steady-state BAZ model need not be accounted for in engineering evaluations. However, when there is an interest in understanding the transient degradation process, the obtained solution to the Fokker-Planck equation can be used for this purpose. As to the EVD concept, it attributes the degradation process to the accumulation of damages caused by a train of repetitive high-level loadings, while loadings of levels that are considerably lower than their extreme values do not contribute

  3. Nuclear proliferation and civilian nuclear power. Report of the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program. Volume VIII. Advanced concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The goal of the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program has been to provide recommendations for the development and deployment of more proliferation-resistant civilian nuclear-power systems without jeopardizing the development of nuclear energy. In principle, new concepts for nuclear-power systems could be designed so that materials and facilities would be inherently more proliferation-resistant. Such advanced, i.e., less-developed systems, are the subject of this volume. Accordingly, from a number of advanced concepts that were proposed for evaluation, six representative concepts were selected: the fast mixed-spectrum reactor; the denatured molten-salt reactor; the mixed-flow gaseous-core reactor; the linear-accelerator fuel-regenerator reactor; the ternary metal-fueled electronuclear fuel-producer reactor; and the tokamak fusion-fission hybrid reactor

  4. Real-time chemiluminescence imaging using nano-lantern probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, Yoshiyuki; Nagai, Takeharu

    2014-01-01

    Chemiluminescence imaging can be performed without excitation light sources at various spatial levels ranging from a single cell to the whole body. Thus far, chemiluminescence imaging has been primarily performed with long exposure times because of weak signals, resulting in low temporal resolution. Recently, the brightest-known chemiluminescent proteins--Nano-lantern and Nano-lantern-based functional indicators--have been developed. Nano-lantern probes break the limitation of temporal resolution and enable chemiluminescence imaging of living samples such as cells, plants, and small animals at video rates. This unit describes one protocol for observation of a freely moving unshaved mouse transplanted with Nano-lantern-expressing tumor cells, and another for compatible use of optogenetic tools and a Nano-lantern calcium indicator. Both protocols utilize the synchronization of illumination and camera acquisition sessions, thereby enabling real-time chemiluminescence imaging.

  5. Chemiluminescence methods for the determination of ofloxacin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ofloxacin is a synthetic fluoroquinolone antibiotic that has been used in the treatment of respiratory tract, urinary tract and tissue-based infections. Methodology for the determination of ofloxacin based on chemiluminescence detection can be divided into: direct oxidation with tris(2,2'-bipyridyl)ruthenium(III) or permanganate; and enhancement of the emission from either the oxidation of sulfite or the reaction between sodium nitrite and hydrogen peroxide. In this paper, we compare the analytical methodology and evaluate the light-producing pathways that have been proposed for these reactions

  6. Chemiluminescence methods for the determination of ofloxacin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francis, Paul S. [School of Biological and Chemical Sciences, Deakin University, Geelong, Vic. 3217 (Australia)]. E-mail: psf@deakin.edu.au; Adcock, Jacqui L. [School of Biological and Chemical Sciences, Deakin University, Geelong, Vic. 3217 (Australia)

    2005-06-13

    Ofloxacin is a synthetic fluoroquinolone antibiotic that has been used in the treatment of respiratory tract, urinary tract and tissue-based infections. Methodology for the determination of ofloxacin based on chemiluminescence detection can be divided into: direct oxidation with tris(2,2'-bipyridyl)ruthenium(III) or permanganate; and enhancement of the emission from either the oxidation of sulfite or the reaction between sodium nitrite and hydrogen peroxide. In this paper, we compare the analytical methodology and evaluate the light-producing pathways that have been proposed for these reactions.

  7. The environmental impacts of Korean advanced nuclear fuel cycle KIEP-21 and disposal concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have performed a performance assessment to investigate effects of waste forms and repository designs by comparing the case of direct disposal of used PWR fuel in the Korean Reference Repository System (KRS) concept with the case of Advanced Korean Reference Disposal System (A-KRS) repository containing ILW and HLW from the KIEP-21 system. Numerical evaluations have been made for release rates of actinide and fission product isotopes at the boundaries of the engineered barrier system (EBS) and the natural barrier system (NBS) by the TTB code developed at UC Berkeley. Results show that in both cases, most actinides and their daughters remain as precipitates in the EBS because of their assumed low solubilities. The radionuclides that reach the 1 000-m location in NBS are fission products, 129I, 79Se and 36Cl. They have high solubilities and weak or no sorption with the EBS materials or with the host rock, and are released congruently with waste form alteration. In case of direct disposal, a contribution of 2% of iodine is assumed to be accumulated in the gap between the cladding and fuel pellets released after failure of the waste package and cladding dominates the total release rate. With increase in the waste form alteration time, the peak value of total release rate decreases proportionally because the dominant radionuclides are fission product isotopes, which are released from waste forms congruently with waste form dissolution. It has been shown by PHREEQC simulation that actinide solubilities can be significantly affected by pore water chemistry determined by the evolving EBS materials, waste forms and compositions of groundwater from the far field. (authors)

  8. Final Project Report "Advanced Concept Exploration For Fast Ignition Science Program"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    STEPHENS, Richard B.; McLEAN, Harry M.; THEOBALD, Wolfgang; AKLI, Kramer; BEG, Farhat N.; SENTOKU, Yasuiko; SCHUMACHER, Douglas; WEI, Mingsheng S.

    2014-01-31

    The Fast Ignition (FI) Concept for Inertial Confinement Fusion has the potential to provide a significant advance in the technical attractiveness of Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) reactors. FI differs from conventional “central hot spot” (CHS) target ignition by decoupling compression from heating: using the laser (or heavy ion beam or Z pinch) drive pulse (10’s of ns) to create a dense fuel and a second, much shorter (~10 ps) high intensity pulse to ignite a small region of it. There are two major physics issues concerning this concept; controlling the laser-induced generation of large electron currents and their propagation through high density plasmas. This project has addressed these two significant scientific issues in Relativistic High Energy Density (RHED) physics. Learning to control relativistic laser matter interaction (and the limits and potential thereof) will enable a wide range of applications. While these physics issues are of specific interest to inertial fusion energy science, they are also important for a wide range of other HED phenomena, including high energy ion beam generation, isochoric heating of materials, and the development of high brightness x-ray sources. Generating, controlling, and understanding the extreme conditions needed to advance this science has proved to be challenging: Our studies have pushed the boundaries of physics understanding and are at the very limits of experimental, diagnostic, and simulation capabilities in high energy density laboratory physics (HEDLP). Our research strategy has been based on pursuing the fundamental physics underlying the Fast Ignition (FI) concept. We have performed comprehensive study of electron generation and transport in fast-ignition targets with experiments, theory, and numerical modeling. A major issue is that the electrons produced in these experiments cannot be measured directly—only effects due to their transport. We focused mainly on x-ray continuum photons from bremsstrahlung

  9. Improved best estimate plus uncertainty methodology, including advanced validation concepts, to license evolving nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research highlights: → The best estimate plus uncertainty methodology (BEPU) is one option in the licensing of nuclear reactors. → The challenges for extending the BEPU method for fuel qualification for an advanced reactor fuel are primarily driven by schedule, the need for data, and the sufficiency of the data. → In this paper we develop an extended BEPU methodology that can potentially be used to address these new challenges in the design and licensing of advanced nuclear reactors. → The main components of the proposed methodology are verification, validation, calibration, and uncertainty quantification. → The methodology includes a formalism to quantify an adequate level of validation (predictive maturity) with respect to existing data, so that required new testing can be minimized, saving cost by demonstrating that further testing will not enhance the quality of the predictive tools. - Abstract: Many evolving nuclear energy technologies use advanced predictive multiscale, multiphysics modeling and simulation (M and S) capabilities to reduce the cost and schedule of design and licensing. Historically, the role of experiments has been as a primary tool for the design and understanding of nuclear system behavior, while M and S played the subordinate role of supporting experiments. In the new era of multiscale, multiphysics computational-based technology development, this role has been reversed. The experiments will still be needed, but they will be performed at different scales to calibrate and validate the models leading to predictive simulations for design and licensing. Minimizing the required number of validation experiments produces cost and time savings. The use of multiscale, multiphysics models introduces challenges in validating these predictive tools - traditional methodologies will have to be modified to address these challenges. This paper gives the basic aspects of a methodology that can potentially be used to address these new challenges in

  10. Detection of hydrogen peroxide with chemiluminescent micelles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongwon Lee

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Dongwon Lee1, Venkata R Erigala1,3, Madhuri Dasari1, Junhua Yu2, Robert M Dickson2, Niren Murthy11The Wallace H. Coulter Department of Biomedical Engineering; 2Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA, USA; 3The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA, USAAbstract: The overproduction of hydrogen peroxide is implicated in the progress of numerous life-threatening diseases and there is a great need for the development of contrast agents that can detect hydrogen peroxide in vivo. In this communication, we present a new contrast agent for hydrogen peroxide, termed peroxalate micelles, which detect hydrogen peroxide through chemiluminescence, and have the physical/chemical properties needed for in vivo imaging applications. The peroxalate micelles are composed of amphiphilic peroxalate based copolymers and the fluorescent dye rubrene, they have a ‘stealth’ polyethylene glycol (PEG corona to evade macrophage phagocytosis, and a diameter of 33 nm to enhance extravasation into permeable tissues. The peroxalate micelles can detect nanomolar concentrations of hydrogen peroxide (>50 nM and thus have the sensitivity needed to detect physiological concentrations of hydrogen peroxide. We anticipate numerous applications of the peroxalate micelles for in vivo imaging of hydrogen peroxide, given their high sensitivity, small size, and biocompatible PEG corona.Keywords: hydrogen peroixde, chemiluminescence, micelles, amphiphilic copolymer

  11. Conceptual design of advanced central receiver power systems sodium-cooled receiver concept. Volume 2, Book 2. Appendices. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-03-01

    The appendices include: (A) design data sheets and P and I drawing for 100-MWe commercial plant design, for all-sodium storage concept; (B) design data sheets and P and I drawing for 100-MWe commercial plant design, for air-rock bed storage concept; (C) electric power generating water-steam system P and I drawing and equipment list, 100-MWe commercial plant design; (D) design data sheets and P and I drawing for 281-MWe commercial plant design; (E) steam generator system conceptual design; (F) heat losses from solar receiver surface; (G) heat transfer and pressure drop for rock bed thermal storage; (H) a comparison of alternative ways of recovering the hydraulic head from the advanced solar receiver tower; (I) central receiver tower study; (J) a comparison of mechanical and electromagnetic sodium pumps; (K) pipe routing study of sodium downcomer; and (L) sodium-cooled advanced central receiver system simulation model. (WHK)

  12. Advanced Electroactive Single Crystal and Polymer Actuator Concepts for Passive Optics Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — TRS Technologies proposes large stroke and high precision piezoelectric single crystal and electroactive polymer actuator concepts?HYBrid Actuation System (HYBAS)...

  13. Advanced Information Processing System (AIPS) proof-of-concept system functional design I/O network system services

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    The function design of the Input/Output (I/O) services for the Advanced Information Processing System (AIPS) proof of concept system is described. The data flow diagrams, which show the functional processes in I/O services and the data that flows among them, are contained. A complete list of the data identified on the data flow diagrams and in the process descriptions are provided.

  14. Introduction to strategic research program “Advanced Technologies of Energy Generation” under which the Smart Grid concept is developed

    OpenAIRE

    Marek Laskowski; Michał Zabielski

    2016-01-01

    The paper presents a brief introduction to strategic programme “Advanced Technologies of Energy Generation”, under which Research Task 4. “Development of Integrated technologies for Production of Fuels and Energy from Biomass, Agricultural Waste and Other Materials” is implemented. The context justifies joining the task, its main objectives, management structure, and entities involved. Also justified is the inclusion of Smart Grid concept to the project scope.

  15. Introduction to strategic research program “Advanced Technologies of Energy Generation” under which the Smart Grid concept is developed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Laskowski

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a brief introduction to strategic programme “Advanced Technologies of Energy Generation”, under which Research Task 4. “Development of Integrated technologies for Production of Fuels and Energy from Biomass, Agricultural Waste and Other Materials” is implemented. The context justifies joining the task, its main objectives, management structure, and entities involved. Also justified is the inclusion of Smart Grid concept to the project scope.

  16. Improved best estimate plus uncertainty methodology including advanced validation concepts to license evolving nuclear reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unal, Cetin [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Williams, Brian [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mc Clure, Patrick [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Nelson, Ralph A [IDAHO NATIONAL LAB

    2010-01-01

    Many evolving nuclear energy programs plan to use advanced predictive multi-scale multi-physics simulation and modeling capabilities to reduce cost and time from design through licensing. Historically, the role of experiments was primary tool for design and understanding of nuclear system behavior while modeling and simulation played the subordinate role of supporting experiments. In the new era of multi-scale multi-physics computational based technology development, the experiments will still be needed but they will be performed at different scales to calibrate and validate models leading predictive simulations. Cost saving goals of programs will require us to minimize the required number of validation experiments. Utilization of more multi-scale multi-physics models introduces complexities in the validation of predictive tools. Traditional methodologies will have to be modified to address these arising issues. This paper lays out the basic aspects of a methodology that can be potentially used to address these new challenges in design and licensing of evolving nuclear technology programs. The main components of the proposed methodology are verification, validation, calibration, and uncertainty quantification. An enhanced calibration concept is introduced and is accomplished through data assimilation. The goal is to enable best-estimate prediction of system behaviors in both normal and safety related environments. To achieve this goal requires the additional steps of estimating the domain of validation and quantification of uncertainties that allow for extension of results to areas of the validation domain that are not directly tested with experiments, which might include extension of the modeling and simulation (M&S) capabilities for application to full-scale systems. The new methodology suggests a formalism to quantify an adequate level of validation (predictive maturity) with respect to required selective data so that required testing can be minimized for cost

  17. Advanced Wind Turbine Drivetrain Concepts: Workshop Report, June 29-30, 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DOE, EERE

    2010-12-01

    This report presents key findings from the Department of Energy's Advanced Drivetrain Workshop, held on June 29-30, 2010 in Broomfield, Colorado, to assess different advanced drivetrain technologies, their relative potential to improve the state-of-the-art in wind turbine drivetrains, and the scope of research and development needed for their commercialization in wind turbine applications.

  18. Determination of ribavirin by flow injection chemiluminescence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Juqing Jin; Yuhai Tang; Langchong He; Hong Yao; Yuanyuan Sun

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To establish a rapid and precise continuous flow-injection chemiluminescence (CL) method to determine ribavirin. Methods: The ribavirin could restrain strongly CL reaction of luminol in sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solution with potassium chlorate(KClO3). The different experimental parameters affecting the CL intensity were studied carefully. Results:Under optimum conditions(The concentrations of luminol,KClO3, and NaOH were at 0.1 mmol/L,0.5 μmol/L,and 0.2 mol/L, respectively), the linear range of the working curves was 0.01-7.00 μg/ml with a detection limit of 0.004 μg/ml. Conclusion: The method is simple, rapid and sensitive, and successfully applied to the determination of ribavirin in pharmaceutical preparations and biological fluids.

  19. Advanced Concepts of the Propulsion System for the Futuristic Gun Ammunition

    OpenAIRE

    R.S. Darnse; Amarjit Singh

    2003-01-01

    This review paper reports various concepts of the gun propulsion system to meet the goal of the futuristic hypervelocity projectiles. The nonconventional concepts, such as liquid gun propellant, rail gun, coil gun, electrothermal gun, electrothermal chemical gun along with conventional energetic solid gun propellant have been discussed. Even though muzzle velocity around 2000 m/s has been claimed to be achieved using such nonconventional propulsion systems, it will take quite some time before...

  20. Advanced sulfur control concepts in hot-gas desulfurization technology. Quarterly report, April--June 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison, D.P.

    1994-07-01

    The primary objective of this research project is the direct production of elemental sulfur during the regeneration of known high temperature desulfurization sorbents. The contract was awarded to LSU on April 12, 1994, and this quarterly report covers accomplishments during the first 2 1/2 months of the project. Effort during the initial 2 1/2 month period has been limited to Tasks 1 and 2, and involves a search of the literature to identify concepts for producing elemental sulfur during regeneration of known metal oxide sorbents and a thermodynamic evaluation of these concepts. While searching and evaluating the literature is a continuing process, concentrated effort on that phase is now complete and a detailed summary is included in this report. Three possible concepts for the direct production of elemental sulfur were identified in the LSU proposal, and the literature search has not uncovered any additional concepts. Thus, the three concepts being investigated involve: (1) regeneration with SO{sub 2}, (2) regeneration with mixtures Of 02 and H{sub 2}O, and (3) regeneration with H{sub 2}O. While concept (3) directly produces H{sub 2}S instead of elemental sulfur, the concept is included because the possibility exists for converting H{sub 2}S to elemental sulfur using the Claus process. Each of the concepts will ultimately be compared to the Direct Sulfur Recovery Process (DSRP) under development by RTI. DSRP involves initial sorbent regeneration to SO{sub 2}, and the inclusion of additional processing steps to reduce the SO{sub 2} to elemental sulfur.

  1. Advanced Melting Technologies: Energy Saving Concepts and Opportunities for the Metal Casting Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2005-11-01

    The study examines current and emerging melting technologies and discusses their technical barriers to scale-up issues and research needed to advance these technologies, improving melting efficiency, lowering metal transfer heat loss, and reducing scrap.

  2. Evaluation of glycophenotype in prostatic neoplasm by chemiluminescent assay

    OpenAIRE

    da Silva, Lúcia Patrícia Bezerra Gomes; Almeida, Sinara Mônica Vitalino; Lima, Luiza Rayanna Amorim; Cavalcanti, Carmelita de Lima Bezerra; Lira, Mariana Montenegro de Melo; da Silva, Maria da Paz Carvalho; Beltrão, Eduardo Isidoro Carneiro; Júnior, Luiz Bezerra de Carvalho

    2014-01-01

    This work aimed to evaluate the glycophenotype in normal prostate, bening prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and prostatic adenocarcinoma (PCa) tissues by a chemiluminescent method. Concanavalin A (Con A), Ulex europaeus agglutinin (UEA-I) and Peanut agglutinin (PNA) lectins were conjugated to acridinium ester (lectins-AE). These conjugates remained capable to recognize their specific carbohydrates. Tissue samples were incubated with lectins-AE. The chemiluminescence of the tissue-lectin-AE complex ...

  3. Some advanced concepts of mobile robotics for plant inspection and maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper introduces two concepts in robotics the feasibility of which are presently being studied for plant inspection/maintenance purposes. One of them is a walking machine platform which utilizes walking on discrete set of points making it possible to feed energy trough legs and/or grip on fixing points when needing strong support or climbing on walls. The other is a robot society concept in which the work is distributed among the member robots of the society. The society has an inner communication system trough which information is spread between the members. The control system of the society takes care of the task coordination and communication between the society and the user. As a special feature energy distribution within the society is considered. The concept is suggested for inspection and cleaning type of work in process equipment area and also inside processes in some cases. (author)

  4. A novel glucose chemiluminescence biosensor based on a rhodanine derivative chemiluminescence system and multilayer-enzyme membrane

    OpenAIRE

    YU, JINGHUA; Ge, Lei; Dai, Ping; Zhang, Congcong

    2010-01-01

    Using glucose oxidase as a model enzyme, a novel rhodanine derivative chemiluminescence biosensor for the determination of glucose was formed based on multilayer-enzyme membrane as receptor, which was assembled via layer-by-layer assembly of sol-gel and glucose oxidase-gold nano-particles inside a glass tube. Compared with the traditional chemiluminescence biosensor, the proposed biosensor had some remarkable advantages, such as good selectivity of substrate, good response performance...

  5. Design and fabrication of an advanced, lightweight, high stiffness, railgun barrel concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An advanced lightweight and high stiffness railgun barrel design and incorporates several new design features and advanced materials is being developed by SPARTA, Inc. The program is sponsored by the U.S. Army Armament Research, Development, and Engineering Center ARDEC and by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA). The railgun is 7 m long and has a 90 mm round bore. It is designed to accommodate both solid and plasma armatures. Muzzle energies are expected in the range of 9 to 15 MJ. Analysis and final design has been completed and the barrel and other railgun subassemblies are in the fabrication stage at SPARTA, Inc. in San Diego, California. Initial testing will be conducted at Maxwell Laboratories Green Farm facility in September 1990 and will subsequently be shipped to the ARDEC Railgun Laboratory in October 1990 for full power operation and testing. This paper discusses the design features and fabrication approaches for this high performance, lightweight railgun barrel system

  6. Advancement of proprotor technology. Task 1: Design study summary. [aerodynamic concept of minimum size tilt proprotor research aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-01-01

    A tilt-proprotor proof-of-concept aircraft design study has been conducted. The results are presented. The ojective of the contract is to advance the state of proprotor technology through design studies and full-scale wind-tunnel tests. The specific objective is to conduct preliminary design studies to define a minimum-size tilt-proprotor research aircraft that can perform proof-of-concept flight research. The aircraft that results from these studies is a twin-engine, high-wing aircraft with 25-foot, three-bladed tilt proprotors mounted on pylons at the wingtips. Each pylon houses a Pratt and Whitney PT6C-40 engine with a takeoff rating of 1150 horsepower. Empty weight is estimated at 6876 pounds. The normal gross weight is 9500 pounds, and the maximum gross weight is 12,400 pounds.

  7. Development of Proof-of-Concept Units for the Advanced Medium-Sized Mobile Power Sources (AMMPS) Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andriulli, JB

    2002-04-03

    The purpose of this report is to document the development of the proof-of-concept units within the Advanced Medium-sized Mobile Power Sources (AMMPS) program. The design used a small, lightweight diesel engine, a permanent magnet alternator, power electronics and digital controls as outlined in the philosophy detailed previously. One small proof-of-concept unit was completed and delivered to the military. The unit functioned well but was not optimized at the time of delivery to the military. A tremendous amount of experience was gained during this phase that can be used in the development of any follow-on AMMPS production systems. Lessons learned and recommendations for follow-on specifications are provided. The unit demonstrated that significant benefits are possible with the new design philosophy. Trade-offs will have to be made but many of the advantages appear to be within the technical grasp of the market.

  8. Development and proof-testing of advanced absorption refrigeration cycle concepts. Report on Phases 1 and 1A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Modahl, R.J.; Hayes, F.C. [Trane Co., La Crosse, WI (United States). Applied Unitary/Refrigeration Systems Div.

    1992-03-01

    The overall objectives of this project are to evaluate, develop, and proof-test advanced absorption refrigeration cycles that are applicable to residential and commercial heat pumps for space conditioning. The heat pump system is to be direct-fired with natural gas and is to use absorption working fluids whose properties are known. Target coefficients of performance (COPs) are 1.6 at 47{degrees}F and 1.2 at 17{degrees} in the heating mode, and 0.7 at 95{degree}F in the cooling mode, including the effect of flue losses. The project is divided into three phases. Phase I entailed the analytical evaluation of advanced cycles and included the selection of preferred concepts for further development. Phase II involves the development and testing of critical components and of a complete laboratory breadboard version of the selected system. Phase III calls for the development of a prototype unit and is contingent on the successful completion of Phase II. This report covers Phase I work on the project. In Phase 1, 24 advanced absorption cycle/fluid combinations were evaluated, and computer models were developed to predict system performance. COP, theoretical pump power, and internal heat exchange were calculated for each system, and these calculations were used as indicators of operating and installed costs in order to rank the relative promise of each system. The highest ranking systems involve the cycle concept of absorber/generator heat exchange, generator heat exchanger/absorber heat exchange, regeneration, and resorption/desorption, in combination with the NH{sub 3}/H{sub 2}O/LiBr ternary absorption fluid mixture or with the NH{sub 3}/H{sub 2}O binary solution. Based upon these conclusions, the recommendation was made to proceed to Phase II, the laboratory breadboard proof-of- concept.

  9. Concept of advanced back-up control panel design of digital control room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Back-up control panel (BCP) of digital main control room (DMCR) is the back-up means for main computerized control means (MCM). This paper focus on technical issues for advanced design of back-up panel (BCP) for CPR1000 using qualified computer-based video display unit to display plant process indication and alarms. Human factors engineering (HFE) issues also have been considered in the BCP design. Then, as the mean to fulfill safety target of nuclear power plant (NPP), an ideal ergonomic design method is exploited for advanced BCP design. (author)

  10. Productive potentials or protected individuals? The concept of disability and mental illness in advanced welfare states

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ringø, Pia; Høgsbro, Kjeld

    2017-01-01

    The chapter presents historical developments in the conception of disability and services for people with disability and mental illness. It identifies the social, political and technological movements, which have led to the epistemologies that exist in this field today. The diverse understandings...

  11. Conceptual design of advanced central receiver power systems sodium-cooled receiver concept. Volume 1. Executive summary. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-06-01

    The conceptual design of an advanced central receiver power system using liquid sodium as a heat transport medium has been completed by a team consisting of the Energy Systems Group (prime contractor), McDonnell Douglas, Stearns-Roger, The University of Houston, and Salt River Project. The purpose of this study was to determine the technical and economic advantages of this concept for commercial-scale power plants. This final report covers all tasks of the project. These tasks were as follows: (1) review and analysis of preliminary specification; (2) parametric analysis; (3) select commercial configuration; (4) commercial plant conceptual design; (5) assessment of commercial plant; (6) advanced central receiver power system development plan; (7) program plan; (8) reports and data; (9) program management; and (10) safety analysis. A programmatic overview of the accomplishments of this program is given. The 100-MW conceptual commercial plant, the 281-MW optimum plant, and the 10-MW pilot plant are described. (WHK)

  12. Advanced and Innovative Reactor Concept Designs, Associated Objectives and Driving Forces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Advanced and innovative options for fast reactors are presented through a short selection of recent publications at international conferences. Driving forces and major trends are analysed to give a comprehensive overview of the various existing projects and supportive R and D. (author)

  13. A Model for Infusing Energy Concepts into Vocational Education Programs. Advanced Solar Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delta Vocational Technical School, Marked Tree, AR.

    This instructional unit consists of materials designed to help students understand terms associated with solar energy; identify components of advanced solar systems; and identify applications of solar energy in business, industry, agriculture, and photovoltaics. Included in the unit are the following materials: suggested activities, instructional…

  14. Advanced Concepts of the Propulsion System for the Futuristic Gun Ammunition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.S. Darnse

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available This review paper reports various concepts of the gun propulsion system to meet the goal of the futuristic hypervelocity projectiles. The nonconventional concepts, such as liquid gun propellant, rail gun, coil gun, electrothermal gun, electrothermal chemical gun along with conventional energetic solid gun propellant have been discussed. Even though muzzle velocity around 2000 m/s has been claimed to be achieved using such nonconventional propulsion systems, it will take quite some time before such systems are in regular use in the battlefield. Hence, solid gun propellants containing novel energetic ingredients (binders, plasticisers, and oxidisers would continue to be used in the near future and are expected to meet the requirements of the futuristic gun ammunition.

  15. Artist concept computer graphic of Lockheed Martin X-33 Advance Technology Demonstrator vehicle in f

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    An artist's conception of the X-33 in flight, with the aerospike engine firing. The X-33 demonstrator was designed to test a wide range of new technologies (including the aerospike engine), that would be used in a future single-stage-to-orbit reusable launch vehicle called the VentureStar. Due to technical problems with the liquid hydrogen tank, however, the X-33 program was cancelled in February 2001.

  16. The Effects of Using Concept Mapping for Improving Advanced Level Biology Students' Lower- and Higher-Order Cognitive Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bramwell-Lalor, Sharon; Rainford, Marcia

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports on teachers' use of concept mapping as an alternative assessment strategy in advanced level biology classes and its effects on students' cognitive skills on selected biology concepts. Using a mixed methods approach, the study employed a pre-test/post-test quasi-experimental design involving 156 students and 8 teachers…

  17. Advanced storage concepts for solar thermal systems in low energy buildings. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furbo, S.; Andersen, Elsa; Schultz, Joergen M.

    2006-04-07

    The aim of Task 32 is to develop new and advanced heat storage systems which are economic and technical suitable as long-term heat storage systems for solar heating plants with a high degree of coverage. The project is international and Denmark's participation has focused on Subtask A, C, and D. In Subtask A Denmark has contributed to a status report about heat storage systems. In Subtask C Denmark has focused on liquid thermal storage tanks based on NaCH{sub 3}COO?3H{sub 2}O with a melting point of 58 deg. C. Theoretical and experimental tests have been conducted in order to establish optimum conditions for storage design. In Subtask D theoretical and experimental tests of optimum designs for advanced water tanks for solar heating plants for combined space heating and domestic hot water have been conducted. (BA)

  18. Advanced Transportation System Studies. Technical Area 3: Alternate Propulsion Subsystems Concepts. Volume 3; Program Cost Estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levack, Daniel J. H.

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this contract was to provide definition of alternate propulsion systems for both earth-to-orbit (ETO) and in-space vehicles (upper stages and space transfer vehicles). For such propulsion systems, technical data to describe performance, weight, dimensions, etc. was provided along with programmatic information such as cost, schedule, needed facilities, etc. Advanced technology and advanced development needs were determined and provided. This volume separately presents the various program cost estimates that were generated under three tasks: the F- IA Restart Task, the J-2S Restart Task, and the SSME Upper Stage Use Task. The conclusions, technical results , and the program cost estimates are described in more detail in Volume I - Executive Summary and in individual Final Task Reports.

  19. Applications of Nanomaterials in Electrogenerated Chemiluminescence Biosensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Honglan Qi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Electrogenerated chemiluminescence (also called electrochemiluminescence and abbreviated ECL involves the generation of species at electrode surfaces that then undergo electron-transfer reactions to form excited states that emit light. ECL biosensor, combining advantages offered by the selectivity of the biological recognition elements and the sensitivity of ECL technique, is a powerful device for ultrasensitive biomolecule detection and quantification. Nanomaterials are of considerable interest in the biosensor field owing to their unique physical and chemical properties, which have led to novel biosensors that have exhibited high sensitivity and stability. Nanomaterials including nanoparticles and nanotubes, prepared from metals, semiconductor, carbon or polymeric species, have been widely investigated for their ability to enhance the efficiencies of ECL biosensors, such as taking as modification electrode materials, or as carrier of ECL labels and ECL-emitting species. Particularly useful application of nanomaterials in ECL biosensors with emphasis on the years 2004-2008 is reviewed. Remarks on application of nanomaterials in ECL biosensors are also surveyed.

  20. Chemiluminescence and chemiluminescence resonance energy transfer (CRET) aptamer sensors using catalytic hemin/G-quadruplexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoqing; Freeman, Ronit; Golub, Eyal; Willner, Itamar

    2011-09-27

    The incorporation of hemin into the thrombin/G-quadruplex aptamer assembly or into the ATP/G-quadruplex nanostructure yields active DNAzymes that catalyze the generation of chemiluminescence. These catalytic processes enable the detection of thrombin and ATP with detection limits corresponding to 200 pM and 10 μM, respectively. The conjugation of the antithrombin or anti-ATP aptamers to CdSe/ZnS semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) allowed the detection of thrombin or ATP through the luminescence of the QDs that is powered by a chemiluminescence resonance energy-transfer (CRET) process stimulated by the hemin/G-quadruplex/thrombin complex or the hemin/G-quadruplex/ATP nanostructure, in the presence of luminol/H(2)O(2). The advantages of applying the CRET process for the detection of thrombin or ATP, by the resulting hemin/G-quadruplex DNAzyme structures, are reflected by low background signals and the possibility to develop multiplexed aptasensor assays using different sized QDs. PMID:21866963

  1. Advancing Empirical Approaches to the Concept of Resilience: A Critical Examination of Panarchy, Ecological Information, and Statistical Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Kharrazi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Despite its ambiguities, the concept of resilience is of critical importance to researchers, practitioners, and policy-makers in dealing with dynamic socio-ecological systems. In this paper, we critically examine the three empirical approaches of (i panarchy; (ii ecological information-based network analysis; and (iii statistical evidence of resilience to three criteria determined for achieving a comprehensive understanding and application of this concept. These criteria are the ability: (1 to reflect a system’s adaptability to shocks; (2 to integrate social and environmental dimensions; and (3 to evaluate system-level trade-offs. Our findings show that none of the three currently applied approaches are strong in handling all three criteria. Panarchy is strong in the first two criteria but has difficulty with normative trade-offs. The ecological information-based approach is strongest in evaluating trade-offs but relies on common dimensions that lead to over-simplifications in integrating the social and environmental dimensions. Statistical evidence provides suggestions that are simplest and easiest to act upon but are generally weak in all three criteria. This analysis confirms the value of these approaches in specific instances but also the need for further research in advancing empirical approaches to the concept of resilience.

  2. Chemiluminescence from alkoxy-substituted acridinium dimethylphenyl ester labels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natrajan, Anand; Sharpe, David; Wen, David

    2012-05-01

    Chemiluminescent acridinium dimethylphenyl ester labels are used in automated immunoassays for clinical diagnostics. Light emission from these labels is triggered by alkaline peroxide in the presence of the cationic surfactant cetyltrimethylammonium chloride (CTAC). The surfactant plays a critical role in the chemiluminescence process of these labels by both accelerating their emission kinetics and increasing total light output enabling high throughout and improved assay sensitivity in automated immunoassays. Despite the surfactant's crucial role in the chemiluminescent reaction, no study has investigated how structural perturbations in the acridinium ring could impact the influence of the surfactant. We describe herein the synthesis and properties of three new alkoxy-substituted, acridinium dimethylphenyl esters where the nature of the alkoxy group in the acridinium ring was varied (hydrophobic or hydrophilic). Chemiluminescence measurements of these alkoxy-substituted labels indicate that hydrophilic functional groups in the acridinium ring, in particular sulfobetaine zwitterions, disrupt surfactant-mediated compression of emission times but not enhancement of light yield. These results support the hypothesis that surfactant-mediated effects require the binding of two different reaction intermediates to surfactant aggregates and, that surfactants influence light emission from acridinium esters by two separate mechanisms. Our studies also indicate that preservation of both surfactant effects on acridinium ester chemiluminescence and low non-specific binding of the label can be achieved with a relatively hydrophobic acridinium ring coupled to a hydrophilic phenolic ester leaving group. PMID:22441905

  3. Advanced Concepts and Controversies in Emergency Department Pain Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motov, Sergey M; Nelson, Lewis S

    2016-06-01

    Pain is the most common complaint for which patients come to the emergency department (ED). Emergency physicians are responsible for pain relief in a timely, efficient, and safe manner in the ED. The improvement in our understanding of the neurobiology of pain has balanced the utilization of nonopioid and opioid analgesia, and simultaneously has led to more rational and safer opioid prescribing practices. This article reviews advances in pain management in the ED for patients with acute and chronic pain as well as describes several newer strategies and controversies. PMID:27208710

  4. Subsonic Ultra Green Aircraft Research Phase II: N+4 Advanced Concept Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Marty K.; Droney, Christopher K.

    2012-01-01

    This final report documents the work of the Boeing Subsonic Ultra Green Aircraft Research (SUGAR) team on Task 1 of the Phase II effort. The team consisted of Boeing Research and Technology, Boeing Commercial Airplanes, General Electric, and Georgia Tech. Using a quantitative workshop process, the following technologies, appropriate to aircraft operational in the N+4 2040 timeframe, were identified: Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG), Hydrogen, fuel cell hybrids, battery electric hybrids, Low Energy Nuclear (LENR), boundary layer ingestion propulsion (BLI), unducted fans and advanced propellers, and combinations. Technology development plans were developed.

  5. Accuracy Improvement Capability of Advanced Projectile Based on Course Correction Fuze Concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Elsaadany

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Improvement in terminal accuracy is an important objective for future artillery projectiles. Generally it is often associated with range extension. Various concepts and modifications are proposed to correct the range and drift of artillery projectile like course correction fuze. The course correction fuze concepts could provide an attractive and cost-effective solution for munitions accuracy improvement. In this paper, the trajectory correction has been obtained using two kinds of course correction modules, one is devoted to range correction (drag ring brake and the second is devoted to drift correction (canard based-correction fuze. The course correction modules have been characterized by aerodynamic computations and flight dynamic investigations in order to analyze the effects on deflection of the projectile aerodynamic parameters. The simulation results show that the impact accuracy of a conventional projectile using these course correction modules can be improved. The drag ring brake is found to be highly capable for range correction. The deploying of the drag brake in early stage of trajectory results in large range correction. The correction occasion time can be predefined depending on required correction of range. On the other hand, the canard based-correction fuze is found to have a higher effect on the projectile drift by modifying its roll rate. In addition, the canard extension induces a high-frequency incidence angle as canards reciprocate at the roll motion.

  6. Luminol-potassium permanganate chemiluminescence system for the determination of three anthracycline antibiotics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Objective To establish a flow-injection chemiluminescence method for the determination of doxorubicin,epirubicin and mitoxantrone and study its reaction mechanism.Methods In alkaline medium,chemiluminescence of luminol-potassium permanganate system could be inhibited obviously by anthracycline antibiotics.Combined with flow-injection technique,a new chemiluminescence method for determining the anthracycline antibiotics was set up.The chemiluminescence mechanism of the luminol-potassium permanganate system w...

  7. Advanced Concepts for Ultrahigh Brightness and Low Temperature Beams. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wurtele, Jonathan S. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Fajans, Joel [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-06-01

    This grant supported research on techniques to manipulate and combine positrons and antiprotons to synthesize, and to probe, antihydrogen. The majority of the research was conducted as part of the ALPHA Collaboration at CERN. Using ideas and techniques from accelerator physics, we proposed a new method for measuring the the gravitational attraction of antihydrogen to the Earth's field. ALPHA reported the first precision charge measurement on antihydrogen and a crude bound on its gravitational dynamics in the Earth's field. We proposed using a stochastic acceleration method to measure any putative charge of antihydrogen and built numerical models of the mixing of antiprotons and positrons. Further research included proposing the radiator-first concept for operating an X-ray free electron laser driven by a high repetition rate bunch source and studying scattering in passive foil-based ion focusing systems.

  8. Carbon honeycomb grids for advanced lead-acid batteries. Part I: Proof of concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchev, Angel; Kircheva, Nina; Perrin, Marion

    2011-10-01

    The carbon honeycomb grid is proposed as innovative solution for high energy density lead acid battery. The proof of concept is demonstrated, developing grids suitable for the small capacity, scale of valve-regulated lead acid batteries with 2.5-3 Ah plates. The manufacturing of the grids, includes fast, known and simple processes which can be rescaled for mass production with a minimum, investment costs. The most critical process of green composite carbonisation by heating in inert, atmosphere from 200 to 1000 °C takes about 5 h, guaranteeing the low cost of the grids. An AGM-VRLA, cell with prototype positive plate based on the lead-2% tin electroplated carbon honeycomb grid and, conventional negative plates is cycled demonstrating 191 deep cycles. The impedance spectroscopy, measurements indicate the grid performance remains acceptable despite the evolution of the corrosion, processes during the cycling.

  9. Selected advanced aerodynamics and active controls technology concepts development on a derivative B-747

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    The feasibility of applying wing tip extensions, winglets, and active control wing load alleviation to the Boeing 747 is investigated. Winglet aerodynamic design methods and high speed wind tunnel test results of winglets and of symmetrically deflected ailerons are presented. Structural resizing analyses to determine weight and aeroelastic twist increments for all the concepts and flutter model test results for the wing with winglets are included. Control law development, system mechanization/reliability studies, and aileron balance tab trade studies for active wing load alleviation systems are discussed. Results are presented in the form of incremental effects on L/D, structural weight, block fuel savings, stability and control, airplane price, and airline operating economics.

  10. The European SILEX project and other advanced concepts for optical space communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppenhaeuser, G.; Wittig, M.; Popescu, A.

    1991-05-01

    The European Space Agency (ESA) is developing an optical inter-orbit communication system enabling a link between a low earth orbiting (LEO) and a geostationary (GEO) spacecraft. The link allows the transmission of 50 Mbps between LEO and GEO in an experimental and pre-operational mode. The system uses laser diodes of typically 100 mW optical power at a wavelength of 830 nanometer. Direct intensity modulation is applied. Telescopes of 25 cm diameter are used on both terminals. The breadboard phase has been completed and the launch of both terminals is scheduled for 1994. Other concepts for optical space communication links using Nd:YAG lasers and heterodyne receive systems are outlined.

  11. Microfluidic device capable of sensing ultrafast chemiluminescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Teck; Ko, Seok Oh; Lee, Ji Hoon

    2009-05-15

    Based on the principle of liquid core waveguide, a novel microfluidic device with micro-scale detection window capable of sensing flashlight emitted from rapid 1,1'-oxalyldi-4-methylimidazole (OD4MI) chemiluminescence (CL) reaction was fabricated. Light emitted from OD4MI CL reaction occurring in the micro-dimensional pentagonal detection window (length of each line segment: 900.0 microm, depth: 50.0 microm) of the microfluidic device with two inlets and one outlet was so bright that it was possible to take an image every 1/30 s at the optimal focusing distance (60 cm) using a commercial digital camera. Peaks obtained using a flow injection analysis (FIA) system with the micro-scale detection window and OD4MI CL detection show excellent resolution and reproducibility without any band-broadening observed in analytical devices having additional reaction channel(s) to measure light generated from slow CL reaction. Maximum height (H(max)) and area (A) of peak, reproducibility and sensitivity observed in the FIA system with the microfluidic device and OD4MI CL detection depends on (1) the mole ratio between bis(2,4,6-trichlorophenyl) oxalate and 4-methyl imidazole yielding OD4MI, (2) the flow rate to mix OD4MI, H(2)O(2) and 1-AP in the detection window of the microfluidic device, and (3) H(2)O(2) concentration. We obtained linear calibration curves with wide dynamic ranges using H(max) and A. The detection limit of 1-AP determined with H(max) and A was as low as 0.05 fmole/injection (signal/background=3.0). PMID:19269463

  12. DNA imaging and quantification using chemi-luminescent probes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During this interdisciplinary study we have developed an ultra sensitive and reliable imaging system of DNA labelled by chemiluminescence. Based on a liquid nitrogen cooled CCD, the system achieves sensitivities down to 10 fg/mm2 labelled DNA over a surface area of 25 x 25 cm2 with a sub-millimeter resolution. Commercially available chemi-luminescent - and enhancer molecules are compared and their reaction conditions optimized for best signal-to-noise ratios. Double labelling was performed to verify quantification with radioactive probes. (authors)

  13. Advanced manned space flight simulation and training: An investigation of simulation host computer system concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montag, Bruce C.; Bishop, Alfred M.; Redfield, Joe B.

    1989-01-01

    The findings of a preliminary investigation by Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) in simulation host computer concepts is presented. It is designed to aid NASA in evaluating simulation technologies for use in spaceflight training. The focus of the investigation is on the next generation of space simulation systems that will be utilized in training personnel for Space Station Freedom operations. SwRI concludes that NASA should pursue a distributed simulation host computer system architecture for the Space Station Training Facility (SSTF) rather than a centralized mainframe based arrangement. A distributed system offers many advantages and is seen by SwRI as the only architecture that will allow NASA to achieve established functional goals and operational objectives over the life of the Space Station Freedom program. Several distributed, parallel computing systems are available today that offer real-time capabilities for time critical, man-in-the-loop simulation. These systems are flexible in terms of connectivity and configurability, and are easily scaled to meet increasing demands for more computing power.

  14. Computer-assisted generation of individual training concepts for advanced education in manufacturing metrology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to increasing requirements on the accuracy and reproducibility of measurement results together with a rapid development of novel technologies for the execution of measurements, there is a high demand for adequately qualified metrologists. Accordingly, a variety of training offers are provided by machine manufacturers, universities and other institutions. Yet, for an interested learner it is very difficult to define an optimal training schedule for his/her individual demands. Therefore, a computer-based assistance tool is developed to support a demand-responsive scheduling of training. Based on the difference between the actual and intended competence profile and under consideration of amending requirements, an optimally customized qualification concept is derived. For this, available training offers are categorized according to different dimensions: regarding contents of the course, but also intended target groups, focus of the imparted competences, implemented methods of learning and teaching, expected constraints for learning and necessary preknowledge. After completing a course, the achieved competences and the transferability of gathered knowledge are evaluated. Based on the results, recommendations for amending measures of learning are provided. Thus, a customized qualification for manufacturing metrology is facilitated, adapted to the specific needs and constraints of each individual learner

  15. Practical applications of safety culture concepts in human performance advances on Russian nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sometimes, many from negative external factors can be compensated by human psychological readiness of worker. However there would be main worse to come: some cases of personnel activity and organisational factors, some person's peculiarities (attitudes, responsibility, etc.) add considerable number of the events at NPPs. A lot of aspects of Human Factor Reliability are united in Safety Culture concept. This paper presents some results of our recently research in that area. In 'proactive approach': Unique methods for measuring maturity and satisfaction of personnel motivation: comparative analysis of the labour and safety culture motivation from attitude; organization of the socio-psychological climate and safety attitude examining monitoring at all of Russia's NPPs; working-out recommendations for managers on improving human performance are presented. Besides, ergonomic research concerning work conditions at the NPP is displayed. In 'reactive approach': Analysis of the incorrect activity cases, which led to the breaches of work of the Russian NPPs, is shown. The special method to work-up is used. It was issue, that events caused by a human error, depends not only on the worker's professional competence, but on the attitude and motivation, some professionally important psychological and psycho-physiological quality data, the functional state, the group's socio-psychological climate, etc. (author)

  16. Advanced target concepts for production of radioactive ions and neutrino beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 1-20 MW of proton beam power which modern accelerator technology put at our disposal for production of intense secondary beams presents a major technically challenge to the production targets. A conceptual design is presented for a high power pion production target and collection system, which was originally suggested to be used as the source for the proposed CERN muon-neutrino factory. It will be shown that the major parts of this target could also serve as an efficient spallation neutron source for production of 6He and fission products in the two-step converter target concept. The heart of the system consists of a free surface mercury jet with a high axial velocity, which allows the heat to be carried away efficiently from the production region. For the neutrino factory the secondary pions are collected and injected into the pion decay channel by means of a magnetic horn. For the radioactive ion-beam facility the Hg-jet is surrounded by the high-temperature isotope separator on-line (ISOL) production target. The suggested mechanical layout and technical parameters of the Hg-jet, ISOL target, horn and cooling system are discussed. The critical issues are identified and a description of the R and D program designed to provide experimental proof of the principle as well as providing engineering parameters is given

  17. Advanced target concepts for production of radioactive ions and neutrino beams

    CERN Document Server

    Ravn, H L

    2003-01-01

    The 1-20 MW of proton beam power which modern accelerator technology put at our disposal for production of intense secondary beams presents a major technically challenge to the production targets. A conceptual design is presented for a high-power pion production target and collection system, which was originally suggested to be used as the source for the proposed CERN muon-neutrino factory. It will be shown that the major parts of this target could also serve as an efficient spallation neutron source for production of 6He and fission products in the two-step converter-target concept. The heart of the system consists of a free surface Mercury jet with a high axial velocity, which allows the heat to be carried away efficiently from the production region. For the neutrino factory the secondary pions are collected and injected into the pion decay-channel by means of a magnetic horn. For the radioactive ion-beam facility the Hg-jet is surrounded by the high-temperature ISOL production-target. The suggested mechani...

  18. The Advanced X-ray Timing Array (AXTAR): A US MIDEX Mission Concept

    CERN Document Server

    Ray, Paul S; Wood, Kent S; Chakrabarty, Deepto; Remillard, Ronald A; Wilson-Hodge, Colleen A

    2011-01-01

    AXTAR is a NASA MIDEX mission concept for X-ray timing of compact objects that combines very large collecting area, broadband spectral coverage, high time resolution, highly flexible scheduling, and an ability to respond promptly to time-critical targets of opportunity. It is optimized for submillisecond timing of bright Galactic X-ray sources in order to study phenomena at the natural time scales of neutron star surfaces and black hole event horizons, thus probing the physics of ultradense matter, strongly curved spacetimes, and intense magnetic fields. AXTAR's main instrument is a collimated, thick Si pixel detector with 2-50 keV coverage and over 3 square meters effective area. For timing observations of accreting neutron stars and black holes, AXTAR provides at least a factor of five improvement in sensitivity over the RXTE PCA. AXTAR also carries a sensitive sky monitor that acts as a trigger for pointed observations of X-ray transients in addition to providing high duty cycle monitoring of the X-ray sky...

  19. Heat-Pipe Development for Advanced Energy Transport Concepts Final Report Covering the Period January 1999 through September 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R.S.Reid; J.F.Sena; A.L.Martinez

    2002-10-01

    This report summarizes work in the Heat-pipe Technology Development for the Advanced Energy Transport Concepts program for the period January 1999 through September 2001. A gas-loaded molybdenum-sodium heat pipe was built to demonstrate the active pressure-control principle applied to a refractory metal heat pipe. Other work during the period included the development of processing procedures for and fabrication and testing of three types of sodium heat pipes using Haynes 230, MA 754, and MA 956 wall materials to assess the compatibility of these materials with sodium. Also during this period, tests were executed to measure the response of a sodium heat pipe to the penetration of water.

  20. US long distance fiber optic networks: Technology, evolution and advanced concepts. Volume 2: Fiber optic technology and long distance networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    The study projects until 2000 the evolution of long distance fiber optic networks in the U.S. Volume 1 is the Executive Summary. Volume 2 focuses on fiber optic components and systems that are directly related to the operation of long-haul networks. Optimistic, pessimistic and most likely scenarios of technology development are presented. The activities of national and regional companies implementing fiber long haul networks are also highlighted, along with an analysis of the market and regulatory forces affecting network evolution. Volume 3 presents advanced fiber optic network concept definitions. Inter-LATA traffic is quantified and forms the basis for the construction of 11-, 15-, 17-, and 23-node networks. Using the technology projections from Volume 2, a financial model identifies cost drivers and determines circuit mile costs between any two LATAs. A comparison of fiber optics with alternative transmission concludes the report.

  1. Feasibility and Safety Assessment for Advanced Reactor Concepts Using Vented Fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent interest in fast reactor technology has led to renewed analysis of past reactor concepts such as Gas Fast Reactors and Sodium Fast Reactors. In an effort to make these reactors more economic, the fuel is required to stay in the reactor for extended periods of time; the longer the fuel stays within the core, the more fertile material is converted into usable fissile material. However, as burnup of the fuel-rod increases, so does the internal pressure buildup due to gaseous fission products. In order to reach the 30 year lifetime requirements of some reactor designs, the fuel pins must have a vented-type design to allow the buildup of fission products to escape. The present work aims to progress the understanding of the feasibility and safety issues related to gas reactors that incorporate vented fuel. The work was separated into three different work-scopes: 1. Quantitatively determine fission gas release from uranium carbide in a representative helium cooled fast reactor; 2. Model the fission gas behavior, transport, and collection in a Fission Product Vent System; and, 3. Perform a safety analysis of the Fission Product Vent System. Each task relied on results from the previous task, culminating in a limited scope Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) of the Fission Product Vent System. Within each task, many key parameters lack the fidelity needed for comprehensive or accurate analysis. In the process of completing each task, the data or methods that were lacking were identified and compiled in a Gap Analysis included at the end of the report.

  2. Feasibility and Safety Assessment for Advanced Reactor Concepts Using Vented Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, Andrew [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States). Nuclear Engineering and Radiation Health Physics; Matthews, Topher [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States); Lenhof, Renae [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States); Deason, Wesley [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States); Harter, Jackson [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States)

    2015-01-16

    Recent interest in fast reactor technology has led to renewed analysis of past reactor concepts such as Gas Fast Reactors and Sodium Fast Reactors. In an effort to make these reactors more economic, the fuel is required to stay in the reactor for extended periods of time; the longer the fuel stays within the core, the more fertile material is converted into usable fissile material. However, as burnup of the fuel-rod increases, so does the internal pressure buildup due to gaseous fission products. In order to reach the 30 year lifetime requirements of some reactor designs, the fuel pins must have a vented-type design to allow the buildup of fission products to escape. The present work aims to progress the understanding of the feasibility and safety issues related to gas reactors that incorporate vented fuel. The work was separated into three different work-scopes: 1. Quantitatively determine fission gas release from uranium carbide in a representative helium cooled fast reactor; 2. Model the fission gas behavior, transport, and collection in a Fission Product Vent System; and, 3. Perform a safety analysis of the Fission Product Vent System. Each task relied on results from the previous task, culminating in a limited scope Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) of the Fission Product Vent System. Within each task, many key parameters lack the fidelity needed for comprehensive or accurate analysis. In the process of completing each task, the data or methods that were lacking were identified and compiled in a Gap Analysis included at the end of the report.

  3. Nuclear proliferation and civilian nuclear power: report of the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program. Volume VIII. Advanced concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The six advanced concepts for nuclear power systems that were selected for evaluation are: the fast mixed-spectrum reactor; the denatured molten-salt reactor; the mixed-flow gaseous-core reactor; the linear-accelerator fuel-regenerator reactor; the ternary metal-fueled electronuclear fuel-producer reactor; and the tokamak fusion-fission hybrid reactor. The design assessment was performed by identifying needs in six specific areas: conceptual plant design; reactor-physics considerations; fuel cycle alternatives; mechanical and thermal-hydraulic considerations; selection, development, and availability of materials; and engineering and operability. While none of the six concepts appears to be a credible commercial alternative to the liquid-metal fast-breeder within the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program horizon of 2025, there are a number of reasons for continued interest in the fast mixed-spectrum reactor: it is a once-through cycle fast reactor with proliferation risk characteristics similar to those of the light-water reactor; only about one-third as much uranium is required as for the once-through light-water reactor; the system will benefit directly from fast-breeder development programs; and, finally, the research and development required to develop the high-burnup metal fuel could benefit the on-going liquid-metal fast-breeder reactor program. Accordingly, a limited research and development effort on the high-burnup fuel seems justified, at present

  4. Quantum Mechanics: Fundamentals; Advanced Quantum Mechanics; Mathematical Concepts of Quantum Mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    second book under consideration, that of Schwabl, contains 'Advanced' elements of quantum theory; it is designed for a course following on from one for which Gottfried and Yan, or Schwabl's own 'Quantum Mechanics' might be recommended. Many useful student problems are included. The presentation is said to be rigorous, but again this is a book for the physicist rather than the mathematician. The third book under consideration, that by Gustafson and Sigal is very different from the others. In academic level, at least the initial sections may actually be slightly lower; the book covers a one-term course taken by senior undergraduates or junior graduate students in mathematics or physics, and the initial chapters are on basic topics, such as the physical background, basic dynamics, observables and the uncertainty principle. However the level of mathematical sophistication is far higher than in the other books. While the mathematical prerequisites are modest, a third of the book is made up of what are called mathematical supplements. On the basis of these supplements, the level of mathematical sophistication and difficulty is increased substantially in the middle section of the book, where the topics considered are many-particle systems, density matrices, positive temperatures, the Feynman path integral, and quasi-classical analysis, and there is a final substantial step for the concluding chapters on resonances, an introduction to quantum field theory, and quantum electrodynamics of non-relativistic particles. A supplementary chapter contains an interesting approach to the renormalization group due to Bach, Froehlich and Sigal himself. This book is well-written, and the topics discussed have been well thought-out. It would provide a useful approach to quantum theory for the mathematician, and would also provide access for the physicist to some mathematically advanced methods and topics, but the physicist would definitely have to be prepared to work hard at the mathematics

  5. Development of a test bed for operator aid and advanced control concepts in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A great amount of research and development is currently under way in the utilization of artificial intelligence (AI), expert system, and control theory advances in nuclear power plants as a basis for operator aids and automatic control systems. This activity requires access to the measured dynamic responses of the plant to malfunction, operator- or automatic-control-initiated actions. This can be achieved by either simulating plant behavior or by using an actual plant. The advantage of utilizing an actual plant versus a simulator is that the true behavior is assured of both the power generation system and instrumentation. Clearly, the disadvantages of using an actual plant are availability due to licensing, economic, and risk constraints and inability to address accident conditions. In this work the authors have decided to employ a functional one-ninth scale model of a pressurized water reactor (PWR). The scaled PWR (SPWR) facility is a two-loop representation of a Westinghouse PWR utilizing freon as the working fluid and electric heater rods for the core. The heater rods are driven by a neutron kinetics model accounting for measured thermal core conditions. A control valve in the main steam line takes the place of the turbine generator. A range of normal operating and accident situations can be addressed. The SPWR comes close to offering all the advantages of both a simulator and an actual physical plant in regard to research and development on AI, expert system, and control theory applications. The SPWR is being employed in the development of an expert-system-based operator aid system. The current status of this project is described

  6. Advanced Offshore Wind Turbine/Foundation Concept for the Great Lakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Afjeh, Abdollah A. [Univ. of Toledo, OH (United States); Windpower, Nautica [Nautica Windpower, Olmsted Falls, OH (United States); Marrone, Joseph [OCC COWI, Vancouver (Canada); Wagner, Thomas [Nautica Windpower, Olmsted Falls, OH (United States)

    2013-08-29

    This project investigated a conceptual 2-bladed rotor wind turbine design and assessed its feasibility for installation in the Great Lakes. The levelized cost of energy was used for this purpose. A location in Lake Erie near the coast of Cleveland, Ohio was selected as the application site. The loading environment was defined using wind and wave data collected at a weather station in Lake Erie near Cleveland. In addition, the probability distributions of the annual significant wave height and wind speed were determined. A model of the dependence of the above two quantities was also developed and used in the study of wind turbine system loads. Loads from ice floes and ridges were also included.The NREL 5 MW 3-bladed rotor wind turbine concept was used as the baseline design. The proposed turbine design employs variable pitch blade control with tip-brakes and a teeter mechanism. The rotor diameter, rated power and the tower dimensions were selected to closely match those of the NREL 5 MW wind turbine.A semi-floating gravity base foundation was designed for this project primarily to adapt to regional logistical constraints to transport and install the gravity base foundation. This foundation consists of, from bottom to top, a base plate, a buoyancy chamber, a taper zone, a column (with ice cone), and a service platform. A compound upward-downward ice cone was selected to secure the foundation from moving because of ice impact.The turbine loads analysis was based on International ElectroTechnical Committee (IEC) Standard 61400-1, Class III winds. The NREL software FAST was the primary computational tool used in this study to determine all design load cases. An initial set of studies of the dynamics of wind turbines using Automatic Dynamic Analysis of Mechanical Systems (ADAMS) demonstrated that FAST and ADAMS load predictions were comparable. Because of its relative simplicity and short run times, FAST was selected for this study. For ice load calculations, a method

  7. Atmospheric fluidized bed combustion advanced system concepts applicable to small industrial and commercial markets. Topical report, Level 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ake, T.R.; Dixit, V.B.; Mongeon, R.K.

    1992-09-01

    As part of an overall strategy to promote FBC coal combustion and to improve the marketability of the eastern coals, the US Department of Energy`s Morgantown Energy Research Center awarded a three level contract to Riley Stoker Corporation to develop advanced Multi Solids Fluidized Bed (MSFB) boiler designs. The first level of this contract targeted the small package boiler (10,000--50,000 lb/hr steam) and industrial size boiler (75,000--150,000 lb/hr steam) markets. Two representative sizes, 30,000 lb/hr and 110,000 lb/hr of steam, were selected for the two categories for a detailed technical and economic evaluation. Technically, both the designs showed promise, however, the advanced industrial design was favored on economic considerations. It was thus selected for further study in the second level of the contract. Results of this Level-2 effort, presented in this report, consisted of testing the design concept in Riley`s 4.4 MBtu/hr pilot MSFB facility located at Riley Research Center in Worcester, Mass. The design and economics of the proof of concept facility developed in Level-1 of the contract were then revised in accordance with the findings of the pilot test program. A host site for commercial demonstration in Level-3 of the contract was also secured. It was determined that co-firing coal in combination with paper de-inking sludge will broaden the applicability of the design beyond conventional markets. International Paper (IP), the largest paper company in the world, is willing to participate in this part of the program. IP has offered its Hammermill operation at Lockhaven, Pa, site of a future paper de-inking plant, for the proof of concept installation. This plant will go in operation in 1994. It is recommended that METC proceed to the commercial demonstration of the design developed. The approach necessary to satisfy the needs of the customer while meeting the objectives of this program is presented along with a recommended plan of action.

  8. The Integrated Safety-Critical Advanced Avionics Communication and Control (ISAACC) System Concept: Infrastructure for ISHM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwaltney, David A.; Briscoe, Jeri M.

    2005-01-01

    Integrated System Health Management (ISHM) architectures for spacecraft will include hard real-time, critical subsystems and soft real-time monitoring subsystems. Interaction between these subsystems will be necessary and an architecture supporting multiple criticality levels will be required. Demonstration hardware for the Integrated Safety-Critical Advanced Avionics Communication & Control (ISAACC) system has been developed at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. It is a modular system using a commercially available time-triggered protocol, ?Tp/C, that supports hard real-time distributed control systems independent of the data transmission medium. The protocol is implemented in hardware and provides guaranteed low-latency messaging with inherent fault-tolerance and fault-containment. Interoperability between modules and systems of modules using the TTP/C is guaranteed through definition of messages and the precise message schedule implemented by the master-less Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) communications protocol. "Plug-and-play" capability for sensors and actuators provides automatically configurable modules supporting sensor recalibration and control algorithm re-tuning without software modification. Modular components of controlled physical system(s) critical to control algorithm tuning, such as pumps or valve components in an engine, can be replaced or upgraded as "plug and play" components without modification to the ISAACC module hardware or software. ISAACC modules can communicate with other vehicle subsystems through time-triggered protocols or other communications protocols implemented over Ethernet, MIL-STD- 1553 and RS-485/422. Other communication bus physical layers and protocols can be included as required. In this way, the ISAACC modules can be part of a system-of-systems in a vehicle with multi-tier subsystems of varying criticality. The goal of the ISAACC architecture development is control and monitoring of safety critical systems of a

  9. Advanced Underground Gas Storage Concepts: Refrigerated-Mined Cavern Storage, Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none

    1998-09-30

    Over the past 40 years, cavern storage of LPG's, petrochemicals, such as ethylene and propylene, and other petroleum products has increased dramatically. In 1991, the Gas Processors Association (GPA) lists the total U.S. underground storage capacity for LPG's and related products of approximately 519 million barrels (82.5 million cubic meters) in 1,122 separate caverns. Of this total, 70 are hard rock caverns and the remaining 1,052 are caverns in salt deposits. However, along the eastern seaboard of the U.S. and the Pacific northwest, salt deposits are not available and therefore, storage in hard rocks is required. Limited demand and high cost has prevented the construction of hard rock caverns in this country for a number of years. The storage of natural gas in mined caverns may prove technically feasible if the geology of the targeted market area is suitable; and economically feasible if the cost and convenience of service is competitive with alternative available storage methods for peak supply requirements. Competing methods include LNG facilities and remote underground storage combined with pipeline transportation to the area. It is believed that mined cavern storage can provide the advantages of high delivery rates and multiple fill withdrawal cycles in areas where salt cavern storage is not possible. In this research project, PB-KBB merged advanced mining technologies and gas refrigeration techniques to develop conceptual designs and cost estimates to demonstrate the commercialization potential of the storage of refrigerated natural gas in hard rock caverns. DOE has identified five regions, that have not had favorable geological conditions for underground storage development: New England, Mid-Atlantic (NY/NJ), South Atlantic (DL/MD/VA), South Atlantic (NC/SC/GA), and the Pacific Northwest (WA/OR). PB-KBB reviewed published literature and in-house databases of the geology of these regions to determine suitability of hard rock formations for siting

  10. Advanced core physics and thermal hydraulics analysis of boiling water reactors using innovative fuel concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The economical operation of a boiling water reactor (BWR) is mainly achieved by the axially uniform utilization of the nuclear fuel in the assemblies which is challenging because the neutron spectrum in the active reactor core varies with the axial position. More precisely, the neutron spectrum becomes harder the higher the position is resulting in a decrease of the fuel utilization because the microscopic fission cross section is smaller by several orders of magnitude. In this work, the use of two fuel concepts based on a mixed oxide (MOX) fuel and an innovative thorium-plutonium (ThPu) fuel is investigated by a developed simulation model encompassing thermal hydraulics, neutronics, and fuel burnup. The main feature of these fuel concepts is the axially varying enrichment in plutonium which is, in this work, recycled from spent nuclear fuel and shows a high fission fraction of the absorption cross section for fast incident neutron energies. The potential of balancing the overall fuel utilization by an increase of the fission rate in the upper part of the active height with a combination of the harder spectrum and the higher fission fraction of the absorption cross section in the BWR core is studied. The three particular calculational models for thermal hydraulics, neutronics, and fuel burnup provide results at fuel assembly and/or at core level. In the former case, the main focus lies on the thermal hydraulics analysis, fuel burnup, and activity evolution after unloading from the core and, in the latter case, special attention is paid to reactivity safety coefficients (feedback effects) and the optimization of the operational behavior. At both levels (assembly and core), the isotopic buildup and depletion rates as a function of the active height are analyzed. In addition, a comparison between the use of conventional fuel types with homogeneous enrichments and the use of the innovative fuel types is made. In the framework of the simulations, the ThPu and the MOX

  11. ROBOTICALLY ENHANCED ADVANCED MANUFACTURING CONCEPTS TO OPTIMIZE ENERGY, PRODUCTIVITY, AND ENVIRONMENTAL PERFORMANCE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larry L. Keller; Joseph M. Pack; Robert V. Kolarik II

    2007-11-05

    In the first phase of the REML project, major assets were acquired for a manufacturing line for follow-on installation, capability studies and optimization. That activity has been documented in the DE-FC36-99ID13819 final report. In this the second phase of the REML project, most of the major assets have been installed in a manufacturing line arrangement featuring a green cell, a thermal treatment cell and a finishing cell. Most of the secondary and support assets have been acquired and installed. Assets have been integrated with a commercial, machine-tending gantry robot in the thermal treatment cell and with a low-mass, high-speed gantry robot in the finish cell. Capabilities for masterless gauging of product’s dimensional and form characteristics were advanced. Trial production runs across the entire REML line have been undertaken. Discrete event simulation modeling has aided in line balancing and reduction of flow time. Energy, productivity and cost, and environmental comparisons to baselines have been made. Energy The REML line in its current state of development has been measured to be about 22% (338,000 kVA-hrs) less energy intensive than the baseline conventional low volume line assuming equivalent annual production volume of approximately 51,000 races. The reduction in energy consumption is largely attributable to the energy reduction in the REML thermal treatment cell where the heating devices are energized on demand and are appropriately sized to the heating load of a near single piece flow line. If additional steps such as power factor correction and use of high-efficiency motors were implemented to further reduce energy consumption, it is estimated, but not yet demonstrated, that the REML line would be about 30% less energy intensive than the baseline conventional low volume line assuming equivalent annual production volume. Productivity The capital cost of an REML line would be roughly equivalent to the capital cost of a new conventional line. The

  12. Earth's Critical Zone and hydropedology: concepts, characteristics, and advances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. S. Lin

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The Critical Zone (CZ is a holistic framework for integrated studies of water with soil, rock, air, and biotic resources in terrestrial environments. This is consistent with the recognition of water as a unifying theme for research on complex environmental systems. The CZ ranges from the top of the vegetation down to the bottom of the aquifer, with a highly variable thickness (from <0.001 to >10 km. The pedosphere is the foundation of the CZ, which represents a geomembrance across which water and solutes, as well as energy, gases, solids, and organisms are actively exchanged with the atmosphere, biosphere, hydrosphere, and lithosphere to create a life-sustaining environment. Hydropedology – the science of the behaviour and distribution of soil-water interactions in contact with mineral and biological materials in the CZ – is an important contributor to CZ research. This article reviews and discusses the basic ideas and fundamental features of the CZ and hydropedology, and suggests ways for their advances. An "outward" growth model, instead of an "inward" contraction, is suggested for propelling soil science forward. The CZ is the right platform for synergistic collaborations across disciplines. The reconciliation of the geological (or "big" cycle and the biological (or "small" cycle that are orders of magnitude different in space and time is a key to understanding and predicting complex CZ processes. Because of the layered nature of the CZ and the general trend of increasing density with depth, response and feedback to climate change take longer from the above-ground zone down to the soil zone and further to the groundwater zone. Interfaces between layers and cycles are critical controls of the landscape-soil-water-ecosystem dynamics, which present fertile grounds for interdisciplinary research. Ubiquitous heterogeneity in the CZ can be addressed by environmental gradients and landscape patterns, where hierarchical structures control the

  13. Investigation of Chemiluminescence with Electrogenerated Reagents and Its Analytical Application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    章竹君; 李保新; 郑行望

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, studies on chemiluminescence (CL) systems with electrogenerated reagents, including BrO-, ClO-, Br2, [Cu-(HIO6)2]5-, H2O2, Mn3+, Co3+ and Ag2+, are described.The analytical applications of the CL system with electrogenerated reagents are reviewed.

  14. Self-consistent Green's function embedding for advanced electronic structure methods based on a dynamical mean-field concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chibani, Wael; Ren, Xinguo; Scheffler, Matthias; Rinke, Patrick

    2016-04-01

    We present an embedding scheme for periodic systems that facilitates the treatment of the physically important part (here a unit cell or a supercell) with advanced electronic structure methods, that are computationally too expensive for periodic systems. The rest of the periodic system is treated with computationally less demanding approaches, e.g., Kohn-Sham density-functional theory, in a self-consistent manner. Our scheme is based on the concept of dynamical mean-field theory formulated in terms of Green's functions. Our real-space dynamical mean-field embedding scheme features two nested Dyson equations, one for the embedded cluster and another for the periodic surrounding. The total energy is computed from the resulting Green's functions. The performance of our scheme is demonstrated by treating the embedded region with hybrid functionals and many-body perturbation theory in the GW approach for simple bulk systems. The total energy and the density of states converge rapidly with respect to the computational parameters and approach their bulk limit with increasing cluster (i.e., computational supercell) size.

  15. Equipment concept design and development plans for microgravity science and applications research on space station: Combustion tunnel, laser diagnostic system, advanced modular furnace, integrated electronics laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhran, M. L.; Youngblood, W. W.; Georgekutty, T.; Fiske, M. R.; Wear, W. O.

    1986-01-01

    Taking advantage of the microgravity environment of space NASA has initiated the preliminary design of a permanently manned space station that will support technological advances in process science and stimulate the development of new and improved materials having applications across the commercial spectrum. Previous studies have been performed to define from the researcher's perspective, the requirements for laboratory equipment to accommodate microgravity experiments on the space station. Functional requirements for the identified experimental apparatus and support equipment were determined. From these hardware requirements, several items were selected for concept designs and subsequent formulation of development plans. This report documents the concept designs and development plans for two items of experiment apparatus - the Combustion Tunnel and the Advanced Modular Furnace, and two items of support equipment the Laser Diagnostic System and the Integrated Electronics Laboratory. For each concept design, key technology developments were identified that are required to enable or enhance the development of the respective hardware.

  16. Detection of gamma irradiated pepper and papain by chemiluminescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sattar, Abdus; Delincée, H.; Diehl, J. F.

    Chemiluminescence (CL) measurements of black pepper and of papain using luminol and lucigenin reactions were studied. Effects of grinding, irradiation (5-20 kGy) and particle size (750-140 μm) on CL of pepper, and of irradiation (10-30 kGy) on CL of papain, were investigated. All the tested treatments affected the luminescence response in both the luminol and lucigenin reactions; however, the pattern of changes in each case, was inconsistent. Optimum pepper size for maximum luminescence was 560 μm, and optimum irradiation doses were >15 kGy for pepper and >20 kGy for papain. Chemiluminescence may possibly be used as an indicator or irradiation treatment for pepper and papain at a dose of 10 kGy or higher, but further research is needed to establish the reliability of this method.

  17. Reliability Study on Compact and Portable Chemiluminescence Detector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai-Di Zhang

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Two reliability issues on the compact chemiluminescence detector for glucose measurement based on a single planar transparent EWOD (electrowetting-on-dielectrics device are studied. Several dielectrics for lowering the manipulation voltage are investigated and 20-27V is realized. An on-chip heater is designed and manufactured for restore the damage of the hydrophobic surface of the EWOD after chemiluminescence reaction. The measurement of glucose shows the sensitivity of the detector reaches 0.12V/mM and the detection range from 1mM to 20mM with a detection limit of 1mM. Such a detector demonstrates its potential as a portable immuno-detector with prompt response and low cost measurement compared with expensive and bulky traditional instruments.

  18. Nanoparticle-enhanced chemiluminescence in micro-flow injection analysis

    OpenAIRE

    A. Mosayyebi; Karabchevsky, A.; J. S. Wilkinson

    2013-01-01

    Chemiluminescence (CL) detection for biomedical analysis has the principal advantage that no optical source is required so that instrumentation is simple and background radiation is minimised, resulting in high sensitivity. CL has been exploited in a wide range of chemical and biochemical measurements such as enzyme-linked immunoassays (ELISA), DNA sequencing, and for the analysis of biomedical, food and environmental samples [1]. CL is ideally suited to microfluidic flow-injection analysis (...

  19. Quantification of biogenic amines by microchip electrophoresis with chemiluminescence detection

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Shulin; Yong HUANG; Shi, Ming; Liu, Yi-Ming

    2009-01-01

    A highly sensitive microchip electrophoresis (MCE) method with chemiluminescence (CL) detection was developed for the determination of biogenic amines including agmatine, epinephrine, dopamine, tyramine, and histamine in human urine samples. To achieve a high assay sensitivity, the targeted analytes were pre-column labeled by a CL tagging reagent, N-(4-aminobutyl)-N-ethylisoluminol (ABEI). ABEI-tagged biogenic amines after MCE separation reacted with hydrogen peroxide in the presence of horse...

  20. Evaluation of the LIAISON Chemiluminescence Immunoassay for Diagnosis of Syphilis▿

    OpenAIRE

    Knight, Carrie S.; Crum, Mary A.; Hardy, Robert W

    2007-01-01

    We report the results of an evaluation of the LIAISON Treponema pallidum-specific assay, a one-step sandwich chemiluminescence immunoassay (CLIA), as a screening test and as a confirmatory test for the diagnosis of syphilis. The assay was compared with the CAPTIA Syphilis-G enzyme immunoassay (EIA) and with a testing algorithm that also included the rapid plasma reagin (RPR) and T. pallidum particle agglutination (PA) assays. As a screening test, the CLIA showed levels of agreement with the E...

  1. [Decrease of singlet oxygen chemiluminescence by the presence of carnosine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svachko, A G; Formaziuk, V E; Sergienko, V I

    1990-08-01

    To test antiradical medicines effect the chemical production of singlet oxygen (NaClO + H2O2) was investigated. The quantity singlet oxygen chemiluminescence was decreased in the presence of Japanese Catalin and Chine Baineiting, antirheumatic Voltaren and less strong Finish Catachrome and Carnosine. American Quinax does not possess such an effect. One of the possible starting mechanisms causing different diseases (atherosclerosis, cataract etc.) is destruction of biomembranes by active forms of oxygen.

  2. Chemiluminescence characteristics of cumarin derivatives as blue fluorescers in peroxyoxalate-hydrogen peroxide system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaichi, Mohammad Javad; Karami, Ali Reza; Shockravi, Abbas; Shamsipur, Mojtaba

    2003-04-01

    The chemiluminescence characteristics of seven different cumarin derivatives were studied in detail. The fluorescence and chemiluminescence spectra were compared; all cumarins used were found to act as blue fluorescers. The intensity and kinetic parameters for the chemiluminescent systems were evaluated from computer fitting of the resulting intensity-time plots. Among different cumarin derivatives used, 7-amino-4-trifluoromethylcumarin revealed the most promising characteristics as an efficient blue fluorescent emitter.

  3. An overview on flow methods for the chemiluminescence determination of phosphorus

    OpenAIRE

    Morais, Inês P. A.; Tóth, Ildikó V.; Rangel, António O. S. S.

    2005-01-01

    A review on the flow analysis of phosphorus with chemiluminescence detection is presented. A brief discussion of the chemiluminescence principles and applications is given. Particular emphasis is devoted to coupling different flow techniques (flow injection, sequential injection, multicommutation, multisyringe flow injection, multi-pumping) to chemiluminescence detection. Enzymatic and non-enzymatic methods, mostly applied to environmental samples, are summarized and compared in terms of appl...

  4. Electrogenerated chemiluminescence. 58. Ligand-sensitized electrogenerated chemiluminescence in europium labels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, M M; Bard, A J

    1996-08-01

    The electrochemistry and electrogenerated chemiluminescence (ECL) of a series of europium chelates, cryptates, and mixed-ligand chelate/cryptand complexes were studied. The complexes were of the following general forms:  EuL(4)(-), where L = β-diketonate, a bis-chelating ligand (such as dibenzoylmethide), added as salts (A)EuL(4), where A = tetrabutylammonium ion or piperidinium ion (pipH(+)); Eu(crypt)(3+), where crypt = a cryptand ligand, e.g., 4,7,13,16,21-pentaoxa-1,10-diazabicyclo[8,8,5]tricosane; and Eu(crypt)(L)(2+) for the mixed-ligand systems. ECL was obtained for the chelates and mixed-ligand systems by reducing the complexes at a Pt electrode in the presence of peroxydisulfate in acetonitrile solutions and was attributed to the electron-transfer reaction between the reduced bound ligands and SO(4)(•)(-), followed by intramolecular excitation transfer from the excited ligand orbitals to the metal-centered 4f states. No ECL was observed under the same conditions for the europium complexes incorporating only the cryptand ligands in aqueous solution. The ECL spectra matched the photoluminescence spectra with a narrow emission band observed at 612 nm, corresponding to a metal-centered 4f-4f transition. The ECL efficiencies for the ECL-active species were low, about 10(-)(1)-10(-)(4)% of that of the Ru(bpy)(3)(2+)/S(2)O(8)(2)(-) system under similar conditions. PMID:21619211

  5. Electrogenerated chemiluminescence. 58. Ligand-sensitized electrogenerated chemiluminescence in europium labels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richter, M.M.; Bard, A.J. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)

    1996-08-01

    The electrochemistry and electrogenerated chemiluminescence (ECL) of a series of europium chelates, cryptates, and mixed-ligand chelate/cryptand complexes were studied. The complexes were of the following general forms: EuL{sub 4}{sup -}, where L = {beta}-diketonate, a bis-chelating ligand (such as dibenzoylmethide), added as salts (A)EuL{sub 4}, where A= tetrabutylammonium ion or piperidinium ion (pipH{sup +}); Eu(crypt){sup 3+}, where crypt = a cryptand ligand, e.g., 4,7,13,16,21-pentaoxa-1,10-diazabicyclo[8,8,5]-tricosa ne; and Eu(crypt)(L){sup 2+} for the mixed-ligand systems. ECL was obtained for the chelates and mixed-ligand systems by reducing the complexes at a Pt electrode in the presence of peroxydisulfate in acetonitrile solutions and was attributed to the electron-transfer reaction between the reduced bound ligands and SO{sub 4}{sup .-}, followed by intramolecular excitation transfer from the excited ligand orbitals to the metal-centered 4f states. No ECL was observed under the same conditions for the europium complexes incorporating only the cryptand ligands in aqueous solution. The ECL spectra matched the photoluminescence spectra with a narrow emission band observed at 612 nm, corresponding to a metal-centered 4f-4f transition. The ECL efficiencies for the ECL-active species were low, about 10{sup -1}-10{sup -4}% of that of the Ru-(bpy){sub 3}{sup 2+}/S{sub 2}O{sub 8}{sup 2-} system under similar conditions. 38 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. 'You can get there from here': Advanced low cost propulsion concepts for small satellites beyond LEO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, Adam M.; Silva Curiel, Alex da; Sweeting, Martin [Surrey Satellite Technology Ltd., Surrey (United Kingdom); Schaffner, Jake [California Polytechnic State Univ., San Luis Obispo, CA (United States)

    2005-10-15

    control. (2) Orbit transfer of an enhanced microsatellite from a typical 700 km sun-synchronous orbit to a lower or higher orbit using a low cost 40 N thrust concentrated hydrogen peroxide/kerosene bipropellant engine. A spin stabilized 'tug' concept capable of providing between 130 and 300 m/s of deltaV to the payload is described. (3) Transfer of an enhanced microsatellite from LEO to lunar orbit using a novel, storable propellant solar thermal propulsion system under development at the Surrey Space Centre. The solar thermal propulsion unit is designed for low cost small satellite support and will be compared with a more traditional approach using an industry standard storable bipropellant chemical engine. (4) Nanosatellite manoeuvring for formation flying using advanced low power electric propulsion. A colloid thruster system concept is planned for development jointly between SSTL, Queen Mary University London and Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, UK. The colloid thruster system is designed to complement an existing butane resistojet to give full 3-axis manoeuvrability to an upgraded SNAP nanosatellite platform which could be reflown in 2007 alongside ESA's Proba 2 technology demonstrator microsatellite. A comparison between low power resistojets, a colloid thruster system, and pulsed plasma thrusters for orbit manoeuvring of microsatellites will be made. This paper's final section will briefly describe some of the interplanetary missions which have been considered at the Surrey Space Centre, and will highlight the few as yet practical solutions for sending small spacecraft on high deltaV missions without the use of a costly upper stage. (Author)

  7. “You can get there from here”: Advanced low cost propulsion concepts for small satellites beyond LEO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Adam M.; da Silva Curiel, Alex; Schaffner, Jake; Sweeting, Martin

    2005-07-01

    microsatellite from a typical 700 km sun-synchronous orbit to a lower or higher orbit using a low cost 40 N thrust concentrated hydrogen peroxide/kerosene bipropellant engine. A spin stabilized 'tug' concept capable of providing between 130 and 300 m/s of deltaV to the payload is described. Transfer of an enhanced microsatellite from LEO to lunar orbit using a novel, storable propellant solar thermal propulsion system under development at the Surrey Space Centre. The solar thermal propulsion unit is designed for low cost small satellite support and will be compared with a more traditional approach using and industry standard storable bipropellant chemical engine. Nanosatellite manoeuvring for formation flying using advanced low power electric propulsion. A colloid thruster system concept is planned for development jointly between SSTL, Queen Mary University London and Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, UK. The colloid thruster system is designed to complement an existing butane resistojet to give full 3-axis manoeuvrability to an upgraded SNAP nanosatellite platform which could be reflown in 2007 alongside ESA's Proba 2 technology demonstrator microsatellite. A comparison between low power resistojets, a colloid thruster system, and pulsed plasma thrusters for orbit manoeuvring of microsatellites will be made. This paper's final section will briefly describe some of the interplanetary missions which have been considered at the Surrey Space Centre, and will highlight the few as yet practical solutions for sending small spacecraft on high deltaV missions without the use of a costly upper stage.

  8. Conceptual design of advanced central receiver power systems sodium-cooled receiver concept. Volume 4. Commercial and pilot plant cost data. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-03-01

    This volume of the advanced central receiver final report presents the cost data using the cost breakdown structure identified in the preliminary specification. Cost summaries are presented in the following sections for the 100-MWe and 281-MWe commercial plant and a 10-MWe pilot plant. Cost substantiation data for this volume are presented in the appendices. Other cost summary data include Nth plant data for the 100-MWe and 281-MWe commercial plants, and a summary for the alternative concept air-rock storage system. The main description of the plant costing technique occurs as part of Section II for the 100-MWe baseline concept.

  9. A proof-of-concept implementation of a unit-based advanced practice registered nurse (APRN) role: structural empowerment, role clarity and team effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feistritzer, Nancye R; Jones, Pam O

    2014-03-01

    The quest for decreased cost of care and improved outcomes has created the need for highly effective clinical roles and teams. This article describes the role of a unit-based advanced practice registered nurse (APRN) within a proof-of-concept implementation of a new care delivery model, the Vanderbilt Anticipatory Care Team. Role clarity is central to both structural empowerment of the APRN and team effectiveness. A modified PeaceHealth Team Development Measure tool measured baseline role clarity as a component of overall team effectiveness. A role description for the unit-based APRN based on a comprehensive assessment of the proof-of-concept unit is provided.

  10. Investigation on the spontaneous combustion of refuse-derived fuels during storage using a chemiluminescence technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matunaga, Atsushi; Yasuhara, Akio; Shimizu, Yoshitada; Wakakura, Masahide; Shibamoto, Takayuki

    2008-12-01

    Refuse-derived fuel (RDF), a high-caloric material, is used by various combustion processes, such as power plants, as alternative fuel. Several explosion accidents, however, possibly initiated by the spontaneous combustion of stored RDF, have been reported in Japan. Therefore the spontaneous combustion of RDF prepared from domestic garbage was investigated using chemiluminescence. RDF samples were heated either under air or under nitrogen for 1, 2, or 4 h at 120 or 140 degrees C and then cooled by an air or nitrogen stream. All RDF samples exhibited chemiluminescence. In air-treated RDF samples (heated and cooled by air), chemiluminescence after ageing was shown to be slightly lower than before ageing, whereas in nitrogen-treated samples (both heated and cooled by nitrogen) chemiluminescence decreased significantly after ageing. When nitrogen was replaced with air during aging, however, a sudden increase of chemiluminescence was observed. On the other hand, when cooling was done with air, chemiluminescence increased. Higher chemiluminescence was also observed during high-temperature treatment. Further experiments on cellulose, one of the major components of domestic garbage, exhibited similar chemiluminescence patterns to those of RDF when treated by the same methods as those used for RDF ageing. Chemiluminescence from cellulose increased significantly when the atmospheric gas was changed from nitrogen to air, suggesting that oxygen in the air promoted the formation of hydroperoxide from cellulose. Therefore, it is hypothesized that cellulose plays an important role in the formation of chemiluminescence from RDF. The formation of chemiluminescence indicated that radicals are formed from RDF by oxidation or thermal degradation at room or atmospheric temperatures and may subsequently lead to spontaneous combustion. PMID:19039070

  11. Effect of Saliva on Measurement of Chemiluminescence by a Micro-Reactor Incorporating a Micro-Channel

    OpenAIRE

    Tsukagoshi, Kazuhiko; Fukumoto, Kazuaki; Nakajima, Riichiro; Yamashita, Kenichi; Maeda, Hideaki

    2007-01-01

    Effect of saliva on measurement of chemiluminescence was examined by a micro-reactor incorporating a micro-channel. Sodium hypochlorite and hydrogen peroxide solutions were delivered into a micro-channel developed in a micro-reactor by a syringe pump, providing a laminar flow liquid-liquid interface in the channel and leading to chemiluminescence from singlet oxygen. It was found under certain conditions including saliva that ca. 5% chemiluminescence of the total chemiluminescence was lost in...

  12. Synthesis and properties of differently charged chemiluminescent acridinium ester labels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natrajan, Anand; Sharpe, David

    2013-02-14

    Chemiluminescent acridinium dimethylphenyl esters containing N-sulfopropyl groups in the acridinium ring are highly sensitive, hydrophilic labels that are used in automated immunoassays for clinical diagnostics. Light emission from these labels is triggered with alkaline peroxide in the presence of a cationic surfactant. At physiological pH, N-sulfopropyl acridinium esters exist as water adducts that are commonly referred to as pseudobases. Pseudobase formation, which results from addition of water to the zwitterionic N-sulfopropyl acridinium ring, neutralizes the positive charge on the acridinium nitrogen and imparts a net negative charge to the label due to the sulfonate moiety. As a consequence, N-sulfopropyl acridinium ester conjugates of small molecule haptens as well as large molecules such as proteins gain negative charges at neutral pH. In the current study, we describe the synthesis and properties of two new hydrophilic acridinium dimethylphenyl ester labels where the net charge in the labels was altered. In one label, the structure of the hydrophilic N-alkyl group attached to the acridinium ring was changed so that the pseudobase of the label contains no net charge. In the second acridinium ester, two additional negative charges in the form of sulfopropyl groups were added to the acridinium ring to make this label's pseudobase strongly anionic. Chemiluminescence measurements of these labels, as well as their conjugates of an antibody with a neutral pI, indicate that acridinium ester charge while having a modest effect on emission kinetics has little influence on light output. However, our results demonstrate that acridinium ester charge can affect protein pI, apparent chemiluminescence stability and non-specific binding of protein conjugates to microparticles. These results emphasize the need for careful consideration of acridinium ester charge in order to optimize reagent stability and performance in immunoassays. In the current study, we observed that

  13. Advancing Empirical Approaches to the Concept of Resilience: A Critical Examination of Panarchy, Ecological Information, and Statistical Evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Kharrazi; Fath, Brian D.; Harald Katzmair

    2016-01-01

    Despite its ambiguities, the concept of resilience is of critical importance to researchers, practitioners, and policy-makers in dealing with dynamic socio-ecological systems. In this paper, we critically examine the three empirical approaches of (i) panarchy; (ii) ecological information-based network analysis; and (iii) statistical evidence of resilience to three criteria determined for achieving a comprehensive understanding and application of this concept. These criteria are the ability: (...

  14. Sensitive chemiluminescent immunoassay of triclopyr by digital image analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, Aurora N; Sánchez, Francisco G; Baro, Enrique N; Díaz, Ana F G; Aguilar, Alfonso; Algarra, Manuel

    2012-08-15

    An image based detection of chemiluminescence enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (CL-ELISA) for the quantification of triclopyr has been developed. The immunoassay was an indirect competitive immunoassay with an anti-rabbit secondary antibody conjugated to horseradish peroxidase (HRP). Chemiluminescence was produced by the luminol/H(2)O(2)/HRP reaction, detected by a monochrome video CCD camera and digitized with an Imagraph IC-PCI frame grabber using a custom program developed in C(++) (Microsoft Visual C(++) 6.0). Two main improvements are reported in the data processing software: the implementation of a circular mesh covering the perimeter of each well, eliminating diffuse light from the neighboring wells, and the use of volume (the integration of light intensity of all pixels that define a well) as an analytical signal instead of CL intensity or area (as usual in commercial plate readers) to improve precision for normalization of the total light output. The standard curve was produced for 0.01-10 ng/L triclopyr. The limit of detection was 0.8 ng/L and the variation coefficient was 3.07% (n=10, P=0.05). PMID:22841045

  15. Selective Detection of Neurotransmitters by Fluorescence and Chemiluminescence Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziqiang Wang; Edward S. Yeung

    2001-08-06

    In recent years, luminescence imaging has been widely employed in neurochemical analysis. It has a number of advantages for the study of neuronal and other biological cells: (1) a particular molecular species or cellular constituent can be selectively visualized in the presence of a large excess of other species in a heterogeneous environment; (2) low concentration detection limits can be achieved because of the inherent sensitivity associated with fluorescence and chemiluminescence; (3) low excitation intensities can be used so that long-term observation can be realized while the viability of the specimen is preserved; and (4) excellent spatial resolution can be obtained with the light microscope so subcellular compartments can be identified. With good sensitivity, temporal and spatial resolution, the flux of ions and molecules and the distribution and dynamics of intracellular species can be measured in real time with specific luminescence probes, substrates, or with native fluorescence. A noninvasive detection scheme based on glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) enzymatic assay combined with microscopy was developed to measure the glutamate release in cultured cells from the central nervous system (CNS). The enzyme reaction is very specific and sensitive. The detection limit with CCD imaging is down to {micro}M levels of glutamate with reasonable response time. They also found that chemiluminescence associated with the ATP-dependent reaction between luciferase and luciferin can be used to image ATP at levels down to 10 nM in the millisecond time scale. Similar imaging experiments should be feasible in a broad spectrum of biological systems.

  16. Chemiluminescence assay for the detection of biological warfare agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langry, K; Horn, J

    1999-11-05

    A chemiluminescent homogeneous immunoassay and a hand-size multiassay reader are described that could be used for detecting biological materials. The special feature of the assay is that it employs two different antibodies that each bind to a unique epitope on the same antigen. Each group of epitope-specific antibodies has linked to it an enzyme of a proximal-enzyme pair. One enzyme of the pair utilizes a substrate in high concentration to produce a second substrate required by the second enzyme. This new substrate enables the second enzyme to function. The reaction of the second enzyme is configured to produce light. This chemiluminescence is detected with a charge-coupled device (CCD) camera. The proximal pair enzymes must be in close proximity to one another to allow the second enzyme to react with the product of the first enzyme. This only occurs when the enzyme-linked antibodies are attached to the antigen, whether antigen is a single protein with multiple epitopes or the surface of a cell with a variety of different antigens. As a result of their juxtaposition, the enzymes produce light only in the presence of the biological material. A brief description is given as to how this assay could be utilized in a personal bio-agent detector system.

  17. СHANGES IN PARAMETERS OF LUMINOL-DEPENDENT AND LUCIGENIN-DEPENDENT CHEMILUMINESCENCE OF PERIPHERAL BLOOD NEUTROPHILS IN PATIENTS WITH BLADDER CANCER IN THE DISEASE DYNAMICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. M. Kurtasova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The study deals with parameters of luminol-dependent and lucigenin-dependent chemiluminescence (CL of peripheral blood neutrophils from patients with bladder cancer (BC prior to surgical treatment. We examined sixty patients (45 to 55 years old with advanced bladder cancer (TNM prior to the operation, and forty-six patients at 10 days after surgical treatment. A control group consisted of 56 healthy donors. Luminol-dependent and lucigenin-dependent chemiluminescence of blood neutrophils was assessed according to De Sole et al. (1983. Chemiluminescence assays of peripheral blood neutrophils from the patients with bladder cancer revealed changes in production of reactive oxygen species (ROS, both for initial stage of oxidation reaction, and total level of active oxygen radicals. We have found disturbed values of primary-to-secondary ROS ratio in the cells. In the patients with bladder cancer, some changes in oxidative metabolism of the blood neutrophils have been registered. These alterations may play an important role in promotion of potential effector cell functions, thus, probably, affecting the whole-scale development of a cytopathic effect exerted by neutrophilic granulocytes. 

  18. [Report from the Committee for Advanced Therapies (CAT). Pitfalls on the way from concept to medical treatment with advanced therapy medicinal products].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiss, M; Büttel, I C; Schneider, C K

    2011-07-01

    Advanced therapy medicinal products (ATMP) are highly innovative and complex medicines. They comprise gene therapy medicinal products, somatic cell therapy medicinal products, and tissue-engineered products (TEP). With the European Regulation on ATMP that came into force in 2008, a consolidated regulatory framework was created, where the Committee for Advanced Therapies (CAT) at the European Medicines Agency (EMA) plays a central role. This article discusses pitfalls and challenges that the CAT has experienced in its discussions of various procedures. Often ATMPs are developed by small and medium-sized enterprises (SME) which also face nonscientific challenges. The CAT wishes to meet these challenges on a scientific and regulatory level during its 2010-2015 work program.

  19. Advance the Harmonious Development of Higher Education Institutions under the Guidance of the Scientific Concept of Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Jiang-qiao

    2006-01-01

    To build up and carry out the scientific concept of development will have a major and directive significance in solving the problems and conflicts of the development of higher education institutions (HEIs). This paper is based on drawing up the development strategy of a university, and brings up the idea of grasping the strategic opportunity,…

  20. How Do Concept-Maps Function for Reading Comprehension Improvement of Iranian Advanced EFL Learners of Both Genders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaghaninejad, Mohammad Saber; Arefinejad, Mansour

    2015-01-01

    This study was an attempt to examine the effect of concept mapping on reading comprehension of Iranian EFL learners. Pretest-posttest design was employed to scrutinize the possible improvement of the study's participants who were male and female learners whose ages ranged from 19 to 40 and had taken general English courses at Islamic Azad…

  1. Validation of a Computational Model for the SLS Core Stage Oxygen Tank Diffuser Concept and the Low Profile Diffuser - An Advanced Development Design for the SLS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodnick, Jacob; Richardson, Brian; Ramachandran, Narayanan

    2015-01-01

    The Low Profile Diffuser (LPD) project originated as an award from the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Advanced Development (ADO) office to the Main Propulsion Systems Branch (ER22). The task was created to develop and test an LPD concept that could produce comparable performance to a larger, traditionally designed, ullage gas diffuser while occupying a smaller volume envelope. Historically, ullage gas diffusers have been large, bulky devices that occupy a significant portion of the propellant tank, decreasing the tank volume available for propellant. Ullage pressurization of spacecraft propellant tanks is required to prevent boil-off of cryogenic propellants and to provide a positive pressure for propellant extraction. To achieve this, ullage gas diffusers must slow hot, high-pressure gas entering a propellant tank from supersonic speeds to only a few meters per second. Decreasing the incoming gas velocity is typically accomplished through expansion to larger areas within the diffuser which has traditionally led to large diffuser lengths. The Fluid Dynamics Branch (ER42) developed and applied advanced Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis methods in order to mature the LPD design from and initial concept to an optimized test prototype and to provide extremely accurate pre-test predictions of diffuser performance. Additionally, the diffuser concept for the Core Stage of the Space Launch System (SLS) was analyzed in a short amount of time to guide test data collection efforts of the qualification of the device. CFD analysis of the SLS diffuser design provided new insights into the functioning of the device and was qualitatively validated against hot wire anemometry of the exterior flow field. Rigorous data analysis of the measurements was performed on static and dynamic pressure data, data from two microphones, accelerometers and hot wire anemometry with automated traverse. Feasibility of the LPD concept and validation of the computational model were

  2. Hybridization of natural systems with advanced treatment processes for organic micropollutant removals: new concepts in multi-barrier treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudhakaran, Sairam; Maeng, Sung Kyu; Amy, Gary

    2013-07-01

    Organic micropollutants (OMPs) represent a major constraint in drinking water supply. In the past, emphasis has been on individual treatment processes comprising conventional treatment (coagulation, sedimentation, and filtration) followed by advanced treatment processes (adsorption, ion-exchange, oxidation, and membrane separation). With the depletion of water resources and high demand for power and chemical usage, efforts need to be made to judiciously use advanced treatment processes. There is a new interest in multiple barriers with synergies in which two coupled processes can function as a hybrid process. Within the context of this paper, the hybrid processes include a natural treatment process coupled with an advanced process. Pilot/full-scale studies have shown efficient removal of OMPs by these hybrid processes. With this hybridization, the usage of resources such as power and chemicals can be reduced. In this study, coupling/hybridization of aquifer recharge and recovery (ARR) with oxidation (O3), advanced oxidation process which involves OH radicals (AOP), nanofiltration (NF), reverse osmosis (RO) and granular activated carbon (GAC) adsorption for OMP removal was studied. O3 or AOP as a pre-treatment and GAC, NF, RO, or UV/chlorination as a post-treatment to ARR was studied. NF can be replaced by RO for removal of OMPs since studies have shown similar performance of NF to RO for removal of many OMPs, thereby reducing costs and providing a more sustainable approach.

  3. Hybridization of natural systems with advanced treatment processes for organic micropollutant removals: new concepts in multi-barrier treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudhakaran, Sairam; Maeng, Sung Kyu; Amy, Gary

    2013-07-01

    Organic micropollutants (OMPs) represent a major constraint in drinking water supply. In the past, emphasis has been on individual treatment processes comprising conventional treatment (coagulation, sedimentation, and filtration) followed by advanced treatment processes (adsorption, ion-exchange, oxidation, and membrane separation). With the depletion of water resources and high demand for power and chemical usage, efforts need to be made to judiciously use advanced treatment processes. There is a new interest in multiple barriers with synergies in which two coupled processes can function as a hybrid process. Within the context of this paper, the hybrid processes include a natural treatment process coupled with an advanced process. Pilot/full-scale studies have shown efficient removal of OMPs by these hybrid processes. With this hybridization, the usage of resources such as power and chemicals can be reduced. In this study, coupling/hybridization of aquifer recharge and recovery (ARR) with oxidation (O3), advanced oxidation process which involves OH radicals (AOP), nanofiltration (NF), reverse osmosis (RO) and granular activated carbon (GAC) adsorption for OMP removal was studied. O3 or AOP as a pre-treatment and GAC, NF, RO, or UV/chlorination as a post-treatment to ARR was studied. NF can be replaced by RO for removal of OMPs since studies have shown similar performance of NF to RO for removal of many OMPs, thereby reducing costs and providing a more sustainable approach. PMID:23664475

  4. Hybridization of natural systems with advanced treatment processes for organic micropollutant removals: New concepts in multi-barrier treatment

    KAUST Repository

    Sudhakaran, Sairam

    2013-07-01

    In the past, emphasis has been on individual treatment processes comprising conventional treatment (coagulation, sedimentation, and filtration) followed by advanced treatment processes (adsorption, ion-exchange, oxidation, and membrane separation). With the depletion of water resources and high demand for power and chemical usage, efforts need to be made to judiciously use advanced treatment processes. There is a new interest in multiple barriers with synergies in which two coupled processes can function as a hybrid process. Within the context of this paper, the hybrid processes include a natural treatment process coupled with an advanced process. Pilot/full-scale studies have shown efficient removal of OMPs by these hybrid processes. With this hybridization, the usage of resources such as power and chemicals can be reduced. In this study, coupling/hybridization of aquifer recharge and recovery (ARR) with oxidation (O3), advanced oxidation process which involves OH radicals (AOP), nanofiltration (NF), reverse osmosis (RO) and granular activated carbon (GAC) adsorption for OMP removal was studied. O3 or AOP as a pre-treatment and GAC, NF, RO, or UV/chlorination as a post-treatment to ARR was studied. NF can be replaced by RO for removal of OMPs since studies have shown similar performance of NF to RO for removal of many OMPs, thereby reducing costs and providing a more sustainable approach. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Investigating the Effect of Different Verbal Formats of Advance Organizers on Third Graders' Understanding of Heat Transfer Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Hsueh-Hua; Liu, Han-Chin

    2014-01-01

    The emergence of computer and multimedia technology change the forms of instructional materials and instructional design plays an important role on student learning outcome in multimedia learning. Research has found that using advance organizers has the potential for achieving learning objectives. Thus, this study investigated how using different…

  6. Investigating the Effect of Different Verbal Formats of Advance Organizers on Third Graders' Understanding of Heat Transfer Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Hsueh-Hua; Liu, Han-Chin

    2014-01-01

    The emergence of computer and multimedia technology change the forms of instructional materials and instructional design plays an important role on student learning outcome in multimedia learning. Research has found that using advance organizers has the potential for achieving learning objectives. Thus, this study investigated how using different…

  7. N plus 3 Advanced Concept Studies for Supersonic Commercial Transport Aircraft Entering Service in the 2030-2035 Period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welge, H. Robert; Bonet, John; Magee, Todd; Tompkins, Daniel; Britt, Terry R.; Nelson, Chet; Miller, Gregory; Stenson, Douglas; Staubach, J. Brent; Bala, Naushir; Duge, Robert; OBrien, Mark; Cedoz, Robert; Barlow, Andrew; Martins, Steve; Viars, Phil; Rasheed, Adam; Kirby, Michelle; Raczynski, Chris; Roughen, Kevin; Doyle, Steven; Alston, Katherine; Page, Juliet; Plotkin, Kenneth J.

    2011-01-01

    Boeing, with Pratt & Whitney, General Electric, Rolls-Royce, M4 Engineering, Wyle Laboratories and Georgia Institute of Technology, conducted a study of supersonic commercial aircraft concepts and enabling technologies for the year 2030-2035 timeframe. The work defined the market and environmental/regulatory conditions that could evolve by the 2030/35 time period, from which vehicle performance goals were derived. Relevant vehicle concepts and technologies are identified that are anticipated to meet these performance and environmental goals. A series of multidisciplinary analyses trade studies considering vehicle sizing, mission performance and environmental conformity determined the appropriate concepts. Combinations of enabling technologies and the required technology performance levels needed to meet the desired goals were identified. Several high priority technologies are described in detail, including roadmaps with risk assessments that outline objectives, key technology challenges, detailed tasks and schedules and demonstrations that need to be performed. A representative configuration is provided for reference purposes, along with associated performance estimates based on these key technologies.

  8. Concept - or no concept

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsteinsson, Uffe

    1999-01-01

    Discussion about concept in industrial companies. A method for mapping of managerial concept in specific area is shown......Discussion about concept in industrial companies. A method for mapping of managerial concept in specific area is shown...

  9. Advanced Concept Studies for Supersonic Commercial Transports Entering Service in the 2018-2020 Period Phase 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgenstern, John; Buonanno, Michael; Yao, Jixian; Murugappan, Mugam; Paliath, Umesh; Cheung, Lawrence; Malcevic, Ivan; Ramakrishnan, Kishore; Pastouchenko, Nikolai; Wood, Trevor; Martens, Steve; Viars, Phil; Tersmette, Trevor; Lee, Jason; Simmons, Ron; Plybon, David; Alonso, Juan; Palacios, Francisco; Lukaczyk, Trent; Carrier, Gerald

    2015-01-01

    Lockheed Martin Aeronautics Company (LM), working in conjunction with General Electric Global Research (GE GR) and Stanford University, executed a 19 month program responsive to the NASA sponsored "N+2 Supersonic Validation: Advanced Concept Studies for Supersonic Commercial Transports Entering Service in the 2018-2020 Period" contract. The key technical objective of this effort was to validate integrated airframe and propulsion technologies and design methodologies necessary to realize a supersonic vehicle capable of meeting the N+2 environmental and performance goals. The N+2 program is aligned with NASA's Supersonic Project and is focused on providing system level solutions capable of overcoming the efficiency, environmental, and performance barriers to practical supersonic flight. The N+2 environmental and performance goals are outlined in the technical paper, AIAA-2014-2138 (Ref. 1) along with the validated N+2 Phase 2 results. Our Phase 2 efforts built upon our Phase 1 studies (Ref. 2) and successfully demonstrated the ability to design and test realistic configurations capable of shaped sonic booms over the width of the sonic boom carpet. Developing a shaped boom configuration capable of meeting the N+2 shaped boom targets is a key goal for the N+2 program. During the LM Phase 1 effort, LM successfully designed and tested a shaped boom trijet configuration (1021) capable of achieving 85 PLdB under track (forward and aft shock) and up to 28 deg off-track at Mach 1.6. In Phase 2 we developed a refined configuration (1044-2) that extended the under 85 PLdB sonic boom level over the entire carpet of 52 deg off-track at a cruise Mach number of 1.7. Further, the loudness level of the configuration throughout operational conditions calculates to an average of 79 PLdB. These calculations rely on propagation employing Burger's (sBOOM) rounding methodology, and there are indications that the configuration average loudness would actually be 75 PLdB. We also added

  10. The effects of advance organizer and prerequisite knowledge passages on the learning and retention of science concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, Vivian C.

    Fifty-five ninth-grade science students participated in this study which compared the effects of two pretreatments, an advance organizer and a prerequisite knowledge passage, on learning and retention measured at low (knowledge and comprehension) and high (application and analysis) levels of the cognitive domain. The effectiveness of the pretreatments was measured by a framework test and a prerequisite knowledge test prior to the beginning of instruction. An analysis of covariance, with IQ as the covariate, was performed on the framework test and the prerequisite knowledge test. It was found that the advance organizer group performed significantly better than the prerequisite knowledge group (p test, and the prerequisite knowledge group performed significantly better (p test. These results provide evidence that both passages were read and understood by the students and that the passages had their intended effects as preinstructional treatments. An analysis of covariance, with IQ as the covariate, was performed on the low-level questions, high-level questions, and total score for the posttest and retention test. The group means for the two question levels and the total score were not found to be significantly different (p > 0.05) for either the posttest or retention test. The results of this study do not provide evidence that an advance organizer facilitates learning and retention more than a preinstructional treatment that concentrates on developing prerequisite knowledge.

  11. Determination of Progesterone Receptor by Chemiluminescent Enzyme Immunoassay

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    殷铁军; 顾美皎; 周宜开; 郑文; 胡伟; 芦运萍

    2003-01-01

    A new method of chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay (CLEIA) was developed and the standard curve and regression equation for determination of progesterone receptor (PR) made. The luminosity of tissue samples was tested and PR level was calculated by the regression equation. Correlation analysis revealed that there was a linear relationship between different concentrations of the standard PR samples and the corresponding values of luminosity: Y = 3748+463. 77X, γ =0. 9958. The values of the luminosity in 38 cases of tumor tissues were determined with the highest being 267. 32 fmol/mg, the lowest 3.69 fmol/mg and the mean 78. 53 fmol/mg. The new method of CLEIA was a stable, creditable,specific and sensitive assay for determination of PR.

  12. Determination of theophylline concentration in serum by chemiluminescent immunoassay

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Mei-xia; GUAN Cha-ying; CHEN Guang; XIE Xin-you; WU Sheng-hai

    2005-01-01

    Objective: This study aimed to establish chemiluminescent immunoassay (CLIA) for quantitative determination of theophylline levels in human serum. Methods: To measure the concentration of theophylline (n=122) and evaluate the assay.Results: The linear range of the CLIA method was 0.51~40 mg/L (Y=1.02X+0.44, r=0.995). The intra and inter CV (coefficient variance) of CLIA were 3.20% and 3.57%, respectively. The average recovery rate was 102.3%. This method was free from interference by brilirubin (<200 μmol/L), hemoglobin (<10 g/L), and triglycerides (<15 mmol/L). Conclusion: This method is simple, convenient and precise for clinical pharmacokinetics study oftheophylline.

  13. Imaging Electrogenerated Chemiluminescence at Single Gold Nanowire Electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Andrew J; Marchuk, Kyle; Willets, Katherine A

    2015-09-01

    We report electrogenerated chemiluminescence (ECL) generated at single gold nanowire electrodes supported on tin-doped indium oxide. Unlike other single nanoparticle electrochemical characterization techniques, ECL provides a massively parallel direct readout of electrochemical activity on individual nanoparticle electrodes without the need for extrinsic illumination or a scanning electrochemical probe. While ECL is not observed from as-purchased nanowires due to the surfactant layer, by removing the layer and coating the nanowires with a polymer blend, ECL from single nanowire electrodes is readily measured. With an increase in polymer thickness, an increase in ECL image quality and reproducibility over multiple redox cycles is observed. The polymer coating also provides a strategy for stabilizing gold nanoparticle electrodes against complete surface oxidation in aqueous environments. PMID:26267267

  14. The application of automatic chemiluminescence machine in rapid immune detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To provide high-quality, rapid and dependable result for clinical practice, and give satisfactory service to patients of different economical status by supplementation with other labeling immune examination. With an innovative attitude, we carried out efficient technical reform on ACS180 automatic chemiluminescence machine, making it possible for patients to complete the whole process including examination, check-out, diagnosis and getting drugs. The reported will be issued within an hour, thus a rapid immune detection service was established in out-patients department. Methods: 1. ACS-180 automatic chemiluminescence machine is used based on the principle of chemiluminescence immune methods. 2. The reagents are provided by Ciba-Comig Company of USA, composed of anti acridinium ester antibody of liquid phase and particulate antigen of solid phase wrapped in magnetic powder. 3. Calibration and quality control: high and low concentration are set for each calibration fluid with attached standard curve. Product for quality controlling includes three concentration of low, moderate and high. Results: 1. rapid machine detection for sample: serum is replaced with plasma coagulated by heparin, and comparison among series of methods using serum or plasma suggest no significant difference exists. 2. The problem about fasting detection: chemiluminescence machine measure optical density directly, with the results hardly being influenced by turbidity. But attention should be paid to the treatment of lipid turbid samples. 3. Other innovations: (1) direct placement of sample tube on machine: a cushion is placed on sample plate to transfer sample to machine directly after centrifugation, saving time and reducing the accident in sample transference. (2) for HCG quantification in blood and urine, 'gold criteria' is used firstly in screening to determine approximately the dilution range, with an advantage of saving time and reagent as well as accuracy. (3) we design a

  15. An Advanced Fly-By-Wire Flight Control System for the RASCAL Research Rotorcraft: Concept to Reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rediess, Nicholas A.; Dones, Fernando; McManus, Bruce L.; Ulmer, Lon; Aiken, Edwin W. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    Design features of a new fly-by-wire flight control system for the Rotorcraft-Aircrew Systems Concepts Airborne Laboratory (RASCAL) are described. Using a UH-60A Black Hawk helicopter as a baseline vehicle, the RASCAL will be a flying laboratory capable of supporting the research requirements of major NASA and Army guidance, control, and display research programs. The paper describes the research facility requirements of these pro-rams and the design implementation of the research flight control system (RFCS), with emphasis on safety-of-flight, adaptability to multiple requirements and performance considerations.

  16. Surface plasmon coupled chemiluminescence during adsorption of oxygen on magnesium surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagemann, Ulrich [Interdisciplinary Center for the Analytics on the Nanoscale (ICAN) and Center for Nanointegration Duisburg-Essen (CENIDE), Carl-Benz-Str. 199, 47057 Duisburg (Germany); Nienhaus, Hermann, E-mail: hermann.nienhaus@uni-due.de [Faculty of Physics, University of Duisburg-Essen and Center for Nanointegration Duisburg-Essen (CENIDE), Lotharstr. 1, 47048 Duisburg (Germany)

    2015-12-28

    The dissociative adsorption of oxygen molecules on magnesium surfaces represents a non-adiabatic reaction exhibiting exoelectron emission, chemicurrent generation, and weak chemiluminescence. Using thin film Mg/Ag/p-Si(111) Schottky diodes with 1 nm Mg on a 10-60 nm thick Ag layer as 2π-photodetectors, the chemiluminescence is internally detected with a much larger efficiency than external methods. The chemically induced photoyield shows a maximum for a Ag film thickness of 45 nm. The enhancement is explained by surface plasmon coupled chemiluminescence, i.e., surface plasmon polaritons are effectively excited in the Ag layer by the oxidation reaction and decay radiatively leading to the observed photocurrent. Model calculations of the maximum absorption in attenuated total reflection geometry support the interpretation. The study demonstrates the extreme sensitivity and the practical usage of internal detection schemes for investigating surface chemiluminescence.

  17. Sequential Injection Determination of D-Glucose by Chemiluminescence Using an Open Tubular Immobilised Enzyme Reactor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Xuezhu; Hansen, Elo Harald

    1996-01-01

    A sequential injection analysis system is described that incorporates a nylon tubular reactor containing immobilised glucose oxidase, allowing determination of D-glucose by means of subsequent luminol chemiluminescence detection of the hydrogen peroxide generated in the enzymatic reaction...

  18. Modeling and Test Data Analysis of a Tank Rapid Chill and Fill System for the Advanced Shuttle Upper Stage (ASUS) Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flachbart, Robin; Hedayat, Ali; Holt, Kimberly A.; Cruit, Wendy (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The Advanced Shuttle Upper Stage (ASUS) concept addresses safety concerns associated .with cryogenic stages by launching empty, and filling on ascent. The ASUS employs a rapid chill and fill concept. A spray bar is used to completely chill the tank before fill, allowing the vent valve to be closed during the fill process. The first tests of this concept, using a flight size (not flight weight) tank. were conducted at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) during the summer of 2000. The objectives of the testing were to: 1) demonstrate that a flight size tank could be filled in roughly 5 minutes to accommodate the shuttle ascent window, and 2) demonstrate a no-vent fill of the tank. A total of 12 tests were conducted. Models of the test facility fill and vent systems, as well as the tank, were constructed. The objective of achieving tank fill in 5 minutes was met during the test series. However, liquid began to accumulate in the tank before it was chilled. Since the tank was not chilled until the end of each test, vent valve closure during fill was not possible. Even though the chill and fill process did not occur as expected, reasonable model correlation with the test data was achieved.

  19. Investigation of advanced counterrotation blade configuration concepts for high speed turboprop systems. Task 4: Advanced fan section aerodynamic analysis computer program user's manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crook, Andrew J.; Delaney, Robert A.

    1992-01-01

    The computer program user's manual for the ADPACAPES (Advanced Ducted Propfan Analysis Code-Average Passage Engine Simulation) program is included. The objective of the computer program is development of a three-dimensional Euler/Navier-Stokes flow analysis for fan section/engine geometries containing multiple blade rows and multiple spanwise flow splitters. An existing procedure developed by Dr. J. J. Adamczyk and associates at the NASA Lewis Research Center was modified to accept multiple spanwise splitter geometries and simulate engine core conditions. The numerical solution is based upon a finite volume technique with a four stage Runge-Kutta time marching procedure. Multiple blade row solutions are based upon the average-passage system of equations. The numerical solutions are performed on an H-type grid system, with meshes meeting the requirement of maintaining a common axisymmetric mesh for each blade row grid. The analysis was run on several geometry configurations ranging from one to five blade rows and from one to four radial flow splitters. The efficiency of the solution procedure was shown to be the same as the original analysis.

  20. Off-design temperature effects on nuclear fuel pins for an advanced space-power-reactor concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowles, K. J.

    1974-01-01

    An exploratory out-of-reactor investigation was made of the effects of short-time temperature excursions above the nominal operating temperature of 990 C on the compatibility of advanced nuclear space-power reactor fuel pin materials. This information is required for formulating a reliable reactor safety analysis and designing an emergency core cooling system. Simulated uranium mononitride (UN) fuel pins, clad with tungsten-lined T-111 (Ta-8W-2Hf) showed no compatibility problems after heating for 8 hours at 2400 C. At 2520 C and above, reactions occurred in 1 hour or less. Under these conditions free uranium formed, redistributed, and attacked the cladding.

  1. Design concepts and advanced telerobotics development for facilities in the back end of the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the Fuel Recycle Division at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, a comprehensive remote systems development program has existed for the past seven years. The new remote technology under development is expected to significantly improve remote operations by extending the range of tasks accomplished by remote means and increasing the efficiency of remote work undertaken. Five areas of the development effort are primary contributors to the goal of higher operating efficiency for major facilities for the back end of the nuclear fuel cycle. These areas are the single-cell concept, the low-flow ventilation concept, television viewing, equipment-mounting racks, and force-reflecting manipulation. These somewhat innovative directions are products of a design process where the technical scenario to be accomplished, the remote equipment to accomplish the scenario, and the facility design to house the equipment, are considered in an iterative design process to optimize performance, maximize long-term costs effectiveness, and minimize initial capital outlay. 14 refs., 3 figs

  2. Design concepts and advanced telerobotics development for facilities in the back end of the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the Fuel Recycle Division at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), a comprehensive remote systems development program has existed for the past seven years. The new remote technology under development is expected to significantly improve remote operations by extending the range of tasks accomplished by remote means and increasing the efficiency of remote work undertaken. Five areas of the development effort are primary contributors to the goal of higher operating efficiency for major facilities for the back end of the nuclear fuel cycle. These areas are (1) the single-cell concept, (2) the low-flow ventilation concept, (3) television viewing, (4) equipment-mounting racks, and (5) force-reflecting manipulation. These somewhat innovative directions are products of a design process where the technical scenario to be accomplished, the remote equipment to accomplish the scenario, and the facility design to house the equipment, are considered in an iterative design process to optimize performance, maximize long-term costs effectiveness, and minimize initial capital outlay. (author)

  3. Inhibition of human monocyte chemotaxis and chemiluminescence by Pseudomonas aeruginosa elastase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kharazmi, A; Nielsen, H

    1991-01-01

    The in vitro effect of Pseudomonas aeruginosa elastase on human monocyte function was examined. Mononuclear cells isolated from the peripheral blood of healthy individuals were incubated with various concentrations of elastase, and the chemotactic activity and chemiluminescence response of these ......The in vitro effect of Pseudomonas aeruginosa elastase on human monocyte function was examined. Mononuclear cells isolated from the peripheral blood of healthy individuals were incubated with various concentrations of elastase, and the chemotactic activity and chemiluminescence response...

  4. Determination of Ciprofloxacin by Flow Injection Analysis Based on Chemiluminescence System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    A novel flow injection chemiluminescence (CL) method for the determination of ciprofloxacin (CPLX) was reported. The proposed method is based on luminescence produced by KMnO4-Na2S2O4-Tb3+-CPLX chemiluminescence (CL) system. The effects of some critical experimental conditions were discussed and the optimization of working condithe recoveries of real sample analyses were in the range from 110 ± 4 to 104 ± 4.

  5. A highly-sensitive multisubstrate-compatible chemiluminescent immunoassay for human fetuin A

    OpenAIRE

    sprotocols

    2015-01-01

    Authors: Sandeep Kumar Vashist ### Abstract We report a highly-sensitive chemiluminescent immunoassay (CIA) for the detection of human fetuin A (HFA), which is based on the leach-proof covalent crosslinking of anti-HFA capture antibodies on 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES)-functionalized 96-well chemiluminescent microtiter plates (CMTP) using 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide hydrochloride and N-hydroxysulfosuccinimide. It has more than 3-fold reduced overall assay du...

  6. Optical tomography of fluorophores in dense scattering media based on ultrasound-enhanced chemiluminescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This letter proposes and demonstrates ultrasound-combined optical imaging in dense scattering media. A peroxyoxalate chemiluminescence system that includes fluorophores to chemically excite the pigment is stimulated by ultrasound irradiation with power of less than 0.14 W/cm2. Using focused ultrasound, the chemiluminescence is selectively spatially enhanced, which leads to imaging of the pigment when embedded in a light-scattering medium via scanning of the focal point. The ultrasonically enhanced intensity of the chemiluminescence depends on the base intensity of the chemiluminescence without the applied ultrasound irradiation, which thereby enables quantitative determination of the fluorophore concentration. The authors demonstrate the potential of this method to resolve chemiluminescent targets in a dense scattering medium that is comparable to biological tissue. An image was acquired of a chemiluminescent target that included indocyanine green as the fluorophore embedded at a depth of 20 mm in an Intralipid-10% 200 ml/l solution scattering medium (the reduced scattering coefficient was estimated to be approximately 1.3 mm−1), indicating the potential for expansion of this technique for use in biological applications

  7. Optical tomography of fluorophores in dense scattering media based on ultrasound-enhanced chemiluminescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, Masaki, E-mail: masaki@tohtech.ac.jp; Kikuchi, Naoto; Sato, Akihiro [Department of Electronics and Intelligent Systems, Tohoku Institute of Technology, Sendai 982-8577 (Japan)

    2015-01-12

    This letter proposes and demonstrates ultrasound-combined optical imaging in dense scattering media. A peroxyoxalate chemiluminescence system that includes fluorophores to chemically excite the pigment is stimulated by ultrasound irradiation with power of less than 0.14 W/cm{sup 2}. Using focused ultrasound, the chemiluminescence is selectively spatially enhanced, which leads to imaging of the pigment when embedded in a light-scattering medium via scanning of the focal point. The ultrasonically enhanced intensity of the chemiluminescence depends on the base intensity of the chemiluminescence without the applied ultrasound irradiation, which thereby enables quantitative determination of the fluorophore concentration. The authors demonstrate the potential of this method to resolve chemiluminescent targets in a dense scattering medium that is comparable to biological tissue. An image was acquired of a chemiluminescent target that included indocyanine green as the fluorophore embedded at a depth of 20 mm in an Intralipid-10% 200 ml/l solution scattering medium (the reduced scattering coefficient was estimated to be approximately 1.3 mm{sup −1}), indicating the potential for expansion of this technique for use in biological applications.

  8. Advances in integrated and sustainable supply chain planning concepts, methods, tools and solution approaches toward a platform for industrial practice

    CERN Document Server

    Laínez-Aguirre, José Miguel

    2015-01-01

    Decision making at the enterprise level often encompass not only production operations and  product R&D, but other strategic functions such as financial planning and marketing. With the aim of maximizing growth and a firm’s value, companies often focus on co-ordinating these functional components as well as traditional hierarchical decision levels. Understanding this interplay can enhance enterprise capabilities of adaptation and response to uncertainties arising from internal processes as well as the external environment. This book presents concepts, methods, tools and solutions based on mathematical programming, which provides the quantitative support needed for integrated decision-making and ultimately for improving the allocation of overall corporate resources (e.g., materials, cash and personnel). Through a systems perspective, the integrated planning of the supply chain also promotes activities of reuse, reduction and recycling for achieving more sustainable environmental impacts of production/di...

  9. MO-E-18C-04: Advanced Computer Simulation and Visualization Tools for Enhanced Understanding of Core Medical Physics Concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Most medical physics programs emphasize proficiency in routine clinical calculations and QA. The formulaic aspect of these calculations and prescriptive nature of measurement protocols obviate the need to frequently apply basic physical principles, which, therefore, gradually decay away from memory. E.g. few students appreciate the role of electron transport in photon dose, making it difficult to understand key concepts such as dose buildup, electronic disequilibrium effects and Bragg-Gray theory. These conceptual deficiencies manifest when the physicist encounters a new system, requiring knowledge beyond routine activities. Methods: Two interactive computer simulation tools are developed to facilitate deeper learning of physical principles. One is a Monte Carlo code written with a strong educational aspect. The code can “label” regions and interactions to highlight specific aspects of the physics, e.g., certain regions can be designated as “starters” or “crossers,” and any interaction type can be turned on and off. Full 3D tracks with specific portions highlighted further enhance the visualization of radiation transport problems. The second code calculates and displays trajectories of a collection electrons under arbitrary space/time dependent Lorentz force using relativistic kinematics. Results: Using the Monte Carlo code, the student can interactively study photon and electron transport through visualization of dose components, particle tracks, and interaction types. The code can, for instance, be used to study kerma-dose relationship, explore electronic disequilibrium near interfaces, or visualize kernels by using interaction forcing. The electromagnetic simulator enables the student to explore accelerating mechanisms and particle optics in devices such as cyclotrons and linacs. Conclusion: The proposed tools are designed to enhance understanding of abstract concepts by highlighting various aspects of the physics. The simulations serve as

  10. Euler Technology Assessment - SPLITFLOW Code Applications for Stability and Control Analysis on an Advanced Fighter Model Employing Innovative Control Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Keith J.

    1998-01-01

    This report documents results from the NASA-Langley sponsored Euler Technology Assessment Study conducted by Lockheed-Martin Tactical Aircraft Systems (LMTAS). The purpose of the study was to evaluate the ability of the SPLITFLOW code using viscous and inviscid flow models to predict aerodynamic stability and control of an advanced fighter model. The inviscid flow model was found to perform well at incidence angles below approximately 15 deg, but not as well at higher angles of attack. The results using a turbulent, viscous flow model matched the trends of the wind tunnel data, but did not show significant improvement over the Euler solutions. Overall, the predictions were found to be useful for stability and control design purposes.

  11. An advanced thin foil sensor concept for heat flux and heat transfer measurements in fully turbulent flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mocikat, H.; Herwig, H.

    2007-02-01

    A double layer hot film with two 10 μm nickel foils, separated by a 25 μm polyimide foil is used as a multi-purpose sensor. Each foil can be operated as a (calibrated) temperature sensor in its passive mode by imposing an electric current small enough to avoid heating by dissipation of electrical energy. Alternatively, however, each foil can also serve as a heater in an active mode with electric currents high enough to cause Joule heating. This double foil sensor can be used as a conventional heat flux sensor in its passive mode when mounted on an externally heated surface. Together with the wall and free stream temperature this measured heat flux will provide the local heat transfer coefficient h = dot{q}w/left(Tw - T_{infty}right). In fully turbulent flows it alternatively can be operated in an active mode on a cold, i.e. not externally heated surface. Then, by heating the upper foil, a local heat transfer is initiated from which the local heat transfer coefficient h can be determined, once the lower foil is heated to the same temperature as the upper one, thus acting as a counter-heater. The overall concept behind this mode of measurement is based on the local character of heat transfer in fully turbulent flows which turns out to be almost independent of the upstream thermal events.

  12. Design Concepts, Fabrication and Advanced Characterization Methods of Innovative Piezoelectric Sensors Based on ZnO Nanowires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araneo, Rodolfo; Rinaldi, Antonio; Notargiacomo, Andrea; Bini, Fabiano; Pea, Marialilia; Celozzi, Salvatore; Marinozzi, Franco; Lovat, Giampiero

    2014-12-08

    Micro- and nano-scale materials and systems based on zinc oxide are expected to explode in their applications in the electronics and photonics, including nano-arrays of addressable optoelectronic devices and sensors, due to their outstanding properties, including semiconductivity and the presence of a direct bandgap, piezoelectricity, pyroelectricity and biocompatibility. Most applications are based on the cooperative and average response of a large number of ZnO micro/nanostructures. However, in order to assess the quality of the materials and their performance, it is fundamental to characterize and then accurately model the specific electrical and piezoelectric properties of single ZnO structures. In this paper, we report on focused ion beam machined high aspect ratio nanowires and their mechanical and electrical (by means of conductive atomic force microscopy) characterization. Then, we investigate the suitability of new power-law design concepts to accurately model the relevant electrical and mechanical size-effects, whose existence has been emphasized in recent reviews.

  13. Design Concepts, Fabrication and Advanced Characterization Methods of Innovative Piezoelectric Sensors Based on ZnO Nanowires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo Araneo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Micro- and nano-scale materials and systems based on zinc oxide are expected to explode in their applications in the electronics and photonics, including nano-arrays of addressable optoelectronic devices and sensors, due to their outstanding properties, including semiconductivity and the presence of a direct bandgap, piezoelectricity, pyroelectricity and biocompatibility. Most applications are based on the cooperative and average response of a large number of ZnO micro/nanostructures. However, in order to assess the quality of the materials and their performance, it is fundamental to characterize and then accurately model the specific electrical and piezoelectric properties of single ZnO structures. In this paper, we report on focused ion beam machined high aspect ratio nanowires and their mechanical and electrical (by means of conductive atomic force microscopy characterization. Then, we investigate the suitability of new power-law design concepts to accurately model the relevant electrical and mechanical size-effects, whose existence has been emphasized in recent reviews.

  14. Investigation of advanced counterrotation blade configuration concepts for high speed turboprop systems. Task 5: Unsteady counterrotation ducted propfan analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Edward J.; Delaney, Robert A.

    1993-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was the development of a time-marching three-dimensional Euler/Navier-Stokes aerodynamic analysis to predict steady and unsteady compressible transonic flows about ducted and unducted propfan propulsion systems employing multiple blade rows. The computer codes resulting from this study are referred to as ADPAC-AOAR\\CR (Advanced Ducted Propfan Analysis Codes-Angle of Attack Coupled Row). This document is the final report describing the theoretical basis and analytical results from the ADPAC-AOACR codes developed under task 5 of NASA Contract NAS3-25270, Unsteady Counterrotating Ducted Propfan Analysis. The ADPAC-AOACR Program is based on a flexible multiple blocked grid discretization scheme permitting coupled 2-D/3-D mesh block solutions with application to a wide variety of geometries. For convenience, several standard mesh block structures are described for turbomachinery applications. Aerodynamic calculations are based on a four-stage Runge-Kutta time-marching finite volume solution technique with added numerical dissipation. Steady flow predictions are accelerated by a multigrid procedure. Numerical calculations are compared with experimental data for several test cases to demonstrate the utility of this approach for predicting the aerodynamics of modern turbomachinery configurations employing multiple blade rows.

  15. Concepts for Near-Earth Asteroid Deflection using Spacecraft with Advanced Nuclear and Solar Electric Propulsion Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, R.; Izzo, D.; de Negueruela, C.; Summerer, L.; Ayre, M.; Vasile, M.

    The near-Earth object population, composed mostly of asteroids rather than comets, poses an impact hazard to Earth. Space technology is reaching a sufficient level of capability and maturity where the deflection of an Earth impactor may be possible within the next decades. The paper focuses on assessing the maximum deflection capability (minimum response time) that could be achieved with a rendezvous/landed spacecraft, using electric propulsion and nuclear/solar power technologies likely to be available in the near-term, within the constraints of a single heavy launch into low Earth orbit. Preliminary design concepts are presented for large, high-power nuclear and solar electric spacecraft, based on a trade-off analysis of power/ propulsion technology options and an optimisation of the complete mission design to the minimise the total response time for a representative impactor/deflection scenario. High specific impulse gridded-ion engines show significantly improved mission performance over Hall effect thrusters due to the high delta-V requirements for Earth spiral out, rendezvous, spin axis re-orientation and deflection. Amorphous silicon thin film solar arrays perform substantially better than conventional high cell efficiency alternatives. It was found that solar electric spacecraft could achieve lower total response times for the deflection than a nuclear electric spacecraft of the same initial mass, if the asteroid perihelion is much lower than the Earth. The comparison is expected to be much closer if the asteroid perihelion is near the Earth. Both systems were found to provide effective deflection capabilities for small/moderate-size impactors.

  16. Advanced manpower and time saving testing concept for development, production, and maintenance of electro-optical systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabib, Dario; Buckwald, R. A.; Nirkin, Shimon; Lavi, Moshe; Neria, Oded; Ben Yaakov, Claudia; Tzafrir, Efraim; Blau, Moshe; Dolev, Jacob

    2006-05-01

    In all stages of an electro-optics system's life, development, production, and periodic maintenance, a large amount of manpower and time is devoted to testing. Each subsystem separately as well as the system as a whole are tested by a PC controlled test system, which consists of hardware for creation of the appropriate stimuli, and software for tests management and control. A very considerable portion of this manpower and time is devoted by the system manufacturer to configure the test routines, to manually input certain parameter values of the Unit Under Test (UUT) at predefined test nodes, and to reconfigure these routines from time to time, as the needs change during the system's life time. CI has developed the CTE (CI Test Executive), a software package which is a breakthrough in saving manpower and time devoted to electro-optics system testing. The new concept is based on: 1. The CTE can communicate directly with any UUT able to communicate with the outside world through a known protocol, to automatically set the UUT parameters before testing, 2. The user can more easily reconfigure the communication with the UUT through a provided special Excel file, without the help of the test system manufacturer, 3. The interface screen is automatically reconfigured every time the Excel file is changed to build the new test routine, 4. The CTE can simulate the test system stimuli with error injection capability, and simultaneously monitor communication and other hardware functions, 5. Test "verification" signals are provided on-line for the convenience and time saving of the test operator.

  17. Experimental study on advanced concepts of IHX-SG combined system for loop-type LMFBRs. Effects of scale and arrangement of heat tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The basic experiments were performed for the feasibility study on advanced concepts of IHX-SG combined system where the heat transfer tubes of the primary sodium coolant loop and those of the tertiary water/steam loop are closely placed in alternating arrangement in a vessel with the intermediate heat transfer medium (liquid-metal such as Pb-Bi alloy). The effects of the scale and the arrangement of the heat transfer tubes were examined in the present experiments, which were conducted with a pair of one straight heater rod and four cooling tubes by using liquid-metal gallium or water as the intermediate heat transfer medium. The additional experiments were also performed to examine the effects of the safety barrier for the protection of sodium-water direct interaction on the heat transfer characteristics. The applicability of the present system to the reactor conditions was discussed based on the results of the present experiments, which was encouraging for the further studies on the present concepts of the IHX-SG combined system. (author)

  18. Maxillo-mandibular counter-clockwise rotation and mandibular advancement with TMJ Concepts total joint prostheses: part II--airway changes and stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleta, K E D; Wolford, L M; Gonçalves, J R; Pinto, A dos Santos; Cassano, D S; Gonçalves, D A G

    2009-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the anatomical changes and stability of the oropharyngeal airway and head posture following TMJ reconstruction and mandibular advancement with TMJ Concepts custom-made total joint prostheses and maxillary osteotomies with counter-clockwise rotation of the maxillo-mandibular complex. All patients were operated at Baylor University Medical Center, Dallas TX, USA, by one surgeon (Wolford). The lateral cephalograms of 47 patients were analyzed to determine surgical and post-surgical changes of the oropharyngeal airway, hyoid bone and head posture. Surgery increased the narrowest retroglossal airway space 4.9 mm. Head posture showed flexure immediately after surgery (-5.6+/-6.7 degrees) and extension long-term post surgery (1.8+/-6.7 degrees); cervical curvature showed no significant change. Surgery increased the distances between the third cervical vertebrae and the menton 11.7+/-9.1 mm and the third cervical vertebrae and hyoid 3.2+/-3.9 mm, and remained stable. The distance from the hyoid to the mandibular plane decreased during surgery (-3.8+/-5.8 mm) and after surgery (-2.5+/-5.2 mm). Maxillo-mandibular advancement with counter-clockwise rotation and TMJ reconstruction with total joint prostheses produced immediate increase in oropharyngeal airway dimension, which was influenced by long-term changes in head posture but remained stable over the follow-up period. PMID:19135866

  19. Capillary electrophoresis-chemiluminescence determination of norfloxacin and prulifloxacin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang Zhongju; Wang Xiaoli [College of Chemistry, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Qin Weidong [College of Chemistry, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China)], E-mail: qinwd@bnu.edu.cn; Zhao Huichun [College of Chemistry, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China)], E-mail: zhaohuichun@bnu.edu.cn

    2008-08-15

    A capillary electrophoresis (CE)-chemiluminescence (CL) method for determining norfloxacin (NFLX) and prulifloxacin (PFLX) was developed based on the enhanced CL intensity of the cerium(IV)-sulfite-fluoroquinolone (FQ) reaction sensitized by terbium(III). The separation was conducted in buffer composed of 20 mM sodium citrate, 4 mM citric acid and 10 mM sodium sulfite at pH 6.1. The CL reagent solution consisted of 2 mM cerium(IV), 4 mM terbium(III) and 1.1 mM hydrochloric acid. NFLX and PFLX were baseline separated within 11 min with detection limits (S/N = 3) of 0.057 and 0.084 {mu}g mL{sup -1}, respectively. The maximum intra- and inter-day relative standard deviations (R.S.D.s) of migration time of the analytes were less than 4.0% and 4.2%, respectively. The proposed method was applied to detect NFLX and PFLX in fortified urine sample and the results were comparable to high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-UV method. Moreover, the high selectivity of the CL detection and the high-separation efficiency of CE render the method the potential of quick analyzing fluoroquinolones in real complex matrix.

  20. Chemiluminescence microarrays in analytical chemistry: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidel, Michael; Niessner, Reinhard

    2014-09-01

    Multi-analyte immunoassays on microarrays and on multiplex DNA microarrays have been described for quantitative analysis of small organic molecules (e.g., antibiotics, drugs of abuse, small molecule toxins), proteins (e.g., antibodies or protein toxins), and microorganisms, viruses, and eukaryotic cells. In analytical chemistry, multi-analyte detection by use of analytical microarrays has become an innovative research topic because of the possibility of generating several sets of quantitative data for different analyte classes in a short time. Chemiluminescence (CL) microarrays are powerful tools for rapid multiplex analysis of complex matrices. A wide range of applications for CL microarrays is described in the literature dealing with analytical microarrays. The motivation for this review is to summarize the current state of CL-based analytical microarrays. Combining analysis of different compound classes on CL microarrays reduces analysis time, cost of reagents, and use of laboratory space. Applications are discussed, with examples from food safety, water safety, environmental monitoring, diagnostics, forensics, toxicology, and biosecurity. The potential and limitations of research on multiplex analysis by use of CL microarrays are discussed in this review.

  1. Stimulus specific effect of ibuprofen on chemiluminescence of sheep neutrophils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tahamont, M.V.; Margiotta, M.; Gee, M.H.

    1986-03-05

    The authors have shown that pretreatment with ibuprofen inhibits free radical release from complement stimulated neutrophils. To further examine the effect of ibuprofen on neutrophil free radical release, they stimulated neutrophils with the synthetic peptide, FMLP, phorbol myristate acetate (PMA), or zymosan-activated plasma (ZAP). Pure (>95%), viable (>95%) sheep neutrophils (2 x 10/sup 6/) were placed in HEPES buffer, luminol, drug or vehicle and stimulated in the luminometer with one of the stimuli. The chemiluminescence (CL) response was recorded and the drug treated samples were compared to vehicle treated controls. Ibuprofen had a dose dependent effect on CL in ZAP stimulated neutrophils. At the highest dose (10/sup -2/M) these cells produced only 37 +/- 7% of the CL response observed in the control cells. In contrast, at the same dose, ibuprofen did not significantly attenuate CL seen in FMLP stimulated cells, with these cells producing 79 +/- 7% of the control cells; nor did ibuprofen effect PMA stimulated CL, as these cells produced a CL response that was 85 +/- 8% of the control cells. Ibuprofen appears to have a stimulus specific effect on free radical release in activated neutrophils. It is also apparent that ibuprofen inhibits complement stimulated free radical release by some mechanism independent of its cyclooxygenase inhibitory effect.

  2. Flow injection chemiluminescence determination of lercanidipine based on N-chlorosuccinimide-eosin Y post-chemiluminescence reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guowei; Zhao, Fang; Gao, Ying

    2014-12-01

    A novel post-chemiluminescence (PCL) reaction was discovered when lercanidipine was injected into the CL reaction mixture of N-chlorosuccinimide with alkaline eosin Y in the presence of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB), where eosin Y was used as the CL reagent and CTAB as the surfactant. Based on this observation, a simple and highly sensitive PCL method combined with a flow injection (FI) technique was developed for the assay of lercanidipine. Under optimum conditions, the CL signal was linearly related to the concentration of lercanidipine in the range 7.0 × 10(-10) to 3.0 × 10(-6)  g/mL with a detection limit of 2.3 × 10(-10) g/mL (3σ). The relative standard deviation (RSD) was 2.1% for 1.0 × 10(-8) g/mL lercanidipine (n = 13). The proposed method had been applied to the estimation of lercanidipine in tablets and human serum samples with satisfactory results. The possible CL mechanism is also discussed briefly.

  3. The Application of the NASA Advanced Concepts Office, Launch Vehicle Team Design Process and Tools for Modeling Small Responsive Launch Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Threet, Grady E.; Waters, Eric D.; Creech, Dennis M.

    2012-01-01

    The Advanced Concepts Office (ACO) Launch Vehicle Team at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is recognized throughout NASA for launch vehicle conceptual definition and pre-phase A concept design evaluation. The Launch Vehicle Team has been instrumental in defining the vehicle trade space for many of NASA s high level launch system studies from the Exploration Systems Architecture Study (ESAS) through the Augustine Report, Constellation, and now Space Launch System (SLS). The Launch Vehicle Team s approach to rapid turn-around and comparative analysis of multiple launch vehicle architectures has played a large role in narrowing the design options for future vehicle development. Recently the Launch Vehicle Team has been developing versions of their vetted tools used on large launch vehicles and repackaged the process and capability to apply to smaller more responsive launch vehicles. Along this development path the LV Team has evaluated trajectory tools and assumptions against sounding rocket trajectories and air launch systems, begun altering subsystem mass estimating relationships to handle smaller vehicle components, and as an additional development driver, have begun an in-house small launch vehicle study. With the recent interest in small responsive launch systems and the known capability and response time of the ACO LV Team, ACO s launch vehicle assessment capability can be utilized to rapidly evaluate the vast and opportune trade space that small launch vehicles currently encompass. This would provide a great benefit to the customer in order to reduce that large trade space to a select few alternatives that should best fit the customer s payload needs.

  4. Development of Chemiluminescent Lateral Flow Assay for the Detection of Nucleic Acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sam R. Nugen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Rapid, sensitive detection methods are of utmost importance for the identification of pathogens related to health and safety. Herein we report the development of a nucleic acid sequence-based lateral flow assay which achieves a low limit of detection using chemiluminescence. On-membrane enzymatic signal amplification is used to reduce the limit of detection to the sub-femtomol level. To demonstrate this assay, we detected synthetic nucleic acid sequences representative of Trypanosoma mRNA, the causative agent for African sleeping sickness, with relevance in human and animal health in sub-Saharan Africa. The intensity of the chemiluminescent signal was evaluated by using a charge-coupled device as well as a microtiter plate reader. We demonstrated that our lateral flow chemiluminescent assay has a very low limit of detection and is easy to use. The limit of detection was determined to be 0.5 fmols of nucleic acid target.

  5. [Changes in Kinetics of Chemiluminescence of Plasma as a Measure of Systemic Oxidative Stress in Humans].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sozarukova, M M; Polimova, A M; Proskurnina, E V; Vladimirov, Yu A

    2016-01-01

    Oxidative stress is a pathogenetic factor of many diseases. The control of its level is important for early diagnosis and therapy adjustment. In this work, antioxidant status was estimated in blood plasma. In the system of 2,2'-azo-bis(2-amidinopropane)dihydrochloride-luminol a set of chemiluminescence kinetic curve parameters is proposed for oxidative stress level estimation (the latent period τ(lat) and the increasing of analytical signal ΔI(CL)). Uric acid and albumin were shown as the main components that responsible for changes in chemiluminescence kinetic curve of plasma. Serum albumin undergoes oxidative modification in dose-depend manner under the action of UV irradiation, it causes the enhancement of antioxidant properties. Changes in plasma chemiluminescence kinetics are proposed as a measure of oxidative stress in human body.

  6. Flow injection-chemiluminescence determination of phenol using potassium permanganate and formaldehyde system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Wei; Mu, Xuemin; Yang, Jinghe; Shi, Wenbo; Zheng, Yongcun

    2007-01-01

    It is found that phenol can react with potassium permanganate in the acidic medium and produce chemiluminescence, which is greatly enhanced by formaldehyde. The optimum conditions for this chemiluminescent reaction are in detail studied using a flow injection system. The experiments indicate that under optimum conditions, the chemiluminescence intensity is linearly related to the concentration of phenol in the range 5.0 × 10 -9 to 1.0 × 10 -6 g mL -1 with a detection limit (3 σ) of 3 × 10 -9 g mL -1. The relative standard deviation is 1.2% for 4.0 × 10 -7 g mL -1 phenol solution in 11 repeated measurements. This method has the advantages of simple operation, fast response and high sensitivity. The method is successfully applied to the determination of phenol in the waste water.

  7. Effect of irradiation on chemiluminescence of EPR pure valcanisate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chemiluminescence of ethylene-propylene pure rubber which is irradiated at various doses was measured. Three methods were attempted to obtain the temperature dependence of the counts of luminescence. In the first method, the relationship between counts of luminescence and time at constant temperature was measured, and the maximum value of counts per unit time is defined as the counts at the temperature (maximum counts method). The relationship between the counts and the passage time was found to be maxwellian after a certain period of time. The extrapolated value to time 0 was defined as the initial count of luminescence in the second method (extrapolate method). In the third method, temperature of the samples was raised stepwise and the counts of each temperature was measured (temperature rising method). Irradiation of 2.7 kGy increases the amount of luminescence remarkably, although the mechanical properties are not affected significantly at the dose. The counts of luminescence does not increase linearly with increasing dose. The counts were found to level off at about 50 kGy. This is because the antioxidant agent which is added during production process of EPR is consumed by irradiation. The results suggests that the rate of autoxidation of the constant temperature depends on whether an antioxidant agent exists or not. The activation energy of the count of CL did not change irrespective of irradiation, and was 82.7 kJ/mol in the extrapolate method. On the other hand, the activation energy for non-irradiated EPR was lower than that of irradiated samples in the maximum counts method, but higher than the values of irradiated samples in the temperature rising method. (author)

  8. A new primary cleft lip repair technique tailored for Asian patients that combines three surgical concepts: Comparison with rotation--advancement and straight-line methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funayama, Emi; Yamamoto, Yuhei; Furukawa, Hiroshi; Murao, Naoki; Shichinohe, Ryuji; Hayashi, Toshihiko; Oyama, Akihiko

    2016-01-01

    Various techniques have been described for unilateral cleft lip repair. These may be broadly classified into three types of procedure/concept: the straight-line method (SL; Rose-Thompson effect); rotation-advancement (RA; upper-lip Z-plasty); and the triangular flap method (TA; lower-lip Z-plasty). Based on these procedures, cleft lip repair has evolved in recent decades. The cleft lip repair method in our institution has also undergone several changes. However, we have found that further modifications are needed for Asian patients who have wider philtral dimples and columns than Caucasians, while following the principles of the original techniques mentioned above. Here, we have incorporated the advantages of each procedure and propose a refined hybrid operating technique, seeking a more appropriate procedure for Asian patients. To evaluate our new technique, a comparison study was performed to evaluate RA, SL, and our technique. We have used our new technique to treat 137 consecutive cleft lip cases of all types and degrees of severity, with or without a cleft palate, since 2009. In the time since we adopted the hybrid technique, we have observed improved esthetics of the repaired lip. Our technique demonstrated higher glance impression average scores than RA/SL.

  9. The development and assessment of an active learning environment: cAcL(2), concept Advancement through chemistry Laboratory-Lecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Deedee Ann

    Concept Advancement through Chemistry Laboratory-Lecture, or cAcL 2, was developed to establish an active learning environment in introductory chemistry courses. The program has incorporated elements believed to positively influence student performance and attitudes, namely, cooperative learning, hands-on activities, real-world applications, and engaging technology. A full year of curriculum materials was developed and pilot-tested in the classroom in order to achieve an active learning environment. The cAcL2 instructional approach was evaluated through both quantitative and qualitative means. The quantitative study of two sections of a first semester general chemistry course revealed that cAcL2 has a greater positive impact on student performance when compared to that of traditional lecture students. A subsequent qualitative study on a second semester general chemistry course gathered practical data on student problem solving and graphing abilities. The collected data provided insight on student practices allowing suggestions for classroom instructional strategies to be made. Attitudinal data from both the quantitative and qualitative studies revealed positive changes in student attitudes toward learning as well as recognition of the benefits and appreciation of the active learning environment offered by cAcL2.

  10. A new primary cleft lip repair technique tailored for Asian patients that combines three surgical concepts: Comparison with rotation--advancement and straight-line methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funayama, Emi; Yamamoto, Yuhei; Furukawa, Hiroshi; Murao, Naoki; Shichinohe, Ryuji; Hayashi, Toshihiko; Oyama, Akihiko

    2016-01-01

    Various techniques have been described for unilateral cleft lip repair. These may be broadly classified into three types of procedure/concept: the straight-line method (SL; Rose-Thompson effect); rotation-advancement (RA; upper-lip Z-plasty); and the triangular flap method (TA; lower-lip Z-plasty). Based on these procedures, cleft lip repair has evolved in recent decades. The cleft lip repair method in our institution has also undergone several changes. However, we have found that further modifications are needed for Asian patients who have wider philtral dimples and columns than Caucasians, while following the principles of the original techniques mentioned above. Here, we have incorporated the advantages of each procedure and propose a refined hybrid operating technique, seeking a more appropriate procedure for Asian patients. To evaluate our new technique, a comparison study was performed to evaluate RA, SL, and our technique. We have used our new technique to treat 137 consecutive cleft lip cases of all types and degrees of severity, with or without a cleft palate, since 2009. In the time since we adopted the hybrid technique, we have observed improved esthetics of the repaired lip. Our technique demonstrated higher glance impression average scores than RA/SL. PMID:26653337

  11. Towards Advanced Interaction Design Concepts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkman, Remco; Dirgahayu, Teduh; Quartel, Dick

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we analyse the interaction mechanisms provided by Web Services technology and by CORBA. Specifically we analyse the request/response, callback, polling and (multicasr) message passing mechanisms. As a result we present Coloured Petri Nets that capture the behaviour of these mechanisms

  12. Towards Advanced Interaction Design Concepts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkman, Remco; Dirgahayu, Teduh; Quartel, Dick

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we analyse the interaction mechanisms provided by Web Services technology and CORBA. Specifically we analyse the request/reponse, callback, polling and (multicast) message passing mechanisms. As a result we present Coloured Petri Nets that capture the behaviour of these mechanisms prec

  13. DUAL-MODE PROPULSION SYSTEM ENABLING CUBESAT EXPLORATION OF THE SOLAR SYSTEM NASA Innovative Advanced Concepts (NIAC) Phase I Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nathan Jerred; Troy Howe; Adarsh Rajguru; Dr. Steven Howe

    2014-06-01

    -based systems. The second scenario allows for the production of electrical power, which is then available for electric-based propulsion. Additionally, once at location the production of electrical power can be dedicated to the payload’s communication system for data transfer. Ultimately, the proposed dual-mode propulsion platform capitalizes on the benefits of two types of propulsion methods – the thrust of thermal propulsion ideal for quick orbital maneuvers and the specific impulse of electric propulsion ideal for efficient inter-planetary travel. Previous versions of this RTR-based concept have been studied for various applications [NETS 1-3]. The current version of this concept is being matured through a NASA Innovative Advanced Concepts (NIAC) Phase I grant, awarded for FY 2014. In this study the RTR concept is being developed to deliver a 6U CubeSat payload to the orbit of the Saturnian moon - Enceladus. Additionally, this study will develop an entire mission architecture for Enceladus targeting a total allowable launch mass of 1,000 kg.

  14. The source and characteristics of chemiluminescence associated with the oxygenase reaction catalyzed by Mn(2+)-ribulosebisphosphate carboxylase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilley, R M; Riesen, H; Andrews, T J

    1993-07-01

    We confirm the observation of Mogel and McFadden (Mogel, S.N., and McFadden, B. A. (1990) Biochemistry 29, 8333-8337) that ribulosebisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (rubisco) exhibits chemiluminescence while catalyzing its oxygenase reaction in the presence of Mn2+. However, our results with the spinach and Rhodospirillum rubrum enzymes differ markedly in the following respects. 1) Chemiluminescence intensity was directly proportional to enzyme concentration and behaved as if representing the rate of oxygenase catalysis. 2) The wavelength spectrum peaked at about 770 nm and extended beyond 810 nm. This seems inconsistent with chemiluminescence generated by simultaneous decay of pairs of singlet O2 molecules. It is consistent with manganese(II) luminescence and we discuss its possible sources. The time course of chemiluminescence (resolution, 0.25 s) was distinctively different for spinach and R. rubrum enzymes during the initial 5 s of catalysis, with the bacterial enzyme exhibiting a pronounced initial "burst." Chemiluminescence by the spinach enzyme responded to substrate concentrations in a manner consistent with known oxygenase properties, exhibiting Michaelis-Menten kinetics with ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate (Km 400 nM). Chemiluminescence required carbamylated enzyme with Mn2+ bound at the active site (activation energy, -57.1 KJ.mol-1). As an indicator of oxygenase activity, chemiluminescence represents an improvement over oxygen electrode measurements in response time and sensitivity by factors of at least 100. PMID:8314755

  15. Fruit ecology: Its concepts, research advances, and research perspectives%果实生态学的概念、研究现状及研究方向

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方伟伟; 于顺利

    2013-01-01

    总结了果实生态学的概念及主要研究内容,对国内外的果实生态学研究领域的进展进行了综述,分析了这些研究尚存在的不足之处,并指出了未来研究的科学问题.迄今为止,果实生态学在果实与种子的关系、果实颜色与环境、果实化学成分与环境、群落果实构成式样的地理分布特征、果实及食果动物的协同进化等方面已经取得了若干进展.果实重量谱等物理性状的空间分异格局及机理、果实化学成分的时空变异格局、果实类型的组成式样及大尺度地理分布格局及其机制的探讨、果实传播与食果动物的协同进化等是未来亟待开展的工作.%This paper introduced the concepts and main research contents of fruit ecology,summarized the related research advances,analyzed the shortcomings and gaps of the extant researches,and pointed out the future research perspectives.So far,some advances have been made in the correlativity between seed and fruit,fruit color and environment,fruit chemical components and environment,and fruit physical properties and geographic distribution pattern,and the coevolution between fruits and frugivores.However,following scientific issues need a further focus in the future:1) the spatial differentiation patterns and their mechanisms of fruit physical traits such as mass spectrum and seed number per fruit,2) the spatial variations and their mechanisms of fruit chemical components,and 3) the large scale geographical distribution patterns of fruit type composition modes and fruit type diversity and their environmental adaptation explanation,and the coevolution between fruit spread and frugivores.

  16. Improvement on simultaneous determination of chromium species in aqueous solution by ion chromatography and chemiluminescence detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammelgaard, Bente; Liao, Y.P.; Jons, O.

    1997-01-01

    A sensitive method for the simultaneous determination of chromium(III) and chromium(VI) was chromatography and chemiluminescence detection. Two Dionex ion-exchange guard columns in series, CG5 and AG7, were used to separate chromium(III) from chromium(VI). Chromium(VI) was reduced by potassium su...

  17. Chemiluminescence: Measuring methods. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-05-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning chemiluminescence assays. The citations include sample system design, sample collection, measurement techniques, and sensitivity of the instrumentation. Applications in high altitude air pollution studies are emphasized. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  18. Chemiluminescence in the reaction of ozone with 6-methyluracil in aqueous solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimin, Yu. S.; Khairullina, L. R.; Kutlugil'dina, G. G.; Mustafin, A. G.

    2015-12-01

    Chemiluminescence in the visible part of the spectrum during the oxidation of 6-methyluracil with ozone in aqueous solutions was found. The kinetics of variation of the luminescence intensity was studied in the temperature range 287-333 K, and the activation parameters of the process were determined.

  19. Assay of Cysteine in Human Serum with Quinine-Ce4+ Chemiluminescence System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    A sensitive and selective chemiluminescence (CL) method was developed for the determination of cysteine. This method is based on that the weak CL of cysteine oxidized with cerium (IV) can be greatly enhanced by quinine, and the total cysteine in human serum can be detected through simply diluting with water, showing a simpler analytical characteristic.

  20. A novel chemiluminescent immunoassay for detection of Toxoplasma gondii IgG in human sera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holec-Gąsior, Lucyna; Ferra, Bartłomiej; Czechowska, Justyna; Serdiuk, Illia E; Krzymiński, Karol; Kur, Józef

    2016-08-01

    This study describes Toxoplasma gondii IgG chemiluminescent immunoassay (CLIA) based on the use of a novel immunochemical reagents in the form of the conjugates of original acridinium ester (AE) labels attached to antibodies and SAG2-GRA1-ROP1L chimeric antigen and shows that this test is useful for diagnostic purposes.

  1. Synthesis and properties of chemiluminescent acridinium ester labels with fluorous tags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natrajan, Anand; Wen, David; Sharpe, David

    2014-06-21

    Acridinium dimethylphenyl esters are highly sensitive chemiluminescent labels that are used in clinical diagnostics. Light emission from these labels is triggered with alkaline peroxide in the presence of the cationic surfactant cetyltrimethylammonium chloride (CTAC). CTAC compresses emission times of these labels to fluorous tags of varying fluorine content and their chemiluminescence in the presence of cationic micelles of CTAC, anionic micelles of sodium perfluorooctanoate (SPFO) as well as mixed micelles of CTAC and SPFO. These studies indicate that in the presence of the mixed micelle system of CTAC and SPFO and at low mole fractions of SPFO, polarity of the mixed micelle interface is lower than that of CTAC leading to a greater enhancement of chemiluminescence for both fluorinated acridinium esters as well as a structurally analogous but non-fluorinated acridinium ester. Chemiluminescence stability of the fluorinated acridinium esters was either comparable to or better than the stability of the non-fluorinated acridinium ester. Non-specific binding to paramagnetic microparticles was higher for fluorinated acridinium esters requiring a surfactant wash to reduce their non-specific binding to the same extent as that observed for the non-fluorinated acridinium ester. PMID:24788381

  2. Acidic Potassium Permanganate Chemiluminescence for the Determination of Antioxidant Potential in Three Cultivars of Ocimum basilicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Shivani; Adholeya, Alok; Conlan, Xavier A; Cahill, David M

    2016-03-01

    Ocimum basilicum, a member of the family Lamiaceae, is a rich source of polyphenolics that have antioxidant properties. The present study describes the development and application of an online HPLC-coupled acidic potassium permanganate chemiluminescence assay for the qualitative and quantitative assessment of antioxidants in three cultivars of O. basilicum grown under greenhouse conditions. The chemiluminescence based assay was found to be a sensitive and efficient method for assessment of total and individual compound antioxidant potential. Leaves, flowers and roots were found to be rich reserves of the antioxidant compounds which showed intense chemiluminescence signals. The polyphenolics such as rosmarinic, chicoric, caffeic, p-coumaric, m-coumaric and ferulic acids showed antioxidant activity. Further, rosmarinic acid was found to be the major antioxidant component in water-ethanol extracts. The highest levels of rosmarinic acid was found in the leaves and roots of cultivars "holy green" (14.37; 11.52 mM/100 g DW respectively) followed by "red rubin" (10.02; 10.75 mM/100 g DW respectively) and "subja" (6.59; 4.97 mM/100 g DW respectively). The sensitivity, efficiency and ease of use of the chemiluminescence based assay should now be considered for its use as a primary method for the identification and quantification of antioxidants in plant extracts. PMID:26803763

  3. Soot and chemiluminescence in diesel combustion of bio-derived, oxygenated and reference fuels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein-Douwel, R.J.H.; Donkerbroek, A.J.; Vliet, A.P. van; Boot, M.D.; Somers, L.M.T.; Baert, R.S.G.; Dam, N.J.; Meulen, J.J. ter

    2009-01-01

    High-speed imaging, spectroscopy and thermodynamical characterization are applied to an optically accessible, heavy-duty diesel engine in order to compare sooting and chemiluminescence behaviour of bio-derived, oxygenated fuels and various reference fuels. The fuels concerned include the bio-derived

  4. A new label-free strategy for a highly efficient chemiluminescence immunoassay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhanjun; Cao, Yue; Li, Juan; Wang, Juntao; Du, Dan; Hu, Xiaoya; Lin, Yuehe

    2015-10-01

    A new label-free chemiluminescence (CL) immunoassay method is proposed for the cheap, convenient and sensitive detection of proteins through the co-immobilization of a capture antibody and horseradish peroxidase on a sensing interface. The specific immunoreaction on the interface effectively inhibits the enzymatic CL reaction, thus causing a decrease in CL signals.

  5. Chemiluminescence studies between aqueous phase synthesized mercaptosuccinic acid capped cadmium telluride quantum dots and luminol-H2O2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaviyarasan, Kulandaivelu; Anandan, Sambandam; Mangalaraja, Ramalinga Viswanathan; Asiri, Abdullah M.; Wu, Jerry J.

    2016-08-01

    Mercaptosuccinic acid capped Cadmium telluride quantum dots have been successfully synthesized via aqueous phase method. The products were well characterized by a number of analytical techniques, including FT-IR, XRD, HRTEM, and a corrected particle size analysis by the statistical treatment of several AFM measurements. Chemiluminescence experiments were performed to explore the resonance energy transfer between chemiluminescence donor (luminol-H2O2 system) and acceptor CdTe QDs. The combination of such donor and acceptor dramatically reduce the fluorescence while compared to pristine CdTe QDs without any exciting light source, which is due to the occurrence of chemiluminescence resonance energy transfer (CRET) processes.

  6. Chemiluminescence studies between aqueous phase synthesized mercaptosuccinic acid capped cadmium telluride quantum dots and luminol-H2O2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaviyarasan, Kulandaivelu; Anandan, Sambandam; Mangalaraja, Ramalinga Viswanathan; Asiri, Abdullah M; Wu, Jerry J

    2016-08-01

    Mercaptosuccinic acid capped Cadmium telluride quantum dots have been successfully synthesized via aqueous phase method. The products were well characterized by a number of analytical techniques, including FT-IR, XRD, HRTEM, and a corrected particle size analysis by the statistical treatment of several AFM measurements. Chemiluminescence experiments were performed to explore the resonance energy transfer between chemiluminescence donor (luminol-H2O2 system) and acceptor CdTe QDs. The combination of such donor and acceptor dramatically reduce the fluorescence while compared to pristine CdTe QDs without any exciting light source, which is due to the occurrence of chemiluminescence resonance energy transfer (CRET) processes. PMID:27131144

  7. The Concept of Validity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borsboom, Denny; Mellenbergh, Gideon J.; van Heerden, Jaap

    2004-01-01

    This article advances a simple conception of test validity: A test is valid for measuring an attribute if (a) the attribute exists and (b) variations in the attribute causally produce variation in the measurement outcomes. This conception is shown to diverge from current validity theory in several respects. In particular, the emphasis in the…

  8. 积极心理学理念下的高职生消极心理探析%Study on Negative Mind in Students with Advanced Vocational Education based on Positive Psychology Concept

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢桂莹

    2014-01-01

    This paper started with the analysis of specific performance of negative mind in current students with advanced vocational education, and discussed that how to apply the new positive psychology concepts to analyze the development status of students with advanced vocational education, and how to trigger their potential and improve their feeling of happiness, and further proposed specific strategies of delaminating stu-dents′ negative mind based on basic concepts of positive psychology.%本文从分析当前高职生消极心理的具体表现入手,具体阐述了如何挖掘高职生的潜能和提升其幸福感,从而提出从积极心理学基本理念出发摒除高职生消极心理的具体策略。

  9. Development and characterization of a microfluidic glucose sensing system based on an enzymatic microreactor and chemiluminescence detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moon, B. -U; de Vries, M. G.; Westerink, B. H. C.; Verpoorte, E.

    2012-01-01

    Chemiluminescence detection was developed as an alternative to amperometric detection for glucose analysis in a portable, microfluidics-based continuous glucose monitoring system. Amperometric detection allows easy determination of hydrogen peroxide, a product of the glucose oxidase-catalyzed reacti

  10. Simultaneous Determination of Gold and Platinum by Double Artificial Neural Network Analysis with Flow-injection Chemiluminescence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming Yang LIU; Hai Tao ZHANG; Jun Feng LI; Shu Gui CHEN; Hong Yan WANG

    2006-01-01

    A highly sensitive double artificial neural network (DANN) analysis with flow-injection chemiluminescence (FI-CL) has been developed to simultaneously determine the trace amounts of the gold and platinum in simulated mixed samples, without the boring process.

  11. Integration of Advanced Concepts and Vehicles Into the Next Generation Air Transportation System. Volume 1; Introduction, Key Messages, and Vehicle Attributes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zellweger, Andres; Resnick, Herbert; Stevens, Edward; Arkind, Kenneth; Cotton William B.

    2010-01-01

    Raytheon, in partnership with NASA, is leading the way in ensuring that the future air transportation continues to be a key driver of economic growth and stability and that this system provides an environmentally friendly, safe, and effective means of moving people and goods. A Raytheon-led team of industry and academic experts, under NASA contract NNA08BA47C, looked at the potential issues and impact of introducing four new classes of advanced aircraft into the next generation air transportation system -- known as NextGen. The study will help determine where NASA should further invest in research to support the safe introduction of these new air vehicles. Small uncrewed or unmanned aerial systems (SUAS), super heavy transports (SHT) including hybrid wing body versions (HWB), very light jets (VLJ), and supersonic business jets (SSBJ) are the four classes of aircraft that we studied. Understanding each vehicle's business purpose and strategy is critical to assessing the feasibility of new aircraft operations and their impact on NextGen's architecture. The Raytheon team used scenarios created by aviation experts that depict vehicles in year 2025 operations along with scripts or use cases to understand the issues presented by these new types of vehicles. The information was then mapped into the Joint Planning and Development Office's (JPDO s) Enterprise Architecture to show how the vehicles will fit into NextGen's Concept of Operations. The team also identified significant changes to the JPDO's Integrated Work Plan (IWP) to optimize the NextGen vision for these vehicles. Using a proven enterprise architecture approach and the JPDO s Joint Planning Environment (JPE) web site helped make the leap from architecture to planning efficient, manageable and achievable. Very Light Jets flying into busy hub airports -- Supersonic Business Jets needing to climb and descend rapidly to achieve the necessary altitude Super-heavy cargo planes requiring the shortest common flight

  12. Advanced nanoelectronics

    CERN Document Server

    Ismail, Razali

    2012-01-01

    While theories based on classical physics have been very successful in helping experimentalists design microelectronic devices, new approaches based on quantum mechanics are required to accurately model nanoscale transistors and to predict their characteristics even before they are fabricated. Advanced Nanoelectronics provides research information on advanced nanoelectronics concepts, with a focus on modeling and simulation. Featuring contributions by researchers actively engaged in nanoelectronics research, it develops and applies analytical formulations to investigate nanoscale devices. The

  13. Recent analytical applications of nanoparticle sensitized lucigenin and luminol chemiluminescent reactions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S M Wabaidur; Mu Naushad; Z A Alothman

    2012-02-01

    There is an ever-increasing demand for rapid, sensitive, cost effective and selective detection methods for the analysis of many essential compounds.When chemiluminescence has been introduced to analytical chemistry as a detection technique, it has been shown to meet many of these requirements. This method has become a powerful tool for the determination of many compounds. Using this method, low detection limits can be obtained with simple and inexpensive instrumentation. Coupled with flow injection technique the method has become more popular for wider applications. Since many excellent reviews on the chemiluminogenic techniques have appeared in the literature in recent years, the present paper does not intend to cover the exhaustive studies in this area, but will selectively describe the analytical applications of nanoparticle sensitized lucigenin and luminol chemiluminescent reactions and evaluate their recent progress together with our present work.

  14. Chemiluminescence determination of folic acid by a flow injection analysis assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wabaidur, Saikh Mohammad; Alam, Seikh Mafiz; Lee, Sang Hak; Alothman, Zeid Abdullah; Eldesoky, Gaber E.

    2013-03-01

    A flow injection (FI) method is reported for the determination of folic acid by chemiluminescence method. This method is based on the reaction of folic acid with Ru(bipy)32+ and Ce(IV) to produce chemiluminescence. The calibration curve was linear over the range of 2.5 × 10-5-3.1 × 10-7 mol/L with a detection limit of 2.3 × 10-8 mol/L (S/N = 3). The relative standard deviation of 1.0 × 10-6 mol/L folic acid was found 3.5% (n = 11). The influences of potential interfering substances were studied. The recovery was higher than 95.3%. The method was accurate, sensitive, and effective for assay of folic acid. This CL method was successfully applied to the determination of folic acid in pharmaceutical preparations. The mechanism of CL reaction was also studied.

  15. Chemiluminescence Determination of Benzoic Acid Using A Solid-Phase Verdigris Reactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    A new chemiluminescence flow system has been developed for sequential determina-tion of benzoic acid based on the reaction of the compound with copper carbonate entrapped in a solid-phase reactor. It was found that the unsaturated complex of Cu(II) and benzoic acid (1:1) has strong catalytic effect on the luminol-H2O2 chemiluminescence reaction. The calibration graph is linear over the range of 0.025 ~ 60 μg/mL of benzoic acid, with a relative standard deviation of less than 3.0 %, and the detection limit is 0.01μg@mL-1. The proposed method was applied to the determination of benzoic acid content in different pharmaceutical formulations.

  16. Chemiluminescent Nanomicelles for Imaging Hydrogen Peroxide and Self-Therapy in Photodynamic Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Chen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogen peroxide is a signal molecule of the tumor, and its overproduction makes a higher concentration in tumor tissue compared to normal tissue. Based on the fact that peroxalates can make chemiluminescence with a high efficiency in the presence of hydrogen peroxide, we developed nanomicelles composed of peroxalate ester oligomers and fluorescent dyes, called peroxalate nanomicelles (POMs, which could image hydrogen peroxide with high sensitivity and stability. The potential application of the POMs in photodynamic therapy (PDT for cancer was also investigated. It was found that the PDT-drug-loaded POMs were sensitive to hydrogen peroxide, and the PDT drug could be stimulated by the chemiluminescence from the reaction between POMs and hydrogen peroxide, which carried on a self-therapy of the tumor without the additional laser light resource.

  17. Determination of glyphosate in foodstuff by one novel chemiluminescence-molecular imprinting sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Peini; Yan, Mei; Zhang, Congcong; Peng, Ruixue; Ma, Dongsheng; Yu, Jinghua

    2011-05-01

    A novel chemiluminescence (CL) sensor for the determination of glyphosate (GLY) was made up based on molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP). The molecularly imprinted microspheres (MIMs) with a small dimension which possess extremely high surface-to-volume ratio were synthesized using precipitation polymerization with GLY as template. And then the MIMs were modified on glass sheets, which were placed at the bottom of wells of microplate as the recognizer. Subsequently, a highly selective and high throughput chemiluminescence (CL)-molecular imprinting (MI) sensor for detection of GLY was achieved. Influencing factors were investigated and optimized in detail. The method can perform 96 independent measurements sequentially in 10 min and the limit of detection (LOD) for GLY was 0.046 μg mL -1. The relative standard deviation (RSD) for 11 parallel measurements of GLY was 4.68%. The results show that CL-MI sensor can become a useful analytical technology for quick molecular recognition.

  18. Chemiluminescence assay for catechin based on generation of hydrogen peroxide in basic solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have determined that the catechin group in basic solution efficiently produces hydrogen peroxide; moreover, a highly sensitive analysis methodology was developed to measure catechin employing a peroxalate chemiluminescence detection system. Identification of hydrogen peroxide generated by catechin was determined by ESR as well as peroxalate chemiluminescence using catalase and SOD. As a result, catechin-generated superoxide by electron reduction to dissolved oxygen in basic solution, followed by production of hydrogen peroxide through dismutation reaction. This method could measure several tea catechins, (+)-catechin (CC), (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCg), (-)-epicatechin-3-gallate (ECG) and gallic acid, with measurement range from 10-7 to 10-3 mol/l and sensitivity of 10-8 mol/l. This method was also applied to the determination of total catechin levels in green tea, black tea and roasted green tea

  19. Analysis of Phenolic Compounds in Coke Plant Wastewater by Capillary Zone Electrophoresis with Inhibited Chemiluminescence Detection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiang Dong XU; Yong Gang HU; Ze Yu YANG

    2006-01-01

    A capillary electrophoresis(CE) with on-line inhibited chemiluminescence (CL) detection was firstly used for the simultaneous analysis of benzenediol isomers and phenol. It is based on the quenching effect of benzenediol isomers and phenol on the chemiluminescence reaction of luminol with potassium ferricyanide in sodium hydroxide medium. Under the optimum conditions, the four phenols were baseline separated and detected in less than 10 min.The detection limits (S/N=3) for hydroquinone, resorcinol, catechol and phenol were 2.9×10-8mol/L, 3.7×10-7 mol/L, 8.4×10-8 mol/L and 4.4×10-6 mol/L, respectively. Finally, the presented method has been successfully applied to real sample.

  20. Determination of resveratrol in red wine by solid phase extraction-flow injection chemiluminescence method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    A sensitive flow injection chemiluminescence method has been developed for the detection of resveratrol in red wine based on the fact that resveratrol can greatly enhance chemiluminescence reaction between KMnO4 and HCHO in sulfuric acid medium.Analytes were pre-concentrated on solid sorbents (C18 solid-phase extraction cartridges). Under the optimum conditions, the proposed method allows the measurement of resveratrol over the range of 1.32 × 10-s to 1.32 × 10-5 mol/L with a detection limit of 3.30 × 10-9 mol/L, and the relative standard deviation for 1.32 × 10-5 mol/L resveratrol (n = 11 ) is 3.8%. This method has been successfully applied for the determination of the resveratrol in red wine. Furthermore, the possible reaction mechanism was also discussed.

  1. Effect of external agent on chemiluminescence in bioassay sample - a study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tritium is one of the important radio nuclide contributing about 30-35% of collective dose through internal exposure of plant personnel in Indian PHWRs. Internal dose is monitored by bioassay using liquid scintillation analyzer. There are some external agents that interfere with the tritium counting in urine sample of individuals. These external agents give rise to chemiluminescence in the sample, which may result in wrong interpretation of the counting rates. One such case was studied at Rajasthan Atomic Power Station (RAPS)-3 and 4 in which urine sample of an individual indicated significantly high uptake of tritium whereas the person was not involved in any radioactive job. Investigation revealed that counts due to the sample were caused by chemiluminescence in the urine sample because of homeopathic drug, which the person was taking. (author)

  2. Bioinspired photonic structures by the reflector layer of firefly lantern for highly efficient chemiluminescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Linfeng; Shi, Xiaodi; Li, Mingzhu; Hu, Junping; Sun, Shufeng; Su, Bin; Wen, Yongqiang; Han, Dong; Jiang, Lei; Song, Yanlin

    2015-08-01

    Fireflies have drawn considerable attention for thousands of years due to their highly efficient bioluminescence, which is important for fundamental research and photonic applications. However, there are few reports on the reflector layer (RL) of firefly lantern, which contributes to the bright luminescence. Here we presented the detailed microstructure of the RL consisting of random hollow granules, which had high reflectance in the range from 450 nm to 800 nm. Inspired by the firefly lantern, artificial films with high reflectance in the visible region were fabricated using hollow silica microparticles mimicking the structure of the RL. Additionally, the bioinspired structures provided an efficient RL for the chemiluminescence system and could substantially enhance the initial chemiluminescence intensity. The work not only provides new insight into the bright bioluminescence of fireflies, but also is importance for the design of photonic materials for theranostics, detection, and imaging.

  3. Chemiluminescence of curcumin and quenching effect of dimethyl sulfoxide on its peroxyoxalate system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The chemiluminescence behavior of the reaction between bis(2,4,6-trichlorophenyl)oxalate (TCPO) and hydrogen peroxide, in the presence of curcumin as fluorophore, has been investigated. Experimental factors such as TCPO, sodium salicylate (SS), hydrogen peroxide and curcumin concentration were optimized. The chemiluminescence signal showed a linear decay while dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) was added to the peroxyoxalate (PO-CL) system. The reaction resulted in a Stern-Volmer plot with a Kq value of 7.3x104. The evaluated lower and upper detection limits of measurable concentrations of DMSO are 3.50x10-5 and 1.53x10-4 M, respectively. The PO-CL parameters were estimated by computer fitting of the experimental CL intensity to proper models.

  4. Flow-injection chemiluminescence determination of tryptophan using galangin-potassium permanganate-polyphosphoric acid system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui Chen; Li Li; Min Zhou; Yong Jun Ma

    2008-01-01

    A high sensitive flow-injection chemiluminescence (FI-CL)method for the determination of tryptephan has been developed.The method is based on the chemiluminescence reaction of galangin-potassium perrnanganate-tryptophan in polyphosphoric acid (PPA)media.Under the optimized conditions,tryptophan was determined in the range 0.05-10 μg/mL with the detection limit (30)of 5.0× 10-3 μg/mL.The relative standard deviation (RSD)was 1.0% for 11 replicate determinations of 1.0 μg/mL tryptophan.Three synthetic samples were determined selectively with recoveries in the range from 99.6% to 102.0% in the presence of other amino acids.

  5. Detecting free radicals in sunscreens exposed to UVA radiation using chemiluminescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millington, Keith R; Osmond, Megan J; McCall, Maxine J

    2014-04-01

    One of the current concerns with the application of nanoparticles in sunscreens, and in particular nano-TiO2 and ZnO, is their potential to photogenerate free radicals and reactive oxygen species (ROS) when they absorb ultraviolet wavelengths from sunlight. Free radicals and ROS are known to be associated with UV-induced skin damage and oxidative stress, from which sunscreens are expected to offer significant protection. Here we describe a simple method, based on chemiluminescence emission, for detecting free radicals generated in commercial sunscreens alone, and when applied to various substrates, following exposure to UVA (320-400nm) radiation. This photo-induced chemiluminescence (PICL) technique could be used to optimise sunscreen formulations so as to minimise free radical photogeneration during exposure to sunlight.

  6. Chemiluminescence of curcumin and quenching effect of dimethyl sulfoxide on its peroxyoxalate system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yari, Abdollah, E-mail: a.yari@ymail.co [Lorestan University, Department of Chemistry, Flakalaflak Street, 68178-17133 Khorramabad (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Saidikhah, Marzieh [Lorestan University, Department of Chemistry, Flakalaflak Street, 68178-17133 Khorramabad (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2010-04-15

    The chemiluminescence behavior of the reaction between bis(2,4,6-trichlorophenyl)oxalate (TCPO) and hydrogen peroxide, in the presence of curcumin as fluorophore, has been investigated. Experimental factors such as TCPO, sodium salicylate (SS), hydrogen peroxide and curcumin concentration were optimized. The chemiluminescence signal showed a linear decay while dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) was added to the peroxyoxalate (PO-CL) system. The reaction resulted in a Stern-Volmer plot with a K{sub q} value of 7.3x10{sup 4}. The evaluated lower and upper detection limits of measurable concentrations of DMSO are 3.50x10{sup -5} and 1.53x10{sup -4} M, respectively. The PO-CL parameters were estimated by computer fitting of the experimental CL intensity to proper models.

  7. Highly Sensitive Chemiluminescence Detection for PDMS/Glass Micro-chip Electrophoresis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiang Yi HUANG; Jiao Ning WANG; Lin CHEN; Ji Cun REN

    2004-01-01

    This paper described a highly sensitive chemiluminescence detection system for micro-chip electrophoresis (MCE) based on luminol-hydrogen peroxide reaction catalyzed by the metal ions. The micro-chip was composed of poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) and glass, and was fabricated by micro-machining technology. The surface of channels was dynamically modified by polydimethylacrylamide (PDMA) in order to eliminate unhomogeneous electroosmotic flow (EOF) of the PDMS/glass chip, adsorption of molecules, and improve hydrophobicity on PDMS surface. The detection modes, reagent mix procedures and reaction conditions were optimized and the detection limit of 5 x 10-11 mol/L for cobalt (II) was achieved by MCE with chemiluminescence detection, which was about four orders of magnitude more sensitive than that reported in the reference.

  8. New method for the photo-chemiluminometric determination of benzoylurea insecticides based on acetonitrile chemiluminescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil García, M D; Martínez Galera, M; Santiago Valverde, R

    2007-03-01

    The viability of tandem photochemical reaction-chemiluminescence detection has been studied for the determination of five benzoylurea insecticides, namely, diflubenzuron, triflumuron, hexaflumuron, lufenuron and flufenoxuron. The 'on-line' photochemical reaction of benzoylurea pesticides provides an enhanced chemiluminescence response of the pesticides during their oxidation by potassium hexacyanoferrate(III) and sodium hydroxide, whose signal increases with the percentage of acetonitrile in the reaction medium. The determination was performed using a photoreactor consisting of a PFA (perfluoroalkoxy) tube reactor coil (5 mx1.6-mm O.D. and 0.8-mm I.D.) and an 8-W xenon lamp. As the yield of the photoderivatization process and the chemiluminescent signals depend on the percentage of acetonitrile, the chromatographic column (a Gemini C18, Phenomenex 150 mmx4.6 mm, 5-microm particle size) was chosen with the aim of using high percentages of this organic solvent in the mobile phase. Previous studies showed that the rate of the chemiluminescent reaction was very fast. Therefore, a modification was carried out in the detector in order to mix the analytes and reactants as near as possible to the measure cell. The optimised method was validated with respect to linearity, precision, limits of detection and quantification accuracy. Under the optimised conditions, linear working range extends three orders of magnitude with the relative standard deviation of intra-day precision below 10% and detection limits between 0.012 and 0.18 microg mL-1, according to the compound. The proposed method has been successfully applied to the determination of benzoylureas in cucumber with good results. PMID:17205265

  9. Quantification of carnosine- related peptides by microchip electrophoresis with chemiluminescence detection

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Shulin; Huang, Yong; Shi, Ming; Huang, Junming; Liu, Yi-Ming

    2009-01-01

    A microchip electrophoresis (MCE) method with chemiluminescence (CL) detection was developed for the determination of carnosine-related peptides including carnosine, homocarnosine and anserine in biological samples. A simple integrated MCE-CL system was built to perform the assays. The highly sensitive CL detection was achieved by means of the CL reaction between hydrogen peroxide and N-(4-aminobutyl)- N-ethylisoluminol-tagged peptides in the presence of adenine as a CL enhancer and Co2+ as a...

  10. Development of Chemiluminescent Lateral Flow Assay for the Detection of Nucleic Acids

    OpenAIRE

    Nugen, Sam R.; Catherine Fill; Yuhong Wang

    2012-01-01

    Rapid, sensitive detection methods are of utmost importance for the identification of pathogens related to health and safety. Herein we report the development of a nucleic acid sequence-based lateral flow assay which achieves a low limit of detection using chemiluminescence. On-membrane enzymatic signal amplification is used to reduce the limit of detection to the sub-femtomol level. To demonstrate this assay, we detected synthetic nucleic acid sequences representative of Trypanosoma mRNA, th...

  11. Development of a Flow Injection Manifold for Napropamide Determination by Photo-Induced Chemiluminescence

    OpenAIRE

    Catalá Icardo, Mónica; López Paz, José Luis; Asensio Martín, Víctor

    2012-01-01

    A new, rapid, and simple method is proposed for the determination of the pesticide napropamide by photo-induced chemiluminescence detection coupled with a flow injection analysis (FIA) system. The emission was obtained by oxidation with periodate in basic medium, of the photoproducts generated on-line by UV irradiation (254 nm) of napropamide in acidic SDS (sodium dodecyl sulfate) medium. The flow method, in combination with the solid phase extraction (SPE) performed off-line with C-18 cartri...

  12. Study on Chemiluminescence Reaction between Lucigenin and Four Rare Metal Ions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The chemiluminescence (CL) reactions between lucigenin and four rare metal reductants were studied systematically using a flow injection system.The results show that the reactions can be used for determination of rare metals.The probable mechanism of the CL reactions involves the reduction of dissolved oxygen to the superoxide radical O-2.by the reductant,followed by the O-2.reacting with alkaline Lu to generate CL.The pathway involves a dioxetane intermediate.

  13. New method for the photo-chemiluminometric determination of benzoylurea insecticides based on acetonitrile chemiluminescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil García, M D; Martínez Galera, M; Santiago Valverde, R

    2007-03-01

    The viability of tandem photochemical reaction-chemiluminescence detection has been studied for the determination of five benzoylurea insecticides, namely, diflubenzuron, triflumuron, hexaflumuron, lufenuron and flufenoxuron. The 'on-line' photochemical reaction of benzoylurea pesticides provides an enhanced chemiluminescence response of the pesticides during their oxidation by potassium hexacyanoferrate(III) and sodium hydroxide, whose signal increases with the percentage of acetonitrile in the reaction medium. The determination was performed using a photoreactor consisting of a PFA (perfluoroalkoxy) tube reactor coil (5 mx1.6-mm O.D. and 0.8-mm I.D.) and an 8-W xenon lamp. As the yield of the photoderivatization process and the chemiluminescent signals depend on the percentage of acetonitrile, the chromatographic column (a Gemini C18, Phenomenex 150 mmx4.6 mm, 5-microm particle size) was chosen with the aim of using high percentages of this organic solvent in the mobile phase. Previous studies showed that the rate of the chemiluminescent reaction was very fast. Therefore, a modification was carried out in the detector in order to mix the analytes and reactants as near as possible to the measure cell. The optimised method was validated with respect to linearity, precision, limits of detection and quantification accuracy. Under the optimised conditions, linear working range extends three orders of magnitude with the relative standard deviation of intra-day precision below 10% and detection limits between 0.012 and 0.18 microg mL-1, according to the compound. The proposed method has been successfully applied to the determination of benzoylureas in cucumber with good results.

  14. Mechanisms of bioluminescence, chemiluminescence and of their regulation. Progress report, one year period through March 1976

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seliger, H H

    1976-01-01

    Progress is reported on a 10-yr study of the production and role of excited states in biological systems and the mechanisms involved in bioluminescence and chemoluminescence. An hypothesis of the origin of bioluminescence is presented that is based on the mixed function oxygenase reaction. Techniques of absolute measurements of light intensities and spectral composition were applied in studies of bioluminescence of marine dinoflagellates and the chemiluminescence of carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons as the result of enzymatic hydroxylation. (CH)

  15. Evaluation of nitrogen dioxide chemiluminescence monitors in a polluted urban environment

    OpenAIRE

    Dunlea, E. J.; S. C. Herndon; Nelson, D. D.; Volkamer, R. M.; F. San Martini; Sheehy, P. M.; M. S. Zahniser; Shorter, J. H.; J. C. Wormhoudt; Lamb, B. K.; Allwine, E. J.; J. S. Gaffney; Marley, N. A.; M. Grutter; Marquez, C.

    2007-01-01

    Data from a recent field campaign in Mexico City are used to evaluate the performance of the EPA Federal Reference Method for monitoring ambient concentrations of NO2. Measurements of NO2 from standard chemiluminescence monitors equipped with molybdenum oxide converters are compared with those from Tunable Infrared Laser Differential Absorption Spectroscopy (TILDAS) and Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS) instruments. A significant...

  16. An Ultrasensitive Chemiluminescence Biosensor for Carcinoembryonic Antigen Based on Autocatalytic Enlargement of Immunogold Nanoprobes

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    A sensitive flow injection chemiluminescence assay for carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) detection based on signal amplification with gold nanoparticles (NPs) is reported in the present work. The sandwich system of CEA/anti-CEA/goat-anti-mouse IgG functionalized Au nanoparticles was used as the sensing platform. In order to improve detection sensitivity, a further gold enlargement step was developed based on the autocatalytic Au deposition of gold nanoprobes via the reduction of AuCl4 − to Au0 o...

  17. Development of ultrasensitive direct chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay for determination of aflatoxin M1 in milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vdovenko, Marina M; Lu, Chuan-Chen; Yu, Feng-Yih; Sakharov, Ivan Yu

    2014-09-01

    A direct competitive chemiluminescent enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (CL-ELISA) for detecting aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) was developed. To improve the sensitivity of the assay, a mixture of 3-(10'-phenothiazinyl)-propane-1-sulfonate (SPTZ) and 4-morpholinopyridine (MORPH) was used to enhance peroxidase-induced CL. The concentrations of the coating anti-AFM1 antibody and the conjugate of AFB1 with horseradish peroxidase the conditions of the chemiluminescent assay were varied to optimise the condition of the chemiluminescent assay. The lower detection limit values and dynamic working range of CL-ELISA of AFM1 were 0.001 ng mL(-1) and 0.002-0.0075 ng mL(-1), respectively. A 20-fold dilution of milk samples prevented a matrix effect of the milk and allowed measurement of AFM1 at concentrations below than the maximum acceptable limit. Values of recovery within and between assays were 81.5-117.6% and 86-110.6%, respectively. The results of using the developed CL-ELISA to analyse samples of six brands of milk that were purchased in Taiwan revealed that AFM1 was absent from all studied samples.

  18. Kinetics analysis of chemiluminescence in discharge-driven HF chemical lasers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Luo; Shengfu Yuan; Baozhu Yan; Qisheng Lu; Qianjin Zou

    2011-01-01

    The chcinilummescence spectrum in the optical cavity of discharge-driven hydrogen fluoride (HF) chemical laser is measured. The result reveals that the spectra of the helium and fluorine (F) atoms are the major components. Moreover, the green chemiluminescence in the downstream of the optical axis is mostly composed of the 60P20 spectral line of the HF molecule. The analysis shows that, except for the cold pumping reaction, the recombination of the F atoms and the hot pumping reaction also occur in the optical cavity. Due to the hot. Pumping reaction and the optical cavity temperature in a specific range, the 60P20 line becomes the strongest HF molecule in the downstream region of the optical axis. After the hot pumping reaction, the green chcmilum inference always appears in the downstream region of the optical axis when the optical cavity temperature varies in a greater range.%@@ The chemiluminescence spectrum in the optical cavity of discharge-driven hydrogen fluoride(HF) chemical laser is measured.The result reveals that the spectra of the helium and fluorine(F) atoms are the major components.Moreover,the green chemiluminescence in the downstream of the optical axis is mostly composed of the 60P20 spectral line of the HF molecule.

  19. A streptavidin functionalized graphene oxide/Au nanoparticles composite for the construction of sensitive chemiluminescent immunosensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Zhanjun, E-mail: zjyang@yzu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Environmental Material and Environmental Engineering of Jiangsu Province, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou 225002 (China); Luo, Shufen; Li, Juan; Shen, Juan; Yu, Suhua; Hu, Xiaoya [Key Laboratory of Environmental Material and Environmental Engineering of Jiangsu Province, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou 225002 (China); Dionysiou, Dionysios D. [Environmental Engineering and Science Program, School of Energy Environmental, Biological and Medical Engineering, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45221-0012 (United States)

    2014-08-11

    Highlights: • A novel streptavidin/GO/AuNPs composite is prepared for immobilizing antibody. • A highly sensitive chemiluminescent immunosensor is constructed for tumor marker. • The immunoassay system shows extremely low detection limit down to picogram level. • This work provides a promising approach for ultrasensitive biosensing applications. - Abstract: In this work, a novel streptavidin functionalized graphene oxide/Au nanoparticles (streptavidin/GO/AuNPs) composite is prepared and for the first time used to construct sensitive chemiluminescent immunosensor for the detection of tumor marker. The streptavidin/GO/AuNPs composite and the immunosensor are characterized using scanning electron microscopy, static water contact angle measurement and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The biofunctionalized composite has large reactive surface area and excellent biocompatibility, thus the capture antibody can be efficiently immobilized on its surface based on the highly selective recognition of streptavidin to biotinylated antibody. Using α-fetoprotein (AFP) as a model, the proposed chemiluminescent immunosensor shows a wide linear range from 0.001 to 0.1 ng mL{sup −1} with an extremely low detection limit down to 0.61 pg mL{sup −1}. The resulting AFP immunosensor shows high detection sensitivity, fast assay speed, acceptable detection and fabrication reproducibility, good specificity and stability. The assay results of serum samples with the proposed method are in an acceptable agreement with the reference values. This work provides a promising biofunctionalized nanostructure for sensitive biosensing applications.

  20. Micro-plate magnetic chemiluminescence immunoassay and its applications in carcinoembryonic antigen analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    A micro-plate magnetic chemiluminescence immunoassay was developed for rapid and high throughput detection of carcinoembryonic antigens (CEA) in human sera. This method was based on a sandwich immunoreaction of fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-labeled anti-CEA antibodies, CEA antigens, and horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-conjugated anti-CEA antibodies in mi- cro-plate. The immunomagnetic particles coated with anti-FITC antibodies were used as the solid phase for the immunoassay. The separation procedure was carried out by a magnetic plate adaptor and the luminol-hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-HRP system was employed for the chemiluminescence detection. The proposed method combined the advantages of the micro-plate reactor and magnetic particle separation technology with the linear range of 5-250 ng mL·1. The detection limit of CEA was 0.61 ng mL·1. The coefficient of the variation was less than 7% and 13% for intra-assay and inter-assay precision, respectively. Compared with the commercial micro-plate chemiluminescent kit, the proposed method showed a good correlation.

  1. Insights into the antioxidant activity of some flavones on silver nanoparticles using the chemiluminescence method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voicescu, Mariana, E-mail: voicescu@icf.ro [Romanian Academy, Institute of Physical Chemistry “Ilie Murgulescu”, Splaiul Independentei 202, 060021 Bucharest (Romania); Nistor, Cristina L. [Polymer Department, National R and D Institute for Chemistry and Petrochemistry ICECHIM, Splaiul Independentei 202, 060021 Bucharest (Romania); Meghea, Aurelia [University POLITEHNICA of Bucharest, Faculty of Applied Chemistry and Materials Sciences, Polizu 1, 78126 Bucharest (Romania)

    2015-01-15

    The work aims to simulate in vitro the effects caused by oxidation of five hydroxyflavones (HF) (some typical models of flavonols), (3-HF, 6-HF, 7-HF, 3,6-diHF and 3,7-diHF) on silver nanoparticles (SNPs) using the chemiluminescent system luminol–hydrogen peroxide, in phosphate buffer, pH 7.4. The contribution of bovine and human serum albumins to the antioxidant activity of the mentioned flavones, and the effect on the SNPs support, in the chemiluminescent system luminol–hydrogen peroxide, has been also investigated. The results are discussed with relevance to the oxidative stress process. - Highlights: • The effects caused by oxidation of five hydroxiflavones (HF) (3-HF, 6-HF, 7-HF, 3,6-diHF and 3,7-diHF) on silver nanoparticles (SNPs) using the chemiluminescent (CL) system luminol–hydrogen peroxide, in phosphate buffer, pH 7.4. • The contribution of bovine and human serum albumins to the antioxidant activity of the mentioned flavones, and the effect on the SNPs support, in the CL system luminol–hydrogen peroxide, are discussed. • The results have relevance to the oxidative stress process.

  2. Selective and Sensitive Chemiluminescence Determination of MCPB: Flow Injection and Liquid Chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meseguer-Lloret, Susana; Torres-Cartas, Sagrario; Catalá-Icardo, Mónica; Gómez-Benito, Carmen

    2016-02-01

    Two new chemiluminescence (CL) methods are described for the determination of the herbicide 4-(4-chloro-o-tolyloxy) butyric acid (MCPB). First, a flow injection chemiluminescence (FI-CL) method is proposed. In this method, MCPB is photodegraded with an ultraviolet (UV) lamp and the photoproducts formed provide a great CL signal when they react with ferricyanide in basic medium. Second, a high-performance liquid chromatography chemiluminescence (HPLC-CL) method is proposed. In this method, before the photodegradation and CL reaction, the MCPB and other phenoxyacid herbicides are separated in a C18 column. The experimental conditions for the FI-CL and HPLC-CL methods are optimized. Both methods present good sensitivity, the detection limits being 0.12 µg L(-1) and 0.1 µg L(-1) (for FI-CL and HPLC-CL, respectively) when solid phase extraction (SPE) is applied. Intra- and interday relative standard deviations are below 9.9%. The methods have been satisfactorily applied to the analysis of natural water samples. FI-CL method can be employed for the determination of MCPB in simple water samples and for the screening of complex water samples in a fast, economic, and simple way. The HPLC-CL method is more selective, and allows samples that have not been resolved with the FI-CL method to be solved.

  3. Determination of Epinephrine by Flow Injection Analysis Coupled Ag(Ⅲ) Complex-Luminol Chemiluminescence Detection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAI,Jiangbo; SHI,Hongmei; ZHANG,Yingze; TIAN,Dehu; XU,Xiangdong; KANG,Weijun

    2009-01-01

    A new Ag(Ⅲ) complex-luminol chemiluminescent system which was applied to the determination of epinephrine is firstly reported.Based on the enhancing effect of epinephrine on the chemiluminescence reaction of luminol with [Ag(HIO6)2]5- in alkaline solution,a highly sensitive chemiluminescence (CL) detection by flow injection analysis (FIA) was developed for epinephrine.Under the optimum conditions,CL intensity was proportional to concentration of epinephrine in the 1.0× 10 9-1.0×10-7 mol·L-1 range.The limit of detection was 8.0× 10-10mol·L 1 for epinephrine (3σ),with a relative standard deviation (n= 11) of 2.9% for 1.5 × 10 8 mol·L-1 epinephrine.The method validation was done with epinephrine determinations in commercial pharmaceutical products.The mechanism of the reactions was also discussed.

  4. Chemiluminescence evidence supporting the selective role of ligands in the permanganate oxidation of micropollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roderick, Mark S; Adcock, Jacqui L; Terry, Jessica M; Smith, Zoe M; Parry, Samuel; Linton, Stuart M; Thornton, Megan T; Barrow, Colin J; Francis, Paul S

    2013-10-10

    The selective increase in the oxidation rate of certain organic compounds with permanganate in the presence of environmental "ligands" and reduced species has been ascribed to the different reactivity of the target compounds toward Mn(III), which bears striking similarities to recent independent investigations into the use of permanganate as a chemiluminescence reagent. In spite of the importance of Mn(III) in the light-producing pathway, the dependence of the oxidation mechanism for any given compound on this intermediate could not be determined solely through the emission intensity. However, target compounds susceptible to single-electron oxidation by Mn(III) (such as bisphenol A and triclosan) can be easily distinguished by the dramatic increase in chemiluminescence intensity when a permanganate reagent containing high, stable concentrations of Mn(III) is used. The differences are accentuated under the low pH conditions that favor the chemiluminescence emission due to the greater reactivity of Mn(III) and the greater influence of complexing agents. This study supports the previously postulated selective role of ligands and reducing agents in permanganate oxidations and demonstrates a new approach to explore the chemistry of environmental manganese redox processes. PMID:24050380

  5. Simultaneous determination of chloramphenicol, florfenicol and florfenicol amine in ham sausage with a hybrid chemiluminescent immunoassay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Xiaoqi; Jiang, Haiyang; Yu, Xuezhi; Zhu, Jinghui; Wang, Xia; Wang, Zhanhui; Niu, Lanlan; Wu, Xiaoping; Shen, Jianzhong

    2013-01-01

    A novel chemiluminescent immunoassay utilising two types of primary antibodies (murine monoclonal antibody and rabbit polyclonal antibody) and two types of horseradish peroxidase-labelled secondary antibodies was established for simultaneously detecting multiple amphenicol residues in ham sausage. After combining the extract procedure of the target amphenicol into one simplified method, this hybrid chemiluminescent immunoassay could screen chloramphenicol (CAP), florfenicol (FF) and its metabolite florfenicol amine (FFA) at the same time by adding the corresponding secondary antibody. Ham sausage samples were analysed by using this hybrid immunoassay, with LODs of CAP being 0.01 μg kg⁻¹, of FF being 2.8 μg kg⁻¹ and of FFA being 3.0 μg kg⁻¹. The applicability of the proposed method has been validated by determining CAP, FF and FFA in ham sausage samples with satisfactory results. Good recoveries and high correlation with traditional enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and LC-MS/MS results illustrated that the developed hybrid chemiluminescent immunoassay could screen high-throughput ultra-trace amphenicol residues effectively at one time.

  6. AdvancED Flex 4

    CERN Document Server

    Tiwari, Shashank; Schulze, Charlie

    2010-01-01

    AdvancED Flex 4 makes advanced Flex 4 concepts and techniques easy. Ajax, RIA, Web 2.0, mashups, mobile applications, the most sophisticated web tools, and the coolest interactive web applications are all covered with practical, visually oriented recipes. * Completely updated for the new tools in Flex 4* Demonstrates how to use Flex 4 to create robust and scalable enterprise-grade Rich Internet Applications.* Teaches you to build high-performance web applications with interactivity that really engages your users.* What you'll learn Practiced beginners and intermediate users of Flex, especially

  7. The Practice of Inclusive Development Concepts in the Advanced Mathematics Teaching%包容性发展理念在高等数学教学中的实践

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董卫; 张清年

    2012-01-01

    The concepts of inclusive development are characterized by object universality and target diversification. This paper deals with the practice of inclusive development concepts in the advanced mathematics teaching from four aspects: how to improve students'social practice ability, capability of innovation and lifelong learning, and how to ameliorate the examination appraisals system.%包容性发展理念的对象具有普遍性和目标多样化的特征。在教学过程中,要从社会实践能力培养、创新能力培养、改进考试考查评价体系和终身学习能力培养等四个方面入手,将包容性发展理念真正应用于高等数学的教学实践中。

  8. Recent advances in carbon nanodots: synthesis, properties and biomedical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Peng; Han, Kun; Tang, Yuguo; Wang, Bidou; Lin, Tao; Cheng, Wenbo

    2015-01-01

    Herein, a mini review is presented concerning the most recent research progress of carbon nanodots, which have emerged as one of the most attractive photoluminescent materials. Different synthetic methodologies to achieve advanced functions and better photoluminescence performances are summarized, which are mainly divided into two classes: top-down and bottom-up. The inspiring properties, including photoluminescence emission, chemiluminescence, electrochemical luminescence, peroxidase-like activity and toxicity, are discussed. Moreover, the biomedical applications in biosensing, bioimaging and drug delivery are reviewed.

  9. Framework Programmable Platform for the Advanced Software Development Workstation (FPP/ASDW). Demonstration framework document. Volume 1: Concepts and activity descriptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Richard J.; Blinn, Thomas M.; Dewitte, Paul S.; Crump, John W.; Ackley, Keith A.

    1992-01-01

    The Framework Programmable Software Development Platform (FPP) is a project aimed at effectively combining tool and data integration mechanisms with a model of the software development process to provide an intelligent integrated software development environment. Guided by the model, this system development framework will take advantage of an integrated operating environment to automate effectively the management of the software development process so that costly mistakes during the development phase can be eliminated. The Advanced Software Development Workstation (ASDW) program is conducting research into development of advanced technologies for Computer Aided Software Engineering (CASE).

  10. Advanced Jet Noise Exhaust Concepts in NASA's N+2 Supersonics Validation Study and the Environmentally Responsible Aviation Project's Upcoming Hybrid Wing Body Acoustics Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Brenda S.; Doty, Mike

    2012-01-01

    Acoustic and flow-field experiments were conducted on exhaust concepts for the next generation supersonic, commercial aircraft. The concepts were developed by Lockheed Martin (LM), Rolls-Royce Liberty Works (RRLW), and General Electric Global Research (GEGR) as part of an N+2 (next generation forward) aircraft system study initiated by the Supersonics Project in NASA s Fundamental Aeronautics Program. The experiments were conducted in the Aero-Acoustic Propulsion Laboratory at the NASA Glenn Research Center. The exhaust concepts presented here utilized lobed-mixers and ejectors. A powered third-stream was implemented to improve ejector acoustic performance. One concept was found to produce stagnant flow within the ejector and the other produced discrete-frequency tones (due to flow separations within the model) that degraded the acoustic performance of the exhaust concept. NASA's Environmentally Responsible Aviation (ERA) Project has been investigating a Hybrid Wing Body (HWB) aircraft as a possible configuration for meeting N+2 system level goals for noise, emissions, and fuel burn. A recently completed NRA led by Boeing Research and Technology resulted in a full-scale aircraft design and wind tunnel model. This model will be tested acoustically in NASA Langley's 14-by 22-Foot Subsonic Tunnel and will include dual jet engine simulators and broadband engine noise simulators as part of the test campaign. The objectives of the test are to characterize the system level noise, quantify the effects of shielding, and generate a valuable database for prediction method development. Further details of the test and various component preparations are described.

  11. Induction of chemiluminescence of luminol during excitation of NpO2F4OH3- complexes by nitrogen laser (λ = 337.1 nm) radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chemiluminescence response of luminol on optical excitation of NpO22+ complexes by nitrogen laser radiation is investigated. Experiments are carried out in solutions containing 42 % of CsF with different ph values. Absorption spectra of NpO2F4OH3- complexes and chemiluminescence spectra of luminol introduced into solutions in the case of different ph are represented

  12. Advancement of the climate dual strategy. New concepts for a globally effective climate protection; Weiterentwicklung der baden-wuerttembergischen Klimadoppelstrategie. Neue Konzepte fuer einen global wirksamen Klimaschutz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-10-15

    The Baden-Wuerttemberg Council on Sustainable Development (Stuttgart, Federal Republic of Germany) presents a climate expert report with new concepts for a globally effective climate protection. First of all, the development of the global emissions of carbon dioxide since 1990 is described. The development of the global emissions of carbon dioxide up to 2050 is forecasted. Four general criteria (effectiveness, efficiency, fairness and acceptance) for a comparative evaluation of climate protection concepts are introduced. A proposal for solution on the basis of a globally effective cap-and-trade system as well as an identical scenario as an alternative with respect to the implementation are described. This alternative scenario is based on a cap-and-trade system but it develops on the basis of national self-commitment in accordance with an incentive and sanctionative system. Both implementation proposals are compared. Recommendations of the national government Baden-Wuerttemberg are given.

  13. Evaluation of nitrogen dioxide chemiluminescence monitors in a polluted urban environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. J. Molina

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Data from a recent field campaign in Mexico City are used to evaluate the performance of the EPA Federal Reference Method for monitoring the ambient concentrations of NO2. Measurements of NO2 from standard chemiluminescence monitors equipped with molybdenum oxide converters are compared with those from Tunable Infrared Laser Differential Absorption Spectroscopy (TILDAS and Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS instruments. A significant interference in the chemiluminescence measurement is shown to account for up to 50% of ambient NO2 concentration during afternoon hours. As expected, this interference correlates well with non-NOx reactive nitrogen species (NOz as well as with ambient O3 concentrations, indicating a photochemical source for the interfering species. A combination of ambient gas phase nitric acid and alkyl and multifunctional alkyl nitrates is deduced to be the primary cause of the interference. Observations at four locations at varying proximities to emission sources indicate that the percentage contribution of HNO3 to the interference decreases with time as the air parcel ages. Alkyl and multifunctional alkyl nitrate concentrations are calculated to reach concentrations as high as several ppb inside the city, on par with the highest values previously observed in other urban locations. Averaged over the MCMA-2003 field campaign, the chemiluminescence monitor interference resulted in an average measured NO2 concentration up to 22% greater than that from co-located spectroscopic measurements. Thus, this interference has the potential to initiate regulatory action in areas that are close to non-attainment and may mislead atmospheric photochemical models used to assess control strategies for photochemical oxidants.

  14. Automated determinations of selenium in thermal power plant wastewater by sequential hydride generation and chemiluminescence detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezoe, Kentaro; Ohyama, Seiichi; Hashem, Md Abul; Ohira, Shin-Ichi; Toda, Kei

    2016-02-01

    After the Fukushima disaster, power generation from nuclear power plants in Japan was completely stopped and old coal-based power plants were re-commissioned to compensate for the decrease in power generation capacity. Although coal is a relatively inexpensive fuel for power generation, it contains high levels (mgkg(-1)) of selenium, which could contaminate the wastewater from thermal power plants. In this work, an automated selenium monitoring system was developed based on sequential hydride generation and chemiluminescence detection. This method could be applied to control of wastewater contamination. In this method, selenium is vaporized as H2Se, which reacts with ozone to produce chemiluminescence. However, interference from arsenic is of concern because the ozone-induced chemiluminescence intensity of H2Se is much lower than that of AsH3. This problem was successfully addressed by vaporizing arsenic and selenium individually in a sequential procedure using a syringe pump equipped with an eight-port selection valve and hot and cold reactors. Oxidative decomposition of organoselenium compounds and pre-reduction of the selenium were performed in the hot reactor, and vapor generation of arsenic and selenium were performed separately in the cold reactor. Sample transfers between the reactors were carried out by a pneumatic air operation by switching with three-way solenoid valves. The detection limit for selenium was 0.008 mg L(-1) and calibration curve was linear up to 1.0 mg L(-1), which provided suitable performance for controlling selenium in wastewater to around the allowable limit (0.1 mg L(-1)). This system consumes few chemicals and is stable for more than a month without any maintenance. Wastewater samples from thermal power plants were collected, and data obtained by the proposed method were compared with those from batchwise water treatment followed by hydride generation-atomic fluorescence spectrometry. PMID:26653491

  15. Toward complete miniaturisation of flow injection analysis systems: microfluidic enhancement of chemiluminescent detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gracioso Martins, Ana M; Glass, Nick R; Harrison, Sally; Rezk, Amgad R; Porter, Nichola A; Carpenter, Peter D; Du Plessis, Johan; Friend, James R; Yeo, Leslie Y

    2014-11-01

    Conventional flow injection systems for aquatic environmental analysis typically comprise large laboratory benchscale equipment, which place considerable constraints for portable field use. Here, we demonstrate the use of an integrated acoustically driven microfluidic mixing scheme to enhance detection of a chemiluminescent species tris(2,2'-bipyridyl)dichlororuthenium(II) hexahydrate-a common chemiluminescent reagent widely used for the analysis of a wide range of compounds such as illicit drugs, pharmaceuticals, and pesticides-such that rapid in-line quantification can be carried out with sufficient on-chip sensitivity. Specifically, we employ surface acoustic waves (SAWs) to drive intense chaotic streaming within a 100 μL chamber cast in polydimethoxylsiloxane (PDMS) atop a microfluidic chip consisting of a single crystal piezoelectric material. By optimizing the power, duration, and orientation of the SAW input, we show that the mixing intensity of the sample and reagent fed into the chamber can be increased by one to two orders of magnitude, leading to a similar enhancement in the detection sensitivity of the chemiluminescent species and thus achieving a theoretical limit of detection of 0.02 ppb (0.2 nM) of l-proline-a decade improvement over the industry gold-standard and two orders of magnitude more sensitive than that achievable with conventional systems-simply using a portable photodetector and without requiring sample preconcentration. This on-chip microfluidic mixing strategy, together with the integrated miniature photodetector and the possibility for chip-scale microfluidic actuation, then alludes to the attractive possibility of a completely miniaturized platform for portable field-use microanalytical systems. PMID:25275830

  16. Sequential injection chemiluminescence immunoassay for anionic surfactants using magnetic microbeads immobilized with an antibody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ruiqi; Hirakawa, Koji; Seto, Daisuke; Soh, Nobuaki; Nakano, Koji; Masadome, Takashi; Nagata, Kazumi; Sakamoto, Kazuhira; Imato, Toshihiko

    2005-12-15

    A rapid and sensitive immunoassay for the determination of linear alkylbenzene sulfonates (LAS) is described. The method involves a sequential injection analysis (SIA) system equipped with a chemiluminescence detector and a neodymium magnet. Magnetic beads, to which an anti-LAS monoclonal antibody was immobilized, were used as a solid support in an immunoassay. The introduction, trapping and release of the magnetic beads in the flow cell were controlled by means of a neodymium magnet and adjusting the flow of the carrier solution. The immunoassay was based on an indirect competitive immunoreaction of an anti-LAS monoclonal antibody on the magnetic beads and the LAS sample and horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-labeled LAS, and was based on the subsequent chemiluminscence reaction of HRP with hydrogen peroxide and p-iodophenol, in a luminol solution. The anti-LAS antibody was immobilized on the beads by coupling the antibody with the magnetic beads after activation of a carboxylate moiety on the surface of magnetic beads that had been coated with a polylactic acid film. The antibody immobilized magnetic beads were introduced, and trapped in the flow cell equipped with the neodymium magnet, an LAS solution containing HRP-labeled LAS at constant concentration and the luminol solution were sequentially introduced into the flow cell based on an SIA programmed sequence. Chemiluminescence emission was monitored by means of a photon counting unit located at the upper side of the flow cell by collecting the emitted light with a lens. A typical sigmoid calibration curve was obtained, when the logarithm of the concentration of LAS was plotted against the chemiluminescence intensity using various concentrations of standard LAS samples (0-500ppb) under optimum conditions. The time required for analysis is less than 15min. PMID:18970310

  17. Determination of photoirradiated high polar benzoylureas in tomato by HPLC with luminol chemiluminescence detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galera, M Martínez; García, M D Gil; Valverde, R Santiago

    2008-08-15

    This study reports the first analytical application of luminol chemiluminescence reaction for the sensitive detection of two benzoylurea insecticides (diflubenzuron and triflumuron). Off-line experiments demonstrated that previously irradiated traces of these benzoylurea insecticides largely enhanced the chemiluminescence emission yielded from the oxidation of luminol in methanol:water mixtures, by potassium permanganate in alkaline medium, the enhancement being proportional to the concentration of both pesticides. The two benzoylureas were determined in tomato samples by coupling liquid chromatography with post-column photoderivatization and detection based on this chemiluminescence reaction. Tomato samples were extracted using the QuEChERS method based on extraction with acetonitrile and dispersive solid-phase clean-up using primary and secondary amine (PSA). Interferences due to matrix effect were overcome by using matrix-matched standards. The optimised method was validated with respect to linearity, limits of detection and quantification, precision and accuracy. Under the optimised conditions, calibrations graphs were linear between 0.05 and 0.50 microg mL(-1) for diflubenzuron and between 0.10 and 1.00 microg mL(-1) for triflumuron. Method detection limits were 0.0025 and 0.0131 microg mL(-1) (equivalent to 0.0005 and 0.0026 mg kg(-1)) and quantification limits were 0.05 and 0.10 microg mL(-1) (equivalent to 0.01 and 0.02 mg kg(-1)) for diflubenzuron and triflumuron, respectively. In both cases, quantification limits were lower than the maximum residue levels (MRLs) established by the European legislation. The relative standard deviation of intra-day precision was below 10% and recoveries were between 79.7% and 94.2% for both pesticides. PMID:18656664

  18. Advanced transportation system study: Manned launch vehicle concepts for two way transportation system payloads to LEO. Work breakdown structure and work breakdown structure dictionary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, James B.

    1992-01-01

    The report describes the work breakdown structure (WBS) and its associated WBS dictionary for task area 1 of contract NAS8-39207, advanced transportation system studies (ATSS). This WBS format is consistent with the preliminary design level of detail employed by both task area 1 and task area 4 in the ATSS study and is intended to provide an estimating structure for parametric cost estimates.

  19. Alternate fusion concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This review summarizes the status of alternate fusion concepts and plans for their future. The concepts selected for review are those employing electromagnetic confinement for which there have been reasonable predictions of net energy gain from pure fusion and which have shown significant recent development or are the subjects of ongoing international activity. They include advanced tokamaks, stellarators, the spherical torus, reversed-field pinch and dense z-field pinch devices, field reversed configuration, and spheromaks. In addition, an overall view of the status of each concept with respect to achieving ignition and to reactor designs is presented

  20. Chemiluminescence of phthalhydrazide derivatives in organized media: Interactions with surfactants and cyclodextrins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maeztu, Raquel [Departamento de Quimica y Edafologia, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Navarra, 31080 Pamplona (Spain); Gonzalez-Gaitano, Gustavo, E-mail: gaitano@unav.e [Departamento de Quimica y Edafologia, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Navarra, 31080 Pamplona (Spain); Tardajos, Gloria [Departamento de Quimica-Fisica I, Facultad de CC. Quimicas, Universidad Complutense, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Stilbs, Peter [Division of Physical Chemistry and Industrial NMR Centre, Department of Chemistry, Royal Institute of Technology, SE-10044, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2011-04-15

    The chemiluminescent oxidation of some phthalhydrazide derivatives, luminol (LUM), isoluminol (ISOL), N-(4-aminobutyl)-N-ethylisoluminol (ABEI) and N-(6-aminohexyl)-N-ethylisoluminol (AHEI), has been carried out in micellar media and in the presence of natural cyclodextrins (CDs), using Co(II) as catalyst and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} as oxidant. The cationic cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) and, in a lesser extent, the anionic sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) produce quenching in the chemiluminescence (CL) of all the luminophores at concentrations above the cmc, whereas slight enhancements are attained with the non-ionic pentaethylene glycol monododecyl ether (C{sub 12}E{sub 5}). On the contrary, the incorporation of the CDs to the reaction produces a remarkable intensification of the CL. Binding of the luminophores to the macrocycles and the micelles has been studied by Pulsed-Gradient-Spin-Echo-NMR (PGSE-NMR) and fluorescence anisotropy. The cationic CTAB decreases the emission mainly due to charge compensation as a result of the association of the luminophores and the luminescent intermediates to the micelles. The presence of the alkyl substituents of ABEI and AHEI provides an additional hydrophobic contribution to the binding process. SDS quenches this reaction as the micelles retain Co(II) on their anionic layer. The protection and stabilization of these luminophores or their luminescent intermediates provided by the cavities of the CDs make this family of cyclic oligosaccharides much more suitable agents than the surfactants for enhancing the CL in aqueous media for this specific reaction. - Research highlights: Natural cyclodextrins act as boosters of the chemiluminescence of luminol and its derivatives. Cyclodextrins can be successfully employed for improving the possibilities of those applications that make use of the CL of luminol and its derivatives as a detection or quantification method. Ionic and non-ionic surfactants do not either enhance or even quench the

  1. Intercomparison study of NOx passive diffusion tubes with chemiluminescence analysers and evaluation of bias factors

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez Jiménez, Araceli; Heal, Mathew R.; Beverland, Iain J.

    2011-01-01

    Passive diffusion tubes (PDTs) are an inexpensive and simple method to monitor air pollutants. Numerous studies have investigated the performance of PDTs for NO2 but little attention has been paid to PDTs for NOx. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of NOx PDTs in three different urban environments. Duplicate NOx and NO2 PDTs were co-located with chemiluminescence analysers at kerbside, urban centre and background sites in the city of Glasgow for twelve 1-week exposures. PDT...

  2. Chemiluminescence Determination of Molybdenum by on-Line Reduction with a Flow Injection System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The chemiluminescence (CL) reaction between lucigenin (Lu) and molybdenum (Ⅲ) produced by a Jones reductor was investigated using a flow injection system. On the basis of this, a novel method for the determination of trace amount of molybdenum has been established. The emission intensity was linear with molybdenum concentration in the range of 0.1-1000 ng/mL; the detection limit was 0.02 ng/mL molybdenum; the relative standard deviation was less than 2% for the determination of 0.1 ng/mL molybdenum (n=11). The method has been applied successfully to the analysis of trace molybdenum in water and steel samples.

  3. Fiber-Optic Chemiluminescent Biosensors for Monitoring Aqueous Alcohols and Other Water Quality Parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verostko, Charles E. (Inventor); Atwater, James E. (Inventor); Akse, James R. (Inventor); DeHart, Jeffrey L. (Inventor); Wheeler, Richard R. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    A "reagentless" chemiluminescent biosensor and method for the determination of hydrogen peroxide, ethanol and D-glucose in water is disclosed. An aqueous stream is basified by passing it through a solid phase base bed. Luminol is then dissolved in the basified effluent at a controlled rate. Oxidation of the luminol is catalyzed by the target chemical to produce emitted light. The intensity of the emitted light is detected as a measure of the target chemical concentration in the aqueous stream. The emitted light can be transmitted by a fiber optic bundle to a remote location from the aqueous stream for a remote reading of the target chemical concentration.

  4. Flow Injection Analysis of Histidine with Enhanced Electrogenerated Chemiluminescence of Luminol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    A simple and sensitive flow injection method is presented for the determination of histidine based on its enhancement of electrogenerated chemiluminescence (ECL) of luminol. After optimization of the experimental parameters, the working range for histidine was in 1.0 x 10-6 to 1.0 x 10 -3 mol/L with a detection limit (S/N = 3) of 0.56 μmol/L. The relative standard deviation was 1.6% for 11 measurements of 5 x 10 -5 mol/L histidine solution. The proposed method has been successfully applied to the determination of histidine in real pharmaceutical preparation.

  5. Capillary electrophoresis with direct chemiluminescence detection for the analysis of catecholamines in human urine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cheng Quan Wang; Hui Wang; Yan Ming Liu

    2007-01-01

    A rapid and sensitive method for the analysis of three catecholamines by capillary electrophoresis (CE) with direct chemiluminescence (CL) detection is described. The detection limits (S/N = 3) were 1.3 × 10-8 g/mL for isoprenaline,1.0 × 10-8 g/mL for epinephrine and 2.8 × 10-8 g/mL for dopamine. The proposed method was successfully applied to the analysis of catecholamines in urine samples of cigarette smokers and nonsmokers. The results showed that there is a close relation between the release of dopamine in human body fluids and cigarette smoking/nonsmoking.

  6. Investigation of radiaiton defect annealing in LiF by chemiluminescence and thermostimulated luminescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To study radiation defect properties in LiF by simultaneously measured chemi- and thermoluminescence and to prove their regularity, the samples were exposed to gamma-radiation of 60Co with the dose of 1 Mrad/hour. Then the samples were annealed at 100-400 deg C. Dependence of chemi- and thermoluminescence and F-centre concentration on the annealing temperature have been investigated. Those dependences are found to be interrelated. Chemiluminescence intensity change (according to the growth of the annealing temperature for the crystals with a great number of associated electron centres at a high radiation dose) is proved to be caused by the radiation defect clustering

  7. Performance Evaluation of the Concept of Hybrid Heat Pipe as Passive In-core Cooling Systems for Advanced Nuclear Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Yeong Shin; Kim, Kyung Mo; Kim, In Guk; Bang, In Cheol [UNIST, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    As an arising issue for inherent safety of nuclear power plant, the concept of hybrid heat pipe as passive in-core cooling systems was introduced. Hybrid heat pipe has unique features that it is inserted in core directly to remove decay heat from nuclear fuel without any changes of structures of existing facilities of nuclear power plant, substituting conventional control rod. Hybrid heat pipe consists of metal cladding, working fluid, wick structure, and neutron absorber. Same with working principle of the heat pipe, heat is transported by phase change of working fluid inside metal cask. Figure 1 shows the systematic design of the hybrid heat pipe cooling system. In this study, the concept of a hybrid heat pipe was introduced as a Passive IN-core Cooling Systems (PINCs) and demonstrated for internal design features of heat pipe containing neutron absorber. Using a commercial CFD code, single hybrid heat pipe model was analyzed to evaluate thermal performance in designated operating condition. Also, 1-dimensional reactor transient analysis was done by calculating temperature change of the coolant inside reactor pressure vessel using MATLAB. As a passive decay heat removal device, hybrid heat pipe was suggested with a concept of combination of heat pipe and control rod. Hybrid heat pipe has distinct feature that it can be a unique solution to cool the reactor when depressurization process is impossible so that refueling water cannot be injected into RPV by conventional ECCS. It contains neutron absorber material inside heat pipe, so it can stop the reactor and at the same time, remove decay heat in core. For evaluating the concept of hybrid heat pipe, its thermal performance was analyzed using CFD and one-dimensional transient analysis. From single hybrid heat pipe simulation, the hybrid heat pipe can transport heat from the core inside to outside about 18.20 kW, and total thermal resistance of hybrid heat pipe is 0.015 .deg. C/W. Due to unique features of long heat

  8. Performance Evaluation of the Concept of Hybrid Heat Pipe as Passive In-core Cooling Systems for Advanced Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As an arising issue for inherent safety of nuclear power plant, the concept of hybrid heat pipe as passive in-core cooling systems was introduced. Hybrid heat pipe has unique features that it is inserted in core directly to remove decay heat from nuclear fuel without any changes of structures of existing facilities of nuclear power plant, substituting conventional control rod. Hybrid heat pipe consists of metal cladding, working fluid, wick structure, and neutron absorber. Same with working principle of the heat pipe, heat is transported by phase change of working fluid inside metal cask. Figure 1 shows the systematic design of the hybrid heat pipe cooling system. In this study, the concept of a hybrid heat pipe was introduced as a Passive IN-core Cooling Systems (PINCs) and demonstrated for internal design features of heat pipe containing neutron absorber. Using a commercial CFD code, single hybrid heat pipe model was analyzed to evaluate thermal performance in designated operating condition. Also, 1-dimensional reactor transient analysis was done by calculating temperature change of the coolant inside reactor pressure vessel using MATLAB. As a passive decay heat removal device, hybrid heat pipe was suggested with a concept of combination of heat pipe and control rod. Hybrid heat pipe has distinct feature that it can be a unique solution to cool the reactor when depressurization process is impossible so that refueling water cannot be injected into RPV by conventional ECCS. It contains neutron absorber material inside heat pipe, so it can stop the reactor and at the same time, remove decay heat in core. For evaluating the concept of hybrid heat pipe, its thermal performance was analyzed using CFD and one-dimensional transient analysis. From single hybrid heat pipe simulation, the hybrid heat pipe can transport heat from the core inside to outside about 18.20 kW, and total thermal resistance of hybrid heat pipe is 0.015 .deg. C/W. Due to unique features of long heat

  9. Advanced calculus

    CERN Document Server

    Nickerson, HK; Steenrod, NE

    2011-01-01

    ""This book is a radical departure from all previous concepts of advanced calculus,"" declared the Bulletin of the American Mathematics Society, ""and the nature of this departure merits serious study of the book by everyone interested in undergraduate education in mathematics."" Classroom-tested in a Princeton University honors course, it offers students a unified introduction to advanced calculus. Starting with an abstract treatment of vector spaces and linear transforms, the authors introduce a single basic derivative in an invariant form. All other derivatives - gradient, divergent, curl,

  10. Concept Search

    OpenAIRE

    Giunchiglia, Fausto; Kharkevich, Uladzimir; Zaihrayeu, Ilya

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we present a novel approach, called Concept Search, which extends syntactic search, i.e., search based on the computation of string similarity between words, with semantic search, i.e., search based on the computation of semantic relations between concepts. The key idea of Concept Search is to operate on complex concepts and to maximally exploit the semantic information available, reducing to syntactic search only when necessary, i.e., when no semantic information is available. ...

  11. A comparison of chemiluminescent acridinium dimethylphenyl ester labels with different conjugation sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natrajan, Anand; Wen, David

    2015-03-01

    Chemiluminescent acridinium dimethylphenyl esters are highly sensitive labels that are used in automated assays for clinical diagnosis. Light emission from these labels and their conjugates is triggered by treatment with alkaline peroxide. Conjugation of acridinium ester labels is normally done at the phenol. During the chemiluminescent reaction of these acridinium esters, the phenolic ester is cleaved and the light emitting acridone moiety is liberated from its conjugate partner. In the current study, we report the synthesis of three new acridinium esters with conjugation sites at the acridinium nitrogen and compare their properties with that of a conventional acridinium ester with a conjugation site at the phenol. Our study is the first that provides a direct comparison of the emissive properties of acridinium dimethylphenyl esters (free labels and protein conjugates) with different conjugation sites, one where the light emitting acridone remains attached to its conjugate partner versus conventional labeling which results in cleavage of the acridone from the conjugate. Our results indicate that the conjugation at the acridinium nitrogen, which also alters how the acridinium ring and phenol are oriented with respect to the protein surface, has a minimal impact on emission kinetics and emission spectra. However, this mode of conjugation to three different proteins led to a significant increase in light yield which should be useful for improving the assay sensitivity. PMID:25581208

  12. Zwitterionic reagents for labeling, cross-linking and improving the performance of chemiluminescent immunoassays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natrajan, Anand; Sharpe, David; Wen, David

    2012-03-01

    Improving reagent performance in immunoassays both to enhance assay sensitivity and to minimize interference are ongoing challenges in clinical diagnostics. We describe herein the syntheses of a new class of hydrophilic reagents containing sulfobetaine zwitterions and their applications. These zwitterionic reagents are potentially useful for improving the properties of immunoassay reagents. We demonstrate for the first time that zwitterion labeling is a general and viable strategy for reducing the non-specific binding of proteins to microparticles and, to improve the aqueous solubility of hydrophobic peptides. We also describe the synthesis of zwitterionic cross-linking reagents and demonstrate their utility for peptide conjugation. In automated, chemiluminescent immunoassays, improved assay performance was observed for a hydrophobic, small analyte (theophylline) using an acridinium ester conjugate with a zwitterionic sulfobetaine linker compared to a hexa(ethylene)glycol linker. Sandwich assay performance for a large analyte (thyroid stimulating hormone) was similar for the two acridinium ester labels. These results indicate that zwitterions are complementary to poly(ethylene)glycol in improving the aqueous solubility and reducing the non-specific binding of chemiluminescent acridinium ester conjugates. PMID:22278720

  13. Streptavidin-functionalized capillary immune microreactor for highly efficient chemiluminescent immunoassay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang Zhanjun [State Key Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry for Life Science, Department of Chemistry, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); College of Chemistry and Engineering, Yangzhou University, 88 South University Avenue, Yangzhou 225002 (China); Zong Chen [State Key Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry for Life Science, Department of Chemistry, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Ju Huangxian, E-mail: hxju@nju.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry for Life Science, Department of Chemistry, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Yan Feng, E-mail: yanfeng2007@sohu.com [Jiangsu Institute of Cancer Prevention and Cure, Nanjing 210009 (China)

    2011-11-07

    Highlights: {yields} A novel capillary immune microreactor was proposed for highly efficient flow-through chemiluminescent immunoassay. {yields} The microreactor was prepared by functionalizing capillary inner wall with streptavidin for capture of biotinylated antibody. {yields} The proposed immunoassay method showed wide dynamic range, good reproducibility, stability and practicality. {yields} The microreactor was low-cost and disposable, and possessed several advantages over the conventional immunoreactors. - Abstract: A streptavidin functionalized capillary immune microreactor was designed for highly efficient flow-through chemiluminescent (CL) immunoassay. The functionalized capillary could be used as both a support for highly efficient immobilization of antibody and a flow cell for flow-through immunoassay. The functionalized inner wall and the capture process were characterized using scanning electron microscopy. Compared to conventional packed tube or thin-layer cell immunoreactor, the proposed microreactor showed remarkable properties such as lower cost, simpler fabrication, better practicality and wider dynamic range for fast CL immunoassay with good reproducibility and stability. Using {alpha}-fetoprotein as model analyte, the highly efficient CL flow-through immunoassay system showed a linear range of 3 orders of magnitude from 0.5 to 200 ng mL{sup -1} and a low detection limit of 0.1 ng mL{sup -1}. The capillary immune microreactor could make up the shortcoming of conventional CL immunoreactors and provided a promising alternative for highly efficient flow-injection immunoassay.

  14. Detection of ochratoxin A (OTA) in coffee using chemiluminescence resonance energy transfer (CRET) aptasensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Eun-Jung; Mun, Hyoyoung; Kim, Su-Ji; Shim, Won-Bo; Kim, Min-Gon

    2016-03-01

    We report a chemiluminescence resonance energy transfer (CRET) aptasensor for the detection of ochratoxin A (OTA) in roasted coffee beans. The aptamer sequences used in this study are 5'-DNAzyme-Linker-OTA aptamer-3'-dabcyl. Dabcyl at the end of the OTA aptamer region plays as a quencher in CRET aptasensor. When hemin and OTA are added, the dabcyl-labeled OTA aptamer approaches to the G-quadruplex-hemin complex by formation of the G-quadruplex-OTA complex. The G-quadruplex-hemin complexes possess horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-like activity, and therefore, the HRP-mimicking DNAzyme (HRPzyme) catalyzes peroxidation in the presence of luminol and H2O2. Resonance energy transfer between luminol (donor) and dabcyl (acceptor) enables quenching of chemiluminescence signals. The signal decreases with increasing the concentration of OTA within the range of 0.1-100ngmL(-1) (limit of detection 0.22ngmL(-1)), and the level of recovery of the respective 1ngmL(-1) and 10ngmL(-1) spiked coffee samples was 71.5% and 93.3%. These results demonstrated the potential of the proposed method for OTA analysis in diverse foods.

  15. Chemiluminescence detection of permanganate index (CODMn) by a luminol-KMnO4 based reaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    A novel chemiluminescence (CL) system for determination of permanganate index (CODMn) combined with flow injection analysis has been proposed in this study. On the basis of the chemiluminescent reaction of luminol-KMnO4 system, light emission caused by luminol-KMnO4 system was detected by the photomultiplier tube, and its intensity caused by the appearance of KMnO4 after sample digestion was inversely proportional to CODMn. Effects for CODMn determining such as pH, concentrations and interference were investigated in detail. A detection limit of 0.3 mg/L CODMn with a linear range of 0.3-200 mg/L for its theoretical CODMn was obtained under the optimized experimental conditions. The relative standard deviation was 4.3% for 5.0 mg/L CODMn (n = 11). This CL flow system for determining CODMn was simple, rapid, and suitable for automatic analysis. The data obtained by the present method were fairly in good agreement with those obtained by the standard titrimetric method. It has been applied to determine real samples with satisfactory results.

  16. Comparison of chemiluminescence methods for analysis of hydrogen peroxide and hydroxyl radicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pehrman, R.; Amme, M. (European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Transuranium Elements, Karlsruhe, (Germany)); Cachoir, C. (SCK.CEN, Waste and Disposal Unit., Mol (Belgium))

    2010-03-15

    Full text: Disposal of spent nuclear fuel in underground repositories is being considered in many countries and for this purpose understanding of behaviour of radiolysis products is required. To study the effects of alpha radiolysis products of water on oxidation and dissolution of actinides, a method to analyse those products is needed. Chemiluminescence is generally considered a simple, sensitive and reasonably selective method to detect reactive oxygen species on low concentrations. Concentrations of interest for both hydrogen peroxide and hydroxyl radicals are 10-6 to 10-9 M. The aim of this study is to compare various chemiluminescence methods for detecting hydrogen peroxide and hydroxyl radicals. Four methods to analyse hydrogen peroxide were chosen based on the estimated suitability for radiolysis experiments. Two of these use luminol, catalyzed by either mu-peroxidase or hemin, one uses 10-methyl-9-(p-formylphenyl) acridinium carboxylate trifluoromethanesulfonate and one potassium periodate. All methods were tested as batch systems in basic conditions. For hydroxyl radical detection luminophores tested were 3-hydroxyphthalic hydrazide (product of phthalic hydrazide and hydroxyl radical) and rutin. Both methods were tested as batch systems. The results are compared and the applicability of the methods for near-field dissolution studies is discussed. (author)

  17. Correlation between arachidonic acid oxygenation and luminol-induced chemiluminescence in neutrophils: inhibition by diethyldithiocarbamate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabannes, B; Perraut, C; El Habib, R; Moliere, P; Pacheco, Y; Lagarde, M

    1997-04-01

    Neutrophils from allergic subjects were hypersensitive to stimulation by low calcium ionophore concentration (0.15 microM), resulting in an increased formation of leukotriene B4 (LTB4), 5S-hydroxy-6,8,11,14-(E,Z,Z,Z)-eicosatetraenoic acid (5-HETE), and other arachidonic acid metabolites through the 5-lipoxygenase pathway. In parallel, luminol-dependent chemiluminescence was also higher in neutrophils from allergic patients at the basal state and after stimulation by calcium ionophore, revealing an enhancement of radical oxygen species and peroxide production. The activity of glutathione peroxidase, the main enzyme responsible for hydroperoxide reduction, was lowered in these cells. Diethyl-dithiocarbamate (DTC) induced a concentration-dependent decrease in chemiluminescence and arachidonic acid metabolism after neutrophil stimulation. These data show that the elevation of arachidonic acid metabolism in neutrophils from allergic patients is strongly correlated with oxidative status. This elevation may be the consequence of an increased cellular hydroperoxide known to activate 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX) activity and/or an increased arachidonic acid availability, due either to phospholipase A2 (PLA2) activation or inhibition of arachidonate reesterification into phospholipids. Lowering this oxidative status was associated with a concomitant decrease of this metabolism. Our results suggest that the effect of DTC may be the consequence of an inhibition of peroxyl radical and cellular lipid hydroperoxide production. Thus, DTC may modulate arachidonic acid metabolism in neutrophils by modulating the cellular hydroperoxide level.

  18. Evaluation of Antibacterial Enrofloxacin in Eggs by Matrix Solid Phase Dispersion-Flow Injection Chemiluminescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaocui Duan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The study based on the chemiluminescence (CL reaction of potassium ferricyanide and luminol in sodium hydroxide medium, enrofloxacin (ENRO could dramatically enhance CL intensities and incorporated with matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD technique (Florisil used as dispersant, dichloromethane eluted the target compounds. A simple flow injection chemiluminescence (FL-CL method with MSPD technique for determination of ENRO in eggs was described. Under optimal conditions, the CL intensities were linearly related to ENRO concentration ranging from 4.0×10-8 g.L−1 to 5.0×10-5 g.L−1, with a correlation coefficient of 0.9989 and detection limit of 5.0×10-9 g.L−1. The relative standard deviation was 3.6% at an ENRO concentration of 2.0×10-6 g.L−1. Our testing technique can help ensure food safety, and thus, protect public health.

  19. Chemiluminescence of graphene quantum dots and its application to the determination of uric acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amjadi, Mohammad, E-mail: amjadi@tabrizu.ac.ir; Manzoori, Jamshid L.; Hallaj, Tooba

    2014-09-15

    We report on the chemiluminescence (CL) of graphene quantum dots (GQDs) induced by direct chemical oxidation. GQDs were prepared by a simple carbonization method and characterized by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. It was found that Ce(IV) could oxidize GQDs to produce a relatively intense CL emission. The mechanism of CL generation was investigated based on the fluorescence and CL emission spectra. It was attributed to the radiative recombination of oxidant-injected holes and thermally excited electrons in the GQDs. In order to show the analytical application potential of GQDs-Ce(IV) CL system, it was applied to the determination of uric acid. Under the optimized conditions, the proposed CL system exhibited excellent analytical performance for determination of uric acid in the range of 1.0×10{sup −6} M–5.0×10{sup −4} M with a limit of detection of 5.0×10{sup −7} M. The method was applied to the determination of uric acid in human plasma and urine samples, with satisfactory results. - Highlights: • Chemiluminescence of graphene quantum dots by direct oxidation was studied. • Intense CL is produced by reaction of graphene quantum dots with Ce(IV). • The new CL system was applied to determination of uric acid in plasma and urine.

  20. Exhaled nitric oxide monitoring by quantum cascade laser: comparison with chemiluminescent and electrochemical sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandon, Julien; Högman, Marieann; Merkus, Peter J. F. M.; van Amsterdam, Jan; Harren, Frans J. M.; Cristescu, Simona M.

    2012-01-01

    Fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FENO) is considered an indicator in the diagnostics and management of asthma. In this study we present a laser-based sensor for measuring FENO. It consists of a quantum cascade laser (QCL) combined with a multi-pass cell and wavelength modulation spectroscopy for the detection of NO at the sub-part-per-billion by volume (ppbv, 1∶10-9) level. The characteristics and diagnostic performance of the sensor were assessed. A detection limit of 0.5 ppbv was demonstrated with a relatively simple design. The QCL-based sensor was compared with two market sensors, a chemiluminescent analyzer (NOA 280, Sievers) and a portable hand-held electrochemical analyzer (MINO®, Aerocrine AB, Sweden). FENO from 20 children diagnosed with asthma and treated with inhaled corticosteroids were measured. Data were found to be clinically acceptable within 1.1 ppbv between the QCL-based sensor and chemiluminescent sensor and within 1.7 ppbv when compared to the electrochemical sensor. The QCL-based sensor was tested on healthy subjects at various expiratory flow rates for both online and offline sampling procedures. The extended NO parameters, i.e. the alveolar region, airway wall, diffusing capacity, and flux were calculated and showed a good agreement with the previously reported values.

  1. l-Tyrosine Contained in Dietary Supplement by Chemiluminescence Reaction of an Iron-Phthalocyanine Complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takao Ohtomo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The chemiluminescence (CL signal immediately appeared when a hydrogen peroxide solution was injected into an iron-phthalocyanine tetrasulfonic acid (Fe-PTS aqueous solution. Moreover, the CL intensity of Fe-PTS decreased by adding L-tyrosine. Based on these results, the determination of trace amounts of L-tyrosine was developed using the quenching-chemiluminescence. The calibration curve of L-tyrosine was obtained in the concentration range of 2.0×10−7 M to 2.0×10−5 M. Moreover, the relative standard deviation (RSD was 1.63 % (=5 for 2.0×10−6 M L-tyrosine, and its detection limits (3σ were 1.81×10−7 M. The spike and recovery experiments for L-tyrosine were performed using a soft drink. Furthermore, the determination of L-tyrosine was applied to supplements containing various kinds of amino acids. Each satisfactory relative recovery was obtained at 98 to 102%.

  2. Determination of Biotin in Pharmaceutical Formulations by Potassium Permanganate-luminol-CdTe Nanoparticles Chemiluminescence System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TRAORE Zoumana Sékou; SU Xing-guang

    2012-01-01

    A sensitive flow-injection chemiluminescence method was developed for the determination of biotin in the pharmaceutical formulations.The affinity between avidin and biotin was used to adsorb biotin on the polystyrene,with subsequent quantification of biotin based on its ability to enhance the chemiluminescence(CL) signal generated by the redox reaction of potassium permanganate-luminol-CdTe nanoparticles CL system.The investigations prove that apart from 3-aminophthalate,the CdTe quantum dots(QDs) play both catalytic and emitter roles.Under optimum conditions,the linear range for the determination of biotin was 0.01-25 ng/mL with a detection limit of 7.3×10-3ng/mL(S/N=3).The relative standard deviation of 5 ng/L biotin was 2.06%(n=7).The proposed method was used to determine the biotin concentration in the pharmaceutical formulations and the recovery was between 96.4% and 104%.The proposed method is simple,convenient,rapid and sensitive.

  3. Flow injection-chemiluminescence determination of dopamine using potassium permanganate and formaldehyde system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wabaidur, Saikh Mohammad; Alothman, Zeid Abdullah; Alam, Seikh Mafiz; Lee, Sang Hak

    2012-10-01

    A simple and sensitive flow injection-chemiluminescence method for the determination of dopamine has been proposed. The method is based on the enhancing effect of dopamine on the chemiluminescence emission generated by the reaction of potassium permanganate with formaldehyde in an acidic medium. The proposed procedure allows the determination of dopamine over the concentration range of 3.1 × 10-8-1.7 × 10-5 mol/L and with a detection limit of 1.0 × 10-8 mol/L. The linear regression equation was F = 44.4912 + 1.07 × 109 ∗ C (correlation coefficient, r2 = 0.9998). The relative standard deviation is 2.1% for the determination of 1.0 × 10-8 mol/L dopamine (n = 11). The method was successfully applied to the determination of dopamine in pharmaceutical preparation with satisfactory results. The recoveries were found in the range of 96.5-101.3%.

  4. Utility of gold nanoparticles in luminescence determination of trovafloxacin: comparison of chemiluminescence and fluorescence detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alarfaj, Nawal A; El-Tohamy, Maha F

    2015-12-01

    Two novel sensitive sequential injection chemiluminescence analysis and fluorescence methods for trovafloxacin mesylate detection have been developed. The methods were based on the enhancement effect of gold nanoparticles on luminol-ferricyanide-trovafloxacin and europium(III)-trovafloxacin complex systems. The optimum conditions for both detection methods were investigated. The chemiluminescence signal was emitted due to the enhanced effect of gold nanoparticles on the reaction of luminol-ferricyanide-trovafloxacin in an alkaline medium. The response was linear over a concentration range of 1.0 × 10(-9) to 1.0 × 10(-2) mol/L (%RSD = 1.3), (n = 9, r = 0.9991) with a detection limit of 1.7 × 10(-10) mol/L (S/N = 3). The weak fluorescence intensity signal of the oxidation complex of europium(III)-trovafloxacin was strongly enhanced by gold nanoparticles and detected at λex = 330 and λem = 540 nm. Fluorescence detection enabled the determination of trovafloxacin mesylate over a linear range of 1.0 × 10(-8) to 1.0 × 10(-3) mol/L (%RSD = 1.2), (n = 6, r = 0.9993) with a detection limit of 3.3 × 10(-9) mol/L. The proposed methods were successfully applied to the determination of the studied drug in its bulk form and in pharmaceutical preparations. The results were treated statistically and compared with those obtained from other reported methods.

  5. CdS/MoS2 heterojunction-based photoelectrochemical DNA biosensor via enhanced chemiluminescence excitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zang, Yang; Lei, Jianping; Hao, Qing; Ju, Huangxian

    2016-03-15

    This work developed a CdS/MoS2 heterojunction-based photoelectrochemical biosensor for sensitive detection of DNA under the enhanced chemiluminescence excitation of luminol catalyzed by hemin-DNA complex. The CdS/MoS2 photocathode was prepared by the stepwise assembly of MoS2 and CdS quantum dots (QDs) on indium tin oxide (ITO), and achieved about 280% increasing of photocurrent compared to pure CdS QDs electrode due to the formation of heterostructure. High photoconversion efficiency in the photoelectrochemical system was identified to be the rapid spatial charge separation of electron-hole pairs by the extension of electron transport time and electron lifetime. In the presence of target DNA, the catalytic hairpin assembly was triggered, and simultaneously the dual hemin-labeled DNA probe was introduced to capture DNA/CdS/MoS2 modified ITO electrode. Thus the chemiluminescence emission of luminol was enhanced via hemin-induced mimetic catalysis, leading to the physical light-free photoelectrochemical strategy. Under optimized conditions, the resulting photoelectrode was proportional to the logarithm of target DNA concentration in the range from 1 fM to 100 pM with a detection limit of 0.39 fM. Moreover, the cascade amplification biosensor demonstrated high selectivity, desirable stability and good reproducibility, showing great prospect in molecular diagnosis and bioanalysis. PMID:26476013

  6. CdS/MoS2 heterojunction-based photoelectrochemical DNA biosensor via enhanced chemiluminescence excitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zang, Yang; Lei, Jianping; Hao, Qing; Ju, Huangxian

    2016-03-15

    This work developed a CdS/MoS2 heterojunction-based photoelectrochemical biosensor for sensitive detection of DNA under the enhanced chemiluminescence excitation of luminol catalyzed by hemin-DNA complex. The CdS/MoS2 photocathode was prepared by the stepwise assembly of MoS2 and CdS quantum dots (QDs) on indium tin oxide (ITO), and achieved about 280% increasing of photocurrent compared to pure CdS QDs electrode due to the formation of heterostructure. High photoconversion efficiency in the photoelectrochemical system was identified to be the rapid spatial charge separation of electron-hole pairs by the extension of electron transport time and electron lifetime. In the presence of target DNA, the catalytic hairpin assembly was triggered, and simultaneously the dual hemin-labeled DNA probe was introduced to capture DNA/CdS/MoS2 modified ITO electrode. Thus the chemiluminescence emission of luminol was enhanced via hemin-induced mimetic catalysis, leading to the physical light-free photoelectrochemical strategy. Under optimized conditions, the resulting photoelectrode was proportional to the logarithm of target DNA concentration in the range from 1 fM to 100 pM with a detection limit of 0.39 fM. Moreover, the cascade amplification biosensor demonstrated high selectivity, desirable stability and good reproducibility, showing great prospect in molecular diagnosis and bioanalysis.

  7. Design concepts for the Cherenkov Telescope Array CTA: an advanced facility for ground-based high-energy gamma-ray astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ground-based gamma-ray astronomy has had a major breakthrough with the impressive results obtained using systems of imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes. Ground-based gamma-ray astronomy has a huge potential in astrophysics, particle physics and cosmology. CTA is an international initiative to build the next generation instrument, with a factor of 5-10 improvement in sensitivity in the 100 GeV-10 TeV range and the extension to energies well below 100 GeV and above 100 TeV. CTA will consist of two arrays (one in the north, one in the south) for full sky coverage and will be operated as open observatory. The design of CTA is based on currently available technology. This document reports on the status and presents the major design concepts of CTA. (authors)

  8. Recent advances in the concept and pathogenesis of IgG4-related disease in the hepato-bilio-pancreatic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okazaki, Kazuichi; Yanagawa, Masahito; Mitsuyama, Toshiyuki; Uchida, Kazushige

    2014-09-01

    Recent studies have proposed nomenclatures of type 1 autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) (IgG4-related pancreatitis), IgG4-related sclerosing cholangitis (IgG4-SC), IgG4-related cholecystitis, and IgG4-related hepatopathy as IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD) in the hepato-bilio-pancreatic system. In IgG4-related hepatopathy, a novel concept of IgG4-related autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) with the same histopathological features as AIH has been proposed. Among organs involved in IgG4-RD, associations with pancreatic and biliary lesions are most frequently observed, supporting the novel concept of "biliary diseases with pancreatic counterparts." Targets of type 1 AIP and IgG4-SC may be periductal glands around the bile and pancreatic ducts. Based on genetic backgrounds, innate and acquired immunity, Th2-dominant immune status, regulatory T (Treg) or B cells, and complement activation via a classical pathway may be involved in the development of IgG4-RD. Although the role of IgG4 remains unclear in IgG4-RD, IgG4-production is upregulated by interleukin 10 from Treg cells and by B cell activating factor from monocytes/basophils with stimulation of toll-like receptors/nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptors. Based on these findings, we have proposed a hypothesis for the development of IgG4-RD in the hepato-bilio-pancreatic system. Further studies are necessary to clarify the pathogenic mechanism of IgG4-RD. PMID:25228969

  9. Concept, Characteristics and Advances of Geographic Knowledge Visualization%地学知识可视化概念特征与研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王伟星; 龚建华

    2009-01-01

    As a new field of visualization,knowledge visualization is to use maps,graphics or images to construct and transfer insights and knowledge between at least two persons.In view of geovisualization,geographic diagram,geoinformatic Tupu,and visual analytics are cutting edge researches on visual and graphic representation and discovery of geographic knowledge.Thus,this paper focuses on the discussion of geographic knowledge visualization in terms of general knowledge visualization and geographic diagram.In the paper,the concept and characteristics of geographic knowledge visualization are mainly explored according to the dual coding theory of representation of mental images and spatial thinking in mental images.Based on the theoretical foundation mentioned above,five formats of geographic knowledge visualization are introduced.Besides geographic knowledge map,they are concept maps,mind maps,cognitive maps,semantic networks and thinking maps.In the end,the practical application of geographic knowledge visualization and its development trend in the fields of geographic knowledge maps' construction,geographic collaborative work,design and implementation of visualization model and related algorithms,and so forth are summarized.%地学知识可视化是将知识可视化研究的理论、技术、方法引入地学研究领域,形成一个新的研究方向.通过分析地学知识可视化国内外研究现状,在总结其研究特点的基础上,对地学知识可视化的定义进行阐述,讨论其概念特征、理论基础以及表达方法,并对其应用研究现状与发展趋势进行概括总结.

  10. Simultaneous determination of chromium(III) and chromium(VI) in aqueous solutions by ion chromatography and chemiluminescence detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammelgaard, Bente; Jøns, O; Nielsen, B

    1992-01-01

    A method for the simultaneous determination of chromium(iii) and chromium(vi) in a flow system based on chemiluminescence was developed. A Dionex cation-exchange guard column was used to separate chromium(iii) from chromium(vi), and chromium(vi) was reduced by potassium sulfite, whereupon both sp...

  11. Egg-Citing! Isolation of Protoporphyrin IX from Brown Eggshells and Its Detection by Optical Spectroscopy and Chemiluminescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Michelle L.; Miller, Tyson A.; Bruckner, Christian

    2011-01-01

    A simple and cost-effective laboratory experiment is described that extracts protoporphyrin IX from brown eggshells. The porphyrin is characterized by UV-vis and fluorescence spectroscopy. A chemiluminescence reaction (peroxyoxalate ester fragmentation) is performed that emits light in the UV region. When the porphyrin extract is added as a fluor…

  12. Investigation of RuBPS-Ce(IV) chemiluminescence reaction and its application in determination of two diuretics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xi Juan [College of Chemistry and Molecular Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Ji Xinghu [College of Chemistry and Molecular Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Zhang Shaohong [College of Chemistry and Molecular Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Xiang Fan Vocational and Technical College, Xiangfan 441021 (China); Ai Xinping [College of Chemistry and Molecular Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); He Zhike [College of Chemistry and Molecular Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China)]. E-mail: zhkhe@whu.edu.cn

    2005-06-13

    The chemiluminescence mechanism of tris-(4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthrolinedisulfonic acid)ruthenium(II) (RuBPS)-Ce(IV) system and the effects of two diuretics, hydrochlorothiazide and furosemide, on its chemiluminescence intensity were investigated in detail. It was found that each of the two diuretics could enhance the chemiluminescence emission intensity of RuBPS-Ce(IV) system, based on which, they were sensitively detected by chemiluminescence analysis, respectively. Under the optimum experimental conditions, the linear range and detection limit of hydrochlorothiazide were 2.5 x 10{sup -3} to 6.0 x 10{sup -1} {mu}g ml{sup -1} and 1.0 x 10{sup -3} {mu}g ml{sup -1}, respectively; those of furosemide were 1.0 x 10{sup -2} to 4.0 {mu}g ml{sup -1} and 8.8 x 10{sup -3} {mu}g ml{sup -1}, respectively. The proposed method has been applied to analyze the pharmaceuticals with satisfied results.

  13. Analytically useful blue chemiluminescence from a water-soluble iridium(III) complex containing a tetraethylene glycol functionalised triazolylpyridine ligand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Zoe M; Kerr, Emily; Doeven, Egan H; Connell, Timothy U; Barnett, Neil W; Donnelly, Paul S; Haswell, Stephen J; Francis, Paul S

    2016-04-01

    We examine [Ir(df-ppy)2(pt-TEG)](+) as the first highly water soluble, blue-luminescent iridium(III) complex for chemiluminescence detection. Marked differences in selectivity were observed between the new complex and the conventional [Ru(bpy)3](2+) reagent, which will enable this mode of detection to be extended to new areas of application. PMID:26915962

  14. THE OPTIMISATION OF THE SIMULATION OF DIFFUSIONAL TRANSPORT TO A MICROSPHERE ELECTRODE AND ITS APPLICATION TO ELECTROGENERATED CHEMILUMINESCENCE

    OpenAIRE

    Irina B. Svir; Oleinick, Alexander I.; Compton, Richard G.

    2000-01-01

    The application is reported of the three layer finite implicit (3LFI) method for the simulation of electrogenerated chemiluminescence at a microsphere electrode. Two different transformed coordinates in the radial coordinate were employed, a conformal map and an exponentially expanding grid, with aim of optimising the modelling of the diffusion under non steady state conditions.

  15. Microbore liquid chromatography of tertiary amine anticholinergic pharmaceuticals with tris(2,2'-bipyridine)ruthenium(III) chemiluminescence detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holeman, J A; Danielson, N D

    1995-06-01

    The post-column chemiluminescent reaction of six anticholinergic alkaloid compounds with tris(2,2'-bipyridine)ruthenium(III) (Ru(bpy)3(3+)) is applied to microbore high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). At flow rates less than 200 microL/min, the capillary mixing cell in which Ru(bpy)3(3+) and the analyte are mixed directly allows for good light detection. In contrast, a diminished signal occurs at these low flow rates with conventional post-column mixing in a tee. Optimal chemiluminescent pH conditions for atropine, scopolamine, dicyclomine, cyclopentolate, cyclobenzaprine, and procyclidine are determined at moderately basic conditions (pH 7 to 9). 2-Butanone is found to be compatible with the chemiluminescent reaction, whereas tetrahydrofuran and propionitrile cause an increase in background noise and a chemiluminescent signal loss. As 2-butanone is more nonpolar than acetonitrile, it assists in the elution of these hydrophobic anticholinergic compounds. Five anticholinergic compounds are resolved successfully with a PRP-1 polymeric column and a slightly basic mobile phase, but a C8 silica column is better suited for the more hydrophobic compounds (cyclobenzaprine, procyclidine, and dicyclomine).

  16. Hot gas ingestion testing of an advanced STOVL concept in the NASA Lewis 9- by 15-foot Low Speed Wind Tunnel with flow visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johns, Albert L.; Flood, Joseph D.; Strock, Thomas W.; Amuedo, Kurt C.

    1988-01-01

    Advanced Short Takeoff/Vertical Landing (STOVL) aircraft capable of operating from remote sites, damaged runways, and small air capable ships are being pursued for deployment around the turn of the century. To achieve this goal, it is important that the technologies critical to this unique class of aircraft be developed. Recognizing this need, NASA Lewis Research Center, McDonnell Douglas Aircraft, and DARPA defined a cooperative program for testing in the NASA Lewis 9- by 15-foot Low Speed Wind Tunnel (LSWT) to establish a database for hot gas ingestion, one of the technologies critical to STOVL. Results from a test program are presented along with a discussion of the facility modifications allowing this type of testing at modal scale. These modifications to the tunnel include a novel ground plane, an elaborate model support which included 4 degrees of freedom, heated high pressure air for nozzle flow, a suction system exhaust for inlet flow, and tunnel sidewall modifications. Several flow visualization techniques were employed including water mist in the nozzle flows and tufts on the ground plane. Headwind (free-stream) velocity was varied from 8 to 23 knots.

  17. Bio-image warehouse system: concept and implementation of a diagnosis-based data warehouse for advanced imaging modalities in neuroradiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minati, L; Ghielmetti, F; Ciobanu, V; D'Incerti, L; Maccagnano, C; Bizzi, A; Bruzzone, M G

    2007-03-01

    Advanced neuroimaging techniques, such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), chemical shift spectroscopy imaging (CSI), diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), and perfusion-weighted imaging (PWI) create novel challenges in terms of data storage and management: huge amounts of raw data are generated, the results of analysis may depend on the software and settings that have been used, and most often intermediate files are inherently not compliant with the current DICOM (digital imaging and communication in medicine) standard, as they contain multidimensional complex and tensor arrays and various other types of data structures. A software architecture, referred to as Bio-Image Warehouse System (BIWS), which can be used alongside a radiology information system/picture archiving and communication system (RIS/PACS) system to store neuroimaging data for research purposes, is presented. The system architecture is conceived with the purpose of enabling to query by diagnosis according to a predefined two-layered classification taxonomy. The operational impact of the system and the time needed to get acquainted with the web-based interface and with the taxonomy are found to be limited. The development of modules enabling automated creation of statistical templates is proposed.

  18. Investigation of advanced counterrotation blade configuration concepts for high speed turboprop systems. Task 5: Unsteady counterrotation ducted propfan analysis. Computer program user's manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Edward J.; Delaney, Robert A.; Adamczyk, John J.; Miller, Christopher J.; Arnone, Andrea; Swanson, Charles

    1993-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was the development of a time-marching three-dimensional Euler/Navier-Stokes aerodynamic analysis to predict steady and unsteady compressible transonic flows about ducted and unducted propfan propulsion systems employing multiple blade rows. The computer codes resulting from this study are referred to as ADPAC-AOACR (Advanced Ducted Propfan Analysis Codes-Angle of Attack Coupled Row). This report is intended to serve as a computer program user's manual for the ADPAC-AOACR codes developed under Task 5 of NASA Contract NAS3-25270, Unsteady Counterrotating Ducted Propfan Analysis. The ADPAC-AOACR program is based on a flexible multiple blocked grid discretization scheme permitting coupled 2-D/3-D mesh block solutions with application to a wide variety of geometries. For convenience, several standard mesh block structures are described for turbomachinery applications. Aerodynamic calculations are based on a four-stage Runge-Kutta time-marching finite volume solution technique with added numerical dissipation. Steady flow predictions are accelerated by a multigrid procedure. Numerical calculations are compared with experimental data for several test cases to demonstrate the utility of this approach for predicting the aerodynamics of modern turbomachinery configurations employing multiple blade rows.

  19. Investigation of advanced counterrotation blade configuration concepts for high speed turboprop systems. Task 2: Unsteady ducted propfan analysis computer program users manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Edward J.; Delaney, Robert A.; Bettner, James L.

    1991-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was the development of a time-dependent three-dimensional Euler/Navier-Stokes aerodynamic analysis to predict unsteady compressible transonic flows about ducted and unducted propfan propulsion systems at angle of attack. The computer codes resulting from this study are referred to as Advanced Ducted Propfan Analysis Codes (ADPAC). This report is intended to serve as a computer program user's manual for the ADPAC developed under Task 2 of NASA Contract NAS3-25270, Unsteady Ducted Propfan Analysis. Aerodynamic calculations were based on a four-stage Runge-Kutta time-marching finite volume solution technique with added numerical dissipation. A time-accurate implicit residual smoothing operator was utilized for unsteady flow predictions. For unducted propfans, a single H-type grid was used to discretize each blade passage of the complete propeller. For ducted propfans, a coupled system of five grid blocks utilizing an embedded C-grid about the cowl leading edge was used to discretize each blade passage. Grid systems were generated by a combined algebraic/elliptic algorithm developed specifically for ducted propfans. Numerical calculations were compared with experimental data for both ducted and unducted propfan flows. The solution scheme demonstrated efficiency and accuracy comparable with other schemes of this class.

  20. A fluorescent and chemiluminescent difunctional mesoporous silica nanoparticle as a label for the ultrasensitive detection of cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tao Liang [Key Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry for Life Science of Shaanxi Province, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi' an 710062 (China); Song Chaojun; Sun Yuanjie [Department of Immunology, The Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an 710032 (China); Li Xiaohua; Li Yunyun [Key Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry for Life Science of Shaanxi Province, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi' an 710062 (China); Jin Boquan [Department of Immunology, The Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an 710032 (China); Zhang Zhujun, E-mail: zhangzj@snnu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry for Life Science of Shaanxi Province, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi' an 710062 (China); Yang Kun, E-mail: yangkunkun@fmmu.edu.cn [Department of Immunology, The Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an 710032 (China)

    2013-01-25

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Difunctional amino mesoporous silica nanoparticles (FCMSN) were synthesized. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The fluorescence and chemiluminescence properties of the FCMSN were studied. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The NaIO{sub 4} oxidation method was used for modification of the FCMSN. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Liver cancer 7721 cell was detected. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The specificity affected by FCMSN's amino groups was studied. - Abstract: A new kind of ultrabright fluorescent and chemiluminescent difunctional mesoporous silica nanoparticle (FCMSN) is reported. A luminescent dye, Rhodamine 6G or tris(2,2 Prime -bipyridyl)dichlororuthenium(II) hexahydrate (Rubpy), is doped inside nanochannels of a silica matrix. The hydrophobic groups in the silica matrix avoid the leakage of dye from open channels. The amines groups on the surface of the FCMSN improve the modification performance of the nanoparticle. Because the nanochannels are isolated by a network skeleton of silica, fluorescence quenching based on the inner filter effect of the fluorescent dyes immobilized in nanochannels is weakened effectively. The Quantum Yield of obtained 90 nm silica particles was about 61%. Compared with the fluorescent core-shell nanoparticle, the chemiluminescence reagents can freely enter the nanoparticles to react with fluorescent dyes to create chemiluminescence. The results show that the FCMSN are both fluorescent labels and chemiluminescent labels. In biological applications, the NaIO{sub 4} oxidation method was proven to be superior to the glutaraldehyde method. The amount of amino could affect the specificity of the FCMSN. The fluorescence microscopy imaging demonstrated that the FCMSN is viable for biological applications.

  1. Concept theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjørland, Birger

    2009-01-01

      Concept theory is an extremely broad, interdisciplinary and complex field of research related to many deep fields with very long historical traditions without much consensus. However, information science and knowledge organization cannot avoid relating to theories of concepts. Knowledge...... organizing systems (e.g. classification systems, thesauri and ontologies) should be understood as systems basically organizing concepts and their semantic relations. The same is the case with information retrieval systems. Different theories of concepts have different implications for how to construe......). It is also argued that the historicist and pragmatist understandings of concepts are the most fruitful views and that this understanding may be part of a broader paradigm shift that is also beginning to take place in information science.  The importance of historicist and pragmatic theories of concepts...

  2. Imaging and high-sensitivity quantification of chemiluminescent labeled DNA-blots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present thesis has for objective the development of both, methods of DNA labeling by chemiluminescence (via the catalytic activity of the enzyme alkaline phosphatase - AP) and an appropriate imaging system. Offering a competitive alternative to the detection of classical radio-labels in molecular-biological experiments of the blotting type, this technique should permit the realization of quantitative studies of gene expression at ultra-high sensitivity necessary in particular for differential-screening experiments. To reach our aim. we separated the project into three different parts. In a first step an imager based on a liquid-nitrogen-cooled CCD coupled to a standard optics (50 mm/fl.2) has been installed and characterized. This system offers a sensitive area of up to 625 cm2, a spatial resolution of 0.3-1 mm (depending on the field of view) and a sensitivity sufficient to detect 10 fg/mm2 labeled DNA. In a second part, the chemiluminescent light-generation process in solution has been investigated to optimize the parameters temperature. pH and concentration of the substrate as well as the enzyme. The substrate offering the highest light yield (CDP-Star in addition with the enhancer EMERALD II) allows quantification of AP down to 10-15 M within a dynamic range of 104 in solution. Finally. preparation, immobilization and detection of AP-labeled DNA probes (via a biotin-streptavidin-biotin-AP bridge) on nylon membranes has been optimized. A linear relation between the light intensities and the amount of DNA was observed in a range of 10 fg/mm2 - 100 pg/mm2. Hybridization of the probes to bacterial cloned target-DNA has been addressed after examination of the best hybridization conditions. Our protocol includes the treatment of a proteinase, which resulted in a significantly lower background on the filter. The results of our investigations suggest that the main conditions for a reliable differential-screening experiment are fulfilled when using chemiluminescent

  3. Understanding the fate and biological effects of Ag- and TiO2-nanoparticles in the environment: The quest for advanced analytics and interdisciplinary concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engineered inorganic nanoparticles (EINP) from consumers' products and industrial applications, especially silver and titanium dioxide nanoparticles (NP), are emitted into the aquatic and terrestrial environments in increasing amounts. However, the current knowledge on their environmental fate and biological effects is diverse and renders reliable predictions complicated. This review critically evaluates existing knowledge on colloidal aging mechanisms, biological functioning and transport of Ag NP and TiO2 NP in water and soil and it discusses challenges for concepts, experimental approaches and analytical methods in order to obtain a comprehensive understanding of the processes linking NP fate and effects. Ag NP undergo dissolution and oxidation with Ag2S as a thermodynamically determined endpoint. Nonetheless, Ag NP also undergo colloidal transformations in the nanoparticulate state and may act as carriers for other substances. Ag NP and TiO2 NP can have adverse biological effects on organisms. Whereas Ag NP reveal higher colloidal stability and mobility, the efficiency of NOM as a stabilizing agent is greater towards TiO2 NP than towards Ag NP, and multivalent cations can dominate the colloidal behavior over NOM. Many of the past analytical obstacles have been overcome just recently. Single particle ICP-MS based methods in combination with field flow fractionation techniques and hydrodynamic chromatography have the potential to fill the gaps currently hampering a comprehensive understanding of fate and effects also at a low field relevant concentrations. These analytical developments will allow for mechanistically orientated research and transfer to a larger set of EINP. This includes separating processes driven by NP specific properties and bulk chemical properties, categorization of effect-triggering pathways directing the EINP effects towards specific recipients, and identification of dominant environmental parameters triggering fate and effect of EINP

  4. Understanding the fate and biological effects of Ag- and TiO{sub 2}-nanoparticles in the environment: The quest for advanced analytics and interdisciplinary concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaumann, Gabriele E., E-mail: schaumann@uni-landau.de [Universität Koblenz-Landau, Institute for Environmental Sciences, Group of Environmental and Soil Chemistry, Fortstr. 7, D-76829 Landau (Germany); Philippe, Allan, E-mail: philippe@uni-landau.de [Universität Koblenz-Landau, Institute for Environmental Sciences, Group of Environmental and Soil Chemistry, Fortstr. 7, D-76829 Landau (Germany); Bundschuh, Mirco, E-mail: mirco.bundschuh@slu.se [Universität Koblenz-Landau, Institute for Environmental Sciences, Group of Ecotoxicology and Environment, Fortstr. 7, D-76829 Landau (Germany); Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Aquatic Sciences and Assessment, Lennart Hjelms väg 9, SE-75007 Uppsala (Sweden); Metreveli, George, E-mail: metreveli@uni-landau.de [Universität Koblenz-Landau, Institute for Environmental Sciences, Group of Environmental and Soil Chemistry, Fortstr. 7, D-76829 Landau (Germany); Klitzke, Sondra, E-mail: sondra.klitzke@tu-berlin.de [Albert-Ludwigs-Universität Freiburg, Institute of Forest Sciences, Chair of Soil Ecology, 79085 Freiburg i.Br. (Germany); Berlin University of Technology, Institute of Ecology, Department of Soil Science, Ernst-Reuter-Platz 1, D-10587 Berlin (Germany); Rakcheev, Denis, E-mail: rakcheev@uni-landau.de [Universität Koblenz-Landau, Institute for Environmental Sciences, Group of Environmental and Soil Chemistry, Fortstr. 7, D-76829 Landau (Germany); Grün, Alexandra, E-mail: alexg@uni-koblenz.de [Universität Koblenz-Landau, Institute for Integrated Natural Sciences, Dept. of Biology, Universitätsstr. 1, D-56070 Koblenz (Germany); and others

    2015-12-01

    Engineered inorganic nanoparticles (EINP) from consumers' products and industrial applications, especially silver and titanium dioxide nanoparticles (NP), are emitted into the aquatic and terrestrial environments in increasing amounts. However, the current knowledge on their environmental fate and biological effects is diverse and renders reliable predictions complicated. This review critically evaluates existing knowledge on colloidal aging mechanisms, biological functioning and transport of Ag NP and TiO{sub 2} NP in water and soil and it discusses challenges for concepts, experimental approaches and analytical methods in order to obtain a comprehensive understanding of the processes linking NP fate and effects. Ag NP undergo dissolution and oxidation with Ag{sub 2}S as a thermodynamically determined endpoint. Nonetheless, Ag NP also undergo colloidal transformations in the nanoparticulate state and may act as carriers for other substances. Ag NP and TiO{sub 2} NP can have adverse biological effects on organisms. Whereas Ag NP reveal higher colloidal stability and mobility, the efficiency of NOM as a stabilizing agent is greater towards TiO{sub 2} NP than towards Ag NP, and multivalent cations can dominate the colloidal behavior over NOM. Many of the past analytical obstacles have been overcome just recently. Single particle ICP-MS based methods in combination with field flow fractionation techniques and hydrodynamic chromatography have the potential to fill the gaps currently hampering a comprehensive understanding of fate and effects also at a low field relevant concentrations. These analytical developments will allow for mechanistically orientated research and transfer to a larger set of EINP. This includes separating processes driven by NP specific properties and bulk chemical properties, categorization of effect-triggering pathways directing the EINP effects towards specific recipients, and identification of dominant environmental parameters triggering

  5. Tokamak concept innovations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document contains the results of the IAEA Specialists' Meeting on Tokamak Concept Innovations held 13-17 January 1986 in Vienna. Although it is the most advanced fusion reactor concept the tokamak is not without its problems. Most of these problems should be solved within the ongoing R and D studies for the next generation of tokamaks. Emphasis for this meeting was placed on innovations that would lead to substantial improvements in a tokamak reactor, even if they involved a radical departure from present thinking

  6. Simultaneous identification and quantification of new psychoactive substances in blood by GC-APCI-QTOFMS coupled to nitrogen chemiluminescence detection without authentic reference standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojanperä, Ilkka; Mesihää, Samuel; Rasanen, Ilpo; Pelander, Anna; Ketola, Raimo A

    2016-05-01

    A novel platform is introduced for simultaneous identification and quantification of new psychoactive substances (NPS) in blood matrix, without the necessity of using authentic reference standards. The instrumentation consisted of gas chromatography (GC) coupled to nitrogen chemiluminescence detection (NCD) and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (APCI-QTOFMS). In this concept, the GC flow is divided in appropriate proportions between NCD for single-calibrant quantification, utilizing the detector's equimolar response to nitrogen, and QTOFMS for accurate mass-based identification. The principle was proven by analyzing five NPS, bupropion, desoxypipradrol (2-DPMP), mephedrone, methylone, and naphyrone, in sheep blood. The samples were spiked with the analytes post-extraction to avoid recovery considerations at this point. All the NPS studies produced a protonated molecule in APCI resulting in predictable fragmentation with high mass accuracy. The N-equimolarity of quantification by NCD was investigated by using external calibration with the secondary standard caffeine at five concentration levels between 0.17 and 1.7 mg/L in blood matrix as five replicates. The equimolarity was on average 98.7%, and the range of individual equimolarity determinations was 76.7-130.1%. The current analysis platform affords a promising approach to instant simultaneous qualitative and quantitative analysis of drugs in the absence of authentic reference standards, not only in forensic and clinical toxicology but also in other bioanalytical applications.

  7. Chemiluminescence Sensor for the Determination of Hydroxylamine by Electrostatically Immobilizing Luminol and Periodate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    A novel chemiluminescence(CL) sensor, which can be used for hydroxylamine determination in combination with flow injection analysis, was developed by electrostatically immobilizing luminol and periodate on anion-exchange resin respectively. Hydroxylamine was sensed by its enhancing effect on the weak CL reaction between luminol and periodate, which were eluted from the ion exchange column. The response of the sensor to hydroxylamine was linear in the concentration range of 8.0×10-8-2.0×10-6 mol/L with a detection limit of 4.0×10-8 mol/L hydroxylamine(3σ). The relative standard deviation(RSD) was 2.0% for 9 repetitive determinations at a hydroxylamine concentration of 5.0×10-7 mol/L. The sensor could be reused for over 400 times with a good reproducibility and was used to determine hydroxylamine in wastewater.

  8. Design a New Strategy Based on Nanoparticle-Enhanced Chemiluminescence Sensor Array for Biothiols Discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahrajabian, Maryam; Hormozi-Nezhad, M Reza

    2016-01-01

    Array-based sensor is an interesting approach that suggests an alternative to expensive analytical methods. In this work, we introduce a novel, simple, and sensitive nanoparticle-based chemiluminescence (CL) sensor array for discrimination of biothiols (e.g., cysteine, glutathione and glutathione disulfide). The proposed CL sensor array is based on the CL efficiencies of four types of enhanced nanoparticle-based CL systems. The intensity of CL was altered to varying degrees upon interaction with biothiols, producing unique CL response patterns. These distinct CL response patterns were collected as "fingerprints" and were then identified through chemometric methods, including linear discriminant analysis (LDA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA). The developed array was able to successfully differentiate between cysteine, glutathione and glutathione disulfide in a wide concentration range. Moreover, it was applied to distinguish among the above analytes in human plasma. PMID:27574247

  9. Design a New Strategy Based on Nanoparticle-Enhanced Chemiluminescence Sensor Array for Biothiols Discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahrajabian, Maryam; Hormozi-Nezhad, M. Reza

    2016-08-01

    Array-based sensor is an interesting approach that suggests an alternative to expensive analytical methods. In this work, we introduce a novel, simple, and sensitive nanoparticle-based chemiluminescence (CL) sensor array for discrimination of biothiols (e.g., cysteine, glutathione and glutathione disulfide). The proposed CL sensor array is based on the CL efficiencies of four types of enhanced nanoparticle-based CL systems. The intensity of CL was altered to varying degrees upon interaction with biothiols, producing unique CL response patterns. These distinct CL response patterns were collected as “fingerprints” and were then identified through chemometric methods, including linear discriminant analysis (LDA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA). The developed array was able to successfully differentiate between cysteine, glutathione and glutathione disulfide in a wide concentration range. Moreover, it was applied to distinguish among the above analytes in human plasma.

  10. Chemiluminescence and Bioluminescence as an Excitation Source in the Photodynamic Therapy of Cancer: A Critical Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhães, Carla M; Esteves da Silva, Joaquim C G; Pinto da Silva, Luís

    2016-08-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) of cancer is known for its limited number of side effects, and requires light, oxygen and photosensitizer. However, PDT is limited by poor penetration of light into deeply localized tissues, and the use of external light sources is required. Thus, researchers have been studying ways to improve the effectiveness of this phototherapy and expand it for the treatment of the deepest cancers, by using chemiluminescent or bioluminescent formulations to excite the photosensitizer by intracellular generation of light. The aim of this Minireview is to give a précis of the most important general chemi-/bioluminescence mechanisms and to analyze several studies that apply them for PDT. These studies have demonstrated the potential of utilizing chemi-/bioluminescence as excitation source in the PDT of cancer, besides combining new approaches to overcome the limitations of this mode of treatment. PMID:27129132

  11. Simultaneous detection of single attoliter droplet collisions by electrochemical and electrogenerated chemiluminescent responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dick, Jeffrey E; Renault, Christophe; Kim, Byung-Kwon; Bard, Allen J

    2014-10-27

    We provide evidence of single attoliter oil droplet collisions at the surface of an ultra-microelectrode (UME) by the observation of simultaneous electrochemical current transients (i-t curves) and electrogenerated chemiluminescent (ECL) transients in an oil/water emulsion. An emulsion system based on droplets of toluene and tri-n-propylamine (2:1 v/v) emulsified with an ionic liquid and suspended in an aqueous continuous phase was formed by ultrasonification. When an ECL luminophore, such as rubrene, is added to the emulsion droplet, stochastic events can be tracked by observing both the current blips from oxidation at the electrode surface and the ECL blips from the follow-up ECL reaction, which produces light. This report provides a means of studying fundamental aspects of electrochemistry using the attoliter oil droplet and offers complementary analytical techniques for analyzing discrete collision events, size distribution of emulsion systems, and individual droplet electroactivity. PMID:25213468

  12. Electrogenerated chemiluminescence of common organic luminophores in water using an emulsion system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dick, Jeffrey E; Renault, Christophe; Kim, Byung-Kwon; Bard, Allen J

    2014-10-01

    We describe a method to produce electrogenerated chemiluminescence (ECL) in water using a family of highly hydrophobic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) luminophores and boron dipyrromethene (BODIPY). This method is based on an oil-in-water emulsion system. Various PAHs (rubrene, 9,10-diphenylanthracene, pyrene, or perylene) and BODIPY were trapped in a toluene and tri-n-propylamine mixed oil-in-water emulsion using an ionic liquid as the supporting electrolyte and emulsifier. ECL was observed for all the aforementioned PAHs and BODIPY, and the rubrene and BODIPY emulsion systems showed adequate light to record an ECL spectrum. ECL was also observed using oxalate as the co-reactant, which was dissolved in the aqueous continuous phase. The emulsions were stable for hours and showed a droplet size distribution that ranged from 275 to 764 nm, in accordance with dynamic light scattering data. PMID:25222019

  13. Chemiluminescence and Bioluminescence as an Excitation Source in the Photodynamic Therapy of Cancer: A Critical Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhães, Carla M; Esteves da Silva, Joaquim C G; Pinto da Silva, Luís

    2016-08-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) of cancer is known for its limited number of side effects, and requires light, oxygen and photosensitizer. However, PDT is limited by poor penetration of light into deeply localized tissues, and the use of external light sources is required. Thus, researchers have been studying ways to improve the effectiveness of this phototherapy and expand it for the treatment of the deepest cancers, by using chemiluminescent or bioluminescent formulations to excite the photosensitizer by intracellular generation of light. The aim of this Minireview is to give a précis of the most important general chemi-/bioluminescence mechanisms and to analyze several studies that apply them for PDT. These studies have demonstrated the potential of utilizing chemi-/bioluminescence as excitation source in the PDT of cancer, besides combining new approaches to overcome the limitations of this mode of treatment.

  14. H2S Analysis in Biological Samples Using Gas Chromatography with Sulfur Chemiluminescence Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitvitsky, Victor; Banerjee, Ruma

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a metabolite and signaling molecule in biological tissues that regulates many physiological processes. Reliable and sensitive methods for H2S analysis are necessary for a better understanding of H2S biology and for the pharmacological modulation of H2S levels in vivo. In this chapter, we describe the use of gas chromatography coupled to sulfur chemiluminescence detection to measure the rates of H2S production and degradation by tissue homogenates at physiologically relevant concentrations of substrates. This method allows separation of H2S from other sulfur compounds and provides sensitivity of detection to ~15 pg (or 0.5 pmol) of H2S per injected sample. PMID:25725519

  15. Chemiluminescence determination of tetracyclines using Fenton system in the presence europium(III) ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new simple chemiluminescent method for the determination of chlortetracycline (Chlor-TC), oxytetracycline (Oxy-TC) and doxycycline (Doxy-TC) is described. This method is based on the europium(III) emission as a result of the energy transfer process from the excited product of the tetracyclines oxidation to the uncomplexed Eu(III). Under the optimum conditions, calibration graphs were obtained for 4 x 10-7 to 2 x 10-5 mol L-1 of Chlor-TC; 2 x 10-7 to 2 x 10-5 mol L-1 of Oxy-TC and 1 x 10-7 to 3 x 10-5 mol L-1 of Doxy-TC. The method was successfully applied to the determination of these drugs in pharmaceutical and veterinary formulation and honey.

  16. Usage of liquid scintillation counting for detecting the chemiluminescence of cells and its application in medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The liquid scintillator counting-chemiluminescence (LSC-CL) of mono-photon radiance is a sensitive, handy and high-autoanalytic technique. Through measuring basic CL, dependent CL and maximum phagocytic CL of polymorphonuclear (PMN), we studied best factor levels of the method with orthogonal design [L9 (34)]. The results showed the peak forms changed markedly (inter-group P-4 M). PMN-CL in blood was measured during acute attack of the old patients with chronic bronchitis and the children with pneumonia bronchial. It was suggested that PMN phagocytosis decreased. So the dynamic analysis of maximum phagocytic CL would help us with the deep going clinical researches of the mechanisms of anti-inflammation and injuring by the oxygen free radicals

  17. Chemiluminescence determination of tetracyclines using Fenton system in the presence europium(III) ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaczmarek, Malgorzata [Department of Rare Earths, Faculty of Chemistry, Adam Mickiewicz University, Grunwaldzka 6, 60 - 780 Poznan (Poland); Lis, Stefan, E-mail: blis@amu.edu.pl [Department of Rare Earths, Faculty of Chemistry, Adam Mickiewicz University, Grunwaldzka 6, 60 - 780 Poznan (Poland)

    2009-04-20

    A new simple chemiluminescent method for the determination of chlortetracycline (Chlor-TC), oxytetracycline (Oxy-TC) and doxycycline (Doxy-TC) is described. This method is based on the europium(III) emission as a result of the energy transfer process from the excited product of the tetracyclines oxidation to the uncomplexed Eu(III). Under the optimum conditions, calibration graphs were obtained for 4 x 10{sup -7} to 2 x 10{sup -5} mol L{sup -1} of Chlor-TC; 2 x 10{sup -7} to 2 x 10{sup -5} mol L{sup -1} of Oxy-TC and 1 x 10{sup -7} to 3 x 10{sup -5} mol L{sup -1} of Doxy-TC. The method was successfully applied to the determination of these drugs in pharmaceutical and veterinary formulation and honey.

  18. Developments and Applications of Electrogenerated Chemiluminescence Sensors Based on Micro- and Nanomaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David T. Pierce

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available A variety of recent developments and applications of electrogenerated chemiluminescence (ECL for sensors are described. While tris(2,2′-bipyridyl-ruthenium(II and luminol have dominated and continue to pervade the field of ECL-based sensors, recent work has focused on use of these lumophores with micro- and nanomaterials. It has also extended to inherently luminescent nanomaterials, such as quantum dots. Sensor configurations including microelectrode arrays and microfluidics are reviewed and, with the recent trend toward increased use of nanomaterials, special attention has been given to sensors which include thin films, nanoparticles and nanotubes. Applications of ECL labels and examples of label-free sensing that incorporate nanomaterials are also discussed.

  19. Plasmonic luminescent core-shell nanocomposites-enhanced chemiluminescence arising from the decomposition of peroxomonosulfite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hui; Xue, Wei; Lu, Chao; Li, Hai-fang; Zheng, Yongzan; Lin, Jin-Ming

    2013-12-01

    A core-shell structure of plasmonic luminescent nanocomposite, Ni@SiO2@FITC@SiO2 (NSFS) combining the stable luminescence of fluorophore with the excellent plasmonic property of metal nanomaterials, has been synthesized through layer-by-layer assembly. The effect of NSFS on the ultraweak chemiluminescence (CL) reaction of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and sodium bisulfite (NaHSO3) was explored for the first time. It was found that the CL intensity from the decomposition of peroxomonosulfite was significantly enhanced by NSFS. The mechanism of the nanocomposite-enhanced CL was revealed as the coupling of chemically induced excited states of fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) with surface plasmons of Ni nanoparticles based on studies of CL emission spectra, electron spin resonance spectra, extinction spectra and fluorescence spectra. The work sheds new light on the characteristics of the versatile materials and gives us new insight into the optical properties of fluorophores.

  20. Rapid and Sensitive Chemiluminescent Enzyme Immunoassay for the Determination of Neomycin Residues in Milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Peng Jie; Zhang, Jian Bo; Wang, Hua Li; Chen, Xia; Wu, Nan; Zhao, Yun Feng; Wang, Xiao Mei; Zhang, Hong; Zhang, Ji Yue; Zhu, Lei; Jiang, Wen Xiao

    2016-05-01

    Immunoassays greatly contribute to veterinary drug residue analysis. However, there are few reports on detecting neomycin residues by immunoassay. Here, a rapid and sensitive chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay (CLIEA) was successfully developed for neomycin residue analysis. CLIEA demonstrated good cross-reactivity for neomycin, and the IC50 value was 2.4 ng/mL in buffer. The average recovery range was 88.5%-105.4% for spiked samples (10, 50, and 100 μg/kg), and the coefficient of variation was in the range of 7.5%-14.5%. The limit of detection of CLEIA was 9.4 μg/kg, and this method was compared with the liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method using naturally contaminated samples, producing a correlation coefficient of >0.95. We demonstrate a reliable CLIEA for the rapid screening of neomycin in milk. PMID:27353712

  1. Determination of Gossypol in Trace Level by Flow Injection Analysis with Chemiluminescence Detection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bing Chun XUE; Er Bao LIU

    2006-01-01

    This work reports the single-molecule detection of gossypol by flow injection analysis with chemiluminescence method. The method is based on the reaction of luminol with ferricyanid in sodium hydroxide medium sensitized by gossypol. Under the optimum conditions,the CL intensity is proportional to the concentration of gossypol over the range of 1.11×10-17-2.78×10-16 mol/L in acid solution and 8.00×10-11-7.39×10-8 mol/L in neutral solution with correlation coefficients 0.9983 and 0.9905, respectively. The detection limits is 1.60×l0-18 mol/L (S/N=3). The proposed method has been applied for the determination of the gossypol in cottonseeds and pharmaceutical formulations with satisfactory results.

  2. Chemiluminescence Sensor for the Determination of Hydroxylamine by Electrostatically Immobilizing Luminol and Periodate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANGSi-Chun; ZHOUGuo-jun; JUHuang-xian

    2003-01-01

    A novel chemiluminescence(CL)sensor,which can be used for hydroxylamine determination in combination with flow injection analysis.was developed by electrostatically immobilizing luminol and periodate on anion-exchange resin respectively.Hydroxylamine was sensed by its enhacing effect on the weak CL reaction between luminol and periodate,which were eluted from the ion exchange column.the response of the sensor to hydroxylamine was lincar in the concentration range of 8.0×10-3~2.0×10-8mol/L with a detection limit of 4.0×10-8mol/L hydroxylamine(3σ).The relative standard deviation(RSD) was 2.0% for 9 repetitive detimes with a good reproducibility and was used to determine hydroxylamine in wastewater.

  3. Comparison of Uric Acid Quantity with Different Food in Human Urine by Flow Injection Chemiluminescence Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiajia Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the inhibitory effect of uric acid (UA on luminol-Co2+ chemiluminescence (CL system, a sensitive method for the determination of UA at nanomolar level by flow injection (FI CL was proposed. The proposed method was successfully applied to real-time monitoring of UA excretion in human 24 h urine with different food intake, showing that meats, vegetables, and porridge intake caused differential UA excretions of 879, 798, and 742 mg, respectively. It was also found that UA concentrations in urine under the three kinds of food intake simultaneously reached maximum at 2 h after meals with the values of 417, 318, and 288 μg mL−1, respectively. The UA concentration in human serum was also determined by this approach, and the possible mechanism of luminol-Co2+-UA CL reaction was discussed in detail.

  4. A New Immunoassay Method by Capillary Electrophoresis with Enhanced Chemiluminescence Detection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiao Ning WANG; Ji Cun REN

    2005-01-01

    This paper described a new immunoassay method by capillary electrophoresis with enhanced chemiluminescence (CL) detection system based on luminol-hydrogen peroxide reaction catalyzed by horseradish peroxides (HRP). Using para-iodophenol as a CL enhancer, the detection limit of about 1×10-12 mol/L for HRP was achieved, which corresponded to 1.32×10-5U/mL. In optimal conditions, the free HRP-labeled CA125 antibody (Ab*) and the bound enzyme-labeled complex (Ab*-Ag) were well separated by capillary electrophoresis within 4 min.The assay was successfully used to determine the contents of CA125 in human sera, which were associated with ovarian cancer, and the recoveries of the standard addition experiments were 96 to109 %.

  5. Hybrid algorithm for three-dimensional flame chemiluminescence tomography based on imaging overexposure compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Ying; Song, Yang; Qu, Xiangju; Li, Zhenhua; Ji, Yunjing; He, Anzhi

    2016-08-01

    Flame tomography of chemiluminescence is a necessary combustion diagnostic technique that provides instantaneous 3D information on flame structure and excited species concentrations. During combustion diagnostics, imaging overexposure always causes missing information, which obviously decreases the accuracy in further reconstructions. In order to compensate imaging overexposure, a hybrid algorithm combining weight correction and Tikhonov's regularization is proposed in this paper. The intensity of the overexposure region can be estimated via the accumulation of weight coefficients. Meanwhile, Tikhonov's regularization is utilized to ameliorate the quality of reconstruction. The numerical simulation quantitatively evaluates the performance of the hybrid algorithm. Additionally, an experiment system consisting of 12 cameras was established to reconstruct the 3D combustion structure of axisymmetric flame with different exposure time settings. This work further investigates dynamic nonaxisymmetric propane diffusion flame. The obtained results show that the hybrid algorithm can effectively reveal the flame structure less influenced by imaging overexposure and achieve better results. PMID:27505371

  6. Potassium permanganate-glutaraldehyde chemiluminescence system catalyzed by gold nanoprisms toward selective determination of fluoride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abolhasani, Jafar; Hassanzadeh, Javad; Ghorbani-Kalhor, Ebrahim

    2016-02-01

    Gold and silver nanoparticles (NPs) are shown to exert a positive effect on the chemiluminescence (CL) reaction of permanganate aldehydes. Interestingly, between various shapes examined, Au nanoprisms have the highest beneficial effect. This effect is even more notable in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) surfactant. UV-vis spectra and transmission electron microscopy were used to characterize the NP shapes and sizes. Furthermore, it was observed that iron(III) ions can slightly increase CL emission of this system. This intensification is very effective in the presence of fluoride ions (F(-)). These observations form the basis of the method for the high sensitive determination of F(-) in the 6-1200 nmol L(-1) concentration range, with a detection limit of 2.1 nmol L(-1). The proposed method has good precision and was satisfactorily used in the selective determination of low concentrations of fluoride ion in real samples. PMID:26110514

  7. Determination of cinnamic acid in human urine by flow injection chemiluminescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuemei Fan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available It was found that cinnamic acid can react with potassium permanganate in the acidic medium and produce chemiluminescence, which was greatly enhanced by glyoxal. Under the optimum conditions, the linear range for the determination of cinnamic acid was 1.0×10-8 to 1.0×10-4 mol L-1 with a detection limit of 8.0×10-9 mol L-1, the relative standard deviation was 1.7% for 2.0×10-6 mol L-1 cinnamic acid solution in nine repeated measurements. This method was found to be novel0simple0fast and sensitive, it was successfully applied to the determination of cinnamic acid in human urine. Furthermore, the possible reaction mechanism was also discussed.

  8. Design a New Strategy Based on Nanoparticle-Enhanced Chemiluminescence Sensor Array for Biothiols Discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahrajabian, Maryam; Hormozi-Nezhad, M. Reza

    2016-01-01

    Array-based sensor is an interesting approach that suggests an alternative to expensive analytical methods. In this work, we introduce a novel, simple, and sensitive nanoparticle-based chemiluminescence (CL) sensor array for discrimination of biothiols (e.g., cysteine, glutathione and glutathione disulfide). The proposed CL sensor array is based on the CL efficiencies of four types of enhanced nanoparticle-based CL systems. The intensity of CL was altered to varying degrees upon interaction with biothiols, producing unique CL response patterns. These distinct CL response patterns were collected as “fingerprints” and were then identified through chemometric methods, including linear discriminant analysis (LDA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA). The developed array was able to successfully differentiate between cysteine, glutathione and glutathione disulfide in a wide concentration range. Moreover, it was applied to distinguish among the above analytes in human plasma. PMID:27574247

  9. Stimulus-response mesoporous silica nanoparticle-based chemiluminescence biosensor for cocaine determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhonghui; Tan, Yue; Xu, Kefeng; Zhang, Lan; Qiu, Bin; Guo, Longhua; Lin, Zhenyu; Chen, Guonan

    2016-01-15

    Mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSN) based controlled release system had been coupled with diverse detection technologies to establish biosensors for different targets. Chemiluminescence (CL) system of luminol/H2O2 owns the characters of simplicity, low cost and high sensitivity, but the targets of which are mostly focused on some oxidants or which can participate in a chemical reaction that yields a product with a role in the CL reaction. In this study, chemiluminescent detection technique had been coupled with mesoporous silica-based controlled released system for the first time to develop a sensitive biosensor for the target which does not cause effect to the CL system itself. Cocaine had been chosen a model target, the MSN support was firstly loaded with glucose, then the positively charged MSN interacted with negatively charged oligonucleotides (the aptamer cocaine) to close the mesopores of MSN. At the present of target, cocaine binds with its aptamer with high affinity; the flexible linear aptamer structured will become stems structured through currently well-defined non-Waston-Crick interactions and causes the releasing of entrapped glucose into the solution. With the assistant of glucose oxidase (GOx), the released glucose can react with the dissolved oxgen to produce gluconic acid and H2O2, the latter can enhance the CL of luminol in the NaOH solution. The enhanced CL intensity has a relationship with the cocaine concentration in the range of 5.0-60μM with the detection limit of 1.43μM. The proposed method had been successfully applied to detect cocaine in serum samples with high selectivity. The same strategy can be applied to develop biosensors for different targets. PMID:26278045

  10. Evaluation of nitrogen dioxide chemiluminescence monitors in a polluted urban environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. J. Dunlea

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Data from a recent field campaign in Mexico City are used to evaluate the performance of the EPA Federal Reference Method for monitoring ambient concentrations of NO2. Measurements of NO2 from standard chemiluminescence monitors equipped with molybdenum oxide converters are compared with those from Tunable Infrared Laser Differential Absorption Spectroscopy (TILDAS and Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS instruments. A significant interference in the chemiluminescence measurement is shown to account for up to 50% of ambient NO2 concentration during afternoon hours. As expected, this interference correlates well with non-NOx reactive nitrogen species (NOz as well as with ambient O3 concentrations, indicating a photochemical source for the interfering species. A combination of ambient gas phase nitric acid and alkyl and multifunctional alkyl nitrates is deduced to be the primary cause of the interference. Observations at four locations at varying proximities to emission sources indicate that the percentage contribution of HNO3 to the interference decreases with time as the air parcel ages. Alkyl and multifunctional alkyl nitrate concentrations are calculated to be reach concentrations as high as several ppb inside the city, on par with the highest values previously observed in other urban locations. Averaged over the MCMA-2003 field campaign, the CL NOx monitor interference resulted in an average measured NO2 concentration up to 22% greater than that from co-located spectroscopic measurements. Thus, this interference has the potential to initiate regulatory action in areas that are close to non-attainment and may mislead atmospheric photochemical models used to assess control strategies for photochemical oxidants.

  11. Highly sensitive multianalyte immunochromatographic test strip for rapid chemiluminescent detection of ractopamine and salbutamol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: A multianalyte immunochromatographic test strip was developed for the rapid detection of two β2-agonists. Due to the application of chemiluminescent detection, this quantitative method shows much higher sensitivity. - Highlights: • An immunochromatographic test strip was developed for detection of multiple β2-agonists. • The whole assay process can be completed within 20 min. • The proposed method shows much higher sensitivity due to the application of CL detection. • It is a portable analytical tool suitable for field analysis and rapid screening. - Abstract: A novel immunochromatographic assay (ICA) was proposed for rapid and multiple assay of β2-agonists, by utilizing ractopamine (RAC) and salbutamol (SAL) as the models. Owing to the introduction of chemiluminescent (CL) approach, the proposed protocol shows much higher sensitivity. In this work, the described ICA was based on a competitive format, and horseradish peroxidase-tagged antibodies were used as highly sensitive CL probes. Quantitative analysis of β2-agonists was achieved by recording the CL signals of the probes captured on the two test zones of the nitrocellulose membrane. Under the optimum conditions, RAC and SAL could be detected within the linear ranges of 0.50–40 and 0.10–50 ng mL−1, with the detection limits of 0.20 and 0.040 ng mL−1 (S/N = 3), respectively. The whole process for multianalyte immunoassay of RAC and SAL can be completed within 20 min. Furthermore, the test strip was validated with spiked swine urine samples and the results showed that this method was reliable in measuring β2-agonists in swine urine. This CL-based multianalyte test strip shows a series of advantages such as high sensitivity, ideal selectivity, simple manipulation, high assay efficiency and low cost. Thus, it opens up new pathway for rapid screening and field analysis, and shows a promising prospect in food safety

  12. Stimulus-response mesoporous silica nanoparticle-based chemiluminescence biosensor for cocaine determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhonghui; Tan, Yue; Xu, Kefeng; Zhang, Lan; Qiu, Bin; Guo, Longhua; Lin, Zhenyu; Chen, Guonan

    2016-01-15

    Mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSN) based controlled release system had been coupled with diverse detection technologies to establish biosensors for different targets. Chemiluminescence (CL) system of luminol/H2O2 owns the characters of simplicity, low cost and high sensitivity, but the targets of which are mostly focused on some oxidants or which can participate in a chemical reaction that yields a product with a role in the CL reaction. In this study, chemiluminescent detection technique had been coupled with mesoporous silica-based controlled released system for the first time to develop a sensitive biosensor for the target which does not cause effect to the CL system itself. Cocaine had been chosen a model target, the MSN support was firstly loaded with glucose, then the positively charged MSN interacted with negatively charged oligonucleotides (the aptamer cocaine) to close the mesopores of MSN. At the present of target, cocaine binds with its aptamer with high affinity; the flexible linear aptamer structured will become stems structured through currently well-defined non-Waston-Crick interactions and causes the releasing of entrapped glucose into the solution. With the assistant of glucose oxidase (GOx), the released glucose can react with the dissolved oxgen to produce gluconic acid and H2O2, the latter can enhance the CL of luminol in the NaOH solution. The enhanced CL intensity has a relationship with the cocaine concentration in the range of 5.0-60μM with the detection limit of 1.43μM. The proposed method had been successfully applied to detect cocaine in serum samples with high selectivity. The same strategy can be applied to develop biosensors for different targets.

  13. Chemiluminescence-based multivariate sensing of local equivalence ratios in premixed atmospheric methane-air flames

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tripathi, Markandey M.; Krishnan, Sundar R.; Srinivasan, Kalyan K.; Yueh, Fang-Yu; Singh, Jagdish P.

    2011-09-07

    Chemiluminescence emissions from OH*, CH*, C2, and CO2 formed within the reaction zone of premixed flames depend upon the fuel-air equivalence ratio in the burning mixture. In the present paper, a new partial least square regression (PLS-R) based multivariate sensing methodology is investigated and compared with an OH*/CH* intensity ratio-based calibration model for sensing equivalence ratio in atmospheric methane-air premixed flames. Five replications of spectral data at nine different equivalence ratios ranging from 0.73 to 1.48 were used in the calibration of both models. During model development, the PLS-R model was initially validated with the calibration data set using the leave-one-out cross validation technique. Since the PLS-R model used the entire raw spectral intensities, it did not need the nonlinear background subtraction of CO2 emission that is required for typical OH*/CH* intensity ratio calibrations. An unbiased spectral data set (not used in the PLS-R model development), for 28 different equivalence ratio conditions ranging from 0.71 to 1.67, was used to predict equivalence ratios using the PLS-R and the intensity ratio calibration models. It was found that the equivalence ratios predicted with the PLS-R based multivariate calibration model matched the experimentally measured equivalence ratios within 7%; whereas, the OH*/CH* intensity ratio calibration grossly underpredicted equivalence ratios in comparison to measured equivalence ratios, especially under rich conditions ( > 1.2). The practical implications of the chemiluminescence-based multivariate equivalence ratio sensing methodology are also discussed.

  14. Chemiluminescence behavior of the carbon dots and the reduced state carbon dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teng, Ping [Key Laboratory on Luminescence and Real-Time Analysis, Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715 (China); Xie, Jianxin [College of Resources and Environment, Yuxi Normal University, Yuxi, Yunnan 653100 (China); Long, Yijuan; Huang, Xiaoxiao; Zhu, Rui; Wang, Xiliang; Liang, Liping [Key Laboratory on Luminescence and Real-Time Analysis, Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715 (China); Huang, Yuming, E-mail: ymhuang@swu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory on Luminescence and Real-Time Analysis, Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715 (China); Zheng, Huzhi, E-mail: zhenghz@swu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory on Luminescence and Real-Time Analysis, Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715 (China)

    2014-02-15

    Potassium permanganate (KMnO{sub 4}) can react with two different carbon nanoparticles, i.e., carbon dots (CDs) and reduced state carbon dots (r-CDs), in a strong acid medium to generate chemiluminescence (CL). Furthermore, the different CL intensities and CL behaviors due to the different surface groups on these two kinds of carbon nanoparticles were confirmed. CL spectra, fluorescence spectra, UV–vis absorption spectra, and electron paramagnanetic resonance spectra were applied to investigate the CL mechanism. The main reaction pathways were proposed as follows: for the CL reaction between CDs and KMnO{sub 4}, the excited states of CDs (CDs{sup ⁎}) and Mn(II) (Mn(II){sup ⁎}) emerged as KMnO{sub 4} could inject holes into CDs, then, the CDs{sup ⁎} and Mn(II){sup ⁎} acted as luminophors to yield CL; in the r-CDs-KMnO{sub 4} system, r-CDs were oxidized by KMnO{sub 4} directly, and CDs{sup ⁎} and Mn(II){sup ⁎} were produced, at the same time, CL occurred. What is more interesting is that the CL intensity of the r-CD system is stronger than that of the CD system, which confirms that functional groups have strong effect on the CL behavior. It inspired us that new carbon nanoparticles with excellent luminous performance can be designed by tuning their surface groups. -- Highlights: • Carbon dots (CDs) and reduced state carbon dots (r-CDs) can react with potassium permanganate (KMnO{sub 4}) in a strong acid to generate chemiluminescence (CL). • With different surface groups, the CL intensity of r-CDs-KMnO{sub 4} system is different from that of CDs-KMnO{sub 4} system. • The CL mechanisms of the two systems were investigated.

  15. Space Mission Concept Development Using Concept Maturity Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessen, Randii R.; Borden, Chester; Ziemer, John; Kwok, Johnny

    2013-01-01

    Over the past five years, pre-project formulation experts at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) has developed and implemented a method for measuring and communicating the maturity of space mission concepts. Mission concept development teams use this method, and associated tools, prior to concepts entering their Formulation Phases (Phase A/B). The organizing structure is Concept Maturity Level (CML), which is a classification system for characterizing the various levels of a concept's maturity. The key strength of CMLs is the ability to evolve mission concepts guided by an incremental set of assessment needs. The CML definitions have been expanded into a matrix form to identify the breadth and depth of analysis needed for a concept to reach a specific level of maturity. This matrix enables improved assessment and communication by addressing the fundamental dimensions (e.g., science objectives, mission design, technical risk, project organization, cost, export compliance, etc.) associated with mission concept evolution. JPL's collaborative engineering, dedicated concept development, and proposal teams all use these and other CML-appropriate design tools to advance their mission concept designs. This paper focuses on mission concept's early Pre-Phase A represented by CMLs 1- 4. The scope was limited due to the fact that CMLs 5 and 6 are already well defined based on the requirements documented in specific Announcement of Opportunities (AO) and Concept Study Report (CSR) guidelines, respectively, for competitive missions; and by NASA's Procedural Requirements NPR 7120.5E document for Projects in their Formulation Phase.

  16. Travelling Concepts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Karen-Margrethe

    2013-01-01

    Review of "Travelling Concepts, Metaphors, and Narratives: Literary and Cultural Studies in an Age of Interdisciplinary Research" ed. by Sibylle Baumgarten, Beatrice Michaelis and Ansagar Nünning, Trier; Wissenschaftlicher Verlag Trier, 2012......Review of "Travelling Concepts, Metaphors, and Narratives: Literary and Cultural Studies in an Age of Interdisciplinary Research" ed. by Sibylle Baumgarten, Beatrice Michaelis and Ansagar Nünning, Trier; Wissenschaftlicher Verlag Trier, 2012...

  17. Advanced mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Gupta, CB; Kumar, V

    2009-01-01

    About the Book: This book `Advanced Mathematics` is primarily designed for B.Tech., IV Semester (EE and EC branch) students of Rajasthan Technical University. The subject matter is discussed in a lucid manner. The discussion is covered in five units: Unit I: deals with Numerical Analysis, Unit-II: gives different aspects of Numerical Analysis, Unit-III: Special Function, Unit-IV:Statistics and Probability, Calculus of Variation and Transforms are discussed in Unit V. All the theoretical concepts are explained through solved examples. Besides, a large number of unsolved problems on each top

  18. Concept and advances of applied bioremediation for organic pollutants in soil and water%土壤与水体有机污染的生物修复及其应用研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王庆仁; 刘秀梅; 崔岩山; 董艺婷

    2001-01-01

    系统论述了土壤、水有机污染物的主要来源、特点、有机污染生物修复的概念、应用范围、成功实例与研究进展等,特别是对于泄漏石油污染的生物成功降解方法、效果,土壤中易爆炸物如TNT、废水中有机污染物的有效降解等,评价了生物修复所具有的突出优势。对有机、无机污染物降解过程中植物、微生物筛选、基因修饰、分子克隆与转基因植物方面近年来所取得的惊人成果与突破性进展,无疑正激励着人们开拓更大的应用范围。预计不久的将来,更多具有环境净化与生物修复功能的商业性综合技术与高效性工程生物将投入应用。%Major sources and characteristics of organic pollutants in soil and water were systematically reviewed. It deals with the concept, application and advances of bioremediation.The success in biodegradation of petroleum spill, some hazardous pollutants, waste water treatment and other striking results in the field and laboratory were described. The advances in screening, gene modification and genetic engineering etc. have obtained some successful approaches. As more progress made in this area, it is estimated that integrated techniques with more effective engineered plants or microbes will meet peoples' requirement in the future.

  19. Rapid determination of Papaver somniferum alkaloids in process streams using monolithic column high-performance liquid chromatography with chemiluminescence detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have combined high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) separations using a monolithic column with acidic potassium permanganate and tris(2,2'-bipyridyl)ruthenium(II) chemiluminescence detection in a rapid and highly sensitive method to monitor the process of extracting opiate alkaloids from Papaver somniferum. Due to the high flow rates allowed with the monolithic column and the inherent selectivity of the chemiluminescence reactions, the four predominant alkaloids - morphine, codeine, oripavine and thebaine - were determined in less than 2 min. The results obtained with numerous process samples compared favourable with those of the standard HPLC methodology. Limits of detection were 1 x 10-10 M, 5 x 10-10 M, 5 x 10-10 M and 1 x 10-9 M, for morphine, codeine, oripavine and thebaine, respectively

  20. Measurements of essential oil extract and antioxidant in Syrian Myrtus communis L. leaves using photo chemiluminescence assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The essential oil extracts and antioxidant measurements of Syrian Myrtus communis L. leaves as hydrophilic and hydrophobic existence species have been carried out. The plant leaves as a source of antioxidants was tested by the influence of its aqueous and essential oil extracts on the yield of photo chemiluminescence, PCL solution applying very sensitive and reliable method. By means of a photo chemiluminescence assay, it was possible to assess the total antioxidants capacity of hydrophilic and hydrophobic species existence in Syrian Myrtus communis L. leaves. It has been found that, the integral antioxidant capacity measurements value of Syrian Myrtus communis L. leaves was found in Kurdaha site which has a value of 465.67 1.18 nmol TE/g DM (total Trolox equivalent /gram of Dry material) . The following three mainly chemical species were found in the essential oil extracts: -Pinene, Cineole and Limonene. (author)

  1. [Determination of antioxidation of the extract from Chinese medicine Morinda officinalis How by flow injection chemiluminescence and spectroscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yong-Jun; Shi, Jie; Qu, Ling-Bo; Li, Fei-Fei; Li, Xiao-Jing; Wu, Yi-Ming

    2006-09-01

    Flow injection chemiluminescence analysis was used to determine the antioxidation activity of extract from Morinda officinalis How. The determination was based on the inhibition effect of Morinda officinalis How extraction in the chemiluminescence reaction of luminol - H2O2-CuSO4 system, and vitamin C was used as positive control. It was showed that Morinda officinalis How original liquid has obvious anti-radical activity. Spectroscopy was applied to determine the inhibition ratio of Morinda officinalis How extraction for the superoxide anion and hydroxy radicals in the special system. It was shown that the extraction from Morinda officinalis How could obviously scavenge superoxide anion and hydroxy radicals. It is suggested that the Chinese Medicine Morinda Officinalis How is a potential antioxidation activity medicine. PMID:17112048

  2. A Capillary Electrophoresis Detection Scheme for Water-soluble Vitamins Based on Luminol - BrO- Chemiluminescence System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    A novel chemiluminescence detection scheme has been developed for detecting water-soluble vitamins following capillary electrophoresis (CE) separation. This detection was based on the inhibitory effect of vitamins on the CL reaction between luminol and BrO- in basic aqueous solution. Detection of vitamins was accomplished with a borate-based background electrolyte at pH 9.2. The luminol was used as a component of the separation carrier electrolyte.

  3. Partial least squares and principal components analysis of wine vintage by high performance liquid chromatography with chemiluminescence detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellomarino, S A; Parker, R M; Conlan, X A; Barnett, N W; Adams, M J

    2010-09-23

    HPLC with acidic potassium permanganate chemiluminescence detection was employed to analyse 17 Cabernet Sauvignon wines across a range of vintages (1971-2003). Partial least squares regression analysis and principal components analysis was used in order to investigate the relationship between wine composition and vintage. Tartaric acid, vanillic acid, catechin, sinapic acid, ethyl gallate, myricetin, procyanadin B and resveratrol were found to be important components in terms of differences between the vintages.

  4. Study on Enhancement Principle and Stabilization for the Luminol-H2O2-HRP Chemiluminescence System.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lihua Yang

    Full Text Available A luminol-H2O2-HRP chemiluminescence system with high relative luminescent intensity (RLU and long stabilization time was investigated. First, the comparative study on the enhancement effect of ten compounds as enhancers to the luminol-H2O2-HRP chemiluminescence system was carried out, and the results showed that 4-(imidazol-1-ylphenol (4-IMP, 4-iodophenol (4-IOP, 4-bromophenol (4-BOP and 4-hydroxy-4'-iodobiphenyl (HIOP had the best performance. Based on the experiment, the four enhancers were dissolved in acetone, acetonitrile, methanol, and dimethylformamide (DMF with various concentrations, the results indicated that 4-IMP, 4-IOP, 4-BOP and HIOP dissolved in DMF with the concentrations of 0.2%, 3.2%, 1.6% and 3.2% could get the highest RLU values. Subsequently, the influences of pH, ionic strength, HRP, 4-IMP, 4-IOP, 4-BOP, HIOP, H2O2 and luminol on the stabilization of the luminol-H2O2-HRP chemiluminescence system were studied, and we found that pH value, ionic strength, 4-IMP, 4-IOP, 4-BOP, HIOP, H2O2 and luminol have little influence on luminescent stabilization, while HRP has a great influence. In different ranges of HRP concentration, different enhancers should be selected. When the concentration is within the range of 0~6 ng/mL, 4-IMP should be selected. When the concentration of HRP ranges from 6 to 25 ng/mL, 4-IOP was the best choice. And when the concentration is within the range of 25~80 ng/mL, HIOP should be selected as the enhancer. Finally, the three well-performing chemiluminescent enhanced solutions (CESs have been further optimized according to the three enhancers (4-IMP, 4-IOP and HIOP in their utilized HRP concentration ranges.

  5. Indirect Flow Injection Chemiluminescence Method for the Determination of Tetracyclines Using Cu(Ⅱ) as a Probe Ion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Su Qin HAN; Er Bao LIU; Hua LI

    2005-01-01

    This paper reported an indirect flow injection chemiluminescence (FI-CL) method for the determination of the drugs tetracycline (TC), chlortetracycline (CTC) and oxytetracycline (OTC) using Cu(Ⅱ) as a probe ion. The CL reaction was induced on-line and after injection of the sample the negative peaks appeared as a result of complexation. The method was applied to the determination of TCs in pharmaceuticals and human urine with recoveries in the range 95~105%.

  6. Evaluation of LIAISON Treponema Screen, a Novel Recombinant Antigen-Based Chemiluminescence Immunoassay for Laboratory Diagnosis of Syphilis

    OpenAIRE

    Marangoni, Antonella; Sambri, Vittorio; Accardo, Silvia; Cavrini, Francesca; D'Antuono, Antonietta; Moroni, Alessandra; Storni, Elisa; Cevenini, Roberto

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic performance of LIAISON Treponema Screen (DiaSorin, Saluggia, Italy), a new automated chemiluminescence immunoassay (CLIA), in comparison with that of rapid plasma reagin (RPR) and the following currently used treponemal tests: hemagglutination test (TPHA), immunoenzymatic assay (EIA), and Western blot (WB). First, a retrospective study was performed with a panel of 2,494 blood donor sera, a panel of 131 clinical and serologically charac...

  7. Editorial: Advanced learning technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Yu-Ju Lan; Gang-Shan Fu; Stephen J.H. Yang; Jeff J.S. Huang

    2012-01-01

    Recent rapid development of advanced information technology brings high expectations of its potential to improvement and innovations in learning. This special issue is devoted to using some of the emerging technologies issues related to the topic of education and knowledge sharing, involving several cutting edge research outcomes from recent advancement of learning technologies. Advanced learning technologies are the composition of various related technologies and concepts such as mobile tech...

  8. Effect of the dimetilsulfoxido in the response chemiluminescent and the consumption of oxygen of neutrophils activated human

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO), a hydroxyl radical scavenger, exerted a dose dependent inhibition on the luminol and lucigenin-enhanced chemiluminescent responses of human neutrophils activated with soluble and particulate stimulants. DMSO inhibition of the luminol chemiluminescense induced by calcium ionophore A23187 was probably due to OH scavenging, whereas inhibition of the lucigenin chemiluminescence suggested DMSO negatively affects the NADPH-dependent membrane oxidase of neutrophils. In agreement with this, DMSO moderately inhibited O2 consumption in PMN suspensions stimulated with chemotactic peptide and opsonized zymosan-induced luminol chemiluminescense was observed only when added before or in conjunction with stimulants, whereas A23187-induced chemiluminescense was inhibited by DMSO regardless of time of addition. Washing of DMSO-treated PMN resulted in increased luminol enhanced chemiluminescense in response to chemotactic peptide and opsonized zymosan. This is consistent with the idea that DMSO may be interfering with activation of the membrane subunits of the oxidase by translocation and docking of the cytoplasmic, regulatory subunits. These data imply that DMSO inhibits neutrophil chemiluminescense both by OH scavenging and interfering with oxidase activation. Key words:Dimethylsulfoxide, chemiluminescent, luminol, lucigenin,neutrophils

  9. Inhibition of chemiluminescence and chemotactic activity of phagocytes in vitro by the extracts of selected medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jantan, Ibrahim; Harun, Nurul Hikmah; Septama, Abdi Wira; Murad, Shahnaz; Mesaik, M A

    2011-04-01

    The methanol extracts of 20 selected medicinal plants were investigated for their effects on the respiratory burst of human whole blood, isolated human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) and isolated mice macrophages using a luminol/lucigenin-based chemiluminescence assay. We also tested the effect of the extracts on chemotactic migration of PMNs using the Boyden chamber technique. The extracts of Curcuma domestica L., Phyllanthus amarus Schum & Thonn and C. xanthorrhiza Roxb. were the samples producing the strongest oxidative burst of PMNs with luminol-based chemiluminescence, with IC(50) values ranging from 0.5 to 0.7 μg/ml. For macrophage cells, the extracts which showed strong suppressive activity for luminol-based chemiluminescence were C. xanthorrhiza and Garcinia mangostana L. Among the extracts studied, C. mangga Valton & Vazsjip, Piper nigrum L. and Labisia pumila var. alata showed strong inhibitory activity on lucigenin-amplified oxidative burst of PMNs, with IC(50) values ranging from 0.9 to 1.5 μg/ml. The extracts of Zingiber officinale Rosc., Alpinia galangal (L.) Willd and Averrhoa bilimbi Linn showed strong inhibition on the chemotaxic migration of cells, with IC(50) values comparable to that of ibuprofen (1.5 μg/ml). The results suggest that some of these plants were able to modulate the innate immune response of phagocytes at different steps, emphasizing their potential as a source of new immunomodulatory agents. PMID:21184195

  10. High-performance liquid chromatographic assay of parabens in wash-off cosmetic products and foods using chemiluminescence detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Qunlin [Department of Chemistry, University of Science and Technology of China, Jinzai Road 96, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Lian Mei [Department of Chemistry, University of Science and Technology of China, Jinzai Road 96, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Liu Lijuan [Department of Chemistry, University of Science and Technology of China, Jinzai Road 96, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Cui Hua [Department of Chemistry, University of Science and Technology of China, Jinzai Road 96, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China)]. E-mail: hcui@ustc.edu.cn

    2005-04-29

    A new method for the simultaneous determination of parabens including methylparaben, ethylparaben, propylparaben, and butylparaben by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with chemiluminescence detection was developed. The procedure was based on the chemiluminescent enhancement by parabens of the cerium(IV)-rhodamine 6G system in the strong sulfuric acid medium. The good separation of parabens was carried out with an isocratic elution using a mixture of methanol and water (60:40, v/v) within 8.5 min. Under the optimized conditions, a linear working range extends three orders of magnitude with the relative standard deviations of intra- and inter-day precision below 4.5%, and the detection limits were 1.9 x 10{sup -9}, 2.7 x 10{sup -9}, 3.9 x 10{sup -9}, and 5.3 x 10{sup -9} g ml{sup -1} for methylparaben, ethylparaben, propylparaben, and butylparaben, respectively. The chemiluminescence reaction was well compatible with the mobile phase of high-performance liquid chromatography. The proposed method has been successfully applied to the assay of parabens in wash-off cosmetic products and foods with the minimal sample preparation.

  11. A multiplex chemiluminescent biosensor for type B-fumonisins and aflatoxin B1 quantitative detection in maize flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zangheri, Martina; Di Nardo, Fabio; Anfossi, Laura; Giovannoli, Cristina; Baggiani, Claudio; Roda, Aldo; Mirasoli, Mara

    2015-01-01

    A multiplex chemiluminescent biosensor for simple, rapid and ultrasensitive on-site quantification of aflatoxin B1 and type B-fumonisins in maize samples has been developed. The biosensor integrates a multiplex indirect competitive lateral flow immunoassay (LFIA) based on enzyme-catalyzed chemiluminescence detection and a highly sensitive portable charge-coupled device (CCD) camera, employed in a lensless "contact" imaging configuration. The developed assay requires a simple extraction of the analytes from maize flour samples followed by their detection with a 30 min assay time. The use of chemiluminescence detection allowed accurate and objective analytes quantification, enabling simultaneous detection of type B-fumonisins and aflatoxin B1 down to 6 μg kg(-1) and 1.5 μg kg(-1), respectively, thus fulfilling the standards imposed by the legislation of European Union. Maize flour samples spiked with both analytes were subjected to multiplex analysis obtaining recoveries ranging from 80 to 115% and the coefficient of variation below 20%. Finally, analysis of naturally contaminated maize samples resulted in a good agreement between CL-LFIA and a validated confirmatory HPLC-UV and commercial ELISA kit, obtaining recoveries in the range 88-120%. The proposed CL-LFIA protocol is rapid, inexpensive, easy-to-use, and fit for the purpose of rapid screening of mycotoxins in maize flour. PMID:25374970

  12. Menadione-catalyzed luminol chemiluminescence assay for the rapid detection of viable bacteria in foods under aerobic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawasaki, S; Yamashoji, S; Asakawa, A; Isshiki, K; Kawamoto, S

    2004-12-01

    A menadione-catalyzed luminol chemiluminescence assay was developed for the rapid detection and estimation of viable bacteria in foods. The principle of this assay is based on the extracellular menadione-catalyzed active oxygen spieces (O2- and H2O2) generated by the activity of NAD(P)H:menadione oxidoreductase in viable cells. This luminol chemiluminescence assay requires 10 min for the incubation of cells with menadione and then 2 s for the measurement of chemiluminescence intensity after an injection of luminol solution without the treatment of cell lysis. This method was evaluated using liquid food samples of milk, vegetable juice, green tea, and coffee spiked with Escherichia coli ATCC 25922. The study result revealed that E. coli contamination at 1 to 10 CFU/ml in these foods could be detected after incubation at 37 degrees C for 7 h in an enrichment medium; however, the green tea and coffee samples requires filtration. This method could be a useful tool for the rapid evaluation of microbial food contamination. PMID:15633684

  13. High-performance liquid chromatographic assay of parabens in wash-off cosmetic products and foods using chemiluminescence detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new method for the simultaneous determination of parabens including methylparaben, ethylparaben, propylparaben, and butylparaben by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with chemiluminescence detection was developed. The procedure was based on the chemiluminescent enhancement by parabens of the cerium(IV)-rhodamine 6G system in the strong sulfuric acid medium. The good separation of parabens was carried out with an isocratic elution using a mixture of methanol and water (60:40, v/v) within 8.5 min. Under the optimized conditions, a linear working range extends three orders of magnitude with the relative standard deviations of intra- and inter-day precision below 4.5%, and the detection limits were 1.9 x 10-9, 2.7 x 10-9, 3.9 x 10-9, and 5.3 x 10-9 g ml-1 for methylparaben, ethylparaben, propylparaben, and butylparaben, respectively. The chemiluminescence reaction was well compatible with the mobile phase of high-performance liquid chromatography. The proposed method has been successfully applied to the assay of parabens in wash-off cosmetic products and foods with the minimal sample preparation

  14. Carbon nanostructures as catalytic support for chemiluminescence of sulfur compounds in a molecular emission cavity analysis system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safavi, Afsaneh; Maleki, Norouz; Doroodmand, Mohammad Mahdi; Koleini, Mohammad Mehdi

    2009-06-30

    The effect of different substrates including stainless steel, activated carbon, single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs), multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), fullerenes (C60, C70, etc.) and SWCNTs doped with iron and palladium nanoparticles were compared for catalytic chemiluminescence reaction of sulfur compounds in a flame-containing cavity of molecular emission cavity analysis (MECA) system. Different forms of CNT substrates were fabricated using electric arc-discharge method. The blue emission of excited S2 was monitored using a CCD camera. The results demonstrate that, due to the high surface area, plenty of basal planes, high thermal conductivity, and high flexibility of the carbon nanostructure as appropriate support, carbon nanostructures play an important role in catalytic chemiluminescence emission of sulfur compounds in MECA. Moreover, the presence of metallic nanoparticles doped on carbon nanostructures enhances their catalytic effect. The results revealed that under similar conditions, SWCNTs/Pd doped nanoparticles, SWCNTs/Fe doped nanoparticles, SWCNTs, MWCNTs and fullerenes have the most catalytic effects on chemiluminescence of sulfur compounds, respectively. PMID:19463563

  15. Laminated paper-based analytical devices (LPAD) with origami-enabled chemiluminescence immunoassay for cotinine detection in mouse serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Cassano, Christopher L; Xu, Xin; Fan, Z Hugh

    2013-11-01

    Laminated paper-based analytical devices (LPAD) with origami-enabled chemiluminescence immunoassay have been developed for the detection of cotinine, a secondhand smoke (SHS) biomarker. The devices were fabricated by a craft-cutter to define flow channels, followed by lamination. This approach of cutting/lamination to fabricate LPAD is very similar to making an identification card, offering advantages in simplicity and rugged backing when compared to the common method of patterning paper using SU-8 or wax. We also developed a protocol of localized incision and paper-folding to isolate the detection zone from flow channels; the simple origami step eliminated possible reagent diffusion and flow during antibody immobilization steps and numerous washings. By incorporating luminol-based chemiluminescence for detecting horseradish peroxidase-conjugated cotinine, we employed origami-enabled LPAD to detect cotinine in mouse serum using competitive immunoassay. The detection limit was determined to be 5 ng/mL, a clinically relevant concentration. We believe that LPAD with chemiluminescence detection provides a new platform of low cost and sensitive assays for cotinine detection.

  16. Advanced propulsion system concept for hybrid vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhate, S.; Chen, H.; Dochat, G.

    1980-01-01

    A series hybrid system, utilizing a free piston Stirling engine with a linear alternator, and a parallel hybrid system, incorporating a kinematic Stirling engine, are analyzed for various specified reference missions/vehicles ranging from a small two passenger commuter vehicle to a van. Parametric studies for each configuration, detail tradeoff studies to determine engine, battery and system definition, short term energy storage evaluation, and detail life cycle cost studies were performed. Results indicate that the selection of a parallel Stirling engine/electric, hybrid propulsion system can significantly reduce petroleum consumption by 70 percent over present conventional vehicles.

  17. Advanced Concepts for Electron-Ion Collider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yaroslav Derbenev

    2002-08-01

    A superconducting energy recovery linac (ERL) of 5 to 10 GeV was proposed earlier as an alternative to electron storage rings to deliver polarized electron beam for electron-ion collider (EIC). To enhance the utilization efficiency of electron beam from a polarized source, it is proposed to complement the ERL by circulator ring (CR) wherein the injected electrons undergo up to 100 revolutions colliding with the ion beam. In this way, electron injector and linac operate in pulsed current (beam energy recovery) regime of a relatively low average current, while the polarization is still easily delivered and preserved. To make it also easier delivering and manipulating the proton and light ion polarization, twisted (figure 8) synchrotrons are proposed for heavy particle booster and collider ring. Same type of beam orbit can be used then for electron circulator. Electron cooling (EC) of the ion beam is considered an inevitable component of high luminosity EIC (1033/s. cm2 or above). It is recognized that EC also gives a possibility to obtain very short ion bunches, that allows much stronger final focusing. At the same time, short bunches make feasible the crab crossing (and traveling focus for ion beam) at collision points, hence, allow maximizing the collision rate. As a result, one can anticipate the luminosity increase by one or two orders of magnitude.

  18. Advanced Modeling Concepts for Conceptual Design Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Preliminary design of aircraft structures is multidisciplinary, involving knowledge of structural mechanics, aerodynamics, aeroelasticity, structural dynamics and...

  19. Test Concept for Advanced Oxidation Techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennedsen, Lars Rønn; Søgaard, Erik Gydesen; Mortensen, Lars

    The fundamental information that a well-designed treatability study can provide is essential to the success of all remediation systems. Over the past years several new techniques for in situ and on-site remediation of contaminated soil and groundwater have been applied with varying degrees...... as establishing the applicability of the proposed technique, the treatability tests also provide essential site-specific design parameters required for the full scale system, namely; oxidant demand, delivery method, kinetics etc. Drawing up field studies and laboratory data, this poster will discus the importance...... techniques in order to obtain more aggressive and effective remediation technologies, e.g. UV/O3 or electrochemical/H2O2. Actual case study data is presented to illustrate the benefits of in situ treatability tests prior to full scale implementation of the preferred remedial technology....

  20. Simulation of advanced concepts for damage control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gillis, M.P.W.; Keijer, W.; Smit, C.S.; Wolff, P.A.

    2003-01-01

    Damage control on board navy ships requires a lot of manpower. On a frigate-sized ship of the Royal Netherlands Navy, up to ninety people can be involved in tasks like fire fighting, battle damage repair and treatment of casualties. In present times this is no longer attainable or affordable. To red

  1. Chemiluminescence determination of didanosine%化学发光法测定去羟肌苷

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李建军; 郑伟; 屈凌波; 杨冉

    2009-01-01

    To develop a method for the determination of didanosine by chemiluminescence (CL). Didanosine can greatly inhibit the intensity of the chemiluminescence reaction between KMnO4 and sulphite in a nitric acid medium, and there was a good linear relationship between the inhibition and the concentration of didanosine. Based on this phenomenon, didanosine was determined. The linear range of didanosine was 4.0×10~(-7)~1.0×10~(-4) g/mL and the limit of detection was 9.6×10~(-8) g/mL. The relative standard deviation (re=11) was 2.0% for 8.0×10~(-5) g/mL didanosine. The method could be applied to the determination of didanosine in capsule due to its simplicity, high efficiency and high sensitivity.%建立了快速检测去羟肌苷的化学发光方法. 在HNO3介质中, 去羟肌苷对KMnO_4-Na_2SO_3化学发光体系有较强的抑制作用, 且抑制的程度与去羟肌苷的质量浓度在一定范围内呈良好的线性关系, 据此可以测定去羟肌苷含量. 方法的线性范围为4.0×10~(-7)~1.0×10~(-4) g/mL, 检出限为9.6×10~(-8) g/mL. 对8.0×10~(-5) g/mL去羟肌苷测定的相对标准偏差为2.0% (n=11). 方法适用于胶囊中去羟肌苷的含量测定.

  2. Highly sensitive multianalyte immunochromatographic test strip for rapid chemiluminescent detection of ractopamine and salbutamol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Hongfei; Han, Jing; Yang, Shijia; Wang, Zhenxing; Wang, Lin; Fu, Zhifeng, E-mail: fuzf@swu.edu.cn

    2014-08-11

    Graphical abstract: A multianalyte immunochromatographic test strip was developed for the rapid detection of two β{sub 2}-agonists. Due to the application of chemiluminescent detection, this quantitative method shows much higher sensitivity. - Highlights: • An immunochromatographic test strip was developed for detection of multiple β{sub 2}-agonists. • The whole assay process can be completed within 20 min. • The proposed method shows much higher sensitivity due to the application of CL detection. • It is a portable analytical tool suitable for field analysis and rapid screening. - Abstract: A novel immunochromatographic assay (ICA) was proposed for rapid and multiple assay of β{sub 2}-agonists, by utilizing ractopamine (RAC) and salbutamol (SAL) as the models. Owing to the introduction of chemiluminescent (CL) approach, the proposed protocol shows much higher sensitivity. In this work, the described ICA was based on a competitive format, and horseradish peroxidase-tagged antibodies were used as highly sensitive CL probes. Quantitative analysis of β{sub 2}-agonists was achieved by recording the CL signals of the probes captured on the two test zones of the nitrocellulose membrane. Under the optimum conditions, RAC and SAL could be detected within the linear ranges of 0.50–40 and 0.10–50 ng mL{sup −1}, with the detection limits of 0.20 and 0.040 ng mL{sup −1} (S/N = 3), respectively. The whole process for multianalyte immunoassay of RAC and SAL can be completed within 20 min. Furthermore, the test strip was validated with spiked swine urine samples and the results showed that this method was reliable in measuring β{sub 2}-agonists in swine urine. This CL-based multianalyte test strip shows a series of advantages such as high sensitivity, ideal selectivity, simple manipulation, high assay efficiency and low cost. Thus, it opens up new pathway for rapid screening and field analysis, and shows a promising prospect in food safety.

  3. Aplicação e avanços da espectroscopia de luminescência em análises farmacêuticas Application and advances in the luminescence spectroscopy in pharmaceutical analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria D. P. T. Sotomayor

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a review on the latest advances and applications of the luminescence spectroscopy for the development of pharmaceuticals analyses methods, basically based on the photo- and chemiluminescence. The different forms of the drugs determination on pharmaceuticals through the fluorescence and chemiluminescence are discussed. The analyses include the drugs native fluorescence (liquid and solid-phases; the fluorescence from the oxidizing or reducing forms of the drug; the fluorescence from the chemical derivatization and their photochemistry and hydrolysis reactions. The quenching of luminescence and chemiluminescence generation for the pharmaceutical quantification are also shown. Finally, the trends and future perspectives of the luminescence spectroscopy in the field of the pharmaceutical research are discussed.

  4. Innovative Concepts in Microwave Photonics

    OpenAIRE

    Capmany Francoy, José; Sales Maicas, Salvador; Gasulla Mestre, Ivana; Mora Almerich, José; Lloret Soler, Juan Antonio; Sancho Durá, Juan

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports the work carried by ITEAM researchers on novel concepts in the field of Microwave Photonics (MWP). It includes activities related to the general modelling of MWP systems, the use of novel multicore fibers and recent advances in the emergent and hot topic of integrated microwave photonics. Capmany Francoy, J.; Sales Maicas, S.; Gasulla Mestre, I.; Mora Almerich, J.; Lloret Soler, JA.; Sancho Durá, J. (2012). Innovative Concepts in Microwave Photonics. Waves...

  5. Chemiluminescence accompanied by the reaction of acridinium ester and manganese (II).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Lingling; Cui, Hua

    2014-11-01

    An acridinium ester (AE) alkaline solution can react with Mn(II) to generate a strong chemiluminescence (CL) centered at 435 nm. The effects of reaction conditions such as pH and Mn(II) concentration on CL intensity were examined. In order to explore the CL mechanism, the effect of oxygen on the CL reaction was examined and an X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy study of the reaction precipitate was carried out. The results indicated that oxygen participated in the CL reaction and Mn(IV) was the primary product in the system. A possible mechanism was proposed that involved two pathways: (1) dissolved oxygen was reduced to reactive oxygen radicals by Mn(II), these reactive intermediates then reacted with AE to produce excited state acridone; (2) Mn(II) could reduce AE to partly reduced AE, which then reacted with oxygen to form excited state acridone. The reactions of other metal ions with AE were also tested, and only Mn(II) was shown to trigger strong CL emission of AE, which indicated that the system had good selectivity for Mn(II). PMID:24677387

  6. Clinical significance of quantitative analysis of thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPOAb) with chemiluminescence enzyme immunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: The only method of laboratory diagnosis for autoimmune thyroid diseases used to be serum TGA and TMA detections. Morerecently, quantitative analysis of TPOAb has been introduced. To assess the relative sensitivity of these tests , positive rates detected with the respective tests were compared. Methods: Serum TGA, TMA (with RIA) and TPOAb (with chemiluminescence enzyme immunoassay) were simultaneously detected in 998 cases of thyroid diseases (hyperthyroidism 307, Hashimoto's disease 193, simple goiter 498). For complementary sake, fine needle aspiration cytology was obtained in a number of cases including all the patients with Hashimoto's disease. Results: Positive detection rate of TPOAb in three groups of patients (hyperthyroidism, Hashimoto's, simple goiter) was 81.76%, 96.89 % and 42.97% respectively. With TMA, the positive rate was only 54.72%, 65.80%, 22.09% respectively. About one third more cases would be detected with the newer method. Conclusion: For the laboratory detection of auto immune thyroid diseases, quantitative analysis of TPOAb is much wore sensitive than the conventional TMA detection. (authors)

  7. A chemiluminescence-based continuous flow aqueous ozone analyzer using photoactivated chromotropic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takayanagi, Toshio; Dasgupta, Purnendu K

    2005-05-15

    Ozone has become the oxidant of choice for water disinfection, especially in large water treatment facilities. This paper describes a fast and sensitive method for the determination of ozone content by reaction with photoactivated chromotropic acid (CA, 4,5-dihydroxynaphthalene-2,7-disulfonic acid), which results in intense chemiluminescence (CL). Freshly ozonated water from a recirculating ozonizer/reservoir is injected into a carrier stream of deionized water in the flow-injection mode. This flow mixes with a stream of photoactivated CA solution in a spiral cell placed directly on top of an inexpensive miniature (8mm diameter active area) photomultiplier tube (PMT). Alkaline CA is photoactivated by passing it through a FEP-Teflon((R)) coil (residence time approximately 50s) wrapped around a 1W UV lamp emitting at 254nm; without photoactivation, the signal is approximately 70-fold lower. The S/N=3 limit of detection for aqueous ozone is 3mugl(-1) and good response slope is obtained up to an ozone concentration of 1.4mgl(-1), the highest that could be made in this study. The response obeyed a quadratic equation with r(2)=0.9984. No interference from permanganate ion is observed. The proposed system was applied to the monitoring of ozonation status of a playa lake water that exhibited significant ozone demand.

  8. Oscillating chemiluminescence in rhodamine B-induced Belousov-Zhabotinsky reaction catalyzed by Ce(Ⅳ)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DUAN ChunFeng; LIU GuangMing; ZHANG ZhiFeng; CUI Hua

    2009-01-01

    It was found that rhodamine B could induce oscillating chemiluminescence (OCL) from the Ce4+-cata-lyzed Belousov-Zhabotinsky reaction. This new OCL system, i.e., rhodamine B-malonic acid-bromate-Ce(IV)-sulfuric acid, exhibited two clearly distinguished emission peaks in each oscillation period. The initial concentrations of the reactants strongly influenced the oscillation pattern. For the study of the CL mechanism, a platform for a versatile and simultaneous potential and CL measurement was estab-lished to compare the potential oscillation with the CL oscillation behavior of this system. The CL spectra, UV-visible absorption spectra and time-resolved fluorescence spectra of this OCL system were studied. A possible, simplified mechanism for the OCL is proposed. It is suggested that the generation of the two CL peaks is likely due to the oxidation of the intermediate of rhodamine B by Co(IV) and Br2, respectively. This work provided a new method and platform to research the complex chemical oscilla-tions.

  9. New chemiluminescent substrates of paraoxonase 1 with improved specificity: synthesis and properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abulimite, Zulipiyan; Mu, Xiaojing; Xiao, Shangyou; Liu, Min; Li, Quandan; Chen, Gang

    2015-05-01

    Paraoxonase 1 (PON1) is an important hydrolase, and the enzyme activity decreases in patients with liver disease, diabetes, coronary heart disease, etc. Phenyl acetate and organophosphates are usually employed as substrates for serum PON1 activity assay. However, phenyl acetate for arylesterase activity assay exhibits disadvantage of high background. According to properties of PON1, four new chemiluminescent acridinium esters were designed, prepared through three steps, and characterized with (1)H NMR and mass spectrometry (MS) data, and their properties as PON1 substrates were investigated. The hydrolyses of the four compounds catalyzed by recombinant human PON1 (rhPON1) (or serum) followed first-order kinetics within 22 min. The PON1 activator (NaCl, 0.10 mol L(-1)) could boost the rhPON1-mediated and serum-mediated hydrolyses of the acridinium esters to 2.01 ~ 2.26 folds, but 1.0 mol L(-1) NaCl decreased the serum arylesterase activity. RhPON1 showed selectivity over other serum esterases such as lipase, acetylcholinesterase, and esterase D more than 300 folds. By using ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) inhibitor, the specificities of the four substrates toward serum PON1 were determined as 78.3 ~ 92.9%, which is improved than that of the model compound 9-(4-chloro-phenoxycarbonyl)-10-methylacridinium ester triflate. Due to low toxicity, high specificity, and sensitivity of the substrates, they are useful for serum PON1 activity assay. PMID:25809994

  10. Determination of catecholamines by ion chromatography coupled to acidic potassium permanganate chemiluminescence detection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong Wei Wu; Mei Lan Chen; Dan Shou; Yan Zhu

    2012-01-01

    A simple,fast,sensitive,highly selective and eco-friendly analytical method for the determination of catecholamines in human urine by ion chromatography (IC) with chemiluminescence (CL) detection was described in this paper.Using 12 mmoi/L H2SO4 without any organic additive as eluent,three catecholamines including epinephrine (EP),norepinephrine (NE) and dopamine (DA)were well separated on a cation-exchange column.The CL detection was based on the reaction of analytes with acidic potassium permanganate in the presence of formaldehyde as an enhancer.The absence of methanol and acetonitrile in eluent made the proposed method more sensitive and eco-friendly.Under the optimal conditions,the linear range of the proposed method was in the range of 0.02-0.5 μg/mL.The limit of detection (LOD) was in the range of 0.6 and 5.1 μg/L.The relative standard deviations (RSD) for 0.1 μg/mL mixed standard solution were in the range of 0.8-1.9% (n =11).The method has been applied to the determination of catecholamines in human urine successfully.Excellent spiked recoveries were achieved for catecholamines ranged from 91.2% to 112.7%.

  11. Influence of quantum dot's quantum yield to chemiluminescent resonance energy transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The resonance energy transfer between chemiluminescence donor (luminol-H2O2 system) and quantum dots (QDs, emission at 593 nm) acceptors (CRET) was investigated. The resonance energy transfer efficiencies were compared while the oil soluble QDs, water soluble QDs (modified with thioglycolate) and QD-HRP conjugates were used as acceptor. The fluorescence of QD can be observed in the three cases, indicating that the CRET occurs while QD acceptor in different status was used. The highest CRET efficiency (10.7%) was obtained in the case of oil soluble QDs, and the lowest CRET efficiency (2.7%) was observed in the QD-HRP conjugates case. This result is coincident with the quantum yields of the acceptors (18.3% and 0.4%). The same result was observed in another similar set of experiment, in which the amphiphilic polymer modified QDs (emission at 675 nm) were used. It suggests that the quantum yield of the QD in different status is the crucial factor to the CRET efficiency. Furthermore, the multiplexed CRET between luminol donor and three different sizes QD acceptors was observed simultaneously. This work will offer useful support for improving the CRET studies based on quantum dots

  12. Study on the interaction of catalase with pesticides by flow injection chemiluminescence and molecular docking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Xijuan; Wang, Zhuming; Chen, Donghua; Luo, Kai; Xiong, Xunyu; Song, Zhenghua

    2014-08-01

    The interaction mechanisms of catalase (CAT) with pesticides (including organophosphates: disulfoton, isofenphos-methyl, malathion, isocarbophos, dimethoate, dipterex, methamidophos and acephate; carbamates: carbaryl and methomyl; pyrethroids: fenvalerate and deltamethrin) were first investigated by flow injection (FI) chemiluminescence (CL) analysis and molecular docking. By homemade FI-CL model of lg[(I0-I)/I]=lgK+nlg[D], it was found that the binding processes of pesticides to CAT were spontaneous with the apparent binding constants K of 10(3)-10(5) L mol(-1) and the numbers of binding sites about 1.0. The binding abilities of pesticides to CAT followed the order: fenvalerate>deltamethrin>disulfoton>isofenphos-methyl>carbaryl>malathion>isocarbophos>dimethoate>dipterex>acephate>methomyl>methamidophos, which was generally similar to the order of determination sensitivity of pesticides. The thermodynamic parameters revealed that CAT bound with hydrophobic pesticides by hydrophobic interaction force, and with hydrophilic pesticides by hydrogen bond and van der Waals force. The pesticides to CAT molecular docking study showed that pesticides could enter into the cavity locating among the four subdomains of CAT, giving the specific amino acid residues and hydrogen bonds involved in CAT-pesticides interaction. It was also found that the lgK values of pesticides to CAT increased regularly with increasing lgP, Mr, MR and MV, suggesting that the hydrophobicity and steric property of pesticide played essential roles in its binding to CAT.

  13. An ultrasensitive electrogenerated chemiluminescence-based immunoassay for specific detection of Zika virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, Dhiraj; Bastola, Pradip; Le, Linda; Paul, Amber M.; Fernandez, Estefania; Diamond, Michael S.; Miao, Wujian; Bai, Fengwei

    2016-01-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) is a globally emerging mosquito-transmitted flavivirus that can cause severe fetal abnormalities, including microcephaly. As such, highly sensitive, specific, and cost-effective diagnostic methods are urgently needed. Here, we report a novel electrogenerated chemiluminescence (ECL)-based immunoassay for ultrasensitive and specific detection of ZIKV in human biological fluids. We loaded polystyrene beads (PSB) with a large number of ECL labels and conjugated them with anti-ZIKV monoclonal antibodies to generate anti-ZIKV-PSBs. These anti-ZIKV-PSBs efficiently captured ZIKV in solution forming ZIKV-anti-ZIKV-PSB complexes, which were subjected to measurement of ECL intensity after further magnetic beads separation. Our results show that the anti-ZIKV-PSBs can capture as little as 1 PFU of ZIKV in 100 μl of saline, human plasma, or human urine. This platform has the potential for development as a cost-effective, rapid and ultrasensitive assay for the detection of ZIKV and possibly other viruses in clinical diagnosis, epidemiologic and vector surveillance, and laboratory research. PMID:27554037

  14. A simple and rapid chemiluminescence aptasensor for acetamiprid in contaminated samples: Sensitivity, selectivity and mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Yingying; Xiu, Fu-Rong; Zheng, Minfeng; Li, Baoxin

    2016-09-15

    Ultralow concentration and selective detection of pesticide residue is important to evaluate the environmental and biological pollution and the threat to human health which single component pesticide can bring. Herein, we report an amplified chemiluminescence (CL) sensing platform for ultrasensitive and selective acetamiprid (widely used pesticide) detection. It is based on aptamer's high binding affinity to target and the relevance between AuNPs' morphology and its catalytic effect to stimulate the generation of CL in the presence of H2O2 and luminol. Moreover, AuNPs morphological slight change induced by aptamers' conformation during targets binding could lead to the significant change of catalytic properties. Therefore, the proposed sensing platform for pesticide residue exhibited a high sensitivity toward acetamiprid with a detection limit of 62pM, which was about 100-fold lower than that of other aptamer-based sensor for acetamiprid detection. Because of the intrinsic specificity of aptamer's recognization, this sensing platform has high selectivity. So, this sensing platform provides a label-free and cost-effective approach for sensitive and selective detection of single component pesticide residue. More importantly, this CL method was successfully used to determine acetamiprid in real contaminated samples. PMID:27131997

  15. Chemiluminescence imaging for microRNA detection based on cascade exponential isothermal amplification machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yongjie; Li, Dandan; Cheng, Wei; Hu, Rong; Sang, Ye; Yin, Yibing; Ding, Shijia; Ju, Huangxian

    2016-09-14

    A novel G-quadruplex DNAzyme-driven chemiluminescence (CL) imaging method was developed for ultrasensitive and specific detection of miRNA based on the cascade exponential isothermal amplification reaction (EXPAR) machinery. A structurally tailored hairpin probe switch was designed to selectively recognise miRNA and form hybridisation products to trigger polymerase and nicking enzyme machinery, resulting in the generation of product I, which was complementary to a region of the functional linear template. Then, the response of the functional linear template to the generated product I further activated the exponential isothermal amplification machinery, leading to synthesis of numerous horseradish peroxidase mimicking DNAzyme units for CL signal transduction. The amplification paradigm generated a linear response from 10 fM to 100 pM, with a low detection limit of 2.91 fM, and enabled discrimination of target miRNA from a single-base mismatched target. The developed biosensing platform demonstrated the advantages of isothermal, homogeneous, visual detection for miRNA assays, offering a promising tool for clinical diagnosis. PMID:27566360

  16. Self-catalytic degradation of ortho-chlorophenol with Fenton's reagent studied by chemiluminescence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhen Lin; HuiChen; Yun Zhou; Nobuaki Ogawa; Jin-Ming Lin

    2012-01-01

    The degradation of ortho-chlorophenol using Fenton's reagent was studied by chemiluminescence(CL).Without a special CL reagent,a weak CL emission from the mixture of ferrous ion and hydrogen peroxide was observed at room temperature.The CL intensity was increased by the addition of ortho-chlorophenol into the mixed solution.When the temperature was raised to 65℃,the CL intensity was enhanced strongly.The CL mechanisms for the system H2O2-Fe2+ with and without ortho-chlorophenol were studied by examining the CL spectrum,gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and electron spin resonance spectrum.The effects of various free radical scavengers,surfactants and fluorescence compounds on the CL intensity were also investigated.A self-catalytic oxidation mechanism was proposed.The results showed that singlet oxygen was the main emitter for the system H2O2-Fe2+.The strong CL from the system H2O2-Fe2+-ortho-chlorophenol was due to singlet oxygen and electronically excited quinone.The benzenediol-like intermediate product formed during the phenol oxidation process greatly promoted the Fenton's reaction and led to higher CL intensity.Chemiluninescence is a novel approach for the investigation of the oxidation of some organic pollutants by Fenton's reagent.

  17. Mapping of explosive contamination using GC/chemiluminescence and ion mobility spectrometry techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Carla J.; Glenn, D. F.; Hartenstein, Steven D.; Hallowell, Susan F.

    1998-12-01

    Recent efforts at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) have included mapping explosive contamination resulting from manufacturing and carrying improvised explosive devices (IEDs). Two types of trace detection equipment were used to determine levels of contamination from designated sampling areas. A total of twenty IEDs were constructed: ten using TNT and ten using C-4. Two test scenarios were used. The first scenario tracked the activities of a manufacturer who straps the device onto an independent courier. The courier then performed a series of activities to simulate waiting in an airport. The second scenario tracked the activities of a manufacturer who also served as the courier. A sample set for each test consisted of thirty samples from various locations on each IED manufacturer, thirty from each IED courier, twenty-five from the manufacturing area, and twenty-five from the courier area. Pre-samples and post-samples were collected for analysis with each detection technique. Samples analyzed by gc/chemiluminescence were taken by swiping a teflon- coated sampling swipe across the surface of the sampling area to pick up any explosive particles. Samples analyzed by ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) were taken from the clothing of the manufacturer and courier by vacuuming the surface and collecting particulates on a fiberglass filter. Samples for IMS analysis from the manufacturing and courier rooms were taken by wiping a cotton sampling swipe across the surface area. Currently, building IEDs and monitoring the explosive contamination is being directed toward detection with portal monitors.

  18. A fast and precise chemiluminescence ozone detector for eddy flux and airborne application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Zahn

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available A commercially available dry chemiluminescence (CI instrument for fast and precise measurement of ozone (O3 is specified. The sensitivity is ~9000 counts s−1 per ppbv of ozone. Its precision is entirely determined by the number of photons reaching the detector (being a photomultiplier, i.e. is quantum-noise limited. The relative precision (ΔO3/O3 in % thus follows Poisson statistics and scales with the square root of the measurement frequency f and with the inverse O3 mixing ratio: ΔO3/O3f0.5 · O3−0.5. At typical O3 mixing ratios between 10 and 100 ppbv, the precision is 0.3–1.0% at f = 10 Hz. The maximum measurement frequency is 50 Hz. The mechanical and electronic set-up as well as the instrument performance is described. Recommendations on the adequate inlet tube configuration (inlet tube length, sampling flow and on the way of calibration at stationary ground-based platforms and onboard aircraft are given.

  19. Solvent viscosity influence on the chemiexcitation efficiency of inter and intramolecular chemiluminescence systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalid, Muhammad; Souza, Sergio P; Ciscato, Luiz F M L; Bartoloni, Fernando H; Baader, Wilhelm J

    2015-07-01

    The effects of the medium viscosity on the chemiexcitation quantum yields of the induced decomposition of 1,2-dioxetanes (highly efficient intramolecular CIEEL system) and the catalyzed decomposition of diphenoyl peroxide and a 1,2-dioxetanone derivative (model systems for the intermolecular CIEEL mechanism, despite their low efficiency) are compared in this work. Quantum yields of the rubrene catalyzed decomposition of diphenoyl peroxide and spiro-adamantyl-1,2-dioxetanone as well as the fluoride induced decomposition of a phenoxy-substituted 1,2-dioxetane derivative are shown to depend on the composition of the binary solvent mixture toluene/diphenyl ether, which possess similar polarity parameters but different viscosities. Correlations of the quantum yield data with the medium viscosity using the diffusional and the frictional (free-volume) models indicate that the induced 1,2-dioxetane decomposition indeed occurs by an entirely intramolecular process and the low efficiency of the intermolecular chemiluminescence systems (catalyzed decomposition of diphenoyl peroxide and 1,2-dioxetanone derivative) is not primarily due to the cage escape of radical ion species. PMID:26067192

  20. New bienzymatic strategy for glucose determination by immobilized-gold nanoparticle-enhanced chemiluminescence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN JieHua; ZHANG Hui; ZHANG ShuSheng

    2009-01-01

    Bienzymatic biosensor for the determination of glucose by flow injection chemiluminescence (CL) de-tection was proposed. Hybrids of gold nanoparticles (GNPs) and chitosan were chosen as the immobi-lization matrix of glucose oxidase (GOD) and horseradish peroxidase (HRP) to fabricate the biosensors with silane-pretreated glass mierobeads. After the enzyme catalyzing oxidation of glucose in GOD biosensor, the produced H2O2 flowed into HRP biosensor to react with luminol. The doped GNPs in chitosan were found to enhance the classical CL reaction of luminol-H2O2-HRP. The CL enhancement was investigated in detail by CL and UV-visible spectrum. Under the optimized experimental conditions, glucose could be determined in a linear range from 0.01 to 6.0 mmol/L with a detection limit of 5.0 μmol/L at 3σ. The accuracy of the proposed method was examined by detecting the glucose level in four clinical serum samples from hospital. The proposed method provides a new alternative to deter-mine glucose.