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Sample records for advanced cardiac life support

  1. Should prehospital resuscitative thoracotomy be incorporated in advanced life support after traumatic cardiac arrest?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalkias, A; Xanthos, T

    2014-06-01

    The survival of traumatic cardiac arrest patients poses a challenge for Emergency Medical Services initiating advanced life support on-scene, especially with regard to having to decide immediately whether to initiate prehospital emergency thoracotomy. Although the necessity for carrying out the procedure remains a cause for debate, it can be life-saving when performed with the correct indications and approaches. PMID:26816077

  2. Impact of advanced cardiac life support training program on the outcome of cardiopulmonary resuscitation in a tertiary care hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanwalpreet Sodhi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Guidelines on performing cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR have been published from time to time, and formal training programs are conducted based on these guidelines. Very few data are available in world literature highlighting the impact of these trainings on CPR outcome. Aim: The aim of our study was to evaluate the impact of the American Heart Association (AHA-certified basic life support (BLS and advanced cardiac life support (ACLS provider course on the outcomes of CPR in our hospital. Materials and Methods : An AHA-certified BLS and ACLS provider training programme was conducted in our hospital in the first week of October 2009, in which all doctors in the code blue team and intensive care units were given training. The retrospective study was performed over an 18-month period. All in-hospital adult cardiac arrest victims in the pre-BLS/ACLS training period (January 2009 to September 2009 and the post-BLS/ACLS training period (October 2009 to June 2010 were included in the study. We compared the outcomes of CPR between these two study periods. Results: There were a total of 627 in-hospital cardiac arrests, 284 during the pre-BLS/ACLS training period and 343 during the post-BLS/ACLS training period. In the pre-BLS/ACLS training period, 52 patients (18.3% had return of spontaneous circulation, compared with 97 patients (28.3% in the post-BLS/ACLS training period (P < 0.005. Survival to hospital discharge was also significantly higher in the post-BLS/ACLS training period (67 patients, 69.1% than in the pre-BLS/ACLS training period (12 patients, 23.1% (P < 0.0001. Conclusion : Formal certified BLS and ACLS training of healthcare professionals leads to definitive improvement in the outcome of CPR.

  3. Advanced life support therapy and on out-of-hospital cardiac arrest patients: Applying signal processing and pattern recognition methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trygve Eftestøl

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available In the US alone, several hundred thousands die of sudden cardiac arrests each year. Basic life support defined as chest compressions and ventilations and early defibrillation are the only factors proven to increase the survival of patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest, and are key elements in the chain of survival defined by the American Heart Association. The current cardiopulmonary resuscitation guidelines treat all patients the same, but studies show need for more individualiza- tion of treatment. This review will focus on ideas on how to strengthen the weak parts of the chain of survival including the ability to measure the effects of therapy, improve time efficiency, and optimize the sequence and quality of the various components of cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

  4. Advanced Life Support Project Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Life support systems are an enabling technology and have become integral to the success of living and working in space. As NASA embarks on human exploration and development of space to open the space frontier by exploring, using and enabling the development of space and to expand the human experience into the far reaches of space, it becomes imperative, for considerations of safety, cost, and crew health, to minimize consumables and increase the autonomy of the life support system. Utilizing advanced life support technologies increases this autonomy by reducing mass, power, and volume necessary for human support, thus permitting larger payload allocations for science and exploration. Two basic classes of life support systems must be developed, those directed toward applications on transportation/habitation vehicles (e.g., Space Shuttle, International Space Station (ISS), next generation launch vehicles, crew-tended stations/observatories, planetary transit spacecraft, etc.) and those directed toward applications on the planetary surfaces (e.g., lunar or Martian landing spacecraft, planetary habitats and facilities, etc.). In general, it can be viewed as those systems compatible with microgravity and those compatible with hypogravity environments. Part B of the Appendix defines the technology development 'Roadmap' to be followed in providing the necessary systems for these missions. The purpose of this Project Plan is to define the Project objectives, Project-level requirements, the management organizations responsible for the Project throughout its life cycle, and Project-level resources, schedules and controls.

  5. Flipping the advanced cardiac life support classroom with team-based learning: comparison of cognitive testing performance for medical students at the University of California, Irvine, United State

    OpenAIRE

    Boysen-Osborn, Megan; Anderson, Craig L.; Navarro, Roman; Yanuck, Justin; Strom, Suzanne; McCoy, Christopher E.; Youm, Julie; Ypma-Wong, Mary Frances; Langdorf, Mark I.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: It aimed to find if written test results improved for advanced cardiac life support (ACLS) taught in flipped classroom/team-based Learning (FC/TBL) vs. lecture-based (LB) control in University of California-Irvine School of Medicine, USA. Methods: Medical students took 2010 ACLS with FC/TBL (2015), compared to 3 classes in LB (2012-14) format. There were 27.5 hours of instruction for FC/TBL model (TBL 10.5, podcasts 9, small-group simulation 8 hours), and 20 (12 lecture, simulation 8...

  6. [Resuscitation - Adult advanced life support].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gräsner, Jan-Thorsten; Bein, Berthold

    2016-03-01

    Enhanced measures for resuscitation of adults are based on basic measures of resuscitation. The central elements are highly effective chest compressions and avoidance of disruptions that are associated with poor patient outcomes that occur within seconds. The universal algorithm distinguishes the therapy for ventricular fibrillation from the therapy in asystole or pulseless electrical activity (PEA) by the need of defibrillation, and amiodarone administration in the former. Defibrillation is biphasic. In all other aspects, there are no differences in therapy. In each episode of cardiac arrest, reversible causes should be excluded or treated. For the diagnosis during resuscitation, sonography can be helpful. What is new in the 2015 ERC recommendations is the use of capnography, which can be used for the assessment of ROSC (return of spontaneous circulation), ventilation, resuscitation and intubation quality. Mechanical resuscitation devices can be used in selected situations. Successful primary resuscitation should be directly followed by measures of the post-resuscitation care. PMID:27022698

  7. Emergency Neurological Life Support: Resuscitation Following Cardiac Arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rittenberger, Jon C; Friess, Stuart; Polderman, Kees H

    2015-12-01

    Cardiac arrest is the most common cause of death in North America. Neurocritical care interventions, including targeted temperature management (TTM), have significantly improved neurological outcomes in patients successfully resuscitated from cardiac arrest. Therefore, resuscitation following cardiac arrest was chosen as an emergency neurological life support protocol. Patients remaining comatose following resuscitation from cardiac arrest should be considered for TTM. This protocol will review induction, maintenance, and re-warming phases of TTM, along with management of TTM side effects. Aggressive shivering suppression is necessary with this treatment to ensure the maintenance of a target temperature. Ancillary testing, including electrocardiography, computed tomography and/or magnetic resonance imaging of the brain, continuous electroencephalography monitoring, and correction of electrolyte, blood gas, and hematocrit changes, are also necessary to optimize outcomes. PMID:26438463

  8. Flipping the advanced cardiac life support classroom with team-based learning: comparison of cognitive testing performance for medical students at the University of California, Irvine, United State

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: It aimed to find if written test results improved for advanced cardiac life support (ACLS) taught in flipped classroom/team-based Learning (FC/TBL) vs. lecture-based (LB) control in University of California-Irvine School of Medicine, USA. Methods: Medical students took 2010 ACLS with FC/TBL (2015), compared to 3 classes in LB (2012-14) format. There were 27.5 hours of instruction for FC/TBL model (TBL 10.5, podcasts 9, small-group simulation 8 hours), and 20 (12 lecture, simulation 8 hours) in LB. TBL covered 13 cardiac cases; LB had none. Seven simulation cases and didactic content were the same by lecture (2012-14) or podcast (2015) as was testing: 50 multiple-choice questions (MCQ), 20 rhythm matchings, and 7 fill-in clinical cases. Results: 354 students took the course (259 [73.1%] in LB in 2012-14, and 95 [26.9%] in FC/TBL in 2015). Two of 3 tests (MCQ and fill-in) improved for FC/TBL. Overall, median scores increased from 93.5% (IQR 90.6, 95.4) to 95.1% (92.8, 96.7, P=0.0001). For the fill-in test: 94.1% for LB (89.6, 97.2) to 96.6% for FC/TBL (92.4, 99.20 P=0.0001). For MC: 88% for LB (84, 92) to 90% for FC/TBL (86, 94, P=0.0002). For the rhythm test: median 100% for both formats. More students failed 1 of 3 tests with LB vs. FC/TBL (24.7% vs. 14.7%), and 2 or 3 components (8.1% vs. 3.2%, P=0.006). Conversely, 82.1% passed all 3 with FC/TBL vs. 67.2% with LB (difference 14.9%, 95% CI 4.8-24.0%). Conclusion: A FC/TBL format for ACLS marginally improved written test results. PMID:26893399

  9. Flipping the advanced cardiac life support classroom with team-based learning: comparison of cognitive testing performance for medical students at the University of California, Irvine, United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan Boysen-Osborn

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: It aimed to find if written test results improved for advanced cardiac life support (ACLS taught in flipped classroom/team-based Learning (FC/TBL vs. lecture-based (LB control in University of California-Irvine School of Medicine, USA. Methods: Medical students took 2010 ACLS with FC/TBL (2015, compared to 3 classes in LB (2012-14 format. There were 27.5 hours of instruction for FC/TBL model (TBL 10.5, podcasts 9, small-group simulation 8 hours, and 20 (12 lecture, simulation 8 hours in LB. TBL covered 13 cardiac cases; LB had none. Seven simulation cases and didactic content were the same by lecture (2012-14 or podcast (2015 as was testing: 50 multiple-choice questions (MCQ, 20 rhythm matchings, and 7 fill-in clinical cases. Results: 354 students took the course (259 [73.1%] in LB in 2012-14, and 95 [26.9%] in FC/TBL in 2015. Two of 3 tests (MCQ and fill-in improved for FC/TBL. Overall, median scores increased from 93.5% (IQR 90.6, 95.4 to 95.1% (92.8, 96.7, P=0.0001. For the fill-in test: 94.1% for LB (89.6, 97.2 to 96.6% for FC/TBL (92.4, 99.20 P=0.0001. For MC: 88% for LB (84, 92 to 90% for FC/TBL (86, 94, P=0.0002. For the rhythm test: median 100% for both formats. More students failed 1 of 3 tests with LB vs. FC/TBL (24.7% vs. 14.7%, and 2 or 3 components (8.1% vs. 3.2%, P=0.006. Conversely, 82.1% passed all 3 with FC/TBL vs. 67.2% with LB (difference 14.9%, 95% CI 4.8-24.0%. Conclusion: A FC/TBL format for ACLS marginally improved written test results.

  10. Nanomaterials for Advanced Life Support in Advanced Life Support in Space systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allada, Rama Kumar; Moloney, Padraig; Yowell, Leonard

    2006-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation describing nanomaterial research at NASA Johnson Space Center with a focus on advanced life support in space systems is shown. The topics include: 1) Introduction; 2) Research and accomplishments in Carbon Dioxide Removal; 3) Research and Accomplishments in Water Purification; and 4) Next Steps

  11. Advanced Life Support System Value Metric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Harry W.; Rasky, Daniel J. (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    The NASA Advanced Life Support (ALS) Program is required to provide a performance metric to measure its progress in system development. Extensive discussions within the ALS program have led to the following approach. The Equivalent System Mass (ESM) metric has been traditionally used and provides a good summary of the weight, size, and power cost factors of space life support equipment. But ESM assumes that all the systems being traded off exactly meet a fixed performance requirement, so that the value and benefit (readiness, performance, safety, etc.) of all the different systems designs are considered to be exactly equal. This is too simplistic. Actual system design concepts are selected using many cost and benefit factors and the system specification is defined after many trade-offs. The ALS program needs a multi-parameter metric including both the ESM and a System Value Metric (SVM). The SVM would include safety, maintainability, reliability, performance, use of cross cutting technology, and commercialization potential. Another major factor in system selection is technology readiness level (TRL), a familiar metric in ALS. The overall ALS system metric that is suggested is a benefit/cost ratio, SVM/[ESM + function (TRL)], with appropriate weighting and scaling. The total value is given by SVM. Cost is represented by higher ESM and lower TRL. The paper provides a detailed description and example application of a suggested System Value Metric and an overall ALS system metric.

  12. Advanced Life Support Technologies and Scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barta, Daniel J.

    2011-01-01

    As NASA looks beyond the International Space Station toward long-duration, deep space missions away from Earth, the current practice of supplying consumables and spares will not be practical nor affordable. New approaches are sought for life support and habitation systems that will reduce dependency on Earth and increase mission sustainability. To reduce launch mass, further closure of Environmental Control and Life Support Systems (ECLSS) beyond the current capability of the ISS will be required. Areas of particular interest include achieving higher degrees of recycling within Atmosphere Revitalization, Water Recovery and Waste Management Systems. NASA is currently investigating advanced carbon dioxide reduction processes that surpass the level of oxygen recovery available from the Sabatier Carbon Dioxide Reduction Assembly (CRA) on the ISS. Improving the efficiency of the recovery of water from spacecraft solid and liquid wastes is possible through use of emerging technologies such as the heat melt compactor and brine dewatering systems. Another significant consumable is that of food. Food production systems based on higher plants may not only contribute significantly to the diet, but also contribute to atmosphere revitalization, water purification and waste utilization. Bioreactors may be potentially utilized for wastewater and solid waste management. The level at which bioregenerative technologies are utilized will depend on their comparative requirements for spacecraft resources including mass, power, volume, heat rejection, crew time and reliability. Planetary protection requirements will need to be considered for missions to other solar system bodies.

  13. NASA Advanced Explorations Systems: Advancements in Life Support Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shull, Sarah A.; Schneider, Walter F.

    2016-01-01

    The NASA Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Life Support Systems (LSS) project strives to develop reliable, energy-efficient, and low-mass spacecraft systems to provide environmental control and life support systems (ECLSS) critical to enabling long duration human missions beyond low Earth orbit (LEO). Highly reliable, closed-loop life support systems are among the capabilities required for the longer duration human space exploration missions assessed by NASA's Habitability Architecture Team (HAT). The LSS project is focused on four areas: architecture and systems engineering for life support systems, environmental monitoring, air revitalization, and wastewater processing and water management. Starting with the international space station (ISS) LSS systems as a point of departure (where applicable), the mission of the LSS project is three-fold: 1. Address discrete LSS technology gaps 2. Improve the reliability of LSS systems 3. Advance LSS systems towards integrated testing on the ISS. This paper summarized the work being done in the four areas listed above to meet these objectives. Details will be given on the following focus areas: Systems Engineering and Architecture- With so many complex systems comprising life support in space, it is important to understand the overall system requirements to define life support system architectures for different space mission classes, ensure that all the components integrate well together and verify that testing is as representative of destination environments as possible. Environmental Monitoring- In an enclosed spacecraft that is constantly operating complex machinery for its own basic functionality as well as science experiments and technology demonstrations, it's possible for the environment to become compromised. While current environmental monitors aboard the ISS will alert crew members and mission control if there is an emergency, long-duration environmental monitoring cannot be done in-orbit as current methodologies

  14. Crop Production for Advanced Life Support Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Wheeler, R M; Sager, J C

    2006-01-01

    The use of plants for bioregenerative life support for space missions was first studied by the US Air Force in the 1950s and 1960s. Extensive testing was also conducted from the 1960s through the 1980s by Russian researchers located at the Institute of Biophysics in Krasnoyarsk, Siberia, and the Institute for Biomedical Problems in Moscow. NASA initiated bioregenerative research in the 1960s (e.g., Hydrogenomonas) but this research did not include testing with plants until about 1980, with th...

  15. Is advanced life support better than basic life support in prehospital care? A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryynänen Olli-Pekka

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background - Prehospital care is classified into ALS- (advanced life support and BLS- (basic life support levels according to the methods used. ALS-level prehospital care uses invasive methods, such as intravenous fluids, medications and intubation. However, the effectiveness of ALS care compared to BLS has been questionable. Aim - The aim of this systematic review is to compare the effectiveness of ALS- and BLS-level prehospital care. Material and methods - In a systematic review, articles where ALS-level prehospital care was compared to BLS-level or any other treatment were included. The outcome variables were mortality or patient's health-related quality of life or patient's capacity to perform daily activities. Results - We identified 46 articles, mostly retrospective observational studies. The results on the effectiveness of ALS in unselected patient cohorts are contradictory. In cardiac arrest, early cardiopulmonary resuscitation and defibrillation are essential for survival, but prehospital ALS interventions have not improved survival. Prehospital thrombolytic treatment reduces mortality in patients having a myocardial infarction. The majority of research into trauma favours BLS in the case of penetrating trauma and also in cases of short distance to a hospital. In patients with severe head injuries, ALS provided by paramedics and intubation without anaesthesia can even be harmful. If the prehospital care is provided by an experienced physician and by a HEMS organisation (Helicopter Emergency Medical Service, ALS interventions may be beneficial for patients with multiple injuries and severe brain injuries. However, the results are contradictory. Conclusions - ALS seems to improve survival in patients with myocardial infarction and BLS seems to be the proper level of care for patients with penetrating injuries. Some studies indicate a beneficial effect of ALS among patients with blunt head injuries or multiple injuries. There is

  16. Hollow fiber membrane systems for advanced life support systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roebelen, G. J., Jr.; Lysaght, M. J.

    1976-01-01

    The practicability of utilizing hollow fiber membranes in vehicular and portable life support system applications is described. A preliminary screening of potential advanced life support applications resulted in the selection of five applications for feasibility study and testing. As a result of the feasibility study and testing, three applications, heat rejection, deaeration, and bacteria filtration, were chosen for breadboard development testing; breadboard hardware was manufactured and tested, and the physical properties of the hollow fiber membrane assemblies are characterized.

  17. Simulating advanced life support systems to test integrated control approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kortenkamp, D.; Bell, S.

    Simulations allow for testing of life support control approaches before hardware is designed and built. Simulations also allow for the safe exploration of alternative control strategies during life support operation. As such, they are an important component of any life support research program and testbed. This paper describes a specific advanced life support simulation being created at NASA Johnson Space Center. It is a discrete-event simulation that is dynamic and stochastic. It simulates all major components of an advanced life support system, including crew (with variable ages, weights and genders), biomass production (with scalable plantings of ten different crops), water recovery, air revitalization, food processing, solid waste recycling and energy production. Each component is modeled as a producer of certain resources and a consumer of certain resources. The control system must monitor (via sensors) and control (via actuators) the flow of resources throughout the system to provide life support functionality. The simulation is written in an object-oriented paradigm that makes it portable, extensible and reconfigurable.

  18. Canadian advanced life support capacities and future directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamsey, M.; Graham, T.; Stasiak, M.; Berinstain, A.; Scott, A.; Vuk, T. Rondeau; Dixon, M.

    2009-07-01

    Canada began research on space-relevant biological life support systems in the early 1990s. Since that time Canadian capabilities have grown tremendously, placing Canada among the emerging leaders in biological life support systems. The rapid growth of Canadian expertise has been the result of several factors including a large and technically sophisticated greenhouse sector which successfully operates under challenging climatic conditions, well planned technology transfer strategies between the academic and industrial sectors, and a strong emphasis on international research collaborations. Recent activities such as Canada's contribution of the Higher Plant Compartment of the European Space Agency's MELiSSA Pilot Plant and the remote operation of the Arthur Clarke Mars Greenhouse in the Canadian High Arctic continue to demonstrate Canadian capabilities with direct applicability to advanced life support systems. There is also a significant latent potential within Canadian institutions and organizations with respect to directly applicable advanced life support technologies. These directly applicable research interests include such areas as horticultural management strategies (for candidate crops), growth media, food processing, water management, atmosphere management, energy management, waste management, imaging, environment sensors, thermal control, lighting systems, robotics, command and data handling, communications systems, structures, in-situ resource utilization, space analogues and mission operations. With this background and in collaboration with the Canadian aerospace industry sector, a roadmap for future life support contributions is presented here. This roadmap targets an objective of at least 50% food closure by 2050 (providing greater closure in oxygen, water recycling and carbon dioxide uptake). The Canadian advanced life support community has chosen to focus on lunar surface infrastructure and not low Earth orbit or transit systems (i.e. microgravity

  19. Level of Knowledge of specialist cardiologists and anesthesiologists in Basic and Advanced Life Support

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Vachla; Dimitris Barouxis; Evagelos Kotsiomitis; Lila Papadimitriou Lila; Evagelia Kouskouni Evagelia; Georgios Triantis

    2013-01-01

    Health professionals often witness in-hospital episodes of cardiac arrest. The quality of the Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR) depends on the level of theoretical background and practical skills. Purpose: The aim of the present study was to investigate the level of theoretical knowledge of skilled cardiologists and anesthesiologists in the Basic and Advanced Life Support (BLS/ ALS). Material - method: In this study, sample included 240 cardiologists and anesthesiologists, chosen randomly f...

  20. Tool for Sizing Analysis of the Advanced Life Support System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Hue-Hsie Jannivine; Brown, Cheryl B.; Jeng, Frank J.

    2005-01-01

    Advanced Life Support Sizing Analysis Tool (ALSSAT) is a computer model for sizing and analyzing designs of environmental-control and life support systems (ECLSS) for spacecraft and surface habitats involved in the exploration of Mars and Moon. It performs conceptual designs of advanced life support (ALS) subsystems that utilize physicochemical and biological processes to recycle air and water, and process wastes in order to reduce the need of resource resupply. By assuming steady-state operations, ALSSAT is a means of investigating combinations of such subsystems technologies and thereby assisting in determining the most cost-effective technology combination available. In fact, ALSSAT can perform sizing analysis of the ALS subsystems that are operated dynamically or steady in nature. Using the Microsoft Excel spreadsheet software with Visual Basic programming language, ALSSAT has been developed to perform multiple-case trade studies based on the calculated ECLSS mass, volume, power, and Equivalent System Mass, as well as parametric studies by varying the input parameters. ALSSAT s modular format is specifically designed for the ease of future maintenance and upgrades.

  1. Oxygen Generation from Carbon Dioxide for Advanced Life Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Sean; Duncan, Keith; Hagelin-Weaver, Helena; Neal, Luke; Sanchez, Jose; Paul, Heather L.; Wachsman, Eric

    2007-01-01

    The partial electrochemical reduction of carbon dioxide (CO2) using ceramic oxygen generators (COGs) is well known and widely studied. However, complete reduction of metabolically produced CO2 (into carbon and oxygen) has the potential of reducing oxygen storage weight for life support if the oxygen can be recovered. Recently, the University of Florida devel- oped novel ceramic oxygen generators employing a bilayer elec- trolyte of gadolinia-doped ceria and erbia-stabilized bismuth ox- ide (ESB) for NASA's future exploration of Mars. The results showed that oxygen could be reliably produced from CO2 at temperatures as low as 400 C. The strategy discussed here for advanced life support systems employs a catalytic layer com- bined with a COG cell so that CO2 is reduced all the way to solid carbon and oxygen without carbon buildup on the COG cell and subsequent deactivation.

  2. New Directions for NASA's Advanced Life Support Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barta, Daniel J.

    2006-01-01

    Advanced Life Support (ALS), an element of Human Systems Research and Technology s (HSRT) Life Support and Habitation Program (LSH), has been NASA s primary sponsor of life support research and technology development for the agency. Over its history, ALS sponsored tasks across a diverse set of institutions, including field centers, colleges and universities, industry, and governmental laboratories, resulting in numerous publications and scientific articles, patents and new technologies, as well as education and training for primary, secondary and graduate students, including minority serving institutions. Prior to the Vision for Space Exploration (VSE) announced on January 14th, 2004 by the President, ALS had been focused on research and technology development for long duration exploration missions, emphasizing closed-loop regenerative systems, including both biological and physicochemical. Taking a robust and flexible approach, ALS focused on capabilities to enable visits to multiple potential destinations beyond low Earth orbit. ALS developed requirements, reference missions, and assumptions upon which to structure and focus its development program. The VSE gave NASA a plan for steady human and robotic space exploration based on specific, achievable goals. Recently, the Exploration Systems Architecture Study (ESAS) was chartered by NASA s Administrator to determine the best exploration architecture and strategy to implement the Vision. The study identified key technologies required to enable and significantly enhance the reference exploration missions and to prioritize near-term and far-term technology investments. This technology assessment resulted in a revised Exploration Systems Mission Directorate (ESMD) technology investment plan. A set of new technology development projects were initiated as part of the plan s implementation, replacing tasks previously initiated under HSRT and its sister program, Exploration Systems Research and Technology (ESRT). The

  3. Advanced Technologies to Improve Closure of Life Support Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barta, Daniel J.

    2016-01-01

    As NASA looks beyond the International Space Station toward long-duration, deep space missions away from Earth, the current practice of supplying consumables and spares will not be practical nor affordable. New approaches are sought for life support and habitation systems that will reduce dependency on Earth and increase mission sustainability. To reduce launch mass, further closure of Environmental Control and Life Support Systems (ECLSS) beyond the current capability of the ISS will be required. Areas of particular interest include achieving higher degrees of recycling within Atmosphere Revitalization, Water Recovery and Waste Management Systems. NASA is currently investigating advanced carbon dioxide reduction processes that surpass the level of oxygen recovery available from the Sabatier Carbon Dioxide Reduction Assembly (CRA) on the ISS. Candidate technologies will potentially improve the recovery of oxygen from about 50% (for the CRA) to as much as 100% for technologies who's end product is solid carbon. Improving the efficiency of water recycling and recovery can be achieved by the addition of advanced technologies to recover water from brines and solid wastes. Bioregenerative technologies may be utilized for water reclaimation and also for the production of food. Use of higher plants will simultaneously benefit atmosphere revitalization and water recovery through photosynthesis and transpiration. The level at which bioregenerative technologies are utilized will depend on their comparative requirements for spacecraft resources including mass, power, volume, heat rejection, crew time and reliability. Planetary protection requirements will need to be considered for missions to other solar system bodies.

  4. Planner-Based Control of Advanced Life Support Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muscettola, Nicola; Kortenkamp, David; Fry, Chuck; Bell, Scott

    2005-01-01

    The paper describes an approach to the integration of qualitative and quantitative modeling techniques for advanced life support (ALS) systems. Developing reliable control strategies that scale up to fully integrated life support systems requires augmenting quantitative models and control algorithms with the abstractions provided by qualitative, symbolic models and their associated high-level control strategies. This will allow for effective management of the combinatorics due to the integration of a large number of ALS subsystems. By focusing control actions at different levels of detail and reactivity we can use faster: simpler responses at the lowest level and predictive but complex responses at the higher levels of abstraction. In particular, methods from model-based planning and scheduling can provide effective resource management over long time periods. We describe reference implementation of an advanced control system using the IDEA control architecture developed at NASA Ames Research Center. IDEA uses planning/scheduling as the sole reasoning method for predictive and reactive closed loop control. We describe preliminary experiments in planner-based control of ALS carried out on an integrated ALS simulation developed at NASA Johnson Space Center.

  5. Advanced Hazmat Life Support (AHLS): A Feasibility Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A prospective, descriptive, feasibility study aimed to determine whether an interdisciplinary group of health care experts could design and successfully deliver an international, life support, continuing education program that teaches the medical management of hazardous materials (hazmat) patients. The American Academy of Clinical Toxicology and the University of Arizona College of Medicine, Arizona Emergency Medicine Research Center partnered on July 1, 1998 to develop a two-day Advanced Hazmat Life Support (AHLS) Provider Course. Interdisciplinary expert clinicians designed and then delivered the first AHLS Provider Course in 1999. Prior to this, other courses focused on the management of hazmat incidents and almost exclusively on the prehospital care of hazmat victims by firefighters, hazardous materials technicians, and emergency medical technicians (EMTs), not on the medical management of patients from these incidents. Therefore, AHLS was developed for a broader interdisciplinary group of health care professionals, including both prehospital health care professionals and hospital-based, poison center-based, clinic-based, public health care-based, and other health care professionals. From 1999 through 2006, the AHLS Provider Course has trained 7,142 health care professionals from 48 countries. Of the 7,142 health care professionals worldwide, 43% are paramedics, 24% are physicians, 21% are nurses, 2% are pharmacists, 1% are physician assistants, and 9% are other professionals. Of the professionals trained, 88% are from the United States, 5% from Hong Kong, 2% from Canada, 2% from Australia, 1% from Mexico, and the remainder come from 43 other countries. The Advanced Hazmat Life Support Program is feasible and meets the continuing education needs of health care professionals around the world.(author)

  6. Measuring the Resilience of Advanced Life Support Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Ann Maria; Dearden, Richard; Levri, Julie A.

    2002-01-01

    Despite the central importance of crew safety in designing and operating a life support system, the metric commonly used to evaluate alternative Advanced Life Support (ALS) technologies does not currently provide explicit techniques for measuring safety. The resilience of a system, or the system s ability to meet performance requirements and recover from component-level faults, is fundamentally a dynamic property. This paper motivates the use of computer models as a tool to understand and improve system resilience throughout the design process. Extensive simulation of a hybrid computational model of a water revitalization subsystem (WRS) with probabilistic, component-level faults provides data about off-nominal behavior of the system. The data can then be used to test alternative measures of resilience as predictors of the system s ability to recover from component-level faults. A novel approach to measuring system resilience using a Markov chain model of performance data is also developed. Results emphasize that resilience depends on the complex interaction of faults, controls, and system dynamics, rather than on simple fault probabilities.

  7. [Advanced Trauma Life Support. A training concept also for Europe].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helm, M; Kulla, M; Lampl, L

    2007-11-01

    Advanced Trauma Life Support (ATLS) is a concept for rapid initial assessment and primary management of an injured patient, starting at the time of injury and continuing through initial assessment, lifesaving interventions, re-evaluation, stabilization and, when needed, transfer to a trauma centre. Despite some shortcomings, it is the only standardized concept for emergency room management, which is internationally accepted. Because of its simple and clear structure, it is flexible and can be universally integrated into existing emergency room algorithms under consideration of local, regional as well as national and international peculiarities in the sense of a "common language of trauma". Under these aspects ATLS also seems to be a valid concept for Europe. PMID:17726585

  8. Temperature Management After Cardiac Arrest: An Advisory Statement by the Advanced Life Support Task Force of the International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation and the American Heart Association Emergency Cardiovascular Care Committee and the Council on Cardiopulmonary, Critical Care, Perioperative and Resuscitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnino, Michael W; Andersen, Lars W; Berg, Katherine M; Reynolds, Joshua C; Nolan, Jerry P; Morley, Peter T; Lang, Eddy; Cocchi, Michael N; Xanthos, Theodoros; Callaway, Clifton W; Soar, Jasmeet

    2016-01-01

    For more than a decade, mild induced hypothermia (32 °C-34 °C) has been standard of care for patients remaining comatose after resuscitation from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest with an initial shockable rhythm, and this has been extrapolated to survivors of cardiac arrest with initially nonshockable rhythms and to patients with in-hospital cardiac arrest. Two randomized trials published in 2002 reported a survival and neurological benefit with mild induced hypothermia. One recent randomized trial reported similar outcomes in patients treated with targeted temperature management at either 33 °C or 36 °C. In response to these new data, the International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation Advanced Life Support Task Force performed a systematic review to evaluate 3 key questions: (1) Should mild induced hypothermia (or some form of targeted temperature management) be used in comatose post-cardiac arrest patients? (2) If used, what is the ideal timing of the intervention? (3) If used, what is the ideal duration of the intervention? The task force used Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation methodology to assess and summarize the evidence and to provide a consensus on science statement and treatment recommendations. The task force recommends targeted temperature management for adults with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest with an initial shockable rhythm at a constant temperature between 32 °C and 36 °C for at least 24 hours. Similar suggestions are made for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest with a nonshockable rhythm and in-hospital cardiac arrest. The task force recommends against prehospital cooling with rapid infusion of large volumes of cold intravenous fluid. Additional and specific recommendations are provided in the document. PMID:26449873

  9. Advanced Space Suit Portable Life Support Subsystem Packaging Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Robert; Diep, Chuong; Barnett, Bob; Thomas, Gretchen; Rouen, Michael; Kobus, Jack

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses the Portable Life Support Subsystem (PLSS) packaging design work done by the NASA and Hamilton Sundstrand in support of the 3 future space missions; Lunar, Mars and zero-g. The goal is to seek ways to reduce the weight of PLSS packaging, and at the same time, develop a packaging scheme that would make PLSS technology changes less costly than the current packaging methods. This study builds on the results of NASA s in-house 1998 study, which resulted in the "Flex PLSS" concept. For this study the present EMU schematic (low earth orbit) was used so that the work team could concentrate on the packaging. The Flex PLSS packaging is required to: protect, connect, and hold the PLSS and its components together internally and externally while providing access to PLSS components internally for maintenance and for technology change without extensive redesign impact. The goal of this study was two fold: 1. Bring the advanced space suit integrated Flex PLSS concept from its current state of development to a preliminary design level and build a proof of concept mockup of the proposed design, and; 2. "Design" a Design Process, which accommodates both the initial Flex PLSS design and the package modifications, required to accommodate new technology.

  10. Advanced support systems development and supporting technologies for Controlled Ecological Life Support Systems (CELSS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, William E.; Li, Ku-Yen; Yaws, Carl L.; Mei, Harry T.; Nguyen, Vinh D.; Chu, Hsing-Wei

    1994-01-01

    A methyl acetate reactor was developed to perform a subscale kinetic investigation in the design and optimization of a full-scale metabolic simulator for long term testing of life support systems. Other tasks in support of the closed ecological life support system test program included: (1) heating, ventilation and air conditioning analysis of a variable pressure growth chamber, (2) experimental design for statistical analysis of plant crops, (3) resource recovery for closed life support systems, and (4) development of data acquisition software for automating an environmental growth chamber.

  11. The environmental control and life support system advanced automation project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewberry, Brandon S.

    1991-01-01

    The objective of the ECLSS Advanced Automation project includes reduction of the risk associated with the integration of new, beneficial software techniques. Demonstrations of this software to baseline engineering and test personnel will show the benefits of these techniques. The advanced software will be integrated into ground testing and ground support facilities, familiarizing its usage by key personnel.

  12. Microbial astronauts: assembling microbial communities for advanced life support systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, M. S.; Garland, J. L.; Mills, A. L.

    2004-01-01

    Extension of human habitation into space requires that humans carry with them many of the microorganisms with which they coexist on Earth. The ubiquity of microorganisms in close association with all living things and biogeochemical processes on Earth predicates that they must also play a critical role in maintaining the viability of human life in space. Even though bacterial populations exist as locally adapted ecotypes, the abundance of individuals in microbial species is so large that dispersal is unlikely to be limited by geographical barriers on Earth (i.e., for most environments "everything is everywhere" given enough time). This will not be true for microbial communities in space where local species richness will be relatively low because of sterilization protocols prior to launch and physical barriers between Earth and spacecraft after launch. Although community diversity will be sufficient to sustain ecosystem function at the onset, richness and evenness may decline over time such that biological systems either lose functional potential (e.g., bioreactors may fail to reduce BOD or nitrogen load) or become susceptible to invasion by human-associated microorganisms (pathogens) over time. Research at the John F. Kennedy Space Center has evaluated fundamental properties of microbial diversity and community assembly in prototype bioregenerative systems for NASA Advanced Life Support. Successional trends related to increased niche specialization, including an apparent increase in the proportion of nonculturable types of organisms, have been consistently observed. In addition, the stability of the microbial communities, as defined by their resistance to invasion by human-associated microorganisms, has been correlated to their diversity. Overall, these results reflect the significant challenges ahead for the assembly of stable, functional communities using gnotobiotic approaches, and the need to better define the basic biological principles that define ecosystem

  13. Safety Analysis of Soybean Processing for Advanced Life Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hentges, Dawn L.

    1999-01-01

    Soybeans (cv. Hoyt) is one of the crops planned for food production within the Advanced Life Support System Integration Testbed (ALSSIT), a proposed habitat simulation for long duration lunar/Mars missions. Soybeans may be processed into a variety of food products, including soymilk, tofu, and tempeh. Due to the closed environmental system and importance of crew health maintenance, food safety is a primary concern on long duration space missions. Identification of the food safety hazards and critical control points associated with the closed ALSSIT system is essential for the development of safe food processing techniques and equipment. A Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) model was developed to reflect proposed production and processing protocols for ALSSIT soybeans. Soybean processing was placed in the type III risk category. During the processing of ALSSIT-grown soybeans, critical control points were identified to control microbiological hazards, particularly mycotoxins, and chemical hazards from antinutrients. Critical limits were suggested at each CCP. Food safety recommendations regarding the hazards and risks associated with growing, harvesting, and processing soybeans; biomass management; and use of multifunctional equipment were made in consideration of the limitations and restraints of the closed ALSSIT.

  14. Performance of advanced trauma life support procedures in microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Mark R.; Billica, Roger D.; Johnston, Smith L 3rd; Muller, Matthew S.

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Medical operations on the International Space Station will emphasize the stabilization and transport of critically injured personnel and so will need to be capable of advanced trauma life support (ATLS). METHODS: We evaluated the ATLS invasive procedures in the microgravity environment of parabolic flight using a porcine animal model. Included in the procedures evaluated were artificial ventilation, intravenous infusion, laceration closure, tracheostomy, Foley catheter drainage, chest tube insertion, peritoneal lavage, and the use of telemedicine methods for procedural direction. RESULTS: Artificial ventilation was performed and appeared to be unaltered from the 1-G environment. Intravenous infusion, laceration closure, percutaneous dilational tracheostomy, and Foley catheter drainage were achieved without difficulty. Chest tube insertion and drainage were performed with no more difficulty than in the 1-G environment due to the ability to restrain patient, operator and supplies. A Heimlich valve and Sorenson drainage system were both used to provide for chest tube drainage collection with minimal equipment, without the risk of atmospheric contamination, and with the capability to auto-transfuse blood drained from a hemothorax. The use of telemedicine in chest tube insertion was demonstrated to be useful and feasible. Peritoneal lavage using a percutaneous technique, although requiring less training to perform, was found to be dangerous in weightlessness due to the additional pressure of the bowel on the anterior abdominal wall creating a high risk of bowel perforation. CONCLUSIONS: The performance of ATLS procedures in microgravity appears to be feasible with the exception of diagnostic peritoneal lavage. Minor modifications to equipment and techniques are required in microgravity to effect surgical drainage in the presence of altered fluid dynamics, to prevent atmospheric contamination, and to provide for the restraint requirements. A parabolic

  15. Prehospital advanced trauma life support for critical blunt trauma victims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cwinn, A A; Pons, P T; Moore, E E; Marx, J A; Honigman, B; Dinerman, N

    1987-04-01

    The ability of paramedics to deliver advanced trauma life support (ATLS) in an expedient fashion for victims of trauma has been strongly challenged. In this study, the records of 114 consecutive victims of blunt trauma who underwent laparotomy or thoracotomy were reviewed. Prehospital care was rendered by paramedics operating under strict protocols. The mean response time (minutes +/- SEM) to the scene was 5.6 +/- 0.27. On-scene time was 13.9 +/- 0.62. The time to return to the hospital was 8.0 +/- 0.4. On-scene time included assessing hazards at the scene, patient extrication, spine immobilization (n = 98), application of oxygen (n = 94), measurement of vital signs (n = 114), splinting of 59 limbs, and the following ATLS procedures: endotracheal intubation (n = 31), IV access (n = 106), ECG monitoring (n = 69), procurement of blood for tests including type and cross (n = 58), and application of a pneumatic antishock garment (PASG) (n = 31). On-scene times were analyzed according to the number of ATLS procedures performed: insertion of one IV line (n = 46), 14.8 +/- 1.03 minutes; two IV lines (n = 28), 13.4 +/- 0.92; one IV line plus intubation (n = 7), 14.0 +/- 2.94; two IV lines plus intubation (n = 9), 17.0 +/- 2.38; and two IV lines plus intubation plus PASG (n = 13), 12.4 +/- 1.36. Of the 161 IV attempts, 94% were completed successfully. Of 36 attempts at endotracheal intubation, 89% were successful.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3826807

  16. Applying Technology Ranking and Systems Engineering in Advanced Life Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Harry; Luna, Bernadette (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    According to the Advanced Life Support (ALS) Program Plan, the Systems Modeling and Analysis Project (SMAP) has two important tasks: 1) prioritizing investments in ALS Research and Technology Development (R&TD), and 2) guiding the evolution of ALS systems. Investments could be prioritized simply by independently ranking different technologies, but we should also consider a technology's impact on system design. Guiding future ALS systems will require SMAP to consider many aspects of systems engineering. R&TD investments can be prioritized using familiar methods for ranking technology. The first step is gathering data on technology performance, safety, readiness level, and cost. Then the technologies are ranked using metrics or by decision analysis using net present economic value. The R&TD portfolio can be optimized to provide the maximum expected payoff in the face of uncertain future events. But more is needed. The optimum ALS system can not be designed simply by selecting the best technology for each predefined subsystem. Incorporating a new technology, such as food plants, can change the specifications of other subsystems, such as air regeneration. Systems must be designed top-down starting from system objectives, not bottom-up from selected technologies. The familiar top-down systems engineering process includes defining mission objectives, mission design, system specification, technology analysis, preliminary design, and detail design. Technology selection is only one part of systems analysis and engineering, and it is strongly related to the subsystem definitions. ALS systems should be designed using top-down systems engineering. R&TD technology selection should consider how the technology affects ALS system design. Technology ranking is useful but it is only a small part of systems engineering.

  17. Prolonged cardiac arrest and resuscitation by extracorporeal life support: favourable outcome without preceding anticoagulation in an experimental setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foerster, K; D'Inka, M; Beyersdorf, F; Benk, C; Nguyen-Thanh, T; Mader, I; Fritsch, B; Ihling, C; Mueller, K; Heilmann, C; Trummer, G

    2013-11-01

    State-of-the-art cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) restores circulation with inconsistent blood-flow and pressure. Extracorporeal life support (ECLS) following CPR opens the opportunity for "controlled reperfusion". In animal experiments investigating CPR with ECLS, systemic anticoagulation before induced cardiac arrest is normal, but a major point of dispute, since preliminary heparinization in patients undergoing unwitnessed cardiac arrest is impossible. In this study, we investigated options for ECLS after an experimental 15 minutes normothermic cardiac arrest, without preceding anticoagulation, in pigs. Neurological recovery was assessed by a scoring system, electroencephalography and brain magnetic resonance imaging. Additionally, brain histology was performed on day seven after cardiac arrest. We demonstrated that preliminary heparin administration was not necessary for survival or neurological recovery in this setting. Heparin flushing of the cannulae seemed sufficient to avoid thrombus formation. These findings may ease the way to using ECLS in patients with sudden cardiac arrest. PMID:23827862

  18. Oxygen Generation from Carbon Dioxide for Advanced Life Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, s. R.; Duncan, K. L.; Hagelin-Weaver, H. E.; Neal, L.; Paul, H. L.; Wachsman, E. D.

    2007-01-01

    The partial electrochemical reduction of CO2 using ceramic oxygen generators (COGs) is well known and has been studied. Conventional COGs use yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) electrolytes and operate at temperatures greater than 700 C (1, 2). Operating at a lower temperature has the advantage of reducing the mass of the ancillary components such as insulation. Moreover, complete reduction of metabolically produced CO2 (into carbon and oxygen) has the potential of reducing oxygen storage weight if the oxygen can be recovered. Recently, the University of Florida developed ceramic oxygen generators employing a bilayer electrolyte of gadolinia-doped ceria and erbia-stabilized bismuth oxide (ESB) for NASA s future exploration of Mars (3). The results showed that oxygen could be reliably produced from CO2 at temperatures as low as 400 C. These results indicate that this technology could be adapted to CO2 removal from a spacesuit and other applications in which CO2 removal is an issue. This strategy for CO2 removal in advanced life support systems employs a catalytic layer combined with a COG so that the CO2 is reduced completely to solid carbon and oxygen. First, to reduce the COG operating temperature, a thin, bilayer electrolyte was employed. Second, to promote full CO2 reduction while avoiding the problem of carbon deposition on the COG cathode, a catalytic carbon deposition layer was designed and the cathode utilized materials shown to be coke resistant. Third, a composite anode was used consisting of bismuth ruthenate (BRO) and ESB that has been shown to have high performance (4). The inset of figure 1 shows the conceptual design of the tubular COG and the rest of the figure shows schematically the test apparatus. Figure 2 shows the microstructure of a COG tube prior to testing. During testing, current is applied across the cell and initially CuO is reduced to copper metal by electrochemical pumping. Then the oxygen source becomes the CO/CO2. This presentation

  19. Management of perioperative low cardiac output state without extracorporeal life support: What is feasible?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A transient and reversible reduction in cardiac output–low cardiac output state (LCOS) often occurs following surgery for congenital heart disease. Inappropriately managed LCOS is a risk factor for increased morbidity and death. LCOS may occasionally be progressive and refractory needing a period of “myocardial rest” with extracorporeal life support (ECLS). ECLS is currently considered a routine tool available for rapid deployment in most industrialized countries. Accumulated experience and refinements in technology have led to improving survivals – discharge survivals of 35%–50%, with almost 100% survival in select groups on elective left ventricular assist device. Thus, there is an increasing trend to initiate ECLS “early or electively in the operating room” in high-risk patients. India has a huge potential need for ECLS given the large number of infants presenting late with preexisting ventricular dysfunction or in circulatory collapse. ECLS is an expensive and resource consuming treatment modality and is not a viable therapeutic option in our country. The purpose of this paper is to reiterate an anticipatory, proactive approach to LCOS: (1) methods for early detection of evolving LCOS and (2) timely initiation of individualized therapy. This paper also explores what is feasible with the refinement of “simple, conventional, inexpensive strategies” for the management of LCOS. Therapy for LCOS should be multimodal based on the type of circulation and physiology. Our approach to LCOS includes: (1) intraoperative strategies, (2) aggressive afterload reduction, (3) lusitropy, (4) exclusion of structural defects, (5) harnessing cardiopulmonary interactions, and (6) addressing metabolic and endocrine abnormalities. We have achieved a discharge survival rate of greater than 97% with these simple methods

  20. Management of perioperative low cardiac output state without extracorporeal life support: What is feasible?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Girish

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A transient and reversible reduction in cardiac output-low cardiac output state (LCOS often occurs following surgery for congenital heart disease. Inappropriately managed LCOS is a risk factor for increased morbidity and death. LCOS may occasionally be progressive and refractory needing a period of "myocardial rest" with extracorporeal life support (ECLS. ECLS is currently considered a routine tool available for rapid deployment in most industrialized countries. Accumulated experience and refinements in technology have led to improving survivals - discharge survivals of 35%−50%, with almost 100% survival in select groups on elective left ventricular assist device. Thus, there is an increasing trend to initiate ECLS "early or electively in the operating room" in high-risk patients. India has a huge potential need for ECLS given the large number of infants presenting late with preexisting ventricular dysfunction or in circulatory collapse. ECLS is an expensive and resource consuming treatment modality and is not a viable therapeutic option in our country. The purpose of this paper is to reiterate an anticipatory, proactive approach to LCOS: (1 methods for early detection of evolving LCOS and (2 timely initiation of individualized therapy. This paper also explores what is feasible with the refinement of "simple, conventional, inexpensive strategies" for the management of LCOS. Therapy for LCOS should be multimodal based on the type of circulation and physiology. Our approach to LCOS includes: (1 intraoperative strategies, (2 aggressive afterload reduction, (3 lusitropy, (4 exclusion of structural defects, (5 harnessing cardiopulmonary interactions, and (6 addressing metabolic and endocrine abnormalities. We have achieved a discharge survival rate of greater than 97% with these simple methods.

  1. Advanced Life Support Project: Crop Experiments at Kennedy Space Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sager, John C.; Stutte, Gary W.; Wheeler, Raymond M.; Yorio, Neil

    2004-01-01

    Crop production systems provide bioregenerative technologies to complement human crew life support requirements on long duration space missions. Kennedy Space Center has lead NASA's research on crop production systems that produce high value fresh foods, provide atmospheric regeneration, and perform water processing. As the emphasis on early missions to Mars has developed, our research focused on modular, scalable systems for transit missions, which can be developed into larger autonomous, bioregenerative systems for subsequent surface missions. Components of these scalable systems will include development of efficient light generating or collecting technologies, low mass plant growth chambers, and capability to operate in the high energy background radiation and reduced atmospheric pressures of space. These systems will be integrated with air, water, and thermal subsystems in an operational system. Extensive crop testing has been done for both staple and salad crops, but limited data is available on specific cultivar selection and breadboard testing to meet nominal Mars mission profiles of a 500-600 day surface mission. The recent research emphasis at Kennedy Space Center has shifted from staple crops, such as wheat, soybean and rice, toward short cycle salad crops such as lettuce, onion, radish, tomato, pepper, and strawberry. This paper will review the results of crop experiments to support the Exploration Initiative and the ongoing development of supporting technologies, and give an overview of capabilities of the newly opened Space Life Science (SLS) Lab at Kennedy Space Center. The 9662 square m (104,000 square ft) SLS Lab was built by the State of Florida and supports all NASA research that had been performed in Hanger-L. In addition to NASA research, the SLS Lab houses the Florida Space Research Institute (FSRI), responsible for co-managing the facility, and the University of Florida (UF) has established the Space Agriculture and Biotechnology Research and

  2. Reproducible analyses of microbial food for advanced life support systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Gene R.

    1988-01-01

    The use of yeasts in controlled ecological life support systems (CELSS) for microbial food regeneration in space required the accurate and reproducible analysis of intracellular carbohydrate and protein levels. The reproducible analysis of glycogen was a key element in estimating overall content of edibles in candidate yeast strains. Typical analytical methods for estimating glycogen in Saccharomyces were not found to be entirely aplicable to other candidate strains. Rigorous cell lysis coupled with acid/base fractionation followed by specific enzymatic glycogen analyses were required to obtain accurate results in two strains of Candida. A profile of edible fractions of these strains was then determined. The suitability of yeasts as food sources in CELSS food production processes is discussed.

  3. Advanced Life Support Food Subsystem Salad Crop Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perchonok, Michele H.; Stevens, Irene; Swango, Beverly E.; Toerne, Mary E.; Lane, Helen W. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    As the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) begins to look towards longer duration space flights, the importance of fresh foods and varied menu choices increases. Long duration space missions require development of both a Transit Food System and a Lunar or Planetary Food System. These two systems are intrinsically different since the first one will be utilized in the transit vehicle in microgravity conditions while the second will be used in conditions of partial gravity (hypogravity). The Transit Food System will consist of prepackaged food of extended shelf life. Microgravity imposes significant limitations on the ability of the crew to handle food and allows only for minimal processing. Salad crops will be available for the planetary mission. Supplementing the transit food system with salad crops is also being considered. These crops will include carrots, tomatoes, lettuce, radish, spinach, chard, cabbage, and onion. The crops will be incorporated in the menu along with the prepackaged food. The fresh tasting salad crops will provide variety, texture, and color in the menu. This variety should provide increased psychological benefit. Preliminary studies on spinach, tomatoes, and bok choy have been completed. Sensory and analytical tests, including color and moisture were conducted on the chamber grown crops and compared to store bought spinach, tomatoes, and bok choy. Preliminary studies of the appropriate serving sizes and number of servings per week have also been conducted.

  4. Process control integration requirements for advanced life support systems applicable to manned space missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spurlock, Paul; Spurlock, Jack M.; Evanich, Peggy L.

    1991-01-01

    An overview of recent developments in process-control technology which might have applications in future advanced life support systems for long-duration space operations is presented. Consideration is given to design criteria related to control system selection and optimization, and process-control interfacing methodology. Attention is also given to current life support system process control strategies, innovative sensors, instrumentation and control, and innovations in process supervision.

  5. Level of Knowledge of specialist cardiologists and anesthesiologists in Basic and Advanced Life Support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Vachla

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Health professionals often witness in-hospital episodes of cardiac arrest. The quality of the Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR depends on the level of theoretical background and practical skills. Purpose: The aim of the present study was to investigate the level of theoretical knowledge of skilled cardiologists and anesthesiologists in the Basic and Advanced Life Support (BLS/ ALS. Material - method: In this study, sample included 240 cardiologists and anesthesiologists, chosen randomly from employers of 17 General Public Hospitals of Athens. For data collection, a questionnaire with 16 theoretical questions was designed, based on the guidelines of the European Resuscitation Council (ERC 2005. Significance level was set at p=≤0,05. The analysis was performed with the Statistical Package IBM SPSS Statistics 19. Results: No statistically significant difference was observed between specialists cardiologists and anesthesiologists in overall performance in theoretical knowledge on the BLS and ALS. Additionally, no statistical significance was observed between the two separate groups of theoretical background. Statistically significant difference was observed among those who had participated in a training seminar in BLS and ALS and those who had not participated (p<0,001. Also, there was statistical significance between the follow-up seminar in BLS/ ALS and specialty for the right answer to the question "which is the right ratio of chest compressions and ventilation", (p<0,001. Conclusions: The level of background knowledge of specialist cardiologists and anesthesiologists in the algorithms of BLS and ALS seem to correlate to the attendance of a training course.

  6. Advanced Life Support in Obstetrics (ALSO) and postpartum hemorrhage: A prospective intervention study in Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorensen, Bjarke Lund; Rasch, Vibeke; Massawe, Siriel;

    2011-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate the impact of Advanced Life Support in Obstetrics (ALSO) training on staff performance and the incidences of postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) at a regional hospital in Tanzania. Design. Prospective intervention study. Setting. A regional, referral hospital. Population. A total of...

  7. Long-term intended and unintended experiences after Advanced Life Support training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, M.B.; Dieckmann, Peter; Issenberg, Berry; Ostergaard, Doris; Søreide, Eldar; Ringsted, Charlotte Vibeke

    2012-01-01

    Highly structured simulation-based training (SBT) on managing emergency situations can have a significant effect on immediate satisfaction and learning. However, there are some indications of problems when applying learned skills to practice. The aim of this study was to identify long-term intended...... and unintended learner reactions, experiences and reflections after attending a simulation based Advanced Life Support (ALS) course....

  8. MAXILLOFACIAL TRAUMA MANAGEMENT IN POLYTRAUMATIZED PATIENTS – THE USE OF ADVANCED TRAUMA LIFE SUPPORT (ATLS PRINCIPLES.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elitsa G. Deliverska

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Management of the multiply injured patient requires a co-ordinated multi-disciplinary approach in order to optimise patients’ outcome. A working knowledge of the sort of problems these patients encounter is therefore vital to ensure that life-threatening injuries are recognised and treated in a timely pattern and that more minor associated injuries are not omitted. This article outlines the management of polytraumatized patients using the Advanced Trauma Life Support (ATLS principles and highlights the areas of specific involvement of the engaged medical team. Advanced Trauma Life Support is generally regarded as the gold standard and is founded on a number of well known principles, but strict adherence to protocols may have its drawbacks when facial trauma co-exists. These can arise in the presence of either major or minor facial injuries, and oral and maxillofacial surgeons need to be aware of the potential problems.

  9. Hollow fiber membranes for advanced life support systems. [permeable capillaries for medical filtration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roebelen, G. J., Jr.; Lysaght, M. J.

    1977-01-01

    This paper describes an investigation of the practicability of utilizing hollow fiber membranes in vehicular and portable life support system applications. A preliminary screening of potential advanced life support applications resulted in the selection of five applications for feasibility study and testing. As a result of the feasibility study and testing, three applications, heat rejection, deaeration, and bacteria filtration, were chosen for breadboard development testing. Breadboard hardware has been manufactured and tested, and the physical properties of the three hollow fiber membrane assemblies applicable to use aboard future spacecraft have been characterized.

  10. Analysis of edible oil processing options for the BIO-Plex advanced life support system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwalt, C. J.; Hunter, J.

    2000-01-01

    Edible oil is a critical component of the proposed plant-based Advanced Life Support (ALS) diet. Soybean, peanut, and single-cell oil are the oil source options to date. In terrestrial manufacture, oil is ordinarily extracted with hexane, an organic solvent. However, exposed solvents are not permitted in the spacecraft environment or in enclosed human tests by National Aeronautics and Space Administration due to their potential danger and handling difficulty. As a result, alternative oil-processing methods will need to be utilized. Preparation and recovery options include traditional dehulling, crushing, conditioning, and flaking, extrusion, pressing, water extraction, and supercritical extraction. These processing options were evaluated on criteria appropriate to the Advanced Life Support System and BIO-Plex application including: product quality, product stability, waste production, risk, energy needs, labor requirements, utilization of nonrenewable resources, usefulness of by-products, and versatility and mass of equipment to determine the most appropriate ALS edible oil-processing operation.

  11. Development of a preprototype Advanced Extravehicular Mobility Unit (AEMU) regenerable life support subsystem - A progress report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Norman C.; Lawson, B. Michael

    1989-01-01

    Regenerable life support (RLS) technologies are being developed for use in the Advanced Extravehicle Mobility Unit (AEMU) aboard Space Station Freedom. This report describes the requirements that these RLS technologies must satisfy in the Space Station application and the significant features of the technologies now being evaluated. Who is developing the equipment and how the subsystems will be integrated are addressed. An overview of the planned test program schedule is given.

  12. Crop Production for Advanced Life Support Systems - Observations From the Kennedy Space Center Breadboard Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, R. M.; Sager, J. C.; Prince, R. P.; Knott, W. M.; Mackowiak, C. L.; Stutte, G. W.; Yorio, N. C.; Ruffe, L. M.; Peterson, B. V.; Goins, G. D.

    2003-01-01

    The use of plants for bioregenerative life support for space missions was first studied by the US Air Force in the 1950s and 1960s. Extensive testing was also conducted from the 1960s through the 1980s by Russian researchers located at the Institute of Biophysics in Krasnoyarsk, Siberia, and the Institute for Biomedical Problems in Moscow. NASA initiated bioregenerative research in the 1960s (e.g., Hydrogenomonas) but this research did not include testing with plants until about 1980, with the start of the Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) Program. The NASA CELSS research was carried out at universities, private corporations, and NASA field centers, including Kennedy Space Center (KSC). The project at KSC began in 1985 and was called the CELSS Breadboard Project to indicate the capability for plugging in and testing various life support technologies; this name has since been dropped but bioregenerative testing at KSC has continued to the present under the NASA s Advanced Life Support (ALS) Program. A primary objective of the KSC testing was to conduct pre-integration tests with plants (crops) in a large, atmospherically closed test chamber called the Biomass Production Chamber (BPC). Test protocols for the BPC were based on observations and growing procedures developed by university investigators, as well as procedures developed in plant growth chamber studies at KSC. Growth chamber studies to support BPC testing focused on plant responses to different carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations, different spectral qualities from various electric lamps, and nutrient film hydroponic culture techniques.

  13. Influência do subsídio financeiro e do local da realização do curso de suporte avançado de vida em cardiologia, no aprendizado da emergência cardiovascular Influence of financial subsidy and venue on advanced cardiac life support courses, in the learning of cardiovascular emergency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heberth C. Miotto

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: O sucesso no aprendizado da emergência depende de muitos fatores que podem ser resumidos como: aluno, instrutores e curso. OBJETIVO: Avaliar a influência do subsídio financeiro e do local da realização do curso no aprendizado da emergência cardiovascular. MÉTODOS: Analisaram-se dados referentes aos cursos de Suporte Avançado de Vida em Cardiologia (ACLS no período de dezembro de 2005 a dezembro de 2006. De acordo com o subsídio financeiro, foram divididos em: grupo 1 - subsídio integral; grupo 2 - subsídio de 50%; e grupo 3 - sem subsídio. Quanto ao local do curso, foram divididos em: local A - curso em cidade com > 1 milhão de habitantes; e local B - curso em cidade com BACKGROUND: The success in learning of emergency depends on many factors that can be summarized as: student, instructors and course. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the influence of financial subsidy and venue of course in learning cardiovascular emergency. METHODS: Data were analyzed regarding the courses of Advanced Cardiac Life Support (ACLS in the period from December 2005 to December 2006. In agreement with the financial subsidy, they were divided in: group 1 - integral subsidy; group 2 - subsidy of 50%; and group 3 - without subsidy. As for the venue of the course, they were divided in: locality A - study in city with> 1 million inhabitants; and locality B - study in city with <1 million inhabitants. The practical and theoretical approval and the theoretical average were compared. RESULTS: 819 students participated in ACLS: 199 (24% in group 1, 122 (15% in 2 and 498 (61% in 3. The practical and theoretical approval and the average in the theoretical exam were greater in group 3 than in other groups (p <0.05. Four hundred and eighty two (482 took the course in venue A (59% and 337 (41% in venue B. The practical approval was similar for both groups (p = 0.33, however the theoretical approval was greater in venue A (73% vs. 65% - p = 0.021 - OR = 1.44 and IC

  14. The environmental control and life support system advanced automation project. Phase 1: Application evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewberry, Brandon S.

    1990-01-01

    The Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) is a Freedom Station distributed system with inherent applicability to advanced automation primarily due to the comparatively large reaction times of its subsystem processes. This allows longer contemplation times in which to form a more intelligent control strategy and to detect or prevent faults. The objective of the ECLSS Advanced Automation Project is to reduce the flight and ground manpower needed to support the initial and evolutionary ECLS system. The approach is to search out and make apparent those processes in the baseline system which are in need of more automatic control and fault detection strategies, to influence the ECLSS design by suggesting software hooks and hardware scars which will allow easy adaptation to advanced algorithms, and to develop complex software prototypes which fit into the ECLSS software architecture and will be shown in an ECLSS hardware testbed to increase the autonomy of the system. Covered here are the preliminary investigation and evaluation process, aimed at searching the ECLSS for candidate functions for automation and providing a software hooks and hardware scars analysis. This analysis shows changes needed in the baselined system for easy accommodation of knowledge-based or other complex implementations which, when integrated in flight or ground sustaining engineering architectures, will produce a more autonomous and fault tolerant Environmental Control and Life Support System.

  15. Microdialysis Assessment of Cerebral Perfusion during Cardiac Arrest, Extracorporeal Life Support and Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation in Rats – A Pilot Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schober, Andreas; Warenits, Alexandra M.; Testori, Christoph; Weihs, Wolfgang; Hosmann, Arthur; Högler, Sandra; Sterz, Fritz; Janata, Andreas; Scherer, Thomas; Magnet, Ingrid A. M.; Ettl, Florian; Laggner, Anton N.; Herkner, Harald; Zeitlinger, Markus

    2016-01-01

    Cerebral metabolic alterations during cardiac arrest, cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and extracorporeal cardiopulmonary life support (ECLS) are poorly explored. Markers are needed for a more personalized resuscitation and post—resuscitation care. Aim of this study was to investigate early metabolic changes in the hippocampal CA1 region during ventricular fibrillation cardiac arrest (VF-CA) and ECLS versus conventional CPR. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (350g) underwent 8min untreated VF-CA followed by ECLS (n = 8; bloodflow 100ml/kg), mechanical CPR (n = 18; 200/min) until return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC). Shams (n = 2) were included. Glucose, glutamate and lactate/pyruvate ratio were compared between treatment groups and animals with and without ROSC. Ten animals (39%) achieved ROSC (ECLS 5/8 vs. CPR 5/18; OR 4,3;CI:0.7–25;p = 0.189). During VF-CA central nervous glucose decreased (0.32±0.1mmol/l to 0.04±0.01mmol/l; p<0.001) and showed a significant rise (0.53±0.1;p<0.001) after resuscitation. Lactate/pyruvate (L/P) ratio showed a 5fold increase (31 to 164; p<0.001; maximum 8min post ROSC). Glutamate showed a 3.5-fold increase to (2.06±1.5 to 7.12±5.1μmol/L; p<0.001) after CA. All parameters normalized after ROSC with no significant differences between ECLS and CPR. Metabolic changes during ischemia and resuscitation can be displayed by cerebral microdialysis in our VF-CA CPR and ECLS rat model. We found similar microdialysate concentrations and patterns of normalization in both resuscitation methods used. Institutional Protocol Number: GZ0064.11/3b/2011 PMID:27175905

  16. Environmental control and life support system requirements and technology needs for advanced manned space missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Ferolyn T.; Sedej, Melaine; Lin, Chin

    1987-01-01

    NASA has completed an environmental control and life support system (ECLSS) technology R&D plan for advanced missions which gave attention to the drivers (crew size, mission duration, etc.) of a range of manned missions under consideration. Key planning guidelines encompassed a time horizon greater than 50 years, funding resource requirements, an evolutionary approach to goal definition, and the funding of more than one approach to satisfy a given perceived requirement. Attention was given to the ECLSS requirements of transportation and service vehicles, platforms, bases and settlements, ECLSS functions and average load requirements, unique drivers for various missions, and potentially exploitable commonalities among vehicles and habitats.

  17. Assessment of Advanced Life Support competence when combining different test methods--reliability and validity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ringsted, C; Lippert, F; Hesselfeldt, R;

    2007-01-01

    Summary Robust assessment of Advanced Life Support (ALS) competence is paramount to the credibility of ALS-provider certification and for estimating the learning outcome and retention of ALS competence following the courses. The Euro- pean Resuscitation Council (ERC) provides two sets of MCQs and...... Correlation Coefficients between 0.766 and 0.977. Inter-rater agreements on pass/fail decisions were not perfect. The one MCQ test was significantly more difficult than the other. There were no significant differences between CASTests....

  18. Next Generation Life Support Project: Development of Advanced Technologies for Human Exploration Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barta, Daniel J.

    2012-01-01

    Next Generation Life Support (NGLS) is one of several technology development projects sponsored by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration s Game Changing Development Program. NGLS is developing life support technologies (including water recovery, and space suit life support technologies) needed for humans to live and work productively in space. NGLS has three project tasks: Variable Oxygen Regulator (VOR), Rapid Cycle Amine (RCA) swing bed, and Alternative Water Processing. The selected technologies within each of these areas are focused on increasing affordability, reliability, and vehicle self sufficiency while decreasing mass and enabling long duration exploration. The RCA and VOR tasks are directed at key technology needs for the Portable Life Support System (PLSS) for an Exploration Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU), with focus on prototyping and integrated testing. The focus of the Rapid Cycle Amine (RCA) swing-bed ventilation task is to provide integrated carbon dioxide removal and humidity control that can be regenerated in real time during an EVA. The Variable Oxygen Regulator technology will significantly increase the number of pressure settings available to the space suit. Current spacesuit pressure regulators are limited to only two settings while the adjustability of the advanced regulator will be nearly continuous. The Alternative Water Processor efforts will result in the development of a system capable of recycling wastewater from sources expected in future exploration missions, including hygiene and laundry water, based on natural biological processes and membrane-based post treatment. The technologies will support a capability-driven architecture for extending human presence beyond low Earth orbit to potential destinations such as the Moon, near Earth asteroids and Mars.

  19. Improving advanced cardiovascular life support skills in medical students: simulation-based education approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamidreza Reihani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In this trial, we intend to assess the effect of simulation-based education approach on advanced cardiovascular life support skills among medical students. Methods: Through convenient sampling method, 40 interns of Mashhad University of Medical Sciences in their emergency medicine rotation (from September to December 2012 participated in this study. Advanced Cardiovascular Life Support (ACLS workshops with pretest and post-test exams were performed. Workshops and checklists for pretest and post-test exams were designed according to the latest American Heart Association (AHA guidelines. Results: The total score of the students increased significantly after workshops (24.6 out of 100 to 78.6 out of 100. This demonstrates 53.9% improvement in the skills after the simulation-based education (P< 0.001. Also the mean score of each station had a significant improvement (P< 0.001. Conclusion: Pretests showed that interns had poor performance in practical clinical matters while their scientific knowledge, such as ECG interpretation was acceptable. The overall results of the study highlights that Simulation based-education approach is highly effective in Improving ACLS skills among medical students.

  20. Decision Support Systems for Research and Management in Advanced Life Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriquez, Luis F.

    2004-01-01

    Decision support systems have been implemented in many applications including strategic planning for battlefield scenarios, corporate decision making for business planning, production planning and control systems, and recommendation generators like those on Amazon.com(Registered TradeMark). Such tools are reviewed for developing a similar tool for NASA's ALS Program. DSS are considered concurrently with the development of the OPIS system, a database designed for chronicling of research and development in ALS. By utilizing the OPIS database, it is anticipated that decision support can be provided to increase the quality of decisions by ALS managers and researchers.

  1. Decay in chest compression quality due to fatigue is rare during prolonged advanced life support in a manikin model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjørshol Conrad A

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to measure chest compression decay during simulated advanced life support (ALS in a cardiac arrest manikin model. Methods 19 paramedic teams, each consisting of three paramedics, performed ALS for 12 minutes with the same paramedic providing all chest compressions. The patient was a resuscitation manikin found in ventricular fibrillation (VF. The first shock terminated the VF and the patient remained in pulseless electrical activity (PEA throughout the scenario. Average chest compression depth and rate was measured each minute for 12 minutes and divided into three groups based on chest compression quality; good (compression depth ≥ 40 mm, compression rate 100-120/minute for each minute of CPR, bad (initial compression depth 120/minute or decay (change from good to bad during the 12 minutes. Changes in no-flow ratio (NFR, defined as the time without chest compressions divided by the total time of the ALS scenario over time was also measured. Results Based on compression depth, 5 (26%, 9 (47% and 5 (26% were good, bad and with decay, respectively. Only one paramedic experienced decay within the first two minutes. Based on compression rate, 6 (32%, 6 (32% and 7 (37% were good, bad and with decay, respectively. NFR was 22% in both the 1-3 and 4-6 minute periods, respectively, but decreased to 14% in the 7-9 minute period (P = 0.002 and to 10% in the 10-12 minute period (P Conclusions In this simulated cardiac arrest manikin study, only half of the providers achieved guideline recommended compression depth during prolonged ALS. Large inter-individual differences in chest compression quality were already present from the initiation of CPR. Chest compression decay and thereby fatigue within the first two minutes was rare.

  2. The Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) advanced automation project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewberry, Brandon S.; Carnes, Ray

    1990-01-01

    The objective of the environmental control and life support system (ECLSS) Advanced Automation Project is to influence the design of the initial and evolutionary Space Station Freedom Program (SSFP) ECLSS toward a man-made closed environment in which minimal flight and ground manpower is needed. Another objective includes capturing ECLSS design and development knowledge future missions. Our approach has been to (1) analyze the SSFP ECLSS, (2) envision as our goal a fully automated evolutionary environmental control system - an augmentation of the baseline, and (3) document the advanced software systems, hooks, and scars which will be necessary to achieve this goal. From this analysis, prototype software is being developed, and will be tested using air and water recovery simulations and hardware subsystems. In addition, the advanced software is being designed, developed, and tested using automation software management plan and lifecycle tools. Automated knowledge acquisition, engineering, verification and testing tools are being used to develop the software. In this way, we can capture ECLSS development knowledge for future use develop more robust and complex software, provide feedback to the knowledge based system tool community, and ensure proper visibility of our efforts.

  3. Hydroponics Database and Handbook for the Advanced Life Support Test Bed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, Allen J.

    1999-01-01

    During the summer 1998, I did student assistance to Dr. Daniel J. Barta, chief plant growth expert at Johnson Space Center - NASA. We established the preliminary stages of a hydroponic crop growth database for the Advanced Life Support Systems Integration Test Bed, otherwise referred to as BIO-Plex (Biological Planetary Life Support Systems Test Complex). The database summarizes information from published technical papers by plant growth experts, and it includes bibliographical, environmental and harvest information based on plant growth under varying environmental conditions. I collected 84 lettuce entries, 14 soybean, 49 sweet potato, 16 wheat, 237 white potato, and 26 mix crop entries. The list will grow with the publication of new research. This database will be integrated with a search and systems analysis computer program that will cross-reference multiple parameters to determine optimum edible yield under varying parameters. Also, we have made preliminary effort to put together a crop handbook for BIO-Plex plant growth management. It will be a collection of information obtained from experts who provided recommendations on a particular crop's growing conditions. It includes bibliographic, environmental, nutrient solution, potential yield, harvest nutritional, and propagation procedure information. This handbook will stand as the baseline growth conditions for the first set of experiments in the BIO-Plex facility.

  4. Requirements Development Issues for Advanced Life Support Systems: Solid Waste Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levri, Julie A.; Fisher, John W.; Alazraki, Michael P.; Hogan, John A.

    2002-01-01

    Long duration missions pose substantial new challenges for solid waste management in Advanced Life Support (ALS) systems. These possibly include storing large volumes of waste material in a safe manner, rendering wastes stable or sterilized for extended periods of time, and/or processing wastes for recovery of vital resources. This is further complicated because future missions remain ill-defined with respect to waste stream quantity, composition and generation schedule. Without definitive knowledge of this information, development of requirements is hampered. Additionally, even if waste streams were well characterized, other operational and processing needs require clarification (e.g. resource recovery requirements, planetary protection constraints). Therefore, the development of solid waste management (SWM) subsystem requirements for long duration space missions is an inherently uncertain, complex and iterative process. The intent of this paper is to address some of the difficulties in writing requirements for missions that are not completely defined. This paper discusses an approach and motivation for ALS SWM requirements development, the characteristics of effective requirements, and the presence of those characteristics in requirements that are developed for uncertain missions. Associated drivers for life support system technological capability are also presented. A general means of requirements forecasting is discussed, including successive modification of requirements and the need to consider requirements integration among subsystems.

  5. Advanced life support provider course in Italy: A 5-year nationwide study to identify the determinants of course success

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F. Semeraro; A. Scapigliati; G. Tammaro; U. Olcese; E.L. Cerchiari; G. Ristagno

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The advanced life support (ALS) provider course is the gold standard for teaching and assessing competence in advanced resuscitation. Outcomes over a 5-year period of European Resuscitation (ERC)/IRC ALS provider courses in Italy were investigated, and the factors associated with cours

  6. Development Status of the Advanced Life Support On-Line Project Information System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levri, Julie A.; Hogan, John A.; Cavazzoni, Jim; Brodbeck, Christina; Morrow, Rich; Ho, Michael; Kaehms, Bob; Whitaker, Dawn R.

    2005-01-01

    The Advanced Life Support Program has recently accelerated an effort to develop an On-line Project Information System (OPIS) for research project and technology development data centralization and sharing. The core functionality of OPIS will launch in October of 2005. This paper presents the current OPIS development status. OPIS core functionality involves a Web-based annual solicitation of project and technology data directly from ALS Principal Investigators (PIS) through customized data collection forms. Data provided by PIs will be reviewed by a Technical Task Monitor (TTM) before posting the information to OPIS for ALS Community viewing via the Web. The data will be stored in an object-oriented relational database (created in MySQL(R)) located on a secure server at NASA ARC. Upon launch, OPIS can be utilized by Managers to identify research and technology development gaps and to assess task performance. Analysts can employ OPIS to obtain.

  7. Solid Waste Management Requirements Definition for Advanced Life Support Missions: Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alazraki, Michael P.; Hogan, John; Levri, Julie; Fisher, John; Drysdale, Alan

    2002-01-01

    Prior to determining what Solid Waste Management (SWM) technologies should be researched and developed by the Advanced Life Support (ALS) Project for future missions, there is a need to define SWM requirements. Because future waste streams will be highly mission-dependent, missions need to be defined prior to developing SWM requirements. The SWM Working Group has used the mission architecture outlined in the System Integration, Modeling and Analysis (SIMA) Element Reference Missions Document (RMD) as a starting point in the requirement development process. The missions examined include the International Space Station (ISS), a Mars Dual Lander mission, and a Mars Base. The SWM Element has also identified common SWM functionalities needed for future missions. These functionalities include: acceptance, transport, processing, storage, monitoring and control, and disposal. Requirements in each of these six areas are currently being developed for the selected missions. This paper reviews the results of this ongoing effort and identifies mission-dependent resource recovery requirements.

  8. A Simulation Study Comparing Incineration and Composting in a Mars-Based Advanced Life Support System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, John; Kang, Sukwon; Cavazzoni, Jim; Levri, Julie; Finn, Cory; Luna, Bernadette (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this study is to compare incineration and composting in a Mars-based advanced life support (ALS) system. The variables explored include waste pre-processing requirements, reactor sizing and buffer capacities. The study incorporates detailed mathematical models of biomass production and waste processing into an existing dynamic ALS system model. The ALS system and incineration models (written in MATLAB/SIMULINK(c)) were developed at the NASA Ames Research Center. The composting process is modeled using first order kinetics, with different degradation rates for individual waste components (carbohydrates, proteins, fats, cellulose and lignin). The biomass waste streams are generated using modified "Eneray Cascade" crop models, which use light- and dark-cycle temperatures, irradiance, photoperiod, [CO2], planting density, and relative humidity as model inputs. The study also includes an evaluation of equivalent system mass (ESM).

  9. Advanced Spacesuit Portable Life Support System Packaging Concept Mock-Up Design & Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    O''Connell, Mary K.; Slade, Howard G.; Stinson, Richard G.

    1998-01-01

    A concentrated development effort was begun at NASA Johnson Space Center to create an advanced Portable Life Support System (PLSS) packaging concept. Ease of maintenance, technological flexibility, low weight, and minimal volume are targeted in the design of future micro-gravity and planetary PLSS configurations. Three main design concepts emerged from conceptual design techniques and were carried forth into detailed design, then full scale mock-up creation. "Foam", "Motherboard", and "LEGOtm" packaging design concepts are described in detail. Results of the evaluation process targeted maintenance, robustness, mass properties, and flexibility as key aspects to a new PLSS packaging configuration. The various design tools used to evolve concepts into high fidelity mock ups revealed that no single tool was all encompassing, several combinations were complimentary, the devil is in the details, and, despite efforts, many lessons were learned only after working with hardware.

  10. Development Approach of the Advanced Life Support On-line Project Information System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levri, Julie A.; Hogan, John A.; Morrow, Rich; Ho, Michael C.; Kaehms, Bob; Cavazzoni, Jim; Brodbeck, Christina A.; Whitaker, Dawn R.

    2005-01-01

    The Advanced Life Support (ALS) Program has recently accelerated an effort to develop an On-line Project Information System (OPIS) for research project and technology development data centralization and sharing. There has been significant advancement in the On-line Project Information System (OPIS) over the past year (Hogan et al, 2004). This paper presents the resultant OPIS development approach. OPIS is being built as an application framework consisting of an uderlying Linux/Apache/MySQL/PHP (LAMP) stack, and supporting class libraries that provides database abstraction and automatic code generation, simplifying the ongoing development and maintenance process. Such a development approach allows for quick adaptation to serve multiple Programs, although initial deployment is for an ALS module. OPIS core functionality will involve a Web-based annual solicitation of project and technology data directly from ALS Principal Investigators (PIs) through customized data collection forms. Data provided by PIs will be reviewed by a Technical Task Monitor (TTM) before posting the information to OPIS for ALS Community viewing via the Web. Such Annual Reports will be permanent, citable references within OPIS. OPlS core functionality will also include Project Home Sites, which will allow PIS to provide updated technology information to the Community in between Annual Report updates. All data will be stored in an object-oriented relational database, created in MySQL(Reistered Trademark) and located on a secure server at NASA Ames Research Center (ARC). Upon launch, OPlS can be utilized by Managers to identify research and technology development (R&TD) gaps and to assess task performance. Analysts can employ OPlS to obtain the current, comprehensive, accurate information about advanced technologies that is required to perform trade studies of various life support system options. ALS researchers and technology developers can use OPlS to achieve an improved understanding of the NASA

  11. Prehospital advanced trauma life support for critical penetrating wounds to the thorax and abdomen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pons, P T; Honigman, B; Moore, E E; Rosen, P; Antuna, B; Dernocoeur, J

    1985-09-01

    The role of advanced trauma life support (ATLS) in the prehospital care of the critically injured is highly controversial. This study analyzes the efficacy of ATLS in the management of critical penetrating wounds of the thorax and abdomen. In the 2 1/2-year period ending July 1984, 203 consecutive patients underwent emergency laparotomy or thoracotomy for gunshot and stab wounds. All patients were treated in the field by advanced paramedics (EMT-P). For gunshot wounds the mean time (+/- S.E.M.) responding to the scene was 4.5 (+/- 0.29) minutes, on the scene 10.1 (+/- 0.41) minutes, and returning to the hospital 6.4 (+/- 0.32) minutes. For stab wounds the mean time responding to the scene was 4.8 (+/- 0.21) minutes, on the scene 9.5 (+/- 0.37) minutes, and returning to the hospital 5.7 (+ 0.30) minutes. The number of intravenous lines started averaged 1.8 per patient. Eighty-one patients had PASG applied and 28 patients underwent endotracheal intubation (21 orally, seven nasally). Thirty-three patients had no obtainable blood pressure, of whom six survived (18%). One hundred sixty (94%) of the remaining 170 patients who had any initial blood pressure survived. One hundred nine (55%) patients had an increase in BP greater than or equal to 10 mm Hg (average, 35.6 mm Hg), 64 (32%) had no significant change, and 25 (13%) had a fall greater than or equal to 10 mm Hg (average, 24.2 mm Hg) from the field to the emergency department. Twenty (80%) of the 25 patients with a fall in blood pressure survived.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:4032506

  12. Recycling of Na in advanced life support: strategies based on crop production systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guntur, S V; Mackowiak, C; Wheeler, R M

    1999-01-01

    Sodium is an essential dietary requirement in human nutrition, but seldom holds much importance as a nutritional element for crop plants. In Advanced Life Support (ALS) systems, recycling of gases, nutrients, and water loops is required to improve system closure. If plants are to play a significant role in recycling of human wastes, Na will need to accumulate in edible tissues for return to the crew diet. If crops fail to accumulate the incoming Na into edible tissues, Na could become a threat to the hydroponic food production system by increasing the nutrient solution salinity. Vegetable crops of Chenopodiaceae such as spinach, table beet, and chard may have a high potential to supply Na to the human diet, as Na can substitute for K to a large extent in metabolic processes of these crops. Various strategies are outlined that include both genetic and environmental management aspects to optimize the Na recovery from waste streams and their resupply through the human diet in ALS. PMID:11542242

  13. Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus as a food source in advanced life support systems: Initial considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, John M.; Brown, Paul B.

    2006-01-01

    Maintenance of crew health is of paramount importance for long duration space missions. Weight loss, bone and calcium loss, increased exposure to radiation and oxidative stress are critical concerns that need to be alleviated. Tilapia are currently under evaluation as a source of food and their contribution to reducing waste in advanced life support systems (ALSS). The nutritional composition of tilapia whole bodies, fillet, and carcass residues were quantitatively determined. Carbon and nitrogen free-extract percentages were similar among whole body (53.76% and 6.96%, respectively), fillets (47.06% and 6.75%, respectively), and carcass (56.36% and 7.04%, respectively) whereas percentages of N, S, and protein were highest in fillet (13.34, 1.34, and 83.37%, respectively) than whole body (9.27, 0.62, and 57.97%, respectively) and carcass (7.70, 0.39, and 48.15%, respectively). Whole body and fillet meet and/or exceeded current nutritional recommendations for protein, vitamin D, ascorbic acid, and selenium for international space station missions. Whole body appears to be a better source of lipids and n-3 fatty acids, calcium, and phosphorous than fillet. Consuming whole fish appears to optimize equivalent system mass compared to consumption of fillets. Additional research is needed to determine nutritional composition of tilapia whole body, fillet, and carcass when fed waste residues possibly encountered in an ALSS.

  14. Mission simulation as an approach to develop requirements for automation in Advanced Life Support Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, J. D.; Eckelkamp, R. E.; Barta, D. J.; Dragg, J.; Henninger, D. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1996-01-01

    This paper examines mission simulation as an approach to develop requirements for automation and robotics for Advanced Life Support Systems (ALSS). The focus is on requirements and applications for command and control, control and monitoring, situation assessment and response, diagnosis and recovery, adaptive planning and scheduling, and other automation applications in addition to mechanized equipment and robotics applications to reduce the excessive human labor requirements to operate and maintain an ALSS. Based on principles of systems engineering, an approach is proposed to assess requirements for automation and robotics using mission simulation tools. First, the story of a simulated mission is defined in terms of processes with attendant types of resources needed, including options for use of automation and robotic systems. Next, systems dynamics models are used in simulation to reveal the implications for selected resource allocation schemes in terms of resources required to complete operational tasks. The simulations not only help establish ALSS design criteria, but also may offer guidance to ALSS research efforts by identifying gaps in knowledge about procedures and/or biophysical processes. Simulations of a planned one-year mission with 4 crewmembers in a Human Rated Test Facility are presented as an approach to evaluation of mission feasibility and definition of automation and robotics requirements.

  15. The CELSS Antarctic Analog Project: An Advanced Life Support Testbed at the Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straight, Christian L.; Bubenheim, David L.; Bates, Maynard E.; Flynn, Michael T.

    1994-01-01

    CELSS Antarctic Analog Project (CAAP) represents a logical solution to the multiple objectives of both the NASA and the National Science Foundation (NSF). CAAP will result in direct transfer of proven technologies and systems, proven under the most rigorous of conditions, to the NSF and to society at large. This project goes beyond, as it must, the generally accepted scope of CELSS and life support systems including the issues of power generation, human dynamics, community systems, and training. CAAP provides a vivid and starkly realistic testbed of Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) and life support systems and methods. CAAP will also be critical in the development and validation of performance parameters for future advanced life support systems.

  16. Next-Generation Evaporative Cooling Systems for the Advanced Extravehicular Mobility Unit Portable Life Support System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makinen, Janice V.; Anchondo, Ian; Bue, Grant C.; Campbell, Colin; Colunga, Aaron

    2012-01-01

    The development of the Advanced Extravehicular Mobility Unit (AEMU) Portable Life Support System (PLSS) is currently underway at NASA Johnson Space Center. The AEMU PLSS features two new evaporative cooling systems, the Reduced Volume Prototype Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporator (RVP SWME), and the Auxiliary Cooling Loop (ACL). The RVP SWME is the third generation of hollow fiber SWME hardware, and like its predecessors, RVP SWME provides nominal crewmember and electronics cooling by flowing water through porous hollow fibers. Water vapor escapes through the hollow fiber pores, thereby cooling the liquid water that remains inside of the fibers. This cooled water is then recirculated to remove heat from the crewmember and PLSS electronics. Major design improvements, including a 36% reduction in volume, reduced weight, and more flight like back-pressure valve, facilitate the packaging of RVP SWME in the AEMU PLSS envelope. In addition to the RVP SWME, the Auxiliary Cooling Loop (ACL), was developed for contingency crewmember cooling. The ACL is a completely redundant, independent cooling system that consists of a small evaporative cooler--the Mini Membrane Evaporator (Mini-ME), independent pump, independent feed-water assembly and independent Liquid Cooling Garment (LCG). The Mini-ME utilizes the same hollow fiber technology featured in the RVP SWME, but is only 25% of the size of RVP SWME, providing only the necessary crewmember cooling in a contingency situation. The ACL provides a number of benefits when compared with the current EMU PLSS contingency cooling technology; contingency crewmember cooling can be provided for a longer period of time, more contingency situations can be accounted for, no reliance on a Secondary Oxygen Vessel (SOV) for contingency cooling--thereby allowing a SOV reduction in size and pressure, and the ACL can be recharged-allowing the AEMU PLSS to be reused, even after a contingency event. The development of these evaporative cooling

  17. Architecture and Functionality of the Advanced Life Support On-Line Project Information System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, John A.; Levri, Julie A.; Morrow, Rich; Cavazzoni, Jim; Rodriguez, Luis F.; Riano, Rebecca; Whitaker, Dawn R.

    2004-01-01

    An ongoing effort is underway at NASA Ames Research Center (ARC) to develop an On-line Project Information System (OPIS) for the Advanced Life Support (ALS) Program. The objective of this three-year project is to develop, test, revise and deploy OPIS to enhance the quality of decision-making metrics and attainment of Program goals through improved knowledge sharing. OPIS will centrally locate detailed project information solicited from investigators on an annual basis and make it readily accessible by the ALS Community via a Web-accessible interface. The data will be stored in an object-oriented relational database (created in MySQL) located on a secure server at NASA ARC. OPE will simultaneously serve several functions, including being an research and technology development (R&TD) status information hub that can potentially serve as the primary annual reporting mechanism for ALS-funded projects. Using OPIS, ALS managers and element leads will be able to carry out informed R&TD investment decisions, and allow analysts to perform accurate systems evaluations. Additionally, the range and specificity of information solicited will serve to educate technology developers of programmatic needs. OPIS will collect comprehensive information from all ALS projects as well as highly detailed information specific to technology development in each ALS area (Waste, Water, Air, Biomass, Food, Thermal, Controls and Systems Analysis). Because the scope of needed information can vary dramatically between areas, element-specific technology information is being compiled with the aid of multiple specialized working groups. This paper presents the current development status in terms of the architecture and functionality of OPIS. Possible implementation approaches for OPIS are also discussed.

  18. Architecture and Functionality of the Advanced Life Support On-Line Project Information System (OPIS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, John A.; Levri, Julie A.; Morrow, Rich; Cavazzoni, Jim; Rodriquez, Luis F.; Riano, Rebecca; Whitaker, Dawn R.

    2004-01-01

    An ongoing effort is underway at NASA Amcs Research Center (ARC) tu develop an On-line Project Information System (OPIS) for the Advanced Life Support (ALS) Program. The objective of this three-year project is to develop, test, revise and deploy OPIS to enhance the quality of decision-making metrics and attainment of Program goals through improved knowledge sharing. OPIS will centrally locate detailed project information solicited from investigators on an annual basis and make it readily accessible by the ALS Community via a web-accessible interface. The data will be stored in an object-oriented relational database (created in MySQL(Trademark) located on a secure server at NASA ARC. OPE will simultaneously serve several functions, including being an R&TD status information hub that can potentially serve as the primary annual reporting mechanism. Using OPIS, ALS managers and element leads will be able to carry out informed research and technology development investment decisions, and allow analysts to perform accurate systems evaluations. Additionally, the range and specificity of information solicited will serve to educate technology developers of programmatic needs. OPIS will collect comprehensive information from all ALS projects as well as highly detailed information specific to technology development in each ALS area (Waste, Water, Air, Biomass, Food, Thermal, and Control). Because the scope of needed information can vary dramatically between areas, element-specific technology information is being compiled with the aid of multiple specialized working groups. This paper presents the current development status in terms of the architecture and functionality of OPIS. Possible implementation approaches for OPIS are also discussed.

  19. Alternative Metrics for Evaluating the Resilence of Advanced Life Support Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Ann Maria; Dearden, Richard; Levri, Julie A.

    2002-01-01

    Ensuring the safety of the crew is a key performance requirement of a life support system. However, a number of conceptual and practical difficulties arise when devising metrics to concretely measure the ability of a life support system to maintain critical functions in the presence of anticipated and unanticipated faults. Resilience is a dynamic property of a life support system that depends on the complex interactions between faults, controls and system hardware. We review some of the approaches to understanding the robustness or resilience of complex systems being developed in diverse fields such as ecology, software engineering and cell biology and discuss their applicability to regenerative life support systems. We also consider how approaches to measuring resilience vary depending on system design choices such as the definition and choice of the nominal operating regime. Finally, we explore data collection and implementation issues such as the key differences between the instantaneous or conditional and average or overall measures of resilience. Extensive simulation of a hybrid computational model of a water revitalization subsystem (WRS) with probabilistic, component-level faults provides data about off-nominal behavior of the system. The data are used to consider alternative measures of resilience as predictors of the system's ability to recover from component-level faults.

  20. A study of the relationships between perceived pain, social support, coping and quality of life in patients with advanced cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Wright, Shelagh

    1999-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the implications of perceived pain and social support for coping ability, levels of distress and quality of life in a group of patients with advanced cancer. A total of 98 patients who were undergoing palliative treatment and/or care and were aware of their cancer diagnosis, but not necessarily of their prognosis, consented verbally to participate. A questionnaire was administered to each participant comprised of scales to measure perceived pain intensity an...

  1. Basic trauma life support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werman, H A; Nelson, R N; Campbell, J E; Fowler, R L; Gandy, P

    1987-11-01

    The impact of traumatic injuries on modern society in terms of morbidity, mortality, and economic cost is enormous. Studies have shown that both advanced life support skills and rapid stabilization and transport of the trauma victim have a beneficial effect on the patient's ultimate outcome. The Basic Trauma Life Support (BTLS) course was designed to provide pre-hospital care providers with the skills necessary to provide a thorough assessment, initial resuscitation, and rapid transportation of the trauma victim. Early studies suggest that the material is easily learned by prehospital care providers and that the on-scene time for trauma cases is reduced following training in BTLS. More widespread training in BTLS may have a significant effect on the mortality and morbidity associated with traumatic injuries. PMID:3662184

  2. Environmental control and life support technologies for advanced manned space missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, F. T.; Wynveen, R. A.; Lin, C.

    1986-01-01

    Regenerative environmental control and life support system (ECLSS) technologies are found by the present evaluation to have reached a degree of maturity that recommends their application to long duration manned missions. The missions for which regenerative ECLSSs are attractive in virtue of the need to avoid expendables and resupply requirements have been identified as that of the long duration LEO Space Station, long duration stays at GEO, a permanently manned lunar base (or colony), manned platforms located at the earth-moon libration points L4 or L5, a Mars mission, deep space exploration, and asteroid exploration. A comparison is made between nonregenerative and regenerative ECLSSs in the cases of 10 essential functions.

  3. Bioregenerative technologies for waste processing and resource recovery in advanced space life support system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberland, Dennis

    1991-01-01

    The Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) for producing oxygen, water, and food in space will require an interactive facility to process and return wastes as resources to the system. This paper examines the bioregenerative techologies for waste processing and resource recovery considered for a CELSS Resource Recovery system. The components of this system consist of a series of biological reactors to treat the liquid and solid material fractions, in which the aerobic and anaerobic reactors are combined in a block called the Combined Reactor Equipment (CORE) block. The CORE block accepts the human wastes, kitchen wastes, inedible refractory plant materials, grey waters from the CELLS system, and aquaculture solids and processes these materials in either aerobic or anaerobic reactors depending on the desired product and the rates required by the integrated system.

  4. Advanced anaerobic bioconversion of lignocellulosic waste for the melissa life support system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lissens, G.; Verstraete, W.; Albrecht, T.; Brunner, G.; Creuly, C.; Dussap, G.; Kube, J.; Maerkl, H.; Lasseur, C.

    The feasibility of nearly-complete conversion of lignocellulosic waste (70% food crops, 20% faecal matter and 10% green algae) into biogas was investigated in the context of the MELiSSA loop (Micro-Ecological Life Support System Alternative). The treatment comprised a series of processes, i.e. a mesophilic laboratory scale CSTR (continuously stirred tank reactor), an upflow biofilm reactor, a fiber liquefaction reactor employing the rumen bacterium Fibrobacter succinogenes and a hydrothermolysis system in near-critical water. By the one-stage CSTR, a biogas yield of 75% with a specific biogas production of 0.37 l biogas g-1 VSS (volatile suspended solids) added at a RT (hydraulic retention time) of 20-25 d was obtained. Biogas yields could not be increased considerably at higher RT, indicating the depletion of readily available substrate after 25 d. The solids present in the CSTR-effluent were subsequently treated in two ways. Hydrothermal treatment (T ˜ 310-350C, p ˜ 240 bar) resulted in effective carbon liquefaction (50-60% without and 83% with carbon dioxide saturation) and complete sanitation of the residue. Application of the cellulolytic Fibrobacter succinogenes converted remaining cellulose contained in the CSTR-effluent into acetate and propionate mainly. Subsequent anaerobic digestion of the hydrothermolysis and the Fibrobacter hydrolysates allowed conversion of 48-60% and 30%, respectively. Thus, the total process yielded biogas corresponding with conversions up to 90% of the original organic matter. It appears that particularly mesophilic digestion in conjunction with hydrothermolysis offers interesting features for (nearly) the MELiSSA system. The described additional technologies show that complete and hygienic carbon and energy recovery from human waste within MELiSSA is technically feasible, provided that the extra energy needed for the thermal treatment is guaranteed.

  5. The Giant Snail Achatina fulica as a Candidate Species for Advanced Bioregenerative Life Support Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbitskaya, Olga; Manukovsky, Nickolay; Kovalev, Vladimir

    Maintenance of crew health is of paramount importance for long duration space missions. Weight loss, bone and calcium loss, increased exposure to radiation and oxidative stress are critical concerns that need to be alleviated. Rational nutrition is a resource for mitigating the influence of unfavorable conditions. The insufficiency of vegetarian diet has been examined by the Japanese, Chinese and U.S. developers of bioregenerative life support systems (BLSS). Hence, inclusion of animals such as silkworm in BLSS looks justified. The giant snail is currently under studying as a source of animal food and a species of reducing waste in BLSS. An experimental system to conduct cultivation of giant snail was developed. It was established that there are some reasons to use the giant snails in BLSS. It could be a source of delicious meat. A. fulica is capable of consuming a wide range of feedstuffs including plant residues. Cultivation of snail in the limited volume does not demand the big expenditures of labor. The production of crude edible biomass and protein of A. fulica was 60±15 g and 7±1.8 g respectively per 1 kg of consumed forage (fresh salad leaves, root and leafy tops of carrot). To satisfy daily animal protein needs (30-35 g) a crewman has to consume 260-300 g of snail meat. To produce such amount of snail protein it takes to use 4.3-5.0 kg of plant forage daily. The nutritional composition of A. fulica whole bodies (without shell) and a meal prepared in various ways was quantitatively determined. Protein, carbohydrate, fat acid and ash content percentages were different among samples prepared in various ways. The protein content was highest (68 %) in the dry sample washed with CH3 COOH solution. Taking into consideration the experimental results a conceptual configuration of BLSS with inclusion of giant snail was developed and mass flow rates between compartments were calculated. Keywords: animal food; protein; giant snail; BLSS; conceptual configuration.

  6. Application of NASA's Advanced Life Support Technologies for Waste Treatment, Water Purification and Recycle, and Food Production in Polar Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bubenheim, David L.; Lewis, Carol E.; Covington, M. Alan (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    NASA's advanced life support technologies are being combined with Arctic science and engineering knowledge to address the unique needs of the remote communities of Alaska through the Advanced Life Systems for Extreme Environments (ALSEE) project. ALSEE is a collaborative effort involving NASA, the State of Alaska, the University of Alaska, the North Slope Borough of Alaska, and the National Science Foundation (NSF). The focus is a major issue in the state of Alaska and other areas of the Circumpolar North, the health and welfare of its people, their lives and the subsistence lifestyle in remote communities, economic opportunity, and care for the environment. The project primarily provides treatment and reduction of waste, purification and recycling of water. and production of food. A testbed is being established to demonstrate the technologies which will enable safe, healthy, and autonomous function of remote communities and to establish the base for commercial development of the resulting technology into new industries. The challenge is to implement the technological capabilities in a manner compatible with the social and economic structures of the native communities, the state, and the commercial sector. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  7. Using System Mass (SM), Equivalent Mass (EM), Equivalent System Mass (ESM) or Life Cycle Mass (LCM) in Advanced Life Support (ALS) Reporting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Harry

    2003-01-01

    The Advanced Life Support (ALS) has used a single number, Equivalent System Mass (ESM), for both reporting progress and technology selection. ESM is the launch mass required to provide a space system. ESM indicates launch cost. ESM alone is inadequate for technology selection, which should include other metrics such as Technology Readiness Level (TRL) and Life Cycle Cost (LCC) and also consider perfom.arxe 2nd risk. ESM has proven difficult to implement as a reporting metric, partly because it includes non-mass technology selection factors. Since it will not be used exclusively for technology selection, a new reporting metric can be made easier to compute and explain. Systems design trades-off performance, cost, and risk, but a risk weighted cost/benefit metric would be too complex to report. Since life support has fixed requirements, different systems usually have roughly equal performance. Risk is important since failure can harm the crew, but it is difficult to treat simply. Cost is not easy to estimate, but preliminary space system cost estimates are usually based on mass, which is better estimated than cost. Amass-based cost estimate, similar to ESM, would be a good single reporting metric. The paper defines and compares four mass-based cost estimates, Equivalent Mass (EM), Equivalent System Mass (ESM), Life Cycle Mass (LCM), and System Mass (SM). EM is traditional in life support and includes mass, volume, power, cooling and logistics. ESM is the specifically defined ALS metric, which adds crew time and possibly other cost factors to EM. LCM is a new metric, a mass-based estimate of LCC measured in mass units. SM includes only the factors of EM that are originally measured in mass, the hardware and logistics mass. All four mass-based metrics usually give similar comparisons. SM is by far the simplest to compute and easiest to explain.

  8. Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporator; An Enhanced Evaporative Cooling Systems for the Advanced Extravehicular Mobility Unit Portable Life Support System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bue, Grant C.; Makinen, Janice V.; Miller, Sean.; Campbell, Colin; Lynch, Bill; Vogel, Matt; Craft, Jesse; Petty, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporator - Baseline heat rejection technology for the Portable Life Support System of the Advanced EMU center dot Replaces sublimator in the current EMU center dot Contamination insensitive center dot Can work with Lithium Chloride Absorber Radiator in Spacesuit Evaporator Absorber Radiator (SEAR) to reject heat and reuse evaporated water The Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporator (SWME) is being developed to replace the sublimator for future generation spacesuits. Water in LCVG absorbs body heat while circulating center dot Warm water pumped through SWME center dot SWME evaporates water vapor, while maintaining liquid water - Cools water center dot Cooled water is then recirculated through LCVG. center dot LCVG water lost due to evaporation (cooling) is replaced from feedwater The Independent TCV Manifold reduces design complexity and manufacturing difficulty of the SWME End Cap. center dot The offset motor for the new BPV reduces the volume profile of the SWME by laying the motor flat on the End Cap alongside the TCV.

  9. Human Engineering Operations and Habitability Assessment: A Process for Advanced Life Support Ground Facility Testbeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, Janis H.; Arch, M.; Elfezouaty, Eileen Schultz; Novak, Jennifer Blume; Bond, Robert L. (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    Design and Human Engineering (HE) processes strive to ensure that the human-machine interface is designed for optimal performance throughout the system life cycle. Each component can be tested and assessed independently to assure optimal performance, but it is not until full integration that the system and the inherent interactions between the system components can be assessed as a whole. HE processes (which are defining/app lying requirements for human interaction with missions/systems) are included in space flight activities, but also need to be included in ground activities and specifically, ground facility testbeds such as Bio-Plex. A unique aspect of the Bio-Plex Facility is the integral issue of Habitability which includes qualities of the environment that allow humans to work and live. HE is a process by which Habitability and system performance can be assessed.

  10. Recent advances in the diagnosis and management of cardiac amyloidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sher, Taimur; Gertz, Morie A

    2014-01-01

    The heart is commonly involved in various forms of amyloidosis and cardiomyopathy is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in these patients. Diagnosis of cardiac amyloidosis is often delayed due to nonspecific presenting symptoms and failure to recognize early signs of amyloid heart disease on routine cardiac imaging. Treatment of cardiac amyloidosis depends upon the type of amyloid protein. Systemic chemotherapy with or without stem cell transplantation is used to treat immunoglobulin-related amyloidosis and liver transplantation is used for familial transthyretin amyloidosis in select patients. Clinical trials with siRNA for the treatment of transthyretin amyloid cardiomyopathies and amyloid protein stabilizers are ongoing. Prognosis depends on the type of amyloid protein with poorer outcomes noted in immunoglobulin light-chain amyloidosis. Supportive care forms the cornerstone of management and advancements in cardiac imaging and proteomics are expected to positively impact our ability to diagnose, prognosticate and treat cardiac amyloidosis. PMID:24344669

  11. Evaluation of prototype Advanced Life Support (ALS) pack for use by the Health Maintenance Facility (HMF) on Space Station Freedom (SSF)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krupa, Debra T.; Gosbee, John; Murphy, Linda; Kizzee, Victor D.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose is to evaluate the prototype Advanced Life Support (ALS) Pack which was developed for the Health Maintenance Facility (HMF). This pack will enable the Crew Medical Officer (CMO) to have ready access to advanced life support supplies and equipment for time critical responses to any situation within the Space Station Freedom. The objectives are: (1) to evaluate the design of the pack; and (2) to collect comments for revision to the design of the pack. The in-flight test procedures and other aspects of the KC-135 parabolic test flight to simulate weightlessness are presented.

  12. Cardiac CT. Advanced architectures and algorithms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We recently started a new collaborative project to develop improved Cardiac CT architectures and reconstruction algorithms. This paper presents a status update of the initial work in this project and we expect to be able to show several new results by the time of the conference. Firstly, we summarize the cardiac CT application needs and performance requirements. Secondly, we report on a study of cardiac CT architectures, which is still in progress. The architecture analysis requires in-depth understanding of the reconstruction process in terms of noise propagation, spatial resolution, Radon space completeness, and image artifacts. Thirdly, we present an evaluation framework based on simulations and measurements. We started implementing and verifying some advanced system models in our simulation framework. Finally, we present a high-level overview of the different challenges in cardiac CT and how different reconstruction techniques can overcome some of these challenges. (orig.)

  13. Influence of airway management strategy on "no-flow-time" during an "Advanced life support course" for intensive care nurses – A single rescuer resuscitation manikin study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahr Jan

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In 1999, the laryngeal tube (VBM Medizintechnik, Sulz, Germany was introduced as a new supraglottic airway. It was designed to allow either spontaneous breathing or controlled ventilation during anaesthesia; additionally it may serve as an alternative to endotracheal intubation, or bag-mask ventilation during resuscitation. Several variations of this supraglottic airway exist. In our study, we compared ventilation with the laryngeal tube suction for single use (LTS-D and a bag-mask device. One of the main points of the revised ERC 2005 guidelines is a low no-flow-time (NFT. The NFT is defined as the time during which no chest compression occurs. Traditionally during the first few minutes of resuscitation NFT is very high. We evaluated the hypothesis that utilization of the LTS-D could reduce the NFT compared to bag-mask ventilation (BMV during simulated cardiac arrest in a single rescuer manikin study. Methods Participants were studied during a one day advanced life support (ALS course. Two scenarios of arrhythmias requiring defibrillation were simulated in a manikin. One scenario required subjects to establish the airway with a LTS-D; alternatively, the second scenario required them to use BMV. The scenario duration was 430 seconds for the LTS-D scenario, and 420 seconds for the BMV scenario, respectively. Experienced ICU nurses were recruited as study subjects. Participants were randomly assigned to one of the two groups first (LTS-D and BMV to establish the airway. Endpoints were the total NFT during the scenario, the successful airway management using the respective device, and participants' preference of one of the two strategies for airway management. Results Utilization of the LTS-D reduced NFT significantly (p Conclusion In our manikin study, NFT was reduced significantly when using LTS-D compared to BMV. During cardiac arrest, the LTS-D might be a good alternative to BMV for providing and maintaining a patent airway

  14. Novel Multi-Functional Life Support System

    OpenAIRE

    Webb, David P.; Jackson, Darren; Kasasbeh, Ehab S.; Bagai, Jayant; Zhao, David X.

    2010-01-01

    Concepts of cardiopulmonary support (CPS), extra-corporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO), and ventricular support (VS) have been thoroughly studied and refined. These perfusion adjuncts often require multiple devices, skill sets, and significant financial burden to purchase, maintain, deploy, and use. We describe a novel system that is rapidly deployable, user-friendly, portable, safe, and economical. Over a 1-year period we have used a multi-functional life support system (MLS) in the cardiac ...

  15. Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE)-based Assessment of the Advanced Trauma Life Support (ATLS) Course in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, Hamid Reza; Amini, Mitra; Bolandparvaz, Shahram; Paydar, Shahram; Ali, Jameel; Sefidbakht, Sepideh

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effect of advance trauma life support (ATLS®) training on general surgery residents clinical reasoning skills using the national boards-style objective structured clinical examination (OSCE). Methods: This cross-sectional single-center study was conducted in Shiraz University of Medical Sciences including 51 surgery residents that participated in a mandatory national board style OSCE between May 2014 and May 2015. OSCE scores of two groups of general surgery residents including 23 ATLS® trained and 28 non-ATLS® trained were compared using Mann-Whitney U test. The exam was graded out of 20 points and the passing score was ≥14 including 40% trauma cases. Results: There were 8(15.7%) women and 43(84.3%) men among the participants with mean age of 31.12 ± 2.69 and 33.67 ± 4.39 years in women and men respectively. Overall 7 (87.5%) women and 34 (79.07%) men passed the OSCE. The trauma section OSCE score was significantly higher in the ATLS® trained participants when compared to non-ATLS®(7.79 ± 0.81vs.6.90 ± 1.00; p=0.001). In addition, the total score was also significantly higher in ATLS® trained residents (16.07 ± 1.41 vs. 14.60 ± 1.40; p=0.001). There was no association between gender and ATLS® score (p=0.245) or passing the OSCE (p=0.503). Conclusion: ATLS® training is associated with improved overall OSCE scores of general surgery residents completing the board examinations suggesting a positive transfer of ATLS learned skills to management of simulated surgical patients including trauma cases.

  16. Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporator; An Enhanced Evaporative Cooling System for the Advanced Extravehicular Mobility Unit Portable Life Support System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bue, Grant C.; Makinen, Janice V.; Miller, Sean; Campbell, Colin; Lynch, Bill; Vogel, Matt; Craft, Jesse; Wilkes, Robert; Kuehnel, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Development of the Advanced Extravehicular Mobility Unit (AEMU) portable life support subsystem (PLSS) is currently under way at NASA Johnson Space Center. The AEMU PLSS features a new evaporative cooling system, the Generation 4 Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporator (Gen4 SWME). The SWME offers several advantages when compared with prior crewmember cooling technologies, including the ability to reject heat at increased atmospheric pressures, reduced loop infrastructure, and higher tolerance to fouling. Like its predecessors, Gen4 SWME provides nominal crew member and electronics cooling by flowing water through porous hollow fibers. Water vapor escapes through the hollow fiber pores, thereby cooling the liquid water that remains inside of the fibers. This cooled water is then recirculated to remove heat from the crew member and PLSS electronics. Test results from the backup cooling system which is based on a similar design and the subject of a companion paper, suggested that further volume reductions could be achieved through fiber density optimization. Testing was performed with four fiber bundle configurations ranging from 35,850 fibers to 41,180 fibers. The optimal configuration reduced the Gen4 SWME envelope volume by 15% from that of Gen3 while dramatically increasing the performance margin of the system. A rectangular block design was chosen over the Gen3 cylindrical design, for packaging configurations within the AEMU PLSS envelope. Several important innovations were made in the redesign of the backpressure valve which is used to control evaporation. A twin-port pivot concept was selected from among three low profile valve designs for superior robustness, control and packaging. The backpressure valve motor, the thermal control valve, delta pressure sensors and temperature sensors were incorporated into the manifold endcaps, also for packaging considerations. Flight-like materials including a titanium housing were used for all components. Performance testing

  17. Effectiveness of beneficial plant-microbe interactions under hypobaric and hypoxic conditions in an advanced life support system

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacIntyre, Olathe; Stasiak, Michael; Cottenie, Karl; Trevors, Jack; Dixon, Mike

    An assembled microbial community in the hydroponics solution of an advanced life support system may improve plant performance and productivity in three ways: (1) exclusion of plant pathogens from the initial community, (2) resistance to infection, and (3) plant-growth promotion. However, the plant production area is likely to have a hypobaric (low pressure) and hypoxic (low oxygen) atmosphere to reduce structural mass and atmosphere leakage, and these conditions may alter plant-microbe interactions. Plant performance and productivity of radish (Raphanus sativus L. cv. Cherry Bomb II) grown under hypobaric and hypoxic conditions were investigated at the University of Guelph's Controlled Environment Systems Research Facility. Changes in the microbial communities that routinely colonized the re-circulated nutrient solution, roots, and leaves of radishes in these experiments were quantified in terms of similarity in community composition, abundance of bacteria, and community diversity before and after exposure to hypobaric and hypoxic conditions relative to communities maintained at ambient growth conditions. The microbial succession was affected by extreme hypoxia (2 kPa oxygen partial pressure) while hypobaria as low as 10 kPa total pressure had little effect on microbial ecology. There were no correlations found between the physiological profile of these unintentional microbial communities and radish growth. The effects of hypobaric and hypoxic conditions on specific plant-microbe interactions need to be determined before beneficial gnotobiotic communities can be developed for use in space. The bacterial strains Tal 629 of Bradyrhizobium japonicum and WCS417 of Pseudomonas fluorescens, and the plant pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. raphani will be used in future experiments. B. japonicum Tal 629 promotes radish growth in hydroponics systems and P. fluorescens WCS417 induces systemic resistance to fusarium wilt (F. oxysporum f. sp. raphani) in radish under ambient

  18. Distilling complexity to advance cardiac tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogle, Brenda M; Bursac, Nenad; Domian, Ibrahim; Huang, Ngan F; Menasché, Philippe; Murry, Charles E; Pruitt, Beth; Radisic, Milica; Wu, Joseph C; Wu, Sean M; Zhang, Jianyi; Zimmermann, Wolfram-Hubertus; Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana

    2016-06-01

    The promise of cardiac tissue engineering is in the ability to recapitulate in vitro the functional aspects of a healthy heart and disease pathology as well as to design replacement muscle for clinical therapy. Parts of this promise have been realized; others have not. In a meeting of scientists in this field, five central challenges or "big questions" were articulated that, if addressed, could substantially advance the current state of the art in modeling heart disease and realizing heart repair. PMID:27280684

  19. Effect of High-Fidelity Simulation on Medical Students' Knowledge about Advanced Life Support: A Randomized Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Cortegiani

    Full Text Available High-fidelity simulation (HFS is a learning method which has proven effective in medical education for technical and non-technical skills. However, its effectiveness for knowledge acquisition is less validated. We performed a randomized study with the primary aim of investigating whether HFS, in association with frontal lessons, would improve knowledge about advanced life support (ALS, in comparison to frontal lessons only among medical students. The secondary aims were to evaluate the effect of HFS on knowledge acquisition of different sections of ALS and personal knowledge perception. Participants answered a pre-test questionnaire consisting of a subjective (evaluating personal perception of knowledge and an objective section (measuring level of knowledge containing 100 questions about algorithms, technical skills, team working/early warning scores/communication strategies according to ALS guidelines. All students participated in 3 frontal lessons before being randomized in group S, undergoing a HFS session, and group C, receiving no further interventions. After 10 days from the end of each intervention, both groups answered a questionnaire (post-test with the same subjective section but a different objective one. The overall number of correct answers of the post-test was significantly higher in group S (mean 74.1, SD 11.2 than in group C (mean 65.5, SD 14.3, p = 0.0017, 95% C.I. 3.34 - 13.9. A significantly higher number of correct answers was reported in group S than in group C for questions investigating knowledge of algorithms (p = 0.0001; 95% C.I 2.22-5.99 and team working/early warning scores/communication strategies (p = 0.0060; 95% C.I 1.13-6.53. Students in group S showed a significantly higher score in the post-test subjective section (p = 0.0074. A lower proportion of students in group S confirmed their perception of knowledge compared to group C (p = 0.0079. HFS showed a beneficial effect on knowledge of ALS among medical students

  20. Incidence and Management of Life-Threatening Adverse Events During Cardiac Catheterization for Congenital Heart Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, C. Huie; Hegde, Sanjeet; Marshall, Audrey C.; Porras, Diego; Gauvreau, Kimberlee; Balzer, David T.; Beekman, Robert H.; Torres, Alejandro; Vincent, Julie A.; Moore, John W.; Holzer, Ralf; Armsby, Laurie; Bergersen, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    Continued advancements in congenital cardiac catheterization and interventions have resulted in increased patient and procedural complexity. Anticipation of life-threatening events and required rescue measures is a critical component to preprocedural preparation. We sought to determine the incidence and nature of life-threatening adverse events in congenital and pediatric cardiac catheterization, risk factors, and resources necessary to anticipate and manage events. Data from 8905 cases perfo...

  1. Newly graduated doctors' competence in managing cardiopulmonary arrests assessed using a standardized Advanced Life Support (ALS) assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Marianne Lidang; Hesselfeldt, R.; Rasmussen, M.B.;

    2008-01-01

    Aim of the study: Several studies using a variety of assessment approaches have demonstrated that young doctors possess insufficient resuscitation competence. The aims of this study were to assess newly graduated doctors’ resuscitation competence against an internationally recognised standard and...... to study whether teaching site affects their resuscitation competence. Materials and methods: The entire cohort of medical students from Copenhagen University expected to graduate in June 2006 was invited to participate in the study. Participants’ ALS- competence was assessed using the Advanced Life...... resuscitation teaching issued by the university. Results: Participation was accepted by 154/240 (64%) graduates. Only 23% of the participants met the ALS pass criteria. They primarily lacked skills in managing cardiopulmonary arrest. There were significant differences in ALS-competence between teaching sites....

  2. Distilling complexity to advance cardiac tissue engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogle, Brenda M.; Bursac, Nenad; Domian, Ibrahim; Huang, Ngan F; Menasché, Philippe; Murry, Charles; Pruitt, Beth; Radisic, Milica; Wu, Joseph C; Wu, Sean M; Zhang, Jianyi; Zimmermann, Wolfram-Hubertus; Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana

    2016-01-01

    The promise of cardiac tissue engineering is in the ability to recapitulate in vitro the functional aspects of healthy heart and disease pathology as well as to design replacement muscle for clinical therapy. Parts of this promise have been realized; others have not. In a meeting of scientists in this field, five central challenges or “big questions” were articulated that, if addressed, could substantially advance the current state-of-the-art in modeling heart disease and realizing heart repair. PMID:27280684

  3. Using Technology Readiness Level (TRL), Life Cycle Cost (LCC), and Other Metrics to Supplement Equivalent System Mass (ESM) in Advanced Life Support (ALS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Harry

    2003-01-01

    The ALS project plan goals are reducing cost, improving performance, and achieving flight readiness. ALS selects projects to advance the mission readiness of low cost, high performance technologies. The role of metrics is to help select good projects and report progress. The Equivalent Mass (EM) of a system is the sum of the estimated mass of the hardware, of its required materials and spares, and of the pressurized volume, power supply, and cooling system needed to support the hardware in space. EM is the total payload launch mass needed to provide and support a system. EM is directly proportional to the launch cost.

  4. Recent advances in paediatric cardiac anaesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahesh Vakamudi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Paediatric cardiac anaesthesia involves anaesthetizing very small children with complex congenital heart disease for major surgical procedures. The unique nature of this patient population requires considerable expertise and in-depth knowledge of the altered physiology. There have been several developments in the last decade in this subspecialty that has contributed to better care and improved outcome in this vulnerable group of patients. The purpose of this review is to present some of the recent advances in the anesthetic management of these children from preoperative evaluation to postoperative care. This article reviews the role of magnetic resonance imaging and contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography in preoperative evaluation, the use of ultrasound to secure vascular access, the use of cuffed endotracheal tubes, the optimal haematocrit and the role of blood products, including the use of recombinant factor VIIa. It also deals with the advances in technology that have led to improved monitoring, the newer developments in cardiopulmonary bypass, the use of centrifugal pumps and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation and the role of DHCA. The role of new drugs, especially the α-2 agonists in paediatric cardiac anesthetic practice, fast tracking and effective postoperative pain management have also been reviewed.

  5. The Effects of Exercise Cardiac Rehabilitation on Anxiety, Depression and Quality of Life in Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting Patients

    OpenAIRE

    A. Yalfani; F. Nazem; R. Safiarian; M. Jargeh

    2012-01-01

    Introduction & Objective: Despite advancement in technology such as coronary artery bypasses grafting (CABG) prevalence of anxiety and depression remain high after cardiac events, which have been found to influence recovery process, recurrent cardiac events and patients’ quality of life. Cardiac Rehabilitation (CR) as part of secondary prevention aims to improve patients’ physical, psychological and quality of life (QoL) status. As there is lack of study in this area in Iran, the present stud...

  6. Results of the Workshop on Two-Phase Flow, Fluid Stability and Dynamics: Issues in Power, Propulsion, and Advanced Life Support Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuillen, John; Rame, Enrique; Kassemi, Mohammad; Singh, Bhim; Motil, Brian

    2003-01-01

    The Two-phase Flow, Fluid Stability and Dynamics Workshop was held on May 15, 2003 in Cleveland, Ohio to define a coherent scientific research plan and roadmap that addresses the multiphase fluid problems associated with NASA s technology development program. The workshop participants, from academia, industry and government, prioritized various multiphase issues and generated a research plan and roadmap to resolve them. This report presents a prioritization of the various multiphase flow and fluid stability phenomena related primarily to power, propulsion, fluid and thermal management and advanced life support; and a plan to address these issues in a logical and timely fashion using analysis, ground-based and space-flight experiments.

  7. Measuring quality of life in cardiac spouses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebbesen, L S; Guyatt, G H; McCartney, N; Oldridge, N B

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop an objective instrument to measure changes in quality of life of spouses of post-myocardial infarction (MI) patients, and to determine its responsiveness and validity. A 70-item list of potential areas of concern was compiled; the 25 most frequent and important concerns comprised the framework of the final questionnaire. The questions on the Quality of Life Questionnaire for Cardiac Spouses (QL-SP) were categorized into the Emotional Function Dimension (EFD), and the Physical and Social Function Dimension (PSFD). Subjects (n = 39) completed the QL-SP and a battery of established questionnaires at home, 1-2 weeks post-hospital discharge for the patient, and 8 weeks later. Scores on the QL-SP between visits were improved for both the EFD (t = 5.56, p less than 0.001), and the PSFD (t = 6.11, p less than 0.001). The agreement between predicted and observed relationships between the dimension changes and other index changes, as measured statistically by a kappa with Cicchetti weights, was significant (kappa w = 0.43, p = 0.0012). The QL-SP appears to be responsive and valid, and may be useful in evaluating clinical and research intervention strategies. PMID:2324789

  8. Is the advanced trauma life support simulation exam more stressful for the surgeon than emergency department trauma care? O stress afeta cirurgiões durante o aprendizado tanto quanto na sua carreira profissional?

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Paula Quilici; Renato Sergio Pogetti; Belchor Fontes; Luis Fernando Correa Zantut; Eliana Torrea Chaves; Dario Birolini

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Stress affects surgeons both during training and during professional activity. OBJECTIVE: To compare stress levels affecting surgical residents during the simulated initial assessment and management in the Advanced Trauma Life Support practical exam vs initial assessment and management of trauma patients in the emergency room. METHOD: Eighteen surgical residents were evaluated under basal conditions, during the Advanced Trauma Life Support simulation, and during emergency room ini...

  9. Evaluation of two fiber optic-based solar collection and distribution systems for advanced space life support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jack, D. A.; Nakamura, T.; Sadler, P.; Cuello, J. L.

    2002-01-01

    Growing plants in an enclosed controlled environment is crucial in developing bioregenerative life-support systems (BLSS) for space applications. The major challenge currently facing a BLSS is the extensive use of highly energy-intensive electric light sources, which leads to substantial energy wastes through heat dissipations by these lamps. An alternative lighting strategy is the use of a solar irradiance collection, transmission, and distribution system (SICTDS). Two types of fiber optic-based SICTDS, a Fresnel-lens Himawari and a parabolic-mirror optical waveguide (OW) lighting system, were evaluated. The overall efficiency for the OW SICTDS of 40.5% exceeded by 75% that for the Himawari of 23.2%. The spectral distributions of the light delivered by the Himawari and the OW SICTDS were almost identical and had practically no difference from that of terrestrial solar radiation. The ratios of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) to total emitted radiation (k) of 0.39 +/- 0.02 for the Himawari and 0.41 +/- 0.04 for the OW SICTDS were statistically indistinguishable, were not significantly different from that of 0.042 +/- 0.01 for terrestrial solar radiation, and were comparable to that of 0.35 for a high-pressure sodium (HPS) lamp. The coefficients of variation (CV) of 0.34 and 0.39 for PPF distributions, both at 50 mm X 50 mm square grid arrays, corresponding to the Himawari and the OW SICTDS, respectively, were comparable with each other but were both significantly greater than the CV of 0.08 corresponding to the HPS lamp. The average fresh weight or dry weight of lettuce grown in the solar chamber with either the Himawari or the OW SICTDS showed no statistical difference from the average fresh weight or dry weight of lettuce grown in the reference chamber with the HPS lamp. The results of this study suggest that an SICTDS could help reduce the electric power demand in a BLSS.

  10. The effects of cardiac tertiary prevention program after coronary artery bypass graft surgery on health and quality of life

    OpenAIRE

    Azam Mosayebi; Shaghayegh Haghjooy Javanmard; Mohsen Mirmohamadsadeghi; Reza Rajabi; Samaneh Mostafavi; Marjan Mansourian

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: Cardiac tertiary prevention programs intend to support the recovery course following coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). We investigated the effects of attendance at cardiac rehabilitation (CR) programs following CABG on patients′ mortality, morbidity and health related quality of life. Methods: Eighty patients who underwent CABG were selected in a way that half of them had attended a cardiac rehabilitation program and the other half had not. Health related quality of life ...

  11. Next Generation Life Support Project Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barta, Daniel J.; Chullen, Cinda; Pickering, Karen D.; Cox, Marlon; Towsend, Neil; Campbell, Colin; Flynn, Michael; Wheeler, Raymond

    2012-01-01

    Next Generation Life Support (NGLS) is one of several technology development projects sponsored by NASA s Game Changing Development Program. The NGLS Project is developing life support technologies (including water recovery and space suit life support technologies) needed for humans to live and work productively in space. NGLS has three project tasks: Variable Oxygen Regulator (VOR), Rapid Cycle Amine (RCA) swing bed, and Alternative Water Processor (AWP). The RCA swing bed and VOR tasks are directed at key technology needs for the Portable Life Support System (PLSS) for an Advanced Extravehicular Mobility Unit, with focus on test article development and integrated testing in an Advanced PLSS in cooperation with the Advanced Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA) Project. An RCA swing-bed provides integrated carbon dioxide removal and humidity control that can be regenerated in real time during an EVA. The VOR technology will significantly increase the number of pressure settings available to the space suit. Current space suit pressure regulators are limited to only two settings whereas the adjustability of the advanced regulator will be nearly continuous. The AWP effort, based on natural biological processes and membrane-based secondary treatment, will result in the development of a system capable of recycling wastewater from sources expected in future exploration missions, including hygiene and laundry water. This paper will provide a status of technology development activities and future plans.

  12. Advances in cardiac magnetic resonance imaging of congenital heart disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driessen, Mieke M P; Breur, Johannes M. P. J.; Budde, Ricardo P J; van Oorschot, Joep W M; van Kimmenade, Roland R J; Sieswerda, Gertjan Tj.; Meijboom, Folkert J; Leiner, Tim

    2015-01-01

    Due to advances in cardiac surgery, survival of patients with congenital heart disease has increased considerably during the past decades. Many of these patients require repeated cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging to assess cardiac anatomy and function. In the past decade, technological advan

  13. Application of life-cycle information for advancement in safety of nuclear fuel cycle facilities. Application of safety information to advanced safety management support system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Risk management is major concern to nuclear energy reprocessing plants to improve plant and process reliability and ensure their safety. This is because we are required to predict potential risks before any accident or disaster occurs. The advancement of safety design and safety systems technologies showed large amount of useful safety-related knowledge that can be of great importance to plant operation to reduce operation risks and ensure safety. This research proposes safety knowledge modeling framework on the basis of ontology technologies to systematically construct plant knowledge model, which includes plant structure, operation, and the associated behaviors. In such plant knowledge model safety related information is defined and linked to the different elements of plant knowledge model. Ontology editor is employed to define the basic concepts and their inter-relations, which are used to capture and construct plant safety knowledge. In order to provide detailed safety knowledgebase, HAZOP results are analyzed and structured so that safety-related knowledge are identified and structured within the plant knowledgebase. The target safety knowledgebase includes: failures, deviations, causes, consequences, and fault propagation as mapped to plant knowledge. The proposed ontology-based safety framework is applied on case study nuclear plant to structure failures, causes, consequences, and fault propagation, which are used to support plant operation. (author)

  14. CARDIAC REHABILITATION PROGRAM (AEROBIC) AND QUALITY OF LIFE IN CARDIAC PATIENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Majid Gorgeh; Morad Jorgeh; Farzad Nazem; Ali Yelfani

    2011-01-01

    Cardiac rehabilitation is the effective method to improve quality of life; especially in heartdisease.The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of cardiac rehabilitation programson the quality of life of patients who had undergone coronary artery bypass grafting in Iran.Six weeks after CABG 60 patients ( 46 male and 14 female) participated in an 12-week cardiacrehabilitation program that consisted of formal supervised exercise training and educationalsessions in shahid beheshti re...

  15. Reduced Volume Prototype Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporator; A Next-Generation Evaporative Cooling System for the Advanced Extravehicular Mobility Unit Portable Life Support System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makinen, Janice V.; Anchondo, Ian; Bue, Grant C.; Campbell, Colin; Colunga, Aaron

    2013-01-01

    Development of the Advanced Extravehicular Mobility Unit (AEMU) portable life support subsystem (PLSS) is currently under way at NASA Johnson Space Center. The AEMU PLSS features a new evaporative cooling system, the reduced volume prototype (RVP) spacesuit water membrane evaporator (SWME). The RVP SWME is the third generation of hollow fiber SWME hardware. Like its predecessors, RVP SWME provides nominal crew member and electronics cooling by flowing water through porous hollow fibers. Water vapor escapes through the hollow fiber pores, thereby cooling the liquid water that remains inside of the fibers. This cooled water is then recirculated to remove heat from the crew member and PLSS electronics. Major design improvements, including a 36% reduction in volume, reduced weight, and a more flight-like backpressure valve, facilitate the packaging of RVP SWME in the AEMU PLSS envelope. The development of these evaporative cooling systems will contribute to a more robust and comprehensive AEMU PLSS.

  16. Efficacy of weekly docetaxel in locally advanced cardiac angiosarcoma

    OpenAIRE

    Minichillo, Santino; Pantaleo, Maria Abbondanza; Nannini, Margherita; Coccolo, Fabio; GATTO, LIDIA; Biasco, Guido; Brandi, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    Background Primary cardiac angiosarcoma is extremely aggressive; however, it is often misdiagnosed because of its rarity. For locally advanced tumors, doxorubicin-based chemotherapy regimens are the standard of treatment, even if the gain in term of progression-free survival is limited and is no longer than 5 months. Case presentation We report the case of a Caucasian 23-year-old man with locally advanced cardiac angiosarcoma who underwent radical surgical resection after a prolonged response...

  17. An ethnographic study of strategies to support discussions with family members on end-of-life care for people with advanced dementia in nursing homes

    OpenAIRE

    Saini, Geena; Sampson, Elizabeth L.; Davis, Sarah; Kupeli, Nuriye; Harrington, Jane; Leavey, Gerard; Nazareth, Irwin; Jones, Louise; Moore, Kirsten J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Most people with advanced dementia die in nursing homes where families may have to make decisions as death approaches. Discussions about end-of-life care between families and nursing home staff are uncommon, despite a range of potential benefits. In this study we aimed to examine practices relating to end-of-life discussions with family members of people with advanced dementia residing in nursing homes and to explore strategies for improving practice. Methods An ethnographic study ...

  18. Recent advances in cardiac SPECT instrumentation and system design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Mark F

    2013-08-01

    Recent advances in clinical cardiac SPECT instrumentation are reviewed from a systems perspective. New hardware technologies include pixelated scintillator and semiconductor detector elements; photodetectors such as position-sensitive photomultiplier tubes (PSPMT), avalanche photodiodes (APD) and silicon photomultipliers (SiPM); and novel cardiac collimation methods. There are new approaches for positioning detectors and controlling their motion during cardiac imaging. Software technology advances include iterative image reconstruction with modeling of Poisson statistics and depth-dependent collimator response. These new technologies enable faster acquisitions, the lowering of administered activity and radiation dose, and improved image resolution. Higher sensitivity collimators are a significant factor enabling faster acquisitions. Several clinical systems incorporating new technologies are discussed and different system designs can achieve similar performance. With detector elements such as APDs, SiPMs and semiconductors that are insensitive to magnetic fields, the potential for cardiac SPECT imagers that are MRI compatible opens up new frontiers in clinical cardiac research and patient care. PMID:23832650

  19. Next Generation Life Support Project Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barta, Daniel J.; Chullen, Cinda; Vega, Leticia; Cox, Marlon R.; Aitchison, Lindsay T.; Lange, Kevin E.; Pensinger, Stuart J.; Meyer, Caitlin E.; Flynn, Michael; Jackson, W. Andrew; Abney, Morgan B.; Wheeler, Raymond M.

    2014-01-01

    Next Generation Life Support (NGLS) is one of over twenty technology development projects sponsored by NASA's Game Changing Development Program. The NGLS Project develops selected life support technologies needed for humans to live and work productively in space, with focus on technologies for future use in spacecraft cabin and space suit applications. Over the last three years, NGLS had five main project elements: Variable Oxygen Regulator (VOR), Rapid Cycle Amine (RCA) swing bed, High Performance (HP) Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Glove, Alternative Water Processor (AWP) and Series-Bosch Carbon Dioxide Reduction. The RCA swing bed, VOR and HP EVA Glove tasks are directed at key technology needs for the Portable Life Support System (PLSS) and pressure garment for an Advanced Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU). Focus is on prototyping and integrated testing in cooperation with the Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Advanced EVA Project. The HP EVA Glove Element, new this fiscal year, includes the generation of requirements and standards to guide development and evaluation of new glove designs. The AWP and Bosch efforts focus on regenerative technologies to further close spacecraft cabin atmosphere revitalization and water recovery loops and to meet technology maturation milestones defined in NASA's Space Technology Roadmaps. These activities are aimed at increasing affordability, reliability, and vehicle self-sufficiency while decreasing mass and mission cost, supporting a capability-driven architecture for extending human presence beyond low-Earth orbit, along a human path toward Mars. This paper provides a status of current technology development activities with a brief overview of future plans.

  20. Advances in cardiac magnetic resonance imaging of congenital heart disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to advances in cardiac surgery, survival of patients with congenital heart disease has increased considerably during the past decades. Many of these patients require repeated cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging to assess cardiac anatomy and function. In the past decade, technological advances have enabled faster and more robust cardiovascular magnetic resonance with improved image quality and spatial as well as temporal resolution. This review aims to provide an overview of advances in cardiovascular magnetic resonance hardware and acquisition techniques relevant to both pediatric and adult patients with congenital heart disease and discusses the techniques used to assess function, anatomy, flow and tissue characterization. (orig.)

  1. Advances in cardiac magnetic resonance imaging of congenital heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driessen, Mieke M P; Breur, Johannes M P J; Budde, Ricardo P J; van Oorschot, Joep W M; van Kimmenade, Roland R J; Sieswerda, Gertjan Tj; Meijboom, Folkert J; Leiner, Tim

    2015-01-01

    Due to advances in cardiac surgery, survival of patients with congenital heart disease has increased considerably during the past decades. Many of these patients require repeated cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging to assess cardiac anatomy and function. In the past decade, technological advances have enabled faster and more robust cardiovascular magnetic resonance with improved image quality and spatial as well as temporal resolution. This review aims to provide an overview of advances in cardiovascular magnetic resonance hardware and acquisition techniques relevant to both pediatric and adult patients with congenital heart disease and discusses the techniques used to assess function, anatomy, flow and tissue characterization. PMID:25552386

  2. Advances in cardiac magnetic resonance imaging of congenital heart disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Driessen, Mieke M.P. [University of Utrecht, University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology, PO Box 85500, Utrecht (Netherlands); University of Utrecht, University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Cardiology, PO Box 85500, Utrecht (Netherlands); The Interuniversity Cardiology Institute of the Netherlands (ICIN) - Netherlands Heart Institute, PO Box 19258, Utrecht (Netherlands); Breur, Johannes M.P.J. [Wilhelmina Children' s Hospital, University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Pediatric Cardiology, PO Box 85500, Utrecht (Netherlands); Budde, Ricardo P.J.; Oorschot, Joep W.M. van; Leiner, Tim [University of Utrecht, University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology, PO Box 85500, Utrecht (Netherlands); Kimmenade, Roland R.J. van; Sieswerda, Gertjan Tj [University of Utrecht, University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Cardiology, PO Box 85500, Utrecht (Netherlands); Meijboom, Folkert J. [University of Utrecht, University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Cardiology, PO Box 85500, Utrecht (Netherlands); Wilhelmina Children' s Hospital, University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Pediatric Cardiology, PO Box 85500, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2015-01-01

    Due to advances in cardiac surgery, survival of patients with congenital heart disease has increased considerably during the past decades. Many of these patients require repeated cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging to assess cardiac anatomy and function. In the past decade, technological advances have enabled faster and more robust cardiovascular magnetic resonance with improved image quality and spatial as well as temporal resolution. This review aims to provide an overview of advances in cardiovascular magnetic resonance hardware and acquisition techniques relevant to both pediatric and adult patients with congenital heart disease and discusses the techniques used to assess function, anatomy, flow and tissue characterization. (orig.)

  3. Development and Qualification of Advancements in Submersible Transfer Pump Performance and Life, and Implications for Advancing and Supporting Processing Options - 13343

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From the 1950's through the 1990's, relatively inexpensive, 'off-the-shelf' type, vertical turbine pumps (VTP) were used to transfer Hanford waste. The technology of those pumps was rooted primarily in the mining and agricultural (irrigation) industries. HNF-3218, Double Shell Tank (DST) Transfer Pump History and Reliability Report, 1998, provides a summary of Hanford DST pump history to that date. Such pumps operated in the Hanford radioactive waste environment for an average of only 400 hours before failure. However, at that time, operating life was not a driving criteria within the Department of Energy (DOE) complex, as the failure of transfer pumps represented a relatively low replacement and disposal cost. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) issuance of the 'Debris Rule' in 1992, which mandated that mixed radioactive waste contaminated equipment be decontaminated to a 'low level waste' category prior to burial, elevated the significance of transfer pump reliability and decontamination capability as life-cycle cost criteria. Minimizing the frequency of transfer pump failures and design for decontamination became significantly important and served to drive the need toward specific, designed for application pumps to meet this challenge. To this end, Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS) and the supplier, Curtiss-Wright EMD (EMD), have recently collaborated on an intense program to further transfer pump technology and performance. (authors)

  4. Controlled ecological life-support system - Use of plants for human life-support in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberland, D.; Knott, W. M.; Sager, J. C.; Wheeler, R.

    1992-01-01

    Scientists and engineers within NASA are conducting research which will lead to development of advanced life-support systems that utilize higher plants in a unique approach to solving long-term life-support problems in space. This biological solution to life-support, Controlled Ecological Life-Support System (CELSS), is a complex, extensively controlled, bioengineered system that relies on plants to provide the principal elements from gas exchange and food production to potable water reclamation. Research at John F. Kennedy Space Center (KSC) is proceeding with a comprehensive investigation of the individual parts of the CELSS system at a one-person scale in an approach called the Breadboard Project. Concurrently a relatively new NASA sponsored research effort is investigating plant growth and metabolism in microgravity, innovative hydroponic nutrient delivery systems, and use of highly efficient light emitting diodes for artificial plant illumination.

  5. The Life Support Database system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Likens, William C.

    1991-01-01

    The design and implementation of the database system are described with specific reference to data available from the Build-1 version and techniques for its utilization. The review of the initial documents for the Life Support Database is described in terms of title format and sequencing, and the users are defined as participants in NASA-sponsored life-support research. The software and hardware selections are based respectively on referential integrity and compatibility, and the implementation of the user interface is achieved by means of an applications-programming tool. The current Beta-Test implementation of the system includes several thousand acronyms and bibliographic references as well as chemical properties and exposure limits, equipment, construction materials, and mission data. In spite of modifications in the database the system is found to be effective and a potentially significant resource for the aerospace community.

  6. Perioperative management of pediatric patients on mechanical cardiac support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mossad, Emad B; Motta, Pablo; Rossano, Joseph; Hale, Brittani; Morales, David L

    2011-05-01

    The population of children with end-stage heart failure requiring mechanical circulatory support is growing. These children present for diagnostic imaging studies, various interventions and noncardiac surgical procedures that require anesthetic care. This article is a review of the population demographics of children on mechanical cardiac support, the alternative devices available, and the important concepts for safe perioperative management of these patients. The discussion will be limited to devices for short- and long-term cardiac support, excluding extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) for respiratory support. PMID:21332879

  7. Psychiatry - life events and social support in late life depression

    OpenAIRE

    Clóvis Alexandrino-Silva; Tânia Ferraz Alves; Luís Fernando Tófoli; Yuan-Pang Wang; Laura Helena Andrade

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To examine the association of life events and social support in the broadly defined category of depression in late life. INTRODUCTION: Negative life events and lack of social support are associated with depression in the elderly. Currently, there are limited studies examining the association between life events, social support and late-life depression in Brazil. METHODS: We estimated the frequency of late-life depression within a household community sample of 367 subjects aged 60 ...

  8. Recovery of resources for advanced life support space applications: effect of retention time on biodegradation of two crop residues in a fed-batch, continuous stirred tank reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strayer, R. F.; Finger, B. W.; Alazraki, M. P.; Cook, K.; Garland, J. L.

    2002-01-01

    Bioreactor retention time is a key process variable that will influence costs that are relevant to long distance space travel or long duration space habitation. However. little is known about the effects of this parameter on the microbiological treatment options that are being proposed for Advanced Life Support (ALS) systems. Two bioreactor studies were designed to examine this variable. In the first one, six retention times ranging from 1.3 to 21.3 days--were run in duplicate, 81 working-volume continuous stirred tank reactors (CSTR) that were fed ALS wheat residues. Ash-free dry weight loss, carbon mineralization, soluble TOC reduction, changes in fiber content (cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin), bacterial numbers, and mineral recoveries were monitored. At short retention times--1.33 days--biodegradation was poor (total: 16-20%, cellulose - 12%, hemicellulose - 28%) but soluble TOC was decreased by 75-80% and recovery of major crop inorganic nutrients was adequate, except for phosphorus. A high proportion of the total bacteria (ca. 83%) was actively respiring. At the longest retention time tested, 21.3 days, biodegradation was good (total: 55-60%, cellulose ca. 70%, hemicellulose - ca. 55%) and soluble TOC was decreased by 80%. Recovery of major nutrients, except phosphorus, remained adequate. A very low proportion of total bacteria was actively respiring (ca. 16%). The second bioreactor study used potato residue to determine if even shorter retention times could be used (range 0.25-2.0 days). Although overall biodegradation deteriorated, the degradation of soluble TOC continued to be ca. 75%. We conclude that if the goal of ALS bioprocessing is maximal degradation of crop residues, including cellulose, then retention times of 10 days or longer will be needed. If the goal is to provide inorganic nutrients with the smallest volume/weight bioreactor possible, then a retention time of 1 day (or less) is sufficient.

  9. QUALITY OF LIFE ASSESSMENT IN CARDIAC TRANSPLANT RECIPIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. O. Shevchenko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Quality of life (QoL is an important criterion for the treatment effi cacy that provides an important data regarding patient’s personal estimation of social adaptation and ability to perform daily duties.Methods. The study was aimed to evaluate QoL in cardiac transplant recipients. We have enrolled 42 stage D heart failure patients aged 29–61 (mean 39,23 ± 12,31 y/o, 38 males and 4 females, survived cardiac transplant surgery between Jan 2008 and Jan 2013. QoL was evaluated using the SF-36 survey prior to the heart surgery and during the follow-up period up to the 5 years.Results. Pre-operative assessment revealed low QoL indices of physical activity as well as general health status. Follow-up showed dramatic improvement in all QoL measures during 1 year after the surgery which was consistent through the whole observation period. There was an increase in physical functioning index by 2,8 times (p < 0,01, physical status dependent role functioning by 14 times (р < 0,0001, emotional status dependent role functioning by 3 times (р = 0,02, social functioning by 4,8 times (p = 0,002, pain threshold by 3 times (p = 0,02, psychic health by 3,6 times (p = 0,001, life activity by 2,6 times(p = 0,003, and total health by 1,6 times (p = 0,03. Physical activity was restored in 90% of patients during the fi rst year.Conclusion. The study shows signifi cant improvement in all QoL variables after heart transplantation in stage D heart failure patients. Main indices of physical, psychical, and social activities rise at the fi rst year and remain high during the 5-year period. These data support heart transplantation as a radical and effective method of terminal heart failure treatment.

  10. Impact of cardiac rehabilitation on health related quality of life.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Riaz, A

    2012-02-01

    Cardiac rehabilitation (CR) programs are recognized as integral part of the comprehensive care of patients with cardiovascular disease and are recommended as useful and effective (Class I) by the American Heart Association (AHA). In this study we used serial administration of the short form 36 (SF36) to evaluate patient\\'s response to CR in terms of improvement in Health related Quality of Life. A total of 49 patients were included in the analysis. There was a significant improvement observed after CR in the Physical Capacity Score (42.3 vs 49.9 p = 0.0005). There was no significant improvement in the Mental Capacity Score (54.8 vs 54.9 p = 0.96). We conclude that Cardiac Rehabilitation Program causes a significant improvement in the health related quality of life of patients by improving their physical health and well being but does not improve the mental capacity which is already at a healthy level before CR.

  11. Current Pharmacological Advances in the Treatment of Cardiac Arrest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andry Papastylianou

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiac arrest is defined as the sudden cessation of spontaneous ventilation and circulation. Within 15 seconds of cardiac arrest, the patient loses consciousness, electroencephalogram becomes flat after 30 seconds, pupils dilate fully after 60 seconds, and cerebral damage takes place within 90–300 seconds. It is essential to act immediately as irreversible damage can occur in a short time. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR is an attempt to restore spontaneous circulation through a broad range of interventions which are early defibrillation, high-quality and uninterrupted chest compressions, advanced airway interventions, and pharmacological interventions. Drugs should be considered only after initial shocks have been delivered (when indicated and chest compressions and ventilation have been started. During cardiopulmonary resuscitation, no specific drug therapy has been shown to improve survival to hospital discharge after cardiac arrest, and only few drugs have a proven benefit for short-term survival. This paper reviews current pharmacological treatment of cardiac arrest. There are three groups of drugs relevant to the management of cardiac arrest: vasopressors, antiarrhythmics, and other drugs such as sodium bicarbonate, calcium, magnesium, atropine, fibrinolytic drugs, and corticosteroids.

  12. Hepatoma with cardiac metastasis: An advanced cancer requiring advanced treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu-Sheng Lin; Shih-Ming Jung; Feng-Chun Tsai; Chun-Nan Yeh; Tzu-Fang Shiu; Hsueh-Hua Wu; Pyng-Jing Lin; Pao-Hsien Chu

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the clinical and pathologic findings,and to discuss the pathophysiology of hepatocellular carcinoma with cardiac metastasis.METHODS: Eight hepatoma patients with cardiac metastasis, who were treated by surgical excision from 1993 to 2006, were retrospectively studied. Detailed clinical parameters were analyzed.RESULTS: Of those eight patients, two (25%) were women and six (75%) were men, with the mean age of 50 years (range, 40-70 years). The presentations included: asymptomatic (75%), heart failure (25%), and pulmonary embolism (12.5%). All lesions involved the right atrium, and extended to the lung (12.5%), inferior vena cava (25%), and left atrium (12.5%). The level of tumor marker, alpha-fetal protein, was not correlated with the severity of metastasis or disease prognosis.Moreover, the availably estimated doubling time was less than 3 mo. The pathological findings included variable hemorrhage and necrosis. The survival time following surgery also varied from one month to more than 30 mo.CONCLUSION: Hepatoma metastasis to the heart was detected in all eight patients. This study demonstrates that surgery might help the outcome in such cases.

  13. Is the advanced trauma life support simulation exam more stressful for the surgeon than emergency department trauma care? O stress afeta cirurgiões durante o aprendizado tanto quanto na sua carreira profissional?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Quilici

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Stress affects surgeons both during training and during professional activity. OBJECTIVE: To compare stress levels affecting surgical residents during the simulated initial assessment and management in the Advanced Trauma Life Support practical exam vs initial assessment and management of trauma patients in the emergency room. METHOD: Eighteen surgical residents were evaluated under basal conditions, during the Advanced Trauma Life Support simulation, and during emergency room initial care. Heart rate, systolic arterial pressure, and diastolic arterial pressure were measured. The Student t test was used to test for differences between means, with statistical significance declared when P OBJETIVO: Comparar os níveis de stress que afetam os residentes de cirurgia durante a avaliação inicial simulada nos cursos Advanced Trauma Life Support versus a avaliação do trauma do paciente na sala de emergência. MÉTODO: Dezoito residentes em cirurgia foram avaliados em condições basais no curso de Advanced Trauma Life Support e na sala de emergência. Foram medidas a freqüência cardíaca, pressões arterial sistólica e diastólica. ESTATÍSTICAS: Teste t do Estudante. Significantemente p<0.05. RESULTADOS: No início da avaliação no Advanced Trauma Life Support, a freqüência cardíaca e pressão arterial sistólica foram mais altas do que (e pressão arterial diastólica foi similar a os valores basais respectivos; no começo da avaliação na sala de emergência foram observadas respostas similares. No fim da avaliação no Advanced Trauma Life Support e na sala de emergência, os valores de freqüência cardíaca, pressão arterial sistólica e pressão arterial diastólica foram maiores do que no começo, exceto que a pressão arterial diastólica não variou significantemente durante a avaliação inicial na sala de emergência. Comparando os dois procedimentos, observa-se que o Advanced Trauma Life Support produziu eleva

  14. Bioregenerative life-support systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, C. A.

    1994-01-01

    Long-duration future habitation of space involving great distances from Earth and/or large crew sizes (eg, lunar outpost, Mars base) will require a controlled ecological life-support system (CELSS) to simultaneously revitalize atmosphere (liberate oxygen and fix carbon dioxide), purify water (via transpiration), and generate human food (for a vegetarian diet). Photosynthetic higher plants and algae will provide the essential functions of biomass productivity in a CELSS, and a combination of physicochemical and bioregenerative processes will be used to regenerate renewable resources from waste materials. Crop selection criteria for a CELSS include nutritional use characteristics as well as horticultural characteristics. Cereals, legumes, and oilseed crops are used to provide the major macronutrients for the CELSS diet. A National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Specialized Center of Research and Training (NSCORT) was established at Purdue University to establish proof of the concept of the sustainability of a CELSS. The Biosphere 2 project in Arizona is providing a model for predicted and unpredicted situations that arise as a result of closure in a complex natural ecosystem.

  15. Shared Care Contributions to Self-Care and Quality of Life in Chronic Cardiac Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebern, Margaret; Brown, Roger; Flatley-Brennan, Patricia

    2016-07-01

    Shared care is an interpersonal interaction system composed of communication, decision making, and reciprocity; it is used by patients and family caregivers (care dyads) to exchange social support. This study's purpose was to describe the contributions of shared care to outcomes for individuals with cardiac disease. A secondary data analysis was used to answer the following questions. What is the association between elements of shared care and patient outcomes? Do dyad perceptions of shared care differentially contribute to patient outcomes? Participants in this study were 93 individuals with a cardiac disease and 93 family caregivers. Composite index structured equation modeling was the analytic tool. Caregiver communication and reciprocity were related to patient mental quality of life. Patient communication and reciprocity were related to their own mental and physical quality of life and self-care confidence. Findings from this study contribute a better understanding of how care dyads are integral to patient outcomes. PMID:26864996

  16. Developing Sustainable Life Support System Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Evan A.

    2010-01-01

    Sustainable spacecraft life support concepts may allow the development of more reliable technologies for long duration space missions. Currently, life support technologies at different levels of development are not well evaluated against each other, and evaluation methods do not account for long term reliability and sustainability of the hardware. This paper presents point-of-departure sustainability evaluation criteria for life support systems, that may allow more robust technology development, testing and comparison. An example sustainable water recovery system concept is presented.

  17. Psychiatry: life events and social support in late life depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clóvis Alexandrino-Silva

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To examine the association of life events and social support in the broadly defined category of depression in late life. INTRODUCTION: Negative life events and lack of social support are associated with depression in the elderly. Currently, there are limited studies examining the association between life events, social support and late-life depression in Brazil. METHODS: We estimated the frequency of late-life depression within a household community sample of 367 subjects aged 60 years or greater with associated factors. ''Old age symptomatic depression'' was defined using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview 1.1 tool. This diagnostic category included only late-life symptoms and consisted of the diagnoses of depression and dysthymia as well as a subsyndromal definition of depression, termed ''late subthreshold depression''. Social support and life events were assessed using the Comprehensive Assessment and Referral Evaluation (SHORT-CARE inventory. RESULTS: ''Old age symptomatic depression'' occurred in 18.8% of the patients in the tested sample. In univariate analyses, this condition was associated with female gender, lifetime anxiety disorder and living alone. In multivariate models, ''old age symptomatic depression'' was associated with a perceived lack of social support in men and life events in women. DISCUSSION: Social support and life events were determined to be associated with late-life depression, but it is important to keep in mind the differences between genders. Also, further exploration of the role of lifetime anxiety disorder in late-life depression may be of future importance. CONCLUSIONS: We believe that this study helps to provide insight into the role of psychosocial factors in late-life depression.

  18. Establishment of Pediatric Cardiac Intensive Care Advanced Practice Provider Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilliland, Jill; Donnellan, Amy; Justice, Lindsey; Moake, Lindy; Mauney, Jennifer; Steadman, Page; Drajpuch, David; Tucker, Dawn; Storey, Jean; Roth, Stephen J; Koch, Josh; Checchia, Paul; Cooper, David S; Staveski, Sandra L

    2016-01-01

    The addition of advanced practice providers (APPs; nurse practitioners and physician assistants) to a pediatric cardiac intensive care unit (PCICU) team is a health care innovation that addresses medical provider shortages while allowing PCICUs to deliver high-quality, cost-effective patient care. APPs, through their consistent clinical presence, effective communication, and facilitation of interdisciplinary collaboration, provide a sustainable solution for the highly specialized needs of PCICU patients. In addition, APPs provide leadership, patient and staff education, facilitate implementation of evidence-based practice and quality improvement initiatives, and the performance of clinical research in the PCICU. This article reviews mechanisms for developing, implementing, and sustaining advance practice services in PCICUs. PMID:26714997

  19. Are there meaningful longitudinal changes in health related quality of life--SF36, in cardiac rehabilitation patients?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McKee, Gabrielle

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: This study aimed to observe changes in quality of life and minimal clinical important differences of quality of life over time in cardiac rehabilitation patients and to compare these with published normal data. METHODS: In this non-randomised study, SF36 questionnaires were completed by 187 patients recruited to a Phase III cardiac rehabilitation multidisciplinary outpatient programme. Data was collected at beginning, end and six months after Phase III cardiac rehabilitation programme. RESULTS: There were significant improvements in physical functioning, role limitation due to physical function, pain and general health perception scales, over the above time frame, from both a statistically and a mean clinical important difference point of view. These improvements occurred mainly during the cardiac rehabilitation programme phase. CONCLUSIONS: These improvements meant that patients six months post-cardiac rehabilitation were only 5% below the quality of life for an aged matched normal group. However patients still had significant deficits in physical role and emotional role limitations. Suitable measurement of quality of life on an individual basis, supported by normal values is needed. This would facilitate the identification of shortfalls in patient quality of life and the subsequent tailoring of care to address these individualised patient needs.

  20. Life Support for Deep Space and Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Harry W.; Hodgson, Edward W.; Kliss, Mark H.

    2014-01-01

    How should life support for deep space be developed? The International Space Station (ISS) life support system is the operational result of many decades of research and development. Long duration deep space missions such as Mars have been expected to use matured and upgraded versions of ISS life support. Deep space life support must use the knowledge base incorporated in ISS but it must also meet much more difficult requirements. The primary new requirement is that life support in deep space must be considerably more reliable than on ISS or anywhere in the Earth-Moon system, where emergency resupply and a quick return are possible. Due to the great distance from Earth and the long duration of deep space missions, if life support systems fail, the traditional approaches for emergency supply of oxygen and water, emergency supply of parts, and crew return to Earth or escape to a safe haven are likely infeasible. The Orbital Replacement Unit (ORU) maintenance approach used by ISS is unsuitable for deep space with ORU's as large and complex as those originally provided in ISS designs because it minimizes opportunities for commonality of spares, requires replacement of many functional parts with each failure, and results in substantial launch mass and volume penalties. It has become impractical even for ISS after the shuttle era, resulting in the need for ad hoc repair activity at lower assembly levels with consequent crew time penalties and extended repair timelines. Less complex, more robust technical approaches may be needed to meet the difficult deep space requirements for reliability, maintainability, and reparability. Developing an entirely new life support system would neglect what has been achieved. The suggested approach is use the ISS life support technologies as a platform to build on and to continue to improve ISS subsystems while also developing new subsystems where needed to meet deep space requirements.

  1. Advances in respiratory support for high risk newborn infants

    OpenAIRE

    Bancalari, Eduardo; Claure, Nelson

    2015-01-01

    Background A significant proportion of premature infants present with respiratory failure early in life and require supplemental oxygen and some form of mechanical respiratory support. Findings Many technical advances in the devices for neonatal respiratory support have occurred in recent years and new management strategies have been developed and evaluated in this population. This article describes some of these novel methods and discusses their application and possible advantages and limita...

  2. Feasibility of vibration monitoring of small rotating machines for the environmental control and life support systems (ECLSS) of the NASA advanced space craft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milner, G. Martin; Black, Mike; Hovenga, Mike; Mcclure, Paul; Miller, Patrice

    1988-01-01

    The application of vibration monitoring to the rotating machinery typical of ECLSS components in advanced NASA spacecraft was studied. It is found that the weighted summation of the accelerometer power spectrum is the most successful detection scheme for a majority of problem types. Other detection schemes studied included high-frequency demodulation, cepstrum, clustering, and amplitude processing.

  3. Research on Life Science and Life Support Engineering Problems of Manned Deep Space Exploration Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Bin; Guo, Linli; Zhang, Zhixian

    2016-07-01

    Space life science and life support engineering are prominent problems in manned deep space exploration mission. Some typical problems are discussed in this paper, including long-term life support problem, physiological effect and defense of varying extraterrestrial environment. The causes of these problems are developed for these problems. To solve these problems, research on space life science and space medical-engineering should be conducted. In the aspect of space life science, the study of space gravity biology should focus on character of physiological effect in long term zero gravity, co-regulation of physiological systems, impact on stem cells in space, etc. The study of space radiation biology should focus on target effect and non-target effect of radiation, carcinogenicity of radiation, spread of radiation damage in life system, etc. The study of basic biology of space life support system should focus on theoretical basis and simulating mode of constructing the life support system, filtration and combination of species, regulation and optimization method of life support system, etc. In the aspect of space medical-engineering, the study of bio-regenerative life support technology should focus on plants cultivation technology, animal-protein production technology, waste treatment technology, etc. The study of varying gravity defense technology should focus on biological and medical measures to defend varying gravity effect, generation and evaluation of artificial gravity, etc. The study of extraterrestrial environment defense technology should focus on risk evaluation of radiation, monitoring and defending of radiation, compound prevention and removal technology of dust, etc. At last, a case of manned lunar base is analyzed, in which the effective schemes of life support system, defense of varying gravity, defense of extraterrestrial environment are advanced respectively. The points in this paper can be used as references for intensive study on key

  4. Life support system development in West Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoog, A I

    1982-12-01

    The delivery of fully qualified Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLS) flight hardware for the Spacelab Flight Unit was completed in 1979, and the first Spacelab flight is scheduled for mid 1983. With Spacelab approaching its operational stage, ESA has initiated the Follow-on Development Programme. The future evolution of Spacelab elements in a continued U.S./European cooperation is obviously linked to the U.S. STS evolution and leads from the sortie-mode improvements (Initial Step) towards pallet systems and module applications in unmanned and manned space platforms (Medium and Far Term Alternatives). Extensive studies and design work have been accomplished on life support systems for Life Sciences Laboratories (Biorack) in Spacelab (incubators and holding units for low vertebrates). Future long term missions require the implementation of closed loop life support systems and in order to meet the long range development cycle feasibility studies have been performed. Terrestrial applications of the life support technologies developed for space have been successfully implemented. PMID:11541695

  5. Life support system development in West Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoog, A. Ingemar

    The delivery of fully qualified Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLS) flight hardware for the Spacelab Flight Unit was completed in 1979, and the first Spacelab flight is scheduled for mid 1983. With Spacelab approaching its operational stage, ESA has initiated the Follow-on Development Programme. The future evolution of Spacelab elements in a continued U.S./European cooperation is obviously linked to the U.S. STS evolution and leads from the sortie-mode improvements (Initial Step) towards pallet systems and module applications in unmanned and manned space platforms (Medium and Far Term Alternatives). Extensive studies and design work have been accomplished on life support systems for Life Sciences Laboratories (Biorack) in Spacelab (incubators and holding units for low vertebrates). Future long term missions require the implementation of closed loop life support systems and in order to meet the long range development cycle feasibility studies have been performed. Terrestrial applications of the life support technologies developed for space have been successfully implemented.

  6. Space Life Support Technology Applications to Terrestrial Environmental Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartzkopf, Steven H.; Sleeper, Howard L.

    1993-01-01

    Many of the problems now facing the human race on Earth are, in fact, life support issues. Decline of air Quality as a result of industrial and automotive emissions, pollution of ground water by organic pesticides or solvents, and the disposal of solid wastes are all examples of environmental problems that we must solve to sustain human life. The technologies currently under development to solve the problems of supporting human life for advanced space missions are extraordinarily synergistic with these environmental problems. The development of these technologies (including both physicochemical and bioregenerative types) is increasingly focused on closing the life support loop by removing and recycling contaminants and wastes to produce the materials necessary to sustain human life. By so doing, this technology development effort also focuses automatically on reducing resupply logistics requirements and increasing crew safety through increased self-sufficiency. This paper describes several technologies that have been developed to support human life in space and illustrates the applicability of the technologies to environmental problems including environmental remediation and pollution prevention.

  7. Cyrogenic Life Support Technology Development Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, David R.

    2015-01-01

    KSC has used cryogenic life support (liquid air based) technology successfully for many years to support spaceflight operations. This technology has many benefits unique to cryogenics when compared to traditional compressed gas systems: passive cooling, lighter, longer duration, and lower operating pressure. However, there are also several limiting factors that have prevented the technology from being commercialized. The National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health, Office of Mine Safety and Health Research (NIOSH-OMSHR) has partnered with NASA to develop a complete liquid air based life support solution for emergency mine escape and rescue. The project will develop and demonstrate various prototype devices and incorporate new technological innovations that have to date prevented commercialization.

  8. Closure of Regenerative Life Support Systems: Results of the Lunar-Mars Life Support Test Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barta, Daniel; Henninger, D.; Edeen, M.; Lewis, J.; Smth, F.; Verostko, C.

    2006-01-01

    Future long duration human exploration missions away from Earth will require closed-loop regenerative life support systems to reduce launch mass, reduce dependency on resupply and increase the level of mission self sufficiency. Such systems may be based on the integration of biological and physiocochemical processes to produce potable water, breathable atmosphere and nutritious food from metabolic and other mission wastes. Over the period 1995 to 1998 a series of ground-based tests were conducted at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Johnson Space Center, to evaluate the performance of advanced closed-loop life support technologies with real human metabolic and hygiene loads. Named the Lunar-Mars Life Support Test Project (LMLSTP), four integrated human tests were conducted with increasing duration, complexity and closure. The first test, LMLSTP Phase I, was designed to demonstrate the ability of higher plants to revitalize cabin atmosphere. A single crew member spent 15 days within an atmospherically closed chamber containing 11.2 square meters of actively growing wheat. Atmospheric carbon dioxide and oxygen levels were maintained by control of the rate of photosynthesis through manipulation of light intensity or the availability of carbon dioxide and included integrated physicochemical systems. During the second and third tests, LMLSTP Phases II & IIa, four crew members spent 30 days and 60 days, respectively, in a larger sealed chamber. Advanced physicochemical life support hardware was used to regenerate the atmosphere and produce potable water from wastewater. Air revitalization was accomplished by using a molecular sieve and a Sabatier processor for carbon dioxide absorption and reduction, respectively, with oxygen generation performed by water hydrolysis. Production of potable water from wastewater included urine treatment (vapor compression distillation), primary treatment (ultrafiltration/reverse osmosis and multi-filtration) and post

  9. Rapid Deterioration of Basic Life Support Skills in Dentists With Basic Life Support Healthcare Provider.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogami, Kentaro; Taniguchi, Shogo; Ichiyama, Tomoko

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between basic life support skills in dentists who had completed the American Heart Association's Basic Life Support (BLS) Healthcare Provider qualification and time since course completion. Thirty-six dentists who had completed the 2005 BLS Healthcare Provider course participated in the study. We asked participants to perform 2 cycles of cardiopulmonary resuscitation on a mannequin and evaluated basic life support skills. Dentists who had previously completed the BLS Healthcare Provider course displayed both prolonged reaction times, and the quality of their basic life support skills deteriorated rapidly. There were no correlations between basic life support skills and time since course completion. Our results suggest that basic life support skills deteriorate rapidly for dentists who have completed the BLS Healthcare Provider. Newer guidelines stressing chest compressions over ventilation may help improve performance over time, allowing better cardiopulmonary resuscitation in dental office emergencies. Moreover, it may be effective to provide a more specialized version of the life support course to train the dentists, stressing issues that may be more likely to occur in the dental office. PMID:27269662

  10. Awareness of basic life support among medical, dental, nursing students and doctors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanta Chandrasekaran

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available To study the awareness of Basic Life Support (BLS among students, doctors and nurses of medical, dental, homeopathy and nursing colleges. A cross-sectional study was conducted by assessing responses to 20 selected basic questions regarding BLS among students, doctors and nurses of medical, dental, homeopathy and nursing colleges. After excluding the incomplete response forms the data was analysed on 1,054 responders. The results were analysed using an answer key prepared with the use of the Advanced Cardiac Life Support manual. Out of 1,054 responders 345 were medical students, 75 were medical interns, 19 were dental students, 59 were dental interns, 105 were homeopathy interns, 319 were nursing students, 72 were doctors, 29 were dentists, 25 were nursing faculty and six were homeopathy doctors. No one among them had complete knowledge of BLS. Only two out of 1054 (0.19% had secured 80 - 89% marks, 10 out of 1054 (0.95% had secured 70 - 79% marks, 40 of 1054 (4.08% had secured 60 - 69% marks and 105 of 1054 (9.96% had secured 50 - 59% marks. A majority of them, that is, 894 (84.82% had secured less than 50% marks. Awareness of BLS among students, doctors and nurses of medical, dental, homeopathy and nursing colleges is very poor.

  11. Biodegradation pathway of an anionic surfactant (Igepon TC-42) during recycling waste water through plant hydroponics for advanced life support during long-duration space missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, L. H.; Kagie, H. R.; Garland, J. L.

    2003-01-01

    The degradation of an anionic surfactant (Igepon TC-42) was investigated as part of an integrated study of direct recycling of human hygiene water through hydroponic plant growth systems. Several chemical approaches were developed to characterize the degradation of Igepon and to measure the accumulation of intermediates such as fatty acids and methyl taurine. Igepon was rapidly degraded as indicated by the reduction of methylene blue active substances (MBAS) and component fatty acids. The Igepon degradation rate continued to increase over a period of several weeks following repeated daily exposure to 18 micrograms/l Igepon. The accumulation of free fatty acids and methyl taurine was also observed during decomposition of Igepon. The concentration of methyl taurine was below detection limit (0.2 nmol/ml) during the slow phase of Igepon degradation, and increased to 1-2 nmol/ml during the phase of rapid degradation. These findings support a degradation pathway involving initial hydrolysis of amide to release fatty acids and methyl taurine, and subsequent degradation of these intermediates. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd on behalf of COSPAR.

  12. Biodegradation pathway of an anionic surfactant (Igepon TC-42) during recycling waste water through plant hydroponics for advanced life support during long-duration space missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, L. H.; Kagie, H. R.; Garland, J. L.

    The degradation of an anionic surfactant (Igepon TC-42) was investigated as part of an integrated study of direct recycling of human hygiene water through hydroponic plant growth systems. Several chemical approaches were developed to characterize the degradation of Igepon and to measure the accumulation of intermediates such as fatty acids and methyl taurine. Igepon was rapidly degraded as indicated by the reduction of methylene blue active substances (MBAS) and component fatty acids. The Igepon degradation rate continued to increase over a period of several weeks following repeated daily exposure to 18 μg/l Igepon. The accumulation of free fatty acids and methyl taurine was also observed during decomposition of Igepon. The concentration of methyl taurine was below detection limit (0.2 nmol/ml) during the slow phase of Igepon degradation, and increased to 1-2 nmol/ml during the phase of rapid degradation. These findings support a degradation pathway involving initial hydrolysis of amide to release fatty acids and methyl taurine, and subsequent degradation of these intermediates.

  13. Advanced Call Center Supporting WAP Access

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Traditional call centers can be accessed via speech only, and the call center based on web provides both data and speech access, but it needs a powerful terminal-computer. By analyzing traditional call centers and call centers based on web, this paper presents the framework of an advanced call center supporting WAP access. A typical service is also described in detail.

  14. DNA methylation in cardiac fibrosis: New advances and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardiac fibrosis is characterized by net accumulation of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins in the cardiac interstitium, and contributes to both systolic and diastolic dysfunction in many cardiac pathophysiologic conditions. More specifically, cardiac fibroblasts are activated by a variety of pathological stimuli, thereby undergoing proliferation, differentiation to myofibroblasts, and production of various cytokines and ECM proteins. Thus, understanding the biological processes of cardiac fibroblasts will provide novel insights into the underlying mechanisms of cardiac fibrosis. DNA methylation is an important epigenetic mechanism, which often occurs in response to environmental stimuli and is crucial in regulating gene expression. The aberrant methylation of CpG island promoters of selected genes is the prominent epigenetic mechanism by which gene transcription can be effectively silenced. Aberrant hypermethylation of a few selected genes such as RASSF1A plays an important role in facilitating fibrotic fibroblast activation and in driving fibrosis. In this review we will discuss the mechanisms of DNA methylation and their implications for cardiac fibroblasts activation and fibrosis. Control of DNA methylation may serve as a new strategy for anti-fibrotic therapy

  15. Methodology and Supporting Toolset Advancing Embedded Systems Quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berger, Michael Stübert; Soler, José; Brewka, Lukasz Jerzy; Tsagkaropoulos, M.; Leclerc, Y.; Olma, C.

    Software quality is of primary importance in the development of embedded systems that are often used in safety-critical applications. Moreover, as the life cycle of embedded products becomes increasingly tighter, productivity and quality are simultaneously required and closely interrelated towards...... delivering competitive products. In this context, the MODUS (Methodology and supporting toolset advancing embedded systems quality) project aims to provide a pragmatic and viable solution that will allow SMEs to substantially improve their positioning in the embedded-systems development market. This paper...... will describe the MODUS project with focus on the technical methodologies that will be developed advancing embedded system quality....

  16. Space Life-Support Engineering Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seagrave, Richard C. (Principal Investigator)

    1995-01-01

    This report covers the seventeen months of work performed under an extended one year NASA University Grant awarded to Iowa State University to perform research on topics relating to the development of closed-loop long-term life support systems with the initial principal focus on space water management. In the first phase of the program, investigators from chemistry and chemical engineering with demonstrated expertise in systems analysis, thermodynamics, analytical chemistry and instrumentation, performed research and development in two major related areas; the development of low-cost, accurate, and durable sensors for trace chemical and biological species, and the development of unsteady-state simulation packages for use in the development and optimization of control systems for life support systems. In the second year of the program, emphasis was redirected towards concentrating on the development of dynamic simulation techniques and software and on performing a thermodynamic systems analysis, centered on availability or energy analysis, in an effort to begin optimizing the systems needed for water purification. The third year of the program, the subject of this report, was devoted to the analysis of the water balance for the interaction between humans and the life support system during space flight and exercise, to analysis of the cardiopulmonary systems of humans during space flight, and to analysis of entropy production during operation of the air recovery system during space flight.

  17. 营养支持疗法对中晚期肿瘤患者生活质量的影响%Influence of nutrition support therapy on quality of life in patients with advanced tumors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘炜; 张刚

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of nutrition support therapy on quality of life in patients with advanced tumors.Methods 70 patients with advanced tumors were randomly divided into the observation group and the control group,each group had 35 cases.The control group was given conservative treatment,together with the ordinary liquid,semi-liquid or diet.The observation group was given nutrition support therapy on the basis of conservative therapy.The nutrition and immune index and symptom score,quality of life were compared between the two groups.Results The nutrition,immune indexes (Alb,BMI and NK) and symptom score (malaise,anorexia,insomnia,pain) of the observation group were significantly improved(t =7.92,6.98,5.56,7.41,6.47,5.61,4.52,all P < 0.05),which were significantly better than those of the control group(t =4.42,4.10,4.03,6.42,5.60,4.83,4.23,all P <0.05).The physical function,role function,emotional function,cognitive function score and total score of the observation group were significantly higher than those of the control group,the differences were statistically significant (t =8.12,6.08,5.12,4.78,4.32,all P < 0.05).Conclusion Nutrition support therapy can improve the nutritional status of cancer patients in advanced stage,relieve symptoms,improve immune function and quality of life,which is worthy of clinical application.%目的 探讨营养支持疗法对中晚期肿瘤患者生活质量的改善效果.方法 选择中晚期肿瘤患者70例,按随机数字表法分为观察组和对照组,每组35例.对照组给予保守疗法,配以普通的流质、半流质或软食;观察组在保守疗法的基础上实施营养支持疗法.比较两组营养和免疫指标、生活质量及症状评分.结果 观察组营养、免疫指标(Alb、BMI和NK)和症状评分(乏力、纳差、失眠、疼痛)较入组时均显著改善(t =7.92、6.98、5.56、7.41、6.47、5.61、4.52,均P<0.05),且显著优于对照组(t=4.42、4.10、4.03、6.42、5

  18. Exploration Life Support Technology Development for Lunar Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewert, Michael K.; Barta, Daniel J.; McQuillan, Jeffrey

    2009-01-01

    Exploration Life Support (ELS) is one of NASA's Exploration Technology Development Projects. ELS plans, coordinates and implements the development of new life support technologies for human exploration missions as outlined in NASA's Vision for Space Exploration. ELS technology development currently supports three major projects of the Constellation Program - the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV), the Altair Lunar Lander and Lunar Surface Systems. ELS content includes Air Revitalization Systems (ARS), Water Recovery Systems (WRS), Waste Management Systems (WMS), Habitation Engineering, Systems Integration, Modeling and Analysis (SIMA), and Validation and Testing. The primary goal of the ELS project is to provide different technology options to Constellation which fill gaps or provide substantial improvements over the state-of-the-art in life support systems. Since the Constellation missions are so challenging, mass, power, and volume must be reduced from Space Shuttle and Space Station technologies. Systems engineering analysis also optimizes the overall architecture by considering all interfaces with the life support system and potential for reduction or reuse of resources. For long duration missions, technologies which aid in closure of air and water loops with increased reliability are essential as well as techniques to minimize or deal with waste. The ELS project utilizes in-house efforts at five NASA centers, aerospace industry contracts, Small Business Innovative Research contracts and other means to develop advanced life support technologies. Testing, analysis and reduced gravity flight experiments are also conducted at the NASA field centers. This paper gives a current status of technologies under development by ELS and relates them to the Constellation customers who will eventually use them.

  19. Advanced Call Center Supporting WAP Access

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUANXiao-hua; CHENJun-liang

    2001-01-01

    Traditional call centers can be accessed via speech only, and the call center based on web provides both da-ta and speech access,but it needs a powerful terminal-computer.By analyzing traditional call centers and call cen-ters based on web, this paper presents the framework of an advanced call center supporting WAP access.A typical service is also described in detail.

  20. Engineering photosynthetic systems for bioregenerative life support

    OpenAIRE

    Masot Mata, Alexandra

    2007-01-01

    Consultable des del TDX Títol obtingut de la portada digitalitzada El projecte MELiSSA (Micro-Ecological Life Support System Alternative) de l'Agència Espacial Europea (ESA) és un ecosistema artificial concebut com una eina per estudiar i desenvolupar la tecnologia per a sistemes de suport de vida biològics requerits per a missions tripulades de llarga durada a l'espai. El fet que el projecte internacional MELiSSA es desenvolupa en cooperació amb organitzacions de diferents països ha pe...

  1. Optical fiber sensors for life support applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberman, R. A.; Schmidlin, E. M.; Ferrell, D. J.; Syracuse, S. J.

    1992-01-01

    Preliminary experimental results on systems designed to demonstrate sensor operation in regenerative food production and crew air supply applications are presented. The systems use conventional fibers and sources in conjunction with custom wavelength division multiplexers in their optical signal processing sections and nonstandard porous optical fibers in the optical sensing elements. It is considered to be possible to create practical sensors for life-support system applications, and particularly, in regenerative food production environments, based on based on reversible sensors for oxygen, carbon monoxide, and humidity.

  2. Apollo portable life support system performance report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, M. A.

    1972-01-01

    The performance of the Apollo portable life support system (PLSS) on actual lunar missions is discussed. Both subjective comments by the crewmen and recorded telemetry data are evaluated although emphasis is on the telemetry data. Because the most important information yielded by the PLSS deals with determination of crewman metabolic rates, these data and their interpretation are explained in detail. System requirements are compared with actual performance, and the effect of performance margins on mission planning are described. Mission preparation testing is described to demonstrate how the mission readiness of the PLSS and the crewmen in verified, and to show how the PLSS and the crewmen are calibrated for mission evaluation.

  3. Space Evaporator Absorber Radiator for Life Support and Thermal Control Systems Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Future human space exploration missions will require advanced life support technology that can operate across a wide range of applications and environments. Thermal...

  4. Hemodynamics and vasopressor support in therapeutic hypothermia after cardiac arrest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bro-Jeppesen, John; Kjaergaard, Jesper; Søholm, Helle;

    2014-01-01

    AIM: Inducing therapeutic hypothermia (TH) in Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest (OHCA) can be challenging due to its impact on central hemodynamics and vasopressors are frequently used to maintain adequate organ perfusion. The aim of this study was to assess the association between level of vasopres...

  5. Skill retention in adults and in children 3 months after basic life support training using a simple personal resuscitation manikin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Isbye, Dan L; Meyhoff, Christian S; Lippert, Freddy K;

    2007-01-01

    As 70-80% of cardiac arrests occur at home, widespread training is needed to increase the likelihood of basic life support (BLS) being performed before the arrival of Emergency Medical Services personnel. Teaching BLS in public schools has been recommended to achieve this.......As 70-80% of cardiac arrests occur at home, widespread training is needed to increase the likelihood of basic life support (BLS) being performed before the arrival of Emergency Medical Services personnel. Teaching BLS in public schools has been recommended to achieve this....

  6. Emergency Neurological Life Support: Status Epilepticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claassen, Jan; Riviello, James J; Silbergleit, Robert

    2015-12-01

    Patients with prolonged or rapidly recurring convulsions lasting more than 5 min are in status epilepticus (SE) and require immediate resuscitation. Although there are relatively few randomized clinical trials, available evidence and experience suggest that early and aggressive treatment of SE improves patient outcomes, for which reason this was chosen as an Emergency Neurological Life Support protocol. The current approach to the emergency treatment of SE emphasizes rapid initiation of adequate doses of first-line therapy, as well as accelerated second-line anticonvulsant drugs and induced coma when these fail, coupled with admission to a unit capable of neurological critical care and electroencephalography monitoring. This protocol will focus on the initial treatment of SE but also review subsequent steps in the protocol once the patient is hospitalized. PMID:26438462

  7. Bioregenerative life support systems for microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevill, Gail E., Jr.; Hessel, Michael I., Jr.; Rodriguez, Jose; Morgan, Steve (Editor)

    1993-01-01

    NASA's Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) project centers on growing plants and recycling wastes in space. The current version of the biomass production chamber (BPC) uses a hydroponic system for nutrient delivery. To optimize plant growth and conserve system resources, the content of the nutrient solution which feeds the plants must be constantly monitored. The macro-nutrients (greater than ten ppm) in the solution include nitrogen, phosphorous, potassium, calcium, magnesium, and sulphur; the micro-nutrients (less than ten ppm) include iron, copper, manganese, zinc, and boron. The goal of this project is to construct a computer-controlled system of ion detectors that will accurately measure the concentrations of several necessary ions in solution. The project focuses on the use of a sensor array to eliminate problems of interference and temperature dependence.

  8. Successfully Treated Acute Fulminant Myocarditis Induced by Ulcerative Colitis with Extracorporeal Life Support and Infliximab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Han-Kyul; Kim, Kun Il; Jung, Sung Won; Mun, Hee-Sun; Cho, Jung Rae; Lee, Namho

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of successfully treated acute fulminant myocarditis induced by ulcerative colitis with extracorporeal life support and infliximab. Myocarditis is a rare but crucial complication during an exacerbation of inflammatory bowel disease. In our case, we applied extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) for cardiac rest under impression of acute myocarditis associated with ulcerative colitis, and added infliximab for uncontrolled inflammation by corticosteroid. As a result, our patient was completely recovered with successful weaning of ECMO.

  9. Equivalent Mass versus Life Cycle Cost for Life Support Technology Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Harry

    2003-01-01

    The decision to develop a particular life support technology or to select it for flight usually depends on the cost to develop and fly it. Other criteria such as performance, safety, reliability, crew time, and technical and schedule risk are considered, but cost is always an important factor. Because launch cost would account for much of the cost of a future planetary mission, and because launch cost is directly proportional to the mass launched, equivalent mass has been used instead of cost to select advanced life support technology. The equivalent mass of a life support system includes the estimated mass of the hardware and of the spacecraft pressurized volume, power supply, and cooling system that the hardware requires. The equivalent mass of a system is defined as the total payload launch mass needed to provide and support the system. An extension of equivalent mass, Equivalent System Mass (ESM), has been established for use in the Advanced Life Support project. ESM adds a mass-equivalent of crew time and possibly other cost factors to equivalent mass. Traditional equivalent mass is strictly based on flown mass and reflects only the launch cost. ESM includes other important cost factors, but it complicates the simple flown mass definition of equivalent mass by adding a non-physical mass penalty for crew time that may exceed the actual flown mass. Equivalent mass is used only in life support analysis. Life Cycle Cost (LCC) is much more commonly used. LCC includes DDT&E, launch, and operations costs. For Earth orbit rather than planetary missions, the launch cost is less than the cost of Design, Development, Test, and Evaluation (DDTBE). LCC is a more inclusive cost estimator than equivalent mass. The relative costs of development, launch, and operations vary depending on the mission destination and duration. Since DDTBE or operations may cost more than launch, LCC gives a more accurate relative cost ranking than equivalent mass. To select the lowest cost

  10. NASA space life sciences research and education support program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Terri K.

    1995-01-01

    USRA's Division of Space Life Sciences (DSLS) was established in 1983 as the Division of Space Biomedicine to facilitate participation of the university community in biomedical research programs at the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC). The DSLS is currently housed in the Center for Advanced Space Studies (CASS), sharing quarters with the Division of Educational Programs and the Lunar and Planetary Institute. The DSLS provides visiting scientists for the Johnson Space Center; organizes conferences, workshops, meetings, and seminars; and, through subcontracts with outside institutions, supports NASA-related research at more than 25 such entities. The DSLS has considerable experience providing visiting scientists, experts, and consultants to work in concert with NASA Life Sciences researchers to define research missions and goals and to perform a wide variety of research administration and program management tasks. The basic objectives of this contract have been to stimulate, encourage, and assist research and education in the NASA life sciences. Scientists and experts from a number of academic and research institutions in this country and abroad have been recruited to support NASA's need to find a solution to human physiological problems associated with living and working in space and on extraterrestrial bodies in the solar system.

  11. Managing occupations in everyday life for people with advanced cancer at home

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peoples, Hanne; Brandt, Åse; Wæhrens, Eva Elisabet Ejlersen;

    Background: People with advanced cancer are increasingly able to live for extended periods of time. Advanced cancer influences the ability to manage occupations in the everyday life. Although studies have showed that people with advanced cancer experience occupational difficulties, there are...... limited research that more specifically explore how these are managed. The objective was to describe and explore how people with advanced cancer manage occupations at home. Material and methods: A qualitative descriptive design was applied. 73 participants were consecutively recruited from a Danish...... “Everyday life under change” and two sub-categories 1) Appling strategies to manage occupations in everyday life and 2) Preserving a meaningful everyday life. Significance: The findings suggest that people with advanced cancer, to a greater extent, should be supported in exploring familiar as well as new...

  12. Advanced Cardiac Resuscitation Evaluation (ACRE: A randomised single-blind controlled trial of peer-led vs. expert-led advanced resuscitation training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hughes Thomas C

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Advanced resuscitation skills training is an important and enjoyable part of medical training, but requires small group instruction to ensure active participation of all students. Increases in student numbers have made this increasingly difficult to achieve. Methods A single-blind randomised controlled trial of peer-led vs. expert-led resuscitation training was performed using a group of sixth-year medical students as peer instructors. The expert instructors were a senior and a middle grade doctor, and a nurse who is an Advanced Life Support (ALS Instructor. A power calculation showed that the trial would have a greater than 90% chance of rejecting the null hypothesis (that expert-led groups performed 20% better than peer-led groups if that were the true situation. Secondary outcome measures were the proportion of High Pass grades in each groups and safety incidents. The peer instructors designed and delivered their own course material. To ensure safety, the peer-led groups used modified defibrillators that could deliver only low-energy shocks. Blinded assessment was conducted using an Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE. The checklist items were based on International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation (ILCOR guidelines using Ebel standard-setting methods that emphasised patient and staff safety and clinical effectiveness. The results were analysed using Exact methods, chi-squared and t-test. Results A total of 132 students were randomised: 58 into the expert-led group, 74 into the peer-led group. 57/58 (98% of students from the expert-led group achieved a Pass compared to 72/74 (97% from the peer-led group: Exact statistics confirmed that it was very unlikely (p = 0.0001 that the expert-led group was 20% better than the peer-led group. There were no safety incidents, and High Pass grades were achieved by 64 (49% of students: 33/58 (57% from the expert-led group, 31/74 (42% from the peer-led group. Exact

  13. Advanced intelligent computational technologies and decision support systems

    CERN Document Server

    Kountchev, Roumen

    2014-01-01

    This book offers a state of the art collection covering themes related to Advanced Intelligent Computational Technologies and Decision Support Systems which can be applied to fields like healthcare assisting the humans in solving problems. The book brings forward a wealth of ideas, algorithms and case studies in themes like: intelligent predictive diagnosis; intelligent analyzing of medical images; new format for coding of single and sequences of medical images; Medical Decision Support Systems; diagnosis of Down’s syndrome; computational perspectives for electronic fetal monitoring; efficient compression of CT Images; adaptive interpolation and halftoning for medical images; applications of artificial neural networks for real-life problems solving; present and perspectives for Electronic Healthcare Record Systems; adaptive approaches for noise reduction in sequences of CT images etc.

  14. Durable mechanical circulatory support in advanced heart failure: a critical care cardiology perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lala, Anuradha; Mehra, Mandeep R

    2013-11-01

    Though cardiac transplantation for advanced heart disease patients remains definitive therapy for patients with advanced heart failure, it is challenged by inadequate donor supply, causing durable mechanical circulatory support (MCS) to slowly become a new primary standard. Selecting appropriate patients for MCS involves meeting a number of prespecifications as is required in evaluation for cardiac transplant candidacy. As technology evolves to bring forth more durable smaller devices, selection criteria for appropriate MCS recipients will likely expand to encompass a broader, less sick population. The "Holy Grail" for MCS will be a focus on clinical recovery and explantation of devices rather than the currently more narrowly defined indications of bridge to transplantation or lifetime device therapy. PMID:24188222

  15. A comparison of four quality of life instruments in cardiac patients: SF-36, QLI, QLMI, and SEIQoL

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, H.; Taylor, R.; Mitchell, A.

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND—With the increasing use of quality of life measures in evaluations of cardiac interventions, criteria are needed for selecting appropriate quality of life measures. An important criterion is the sensitivity of a measure for detecting clinically important changes.
OBJECTIVES—To compare the sensitivity of four measures when used in a group of cardiac patients undergoing the same intervention.
METHODS—The short form 36 (SF-36), the quality of life index-cardiac version (QLI), the qual...

  16. A new data architecture for advancing life cycle assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    IntroductionLife cycle assessment (LCA) has a technical architecture that limits data interoperability, transparency, and automated integration of external data. More advanced information technologies offer promise for increasing the ease with which information can be synthesized...

  17. The Reliability of Turkish “Basic Life Support” and “Cardiac Massage” Videos Uploaded to Websites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elicabuk, Hayri; Yaylacı, Serpil; Yilmaz, Atakan; Hatipoglu, Celile; Kaya, F. Gokhan; Serinken, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    Objective: In this study, the reliability of Turkish cardiac massage and Basic Life Support (BLS) videos, which have already been downloaded from three website such as YouTube, Google, Yahoo following the publication of 2010 cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) guideline and their suitability to the same guideline were researched. Materials and Methods: The videos uploaded to the three web-site to search videos on internet were queried by using the keywords “cardiac massage” and “basic life support”. Videos that had been uploaded between January 2011 and July 2014 were analyzed and scored by two experienced emergency specialists. Results: A total of 1126 videos were obtained. 1029 of the videos (91.4%) were excluded by researchers. 97 videos were detected to accord with study criteria. Despite most of the videos were found on Google website by keywords, the enormous part of videos proper to criteria were sourced from YouTube website (n=65, 67.0%). One fourth of the videos (24.7%) were observed to not be suitable for 2010 CPR guideline. AED usage was mentioned slightly in the videos (14.4%). Median score of the videos is 5 (IQR: 4–6). The rate and scores of the videos uploaded by official institution or association were significantly higher than others (p=0.007 and 0.006, respectively). Moreover, scores of the videos compatible with guidelines uploaded by official institution or association and medical personal were also found higher (p=0.001). Conclusion: Eventually, all the data obtained in this study support that Turkish videos were not reliable on the subject of BLS and cardiac massage. It is promising that videos with high follow-up rates also have been scored higher. PMID:27026758

  18. Evaluation of a newly developed media-supported 4-step approach for basic life support training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sopka Saša

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective The quality of external chest compressions (ECC is of primary importance within basic life support (BLS. Recent guidelines delineate the so-called 4“-step approach” for teaching practical skills within resuscitation training guided by a certified instructor. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether a “media-supported 4-step approach” for BLS training leads to equal practical performance compared to the standard 4-step approach. Materials and methods After baseline testing, 220 laypersons were either trained using the widely accepted method for resuscitation training (4-step approach or using a newly created “media-supported 4-step approach”, both of equal duration. In this approach, steps 1 and 2 were ensured via a standardised self-produced podcast, which included all of the information regarding the BLS algorithm and resuscitation skills. Participants were tested on manikins in the same mock cardiac arrest single-rescuer scenario prior to intervention, after one week and after six months with respect to ECC-performance, and participants were surveyed about the approach. Results Participants (age 23 ± 11, 69% female reached comparable practical ECC performances in both groups, with no statistical difference. Even after six months, there was no difference detected in the quality of the initial assessment algorithm or delay concerning initiation of CPR. Overall, at least 99% of the intervention group (n = 99; mean 1.5 ± 0.8; 6-point Likert scale: 1 = completely agree, 6 = completely disagree agreed that the video provided an adequate introduction to BLS skills. Conclusions The “media-supported 4-step approach” leads to comparable practical ECC-performance compared to standard teaching, even with respect to retention of skills. Therefore, this approach could be useful in special educational settings where, for example, instructors’ resources are sparse or large-group sessions

  19. Tools for assessing quality of life in cardiology and cardiac surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gierlaszyńska, Karolina; Pudlo, Robert; Jaworska, Izabela; Byrczek-Godula, Kamila; Gąsior, Mariusz

    2016-03-01

    The holistic concept of health, popularization of knowledge, as well as social and economic factors have contributed to the growing interest in research concerning quality of life in cardiovascular diseases. The value of direct measurements of the patient's well-being and the extent of their functioning in everyday life (i.e., health-related quality of life; HRQoL) has gained appreciation. Questionnaires are the most popular method of measuring quality of life. On the basis of the literature, we can conclude that the Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36) questionnaire is one of the most widely used tools measuring the quality of life of patients undergoing cardiological treatment and cardiac surgery. PMID:27212988

  20. Wild-Type Transthyretin Cardiac Amyloidosis: Novel Insights From Advanced Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narotsky, David L; Castano, Adam; Weinsaft, Jonathan W; Bokhari, Sabahat; Maurer, Mathew S

    2016-09-01

    Amyloidosis is caused by extracellular deposition of abnormal protein fibrils, resulting in destruction of tissue architecture and impairment of organ function. The most common forms of systemic amyloidosis are light-chain and transthyretin-related (ATTR). ATTR can result from an autosomal dominant hereditary transmission of mutated genes in the transthyretin or from a wild-type form of disease (ATTRwt), previously known as senile cardiac amyloidosis. With the aging of the worldwide population, ATTRwt will emerge as the most common type of cardiac amyloidosis that clinicians encounter. Diagnosis of systemic amyloidosis is often delayed, either because of the false assumption that it is a rare disease, or because of misdiagnosis as a result of mistaking it with other conditions. Clinicians must integrate clinical clues from history, physical examination, and common diagnostic tests to raise suspicion for ATTRwt. The historical gold standard for diagnosis of cardiac amyloid is endomyocardial biopsy analysis with pathological distinction of precursor protein type, but this method often results in delayed diagnosis because of the limited availability of expertise to perform and interpret the endomyocardial biopsy specimen. Emerging noninvasive imaging modalities provide easier, accurate screening for ATTRwt. These modalities include advanced echocardiography, using strain imaging and the myocardial contraction fraction; nuclear scintigraphy, which can differentiate between ATTR and light-chain cardiac amyloid; and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging, using extracellular volume measurement, late gadolinium enhancement, and distinct T1 mapping. These novel approaches reveal insights into the prevalence, clinical course, morphological effects, and prognosis of ATTRwt. PMID:27568874

  1. Exploration Life Support: ELS Functions and Materials Interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffield, Bruce

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews some of the processes used to develop life support systems, and how that supports the materials that are selected. Of particular concern in the selection of materials is flammability.

  2. Exploration life support technology challenges for the Crew Exploration Vehicle and future human missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Harry W.; Kliss, Mark H.

    2010-04-01

    As NASA implements the U.S. Space Exploration Policy, life support systems must be provided for an expanding sequence of exploration missions. NASA has implemented effective life support for Apollo, the Space Shuttle, and the International Space Station (ISS) and continues to develop advanced systems. This paper provides an overview of life support requirements, previously implemented systems, and new technologies being developed by the Exploration Life Support Project for the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) and Lunar Outpost and future Mars missions. The two contrasting practical approaches to providing space life support are (1) open loop direct supply of atmosphere, water, and food, and (2) physicochemical regeneration of air and water with direct supply of food. Open loop direct supply of air and water is cost effective for short missions, but recycling oxygen and water saves costly launch mass on longer missions. Because of the short CEV mission durations, the CEV life support system will be open loop as in Apollo and Space Shuttle. New life support technologies for CEV that address identified shortcomings of existing systems are discussed. Because both ISS and Lunar Outpost have a planned 10-year operational life, the Lunar Outpost life support system should be regenerative like that for ISS and it could utilize technologies similar to ISS. The Lunar Outpost life support system, however, should be extensively redesigned to reduce mass, power, and volume, to improve reliability and incorporate lessons learned, and to take advantage of technology advances over the last 20 years. The Lunar Outpost design could also take advantage of partial gravity and lunar resources.

  3. Socioeconomic inequalities in quality of life and psychological outcomes among cardiac patients

    OpenAIRE

    Skodova, Zuzana; Nagyova, Iveta; van Dijk, Jitse P.; Sudzinova, Adriana; Vargova, Helena; Rosenberger, Jaroslav; Middel, Berrie; Studencan, Martin; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this article is to explore socioeconomic inequalities in the psychological characteristics (psychological well-being, perceived mental health status) and perceived quality of life among cardiac patients. A structured interview was conducted with 362 patients (32% women, mean age 56 +/- 7.3 years) referred for coronary angiography. The GHQ-28 was used to measure psychological well-being, the SF-36 for perceived mental health status. Income and education indicated socioeconomic posit...

  4. Cardiac Implantable Electronic Devices and End-of-Life Care: An Australian Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhammad, Nasser J; O'Donnell, Mark; O'Donnell, David; Mariani, Justin A; Gould, Paul A; McGavigan, Andrew D

    2016-08-01

    Cardiac implantable electronic devices (pacemakers and defibrillators) are increasingly common in modern cardiology practice, and health professionals from a variety of specialties will encounter patients with such devices on a frequent basis. This article will focus on the subset of patients who may request, or be appropriate for, device deactivation and discuss the issues surrounding end-of-life decisions, along with the ethical and legal implications of device deactivation. PMID:27320854

  5. The Effects of Exercise Cardiac Rehabilitation on Anxiety, Depression and Quality of Life in Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Yalfani

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Despite advancement in technology such as coronary artery bypasses grafting (CABG prevalence of anxiety and depression remain high after cardiac events, which have been found to influence recovery process, recurrent cardiac events and patients’ quality of life. Cardiac Rehabilitation (CR as part of secondary prevention aims to improve patients’ physical, psychological and quality of life (QoL status. As there is lack of study in this area in Iran, the present study aim to investigate the effects of a 12 week exercise CR on anxiety, depression and quality of life in the Iranian CABG patients.Materials & Methods: In this cross sectional study 72 consecutive CABG patients referred to and enrolled in a 12 week (3 session per week CR program in rehabilitation center of Shahid Beheshti hospital of Hamadan(Iran. 60 patients completed and 12(17% dropped out of the program. Patients underwent exercise testing using modified Bruce protocol before and immediately after CR. Initial exercise intensity was 45-55% of VO2 peak(peak of oxygen consumption which was progressively increased to 0.5 MET (metabolic equivalent unit per week to 70-85%. Patients also completed the quality of life questionnaire and hospital anxiety and depression scale (HADs at each time point.Results: Compared with pre CR exercise capacity, MET and BMI statistically improved after the program (P<0.001. The prevalence rate of anxiety and depression preprogram were 31.6% and 25% which statistically reduced post CR(11.6% and 8.4% . Further analysis indicated a significant improvement in all components of QoL (physical, mental and social similarly in men and women after the program. Additionally men and women did benefit from CR program similarly as there were no significant differences between men and women in terms of improvements in anxiety, depression and quality of life after the program.Conclusion: It is concluded that the completion of a CR program has

  6. Unidades de soporte vital básico y avanzado en España: análisis de la situación actual Basic and advanced life support units in Spain: analysis of the current situation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ballesteros

    2012-08-01

    relationship with the assigned population. Material and methods. The official literature of the autonomous communities was reviewed, and the type and number of terrestrial care resources integrated in the Emergency Medical System and population data for 2011 were extracted. Secondary or specialized resources were excluded, and part-time units were computed in proportion to operational time. Results. A total of 319 Advanced Life Support Units (ALSU and 1,109.05 Basic Life Support Units (BLSU were identified, of which 31.9 are provided with nursing staff. The national rate of ambulances by absolute population was 0.86 ALSU (range 0.32 to 1.44 and 2.35 BLSU (range 0.07 to 5.30 per 100,000 inhabitants. The state rate by relative population was estimated at 0.29 (range 1.06 to 30.22 and 0.08 (range 0.94 to 16.03 inhabitants/km² for ALSU and BLSU respectively, and the national rate by surface was 1,586.2 (range 140.8 to 4204.5 and 456.2 km² (range 44.1 to 14599.6 for ALSU and BLSU respectively. Conclusions. There are significant differences in the calculated rates of emergency care resources of autonomous regions over their population and area. No relation was found with the geodemographic idiosyncrasies of each territory. These differences could be caused by heterogeneity in the management of EMS or other factors not considered in this work.

  7. Engineering support for plant life management: the IAEA contribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the past couple of decades there has been a change of emphasis in the world nuclear power from that of building new Nuclear Power Plants (NPP) to that of taking measures to optimize the life cycle of operational plants. National approaches in many countries showed an increase of interest in Plant Life Management (PLiM), both in terms of plant service life assurance and in optimizing the service or operational life of NPP. The safety considerations of a NPP are paramount and those requirements have to be met to obtain and to extend/renew the operating license. To achieve the goal of the long term safe, economic and reliable operation of the plant, PLiM programme is essential. Some countries already have advanced PLiM programmes while others still have none. The PLiM objective is to identify all that factors and requirements for the overall plant life cycle. The optimization of these requirements would allow for the minimum period of the investment return and maximum of the revenue from the sell of the produced electricity. Recognizing the importance of this issue and in response to the requests of the Member States the IAEA Division of Nuclear Power implements the Sub-programme on 'Engineering and Management Support for Competitive Nuclear Power'. Three projects within this sub-programme deal with different aspects of the NPP life cycle management with the aim to increase the capabilities of interested Member States in implementing and maintenance of the competitive and sustainable nuclear power. Although all three projects contain certain issues of PLiM, there is one specific project on guidance on engineering and management practices for optimization of NPP service life. This particular project deals with different specific issues of PLiM including aspects of ageing phenomena and their monitoring, issues of control and instrumentation, maintenance and operation issues, economic evaluation of PLiM including guidance on its earlier shut down and decommissioning

  8. Suporte avançado à vida: atendimento a vítimas de acidentes de trânsito Advanced life support: care provided to motor vehicle crash victims

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisa Aparecida Amaro Malvestio

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar a atuação de um modelo de Suporte Avançado à Vida (SAV, a acidentados de trânsito por meio de indicadores, considerando a pontuação do Revised Trauma Score (RTS na fase pré-hospitalar. MÉTODOS: Análise de 643 registros de atendimento de SAV a acidentados de trânsito, ocorridos em vias expressas da cidade de São Paulo, SP, no período de abril/1999 a abril/2000. Os intervalos de tempo avaliados foram: tempo resposta, de cena, de transporte e total. A análise da decisão de triagem considerou os registros de RTS£11 como corretos para encaminhamento a hospitais terciários. As flutuações no RTS e parâmetros foram observadas através da equação: (RTSfinal ¾ RTSinicial. RESULTADOS E CONCLUSÕES: Das 643 vítimas, 90,8% alcançaram RTS=12 e 5,2% obtiveram RTS£10. O tempo resposta variou entre 8 e 9 min, sendo o tempo de cena e de transporte maior nos casos de RTS£10. Das vítimas com RTS£10, 45,5% foram corretamente encaminhadas para hospitais terciários. Identificaram-se incorreções na triagem de vítimas. A manutenção ou melhora nos valores de RTS ocorreu em 98,8% das vítimas. A freqüência respiratória foi o parâmetro que mais apresentou melhora, seguida da pressão arterial sistólica.OBJECTIVE: To analyze the performance of Advanced Life Support care mode (ALS applied to car crash victims using indicators by means of the Revised Trauma Score (RTS in prehospital phase. METHODS: It were analyzed 643 reports of car crash victims cared by public ALS services that occurred in highways of the city of São Paulo, from April 1999 to April 2000. Time intervals assessed were: response time, on-scene time, transport time, and total time. Correct screening decision analysis considered RTS£11 for tertiary hospitals. Changes in RTS and its parameters were observed using the following equation: RTSfinal ¾ RTSinitial. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Of 643 victims, 90.8% were RTS=12 and 5.2% were RTS£10. The

  9. Sustainable life support on Mars - the potential roles of cyanobacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verseux, Cyprien; Baqué, Mickael; Lehto, Kirsi; de Vera, Jean-Pierre P.; Rothschild, Lynn J.; Billi, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    Even though technological advances could allow humans to reach Mars in the coming decades, launch costs prohibit the establishment of permanent manned outposts for which most consumables would be sent from Earth. This issue can be addressed by in situ resource utilization: producing part or all of these consumables on Mars, from local resources. Biological components are needed, among other reasons because various resources could be efficiently produced only by the use of biological systems. But most plants and microorganisms are unable to exploit Martian resources, and sending substrates from Earth to support their metabolism would strongly limit the cost-effectiveness and sustainability of their cultivation. However, resources needed to grow specific cyanobacteria are available on Mars due to their photosynthetic abilities, nitrogen-fixing activities and lithotrophic lifestyles. They could be used directly for various applications, including the production of food, fuel and oxygen, but also indirectly: products from their culture could support the growth of other organisms, opening the way to a wide range of life-support biological processes based on Martian resources. Here we give insights into how and why cyanobacteria could play a role in the development of self-sustainable manned outposts on Mars.

  10. Effect of guideline based computerised decision support on decision making of multidisciplinary teams: cluster randomised trial in cardiac rehabilitation

    OpenAIRE

    Goud, R.; de Keizer, N F; ter Riet, G; Wyatt, J C; Hasman, A.; Hellemans, I.M.; Peek, N.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the extent to which computerised decision support can improve concordance of multidisciplinary teams with therapeutic decisions recommended by guidelines. DESIGN: Multicentre cluster randomised trial. PARTICIPANTS: Multidisciplinary cardiac rehabilitation teams in Dutch centres and their cardiac rehabilitation patients. INTERVENTIONS: Teams received an electronic patient record system with or without additional guideline based decision support. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: C...

  11. Adaptability and Life Satisfaction: The Moderating Role of Social Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Mi; Lin, Weipeng

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the moderating role of social support in the relationship between adaptability and life satisfaction. Data were collected from 99 undergraduate freshmen in a Chinese university using a lagged design with a 1-month interval. Results demonstrated that social support moderated the relation between adaptability and life satisfaction, such that the positive relation between adaptability and life satisfaction was stronger for individuals with higher levels of social support than for individuals with lower levels of social support. The theoretical and practical implications of this result are discussed. PMID:27516753

  12. Effects of a comprehensive cardiac rehabilitation program on quality of life and exercise tolerance in women: A retrospective analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knapik Grant

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Currently, there are a lack of investigations that have examined the effect of participating in a comprehensive cardiac rehabilitation program on quality of life and physiological measures in women of different ages. The purpose of this investigation was to examine the effect of participating in a comprehensive cardiac rehabilitation program on quality of life, exercise tolerance, blood pressure and lipids in women between 33 and 82 years of age. Methods The 126 women participated in a 14-week cardiac rehabilitation program that consisted of 7 weeks of formal supervised exercise training and 7 weeks of unsupervised exercise and lifestyle modification. Physiologic and quality of life outcome measures obtained at the outset and after 14 weeks included: 1 exercise treadmill time; 2 resting and peak systolic and diastolic blood pressure; 3 total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol and Triglycerides; 4 Cardiac Quality of Life Index questionnaire. Results Significant improvements were found in the following quality of life measures after participating in the cardiac rehabilitation program: physical well being, psychosocial, worry, nutrition and symptoms. No significant differences were seen for any QOL variable between the different age groups. Significant improvements were seen in exercise tolerance (+21% and high density lipoprotein (+5%. Conclusion Cardiac rehabilitation may play an important role in improving quality of life, exercise tolerance and high density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in younger and older women with underlying cardiovascular disease.

  13. Soil: The Life Supporting Skin of Earth

    OpenAIRE

    Kristín Vala Ragnarsdóttir 1954; Banwart, Steven A.

    2015-01-01

    In 2015 the international community is celebrating the International Year of Soils. The United Nations Food and Agriculture Organisation’s (FAO) call of action includes: Healthy soils are for healthy life. Therefore we need to protect our soils. Our soils are at danger because of expanding cities, deforestation, unsustainable land use and management practices, pollution, overgrazing and climate change. The current rate of soil degradation threatens the capacity to meet the needs of future gen...

  14. Life support for aquatic species - past; present; future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slenzka, K.

    Life Support is a basic issue since manned space flight began. Not only to support astronauts and cosmonauts with the essential things to live, however, also animals which were carried for research to space etc together with men need support systems to survive under space conditions. Most of the animals transported to space participate at the life support system of the spacecraft. However, aquatic species live in water as environment and thus need special developments. Research with aquatic animals has a long tradition in manned space flight resulting in numerous life support systems for them starting with simple plastic bags up to complex support hardware. Most of the recent developments have to be identified as part of a technological oriented system and can be described as small technospheres. As the importance arose to study our Earth as the extraordinary Biosphere we live in, the modeling of small ecosystems began as part of ecophysiological research. In parallel the investigations of Bioregenerative Life Support Systems were launched and identified as necessity for long-term space missions or traveling to Moon and Mars and beyond. This paper focus on previous developments of Life Support Systems for aquatic animals and will show future potential developments towards Bioregenerative Life Support which additionally strongly benefits to our Earth's basic understanding.

  15. The Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A: Antenna Number 2 Bearing Assembly Life Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Charles E.

    1997-01-01

    Four bearing assemblies, lubricated with Apiezon C oil with 5% lead naphthenate (PbNp), were life tested in support of the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A). These assemblies were tested continuously for five to six years using the scanning pattern of the flight instrument. A post-life-test analysis was performed on two of the assemblies to evaluate the lubricant behavior and wear in the bearings.

  16. Reliability Growth in Space Life Support Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Harry W.

    2014-01-01

    A hardware system's failure rate often increases over time due to wear and aging, but not always. Some systems instead show reliability growth, a decreasing failure rate with time, due to effective failure analysis and remedial hardware upgrades. Reliability grows when failure causes are removed by improved design. A mathematical reliability growth model allows the reliability growth rate to be computed from the failure data. The space shuttle was extensively maintained, refurbished, and upgraded after each flight and it experienced significant reliability growth during its operational life. In contrast, the International Space Station (ISS) is much more difficult to maintain and upgrade and its failure rate has been constant over time. The ISS Carbon Dioxide Removal Assembly (CDRA) reliability has slightly decreased. Failures on ISS and with the ISS CDRA continue to be a challenge.

  17. EXPLOITATION OF LIFE SUPPORT SYSTEMS IN POPULATED PLACES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudchenko I. I.

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This article describes aspects of control, regulation, functioning and degree of influence on the condition of life-support systems, on the safety of life support, on the safety vital functions of society. The impact of life-support systems on the ecological status of builtup areas. The article refers to an increase in emissions and the dangers of СО2 и SО2, about methods to reduce them. It presents the dangers of hydrogen compounds, nitrogen, chlorine, freon. We have also presented measures to protect the environment in urban areas

  18. Advances in Metal Supported Cells in the METSOFC EU Consortium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McKenna, B. J.; Christiansen, N.; Schauperl, R.;

    2013-01-01

    The EU‐sponsored project “METSOFC”, completed at the end of 2011, resulted in a number of advancements toward implementing a mechanically robust metal support as the structural element in SOFC. Technical University of Denmark (DTU) Energy Conversion's research into planar metal supported cells...... tolerance to thermal cycles and load cycles. These and other key outcomes of the METSOFC consortium are covered, along with associated work supported by the Danish National Advanced Technology Foundation....

  19. Forest biotechnology advances to support global bioeconomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoine Harfouche

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The world is shifting to an innovation economy and forest biotechnology can play a major role in the bio-economy by providing farmers, producers, and consumers with tools that can better advance this transition. First-generation or conventional biofuels are primarily produced from food crops and are therefore limited in their ability to meet challenges for petroleum-product substitution and climate change mitigation, and to overcome the food-versus-fuel dilemma. In the longer term, forest lignocellulosic biomass will provide a unique renewable resource for large-scale production of bioenergy, biofuels and bio-products. These second-generation or advanced biofuels and bio-products have also the potential to avoid many of the issues facing the first-generation biofuels, particularly the competition concerning land and water used for food production. To expand the range of natural biological resources the rapidly evolving tools of biotechnology can ameliorate the conversion process, lower the conversion costs and also enhance target yield of forest biomass feedstock and the product of interest. Therefore, linking forest biotechnology with industrial biotechnology presents a promising approach to convert woody lignocellulosic biomass into biofuels and bio-products. Major advances and applications of forest biotechnology that are being achieved to competitively position forest biomass feedstocks with corn and other food crops are outlined. Finally, recommendations for future work are discussed.

  20. Novel Composite Membrane for Space Life Supporting System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Space life-supporting systems require effective removal of metabolic CO2 from the cabin atmosphere with minimal loss of O2. Conventional techniques, using either...

  1. Effective work-life balance support for various household structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brummelhuis, L.L. ten; Lippe, T. van der

    2010-01-01

    Today’s workforce encompasses a wide variety of employees with specifi c needs and resources when it comes to balancing work and life roles. Our study explores whether various types of work-life balance support measures improve employee helping behavior and performance among single employees, employ

  2. Advancing Administrative Supports for Research Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briar-Lawson, Katharine; Korr, Wynne; White, Barbara; Vroom, Phyllis; Zabora, James; Middleton, Jane; Shank, Barbara; Schatz, Mona

    2008-01-01

    Research administrative supports must parallel and reinforce faculty initiatives in research grant procurement. This article features several types of developments that draw on presentations at the National Association of Deans and Directors of Schools of Social Work meetings. Key changes in social work programs are addressed, including the…

  3. High cardiac vagal control protects against future depressive symptoms under conditions of high social support

    OpenAIRE

    Hopp, Henrik; Shallcross, Amanda J.; Ford, Brett Q.; Troy, Allison S.; Wilhelm, Frank H.; Mauss, Iris B.

    2013-01-01

    High cardiac vagal control (as measured by respiratory sinus arrhythmia; RSA) is associated with lower depression. Recent theories argue that people’s responsiveness to social resources is a key mechanism in this association. This argument implies two hypotheses: first, high RSA should be related to decreased depressive symptoms only when social resources (social support) are available; second, utilization of available social resources (social engagement) should serve as a mechanism for the p...

  4. Quality-of-life assessment in advanced cancer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Donnelly, S

    2000-07-01

    In the past 5 years, quality-of-life (QOL) assessment measures such as the McGill, McMaster, Global Visual Analogue Scale, Assessment of QOL at the End of Life, Life Evaluation Questionnaire, and Hospice QOL Index have been devised specifically for patients with advanced cancer. The developers of these instruments have tried to respond to the changing needs of this specific population, taking into account characteristics including poor performance status, difficulty with longitudinal study, rapidly deteriorating physical condition, and change in relevant issues. Emphasis has been placed on patient report, ease and speed of completion, and the existential domain or meaning of life. Novel techniques in QOL measurement have also been adapted for palliative care, such as judgment analysis in the Schedule for the Evaluation of Individual Quality of Life. It is generally agreed that a single tool will not cover all QOL assessment needs.

  5. Advancing life cycle economics in the Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugbølle, Kim; Hansen, Ernst Jan de Place

    2005-01-01

    Advancing construction and facilities management requires the ability to estimate and evaluate the economic consequences of decisions in a lifetime perspective. A survey of state-of-the-art on life cycle economics in the Nordic countries showed that, despite a number of similarities, no strong co...

  6. Closed bioregenerative life support systems: Applicability to hot deserts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyakov, Yuriy S.; Musaev, Ibrahim; Polyakov, Sergey V.

    2010-09-01

    Water scarcity in hot deserts, which cover about one-fifth of the Earth's land area, along with rapid expansion of hot deserts into arable lands is one of the key global environmental problems. As hot deserts are extreme habitats characterized by the availability of solar energy with a nearly complete absence of organic life and water, space technology achievements in designing closed ecological systems may be applicable to the design of sustainable settlements in the deserts. This review discusses the key space technology findings for closed biogenerative life support systems (CBLSS), which can simultaneously produce food, water, nutrients, fertilizers, process wastes, and revitalize air, that can be applied to hot deserts. Among them are the closed cycle of water and the acceleration of the cycling times of carbon, biogenic compounds, and nutrients by adjusting the levels of light intensity, temperature, carbon dioxide, and air velocity over plant canopies. Enhanced growth of algae and duckweed at higher levels of carbon dioxide and light intensity can be important to provide complete water recycling and augment biomass production. The production of fertilizers and nutrients can be enhanced by applying the subsurface flow wetland technology and hyper-thermophilic aerobic bacteria for treating liquid and solid wastes. The mathematical models, optimization techniques, and non-invasive measuring techniques developed for CBLSS make it possible to monitor and optimize the performance of such closed ecological systems. The results of long-duration experiments performed in BIOS-3, Biosphere 2, Laboratory Biosphere, and other ground-based closed test facilities suggest that closed water cycle can be achieved in hot-desert bioregenerative systems using the pathways of evapotranspiration, condensation, and biological wastewater treatment technologies. We suggest that the state of the art in the CBLSS design along with the possibility of using direct sunlight for

  7. Developing Advanced Human Support Technologies for Planetary Exploration Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berdich, Debra P.; Campbell, Paul D.; Jernigan, J. Mark

    2004-01-01

    The United States Vision for Space Exploration calls for sending robots and humans to explore the Earth's moon, the planet Mars, and beyond. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is developing a set of design reference missions that will provide further detail to these plans. Lunar missions are expected to provide a stepping stone, through operational research and evaluation, in developing the knowledge base necessary to send crews on long duration missions to Mars and other distant destinations. The NASA Exploration Systems Directorate (ExSD), in its program of bioastronautics research, manages the development of technologies that maintain human life, health, and performance in space. Using a system engineering process and risk management methods, ExSD's Human Support Systems (HSS) Program selects and performs research and technology development in several critical areas and transfers the results of its efforts to NASA exploration mission/systems development programs in the form of developed technologies and new knowledge about the capabilities and constraints of systems required to support human existence beyond Low Earth Orbit. HSS efforts include the areas of advanced environmental monitoring and control, extravehicular activity, food technologies, life support systems, space human factors engineering, and systems integration of all these elements. The HSS Program provides a structured set of deliverable products to meet the needs of exploration programs. These products reduce the gaps that exist in our knowledge of and capabilities for human support for long duration, remote space missions. They also reduce the performance gap between the efficiency of current space systems and the greater efficiency that must be achieved to make human planetary exploration missions economically and logistically feasible. In conducting this research and technology development program, it is necessary for HSS technologists and program managers to develop a

  8. Developing Advanced Support Technologies for Planetary Exploration Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berdich, Debra P.; Campbel, Paul D.; Jernigan, J. Mark

    2004-01-01

    The United States Vision for Space Exploration calls for sending robots and humans to explore the Earth s moon, the planet Mars, and beyond. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is developing a set of design reference missions that will provide further detail to these plans. Lunar missions are expected to provide a stepping stone, through operational research and evaluation, in developing the knowledge base necessary to send crews on long duration missions to Mars and other distant destinations. The NASA Exploration Systems Directorate (ExSD), in its program of bioastronautics research, manages the development of technologies that maintain human life, health, and performance in space. Using a systems engineering process and risk management methods, ExSD s Human Support Systems (HSS) Program selects and performs research and technology development in several critical areas and transfers the results of its efforts to NASA exploration mission/systems development programs in the form of developed technologies and new knowledge about the capabilities and constraints of systems required to support human existence beyond Low Earth Orbit. HSS efforts include the areas of advanced environmental monitoring and control, extravehicular activity, food technologies, life support systems, space human factors engineering, and systems integration of all these elements. The HSS Program provides a structured set of deliverable products to meet the needs of exploration programs. these products reduce the gaps that exist in our knowledge of and capabilities for human support for long duration, remote space missions. They also reduce the performance gap between the efficiency of current space systems and the greater efficiency that must be achieved to make human planetary exploration missions economically and logistically feasible. In conducting this research and technology development program, it is necessary for HSS technologists and program managers to develop a

  9. Improved quality of life after treatment of prolonged asystole during breath holding spells with a cardiac pacemaker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Kolterer

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: Cardiac pacing using appropriate pacemaker settings seems effective in the prevention of LOC and reduction of the frequency of BHS. Our results imply a reduction of subjective stress levels of patients and parents as well as an increased quality of everyday life. After all, randomized controlled trials of the influence of cardiac pacemaker implantation on subjective stress levels in patients with BHS are needed.

  10. Advanced Analysis Techniques for Intra-cardiac Flow Evaluation from 4D Flow MRI

    OpenAIRE

    van der Geest, Rob J; Garg, Pankaj

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of the Review Time-resolved 3D velocity-encoded MR imaging with velocity encoding in three directions (4D Flow) has emerged as a novel MR acquisition technique providing detailed information on flow in the cardiovascular system. In contrast to other clinically available imaging techniques such as echo-Doppler, 4D Flow MRI provides the 3D Flow velocity field within a volumetric region of interest over the cardiac cycle. This work reviews the most recent advances in the development and ...

  11. "ATLAS" Advanced Technology Life-cycle Analysis System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lollar, Louis F.; Mankins, John C.; ONeil, Daniel A.

    2004-01-01

    Making good decisions concerning research and development portfolios-and concerning the best systems concepts to pursue - as early as possible in the life cycle of advanced technologies is a key goal of R&D management This goal depends upon the effective integration of information from a wide variety of sources as well as focused, high-level analyses intended to inform such decisions Life-cycle Analysis System (ATLAS) methodology and tool kit. ATLAS encompasses a wide range of methods and tools. A key foundation for ATLAS is the NASA-created Technology Readiness. The toolkit is largely spreadsheet based (as of August 2003). This product is being funded by the Human and Robotics The presentation provides a summary of the Advanced Technology Level (TRL) systems Technology Program Office, Office of Exploration Systems, NASA Headquarters, Washington D.C. and is being integrated by Dan O Neil of the Advanced Projects Office, NASA/MSFC, Huntsville, AL

  12. A comparison of pediatric basic life support self-led and instructor-led training among nurses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Lone D; Løfgren, Bo; Jessen, Casper L;

    2015-01-01

    .5 in the self-training group vs. 10.0 in the instructor-led group, P=0.51) or in any of the 15 parameters. After the study, all participants felt that they had improved their skills and felt capable of performing PBLS. CONCLUSION: Self-training is not statistically different to instructor-led training......OBJECTIVE: Pediatric cardiac arrest carries a poor prognosis. Basic life support improves survival. Studies on pediatric basic life support (PBLS) training are sparse. The aim of our study was to investigate the effect of self-training in PBLS. PARTICIPANTS AND METHODS: We conducted a prospective...... controlled trial enrolling nurses from pediatric and maternity wards (n=29 in each group). Self-training, including a manikin and access to a web-based video on PBLS, was compared with a 2-h instructor-led course. Two weeks after training, all participants were tested in a mock scenario of pediatric cardiac...

  13. Elaboração e aplicação de um instrumento de avaliação no pós-operatório imediato com base no protocolo do Advanced Trauma Life Suport Elaboración y aplicación de un instrumento de evaluación en el post operatorio inmediato con base en el protocolo del Advanced Trauma Life Suport Elaboration and application of an evaluation instrument in the immediate postoperative period, based on the Advanced Trauma Life Support protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisa Dias Von Atzingen

    2008-01-01

    Trauma permitió identificar las principales alteraciones fisiológicas en el POI contribuyendo, por tanto, a la asistencia de enfermería.OBJECTIVE: Elaborating and applying a patient evaluation instrument in the immediate postoperative period (IPOP after general anesthesia, based on the Advanced Trauma Life Support protocol. METHODS: An instrument was created, based on the Trauma ABCDE and applied in the post-anesthetic recovery room in all adult patients submitted to surgeries under the effect of general anesthesia, from September to November, 2007. RESULTS: 93.5% of the patients were observed to have pervious airways; however, 92.2% of them needed oxygen supplementation. There were alterations in pulmonary auscultation in 15.6% of the patients, hypotension in 16.9% and hypothermia in 23.4%. A statistically significant difference was also observed, suggesting that women have better recovery conditions than men. CONCLUSION: The physical exam in the sequence proposed by the Trauma ABCDE allowed for the identification of the main physiological alterations in the IPOP, contributing for nursing care.

  14. Confronting Uncertainty in Life Cycle Assessment Used for Decision Support

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herrmann, Ivan Tengbjerg; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky; Sohn, Michael D.;

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this article is to help confront uncertainty in life cycle assessments (LCAs) used for decision support. LCAs offer a quantitative approach to assess environmental effects of products, technologies, and services and are conducted by an LCA practitioner or analyst (AN) to support the...

  15. Decision support tools for advanced energy management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marik, Karel; Schindler, Zdenek; Stluka, Petr [Honeywell Prague Laboratory, Pod vodarenskou vezi 4, 182 08 Prague 8 (Czech Republic)

    2008-06-15

    Rising fuel costs boost energy prices, which is a driving force for improving efficiency of operation of any energy generation facility. This paper focuses on enhancing the operation of distributed integrated energy systems (IES), system that bring together all forms of cooling, heating and power (CCHP) technologies. Described methodology can be applied in power generation and district heating companies, as well as in small-scale systems that supply multiple types of utilities to consumers in industrial, commercial, residential and governmental spheres. Dispatching of such system in an optimal way needs to assess large number of production and purchasing schemes in conditions of continually changing market and variable utility demands influenced by many external factors, very often by weather conditions. The paper describes a combination of forecasting and optimization methods that supports effective decisions in IES system management. The forecaster generates the future most probable utility demand several hours or days ahead, derived from the past energy consumer behaviour. The optimizer generates economically most efficient operating schedule for the IES system that matches these forecasted energy demands and respects expected purchased energy prices. (author)

  16. Decision support tools for advanced energy management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rising fuel costs boost energy prices, which is a driving force for improving efficiency of operation of any energy generation facility. This paper focuses on enhancing the operation of distributed integrated energy systems (IES), system that bring together all forms of cooling, heating and power (CCHP) technologies. Described methodology can be applied in power generation and district heating companies, as well as in small-scale systems that supply multiple types of utilities to consumers in industrial, commercial, residential and governmental spheres. Dispatching of such system in an optimal way needs to assess large number of production and purchasing schemes in conditions of continually changing market and variable utility demands influenced by many external factors, very often by weather conditions. The paper describes a combination of forecasting and optimization methods that supports effective decisions in IES system management. The forecaster generates the future most probable utility demand several hours or days ahead, derived from the past energy consumer behaviour. The optimizer generates economically most efficient operating schedule for the IES system that matches these forecasted energy demands and respects expected purchased energy prices. (author)

  17. Globular Clusters as Cradles of Life and Advanced Civilizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Stefano, Rosanne; Ray, Alak

    2016-01-01

    Globular clusters are bound groups of about a million stars and stellar remnants. They are old, largely isolated, and very dense. We consider what each of these special features can mean for the development of life, the evolution of intelligent life, and the long-term survival of technological civilizations. We find that, if they house planets, globular clusters provide ideal environments for advanced civilizations that can survive over long times. We therefore propose methods to search for planets in globular clusters. If planets are found and if our arguments are correct, searches for intelligent life are most likely to succeed when directed toward globular clusters. Globular clusters may be the first places in which distant life is identified in our own or in external galaxies.

  18. End-of-Life Decisions and Advanced Old Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stoyles

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Despite the fact that most people die in advanced old age, little attention is given to cases involving older people in debates about the moral and legal dimensions of end-of-life decision making. The purpose of this paper is to establish some of the ways our discussions should change as we pay attention to important factors influencing end-of-life decisions for people in advanced old age. Focusing on the prevalence of comorbidities and the likelihood that people in advanced old age will experience an extended period of declining function before death, I argue that our debates should be expanded to include greater consideration of how we want to live in the final stages of life. With this, I am arguing against the tendency to think that “end-of-life” decision making concerns only making decisions about when and how it is appropriate to terminate a person’s life. I argue, further, that we should move away from the medicalization of dying.

  19. Prospective randomized controlled intervention trial: Comprehensive Yogic Breathing Improves Cardiac autonomic functions and Quality of life in Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V P Jyotsna

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims and Objectives: To assess the effect of Comprehensive Yogic Breathing Program on glycemic control, quality of life, and cardiac autonomic functions in diabetes. Material and Methods: This is a prospective randomized controlled intervention trial. Cardiac autonomic functions were assessed in 120 diabetics. Patients were randomized into two groups, one group receiving standard therapy for diabetes (n = 56 and the other group receiving standard therapy for diabetes and comprehensive yogic breathing program (n = 64. Standard therapy included advice on diet, walk, and oral antidiabetic drugs. Comprehensive yogic breathing program was an interactive session in which Sudarshan kriya yoga, a rhythmic cyclical breathing, preceded by Pranayam was taught under guidance of a certified teacher. Change in fasting, post prandial blood sugars, glycated hemoglobin, and quality of life were assessed. Cardiac autonomic function tests were done before and six months after intervention. Results: There was significant improvement in psychological (P = 0.006 and social domains (P = 0.04 and total quality of life (P = 0.02 in the group practicing comprehensive yogic breathing program as compared to the group following standard therapy alone. In the group following breathing program, the improvement in sympathetic cardiac autonomic functions was statistically significant (P = 0.01, while the change in the standard group was not significant (P = 0.17. When both parasympathetic and sympathetic cardiac autonomic functions were considered, there was a trend toward improvement in patients following comprehensive yogic breathing program (P = 0.07. In the standard therapy group, no change in cardiac autonomic functions was noted (P = 0.76. The parameters of glycemic control were comparable in both groups. Conclusion: There was significant improvement in quality of life and cardiac autonomic functions in the diabetes patients practicing comprehensive yogic breathing

  20. Advanced Materials in Support of EERE Needs to Advance Clean Energy Technologies Program Implementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liby, Alan L [ORNL; Rogers, Hiram [ORNL

    2013-10-01

    The goal of this activity was to carry out program implementation and technical projects in support of the ARRA-funded Advanced Materials in Support of EERE Needs to Advance Clean Energy Technologies Program of the DOE Advanced Manufacturing Office (AMO) (formerly the Industrial Technologies Program (ITP)). The work was organized into eight projects in four materials areas: strategic materials, structural materials, energy storage and production materials, and advanced/field/transient processing. Strategic materials included work on titanium, magnesium and carbon fiber. Structural materials included work on alumina forming austentic (AFA) and CF8C-Plus steels. The advanced batteries and production materials projects included work on advanced batteries and photovoltaic devices. Advanced/field/transient processing included work on magnetic field processing. Details of the work in the eight projects are available in the project final reports which have been previously submitted.

  1. Effective work-life balance support for various household structures

    OpenAIRE

    Brummelhuis, L.L. ten; van der Lippe, T.

    2010-01-01

    Today’s workforce encompasses a wide variety of employees with specifi c needs and resources when it comes to balancing work and life roles. Our study explores whether various types of work-life balance support measures improve employee helping behavior and performance among single employees, employees with a partner, and employees with a partner and children. Using a sample of 482 employees at 24 organizations, the results showed that the organization’s work-family culture improved work perf...

  2. Reliability Impacts in Life Support Architecture and Technology Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange Kevin E.; Anderson, Molly S.

    2012-01-01

    Quantitative assessments of system reliability and equivalent system mass (ESM) were made for different life support architectures based primarily on International Space Station technologies. The analysis was applied to a one-year deep-space mission. System reliability was increased by adding redundancy and spares, which added to the ESM. Results were thus obtained allowing a comparison of the ESM for each architecture at equivalent levels of reliability. Although the analysis contains numerous simplifications and uncertainties, the results suggest that achieving necessary reliabilities for deep-space missions will add substantially to the life support ESM and could influence the optimal degree of life support closure. Approaches for reducing reliability impacts were investigated and are discussed.

  3. Process and Tool Support for Ontology-Aware Life Support System Development and Integration Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Recent advances in ontology development support a rich description of entities that are modeled within a domain and how these entities relate to each other....

  4. Cardiac supporting device using artificial rubber muscle: preliminary study to active dynamic cardiomyoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Yoshiaki; Suzuki, Yasuyuki; Goto, Takeshi; Daitoku, Kazuyuki; Minakawa, Masahito; Fukuda, Ikuo

    2015-12-01

    Dynamic cardiomyoplasty is a surgical treatment that utilizes the patient's skeletal muscle to support circulation. To overcome the limitations of autologous skeletal muscles in dynamic cardiomyoplasty, we studied the use of a wrapped-type cardiac supporting device using pneumatic muscles. Four straight rubber muscles (Fluidic Muscle, FESTO, Esslingen, Germany) were used and connected to pressure sensors, solenoid valves, a controller and an air compressor. The driving force was compressed air. A proportional-integral-derivative system was employed to control the device movement. An overflow-type mock circulation system was used to analyze the power and the controllability of this new device. The device worked powerfully with pumped flow against afterload of 88 mmHg, and the beating rate and contraction/dilatation time were properly controlled using simple software. Maximum pressure inside the ventricle and maximum output were 187 mmHg and 546.5 ml/min, respectively, in the setting of 50 beats per minute, a contraction/dilatation ratio of 1:2, a preload of 18 mmHg, and an afterload of 88 mmHg. By changing proportional gain, contraction speed could be modulated. This study showed the efficacy and feasibility of a pneumatic muscle for use in a cardiac supporting device. PMID:26253252

  5. Sustainability of life support systems in emergency situations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volkov Andrey Anatol’evich

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Modern humanity development is impossible without scientific and technological progress, energy, industry, transport. Despite the fact that industrialization and the constant increase of production capacity have helped people to expand their limits significantly, we should not forget that today our dependence on the established infrastructure is steadily increasing. It is most vivid in case of natural hazards or disasters, which lead to disruption of normal living conditions. Any of these negative phenomena is called "emergency situation". However, the occurrence of emergency situations in life support systems leads to the following negative consequences: disorganization of life support systems functioning on the object, local, regional, national levels; exclusion or complete destruction life support systems; partial or complete reduction of the opportunities for ensuring the needs of the population; danger to life and health of the population. Despite the considerable number of scientific publications, many theoretical and methodological aspects of creating mechanisms and resistance patterns of objects and systems require further investigation that is due to: the possibility of emergency situations doesn’t decrease; acceleration of scientific and technical progress; existing threat of war together with the continuous improvement of weapons; threat of terrorist acts, etc. The authors present a research of the opportunity to construct a sustainability model of life support systems under different emergency situations in respect of modern current trends in the development of information-analytical systems and principles of systems engineering approach. The development of a general stability model, in that case, must consider common sequence of actions, ranging from signs of disaster to the recommendations for eliminating its consequences for life support systems, and the issues of effective interaction between individual subsystems involved in

  6. Neutral Buoyancy Portable Life Support System performance study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chi-Min; Conger, Bruce C.; Iovine, John V.

    1991-01-01

    The Neutral Buoyancy Portable Life Support System (NBPSS) has been designed to support astronaut underwater training activities associated with EVA operations. The performance of competing NBPSS configurations has been analyzed on the basis of a modified 'Metabolic Man' program. NBPSS success is dependent on the development of novel cryogen supply tank and liquid-cooling garment vaporizer. Attention is given to mass and thermal balances and the evaluation results for the vent-loop ejector and heat-exchanger designs.

  7. Advances in Metal Supported Cells in the METSOFC EU Consortium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McKenna, Brandon J.; Christiansen, Niels; Schauperl, Richard;

    2012-01-01

    metal supported cells (MSCs) having low ASR at low temperature, incorporation into small stacks of powers approaching ½kW, and stack tolerance to various operation cycles. DTU Energy Conversion's (formerly Risø DTU) research into planar MSCs has produced an advanced cell design with high performance......Employing a mechanically robust metal support as the structural element in SOFC has been the objective of various development efforts. The EU-sponsored project “METSOFC”, completed at the end of 2011, resulted in a number of advancements towards implementing this strategy. These include robust...... outcomes of the METSOFC consortium are covered, along with associated work supported by the Danish National Advanced Technology Foundation....

  8. Phase Change Permeation Technology For Environmental Control Life Support Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Raymond M.

    2014-01-01

    Use of a phase change permeation membrane (Dutyion [Trademark]) to passively and selectively mobilize water in microgravity to enable improved water recovery from urine/brine for Environment Control and Life Support Systems (ECLSS) and water delivery to plans for potential use in microgravity.

  9. Crop candidates for the bioregenerative life support systems in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chunxiao, Xu; Hong, Liu

    The use of plants for life support applications in space is appealing because of the multiple life support functions by the plants. Research on crops that were grown in the life support system to provide food and oxygen, remove carbon dioxide was begun from 1960. To select possible crops for research on the bioregenerative life support systems in China, criteria for the selection of potential crops were made, and selection of crops was carried out based on these criteria. The results showed that 14 crops including 4 food crops (wheat, rice, soybean and peanut) and 7 vegetables (Chinese cabbage, lettuce, radish, carrot, tomato, squash and pepper) won higher scores. Wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.), rice ( Oryza sativa L.), soybean ( Glycine max L.) and peanut ( Arachis hypogaea L.) are main food crops in China. Chinese cabbage ( Brassica campestris L. ssp. chinensis var. communis), lettuce ( Lactuca sativa L. var. longifolia Lam.), radish ( Raphanus sativus L.), carrot ( Daucus carota L. var. sativa DC.), tomato ( Lycopersicon escalentum L.), squash ( Cucurbita moschata Duch.) and pepper ( Capsicum frutescens L. var. longum Bailey) are 7 vegetables preferred by Chinese. Furthermore, coriander ( Coriandum sativum L.), welsh onion ( Allium fistulosum L. var. giganteum Makino) and garlic ( Allium sativum L.) were selected as condiments to improve the taste of space crew. To each crop species, several cultivars were selected for further research according to their agronomic characteristics.

  10. EPIC: Helping School Life and Family Support Each Other.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, David

    1992-01-01

    Born out of a 1981 murder, Buffalo (New York) Public Schools' EPIC (Effective Parenting Information for Children) program successfully combines parenting, effective teaching, and community programs to help family and school life support each other. Under EPIC, teachers are advised to help students acquire 23 skills involving self-esteem, rules,…

  11. Religiosity, Social Support, and Life Satisfaction among Elderly Korean Immigrants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jisung; Roh, Soonhee; Yeo, Younsook

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The present study tested Smith's (2003. Theorizing religious effects among American adolescents. "Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 42", 17-30. doi:10.1111/1468-5906.t01-1-00158) theory of religious effects to explore the relationship of religiosity, social support, and life satisfaction among elderly Korean immigrants. The…

  12. Effect of Intense Lifestyle Modification and Cardiac Rehabilitation on Psychosocial Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors and Quality of Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldana, Steven G.; Whitmer, William R.; Greenlaw, Roger; Avins, Andrew L.; Thomas, Dean; Salberg, Audrey; Greenwell, Andrea; Lipsenthal, Lee; Fellingham, Gill W.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the effect of the Ornish Program for Reversing Heart Disease and cardiac rehabilitation(CR) on psychosocial risk factors and quality of life in patients with confirmed coronary artery disease. Participants had previously undergone a revascularization procedure. The 84 patients self-selected to participate in the Ornish Program…

  13. Advances in Metal Supported Cells in the METSOFC EU Consortium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McKenna, B. J.; Christiansen, N.; Schauperl, R.; Prenninger, P.; Nielsen, Jimmi; Blennow Tullmar, Peter; Klemensø, Trine; Ramousse, Severine; Kromp, A.; Weber, A.

    2013-01-01

    The EU‐sponsored project “METSOFC”, completed at the end of 2011, resulted in a number of advancements toward implementing a mechanically robust metal support as the structural element in SOFC. Technical University of Denmark (DTU) Energy Conversion's research into planar metal supported cells (M...... tolerance to thermal cycles and load cycles. These and other key outcomes of the METSOFC consortium are covered, along with associated work supported by the Danish National Advanced Technology Foundation.......The EU‐sponsored project “METSOFC”, completed at the end of 2011, resulted in a number of advancements toward implementing a mechanically robust metal support as the structural element in SOFC. Technical University of Denmark (DTU) Energy Conversion's research into planar metal supported cells...... (MSCs) has produced an advanced cell design with high performance and mechanical robustness. At low operation temperatures (650 °C), these cells have shown low Area‐specific resistances (ASRs): 0.35 Ω cm2 in cell tests (16 cm2 active area) and under 0.3 Ω cm2 in button cells (0.5 cm2 active area...

  14. Basic life support knowledge of first-year university students from Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Santos

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to evaluate knowledge of first aid among new undergraduates and whether it is affected by their chosen course. A questionnaire was developed to assess knowledge of how to activate the Mobile Emergency Attendance Service - MEAS (Serviço de Atendimento Móvel de Urgência; SAMU, recognize a pre-hospital emergency situation and the first aid required for cardiac arrest. The students were also asked about enrolling in a first aid course. Responses were received from 1038 of 1365 (76.04% new undergraduates. The questionnaires were completed in a 2-week period 1 month after the beginning of classes. Of the 1038 respondents (59.5% studying biological sciences, 11.6% physical sciences, and 28.6% humanities, 58.5% knew how to activate the MEAS/SAMU (54.3% non-biological vs 61.4% biological, P=0.02, with an odds ratio (OR=1.39 (95%CI=1.07-1.81 regardless of age, sex, origin, having a previous degree or having a relative with cardiac disease. The majority could distinguish emergency from non-emergency situations. When faced with a possible cardiac arrest, 17.7% of the students would perform chest compressions (15.5% non-biological vs 19.1% biological first-year university students, P=0.16 and 65.2% would enroll in a first aid course (51.1% non-biological vs 74.7% biological, P<0.01, with an OR=2.61 (95%CI=1.98-3.44 adjusted for the same confounders. Even though a high percentage of the students recognized emergency situations, a significant proportion did not know the MEAS/SAMU number and only a minority had sufficient basic life support skills to help with cardiac arrest. A significant proportion would not enroll in a first aid course. Biological first-year university students were more prone to enroll in a basic life support course.

  15. Altair Lander Life Support: Requirement Analysis Cycles 1 and 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Molly; Curley, Su; Rotter, Henry; Yagoda, Evan

    2009-01-01

    Life support systems are a critical part of human exploration beyond low earth orbit. NASA s Altair Lunar Lander has unique missions to perform and will need a unique life support system to complete them. Initial work demonstrated a feasible minimally-functional Lander design. This work was completed in Design Analysis Cycles (DAC) 1, 2, and 3 were reported in a previous paper. On October 21, 2008, the Altair project completed the Mission Concept Review (MCR), moving the project into Phase A. In Phase A activities, the project is preparing for the System Requirements Review (SRR). Altair has conducted two Requirements Analysis Cycles (RACs) to begin this work. During this time, the life support team must examine the Altair mission concepts, Constellation Program level requirements, and interfaces with other vehicles and spacesuits to derive the right set of requirements for the new vehicle. The minimum functionality design meets some of these requirements already and can be easily adapted to meet others. But Altair must identify which will be more costly in mass, power, or other resources to meet. These especially costly requirements must be analyzed carefully to be sure they are truly necessary, and are the best way of explaining and meeting the true need. If they are necessary and clear, they become important mass threats to track at the vehicle level. If they are not clear or do not seem necessary to all stakeholders, Altair must work to redefine them or push back on the requirements writers. Additionally, the life support team is evaluating new technologies to see if they are more effective than the existing baseline design at performing necessary functions in Altair s life support system.

  16. Altair Lander Life Support: Requirements Analysis Cycles 1 and 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Molly; Curley, Su; Rotter, Henry; Yagoda, Evan

    2010-01-01

    Life support systems are a critical part of human exploration beyond low earth orbit. NASA's Altair Lunar Lander has unique missions to perform and will need a unique life support system to complete them. Initial work demonstrated a feasible minimally -functional Lander design. This work was completed in Design Analysis Cycles (DAC) 1, 2, and 3 were reported in a previous paper'. On October 21, 2008, the Altair project completed the Mission Concept Review (MCR), moving the project into Phase A. In Phase A activities, the project is preparing for the System Requirements Review (SRR). Altair has conducted two Requirements Analysis Cycles (RACs) to begin this work. During this time, the life support team must examine the Altair mission concepts, Constellation Program level requirements, and interfaces with other vehicles and spacesuits to derive the right set of requirements for the new vehicle. The minimum functionality design meets some of these requirements already and can be easily adapted to meet others. But Altair must identify which will be more costly in mass, power, or other resources to meet. These especially costly requirements must be analyzed carefully to be sure they are truly necessary, and are the best way of explaining and meeting the true need. If they are necessary and clear, they become important mass threats to track at the vehicle level. If they are not clear or do not seem necessary to all stakeholders, Altair must work to redefine them or push back on the requirements writers. Additionally, the life support team is evaluating new technologies to see if they are more effective than the existing baseline design at performing necessary functions in Altair's life support system.

  17. Recent Advances on Pathophysiology, Diagnostic and Therapeutic Insights in Cardiac Dysfunction Induced by Antineoplastic Drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilisa Molinaro

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Along with the improvement of survival after cancer, cardiotoxicity due to antineoplastic treatments has emerged as a clinically relevant problem. Potential cardiovascular toxicities due to anticancer agents include QT prolongation and arrhythmias, myocardial ischemia and infarction, hypertension and/or thromboembolism, left ventricular (LV dysfunction, and heart failure (HF. The latter is variable in severity, may be reversible or irreversible, and can occur soon after or as a delayed consequence of anticancer treatments. In the last decade recent advances have emerged in clinical and pathophysiological aspects of LV dysfunction induced by the most widely used anticancer drugs. In particular, early, sensitive markers of cardiac dysfunction that can predict this form of cardiomyopathy before ejection fraction (EF is reduced are becoming increasingly important, along with novel therapeutic and cardioprotective strategies, in the attempt of protecting cardiooncologic patients from the development of congestive heart failure.

  18. Family-based associations in measures of psychological distress and quality of life in a cardiac screening clinic for inheritable cardiac diseases: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McGorrian Catherine

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Family-based cardiac screening programmes for persons at risk for genetic cardiac diseases are now recommended. However, the psychological wellbeing and health related quality of life (QoL of such screened patients is poorly understood, especially in younger patients. We sought to examine wellbeing and QoL in a representative group of adults aged 16 and over in a dedicated family cardiac screening clinic. Methods Prospective survey of consecutive consenting patients attending a cardiac screening clinic, over a 12 month period. Data were collected using two health measurement tools: the Short Form 12 (version 2 and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS, along with baseline demographic and screening visit-related data. The HADS and SF-12v.2 outcomes were compared by age group. Associations with a higher HADS score were examined using logistic regression, with multi-level modelling used to account for the family-based structure of the data. Results There was a study response rate of 86.6%, with n=334 patients providing valid HADS data (valid response rate 79.5%, and data on n=316 retained for analysis. One-fifth of patients were aged under 25 (n=61. Younger patients were less likely than older to describe significant depression on their HADS scale (p Conclusions High levels of anxiety were seen amongst patients attending a family-based cardiac screening clinic.Younger patients also had high rates of clinically significant anxiety. Higher levels of anxiety and depression tends to run in families, and this has implications for family screening and intervention programmes.

  19. Work/Life Satisfaction Policy in ADVANCE Universities: Assessing Levels of Flexibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tower, Leslie E.; Dilks, Lisa M.

    2015-01-01

    Work/life satisfaction policies are seen as key to recruiting, retaining, and advancing high quality faculty. This article explores the work/life policies prevalent at NSF ADVANCE institutions (PAID, Catalyst, and IT). We systematically review ADVANCE university websites (N = 124) and rank 9 categories of work/life policy including dual career…

  20. Clinical Outcomes and Quality of Life in Recipients of Livers Donated after Cardiac Death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neehar D. Parikh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Donation after cardiac death (DCD has expanded in the last decade in the US; however, DCD liver utilization has flattened in recent years due to poor outcomes. We examined clinical and quality of life (QOL outcomes of DCD recipients by conducting a retrospective and cross-sectional review of patients from 2003 to 2010. We compared clinical outcomes of DCD recipients (n=60 to those of donation after brain death (DBD liver recipients (n=669 during the same time period. DCD recipients had significantly lower rates of 5-year graft survival (P<0.001 and a trend toward lower rates of 5-year patient survival (P=0.064 when compared to the DBD cohort. In order to examine QOL outcomes in our cohorts, we administered the Short Form Liver Disease Quality of Life questionnaire to 30 DCD and 60 DBD recipients. The DCD recipients reported lower generic and liver-specific QOL. We further stratified the DCD cohort by the presence of ischemic cholangiopathy (IC. Patients with IC reported lower QOL when compared to DBD recipients and those DCD recipients without IC (P<0.05. While the results are consistent with clinical experience, this is the first report of QOL in DCD recipients using standardized measures. These data can be used to guide future comparative effectiveness studies.

  1. Visual Simulation of Microalgae Growth in Bioregenerative Life Support System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ming

    Bioregenerative life support system is one of the key technologies for future human deep space exploration and long-term space missions. BLSS use biological system as its core unit in combination with other physical and chemical equipments, under the proper control and manipulation by crew to complete a specific task to support life. Food production, waste treatment, oxygen and water regeneration are all conducted by higher plants or microalgae in BLSS, which is the most import characteristic different from other kinds of life support systems. Microalgae is light autotrophic micro-organisms, light undoubtedly is the most import factor which limits its growth and reproduction. Increasing or decreasing the light intensity changes the growth rate of microalgae, and then regulates the concentration of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the system. In this paper, based on the mathematical model of microalgae which grew under the different light intensity, three-dimensional visualization model was built and realized through using 3ds max, Virtools and some other three dimensional software, in order to display its change and impacting on oxygen and carbon dioxide intuitively. We changed its model structure and parameters, such as establishing closed-loop control system, light intensity, temperature and Nutrient fluid’s velocity and so on, carried out computer virtual simulation, and observed dynamic change of system with the aim of providing visualization support for system research.

  2. End-of-Life Care for Undocumented Immigrants With Advanced Cancer: Documenting the Undocumented.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaramillo, Sylvia; Hui, David

    2016-04-01

    There are approximately 11.1 million undocumented immigrants in the United States, with a majority being Latino. Cancer is now the leading cause of death in Latinos. There is little research guiding providers on how to deliver optimal end-of-life care in this population. We describe a case of an undocumented Latino patient with advanced cancer, and provide a review of the literature on end-of-life care in undocumented immigrants. Our patient encountered many challenges as he navigated through the healthcare system in the last months of life. These included delayed diagnosis, limited social support, financial issues, fear of deportation, and language and cultural barriers, which resulted in significant physical and psychological distress. Within the undocumented patient population, there is often a lack of advance care planning, prognostic understanding, mistrust, religious practices, and cultural beliefs that may affect decision making. Given the growing number of undocumented immigrants in the United States, it is important for clinicians and policy makers to have a better understanding of the issues surrounding end-of-life care for undocumented immigrants, and work together to improve the quality of life and quality of end-of-life care for these disadvantaged individuals. PMID:26681362

  3. Barcode of life: Advancing species identification and discovery

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chandramohan, D.

    and (ii) possess greater range of phylogenetic signal than any other mitochondrial gene. The accumulated evidence now shows that these short DNA sequences can be a distinguishing feature from insects to birds. As a Linnaean binomial is an abbreviated... DNA as a model system. Gene 238, 195-210. 5. Simmons, R.B. and Weller,S.J. 2001. Utility and evolution of cytochrome b in insects.Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 20, 196-210. Barcode of Life: Advancing Species Identification and Discovery ...

  4. Advanced lung disease: quality of life and role of palliative care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Christopher R; Smith, Cecilia M

    2009-02-01

    . Recognition and correction of nocturnal hypoxemia and other sleep disturbances should enhance quality of life in patients with restrictive lung disease; however, there is currently no evidence to support this claim. End-of-life care needs more attention by clinicians in the decision-making and preparatory phase. Physicians need to maintain their focus on quality-of-life issues as medical management shifts from curative therapies to comfort management therapies. Palliative care and hospice appear to be underused in patients with advanced diseases other than cancer. Because the only curative option for some end-stage restrictive lung diseases is lung transplantation, if transplantation is not an option, palliation of symptoms and hospice care may offer patients and families the opportunity to die with dignity and comfort. PMID:19170219

  5. Life support and self-sufficiency in space communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Karl R.

    1992-01-01

    The development of a controlled ecological life support system (CELSS) is necessary to enable the extended presence of humans in space, as on the Moon or on another planetary body. Over a long period, the provision of oxygen, water, and food, and protection from such inimical agents as radiation and temperature extremes, while maintaining the psychological health of the subjects, becomes prohibitively expensive if all supplies must be brought from Earth. Thus, some kind of a regenerative life support system within an enclosure or habitat must be established, thereby cutting the umbilicus to Mother Earth, but not irreversibly. This protective enclosure will enable the survival and growth of an assemblage of terrestrial species of microorganisms, plants, and animals. It is envisioned that the nonterrestrial ecosystem will evolve through the sequential introduction of terrestrial and local materials, together with the appropriate living forms.

  6. Regenerative Life Support Systems Test Bed performance - Lettuce crop characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barta, Daniel J.; Edeen, Marybeth A.; Eckhardt, Bradley D.

    1992-01-01

    System performance in terms of human life support requirements was evaluated for two crops of lettuce (Lactuca sative cv. Waldmann's Green) grown in the Regenerative Life Support Systems Test Bed. Each crop, grown in separate pots under identical environmental and cultural conditions, was irrigated with half-strength Hoagland's nutrient solution, with the frequency of irrigation being increased as the crop aged over the 30-day crop tests. Averaging over both crop tests, the test bed met the requirements of 2.1 person-days of oxygen production, 2.4 person-days of CO2 removal, and 129 person-days of potential potable water production. Gains in the mass of water and O2 produced and CO2 removed could be achieved by optimizing environmental conditions to increase plant growth rate and by optimizing cultural management methods.

  7. Quality of Basic Life Support – A Comparison between Medical Students and Paramedics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhler, Thomas; Weiss, Verena; Pfister, Roman; Michels, Guido

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Poor survival rates after cardiac arrest can partly be explained by poor basic life support skills in medical professionals. Aim This study aimed to assess quality of basic life support in medical students and paramedics. Materials and Methods We conducted a prospective observational study with 100 early medical students (group A), 100 late medical students (group B) and 100 paramedics (group C), performing a 20-minute basic life support simulation in teams of two. Average frequency and absolute number of chest compressions per minute (mean (±SD)), chest decompression (millimetres of compression remaining, mean (±SD)), hands-off-time (seconds/minute, mean (±SD)), frequency of switching positions between ventilation and chest compression (per 20 minutes) and rate of sufficient compressions (depth ≥50mm) were assessed as quality parameters of CPR. Results In groups A, B and C the rates of sufficiently deep chest compressions were 56%, 42% and 52%, respectively, without significant differences. Male gender and real-life CPR experience were significantly associated with deeper chest compression. Frequency and number of chest compressions were within recommended goals in at least 96% of all groups. Remaining chest compressions were 6 mm (±2), 6 mm (±2) and 5 mm (±2) with a significant difference between group A and C (p=0.017). Hands-off times were 6s/min (±1), 5s/min (±1) and 4s/min (±1), which was significantly different across all three groups. Conclusion Overall, paramedics tended to show better quality of CPR compared to medical students. Though, chest compression depth as an important quality characteristic of CPR was insufficient in almost 50% of participants, even in well trained paramedics. Therefore, we suggest that an effort should be made to find better ways to educate health care professionals in BLS.

  8. Reputation Life Cycle of The SM Foundation and Customers’ Support

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Alishahdani Ibrahim

    2012-01-01

    Reputation is a key construct in organizational sciences since reputation signals its past behavior and its prospect in the future. The purpose of this paper is to explore the development and influence of both personal and organizational reputation and its impact to customer support. The organiza-tion life cycle theory is applied to the “SM” foundation, one of Indonesian largest Islamic social enterprise which experienced fast growth and decline due to the decline of its leader reputation. Th...

  9. Controlled ecological life support system breadboard project, 1988

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knott, W. M.

    1990-01-01

    The Closed Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) Breadboard Project, NASA's effort to develop the technology required to produce a functioning bioregenerative system, is discussed. The different phases of the project and its current status are described. The relationship between the project components are shown, and major project activities for fiscal years 1989 to 1993 are listed. The Biomass Production Chamber (BPC) became operational and tests of wheat as a single crop are nearing completion.

  10. Controlled Ecological Life Support System Breadboard Project - 1988

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knott, W. M.

    1989-01-01

    The Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) Breadboard Project, NASA's effort to develop the technology required to produce a functioning bioregenerative system, is discussed. The different phases of the project and its current status are described. The relationship between the project components are shown, and major project activities for fiscal years 1989-1993 are listed. The biomass production chamber to be used by the project is described.

  11. Project Orion, Environmental Control and Life Support System Integrated Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, James F.; Lewis, John F.

    2008-01-01

    Orion is the next vehicle for human space travel. Humans will be sustained in space by the Orion subystem, environmental control and life support (ECLS). The ECLS concept at the subsystem level is outlined by function and technology. In the past two years, the interface definition with other subsystems has increased through different integrated studies. The paper presents the key requirements and discusses three recent studies (e.g., unpressurized cargo) along with the respective impacts on the ECLS design moving forward.

  12. Controlled Ecological Life Support System: Research and Development Guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, R. M. (Editor); Carden, J. L. (Editor)

    1982-01-01

    Results of a workshop designed to provide a base for initiating a program of research and development of controlled ecological life support systems (CELSS) are summarized. Included are an evaluation of a ground based manned demonstration as a milestone in CELSS development, and a discussion of development requirements for a successful ground based CELSS demonstration. Research recommendations are presented concerning the following topics: nutrition and food processing, food production, waste processing, systems engineering and modelling, and ecology-systems safety.

  13. Analysis of plant harvest indices for bioregenerative life support systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velayudhan, A.; Kohlmann, K. L.; Westgate, P. J.; Ladisch, M. R.; Mitchell, C. A. (Principal Investigator)

    1995-01-01

    Harvest indices, which are measures of the ratio of edible to total plant weight, are redefined to include edible sugars derived from enzymatic hydrolysis of the cellulose content of inedible plant components. Compositional analysis and carbohydrate contents of rapeseed, rice, soybeans, cowpea, wheat, sweet potato, white potato, and lettuce were analyzed to develop such generalized harvest indices. Cellulose conversion is shown to extend considerably the food available from plants otherwise grown for their oil and protein content in a bioregenerative life support system.

  14. Controlled Ecological Life Support System: Use of Higher Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibbits, T. W.; Alford, D. K.

    1982-01-01

    Results of two workshops concerning the use of higher plants in Controlled Ecological Life Support Systems (CELSS) are summarized. Criteria for plant selection were identified from these categories: food production, nutrition, oxygen production and carbon dioxide utilization, water recycling, waste recycling, and other morphological and physiological considerations. Types of plant species suitable for use in CELSS, growing procedures, and research priorities were recommended. Also included are productivity values for selected plant species.

  15. Adsorption processes in spacecraft environmental control and life support systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DallBauman, L A; Finn, J E

    1999-01-01

    The environmental control and life support system on a spacecraft maintains a safe and comfortable environment in which the crew can live and work by supplying oxygen and water and by removing carbon dioxide, water vapor, and trace contaminants from cabin air. Although open-loop systems have been used successfully in the past for short-duration missions, the economics of current and future long-duration missions in space will make nearly complete recycling of air and water imperative. A variety of operations will be necessary to achieve the goal of nearly complete recycling. These include separation and reduction of carbon dioxide, removal of trace gas-phase contaminants, recovery and purification of humidity condensate, purification and polishing of wastewater streams, and others. Several of these can be performed totally or in part by adsorption processes. These processes are good candidates to perform separations and purifications in space due to their gravity independence, high reliability, relative high energy efficiency, design flexibility, technological maturity, and regenerative nature. For these reasons, adsorption has historically played a key role in life support on U.S. and Russian piloted spacecraft. Among the life support applications that can be achieved through use of adsorption technology are removal of trace contaminants and carbon dioxide from cabin air and recovery of potable water from waste streams. In each of these cases adsorption technology has been selected for use onboard the International Space Station. The requirements, science, and hardware for these applications are discussed. Human space exploration may eventually lead to construction of planetary habitats. These habitats may provide additional opportunities for use of adsorption processes, such as control of greenhouse gas composition, and may have different resources available to them, such as gases present in the planetary atmosphere. Separation and purification processes based on

  16. Use of Sodium Bicarbonate in Cardiac Arrest: Current Guidelines and Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velissaris, Dimitrios; Karamouzos, Vassilios; Pierrakos, Charalampos; Koniari, Ioanna; Apostolopoulou, Christina; Karanikolas, Menelaos

    2016-04-01

    The aim of the review was to summarize the literature over the last 25 years regarding bicarbonate administration in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. A PubMed search was conducted using the terms "bicarbonates" and "cardiac arrest", limited to human studies and reviews published in English (or at least with a meaningful abstract in English) in the last 25 years. Clinical and experimental data raised questions regarding the safety and effectiveness of sodium bicarbonate (SB) administration during cardiac arrest. Earlier advanced cardiac life support (ACLS) guidelines recommended routine bicarbonate administration as part of the ACLS algorithm, but recent guidelines no longer recommend its use. The debate in the literature is ongoing, but at the present time, SB administration is only recommended for cardiac arrest related to hypokalemia or overdose of tricyclic antidepressants. Several studies challenge the assumption that bicarbonate administration is beneficial for treatment of acidosis in cardiac arrest. At the present time, there is a trend against using bicarbonates in cardiac arrest, and this trend is supported by guidelines published by professional societies and organizations. PMID:26985247

  17. Scaling Impacts in Life Support Architecture and Technology Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    For long-duration space missions outside of Earth orbit, reliability considerations will drive higher levels of redundancy and/or on-board spares for life support equipment. Component scaling will be a critical element in minimizing overall launch mass while maintaining an acceptable level of system reliability. Building on an earlier reliability study (AIAA 2012-3491), this paper considers the impact of alternative scaling approaches, including the design of technology assemblies and their individual components to maximum, nominal, survival, or other fractional requirements. The optimal level of life support system closure is evaluated for deep-space missions of varying duration using equivalent system mass (ESM) as the comparative basis. Reliability impacts are included in ESM by estimating the number of component spares required to meet a target system reliability. Common cause failures are included in the analysis. ISS and ISS-derived life support technologies are considered along with selected alternatives. This study focusses on minimizing launch mass, which may be enabling for deep-space missions.

  18. Cardiac rehabilitation: a good measure to improve quality of life in peri- and postmenopausal women with microvascular angina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech Szot

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Cardiac Syndrome X (CSX was considered a stable coronary syndrome, yet due to its nature, CSX symptoms often have a great impact on patients’ Quality of Life (QoL. According to ESC 2013 stable coronary artery disease criteria, CSX was replaced by Microvascular Angina (MA.Unfortunately, most CSX or MA patients, after classical angina (involving main coronary vessels has been ruled out, often do not receive proper treatment. Indications for pharmacological treatment of MA patients were introduced only recently. Another problematic issue is that scientists describing the pathophysiology of both CSX and MA stress a lack of a deeper insight into the multifactorial etiology of the source of pain associated with this disease. In the presented article we have attempted to study the influence of cardiac rehabilitation (3 months programme on the QoL of patients recognized as suffering from MA, as well as to check if changes in myocardial perfusion in these patients at baseline and after completion of cardiac rehabilitation match changes in their QoL. Therefore, after screening 436 women for MA, we studied 55 of them who were confirmed as having MA and who agreed to participate in the study. Exercise tests, Myocardial Perfusion Imaging, and QoL questionnaires were studied at baseline and after completing 3 months period of cardiac rehabilitation. Results were subsequently compared, which showed a link between improved perfusion score in SPECT study and improved overall physical capacity, on one hand, and improved QoL score on the other. These results confirm that cardiac rehabilitation is a very useful treatment option for MA patients. It seems that training during cardiac rehabilitation is a very important factor (improved physical efficiency –> increase in self-belief, and that taking into consideration the multifactor pathophysiology of pain, it is connected with a better quality of life for MA patients.

  19. Advanced Technologies for Space Life Science Payloads on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hines, John W.; Connolly, John P. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    SENSORS 2000! (S2K!) is a specialized, high-performance work group organized to provide advanced engineering and technology support for NASA's Life Sciences spaceflight and ground-based research and development programs. In support of these objectives, S2K! manages NASA's Advanced Technology Development Program for Biosensor and Biotelemetry Systems (ATD-B), with particular emphasis on technologies suitable for Gravitational Biology, Human Health and Performance, and Information Technology and Systems Management. A concurrent objective is to apply and transition ATD-B developed technologies to external, non-NASA humanitarian (medical, clinical, surgical, and emergency) situations and to stimulate partnering and leveraging with other government agencies, academia, and the commercial/industrial sectors. A phased long-term program has been implemented to support science disciplines and programs requiring specific biosensor (i.e., biopotential, biophysical, biochemical, and biological) measurements from humans, animals (mainly primates and rodents), and cells under controlled laboratory and simulated microgravity situations. In addition to the technology programs described above, NASA's Life and Microgravity Sciences and Applications Office has initiated a Technology Infusion process to identify and coordinate the utilization and integration of advanced technologies into its International Space Station Facilities. This project has recently identified a series of technologies, tasks, and products which, if implemented, would significantly increase the science return, decrease costs, and provide improved technological capability. This presentation will review the programs described above and discuss opportunities for collaboration, leveraging, and partnering with NASA.

  20. Three-dimensional scaffolds of fetal decellularized hearts exhibit enhanced potential to support cardiac cells in comparison to the adult.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, A C; Rodrigues, S C; Caldeira, J; Nunes, A M; Sampaio-Pinto, V; Resende, T P; Oliveira, M J; Barbosa, M A; Thorsteinsdóttir, S; Nascimento, D S; Pinto-do-Ó, P

    2016-10-01

    A main challenge in cardiac tissue engineering is the limited data on microenvironmental cues that sustain survival, proliferation and functional proficiency of cardiac cells. The aim of our study was to evaluate the potential of fetal (E18) and adult myocardial extracellular matrix (ECM) to support cardiac cells. Acellular three-dimensional (3D) bioscaffolds were obtained by parallel decellularization of fetal- and adult-heart explants thereby ensuring reliable comparison. Acellular scaffolds retained main constituents of the cardiac ECM including distinctive biochemical and structural meshwork features of the native equivalents. In vitro, fetal and adult ECM-matrices supported 3D culture of heart-derived Sca-1(+) progenitors and of neonatal cardiomyocytes, which migrated toward the center of the scaffold and displayed elongated morphology and excellent viability. At the culture end-point, more Sca-1(+) cells and cardiomyocytes were found adhered and inside fetal bioscaffolds, compared to the adult. Higher repopulation yields of Sca-1(+) cells on fetal ECM relied on β1-integrin independent mitogenic signals. Sca-1(+) cells on fetal bioscaffolds showed a gene expression profile that anticipates the synthesis of a permissive microenvironment for cardiomyogenesis. Our findings demonstrate the superior potential of the 3D fetal microenvironment to support and instruct cardiac cells. This knowledge should be integrated in the design of next-generation biomimetic materials for heart repair. PMID:27424216

  1. Cardiac rehabilitation may not provided a quality of life benefit in coronary artery disease patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tavella Rosanna

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Improvements in patient-reported health-related quality of life (HRQoL are important goals of cardiac rehabilitation (CR. In patients undergoing coronary angiography for angina and with documented coronary artery disease (CAD, the present study compared HRQoL over 6 months in CR participants and non-participants. Clinical predictors of CR participants were also assessed. Methods A total of 221 consecutive patients undergoing angiography for angina with documented CAD and who were eligible for a CR program were recruited. CR participants were enrolled in a six-week Phase II outpatient CR course (31%, n = 68 within 2 months following angiography and the non-participants were included as a control. At baseline (angiography, one and six months post angiography, clinical and HRQoL data were obtained including the Short Form-36 (SF-36 and the Seattle Angina Questionnaire (SAQ. The response rate for the HRQoL assessment was 68% (n = 150. Cross sectional comparisons were age-adjusted and performed using logistic or linear regression as appropriate. Longitudinal changes in HRQoL were assessed using least squares regression. Finally, a multiple logistic regression was fitted with CR participant as the final outcome. Results At angiography, the CR non-participants were older, and age-adjusted analyses revealed poorer physical (angina limitation: 54 ± 25 versus 64 ± 22, p Conclusion Following angiography, CAD patients reported improvements in both generic and disease-specific HRQoL, however CR participation did not influence this outcome. This may be explained by biases in CR enrollment, whereby acute patients, who may be less limited in HRQoL compared to stable, chronic patients, are targeted for CR participation. Further investigation is required so CR programs maximize the quality of life benefits to all potential CR patients.

  2. Development of Life Support System Technologies for Human Lunar Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barta, Daniel J.; Ewert, Michael K.

    2009-01-01

    With the Preliminary Design Review (PDR) for the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle planned to be completed in 2009, Exploration Life Support (ELS), a technology development project under the National Aeronautics and Space Administration s (NASA) Exploration Technology Development Program, is focusing its efforts on needs for human lunar missions. The ELS Project s goal is to develop and mature a suite of Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) technologies for potential use on human spacecraft under development in support of U.S. Space Exploration Policy. ELS technology development is directed at three major vehicle projects within NASA s Constellation Program (CxP): the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV), the Altair Lunar Lander and Lunar Surface Systems, including habitats and pressurized rovers. The ELS Project includes four technical elements: Atmosphere Revitalization Systems, Water Recovery Systems, Waste Management Systems and Habitation Engineering, and two cross cutting elements, Systems Integration, Modeling and Analysis, and Validation and Testing. This paper will provide an overview of the ELS Project, connectivity with its customers and an update to content within its technology development portfolio with focus on human lunar missions.

  3. Personality and the physician-patient relationship as predictors of quality of life of cardiac patients after rehabilitation

    OpenAIRE

    Farin Erik; Meder Milena

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Numerous studies document the influence of psychosocial variables on the course of coronary heart disease. This study examines the influence of personality traits (trait anger, cynicism) and aspects of the physician-patient relationship (promoting patient participation by the physician, active communication behavior of the patient, trust in the physician) on the health related quality of life (HRQOL) of cardiac patients after rehabilitation. Methods N = 331 patients with c...

  4. Life Support and Habitation Systems: Crew Support and Protection for Human Exploration Missions Beyond Low Earth Orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barta, Daniel J.; McQuillan, Jeffrey

    2011-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has recently expanded its mission set for possible future human exploration missions. With multiple options there is interest in identifying technology needs across these missions to focus technology investments. In addition to the Moon and other destinations in cis-lunar space, other destinations including Near Earth Objects and Mars have been added for consideration. Recently, technology programs and projects have been re-organizing to better meet the Agency s strategic goals and address needs across these potential future missions. Life Support and Habitation Systems (LSHS) is one of 10 Foundational Domains as part of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration s Exploration Technology Development Program. The chief goal of LSHS is to develop and mature advanced technologies to sustain human life on missions beyond Low Earth Orbit (LEO) to increase reliability, reduce dependency on resupply and increase vehicle self-sufficiency. For long duration exploration missions, further closure of life support systems is of interest. Focus includes key technologies for atmosphere revitalization, water recovery, waste management, thermal control and crew accommodations. Other areas of focus include technologies for radiation protection, environmental monitoring and fire protection. The aim is to recover additional consumable mass, reduce requirements for power, volume, heat rejection, crew involvement, and meet exploration vehicle requirements. This paper provides a brief description of the LSHS Foundational Domain as defined for fiscal year 2011.

  5. Effectiveness of the "Cancer Home-Life Intervention" on everyday activities and quality of life in people with advanced cancer living at home

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Åse; Pilegaard, Marc Sampedro; Østergaard, Lisa Gregersen;

    2016-01-01

    Background During the past decade an increasing number of people live with advanced cancer mainly due to improved medical treatment. Research has shown that many people with advanced cancer have problems with everyday activities, which have negative impact on their quality of life, and that they...... spend a considerable part of their time at home. Still, research on interventions to support the performance of and participation in everyday activities is only scarcely available. Therefore, the occupational therapy-based “Cancer Home-Life Intervention” consisting of tailored adaptive interventions...... applied in the participant’s home environment was developed. The objective of this study is to examine the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of the Cancer Home-Life Intervention compared to usual care on the performance of and participation in everyday activities and quality of life in people with...

  6. Melissa: The European project of a closed life support system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasseur, Christophe

    The MELISSA (Micro-Ecological Life Support Alternative) project was initiated in 1989. It is intended as a tool to gain understanding of closed life support, as well as the development of the technology for a future life support system for long term manned space missions, e.g. a lunar base or a mission to Mars. The collaboration was established through a Memorandum of Understanding and is managed by ESA. It involves several independent organisations: Ghent University, EPAS, SCK, VITO (B), University of Clermont-Ferrand, SHERPA (F), University Autonoma of Barcelona (E), University of Guelph (CND). It is co-funded by ESA, the MELISSA partners, the Belgian, the Spanish and the Canadian authorities. The driving element of MELISSA is the production of food, water and oxygen from organic waste (inedible biomass, CO2, faeces, urea). Inspired by the principle of an "aquatic" ecosystem, MELISSA process comprises several sub-processes, called compartments, from the anoxygenic fermentor up to the photosynthetic units (i.e. algae and higher plants). The choice of this compartmentalised structure is required by the very high level of safety requirements and justified by the need of an engineering approach and to build deterministic control strategy. During the past 19 years of research and development, a very progressive approach has been developed to understand and control the MELISSA loop. This approach starts from the selection of processes, their characterisation and mathematical modelling, the validation of the control strategy, up to the demonstration on Earth, at pilot scale. The project is organised in 5 phases: Basic Research and Development, Preliminary flight experiment, Ground and space demonstration, Terrestrial transfer, Education and communication.

  7. Recent Stem Cell Advances: Cord Blood and Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell for Cardiac Regeneration- a Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medhekar, Sheetal Kashinath; Shende, Vikas Suresh; Chincholkar, Anjali Baburao

    2016-05-30

    Stem cells are primitive self renewing undifferentiated cell that can be differentiated into various types of specialized cells like nerve cell, skin cells, muscle cells, intestinal tissue, and blood cells. Stem cells live in bone marrow where they divide to make new blood cells and produces peripheral stem cells in circulation. Under proper environment and in presence of signaling molecules stem cells begin to develop into specialized tissues and organs. These unique characteristics make them very promising entities for regeneration of damaged tissue. Day by day increase in incidence of heart diseases including left ventricular dysfunction, ischemic heart disease (IHD), congestive heart failure (CHF) are the major cause of morbidity and mortality. However infracted tissue cannot regenerate into healthy tissue. Heart transplantation is only the treatment for such patient. Due to limitation of availability of donor for organ transplantation, a focus is made for alternative and effective therapy to treat such condition. In this review we have discussed the new advances in stem cells such as use of cord stem cells and iPSC technology in cardiac repair. Future approach of CB cells was found to be used in tissue repair which is specifically observed for improvement of left ventricular function and myocardial infarction. Here we have also focused on how iPSC technology is used for regeneration of cardiomyocytes and intiating neovascularization in myocardial infarction and also for study of pathophysiology of various degenerative diseases and genetic disease in research field. PMID:27426082

  8. Nurses' experiences of pain management for people with advanced dementia approaching the end of life: a qualitative study

    OpenAIRE

    De Witt Jansen, Bannin; Brazil, Kevin; Passmore, Peter; Buchanan, Hilary; Maxwell, Doreen; McIlfatrick, Sonja J; Morgan, Sharon M; Watson, Max; Parsons, Carole

    2016-01-01

    AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To explore hospice, acute care and nursing home nurses' experiences of pain management for people with advanced dementia in the final month of life. To identify the challenges, facilitators and practice areas requiring further support.BACKGROUND: Pain management in end-stage dementia is a fundamental aspect of end of life care; however, it is unclear what challenges and facilitators nurses experience in practice, whether these differ across care settings, and whether trai...

  9. Space Station Environmental Control/Life Support System engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, C. W.; Heppner, D. B.

    1985-01-01

    The present paper is concerned with a systems engineering study which has provided an understanding of the overall Space Station ECLSS (Environmental Control and Life Support System). ECLSS/functional partitioning is considered along with function criticality, technology alternatives, a technology description, single thread systems, Space Station architectures, ECLSS distribution, mechanical schematics per space station, and Space Station ECLSS characteristics. Attention is given to trade studies and system synergism. The Space Station functional description had been defined by NASA. The ECLSS will utilize technologies which embody regenerative concepts to minimize the use of expendables.

  10. Functional Interface Considerations within an Exploration Life Support System Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Jay L.; Sargusingh, Miriam J.; Toomarian, Nikzad

    2016-01-01

    As notional life support system (LSS) architectures are developed and evaluated, myriad options must be considered pertaining to process technologies, components, and equipment assemblies. Each option must be evaluated relative to its impact on key functional interfaces within the LSS architecture. A leading notional architecture has been developed to guide the path toward realizing future crewed space exploration goals. This architecture includes atmosphere revitalization, water recovery and management, and environmental monitoring subsystems. Guiding requirements for developing this architecture are summarized and important interfaces within the architecture are discussed. The role of environmental monitoring within the architecture is described.

  11. Performance evaluation of SPE electrolyzer for Space Station life support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, A. C.; Puskar, M. C.; Zagaja, J. A.; Miller, P. S.

    1987-01-01

    An static water-vapor feed electrolyzer has been developed as a candidate for Space Station life-support oxygen generation. The five-cell electrolysis module has eliminated the need for phase separation devices, pumps, and deionizers by transporting only water vapor to the solid polymer electrolyte cells. The introduction of an innovative electrochemical hydrogen pump allows the use of low-pressure reclaimed water to generate gas pressures of up to 230 psia. The electrolyzer has been tested in a computer-controlled test stand featuring continuous, cyclic, and standby operation (including automatic shutdown with fault detection).

  12. Bioregenerative life support system for a lunar base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, H.; Wang, J.; Manukovsky, N. S.; Kovalev, V. S.; Gurevich, Yu. L.

    We have studied a modular approach to construction of bioregenerative life support system BLSS for a lunar base using soil-like substrate SLS for plant cultivation Calculations of massflow rates in BLSS were based mostly on a vegetarian diet and biological conversion of plant residues in SLS Plant candidate list for lunar BLSS includes the following basic species rice Oryza sativa soy Glycine max sweet potato Ipomoea batatas and wheat Triticum aestivum To reduce the time necessary for transition of the system to steady state we suggest that the first seeding and sprouting could be made on Earth

  13. Effects of cardiac resynchronization therapy on health-related quality of life in older adults with heart failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin F Hoth

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Karin F Hoth1,2, Justin Nash3, Athena Poppas4, Kristin E Ellison4, Robert H Paul5, Ronald A Cohen31Division of Psychosocial Medicine, National Jewish Medical and Research Center, Denver, CO, USA; 2Department of Psychiatry, University of Colorado, Denver, CO, USA; 3Department of Psychiatry and Human Behavior; 4Department of Cardiology, Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University, Providence, RI, USA; 5Department of Psychology, Division of Behavioral Neuroscience, University of Missouri St. Louis, St. Louis, MO, USAAbstract: The aim of the study was to examine changes in health-related quality of life among older adults undergoing cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT, a pacemaker based intervention for heart failure. Twenty-one patients (mean age = 68; SD = 8 completed measures of cardiovascular health and quality of life prior to and 3-months post-CRT. Following the intervention, patients reported improvements in their perception of their physical functioning (t = 2.8, p < 0.01 and feelings of vitality (t = 2.9, p < 0.01 on the MOS SF-36 Health Survey. Patients improved on objective clinical measures of exercise capacity, cardiac ejection fraction, and ventricular dyssynchrony. Younger patients reported greater improvements in physical functioning and decreases in pain. Higher baseline body mass index was associated with less improvement in physical functioning. Finally, patients with nonischemic heart failure reported greater improvements on multiple subscales of the SF-36 than patients with ischemic heart failure. This preliminary study documented improvements in health-related quality of life following CRT. The findings highlight that specific patient characteristics may be associated with quality of life changes. Future studies will benefit from including quality of life measures that assess multiple health-related domains.Keywords: cardiac resynchronization therapy, heart failure, quality of life

  14. Architecture and life support systems for a rotating space habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Gaurav

    Life Support Systems are critical to sustain human habitation of space over long time periods. As orbiting space habitats become operational in the future, support systems such as atmo-sphere, food, water etc. will play a very pivotal role in sustaining life. To design a long-duration space habitat, it's important to consider the full gamut of human experience of the environment. Long-term viability depends on much more than just the structural or life support efficiency. A space habitat isn't just a machine; it's a life experience. To be viable, it needs to keep the inhabitants satisfied with their condition. This paper provides conceptual research on several key factors that influence the growth and sustainability of humans in a space habitat. Apart from the main life support system parameters, the architecture (both interior and exterior) of the habitat will play a crucial role in influencing the liveability in the space habitat. In order to ensure the best possible liveability for the inhabitants, a truncated (half cut) torus is proposed as the shape of the habitat. This structure rotating at an optimum rpm will en-sure 1g pseudo gravity to the inhabitants. The truncated torus design has several advantages over other proposed shapes such as a cylinder or a sphere. The design provides minimal grav-ity variation (delta g) in the living area, since its flat outer pole ensures a constant gravity. The design is superior in economy of structural and atmospheric mass. Interior architecture of the habitat addresses the total built environment, drawing from diverse disciplines includ-ing physiology, psychology, and sociology. Furthermore, factors such as line of sight, natural sunlight and overhead clearance have been discussed in the interior architecture. Substantial radiation shielding is also required in order to prevent harmful cosmic radiations and solar flares from causing damage to inhabitants. Regolith shielding of 10 tons per meter square is proposed for the

  15. Cardiac rehabilitation in Europe: results from the European Cardiac Rehabilitation Inventory Survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjarnason-Wehrens, Birna; McGee, Hannah; Zwisler, Ann-Dorthe; Piepoli, Massimo F; Benzer, Werner; Schmid, Jean-Paul; Dendale, Paul; Pogosova, Nana-Goar V; Zdrenghea, Dumitru; Niebauer, Josef; Mendes, Miguel

    2010-01-01

    Cardiac rehabilitation (CR) programmes support patients to achieve professionally recommended cardiovascular prevention targets and thus good clinical status and improved quality of life and prognosis. Information on CR service delivery in Europe is sketchy.......Cardiac rehabilitation (CR) programmes support patients to achieve professionally recommended cardiovascular prevention targets and thus good clinical status and improved quality of life and prognosis. Information on CR service delivery in Europe is sketchy....

  16. Continued Development of Compact Multi-gas Monitor for Life Support Systems Control in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-Alonso, Jesús; Phillips, Straun; Chullen, Cinda; Quinn, Gregory

    2016-01-01

    Miniature optic gas sensors (MOGS) based on luminescent materials have shown great potential as alternatives to Near-Infrared-based gas sensor systems for the advanced space suit portable life support system (PLSS). The unique capability of MOGS for carbon dioxide and oxygen monitoring under wet conditions has been reported, as has the fast recovery of MOGS humidity sensors after long periods of being wet. Lower volume and power requirements are also potential advantages of MOGS over both traditional and advanced Non-Dispersive Infrared (NDIR) gas sensors, which have shown so far longer life than luminescent sensors. This paper presents the most recent results in the development and analytical validation of a compact multi-gas sensor unit based on luminescent sensors for the PLSS. Results of extensive testing are presented, including studies conducted at Intelligent Optical Systems laboratories, a United Technology Corporation Aerospace Systems (UTAS) laboratory, and a Johnson Space Center laboratory. The potential of this sensor technology for gas monitoring in PLSSs and other life support systems and the advantages and limitations found through detailed sensor validation are discussed.

  17. Environmental Control and Life Support System, Water Recovery System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    The Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) Group of the Flight Projects Directorate at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is responsible for designing and building the life support systems that will provide the crew of the International Space Station (ISS) a comfortable environment in which to live and work. This is a close-up view of ECLSS Water Recovery System (WRS) racks. The MSFC's ECLSS Group overseas much of the development of the hardware that will allow a constant supply of clean water for four to six crewmembers aboard the ISS. The WRS provides clean water through the reclamation of wastewaters, including water obtained from the Space Shuttle's fuel cells, crewmember urine, used shower, handwash and oral hygiene water cabin humidity condensate, and Extravehicular Activity (EVA) wastes. The WRS is comprised of a Urine Processor Assembly (UPA), and a Water Processor Assembly (WPA). The UPA accepts and processes pretreated crewmember urine to allow it to be processed along with other wastewaters in the WPA, which removes free gas, organic, and nonorganic constituents before the water goes through a series of multifiltration beds for further purification. Product water quality is monitored primarily through conductivity measurements. Unacceptable water is sent back through the WPA for reprocessing. Clean water is sent to a storage tank. The water must meet stringent purity standards before consumption by the crew. The UPA provided by the MSFC and the WRA is provided by the prime contractor, Hamilton Sundstrand Space Systems, International (HSSSI) from Cornecticut.

  18. Regenerative life support technology challenges for the Space Exploration Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilardo, Vincent J., Jr.; Theis, Ronald L. A.

    1992-01-01

    Regenerative life support systems have been identified as one of the critical enabling technologies for future human exploration of space. This discipline encompasses processes and subsystems which regenerate the air, water, solid waste, and food streams typical of human habitation so as to minimize the mass and volume of stored consumables which must accompany the humans on a mission. A number of key technology challenges within this broad discipline are described, ranging from the development of new physical, chemical, and biological processes for regenerating the air, water, solid waste, and food streams to the development of improved techniques for monitoring and controlling microbial and trace constituent contamination. A continuing challenge overarching the development of these new technologies is the need to minimize the mass, volume, and electrical power consumption of the flight hardware. More important for long duration exploration missions, however, is the development of highly reliable, long-lived, self- sufficient systems which absolutely minimize the logistics resupply and operational maintenance requirements of the life support system and which ensure human safety through their robust, reliable operating characteristics.

  19. Marital context and post-infarction quality of life: is it social support or something more?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waltz, M

    1986-01-01

    especially the case regarding an overemphasis of the concept of social support as a buffer of stress. Instruments were developed to measure high and low marital intimacy, as well as chronic marital role strains, and these measures appeared to explain different trajectories of adjustment to cardiac disease. The two-factor model appears to be useful for future work on quality of life with chronic illness. The same is true of four marital contexts of rehabilitation that were identified in the study. PMID:3529422

  20. Bioregenerative Life Support System Research as part of the DLR EDEN Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamsey, Matthew; Schubert, Daniel; Zabel, Paul; Poulet, Lucie; Zeidler, Conrad

    In 2011, the DLR Institute of Space Systems launched a research initiative called EDEN - Evolution and Design of Environmentally-closed Nutrition-Sources. The research initiative focuses on bioregenerative life support systems, especially greenhouse modules, and technologies for future crewed vehicles. The EDEN initiative comprises several projects with respect to space research, ground testing and spin-offs. In 2014, EDEN’s new laboratory officially opened. This new biological cleanroom laboratory comprises several plant growth chambers incorporating a number of novel controlled environment agriculture technologies. This laboratory will be the nucleus for a variety of plant cultivation experiments within closed environments. The utilized technologies are being advanced using the pull of space technology and include such items as stacked growth systems, PAR-specific LEDs, intracanopy lighting, aeroponic nutrient delivery systems and ion-selective nutrient sensors. The driver of maximizing biomass output per unit volume and energy has much application in future bioregenerative life support systems but can also provide benefit terrestrially. The EDEN laboratory also includes several specially constructed chambers for advancing models addressing the interaction between bioregenerative and physical-chemical life support systems. The EDEN team is presently developing designs for containerized greenhouse modules. One module is planned for deployment to the German Antarctic Station, Neumayer III. The shipping container based system will provide supplementation to the overwintering crew’s diet, provide psychological benefit while at the same time advancing the technology and operational readiness of harsh environment plant production systems. In addition to hardware development, the EDEN team has participated in several early phase designs such as for the ESA Greenhouse Module for Space System and for large-scale vertical farming. These studies often utilize the

  1. Life events, social support, coping strategies, and quality of life in attempted suicide: A case-control study

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, P. N. Suresh; George, Biju

    2013-01-01

    Background: Though deliberate self-harm encompasses a wide variety of medical and social disciplines some of the important psychosocial variable such as life events, social support, coping strategies, and quality of life have not yet been explored in depth in India. Aims: The aim was to analyze and compare the type and severity of life events, coping strategies, social support, and quality of life of suicide attempters versus matched normal controls, and to identify the risk factors leading t...

  2. Enzyme-based CO2 capture for advanced life support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Jijun; Cowan, Robert M.; Tu, Chingkuang; McGregor, Martin L.; Trachtenberg, Michael C.

    2002-01-01

    Elevated CO2 levels in air can lead to impaired functioning and even death to humans. Control of CO2 is critical in confined spaces that have little physical or biological buffering capacity (e.g., spacecraft, submarines, or aircraft). A novel enzyme-based contained liquid membrane bioreactor was designed for CO2 capture and certain application cases are reported in this article. The results show that the liquid layer accounts for the major transport resistance. With addition of carbonic anhydrase, the transport resistance decreased by 71%. Volatile organic compounds of the type and concentration expected to be present in either the crew cabin or a plant growth chamber did not influence carbonic anhydrase activity or reactor operation during 1-day operation. Alternative sweep method studies, examined as a means of eliminating consumables, showed that the feed gas could be used successfully in a bypass mode when combined with medium vacuum pressure (-85 kPa) to achieve CO2 separation comparable to that with an inert sweep gas. The reactor exhibited a selectivity for CO2 versus N2 of 1400:1 and CO2 versus O2 is 866:1. The CO2 permeance was 1.44 x 10(-7) mol m-2 Pa-1 s-1 (4.3 x 10(-4) cm3 cm-2 s-1 cmHg-1) at a feed concentration of 0.1% CO2. These data show that the enzyme-based contained liquid membrane is a promising candidate technology that may be suitable for NASA applications to control CO2 in the crew or plant chambers.

  3. Report on Advanced Life Support Activities at Kennedy Space Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Raymond M.

    2004-01-01

    Plant studies at Kennedy Space Center last year focused on selecting cultivars of lettuce, tomato, and pepper for further testing as crops for near-term space flight applications. Other testing continued with lettuce, onion, and radish plants grown at different combinations of light (PPF), temperature, and CO2 concentration. In addition, comparisons of mixed versus mono culture approaches for vegetable production were studied. Water processing testing focused on the development and testing of a rotating membrane bioreactor to increase oxygen diffusion levels for reducing total organic carbon levels and promoting nitrification. Other testing continued to study composting testing for food wastes (NRA grant) and the use of supplemental green light with red/blue LED lighting systems for plant production (NRC fellowship).

  4. Analysis of Advanced Respiratory Support Onboard ISS and CCV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Ronak V.; Kertsman, Eric L.; Alexander, David J.; Duchesne, Ted; Law, Jennifer; Roden, Sean K.

    2014-01-01

    NASA is collaborating with private entities for the development of commercial space vehicles. The Space and Clinical Operations Division was tasked to review the oxygen and respiratory support system and recommend what capabilities, if any, the vehicle should have to support the return of an ill or injured crewmember. The Integrated Medical Model (IMM) was utilized as a data source for the development of these recommendations. The Integrated Medical Model (IMM) was used to simulate a six month, six crew, International Space Station (ISS) mission. Three medical system scenarios were considered based on the availability of (1) oxygen only, (2) oxygen and a ventilator, or (3) neither oxygen nor ventilator. The IMM analysis provided probability estimates of medical events that would require either oxygen or ventilator support. It also provided estimates of crew health, the probability of evacuation, and the probability of loss of crew life secondary to medical events for each of the three medical system scenarios. These IMM outputs were used as objective data to enable evidence-based decisions regarding oxygen and respiratory support system requirements for commercial crew vehicles. The IMM provides data that may be utilized to support informed decisions regarding the development of medical systems for commercial crew vehicles.

  5. No fate but what we make: a case of full recovery after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrade Maria J

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract An 80 years old man suffered a cardiac arrest shortly after arrival to his local health department. Basic Life Support was started promptly and nine minutes later, on evaluation by an Advanced Life Support team, the victim was defibrillated with a 200J shock. When orotracheal intubation was attempted, masseter muscle contraction was noticed: on revaluation, the victim had pulse and spontaneous breathing. Thirty minutes later, the patient had been transferred to an emergency department. As he complained of chest pain, the ECG showed a ST segment depression in leads V4 to V6 and laboratorial tests showed cardiac troponine I slightly elevated. A coronary angiography was performed urgently: significant left main plus three vessel coronary artery disease was disclosed. Eighteen hours after the cardiac arrest, a quadruple coronary artery bypass grafting operation was undertaken. During surgery, a fresh thrombus was removed from the middle left anterior descendent artery. Post-operative course was uneventful and the patient was discharged seven days after the procedure. Twenty four months later, he remains asymptomatic. In this case, the immediate call for the Advanced Life Support team, prompt basic life support and the successful defibrillation, altogether, contributed for the full recovery. Furthermore, the swiftness in the detection and treatment of the acute reversible cause (myocardial ischemia in this case was crucial for long-term prognosis.

  6. Measuring social support in patients with advanced medical illnesses: An analysis of the Duke–UNC Functional Social Support Questionnaire

    Science.gov (United States)

    SARACINO, REBECCA; KOLVA, ELISSA; ROSENFELD, BARRY; BREITBART, WILLIAM

    2016-01-01

    Objective To date, no measure of social support has been developed specifically for either palliative care or oncology settings. The present study examined the psychometric properties of the Duke–University of North Carolina Functional Social Support Questionnaire (DUFSS) in order to (1) assess the adequacy of the scale in the context of severe medical illness and (2) evaluate whether a brief subset of items might generate roughly comparable utility. Method The 14-item DUFSS was administered to 1,362 individuals with advanced cancer or AIDS. Classical test theory (CTT) and item response theory (IRT) analyses were utilized to develop an abbreviated version of the DUFSS that maintained adequate reliability and validity and might increase the feasibility of its administration in a palliative care setting. The reliability and concurrent validity of the DUFSS-5 were evaluated in a separate validation sample of patients with advanced cancer. Results Analyses generated a five-item version of the DUFSS (the DUFSS-5) that collapsed response levels into only three options, instead of five. Correlations between the DUFSS-5 and measures of depression, quality of life, and desire for hastened death, as well as regression models testing the main-effect and buffering models of social support, provided support for the utility of the DUFSS-5. Significance of results Both the DUFSS and the abbreviated DUFSS-5 appear to have adequate reliability and validity in this setting. Moreover, the DUFSS-5 represents a potentially important option for healthcare researchers, particularly for those working in palliative care settings where issues of patient burden are paramount. Such analyses are critical for advancing the development and refinement of psychosocial measures, but have often been neglected. PMID:25201170

  7. Multi-Agent Diagnosis and Control of an Air Revitalization System for Life Support in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malin, Jane T.; Kowing, Jeffrey; Nieten, Joseph; Graham, Jeffrey s.; Schreckenghost, Debra; Bonasso, Pete; Fleming, Land D.; MacMahon, Matt; Thronesbery, Carroll

    2000-01-01

    An architecture of interoperating agents has been developed to provide control and fault management for advanced life support systems in space. In this adjustable autonomy architecture, software agents coordinate with human agents and provide support in novel fault management situations. This architecture combines the Livingstone model-based mode identification and reconfiguration (MIR) system with the 3T architecture for autonomous flexible command and control. The MIR software agent performs model-based state identification and diagnosis. MIR identifies novel recovery configurations and the set of commands required for the recovery. The AZT procedural executive and the human operator use the diagnoses and recovery recommendations, and provide command sequencing. User interface extensions have been developed to support human monitoring of both AZT and MIR data and activities. This architecture has been demonstrated performing control and fault management for an oxygen production system for air revitalization in space. The software operates in a dynamic simulation testbed.

  8. Radio Searches for Signatures of Advanced Extraterrestrial Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siemion, Andrew

    Over the last several decades, observational astronomy has produced a flood of discoveries that suggest that the building blocks and circumstances that gave rise to life on Earth may be the rule rather than the exception. It has now been conclusively shown that planets are common and that some 5-15% of FGKM stars host planets existing in their host star's habitable zone. Further, terrestrial biology has demonstrated that life on our own planet can thrive in extraordinarily extreme environments, dramatically extending our notion of what constitutes habitability. The deeper question, yet unanswered, is whether or not life in any form has ever existed in an environment outside of the Earth. As humans, we are drawn to an even more profound question, that of whether or not extraterrestrial life may have evolved a curiosity about the universe similar to our own and the technology with which to explore it. Radio astronomy has long played a prominent role in searches for extraterrestrial intelligence (SETI), beginning with the first suggestions by Cocconi and Morrison (1959) that narrow-band radio signals near 1420 MHz might be effective tracers of advanced technology and early experiments along these lines by Frank Drake in 1961, continuing through to more recent investigations searching for several types of coherent radio signals indicative of technology at a wider range of frequencies. The motivations for radio searches for extraterrestrial intelligence have been throughly discussed in the literature, but the salient arguments are the following: 1. coherent radio emission is commonly produced by advanced technology (judging by Earth’s technological development), 2. electromagnetic radiation can convey information at the maximum velocity currently known to be possible, 3. radio photons are energetically cheap to produce, 4. certain types of coherent radio emissions are easily distinguished from astrophysical background sources, especially within the so

  9. The life aquatic: advances in marine vertebrate genomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Joanna L; Brown, Anthony P; Therkildsen, Nina Overgaard; Foote, Andrew D

    2016-07-01

    The ocean is hypothesized to be where life on earth originated, and subsequent evolutionary transitions between marine and terrestrial environments have been key events in the origin of contemporary biodiversity. Here, we review how comparative genomic approaches are an increasingly important aspect of understanding evolutionary processes, such as physiological and morphological adaptation to the diverse habitats within the marine environment. In addition, we highlight how population genomics has provided unprecedented resolution for population structuring, speciation and adaptation in marine environments, which can have a low cost of dispersal and few physical barriers to gene flow, and can thus support large populations. Building upon this work, we outline the applications of genomics tools to conservation and their relevance to assessing the wide-ranging impact of fisheries and climate change on marine species. PMID:27376488

  10. Empowered to gain a new foothold in life--A study of the meaning of participating in cardiac rehabilitation to patients afflicted by a minor heart attack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonÿ, Charlotte P; Dreyer, Pia; Pedersen, Birthe D; Birkelund, Regner

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate what it means to patients afflicted by a minor heart attack to participate in cardiac rehabilitation (CR). CR is well-established internationally to support patients towards moving forward in satisfying, healthy, and well-functioning lives. Studies indicate that patients achieve improvement in quality of life when participating in CR. However, knowledge of how patients are supported during CR is sparse. Moreover, knowledge of what participating in CR means to patients afflicted by a minor heart attack is lacking. In-depth knowledge in this area is crucial in order to understand these patients' particular gains and needs. In a phenomenological-hermeneutic frame field observations, focus group interviews, and individual interviews were conducted among 11 patients during and after their participation in CR. Field notes and transcribed interviews underwent three-phased interpretation. It was found that patients were supported to gain renewed balance in their lives during CR. Three themes were identified: (1) receiving a helpful but limited caring hand, (2) being supported to find new values in life, and (3) developing responsibility for the remaining time. The patients were carefully guided through a difficult time and supported to continue in healthy everyday lives. They were given hope which enabled them to find themselves a new foothold in life with respect to their own sense of well-being. This guidance and a sense of hopefulness were provided by heart specialists and more seasoned heart patients. In conclusion, patients were empowered to achieve a healthier lifestyle and improve their personal well-being during CR. However, structural barriers in the programme prevented adequate support regarding the patients' total needs. Knowledge of the benefits of CR emphasizes the significance of the programme and highlights the importance of high inclusion. Efforts should be made to develop more flexible and longer lasting programmes and

  11. Correlation between changes in diastolic dysfunction and health-related quality of life after cardiac rehabilitation program in dilated cardiomyopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherin H.M. Mehani

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Chronic heart failure (CHF is a complex syndrome characterized by progressive decline in left ventricular function, low exercise tolerance and raised mortality and morbidity. Left ventricular diastolic dysfunction plays a major role in CHF and progression of most cardiac diseases. The current recommended goals can theoretically be accomplished via exercise and pharmacological therapy so the aim of the present study was to evaluate the impact of cardiac rehabilitation program on diastolic dysfunction and health related quality of life and to determine the correlation between changes in left ventricular diastolic dysfunction and domains of health-related quality of life (HRQoL. Forty patients with chronic heart failure were diagnosed as having dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM with systolic and diastolic dysfunction. The patients were equally and randomly divided into training and control groups. Only 30 of them completed the study duration. The training group participated in rehabilitation program in the form of circuit-interval aerobic training adjusted according to 55–80% of heart rate reserve for a period of 7 months. Circuit training improved both diastolic and systolic dysfunction in the training group. On the other hand, only a significant correlation was found between improvement in diastolic dysfunction and health related quality of life measured by Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire. It was concluded that improvement in diastolic dysfunction as a result of rehabilitation program is one of the important underlying mechanisms responsible for improvement in health-related quality of life in DCM patients.

  12. Advanced Modular Power Approach to Affordable, Supportable Space Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oeftering, Richard C.; Kimnach, Greg L.; Fincannon, James; Mckissock,, Barbara I.; Loyselle, Patricia L.; Wong, Edmond

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies of missions to the Moon, Mars and Near Earth Asteroids (NEA) indicate that these missions often involve several distinct separately launched vehicles that must ultimately be integrated together in-flight and operate as one unit. Therefore, it is important to see these vehicles as elements of a larger segmented spacecraft rather than separate spacecraft flying in formation. The evolution of large multi-vehicle exploration architecture creates the need (and opportunity) to establish a global power architecture that is common across all vehicles. The Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Modular Power System (AMPS) project managed by NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) is aimed at establishing the modular power system architecture that will enable power systems to be built from a common set of modular building blocks. The project is developing, demonstrating and evaluating key modular power technologies that are expected to minimize non-recurring development costs, reduce recurring integration costs, as well as, mission operational and support costs. Further, modular power is expected to enhance mission flexibility, vehicle reliability, scalability and overall mission supportability. The AMPS project not only supports multi-vehicle architectures but should enable multi-mission capability as well. The AMPS technology development involves near term demonstrations involving developmental prototype vehicles and field demonstrations. These operational demonstrations not only serve as a means of evaluating modular technology but also provide feedback to developers that assure that they progress toward truly flexible and operationally supportable modular power architecture.

  13. Cardiac natriuretic peptide gene expression and plasma concentrations during the first 72 hours of life in piglets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Julie; Christoffersen, Christina; Nørgaard, Linn Maiken;

    2013-01-01

    Plasma measurement of cardiac natriuretic peptides constitutes promising markers of congenital heart disease. However, concentrations change rapidly and dramatically during the first days after delivery even in healthy neonates, which complicates clinical interpretation. It is unknown whether the......, resembling the transition from fetal to neonate circulation. However, the cardiac gene expression does not explain plasma concentrations....... 72 hours of life (from 2 litters, n = 44). Chamber-specific ANP and BNP mRNA levels reflected hemodynamic neonate changes at birth but did not correlate with circulating natriuretic peptide concentrations. However, plasma pro-ANP and creatinine concentrations were closely correlated (P < .0001; r = 0.......73). Plasma pro-ANP levels were highest on the day of delivery (5580 pmol/L [4320-6786] decreasing to 2484 pmol/L [1602-2898] after 72 hours, P < .0001). During the 72 hours, gel chromatography suggested that the translational products in circulation and in atrial tissue were immature, ie, unprocessed pro...

  14. Characterization of the Cardiac Overexpression of HSPB2 Reveals Mitochondrial and Myogenic Roles Supported by a Cardiac HspB2 Interactome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julianne H Grose

    Full Text Available Small Heat Shock Proteins (sHSPs are molecular chaperones that transiently interact with other proteins, thereby assisting with quality control of proper protein folding and/or degradation. They are also recruited to protect cells from a variety of stresses in response to extreme heat, heavy metals, and oxidative-reductive stress. Although ten human sHSPs have been identified, their likely diverse biological functions remain an enigma in health and disease, and much less is known about non-redundant roles in selective cells and tissues. Herein, we set out to comprehensively characterize the cardiac-restricted Heat Shock Protein B-2 (HspB2, which exhibited ischemic cardioprotection in transgenic overexpressing mice including reduced infarct size and maintenance of ATP levels. Global yeast two-hybrid analysis using HspB2 (bait and a human cardiac library (prey coupled with co-immunoprecipitation studies for mitochondrial target validation revealed the first HspB2 "cardiac interactome" to contain many myofibril and mitochondrial-binding partners consistent with the overexpression phenotype. This interactome has been submitted to the Biological General Repository for Interaction Datasets (BioGRID. A related sHSP chaperone HspB5 had only partially overlapping binding partners, supporting specificity of the interactome as well as non-redundant roles reported for these sHSPs. Evidence that the cardiac yeast two-hybrid HspB2 interactome targets resident mitochondrial client proteins is consistent with the role of HspB2 in maintaining ATP levels and suggests new chaperone-dependent functions for metabolic homeostasis. One of the HspB2 targets, glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH, has reported roles in HspB2 associated phenotypes including cardiac ATP production, mitochondrial function, and apoptosis, and was validated as a potential client protein of HspB2 through chaperone assays. From the clientele and phenotypes identified herein, it is

  15. Characterization of the Cardiac Overexpression of HSPB2 Reveals Mitochondrial and Myogenic Roles Supported by a Cardiac HspB2 Interactome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grose, Julianne H; Langston, Kelsey; Wang, Xiaohui; Squires, Shayne; Mustafi, Soumyajit Banerjee; Hayes, Whitney; Neubert, Jonathan; Fischer, Susan K; Fasano, Matthew; Saunders, Gina Moore; Dai, Qiang; Christians, Elisabeth; Lewandowski, E Douglas; Ping, Peipei; Benjamin, Ivor J

    2015-01-01

    Small Heat Shock Proteins (sHSPs) are molecular chaperones that transiently interact with other proteins, thereby assisting with quality control of proper protein folding and/or degradation. They are also recruited to protect cells from a variety of stresses in response to extreme heat, heavy metals, and oxidative-reductive stress. Although ten human sHSPs have been identified, their likely diverse biological functions remain an enigma in health and disease, and much less is known about non-redundant roles in selective cells and tissues. Herein, we set out to comprehensively characterize the cardiac-restricted Heat Shock Protein B-2 (HspB2), which exhibited ischemic cardioprotection in transgenic overexpressing mice including reduced infarct size and maintenance of ATP levels. Global yeast two-hybrid analysis using HspB2 (bait) and a human cardiac library (prey) coupled with co-immunoprecipitation studies for mitochondrial target validation revealed the first HspB2 "cardiac interactome" to contain many myofibril and mitochondrial-binding partners consistent with the overexpression phenotype. This interactome has been submitted to the Biological General Repository for Interaction Datasets (BioGRID). A related sHSP chaperone HspB5 had only partially overlapping binding partners, supporting specificity of the interactome as well as non-redundant roles reported for these sHSPs. Evidence that the cardiac yeast two-hybrid HspB2 interactome targets resident mitochondrial client proteins is consistent with the role of HspB2 in maintaining ATP levels and suggests new chaperone-dependent functions for metabolic homeostasis. One of the HspB2 targets, glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), has reported roles in HspB2 associated phenotypes including cardiac ATP production, mitochondrial function, and apoptosis, and was validated as a potential client protein of HspB2 through chaperone assays. From the clientele and phenotypes identified herein, it is tempting to

  16. The use of extracorporeal life support in adolescent amlodipine overdose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth A Persad

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Calcium channel blocker (CCB toxicity is associated with refractory hypotension and can be fatal. A 13 year old young woman presented to the emergency department(ED six hours after an intentional overdose of amlodipine, barbiturates, and alcohol. She remained extremely hypotensive despite the administration of normal saline and calcium chloride and despite infusions of norepinephrine, epinephrine, insulin, and dextrose. Due to increasing evidence of end organ dysfunction, Extracorporeal Life Support (ECLS was initiated 9 hours after presentation to the ED. The patient′s blood pressure and end organ function immediately improved after cannulation. She was successfully decannulated after 57 hours of ECLS and was neurologically intact. Patients with calcium channel blocker overdose who are resistant to medical interventions may respond favorably to early ECLS.

  17. Portable Life Support Subsystem Thermal Hydraulic Performance Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Bruce; Pinckney, John; Conger, Bruce

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the current state of the thermal hydraulic modeling efforts being conducted for the Constellation Space Suit Element (CSSE) Portable Life Support Subsystem (PLSS). The goal of these efforts is to provide realistic simulations of the PLSS under various modes of operation. The PLSS thermal hydraulic model simulates the thermal, pressure, flow characteristics, and human thermal comfort related to the PLSS performance. This paper presents modeling approaches and assumptions as well as component model descriptions. Results from the models are presented that show PLSS operations at steady-state and transient conditions. Finally, conclusions and recommendations are offered that summarize results, identify PLSS design weaknesses uncovered during review of the analysis results, and propose areas for improvement to increase model fidelity and accuracy.

  18. Reputation Life Cycle of The SM Foundation and Customers’ Support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Alishahdani Ibrahim

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Reputation is a key construct in organizational sciences since reputation signals its past behavior and its prospect in the future. The purpose of this paper is to explore the development and influence of both personal and organizational reputation and its impact to customer support. The organiza-tion life cycle theory is applied to the “SM” foundation, one of Indonesian largest Islamic social enterprise which experienced fast growth and decline due to the decline of its leader reputation. The case shows that personal reputation of leader is very important in the start-up and early development phase of the organization but it may threaten the organizational sustainability at a later stage when the leader’s personal reputation is conveyed into the organization reputation.

  19. EARLY IDENTIFICATION AND BASIC LIFE SUPPORT FOR PNEUMOTHORAX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Wayan Ade Punarbawa

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Chest injury is one injury that often occurs and need immediate and precise handling that prevent people from death. Chest trauma 1/4 of the trauma that caused the death and 1/3 of those deaths occur in hospitals. One chest injury that often we get to the health center is pneumothorax. WHO declared in 2020 the level of morbidity and mortality from chest injuries will increase, to become the second leading cause of death in the world. From this data that need to know the signs and symptoms of peneumotoraks, identify the signs and symptoms so we can provide basic life support to the patient before the patient was referred to a medical center nearby so as to reduce the morbidity and mortality in patients with pneumothorax.

  20. Requirements for Designing Life Support System Architectures for Crewed Exploration Missions Beyond Low-Earth Orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, David; Perry,Jay; Sargusingh, Miriam; Toomarian, Nikzad

    2016-01-01

    NASA's technology development roadmaps provide guidance to focus technological development on areas that enable crewed exploration missions beyond low-Earth orbit. Specifically, the technology area roadmap on human health, life support and habitation systems describes the need for life support system (LSS) technologies that can improve reliability and in-situ maintainability within a minimally-sized package while enabling a high degree of mission autonomy. To address the needs outlined by the guiding technology area roadmap, NASA's Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Program has commissioned the Life Support Systems (LSS) Project to lead technology development in the areas of water recovery and management, atmosphere revitalization, and environmental monitoring. A notional exploration LSS architecture derived from the International Space has been developed and serves as the developmental basis for these efforts. Functional requirements and key performance parameters that guide the exploration LSS technology development efforts are presented and discussed. Areas where LSS flight operations aboard the ISS afford lessons learned that are relevant to exploration missions are highlighted.

  1. Support for life-cycle product reuse in NASA's SSE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shotton, Charles

    1989-01-01

    The Software Support Environment (SSE) is a software factory for the production of Space Station Freedom Program operational software. The SSE is to be centrally developed and maintained and used to configure software production facilities in the field. The PRC product TTCQF provides for an automated qualification process and analysis of existing code that can be used for software reuse. The interrogation subsystem permits user queries of the reusable data and components which have been identified by an analyzer and qualified with associated metrics. The concept includes reuse of non-code life-cycle components such as requirements and designs. Possible types of reusable life-cycle components include templates, generics, and as-is items. Qualification of reusable elements requires analysis (separation of candidate components into primitives), qualification (evaluation of primitives for reusability according to reusability criteria) and loading (placing qualified elements into appropriate libraries). There can be different qualifications for different installations, methodologies, applications and components. Identifying reusable software and related components is labor-intensive and is best carried out as an integrated function of an SSE.

  2. Support Policies in Clusters: Prioritization of Support Needs by Cluster Members According to Cluster Life Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulcin Salıngan

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Economic development has always been a moving target. Both the national and local governments have been facing the challenge of implementing the effective and efficient economic policy and program in order to best utilize their limited resources. One of the recent approaches in this area is called cluster-based economic analysis and strategy development. This study reviews key literature and some of the cluster based economic policies adopted by different governments. Based on this review, it proposes “the cluster life cycle” as a determining factor to identify the support requirements of clusters. A survey, designed based on literature review of International Cluster support programs, was conducted with 30 participants from 3 clusters with different maturity stage. This paper discusses the results of this study conducted among the cluster members in Eskişehir- Bilecik-Kütahya Region in Turkey on the requirement of the support to foster the development of related clusters.

  3. Space Suit Portable Life Support System Test Bed (PLSS 1.0) Development and Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Carly; Campbell, Colin; Vogel, Matthew; Conger, Bruce

    2012-01-01

    A multi-year effort has been carried out at NASA-JSC to develop an advanced extra-vehicular activity Portable Life Support System (PLSS) design intended to further the current state of the art by increasing operational flexibility, reducing consumables, and increasing robustness. Previous efforts have focused on modeling and analyzing the advanced PLSS architecture, as well as developing key enabling technologies. Like the current International Space Station Extra-vehicular Mobility Unit PLSS, the advanced PLSS comprises three subsystems required to sustain the crew during extra-vehicular activity including the Thermal, Ventilation, and Oxygen Subsystems. This multi-year effort has culminated in the construction and operation of PLSS 1.0, a test bed that simulates full functionality of the advanced PLSS design. PLSS 1.0 integrates commercial off the shelf hardware with prototype technology development components, including the primary and secondary oxygen regulators, Ventilation Subsystem fan, Rapid Cycle Amine swingbed carbon dioxide and water vapor removal device, and Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporator heat rejection device. The overall PLSS 1.0 test objective was to demonstrate the capability of the Advanced PLSS to provide key life support functions including suit pressure regulation, carbon dioxide and water vapor removal, thermal control and contingency purge operations. Supplying oxygen was not one of the specific life support functions because the PLSS 1.0 test was not oxygen rated. Nitrogen was used for the working gas. Additional test objectives were to confirm PLSS technology development components performance within an integrated test bed, identify unexpected system level interactions, and map the PLSS 1.0 performance with respect to key variables such as crewmember metabolic rate and suit pressure. Successful PLSS 1.0 testing completed 168 test points over 44 days of testing and produced a large database of test results that characterize system level

  4. Basic life support training for single rescuers efficiently augments their willingness to make early emergency calls with no available help: a cross-over questionnaire survey

    OpenAIRE

    Hirose, Keiko; Enami, Miki; Matsubara, Hiroki; Kamikura, Takahisa; Takei, Yutaka; Inaba, Hideo

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to investigate effects of basic life support (BLS) training on willingness of single rescuers to make emergency calls during out-of-hospital cardiac arrests (OHCAs) with no available help from others. Methods A cross-over questionnaire survey was conducted with two questionnaires. Questionnaires were administered before and after two BLS courses in fire departments. One questionnaire included two scenarios which simulate OHCAs occurring in situations where...

  5. Life cycle assessment in support of sustainable transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckelman, Matthew J.

    2013-06-01

    In our rapidly urbanizing world, sustainable transportation presents a major challenge. Transportation decisions have considerable direct impacts on urban society, both positive and negative, for example through changes in transit times and economic productivity, urban connectivity, tailpipe emissions and attendant air quality concerns, traffic accidents, and noise pollution. Much research has been dedicated to quantifying these direct impacts for various transportation modes. Transportation planning decisions also result in a variety of indirect environmental and human health impacts, a portion of which can accrue outside of the transit service area and so outside of the local decision-making process. Integrated modeling of direct and indirect impacts over the life cycle of different transportation modes provides decision support that is more comprehensive and less prone to triggering unintended consequences than a sole focus on direct tailpipe emissions. The recent work of Chester et al (2013) in this journal makes important contributions to this research by examining the environmental implications of introducing bus rapid transit and light rail in Los Angeles using life cycle assessment (LCA). Transport in the LA region is dominated by automobile trips, and the authors show that potential shifts to either bus or train modes would reduce energy use and emissions of criteria air pollutants, on an average passenger mile travelled basis. This work compares not just the use of each vehicle, but also upstream impacts from its manufacturing and maintenance, as well as the construction and maintenance of the entire infrastructure required for each mode. Previous work by the lead author (Chester and Horvath 2009), has shown that these non-operational sources and largely non-local can dominate life cycle impacts from transportation, again on an average (or attributional) basis, for example increasing rail-related GHG emissions by >150% over just operational emissions

  6. Advances in exploring the role of microRNAs in the pathogenesis, diagnosis and therapy of cardiac diseases in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Z W; Lu, Y J; Yang, B F

    2015-12-01

    Cardiovascular disease has become the most serious health threat and represents the major cause of morbidity and mortality in China, as in other industrialized nations. During the past few decades, China's economic boom has tremendously improved people's standard of living but has also changed their lifestyle, increasing the prevalence of cardiovascular disease, the so-called 'disease of modern civilization'. This new trend has attracted a significant amount of research. Many of the studies conducted by Chinese investigators are orientated towards understanding the molecular mechanisms of cardiovascular disease. At the molecular level, the long-standing consensus is that cardiovascular disease is associated with a sequence mutation (genetic anomaly) and expression deregulation (epigenetic disorder) of protein-coding genes. However, new research data have established the non-protein-coding genes microRNAs (miRNAs) as a central regulator of the pathogenesis of cardiac disease and a potential new therapeutic target for cardiovascular disease. These small non-coding RNAs have also been subjected to extensive, rigorous investigations by Chinese researchers. Over the years, a large body of studies on miRNAs in cardiovascular disease has been conducted by Chinese investigators, yielding fruitful research results and a better understanding of miRNAs as a new level of molecular mechanisms for the pathogenesis of cardiac disease. In this review, we briefly summarize the current status of research in the field of miRNAs and cardiovascular disease in China, highlighting the advances made in elucidating the role of miRNAs in various cardiac conditions, including cardiac arrhythmia, myocardial ischaemia, cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure. We have also examined the potential of miRNAs as novel diagnostic biomarkers and therapeutic targets. PMID:25393505

  7. Front end support systems for the Advanced Photon Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The support system designs for the Advanced Photon Source (APS) front ends are complete and will be installed in 1994. These designs satisfy the positioning and alignment requirements of the front end components installed inside the storage ring tunnel, including the photon beam position monitors, fixed masks, photon and safety shutters, filters, windows, and differential pumps. Other components include beam transport pipes and ion pumps. The designs comprise 3-point kinematic mounts and single axis supports to satisfy various multi-direction positioning requirements from course to ultra-precise. The confined space inside the storage ring tunnel has posed engineering challenges in the design of these devices, considering some components weigh as much as 500 kg. These challenges include designing for mobility during commissioning and initial alignment, mechanical and thermal stability, and precise low profile vertical and horizontal positioning. As a result, novel stages and kinematic mounts have emerged with modular and standard designs. This paper will discuss the diverse group of support systems, including specifications and performance data of the prototypes

  8. [Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virkkunen, Ilkka; Hoppu, Sanna; Kämäräinen, Antti

    2011-01-01

    Cardiac arrest as the first symptom of coronary artery disease is not uncommon. Some of previously healthy people with sudden cardiac arrest may be saved by effective resuscitation and post-resuscitative therapy. The majority of cardiac arrest patients experience the cardiac arrest outside of the hospital, in which case early recognition of lifelessness, commencement of basic life support and entry to professional care without delay are the prerequisites for recovery. After the heart has started beating again, the clinical picture of post-resuscitation syndrome must be recognized and appropriate treatment utilized. PMID:22204143

  9. Environmental control and life support systems analysis for a Space Station life sciences animal experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    So, Kenneth T.; Hall, John B., Jr.; Thompson, Clifford D.

    1987-01-01

    NASA's Langley and Goddard facilities have evaluated the effects of animal science experiments on the Space Station's Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) by means of computer-aided analysis, assuming an animal colony consisting of 96 rodents and eight squirrel monkeys. Thirteen ECLSS options were established for the reclamation of metabolic oxygen and waste water. Minimum cost and weight impacts on the ECLSS are found to accrue to the system's operation in off-nominal mode, using electrochemical CO2 removal and a static feed electrolyzer for O2 generation.

  10. Myocardial perfusion imaging for predicting cardiac events in Japanese patients with advanced chronic kidney disease: 1-year interim report of the J-ACCESS 3 investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whether myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) can predict cardiac events in patients with advanced conservative chronic kidney disease (CKD) remains unclear. The present multicenter prospective cohort study aimed to clarify the ability of MPI to predict cardiac events in 529 patients with CKD and estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFR) 2 without a definitive diagnosis of coronary artery disease. All patients were assessed by stress-rest MPI with 99mTc-tetrofosmin and analyzed using summed defect scores and QGS software. Cardiac events were analyzed 1 year after registration. Myocardial perfusion abnormalities defined as summed stress score (SSS) ≥4 and ≥8 were identified in 19 and 7 % of patients, respectively. At the end of the 1-year follow-up, 33 (6.2 %) cardiac events had occurred that included cardiac death, sudden death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, and hospitalization due to heart failure. The event-free rates at that time were 0.95, 0.90, and 0.81 for groups with SSS 0-3, 4-7, and ≥8, respectively (p = 0.0009). Thus, patients with abnormal SSS had a higher incidence of cardiac events. Multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that SSS significantly impacts the prediction of cardiac events independently of eGFR and left ventricular ejection fraction. MPI would be useful to stratify patients with advanced conservative CKD who are at high risk of cardiac events without adversely affecting damaged kidneys. (orig.)

  11. Myocardial perfusion imaging for predicting cardiac events in Japanese patients with advanced chronic kidney disease: 1-year interim report of the J-ACCESS 3 investigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joki, Nobuhiko; Hase, Hiroki [Toho University Ohashi Medical Center, Department of Nephrology, Tokyo (Japan); Kawano, Yuhei; Nakamura, Satoko [National Cerebral and Cardiovascular Center, Division of Hypertension and Nephrology, Osaka (Japan); Nakajima, Kenichi [Kanazawa University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Kanazawa (Japan); Hatta, Tsuguru [Hatta Medical Office of Internal Medicine, Kyoto (Japan); Nishimura, Shigeyuki [Saitama Medical University International Medical Center, Saitama (Japan); Moroi, Masao [Toho University Ohashi Medical Center, Department of Cardiology, Tokyo (Japan); Nakagawa, Susumu [Saiseikai Central Hospital, Department of Cardiology, Tokyo (Japan); Kasai, Tokuo [Tokyo Medical University Hachioji Medical Center, Tokyo (Japan); Kusuoka, Hideo [Osaka National Hospital, Osaka (Japan); Takeishi, Yasuchika [Fukushima Medical University, Department of Cardiology and Hematology, Fukushima (Japan); Momose, Mitsuru [Tokyo Women' s Medical University, Department of Diagnostic Imaging and Nuclear Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Takehana, Kazuya [Kansai Medical University, Department of Cardiology, Osaka (Japan); Nanasato, Mamoru [Cardiovascular Center, Nagoya Daini Red Cross Hospital, Nagoya (Japan); Yoda, Shunichi [Nihon University Itabashi Hospital, Department of Cardiology, Tokyo (Japan); Nishina, Hidetaka [Tsukuba Medical Center Hospital, Department of Cardiology, Tsukuba (Japan); Matsumoto, Naoya [Suruga-dai Nihon University Hospital, Department of Cardiology, Tokyo (Japan); Nishimura, Tsunehiko [Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Kamigyo-ku, Kyoto (Japan)

    2014-09-15

    Whether myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) can predict cardiac events in patients with advanced conservative chronic kidney disease (CKD) remains unclear. The present multicenter prospective cohort study aimed to clarify the ability of MPI to predict cardiac events in 529 patients with CKD and estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFR) < 50 ml/min per 1.73{sup 2} without a definitive diagnosis of coronary artery disease. All patients were assessed by stress-rest MPI with {sup 99m}Tc-tetrofosmin and analyzed using summed defect scores and QGS software. Cardiac events were analyzed 1 year after registration. Myocardial perfusion abnormalities defined as summed stress score (SSS) ≥4 and ≥8 were identified in 19 and 7 % of patients, respectively. At the end of the 1-year follow-up, 33 (6.2 %) cardiac events had occurred that included cardiac death, sudden death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, and hospitalization due to heart failure. The event-free rates at that time were 0.95, 0.90, and 0.81 for groups with SSS 0-3, 4-7, and ≥8, respectively (p = 0.0009). Thus, patients with abnormal SSS had a higher incidence of cardiac events. Multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that SSS significantly impacts the prediction of cardiac events independently of eGFR and left ventricular ejection fraction. MPI would be useful to stratify patients with advanced conservative CKD who are at high risk of cardiac events without adversely affecting damaged kidneys. (orig.)

  12. Bone Marrow SSEA1+ Cells Support the Myocardium in Cardiac Pressure Overload

    OpenAIRE

    Finan, Amanda; Sopko, Nikolai; Dong, Feng; Turturice, Ben; Kiedrowski, Matthew; Penn, Marc S.

    2013-01-01

    Rationale Stage specific embryonic antigen 1+ (SSEA1+) cells have been described as the most primitive mesenchymal progenitor cell in the bone marrow. Cardiac injury mobilizes SSEA1+ cells into the peripheral blood but their in vivo function has not been characterized. Objective We generated animals with chimeric bone marrow to determine the fate and function of bone marrow SSEA1+ cells in response to acute cardiac pressure overload. Methods and Results Lethally irradiated mice were transplan...

  13. Life-Threatening Cardiac Tamponade Secondary to Chylopericardium Following Orthotopic Heart Transplantation-A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wierzbicki, Karol; Mazur, Piotr; Węgrzyn, Piotr; Kapelak, Bogusław

    2016-08-23

    Chylopericardium is a rare complication in cardiac surgery, and an extremely rare occurrence in patients following orthotopic heart transplantation (OHT), which, however, can lead to cardiac tamponade. Here we present a case of a 59-year-old man who underwent OHT and suffered from chylopericardium resulting in cardiac tamponade late in the postoperative course, despite the initially uneventful early postoperative period (decreasing blood drainage was observed directly after the procedure, and the drains were safely removed). After the diagnosis of chylopericardium was made, the conservative treatment was initiated, which turned out to be insufficient, and eventually invasive approach for the recurrence of tamponade secondary to chylopericardium was required. We discuss the available therapeutic options for chylopericardium and demonstrate the successful invasive therapeutic approach with use of the absorbable fibrin sealant patch. PMID:26548537

  14. How Can Nanotechnology Help to Repair the Body? Advances in Cardiac, Skin, Bone, Cartilage and Nerve Tissue Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Antonio Marchal

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Nanotechnologists have become involved in regenerative medicine via creation of biomaterials and nanostructures with potential clinical implications. Their aim is to develop systems that can mimic, reinforce or even create in vivo tissue repair strategies. In fact, in the last decade, important advances in the field of tissue engineering, cell therapy and cell delivery have already been achieved. In this review, we will delve into the latest research advances and discuss whether cell and/or tissue repair devices are a possibility. Focusing on the application of nanotechnology in tissue engineering research, this review highlights recent advances in the application of nano-engineered scaffolds designed to replace or restore the followed tissues: (i skin; (ii cartilage; (iii bone; (iv nerve; and (v cardiac.

  15. Biventricular Finite Element Modeling of the Acorn CorCap Cardiac Support Device on a Failing Heart

    OpenAIRE

    Wenk, JF; L. Ge; Zhang, Z; Mojsejenko, D; Potter, DD; Tseng, EE; Guccione, JM; Ratcliffe, MB

    2013-01-01

    Background: The Acorn CorCap Cardiac Support Device (CSD; Acorn Cardiovascular Inc, St. Paul, MN) is a woven polyester jacket that is placed around the heart and designed to reverse the progressive remodeling associated with dilated cardiomyopathy. However, the effects of the Acorn CSD on myofiber stress and ventricular function remain unknown. We tested the hypothesis that the Acorn CSD reduces end-diastolic (ED) myofiber stress. Methods: A previously described weakly coupled biventricular f...

  16. A cardiac-specific health-related quality of life module for young adults with congenital heart disease: development and validation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamphuis, M.; Zwinderman, K.A.H.; Vogels, T.; Vliegen, H.W.; Kamphuis, R.P.; Ottenkamp, J.; Verloove-Vanhorick, S.P.; Bruil, J.

    2004-01-01

    This study represents the development and validation of a cardiac-specific module of the generic health-related quality of life (HRQoL) instrument, the TAAQOL (TNO/AZL Adult Quality Of Life), for young adults with congenital heart disease (CHD). Items were selected based on literature, an explorativ

  17. Advancing Integrated Systems Modelling Framework for Life Cycle Sustainability Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Halog

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The need for integrated methodological framework for sustainability assessment has been widely discussed and is urgent due to increasingly complex environmental system problems. These problems have impacts on ecosystems and human well-being which represent a threat to economic performance of countries and corporations. Integrated assessment crosses issues; spans spatial and temporal scales; looks forward and backward; and incorporates multi-stakeholder inputs. This study aims to develop an integrated methodology by capitalizing the complementary strengths of different methods used by industrial ecologists and biophysical economists. The computational methodology proposed here is systems perspective, integrative, and holistic approach for sustainability assessment which attempts to link basic science and technology to policy formulation. The framework adopts life cycle thinking methods—LCA, LCC, and SLCA; stakeholders analysis supported by multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA; and dynamic system modelling. Following Pareto principle, the critical sustainability criteria, indicators and metrics (i.e., hotspots can be identified and further modelled using system dynamics or agent based modelling and improved by data envelopment analysis (DEA and sustainability network theory (SNT. The framework is being applied to development of biofuel supply chain networks. The framework can provide new ways of integrating knowledge across the divides between social and natural sciences as well as between critical and problem-solving research.

  18. Multibiological life support system experiments with humans partially involved

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hong; Tong, Ling; Li, Ming; Hu, Dawei; Fu, Yuming; He, Wenting; Hu, Enzhu

    To establish bioregenerative life support system in lunar or mars bases in the future, manned stimulation experiments including several kinds of creatures are needed to be conducted first. Gas exchange relation, element transfer and transformation principles, etc. between human beings and the multibiological system composed of plants, animals, Chlorella vulgaris and so on must be investigated in order to place different organisms with appropriate numbers and proportions. This research cultivated lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) and silkworm (Bombyx Mori L.) in the Closed Integrative Cultivating System (CICS) of the Integrative Experimental Sys-tem (IES) with Chlorella vulgaris cultivated in the Plate Photo Bioreactor (PPB) of the IES. Gas exchange between testers and the IES were conducted periodically. The automotive control system of the PPB changed the illumination intensity of the photo bioreactor according to the CO2 concentration in the IES to make CO2 /O2 in the system maintain at stable levels by regu-lating the photosynthesis of alga. The conveyor-type cultivation method which was harvesting the biggest batch of lettuce and silkworms through the mass exchange chamber of IES every four days and transferring the smallest batch of lettuce and silkworms into the system; carrying certain amount of alga liquid out of the bioreactor every day with nutrient liquid replenished into the system was implemented in the experiments. In terms of gas circulation, CO2 /O2 concentration changes in the system with trace gas contaminants (CH4 , NH3 and C2 H4 ) were measured. As to the mass transfer and transformation, element (C, H, O, N) contents, height, crown width and biomasses of lettuce in different developing stages, silkworms' bioconversion rates, alga's biomass changes, the amount and community change trends of the microorganism in different positions of the system, the quality of condensates gained under different running conditions and so on were studied. Results showed

  19. Integration of lessons from recent research for "Earth to Mars" life support systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, M.; Allen, J. P.; Alling, A.; Dempster, W. F.; Silverstone, S.; van Thillo, M.

    Development of reliable and robust strategies for long-term life support for mbox planetary exploration needs to be built on real-time experimentation to verify and improve system components Also critical is the incorporation of a range of viable options to handle potential short-term life system imbalances This paper revisits some of the conceptual framework for a Mars base prototype previously advanced Mars on Earth in the light of three years of experimentation by the authors in the Laboratory Biosphere further investigation of system alternatives and the advent of other innovative engineering and agri-ecosystem approaches Several experiments with candidate space agriculture crops have demonstrated the higher productivity possible with elevated light levels and improved environmental controls For example crops of sweet potatoes exceeded original Mars base prototype projections by 83 ultradwarf Apogee wheat by 27 pinto bean by 240 and cowpeas slightly exceeded anticipated dry bean yield These production levels although they may be increased with further optimization of lighting regimes environmental parameters crop density etc offer evidence that a soil-based system can be as productive as the hydroponic systems which have dominated space life support scenarios and research Soil also offers several distinct advantages the capability to be created using in-situ space resources reducing reliance on consumables and imported resources and more easily recycling and

  20. Design of Test Support Hardware for Advanced Space Suits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watters, Jeffrey A.; Rhodes, Richard

    2013-01-01

    As a member of the Space Suit Assembly Development Engineering Team, I designed and built test equipment systems to support the development of the next generation of advanced space suits. During space suit testing it is critical to supply the subject with two functions: (1) cooling to remove metabolic heat, and (2) breathing air to pressurize the space suit. The objective of my first project was to design, build, and certify an improved Space Suit Cooling System for manned testing in a 1-G environment. This design had to be portable and supply a minimum cooling rate of 2500 BTU/hr. The Space Suit Cooling System is a robust, portable system that supports very high metabolic rates. It has a highly adjustable cool rate and is equipped with digital instrumentation to monitor the flowrate and critical temperatures. It can supply a variable water temperature down to 34 deg., and it can generate a maximum water flowrate of 2.5 LPM. My next project was to design and build a Breathing Air System that was capable of supply facility air to subjects wearing the Z-2 space suit. The system intakes 150 PSIG breathing air and regulates it to two operating pressures: 4.3 and 8.3 PSIG. It can also provide structural capabilities at 1.5x operating pressure: 6.6 and 13.2 PSIG, respectively. It has instrumentation to monitor flowrate, as well as inlet and outlet pressures. The system has a series of relief valves to fully protect itself in case of regulator failure. Both projects followed a similar design methodology. The first task was to perform research on existing concepts to develop a sufficient background knowledge. Then mathematical models were developed to size components and simulate system performance. Next, mechanical and electrical schematics were generated and presented at Design Reviews. After the systems were approved by the suit team, all the hardware components were specified and procured. The systems were then packaged, fabricated, and thoroughly tested. The next step

  1. The Basic Life Support Training and Its Importance for Medical University Staff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afrooz Habibi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background The survival rate of a cardiac arrest victim increases with basic life support (BLS as the first level of medical care. The purpose of this study was to compare BLS knowledge and skills of medical university staff before and after training course. Methods Thirty eight medical university staff participated in a BSL training course. The course included the assessment of participant’s knowledge by a pretest questionnaire, a lecture, hands-on training in BLS skills, a post-test questionnaire and an interview to evaluate their attitudes. Data were analyzed by the SPSS software version 19, using t-test, one-way ANOVA and chi square tests. P value less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results Our results demonstrated that the mean knowledge score was 6.00 ± 2.09 vs. 8.26 ± 2.10 in pre- and post- education, respectively. A significant mean gain score (2.26 from the pre-test scores to post-test scores was statistically observed (P0.05 whereas, there were the significant differences between trainees’ gain scores and, education and career fields(p< 0.05. Our result also presents that staff attitudes toward the training were positive. Conclusion The present research shows the BLS training had a positive impact on the knowledge and attitudes among university staff. BLS training is extremely useful for medical university staf

  2. Improved Exercise Tolerance and Quality of Life With Cardiac Rehabilitation of Older Patients After Myocardial Infarction: Results of a Randomized, Controlled Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Niccolo Marchionni; Francesco Fattirolli; Stefano Fumagalli; Neil Oldridge; Francesco Del Lungo; Linda Morosi; Costanza Burgisser; Giulio Masotti

    2003-01-01

    Background - Whether cardiac rehabilitation (CR) is effective in patients older than 75 years, who have been excluded from most trials, remains unclear. We enrolled patients 46 to 86 years old in a randomized trial and assessed the effects of 2 months of post-myocardial infarction (MI) CR on total work capacity (TWC, in kilograms per meter) and health-related quality of life (HRQL). Methods and Results - Of 773 screened patients, 270 without cardiac failure, dementia, disability, or contraind...

  3. Effects of Phase III Cardiac Rehabilitation Programs on Anxiety and Quality of Life in Anxious Patients after Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Gholamreza Babaei Ruchi; Fazlollah Ghofranipour; Saeed Sadeghian; Ali Ramezankhani; Alireza Heidarnia; Tahereh Dehdari; Soraya Etemadi

    2007-01-01

    Background: Patients with psychological problems after coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG) show poorer outcomes; nevertheless, there is a paucity of research into the effects of cardiac rehabilitation programs on such patients. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of phase III cardiac rehabilitation programs on the anxiety and quality of life of anxious patients who had undergone CABG in Iran.Methods: Six weeks after CABG, 83 anxious patients participated in an 8-week...

  4. Reversible Ammonia Sorption for the Primary Life Support System (PLSS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojtowicz, Marek A.; Cosgrove, Joseph E.; Serio, Michael A.; Jennings, Mallory A.

    2012-01-01

    Results are presented on the development of regenerable trace-contaminant (TC) sorbent for use in Extravehicular Activities (EVAs), and more specifically in the Primary Life Support System (PLSS). Since ammonia is the most important TC to be captured, data presented in this paper are limited to ammonia sorption, with results relevant to other TCs to be reported at a later time. The currently available TC-control technology involves the use of a packed bed of acid-impregnated granular charcoal. The sorbent is non-regenerable, and its use is associated with appreciable pressure drop, i.e. power consumption. The objective of this work is to demonstrate the feasibility of using vacuum-regenerable sorbents for PLSS application. In this study, several carbon sorbent monoliths were fabricated and tested. Multiple adsorption/vacuum-regeneration cycles were demonstrated at room temperature, as well as carbon surface conditioning that enhances ammonia sorption without impairing sorbent regeneration. Depending on sorbent monolith geometry, the reduction in pressure drop with respect to granular sorbent was found to be between 50% and two orders of magnitude. Resistive heating of the carbon sorbent monolith was demonstrated by applying voltage to the opposite ends of the monolith.

  5. Life cycle assessment in support of sustainable transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckelman, Matthew J.

    2013-06-01

    In our rapidly urbanizing world, sustainable transportation presents a major challenge. Transportation decisions have considerable direct impacts on urban society, both positive and negative, for example through changes in transit times and economic productivity, urban connectivity, tailpipe emissions and attendant air quality concerns, traffic accidents, and noise pollution. Much research has been dedicated to quantifying these direct impacts for various transportation modes. Transportation planning decisions also result in a variety of indirect environmental and human health impacts, a portion of which can accrue outside of the transit service area and so outside of the local decision-making process. Integrated modeling of direct and indirect impacts over the life cycle of different transportation modes provides decision support that is more comprehensive and less prone to triggering unintended consequences than a sole focus on direct tailpipe emissions. The recent work of Chester et al (2013) in this journal makes important contributions to this research by examining the environmental implications of introducing bus rapid transit and light rail in Los Angeles using life cycle assessment (LCA). Transport in the LA region is dominated by automobile trips, and the authors show that potential shifts to either bus or train modes would reduce energy use and emissions of criteria air pollutants, on an average passenger mile travelled basis. This work compares not just the use of each vehicle, but also upstream impacts from its manufacturing and maintenance, as well as the construction and maintenance of the entire infrastructure required for each mode. Previous work by the lead author (Chester and Horvath 2009), has shown that these non-operational sources and largely non-local can dominate life cycle impacts from transportation, again on an average (or attributional) basis, for example increasing rail-related GHG emissions by >150% over just operational emissions

  6. Chemotherapy versus support cancer treatment in advanced gastric cancer: a meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Casaretto

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to compare the efficacy of chemotherapy and support treatment in patients with advanced non-resectable gastric cancer in a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials that included a comparison of chemotherapy and support care treatment in patients diagnosed with gastric adenocarcinoma, regardless of their age, gender or place of treatment. The search strategy was based on the criteria of the Cochrane Base, using the following key words: 1 randomized clinical trials and antineoplastic combined therapy or gastrointestinal neoplasm, 2 stomach neoplasm and drug therapy, 3 clinical trial and multi-modality therapy, 4 stomach neoplasm and drug therapy or quality of life, 5 double-blind method or clinical trial. The search was carried out using the Cochrane, Medline and Lilacs databases. Five studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria, for a total of 390 participants, 208 (53% receiving chemotherapy, 182 (47% receiving support care treatment and 6 losses (1.6%. The 1-year survival rate was 8% for support care and 20% for chemotherapy (RR = 2.14, 95% CI = 1.00-4.57, P = 0.05; 30% of the patients in the chemotherapy group and 12% in the support care group attained a 6-month symptom-free period (RR = 2.33, 95% CI = 1.41-3.87, P < 0.01. Quality of life evaluated after 4 months was significantly better for the chemotherapy patients (34%; RR = 2.07, 95% CI = 1.31-3.28, P < 0.01 with tumor mass reduction (RR = 3.32, 95% CI = 0.77-14.24, P = 0.1. Chemotherapy increased the 1-year survival rate of the patients and provided a longer symptom-free period of 6 months and an improvement in quality of life.

  7. A survey of basic life support awareness among final year undergraduate medical, dental, and nursing students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H T Srinivas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Cardiac arrest or respiratory arrest is the most common emergency which results in grave consequences and mortality and can be easily prevented by simple maneuvers and skills with the knowledge of basic life support (BLS, thus ensuring the survival of the patient. This study aims to assess the awareness of BLS and cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR among the medical, dental, and nursing students. Aims: To assess the awareness of BLS among medical, dental, and nursing undergraduate students. Settings and Design: The study was carried out on undergraduate students randomly chosen from medical college, dental college, and nursing institute using response to a structured questionnaire. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in Mysore during April-May 2012 among medical, dental, and nursing student. A questionnaire was given interrogating them regarding various aspects of awareness and skills involved in BLS. The results were analyzed using an answer key employing appropriate statistical tools. Statistical Analysis Used: The data was analyzed using software version Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS 12.0. Demographic data were analyzed using analysis of variance. Unpaired t-test and Chi-square tests were used where appropriate. Sample size of 500 was determined. Standard tests of significance were applied to determine the P < 0.05 was considered significant. Results: More than half of the medical students had fair knowledge of the basics in BLS. Poorer number of students had a general idea about the skills and techniques used in BLS. Response during an emergency real life situation was disappointingly low among the respondents and it was found that the students considerably lagged behind in the knowledge of cognitive and practical skills of BLS. Conclusions: We conclude that awareness regarding BLS among the study groups was varied and was generally poor, which calls for standardizing training in BLS and

  8. Basic life support knowledge, self-reported skills and fears in Danish high school students and effect of a single 45-min training session run by junior doctors; a prospective cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaberg, Anne Marie Roust; Larsen, Caroline Emilie Brenner; Rasmussen, Bodil Steen;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Early recognition and immediate bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation are critical determinants of survival after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). Our aim was to evaluate current knowledge on basic life support (BLS) in Danish high school students and benefits of a single trai...

  9. Gas exchange rates of potato stands for bioregenerative life support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Raymond M.; Stutte, Gary W.; Mackowiak, Cheryl L.; Yorio, Neil C.; Sager, John C.; Knott, William M.

    Plants can provide a means for removing carbon dioxide (CO2) while generating oxygen (O2) and clean water for life support systems in space. To study this, 20 m2 stands of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) plants were grown in a large (113 m3 vol.), atmospherically closed chamber. Photosynthetic uptake of CO2 by the stands was detected about 10 DAP (days after planting), after which photosynthetic rates rose rapidly as stand ground cover and total light interception increased. Photosynthetic rates peaked ca. 50 DAP near 45 μmol CO2 m-2 s-1 under 865 μmol m-2 s-1 PPF (average photosynthetic photon flux), and near 35 μmol CO2 m-2 s-1 under 655 μmol m-2 s-1 PPF. Short term changes in PPF caused a linear response in stand photosynthetic rates up to 1100 μmol m-2 s-1 PPF, with a light compensation point of 185 μmol m-2 s-1 PPF. Comparisons of stand photosynthetic rates at different CO2 concentrations showed a classic C3 response, with saturation occurring near 1200 μmol mol-1 CO2 and compensation near 100 μmol mol-1 CO2. In one study, the photoperiod was changed from 12 h light/12 h dark to continuous light at 58 DAP. This caused a decrease in net photosynthetic rates within 48 h and eventual damage (scorching) of upper canopy leaves, suggesting the abrupt change stressed the plants and/or caused feedback effects on photosynthesis. Dark period (night) respiration rates increased during early growth as standing biomass increased and peaked near 9 μmol CO2 m-2 s-1 ca. 50 DAP, after which rates declined gradually with age. Stand transpiration showed a rapid rise with canopy ground cover and peaked ca. 50 DAP near 8.9 L m-2 d-1 under 860 μmol m-2 s-1 PPF and near 6.3 L m-2 d-1 under 650 μmol m-2 s-1 PPF. Based on the best photosynthetic rates from these studies, approximately 25 m2 of potato plants under continuous cultivation would be required to support the CO2 removal and O2 requirements for one person.

  10. Atmospheric Management for Closed Bioregenerative Life Support Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Raymond

    Bioregenerative life support systems for future space missions will likely center on photosynthetic organisms, such as higher plants, that could produce biomass and oxygen, while removing CO2. When the systems are sized sufficiently to produce most of the food for the humans, they would also provide all of the oxygen and removal of CO2. But managing the atmosphere must consider the ratio of CO2 uptake and oxygen production of the plants (assimilation quotients), and the CO2 production and oxygen uptake by humans (respiration quotients). Both of these ratios are affected by the composition of the biomass being produced or consumed (e.g., CH2O, protein, and fat content), and other factors such the form of nitrogen cycling back to the photosynthetic organisms. Planting and harvest strategies must also be considered because of their direct effects on near term photosynthetic capacity. For example, staggered planting and harvest strategies could reduce the impacts on oxygen production within the system. Maintaining optimal concentrations of the CO2 will also be important for the plants, where maximum photosynthetic rates for most C3 plants occur when CO2 greater than 1000 ppm. But allowing CO2 to rise to super-elevated levels, such as greater than 5000 ppm may be undesirable, and could also increase water use. This latter effect of increased transpiration at super-elevated CO2 is poorly understood and needs further research. The plants and other living organisms will also produce a range of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and these VOCs must be managed just like any other trace contaminants in human space habitats. For plants, ethylene control will be especially important because of its potent effects on plant growth and development. Ultimately, a combination of biological systems with some physico-chemical control capabilities will likely provide the best approach.

  11. Robotics in a controlled, ecological life support system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Gaines E.; Krom, Kimberly J.

    1993-01-01

    Controlled, Ecological Life Support Systems (CELSS) that utilize plants to provide food, water and oxygen could consume considerable amounts of labor unless crop production, recovery and processing are automated. Robotic manipulators equipped with special end-effectors and programmed to perform the sensing and materials handling tasks would minimize the amount of astronaut labor required. The Human Rated Test Facility (HRTF) planned for Johnson Space Center could discover and demonstrate techniques of crop production which can be reliably integrated with machinery to minimize labor requirements. Before the physical components (shelves, lighting fixtures, etc.) can be selected, a systems analysis must be performed to determine which alternative processes should be followed and how the materials handling tasks should be automated. Given that the current procedures used to grow crops in a CELSS may not be the best methods to automate, then what are the alternatives? How may plants be grown, harvested, processed for food, and the inedible components recycled? What commercial technologies current exist? What research efforts are underway to develop new technologies which might satisfy the need for automation in a CELSS? The answers to these questions should prove enlightening and provide some of the information necessary to perform the systems analysis. The planting, culturing, gathering, threshing and separation, food processing, and recovery of inedible portions of wheat were studied. The basic biological and materials handling processes of each task are defined and discussed. Current practices at Johnson Space Center and other NASA centers are described and compared to common production practices in the plant production industry. Technologies currently being researched which might be applicable are identified and illustrated. Finally, based on this knowledge, several scenarios are proposed for automating the tasks for wheat.

  12. Influences on Employee Perceptions of Organizational Work-Life Support: Signals and Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valcour, Monique; Ollier-Malaterre, Ariane; Matz-Costa, Christina; Pitt-Catsouphes, Marcie; Brown, Melissa

    2011-01-01

    This study examined predictors of employee perceptions of organizational work-life support. Using organizational support theory and conservation of resources theory, we reasoned that workplace demands and resources shape employees' perceptions of work-life support through two mechanisms: signaling that the organization cares about their work-life…

  13. Grandmothers Raising Grandchildren with Disabilities: Sources of Support and Family Quality of Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kresak, Karen E.; Gallagher, Peggy A.; Kelley, Susan J.

    2014-01-01

    Sources of support and quality of life of 50 grandmother-headed families raising grandchildren with and without disabilities were examined. Comparative analyses revealed significant differences between grandmothers raising grandchildren with and without disabilities in regard to sources of support and family quality of life. Informal support was…

  14. Relationships among Social Support, Perceived Control, and Psychological Distress in Late Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemeroff, Robin; Midlarsky, Elizabeth; Meyer, Joseph F.

    2010-01-01

    Social support has been shown to buffer the relationship between life stress and psychological distress in late life. However, little attention has been paid to personality variables that are associated with the capacity to effectively utilize social support. Although the buffering effects of social support were replicated in our sample of 134…

  15. Impact of Duodopa on Quality of Life in Advanced Parkinson's Disease: A UK Case Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Foltynie

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Treatment options in advanced Parkinson’s disease (PD include subcutaneous apomorphine, pallidal or subthalamic nucleus Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS, or levodopa/carbidopa intestinal gel (LCIG/Duodopa. In this study, we describe the outcome of 12 PD patients with PD related complications started on LCIG, with respect to their quality of life measured by a disease specific validated scale—the PDQ39, together with diaries recording time spent “On,” “Off,” “Dyskinetic,” or “Asleep.” At the time of latest follow up, improvements were observed in both the PDQ39 Summary index as well as diary reports of PD symptom control following introduction of LCIG, supporting its use in well selected patients. The use of a trial period of LCIG via naso-jejunal administration allows objective evaluation of improvement in PD symptom control in advance of the placement of the more invasive percutaneous jejunostomy procedure. The decision to embark on LCIG, apomorphine or DBS should be supported by input from centres with experience of all 3 approaches. Since LCIG is an expensive option, development of the most appropriate future commissioning of this therapy in the absence of Class 1 evidence requires careful scrutiny of the outcomes of its use in a broad range of published series.

  16. Costs and Outcomes in the Care of Bi-ventricular Support as a Bridge to Cardiac Transplant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swartz, Michael F; Angona, Ron; Smith, Karen; Kraenzlin, Franca; Stypula, Christine M; Joshi, Devang; Tchantchaleishvili, Vakhtang; Hicks, George L; Massey, H Todd

    2016-01-01

    Bi-ventricular (Bi-V) mechanical circulatory support is commonly used as a bridge to cardiac transplant. However, the optimal strategy is unknown. We examined the outcomes, as well as the costs in the use of Bi-V support as a bridge to cardiac transplant. From 2001 to 2014, three different Bi-V support strategies were utilized: 1) Para-corporeal ventricular assist device (PVAD-2001-2006), 2) Heartmate II left ventricular assist device in conjunction with a temporary CentriMag right ventricular assist device (HMII + CMAG-2006-2012), and the total artificial heart (TAH-2012-2014). Total costs were derived from the hospitalization at implant, and postimplant costs defined as equipment and re-hospitalizations before transplantation. Sixty-five (34 PVADs, 20 HMII + CMAG, and 11 TAHs) devices were used as a bridge for transplant. There were no differences in implant variables including age, INTERMACS score, or implant length of stay. Although the wait list mortality was not different between groups (PVAD-32%, HMII + CMAG-45%, TAH-54%; p = 0.3), the percentage of patients transplanted were highest in the PVAD group: (PVAD-55.8%, HMII + CMAG-30.0%, TAH-18.2%; p = 0.01). Total costs were not significantly different between groups (PVAD-$306,166 ± 247,839, HMII + CMAG-$278,958 ± 135,324, TAH-$321,387 ± 21,2477; p = 0.5). Despite variations in therapy, outcomes and costs for patients requiring Bi-V support as a bridge to cardiac transplant have remained constant. PMID:27258229

  17. Cardiac sarcoidosis

    OpenAIRE

    Costello BT; Nadel J.; Taylor AJ

    2016-01-01

    Benedict T Costello,1,2 James Nadel,3 Andrew J Taylor,1,21Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, The Alfred Hospital, 2Baker IDI Heart and Diabetes Research Institute, Melbourne, VIC, 3School of Medicine, University of Notre Dame, Sydney, NSW, Australia Abstract: Cardiac sarcoidosis is a rare but life-threatening condition, requiring a high degree of clinical suspicion and low threshold for investigation to make the diagnosis. The cardiac manifestations include heart failure, conducting syst...

  18. Portable Life Support System 2.5 Fan Design and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Gregory; Carra, Michael; Converse, David; Chullen, Cinda

    2016-01-01

    NASA is building a high-fidelity prototype of an advanced Portable Life Support System (PLSS) as part of the Advanced Exploration Systems Program. This new PLSS, designated as PLSS 2.5, will advance component technologies and systems knowledge to inform a future flight program. The oxygen ventilation loop of its predecessor, PLSS 2.0, was driven by a centrifugal fan developed using specifications from the Constellation Program. PLSS technology and system parameters have matured to the point where the existing fan will not perform adequately for the new prototype. In addition, areas of potential improvement were identified with the PLSS 2.0 fan that could be addressed in a new design. As a result, a new fan was designed and tested for the PLSS 2.5. The PLSS 2.5 fan is a derivative of the one used in PLSS 2.0, and it uses the same nonmetallic, canned motor, with a larger volute and impeller to meet the higher pressure drop requirements of the PLSS 2.5 ventilation loop. The larger impeller allows it to operate at rotational speeds that are matched to rolling element bearings, and which create reasonably low impeller tip speeds consistent with prior, oxygen-rated fans. Development of the fan also considered a shrouded impeller design that could allow larger clearances for greater oxygen safety, assembly tolerances and particle ingestion. This paper discusses the design, manufacturing and performance testing of the new fans.

  19. Power system for production, construction, life support and operations in space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As one looks to man's future in space it becomes obvious that unprecedented amounts of power are required for the exploration, colonization, and exploitation of space. Activities envisioned include interplanetary travel and LEO to GEO transport using electric propulsion, Earth and lunar observatories, advance space stations, free-flying manufacturing platforms, communications platforms, and eventually evolutionary lunar and Mars bases. These latter bases would start as camps with modest power requirements (kWes) and evolve to large bases as manufacturing, food production, and life support materials are developed from lunar raw materials. These latter activities require very robust power supplies (MWes). The advanced power system technologies being pursued by NASA to fulfill these future needs are described. Technologies discussed will include nuclear, photovoltaic, and solar dynamic space power systems, including energy storage, power conditioning, power transmission, and thermal management. The state-of-the-art and gains to be made by technology advancements will be discussed. Mission requirements for a variety of applications (LEO, GEO, lunar, and Martian) will be treated, and data for power systems ranging from a few kilowatts to megawatt power systems will be represented. In addition the space power technologies being initiated under NASA's new Civilian Space Technology Initiative (CSTI) and Space Leadership Planning Group Activities will be discussed

  20. Power systems for production, construction, life support, and operations in space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As one looks to man's future in space it becomes obvious that unprecedented amounts of power are required for the exploration, colonization, and exploitation of space. Activities envisioned include interplanetary travel and LEO to GEO transport using electric propulsion, earth and lunar observatories, advance space stations, free-flying manufacturing platforms, communications platforms, and eventually evolutionary lunar and Mars bases. These latter bases would start as camps with modest power requirements (kWes) and evolve to large bases as manufacturing, food production, and life support materials are developed from lunar raw materials. These latter activities require very robust power supplies (MWes). The advanced power system technologies being pursued by NASA to fulfill these future needs are described. Technologies discussed will include nuclear, photovoltaic, and solar dynamic space power systems, including energy storage, power conditioning, power transmission, and thermal management. The state-of-the-art and gains to be made by technology advancements will be discussed. Mission requirements for a variety of applications (LEO, GEO, lunar, and Martian) will be treated, and data for power systems ranging from a few kilowatts to megawatt power systems will be represented. In addition the space power technologies being initiated under NASA's new Civilian Space Technology Initiative (CSTI) and Space Leadership Planning Group Activities will be discussed

  1. WOMEN AND ADVANCEMENT IN NEUROPSYCHOLOGY:REAL-LIFE LESSONS LEARNED

    OpenAIRE

    Hilsabeck, Robin C.; Martin, Eileen M.

    2008-01-01

    The number of women in neuropsychology has been increasing over the past 20 years while the number of women in senior and leadership positions within neuropsychology has not. The field of neuropsychology has much to gain by facilitating the advancement of women into leadership roles, including access to some of the brightest and creative minds in the field. The purpose of this article is to offer practical advice about how to overcome barriers and advance within neuropsychology. Suggestions f...

  2. Perceived social support and life satisfaction in persons with somatization disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Arif Ali; Deuri, S. P.; Deuri, S. K.; Masroor Jahan; Singh, Amool R.; A N Verma

    2010-01-01

    Background: Life satisfaction and perceived social support been shown to improve the well-being of a person and also affect the outcome of treatment in somatization disorder. The phenomenon of somatization was explored in relation to the perceived social support and life satisfaction. Aim: This study aimed at investigating perceived social support and life satisfaction in people with somatization disorder. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on persons having somatization disorder ...

  3. Comparison of Online and Traditional Basic Life Support Renewal Training Methods for Registered Professional Nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serwetnyk, Tara M; Filmore, Kristi; VonBacho, Stephanie; Cole, Robert; Miterko, Cindy; Smith, Caitlin; Smith, Charlene M

    2015-01-01

    Basic Life Support certification for nursing staff is achieved through various training methods. This study compared three American Heart Association training methods for nurses seeking Basic Life Support renewal: a traditional classroom approach and two online options. Findings indicate that online methods for Basic Life Support renewal deliver cost and time savings, while maintaining positive learning outcomes, satisfaction, and confidence level of participants. PMID:26580468

  4. Recent advances in understanding cardiac contractility in health and disease [version 1; referees: 4 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken T. MacLeod

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this review is to provide the reader with a synopsis of some of the emerging ideas and experimental findings in cardiac physiology and pathophysiology that were published in 2015. To provide context for the non-specialist, a brief summary of cardiac contraction and calcium (Ca regulation in the heart in health and disease is provided. Thereafter, some recently published articles are introduced that indicate the current thinking on (1 the Ca regulatory pathways modulated by Ca/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II, (2 the potential influences of nitrosylation by nitric oxide or S-nitrosated proteins, (3 newly observed effects of reactive oxygen species (ROS on contraction and Ca regulation following myocardial infarction and a possible link with changes in mitochondrial Ca, and (4 the effects of some of these signaling pathways on late Na current and pro-arrhythmic afterdepolarizations as well as the effects of transverse tubule disturbances.

  5. Modeling the growth dynamics of four candidate crops for Controlled Ecological Life Support Systems (CELSS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volk, Tyler

    1987-01-01

    The production of food for human life support for advanced space missions will require the management of many different crops. The research to design these food production capabilities along with the waste management to recycle human metabolic wastes and inedible plant components are parts of Controlled Ecological Life Support Systems (CELSS). Since complete operating CELSS were not yet built, a useful adjunct to the research developing the various pieces of a CELSS are system simulation models that can examine what is currently known about the possible assembly of subsystems into a full CELSS. The growth dynamics of four crops (wheat, soybeans, potatoes, and lettuce) are examined for their general similarities and differences within the context of their important effects upon the dynamics of the gases, liquids, and solids in the CELSS. Data for the four crops currently under active research in the CELSS program using high-production hydroponics are presented. Two differential equations are developed and applied to the general characteristics of each crop growth pattern. Model parameters are determined by closely approximating each crop's data.

  6. Life prediction methodology for ceramic components of advanced heat engines. Phase 1: Volume 1, Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuccio, J.C.; Brehm, P.; Fang, H.T. [Allied-Signal Aerospace Co., Phoenix, AZ (United States). Garrett Engine Div.] [and others

    1995-03-01

    Emphasis of this program is to develop and demonstrate ceramics life prediction methods, including fast fracture, stress rupture, creep, oxidation, and nondestructive evaluation. Significant advancements were made in these methods and their predictive capabilities successfully demonstrated.

  7. Life Support and Environmental Monitoring International System Maturation Team Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Molly; Gatens, Robyn; Ikeda, Toshitami; Ito, Tsuyoshi; Hovland, Scott; Witt, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    Human exploration of the solar system is an ambitious goal. Future human missions to Mars or other planets will require the cooperation of many nations to be feasible. Exploration goals and concepts have been gathered by the International Space Exploration Coordination Group (ISECG) at a very high level, representing the overall goals and strategies of each participating space agency. The Global Exploration Roadmap published by ISECG states that international partnerships are part of what drives the mission scenarios. It states "Collaborations will be established at all levels (missions, capabilities, technologies), with various levels of interdependency among the partners." To make missions with interdependency successful, technologists and system experts need to share information early, before agencies have made concrete plans and binding agreements. This paper provides an overview of possible ways of integrating NASA, ESA, and JAXA work into a conceptual roadmap of life support and environmental monitoring capabilities for future exploration missions. Agencies may have immediate plans as well as long term goals or new ideas that are not part of official policy. But relationships between plans and capabilities may influence the strategies for the best ways to achieve partner goals. Without commitments and an organized program like the International Space Station, requirements for future missions are unclear. Experience from ISS has shown that standards and an early understanding of requirements are an important part of international partnerships. Attempting to integrate systems that were not designed together can create many problems. Several areas have been identified that could be important to discuss and understand early: units of measure, cabin CO2 levels, and the definition and description of fluids like high purity oxygen, potable water and residual biocide, and crew urine and urine pretreat. Each of the partners is exploring different kinds of technologies

  8. Plants survive rapid decompression: Implications for bioregenerative life support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, R. M.; Wehkamp, C. A.; Stasiak, M. A.; Dixon, M. A.; Rygalov, V. Y.

    2011-05-01

    Radish (Raphanus sativus), lettuce (Latuca sativa), and wheat (Triticum aestivum) plants were grown at either 98 kPa (ambient) or 33 kPa atmospheric pressure with constant 21 kPa oxygen and 0.12 kPa carbon dioxide in atmospherically closed pressure chambers. All plants were grown rockwool using recirculating hydroponics with a complete nutrient solution. At 20 days after planting, chamber pressures were pumped down as rapidly as possible, reaching 5 kPa after about 5 min and ˜1.5 kPa after about 10 min. The plants were held at 1.5 kPa for 30 min and then pressures were restored to their original settings. Temperature (22 °C) and humidity (65% RH) controls were engaged throughout the depressurization, although temperatures dropped to near 16 °C for a brief period. CO2 and O2 were not detectable at the low pressure, suggesting that most of the 1.5 kPa atmosphere consisted of water vapor. Following re-pressurization, plants were grown for another 7 days at the original pressures and then harvested. The lettuce, radish, and wheat plants showed no visible effects from the rapid decompression, and there were no differences in fresh or dry mass when compared to control plants maintained continuously at 33 or 98 kPa. But radish storage root fresh mass and lettuce head fresh and dry masses were less at 33 kPa compared to 98 kPa for both the controls and decompression treatment. The results suggest that plants are extremely resilient to rapid decompression, provided they do not freeze (from evaporative cooling) or desiccate. The water of the hydroponic system was below the boiling pressure during these tests and this may have protected the plants by preventing pressures from dropping below 1.5 kPa and maintaining humidity near 1.5 kPa. Further testing is needed to determine how long plants can withstand such low pressure, but the results suggest there are at least 30 min to respond to catastrophic pressure losses in a plant production chamber that might be used for life

  9. Is Vitamin E Life Supporter for Gamma Irradiated Galleria Mollenella?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study conducted to determine the effect of vitamin E separate or combined with gamma ray in semi artificial diets on some biological aspects of the Greater wax moth, Galleria mellonella L. (Pyralidae : Lepidoptera). The increase in the average number of eggs per mated female for more than 70 % of the control in both treated male and female. Also, through the F1 generation (descendant of P1 progeny fed on artificial diet plus vitamin E) in either irradiated male or female at 100 and 300 Gy dose levels. The life supporter of vitamin E clearly demonstrates throughout F1 whose offspring fed on artificial diet plus Vitamin E, also more pronounced during the first generation treated with gamma irradiation (100 and 300 Gray) which descendant from the offspring were fed on the artificial diet containing Vitamin E (0.02%) than that treatments which treated with gamma irradiation only. The average weight of larvae and pupae significantly increase by using petroleum ether only or this may be abnormal. The average weight of larvae and pupae at the concentration 0.02% was 105.07 and 121.87 % from the control treatment, respectively then decreased to 67.86 and 75.12%, respectively from the control treatment at the concentration 0.04% and then increase at the two concentrations 0.06 and 0.08 %. The increase in weight gain in the case combined ( 100 Gy or 300 Gy with Vitamin E) more than in case using a single dose of gamma irradiation , the increase in case 300 Gy only or combined with Vitamin E more than the control treatment. The best result in case of Vitamin (E) only then when treated the pest with gamma radiation after Vitamin (E) and the effect at 100 Gy better than in case 300 Gy. The combined effect of sub sterilizing dose (300 Gy) and sterilizing doses (400 and 500 Gy) of gamma radiation and vitamin E on the mating competitiveness of F1 males G. Mellenella shows that the competitiveness values more than 1.0 at the combined VE and the two dose levels 400 and 500 Gy

  10. The perspective crops for the bioregenerative human life support systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polonskiy, Vadim; Polonskaya, Janna

    The perspective crops for the bioregenerative human life support systems V.I. Polonskiy, J.E. Polonskaya aKrasnoyarsk State Agrarian University, 660049, Krasnoyarsk, Russia In the nearest future the space missions will be too long. In this case it is necessary to provide the crew by vitamins, antioxidants, and water-soluble dietary fibers. These compounds will be produced by higher plants. There was not enough attention at present to increasing content of micronutrients in edible parts of crops candidates for CELSS. We suggested to add the new crops to this list. 1. Barley -is the best crop for including to food crops (wheat, rice, soybean). Many of the health effects of barley are connected to dietary fibers beta-glucan of barley grains. Bar-ley is the only seed from cereals including wheat with content of all eight tocopherols (vitamin E, important antioxidant). Barley grains contain much greater amounts of phenolic compounds (potential antioxidant activities) than other cereal grains. Considerable focus is on supplement-ing wheat-based breads with barley to introduce the inherent nutritional advantages of barley flour, currently only 20We have selected and tested during 5 generations two high productive barley lines -1-K-O and 25-K-O. Our investigations (special breeding program for improving grain quality of barley) are in progress. 2. Volatile crops. Young leaves and shoots of these crops are edible and have a piquant taste. A lot of organic volatile compounds, oils, vitamins, antioxidants are in their biomass. These micronutrients are useful for good appetite and health of the crew. We have investigated 11 species: basil (Ocimum basilicum), hyssop (Hyssopus officinalis), marjoram (Origanum majorana), sweet-Mary (Melissa officinalis), common thyme (Thymus vulgaris), creeping thyme (Thymus serpyllum), summer savory (Satureja hortensis), catnip (Nepeta cataria), rue (Ruta graveolens), coriander (Coriandrum Ativum), sulfurwort (Levisticum officinale). These

  11. Fan Performance Testing and Oxygen Compatibility Assessment Results for Future Space Suit Life Support Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Heather L.; Jennings, Mallory A.; Vogel, Matthew

    2009-01-01

    An advanced portable life support system (PLSS) for the space suit will require a small, robust, and energyefficient system to transport the ventilation gas through the space suit for lunar Extravehicular Activity (EVA) operations. A trade study identified and compared ventilation transport technologies in commercial, military, and space applications to determine which technologies could be adapted for EVA use. Based on the trade study results, five commercially available, 24-volt fans were selected for performance testing at various pressures and flow rates. Measured fan parameters included fan delta-pressures, input voltages, input electrical currents, and in some cases motor windings electrical voltages and currents. In addition, a follow-on trade study was performed to identify oxygen compatibility issues and assess their impact on fan design. This paper outlines the results of the fan performance characterization testing, as well as the results from the oxygen compatibility assessment.

  12. Extravehicular Activity Suit/Portable Life Support System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of this project is to mature technologies and systems that will enable future Extravehicular Activity (EVA) systems. Advanced EVA systems have...

  13. Successful reversal of life threatening cardiac effect following dosulepin overdose using intravenous lipid emulsion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boegevig, Soeren; Rothe, Anders; Tfelt-Hansen, Jacob; Høgberg, Lotte Christine Groth

    2011-01-01

    submission the QRS complex was 120 ms and the QT interval was 348 ms (BP 129/71 mmHg, HR 113 beats/min). Her level of consciousness deteriorated and the patient had episodes of seizures. The patient received bicarbonate, 200 mmol, and assisted ventilation. Ninety minutes following submission, the QRS complex...... interval became shorter. DISCUSSION. Cyclic antidepressants affect the cardiac conduction system and the myocardium. The exact mechanism of action from intravenous lipid emulsions may not be determined from the data presented, and the obtained effect does not rule out the supposed effects of alkalinisation...

  14. In-Service Aircraft Engine System Life Monitor Using Advanced Life-Estimating Technique Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — It is proposed to develop an accurate in-service aircraft engine life monitor system for the prediction of remaining component and system life for aircraft engines....

  15. Nanostructured Humidity Sensor for Spacecraft Life Support Systems Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Humidity is a critical variable for monitoring and control on extended duration missions because it can affect the operation and efficiency of closed loop life...

  16. Independent contributors to overall quality of life in people with advanced cancer

    OpenAIRE

    M Rodríguez, A; Mayo, N. E.; Gagnon, B.

    2013-01-01

    Background: The definition of health for people with cancer is not focused solely on the physiology of illness and the length of life remaining, but is also concerned with improving the well-being and the quality of the life (QOL) remaining to be lived. This study aimed to identify the constructs most associated with QOL in people with advanced cancer. Methods: Two hundred three persons with recent diagnoses of different advanced cancers were evaluated with 65 variables representing individua...

  17. Recent advances in chemical evolution and the origins of life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oro, John; Lazcano, Antonio

    1992-01-01

    Consideration is given to the ideas of Oparin and Haldane who independently suggested more than 60 years ago that the first forms of life were anaerobic, heterotrophic bacteria that emerged as the result of a long period of chemical abiotic synthesis of organic compounds. It is suggested that at least some requirements for life are met in the Galaxy due to the cosmic abundance of carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, and other biogenic elements; the existence of extraterrestrial organic compounds; and the processes of stellar and interstellar planetary formation.

  18. SOCIAL SUPPORT, SOCIAL DYSFUNCTION AND STRESSFUL LIFE EVENTS IN NEUROTIC PATIENTS.

    OpenAIRE

    Kulhara, Parmanand; Chopra, Rajni

    1996-01-01

    The relationship between social support, stressful life events and psychosocial dysfunction was studied in 197 neurotic patients comprising 65 patients of Generalized Anxiety Disorder, 81 of Dysthymia and 51 of Dissoiative (conversion) Disorders. It was seen that Dysthymics perceived themselves to have significantly less social support in comparison to Generalized Anxiety or Dissociative Disorders patients. Significant correlations between social support and life events and social support and...

  19. Teaching Advanced Life Sciences in an Animal Context: Agricultural Science Teacher Voices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balschweid, Mark; Huerta, Alexandria

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to determine agricultural science teacher comfort with a new high school Advanced Life Science: Animal course and determine their perceptions of student impact. The advanced science course is eligible for college credit. The teachers revealed they felt confident of their science background in preparation…

  20. Life disruption, life continuation: contrasting themes in the lives of African-American elders with advanced heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopp, Faith Pratt; Thornton, Nancy; Martin, Lindsey; Zalenski, Robert

    2012-01-01

    This study addresses the need for more information about how urban African-American elders experience advanced heart failure. Participants included 35 African Americans aged 60 and over with advanced heart failure, identified through records from a community hospital in Detroit, Michigan. Four focus groups (n = 13) and 22 individual interviews were conducted. We used thematic analysis to examine qualitative focus groups and interviews. Themes identified included life disruption, which encompassed the sub-themes of living scared, making sense of heart failure, and limiting activities. Resuming life was a contrasting theme involving culturally relevant coping strategies, and included the sub-themes of resiliency, spirituality, and self-care that helped patients regain and maintain a sense of self amid serious illness. Participants faced numerous challenges and invoked a variety of strategies to cope with their illness, and their stories of struggles, hardship, and resilience can serve as a model for others struggling with advanced illness. PMID:22352363

  1. Advancing Literacy: A Review of LIFE 2006-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanemann, Ulrike

    2009-01-01

    When it became clear that existing literacy efforts would not be enough to enable some countries to reach Education for All (EFA) Goal 4 (a 50 percent improvement in levels of adult literacy), UNESCO launched the Literacy Initiative for Empowerment (LIFE, 2006-2015). 35 countries with literacy rates below 50 percent and/or a population of more…

  2. Social support in later life: family, friends and community

    OpenAIRE

    Claudia Josefina Arias

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims to carry out an analysis of the importance of social support and participation in old age. Contributions are presented first that various international agencies concerned with old age and aging have been made to strengthen this support and increased participation of older people. Different sources of social support are described: formal and informal interventions that can be made with varied promotion and preventive-wellness-care objectives and action at various levels-individ...

  3. Space Suit Portable Life Support System (PLSS) 2.0 Pre-Installation Acceptance (PIA) Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anchondo, Ian; Cox, Marlon; Meginnis, Carly; Westheimer, David; Vogel, Matt R.

    2016-01-01

    Following successful completion of the space suit Portable Life Support System (PLSS) 1.0 development and testing in 2011, the second system-level prototype, PLSS 2.0, was developed in 2012 to continue the maturation of the advanced PLSS design. This advanced PLSS is intended to reduce consumables, improve reliability and robustness, and incorporate additional sensing and functional capabilities over the current Space Shuttle/International Space Station Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) PLSS. PLSS 2.0 represents the first attempt at a packaged design comprising first generation or later component prototypes and medium fidelity interfaces within a flight-like representative volume. Pre-Installation Acceptance (PIA) is carryover terminology from the Space Shuttle Program referring to the series of test sequences used to verify functionality of the EMU PLSS prior to installation into the Space Shuttle airlock for launch. As applied to the PLSS 2.0 development and testing effort, PIA testing designated the series of 27 independent test sequences devised to verify component and subsystem functionality, perform in situ instrument calibrations, generate mapping data, define set-points, evaluate control algorithms, evaluate hardware performance against advanced PLSS design requirements, and provide quantitative and qualitative feedback on evolving design requirements and performance specifications. PLSS 2.0 PIA testing was carried out in 2013 and 2014 using a variety of test configurations to perform test sequences that ranged from stand-alone component testing to system-level testing, with evaluations becoming increasingly integrated as the test series progressed. Each of the 27 test sequences was vetted independently, with verification of basic functionality required before completion. Because PLSS 2.0 design requirements were evolving concurrently with PLSS 2.0 PIA testing, the requirements were used as guidelines to assess performance during the tests; after the

  4. Developing Anticipatory Life Cycle Assessment Tools to Support Responsible Innovation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wender, Benjamin

    Several prominent research strategy organizations recommend applying life cycle assessment (LCA) early in the development of emerging technologies. For example, the US Environmental Protection Agency, the National Research Council, the Department of Energy, and the National Nanotechnology Initiative identify the potential for LCA to inform research and development (R&D) of photovoltaics and products containing engineered nanomaterials (ENMs). In this capacity, application of LCA to emerging technologies may contribute to the growing movement for responsible research and innovation (RRI). However, existing LCA practices are largely retrospective and ill-suited to support the objectives of RRI. For example, barriers related to data availability, rapid technology change, and isolation of environmental from technical research inhibit application of LCA to developing technologies. This dissertation focuses on development of anticipatory LCA tools that incorporate elements of technology forecasting, provide robust explorations of uncertainty, and engage diverse innovation actors in overcoming retrospective approaches to environmental assessment and improvement of emerging technologies. Chapter one contextualizes current LCA practices within the growing literature articulating RRI and identifies the optimal place in the stage gate innovation model to apply LCA. Chapter one concludes with a call to develop anticipatory LCA---building on the theory of anticipatory governance---as a series of methodological improvements that seek to align LCA practices with the objectives of RRI. Chapter two provides a framework for anticipatory LCA, identifies where research from multiple disciplines informs LCA practice, and builds off the recommendations presented in the preceding chapter. Chapter two focuses on crystalline and thin film photovoltaics (PV) to illustrate the novel framework, in part because PV is an environmentally motivated technology undergoing extensive R&D efforts and

  5. Modeling snail breeding in Bioregenerative Life Support System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalev, Vladimir; Tikhomirov, Alexander A.; Nickolay Manukovsky, D..

    It is known that snail meat is a high quality food that is rich in protein. Hence, heliciculture or land snail farming spreads worldwide because it is a profitable business. The possibility to use the snails of Helix pomatia in Biological Life Support System (BLSS) was studied by Japanese Researches. In that study land snails were considered to be producers of animal protein. Also, snail breeding was an important part of waste processing, because snails were capable to eat the inedible plant biomass. As opposed to the agricultural snail farming, heliciculture in BLSS should be more carefully planned. The purpose of our work was to develop a model for snail breeding in BLSS that can predict mass flow rates in and out of snail facility. There are three linked parts in the model called “Stoichiometry”, “Population” and “Mass balance”, which are used in turn. Snail population is divided into 12 age groups from oviposition to one year. In the submodel “Stoichiometry” the individual snail growth and metabolism in each of 12 age groups are described with stoichiometry equations. Reactants are written on the left side of the equations, while products are written on the right side. Stoichiometry formulas of reactants and products consist of four chemical elements: C, H, O, N. The reactants are feed and oxygen, products are carbon dioxide, metabolic water, snail meat, shell, feces, slime and eggs. If formulas of substances in the stoichiometry equations are substituted with their molar masses, then stoichiometry equations are transformed to the equations of molar mass balance. To get the real mass balance of individual snail growth and metabolism one should multiply the value of each molar mass in the equations on the scale parameter, which is the ratio between mass of monthly consumed feed and molar mass of feed. Mass of monthly consumed feed and stoichiometry coefficients of formulas of meat, shell, feces, slime and eggs should be determined experimentally

  6. Hydroponic cultivation of soybean for Bioregenerative Life Support Systems (BLSSs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Pascale, Stefania; De Micco, Veronica; Aronne, Giovanna; Paradiso, Roberta

    For long time our research group has been involved in experiments aiming to evaluate the possibility to cultivate plants in Space to regenerate resources and produce food. Apart from investigating the response of specific growth processes (at morpho-functional levels) to space factors (namely microgravity and ionising radiation), wide attention has been dedicated to agro-technologies applied to ecologically closed systems. Based on technical and human dietary requirements, soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] is studied as one of the candidate species for hydroponic (soilless) cultivation in the research program MELiSSA (Micro-Ecological Life Support System Alternative) of the European Space Agency (ESA). Soybean seeds show high nutritional value, due to the relevant content of protein, lipids, dietary fiber and biologically active substances such as isoflavones. They can produce fresh sprouts or be transformed in several edible products (soymilk and okara or soy pulp). Soybean is traditionally grown in open field where specific interactions with soil microrganisms occur. Most available information on plant growth, seed productivity and nutrient composition relate to cultivated varieties (cultivars) selected for soil cultivation. However, in a space outpost, plant cultivation would rely on soilless systems. Given that plant growth, seed yield and quality strictly depend on the environmental conditions, to make successful the cultivation of soybean in space, it was necessary to screen all agronomic information according to space constraints. Indeed, selected cultivars have to comply with the space growth environment while providing a suitable nutritional quality to fulfill the astronauts needs. We proposed an objective criterion for the preliminary theoretical selection of the most suitable cultivars for seed production, which were subsequently evaluated in bench tests in hydroponics. Several Space-oriented experiments were carried out in a closed growth chamber to

  7. Perceived social support and life satisfaction in persons with somatization disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arif Ali

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Life satisfaction and perceived social support been shown to improve the well-being of a person and also affect the outcome of treatment in somatization disorder. The phenomenon of somatization was explored in relation to the perceived social support and life satisfaction. Aim: This study aimed at investigating perceived social support and life satisfaction in people with somatization disorder. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on persons having somatization disorder attending the outpatient unit of LGB Regional Institute of Mental Health, Tezpur, Assam. Satisfaction with life scale and multidimensional scale of perceived social support were used to assess life satisfaction and perceived social support respectively. Results: Women reported more somatic symptoms than men. Family perceived social support was high in the patient in comparison to significant others′ perceived social support and friends′ perceived social support. Perceived social support showed that a significant positive correlation was found with life satisfaction. Conclusion: Poor social support and low life satisfaction might be a stress response with regard to increased distress severity and psychosocial stressors rather than a cultural response to express psychological problems in somatic terms.

  8. Fire fighters as basic life support responders: A study of successful implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christensen Erika

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background First responders are recommended as a supplement to the Emergency Medical Services (EMS in order to achieve early defibrillation. Practical and organisational aspects are essential when trying to implement new parts in the "Chain of Survival"; areas to address include minimizing dispatch time, ensuring efficient and quick communication, and choosing areas with appropriate driving distances. The aim of this study was to implement a system using Basic Life Support (BLS responders equipped with an automatic external defibrillator in an area with relatively short emergency medical services' response times. Success criteria for implementation was defined as arrival of the BLS responders before the EMS, attachment (and use of the AED, and successful defibrillation. Methods This was a prospective observational study from September 1, 2005 to December 31, 2007 (28 months in the city of Aarhus, Denmark. The BLS responder system was implemented in an area up to three kilometres (driving distance from the central fire station, encompassing approximately 81,500 inhabitants. The team trained on each shift and response times were reduced by choice of area and by sending the alarm directly to the fire brigade dispatcher. Results The BLS responders had 1076 patient contacts. The median response time was 3.5 minutes (25th percentile 2.75, 75th percentile 4.25. The BLS responders arrived before EMS in 789 of the 1076 patient contacts (73%. Cardiac arrest was diagnosed in 53 cases, the AED was attached in 29 cases, and a shockable rhythm was detected in nine cases. Eight were defibrillated using an AED. Seven of the eight obtained return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC. Six of the seven obtaining ROSC survived more than 30 days. Conclusion In this study, the implementation of BLS responders may have resulted in successful resuscitations. On basis of the close corporation between all participants in the chain of survival this project

  9. Arab Youth in Canada: Acculturation, Enculturation, Social Support, and Life Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterson, Ashley D.; Hakim-Larson, Julie

    2012-01-01

    Results from 98 Arab youth in Canada showed that having a positive Arab culture orientation was related to greater family life satisfaction with family social support as a mediator. A positive European Canadian orientation was related to greater school life satisfaction, but this relation was not mediated by friend social support. Implications for…

  10. Work-Life Issues and Participation in Education and Training: Support Document

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Natalie

    2009-01-01

    This document serves as a support paper to the "Work-Life Issues and Participation in Education and Training" report. This support document contains tables that show: (1) participation in education and training; (2) participation in education and training and work-life interaction; (3) future participation in education or training; (4) perceptions…

  11. First-Generation Undergraduate Students' Social Support, Depression, and Life Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Sharon Rae; Belanger, Aimee; Connally, Melissa Londono; Boals, Adriel; Duron, Kelly M.

    2013-01-01

    First-generation undergraduate students face challenging cross-socioeconomic cultural transitions into college life. The authors compared first- and non-first-generation undergraduate students' social support, posttraumatic stress, depression symptoms, and life satisfaction. First-generation participants reported less social support from…

  12. First aid and basic life support of junior doctors: A prospective study in Nijmegen, the Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan, E.C.T.H.; Severien, I.; Metz, J.C.; Berden, H.J.J.M.; Biert, J.

    2006-01-01

    According to the Dutch medical education guidelines junior doctors are expected to be able to perform first aid and basic life support. A prospective study was undertaken to assess the level of first aid and basic life support (BLS) competence of junior doctors at the Radboud University Nijmegen Med

  13. [The level of first aid and basic life support for the next generation of physicians

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Severien, I.; Tan, E.C.T.H.; Metz, J.C.; Biert, J.; Berden, H.J.J.M.

    2005-01-01

    According to Dutch medical-education guidelines junior doctors are expected to be able to carry out first aid and basic life support. We determined the level of first aid and basic life support of junior doctors at the Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, The Netherlands. Of the 300 junior do

  14. End-of-life communication in Korean older adults: With focus on advance care planning and advance directives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Dong Wook; Lee, Ji Eun; Cho, BeLong; Yoo, Sang Ho; Kim, SangYun; Yoo, Jun-Hyun

    2016-04-01

    The present article aimed to provide a comprehensive review of current status of end-of-life (EOL) care and sociocultural considerations in Korea, with focus on the EOL communication and use of advance directives (AD) in elderly Koreans. Through literature review, we discuss the current status of EOL care and sociocultural considerations in Korea, and provide a look-ahead. In Korea, patients often receive life-sustaining treatment until the very end of life. Advance care planning is rare, and most do-not-resuscitate decisions are made between the family and physician at the very end of patient's life. Koreans, influenced mainly by Confucian tradition, prefer a natural death and discontinuation of life-sustaining treatment. Although Koreans generally believe that death is natural and unavoidable, they tend not to think about or discuss death, and regard preparation for death as unnecessary. As a result, AD are completed by just 4.7% of the general adult population. This situation can be explained by several sociocultural characteristics including opting for natural death, wish not to burden others, preference for family involvement and trust in doctor, avoidance of talking about death, and filial piety. Patients often receive life-sustaining treatment until the very EOL, advance care planning and the use of AD is not common in Korea. This was related to unique sociocultural characteristics of Korea. A more active role of physicians, development of a more deliberate EOL discussion process, development of culturally appropriate AD and promotion of advance care planning might be required to provide good EOL care in Korea. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2016; 16: 407-415. PMID:26459613

  15. Time, Interaction, and Design in Support of a Good Life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Froes, Isabel Cristina G.; Laaksolahti, Jarmo Matti; Witzner Hansen, Dan;

    as pivotal to our budding understanding of elements of a good life and a useful framing for future investigations. Time is also an important topic for interaction design, because it is at the core of interaction, the practice of design, and, in many ways, our use and relationships with technological...

  16. Liver failure, life support, family support, and palliation: an inside story.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guy, Victoria

    2006-09-01

    My sister was admitted to the intensive-care-unit (ICU) five months before she died. At the time of admission her life-support wishes were not discussed with her. During her time in the ICU, we, the family, were given hope that she may survive. As with most families, we wanted my sister to live. During her progression from ICU to step-down unit to ward unit, the plan of care was not discussed, and goals were not set. Many medical teams were involved in my sister's care, and many looked at individual body parts instead of the whole person. I am a Registered Nurse at the same hospital where my sister was being cared for. Through many family meetings I was regarded as a medical professional, not as a sister. Knowing the medical system yet going through this as a family member has given me the opportunity to gain insight into what should have happened. If code status had been discussed we would have known my sisters wishes. If relevant literature pertaining to her disease and her slim chance of recovery had been brought to our attention, my sister could have died at home as she wished, and perhaps could have lived her final days in comfort. PMID:16990092

  17. Recent advance in life prediction for HTGR applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Key issues in design methods at high temperatures for an HTGR regime are creep constitutive equations. The life in service of structural components is controlled by creep damage. A creep constitutive equation is then needed to calculate inelastic stress-strain components. The method for life prediction, applicable to this temperature regime, has been investigated. The ductility exhaustion rule in conjunction with the creep constitutive equation is confirmed to be useful from the point of view of methodology. Creep-fatigue damage for Hastelloy XRs was assessed by this method in conjunction with the Miner's rule. It is found that the ductility exhaustion for creep damage has a tendency to estimate creep damage larger than the time faction that is often used conventionally. Creep damage under compressive stress should be evaluated at high temperatures. (Author)

  18. Advances in fatigue life prediction methodology for metallic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, J. C., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    The capabilities of a plasticity-induced crack-closure model to predict small- and large-crack growth rates, and in some cases total fatigue life, for four aluminum alloys and three titanium alloys under constant-amplitude, variable-amplitude, and spectrum loading are described. Equations to calculate a cyclic-plastic-zone corrected effective stress-intensity factor range from a cyclic J-integral and crack-closure analysis of large cracks were reviewed. The effective stress-intensity factor range against crack growth rate relations were used in the closure model to predict small- and large-crack growth under variable-amplitude and spectrum loading. Using the closure model and microstructural features, a total fatigue life prediction method is demonstrated for three aluminum alloys under various load histories.

  19. Life prediction of advanced materials for gas turbine application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zamrik, S.Y.; Ray, A.; Koss, D.A. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)

    1995-10-01

    Most of the studies on the low cycle fatigue life prediction have been reported under isothermal conditions where the deformation of the material is strain dependent. In the development of gas turbines, components such as blades and vanes are exposed to temperature variations in addition to strain cycling. As a result, the deformation process becomes temperature and strain dependent. Therefore, the life of the component becomes sensitive to temperature-strain cycling which produces a process known as {open_quotes}thermomechanical fatigue, or TMF{close_quotes}. The TMF fatigue failure phenomenon has been modeled using conventional fatigue life prediction methods, which are not sufficiently accurate to quantitatively establish an allowable design procedure. To add to the complexity of TMF life prediction, blade and vane substrates are normally coated with aluminide, overlay or thermal barrier type coatings (TBC) where the durability of the component is dominated by the coating/substrate constitutive response and by the fatigue behavior of the coating. A number of issues arise from TMF depending on the type of temperature/strain phase cycle: (1) time-dependent inelastic behavior can significantly affect the stress response. For example, creep relaxation during a tensile or compressive loading at elevated temperatures leads to a progressive increase in the mean stress level under cyclic loading. (2) the mismatch in elastic and thermal expansion properties between the coating and the substrate can lead to significant deviations in the coating stress levels due to changes in the elastic modulii. (3) the {open_quotes}dry{close_quotes} corrosion resistance coatings applied to the substrate may act as primary crack initiation sites. Crack initiation in the coating is a function of the coating composition, its mechanical properties, creep relaxation behavior, thermal strain range and the strain/temperature phase relationship.

  20. Social Support as a Buffer Against Depression and Anxiety After Exposure to Negative Life Events

    OpenAIRE

    Linda Dögg Þrastardóttir 1992

    2014-01-01

    After exposure to negative life events, people often suffer from mental health problems as a consequence. Social support is a protective factor that has shown to buffer against depression after exposure to negative life events. The aim of the current study was to investigate the moderating effects of social support on depression and anxiety in individuals who have been exposed to negative life events. This was studied in a large sample of Icelandic adolescents using data from the Icelandic Ce...

  1. Integration of lessons from recent research for “Earth to Mars” life support systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, M.; Dempster, W. F.; Allen, J. P.

    Development of reliable and robust strategies for long-term life support for planetary exploration must be built from real-time experimentation to verify and improve system components. Also critical is incorporating a range of viable options to handle potential short-term life system imbalances. This paper revisits some of the conceptual framework for a Mars base prototype which has been developed by the authors along with others previously advanced ("Mars on Earth ®") in the light of three years of experimentation in the Laboratory Biosphere, further investigation of system alternatives and the advent of other innovative engineering and agri-ecosystem approaches. Several experiments with candidate space agriculture crops have demonstrated the higher productivity possible with elevated light levels and improved environmental controls. For example, crops of sweet potatoes exceeded original Mars base prototype projections by an average of 46% (53% for best crop) ultradwarf (Apogee) wheat by 9% (23% for best crop), pinto bean by 13% (31% for best crop). These production levels, although they may be increased with further optimization of lighting regimes, environmental parameters, crop density etc. offer evidence that a soil-based system can be as productive as the hydroponic systems which have dominated space life support scenarios and research. But soil also offers distinct advantages: the capability to be created on the Moon or Mars using in situ space resources, reduces long-term reliance on consumables and imported resources, and more readily recycling and incorporating crew and crop waste products. In addition, a living soil contains a complex microbial ecosystem which helps prevent the buildup of trace gases or compounds, and thus assist with air and water purification. The atmospheric dynamics of these crops were studied in the Laboratory Biosphere adding to the database necessary for managing the mixed stands of crops essential for supplying a nutritionally

  2. Social support in later life: family, friends and community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Josefina Arias

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to carry out an analysis of the importance of social support and participation in old age. Contributions are presented first that various international agencies concerned with old age and aging have been made to strengthen this support and increased participation of older people. Different sources of social support are described: formal and informal interventions that can be made with varied promotion and preventive-wellness-care objectives and action at various levels-individual, group, family, organizational and community-and is made an analysis of the impact on the well-being have the resources of social support available to older people. Finally we reflect on Certain negative assumptions about the availability of support and social participation of older people in relation to recent research findings on the subject. Problematize the importance of these negative stereotypes about aging in general and on the participation and the availability of social support in particular in order to achieve more supportive environments that promote the development of the potential of older persons is concluded.

  3. Attitudes on end-of-life care and advance care planning in the lesbian and gay community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, G L; Bonuck, K A

    2001-01-01

    Gay men and lesbians have special interests in documenting their preferences regarding advance care planning and end-of-life care. A 64-item survey instrument was developed to ascertain the preferences of this community regarding approaches to end-of-life care, viewpoints on physician-assisted suicide (PAS) and euthanasia, and practices regarding advance care planning. The survey was completed by 575 participants recruited through community-based health care and social service organizations serving the lesbian and gay community, primarily in the New York metropolitan area. Respondents represent a diverse group of women (36%) and men (63%) from various age, racial/ethnic, and religious/spiritual backgrounds; 10% were human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive. Respondents' perspectives on end-of-life care are generally consistent with findings from other attitudinal studies of U.S. adults: a majority supported legalization of PAS and preferred a palliative approach to end-of-life care. However, the gay community sample revealed even stronger support for assisted suicide and palliative care. Although respondents completed advance directives at a higher rate than adults generally, the legal importance for gay men and lesbians to execute directives should encourage health care providers and community organizations to assume a larger educational role on advance care planning. Results confirm other reports on the need to address provider communication skills. It is speculated that the HIV epidemic was a major influence behind these results because of the overwhelming personal impact of the epidemic on most gay men and lesbians during the past two decades. PMID:11441626

  4. The Controlled Ecological Life Support System Antarctic Analog Project: Prototype Crop Production and Water Treatment System Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bubenheim, David L.; Flynn, Michael T.; Bates, Maynard; Schlick, Greg; Kliss, Mark (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    The Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) Antarctic Analog Project (CAAP), is a joint endeavor between the National Science Foundation, Office of Polar Programs (NSF-OPP) and the NASA. The fundamental objective is to develop, deploy, and operate a testbed of advanced life support technologies at the Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station that enable the objectives of both the NSF and NASA. The functions of food production, water purification, and waste treatment, recycle and reduction provided by CAAP will improve the quality of life for the South Pole inhabitants, reduce logistics dependence, enhance safety and minimize environmental impacts associated with human presence on the polar plateau. Because of the analogous technical, scientific, and mission features with Planetary missions such as a mission to Mars, CAAP provides NASA with a method for validating technologies and overall approaches to supporting humans. Prototype systems for sewage treatment, water recycle and crop production are being evaluated at Ames Research Center. The product water from sewage treatment using a Wiped-Film Rotating Disk is suitable for input to the crop production system. The crop production system has provided an enhanced level of performance compared with projected performance for plant-based life support: an approximate 50% increase in productivity per unit area, more than a 65% decrease in power for plant lighting, and more than a 75% decrease in the total power requirement to produce an equivalent mass of edible biomass.

  5. Effects of Phase III Cardiac Rehabilitation Programs on Anxiety and Quality of Life in Anxious Patients after Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamreza Babaei Ruchi

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Patients with psychological problems after coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG show poorer outcomes; nevertheless, there is a paucity of research into the effects of cardiac rehabilitation programs on such patients. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of phase III cardiac rehabilitation programs on the anxiety and quality of life of anxious patients who had undergone CABG in Iran.Methods: Six weeks after CABG, 83 anxious patients participated in an 8-week cardiac rehabilitation program that consisted of formal supervised exercise training and educational sessions. The state/trait anxiety inventory and SF-36 questionnaire were two instruments for collecting data in the present study. Of the total of 83, 66 participants saw out the eight-week period. Results: With the exception of the mental health aspect, significant improvements were noted in the following components of the quality of life measures after the cardiac rehabilitation program: physical functioning (P<0.001, role-physical (P<0.001, bodily pain (P<0.001, social functioning, (P=0.003, general health (P=0.020, vitality (P=0.006, and role-emotional (P=0.003. Additionally, significant reductions were observed in state anxiety (P=0.010 and trait anxiety (P=0.010(.Conclusion: These findings suggest that phase III cardiac rehabilitation may be an effective therapy for improving psychological outcomes of patients with psychological problems after CABG

  6. Guiding the development of a controlled ecological life support system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, R. M. (Editor); Carden, J. L. (Editor)

    1979-01-01

    The workshop is reported which was held to establish guidelines for future development of ecological support systems, and to develop a group of researchers who understand the interdisciplinary requirements of the overall program.

  7. Life Support Catalyst Regeneration Using Ionic Liquids and In Situ Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abney, Morgan B.; Karr, Laurel; Paley, Mark S.; Donovan, David N.

    2016-01-01

    Oxygen recovery from metabolic carbon dioxide is an enabling capability for long-duration manned space flight. Complete recovery of oxygen (100%) involves the production of solid carbon. Catalytic approaches for this purpose, such as Bosch technology, have been limited in trade analyses due in part to the mass penalty for high catalyst resupply caused by carbon fouling of the iron or nickel catalyst. In an effort to mitigate this challenge, several technology approaches have been proposed. These approaches have included methods to prolong the life of the catalysts by increasing the total carbon mass loading per mass catalyst, methods for simplified catalyst introduction and removal to limit the resupply container mass, methods of using in situ resources, and methods to regenerate catalyst material. Research and development into these methods is ongoing, but only use of in situ resources and/or complete regeneration of catalyst material has the potential to entirely eliminate the need for resupply. The use of ionic liquids provides an opportunity to combine these methods in a technology approach designed to eliminate the need for resupply of oxygen recovery catalyst. Here we describe the results of an initial feasibility study using ionic liquids and in situ resources for life support catalyst regeneration, we discuss the key challenges with the approach, and we propose future efforts to advance the technology.

  8. Next Generation Life Support: High Performance EVA Glove

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Sarah K.

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of the High Performance EVA Glove task are to develop advanced EVA gloves for future human space exploration missions and generate corresponding standards by which progress may be quantitatively assessed. New technologies and manufacturing techniques will be incorporated into the new gloves to address finger and hand mobility, injury reduction and durability in nonpristine environments. Three prototypes will be developed, each focusing on different technological advances. A robotic assist glove will integrate a powered grasping system into the current EVA glove design to reduce astronaut hand fatigue and hand injuries. A mechanical counter pressure (MCP) glove will be developed to further explore the potential of MCP technology and assess its capability for countering the effects of vacuum or low pressure environments on the body by using compression fabrics or materials to apply the necessary pressure. A gas pressurized glove, incorporating new technologies, will be the most flight-like of the three prototypes. Advancements include the development and integration of aerogel insulation, damage sensing components, dust-repellant coatings, and dust tolerant bearings.

  9. Life cycle assessment of advanced waste water treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Henrik Fred; Hansen, Peter Augusto

    The EU FP6 NEPTUNE project is related to the EU Water Framework Directive and the main goal is to develop new and optimize existing waste water treatment technologies (WWTT) and sludge handling methods for municipal waste water. Besides nutrients, a special focus area is micropollutants (e...... induced impacts as compared to avoided impacts is introduced in the life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) part. Furthermore, as novel approaches, potential ecotoxicity impact from a high number of micropollutants and the potential impact from pathogens (and whole effluent toxicity) are to be included. In...

  10. R and D in support of CANDU plant life management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the keys to the long-term success of CANDUs is a high capacity factor over the station design life. Considerable R and D in underway at AECL to develop technologies for assessing, monitoring and mitigating the effect of plant ageing and for improving plant performance and extending plant life. To achieve longer service life and to realize high capacity factor from CANDU stations, AECL is developing new technologies to enhance fuel channel and steam generator inspection capabilities, to monitor system health, and to allow preventive maintenance and cleaning (e.g., on-line chemical cleaning processes that produce small volumes of wastes). The life management strategy for fuel channels and steam generators requires a program to inspect components on a routine basis to identify mechanisms that could potentially affect fitness-for-service. In the case of fuel channels, the strategy includes inspections for dimensional changes, flaw detection, and deuterium concentration. New techniques are been developed to enhance these inspection capabilities; examples include accurate measurement of the gap between a pressure tube and its calandria tube and rapid full-length inspections of steam generator tubes for all known flaw types. Central to life management of components are Fitness-for-Service Guidelines (FFSG) that have been developed with the CANDU Owners Group (COG) that provide a standardized method to assess the potential for propagation of flaws detected during in-service inspections, and assessment of any change in fracture characteristics of the material. FFSG continue to be improved with the development of new technologies such as the capability to credit relaxation of stresses due to creep and non-rejectable flaws in pressure tubes. Effective management of plant systems throughout their lifetime requires much more than data acquisition and display - it requires that system health is continually monitored and managed. AECL has developed a system Health Monitor

  11. Evaluation of patients' quality of life aspects after cardiac pacemaker implantation

    OpenAIRE

    de Barros, Rubens Tofano; de Carvalho, Sebastião Marcos Ribeiro; Silva, Marcos Augusto de Moraes; Borges, Juliana Bassalobre Carvalho

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate patients' quality of life aspects after pacemaker implantation, relating it to gender, age, and implantation timespan. Methods A total of 107 clinically stable patients of both genders (49.5% women and 50.5% men) over 18 years old (average 69.3±12.6 years) and presenting an implantation timespan of three to 12 months (average 6.36±2.99 months) were evaluated. The evaluation included personal, clinical, and implant data as well as quality of life questionnaires (AQUAREL ...

  12. Comparison of two modes of ventilation after fast-track cardiac surgery: Adaptive support ventilation versus synchronized intermittent mandatory ventilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: There is substantial debate regarding the appropriate protocol for ventilatory management in fast-track cardiac anesthesia (FTCA). This study was carried out to assess and compare the risks and benefits of respiratory weaning based on adaptive support ventilation (ASV) and synchronized intermittent mandatory ventilation (SIMV) after uncomplicated cardiac surgery. Methodology: In a randomized clinical trial, after receiving approval of the Department Research Committee and informed consent from study subjects, 100 patients undergoing elective coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) were enrolled during a 4-month period at a university-based hospital. After surgery and admission to the intensive care unit (ICU), patients were randomized to ASV and SIMV groups. Arterial blood gas (ABG) and hemodynamic variables, respiratory and ventilator characteristics including lung compliance, rapid shallow breathing index (RSBI), tidal volume (TV), respiratory rate (RR), peak inspiratory pressure (P peak), mean airway pressure (p mean), Pao2/FIo2, duration of mechanical ventilation and tracheal intubation, and length of ICU stay were recorded and compared between the two groups. The data were analyzed in 82 patients after considering the exclusion criteria. Results: There were no differences between ASV and SIMV groups in demographics and preoperative characteristics. The duration of tracheal intubation and the length of ICU stay were similar in both groups. There were no statistically and clinically relevant differences between the two groups in ABG, hemodynamic changes, and respiratory and ventilator characteristics during ICU stay. Conclusion: Although ASV may facilitate postoperative respiratory management in FTCA, both ASV and SIMV provide similarly safe and practicable respiratory weaning in the cardiac ICU. The evaluation of potential advantages in patient outcomes and resource utilization of respiratory weaning based on ASV

  13. Advanced Supported Liquid Membranes for Carbon Dioxide Control in Cabin Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickham, David T.; Gleason, Kevin J.; Engel, Jeffrey R.; Chullen, Cinda

    2016-01-01

    The development of new, robust, life support systems is critical to NASA's continued progress in space exploration. One vital function is maintaining the carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration in the cabin at levels that do not impair the health or performance of the crew. The CO2 removal assembly (CDRA) is the current CO2 control technology on-board the International Space Station (ISS). Although the CDRA has met the needs of the ISS to date, the repeated cycling of the molecular sieve sorbent causes it to break down into small particles that clog filters or generate dust in the cabin. This reduces reliability and increases maintenance requirements. Another approach that has potential advantages over the current system is a membrane that separates CO2 from air. In this approach, cabin air contacts one side of the membrane while other side of the membrane is maintained at low pressure to create a driving force for CO2 transport across the membrane. In this application, the primary power requirement is for the pump that creates the low pressure and then pumps the CO2 to the oxygen recovery system. For such a membrane to be practical, it must have high CO2 permeation rate and excellent selectivity for CO2 over air. Unfortunately, conventional gas separation membranes do not have adequate CO2 permeability and selectivity to meet the needs of this application. However, the required performance could be obtained with a supported liquid membrane (SLM), which consists of a microporous material filled with a liquid that selectively reacts with CO2 over air. In a recently completed Phase II SBIR project, Reaction Systems, Inc. fabricated an SLM that is very close to meeting permeability and selectivity objectives for use in the advanced space suit portable life support system. This paper describes work carried out to evaluate its potential for use in spacecraft cabin application.

  14. Assessment of hydraulic performance and biocompatibility of a MagLev centrifugal pump system designed for pediatric cardiac or cardiopulmonary support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasse, Kurt A; Gellman, Barry; Kameneva, Marina V; Woolley, Joshua R; Johnson, Carl A; Gempp, Thomas; Marks, John D; Kent, Stella; Koert, Andrew; Richardson, J Scott; Franklin, Steve; Snyder, Trevor A; Wearden, Peter; Wagner, William R; Gilbert, Richard J; Borovetz, Harvey S

    2007-01-01

    The treatment of children with life-threatening cardiac and cardiopulmonary failure is a large and underappreciated public health concern. We have previously shown that the CentriMag is a magnetically levitated centrifugal pump system, having the utility for treating adults and large children (1,500 utilized worldwide). We present here the PediVAS, a pump system whose design was modified from the CentriMag to meet the physiological requirements of young pediatric and neonatal patients. The PediVAS is comprised of a single-use centrifugal blood pump, reusable motor, and console, and is suitable for right ventricular assist device (RVAD), left ventricular assist device (LVAD), biventricular assist device (BVAD), or extracorporeal membrane oxygenator (ECMO) applications. It is designed to operate without bearings, seals and valves, and without regions of blood stasis, friction, or wear. The PediVAS pump is compatible with the CentriMag hardware, although the priming volume was reduced from 31 to 14 ml, and the port size reduced from 3/8 to (1/4) in. For the expected range of pediatric flow (0.3-3.0 L/min), the PediVAS exhibited superior hydraulic efficiency compared with the CentriMag. The PediVAS was evaluated in 14 pediatric animals for up to 30 days, demonstrating acceptable hydraulic function and hemocompatibility. The current results substantiate the performance and biocompatibility of the PediVAS cardiac assist system and are likely to support initiation of a US clinical trial in the future. PMID:18043164

  15. Advancing Home-School Relations through Parent Support?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergnehr, Disa

    2015-01-01

    The present study explores a local initiative to develop parent support services through the school system. In focus are the discourse on home-school relations and parent support and the interplay between discourse and practical occurrences. Official documents, interviews and notes from municipal meetings and informal conversations were obtained…

  16. Globular Clusters as Cradles of Life and Advanced Civilizations

    CERN Document Server

    Di Stefano, R

    2016-01-01

    Globular clusters are ancient stellar populations with no star formation or core-collapse supernovae. Several lines of evidence suggest that globular clusters are rich in planets. If so, and if advanced civilizations can develop there, then the distances between these civilizations and other stars would be far smaller than typical distances between stars in the Galactic disk. The relative proximity would facilitate interstellar communication and travel. However, the very proximity that promotes interstellar travel also brings danger, since stellar interactions can destroy planetary systems. However, by modeling globular clusters and their stellar populations, we find that large regions of many globular clusters can be thought of as "sweet spots" where habitable-zone planetary orbits can be stable for long times. We also compute the ambient densities and fluxes in the regions within which habitable-zone planets can survive. Globular clusters are among the best targets for searches for extraterrestrial intellig...

  17. Personality and the physician-patient relationship as predictors of quality of life of cardiac patients after rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farin Erik

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Numerous studies document the influence of psychosocial variables on the course of coronary heart disease. This study examines the influence of personality traits (trait anger, cynicism and aspects of the physician-patient relationship (promoting patient participation by the physician, active communication behavior of the patient, trust in the physician on the health related quality of life (HRQOL of cardiac patients after rehabilitation. Methods N = 331 patients with chronic ischemic heart disease were surveyed using questionnaires at two time points (beginning and end of 3-weeks inpatient rehabilitation. In addition, characteristics of the disease and cardiac risk factors were provided by the physician. HRQOL was measured using a total of six scales and three instruments: SF-12, MacNew questionnaire, and SAQ. Hierarchical regression analyses were carried out to predict HRQOL after rehabilitation, in which the baseline values of HRQOL, sociodemographic variables, characteristics of the disease and risk factors, personality traits, and finally the aspects of the physician-patient relationship were included stepwise. As a number of variables were used for the regression models, multiple imputation was conducted. Results The baseline values explain most of the variance (42%-60%. After controlling the baseline values, the sociodemographic variables explain up to 5% incremental variance of HRQOL, with income being the most important predictor. The characteristics of the disease and cardiac risk factors explain between 0.4% and 3.8% incremental variance, however, variance increase is often not significant. The personality traits added in the fourth step explain up to 2% additional variance; trait anger is a significant predictor of HRQOL in three of the six scales. The features of the physician-patient relationship included in the last step lead to a significant increase in explained variance (between 1.3% and 3.9% for all six

  18. Out-of-hospital cardiopulmonary arrest due to penetrating cardiac injury treated by percutaneous cardiopulmonary support in the emergency room: report of a case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurimoto, Yoshihiko; Kano, Hitoshi; Yama, Naoya; Nara, Satoshi; Hase, Mamoru; Asai, Yasufumi

    2007-01-01

    Penetrating cardiac injury tends to generally be repaired without cardiopulmonary bypass in the operating room. We herein report the case of penetrating cardiac injury repaired using percutaneous cardiopulmonary support in an emergency room. A 57-year-old man attempted suicide by stabbing himself in the left anterior chest with a knife. Although the patient suffered cardiopulmonary arrest for 7 min in the ambulance, spontaneous circulation was restored following pericardiotomy through emergency left thoracotomy in the emergency room. To prevent coronary artery injury and control the massive bleeding, percutaneous cardiopulmonary support was instituted without systemic heparinization and the cardiac injury was repaired in the emergency room. The patient was then transferred to another hospital on day 46 for further rehabilitation. Percutaneous cardiopulmonary support might be helpful for treating critical patients in an emergency room, even in the case of trauma patients. PMID:17342366

  19. Adaptability test of lettuce to soil-like substrate in bioregenerative life support system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Yan; Liu, Professor Hong; Wenting, Fu

    Plant cultivation using soil-like substrate (SLS) is considered to be a feasible option for building up matter for biological turnover in bioregenerative life support system (BLSS) by many researchers. The characteristics of SLS are different from those of true soil therefore it is very important to study the adaptability of candidate crop to SLS in BLSS. This study was carried out in three successive steps to test the adaptability of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) to rice straw SLS in BLSS of China. First, six Chinese specific lettuce cultivars which were selected for Chinese advanced life support system were planted into the same rice straw SLS, which was to determine the more suitable plant cultivar to do the next experiment. The results showed that Sharp Leaf lettuce and Red lettuce were more suitable for SLS than other cultivars. Second, the possibility of increasing the crop yield on the SLS was conducted by changing the soil depth and plant density. Sharp Leaf lettuce and Red lettuce were used into this experiment in order to obtain the highest yield under the smallest soil volume and weight at the same light intensity. Crop edible biomass, crop nutrition content and photosynthetic characteristics were estimated during the experiment. Red lettuce obtained higher biomass and photosynthesis capacity. Lastly, the stability of planting system of lettuce and SLS was evaluated in the closed controlled system. Red lettuce would be the test plant. In this experiment different age lettuce groups would be planted together and gas exchange would be measured. In all of these experiments soil physical and chemical characteristics were also be measured which will be the basal data for further research.

  20. Body Image and quality of life of senior citizens included in a cardiac rehabilitation program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Vargas Amaral

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Most people who have to live with some kind of disease tend to adopt healthy habits and create new ways of seeing themselves. The aim of this study is to explore the relationship between the index of quality of life and self perception of patients included in a cardiovascular rehabilitation program in Florianopolis/Brazil. The sample consists of 24 subjects of 62 ± 1.3 years of age, who have coronary artery disease. The Minnesota Living With Heart Failure Questionnaire (MLHFQ was used to assess the quality of life, and to identify the degree of body image discontentment the Stunkard and Sorensen questionnaire (1993 was applied. Statistical analysis was made through statistics programs and the software SPSS 11.0. The degree of association between variables was studied with Kendall test. It was verified that the higher the BMI and the current body shape, the greatest the degree of body image dissatisfaction. The emotional symptoms also appear to be significantly correlated with a desire for a smaller body shape and with indicators of lower quality of life (r = 0474 = 0735, p major 0.05. The physical symptoms were also considerably associated with the emotional symptoms. These results suggest that the variables concerning the quality of life are meaningful to significant body image and satisfaction, which seems to correlate with fewer emotional problems and better facing of the disease. Cardiovascular Rehabilitation Programs that implement physical activity in daily habits proves to be a suitable tool for improving these ailments in this post-acute phase

  1. Extracorporeal life support for acute respiratory distress syndromes

    OpenAIRE

    Don Hayes; Joseph D Tobias; Jasleen Kukreja; Preston, Thomas J.; Yates, Andrew R; Stephen Kirkby; Whitson, Bryan A.

    2013-01-01

    The morbidity and mortality of acute respiratory distress syndrome remain to be high. Over the last 50 years, the clinical management of these patients has undergone vast changes. Significant improvement in the care of these patients involves the development of mechanical ventilation strategies, but the benefits of these strategies remain controversial. With a growing trend of extracorporeal support for critically ill patients, we provide a historical review of extracorporeal membrane oxygena...

  2. Risco ocupacional em unidades de Suporte Básico e Avançado de Vida em Emergências Riesgo laboral en las Unidades de Soporte Básico y Avanzado de Vida en Emergencia Occupational risk in Basic and Advanced Emergency Life Support Units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda dos Santos Zapparoli

    2006-02-01

    automovilísticos (90% de los trabajadores, agresiones física y moral (90% de los trabajadores y accidentes con material punzante o cortante (72,5% de los trabajadores. 75% de los trabajadores describieron la violencia como factor de riesgo más preocupante en el trabajo efectuado. La mayoría de los trabajadores identificó los riesgos laborales. Sin embargo, una minoría de los trabajadores utiliza medidas adecuadas de seguridad, manifestando la necesidad de intervenciones.This study aimed to identify occupational risk factors the professionals of Basic and Advanced Emergency Life Support are exposed. Semi-structured interview was used. The study subjects were 40 workers who are part of two Emergency Healthcare System teams in a city of São Paulo State-Brazil. Most workers identified the following risk factors: physical (high temperature and environmental noise levels; chemical (manipulating chemical substances; biological (exposure to microorganisms and lack of material available. Typical risks of emergency activities were: risk of car accidents (90% of the workers, physical and moral aggression (90% of the workers and accidents with piercing and cutting material (72,5% of the workers. 75% of the workers described violence as the most worrying risk factor at work. Most of the workers identified the occupational risks. However only a minority of them uses adequate safety measures, which reveals the need for interventions.

  3. BEO-Life, a Test and Refurbishment Support for Biological Research Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engeln, I.; Hueser, D.; Reese, C.; Schoenfeld, R.

    Since the ISS commenced its operational phase, the need of ground based test and refurbishment support, facilitating the utilisation of the station and especially its facilities for biological research, becomes increasingly important.. The onboard biological research facilities (e.g. BIOLAB) are designed and built for a life time of 10 years, requiring the regular exchange of the integrated life support systems. The exact conditioning of the atmosphere in these systems plays an important role for the scientific outcome. The composition of the air (O2, N2 and CO2) as well as the humidity and the temperature inside the experiment chambers containing the plants and cell-cultures needs to be adjustable for various types of experiments. Since the various ingredients for a life support system are consumables, which consumption depends on the number of performed experiments, the life support systems needs to be refurbished from time to time. Our contribution to this challenge is BEO- Life, which offers a unique test, refurbishment and qualification environment for maintenance and re-supply for life support systems of the ISS onboard biological facilities. BEO-Life provides the ground support for all these tasks, such as tests, maintenance, verification and procedures. To fulfil the demanding requirements for the automatic and stable conditioning of the life support system, a complex arrangement of pumps, valves, sensors and an electronic system including software with exact control algorithms is provided. Beside the refurbishment activities, BEO-Life will support preliminary ground-based investigations of scientists before utilisation of the ISS biological research facilities, too. In conclusion, we offer a novel service element for the ground-based maintenance of biological research facilities onboard the ISS. This service can be easily adapted to the needs of users for preparatory work.

  4. Extracorporeal life support for acute respiratory distress syndromes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Don Hayes

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The morbidity and mortality of acute respiratory distress syndrome remain to be high. Over the last 50 years, the clinical management of these patients has undergone vast changes. Significant improvement in the care of these patients involves the development of mechanical ventilation strategies, but the benefits of these strategies remain controversial. With a growing trend of extracorporeal support for critically ill patients, we provide a historical review of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO including its failures and successes as well as discussing extracorporeal devices now available or nearly accessible while examining current clinical indications and trends of ECMO in respiratory failure.

  5. Care of Patients at the End of Life: Advance Care Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackermann, Richard J

    2016-08-01

    Advance directives are legal documents that give instructions about how to provide care when patients develop life-threatening illnesses and can no longer communicate their wishes. Two types of documents are widely used-a living will and a durable power of attorney for health care. Most states also authorize physician orders for life-sustaining treatment. Physicians should encourage patients, particularly those with severe chronic or terminal conditions, to prepare advance directives. Medicare now reimburses billing codes for advance care consultations. Directions regarding cardiopulmonary resuscitation and artificial ventilation often are included in advance care plans, and use of artificial nutrition and hydration (ANH) also should be addressed, particularly for patients with advanced dementia. Evidence shows that in such patients, ANH does not prolong survival, increase comfort, or improve quality of life. Given the lack of benefit, physicians should recommend against use of ANH for patients with dementia. Finally, physicians should encourage use of hospice services by patients whose life expectancy is 6 months or less. Although Medicare and most other health care insurers cover hospice care, and despite evidence that patient and family satisfaction increase when hospice services are used, many patients do not use these services. PMID:27490070

  6. Prospective evaluation of health-related quality of life in long-term oral and oropharyngeal cancer survivors and the perceived need for supportive care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.M. Oskam; I.M. Verdonck-de Leeuw; N.K. Aaronson; B.I. Witte; R. de Bree; P. Doornaert; J.A. Langendijk; C.R. Leemans

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate long-term changes in health related quality of life (HRQOL) in oral/oropharyngeal cancer survivors and their need for and use of supportive care. Methods: Between 1999 and 2001, 80 advanced oral or oropharyngeal cancer patients treated with free-flap reconstruction and postopera

  7. The role of advance directives in end-of-life decisions in Austria: survey of intensive care physicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schopper Andrea

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Currently, intensive care medicine strives to define a generally accepted way of dealing with end-of-life decisions, therapy limitation and therapy discontinuation. In 2006 a new advance directive legislation was enacted in Austria. Patients may now document their personal views regarding extension of treatment. The aim of this survey was to explore Austrian intensive care physicians' experiences with and their acceptance of the new advance directive legislation two years after enactment (2008. Methods Under the aegis of the OEGARI (Austrian Society of Anaesthesiology, Resuscitation and Intensive Care an anonymised questionnaire was sent to the medical directors of all intensive care units in Austria. The questions focused on the physicians' experiences regarding advance directives and their level of knowledge about the underlying legislation. Results There were 241 questionnaires sent and 139 were turned, which was a response rate of 58%. About one third of the responders reported having had no experience with advance directives and only 9 directors of intensive care units had dealt with more than 10 advance directives in the previous two years. Life-supporting measures, resuscitation, and mechanical ventilation were the predominantly refused therapies, wishes were mainly expressed concerning pain therapy. Conclusion A response rate of almost 60% proves the great interest of intensive care professionals in making patient-oriented end-of-life decisions. However, as long as patients do not make use of their right of co-determination, the enactment of the new law can be considered only a first important step forward.

  8. Health of women: associations among life events, social support, and personality for selected patient groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norlander, T; Dahlin, A; Archer, T

    2000-02-01

    This study examined the effects of life events, social support, personality traits, and siblings' birth-order on the health of women. 199 middle-class participants were included. 95 women, randomly assigned from four different patient groups, were compared with a control group of 96 randomly selected women without any special health problems. They completed a questionnaire which included questions regarding family background, health, different life events, social support, and signs of disease and a projective test, the Sivik Psychosomatism Test. Analysis indicated that report of negative life events was associated with more physical symptoms than positive life events and that the patient groups reported more negative life events and less social support than the control group. PMID:10778252

  9. Advanced Turbine Technology Applications Project (ATTAP) and Hybrid Vehicle Turbine Engine Technology Support project (HVTE-TS): Final summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    This final technical report was prepared by Rolls-Royce Allison summarizing the multiyear activities of the Advanced Turbine Technology Applications Project (ATTAP) and the Hybrid Vehicle Turbine Engine Technology Support (HVTE-TS) project. The ATTAP program was initiated in October 1987 and continued through 1993 under sponsorship of the US Department of Energy (DOE), Energy Conservation and Renewable Energy, Office of Transportation Technologies, Propulsion Systems, Advanced Propulsion Division. ATTAP was intended to advance the technological readiness of the automotive ceramic gas turbine engine. The target application was the prime power unit coupled to conventional transmissions and powertrains. During the early 1990s, hybrid electric powered automotive propulsion systems became the focus of development and demonstration efforts by the US auto industry and the Department of energy. Thus in 1994, the original ATTAP technology focus was redirected to meet the needs of advanced gas turbine electric generator sets. As a result, the program was restructured to provide the required hybrid vehicle turbine engine technology support and the project renamed HVTE-TS. The overall objective of the combined ATTAP and HVTE-TS projects was to develop and demonstrate structural ceramic components that have the potential for competitive automotive engine life cycle cost and for operating 3,500 hr in an advanced high temperature turbine engine environment. This report describes materials characterization and ceramic component development, ceramic components, hot gasifier rig testing, test-bed engine testing, combustion development, insulation development, and regenerator system development. 130 figs., 12 tabs.

  10. Mesoporous molecular sieves as advanced supports for olefin metathesis catalysts

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Balcar, Hynek; Čejka, Jiří

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 257, 21-22 (2013), s. 3107-3124. ISSN 0010-8545 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA400400805; GA ČR GBP106/12/G015 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : Olefin metathesis * mesoporous molecular sieves * Heterogeneous catalysts Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 12.098, year: 2013

  11. Next Generation Life Support (NGLS): Continuous Electrochemical Gas Separator (CEGS) Element

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Life support systems on human spacecraft are designed to provide a safe, habitable environment for the astronauts, and one of the most significant challenges...

  12. Social support, coping, life events, and posttraumatic stress symptoms among former peacekeepers: a prospective study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dirkzwager, A.J.E.; Bramsen, I.; Ploeg, H.M. van der

    2003-01-01

    This study examined both cross-sectionally and longitudinally the relationship between social support, coping strategies, additional stressful life events, and symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among Dutch former peacekeeping soldiers. Two groups of peacekeepers were investigated: 311

  13. National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Partnered Development of Cryogenic Life Support Technologies Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Partnering with National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) to develop several cryogenically based life support technologies to be used in mine...

  14. Water Walls: Highly Reliable and Massively Redundant Life Support Architecture Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — WATER WALLS (WW) takes an approach to providing a life support system that is biologically and chemically passive, using mechanical systems only for plumbing to...

  15. Regenerable Trace-Contaminant Sorbent for the Primary Life Support System (PLSS) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The NASA objective of expanding the human experience into the far reaches of space requires the development of regenerable life support systems. This proposal...

  16. Bio-Electrochemical Carbon Dioxide Removal for Air Revitalization in Exploration Life Support Systems Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — An important aspect of the ISS air revitalization system for life support is the removal of carbon dioxide from cabin air and retrieves oxygen from CO2. The current...

  17. Involvement of supportive care professionals in patient care in the last month of life

    OpenAIRE

    Brinkman-Stoppelenburg, Arianne; Onwuteaka-Philipsen, Bregje D.; van der Heide, Agnes

    2015-01-01

    Background In the last month of life, many patients suffer from multiple symptoms and problems. Professional supportive care involvement may help to alleviate patients’ suffering and provide them with an optimal last phase of life. Purpose We investigated how often palliative care consultants, pain specialists, psychological experts and spiritual caregivers are involved in caring for patients in the last month of life, and which factors are associated with their involvement. Methods Questionn...

  18. Relationship between Recent Life Events, Social Supports, and Attitudes to Domestic Violence: Predictive Roles in Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guoping, Huang; Yalin, Zhang; Yuping, Cao; Momartin, Shakeh; Ming, Wei

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to assess the relationship between recent life events, attitudes to domestic violence (DV), and DV behaviors among perpetrators of DV in China. A total of 600 participants were assessed for recent life events, psychological functioning, social support, and attitudes to DV. Results demonstrated that recent negative life…

  19. Involvement of supportive care professionals in patient care in the last month of life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Brinkman-Stoppelenburg (Arianne); B.D. Onwuteaka-Philipsen (Bregje D.); A. van der Heide (Agnes)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractBackground: In the last month of life, many patients suffer from multiple symptoms and problems. Professional supportive care involvement may help to alleviate patients’ suffering and provide them with an optimal last phase of life. Purpose: We investigated how often palliative care cons

  20. Self-Perception, Motivation, and Social Support through the Family Life Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamir, Lois M.; Antonucci, Toni C.

    1981-01-01

    National survey data were utilized to measure differences in self-perception, motivation, and social support through seven stages of the family life cycle. In most cases, stages of family life were significantly associated with psychological and social change in adulthood, regardless of sex. (Author)

  1. Assistive technology as cognitive support in everyday life for persons with dementia or stroke

    OpenAIRE

    Lindqvist, Eva

    2012-01-01

    The overall aim of this thesis was to expand the knowledge base for a better understanding of how persons diagnosed with dementia or stroke become users of assistive technology for cognitive support in everyday life. In Study I, identified difficulties in everyday life related to cognition were matched with a specific type of modifiable context-aware assistive technology with the aim of identifying what types of tasks the assistive technology could support. The findings ...

  2. Social support and quality of life in patients with hiv / aids, Monteria residents. Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Romero-Massa Elizabeth; Amador-Ahumada Concepción; Alvis-Estrada Luis

    2010-01-01

    OBJETIVE: To determine the association between social support and quality of life of patients with HIV / AIDS receiving antiretroviral therapy. METHODOLOGY: We performed a quantitative study of analytic type. The population consisted of patients with HIV / AIDS receiving antiretroviral therapy in Monteria, Colombia. A total of 77 patients was choosed using a simple random sampling and were assessed for quality of life through the instrument QLI-SP and perceived social support scale. To determ...

  3. Space Station Freedom Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) phase 3 simplified integrated test trace contaminant control subsystem performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, J. L.

    1990-01-01

    Space Station Freedom environmental control and life support system testing has been conducted at Marshall Space Flight Center since 1986. The phase 3 simplified integrated test (SIT) conducted from July 30, 1989, through August 11, 1989, tested an integrated air revitalization system. During this test, the trace contaminant control subsystem (TCCS) was directly integrated with the bleed stream from the carbon dioxide reduction subsystem. The TCCS performed as expected with minor anomalies. The test set the basis for further characterizing the TCCS performance as part of advance air revitalization system configurations.

  4. Technology Advancements Enhance Aircraft Support of Experiment Campaigns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vachon, Jacques J.

    2009-01-01

    For over 30 years, the NASA Airborne Science Program has provided airborne platforms for space bound instrument development, for calibrating new and existing satellite systems, and for making in situ and remote sensing measurements that can only be made from aircraft. New technologies have expanded the capabilities of aircraft that are operated for these missions. Over the last several years a new technology investment portfolio has yielded improvements that produce better measurements for the airborne science communities. These new technologies include unmanned vehicles, precision trajectory control and advanced telecommunications capabilities. We will discuss some of the benefits of these new technologies and systems which aim to provide users with more precision, lower operational costs, quicker access to data, and better management of multi aircraft and multi sensor campaigns.

  5. Gas-turbine critical research and advanced technology support project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, J. S.; Hodge, P. E.; Lowell, C. E.; Anderson, D. N.; Schultz, D. F.

    1981-01-01

    A technology data base for utility gas turbine systems capable of burning coal derived fuels was developed. The following areas are investigated: combustion; materials; and system studies. A two stage test rig is designed to study the conversion of fuel bound nitrogen to NOx. The feasibility of using heavy fuels in catalytic combustors is evaluated. A statistically designed series of hot corrosion burner rig tests was conducted to measure the corrosion rates of typical gas turbine alloys with several fuel contaminants. Fuel additives and several advanced thermal barrier coatings are tested. Thermal barrier coatings used in conjunction with low critical alloys and those used in a combined cycle system in which the stack temperature was maintained above the acid corrosion temperature are also studied.

  6. Self-supported electrocatalysts for advanced energy conversion processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian Yi Ma

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The biggest challenge in developing new energy conversion technologies such as rechargeable metal-air batteries, regenerated fuel cells and water splitting devices is to find suitable catalysts that can efficiently and stably catalyze the key electrochemical processes involved. This paper reviews the new development of self-supported electrocatalysts in three categories: electrocatalysts growing on rigid substrates, electrocatalysts growing on soft substrates, and free-standing catalyst films. They are distinct and superior to the conventional powdery electrocatalysts, showing advantages in controllable nanostructure and chemical component, flexible electrode configuration, and outstanding catalytic performance. The self-supported electrocatalysts with various architectures like nanowire/plate/pillar arrays and porous films, composed of metals, metal oxides/selenides/phosphides, organic polymers, carbons and their corresponding hybrids, are presented and discussed. These catalysts exhibit high activity, durability and selectivity toward oxygen reduction, oxygen evolution, and/or hydrogen evolution reactions. The perspectives on the relevant areas are also proposed.

  7. Summer Support of the Advanced Structures and Measurements Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuber, Alexander Lee

    2010-01-01

    This presentation is my exit presentation summarizing the work that I did this summer during my 10 week summer internship. It is primarily focused on tensile testing of composite coupons including the use of the ARAMIS optical strain measurement system, but it also includes some discussion of other support that I provided for the Dryden composites working group effort. My main efforts in that area were focused on T-joint design for an upcoming hands-on-workshop as well as design of a fixture to test joint coupons. Finally, there is a brief discussion of the other small projects that I worked on, including support of structurally integrated thermal protection system (STIPS) research and the Global Observer wing loads test.

  8. Method of public support evaluation for advanced NPP deployment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Public support of nuclear power could be fully recovered only if the public would, from the very beginning of the new power source selection process, receive transparent information and was made a part of interactive dialogue. The presented method was developed with the objective to facilitate the complex process of the utilities - public interaction. Our method of the public support evaluation allows to classify designs of new nuclear power plants taking into consideration the public attitude to continued nuclear power deployment in the Czech Republic as well as the preference of a certain plant design. The method is based on the model with a set of probabilistic input metrics, which permits to compare the offered concepts with the reference one, with a high degree of objectivity. This method is a part of the more complex evaluation procedure applicable for the new designs assessment that uses the computer code ''Potencial'' developed at the NRI Rez plc. The metrics of the established public support criteria are discussed. (author)

  9. ADVANCED RADIATION THEORY SUPPORT ANNUAL REPORT 2002, FINAL REPORT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Z-PINCH PHYSICS RADIATION FROM WIRE ARRAYS. This report describes the theory support of DTRA's Plasma Radiation Source (PRS) program carried out by NRL's Radiation Hydrodynamics Branch (Code 6720) in FY 2002. Included is work called for in DTRA MIPR 02-2045M - ''Plasma Radiation Theory Support'' and in DOE's Interagency Agreement DE-AI03-02SF22562 - ''Spectroscopic and Plasma Theory Support for Sandia National Laboratories High Energy Density Physics Campaign''. Some of this year's work was presented at the Dense Z-Pinches 5th International Conference held June 23-28 in Albuquerque, New Mexico. A common theme of many of these presentations was a demonstration of the importance of correctly treating the radiation physics for simulating Plasma Radiation Source (PRS) load behavior and diagnosing load properties, e.g, stagnation temperatures and densities. These presentations are published in the AIP Conference Proceedings and, for reference, they are included in Section 1 of this report. Rather than describe each of these papers in the Executive Summary, they refer to the abstracts that accompany each paper. As a testament to the level of involvement and expertise that the Branch brings to DTRA as well as the general Z-Pinch community, eight first-authored presentations were contributed at this conference as well as a Plenary and an Invited Talk. The remaining four sections of this report discuss subjects either not presented at the conference or requiring more space than allotted in the Proceedings

  10. Developing Biological ISRU: Implications for Life Support and Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, I. I.; Allen, C. C.; Garrison, D. H.; Sarkisova, S. A.; Galindo, C.; Mckay, David S.

    2010-01-01

    Main findings: 1) supplementing very dilute media for cultivation of CB with analogs of lunar or Martian regolith effectively supported the proliferation of CB; 2) O2 evolution by siderophilic cyanobacteria cultivated in diluted media but supplemented with iron-rich rocks was higher than O2 evolution by same strain in undiluted medium; 3) preliminary data suggest that organic acids produced by CB are involved in iron-rich mineral dissolution; 4) the CB studied can accumulate iron on and in their cells; 4) sequencing of the cyanobacterium JSC-1 genome revealed that this strain possesses molecular features which make it applicable for the cultivation in special photoreactors on Moon and Mars. Conclusion: As a result of pilot studies, we propose, to develop a concept for semi-closed integrated system that uses CB to extract useful elements to revitalize air and produce valuable biomolecules. Such a system could be the foundation of a self-sustaining extraterrestrial outpost (Hendrickx, De Wever et al., 2005; Handford, 2006). A potential advantage of a cyanobacterial photoreactor placed between LSS and ISRU loops is the possibility of supplying these systems with extracted elements and compounds from the regolith. In addition, waste regolith may be transformed into additional products such as methane, biomass, and organic and inorganic soil enrichment for the cultivation of higher plants.

  11. Comparative Aspects of Cardiac Adaptation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ošťádal, Bohuslav

    New York : Springer, 2013 - (Ošťádal, B.; Dhalla, N.), s. 3-18 ISBN 978-1-4614-5202-7. - (Advances in Biochemistry in Health and Disease) R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP302/11/1308 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : cardiac adaptation * poikilotherms * homeotherms Subject RIV: FA - Cardiovascular Diseases incl. Cardiotharic Surgery

  12. Pediatric Basic Life Support Self-training is Comparable to Instructor-led Training: A randomized manikin study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, L. D.; Løfgren, Bo; Jessen, C.;

    2011-01-01

    Pediatric Basic Life Support Self-training is comparable to Instructor-led Training: A randomized manikin study.......Pediatric Basic Life Support Self-training is comparable to Instructor-led Training: A randomized manikin study....

  13. Status of Perceived Social Support and Quality of Life among Hearing-Impaired Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tayebeh Reyhani

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Annual four to five thousand babies are born with hearing loss in the Iran. Hearing impairment is a disability that affects the quality of life of people with this problem. These individuals need to support from family and friends because of their specific conditions that this received support has impact on their quality of life. This study was conducted to assess the status of perceived social support and quality of life of hearing-impaired adolescent. Material and Methods A cross-correlation study was performed with cluster and multi stage random sampling method on 83 students with hearing impairment who met the inclusion criteria of the study in Mashhad. The data collection tools included Pediatric quality of life inventory (adolescent form and perceived social support inventory (from family and friends.The data obtained from the questionnaires were analyzed through SPSS software version 16. Results The results showed that the majority of the most of adolescents with hearing impairment were reported moderate total quality of life (%51.8. But the majority of them reported perceived social support from family was moderate (%61.5 and from friends was week (%45.8. Also there was a significant relationship between category of total quality of life of adolescent viewpoint with perceived social support from family (P=0.056. Conclusion Based on the obtained results, the majority of the most of adolescents with hearing impairment were reported moderate total quality of life. Disability and condition of these persons affects quality of life of them, so need for adequate support from family, friends and society. Nurses play an important role in identifying and introduce these needs and condition and how to deal with them.

  14. Concerns about end-of-life care and support for euthanasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Givens, Jane L; Mitchell, Susan L

    2009-08-01

    Popular support for euthanasia is known to vary according to sociodemographic characteristics. However, little is known about whether support is associated with concerns regarding the emotional, physical, and economic burdens of end-of-life care. This study used data from the 1998 General Social Survey, a national survey of community-dwelling adults. The outcome variable assessed the respondents' support for a doctor's right to end life in the setting of terminal illness. Independent variables assessed the following concerns: 1) concern about the emotional burden of end-of-life decision making for family members; 2) worry about the economic burden of terminal illness; 3) concern about pain at the end of life; 4) worry that lack of money or insurance will result in second-class end-of-life care; and 5) belief that their religious community will be helpful at the end of life. Multivariable logistic regression estimated the independent effect of these concerns on support for euthanasia, adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics. Of 786 respondents, 70.6% approved of euthanasia in the setting of terminal illness. In adjusted analyses, respondents with concerns about the emotional toll of decision making on family members, economic burden, and poor health care because of lack of insurance were significantly more likely to support euthanasia. Respondents with faith in the helpfulness of their religious community were less likely to support euthanasia. In conclusion, emotional and economic concerns about end-of-life care were associated with support for the right to euthanasia. Future work can evaluate whether alleviating these concerns may reduce the perceived desire for euthanasia by patients near the end of life. PMID:19345554

  15. Social support, self-care, and quality of life in cancer patients receiving radiotherapy in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the study was two-fold: (1) to examine the relationships among self-care, social support, and quality of life in adult cancer patients receiving radiotherapy while the selected basic conditioning factors of age, marital and socio-economic status, living arrangement, stage and site of cancer were statistically controlled; and (2) to test a theoretical model which postulated that (a) quality of life was predicted jointly by the selected basic conditioning factors, social support and self-care, and (b) self-care was predicted jointly by the selected basic conditioning factors and social support. A convenience sample of 112 adult cervical and head/neck cancer patients receiving radiotherapy was obtained from radiotherapy outpatient clinic in three hospitals located in Bangkok, Thailand. Results of the study indicated positive relationships among self-care, social support, and quality of life. Socio-economic status, site of cancer, and self-care were significant predictors for reported quality of life. Social support appeared to be a significant predictor of quality of life indirectly through self-care. Socio-economic status and social support were also significant predictors of self-care, whereas, stage and site of cancer seemed to predict self-care indirectly through social support

  16. Technology Advancement in Support of NASAs Evolutionary Xenon Thruster (NEXT) System Power Processing Unit Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of this IRAD is to advance the TRL of the PPU to 6.  This includes supporting GRC with requirements review and validation, design updates and...

  17. Supporting technology for the development of Controlled Ecological Life Support Systems (CELSS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ku-Yen; Yaws, Carl L.; Simon, William E.; Mei, Harry T.

    1995-01-01

    To support the development of Controlled Ecological Life Support Systems (CELSS) in the space program, a metabolic simulator has been selected for use in a closed chamber to test functions of the CELSS. This metabolic simulator is a catalytic reactor which oxidizes the methyl acetate to produce carbon dioxide and water vapor. In this project, kinetic studies of catalytic oxidation of methyl acetate were conducted using monolithic and pellet catalysts with 0.5% (by weight) platinum (Pt) on aluminum oxide (Al2O3). The reaction was studied at a pressure of one atmosphere and at temperatures varying from 160 C to 420 C. By-products were identified at the exit of the preheater and reactor. For the kinetic study with the monolithic catalyst, a linear regression method was used to correlate the kinetic data with zero-order, first-order and Langmuir-Hinshelwood models. Results indicate that the first-order model represents the data adequately at low concentrations of methyl acetate. For higher concentrations of methyl acetate, the Langmuir-Hinshelwood model best represents the kinetic data. Both rate constant and adsorption equilibrium constants were estimated from the regression. A Taguchi orthogonal array (L(sub 9)) was used to investigate the effects of temperature, flow rate, and concentration on the catalytic oxidation of methyl acetate. For the monolithic catalyst, temperature exerts the most significant effect, followed by concentration of methyl acetate. For the pellet catalyst, reaction temperature is the most significant factor, followed by gas flow rate and methyl acetate concentration. Concentrations of either carbon dioxide or oxygen were seen to have insignificant effect on the methyl acetate conversion process. Experimental results indicate that the preheater with glass beads can accomplish thermal cracking and catalytic reaction of methyl acetate to produce acetic acid, methanol, methyl formate, and 1-propanol. The concentration of all by-products was

  18. ADVANCED RADIATION THEORY SUPPORT ANNUAL REPORT 2002, FINAL REPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. DAVIS; J. APRUZESE; , Y. CHONG; R. CLARK; A. DASGUPTA; J. GIULIANI; P. KEPPLE; R. TERRY; J. THORNHILL; A. VELIKOVICH

    2003-05-01

    Z-PINCH PHYSICS RADIATION FROM WIRE ARRAYS. This report describes the theory support of DTRA's Plasma Radiation Source (PRS) program carried out by NRL's Radiation Hydrodynamics Branch (Code 6720) in FY 2002. Included is work called for in DTRA MIPR 02-2045M - ''Plasma Radiation Theory Support'' and in DOE's Interagency Agreement DE-AI03-02SF22562 - ''Spectroscopic and Plasma Theory Support for Sandia National Laboratories High Energy Density Physics Campaign''. Some of this year's work was presented at the Dense Z-Pinches 5th International Conference held June 23-28 in Albuquerque, New Mexico. A common theme of many of these presentations was a demonstration of the importance of correctly treating the radiation physics for simulating Plasma Radiation Source (PRS) load behavior and diagnosing load properties, e.g, stagnation temperatures and densities. These presentations are published in the AIP Conference Proceedings and, for reference, they are included in Section 1 of this report. Rather than describe each of these papers in the Executive Summary, they refer to the abstracts that accompany each paper. As a testament to the level of involvement and expertise that the Branch brings to DTRA as well as the general Z-Pinch community, eight first-authored presentations were contributed at this conference as well as a Plenary and an Invited Talk. The remaining four sections of this report discuss subjects either not presented at the conference or requiring more space than allotted in the Proceedings.

  19. Study calls for safeguards against misuse of advances in life sciences

    OpenAIRE

    Micale, Barbara L.

    2006-01-01

    Vigilance among the world's scientists, an expanded view of bioterrorism threats, and a stronger public health infrastructure are needed to reduce the growing risk that new advances in the life sciences and related technologies will be used to create novel biological weapons or misused by careless individuals, says a new report from the National Research Council and Institute of Medicine.

  20. Comparison Between Effects of Home Based Cardiac Rehabilitation Programs Versus Usual Care on the Patients’ Health Related Quality of Life After Coronary Artery Bypass Graft

    OpenAIRE

    Salavati, Mohsen; Falahinia, Gholamhossein; Vardanjani, Ali Esmaeili; Rafiei, Hossein; Moosavi, Saeid; Torkamani, Mehdi

    2015-01-01

    Background & Aim: To compare home-based cardiac rehabilitation with usual care on the patients’ Health Related Quality of Life (HRQoL) after coronary artery bypass graft in patients with coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery. Methods: In a randomized controlled clinical conducted from March 2013 to June 2013, 110 patients with CABG surgery were randomly assigned into two groups. While patients in group I, were received usual care and patients in group II, in addition to the usual care w...

  1. 45 CFR 307.15 - Approval of advance planning documents for computerized support enforcement systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Approval of advance planning documents for... § 307.15 Approval of advance planning documents for computerized support enforcement systems. (a... projected resource requirements for staff, hardware, and other needs and the resources available or...

  2. Mathematical Analysis of a Novel Approach to Maximize Waste Recovery in a Life Support System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael G. McKellar; Rick A. Wood; Carl M. Stoots; Lila Mulloth; Bernadette Luna

    2011-02-01

    NASA has been evaluating closed-loop atmosphere revitalization architectures carbon dioxide, CO2, reduction technologies. The CO2 and steam, H2O, co-electrolysis process is another option that NASA has investigated. Utilizing recent advances in the fuel cell technology sector, the Idaho National Laboratory, INL, has developed a CO2 and H2O co-electrolysis process to produce oxygen and syngas (carbon monoxide, CO and hydrogen, H2 mixture) for terrestrial (energy production) application. The technology is a combined process that involves steam electrolysis, CO2 electrolysis, and the reverse water gas shift (RWGS) reaction. Two process models were developed to evaluate novel approaches for waster recovery in a life support system. The first is a model INL co-electrolysis process combined with a methanol production process. The second is the INL co-electrolysis process combined with a pressure swing adsorption (PSA) process. For both processes, the overall power increases as the syngas ratio, H2/CO, increases because more water is needed to produce more hydrogen at a set CO2 incoming flow rate. The power for the methanol cases is less than the PSA because heat is available from the methanol reactor to preheat the water and carbon dioxide entering the co-electrolysis process.

  3. THE MATHEMATICAL ANALYSIS OF A NOVEL APPROACH TO MAXIMIZE WASTE RECOVERY IN A LIFE SUPPORT SYSTEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael G. McKellar; Rick A. Wood; Carl M. Stoots; Lila Mulloth; Bernadette Luna

    2011-11-01

    NASA has been evaluating closed-loop atmosphere revitalization architectures that include carbon dioxide (CO2) reduction technologies. The CO2 and steam (H2O) co-electrolysis process is one of the reduction options that NASA has investigated. Utilizing recent advances in the fuel cell technology sector, the Idaho National Laboratory, INL, has developed a CO2 and H2O co-electrolysis process to produce oxygen and syngas (carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrogen (H2) mixture) for terrestrial (energy production) application. The technology is a combined process that involves steam electrolysis, CO2 electrolysis, and the reverse water gas shift (RWGS) reaction. Two process models were developed to evaluate novel approaches for energy storage and resource recovery in a life support system. In the first model, products from the INL co-electrolysis process are combined to produce methanol fuel. In the second co-electrolysis, products are separated with a pressure swing adsorption (PSA) process. In both models the fuels are burned with added oxygen to produce H2O and CO2, the original reactants. For both processes, the overall power increases as the syngas ratio, H2/CO, increases because more water is needed to produce more hydrogen at a set CO2 incoming flow rate. The power for the methanol cases is less than pressure swing adsorption, PSA, because heat is available from the methanol reactor to preheat the water and carbon dioxide entering the co-electrolysis process.

  4. Prolonged Intraoperative Cardiac Resuscitation Complicated by Intracardiac Thrombus in a Patient Undergoing Orthotopic Liver Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sang; DeMaria, Samuel; Cohen, Edmond; Silvay, George; Zerillo, Jeron

    2016-09-01

    We report the case of successful resuscitation after prolonged cardiac arrest during orthotopic liver transplantation. After reperfusion, the patient developed ventricular tachycardia, complicated by intracardiac clot formation and massive hemorrhage. Transesophageal echocardiography demonstrated stunned and nonfunctioning right and left ventricles, with developing intracardiac clots. Treatment with heparin, massive transfusion and prolonged cardiopulmonary resuscitation ensued for 51 minutes. Serial arterial blood gases demonstrated adequate oxygenation and ventilation during cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Cardiothoracic surgery was consulted for potential use of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, however, the myocardial function improved and the surgery was completed without further intervention. On postoperative day 6, the patient was extubated without neurologic or cardiac impairment. The patient continues to do well 2 years posttransplant, able to perform independent daily activities of living and his previous job. This case underscores the potential for positive outcomes with profoundly prolonged, effective advanced cardiovascular life support in patients who experience postreperfusion syndrome. PMID:27233818

  5. ADVANCED DRIVER SAFETY SUPPORT SYSTEMS FOR THE URBAN TYPE VEHICLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna JEZIERSKA-KRUPA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Smart Power Team is currently working on the design of an urban electric vehicle designed to compete in the Shell Eco-marathon. One important aspect of this type of vehicle characteristics is it safety. The project of advanced driver assistance systems has included some proposals of such systems and the concept of their execution. The first concept, BLIS (Blind Spot Information System, is to build a system of informing a driver about vehicles appearing in the blind spot. The system constitutes a second concept, CDIS (Collision Detection and Information System, and it is designed to detect a vehicle collision and inform the team. Further systems are: DPMS (Dew Point Measurement System - a system which does not allow a situation, where the windows are fogged, OHRS (Overtaking Horn Reminder System - a system which checks overtaking and MSS (main supervision system - a supervisory system. These concepts are based on the assumption of the use of laser sensors, photoelectric, humidity and temperature, and other commercially available systems. The article presents a detailed description of driver assistance systems and virtual prototyping methodology for these systems, as well as the numerical results of the verification of one of the systems.

  6. Advanced Technology Composite Fuselage - Repair and Damage Assessment Supporting Maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, B. W.; Bodine, J. B.; Dopker, B.; Finn, S. R.; Griess, K. H.; Hanson, C. T.; Harris, C. G.; Nelson, K. M.; Walker, T. H.; Kennedy, T. C.; Nahan, M. F.

    1997-01-01

    Under the NASA-sponsored contracts for Advanced Technology Composite Aircraft Structures (ATCAS) and Materials Development Omnibus Contract (MDOC), Boeing is studying the technologies associated with the application of composite materials to commercial transport fuselage structure. Included in the study is the incorporation of maintainability and repairability requirements of composite primary structure into the design. This contractor report describes activities performed to address maintenance issues in composite fuselage applications. A key aspect of the study was the development of a maintenance philosophy which included consideration of maintenance issues early in the design cycle, multiple repair options, and airline participation in design trades. Fuselage design evaluations considered trade-offs between structural weight, damage resistance/tolerance (repair frequency), and inspection burdens. Analysis methods were developed to assess structural residual strength in the presence of damage, and to evaluate repair design concepts. Repair designs were created with a focus on mechanically fastened concepts for skin/stringer structure and bonded concepts for sandwich structure. Both a large crown (skintstringer) and keel (sandwich) panel were repaired. A compression test of the keel panel indicated the demonstrated repairs recovered ultimate load capability. In conjunction with the design and manufacturing developments, inspection methods were investigated for their potential to evaluate damaged structure and verify the integrity of completed repairs.

  7. Engineering stategies and implications of using higher plants for throttling gas and water exchange in a controlled ecological life support system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberland, Dennis; Wheeler, Raymond M.; Corey, Kenneth A.

    1993-01-01

    Engineering stategies for advanced life support systems to be used on Lunar and Mars bases involve a wide spectrum of approaches. These range from purely physical-chemical life support strategies to purely biological approaches. Within the context of biological based systems, a bioengineered system can be devised that would utilize the metabolic mechanisms of plants to control the rates of CO2 uptake and O2 evolution (photosynthesis) and water production (transpiration). Such a mechanism of external engineering control has become known as throttling. Research conducted at the John F. Kennedy Space Center's Controlled Ecological Life Support System Breadboard Project has demonstrated the potential of throttling these fluxes by changing environmental parameters affecting the plant processes. Among the more effective environmental throttles are: light and CO2 concentration for controllingthe rate of photsynthesis and humidity and CO2 concentration for controlling transpiration. Such a bioengineered strategy implies control mechanisms that in the past have not been widely attributed to life support systems involving biological components and suggests a broad range of applications in advanced life support system design.

  8. Impact of increasing levels of advanced iterative reconstruction on image quality in low-dose cardiac CT angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To investigate the effects of an advanced iterative reconstruction (IR) technique on subjective and objective image quality (IQ) in low-dose cardiac CT angiography (CCTA). Materials and Methods: 30 datasets of prospectively triggered 'step-and-shoot' CCTA scans acquired on a 256-slice CT scanner with optimized exposure settings were processed on a prototype IR system using filtered back-projection (FBP) and 4 levels of advanced IR (iDose4, Philips) providing incremental rates of IR (level 2, 4, 6, 7). In addition, the effects of different reconstruction kernels (semi-smooth [CB], standard with edge-enhancement [XCB]) and a 'multi-resolution' feature [MR] to preserve the noise power spectrum were evaluated resulting in a total of n = 480 image sets. Contrast-to-noise ratios (CNR) were computed from regions of interest at 9 coronary locations. The subjective IQ was rated on a 4-point-scale with 'classic' image appearance and noise-related artifacts as main criteria. Results: At an effective dose of 1.7 ± 0.7 mSv, the CNR significantly improved with every increasing level of IR (range: 14.2-27.8; p < 0.001) with the best objective IQ at the highest level of IR (level 7). The subjective IQ, however, was rated best at the medium level of IR (level 4) with minimal artifacts and a more 'classic' image appearance when compared to higher IR levels. The XCB kernel provided better subjective ratings than CB (p < 0.05) and the MR feature further increased the IQ at a high level of IR. Conclusion: The objective IQ of low-dose CCTA progressively improves with an increasing level of IR. The best subjective IQ, however, is reached at medium levels of IR combined with an edge-enhancing kernel allowing for preservation of a 'classic' image appearance suggesting application in the clinical routine. (orig.)

  9. On the use of Space Station Freedom in support of the SEI - Life science research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leath, K.; Volosin, J.; Cookson, S.

    1992-01-01

    The use of the Space Station Freedom (SSF) for life sciences research is evaluated from the standpoint of requirements for the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI). SEI life sciences research encompasses: (1) biological growth and development in space; (2) life support and environmental health; (3) physiological/psychological factors of extended space travel; and (4) space environmental factors. The platforms required to support useful study in these areas are listed and include ground-based facilities, permanently manned spacecraft, and the Space Shuttle. The SSF is shown to be particularly applicable to the areas of research because its facilities can permit the study of gravitational biology, life-support systems, and crew health. The SSF can serve as an experimental vehicle to derive the required knowledge needed to establish a commitment to manned Mars missions and colonization plans.

  10. Suicidal Ideation and Distress among Immigrant Adolescents: The Role of Acculturation, Life Stress, and Social Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Yong-Beom; Haslam, Nick

    2010-01-01

    Acculturative stress and social support play important roles in suicide-related phenomena among adolescent immigrants. To examine their contributions, measures of acculturative and general life stress and a measure of multiple sources of social support were used to predict psychological distress and suicidal ideation among Korean-born high school…

  11. Cardiac arrest: resuscitation and reperfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Kaustubha D; Halperin, Henry R; Becker, Lance B

    2015-06-01

    The modern treatment of cardiac arrest is an increasingly complex medical procedure with a rapidly changing array of therapeutic approaches designed to restore life to victims of sudden death. The 2 primary goals of providing artificial circulation and defibrillation to halt ventricular fibrillation remain of paramount importance for saving lives. They have undergone significant improvements in technology and dissemination into the community subsequent to their establishment 60 years ago. The evolution of artificial circulation includes efforts to optimize manual cardiopulmonary resuscitation, external mechanical cardiopulmonary resuscitation devices designed to augment circulation, and may soon advance further into the rapid deployment of specially designed internal emergency cardiopulmonary bypass devices. The development of defibrillation technologies has progressed from bulky internal defibrillators paddles applied directly to the heart, to manually controlled external defibrillators, to automatic external defibrillators that can now be obtained over-the-counter for widespread use in the community or home. But the modern treatment of cardiac arrest now involves more than merely providing circulation and defibrillation. As suggested by a 3-phase model of treatment, newer approaches targeting patients who have had a more prolonged cardiac arrest include treatment of the metabolic phase of cardiac arrest with therapeutic hypothermia, agents to treat or prevent reperfusion injury, new strategies specifically focused on pulseless electric activity, which is the presenting rhythm in at least one third of cardiac arrests, and aggressive post resuscitation care. There are discoveries at the cellular and molecular level about ischemia and reperfusion pathobiology that may be translated into future new therapies. On the near horizon is the combination of advanced cardiopulmonary bypass plus a cocktail of multiple agents targeted at restoration of normal metabolism and

  12. Adverse events associated with poor neurological outcome during targeted temperature management and advanced critical care after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Young-Min; Youn, Chun Song; Kim, Soo Hyun; Lee, Byung Kook; Cho, In Soo; Cho, Gyu Chong; Jeung, Kyung Woon; Oh, Sang Hoon; Choi, Seung Pill; Shin, Jong Hwan; Cha, Kyoung-Chul; Oh, Joo Suk; Yim, Hyeon Woo; Park, Kyu Nam; ,

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this study was to investigate the association of adverse events (AEs) during targeted temperature management (TTM) and other AEs and concomitant treatments during the advanced critical care period with poor neurological outcome at hospital discharge in adult out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) patients. Methods This was a retrospective study using Korean Hypothermia Network registry data of adult OHCA patients treated with TTM in 24 teaching hospitals throughout Sout...

  13. Translocation and cleavage of myocardial dystrophin as a common pathway to advanced heart failure: A scheme for the progression of cardiac dysfunction

    OpenAIRE

    Toyo-Oka, Teruhiko; Kawada, Tomie; Nakata, Jumi; Xie, Han; Urabe, Masashi; Masui, Fujiko; Ebisawa, Takashi; Tezuka, Asaki; Iwasawa, Kuniaki; Nakajima, Toshiaki; Uehara, Yoshio; Kumagai, Hiroyuki; Kostin, Sawa; Schaper, Jutta; Nakazawa, Mikio

    2004-01-01

    Advanced heart failure (HF) is the leading cause of death in developed countries. The mechanism underlying the progression of cardiac dysfunction needs to be clarified to establish approaches to prevention or treatment. Here, using TO-2 hamsters with hereditary dilated cardiomyopathy, we show age-dependent cleavage and translocation of myocardial dystrophin (Dys) from the sarcolemma (SL) to the myoplasm, increased SL permeability in situ, and a close relationship between the loss of Dys and h...

  14. Preliminary Study for Conceptual Design of Advanced Long Life Small Modular Fast Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tak, Taewoo; Choe, Jiwon; Jeong, Yongjin; Lee, Deokjung [Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, T. K. [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne (United States)

    2015-05-15

    As one of the non-water coolant Small-Modular Reactor (SMR) core concepts for use in the mid- to long-term, ANL has proposed a 100 MWe Advanced sodium-cooled Fast Reactor core concept (AFR-100) targeting a small grid, transportable from pre-licensed factories to the remote plant site for affordable supply. Various breed-and-burn core concepts have been proposed to extend the reactor cycle length, which includes CANDLE with a cigar-type depletion strategy, TerraPower reactors with fuel shuffling for effective breeding, et al. UNIST has also proposed an ultra-long cycle fast reactor (UCFR) core concept having the power rating of 1000 MWe. By adopting the breed-and-burn strategies, the UCFR core can maintain criticality for a targeting reactor lifetime of 60 years without refueling. The objective of this project is to develop an advanced long-life SMR core concept by adopting both the small modular design features of the AFR-100 and the long-life breed-and-burn concept of the UCFR. A conceptual design of long life small modular fast reactor is under development by adopting both the small modular design features of the AFR-100 and the long-life breed-and-burn concept of the UCFR. The feasibility of the long-life fast reactor concepts was reviewed to obtain the core design guidelines and the reactor design requirements of long life small modular fast reactor were proposed in this study.

  15. Preliminary Study for Conceptual Design of Advanced Long Life Small Modular Fast Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As one of the non-water coolant Small-Modular Reactor (SMR) core concepts for use in the mid- to long-term, ANL has proposed a 100 MWe Advanced sodium-cooled Fast Reactor core concept (AFR-100) targeting a small grid, transportable from pre-licensed factories to the remote plant site for affordable supply. Various breed-and-burn core concepts have been proposed to extend the reactor cycle length, which includes CANDLE with a cigar-type depletion strategy, TerraPower reactors with fuel shuffling for effective breeding, et al. UNIST has also proposed an ultra-long cycle fast reactor (UCFR) core concept having the power rating of 1000 MWe. By adopting the breed-and-burn strategies, the UCFR core can maintain criticality for a targeting reactor lifetime of 60 years without refueling. The objective of this project is to develop an advanced long-life SMR core concept by adopting both the small modular design features of the AFR-100 and the long-life breed-and-burn concept of the UCFR. A conceptual design of long life small modular fast reactor is under development by adopting both the small modular design features of the AFR-100 and the long-life breed-and-burn concept of the UCFR. The feasibility of the long-life fast reactor concepts was reviewed to obtain the core design guidelines and the reactor design requirements of long life small modular fast reactor were proposed in this study

  16. Development of advanced techniques for life management and inspection of advanced heavy water reactor (AWHR) coolant channel components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Operating life of pressure tubes of Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor (PHWR) is limited due to the presence of various issues associated with the material like hydrogen pick up, delayed hydride cracking, axial elongation and increase in diameter due to irradiation creep and growth. Periodic monitoring of the health of the pressure tube under in-situ conditions is essential to ensure the safe operation of the reactor. New designs of reactor call for innovative design philosophy, modification in fabrication route of pressure tube, development of reactor specific tools, both analytical and hardware for assessing the fitness for service of the pressure tube. Feedback from existing reactors has enhanced the understanding about life limiting parameters. This paper gives an insight into the life limiting issues associated with pressure tube and the efforts pursued for development of life management techniques for coolant channel of Advanced Heavy Water Reactor (AHWR) designed in India. The tools and techniques for in-situ property/hydrogen measurement, pulsed eddy current technique for zirconium alloy in-homogeneity characterization, horizontal shear wave EMAT system for dissimilar metal weld inspection, sliver sampling of vertical channel etc. are elaborated in the paper. (author)

  17. The Effect of Social Support on Quality of Life in Older Adults Receiving Cognitive Behavioral Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    LaRocca, Michael A.; Scogin, Forrest R.

    2015-01-01

    The current study extends the findings of Scogin et al. (2007) by exploring the role of social support in changes in quality of life resulting from home-delivered cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). One hundred thirty-seven participants, characterized primarily as rural, low resource, and frail, were randomly assigned to either CBT or a minimal support control condition. Hierarchical regression revealed that positive change in satisfaction with social support was associated with improvement i...

  18. Cardiac surgery outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpin, Linda S; Barnett, Scott D; Beachy, Jim

    2003-01-01

    Accrediting organizations and payers are demanding valid and reliable data that demonstrate the value of services. Federal agencies, healthcare industry groups, and healthcare watchdog groups are increasing the demand for public access to outcomes data. A new and growing outcomes dynamic is the information requested by prospective patients in an increasingly consumer-oriented business. Patients demand outcomes, and resources are developing to meet these demands. Physicians are increasingly confronted with requests for information about their mortality and morbidity rates, malpractice suits, and disciplinary actions received. For example, in Virginia, prospective patients have access to data provided by the nonprofit group Virginia Health Information. After numerous resolutions by the Virginia Senate since 1999, the prospective Virginia medical consumer now has access to several annual publications: Virginia Hospitals: A Consumer's Guide, 1999 Annual Report and Strategic Plan Update, and the 1999 Industry Report: Virginia Hospitals and Nursing Facilities. Consumers have access to cardiac outcomes data stratified by hospital, gender, and cardiac service line (cardiac surgery, noninvasive cardiology, and invasive cardiology). This is particularly relevant to IHI because Virginia Health Information specifically targets cardiac care. IHI has a sizable investment in cardiovascular outcomes and has found outcomes measurement and research are key to providing quality care. IHI's goal is to move from an outcomes management model to a disease management model. The hope is to incorporate all aspects of the patient's continuum of care, from preoperative and diagnostic services through cardiac interventions to postoperative rehabilitation. Furthermore, every step along the way will be supported with functional status and quality of life assessments. Although these goals are ambitious and expensive, the return on investment is high. PMID:14618772

  19. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for pediatric cardiac arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Jennie

    2015-02-01

    Extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation (ECPR) remains a promising treatment for pediatric patients in cardiac arrest unresponsive to traditional cardiopulmonary resuscitation. With venoarterial extracorporeal support, blood is drained from the right atrium, oxygenated through the extracorporeal circuit, and transfused back to the body, bypassing the heart and lungs. The use of artificial oxygenation and perfusion thus provides the body a period of hemodynamic stability, while allowing resolution of underlying disease processes. Survival rates for ECPR patients are higher than those for traditional cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), although neurological outcomes require further investigation. The impact of duration of CPR and length of treatment with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation vary in published reports. Furthermore, current guidelines for the initiation and use of ECPR are limited and may lead to confusion about appropriate use of this support. Many ethical concerns arise with this advanced form of life support. More often than not, the dilemma is not whether to withhold ECPR, but rather when to withdraw it. Although clinicians must decide if ECPR is appropriate and when further intervention is futile, the ultimate burden of choice is left to the patient's caregivers. Offering support and guidance to the patient's family as well as the patient is essential. PMID:25639578

  20. Advancing Polymer-Supported Ionogel Electrolytes Formed via Radical Polymerization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visentin, Adam F.

    Applications ranging from consumer electronics to the electric grid have placed demands on current energy storage technologies. There is a drive for devices that store more energy for rapid consumption in the case of electric cars and the power grid, and safer, versatile design options for consumer electronics. Electrochemical double-layer capacitors (EDLCs) are an option that has garnered attention as a means to address these varied energy storage demands. EDLCs utilize charge separation in electrolytes to store energy. This energy storage mechanism allows for greater power density (W kg -1) than batteries and higher energy density (Wh kg-1) than conventional capacitors - along with a robust lifetime in the range of thousands to millions of charge-discharge cycles. Safety and working voltage windows of EDLCs currently on the market are limited by the organic solvents utilized in the electrolyte. A potential solution lies in the replacement of the organic solvents with ionic liquids, or room-temperature molten salts. Ionic liquids possess many superior properties in comparison to conventional solvents: wide electrochemical window, low volatility, nonflammability, and favorable ionic conductivity. It has been an endeavor of this work to exploit these advantages while altering the liquid form factor into a gel. An ionic liquid/solid support scaffold composite electrolyte, or ionogel, adds additional benefits: flexible device design, lower encapsulation weight, and elimination of electrolyte leakage. This work has focused on investigations of a UV-polymerizable monomer, poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate, as a precursor for forming ionogels in situ. The trade-off between gaining mechanical stability at the cost of ionic conductivity has been investigated for numerous ionogel systems. While gaining a greater understanding of the interactions between the gel scaffold and ionic liquid, an ionogel with the highest known ionic conductivity to date (13.1 mS cm-1) was

  1. Recent PLiM advances for current operation and long life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    While plant aging is inevitable, continuous improvements can be applied at various stages of the plant design and operations life cycle to ensure predictable, reliable and graceful 'aging' behaviour. Comprehensive and integrated Plant Life Management (PLiM) programs and associated technologies are key management tools for identifying these improvements. PLiM technology has grown and advanced to be applicable to new plants as well as older ones, although the purposes and key outcomes vary. The key impetus is the drive for high equipment reliability. For older plants, PLiM techniques are often used to ensure design life is successfully and reliably attained and to provide prognosis for life extension, including technical and cost inputs to life extension business cases. For new plants, PLiM is helping utilities develop effective plant programs in preventive maintenance, surveillance and inspection, both for active and passive components, and to start building Life Cycle Management plans for the most important Structures, Systems and Components. For new designs, the objective is to understand potential aging degradation for both passive and active components, incorporate operating experience, and ensure design margins and measures taken to assure component reliability, can be achieved. This is important to demonstrate that the design has been improved for high capacity factors and longer design life. Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd. (AECL) has worked with many CANDU utilities on Plant Life Management over the last 10 years. However, several recent applications and developments have led to further advances in PLiM technology. These include the increased focus on the effectiveness of maintenance programs to deal with aging, both long and short term, that is driving the nuclear industry to better understand the overall system maintenance strategy. (author)

  2. Palliative home care intervention to improve the quality of life of women with advanced breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The quality of life is affected frequently observed in women with advanced breast cancer and is considered a leading indicator of effectiveness of palliative care. A descriptive, quasi-experimental study is presented ex-ante / ex-post, by applying open-ended interviews to explore the effects on the processes of adaptation of each patient and a self-administrable scale identified specific dimensions of quality of life, satisfaction with care and overall quality of life. The intervention was performed palliative home care to 52 women, according to the damages identified in the baseline diagnosis. The overall strategy included four steps: clinical and socio-demographic characterization of women; identification of the effects on the processes of adaptation by the theoretical model of Roy and dimensions of quality of life frequently affected, to design individually oriented actions on the drive shaft of Nursing Interventions Classification and evaluation of results intervention. The dimensions achieved higher frequency of involvement were: behavior, physical symptoms, pain interference and leisure activities, social life and family. Data were analyzed with qualitative methodologies and uni and multivariate statistical processing. After the intervention favorable changes in adaptive processes and dimensions of quality of life were observed; well as in the assessment of overall satisfaction with life. It was interesting that the dimensions of satisfaction assessed at the end of the intervention obtained an unfavorable assessment, outcome associated with sociodemographic variables. (author)

  3. Human Exploration System Test-Bed for Integration and Advancement (HESTIA) Support of Future NASA Deep-Space Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmolejo, Jose; Ewert, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The Engineering Directorate at the NASA - Johnson Space Center is outfitting a 20-Foot diameter hypobaric chamber in Building 7 to support future deep-space Environmental Control & Life Support System (ECLSS) research as part of the Human Exploration System Test-bed for Integration and Advancement (HESTIA) Project. This human-rated chamber is the only NASA facility that has the unique experience, chamber geometry, infrastructure, and support systems capable of conducting this research. The chamber was used to support Gemini, Apollo, and SkyLab Missions. More recently, it was used to conduct 30-, 60-, and 90-day human ECLSS closed-loop testing in the 1990s to support the International Space Station and life support technology development. NASA studies show that both planetary surface and deep-space transit crew habitats will be 3-4 story cylindrical structures driven by human occupancy volumetric needs and launch vehicle constraints. The HESTIA facility offers a 3-story, 20-foot diameter habitat consistent with the studies' recommendations. HESTIA operations follow stringent processes by a certified test team that including human testing. Project management, analysis, design, acquisition, fabrication, assembly and certification of facility build-ups are available to support this research. HESTIA offers close proximity to key stakeholders including astronauts, Human Research Program (who direct space human research for the agency), Mission Operations, Safety & Mission Assurance, and Engineering Directorate. The HESTIA chamber can operate at reduced pressure and elevated oxygen environments including those proposed for deep-space exploration. Data acquisition, power, fluids and other facility resources are available to support a wide range of research. Recently completed HESTIA research consisted of unmanned testing of ECLSS technologies. Eventually, the HESTIA research will include humans for extended durations at reduced pressure and elevated oxygen to demonstrate

  4. A case of thyroid storm with cardiac arrest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakashima Y

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Yutaka Nakashima,1 Tsuneaki Kenzaka,2 Masanobu Okayama,3 Eiji Kajii31Department for Support of Rural Medicine, Yamaguchi Grand Medical Center, 2Division of General Medicine, Center for Community Medicine, Jichi Medical University School of Medicine, Shimotsuke, Japan; 3Division of Community and Family Medicine, Center for Community Medicine, Jichi Medical University School of Medicine, Shimotsuke, JapanAbstract: A 23-year-old man became unconscious while jogging. He immediately received basic life support from a bystander and was transported to our hospital. On arrival, his spontaneous circulation had returned from a state of ventricular fibrillation and pulseless electrical activity. Following admission, hyperthyroidism led to a suspicion of thyroid storm, which was then diagnosed as a possible cause of the cardiac arrest. Although hyperthyroidism-induced cardiac arrest including ventricular fibrillation is rare, it should be considered when diagnosing the cause of treatable cardiac arrest.Keywords: hyperthyroidism, ventricular fibrillation, treatable cardiac arrest, cardiac arrest, cardiopulmonary arrest

  5. A Comparative Analysis of Major ERP Life Cycle Implementation, Management and Support Issues in Queensland Government

    OpenAIRE

    She-I Chang; Gable, Guy G.

    2002-01-01

    This paper reports on a study of issues across the ERP life cycle from the perspectives of individuals with substantial and diverse involvement with SAP Financials in Queensland Government. A survey was conducted of 117 ERP system project participants in five closely related state government agencies. Through a modified Delphi technique, the study inventoried, synthesized, then weighted perceived major-issues in ongoing ERP life cycle implementation, management, and support. The five agencies...

  6. Integration of Social Aspects in Decision Support, Based on Life Cycle Thinking

    OpenAIRE

    Pere Fullana-i-Palmer; Alba Bala; Annekatrin Lehmann; Daniela Russi; Matthias Finkbeiner

    2011-01-01

    Recently increasing attention has been paid to complementing environmental Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) with social aspects. The paper discusses the selection of social impacts and indicators from existing frameworks like Social Life Cycle Assessment (SLCA) and Social Impact Assessment (SIA). Two ongoing case studies, addressing sustainability assessment within decision support, were considered: (1) Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) in Indonesia; and (2) Integrated Packaging Waste M...

  7. Psychosocial support and parents' social life determine the self-esteem of orphan children

    OpenAIRE

    Erango MA; Ayka ZA

    2015-01-01

    Markos Abiso Erango,1 Zikie Ataro Ayka2 1School of Mathematical and Statistical Sciences, Department of Applied Statistics, Hawassa University, Hawassa, 2Department of Biology, Arba Minch University, Arba Minch, Ethiopia Abstract: Parental death affects the life of children in many ways, one of which is self-esteem problems. Providing psychosocial support and equipping orphans play a vital role in their lifes. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 7–18-year-old orphans at 17 local di...

  8. Psychosocial support and parents' social life determine the self-esteem of orphan children

    OpenAIRE

    Erango, Markos

    2015-01-01

    Markos Abiso Erango,1 Zikie Ataro Ayka2 1School of Mathematical and Statistical Sciences, Department of Applied Statistics, Hawassa University, Hawassa, 2Department of Biology, Arba Minch University, Arba Minch, Ethiopia Abstract: Parental death affects the life of children in many ways, one of which is self-esteem problems. Providing psychosocial support and equipping orphans play a vital role in their lifes. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 7–18-year-old orphans at 17 loca...

  9. A life cycle framework to support materials selection for Ecodesign: A case study on biodegradable polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Life cycle framework to support material selection in Ecodesign. • Early design stage estimates and sensitivity analyses based on process-based models. • Sensitivity analysis to product geometry, industrial context and EoL scenarios. • Cost and environmental performance comparison – BDP vs. fossil based polymers. • Best alternatives mapping integrating cost and environmental performances. - Abstract: Nowadays society compels designers to develop more sustainable products. Ecodesign directs product design towards the goal of reducing environmental impacts. Within Ecodesign, materials selection plays a major role on product cost and environmental performance throughout its life cycle. This paper proposes a comprehensive life cycle framework to support Ecodesign in material selection. Dealing with new materials and technologies in early design stages, process-based models are used to represent the whole life cycle and supply integrated data to assess material alternatives, considering cost and environmental dimensions. An integrated analysis is then proposed to support decision making by mapping the best alternative materials according to the importance given to upstream and downstream life phases and to the environmental impacts. The proposed framework is applied to compare the life cycle performance of injection moulded samples made of four commercial biodegradable polymers with different contents of Thermo Plasticized Starch and PolyLactic Acid and a common fossil based polymer, Polypropylene. Instead of labelling materials just as “green”, the need to fully capture all impacts in the whole life cycle was shown. The fossil based polymer is the best economic alternative, but polymers with higher content of Thermo Plasticized Starch have a better environmental performance. However, parts geometry and EoL scenarios play a major role on the life cycle performance of candidate materials. The selection decision is then supported by mapping

  10. Techniques for optimal crop selection in a controlled ecological life support system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mccormack, Ann; Finn, Cory; Dunsky, Betsy

    1993-01-01

    A Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) utilizes a plant's natural ability to regenerate air and water while being grown as a food source in a closed life support system. Current plant research is directed toward obtaining quantitative empirical data on the regenerative ability of each species of plant and the system volume and power requirements. Two techniques were adapted to optimize crop species selection while at the same time minimizing the system volume and power requirements. Each allows the level of life support supplied by the plants to be selected, as well as other system parameters. The first technique uses decision analysis in the form of a spreadsheet. The second method, which is used as a comparison with and validation of the first, utilizes standard design optimization techniques. Simple models of plant processes are used in the development of these methods.

  11. Lesion-specific coronary artery calcium quantification for predicting cardiac event with multiple instance support vector machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qingshan; Qian, Zhen; Marvasty, Idean; Rinehart, Sarah; Voros, Szilard; Metaxas, Dimitris N

    2010-01-01

    Conventional whole-heart CAC quantification has been demonstrated to be insufficient in predicting coronary events, especially in accurately predicting near-term coronary events in high-risk adults. In this paper, we propose a lesion-specific CAC quantification framework to improve CAC's near-term predictive value in intermediate to high-risk populations with a novel multiple instance support vector machines (MISVM) approach. Our method works on data sets acquired with clinical imaging protocols on conventional CT scanners without modifying the CT hardware or updating the imaging protocol. The calcific lesions are quantified by geometric information, density, and some clinical measurements. A MISVM model is built to predict cardiac events, and moreover, to give a better insight of the characterization of vulnerable or culprit lesions in CAC. Experimental results on 31 patients showed significant improvement of the predictive value with the ROC analysis, the net reclassification improvement evaluation, and the leave-one-out validation against the conventional methods. PMID:20879266

  12. Prioritization of engineering support requests and advanced technology projects using decision support and industrial engineering models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavana, Madjid

    1995-01-01

    The evaluation and prioritization of Engineering Support Requests (ESR's) is a particularly difficult task at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) -- Shuttle Project Engineering Office. This difficulty is due to the complexities inherent in the evaluation process and the lack of structured information. The evaluation process must consider a multitude of relevant pieces of information concerning Safety, Supportability, O&M Cost Savings, Process Enhancement, Reliability, and Implementation. Various analytical and normative models developed over the past have helped decision makers at KSC utilize large volumes of information in the evaluation of ESR's. The purpose of this project is to build on the existing methodologies and develop a multiple criteria decision support system that captures the decision maker's beliefs through a series of sequential, rational, and analytical processes. The model utilizes the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP), subjective probabilities, the entropy concept, and Maximize Agreement Heuristic (MAH) to enhance the decision maker's intuition in evaluating a set of ESR's.

  13. Research on bearing life prediction based on support vector machine and its application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Life prediction of rolling element bearing is the urgent demand in engineering practice, and the effective life prediction technique is beneficial to predictive maintenance. Support vector machine (SVM) is a novel machine learning method based on statistical learning theory, and is of advantage in prediction. This paper develops SVM-based model for bearing life prediction. The inputs of the model are features of bearing vibration signal and the output is the bearing running time-bearing failure time ratio. The model is built base on a few failed bearing data, and it can fuse information of the predicted bearing. So it is of advantage to bearing life prediction in practice. The model is applied to life prediction of a bearing, and the result shows the proposed model is of high precision.

  14. An Irregularity Measurement Based Cardiac Status Recognition Using Support Vector Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poulami Banerjee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An automated robust feature extraction technique is proposed in this paper based on inherent structural distribution of heart sound to analyze the phonocardiogram signal in presence of environmental noise and interference of lung sound signal. The structural complexity of the heart sound signal is estimated in terms of sample entropy using a nonlinear signal processing framework. The effectiveness of the feature is evaluated using a support vector machine under two different circumstances which include Gaussian noise and pulmonary perturbation. The analysis framework has been executed on a composite data set of 60 healthy and 60 pathological individuals for different SNR levels (−5 to 10 dB and the performance accuracy is close to that of the clean signal. In addition, a comparative study has been done with conventional approaches which includes waveform analysis, spectral domain inspection, and spectrogram evaluation. The experimental results show that sample entropy based classification method gives an accuracy of 96.67% for clean data and 91.66% for noisy data of SNR 10 dB. The result suggests that the proposed method performs significantly well over the visual and audio test.

  15. Application of kernel principal component analysis and support vector regression for reconstruction of cardiac transmembrane potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Non-invasively reconstructing the transmembrane potentials (TMPs) from body surface potentials (BSPs) constitutes one form of the inverse ECG problem that can be treated as a regression problem with multi-inputs and multi-outputs, and which can be solved using the support vector regression (SVR) method. In developing an effective SVR model, feature extraction is an important task for pre-processing the original input data. This paper proposes the application of principal component analysis (PCA) and kernel principal component analysis (KPCA) to the SVR method for feature extraction. Also, the genetic algorithm and simplex optimization method is invoked to determine the hyper-parameters of the SVR. Based on the realistic heart-torso model, the equivalent double-layer source method is applied to generate the data set for training and testing the SVR model. The experimental results show that the SVR method with feature extraction (PCA-SVR and KPCA-SVR) can perform better than that without the extract feature extraction (single SVR) in terms of the reconstruction of the TMPs on epi- and endocardial surfaces. Moreover, compared with the PCA-SVR, the KPCA-SVR features good approximation and generalization ability when reconstructing the TMPs.

  16. Advanced life events (ALEs) that impede aging-in-place among seniors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindquist, Lee A; Ramirez-Zohfeld, Vanessa; Sunkara, Priya; Forcucci, Chris; Campbell, Dianne; Mitzen, Phyllis; Cameron, Kenzie A

    2016-01-01

    Despite the wishes of many seniors to age-in-place in their own homes, critical events occur that impede their ability to do so. A gap exists as to what these advanced life events (ALEs) entail and the planning that older adults perceive is necessary. The purpose of this study was to identify seniors' perceptions and planning toward ALEs that may impact their ability to remain in their own home. We conducted focus groups with 68 seniors, age ≥65 years (mean age 73.8 years), living in the community (rural, urban, and suburban), using open-ended questions about perceptions of future heath events, needs, and planning. Three investigators coded transcriptions using constant comparative analysis to identify emerging themes, with disagreements resolved via consensus. Subjects identified five ALEs that impacted their ability to remain at home: (1) Hospitalizations, (2) Falls, (3) Dementia, (4) Spousal Loss, and (5) Home Upkeep Issues. While recognizing that ALEs frequently occur, many subjects reported a lack of planning for ALEs and perceived that these ALEs would not happen to them. Themes for the rationale behind the lack of planning emerged as: uncertainty in future, being too healthy/too sick, offspring influences, denial/procrastination, pride, feeling overwhelmed, and financial concerns. Subjects expressed reliance on offspring for navigating future ALEs, although many had not communicated their needs with their offspring. Overcoming the reasons for not planning for ALEs is crucial, as being prepared for future home needs provides seniors a voice in their care while engaging key supporters (e.g., offspring). PMID:26952382

  17. The partial mediation effect of satisfaction with social support and coping effectiveness on health-related quality of life and perceived stress long-term after heart transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    White-Williams C

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Connie White-Williams,1 Kathleen L Grady,2 Pariya Fazeli,1 Susan Myers,1 Linda Moneyham,3 Karen Meneses,3 Bruce Rybarczyk4 1University of Alabama Medical Center, Birmingham, AL, USA; 2Division of Cardiac Surgery, Department of Surgery, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL, USA; 3School of Nursing, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USA; 4Department of Psychology, Clinical Psychology Program, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA, USA Abstract: The purpose of this research was to examine whether satisfaction with social support and coping effectiveness mediate the relationship between stress and health-related quality of life (HRQOL 5 years after heart transplantation. Data were collected from 212 heart transplant patients (80% male, 92% white, mean age 59.9 years at four United States sites using the Heart Transplant Stressor Scale, Social Support Index, Jalowiec Coping Scale, and Quality of Life Index. Using Baron and Kenny's approach, a series of regression equations for mediation revealed that both satisfaction with social support and coping partially mediated the relationship between perceived stress and HRQOL. Understanding the relationships of social support, stress, and coping on patients' HRQOL is important for the development of interventions to provide optimal patient care. Keywords: heart transplantation, social support, coping, stress, mediation

  18. The Effect of the Duration of Basic Life Support Training on the Learners’ Cardiopulmonary and Automated External Defibrillator Skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Hyuck Lee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Basic life support (BLS training with hands-on practice can improve performance during simulated cardiac arrest, although the optimal duration for BLS training is unknown. This study aimed to assess the effectiveness of various BLS training durations for acquiring cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR and automated external defibrillator (AED skills. Methods. We randomised 485 South Korean nonmedical college students into four levels of BLS training: level 1 (40 min, level 2 (80 min, level 3 (120 min, and level 4 (180 min. Before and after each level, the participants completed questionnaires regarding their willingness to perform CPR and use AEDs, and their psychomotor skills for CPR and AED use were assessed using a manikin with Skill-Reporter™ software. Results. There were no significant differences between levels 1 and 2, although levels 3 and 4 exhibited significant differences in the proportion of overall adequate chest compressions (p<0.001 and average chest compression depth (p=0.003. All levels exhibited a greater posttest willingness to perform CPR and use AEDs (all, p<0.001. Conclusions. Brief BLS training provided a moderate level of skill for performing CPR and using AEDs. However, high-quality skills for CPR required longer and hands-on training, particularly hands-on training with AEDs.

  19. The Effect of the Duration of Basic Life Support Training on the Learners' Cardiopulmonary and Automated External Defibrillator Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Ku Hyun; Song, Keun Jeong; Lee, Chang Hee

    2016-01-01

    Background. Basic life support (BLS) training with hands-on practice can improve performance during simulated cardiac arrest, although the optimal duration for BLS training is unknown. This study aimed to assess the effectiveness of various BLS training durations for acquiring cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and automated external defibrillator (AED) skills. Methods. We randomised 485 South Korean nonmedical college students into four levels of BLS training: level 1 (40 min), level 2 (80 min), level 3 (120 min), and level 4 (180 min). Before and after each level, the participants completed questionnaires regarding their willingness to perform CPR and use AEDs, and their psychomotor skills for CPR and AED use were assessed using a manikin with Skill-Reporter™ software. Results. There were no significant differences between levels 1 and 2, although levels 3 and 4 exhibited significant differences in the proportion of overall adequate chest compressions (p < 0.001) and average chest compression depth (p = 0.003). All levels exhibited a greater posttest willingness to perform CPR and use AEDs (all, p < 0.001). Conclusions. Brief BLS training provided a moderate level of skill for performing CPR and using AEDs. However, high-quality skills for CPR required longer and hands-on training, particularly hands-on training with AEDs. PMID:27529066

  20. Comparison of the quality of basic life support provided by rescuers trained using the 2005 or 2010 ERC guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jones Christopher M

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Effective delivery of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR and prompt defibrillation following sudden cardiac arrest (SCA is vital. Updated guidelines for adult basic life support (BLS were published in 2010 by the European Resuscitation Council (ERC in an effort to improve survival following SCA. There has been little assessment of the ability of rescuers to meet the standards outlined within these new guidelines. Methods We conducted a retrospective analysis of the performance of first year healthcare students trained and assessed using either the new 2010 ERC guidelines or their 2005 predecessor, within the University of Birmingham, United Kingdom. All students were trained as lay rescuers during a standardised eight hour ERC-accredited adult BLS course. Results We analysed the examination records of 1091 students. Of these, 561 were trained and assessed using the old 2005 ERC guidelines and 530 using the new 2010 guidelines. A significantly greater proportion of candidates failed in the new guideline group (16.04% vs. 11.05%; p  Conclusions The new ERC guidelines lead to a greater proportion of lay rescuers performing chest compressions at an erroneously fast rate and may therefore worsen BLS efficacy. Additional study is required in order to define the clinical impact of compressions performed to a greater depth and at too fast a rate.

  1. Basic life support skills of high school students before and after cardiopulmonary resuscitation training: a longitudinal investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meissner Theresa M

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Immediate bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR significantly improves survival after a sudden cardiopulmonary collapse. This study assessed the basic life support (BLS knowledge and performance of high school students before and after CPR training. Methods This study included 132 teenagers (mean age 14.6 ± 1.4 years. Students completed a two-hour training course that provided theoretical background on sudden cardiac death (SCD and a hands-on CPR tutorial. They were asked to perform BLS on a manikin to simulate an SCD scenario before the training. Afterwards, participants encountered the same scenario and completed a questionnaire for self-assessment of their pre- and post-training confidence. Four months later, we assessed the knowledge retention rate of the participants with a BLS performance score. Results Before the training, 29.5% of students performed chest compressions as compared to 99.2% post-training (P P Conclusions BLS training in high school seems highly effective considering the minimal amount of previous knowledge the students possess. We observed significant improvement and a good retention rate four months after training. Increasing the number of trained students may minimize the reluctance to conduct bystander CPR and increase the number of positive outcomes after sudden cardiopulmonary collapse.

  2. The Effect of the Duration of Basic Life Support Training on the Learners' Cardiopulmonary and Automated External Defibrillator Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jin Hyuck; Cho, Youngsuk; Kang, Ku Hyun; Cho, Gyu Chong; Song, Keun Jeong; Lee, Chang Hee

    2016-01-01

    Background. Basic life support (BLS) training with hands-on practice can improve performance during simulated cardiac arrest, although the optimal duration for BLS training is unknown. This study aimed to assess the effectiveness of various BLS training durations for acquiring cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and automated external defibrillator (AED) skills. Methods. We randomised 485 South Korean nonmedical college students into four levels of BLS training: level 1 (40 min), level 2 (80 min), level 3 (120 min), and level 4 (180 min). Before and after each level, the participants completed questionnaires regarding their willingness to perform CPR and use AEDs, and their psychomotor skills for CPR and AED use were assessed using a manikin with Skill-Reporter™ software. Results. There were no significant differences between levels 1 and 2, although levels 3 and 4 exhibited significant differences in the proportion of overall adequate chest compressions (p < 0.001) and average chest compression depth (p = 0.003). All levels exhibited a greater posttest willingness to perform CPR and use AEDs (all, p < 0.001). Conclusions. Brief BLS training provided a moderate level of skill for performing CPR and using AEDs. However, high-quality skills for CPR required longer and hands-on training, particularly hands-on training with AEDs. PMID:27529066

  3. Impact of increasing levels of advanced iterative reconstruction on image quality in low-dose cardiac CT angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kroepil, P.; Antoch, G. [Duesseldorf Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology; Bigdeli, A.H.; Cohnen, M. [Staedtische Kliniken Neuss Lukaskrankenhaus GmbH, Neuss (Germany). Inst. of Clinical Radiology; Nagel, H.D. [Dr. HD Nagel, Buchholz (Germany). Science and Technology for Radiology

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To investigate the effects of an advanced iterative reconstruction (IR) technique on subjective and objective image quality (IQ) in low-dose cardiac CT angiography (CCTA). Materials and Methods: 30 datasets of prospectively triggered 'step-and-shoot' CCTA scans acquired on a 256-slice CT scanner with optimized exposure settings were processed on a prototype IR system using filtered back-projection (FBP) and 4 levels of advanced IR (iDose4, Philips) providing incremental rates of IR (level 2, 4, 6, 7). In addition, the effects of different reconstruction kernels (semi-smooth [CB], standard with edge-enhancement [XCB]) and a 'multi-resolution' feature [MR] to preserve the noise power spectrum were evaluated resulting in a total of n = 480 image sets. Contrast-to-noise ratios (CNR) were computed from regions of interest at 9 coronary locations. The subjective IQ was rated on a 4-point-scale with 'classic' image appearance and noise-related artifacts as main criteria. Results: At an effective dose of 1.7 ± 0.7 mSv, the CNR significantly improved with every increasing level of IR (range: 14.2-27.8; p < 0.001) with the best objective IQ at the highest level of IR (level 7). The subjective IQ, however, was rated best at the medium level of IR (level 4) with minimal artifacts and a more 'classic' image appearance when compared to higher IR levels. The XCB kernel provided better subjective ratings than CB (p < 0.05) and the MR feature further increased the IQ at a high level of IR. Conclusion: The objective IQ of low-dose CCTA progressively improves with an increasing level of IR. The best subjective IQ, however, is reached at medium levels of IR combined with an edge-enhancing kernel allowing for preservation of a 'classic' image appearance suggesting application in the clinical routine. (orig.)

  4. Living in Space : A Comparative Study of one Conventional Life Support System and two Biological Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Johansson, Maria

    2006-01-01

    In this thesis the energy loads and equivalent mass loads of three life support systems for human space flight have been studied. The physico-chemical system on International Space Station, ISS, has been compared to two concepts for biological life support: the Russian BIOS-3 system and the European MELiSSA system. BIOS-3 is a system where vegetables and wheat are grown hydroponically and waste is burnt. MELiSSA is a system where waste is decomposed by microorganisms in biological reactors. T...

  5. Implementing supercritical water oxidation technology in a lunar base environmental control/life support system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer Sedej, M.

    1985-01-01

    A supercritical water oxidation system (SCWOS) offers several advantages for a lunar base environmental control/life support system (ECLSS) compared to an ECLSS based on Space Station technology. In supercritically heated water (630 K, 250 atm) organic materials mix freely with oxygen and undergo complete combustion. Inorganic salts lose solubility and precipitate out. Implementation of SCWOS can make an ECLSS more efficient and reliable by elimination of several subsystems and by reduction in potential losses of life support consumables. More complete closure of the total system reduces resupply requirements from the earth, a crucial cost item in maintaining a lunar base.

  6. Integration, design, and construction of a CELSS breadboard facility for bioregenerative life support system research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prince, R.; Knott, W.; Buchanan, Paul

    1987-01-01

    Design criteria for the Biomass Production Chamber (BPC), preliminary operating procedures, and requirements for the future development of the Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) are discussed. CELSS, which uses a bioregenerative system, includes the following three major units: (1) a biomass production component to grow plants under controlled conditions; (2) food processing components to derive maximum edible content from all plant parts; and (3) waste management components to recover and recycle all solids, liquids, and gases necessary to support life. The current status of the CELSS breadboard facility is reviewed; a block diagram of a simplified version of CELSS and schematic diagrams of the BPS are included.

  7. Quality of life among advanced breast cancer patients with and without distant metastasis

    OpenAIRE

    Wyatt, G.; Sikorskii, A.; TAMKUS, D.; You, M

    2012-01-01

    This study presents the results of a secondary analysis of data collected during a trial of reflexology that aimed to improve health-related quality of life (HRQOL) among women with advanced breast cancer in treatment. A comparison of HRQOL (functioning, symptoms, spirituality) of those with (n = 298) and without (n = 87) distant metastasis is presented. Following the intake interview, 385 women were randomised to reflexology, lay foot manipulation or conventional care control, and were inter...

  8. Contribution of Enterprise Asset Management (EAM) systems and CAP programs to support NPP life extension program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is no specific IS (Information System) which supports the entire scope of a plant life extension, but there are a number of existing solutions that contributes to support it. Globally there are 2 categories of IS solution in the market: those supporting the Plant Life Improvement (PLIM) side of the life extension program and the others supporting the Plant Life Extension (PLEX) process side of it. The first category involves a large number of applications that span from ageing evaluation criteria programs, to monitoring solution for the critical components and to analysis and decision tools. The second category comprises solutions which support partially or globally the overall business process under a regulatory controlled manner. Both categories require 3 conditions to be satisfied: -) a comprehensive set of data (these data are often produced by various applications and the ability to correlate all the data together with a high degree of integrity is an important success factor); -) a feedback mechanism whose dual aspect is the monitoring of the ageing phenomena and the management of all the actions to be coordinated to ensure that preset objectives will be achieved in due time; and -) good people management to ensure particularly that staff will be well acquainted with new equipment or with new operating processes

  9. How Nurses Assist Parents Regarding Life Support Decisions for Extremely Premature Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavanaugh, Karen; Moro, Teresa T.; Savage, Teresa A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To describe nurse behaviors that assisted parents to make life support decisions for an extremely premature infant before and after the infant’s birth. Design Qualitative, longitudinal, collective case study where interviews were done pre- and postnatally and medical chart data were collected. Setting Interviews were conducted face-to-face in a private room in the hospital, in the mother’s home, or over the telephone. Participants A sample of 40 cases (40 mothers, 14 fathers, 42 physicians, 17 obstetric nurses, 6 neonatal nurses, and 6 neonatal nurse practitioners) was recruited from three hospitals that provided high risk perinatal care. Parents were at least 18 years of age, English speaking, and had participated in a prenatal discussion with a physician regarding treatment decisions for their infant due to threatened preterm delivery. Physicians and nurses were those identified by parents who had spoken to them about life support treatment decisions for the infant. Methods Using a semi-structured interview guide, a total of 203 interviews were conducted (137 prenatal, 51 postnatal, and 15 end-of-life). For this analysis, all coded data related to the nurse’s role were analyzed and summarized. Results Parents and nurses both described several nurse behaviors: providing emotional support; giving information, and meeting the physical care needs of mothers, infants, and fathers. Physicians’ description of the nurse behaviors focused on the way nurses provided emotional support and gave information. Conclusions Nurses play a critical role in assisting parents surrounding life support decisions. PMID:20409115

  10. Space Suit Portable Life Support System (PLSS) 2.0 Human-in-the-Loop (HITL) Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Carly; Vogel, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    The space suit Portable Life Support System (PLSS) 2.0 represents the second integrated prototype developed and tested to mature a design that uses advanced technologies to reduce consumables, improve robustness, and provide additional capabilities over the current state of the art. PLSS 2.0 was developed in 2012, with extensive functional evaluations and system performance testing through mid-2014. In late 2014, PLSS 2.0 was integrated with the Mark III space suit in an ambient laboratory environment to facilitate manned testing, designated PLSS 2.0 Human-in-the-Loop (HITL) testing, in which the PLSS prototype performed the primary life support functions, including suit pressure regulation, ventilation, carbon dioxide control, and cooling of the test subject and PLSS avionics. The intent of this testing was to obtain subjective test subject feedback regarding qualitative aspects of PLSS 2.0 performance such as thermal comfort, sounds, smells, and suit pressure fluctuations due to the cycling carbon dioxide removal system, as well as to collect PLSS performance data over a range of human metabolic rates from 500-3000 Btu/hr. Between October 27 and December 18, 2014, nineteen two-hour simulated EVA test points were conducted in which suited test subjects walked on a treadmill to achieve a target metabolic rate. Six test subjects simulated nominal and emergency EVA conditions with varied test parameters including metabolic rate profile, carbon dioxide removal control mode, cooling water temperature, and Liquid Cooling and Ventilation Garment (state of the art or prototype). The nineteen test points achieved more than 60 hours of test time, with 36 hours accounting for simulated EVA time. The PLSS 2.0 test article performed nominally throughout the test series, confirming design intentions for the advanced PLSS. Test subjects' subjective feedback provided valuable insight into thermal comfort and perceptions of suit pressure fluctuations that will influence future

  11. Tamoxifen compared to best supportive care in advanced hepatocelluar carcinoma: A retrospective matched-cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed Abdelmabood Zeeneldin; Salem Mohamed Eid; Amira Diaa Darweesh; Manar Mohamed Moneer; Mohamed Saadeldin

    2014-01-01

    Background: Hepatocelluar carcinoma (HCC) is a common cancer worldwide as well as in Egypt with hepatitis B and C, alcohol and aflatoxins being the commonest risk factors. Tamoxifen was initially reported to confer a marginal survival benefit in advanced HCC. However, later reports declined any benefit. Objective: To study the impact of tamoxifen on overall survival (OS) compared to best supportive care (BSC) in Egyptian patients with advanced HCC. Methods: This retrospective matched-co...

  12. Cardiac tumours in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parsons Jonathan M

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cardiac tumours are benign or malignant neoplasms arising primarily in the inner lining, muscle layer, or the surrounding pericardium of the heart. They can be primary or metastatic. Primary cardiac tumours are rare in paediatric practice with a prevalence of 0.0017 to 0.28 in autopsy series. In contrast, the incidence of cardiac tumours during foetal life has been reported to be approximately 0.14%. The vast majority of primary cardiac tumours in children are benign, whilst approximately 10% are malignant. Secondary malignant tumours are 10–20 times more prevalent than primary malignant tumours. Rhabdomyoma is the most common cardiac tumour during foetal life and childhood. It accounts for more than 60% of all primary cardiac tumours. The frequency and type of cardiac tumours in adults differ from those in children with 75% being benign and 25% being malignant. Myxomas are the most common primary tumours in adults constituting 40% of benign tumours. Sarcomas make up 75% of malignant cardiac masses. Echocardiography, Computing Tomography (CT and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI of the heart are the main non-invasive diagnostic tools. Cardiac catheterisation is seldom necessary. Tumour biopsy with histological assessment remains the gold standard for confirmation of the diagnosis. Surgical resection of primary cardiac tumours should be considered to relieve symptoms and mechanical obstruction to blood flow. The outcome of surgical resection in symptomatic, non-myxomatous benign cardiac tumours is favourable. Patients with primary cardiac malignancies may benefit from palliative surgery but this approach should not be recommended for patients with metastatic cardiac tumours. Surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy may prolong survival. The prognosis for malignant primary cardiac tumours is generally extremely poor.

  13. Space Suit Portable Life Support System (PLSS) 2.0 Unmanned Vacuum Environment Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Carly; Vogel, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    For the first time in more than 30 years, an advanced space suit Portable Life Support System (PLSS) design was operated inside a vacuum chamber representative of the flight operating environment. The test article, PLSS 2.0, was the second system-level integrated prototype of the advanced PLSS design, following the PLSS 1.0 Breadboard that was developed and tested throughout 2011. Whereas PLSS 1.0 included five technology development components with the balance the system simulated using commercial-off-the-shelf items, PLSS 2.0 featured first generation or later prototypes for all components less instrumentation, tubing and fittings. Developed throughout 2012, PLSS 2.0 was the first attempt to package the system into a flight-like representative volume. PLSS 2.0 testing included an extensive functional evaluation known as Pre-Installation Acceptance (PIA) testing, Human-in-the-Loop testing in which the PLSS 2.0 prototype was integrated via umbilicals to a manned prototype space suit for 19 two-hour simulated EVAs, and unmanned vacuum environment testing. Unmanned vacuum environment testing took place from 1/9/15-7/9/15 with PLSS 2.0 located inside a vacuum chamber. Test sequences included performance mapping of several components, carbon dioxide removal evaluations at simulated intravehicular activity (IVA) conditions, a regulator pressure schedule assessment, and culminated with 25 simulated extravehicular activities (EVAs). During the unmanned vacuum environment test series, PLSS 2.0 accumulated 378 hours of integrated testing including 291 hours of operation in a vacuum environment and 199 hours of simulated EVA time. The PLSS prototype performed nominally throughout the test series, with two notable exceptions including a pump failure and a Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporator (SWME) leak, for which post-test failure investigations were performed. In addition to generating an extensive database of PLSS 2.0 performance data, achievements included requirements and

  14. Life-Cycle Assessment of Advanced Nutrient Removal Technologies for Wastewater Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Sheikh M; Eckelman, Matthew J; Onnis-Hayden, Annalisa; Gu, April Z

    2016-03-15

    Advanced nutrient removal processes, while improving the water quality of the receiving water body, can also produce indirect environmental and health impacts associated with increases in usage of energy, chemicals, and other material resources. The present study evaluated three levels of treatment for nutrient removal (N and P) using 27 representative treatment process configurations. Impacts were assessed across multiple environmental and health impacts using life-cycle assessment (LCA) following the Tool for the Reduction and Assessment of Chemical and Other Environmental Impacts (TRACI) impact-assessment method. Results show that advanced technologies that achieve high-level nutrient removal significantly decreased local eutrophication potential, while chemicals and electricity use for these advanced treatments, particularly multistage enhanced tertiary processes and reverse osmosis, simultaneously increased eutrophication indirectly and contributed to other potential environmental and health impacts including human and ecotoxicity, global warming potential, ozone depletion, and acidification. Average eutrophication potential can be reduced by about 70% when Level 2 (TN = 3 mg/L; TP = 0.1 mg/L) treatments are employed instead of Level 1 (TN = 8 mg/L; TP = 1 mg/L), but the implementation of more advanced tertiary processes for Level 3 (TN = 1 mg/L; TP = 0.01 mg/L) treatment may only lead to an additional 15% net reduction in life-cycle eutrophication potential. PMID:26871301

  15. End-of-Life Decisions and Palliative Care in Advanced Heart Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, Deborah E; Goodlin, Sarah J

    2016-09-01

    Advanced heart failure (HF) therapies are focused on extending life and improving function. In contrast, palliative care is a holistic approach that focuses on symptom alleviation and patients' physical, psychosocial, and spiritual needs. HF clinicians can integrate palliative care strategies by incorporating several important components of planning and decision-making for HF patients. Future care planning (FCP) for HF patients should incorporate the basic tenets of shared decision-making (SDM). These include understanding the patient's perspective and care preferences, articulating what is medically feasible, and integrating these considerations into the overall care plan. Use of defined triggers for FCP can stimulate important patient-caregiver conversations. Guidelines advocate an annual review of HF status and future care preferences. Advance directives are important for any individual with a chronic, life-limiting illness and should be integrated into FCP. Nevertheless, use of advance directives by HF patients is extremely low. Consideration of illness trajectories and risk-scoring tools might facilitate prognostication and delivery of appropriate HF care. Decisions about heart transplantation or left ventricular assist device implantation should include planning for potential complications associated with these therapies. Such decisions also should include a discussion of palliative management, as an alternative to intervention and also as an option for managing symptoms or adverse events after intervention. Palliative care, including FCP and SDM, should be integrated into the course of all patients with advanced HF. Clinicians who provide HF care should acquire the skills necessary for conducting FCP and SDM discussions. PMID:27568873

  16. Advanced Launch Technology Life Cycle Analysis Using the Architectural Comparison Tool (ACT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCleskey, Carey M.

    2015-01-01

    Life cycle technology impact comparisons for nanolauncher technology concepts were performed using an Affordability Comparison Tool (ACT) prototype. Examined are cost drivers and whether technology investments can dramatically affect the life cycle characteristics. Primary among the selected applications was the prospect of improving nanolauncher systems. As a result, findings and conclusions are documented for ways of creating more productive and affordable nanolauncher systems; e.g., an Express Lane-Flex Lane concept is forwarded, and the beneficial effect of incorporating advanced integrated avionics is explored. Also, a Functional Systems Breakdown Structure (F-SBS) was developed to derive consistent definitions of the flight and ground systems for both system performance and life cycle analysis. Further, a comprehensive catalog of ground segment functions was created.

  17. Challenges During Repeat Extracorporeal Life Support in a Patient With Pulmonary Alveolar Proteinosis

    OpenAIRE

    Lingadevaru, Hemanth; Romano, Matthew A.; Fauman, Karen; Cooley, Elaine; Annich, Gail M.; Cornell, Timothy T.

    2011-01-01

    Extracorporeal life support (ECLS) is used to support patients with pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) both during acute illness and during lung lavage therapies. We report the challenges encountered while providing ECLS for respiratory failure to a 12-year-old girl with PAP who had previously received ECLS as a toddler for a prior episode of respiratory failure due to PAP. She was placed on venovenous-arterial (VVA) ECLS and subsequently switched to venovenous (VV) ECLS with drainage from ...

  18. Multi-scale symbolic entropy analysis provides prognostic prediction in patients receiving extracorporeal life support

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Yen-Hung; Huang, Hui-Chun; Chang, Yi-Chung; Lin, Chen; Lo, Men-Tzung; Liu, Li-Yu Daisy; Tsai, Pi-Ru; Chen, Yih-Sharng; Ko, Wen-Je; Ho, Yi-Lwun; Chen, Ming-Fong; Peng, Chung-Kang; Buchman, Timothy G.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Extracorporeal life support (ECLS) can temporarily support cardiopulmonary function, and is occasionally used in resuscitation. Multi-scale entropy (MSE) derived from heart rate variability (HRV) is a powerful tool in outcome prediction of patients with cardiovascular diseases. Multi-scale symbolic entropy analysis (MSsE), a new method derived from MSE, mitigates the effect of arrhythmia on analysis. The objective is to evaluate the prognostic value of MSsE in patients receiving...

  19. Multi-scale symbolic entropy analysis provides prognostic prediction in patients receiving extracorporeal life support

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Yen-Hung; Huang, Hui-Chun; Chang, Yi-Chung; Lin, Chen; Lo, Men-Tzung; Liu, Li-Yu Daisy; Tsai, Pi-Ru; Chen, Yih-Sharng; Ko, Wen-Je; Ho, Yi-Lwun; Chen, Ming-Fong; Peng, Chung-Kang; Buchman, Timothy G.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Extracorporeal life support (ECLS) can temporarily support cardiopulmonary function, and is occasionally used in resuscitation. Multi-scale entropy (MSE) derived from heart rate variability (HRV) is a powerful tool in outcome prediction of patients with cardiovascular diseases. Multi-scale symbolic entropy analysis (MSsE), a new method derived from MSE, mitigates the effect of arrhythmia on analysis. The objective is to evaluate the prognostic value of MSsE in patients receiving ...

  20. Comprehensive MRI for the detection of subtle alterations in diastolic cardiac function in apoE/LDLR(-/-) mice with advanced atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyrankiewicz, Urszula; Skorka, Tomasz; Orzylowska, Anna; Jablonska, Magdalena; Jasinski, Krzysztof; Jasztal, Agnieszka; Bar, Anna; Kostogrys, Renata; Chlopicki, Stefan

    2016-06-01

    ApoE/LDLR(-/-) mice represent a reliable model of atherosclerosis. However, it is not clear whether cardiac performance is impaired in this murine model of atherosclerosis. Here, we used MRI to characterize cardiac performance in vivo in apoE/LDLR(-/-) mice with advanced atherosclerosis. Six-month-old apoE/LDLR(-/-) mice and age-matched C57BL/6J mice (control) were examined using highly time-resolved cine-MRI [whole-chamber left ventricle (LV) imaging] and MR tagging (three slices: basal, mid-cavity and apical). Global and regional measures of cardiac function included LV volumes, kinetics, time-dependent parameters, strains and rotations. Histological analysis was performed using OMSB (orceine with Martius, Scarlet and Blue) and ORO (oil red-O) staining to demonstrate the presence of advanced coronary atherosclerosis. MR-tagging-based strain analysis in apoE/LDLR(-/-) mice revealed an increased frequency of radial and circumferential systolic stretch (25% and 50% of segments, respectively, p ≤ 0.012), increased radial post-systolic strain index (45% of segments, p = 0.009) and decreased LV untwisting rate (-30.3° (11.6°)/cycle, p = 0.004) when compared with control mice. Maximal strains and LV twist were unchanged. Most of the cine-MRI-based LV functional and anatomical parameters also remained unchanged in apoE/LDLR(-/-) mice, with only a lower filling rate, longer filling time, shorter isovolumetric contraction time and slower heart rate observed in comparison with control mice. The coronary arteries displayed severe atherosclerosis, as evidenced by histological analysis. Using comprehensive MRI methods, we have demonstrated that, despite severe coronary atherosclerosis in six-month-old apoE/LDLR(-/-) mice, cardiac performance including global parameters, twist and strains, was well preserved. Only subtle diastolic alterations, possibly of ischemic background, were uncovered. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:27146203