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Sample records for advanced cardiac life support

  1. Advanced cardiac life support training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Despott, Edward J; Schreiber, Florian

    2010-01-01

    The OMED/ESGE consensus statements of the International Symposium on Sedation in Endoscopy, Athens, September 2009, in keeping with guidelines and position statements published by other societies, underline the need for sedation providers to be adequately trained in dealing with scenarios involving patients in respiratory and/or cardiovascular distress. This training should prepare the sedation provider with the necessary acumen to prevent, recognize and remedy sedation-related emergencies. Life support training that adheres to the International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation (ILCOR) guidelines should be a mandatory component of this instruction that should be governed by formal assessment and quality assurance reappraisal.

  2. [Pediatric advanced life support].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muguruma, Takashi

    2011-04-01

    Important changes or points of emphasis in the recommendations for pediatric advanced life support are as follows. In infants and children with no signs of life, healthcare providers should begin CPR unless they can definitely palpate a pulse within 10 seconds. New evidence documents the important role of ventilations in CPR for infants and children. Rescuers should provide conventional CPR for in-hospital and out-of-hospital pediatric cardiac arrests. The initial defibrillation energy dose of 2 to 4J/kg of either monophasic or biphasic waveform. Both cuffed and uncuffed tracheal tubes are acceptable for infants and children undergoing emergency intubation. Monitoring capnography/capnometry is recommended to confirm proper endotracheal tube position.

  3. Students′ satisfaction to hybrid problem-based learning format for basic life support/advanced cardiac life support teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geetanjali Chilkoti

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Students are exposed to basic life support (BLS and advanced cardiac life support (ACLS training in the first semester in some medical colleges. The aim of this study was to compare students′ satisfaction between lecture-based traditional method and hybrid problem-based learning (PBL in BLS/ACLS teaching to undergraduate medical students. Methods: We conducted a questionnaire-based, cross-sectional survey among 118 1 st -year medical students from a university medical college in the city of New Delhi, India. We aimed to assess the students′ satisfaction between lecture-based and hybrid-PBL method in BLS/ACLS teaching. Likert 5-point scale was used to assess students′ satisfaction levels between the two teaching methods. Data were collected and scores regarding the students′ satisfaction levels between these two teaching methods were analysed using a two-sided paired t-test. Results: Most students preferred hybrid-PBL format over traditional lecture-based method in the following four aspects; learning and understanding, interest and motivation, training of personal abilities and being confident and satisfied with the teaching method (P < 0.05. Conclusion: Implementation of hybrid-PBL format along with the lecture-based method in BLS/ACLS teaching provided high satisfaction among undergraduate medical students.

  4. Impact of an Advanced Cardiac Life Support Simulation Laboratory Experience on Pharmacy Student Confidence and Knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Whitney D; Mohorn, Phillip L; Haney, Jason S; Phillips, Cynthia M; Lu, Z Kevin; Clark, Kimberly; Corboy, Alex; Ragucci, Kelly R

    2016-10-25

    Objective. To assess the impact of an advanced cardiac life support (ACLS) simulation on pharmacy student confidence and knowledge. Design. Third-year pharmacy students participated in a simulation experience that consisted of team roles training, high-fidelity ACLS simulations, and debriefing. Students completed a pre/postsimulation confidence and knowledge assessment. Assessment. Overall, student knowledge assessment scores and student confidence scores improved significantly. Student confidence and knowledge changes from baseline were not significantly correlated. Conversely, a significant, weak positive correlation between presimulation studying and both presimulation confidence and presimulation knowledge was discovered. Conclusions. Overall, student confidence and knowledge assessment scores in ACLS significantly improved from baseline; however, student confidence and knowledge were not significantly correlated.

  5. Advanced Cardiac Life Support (ACLS) utilizing Man-Tended Capability (MTC) hardware onboard Space Station Freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, M.; Barratt, M.; Lloyd, C.

    1992-01-01

    Because of the time and distance involved in returning a patient from space to a definitive medical care facility, the capability for Advanced Cardiac Life Support (ACLS) exists onboard Space Station Freedom. Methods: In order to evaluate the effectiveness of terrestrial ACLS protocols in microgravity, a medical team conducted simulations during parabolic flights onboard the KC-135 aircraft. The hardware planned for use during the MTC phase of the space station was utilized to increase the fidelity of the scenario and to evaluate the prototype equipment. Based on initial KC-135 testing of CPR and ACLS, changes were made to the ventricular fibrillation algorithm in order to accommodate the space environment. Other constraints to delivery of ACLS onboard the space station include crew size, minimum training, crew deconditioning, and limited supplies and equipment. Results: The delivery of ACLS in microgravity is hindered by the environment, but should be adequate. Factors specific to microgravity were identified for inclusion in the protocol including immediate restraint of the patient and early intubation to insure airway. External cardiac compressions of adequate force and frequency were administered using various methods. The more significant limiting factors appear to be crew training, crew size, and limited supplies. Conclusions: Although ACLS is possible in the microgravity environment, future evaluations are necessary to further refine the protocols. Proper patient and medical officer restraint is crucial prior to advanced procedures. Also emphasis should be placed on early intubation for airway management and drug administration. Preliminary results and further testing will be utilized in the design of medical hardware, determination of crew training, and medical operations for space station and beyond.

  6. Can course format influence the performance of students in an advanced cardiac life support (ACLS program?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.D. Garrido

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Advanced cardiac life support (ACLS is a problem-based course that employs simulation techniques to teach the standard management techniques of cardiovascular emergencies. Its structure is periodically revised according to new versions of the American Heart Association guidelines. Since it was introduced in Brazil in 1996, the ACLS has been through two conceptual and structural changes. Detailed documented reports on the effect of these changes on student performance are limited. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of conceptual and structural changes of the course on student ACLS performance at a Brazilian training center. This was a retrospective study of 3266 students divided into two groups according to the teaching model: Model 1 (N = 1181; 1999-2003 and Model 2 (N = 2085; 2003-2007. Model 2 increased practical skill activities to 75% of the total versus 60% in Model 1. Furthermore, the teaching material provided to the students before the course was more objective than that used for Model 1. Scores greater than 85% in the theoretical evaluation and approval in the evaluation of practice by the instructor were considered to be a positive outcome. Multiple logistic regression was used to adjust for potential confounders (specialty, residency, study time, opportunity to enhance practical skills during the course and location where the course was given. Compared to Model 1, Model 2 presented odds ratios (OR indicating better performance in the theoretical (OR = 1.34; 95%CI = 1.10-1.64, practical (OR = 1.19; 95%CI = 0.90-1.57, and combined (OR = 1.38; 95%CI = 1.13-1.68 outcomes. Increasing the time devoted to practical skills did not improve the performance of ACLS students.

  7. Can course format influence the performance of students in an advanced cardiac life support (ACLS) program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrido, F D; Romano, M M D; Schmidt, A; Pazin-Filho, A

    2011-01-01

    Advanced cardiac life support (ACLS) is a problem-based course that employs simulation techniques to teach the standard management techniques of cardiovascular emergencies. Its structure is periodically revised according to new versions of the American Heart Association guidelines. Since it was introduced in Brazil in 1996, the ACLS has been through two conceptual and structural changes. Detailed documented reports on the effect of these changes on student performance are limited. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of conceptual and structural changes of the course on student ACLS performance at a Brazilian training center. This was a retrospective study of 3266 students divided into two groups according to the teaching model: Model 1 (N = 1181; 1999-2003) and Model 2 (N = 2085; 2003-2007). Model 2 increased practical skill activities to 75% of the total versus 60% in Model 1. Furthermore, the teaching material provided to the students before the course was more objective than that used for Model 1. Scores greater than 85% in the theoretical evaluation and approval in the evaluation of practice by the instructor were considered to be a positive outcome. Multiple logistic regression was used to adjust for potential confounders (specialty, residency, study time, opportunity to enhance practical skills during the course and location where the course was given). Compared to Model 1, Model 2 presented odds ratios (OR) indicating better performance in the theoretical (OR = 1.34; 95%CI = 1.10-1.64), practical (OR = 1.19; 95%CI = 0.90-1.57), and combined (OR = 1.38; 95%CI = 1.13-1.68) outcomes. Increasing the time devoted to practical skills did not improve the performance of ACLS students.

  8. Adapting the Advanced Cardiac Life Support for the Experienced Provider (ACLS-EP course for emergency care education in Rwanda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William E. Cayley Jr

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The Advanced Cardiac Life Support for the Experienced Provider (ACLS-EP course uses a case-based curriculum to teach emergency resuscitation principles to experienced health care professionals. This article describes the adaptation of the ACLS-EP curriculum to be used in a family medicine training programme in Rwanda, including lessons learned and recommendations for future use of this material for emergency care education in the African setting.

  9. Adapting the Advanced Cardiac Life Support for the Experienced Provider (ACLS-EP) course for emergency care education in Rwanda

    OpenAIRE

    Cayley Jr, William E

    2011-01-01

    The Advanced Cardiac Life Support for the Experienced Provider (ACLS-EP) course uses a case-based curriculum to teach emergency resuscitation principles to experienced health care professionals. This article describes the adaptation of the ACLS-EP curriculum to be used in a family medicine training programme in Rwanda, including lessons learned and recommendations for future use of this material for emergency care education in the African setting.

  10. Impact of advanced cardiac life support training program on the outcome of cardiopulmonary resuscitation in a tertiary care hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanwalpreet Sodhi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Guidelines on performing cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR have been published from time to time, and formal training programs are conducted based on these guidelines. Very few data are available in world literature highlighting the impact of these trainings on CPR outcome. Aim: The aim of our study was to evaluate the impact of the American Heart Association (AHA-certified basic life support (BLS and advanced cardiac life support (ACLS provider course on the outcomes of CPR in our hospital. Materials and Methods : An AHA-certified BLS and ACLS provider training programme was conducted in our hospital in the first week of October 2009, in which all doctors in the code blue team and intensive care units were given training. The retrospective study was performed over an 18-month period. All in-hospital adult cardiac arrest victims in the pre-BLS/ACLS training period (January 2009 to September 2009 and the post-BLS/ACLS training period (October 2009 to June 2010 were included in the study. We compared the outcomes of CPR between these two study periods. Results: There were a total of 627 in-hospital cardiac arrests, 284 during the pre-BLS/ACLS training period and 343 during the post-BLS/ACLS training period. In the pre-BLS/ACLS training period, 52 patients (18.3% had return of spontaneous circulation, compared with 97 patients (28.3% in the post-BLS/ACLS training period (P < 0.005. Survival to hospital discharge was also significantly higher in the post-BLS/ACLS training period (67 patients, 69.1% than in the pre-BLS/ACLS training period (12 patients, 23.1% (P < 0.0001. Conclusion : Formal certified BLS and ACLS training of healthcare professionals leads to definitive improvement in the outcome of CPR.

  11. Effect of simulation on knowledge of advanced cardiac life support, knowledge retention, and confidence of nursing students in Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tawalbeh, Loai I; Tubaishat, Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the effect of simulation on nursing students' knowledge of advanced cardiac life support (ACLS), knowledge retention, and confidence in applying ACLS skills. An experimental, randomized controlled (pretest-posttest) design was used. The experimental group (n = 40) attended an ACLS simulation scenario, a 4-hour PowerPoint presentation, and demonstration on a static manikin, whereas the control group (n = 42) attended the PowerPoint presentation and a demonstration only. A paired t test indicated that posttest mean knowledge of ACLS and confidence was higher in both groups. The experimental group showed higher knowledge of ACLS and higher confidence in applying ACLS, compared with the control group. Traditional training involving PowerPoint presentation and demonstration on a static manikin is an effective teaching strategy; however, simulation is significantly more effective than traditional training in helping to improve nursing students' knowledge acquisition, knowledge retention, and confidence about ACLS.

  12. Correlation of Simulation Examination to Written Test Scores for Advanced Cardiac Life Support Testing: Prospective Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne L. Strom

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Traditional Advanced Cardiac Life Support (ACLS courses are evaluated using written multiple-choice tests. High-fidelity simulation is a widely used adjunct to didactic content, and has been used in many specialties as a training resource as well as an evaluative tool. There are no data to our knowledge that compare simulation examination scores with written test scores for ACLS courses. Objective: To compare and correlate a novel high-fidelity simulation-based evaluation with traditional written testing for senior medical students in an ACLS course. Methods: We performed a prospective cohort study to determine the correlation between simulationbased evaluation and traditional written testing in a medical school simulation center. Students were tested on a standard acute coronary syndrome/ventricular fibrillation cardiac arrest scenario. Our primary outcome measure was correlation of exam results for 19 volunteer fourth-year medical students after a 32-hour ACLS-based Resuscitation Boot Camp course. Our secondary outcome was comparison of simulation-based vs. written outcome scores. Results: The composite average score on the written evaluation was substantially higher (93.6% than the simulation performance score (81.3%, absolute difference 12.3%, 95% CI [10.6-14.0%], p<0.00005. We found a statistically significant moderate correlation between simulation scenario test performance and traditional written testing (Pearson r=0.48, p=0.04, validating the new evaluation method. Conclusion: Simulation-based ACLS evaluation methods correlate with traditional written testing and demonstrate resuscitation knowledge and skills. Simulation may be a more discriminating and challenging testing method, as students scored higher on written evaluation methods compared to simulation.

  13. Extracorporeal life support in pediatric cardiac patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Di NARDO

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Extracorporeal Life Support (ECLS is a valuable tool in the management of neonates and older children with severe cardiac or respiratory failure. In this review, we focus on ECLS when used for neonatal and pediatric cardiac disease. Strict selection of patients and timely deployment are necessary to optimize outcomes. Although every attempt should be made to deploy ECLS urgently rather than emergently, extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation (ECPR is being increasingly used and reasonable survival rates have been achieved after initiation of ECLS during active compressions of the chest following in-hospital cardiac arrest. Contraindications to ECLS are falling over time, although lethal chromosomal abnormalities, severe irreversible brain injury, and extremely low gestational age and weight (<32 weeks gestation or <1.5 kg remain firm contraindications.

  14. Advanced life support therapy and on out-of-hospital cardiac arrest patients: Applying signal processing and pattern recognition methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trygve Eftestøl

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available In the US alone, several hundred thousands die of sudden cardiac arrests each year. Basic life support defined as chest compressions and ventilations and early defibrillation are the only factors proven to increase the survival of patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest, and are key elements in the chain of survival defined by the American Heart Association. The current cardiopulmonary resuscitation guidelines treat all patients the same, but studies show need for more individualiza- tion of treatment. This review will focus on ideas on how to strengthen the weak parts of the chain of survival including the ability to measure the effects of therapy, improve time efficiency, and optimize the sequence and quality of the various components of cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

  15. Modeling Advance Life Support Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitts, Marvin; Sager, John; Loader, Coleen; Drysdale, Alan

    1996-01-01

    Activities this summer consisted of two projects that involved computer simulation of bioregenerative life support systems for space habitats. Students in the Space Life Science Training Program (SLSTP) used the simulation, space station, to learn about relationships between humans, fish, plants, and microorganisms in a closed environment. One student complete a six week project to modify the simulation by converting the microbes from anaerobic to aerobic, and then balancing the simulation's life support system. A detailed computer simulation of a closed lunar station using bioregenerative life support was attempted, but there was not enough known about system restraints and constants in plant growth, bioreactor design for space habitats and food preparation to develop an integrated model with any confidence. Instead of a completed detailed model with broad assumptions concerning the unknown system parameters, a framework for an integrated model was outlined and work begun on plant and bioreactor simulations. The NASA sponsors and the summer Fell were satisfied with the progress made during the 10 weeks, and we have planned future cooperative work.

  16. IT for advanced Life Support in English

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sejerø Pedersen, Birgitte; Jeberg, Kirsten Ann; Koerner, Christian

    2009-01-01

    In this study we analyzed how IT support can be established for the treatment and documentation of advanced life support (ALS) in a hospital. In close collaboration with clinical researchers, a running prototype of an IT solution to support the clinical decisions in ALS was developed and tried out...

  17. Flipping the advanced cardiac life support classroom with team-based learning: comparison of cognitive testing performance for medical students at the University of California, Irvine, United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan Boysen-Osborn

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: It aimed to find if written test results improved for advanced cardiac life support (ACLS taught in flipped classroom/team-based Learning (FC/TBL vs. lecture-based (LB control in University of California-Irvine School of Medicine, USA. Methods: Medical students took 2010 ACLS with FC/TBL (2015, compared to 3 classes in LB (2012-14 format. There were 27.5 hours of instruction for FC/TBL model (TBL 10.5, podcasts 9, small-group simulation 8 hours, and 20 (12 lecture, simulation 8 hours in LB. TBL covered 13 cardiac cases; LB had none. Seven simulation cases and didactic content were the same by lecture (2012-14 or podcast (2015 as was testing: 50 multiple-choice questions (MCQ, 20 rhythm matchings, and 7 fill-in clinical cases. Results: 354 students took the course (259 [73.1%] in LB in 2012-14, and 95 [26.9%] in FC/TBL in 2015. Two of 3 tests (MCQ and fill-in improved for FC/TBL. Overall, median scores increased from 93.5% (IQR 90.6, 95.4 to 95.1% (92.8, 96.7, P=0.0001. For the fill-in test: 94.1% for LB (89.6, 97.2 to 96.6% for FC/TBL (92.4, 99.20 P=0.0001. For MC: 88% for LB (84, 92 to 90% for FC/TBL (86, 94, P=0.0002. For the rhythm test: median 100% for both formats. More students failed 1 of 3 tests with LB vs. FC/TBL (24.7% vs. 14.7%, and 2 or 3 components (8.1% vs. 3.2%, P=0.006. Conversely, 82.1% passed all 3 with FC/TBL vs. 67.2% with LB (difference 14.9%, 95% CI 4.8-24.0%. Conclusion: A FC/TBL format for ACLS marginally improved written test results.

  18. Flipping the advanced cardiac life support classroom with team-based learning: comparison of cognitive testing performance for medical students at the University of California, Irvine, United State

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: It aimed to find if written test results improved for advanced cardiac life support (ACLS) taught in flipped classroom/team-based Learning (FC/TBL) vs. lecture-based (LB) control in University of California-Irvine School of Medicine, USA. Methods: Medical students took 2010 ACLS with FC/TBL (2015), compared to 3 classes in LB (2012-14) format. There were 27.5 hours of instruction for FC/TBL model (TBL 10.5, podcasts 9, small-group simulation 8 hours), and 20 (12 lecture, simulation 8 hours) in LB. TBL covered 13 cardiac cases; LB had none. Seven simulation cases and didactic content were the same by lecture (2012-14) or podcast (2015) as was testing: 50 multiple-choice questions (MCQ), 20 rhythm matchings, and 7 fill-in clinical cases. Results: 354 students took the course (259 [73.1%] in LB in 2012-14, and 95 [26.9%] in FC/TBL in 2015). Two of 3 tests (MCQ and fill-in) improved for FC/TBL. Overall, median scores increased from 93.5% (IQR 90.6, 95.4) to 95.1% (92.8, 96.7, P=0.0001). For the fill-in test: 94.1% for LB (89.6, 97.2) to 96.6% for FC/TBL (92.4, 99.20 P=0.0001). For MC: 88% for LB (84, 92) to 90% for FC/TBL (86, 94, P=0.0002). For the rhythm test: median 100% for both formats. More students failed 1 of 3 tests with LB vs. FC/TBL (24.7% vs. 14.7%), and 2 or 3 components (8.1% vs. 3.2%, P=0.006). Conversely, 82.1% passed all 3 with FC/TBL vs. 67.2% with LB (difference 14.9%, 95% CI 4.8-24.0%). Conclusion: A FC/TBL format for ACLS marginally improved written test results. PMID:26893399

  19. Comparison of traditional advanced cardiac life support (ACLS) course instruction vs. a scenario-based, performance oriented team instruction (SPOTI) method for Korean paramedic students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Christopher C; Im, Mark; Kim, Tae Min; Stapleton, Edward R; Kim, Kyuseok; Suh, Gil Joon; Singer, Adam J; Henry, Mark C

    2010-01-01

    Current Advanced Cardiac Life Support (ACLS) course instruction involves a 2-day course with traditional lectures and limited team interaction. We wish to explore the advantages of a scenario-based performance-oriented team instruction (SPOTI) method to implement core ACLS skills for non-English-speaking international paramedic students. The objective of this study was to determine if scenario-based, performance-oriented team instruction (SPOTI) improves educational outcomes for the ACLS instruction of Korean paramedic students. Thirty Korean paramedic students were randomly selected into two groups. One group of 15 students was taught the traditional ACLS course. The other 15 students were instructed using a SPOTI method. Each group was tested using ACLS megacode examinations endorsed by the American Heart Association. All 30 students passed the ACLS megacode examination. In the traditional ACLS study group an average of 85% of the core skills were met. In the SPOTI study group an average of 93% of the core skills were met. In particular, the SPOTI study group excelled at physical examination skills such as airway opening, assessment of breathing, signs of circulation, and compression rates. In addition, the SPOTI group performed with higher marks on rhythm recognition compared to the traditional group. The traditional group performed with higher marks at providing proper drug dosages compared to the SPOTI students. However, the students enrolled in the SPOTI method resulted in higher megacode core compliance scores compared to students trained in traditional ACLS course instruction. These differences did not achieve statistical significance due to the small sample size.

  20. Nanomaterials for Advanced Life Support in Advanced Life Support in Space systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allada, Rama Kumar; Moloney, Padraig; Yowell, Leonard

    2006-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation describing nanomaterial research at NASA Johnson Space Center with a focus on advanced life support in space systems is shown. The topics include: 1) Introduction; 2) Research and accomplishments in Carbon Dioxide Removal; 3) Research and Accomplishments in Water Purification; and 4) Next Steps

  1. Phases management for advanced life support processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eckhard, F.; Brunink, J.A.J.; Tuinstra, B.; Assink, J.W.; Ten Asbroek, N.; Backx, V.; Klaassen, A.; Waters, G.; Stasiak, M.A.; Dixon, M.; Ordoñez-Inda, L.

    2005-01-01

    For a planetary base, a reliable life support system including food and water supply, gas generation and waste management is a condition sine qua non. While for a short-term period the life support system may be an open loop, i.e. water, gases and food provided from the Earth, for long-term missions

  2. ['Advanced trauma life support' in Netherlands].

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Vugt, A B

    2000-10-28

    Introduction of the principles of advanced trauma life support (ATLS) in the management of accident victims has been in progress in the Netherlands since 1995. The main ATLS principles are that the aid giver treats the most dangerous disorder first and does no further damage. After assessment and, if necessary, treatment of the airways, the respiration, the circulation and any craniocerebral injury, an exploratory examination is carried out. Physicians receive theoretical and practical instructions in this form of management during an intensive two-day course, counselled by a coordinating organization in the USA. Most of those attending are interns in general surgery, traumatology and orthopaedics, gatekeeper doctors of emergency rooms and army medical officers. The standardized way of thinking improves the communication and understanding between the various disciplines involved in trauma care, in part because there exist comparable programmes for ambulance care and emergency care. Other measures improving the quality of trauma care are regionalization of the trauma care, medical helicopter teams and evaluation of the effects of ATLS as an operating procedure.

  3. NASA Advanced Explorations Systems: Advancements in Life Support Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shull, Sarah A.; Schneider, Walter F.

    2016-01-01

    The NASA Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Life Support Systems (LSS) project strives to develop reliable, energy-efficient, and low-mass spacecraft systems to provide environmental control and life support systems (ECLSS) critical to enabling long duration human missions beyond low Earth orbit (LEO). Highly reliable, closed-loop life support systems are among the capabilities required for the longer duration human space exploration missions assessed by NASA's Habitability Architecture Team (HAT). The LSS project is focused on four areas: architecture and systems engineering for life support systems, environmental monitoring, air revitalization, and wastewater processing and water management. Starting with the international space station (ISS) LSS systems as a point of departure (where applicable), the mission of the LSS project is three-fold: 1. Address discrete LSS technology gaps 2. Improve the reliability of LSS systems 3. Advance LSS systems towards integrated testing on the ISS. This paper summarized the work being done in the four areas listed above to meet these objectives. Details will be given on the following focus areas: Systems Engineering and Architecture- With so many complex systems comprising life support in space, it is important to understand the overall system requirements to define life support system architectures for different space mission classes, ensure that all the components integrate well together and verify that testing is as representative of destination environments as possible. Environmental Monitoring- In an enclosed spacecraft that is constantly operating complex machinery for its own basic functionality as well as science experiments and technology demonstrations, it's possible for the environment to become compromised. While current environmental monitors aboard the ISS will alert crew members and mission control if there is an emergency, long-duration environmental monitoring cannot be done in-orbit as current methodologies

  4. [Development and Hosting of a Perioperative Advanced Life Support Training Course for Anesthesiologists].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komasawa, Nobuyasu; Fujiwara, Shunsuke; Haba, Masanori; Ueshima, Hironobu; Okada, Daisuke; Minami, Toshiaki

    2015-05-01

    Participation in the American Heart Association advanced cardiac life support provider course is a prerequisite for taking the anesthesiology specialist examination in Japan. The course teaches fundamental resuscitation methods for different types of cardiac arrest. However, crisis in the perioperative period can result from airway trouble, central venous catheter displacement, or massive hemorrhage. We report our experience of holding a problem- and learning-based perioperative advanced life support training course, Advanced Life Support for Operation (ALS-OP). Main contents of the course included circulation management, airway management central venous catheters, and pain clinic-related complications. ALS-OP simulation training may be beneficial for educating anesthesiologist and promoting perioperative patient safety.

  5. Composting in advanced life support systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, C. F.; Sager, J. C.; Alazraki, M.; Loader, C.

    1998-01-01

    Space missions of extended duration are currently hampered by the prohibitive costs of external resupply. To reduce the need for resupply, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is currently testing methods to recycle solid wastes, water, and air. Composting can be an integral part of a biologically based waste treatment/recycling system. Results indicate that leachate from composted plant wastes is not inhibitory to seed germination and contains sufficient inorganic minerals to support plant growth. Other solid wastes, for example kitchen (food) wastes and human solid wastes, can be composted with inedible plant residues to safely reduce the volume of the wastes and levels of microorganisms potentially pathogenic to humans. Finished compost could serve as a medium for plant growth or mushroom production.

  6. Canadian advanced life support capacities and future directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamsey, M.; Graham, T.; Stasiak, M.; Berinstain, A.; Scott, A.; Vuk, T. Rondeau; Dixon, M.

    2009-07-01

    Canada began research on space-relevant biological life support systems in the early 1990s. Since that time Canadian capabilities have grown tremendously, placing Canada among the emerging leaders in biological life support systems. The rapid growth of Canadian expertise has been the result of several factors including a large and technically sophisticated greenhouse sector which successfully operates under challenging climatic conditions, well planned technology transfer strategies between the academic and industrial sectors, and a strong emphasis on international research collaborations. Recent activities such as Canada's contribution of the Higher Plant Compartment of the European Space Agency's MELiSSA Pilot Plant and the remote operation of the Arthur Clarke Mars Greenhouse in the Canadian High Arctic continue to demonstrate Canadian capabilities with direct applicability to advanced life support systems. There is also a significant latent potential within Canadian institutions and organizations with respect to directly applicable advanced life support technologies. These directly applicable research interests include such areas as horticultural management strategies (for candidate crops), growth media, food processing, water management, atmosphere management, energy management, waste management, imaging, environment sensors, thermal control, lighting systems, robotics, command and data handling, communications systems, structures, in-situ resource utilization, space analogues and mission operations. With this background and in collaboration with the Canadian aerospace industry sector, a roadmap for future life support contributions is presented here. This roadmap targets an objective of at least 50% food closure by 2050 (providing greater closure in oxygen, water recycling and carbon dioxide uptake). The Canadian advanced life support community has chosen to focus on lunar surface infrastructure and not low Earth orbit or transit systems (i.e. microgravity

  7. Tool for Sizing Analysis of the Advanced Life Support System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Hue-Hsie Jannivine; Brown, Cheryl B.; Jeng, Frank J.

    2005-01-01

    Advanced Life Support Sizing Analysis Tool (ALSSAT) is a computer model for sizing and analyzing designs of environmental-control and life support systems (ECLSS) for spacecraft and surface habitats involved in the exploration of Mars and Moon. It performs conceptual designs of advanced life support (ALS) subsystems that utilize physicochemical and biological processes to recycle air and water, and process wastes in order to reduce the need of resource resupply. By assuming steady-state operations, ALSSAT is a means of investigating combinations of such subsystems technologies and thereby assisting in determining the most cost-effective technology combination available. In fact, ALSSAT can perform sizing analysis of the ALS subsystems that are operated dynamically or steady in nature. Using the Microsoft Excel spreadsheet software with Visual Basic programming language, ALSSAT has been developed to perform multiple-case trade studies based on the calculated ECLSS mass, volume, power, and Equivalent System Mass, as well as parametric studies by varying the input parameters. ALSSAT s modular format is specifically designed for the ease of future maintenance and upgrades.

  8. Effect of ionizing radiation on advanced life support medications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, D.J.; Hubbard, L.B.; Broadbent, M.V.; Stewart, P.; Jaeger, M.

    1987-06-01

    Advanced life support medications stored in emergency department stretcher areas, diagnostic radiology rooms, and radiotherapy suites are exposed to ionizing radiation. We hypothesized that radiation may decrease the potency and thus the shelf life of medications stored in these areas. Atropine, dopamine, epinephrine, and isoproterenol were exposed to a wide range of ionizing radiation. The potency of the four drugs was unaffected by levels of radiation found in ED stretcher areas and high-volume diagnostic radiograph rooms (eg, chest radiograph, computed tomography, fluoroscopy). The potency of atropine may be reduced by gamma radiation in high-use radiotherapy suites. However, dopamine, epinephrine, and isoproterenol were unaffected by high doses of gamma radiation. Atropine, dopamine, epinephrine, and isoproterenol may be safely kept in ED stretcher areas and diagnostic radiology rooms without loss of potency over the shelf life of the drugs.

  9. Advanced Technologies to Improve Closure of Life Support Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barta, Daniel J.

    2016-01-01

    As NASA looks beyond the International Space Station toward long-duration, deep space missions away from Earth, the current practice of supplying consumables and spares will not be practical nor affordable. New approaches are sought for life support and habitation systems that will reduce dependency on Earth and increase mission sustainability. To reduce launch mass, further closure of Environmental Control and Life Support Systems (ECLSS) beyond the current capability of the ISS will be required. Areas of particular interest include achieving higher degrees of recycling within Atmosphere Revitalization, Water Recovery and Waste Management Systems. NASA is currently investigating advanced carbon dioxide reduction processes that surpass the level of oxygen recovery available from the Sabatier Carbon Dioxide Reduction Assembly (CRA) on the ISS. Candidate technologies will potentially improve the recovery of oxygen from about 50% (for the CRA) to as much as 100% for technologies who's end product is solid carbon. Improving the efficiency of water recycling and recovery can be achieved by the addition of advanced technologies to recover water from brines and solid wastes. Bioregenerative technologies may be utilized for water reclaimation and also for the production of food. Use of higher plants will simultaneously benefit atmosphere revitalization and water recovery through photosynthesis and transpiration. The level at which bioregenerative technologies are utilized will depend on their comparative requirements for spacecraft resources including mass, power, volume, heat rejection, crew time and reliability. Planetary protection requirements will need to be considered for missions to other solar system bodies.

  10. Temperature Management After Cardiac Arrest: An Advisory Statement by the Advanced Life Support Task Force of the International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation and the American Heart Association Emergency Cardiovascular Care Committee and the Council on Cardiopulmonary, Critical Care, Perioperative and Resuscitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnino, Michael W; Andersen, Lars W; Berg, Katherine M; Reynolds, Joshua C; Nolan, Jerry P; Morley, Peter T; Lang, Eddy; Cocchi, Michael N; Xanthos, Theodoros; Callaway, Clifton W; Soar, Jasmeet

    2016-01-01

    For more than a decade, mild induced hypothermia (32 °C-34 °C) has been standard of care for patients remaining comatose after resuscitation from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest with an initial shockable rhythm, and this has been extrapolated to survivors of cardiac arrest with initially nonshockable rhythms and to patients with in-hospital cardiac arrest. Two randomized trials published in 2002 reported a survival and neurological benefit with mild induced hypothermia. One recent randomized trial reported similar outcomes in patients treated with targeted temperature management at either 33 °C or 36 °C. In response to these new data, the International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation Advanced Life Support Task Force performed a systematic review to evaluate 3 key questions: (1) Should mild induced hypothermia (or some form of targeted temperature management) be used in comatose post-cardiac arrest patients? (2) If used, what is the ideal timing of the intervention? (3) If used, what is the ideal duration of the intervention? The task force used Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation methodology to assess and summarize the evidence and to provide a consensus on science statement and treatment recommendations. The task force recommends targeted temperature management for adults with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest with an initial shockable rhythm at a constant temperature between 32 °C and 36 °C for at least 24 hours. Similar suggestions are made for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest with a nonshockable rhythm and in-hospital cardiac arrest. The task force recommends against prehospital cooling with rapid infusion of large volumes of cold intravenous fluid. Additional and specific recommendations are provided in the document.

  11. Microbial astronauts: assembling microbial communities for advanced life support systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, M. S.; Garland, J. L.; Mills, A. L.

    2004-01-01

    Extension of human habitation into space requires that humans carry with them many of the microorganisms with which they coexist on Earth. The ubiquity of microorganisms in close association with all living things and biogeochemical processes on Earth predicates that they must also play a critical role in maintaining the viability of human life in space. Even though bacterial populations exist as locally adapted ecotypes, the abundance of individuals in microbial species is so large that dispersal is unlikely to be limited by geographical barriers on Earth (i.e., for most environments "everything is everywhere" given enough time). This will not be true for microbial communities in space where local species richness will be relatively low because of sterilization protocols prior to launch and physical barriers between Earth and spacecraft after launch. Although community diversity will be sufficient to sustain ecosystem function at the onset, richness and evenness may decline over time such that biological systems either lose functional potential (e.g., bioreactors may fail to reduce BOD or nitrogen load) or become susceptible to invasion by human-associated microorganisms (pathogens) over time. Research at the John F. Kennedy Space Center has evaluated fundamental properties of microbial diversity and community assembly in prototype bioregenerative systems for NASA Advanced Life Support. Successional trends related to increased niche specialization, including an apparent increase in the proportion of nonculturable types of organisms, have been consistently observed. In addition, the stability of the microbial communities, as defined by their resistance to invasion by human-associated microorganisms, has been correlated to their diversity. Overall, these results reflect the significant challenges ahead for the assembly of stable, functional communities using gnotobiotic approaches, and the need to better define the basic biological principles that define ecosystem

  12. Microbial astronauts: assembling microbial communities for advanced life support systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, M S; Garland, J L; Mills, A L

    2004-02-01

    Extension of human habitation into space requires that humans carry with them many of the microorganisms with which they coexist on Earth. The ubiquity of microorganisms in close association with all living things and biogeochemical processes on Earth predicates that they must also play a critical role in maintaining the viability of human life in space. Even though bacterial populations exist as locally adapted ecotypes, the abundance of individuals in microbial species is so large that dispersal is unlikely to be limited by geographical barriers on Earth (i.e., for most environments "everything is everywhere" given enough time). This will not be true for microbial communities in space where local species richness will be relatively low because of sterilization protocols prior to launch and physical barriers between Earth and spacecraft after launch. Although community diversity will be sufficient to sustain ecosystem function at the onset, richness and evenness may decline over time such that biological systems either lose functional potential (e.g., bioreactors may fail to reduce BOD or nitrogen load) or become susceptible to invasion by human-associated microorganisms (pathogens) over time. Research at the John F. Kennedy Space Center has evaluated fundamental properties of microbial diversity and community assembly in prototype bioregenerative systems for NASA Advanced Life Support. Successional trends related to increased niche specialization, including an apparent increase in the proportion of nonculturable types of organisms, have been consistently observed. In addition, the stability of the microbial communities, as defined by their resistance to invasion by human-associated microorganisms, has been correlated to their diversity. Overall, these results reflect the significant challenges ahead for the assembly of stable, functional communities using gnotobiotic approaches, and the need to better define the basic biological principles that define ecosystem

  13. Advanced physical-chemical life support systems research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evanich, Peggy L.

    1988-01-01

    A proposed NASA space research and technology development program will provide adequate data for designing closed loop life support systems for long-duration manned space missions. This program, referred to as the Pathfinder Physical-Chemical Closed Loop Life Support Program, is to identify and develop critical chemical engineering technologies for the closure of air and water loops within the spacecraft, surface habitats or mobility devices. Computerized simulation can be used both as a research and management tool. Validated models will guide the selection of the best known applicable processes and in the development of new processes. For the integration of the habitat system, a biological subsystem would be introduced to provide food production and to enhance the physical-chemical life support functions on an ever-increasing basis.

  14. Suporte básico de vida e suporte avançado de vida em cardiologia: proposta de uma nova estratégia para abordagem e prevenção das intercorrências clínicas em cirurgia dermatológica Basic life support and advanced cardiac life support: proposal of a new strategy to approach and prevent clinical events in dermatologic surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Roismann Timoner

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Com o aumento da complexidade cirúrgica e comorbidades da população, o risco de intercorrências clínicas em cirurgia dermatológica aumentou nas últimas décadas. Para sua abordagem foi criado um fluxograma baseado na tríade decisória formada pelo estado físico do paciente, grau de sedação e porte do procedimento, indicando o tipo de suporte cardiovascular em cada procedimento. Pacientes submetidos a cirurgias de "porte pequeno" e ASA 2, a cirurgias de "porte médio" ou a sedação profunda devem receber suporte avançado de vida em cardiologia.Since complexity of surgical procedures has increased, and patients' co-morbidities have become more frequent, the risk of clinical complications in dermatologic surgery has also increased in the past decades. In order to better assess these risks, a flowchart based on a ruling triad consisting of the patient's health status, sedation level, and procedure complexity was developed to establish the type of cardiovascular support adequate to each procedure. Patients undergoing small surgeries with ASA 2, and those undergoing medium-sized surgeries or deep sedation should be assigned to advanced cardiac life support (ACLS.

  15. Extracorporeal Life Support in a Severe Blunt Chest Trauma with Cardiac Rupture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Launey Yoann

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This report presents a case of severe blunt chest trauma secondary to a horse riding accident with resultant free-wall rupture of the left ventricle in association with severe lung contusion. We describe the initial surgical and medical management of the cardiac rupture which was associated with a massive haemoptysis due to severe lung trauma. Extra corporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO support was initiated and allowed both the acute heart and lung failure to recover. We discuss the successful use and pitfalls of ECMO techniques which are sparsely described in such severe combined cardiac and thoracic trauma.

  16. The Feasibility of Advanced Concepts in Submarine Life Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-06-01

    nitrogen, found to be directly related to depth, and subject to a wide variation in individual susceptibility. Subsequent work quantified the effect...support pump. The ventilation support. b 0’ DIVER S RESPRIPATORY SYSTEM FLOWP REMOVAL V ENT I LAR ICON ES I STANCE HXYOENATL I. HEATER OXIGENATiON THE:RMOR...such an interface will experience variations in solubility due pressure variation associated with changing depth. similarly, removal of absorbed carbon

  17. DAWN (Design Assistant Workstation) for advanced physical-chemical life support systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudokas, Mary R.; Cantwell, Elizabeth R.; Robinson, Peter I.; Shenk, Timothy W.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reports the results of a project supported by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Office of Aeronautics and Space Technology (NASA-OAST) under the Advanced Life Support Development Program. It is an initial attempt to integrate artificial intelligence techniques (via expert systems) with conventional quantitative modeling tools for advanced physical-chemical life support systems. The addition of artificial intelligence techniques will assist the designer in the definition and simulation of loosely/well-defined life support processes/problems as well as assist in the capture of design knowledge, both quantitative and qualitative. Expert system and conventional modeling tools are integrated to provide a design workstation that assists the engineer/scientist in creating, evaluating, documenting and optimizing physical-chemical life support systems for short-term and extended duration missions.

  18. Limitation to Advanced Life Support in patients admitted to intensive care unit with integrated palliative care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazutti, Sandra Regina Gonzaga; Nascimento, Andréia de Fátima; Fumis, Renata Rego Lins

    2016-01-01

    Objective To estimate the incidence of limitations to Advanced Life Support in critically ill patients admitted to an intensive care unit with integrated palliative care. Methods This retrospective cohort study included patients in the palliative care program of the intensive care unit of Hospital Paulistano over 18 years of age from May 1, 2011, to January 31, 2014. The limitations to Advanced Life Support that were analyzed included do-not-resuscitate orders, mechanical ventilation, dialysis and vasoactive drugs. Central tendency measures were calculated for quantitative variables. The chi-squared test was used to compare the characteristics of patients with or without limits to Advanced Life Support, and the Wilcoxon test was used to compare length of stay after Advanced Life Support. Confidence intervals reflecting p ≤ 0.05 were considered for statistical significance. Results A total of 3,487 patients were admitted to the intensive care unit, of whom 342 were included in the palliative care program. It was observed that after entering the palliative care program, it took a median of 2 (1 - 4) days for death to occur in the intensive care unit and 4 (2 - 11) days for hospital death to occur. Many of the limitations to Advanced Life Support (42.7%) took place on the first day of hospitalization. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (96.8%) and ventilatory support (73.6%) were the most adopted limitations. Conclusion The contribution of palliative care integrated into the intensive care unit was important for the practice of orthothanasia, i.e., the non-extension of the life of a critically ill patient by artificial means. PMID:27626949

  19. Advanced medical life support procedures in vitally compromised children by a helicopter emergency medical service.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerritse, B.M.; Schalkwijk, A.; Pelzer, B.J.; Scheffer, G.J.; Draaisma, J.M.T.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To determine the advanced life support procedures provided by an Emergency Medical Service (EMS) and a Helicopter Emergency Medical Service (HEMS) for vitally compromised children. Incidence and success rate of several procedures were studied, with a distinction made between procedures r

  20. Advanced Trauma Life Support. ABCDE from a radiological point of view.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kool, D.R.; Blickman, J.G.

    2007-01-01

    Accidents are the primary cause of death in patients aged 45 years or younger. In many countries, Advanced Trauma Life Support(R) (ATLS) is the foundation on which trauma care is based. We will summarize the principles and the radiological aspects of the ATLS, and we will discuss discrepancies with

  1. Microbial detection and monitoring in advanced life support systems like the international space station

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Tongeren, Sandra P.; Krooneman, Janneke; Raangs, Gerwin C.; Welling, Gjalt W.; Harmsen, Hermie J. M.

    2007-01-01

    Potentially pathogenic microbes and so-called technophiles may form a serious threat in advanced life support systems, such as the International Space Station (ISS). They not only pose a threat to the health of the crew, but also to the technical equipment and materials of the space station. The dev

  2. Microbial detection and monitoring in advanced life support systems like the International Space Station

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Tongeren, Sandra P.; Krooneman, Janneke; Raangs, Gerwin C.; Welling, Gjalt W.; Harmsen, Hermie J. M.

    2006-01-01

    Potentially pathogenic microbes and so-called technophiles may form a serious threat in advanced life support systems, such as the International Space Station (ISS). They not only pose a threat to the health of the crew, but also to the technical equipment and materials of the space station. The dev

  3. Level of Knowledge of specialist cardiologists and anesthesiologists in Basic and Advanced Life Support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Vachla

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Health professionals often witness in-hospital episodes of cardiac arrest. The quality of the Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR depends on the level of theoretical background and practical skills. Purpose: The aim of the present study was to investigate the level of theoretical knowledge of skilled cardiologists and anesthesiologists in the Basic and Advanced Life Support (BLS/ ALS. Material - method: In this study, sample included 240 cardiologists and anesthesiologists, chosen randomly from employers of 17 General Public Hospitals of Athens. For data collection, a questionnaire with 16 theoretical questions was designed, based on the guidelines of the European Resuscitation Council (ERC 2005. Significance level was set at p=≤0,05. The analysis was performed with the Statistical Package IBM SPSS Statistics 19. Results: No statistically significant difference was observed between specialists cardiologists and anesthesiologists in overall performance in theoretical knowledge on the BLS and ALS. Additionally, no statistical significance was observed between the two separate groups of theoretical background. Statistically significant difference was observed among those who had participated in a training seminar in BLS and ALS and those who had not participated (p<0,001. Also, there was statistical significance between the follow-up seminar in BLS/ ALS and specialty for the right answer to the question "which is the right ratio of chest compressions and ventilation", (p<0,001. Conclusions: The level of background knowledge of specialist cardiologists and anesthesiologists in the algorithms of BLS and ALS seem to correlate to the attendance of a training course.

  4. MAXILLOFACIAL TRAUMA MANAGEMENT IN POLYTRAUMATIZED PATIENTS – THE USE OF ADVANCED TRAUMA LIFE SUPPORT (ATLS PRINCIPLES.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elitsa G. Deliverska

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Management of the multiply injured patient requires a co-ordinated multi-disciplinary approach in order to optimise patients’ outcome. A working knowledge of the sort of problems these patients encounter is therefore vital to ensure that life-threatening injuries are recognised and treated in a timely pattern and that more minor associated injuries are not omitted. This article outlines the management of polytraumatized patients using the Advanced Trauma Life Support (ATLS principles and highlights the areas of specific involvement of the engaged medical team. Advanced Trauma Life Support is generally regarded as the gold standard and is founded on a number of well known principles, but strict adherence to protocols may have its drawbacks when facial trauma co-exists. These can arise in the presence of either major or minor facial injuries, and oral and maxillofacial surgeons need to be aware of the potential problems.

  5. Influência do subsídio financeiro e do local da realização do curso de suporte avançado de vida em cardiologia, no aprendizado da emergência cardiovascular Influence of financial subsidy and venue on advanced cardiac life support courses, in the learning of cardiovascular emergency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heberth C. Miotto

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: O sucesso no aprendizado da emergência depende de muitos fatores que podem ser resumidos como: aluno, instrutores e curso. OBJETIVO: Avaliar a influência do subsídio financeiro e do local da realização do curso no aprendizado da emergência cardiovascular. MÉTODOS: Analisaram-se dados referentes aos cursos de Suporte Avançado de Vida em Cardiologia (ACLS no período de dezembro de 2005 a dezembro de 2006. De acordo com o subsídio financeiro, foram divididos em: grupo 1 - subsídio integral; grupo 2 - subsídio de 50%; e grupo 3 - sem subsídio. Quanto ao local do curso, foram divididos em: local A - curso em cidade com > 1 milhão de habitantes; e local B - curso em cidade com BACKGROUND: The success in learning of emergency depends on many factors that can be summarized as: student, instructors and course. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the influence of financial subsidy and venue of course in learning cardiovascular emergency. METHODS: Data were analyzed regarding the courses of Advanced Cardiac Life Support (ACLS in the period from December 2005 to December 2006. In agreement with the financial subsidy, they were divided in: group 1 - integral subsidy; group 2 - subsidy of 50%; and group 3 - without subsidy. As for the venue of the course, they were divided in: locality A - study in city with> 1 million inhabitants; and locality B - study in city with <1 million inhabitants. The practical and theoretical approval and the theoretical average were compared. RESULTS: 819 students participated in ACLS: 199 (24% in group 1, 122 (15% in 2 and 498 (61% in 3. The practical and theoretical approval and the average in the theoretical exam were greater in group 3 than in other groups (p <0.05. Four hundred and eighty two (482 took the course in venue A (59% and 337 (41% in venue B. The practical approval was similar for both groups (p = 0.33, however the theoretical approval was greater in venue A (73% vs. 65% - p = 0.021 - OR = 1.44 and IC

  6. Considerations in miniaturizing simplified agro-ecosystems for advanced life support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volk, T.

    1996-01-01

    Miniaturizing the Earth's biogeochemical cycles to support human life during future space missions is the goal of the NASA research and engineering program in advanced life support. Mission requirements to reduce mass, volume, and power have focused efforts on (1) a maximally simplified agro-ecosystem of humans, food crops, and microbes; and, (2) a design for optimized productivity of food crops with high light levels over long days, with hydroponics, with elevated carbon dioxide and other controlled environmental factors, as well as with genetic selection for desirable crop properties. Mathematical modeling contributes to the goals by establishing trade-offs, by analyzing the growth and development of experimental crops, and by pointing to the possibilities of directed phasic control using modified field crop models to increase the harvest index.

  7. Advanced Trauma Life Support. ABCDE from a radiological point of view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kool, Digna R; Blickman, Johan G

    2007-07-01

    Accidents are the primary cause of death in patients aged 45 years or younger. In many countries, Advanced Trauma Life Support(R) (ATLS) is the foundation on which trauma care is based. We will summarize the principles and the radiological aspects of the ATLS, and we will discuss discrepancies with day to day practice and the radiological literature. Because the ATLS is neither thorough nor up-to-date concerning several parts of radiology in trauma, it should not be adopted without serious attention to defining the indications and limitations pertaining to diagnostic imaging.

  8. Advanced Trauma Life Support®. ABCDE from a radiological point of view

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    Accidents are the primary cause of death in patients aged 45 years or younger. In many countries, Advanced Trauma Life Support® (ATLS®) is the foundation on which trauma care is based. We will summarize the principles and the radiological aspects of the ATLS®, and we will discuss discrepancies with day to day practice and the radiological literature. Because the ATLS® is neither thorough nor up-to-date concerning several parts of radiology in trauma, it should not be adopted without serious a...

  9. Next Generation Life Support Project: Development of Advanced Technologies for Human Exploration Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barta, Daniel J.

    2012-01-01

    Next Generation Life Support (NGLS) is one of several technology development projects sponsored by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration s Game Changing Development Program. NGLS is developing life support technologies (including water recovery, and space suit life support technologies) needed for humans to live and work productively in space. NGLS has three project tasks: Variable Oxygen Regulator (VOR), Rapid Cycle Amine (RCA) swing bed, and Alternative Water Processing. The selected technologies within each of these areas are focused on increasing affordability, reliability, and vehicle self sufficiency while decreasing mass and enabling long duration exploration. The RCA and VOR tasks are directed at key technology needs for the Portable Life Support System (PLSS) for an Exploration Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU), with focus on prototyping and integrated testing. The focus of the Rapid Cycle Amine (RCA) swing-bed ventilation task is to provide integrated carbon dioxide removal and humidity control that can be regenerated in real time during an EVA. The Variable Oxygen Regulator technology will significantly increase the number of pressure settings available to the space suit. Current spacesuit pressure regulators are limited to only two settings while the adjustability of the advanced regulator will be nearly continuous. The Alternative Water Processor efforts will result in the development of a system capable of recycling wastewater from sources expected in future exploration missions, including hygiene and laundry water, based on natural biological processes and membrane-based post treatment. The technologies will support a capability-driven architecture for extending human presence beyond low Earth orbit to potential destinations such as the Moon, near Earth asteroids and Mars.

  10. Improving advanced cardiovascular life support skills in medical students: simulation-based education approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamidreza Reihani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In this trial, we intend to assess the effect of simulation-based education approach on advanced cardiovascular life support skills among medical students. Methods: Through convenient sampling method, 40 interns of Mashhad University of Medical Sciences in their emergency medicine rotation (from September to December 2012 participated in this study. Advanced Cardiovascular Life Support (ACLS workshops with pretest and post-test exams were performed. Workshops and checklists for pretest and post-test exams were designed according to the latest American Heart Association (AHA guidelines. Results: The total score of the students increased significantly after workshops (24.6 out of 100 to 78.6 out of 100. This demonstrates 53.9% improvement in the skills after the simulation-based education (P< 0.001. Also the mean score of each station had a significant improvement (P< 0.001. Conclusion: Pretests showed that interns had poor performance in practical clinical matters while their scientific knowledge, such as ECG interpretation was acceptable. The overall results of the study highlights that Simulation based-education approach is highly effective in Improving ACLS skills among medical students.

  11. Effect of Advanced Trauma Life Support program on medical interns' performance in simulated trauma patient management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmadi Koorosh

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】Objective: Since appropriate and time-table methods in trauma care have an important impact on patients’ outcome, we evaluated the effect of Advanced Trauma Life Support (ATLS program on medical interns' performance in simulated trauma patient management. Methods: A descriptive and analytical study before and after the training was conducted on 24 randomly se-lected undergraduate medical interns from Imam Reza Hos-pital in Mashhad, Iran. On the first day, we assessed in-terns' clinical knowledge and their practical skill performance in confronting simulated trauma patients. After 2 days of ATLS training, we performed the same study and evaluated their score again on the fourth day. The two findings, pre-and post- ATLS periods, were compared through SPSS ver-sion 15.0 software. P values less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results: Our findings showed that interns’ ability in all the three tasks improved after the training course. On the fourth day after training, there was a statistically significant increase in interns' clinical knowledge of ATLS procedures, the sequence of procedures and skill performance in trauma situations (P<0.001, P=0.016 and P=0.01 respectively. Conclusion: ATLS course has an important role in increasing clinical knowledge and practical skill performance of trauma care in medical interns. Key words: Advanced Trauma Life Support Care; Knowledge; Inservice training; Wounds and injuries

  12. [Advances in cardiac pacing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carranza, María-José Sancho-Tello; Fidalgo-Andrés, María Luisa; Ferrer, José Martínez; Mateas, Francisco Ruiz

    2012-01-01

    This article contains a review of the current status of remote monitoring and follow-up involving cardiac pacing devices and of the latest developments in cardiac resynchronization therapy. In addition, the most important articles published in the last year are discussed.

  13. Decision Support Systems for Research and Management in Advanced Life Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriquez, Luis F.

    2004-01-01

    Decision support systems have been implemented in many applications including strategic planning for battlefield scenarios, corporate decision making for business planning, production planning and control systems, and recommendation generators like those on Amazon.com(Registered TradeMark). Such tools are reviewed for developing a similar tool for NASA's ALS Program. DSS are considered concurrently with the development of the OPIS system, a database designed for chronicling of research and development in ALS. By utilizing the OPIS database, it is anticipated that decision support can be provided to increase the quality of decisions by ALS managers and researchers.

  14. Decay in chest compression quality due to fatigue is rare during prolonged advanced life support in a manikin model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjørshol Conrad A

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to measure chest compression decay during simulated advanced life support (ALS in a cardiac arrest manikin model. Methods 19 paramedic teams, each consisting of three paramedics, performed ALS for 12 minutes with the same paramedic providing all chest compressions. The patient was a resuscitation manikin found in ventricular fibrillation (VF. The first shock terminated the VF and the patient remained in pulseless electrical activity (PEA throughout the scenario. Average chest compression depth and rate was measured each minute for 12 minutes and divided into three groups based on chest compression quality; good (compression depth ≥ 40 mm, compression rate 100-120/minute for each minute of CPR, bad (initial compression depth 120/minute or decay (change from good to bad during the 12 minutes. Changes in no-flow ratio (NFR, defined as the time without chest compressions divided by the total time of the ALS scenario over time was also measured. Results Based on compression depth, 5 (26%, 9 (47% and 5 (26% were good, bad and with decay, respectively. Only one paramedic experienced decay within the first two minutes. Based on compression rate, 6 (32%, 6 (32% and 7 (37% were good, bad and with decay, respectively. NFR was 22% in both the 1-3 and 4-6 minute periods, respectively, but decreased to 14% in the 7-9 minute period (P = 0.002 and to 10% in the 10-12 minute period (P Conclusions In this simulated cardiac arrest manikin study, only half of the providers achieved guideline recommended compression depth during prolonged ALS. Large inter-individual differences in chest compression quality were already present from the initiation of CPR. Chest compression decay and thereby fatigue within the first two minutes was rare.

  15. Hydroponics Database and Handbook for the Advanced Life Support Test Bed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, Allen J.

    1999-01-01

    During the summer 1998, I did student assistance to Dr. Daniel J. Barta, chief plant growth expert at Johnson Space Center - NASA. We established the preliminary stages of a hydroponic crop growth database for the Advanced Life Support Systems Integration Test Bed, otherwise referred to as BIO-Plex (Biological Planetary Life Support Systems Test Complex). The database summarizes information from published technical papers by plant growth experts, and it includes bibliographical, environmental and harvest information based on plant growth under varying environmental conditions. I collected 84 lettuce entries, 14 soybean, 49 sweet potato, 16 wheat, 237 white potato, and 26 mix crop entries. The list will grow with the publication of new research. This database will be integrated with a search and systems analysis computer program that will cross-reference multiple parameters to determine optimum edible yield under varying parameters. Also, we have made preliminary effort to put together a crop handbook for BIO-Plex plant growth management. It will be a collection of information obtained from experts who provided recommendations on a particular crop's growing conditions. It includes bibliographic, environmental, nutrient solution, potential yield, harvest nutritional, and propagation procedure information. This handbook will stand as the baseline growth conditions for the first set of experiments in the BIO-Plex facility.

  16. Requirements Development Issues for Advanced Life Support Systems: Solid Waste Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levri, Julie A.; Fisher, John W.; Alazraki, Michael P.; Hogan, John A.

    2002-01-01

    Long duration missions pose substantial new challenges for solid waste management in Advanced Life Support (ALS) systems. These possibly include storing large volumes of waste material in a safe manner, rendering wastes stable or sterilized for extended periods of time, and/or processing wastes for recovery of vital resources. This is further complicated because future missions remain ill-defined with respect to waste stream quantity, composition and generation schedule. Without definitive knowledge of this information, development of requirements is hampered. Additionally, even if waste streams were well characterized, other operational and processing needs require clarification (e.g. resource recovery requirements, planetary protection constraints). Therefore, the development of solid waste management (SWM) subsystem requirements for long duration space missions is an inherently uncertain, complex and iterative process. The intent of this paper is to address some of the difficulties in writing requirements for missions that are not completely defined. This paper discusses an approach and motivation for ALS SWM requirements development, the characteristics of effective requirements, and the presence of those characteristics in requirements that are developed for uncertain missions. Associated drivers for life support system technological capability are also presented. A general means of requirements forecasting is discussed, including successive modification of requirements and the need to consider requirements integration among subsystems.

  17. Development of expanded extrusion food products for an Advanced Life Support system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zasypkin, D V; Lee, T C

    1999-01-01

    Extrusion processing was proposed to provide texture and to expand the variety of cereal food products in an isolated Advanced Life Support (ALS) system. Rice, wheat, and soy are the baseline crops selected for growing during long-term manned space missions. A Brabender single-screw laboratory extruder (model 2003, L/D 20:1), equipped with round nozzles of various lengths, was used as a prototype of a small-size extruder. Several concepts were tested to extend the variety and improve the quality of the products, to decrease environmental loads, and to promote processing stability. These concepts include: the blending of wheat and soybean flour, the extrusion of a coarser rice flour, separation of wheat bran, and optimization of the extruder nozzle design. An optimal nozzle length has been established for the extrusion of rice flour. Bran separating was necessary to improve the quality of wheat extrudates.

  18. Solid Waste Management Requirements Definition for Advanced Life Support Missions: Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alazraki, Michael P.; Hogan, John; Levri, Julie; Fisher, John; Drysdale, Alan

    2002-01-01

    Prior to determining what Solid Waste Management (SWM) technologies should be researched and developed by the Advanced Life Support (ALS) Project for future missions, there is a need to define SWM requirements. Because future waste streams will be highly mission-dependent, missions need to be defined prior to developing SWM requirements. The SWM Working Group has used the mission architecture outlined in the System Integration, Modeling and Analysis (SIMA) Element Reference Missions Document (RMD) as a starting point in the requirement development process. The missions examined include the International Space Station (ISS), a Mars Dual Lander mission, and a Mars Base. The SWM Element has also identified common SWM functionalities needed for future missions. These functionalities include: acceptance, transport, processing, storage, monitoring and control, and disposal. Requirements in each of these six areas are currently being developed for the selected missions. This paper reviews the results of this ongoing effort and identifies mission-dependent resource recovery requirements.

  19. Postoperative Cardiac Arrest after Heart Surgery: Does Extracorporeal Perfusion Support a Paradigm Change in Management?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Gologorsky

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Early institution of extracorporeal perfusion support (ECPS may improve survival after cardiac arrest. Two patients sustained unexpected cardiac arrest in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU following cardiac interventions. ECPS was initiated due to failure to restore hemodynamics after prolonged (over 60 minutes advanced cardiac life support (ACLS protocol-guided cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Despite relatively late institution of ECPS, both patients survived with preserved neurological function. This communication focuses on the utility of ECPS in the ICU as a part of resuscitative efforts.

  20. Optical Breath Gas Extravehicular Activity Sensor for the Advanced Portable Life Support System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, William R.; Casias, Miguel E.; Pilgrim, Jeffrey S.; Chullen, Cinda; Campbell, Colin

    2016-01-01

    The function of the infrared gas transducer used during extravehicular activity (EVA) in the current space suit is to measure and report the concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the ventilation loop. The next generation portable life support system (PLSS) requires highly accurate CO2 sensing technology with performance beyond that presently in use on the International Space Station extravehicular mobility unit (EMU). Further, that accuracy needs to be provided over the full operating pressure range of the suit (3 to 25 psia). Accommodation within space suits demands that optical sensors meet stringent size, weight, and power requirements. A laser diode (LD) sensor based on infrared absorption spectroscopy is being developed for this purpose by Vista Photonics, Inc. Version 1.0 prototype devices were delivered to NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) in September 2011. The prototypes were upgraded with more sophisticated communications and faster response times to version 2.0 and delivered to JSC in July 2012. The sensors incorporate a laser diode based CO2 channel that also includes an incidental water vapor (humidity) measurement. The prototypes are controlled digitally with an field-programmable gate array microcontroller architecture. Based on the results of the iterative instrument development, further prototype development and testing of instruments were performed leveraging the lessons learned where feasible. The present development extends and upgrades the earlier hardware for the advanced PLSS 2.5 prototypes for testing at JSC. The prototypes provide significantly enhanced accuracy for water vapor measurement and eliminate wavelength drift affecting the earlier versions. Various improvements to the electronics and gas sampling are currently being advanced including the companion development of engineering development units that will ultimately be capable of radiation tolerance. The combination of low power electronics with the performance of a long wavelength

  1. Effect of Advanced Trauma Life Support program on medical interns' performance in simulated trauma patient management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Koorosh Ahmadi; Mohammad Sedaghat; Mahdi Safdarian; Amir Masoud Hashemian; Zahra Nezamdoust; Mohammad Vaseie; Vafa Rahimi-Movaghar

    2013-01-01

    Since appropriate and timetable methods in trauma care have an important impact on patients' outcome,we evaluated the effect of Advanced Trauma Life Support (ATLS) program on medical interns'performance in simulated trauma patient management.Methods:A descriptive and analytical study before and after the training was conducted on 24 randomly selected undergraduate medical interns from Imam Reza Hospital in Mashhad,Iran.On the first day,we assessed interns' clinical knowledge and their practical skill performance in confronting simulated trauma patients.After 2 days of ATLS training,we performed the same study and evaluated their score again on the fourth day.The two findings,preand post-ATLS periods,were compared through SPSS version 15.0 software.P values less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant.Results:Our findings showed that interns' ability in all the three tasks improved after the training course.On the fourth day after training,there was a statistically significant increase in interns' clinical knowledge of ATLS procedures,the sequence of procedures and skill performance in trauma situations (P<0.001,P=0.016 and P=0.01 respectively).Conclusion:ATLS course has an important role in increasing clinical knowledge and practical skill performance of trauma care in medical interns.

  2. Helmet Exhalation Capture System (HECS) Sizing Evaluation for an Advanced Space Suit Portable Life Support System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Heather L.; Waguespack, Glenn M.; Paul, Thomas H.; Conger, Bruce C.

    2008-01-01

    As part of NASA s initiative to develop an advanced portable life support system (PLSS), a baseline schematic has been chosen that includes gaseous oxygen in a closed circuit ventilation configuration. Supply oxygen enters the suit at the back of the helmet and return gases pass over the astronaut s body to be extracted at the astronaut s wrists and ankles through the liquid cooling and ventilation garment (LCVG). The extracted gases are then treated using a rapid cycling amine (RCA) system for carbon dioxide and water removal and activated carbon for trace gas removal before being mixed with makeup oxygen and reintroduced into the helmet. Thermal control is provided by a suit water membrane evaporator (SWME). As an extension of the original schematic development, NASA evaluated several Helmet Exhalation Capture System (HECS) configurations as alternatives to the baseline. The HECS configurations incorporate the use of full contact masks or non-contact masks to reduce flow requirements within the PLSS ventilation subsystem. The primary scope of this study was to compare the alternatives based on mass and volume considerations; however other design issues were also briefly investigated. This paper summarizes the results of this sizing analysis task.

  3. Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus as a food source in advanced life support systems: Initial considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, John M.; Brown, Paul B.

    2006-01-01

    Maintenance of crew health is of paramount importance for long duration space missions. Weight loss, bone and calcium loss, increased exposure to radiation and oxidative stress are critical concerns that need to be alleviated. Tilapia are currently under evaluation as a source of food and their contribution to reducing waste in advanced life support systems (ALSS). The nutritional composition of tilapia whole bodies, fillet, and carcass residues were quantitatively determined. Carbon and nitrogen free-extract percentages were similar among whole body (53.76% and 6.96%, respectively), fillets (47.06% and 6.75%, respectively), and carcass (56.36% and 7.04%, respectively) whereas percentages of N, S, and protein were highest in fillet (13.34, 1.34, and 83.37%, respectively) than whole body (9.27, 0.62, and 57.97%, respectively) and carcass (7.70, 0.39, and 48.15%, respectively). Whole body and fillet meet and/or exceeded current nutritional recommendations for protein, vitamin D, ascorbic acid, and selenium for international space station missions. Whole body appears to be a better source of lipids and n-3 fatty acids, calcium, and phosphorous than fillet. Consuming whole fish appears to optimize equivalent system mass compared to consumption of fillets. Additional research is needed to determine nutritional composition of tilapia whole body, fillet, and carcass when fed waste residues possibly encountered in an ALSS.

  4. Systems Engineering and Integration for Advanced Life Support System and HST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamarani, Ali K.

    2005-01-01

    Systems engineering (SE) discipline has revolutionized the way engineers and managers think about solving issues related to design of complex systems: With continued development of state-of-the-art technologies, systems are becoming more complex and therefore, a systematic approach is essential to control and manage their integrated design and development. This complexity is driven from integration issues. In this case, subsystems must interact with one another in order to achieve integration objectives, and also achieve the overall system's required performance. Systems engineering process addresses these issues at multiple levels. It is a technology and management process dedicated to controlling all aspects of system life cycle to assure integration at all levels. The Advanced Integration Matrix (AIM) project serves as the systems engineering and integration function for the Human Support Technology (HST) program. AIM provides means for integrated test facilities and personnel for performance trade studies, analyses, integrated models, test results, and validated requirements of the integration of HST. The goal of AIM is to address systems-level integration issues for exploration missions. It will use an incremental systems integration approach to yield technologies, baselines for further development, and possible breakthrough concepts in the areas of technological and organizational interfaces, total information flow, system wide controls, technical synergism, mission operations protocols and procedures, and human-machine interfaces.

  5. Clinical advances on Cardiac Insuffiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angel Julio Romero Cabrera

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Cardiac insuffiency is a complex clinical syndrome which constitutes a common final path to get in by the majority of the cardiac diseases. Studies based on the communitarian surveys shows that from 30 to 40 % of the patients decease within the first year of the diagnosis. The rest of the patients (from 60 to 70 % die within the 5 years after being diagnosed. For this reason it has been called as the ¨cancer of cardiology¨. The objective of this article is to update the advances reached in the clinical and therapeutic aspects of this important syndrome.

  6. The CELSS Antarctic Analog Project: An Advanced Life Support Testbed at the Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straight, Christian L.; Bubenheim, David L.; Bates, Maynard E.; Flynn, Michael T.

    1994-01-01

    CELSS Antarctic Analog Project (CAAP) represents a logical solution to the multiple objectives of both the NASA and the National Science Foundation (NSF). CAAP will result in direct transfer of proven technologies and systems, proven under the most rigorous of conditions, to the NSF and to society at large. This project goes beyond, as it must, the generally accepted scope of CELSS and life support systems including the issues of power generation, human dynamics, community systems, and training. CAAP provides a vivid and starkly realistic testbed of Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) and life support systems and methods. CAAP will also be critical in the development and validation of performance parameters for future advanced life support systems.

  7. The effect of the Advanced Paediatric Life Support course on perceived self-efficacy and use of resuscitation skills.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Turner, N.M.; Dierselhuis, M.P.; Draaisma, J.M.T.; Cate, O.T. ten

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Perceived self-efficacy is a predictor of behaviour and therefore an important dimension of resuscitation training which may have consequences for patient care. The Advanced Paediatric Life Support (APLS) course makes use of techniques which would be expected to increase self-efficacy. W

  8. Plant Growth Experiments in Zeoponic Substrates: Applications for Advanced Life Support Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming, Douglas W.; Gruener, J. E.; Henderson, K. E.; Steinberg, S. L.; Barta, D. J.; Galindo, C.; Henninger, D. L.

    2001-01-01

    A zeoponic plant-growth system is defined as the cultivation of plants in artificial soils, which have zeolites as a major component (Allen and Ming, 1995). Zeolites are crystalline, hydrated aluminosilicate minerals that have the ability to exchange constituent cations without major change of the mineral structure. Recently, zeoponic systems developed at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) slowly release some (Allen et at., 1995) or all of the essential plant-growth nutrients (Ming et at., 1995). These systems have NH4- and K-exchanged clinoptilolite (a natural zeolite) and either natural or synthetic apatite (a calcium phosphate mineral). For the natural apatite system, Ca and P were made available to the plant by the dissolution of apatite. Potassium and NH4-N were made available by ion-exchange reactions involving Ca(2+) from apatite dissolution and K(+) and NH4(+) on zeolitic exchange sites. In addition to NH4-N, K, Ca, and P, the synthetic apatite system also supplied Mg, S, and other micronutrients during dissolution (Figure 1). The overall objective of this research task is to develop zeoponic substrates wherein all plant growth nutrients are supplied by the plant growth medium for several growth seasons with only the addition of water. The substrate is being developed for plant growth in Advanced Life Support (ALS) testbeds (i.e., BioPLEX) and microgravity plant growth experiments. Zeoponic substrates have been used for plant growth experiments on two Space Shuttle flight experiments (STS-60; STS-63; Morrow et aI., 1995). These substrates may be ideally suited for plant growth experiments on the International Space Station and applications in ALS testbeds. However, there are several issues that need to be resolved before zeoponics will be the choice substrate for plant growth experiments in space. The objective of this paper is to provide an overview on recent research directed toward the refinement of zeoponic plant growth substrates.

  9. Practical Considerations of Waste Heat Reuse for a Mars Mission Advanced Life Support System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levri, Julie; Finn, Cory; Luna, Bernadette (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Energy conservation is a key issue in design optimization of Advanced Life Support Systems (ALSS) for long-term space missions. By considering designs for conservation at the system level, energy saving opportunities arise that would otherwise go unnoticed. This paper builds on a steady-state investigation of system-level waste heat reuse in an ALSS with a low degree of crop growth for a Mars mission. In past studies, such a system has been defined in terms of technology types, hot and cold stream identification and stream energy content. The maximum steady-state potential for power and cooling savings within the system was computed via the Pinch Method. In this paper, several practical issues are considered for achieving a pragmatic estimate of total system savings in terms of equivalent system mass (ESM), rather than savings solely in terms of power and cooling. In this paper, more realistic ESM savings are computed by considering heat transfer inefficiencies during material transfer. An estimate of the steady-state mass, volume and crewtime requirements associated with heat exchange equipment is made by considering heat exchange equipment material type and configuration, stream flow characteristics and associated energy losses during the heat exchange process. Also, previously estimated power and cooling savings are adjusted to reflect the impact of such energy losses. This paper goes one step further than the traditional Pinch Method of considering waste heat reuse in heat exchangers to include ESM savings that occur with direct reuse of a stream. For example, rather than exchanging heat between crop growth lamp cooling air and air going to a clothes dryer, air used to cool crop lamps might be reused directly for clothes drying purposes. When thermodynamically feasible, such an approach may increase ESM savings by minimizing the mass, volume and crewtime requirements associated with stream routing equipment.

  10. Comparison of severe trauma care effect before and after advanced trauma life support training

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Peng; LI Neng-ping; GU Yong-feng; LU Xiao-bing; CONG Jian-nong; YANG Xin; LING Yun

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To study the emergency care effect of in-hospital severe trauma patients with the injury severity score (ISS)≥ 16 after medical staff received advanced trauma life support (ATLS) training.Methods: ATLS training was implemented by lectures,scenarios, field practices, and examinations. The clinical effect of in-hospital severe trauma care was compared 2 years before and after ATLS training.Results: During 2 years (from January 1, 2004, to December 31, 2005) before ATLS training, 438 cases of severe trauma were admitted and treated emergently in our department. Among them, ISS score was 28.6±7.8 on average, and 87 cases died with the mortality of 19.9%. The duration in emergency department and from admission to operation were 69.5 min±l 1.5 min and 89.6 min±9.3 min respectively. Two years (from January 1,2007, to December 31, 2008) after ATLS training, 382 cases of severe trauma were admitted and treated. The ISS was 25.3 ±6.1 on average and 62 cases died with the mortality of 15.1%. The duration in emergency department and from admission to operation were 47.8 min±10.7 min and 61.5 min±9.9 min respectively. The ISS score showed no significant difference between the two groups (P>0.05), but the mortality, the duration in emergency department and from admission to operation were markedly decreased after ATLS training and showed significant difference between the two groups (P<0.05).Conclusion: ATLS course training can improve the emergency care effect of in-hospital severe trauma patients,and should be put into practice as soon as possible in China.

  11. Evaluation of the effects of the Advanced Paediatric Life-Support course

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Turner, N.M.

    2008-01-01

    Doctors are generally unacceptably poor at resuscitation and this has been shown to lead to unnecessary mortality. This problem has led to the development of structured resuscitation training in the form of life-support courses, which have become very popular and are widely advocated, but which are

  12. The Utilization of Urine Processing for the Advancement of Life Support Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossi-Soyster, Elysse; Hogan, John; Flynn, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The success of long-duration missions will depend on resource recovery and the self-sustainability of life support technologies. Current technologies used on the International Space Station (ISS) utilize chemical and mechanical processes, such as filtration, to recover potable water from urine produced by crewmembers. Such technologies have significantly reduced the need for water resupply through closed-loop resource recovery and recycling. Harvesting the important components of urine requires selectivity, whether through the use of membranes or other physical barriers, or by chemical or biological processes. Given the chemical composition of urine, the downstream benefits of urine processing for resource recovery will be critical for many aspects of life support, such as food production and the synthesis of biofuels. This paper discusses the beneficial components of urine and their potential applications, and the challenges associated with using urine for nutrient recycling for space application.

  13. Emergency coronary angiography in comatose cardiac arrest patients:do real-life experiences support the guidelines?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bro-Jeppesen, John; Kjaergaard, Jesper; Wanscher, Michael;

    2012-01-01

    To describe the use of emergency coronary angiography (CAG) and primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and the association with short- and long-term survival in consecutive comatose survivors after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA).......To describe the use of emergency coronary angiography (CAG) and primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and the association with short- and long-term survival in consecutive comatose survivors after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA)....

  14. A randomised control trial to determine if use of the iResus© application on a smart phone improves the performance of an advanced life support provider in a simulated medical emergency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, D; Clark, N; Soar, J; Padkin, A; Stoneham, A; Perkins, G D; Nolan, J

    2011-04-01

    This study sought to determine whether using the Resuscitation Council UK's iResus© application on a smart phone improves the performance of doctors trained in advanced life support in a simulated emergency. Thirty-one doctors (advanced life support-trained within the previous 48 months) were recruited. All received identical training using the smart phone and the iResus application. The participants were randomly assigned to a control group (no smart phone) and a test group (access to iResus on smart phone). Both groups were tested using a validated extended cardiac arrest simulation test (CASTest) scoring system. The primary outcome measure was the overall cardiac arrest simulation test score; these were significantly higher in the smart phone group (median (IQR [range]) 84.5 (75.5-92.5 [64-96])) compared with the control group (72 (62-87 [52-95]); p=0.02). Use of the iResus application significantly improves the performance of an advanced life support-certified doctor during a simulated medical emergency. Further studies are needed to determine if iResus can improve care in the clinical setting.

  15. Proposed Schematics for an Advanced Development Lunar Portable Life Support System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conger, Bruce; Chullen, Cinda; Barnes, Bruce; Leavitt, Greg

    2010-01-01

    The latest development of the NASA space suit is an integrated assembly made up of primarily a Pressure Garment System (PGS) and a Portable Life Support System (PLSS). The PLSS is further composed of an oxygen (O2) subsystem, a ventilation subsystem, and a thermal subsystem. This paper baselines a detailed schematic of the PLSS to provide a basis for current and future PLSS development efforts. Both context diagrams and detailed schematics describe the hardware components and overall functions for all three of the PLSS subsystems. The various modes of operations for the PLSS are also presented. A comparison of the proposed PLSS to the Apollo and Shuttle PLSS designs is presented, highlighting several anticipated improvements over the historical PLSS architectures.

  16. Extracorporeal life support for refractory ventricular tachycardia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Nicholas; Hofmann, James P.; Saranteas, Theodosios; Papadimos, Thomas J.

    2017-01-01

    Extracorporeal life support (ECLS) is a very effective bridging therapy in patients with refractory ventricular tachycardia (VT) associated with cardiogenic shock. A moribund patient in extremis, is not amenable to optimization by standard ACC/AHA guidelines. New approaches and novel salvage techniques are necessary to improve outcomes in patients with refractory clinical settings such as malignant ventricular arrhythmias, cardiac arrest, cardiogenic shock and/or pulmonary failure until further management options are explored. Data base searches were done using key words such as ECLS, VT, cardiac arrest, VT ablation, venoarterial extra-corporeal membrane oxygenation (VA-ECMO). The use of ECLS has been described in a few case reports to facilitate VT ablation for incessant VT refractory to medical therapy. For patients with, out-of- hospital ventricular fibrillation (VF) and VT, Minnesota Resuscitation Consortium has implemented emergent advanced perfusion and reperfusion strategy, followed by coronary angiography and primary coronary intervention to improve outcome. The major indications for ECLS are cardiogenic shock related to acute myocardial infarction, myocarditis, post embolic acute cor pulmonale, drug intoxication and post cardiac arrest syndrome with the threat of multi-organ failure. ECLS permits the use of negative inotropic antiarrhythmic drug therapy, facilitates the weaning of catecholamine administration, thereby ending the vicious cycle of catecholamine driven electric storm. ECLS provides hemodynamic support during ablation procedure, while mapping and induction of VT is undertaken. ECLS provides early access to cardiac catheterization laboratory in patients with cardiac arrest due to shockable rhythm. The current evidence from literature, supports the use of ECLS to ensure adequate vital organ perfusion in patients with refractory VT. ECLS is a safe, feasible and effective therapeutic option when conventional therapies are insufficient to support

  17. [Six years of Advanced Trauma Life Support (ATLS) in Germany: the 100th provider course in Hamburg].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Münzberg, M; Mahlke, L; Bouillon, B; Paffrath, T; Matthes, G; Wölfl, C G

    2010-07-01

    With over 1 million certified physicians in more than 50 countries worldwide, the Advanced Trauma Life Support (ATLS) concept is one of the most successful international education programs. The concept is simple, priority-orientated (ABCDE scheme) and assesses the situation of the trauma patient on the basis of vital signs to treat the life-threatening injuries immediately. With over 100 ATLS provider courses and 10 instruction courses accomplished in less than 6 years, no other land in the world has successfully established this concept in such a short time as Germany. Meanwhile nearly 1,600 colleagues have been trained and certified. Evaluation of the first 100 ATLS courses in Germany supports this concept. The total evaluation of all courses is 1.36 (1.06-1.8, n=100). The individual parts of the course were marked as followed: presentations 1.6 (1.0-2.81, n=100), practical skills stations 1.46 (1.0-2.4, n=100) and surgical skills stations 1.38 (1.0-2.38, n=100). In 2009 a total of 47 ATLS courses were accomplished which will clearly increase in 2010. Other ATLS formats, such as ATCN (Advanced Trauma Care for Nurses) and refresher courses are planned for the beginning of 2010.

  18. Advanced anaerobic bioconversion of lignocellulosic waste for the melissa life support system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lissens, G.; Verstraete, W.; Albrecht, T.; Brunner, G.; Creuly, C.; Dussap, G.; Kube, J.; Maerkl, H.; Lasseur, C.

    The feasibility of nearly-complete conversion of lignocellulosic waste (70% food crops, 20% faecal matter and 10% green algae) into biogas was investigated in the context of the MELiSSA loop (Micro-Ecological Life Support System Alternative). The treatment comprised a series of processes, i.e. a mesophilic laboratory scale CSTR (continuously stirred tank reactor), an upflow biofilm reactor, a fiber liquefaction reactor employing the rumen bacterium Fibrobacter succinogenes and a hydrothermolysis system in near-critical water. By the one-stage CSTR, a biogas yield of 75% with a specific biogas production of 0.37 l biogas g-1 VSS (volatile suspended solids) added at a RT (hydraulic retention time) of 20-25 d was obtained. Biogas yields could not be increased considerably at higher RT, indicating the depletion of readily available substrate after 25 d. The solids present in the CSTR-effluent were subsequently treated in two ways. Hydrothermal treatment (T ˜ 310-350C, p ˜ 240 bar) resulted in effective carbon liquefaction (50-60% without and 83% with carbon dioxide saturation) and complete sanitation of the residue. Application of the cellulolytic Fibrobacter succinogenes converted remaining cellulose contained in the CSTR-effluent into acetate and propionate mainly. Subsequent anaerobic digestion of the hydrothermolysis and the Fibrobacter hydrolysates allowed conversion of 48-60% and 30%, respectively. Thus, the total process yielded biogas corresponding with conversions up to 90% of the original organic matter. It appears that particularly mesophilic digestion in conjunction with hydrothermolysis offers interesting features for (nearly) the MELiSSA system. The described additional technologies show that complete and hygienic carbon and energy recovery from human waste within MELiSSA is technically feasible, provided that the extra energy needed for the thermal treatment is guaranteed.

  19. The Giant Snail Achatina fulica as a Candidate Species for Advanced Bioregenerative Life Support Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbitskaya, Olga; Manukovsky, Nickolay; Kovalev, Vladimir

    Maintenance of crew health is of paramount importance for long duration space missions. Weight loss, bone and calcium loss, increased exposure to radiation and oxidative stress are critical concerns that need to be alleviated. Rational nutrition is a resource for mitigating the influence of unfavorable conditions. The insufficiency of vegetarian diet has been examined by the Japanese, Chinese and U.S. developers of bioregenerative life support systems (BLSS). Hence, inclusion of animals such as silkworm in BLSS looks justified. The giant snail is currently under studying as a source of animal food and a species of reducing waste in BLSS. An experimental system to conduct cultivation of giant snail was developed. It was established that there are some reasons to use the giant snails in BLSS. It could be a source of delicious meat. A. fulica is capable of consuming a wide range of feedstuffs including plant residues. Cultivation of snail in the limited volume does not demand the big expenditures of labor. The production of crude edible biomass and protein of A. fulica was 60±15 g and 7±1.8 g respectively per 1 kg of consumed forage (fresh salad leaves, root and leafy tops of carrot). To satisfy daily animal protein needs (30-35 g) a crewman has to consume 260-300 g of snail meat. To produce such amount of snail protein it takes to use 4.3-5.0 kg of plant forage daily. The nutritional composition of A. fulica whole bodies (without shell) and a meal prepared in various ways was quantitatively determined. Protein, carbohydrate, fat acid and ash content percentages were different among samples prepared in various ways. The protein content was highest (68 %) in the dry sample washed with CH3 COOH solution. Taking into consideration the experimental results a conceptual configuration of BLSS with inclusion of giant snail was developed and mass flow rates between compartments were calculated. Keywords: animal food; protein; giant snail; BLSS; conceptual configuration.

  20. Hospital Costs Of Extracorporeal Life Support Therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oude Lansink-Hartgring, Annemieke; van den Hengel, Berber; van der Bij, Wim; Erasmus, Michiel E.; Mariani, Massimo A.; Rienstra, Michiel; Cernak, Vladimir; Vermeulen, Karin M.; van den Bergh, Walter M.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To conduct an exploration of the hospital costs of extracorporeal life support therapy. Extracorporeal life support seems an efficient therapy for acute, potentially reversible cardiac or respiratory failure, when conventional therapy has been inadequate, or as bridge to transplant, but

  1. Application of NASA's Advanced Life Support Technologies for Waste Treatment, Water Purification and Recycle, and Food Production in Polar Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bubenheim, David L.; Lewis, Carol E.; Covington, M. Alan (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    NASA's advanced life support technologies are being combined with Arctic science and engineering knowledge to address the unique needs of the remote communities of Alaska through the Advanced Life Systems for Extreme Environments (ALSEE) project. ALSEE is a collaborative effort involving NASA, the State of Alaska, the University of Alaska, the North Slope Borough of Alaska, and the National Science Foundation (NSF). The focus is a major issue in the state of Alaska and other areas of the Circumpolar North, the health and welfare of its people, their lives and the subsistence lifestyle in remote communities, economic opportunity, and care for the environment. The project primarily provides treatment and reduction of waste, purification and recycling of water. and production of food. A testbed is being established to demonstrate the technologies which will enable safe, healthy, and autonomous function of remote communities and to establish the base for commercial development of the resulting technology into new industries. The challenge is to implement the technological capabilities in a manner compatible with the social and economic structures of the native communities, the state, and the commercial sector. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  2. Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporator; An Enhanced Evaporative Cooling Systems for the Advanced Extravehicular Mobility Unit Portable Life Support System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bue, Grant C.; Makinen, Janice V.; Miller, Sean.; Campbell, Colin; Lynch, Bill; Vogel, Matt; Craft, Jesse; Petty, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporator - Baseline heat rejection technology for the Portable Life Support System of the Advanced EMU center dot Replaces sublimator in the current EMU center dot Contamination insensitive center dot Can work with Lithium Chloride Absorber Radiator in Spacesuit Evaporator Absorber Radiator (SEAR) to reject heat and reuse evaporated water The Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporator (SWME) is being developed to replace the sublimator for future generation spacesuits. Water in LCVG absorbs body heat while circulating center dot Warm water pumped through SWME center dot SWME evaporates water vapor, while maintaining liquid water - Cools water center dot Cooled water is then recirculated through LCVG. center dot LCVG water lost due to evaporation (cooling) is replaced from feedwater The Independent TCV Manifold reduces design complexity and manufacturing difficulty of the SWME End Cap. center dot The offset motor for the new BPV reduces the volume profile of the SWME by laying the motor flat on the End Cap alongside the TCV.

  3. Advances in nutrition support for quality of life in HIV+/AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suttajit, Maitree

    2007-01-01

    Globally, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is an epidemic, severe and fatal disease. Along with the etiological factors of human immunodeficiency virus infection (HIV+) and decreased immunity, there are a number of other risk factors including opportunistic infection, malnutrition, wasting syndrome, and oxidative stress. The nutritional problems have been shown to be significant and contribute to health and death in HIV+/AIDS patients. Weight loss, lean tissue depletion, lipoatrophy, loss of appetite, diarrhea, and the hypermetabolic state each increase risk of death. The role of nutrition and how oxidative stress is involved in the pathogenesis of HIV+ leading to AIDS is reviewed. Studies consistently show that serum antioxidant vitamins and minerals decrease while oxidative stress increases during AIDS progression. The optimization of nutritional status, intervention with foods and supplements, including nutrients and other bio-active food components, are needed to maintain the immune system. Various food components may be recommended to reduce the incidence and severity of infectious illnesses by forms of bio-protection which include reduced oxidative stress due to reactive oxygen species which stimulate HIV replication and AIDS progression. Probiotics or lactic acid bacteria and prebiotics are sometimes given on the presumed basis that they help maintain integrity of mucosal surfaces, improve antibody responses and increase white blood cell production. People with HIV+/AIDS can be informed about the basic concepts of optimal nutrition by identifying key foods and nutrients, along with lifestyle changes, that contribute to a strengthened immune system. Moreover, nutritional management, counseling and education should be beneficial to the quality and extension of life in AIDS.

  4. Closed-Loop Life Support Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, John W.

    2003-01-01

    Contents include the following: 1. Advanced life support requirements document-high level: (a) high level requirements and standards, (b) advanced life support requirements documents-air, food, water. 2. Example technologies that satisfy requrements: air system-carbon dioxide removal. 3. Air-sabatter. 4. International Space Station water treatment subsystem.5. Direct osmotic concentrator. 6. Mass, volume and power estimates.

  5. The capabilities and scope-of-practice requirements of advanced life support practitioners undertaking critical care transfers: A Delphi study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monique Venter

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background. Critical care transfers (CCT refer to the high level of care given during transport (via ambulance, helicopter or fixed-wing aircraft of patients who are of high acuity. In South Africa (SA, advanced life support (ALS paramedics undertake CCTs. The scope of ALS in SA has no extended protocol regarding procedures or medications in terms of dealing with these CCTs. Aim. The aim of this study was to obtain the opinions of several experts in fields pertaining to critical care and transport and to gain consensus on the skills and scope-of-practice requirements of paramedics undertaking CCTs in the SA setting. Methods. A modified Delphi study consisting of three rounds was undertaken using an online survey platform. A heterogeneous sample (n=7, consisting of specialists in the fields of anaesthesiology, emergency medicine, internal medicine, critical care, critical care transport and paediatrics, was asked to indicate whether, in their opinion, selected procedures and medications were needed within the scope of practice of paramedics undertaking CCTs. Results. After three rounds, consensus was obtained in 70% (57/81 of procedures and medications. Many of these items are not currently within the scope of paramedics’ training. The panel felt that paramedics undertaking these transfers should have additional postgraduate training that is specific to critical care. Conclusion. Major discrepancies exist between the current scope of paramedic practice and the suggested required scope of practice for CCTs. An extended scope of practice and additional training should be considered for these practitioners.

  6. Teaching paediatric resuscitation skills in a developing country: introduction of the Advanced Paediatric Life Support course into Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Simon; Hutchinson, Adrian; Nguyen, Van Tu; Le, Thanh Hai; Nguyen, Dich Van; Vo, Thi Kim Hue

    2008-06-01

    In 2001, a nationwide study revealed deficiencies in the emergency care of seriously ill and injured children in Vietnam. In response, a project was initiated to conduct the Advanced Paediatric Life Support course in Vietnam and ascertain whether this course would provide a practical and sustainable method of improving the knowledge and skills of medical and nursing staff in this area. After approval to use the course was secured and funding obtained, the project commenced in 2003. Key Vietnamese personnel travelled to Australia to complete the course, undertake instructor training and gain organizational experience. Teaching materials were translated, reviewed and modified to account for local diseases and clinical practices while maintaining the fundamental principles of the parent course. Commencing in March 2004, 10 courses were conducted by Australian and Vietnamese instructors, training 239 doctors and nurses from a wide variety of clinical backgrounds. Additionally, three instructor courses were conducted, training 52 new instructors. As the skill and confidence of the Vietnamese instructors grew, the number and responsibilities of the international faculty reduced. The infrastructure now exists for the course to operate in a sustainable fashion within Vietnam. We believe that this project demonstrates that the course can be successfully modified to provide teaching in paediatric emergency care in a developing country.

  7. Influence of airway management strategy on "no-flow-time" during an "Advanced life support course" for intensive care nurses – A single rescuer resuscitation manikin study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahr Jan

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In 1999, the laryngeal tube (VBM Medizintechnik, Sulz, Germany was introduced as a new supraglottic airway. It was designed to allow either spontaneous breathing or controlled ventilation during anaesthesia; additionally it may serve as an alternative to endotracheal intubation, or bag-mask ventilation during resuscitation. Several variations of this supraglottic airway exist. In our study, we compared ventilation with the laryngeal tube suction for single use (LTS-D and a bag-mask device. One of the main points of the revised ERC 2005 guidelines is a low no-flow-time (NFT. The NFT is defined as the time during which no chest compression occurs. Traditionally during the first few minutes of resuscitation NFT is very high. We evaluated the hypothesis that utilization of the LTS-D could reduce the NFT compared to bag-mask ventilation (BMV during simulated cardiac arrest in a single rescuer manikin study. Methods Participants were studied during a one day advanced life support (ALS course. Two scenarios of arrhythmias requiring defibrillation were simulated in a manikin. One scenario required subjects to establish the airway with a LTS-D; alternatively, the second scenario required them to use BMV. The scenario duration was 430 seconds for the LTS-D scenario, and 420 seconds for the BMV scenario, respectively. Experienced ICU nurses were recruited as study subjects. Participants were randomly assigned to one of the two groups first (LTS-D and BMV to establish the airway. Endpoints were the total NFT during the scenario, the successful airway management using the respective device, and participants' preference of one of the two strategies for airway management. Results Utilization of the LTS-D reduced NFT significantly (p Conclusion In our manikin study, NFT was reduced significantly when using LTS-D compared to BMV. During cardiac arrest, the LTS-D might be a good alternative to BMV for providing and maintaining a patent airway

  8. Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporator; An Enhanced Evaporative Cooling System for the Advanced Extravehicular Mobility Unit Portable Life Support System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bue, Grant C.; Makinen, Janice V.; Miller, Sean; Campbell, Colin; Lynch, Bill; Vogel, Matt; Craft, Jesse; Wilkes, Robert; Kuehnel, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Development of the Advanced Extravehicular Mobility Unit (AEMU) portable life support subsystem (PLSS) is currently under way at NASA Johnson Space Center. The AEMU PLSS features a new evaporative cooling system, the Generation 4 Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporator (Gen4 SWME). The SWME offers several advantages when compared with prior crewmember cooling technologies, including the ability to reject heat at increased atmospheric pressures, reduced loop infrastructure, and higher tolerance to fouling. Like its predecessors, Gen4 SWME provides nominal crew member and electronics cooling by flowing water through porous hollow fibers. Water vapor escapes through the hollow fiber pores, thereby cooling the liquid water that remains inside of the fibers. This cooled water is then recirculated to remove heat from the crew member and PLSS electronics. Test results from the backup cooling system which is based on a similar design and the subject of a companion paper, suggested that further volume reductions could be achieved through fiber density optimization. Testing was performed with four fiber bundle configurations ranging from 35,850 fibers to 41,180 fibers. The optimal configuration reduced the Gen4 SWME envelope volume by 15% from that of Gen3 while dramatically increasing the performance margin of the system. A rectangular block design was chosen over the Gen3 cylindrical design, for packaging configurations within the AEMU PLSS envelope. Several important innovations were made in the redesign of the backpressure valve which is used to control evaporation. A twin-port pivot concept was selected from among three low profile valve designs for superior robustness, control and packaging. The backpressure valve motor, the thermal control valve, delta pressure sensors and temperature sensors were incorporated into the manifold endcaps, also for packaging considerations. Flight-like materials including a titanium housing were used for all components. Performance testing

  9. Effectiveness of beneficial plant-microbe interactions under hypobaric and hypoxic conditions in an advanced life support system

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacIntyre, Olathe; Stasiak, Michael; Cottenie, Karl; Trevors, Jack; Dixon, Mike

    An assembled microbial community in the hydroponics solution of an advanced life support system may improve plant performance and productivity in three ways: (1) exclusion of plant pathogens from the initial community, (2) resistance to infection, and (3) plant-growth promotion. However, the plant production area is likely to have a hypobaric (low pressure) and hypoxic (low oxygen) atmosphere to reduce structural mass and atmosphere leakage, and these conditions may alter plant-microbe interactions. Plant performance and productivity of radish (Raphanus sativus L. cv. Cherry Bomb II) grown under hypobaric and hypoxic conditions were investigated at the University of Guelph's Controlled Environment Systems Research Facility. Changes in the microbial communities that routinely colonized the re-circulated nutrient solution, roots, and leaves of radishes in these experiments were quantified in terms of similarity in community composition, abundance of bacteria, and community diversity before and after exposure to hypobaric and hypoxic conditions relative to communities maintained at ambient growth conditions. The microbial succession was affected by extreme hypoxia (2 kPa oxygen partial pressure) while hypobaria as low as 10 kPa total pressure had little effect on microbial ecology. There were no correlations found between the physiological profile of these unintentional microbial communities and radish growth. The effects of hypobaric and hypoxic conditions on specific plant-microbe interactions need to be determined before beneficial gnotobiotic communities can be developed for use in space. The bacterial strains Tal 629 of Bradyrhizobium japonicum and WCS417 of Pseudomonas fluorescens, and the plant pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. raphani will be used in future experiments. B. japonicum Tal 629 promotes radish growth in hydroponics systems and P. fluorescens WCS417 induces systemic resistance to fusarium wilt (F. oxysporum f. sp. raphani) in radish under ambient

  10. Distilling complexity to advance cardiac tissue engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Ogle, Brenda M.; Bursac, Nenad; Domian, Ibrahim; Huang, Ngan F.; Menasché, Philippe; Murry, Charles; Pruitt, Beth; Radisic, Milica; Wu, Joseph C; Wu, Sean M.; Zhang, Jianyi; Zimmermann, Wolfram-Hubertus; Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana

    2016-01-01

    The promise of cardiac tissue engineering is in the ability to recapitulate in vitro the functional aspects of healthy heart and disease pathology as well as to design replacement muscle for clinical therapy. Parts of this promise have been realized; others have not. In a meeting of scientists in this field, five central challenges or “big questions” were articulated that, if addressed, could substantially advance the current state-of-the-art in modeling heart disease and realizing heart repa...

  11. Effect of High-Fidelity Simulation on Medical Students' Knowledge about Advanced Life Support: A Randomized Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Cortegiani

    Full Text Available High-fidelity simulation (HFS is a learning method which has proven effective in medical education for technical and non-technical skills. However, its effectiveness for knowledge acquisition is less validated. We performed a randomized study with the primary aim of investigating whether HFS, in association with frontal lessons, would improve knowledge about advanced life support (ALS, in comparison to frontal lessons only among medical students. The secondary aims were to evaluate the effect of HFS on knowledge acquisition of different sections of ALS and personal knowledge perception. Participants answered a pre-test questionnaire consisting of a subjective (evaluating personal perception of knowledge and an objective section (measuring level of knowledge containing 100 questions about algorithms, technical skills, team working/early warning scores/communication strategies according to ALS guidelines. All students participated in 3 frontal lessons before being randomized in group S, undergoing a HFS session, and group C, receiving no further interventions. After 10 days from the end of each intervention, both groups answered a questionnaire (post-test with the same subjective section but a different objective one. The overall number of correct answers of the post-test was significantly higher in group S (mean 74.1, SD 11.2 than in group C (mean 65.5, SD 14.3, p = 0.0017, 95% C.I. 3.34 - 13.9. A significantly higher number of correct answers was reported in group S than in group C for questions investigating knowledge of algorithms (p = 0.0001; 95% C.I 2.22-5.99 and team working/early warning scores/communication strategies (p = 0.0060; 95% C.I 1.13-6.53. Students in group S showed a significantly higher score in the post-test subjective section (p = 0.0074. A lower proportion of students in group S confirmed their perception of knowledge compared to group C (p = 0.0079. HFS showed a beneficial effect on knowledge of ALS among medical students

  12. Trends in biomedical engineering: focus on Patient Specific Modeling and Life Support Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubini, Gabriele; Ambrosi, Davide; Bagnoli, Paola; Boschetti, Federica; Caiani, Enrico G; Chiastra, Claudio; Conti, Carlo A; Corsini, Chiara; Costantino, Maria Laura; D'Angelo, Carlo; Formaggia, Luca; Fumero, Roberto; Gastaldi, Dario; Migliavacca, Francesco; Morlacchi, Stefano; Nobile, Fabio; Pennati, Giancarlo; Petrini, Lorenza; Quarteroni, Alfio; Redaelli, Alberto; Stevanella, Marco; Veneziani, Alessandro; Vergara, Christian; Votta, Emiliano; Wu, Wei; Zunino, Paolo

    2011-01-01

    Over the last twenty years major advancements have taken place in the design of medical devices and personalized therapies. They have paralleled the impressive evolution of three-dimensional, non invasive, medical imaging techniques and have been continuously fuelled by increasing computing power and the emergence of novel and sophisticated software tools. This paper aims to showcase a number of major contributions to the advancements of modeling of surgical and interventional procedures and to the design of life support systems. The selected examples will span from pediatric cardiac surgery procedures to valve and ventricle repair techniques, from stent design and endovascular procedures to life support systems and innovative ventilation techniques.

  13. Development of Metal-impregnated Single Walled Carbon Nanotubes for Toxic Gas Contaminant Control in Advanced Life Support Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cinke, Martin; Li, Jing; Chen, Bin; Wignarajah, Kanapathipillai; Pisharody, Suresh A.; Fisher, John W.; Delzeit, Lance; Meyyappan, Meyya; Partridge, Harry; Clark, Kimberlee

    2003-01-01

    The success of physico-chemical waste processing and resource recovery technologies for life support application depends partly on the ability of gas clean-up systems to efficiently remove trace contaminants generated during the process with minimal use of expendables. Highly purified metal-impregnated carbon nanotubes promise superior performance over conventional approaches to gas clean-up due to their ability to direct the selective uptake gaseous species based both on the nanotube s controlled pore size, high surface area, and ordered chemical structure that allows functionalization and on the nanotube s effectiveness as a catalyst support material for toxic contaminants removal. We present results on the purification of single walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) and efforts at metal impregnation of the SWCNT's.

  14. Recent advances in paediatric cardiac anaesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahesh Vakamudi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Paediatric cardiac anaesthesia involves anaesthetizing very small children with complex congenital heart disease for major surgical procedures. The unique nature of this patient population requires considerable expertise and in-depth knowledge of the altered physiology. There have been several developments in the last decade in this subspecialty that has contributed to better care and improved outcome in this vulnerable group of patients. The purpose of this review is to present some of the recent advances in the anesthetic management of these children from preoperative evaluation to postoperative care. This article reviews the role of magnetic resonance imaging and contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography in preoperative evaluation, the use of ultrasound to secure vascular access, the use of cuffed endotracheal tubes, the optimal haematocrit and the role of blood products, including the use of recombinant factor VIIa. It also deals with the advances in technology that have led to improved monitoring, the newer developments in cardiopulmonary bypass, the use of centrifugal pumps and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation and the role of DHCA. The role of new drugs, especially the α-2 agonists in paediatric cardiac anesthetic practice, fast tracking and effective postoperative pain management have also been reviewed.

  15. Relationship between quality of life and clinical outcomes in advanced non-small cell lung cancer: best supportive care (BSC) versus BSC plus chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thongprasert, S; Sanguanmitra, P; Juthapan, W; Clinch, J

    1999-04-01

    In a prospective randomized study, 287 patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) stage IIIb or IV with ECOG performance status (PS) 0-1 or 2 were randomly assigned to receive either best supportive care (BSC) or supportive care plus combination chemotherapy (IEP regimen: ifosfamide 3 gm/m2 IV with mesna uroprotection, epirubicin 60 mg/m2 IV on day 1 and cisplatin 60 mg/m2 IV on day 2; or MVP regimen: mitomycin-C 8 mg/m2, cisplatin 100 mg/m2 IV on day 1, vinblastine 4 mg/m2 IV on days 1 and 15). Serial assessment of Karnofsky performance status (KPS), modified Functional Living Index-Cancer (T-FLIC) and modified Quality of Life-Index (T-QLI) were used to estimate the quality of life. Interviews were done at entry, at the third month and at 2 months post complete treatment. At least two courses of chemotherapy were considered to be adequate for response evaluation. Patients were treated for a total of four to six courses or until progression of disease. Partial response rates were 40 and 41.7% in IEP and MVP arms. Median survival durations were 5.9 and 8.1 months for the IEP and MVP chemotherapy arms, and 4.1 months for BSC (log-rank test: P = 0.0003). One year survival was 13, 29.8 and 39.3% for the BSC, IEP and MVP regimens, respectively. Two years survival was 7.8, 6.4 and 13.1% for the BSC, IEP and MVP regimens, respectively. Improvement in quality of life (QOL) scores at the first, second and third interview were seen in chemotherapy arms only, not in the BSC arm. We conclude that combination chemotherapy improves the quality of life as well as prolonging the survival of patients with advanced NSCLC.

  16. [Life-support training to improve the clinical competence of pharmacy students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takamura, Norito; Tokunaga, Jin; Ogata, Kenji; Yoshida, Hiroki; Setoguchi, Nao

    2010-04-01

    Life-support (particularly, advanced life-support) training is not included in pharmacist education; however, the life-support should be mastered since a pharmacist is a medical professional. We consider it to be important to master other skills before the life-support practicing, because a pharmacist does not check a patient to assess their clinical condition and administer drugs (suppository, intravenous injection etc.) The pharmacist prepares medicines, but does not administer medicines to treat the patient. Furthermore, the pharmacist is not interested in the vital signs of the patient receiving the medicines (the pharmacist has not identified the patient has complaint from changes in vital signs), which is why pharmacists can not develop themselves as medical professionals. Based on this observation, life-support training should be considered. In other words, to foster pharmacists with high clinical competence, pharmacy students should receive life-support training after training in drug administration and vital sign checks in a bedside training room. Drug administration using a pharmacy system versatile-type training model and pharmacy training model, vital signs check and auscultation using a physical assessment model and a cardiac disease disorder simulator in our bedside practice are useful for advanced life-support using a high-performance care simulator (monitoring vital signs, adrenalin administration and oxygen inhalation for ventricular fibrillation (VF). These training skills can improve the clinical competence of pharmacy students.

  17. Advances in cardiac magnetic resonance imaging of congenital heart disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driessen, Mieke M P; Breur, Johannes M. P. J.; Budde, Ricardo P J; van Oorschot, Joep W M; van Kimmenade, Roland R J; Sieswerda, Gertjan Tj.; Meijboom, Folkert J; Leiner, Tim

    2015-01-01

    Due to advances in cardiac surgery, survival of patients with congenital heart disease has increased considerably during the past decades. Many of these patients require repeated cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging to assess cardiac anatomy and function. In the past decade, technological advan

  18. Newly graduated doctors' competence in managing cardiopulmonary arrests assessed using a standardized Advanced Life Support (ALS) assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Marianne Lidang; Hesselfeldt, R.; Rasmussen, M.B.

    2008-01-01

    Support Provider (ALS) examination standards as issued by the European Resuscitation Council (ERC). The emergency medicine course is con- ducted at three different university hospital teaching sites and teaching and assessment might vary across sites, despite the common end objectives regarding......Aim of the study: Several studies using a variety of assessment approaches have demonstrated that young doctors possess insufficient resuscitation competence. The aims of this study were to assess newly graduated doctors’ resuscitation competence against an internationally recognised standard...

  19. Advances in cardiac magnetic resonance imaging of congenital heart disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Driessen, Mieke M.P. [University of Utrecht, University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology, PO Box 85500, Utrecht (Netherlands); University of Utrecht, University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Cardiology, PO Box 85500, Utrecht (Netherlands); The Interuniversity Cardiology Institute of the Netherlands (ICIN) - Netherlands Heart Institute, PO Box 19258, Utrecht (Netherlands); Breur, Johannes M.P.J. [Wilhelmina Children' s Hospital, University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Pediatric Cardiology, PO Box 85500, Utrecht (Netherlands); Budde, Ricardo P.J.; Oorschot, Joep W.M. van; Leiner, Tim [University of Utrecht, University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology, PO Box 85500, Utrecht (Netherlands); Kimmenade, Roland R.J. van; Sieswerda, Gertjan Tj [University of Utrecht, University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Cardiology, PO Box 85500, Utrecht (Netherlands); Meijboom, Folkert J. [University of Utrecht, University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Cardiology, PO Box 85500, Utrecht (Netherlands); Wilhelmina Children' s Hospital, University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Pediatric Cardiology, PO Box 85500, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2015-01-01

    Due to advances in cardiac surgery, survival of patients with congenital heart disease has increased considerably during the past decades. Many of these patients require repeated cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging to assess cardiac anatomy and function. In the past decade, technological advances have enabled faster and more robust cardiovascular magnetic resonance with improved image quality and spatial as well as temporal resolution. This review aims to provide an overview of advances in cardiovascular magnetic resonance hardware and acquisition techniques relevant to both pediatric and adult patients with congenital heart disease and discusses the techniques used to assess function, anatomy, flow and tissue characterization. (orig.)

  20. Cardiac Toxicity after definitive Radiotherapy of locally advanced NSCLC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schytte, Tine; Hansen, Olfred; Stohlberg-Rohr, Thomine

    2010-01-01

    report the heart toxicities in locally-regionally advanced NSCLC (LA-NSCLC) patients (pts) treated with RT in our centre.   Methods and material: From 01.01.1995-30.11.2007, 287 pts with LA-NSCLC (stage IIB-IIIB) were treated with RT at our centre with planned dose 60-66 Gy. All RT was applied as 3D RT......    Cardiac Toxicity after definitive Radiotherapy of locally advanced NSCLC Tine Schytte, Olfred Hansen, Thomine Stolberg-Rohr* and Carsten Brink*. Dept. Oncology and Radiophysic Lab.* Odense University Hospital, Denmark   Keyword: Radiotherapy, Locally advanced NSCLC, Cardiac toxicity...

  1. Development and Qualification of Advancements in Submersible Transfer Pump Performance and Life, and Implications for Advancing and Supporting Processing Options - 13343

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stover, David L. [Curtiss-Wright EMD, Cheswick, PA 15024 (United States); Bryan, Wes; Kelly, James [Washington River Protection Solutions, Richland, WA 99352 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    From the 1950's through the 1990's, relatively inexpensive, 'off-the-shelf' type, vertical turbine pumps (VTP) were used to transfer Hanford waste. The technology of those pumps was rooted primarily in the mining and agricultural (irrigation) industries. HNF-3218, Double Shell Tank (DST) Transfer Pump History and Reliability Report, 1998, provides a summary of Hanford DST pump history to that date. Such pumps operated in the Hanford radioactive waste environment for an average of only 400 hours before failure. However, at that time, operating life was not a driving criteria within the Department of Energy (DOE) complex, as the failure of transfer pumps represented a relatively low replacement and disposal cost. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) issuance of the 'Debris Rule' in 1992, which mandated that mixed radioactive waste contaminated equipment be decontaminated to a 'low level waste' category prior to burial, elevated the significance of transfer pump reliability and decontamination capability as life-cycle cost criteria. Minimizing the frequency of transfer pump failures and design for decontamination became significantly important and served to drive the need toward specific, designed for application pumps to meet this challenge. To this end, Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS) and the supplier, Curtiss-Wright EMD (EMD), have recently collaborated on an intense program to further transfer pump technology and performance. (authors)

  2. Great Expectations: Perceived Social Support in Couples Experiencing Cardiac Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankin, Sally H.; Monahan, Patricia

    1991-01-01

    Compared patient and spousal perceived support during the cardiac surgery recovery period and explored effects of social support on patient/spouse subjective mood states for 117 couples. Social support buffered the impact of caregiving burden on mood disturbance for caregiving spouses but did not significantly impact physical or mental health…

  3. Photobioreactors in Life Support Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Ines; Braun, Markus; Slenzka, Klaus; Posten, Clemens

    2016-01-01

    Life support systems for long-term space missions or extraterrestrial installations have to fulfill major functions such as purification of water and regeneration of atmosphere as well as the generation of food and energy. For almost 60 years ideas for biological life support systems have been collected and various concepts have been developed and tested. Microalgae as photosynthetic organisms have played a major role in most of these concepts. This review deals with the potentials of using eukaryotic microalgae for life support systems and highlights special requirements and frame conditions for designing space photobioreactors especially regarding illumination and aeration. Mono- and dichromatic illumination based on LEDs is a promising alternative for conventional systems and preliminary results yielded higher photoconversion efficiencies (PCE) for dichromatic red/blue illumination than white illumination. Aeration for microgravity conditions should be realized in a bubble-free manner, for example, via membranes. Finally, a novel photobioreactor concept for space application is introduced being parameterized and tested with the microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. This system has already been tested during two parabolic flight campaigns.

  4. Importance of leadership in cardiac arrest situations: from simulation to real life and back.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunziker, Sabnina; Tschan, Franziska; Semmer, Norbert K; Marsch, Stephan

    2013-04-18

    The 2010 American Heart Association guidelines now recommend leadership training in Advanced Cardiac Life Support courses. In this review we provide a comprehensive summary of data derived from clinical studies that investigated the importance of leadership in cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). Only a few, mostly observational, studies have been conducted under real-life conditions because of the high heterogeneity of the situations, difficulties in capturing the initial phase of CPR, and ethical issues. Well-controlled studies in the human simulator can fill existing gaps and provide important insights. High-fidelity video-assisted simulator studies from different research groups have shown that a prolonged process of teambuilding is associated with significant shortcomings in CPR, whereas effective leadership improves team performance. In addition, randomised controlled studies have provided evidence that medical students receiving leadership training subsequently showed improved CPR performance, which was sustained after a follow up of 4 months. In addition, leadership is influenced by gender and other factors such as emotional stress. Future studies are needed to investigate cultural differences and how findings from the simulator can be transferred to real-life situations.

  5. Neurodevelopmental Outcomes after Pediatric Cardiac ECMO Support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantinos eChrysostomou

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To characterize the neurodevelopmental outcomes and identify factors associated with poor outcomes in pediatric patients undergoing cardiac extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO. Methods: Five year retrospective review, including demographics, cardiac lesion and surgical complexity, reason for ECMO, ECMO complications, and neurodevelopmental status at discharge and latest follow-up. Neurodevelopmental status was determined through the Pediatric Overall Performance Category and Pediatric Cerebral Performance Category scales.Results: Overall ECMO survival was 73% at hospital discharge and 66% a t the latest follow-up. Most patients underwent CPR (43%, and the majority (53% had a significant disease complexity (Aristotle=4. Complications occurred in 42% of the ECMO runs, of which 12% were intracranial injuries. At hospital discharge, 75% of patients had normal to mild disability, improving to 81% at 2 years follow-up. At hospital discharge, moderate to severe disability was associated with CPR, plasma exchange or intracranial insults. After discharge, 23% showed improvement in neurologic status and 4% showed deterioration. Cerebral infarction was the only parameter associated with deterioration at the later follow-up stage.Conclusions: ECMO was successfully used in children with cardiac disease with 73% and 66% short and long-term survival respectively. Majority of the survivors had normal to mild neurodevelopmental disability and a significant portion showed neurologic improvement by the latest follow-up. Nevertheless, despite the grossly favorable outcomes standardized comprehensive neuropsychological testing is of paramount importance in all these patients.

  6. QUALITY OF LIFE ASSESSMENT IN CARDIAC TRANSPLANT RECIPIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. O. Shevchenko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Quality of life (QoL is an important criterion for the treatment effi cacy that provides an important data regarding patient’s personal estimation of social adaptation and ability to perform daily duties.Methods. The study was aimed to evaluate QoL in cardiac transplant recipients. We have enrolled 42 stage D heart failure patients aged 29–61 (mean 39,23 ± 12,31 y/o, 38 males and 4 females, survived cardiac transplant surgery between Jan 2008 and Jan 2013. QoL was evaluated using the SF-36 survey prior to the heart surgery and during the follow-up period up to the 5 years.Results. Pre-operative assessment revealed low QoL indices of physical activity as well as general health status. Follow-up showed dramatic improvement in all QoL measures during 1 year after the surgery which was consistent through the whole observation period. There was an increase in physical functioning index by 2,8 times (p < 0,01, physical status dependent role functioning by 14 times (р < 0,0001, emotional status dependent role functioning by 3 times (р = 0,02, social functioning by 4,8 times (p = 0,002, pain threshold by 3 times (p = 0,02, psychic health by 3,6 times (p = 0,001, life activity by 2,6 times(p = 0,003, and total health by 1,6 times (p = 0,03. Physical activity was restored in 90% of patients during the fi rst year.Conclusion. The study shows signifi cant improvement in all QoL variables after heart transplantation in stage D heart failure patients. Main indices of physical, psychical, and social activities rise at the fi rst year and remain high during the 5-year period. These data support heart transplantation as a radical and effective method of terminal heart failure treatment.

  7. Closure of regenerative life support systems: results of the Lunar-Mars Life Support Test Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barta, D.; Henninger, D.; Edeen, M.; Lewis, J.; Smith, F.; Verostko, C.

    Future long duration human exploration missions away from Earth will require closed-loop regenerative life support systems to reduce launch mass reduce dependency on resupply and increase the level of mission self sufficiency Such systems may be based on the integration of biological and physiocochemical processes to produce potable water breathable atmosphere and nutritious food from metabolic and other mission wastes Over the period 1995 to 1998 a series of ground-based tests were conducted at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Johnson Space Center to evaluate the performance of advanced closed-loop life support technologies with real human metabolic and hygiene loads Named the Lunar-Mars Life Support Test Project LMLSTP four integrated human tests were conducted with increasing duration complexity and closure The first test LMLSTP Phase I was designed to demonstrate the ability of higher plants to revitalize cabin atmosphere A single crew member spent 15 days within an atmospherically closed chamber containing 11 2 square meters of actively growing wheat Atmospheric carbon dioxide and oxygen levels were maintained by control of the rate of photosynthesis through manipulation of light intensity or the availability of carbon dioxide and included integrated physicochemical systems During the second and third tests LMLSTP Phases II IIa four crew members spent 30 days and 60 days respectively in a larger sealed chamber Advanced physicochemical life support hardware was used to regenerate the atmosphere and produce potable water

  8. Hepatoma with cardiac metastasis: An advanced cancer requiring advanced treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu-Sheng Lin; Shih-Ming Jung; Feng-Chun Tsai; Chun-Nan Yeh; Tzu-Fang Shiu; Hsueh-Hua Wu; Pyng-Jing Lin; Pao-Hsien Chu

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the clinical and pathologic findings,and to discuss the pathophysiology of hepatocellular carcinoma with cardiac metastasis.METHODS: Eight hepatoma patients with cardiac metastasis, who were treated by surgical excision from 1993 to 2006, were retrospectively studied. Detailed clinical parameters were analyzed.RESULTS: Of those eight patients, two (25%) were women and six (75%) were men, with the mean age of 50 years (range, 40-70 years). The presentations included: asymptomatic (75%), heart failure (25%), and pulmonary embolism (12.5%). All lesions involved the right atrium, and extended to the lung (12.5%), inferior vena cava (25%), and left atrium (12.5%). The level of tumor marker, alpha-fetal protein, was not correlated with the severity of metastasis or disease prognosis.Moreover, the availably estimated doubling time was less than 3 mo. The pathological findings included variable hemorrhage and necrosis. The survival time following surgery also varied from one month to more than 30 mo.CONCLUSION: Hepatoma metastasis to the heart was detected in all eight patients. This study demonstrates that surgery might help the outcome in such cases.

  9. Integration of a Higher Plant Chamber into the European Space Agency's MELiSSA Pilot Plant: The Canadian Role in Advanced Life Support Test-Bed Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, Geoffrey; Lawson, Jamie; Gidzinski, Danuta; Stasiak, Michael; Dixon, Mike; Peiro, Enrique; Godia, Francesc; Paille, Christel; Fossen, Arnaud; Lamaze, Brigitte; Lasseur, Christophe

    The European Space Agency's Micro-Ecological Life Support System Alternative (MELiSSA) project has been conceived as a tool for developing the technology of future biological life support systems required for long-term human space exploration missions to the Moon or Mars. The main life support functions of MELiSSA are the recycling of waste (inedible plant biomass, human excrement), carbon dioxide and minerals and the production of food, fresh water and air revitalization. Based on the principle of an aquatic ecosystem, MELiSSA is comprised of four microbial compartments and a higher plant compartment integrated in a closed loop. Each compartment is studied, designed and demonstrated at laboratory scale before being scaled-up for subsequent integration into the MELISSA Pilot Plant (MPP) at the Universitat Aut`noma de Barcelona. Work related to higher plant cultivation systems, o which have been historically focussed at the University of Guelph's Controlled Environment Systems Research Facility (CESRF), has included design of the HPC for the MPP, the metabolic characterization of MELiSSA candidate crops and the validation of theoretical gas exchange and nutrient dynamic models, The presented paper will review some of the recent data and HPC design work of CESRF conducted as part of Canada's involvement in the MELiSSA program and its partnership in the development of the MPP terrestrial demonstration test-bed.

  10. Controlled Ecological Life Support System. Life Support Systems in Space Travel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macelroy, R. D. (Editor); Smernoff, D. T. (Editor); Klein, H. P. (Editor)

    1985-01-01

    Life support systems in space travel, in closed ecological systems were studied. Topics discussed include: (1) problems of life support and the fundamental concepts of bioregeneration; (2) technology associated with physical/chemical regenerative life support; (3) projection of the break even points for various life support techniques; (4) problems of controlling a bioregenerative life support system; (5) data on the operation of an experimental algal/mouse life support system; (6) industrial concepts of bioregenerative life support; and (7) Japanese concepts of bioregenerative life support and associated biological experiments to be conducted in the space station.

  11. Emergency Neurological Life Support: Intracranial Hypertension and Herniation

    OpenAIRE

    Stevens, Robert D.; Shoykhet, Michael; Cadena, Rhonda

    2015-01-01

    Sustained intracranial hypertension and acute brain herniation are “brain codes,” signifying catastrophic neurological events that require immediate recognition and treatment to prevent irreversible injury and death. As in cardiac arrest, a brain code mandates the organized implementation of a stepwise management algorithm. The goal of this emergency neurological life support protocol is to implement an evidence-based, standardized approach to the evaluation and management of patients with in...

  12. Emergency Neurological Life Support: Intracranial Hypertension and Herniation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Robert D; Shoykhet, Michael; Cadena, Rhonda

    2015-12-01

    Sustained intracranial hypertension and acute brain herniation are "brain codes," signifying catastrophic neurological events that require immediate recognition and treatment to prevent irreversible injury and death. As in cardiac arrest, a brain code mandates the organized implementation of a stepwise management algorithm. The goal of this emergency neurological life support protocol is to implement an evidence-based, standardized approach to the evaluation and management of patients with intracranial hypertension and/or herniation.

  13. Impact of cardiac rehabilitation on health related quality of life.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Riaz, A

    2012-02-01

    Cardiac rehabilitation (CR) programs are recognized as integral part of the comprehensive care of patients with cardiovascular disease and are recommended as useful and effective (Class I) by the American Heart Association (AHA). In this study we used serial administration of the short form 36 (SF36) to evaluate patient\\'s response to CR in terms of improvement in Health related Quality of Life. A total of 49 patients were included in the analysis. There was a significant improvement observed after CR in the Physical Capacity Score (42.3 vs 49.9 p = 0.0005). There was no significant improvement in the Mental Capacity Score (54.8 vs 54.9 p = 0.96). We conclude that Cardiac Rehabilitation Program causes a significant improvement in the health related quality of life of patients by improving their physical health and well being but does not improve the mental capacity which is already at a healthy level before CR.

  14. Cardiac arrest: comparison of paramedic and conventional ambulance services.

    OpenAIRE

    1983-01-01

    A prospective study conducted in the Greater Vancouver area compared survival rates in prehospital cardiac arrest managed by an advanced life support (paramedic) service with those in cardiac arrest managed by conventional ambulance service. Management by the paramedic service was associated with higher survival rates for patients found in cardiac arrest but not for patients who suffered the arrest while the ambulance was present. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation by bystanders was associated wit...

  15. Economics and ethics of paediatric respiratory extra corporeal life support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callaghan, M; Doyle, Y; O'Hare, B; Healy, M; Nölke, L

    2013-09-01

    Extra corporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is a form of life support, which facilitates gas exchange outside the body via an oxygenator and a centrifugal pumping system. A paediatric cardiac ECMO programme was established in 2005 at Our Lady's Children's Hospital, Crumlin (OLCHC) and to date 75 patients have received ECMO, the majority being post operative cardiac patients. The outcome data compares favourably with international figures. ECMO has been most successful in the treatment of newborn infants with life threatening respiratory failure from conditions such as meconium aspiration, respiratory distress syndrome and respiratory infections. There is no formal paediatric respiratory ECMO programme at OLCHC, or anywhere else in Ireland. Currently, neonates requiring respiratory ECMO are transferred to centres in Sweden or the UK at an average cost of 133,000 Euros/infant, funded by the Health Service Executive E112 treatment abroad scheme. There is considerable morbidity associated with the transfer of critically ill infants, as well as significant psycho-social impact on families. OLCHC is not funded to provide respiratory ECMO, although the equipment and expertise required are similar to cardiac ECMO and are currently in place. The average cost of an ECMO run at OLCHC is 65,000 Euros. There is now a strong argument for a fully funded single national cardiac and respiratory paediatric ECMO centre, similar to that for adult patients.

  16. Developing Sustainable Life Support System Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Evan A.

    2010-01-01

    Sustainable spacecraft life support concepts may allow the development of more reliable technologies for long duration space missions. Currently, life support technologies at different levels of development are not well evaluated against each other, and evaluation methods do not account for long term reliability and sustainability of the hardware. This paper presents point-of-departure sustainability evaluation criteria for life support systems, that may allow more robust technology development, testing and comparison. An example sustainable water recovery system concept is presented.

  17. Psychiatry: life events and social support in late life depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clóvis Alexandrino-Silva

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To examine the association of life events and social support in the broadly defined category of depression in late life. INTRODUCTION: Negative life events and lack of social support are associated with depression in the elderly. Currently, there are limited studies examining the association between life events, social support and late-life depression in Brazil. METHODS: We estimated the frequency of late-life depression within a household community sample of 367 subjects aged 60 years or greater with associated factors. ''Old age symptomatic depression'' was defined using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview 1.1 tool. This diagnostic category included only late-life symptoms and consisted of the diagnoses of depression and dysthymia as well as a subsyndromal definition of depression, termed ''late subthreshold depression''. Social support and life events were assessed using the Comprehensive Assessment and Referral Evaluation (SHORT-CARE inventory. RESULTS: ''Old age symptomatic depression'' occurred in 18.8% of the patients in the tested sample. In univariate analyses, this condition was associated with female gender, lifetime anxiety disorder and living alone. In multivariate models, ''old age symptomatic depression'' was associated with a perceived lack of social support in men and life events in women. DISCUSSION: Social support and life events were determined to be associated with late-life depression, but it is important to keep in mind the differences between genders. Also, further exploration of the role of lifetime anxiety disorder in late-life depression may be of future importance. CONCLUSIONS: We believe that this study helps to provide insight into the role of psychosocial factors in late-life depression.

  18. Lunar Outpost Life Support Trade Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Kevin E.; Anderson, Molly S.; Ewert, Michael K.; Barta, Daniel J.

    2008-01-01

    Engineering trade-off studies of life support system architecture and technology options were conducted for potential lunar surface mission scenarios within NASA's Constellation Program. The scenarios investigated are based largely on results of the NASA Lunar Architecture Team (LAT) Phase II study. In particular, the possibility of Hosted Sortie missions, the high cost of power during eclipse periods, and the potential to reduce life support consumables through scavenging, in-situ resources, and alternative EVA technologies were all examined. These trade studies were performed within the Systems Integration, Modeling and Analysis (SIMA) element of NASA's Exploration Life Support (ELS) technology development project. The tools and methodology used in the study are described briefly, followed by a discussion of mission scenarios, life support technology options and results presented in terms of equivalent system mass for various regenerative life support technologies and architectures. Three classes of repeated or extended lunar surface missions were investigated in this study along with several life support resource scenarios for each mission class. Individual mission durations of 14 days, 90 days and 180 days were considered with 10 missions assumed for each at a rate of 2 missions per year. The 14-day missions represent a class of Hosted Sortie missions where a pre-deployed and potentially mobile habitat provides life support for multiple crews at one or more locations. The 90-day and 180-day missions represent lunar outpost expeditions with a larger fixed habitat. The 180-day missions assume continuous human presence and must provide life support through eclipse periods of up to 122 hours while the 90-day missions are planned for best-case periods of nearly continuous sunlight. This paper investigates system optimization within the assumptions of each scenario and addresses how the scenario selected drives the life support system to different designs

  19. Are there meaningful longitudinal changes in health related quality of life--SF36, in cardiac rehabilitation patients?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McKee, Gabrielle

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: This study aimed to observe changes in quality of life and minimal clinical important differences of quality of life over time in cardiac rehabilitation patients and to compare these with published normal data. METHODS: In this non-randomised study, SF36 questionnaires were completed by 187 patients recruited to a Phase III cardiac rehabilitation multidisciplinary outpatient programme. Data was collected at beginning, end and six months after Phase III cardiac rehabilitation programme. RESULTS: There were significant improvements in physical functioning, role limitation due to physical function, pain and general health perception scales, over the above time frame, from both a statistically and a mean clinical important difference point of view. These improvements occurred mainly during the cardiac rehabilitation programme phase. CONCLUSIONS: These improvements meant that patients six months post-cardiac rehabilitation were only 5% below the quality of life for an aged matched normal group. However patients still had significant deficits in physical role and emotional role limitations. Suitable measurement of quality of life on an individual basis, supported by normal values is needed. This would facilitate the identification of shortfalls in patient quality of life and the subsequent tailoring of care to address these individualised patient needs.

  20. [Metabolic support of the ischemic heart during cardiac surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna Ortiz, Pastor; Serrano Valdés, Xenia; Rojas Pérez, Eduardo; de Micheli, Alfredo

    2006-01-01

    We examine [IBM1] the basic principles and clinical results of the metabolic intervention with glucose-insulin-potassium (GIK) solutions in the field of cardiovascular surgery. On the basis of many international publications concerning this subject, and the experience obtained in the operating room of the Instituto Nacional de Cardiologia "Ignacio Chávez", we conclude that the metabolic support wit GIK is a powerful system that provides very useful energy to protect the myocardium during cardiac and non-cardiac surgery. The most recent publications indicate their effects in reducing low output syndromes, due to interventions on the coronary arteries, as well as producing a significant reduction of circulating fatty acids. These effects are produced also in the field of interventional cardiology, where GIK solutions protect the myocardium against damage due to impaired microcirculation. It is evident that these solutions must be utilized in higher concentrations that the initial ones, equal to those employed in laboratory animals. On the other side, it is worthy to remember that it has been always underlined that this treatment represents only a protection for the myocardium. Therefore, its association with other drugs or treatments favoring a good myocardial performance is not contraindicated--on the contrary, it yields better results. The present review presents pharmacological approaches, such as the use of glutamato, aspartate, piruvato, trimetazidina ranolazine and taurine to optimize cardiac energy metabolism, for the management of ischemic heart disease.

  1. The role of psychological support in cardiac surgery: initial experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizio Sansone

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The scientific literature has pointed out several predictors of negative outcome after surgery such as pain and depression, negatively affecting the postoperative outcome in cardiac surgery. From January 2009 until June 2010, 15 patients scheduled for cardiac surgery were enrolled. The patients were assessed by psychological evaluation either in the hospital stay either in the rehabilitation period with the aim of identifying their emotional condition (sentiments about the onset of the disease, support received from family and friends even by means of preformed tests for anxiety and depression (tests of Stay and Back. Thus, in our preliminary experience, the psychological evaluation failed to detect the occurrence of postoperative complications. Conversely, the psychological evaluation is very effective in detecting a poor emotional state and the psychological support decreases the degree of anxiety and depression with positive effects on postoperative outcome. In conclusion, a standardize test for anxiety and depression should be used for patients at hospital admission to detect who may benefits by psychological support.

  2. Mechanical support availability in pediatric cardiac surgery: program size should not matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Cruz, Eduardo M; Beghetti, Maurice; Kalangos, Afksendyios; Berner, Michel; Sierra, Jorge; Aggoun, Yacine; Tissot, Cécile; Pellegrini, Michel; Saudan, Sonja; Habre, Walid; Rimensberger, Peter C

    2008-09-26

    Intractable heart failure may require Extracorporeal Life Support (ECLS) techniques for rescue therapy. Nevertheless, in many small to middle-sized centers in Europe, this valuable resource is not available. In our University pediatric intensive care unit 0.9% of 1360 open-heart surgical patients required mechanical assistance over the latest 9 years with a survival rate of 69.2% and low residual morbidity. This favorable overall outcome suggests that regardless of the program size, it is possible to ensure the availability of efficient mechanical assistance that appears to be fundamental in a center performing surgery for complex congenital or acquired cardiac diseases.

  3. Practice and effect of interactive teaching in pediatric advanced life support training%互动式教学在儿科高级生命支持培训中的实践与效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨明; 钱素云; 杨军华; 樊寻梅

    2010-01-01

    互动式教学以学员为中心,通过教员与学员之间的积极互动,可以最大限度地激发学员主动进行学习和思考.首都医科大学附属北京儿童医院在儿科高级生命支持培训中开展互动式教学实践,并对教学效果进行了评价.结果 表明,在为不同临床背景的儿科医生或护士提供标准化的高级生命支持培训时,互动式教学取得了传统教学方式难以达到的效果,值得在医学理论教学和技能培训中推广.%As a student-centered method, interactive teaching maximally inspires active thinking and learning of the trainees by reinforcing the positive interaction between instructors and trainees. In Beijing Children's Hospital interactive teaching was practiced in pediatric advanced life support training and the effect was evaluated. Through interactive teaching, standardized advanced life support information and knowledge were delivered to the trainees regardless of the different clinical background among pediatricians and nurses, and good effect which conventional teaching method could hardly get was attained. It is believed that interactive teaching could be a valuable teaching method for medical theory teaching and skill training.

  4. Research on Life Science and Life Support Engineering Problems of Manned Deep Space Exploration Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Bin; Guo, Linli; Zhang, Zhixian

    2016-07-01

    Space life science and life support engineering are prominent problems in manned deep space exploration mission. Some typical problems are discussed in this paper, including long-term life support problem, physiological effect and defense of varying extraterrestrial environment. The causes of these problems are developed for these problems. To solve these problems, research on space life science and space medical-engineering should be conducted. In the aspect of space life science, the study of space gravity biology should focus on character of physiological effect in long term zero gravity, co-regulation of physiological systems, impact on stem cells in space, etc. The study of space radiation biology should focus on target effect and non-target effect of radiation, carcinogenicity of radiation, spread of radiation damage in life system, etc. The study of basic biology of space life support system should focus on theoretical basis and simulating mode of constructing the life support system, filtration and combination of species, regulation and optimization method of life support system, etc. In the aspect of space medical-engineering, the study of bio-regenerative life support technology should focus on plants cultivation technology, animal-protein production technology, waste treatment technology, etc. The study of varying gravity defense technology should focus on biological and medical measures to defend varying gravity effect, generation and evaluation of artificial gravity, etc. The study of extraterrestrial environment defense technology should focus on risk evaluation of radiation, monitoring and defending of radiation, compound prevention and removal technology of dust, etc. At last, a case of manned lunar base is analyzed, in which the effective schemes of life support system, defense of varying gravity, defense of extraterrestrial environment are advanced respectively. The points in this paper can be used as references for intensive study on key

  5. Advanced Call Center Supporting WAP Access

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Traditional call centers can be accessed via speech only, and the call center based on web provides both data and speech access, but it needs a powerful terminal-computer. By analyzing traditional call centers and call centers based on web, this paper presents the framework of an advanced call center supporting WAP access. A typical service is also described in detail.

  6. Methodology and Supporting Toolset Advancing Embedded Systems Quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berger, Michael Stübert; Soler, José; Brewka, Lukasz Jerzy;

    2013-01-01

    Software quality is of primary importance in the development of embedded systems that are often used in safety-critical applications. Moreover, as the life cycle of embedded products becomes increasingly tighter, productivity and quality are simultaneously required and closely interrelated towards...... delivering competitive products. In this context, the MODUS (Methodology and supporting toolset advancing embedded systems quality) project aims to provide a pragmatic and viable solution that will allow SMEs to substantially improve their positioning in the embedded-systems development market. This paper...... will describe the MODUS project with focus on the technical methodologies that will be developed advancing embedded system quality....

  7. Advanced cardiac imaging in heart failure : from subclinical myocardial dysfunction to therapy optimization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Auger, Dominique

    2014-01-01

    Advanced echocardiographic techniques permit assessment of left ventricular dyssynchrony in overt heart failure patients and provide important prognostic data. These techniques may guide patients’ selection for cardiac resynchronization therapy and device optimization. Global left ventricular longit

  8. Life Support with Failures and Variable Supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Harry

    2010-01-01

    The life support system for long duration missions will recycle oxygen and water to reduce the material resupply mass from Earth. The impact of life support failures was investigated by dynamic simulation of a lunar outpost habitat life support model. The model was modified to simulate resupply delays, power failures, recycling system failures, and storage failures. Many failures impact the lunar outpost water supply directly or indirectly, depending on the water balance and water storage. Failure effects on the water supply are reduced if Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA) water use is low and the water supply is ample. Additional oxygen can be supplied by scavenging unused propellant or by production from regolith, but the amounts obtained can vary significantly. The requirements for oxygen and water can also vary significantly, especially for EVA. Providing storage buffers can improve efficiency and reliability, and minimize the chance of supply failing to meet demand. Life support failures and supply variations can be survivable if effective solutions are provided by the system design

  9. Biodegradation pathway of an anionic surfactant (Igepon TC-42) during recycling waste water through plant hydroponics for advanced life support during long-duration space missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, L. H.; Kagie, H. R.; Garland, J. L.

    The degradation of an anionic surfactant (Igepon TC-42) was investigated as part of an integrated study of direct recycling of human hygiene water through hydroponic plant growth systems. Several chemical approaches were developed to characterize the degradation of Igepon and to measure the accumulation of intermediates such as fatty acids and methyl taurine. Igepon was rapidly degraded as indicated by the reduction of methylene blue active substances (MBAS) and component fatty acids. The Igepon degradation rate continued to increase over a period of several weeks following repeated daily exposure to 18 μg/l Igepon. The accumulation of free fatty acids and methyl taurine was also observed during decomposition of Igepon. The concentration of methyl taurine was below detection limit (0.2 nmol/ml) during the slow phase of Igepon degradation, and increased to 1-2 nmol/ml during the phase of rapid degradation. These findings support a degradation pathway involving initial hydrolysis of amide to release fatty acids and methyl taurine, and subsequent degradation of these intermediates.

  10. Biodegradation pathway of an anionic surfactant (Igepon TC-42) during recycling waste water through plant hydroponics for advanced life support during long-duration space missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, L. H.; Kagie, H. R.; Garland, J. L.

    2003-01-01

    The degradation of an anionic surfactant (Igepon TC-42) was investigated as part of an integrated study of direct recycling of human hygiene water through hydroponic plant growth systems. Several chemical approaches were developed to characterize the degradation of Igepon and to measure the accumulation of intermediates such as fatty acids and methyl taurine. Igepon was rapidly degraded as indicated by the reduction of methylene blue active substances (MBAS) and component fatty acids. The Igepon degradation rate continued to increase over a period of several weeks following repeated daily exposure to 18 micrograms/l Igepon. The accumulation of free fatty acids and methyl taurine was also observed during decomposition of Igepon. The concentration of methyl taurine was below detection limit (0.2 nmol/ml) during the slow phase of Igepon degradation, and increased to 1-2 nmol/ml during the phase of rapid degradation. These findings support a degradation pathway involving initial hydrolysis of amide to release fatty acids and methyl taurine, and subsequent degradation of these intermediates. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd on behalf of COSPAR.

  11. Self-Supported CoP Nanorod Arrays Grafted on Stainless Steel as an Advanced Integrated Anode for Stable and Long-Life Li-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jun; Xu, Xijun; Hu, Renzong; Liu, Jiangwen; Ouyang, Liuzhang; Zhu, Min

    2017-03-05

    For alleviating the capacity degradation of anode materials caused by serious volume expansion and particle aggregation for Li-ion batteries, intensive attention has been devoted to the rational design and fabrication of novel anode architectures. Herein, self-supported CoP nanorod arrays have been facilely synthesized using hydrothemally deposited Co(CO3)0.5(OH)*0.11H2O nanorods array as the precursor via a gas-phase phosphidation method. As anode for Li-ion batteries, such 3D interconnected CoP nanorod arrays show an initial discharge capacity of 1067 mA h g-1 and high reversible charge capacity of 737 mA h g-1 at 0.4 A g-1. After long 400 cycles, their specific capacity can reach 510 mA h g-1, even after 900 cycles, they can still deliver a specific capacity of 390 mA h g-1. The CoP//LiCoO2 full-cells also exhibit a high revisable capacity of 400 mA h g-1 after 50 cycles. These unique 3D interconnected CoP nanorod arrays also show ultrastable cycling performance over 500 cycles when used as Na-ion battery anode.

  12. Biodegradation pathway of an anionic surfactant (Igepon TC-42) during recycling waste water through plant hydroponics for advanced life support during long-duration space missions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, L H; Kagie, H R; Garland, J L

    2003-01-01

    The degradation of an anionic surfactant (Igepon TC-42) was investigated as part of an integrated study of direct recycling of human hygiene water through hydroponic plant growth systems. Several chemical approaches were developed to characterize the degradation of Igepon and to measure the accumulation of intermediates such as fatty acids and methyl taurine. Igepon was rapidly degraded as indicated by the reduction of methylene blue active substances (MBAS) and component fatty acids. The Igepon degradation rate continued to increase over a period of several weeks following repeated daily exposure to 18 micrograms/l Igepon. The accumulation of free fatty acids and methyl taurine was also observed during decomposition of Igepon. The concentration of methyl taurine was below detection limit (0.2 nmol/ml) during the slow phase of Igepon degradation, and increased to 1-2 nmol/ml during the phase of rapid degradation. These findings support a degradation pathway involving initial hydrolysis of amide to release fatty acids and methyl taurine, and subsequent degradation of these intermediates.

  13. Closure of Regenerative Life Support Systems: Results of the Lunar-Mars Life Support Test Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barta, Daniel; Henninger, D.; Edeen, M.; Lewis, J.; Smth, F.; Verostko, C.

    2006-01-01

    Future long duration human exploration missions away from Earth will require closed-loop regenerative life support systems to reduce launch mass, reduce dependency on resupply and increase the level of mission self sufficiency. Such systems may be based on the integration of biological and physiocochemical processes to produce potable water, breathable atmosphere and nutritious food from metabolic and other mission wastes. Over the period 1995 to 1998 a series of ground-based tests were conducted at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Johnson Space Center, to evaluate the performance of advanced closed-loop life support technologies with real human metabolic and hygiene loads. Named the Lunar-Mars Life Support Test Project (LMLSTP), four integrated human tests were conducted with increasing duration, complexity and closure. The first test, LMLSTP Phase I, was designed to demonstrate the ability of higher plants to revitalize cabin atmosphere. A single crew member spent 15 days within an atmospherically closed chamber containing 11.2 square meters of actively growing wheat. Atmospheric carbon dioxide and oxygen levels were maintained by control of the rate of photosynthesis through manipulation of light intensity or the availability of carbon dioxide and included integrated physicochemical systems. During the second and third tests, LMLSTP Phases II & IIa, four crew members spent 30 days and 60 days, respectively, in a larger sealed chamber. Advanced physicochemical life support hardware was used to regenerate the atmosphere and produce potable water from wastewater. Air revitalization was accomplished by using a molecular sieve and a Sabatier processor for carbon dioxide absorption and reduction, respectively, with oxygen generation performed by water hydrolysis. Production of potable water from wastewater included urine treatment (vapor compression distillation), primary treatment (ultrafiltration/reverse osmosis and multi-filtration) and post

  14. Awareness of basic life support among medical, dental, nursing students and doctors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanta Chandrasekaran

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available To study the awareness of Basic Life Support (BLS among students, doctors and nurses of medical, dental, homeopathy and nursing colleges. A cross-sectional study was conducted by assessing responses to 20 selected basic questions regarding BLS among students, doctors and nurses of medical, dental, homeopathy and nursing colleges. After excluding the incomplete response forms the data was analysed on 1,054 responders. The results were analysed using an answer key prepared with the use of the Advanced Cardiac Life Support manual. Out of 1,054 responders 345 were medical students, 75 were medical interns, 19 were dental students, 59 were dental interns, 105 were homeopathy interns, 319 were nursing students, 72 were doctors, 29 were dentists, 25 were nursing faculty and six were homeopathy doctors. No one among them had complete knowledge of BLS. Only two out of 1054 (0.19% had secured 80 - 89% marks, 10 out of 1054 (0.95% had secured 70 - 79% marks, 40 of 1054 (4.08% had secured 60 - 69% marks and 105 of 1054 (9.96% had secured 50 - 59% marks. A majority of them, that is, 894 (84.82% had secured less than 50% marks. Awareness of BLS among students, doctors and nurses of medical, dental, homeopathy and nursing colleges is very poor.

  15. Advanced Call Center Supporting WAP Access

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUANXiao-hua; CHENJun-liang

    2001-01-01

    Traditional call centers can be accessed via speech only, and the call center based on web provides both da-ta and speech access,but it needs a powerful terminal-computer.By analyzing traditional call centers and call cen-ters based on web, this paper presents the framework of an advanced call center supporting WAP access.A typical service is also described in detail.

  16. 营养支持疗法对中晚期肿瘤患者生活质量的影响%Influence of nutrition support therapy on quality of life in patients with advanced tumors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘炜; 张刚

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of nutrition support therapy on quality of life in patients with advanced tumors.Methods 70 patients with advanced tumors were randomly divided into the observation group and the control group,each group had 35 cases.The control group was given conservative treatment,together with the ordinary liquid,semi-liquid or diet.The observation group was given nutrition support therapy on the basis of conservative therapy.The nutrition and immune index and symptom score,quality of life were compared between the two groups.Results The nutrition,immune indexes (Alb,BMI and NK) and symptom score (malaise,anorexia,insomnia,pain) of the observation group were significantly improved(t =7.92,6.98,5.56,7.41,6.47,5.61,4.52,all P < 0.05),which were significantly better than those of the control group(t =4.42,4.10,4.03,6.42,5.60,4.83,4.23,all P <0.05).The physical function,role function,emotional function,cognitive function score and total score of the observation group were significantly higher than those of the control group,the differences were statistically significant (t =8.12,6.08,5.12,4.78,4.32,all P < 0.05).Conclusion Nutrition support therapy can improve the nutritional status of cancer patients in advanced stage,relieve symptoms,improve immune function and quality of life,which is worthy of clinical application.%目的 探讨营养支持疗法对中晚期肿瘤患者生活质量的改善效果.方法 选择中晚期肿瘤患者70例,按随机数字表法分为观察组和对照组,每组35例.对照组给予保守疗法,配以普通的流质、半流质或软食;观察组在保守疗法的基础上实施营养支持疗法.比较两组营养和免疫指标、生活质量及症状评分.结果 观察组营养、免疫指标(Alb、BMI和NK)和症状评分(乏力、纳差、失眠、疼痛)较入组时均显著改善(t =7.92、6.98、5.56、7.41、6.47、5.61、4.52,均P<0.05),且显著优于对照组(t=4.42、4.10、4.03、6.42、5

  17. Johnson Space Center's Regenerative Life Support Systems Test Bed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barta, D J; Henninger, D L

    1996-01-01

    The Regenerative Life Support Systems (RLSS) Test Bed at NASA's Johnson Space Center is an atmospherically closed, controlled environment facility for human testing of regenerative life support systems using higher plants in conjunction with physicochemical life support systems. The facility supports NASA's Advanced Life Support (ALS) Program. The facility is comprised of two large scale plant growth chambers, each with approximately 11 m2 growing area. The root zone in each chamber is configurable for hydroponic or solid media plant culture systems. One of the two chambers, the Variable Pressure Growth Chamber (VPGC), is capable of operating at lower atmospheric pressures to evaluate a range of environments that may be used in a planetary surface habitat; the other chamber, the Ambient Pressure Growth Chamber (APGC) operates at ambient atmospheric pressure. The air lock of the VPGC is currently being outfitted for short duration (1 to 15 day) human habitation at ambient pressures. Testing with and without human subjects will focus on 1) integration of biological and physicochemical air and water revitalization systems; 2) effect of atmospheric pressure on system performance; 3) planetary resource utilization for ALS systems, in which solid substrates (simulated planetary soils or manufactured soils) are used in selected crop growth studies; 4) environmental microbiology and toxicology; 5) monitoring and control strategies; and 6) plant growth systems design. Included are descriptions of the overall design of the test facility, including discussions of the atmospheric conditioning, thermal control, lighting, and nutrient delivery systems.

  18. Life and death of a cardiac calcium spark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Michael D; Ríos, Eduardo; Maltsev, Victor A

    2013-09-01

    Calcium sparks in cardiac myocytes are brief, localized calcium releases from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) believed to be caused by locally regenerative calcium-induced calcium release (CICR) via couplons, clusters of ryanodine receptors (RyRs). How such regeneration is terminated is uncertain. We performed numerical simulations of an idealized stochastic model of spark production, assuming a RyR gating scheme with only two states (open and closed). Local depletion of calcium in the SR was inevitable during a spark, and this could terminate sparks by interrupting CICR, with or without assumed modulation of RyR gating by SR lumenal calcium. Spark termination by local SR depletion was not robust: under some conditions, sparks could be greatly and variably prolonged, terminating by stochastic attrition-a phenomenon we dub "spark metastability." Spark fluorescence rise time was not a good surrogate for the duration of calcium release. Using a highly simplified, deterministic model of the dynamics of a couplon, we show that spark metastability depends on the kinetic relationship of RyR gating and junctional SR refilling rates. The conditions for spark metastability resemble those produced by known mutations of RyR2 and CASQ2 that cause life-threatening triggered arrhythmias, and spark metastability may be mitigated by altering the kinetics of the RyR in a manner similar to the effects of drugs known to prevent those arrhythmias. The model was unable to explain the distributions of spark amplitudes and rise times seen in chemically skinned cat atrial myocytes, suggesting that such sparks may be more complex events involving heterogeneity of couplons or local propagation among sub-clusters of RyRs.

  19. Quality of cardiopulmonary resuscitation in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest is hampered by interruptions in chest compressions-A nationwide prospective feasibility study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krarup, Niels Henrik; Terkelsen, Christian Juhl; Johnsen, Søren Paaske;

    2010-01-01

    Quality of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is a critical determinant of outcome following out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. The aim of our study was to evaluate the quality of CPR provided by emergency medical service providers (Basic Life Support (BLS) capability) and emergency medical service...... providers assisted by paramedics, nurse anesthetists or physician-manned ambulances (Advanced Life Support (ALS) capability) in a nationwide, unselected cohort of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest cases....

  20. Quality of cardiopulmonary resuscitation in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest is hampered by interruptions in chest compressions--a nationwide prospective feasibility study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krarup, Niels Henrik; Terkelsen, Christian Juhl; Johnsen, Søren Paaske;

    2011-01-01

    Quality of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is a critical determinant of outcome following out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. The aim of our study was to evaluate the quality of CPR provided by emergency medical service providers (Basic Life Support (BLS) capability) and emergency medical service...... providers assisted by paramedics, nurse anesthetists or physician-manned ambulances (Advanced Life Support (ALS) capability) in a nationwide, unselected cohort of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest cases....

  1. Time to cardiac death after withdrawal of life-sustaining treatment in potential organ donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suntharalingam, C; Sharples, L; Dudley, C; Bradley, J A; Watson, C J E

    2009-09-01

    Organ donation after cardiac death (DCD) is increasing markedly, allowing more patients to benefit from transplantation. The time to cardiac death following withdrawal of life-supporting treatment varies widely and is an important determinant of whether organ donation occurs. A prospective multicenter study of potential DCD donors was undertaken to evaluate the time to death and identify associated factors. One hundred and ninety-one potential adult DCD donors at nine UK centers were studied. Treatment withdrawal comprised stopping ventilator support and inotropes. Demographics and physiological variables at the time of death were recorded. Following treatment withdrawal, all potential donors died, with median time to death of 36 min (range 5 min to 3.3 days). Eighty-three potential donors (43.5%) remained alive 1 h after treatment withdrawal, and 69 (36.1%) and 54 (28.3%) at 2 and 4 h, respectively. Univariate analysis revealed that age, cause of death, ventilation mode, inotrope use, systolic blood pressure, FiO2 and arterial pH at treatment withdrawal were all associated with time to death. Multivariable analysis showed that younger age, higher FiO2 and mode of ventilation were independently associated with shorter time to death. This information may aid planning and resourcing of DCD organ recovery and help maximize DCD donor numbers.

  2. Space Evaporator Absorber Radiator for Life Support and Thermal Control Systems Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Future human space exploration missions will require advanced life support technology that can operate across a wide range of applications and environments. Thermal...

  3. Life Support Baseline Values and Assumptions Document

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Molly S.; Ewert, Michael K.; Keener, John F.; Wagner, Sandra A.

    2015-01-01

    The Baseline Values and Assumptions Document (BVAD) provides analysts, modelers, and other life support researchers with a common set of values and assumptions which can be used as a baseline in their studies. This baseline, in turn, provides a common point of origin from which many studies in the community may depart, making research results easier to compare and providing researchers with reasonable values to assume for areas outside their experience. With the ability to accurately compare different technologies' performance for the same function, managers will be able to make better decisions regarding technology development.

  4. Pet ownership, social support, and one-year survival after acute myocardial infarction in the Cardiac Arrhythmia Suppression Trial (CAST).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedmann, E; Thomas, S A

    1995-12-15

    Social support and pet ownership, a nonhuman form of social support, have both been associated with increased coronary artery disease survival. The independent effects of pet ownership, social support, disease severity, and other psychosocial factors on 1-year survival after acute myocardial infarction are examined prospectively. The Cardiac Arrhythmia Suppression Trial provided physiologic data on a group of post-myocardial infarction patients with asymptomatic ventricular arrhythmias. An ancillary study provided psychosocial data, including pet ownership, social support, recent life events, future life events, anxiety, depression, coronary prone behavior, and expression of anger. Subjects (n = 424) were randomly selected from patients attending participating Cardiac Arrhythmia Suppression Trial sites and completed baseline psychosocial questionnaires. One year survival data were obtained from 369 patients (87%), of whom 112 (30.4%) owned pets and 20 (5.4%) died. Logistic regression indicates that high social support (p owning a pet (p = 0.085) tend to predict survival independent of physiologic severity and demographic and other psychosocial factors. Dog owners (n = 87, 1 died) are significantly less likely to die within 1 year than those who did not own dogs (n = 282, 19 died; p pet ownership and social support are significant predictors of survival, independent of the effects of the other psychosocial factors and physiologic status. These data confirm and extend previous findings relating pet ownership and social support to survival among patients with coronary artery disease.

  5. Environmental Control and Life Support System Mockup

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    The Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) Group of the Flight Projects Directorate at the Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama, is responsible for designing and building the life support systems that will provide the crew of the International Space Station (ISS) a comfortable environment in which to live and work. This photograph shows the mockup of the the ECLSS to be installed in the Node 3 module of the ISS. From left to right, shower rack, waste management rack, Water Recovery System (WRS) Rack #2, WRS Rack #1, and Oxygen Generation System (OGS) rack are shown. The WRS provides clean water through the reclamation of wastewaters and is comprised of a Urine Processor Assembly (UPA) and a Water Processor Assembly (WPA). The UPA accepts and processes pretreated crewmember urine to allow it to be processed along with other wastewaters in the WPA. The WPA removes free gas, organic, and nonorganic constituents before the water goes through a series of multifiltration beds for further purification. The OGS produces oxygen for breathing air for the crew and laboratory animals, as well as for replacing oxygen loss. The OGS is comprised of a cell stack, which electrolyzes (breaks apart the hydrogen and oxygen molecules) some of the clean water provided by the WRS, and the separators that remove the gases from the water after electrolysis.

  6. GRC Supporting Technology for NASA's Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber, Jeffrey G.; Thieme, Lanny G.

    2008-01-01

    From 1999 to 2006, the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) supported a NASA project to develop a high-efficiency, nominal 110-We Stirling Radioisotope Generator (SRG110) for potential use on NASA missions. Lockheed Martin was selected as the System Integration Contractor for the SRG110, under contract to the Department of Energy (DOE). The potential applications included deep space missions, and Mars rovers. The project was redirected in 2006 to make use of the Advanced Stirling Convertor (ASC) that was being developed by Sunpower, Inc. under contract to GRC, which would reduce the mass of the generator and increase the power output. This change would approximately double the specific power and result in the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG). The SRG110 supporting technology effort at GRC was replanned to support the integration of the Sunpower convertor and the ASRG. This paper describes the ASRG supporting technology effort at GRC and provides details of the contributions in some of the key areas. The GRC tasks include convertor extended-operation testing in air and in thermal vacuum environments, heater head life assessment, materials studies, permanent magnet characterization and aging tests, structural dynamics testing, electromagnetic interference and electromagnetic compatibility characterization, evaluation of organic materials, reliability studies, and analysis to support controller development.

  7. Changes in quality of life associated with surgical risk in elderly patients undergoing cardiac surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Paola Severo; de Souza, Emiliane Nogueira; Rodrigues, Juliane; Moraes, Maria Antonieta

    2015-10-01

    The study aims to verify quality of life of elderly patients submitted to cardiac surgery, and correlating surgical risk to health-related quality of life instrument domains. Prospective cohort study, performed at a cardiology hospital. It included elderly patients who had undergone elective cardiac surgery. Pre- and postoperative quality of life was evaluated by applying the World Health Organization Quality of Life-Old (WHOQOL-OLD) scale and the Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36) questionnaire. Surgical risk was stratified using the European System for Cardiac Operative Risk Evaluation (EuroSCORE). Fifty-four patients, mostly men (64.8%), were included, with a mean age of 69.3 ± 5.7 years. The eight domains of the SF-36 questionnaire, and the four facets presented for the WHOQOL-OLD scale showed improved quality of life 6 months after surgery (P quality of life instruments. The data showed improved quality of life of elderly people submitted to cardiac surgery, unrelated to surgical risk.

  8. Recent advances in understanding cardiac contractility in health and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLeod, Ken T

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this review is to provide the reader with a synopsis of some of the emerging ideas and experimental findings in cardiac physiology and pathophysiology that were published in 2015. To provide context for the non-specialist, a brief summary of cardiac contraction and calcium (Ca) regulation in the heart in health and disease is provided. Thereafter, some recently published articles are introduced that indicate the current thinking on (1) the Ca regulatory pathways modulated by Ca/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II, (2) the potential influences of nitrosylation by nitric oxide or S-nitrosated proteins, (3) newly observed effects of reactive oxygen species (ROS) on contraction and Ca regulation following myocardial infarction and a possible link with changes in mitochondrial Ca, and (4) the effects of some of these signaling pathways on late Na current and pro-arrhythmic afterdepolarizations as well as the effects of transverse tubule disturbances.

  9. Cardiac Regeneration using Growth Factors: Advances and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebouças, Juliana de Souza; Santos-Magalhães, Nereide Stela; Formiga, Fabio Rocha

    2016-01-01

    Myocardial infarction is the most significant manifestation of ischemic heart disease and is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Novel strategies targeting at regenerating the injured myocardium have been investigated, including gene therapy, cell therapy, and the use of growth factors. Growth factor therapy has aroused interest in cardiovascular medicine because of the regeneration mechanisms induced by these biomolecules, including angiogenesis, extracellular matrix remodeling, cardiomyocyte proliferation, stem-cell recruitment, and others. Together, these mechanisms promote myocardial repair and improvement of the cardiac function. This review aims to address the strategic role of growth factor therapy in cardiac regeneration, considering its innovative and multifactorial character in myocardial repair after ischemic injury. Different issues will be discussed, with emphasis on the regeneration mechanisms as a potential therapeutic resource mediated by growth factors, and the challenges to make these proteins therapeutically viable in the field of cardiology and regenerative medicine. PMID:27355588

  10. Donation after cardiac death : are Australian emergency clinicians supportive?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marck, C. H.; Neate, S. L.; Weiland, T. J.; Hickey, B. B.; Jelinek, G. A.

    2013-01-01

    To improve organ donation processes and outcomes, many Australian hospitals have introduced donation after cardiac death (DCD) following the 2010 publication of the National Protocol for DCD. As emergency clinicians play a significant role in identifying potential DCD donors, it is critical to asses

  11. Hemodynamics and vasopressor support in therapeutic hypothermia after cardiac arrest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bro-Jeppesen, John; Kjaergaard, Jesper; Søholm, Helle;

    2014-01-01

    AIM: Inducing therapeutic hypothermia (TH) in Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest (OHCA) can be challenging due to its impact on central hemodynamics and vasopressors are frequently used to maintain adequate organ perfusion. The aim of this study was to assess the association between level of vasopres...

  12. Prediction of time of death after withdrawal of life-sustaining treatment in potential donors after cardiac death

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wind, Jentina; Snoeijs, Maarten G. J.; Brugman, Cees A.; Vervelde, Janneke; Zwaveling, Janharm; van Mook, Walther N.; van Heurn, Ernest L.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Organ donation after cardiac death increases the number of donor organs. In controlled donation after cardiac death donors, the period between withdrawal of life-sustaining treatment and cardiac arrest is one of the parameters used to assess whether organs are suitable for transplantation

  13. Physical/chemical closed-loop life support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawless, James G.

    1988-01-01

    Information on physical/chemical closed-loop life support systems are given in viewgraph form. Information is given on program objectives, the elements of a life support system, and Pathfinder program elements.

  14. Skill retention in adults and in children 3 months after basic life support training using a simple personal resuscitation manikin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Isbye, Dan L; Meyhoff, Christian S; Lippert, Freddy K;

    2007-01-01

    As 70-80% of cardiac arrests occur at home, widespread training is needed to increase the likelihood of basic life support (BLS) being performed before the arrival of Emergency Medical Services personnel. Teaching BLS in public schools has been recommended to achieve this.......As 70-80% of cardiac arrests occur at home, widespread training is needed to increase the likelihood of basic life support (BLS) being performed before the arrival of Emergency Medical Services personnel. Teaching BLS in public schools has been recommended to achieve this....

  15. Emergency Neurological Life Support: Status Epilepticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claassen, Jan; Riviello, James J; Silbergleit, Robert

    2015-12-01

    Patients with prolonged or rapidly recurring convulsions lasting more than 5 min are in status epilepticus (SE) and require immediate resuscitation. Although there are relatively few randomized clinical trials, available evidence and experience suggest that early and aggressive treatment of SE improves patient outcomes, for which reason this was chosen as an Emergency Neurological Life Support protocol. The current approach to the emergency treatment of SE emphasizes rapid initiation of adequate doses of first-line therapy, as well as accelerated second-line anticonvulsant drugs and induced coma when these fail, coupled with admission to a unit capable of neurological critical care and electroencephalography monitoring. This protocol will focus on the initial treatment of SE but also review subsequent steps in the protocol once the patient is hospitalized.

  16. Emergency Neurologic Life Support: Meningitis and Encephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaieski, David F; Nathan, Barnett R; O'Brien, Nicole F

    2015-12-01

    Bacterial meningitis and viral encephalitis, particularly herpes simplex encephalitis, are severe neurological infections that, if not treated promptly and effectively, lead to poor neurological outcome or death. Because treatment is more effective if given early, the topic of meningitis and encephalitis was chosen as an Emergency Neurological Life Support protocol. This protocol provides a practical approach to recognition and urgent treatment of bacterial meningitis and encephalitis. Appropriate imaging, spinal fluid analysis, and early empiric treatment is discussed. Though uncommon in its full form, the typical clinical triad of headache, fever, and neck stiffness should alert the clinical practitioner to the possibility of a central nervous system infection. Early attention to the airway and maintaining normotension is crucial in treatment of these patients, as is rapid treatment with anti-infectives and, in some cases, corticosteroids.

  17. Laypersons may learn basic life support in 24min using a personal resuscitation manikin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Isbye, Dan Lou; Rasmussen, Lars Simon; Lippert, Freddy Knudsen;

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Bystander basic life support (BLS) is an important part of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and improves outcome after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. However, the general population has poor BLS skills. Several training initiatives could be used to improve this situation and the c......BACKGROUND: Bystander basic life support (BLS) is an important part of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and improves outcome after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. However, the general population has poor BLS skills. Several training initiatives could be used to improve this situation...... assessed after 3 months, a 24 min DVD-based instruction plus subsequent self-training in BLS appears equally effective compared to a 6h BLS course and hence is more efficient. Udgivelsesdato: 2006-Jun...

  18. Advanced intelligent computational technologies and decision support systems

    CERN Document Server

    Kountchev, Roumen

    2014-01-01

    This book offers a state of the art collection covering themes related to Advanced Intelligent Computational Technologies and Decision Support Systems which can be applied to fields like healthcare assisting the humans in solving problems. The book brings forward a wealth of ideas, algorithms and case studies in themes like: intelligent predictive diagnosis; intelligent analyzing of medical images; new format for coding of single and sequences of medical images; Medical Decision Support Systems; diagnosis of Down’s syndrome; computational perspectives for electronic fetal monitoring; efficient compression of CT Images; adaptive interpolation and halftoning for medical images; applications of artificial neural networks for real-life problems solving; present and perspectives for Electronic Healthcare Record Systems; adaptive approaches for noise reduction in sequences of CT images etc.

  19. TU-AB-204-02: Advances in C-Arm CBCT for Cardiac Interventions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fahrig, R. [Stanford University (United States)

    2015-06-15

    assessment of novel therapies. Finally, Dr. J. Boone (UC Davis) will present on the topic: Advances in CBCT for Breast Imaging. Breast CT has been studied as an imaging tool for diagnostic breast evaluation and for potential breast cancer screening. The breast CT application lends itself to CBCT because of the small dimensions of the breast, the tapered shape of the breast towards higher cone angle, and the fact that there are no bones in the breast. The performance of various generations of breast CT scanners developed in recent years will be discussed, focusing on advances in spatial resolution and image noise characteristics. The results will also demonstrate the results of clinical trials using both computer and human observers. Learning Objectives: Understand the challenges, key technological advances, and emerging opportunities of CBCT in: Brain perfusion imaging, including assessment of ischemic stroke Cardiac imaging for functional assessment in cardiac interventions Orthopedics imaging for evaluation of musculoskeletal trauma, arthritis, and osteoporosis Breast imaging for screening and diagnosis of breast cancer. Work presented in this symposium includes research support by: Siemens Healthcare (Dr. Chen); NIH and Siemens Healthcare (Dr. Fahrig); NIH and Carestream Health (Dr. Zbijewski); and NIH (Dr. Boone)

  20. NASA space life sciences research and education support program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Terri K.

    1995-01-01

    USRA's Division of Space Life Sciences (DSLS) was established in 1983 as the Division of Space Biomedicine to facilitate participation of the university community in biomedical research programs at the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC). The DSLS is currently housed in the Center for Advanced Space Studies (CASS), sharing quarters with the Division of Educational Programs and the Lunar and Planetary Institute. The DSLS provides visiting scientists for the Johnson Space Center; organizes conferences, workshops, meetings, and seminars; and, through subcontracts with outside institutions, supports NASA-related research at more than 25 such entities. The DSLS has considerable experience providing visiting scientists, experts, and consultants to work in concert with NASA Life Sciences researchers to define research missions and goals and to perform a wide variety of research administration and program management tasks. The basic objectives of this contract have been to stimulate, encourage, and assist research and education in the NASA life sciences. Scientists and experts from a number of academic and research institutions in this country and abroad have been recruited to support NASA's need to find a solution to human physiological problems associated with living and working in space and on extraterrestrial bodies in the solar system.

  1. Advanced Cardiac Resuscitation Evaluation (ACRE: A randomised single-blind controlled trial of peer-led vs. expert-led advanced resuscitation training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hughes Thomas C

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Advanced resuscitation skills training is an important and enjoyable part of medical training, but requires small group instruction to ensure active participation of all students. Increases in student numbers have made this increasingly difficult to achieve. Methods A single-blind randomised controlled trial of peer-led vs. expert-led resuscitation training was performed using a group of sixth-year medical students as peer instructors. The expert instructors were a senior and a middle grade doctor, and a nurse who is an Advanced Life Support (ALS Instructor. A power calculation showed that the trial would have a greater than 90% chance of rejecting the null hypothesis (that expert-led groups performed 20% better than peer-led groups if that were the true situation. Secondary outcome measures were the proportion of High Pass grades in each groups and safety incidents. The peer instructors designed and delivered their own course material. To ensure safety, the peer-led groups used modified defibrillators that could deliver only low-energy shocks. Blinded assessment was conducted using an Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE. The checklist items were based on International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation (ILCOR guidelines using Ebel standard-setting methods that emphasised patient and staff safety and clinical effectiveness. The results were analysed using Exact methods, chi-squared and t-test. Results A total of 132 students were randomised: 58 into the expert-led group, 74 into the peer-led group. 57/58 (98% of students from the expert-led group achieved a Pass compared to 72/74 (97% from the peer-led group: Exact statistics confirmed that it was very unlikely (p = 0.0001 that the expert-led group was 20% better than the peer-led group. There were no safety incidents, and High Pass grades were achieved by 64 (49% of students: 33/58 (57% from the expert-led group, 31/74 (42% from the peer-led group. Exact

  2. Fatigue life estimation procedures for the endurance of a cardiac valve prosthesis: stress/life and damage-tolerant analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchie, R O; Lubock, P

    1986-05-01

    Projected fatigue life analyses are performed to estimate the endurance of a cardiac valve prosthesis under physiological environmental and mechanical conditions. The analyses are conducted using both the classical stress-strain/life and the fracture mechanics-based damage-tolerant approaches, and provide estimates of expected life in terms of initial flaw sizes which may pre-exist in the metal prior to the valve entering service. The damage-tolerant analysis further is supplemented by consideration of the question of "short cracks," which represents a developing area in metal fatigue research, not commonly applied to data in standard engineering design practice.

  3. Impella 5.0 as a Second-Line Mechanical Circulatory Support Strategy After Extracorporeal Life Support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schibilsky, David; Kruger, Tobias; Lausberg, Henning F; Eisenlohr, Christoph; Haller, Christoph; Nemeth, Attila; Schibilsky, Barbara; Haeberle, Helene; Rosenberger, Peter; Walker, Tobias; Schlensak, Christian

    2016-09-01

    The catheter-based Impella 5.0 left ventricular assist device is a powerful and less invasive alternative for patients in cardiogenic shock. The use as second-line therapy in patients with precedent extracorporeal life support (ECLS) has not been described before now. We analyzed our experience of consecutive patients treated with this alternative strategy. From April 2014 to December 2014, eight patients had been implanted as a second-line option after ECLS support. The reason for the change from ECLS to Impella 5.0 was absence of cardiac recovery for primary weaning and complications of ECLS therapy. The mean time of ECLS support prior to Impella implantation was 12 ± 7 days. The implantation of the Impella 5.0/CP was technically successful in all patients, and the ECLS could be explanted in all eight patients who received Impella implantation as a second-line treatment. The second-line Impella 5.0 therapy resulted in two patients who turned into left ventricular assist device (LVAD) candidates, two primary weaning candidates, and four patients who died in the setting of sepsis or absent cardiac recovery and contraindications for durable LVAD therapy. Thereby, the overall hospital discharge survival as well as the 180-day survival was 50% for Impella 5.0 implantations as second-line procedure after ECLS. The latest follow-up survival of this second-line strategy after ECLS was three out of eight, as one patient died after 299 days of LVAD support due to sepsis. The use of Impella 5.0 constitutes a possible second-line therapeutic option for those patients who do not show cardiac recovery during prolonged ECLS support or suffer from complications of ECLS therapy. This treatment allows additional time for decisions regarding cardiac recovery or indication for durable LVAD therapy.

  4. The impact of therapeutic hypothermia on neurological function and quality of life after cardiac arrest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bro-Jeppesen, John; Kjaergaard, Jesper; Horsted, Tina I;

    2008-01-01

    AIMS: To assess the impact of therapeutic hypothermia on cognitive function and quality of life in comatose survivors of out of Hospital Cardiac arrest (OHCA). METHODS: We prospectively studied comatose survivors of OHCA consecutively admitted in a 4-year period. Therapeutic hypothermia was imple...

  5. Cardiac Regeneration using Growth Factors: Advances and Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebouças, Juliana de Souza; Santos-Magalhães, Nereide Stela; Formiga, Fabio Rocha

    2016-09-01

    Myocardial infarction is the most significant manifestation of ischemic heart disease and is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Novel strategies targeting at regenerating the injured myocardium have been investigated, including gene therapy, cell therapy, and the use of growth factors. Growth factor therapy has aroused interest in cardiovascular medicine because of the regeneration mechanisms induced by these biomolecules, including angiogenesis, extracellular matrix remodeling, cardiomyocyte proliferation, stem-cell recruitment, and others. Together, these mechanisms promote myocardial repair and improvement of the cardiac function. This review aims to address the strategic role of growth factor therapy in cardiac regeneration, considering its innovative and multifactorial character in myocardial repair after ischemic injury. Different issues will be discussed, with emphasis on the regeneration mechanisms as a potential therapeutic resource mediated by growth factors, and the challenges to make these proteins therapeutically viable in the field of cardiology and regenerative medicine. Resumo O infarto do miocárdio representa a manifestação mais significativa da cardiopatia isquêmica e está associado a elevada morbimortalidade. Novas estratégias vêm sendo investigadas com o intuito de regenerar o miocárdio lesionado, incluindo a terapia gênica, a terapia celular e a utilização de fatores de crescimento. A terapia com fatores de crescimento despertou interesse em medicina cardiovascular, devido aos mecanismos de regeneração induzidos por essas biomoléculas, incluindo angiogênese, remodelamento da matriz extracelular, proliferação de cardiomiócitos e recrutamento de células-tronco, dentre outros. Em conjunto, tais mecanismos promovem a reparação do miocárdio e a melhora da função cardíaca. Esta revisão pretende abordar o papel estratégico da terapia, com fatores de crescimento, para a regeneração cardíaca, considerando seu car

  6. Bridging to Heart Transplantation from the Biventricular Pulsatile Berlin Heart EXCOR Assist Device Support in a Patient with Advanced End-Organ Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuba Demirozu, Zumrut; Suha Kucukaksu, Deniz

    2015-01-01

    Long-term mechanical circulatory support is a life-saving technology while briding to heart transplantation. It increases the quality of life and preserves end-organ function for patients with advanced heart failure. The number of patients with advanced heart failure scheduled for heart transplantation before comorbidities escalate is on the rise. However, the device function is complicated by the bleeding-thrombosis and infection paradigm, hence the interest in understanding device thrombosis and infection. We describe a 27-year-old man with idiopathic cardiomyopathy, advanced end-organ failure, and severe infection, who was bridged to heart transplantation after 8 months on the Berlin Heart EXCOR (Berlin Heart AG, Berlin, Germany) biventricular support. The patient was discharged from the hospital in the third postoperative week after the recovery of his end-organ functions. At 29 months’ post-transplantation follow-up, his last cardiac biopsy was grade 0, his ejection fraction was 60%, and he was enjoying a good quality of life. PMID:26985209

  7. A new data architecture for advancing life cycle assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    IntroductionLife cycle assessment (LCA) has a technical architecture that limits data interoperability, transparency, and automated integration of external data. More advanced information technologies offer promise for increasing the ease with which information can be synthesized...

  8. 心脏康复及社会支持与冠状动脉搭桥术后患者生活质量的相关性研究%Effects of cardiac rehabilitation and social support on the quality of life of patients after coronary artery bypass grafting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈艳红; 孙涛; 李慧; 薛俊珍

    2016-01-01

    Objective To observe the effects of rehabilitation intervention and social support on the quality of life ( QOL) of patients after coronary artery bypass grafting. Methods Forty⁃two hospitalized patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting(CABG) were randomly assigned to cardiac rehabilitation group(rehabilitation group, n=22) and routine care group(control group, n=20).In rehabilitation group, patients received progressively increasing exercise and appropriate psychological intervention. In control group, patients received routine treatment. The medical outcome study short form( SF⁃36) scores and 6 min walk distances ( 6MWDs) were observed in both groups. Results Compared with control group,SF⁃36 scores were significantly higher ( the physical function,general health,vitality,role⁃emotion and mental health scores improved significantly) , and the final 6MWDs were longer in the rehabilitation group. There were remarkable positive correlations between the utilization of social support and vitality, emotion, psychological health as well as SF⁃36 scores. Conclusions Cardiac rehabilitation training and social support can improve QOL for patients after coronary artery bypass grafting.%目的:观察心脏康复及社会支持对冠状动脉搭桥术后患者生活质量的影响。方法42例拟行冠状动脉搭桥术的患者随机分为康复组( n=22)和对照组( n=20)。康复组于手术前、后均给予逐渐递增的运动和适当的心理干预治疗,对照组采取常规治疗;术后2组均接受社会支持评定量表及简易医学问卷调查;2组均于手术前、后采用健康调查简表( SF⁃36)、6 min步行距离(6MWD)来评估患者生活质量的改善情况。结果康复组SF⁃36中躯体功能、一般健康状况、精力、情感职能和心理健康与对照组比较差异有统计学意义( P<0�01),康复组6MWD明显高于对照组( P<0�01)。患者的社会支持与活力

  9. Are patients with cardiac implants protected against electromagnetic interference in daily life and occupational environment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napp, Andreas; Stunder, Dominik; Maytin, Melanie; Kraus, Thomas; Marx, Nikolaus; Driessen, Sarah

    2015-07-21

    Utilization of cardiac implants such as pacemakers and implantable cardioverter defibrillators is now commonplace among heart disease patients. The ever-increasing technological complexity of these devices is matched by the near omnipresent exposure to electric, magnetic, and electromagnetic fields (EMFs), both in everyday life and the occupational environment. Given that electromagnetic interferences (EMIs) are associated with potential risk in device patients, physicians are increasingly confronted with managing device patients with intermittent EMI and chronic occupational exposure. The current review aims to provide a contemporary overview of cardiovascular implantable electronic devices, their function and susceptibility of non-medical EMFs and provide recommendations for physicians caring for cardiac device patients presenting with EMI.

  10. Skill retention in adults and in children 3 months after basic life support training using a simple personal resuscitation manikin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Isbye, Dan L; Meyhoff, Christian S; Lippert, Freddy K;

    2007-01-01

    As 70-80% of cardiac arrests occur at home, widespread training is needed to increase the likelihood of basic life support (BLS) being performed before the arrival of Emergency Medical Services personnel. Teaching BLS in public schools has been recommended to achieve this....

  11. [The quality of life after chemotherapy in advanced non-small cell lung cancer patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Słowik-Gabryelska, A; Szczepanik, A; Kalicka, A

    1999-01-01

    The intensity of complains, short survival and great number of patients makes many oncologists to apply chemotherapy in advanced non-small cell lung cancer/NSCLC/. The achieved median duration of life after chemotherapy was 6 to 12 month. From the other hand non small cell lung cancer chemotherapy is a big burden even to healthy persons. It can worsen the quality of life. That was the reason we evaluated the quality of life after chemotherapy in advanced non small cell lung cancer patients. Taking into account, that the evaluation of quality of life, used in most diseases is useless in advanced NSCLC patients, for appreciation the quality of life in these cases the lung cancer symptoms scale/LCSS/was adopted. In 110 non small cell lung cancer patients in stage IIIB and IV, who received combined chemotherapy by Le Chevalier/Vindesine, Cisplatin, Cyclophosphamide, Lomustin/or by Rosell/Mitomycin, Cyclophosphamide, Cisplatin/the quality of life was evaluated. In 20-persons control group all patients received the symptomatic treatment. In observed group of 110 patients, tumor regressions after 4 courses of chemotherapy allowed to resect cancer in 14 cases, to apply radiotherapy in 42 and to continue chemiotherapy in 23 persons. In every person from above mentioned group the quality of life was evaluated on the basis of intensity of cancer symptoms, accordingly to LCSS. The intensity of cancer symptoms was compared before and after treatment. There were compared; the innensity of complains, weakness, appetite, malnutrition, and hematological, neurological, performans state as well as respiratory sufficiency, infections, cardiac disorders and pain. Apart it, the side effects of applied therapy were assessed in 5 degree scale. The level of hemoglobin, the number of leucocytes, thrombocytes, bilirubine and transaminases in peripheral blood, hematurie, proteinurie, bleedings, appetite, nausea, vomitings, diarrhea, mucosal lesions, infections, skin lesions, cardiac lesions

  12. Aging induces cardiac diastolic dysfunction, oxidative stress, accumulation of advanced glycation endproducts and protein modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shi-Yan; Du, Min; Dolence, E Kurt; Fang, Cindy X; Mayer, Gabriele E; Ceylan-Isik, Asli F; LaCour, Karissa H; Yang, Xiaoping; Wilbert, Christopher J; Sreejayan, Nair; Ren, Jun

    2005-04-01

    Evidence suggests that aging, per se, is a major risk factor for cardiac dysfunction. Oxidative modification of cardiac proteins by non-enzymatic glycation, i.e. advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs), has been implicated as a causal factor in the aging process. This study was designed to examine the role of aging on cardiomyocyte contractile function, cardiac protein oxidation and oxidative modification. Mechanical properties were evaluated in ventricular myocytes from young (2-month) and aged (24-26-month) mice using a MyoCam system. The mechanical indices evaluated were peak shortening (PS), time-to-PS (TPS), time-to-90% relengthening (TR90) and maximal velocity of shortening/relengthening (+/- dL/dt). Oxidative stress and protein damage were evaluated by glutathione and glutathione disulfide (GSH/GSSG) ratio and protein carbonyl content, respectively. Activation of NAD(P)H oxidase was determined by immunoblotting. Aged myocytes displayed a larger cell cross-sectional area, prolonged TR90, and normal PS, +/- dL/dt and TPS compared with young myocytes. Aged myocytes were less tolerant of high stimulus frequency (from 0.1 to 5 Hz) compared with young myocytes. Oxidative stress and protein oxidative damage were both elevated in the aging group associated with significantly enhanced p47phox but not gp91phox expression. In addition, level of cardiac AGEs was approximately 2.5-fold higher in aged hearts than young ones determined by AGEs-ELISA. A group of proteins with a molecular range between 50 and 75 kDa with pI of 4-7 was distinctively modified in aged heart using one- or two-dimension SDS gel electrophoresis analysis. These data demonstrate cardiac diastolic dysfunction and reduced stress tolerance in aged cardiac myocytes, which may be associated with enhanced cardiac oxidative damage, level of AGEs and protein modification by AGEs.

  13. In-hospital cardiac arrest is associated with use of non-antiarrhythmic QTc-prolonging drugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Bruin, Marie L; Langendijk, Pim N J; Koopmans, Richard P;

    2007-01-01

    a case-control study in which patients, for whom intervention of the advanced life support resuscitation team was requested for cardiac arrest between 1995 and 2003 in the Academic Medical Centre, Amsterdam, were compared with controls regarding current use of non-antiarrhythmic QTc-prolonging drugs...... should be made aware of the fact that these non-antiarrhythmic drugs may be hazardous, so that potential risks can be weighed against treatment benefits and additional cardiac surveillance can be requested, if necessary....

  14. Cardiac gene therapy: Recent advances and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Daniel; Chen, Yu-Zhe; Krishnan, Harini Venkata; Sant, Shilpa

    2015-10-10

    Gene therapy has the potential to serve as an adaptable platform technology for treating various diseases. Cardiovascular disease is a major cause of mortality in the developed world and genetic modification is steadily becoming a more plausible method to repair and regenerate heart tissue. Recently, new gene targets to treat cardiovascular disease have been identified and developed into therapies that have shown promise in animal models. Some of these therapies have advanced to clinical testing. Despite these recent successes, several barriers must be overcome for gene therapy to become a widely used treatment of cardiovascular diseases. In this review, we evaluate specific genetic targets that can be exploited to treat cardiovascular diseases, list the important delivery barriers for the gene carriers, assess the most promising methods of delivering the genetic information, and discuss the current status of clinical trials involving gene therapies targeted to the heart.

  15. Evaluation of a newly developed media-supported 4-step approach for basic life support training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sopka Saša

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective The quality of external chest compressions (ECC is of primary importance within basic life support (BLS. Recent guidelines delineate the so-called 4“-step approach” for teaching practical skills within resuscitation training guided by a certified instructor. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether a “media-supported 4-step approach” for BLS training leads to equal practical performance compared to the standard 4-step approach. Materials and methods After baseline testing, 220 laypersons were either trained using the widely accepted method for resuscitation training (4-step approach or using a newly created “media-supported 4-step approach”, both of equal duration. In this approach, steps 1 and 2 were ensured via a standardised self-produced podcast, which included all of the information regarding the BLS algorithm and resuscitation skills. Participants were tested on manikins in the same mock cardiac arrest single-rescuer scenario prior to intervention, after one week and after six months with respect to ECC-performance, and participants were surveyed about the approach. Results Participants (age 23 ± 11, 69% female reached comparable practical ECC performances in both groups, with no statistical difference. Even after six months, there was no difference detected in the quality of the initial assessment algorithm or delay concerning initiation of CPR. Overall, at least 99% of the intervention group (n = 99; mean 1.5 ± 0.8; 6-point Likert scale: 1 = completely agree, 6 = completely disagree agreed that the video provided an adequate introduction to BLS skills. Conclusions The “media-supported 4-step approach” leads to comparable practical ECC-performance compared to standard teaching, even with respect to retention of skills. Therefore, this approach could be useful in special educational settings where, for example, instructors’ resources are sparse or large-group sessions

  16. Sustainable life support on Mars - the potential roles of cyanobacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verseux, Cyprien; Baqué, Mickael; Lehto, Kirsi; de Vera, Jean-Pierre P.; Rothschild, Lynn J.; Billi, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    Even though technological advances could allow humans to reach Mars in the coming decades, launch costs prohibit the establishment of permanent manned outposts for which most consumables would be sent from Earth. This issue can be addressed by in situ resource utilization: producing part or all of these consumables on Mars, from local resources. Biological components are needed, among other reasons because various resources could be efficiently produced only by the use of biological systems. But most plants and microorganisms are unable to exploit Martian resources, and sending substrates from Earth to support their metabolism would strongly limit the cost-effectiveness and sustainability of their cultivation. However, resources needed to grow specific cyanobacteria are available on Mars due to their photosynthetic abilities, nitrogen-fixing activities and lithotrophic lifestyles. They could be used directly for various applications, including the production of food, fuel and oxygen, but also indirectly: products from their culture could support the growth of other organisms, opening the way to a wide range of life-support biological processes based on Martian resources. Here we give insights into how and why cyanobacteria could play a role in the development of self-sustainable manned outposts on Mars.

  17. Activity and Life After Survival of a Cardiac Arrest (ALASCA and the effectiveness of an early intervention service: design of a randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakx Wilbert GM

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cardiac arrest survivors may experience hypoxic brain injury that results in cognitive impairments which frequently remain unrecognised. This may lead to limitations in daily activities and participation in society, a decreased quality of life for the patient, and a high strain for the caregiver. Publications about interventions directed at improving quality of life after survival of a cardiac arrest are scarce. Therefore, evidence about effective rehabilitation programmes for cardiac arrest survivors is urgently needed. This paper presents the design of the ALASCA (Activity and Life After Survival of a Cardiac Arrest trial, a randomised, controlled clinical trial to evaluate the effects of a new early intervention service for survivors of a cardiac arrest and their caregivers. Methods/design The study population comprises all people who survive two weeks after a cardiac arrest and are admitted to one of the participating hospitals in the Southern part of the Netherlands. In a two-group randomised, controlled clinical trial, half of the participants will receive an early intervention service. The early intervention service consists of several consultations with a specialised nurse for the patient and their caregiver during the first three months after the cardiac arrest. The intervention is directed at screening for cognitive problems, provision of informational, emotional and practical support, and stimulating self-management. If necessary, referral to specialised care can take place. Persons in the control group will receive the care as usual. The primary outcome measures are the extent of participation in society and quality of life of the patient one year after a cardiac arrest. Secondary outcome measures are the level of cognitive, emotional and cardiovascular impairment and daily functioning of the patient, as well as the strain for and quality of life of the caregiver. Participants and their caregivers will be followed

  18. Employment Status, Social Support, and Life Satisfaction among the Elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquino, Juan A.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Examined the role of stressful life experiences and social support in the health of 292 community-living elderly. Findings suggest that the number of hours worked at a paying job, lower levels of depression, and greater perceived social support were directly related to higher levels of life satisfaction. (RJM)

  19. Forest biotechnology advances to support global bioeconomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoine Harfouche

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The world is shifting to an innovation economy and forest biotechnology can play a major role in the bio-economy by providing farmers, producers, and consumers with tools that can better advance this transition. First-generation or conventional biofuels are primarily produced from food crops and are therefore limited in their ability to meet challenges for petroleum-product substitution and climate change mitigation, and to overcome the food-versus-fuel dilemma. In the longer term, forest lignocellulosic biomass will provide a unique renewable resource for large-scale production of bioenergy, biofuels and bio-products. These second-generation or advanced biofuels and bio-products have also the potential to avoid many of the issues facing the first-generation biofuels, particularly the competition concerning land and water used for food production. To expand the range of natural biological resources the rapidly evolving tools of biotechnology can ameliorate the conversion process, lower the conversion costs and also enhance target yield of forest biomass feedstock and the product of interest. Therefore, linking forest biotechnology with industrial biotechnology presents a promising approach to convert woody lignocellulosic biomass into biofuels and bio-products. Major advances and applications of forest biotechnology that are being achieved to competitively position forest biomass feedstocks with corn and other food crops are outlined. Finally, recommendations for future work are discussed.

  20. SLurtles: Supporting Constructionist Learning in "Second Life"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girvan, Carina; Tangney, Brendan; Savage, Timothy

    2013-01-01

    Constructionism places an emphasis on the process of constructing shareable artefacts. Many virtual worlds, such as "Second Life", provide learners with tools for the construction of objects and hence may facilitate in-world constructionist learning experiences. However, the construction tools available present learners with a significant barrier…

  1. Effect of weight support exercise therapy on the cardiac function in patients with chronic heart failure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dong-Dong Jiao; Wen-Yu Zhang; Jing Xu; Guang-Jian Zhu; Jia Chen

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To explore the effect of weight support exercise therapy on the cardiac function and living quality in patients with chronic heart failure.Methods: A total of 75 patients with CHF were included in the study and randomized into the observation group (n=38) and the control group (n=37). the patients in the control group were given routine drug therapy. on the above basis, the patients in the observation group were given weight support exercise therapy for rehabilitation. six-month treatment was regarded as one course. the plasma BNP and aldosterone levels before and after treatment in the two groups were detected. the related cardiac function indicators in the two groups were compared. 6mwt and MHL were used to evaluate the exercise tolerance and living quality, respectively.Results:The comparison of plasma BNP and aldosterone levels, various cardiac function indicators, 6 min walking distance, and MHL score before treatment between the two groups was not statistically significant. BNP and aldosterone levels after treatment in the two groups were significantly reduced, and the reduced degree in the observation group was significantly greater than that in the control group. after treatment, HR, LVEDD, and MHL score were significantly reduced, LVEF, FS, and 6 min walking distance were significantly increased, and the comparison between the two groups was statistically significant.Conclusions:Weight support exercise therapy can significantly reduce the plasma BNP and aldosterone levels in CHF patients, improve the cardiac function, and enhance the exercise tolerance and living quality.

  2. Advancing Administrative Supports for Research Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briar-Lawson, Katharine; Korr, Wynne; White, Barbara; Vroom, Phyllis; Zabora, James; Middleton, Jane; Shank, Barbara; Schatz, Mona

    2008-01-01

    Research administrative supports must parallel and reinforce faculty initiatives in research grant procurement. This article features several types of developments that draw on presentations at the National Association of Deans and Directors of Schools of Social Work meetings. Key changes in social work programs are addressed, including the…

  3. Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest: determinant factors for immediate survival after cardiopulmonary resuscitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Aparecida Morais

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to analyze determinant factors for the immediate survival of persons who receive cardiopulmonary resuscitation from the advanced support units of the Mobile Emergency Medical Services (SAMU of Belo Horizonte.METHOD: this is a retrospective, epidemiological study which analyzed 1,165 assistance forms, from the period 2008 - 2010. The collected data followed the Utstein style, being submitted to descriptive and analytical statistics with tests with levels of significance of 5%.RESULTS: the majority were male, the median age was 64 years, and the ambulance response time, nine minutes. Immediate survival was observed in 239 persons. An association was ascertained of this outcome with "cardiac arrest witnessed by persons trained in basic life support" (OR=3.49; p<0.05; CI 95%, "cardiac arrest witnessed by Mobile Emergency Medical Services teams" (OR=2.99; p<0.05; CI95%, "only the carry out of basic life support" (OR=0.142; p<0.05; CI95%, and "initial cardiac rhythm of asystole" (OR=0.33; p<0.05; CI 95%.CONCLUSION: early access to cardiopulmonary resuscitation was related to a favorable outcome, and the non-undertaking of advanced support, and asystole, were associated with worse outcomes. Basic and advanced life support techniques can alter survival in the event of cardiac arrest.

  4. Effects of a comprehensive cardiac rehabilitation program on quality of life and exercise tolerance in women: A retrospective analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knapik Grant

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Currently, there are a lack of investigations that have examined the effect of participating in a comprehensive cardiac rehabilitation program on quality of life and physiological measures in women of different ages. The purpose of this investigation was to examine the effect of participating in a comprehensive cardiac rehabilitation program on quality of life, exercise tolerance, blood pressure and lipids in women between 33 and 82 years of age. Methods The 126 women participated in a 14-week cardiac rehabilitation program that consisted of 7 weeks of formal supervised exercise training and 7 weeks of unsupervised exercise and lifestyle modification. Physiologic and quality of life outcome measures obtained at the outset and after 14 weeks included: 1 exercise treadmill time; 2 resting and peak systolic and diastolic blood pressure; 3 total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol and Triglycerides; 4 Cardiac Quality of Life Index questionnaire. Results Significant improvements were found in the following quality of life measures after participating in the cardiac rehabilitation program: physical well being, psychosocial, worry, nutrition and symptoms. No significant differences were seen for any QOL variable between the different age groups. Significant improvements were seen in exercise tolerance (+21% and high density lipoprotein (+5%. Conclusion Cardiac rehabilitation may play an important role in improving quality of life, exercise tolerance and high density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in younger and older women with underlying cardiovascular disease.

  5. Supportive care in early rehabilitation for advanced-stage radiated head and neck cancer patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuw, J.A.M. de; Berg, M.G. van den; Achterberg, T. van; Merkx, M.A.W.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and supportive follow-up care needs 1 month posttreatment for patients with advanced-stage (stage III or IV) radiated head and neck cancer (HNC) who were treated with curative intent. Study Design An exploratory, descriptive analysi

  6. Basic life support knowledge of first-year university students from Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, S V; Margarido, M R R A; Caires, I S; Santos, R A N; Souza, S G; Souza, J M A; Martimiano, R R; Dutra, C S K; Palha, P; Zanetti, A C G; Pazin-Filho, A

    2015-12-01

    We aimed to evaluate knowledge of first aid among new undergraduates and whether it is affected by their chosen course. A questionnaire was developed to assess knowledge of how to activate the Mobile Emergency Attendance Service - MEAS (Serviço de Atendimento Móvel de Urgência; SAMU), recognize a pre-hospital emergency situation and the first aid required for cardiac arrest. The students were also asked about enrolling in a first aid course. Responses were received from 1038 of 1365 (76.04%) new undergraduates. The questionnaires were completed in a 2-week period 1 month after the beginning of classes. Of the 1038 respondents (59.5% studying biological sciences, 11.6% physical sciences, and 28.6% humanities), 58.5% knew how to activate the MEAS/SAMU (54.3% non-biological vs 61.4% biological, P=0.02), with an odds ratio (OR)=1.39 (95%CI=1.07-1.81) regardless of age, sex, origin, having a previous degree or having a relative with cardiac disease. The majority could distinguish emergency from non-emergency situations. When faced with a possible cardiac arrest, 17.7% of the students would perform chest compressions (15.5% non-biological vs 19.1% biological first-year university students, P=0.16) and 65.2% would enroll in a first aid course (51.1% non-biological vs 74.7% biological, PSAMU number and only a minority had sufficient basic life support skills to help with cardiac arrest. A significant proportion would not enroll in a first aid course. Biological first-year university students were more prone to enroll in a basic life support course.

  7. Daptomycin as supportive treatment option in patients developing mediastinitis after open cardiac surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weis Florian

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mediastinitis is a severe complication after cardiac surgery. While improvement of prophylaxis and of medical and surgical therapy has reduced its incidence, the treatment of mediastinitis continues to be a challenging problem. Within this study, we report the successful use of daptomycin as supportive therapy in patients developing mediastinitis after open cardiac surgery. Methods The records of 21 consecutive patients who developed mediastinitis after cardiac surgery were retrospectively reviewed. After diagnosis, all patients received surgical debridement and antibiotic therapy with daptomycin. All patients were followed up to death or discharge. Results Clinical improvement after combined surgical and antibiotic therapy with daptomycin was found in 90.5% of the patients. The median time until clinical improvement occurred was 5 [4/6] days. Daptomycin was well-tolerated and no major adverse events during therapy were observed observed. Conclusions This study provides new and helpful information regarding the beneficial use of daptomycin as supportive treatment option in patients developing mediastinitis after cardiac surgery.

  8. EXPLOITATION OF LIFE SUPPORT SYSTEMS IN POPULATED PLACES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudchenko I. I.

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This article describes aspects of control, regulation, functioning and degree of influence on the condition of life-support systems, on the safety of life support, on the safety vital functions of society. The impact of life-support systems on the ecological status of builtup areas. The article refers to an increase in emissions and the dangers of СО2 и SО2, about methods to reduce them. It presents the dangers of hydrogen compounds, nitrogen, chlorine, freon. We have also presented measures to protect the environment in urban areas

  9. The advances of cardiac resynchronization therapy%心脏同步化治疗进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨兴生; 孙静平; JM.Felner

    2010-01-01

    @@ Heart failure(HF)currently affects over 5 million Americans,with approximately 500 000 new cases diagnosed each year,with 5-year mortality rates approaching 50%.This is the most common cause of hospitalization in patients older than 65 years-old~([1]). There is overwhelming evidence from prospective randomized controlled trials that provides support for cardiac resynchronization therapy(CRT)in patients with symptomatic heart failure and ventricular dyssynchrony.

  10. Reliability Growth in Space Life Support Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Harry W.

    2014-01-01

    A hardware system's failure rate often increases over time due to wear and aging, but not always. Some systems instead show reliability growth, a decreasing failure rate with time, due to effective failure analysis and remedial hardware upgrades. Reliability grows when failure causes are removed by improved design. A mathematical reliability growth model allows the reliability growth rate to be computed from the failure data. The space shuttle was extensively maintained, refurbished, and upgraded after each flight and it experienced significant reliability growth during its operational life. In contrast, the International Space Station (ISS) is much more difficult to maintain and upgrade and its failure rate has been constant over time. The ISS Carbon Dioxide Removal Assembly (CDRA) reliability has slightly decreased. Failures on ISS and with the ISS CDRA continue to be a challenge.

  11. 3D X-ray imaging methods in support catheter ablations of cardiac arrhythmias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stárek, Zdeněk; Lehar, František; Jež, Jiří; Wolf, Jiří; Novák, Miroslav

    2014-10-01

    Cardiac arrhythmias are a very frequent illness. Pharmacotherapy is not very effective in persistent arrhythmias and brings along a number of risks. Catheter ablation has became an effective and curative treatment method over the past 20 years. To support complex arrhythmia ablations, the 3D X-ray cardiac cavities imaging is used, most frequently the 3D reconstruction of CT images. The 3D cardiac rotational angiography (3DRA) represents a modern method enabling to create CT like 3D images on a standard X-ray machine equipped with special software. Its advantage lies in the possibility to obtain images during the procedure, decreased radiation dose and reduction of amount of the contrast agent. The left atrium model is the one most frequently used for complex atrial arrhythmia ablations, particularly for atrial fibrillation. CT data allow for creation and segmentation of 3D models of all cardiac cavities. Recently, a research has been made proving the use of 3DRA to create 3D models of other cardiac (right ventricle, left ventricle, aorta) and non-cardiac structures (oesophagus). They can be used during catheter ablation of complex arrhythmias to improve orientation during the construction of 3D electroanatomic maps, directly fused with 3D electroanatomic systems and/or fused with fluoroscopy. An intensive development in the 3D model creation and use has taken place over the past years and they became routinely used during catheter ablations of arrhythmias, mainly atrial fibrillation ablation procedures. Further development may be anticipated in the future in both the creation and use of these models.

  12. Quality-of-life assessment in advanced cancer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Donnelly, S

    2000-07-01

    In the past 5 years, quality-of-life (QOL) assessment measures such as the McGill, McMaster, Global Visual Analogue Scale, Assessment of QOL at the End of Life, Life Evaluation Questionnaire, and Hospice QOL Index have been devised specifically for patients with advanced cancer. The developers of these instruments have tried to respond to the changing needs of this specific population, taking into account characteristics including poor performance status, difficulty with longitudinal study, rapidly deteriorating physical condition, and change in relevant issues. Emphasis has been placed on patient report, ease and speed of completion, and the existential domain or meaning of life. Novel techniques in QOL measurement have also been adapted for palliative care, such as judgment analysis in the Schedule for the Evaluation of Individual Quality of Life. It is generally agreed that a single tool will not cover all QOL assessment needs.

  13. Novel Composite Membrane for Space Life Supporting System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Space life-supporting systems require effective removal of metabolic CO2 from the cabin atmosphere with minimal loss of O2. Conventional techniques, using either...

  14. Key Role of Social Supports in a Cardiac Transplant Treatment Team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Obianuju O; Kymissis, Carisa

    2016-03-01

    Only a limited literature focuses on solid organ transplant outcomes using an integrated care approach connecting the transplant team with psychiatry, other medical specialties, and importantly, the patient's social supports. We present the case of a man with heart failure whom we treated for symptoms of anxiety and depression both precardiac and postcardiac transplant. The patient was managed by a multidisciplinary team for his complex medical, psychiatric, family, and social issues. Most notably, the role and involvement of his primary caregiver at home changed during the crucial period between his pretransplant evaluation and clinical care during the year following his cardiac transplant. Unfortunately our patient succumbed to a poor outcome both socially and medically, dying 1 year posttransplant. Our experience with this patient led us to explore the cardiac transplant presurgical and postsurgical assessment and management process, focusing on the key role of social support in the patient care team.

  15. Effective work-life balance support for various household structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brummelhuis, L.L. ten; Lippe, T. van der

    2010-01-01

    Today’s workforce encompasses a wide variety of employees with specifi c needs and resources when it comes to balancing work and life roles. Our study explores whether various types of work-life balance support measures improve employee helping behavior and performance among single employees, employ

  16. Overview of NASA's Environmental Control and Life Support Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Monserrate

    2009-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews NASA's Environmental Control and Life Support Systems (ECLSS) on the International Space Station. A look inside of the International Space Station detailing ECLSS processes of controlling atmospheric pressure, conditioning the atmosphere, responding to emergency conditions, controlling internal carbon dioxide and contaminants and providing water are described. A detailed description of ISS Regenerative Environmental Control and Life Support System is also presented.

  17. Elaboração e aplicação de um instrumento de avaliação no pós-operatório imediato com base no protocolo do Advanced Trauma Life Suport Elaboración y aplicación de un instrumento de evaluación en el post operatorio inmediato con base en el protocolo del Advanced Trauma Life Suport Elaboration and application of an evaluation instrument in the immediate postoperative period, based on the Advanced Trauma Life Support protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisa Dias Von Atzingen

    2008-01-01

    Trauma permitió identificar las principales alteraciones fisiológicas en el POI contribuyendo, por tanto, a la asistencia de enfermería.OBJECTIVE: Elaborating and applying a patient evaluation instrument in the immediate postoperative period (IPOP after general anesthesia, based on the Advanced Trauma Life Support protocol. METHODS: An instrument was created, based on the Trauma ABCDE and applied in the post-anesthetic recovery room in all adult patients submitted to surgeries under the effect of general anesthesia, from September to November, 2007. RESULTS: 93.5% of the patients were observed to have pervious airways; however, 92.2% of them needed oxygen supplementation. There were alterations in pulmonary auscultation in 15.6% of the patients, hypotension in 16.9% and hypothermia in 23.4%. A statistically significant difference was also observed, suggesting that women have better recovery conditions than men. CONCLUSION: The physical exam in the sequence proposed by the Trauma ABCDE allowed for the identification of the main physiological alterations in the IPOP, contributing for nursing care.

  18. Advanced Materials in Support of EERE Needs to Advance Clean Energy Technologies Program Implementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liby, Alan L [ORNL; Rogers, Hiram [ORNL

    2013-10-01

    The goal of this activity was to carry out program implementation and technical projects in support of the ARRA-funded Advanced Materials in Support of EERE Needs to Advance Clean Energy Technologies Program of the DOE Advanced Manufacturing Office (AMO) (formerly the Industrial Technologies Program (ITP)). The work was organized into eight projects in four materials areas: strategic materials, structural materials, energy storage and production materials, and advanced/field/transient processing. Strategic materials included work on titanium, magnesium and carbon fiber. Structural materials included work on alumina forming austentic (AFA) and CF8C-Plus steels. The advanced batteries and production materials projects included work on advanced batteries and photovoltaic devices. Advanced/field/transient processing included work on magnetic field processing. Details of the work in the eight projects are available in the project final reports which have been previously submitted.

  19. Role of long-term mechanical circulatory support in patients with advanced heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokes, M B; Bergin, P; McGiffin, D

    2016-05-01

    Advanced heart failure represents a small proportion of patients with heart failure that possess high-risk features associated with high hospital readmission rates, significant functional impairment and mortality. Identification of those who have progressed to, or are near a state of advanced heart failure should prompt referral to a service that offers therapies in mechanical circulatory support (MCS) and cardiac transplantation. MCS has grown as a management strategy in the care of these patients, most commonly as a bridge to cardiac transplantation. The predominant utilisation of MCS is implantation of left ventricular assist devices (LVAD), which have evolved significantly in their technology and application over the past 15-20 years. The technology has evolved to such an extent that Destination Therapy is now being utilised as a strategy in management of advanced heart failure in appropriately selected patients. Complication rates have decreased with VAD implantation, but remain a significant consideration in the decision to implant a device, and in the follow up of these patients.

  20. How Important Are Social Support, Expectations and Coping Patterns during Cardiac Rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria J. C. Blikman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To investigate the predictive role of relevant social and psychosocial determinants on emotional distress among patients after cardiac rehabilitation. Methods. A longitudinal prospective study examined short-term (6 months and long-term (2 years impact of predictors on anxiety and depression complaints in 183 patients with 6-months follow-up data attending a four-week rehabilitation stay at the Krokeide Centre in Bergen, Norway. The patients mainly suffered from coronary heart disease. Emotional distress, coping, social support, socioeconomic status, and negative expectations were measured by means of internationally validated questionnaires. A composite score of anxiety and depression complaints was used as the outcome measure in the study. Results. This study revealed that task-oriented coping improved emotional status in long-term followup, and negative expectations were associated with emotional distress in short-term followup. A higher socioeconomic status and more social support predicted improved emotional status in short- as well as long-term followup. Conclusions. Fewer negative expectations and functional coping along with social support are important factors for the prevention of emotional distress after cardiac disease. Such elements should be addressed and encouraged in patients during cardiac rehabilitation.

  1. Closed bioregenerative life support systems: Applicability to hot deserts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyakov, Yuriy S.; Musaev, Ibrahim; Polyakov, Sergey V.

    2010-09-01

    Water scarcity in hot deserts, which cover about one-fifth of the Earth's land area, along with rapid expansion of hot deserts into arable lands is one of the key global environmental problems. As hot deserts are extreme habitats characterized by the availability of solar energy with a nearly complete absence of organic life and water, space technology achievements in designing closed ecological systems may be applicable to the design of sustainable settlements in the deserts. This review discusses the key space technology findings for closed biogenerative life support systems (CBLSS), which can simultaneously produce food, water, nutrients, fertilizers, process wastes, and revitalize air, that can be applied to hot deserts. Among them are the closed cycle of water and the acceleration of the cycling times of carbon, biogenic compounds, and nutrients by adjusting the levels of light intensity, temperature, carbon dioxide, and air velocity over plant canopies. Enhanced growth of algae and duckweed at higher levels of carbon dioxide and light intensity can be important to provide complete water recycling and augment biomass production. The production of fertilizers and nutrients can be enhanced by applying the subsurface flow wetland technology and hyper-thermophilic aerobic bacteria for treating liquid and solid wastes. The mathematical models, optimization techniques, and non-invasive measuring techniques developed for CBLSS make it possible to monitor and optimize the performance of such closed ecological systems. The results of long-duration experiments performed in BIOS-3, Biosphere 2, Laboratory Biosphere, and other ground-based closed test facilities suggest that closed water cycle can be achieved in hot-desert bioregenerative systems using the pathways of evapotranspiration, condensation, and biological wastewater treatment technologies. We suggest that the state of the art in the CBLSS design along with the possibility of using direct sunlight for

  2. Cardiac arrest

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Article.jsp. Accessed June 16, 2014. Myerburg RJ, Castellanos A. Approach to cardiac arrest and life-threatening ... PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2011:chap 63. Myerburg RJ, Castellanos A. Cardiac arrest and audden aardiac death. In: ...

  3. Successful reversal of life threatening cardiac effect following dosulepin overdose using intravenous lipid emulsion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boegevig, Soeren; Rothe, Anders; Tfelt-Hansen, Jacob;

    2011-01-01

    CONTEXT. We report a successful acute reversal of potential life threatening QRS complex widening and prolonged QT interval following dosulepin overdose using intravenous lipid emulsion 20% in an unstable patient. CASE DETAILS. A 36-year-old female following the ingestion of 5.25 g of dosulepin...... became shorter. DISCUSSION. Cyclic antidepressants affect the cardiac conduction system and the myocardium. The exact mechanism of action from intravenous lipid emulsions may not be determined from the data presented, and the obtained effect does not rule out the supposed effects of alkalinisation...

  4. End-of-Life Decisions and Advanced Old Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stoyles

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Despite the fact that most people die in advanced old age, little attention is given to cases involving older people in debates about the moral and legal dimensions of end-of-life decision making. The purpose of this paper is to establish some of the ways our discussions should change as we pay attention to important factors influencing end-of-life decisions for people in advanced old age. Focusing on the prevalence of comorbidities and the likelihood that people in advanced old age will experience an extended period of declining function before death, I argue that our debates should be expanded to include greater consideration of how we want to live in the final stages of life. With this, I am arguing against the tendency to think that “end-of-life” decision making concerns only making decisions about when and how it is appropriate to terminate a person’s life. I argue, further, that we should move away from the medicalization of dying.

  5. Delayed cardiac tamponade: A rare but life-threatening complication of catheter ablation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yetter, Elizabeth; Brazg, Jared; Del Valle, Diane; Mulvey, Laura; Dickman, Eitan

    2016-11-17

    Delayed cardiac tamponade (DCT) is a rare and life-threatening complication of catheter ablation performed as a treatment of atrial fibrillation, with few cases described in the medical literature. We present the case of a 57year-old man presenting with DCT 61days following a catheter ablation procedure. To the best of our knowledge, this is the most delayed case of cardiac tamponade (CT) following catheter ablation described in the literature. We also discuss the importance of point of care ultrasound (POCUS) in the diagnosis and treatment of CT. Emergency physicians must maintain a high index of suspicion in making the diagnosis of CT as patients may present with vague symptoms such as neck or back pain, shortness of breath, fatigue, dizziness, or altered mental status, often without chest pain. Common risk factors for CT include cancer, renal failure, pericarditis, cardiac surgery, myocardial rupture, trauma, and retrograde aortic dissection. In addition, although rare, both catheter ablation and use of anticoagulation carry risks of developing CT. A worldwide survey of medical centers performing catheter ablation found CT as a complication in less than 2% of cases [1]. Some proposed mechanisms of DCT include small pericardial hemorrhages following post-procedural anticoagulation or rupture of the sealed ablation-induced left atrial wall [2]. Clinical examination and electrocardiography may be helpful. However, the criterion standard for diagnosing CT is echocardiography [3].

  6. Globular Clusters as Cradles of Life and Advanced Civilizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Stefano, Rosanne; Ray, Alak

    2016-01-01

    Globular clusters are bound groups of about a million stars and stellar remnants. They are old, largely isolated, and very dense. We consider what each of these special features can mean for the development of life, the evolution of intelligent life, and the long-term survival of technological civilizations. We find that, if they house planets, globular clusters provide ideal environments for advanced civilizations that can survive over long times. We therefore propose methods to search for planets in globular clusters. If planets are found and if our arguments are correct, searches for intelligent life are most likely to succeed when directed toward globular clusters. Globular clusters may be the first places in which distant life is identified in our own or in external galaxies.

  7. Confronting Uncertainty in Life Cycle Assessment Used for Decision Support

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herrmann, Ivan Tengbjerg; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky; Sohn, Michael D.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this article is to help confront uncertainty in life cycle assessments (LCAs) used for decision support. LCAs offer a quantitative approach to assess environmental effects of products, technologies, and services and are conducted by an LCA practitioner or analyst (AN) to support...

  8. Use of shield support on faces advanced in plastic strata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pera, F.; Szentai, G.

    1987-01-01

    A new type of rock loading model is presented for shield support on faces advancing in plastic strata. Loading of strata is not independent of the speed of advance. The problem is approached on theoretical bases and is also illustrated by measurements carried out in practice. The interpretation of the active and passive loads is given and the loads are taken into account in different manner.

  9. Improved quality of life after treatment of prolonged asystole during breath holding spells with a cardiac pacemaker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Kolterer

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: Cardiac pacing using appropriate pacemaker settings seems effective in the prevention of LOC and reduction of the frequency of BHS. Our results imply a reduction of subjective stress levels of patients and parents as well as an increased quality of everyday life. After all, randomized controlled trials of the influence of cardiac pacemaker implantation on subjective stress levels in patients with BHS are needed.

  10. Clinical experience and skills of physicians in hospital cardiac arrest teams in Denmark: a nationwide study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauridsen, Kasper G; Schmidt, Anders S; Caap, Philip; Aagaard, Rasmus; Løfgren, Bo

    2017-01-01

    Background The quality of in-hospital resuscitation is poor and may be affected by the clinical experience and cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) training. This study aimed to investigate the clinical experience, self-perceived skills, CPR training and knowledge of the guidelines on when to abandon resuscitation among physicians of cardiac arrest teams. Methods We performed a nationwide cross-sectional study in Denmark. Telephone interviews were conducted with physicians in the cardiac arrest teams in public somatic hospitals using a structured questionnaire. Results In total, 93 physicians (53% male) from 45 hospitals participated in the study. Median age was 34 (interquartile range: 30–39) years. Respondents were medical students working as locum physicians (5%), physicians in training (79%) and consultants (16%), and the median postgraduate clinical experience was 48 (19–87) months. Most respondents (92%) felt confident in treating a cardiac arrest, while fewer respondents felt confident in performing intubation (41%) and focused cardiac ultrasound (39%) during cardiac arrest. Median time since last CPR training was 4 (2–10) months, and 48% had attended a European Resuscitation Council (ERC) Advanced Life Support course. The majority (84%) felt confident in terminating resuscitation; however, only 9% were able to state the ERC guidelines on when to abandon resuscitation. Conclusion Physicians of Danish cardiac arrest teams are often inexperienced and do not feel competent performing important clinical skills during resuscitation. Less than half have attended an ERC Advanced Life Support course, and only very few physicians know the ERC guidelines on when to abandon resuscitation.

  11. Potential of derived lunar volatiles for life support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bula, R. J.; Wittenberg, L. J.; Tibbitts, T. W.; Kulcinski, G. L.

    1992-01-01

    The lunar regolith contains small quantities of solar wind implanted volatile compounds that have vital, basic uses for maintaining life support systems of lunar or space settlements. Recent proposals to utilize the helium-3 isotope (He-3) derived from the lunar regolith as a fuel for fusion reactors would result in the availability of large quantities of other lunar volatile compounds. The quantities obtained would provide the annual life support replacement requirements of 1150 to 23,000 inhabitants per ton of He-3 recovered, depending on the volatile compound. Utilization of the lunar volatile compounds for life support depends on the costs, in terms of materials and energy, associated with their extraction from the lunar regolith as compared to the delivery costs of these compounds from Earth resources. Considering today's conservative estimated transportation costs ($10,000 dollars per kilogram) and regolith mining costs ($5 dollars per ton), the life support replacement requirements could be more economically supplied by recovering the lunar volatile compounds than transporting these materials from Earth resources, even before He-3 will be utilized as a fusion fuel. In addition, availability of lunar volatile compounds could have a significant cost impact on maintaining the life support systems of the space station and a Mars base.

  12. Barcode of life: Advancing species identification and discovery

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chandramohan, D.

    approach overlooks morphologically cryptic taxa, which are seen very commonly in many groups. 3. Since morphological keys are often effective only for a particular life stage or gender, many individuals in their early stages of development can... environment and subject them to test the efficacy of antifouling compounds under laboratory conditions. As the cost of sequencing is dropping rapidly due to technical advances and the existence of high throughput systems, processing of large number...

  13. Activity and meaning-making in everyday life of people with advanced cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    la Cour, Karen; Johannessen, Helle; Josephsson, Staffan

    2009-01-01

    Objective: This study aims to explore and understand how people with advanced cancer create meaning and handle everyday life through activity. Methods: A purposive sample of seven participants was recruited from a larger study. Data were collected through qualitative interviews and participant....... A narrative of “being healthy although ill” provided an arena for exploring the contrast between simultaneously feeling well and severely ill. Further emplotment of activities in “routines and continuity” was identified as a means to provide a safe, familiar framework stimulating participants’ everyday agency....... “My little Mecca” was identified as a narrative reflecting the activity of life-confirming experiences and taking time out. Significance of results: The identified narratives performed and told in daily life may guide the development of palliative care services to support people with advanced cancer...

  14. Process and Tool Support for Ontology-Aware Life Support System Development and Integration Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Recent advances in ontology development support a rich description of entities that are modeled within a domain and how these entities relate to each other. However,...

  15. Reliability Impacts in Life Support Architecture and Technology Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange Kevin E.; Anderson, Molly S.

    2012-01-01

    Quantitative assessments of system reliability and equivalent system mass (ESM) were made for different life support architectures based primarily on International Space Station technologies. The analysis was applied to a one-year deep-space mission. System reliability was increased by adding redundancy and spares, which added to the ESM. Results were thus obtained allowing a comparison of the ESM for each architecture at equivalent levels of reliability. Although the analysis contains numerous simplifications and uncertainties, the results suggest that achieving necessary reliabilities for deep-space missions will add substantially to the life support ESM and could influence the optimal degree of life support closure. Approaches for reducing reliability impacts were investigated and are discussed.

  16. Extracorporeal Life Support for Patients with Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome: Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tülin Akarsu Ayazoğlu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Patients with severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS is an acute diffuse, inflammatory lung injury, leading to increased pulmonary vascular permeability with hypoxemia and bilateral radiographic opacities, associated with decreased lung compliance. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO has been used to support primary or secondary diseases causing respiratory or cardiac failures in newborns, children and adults. Patients with severe ARDS are candidates for ECMO therapy. ECMO is a support modality, not a treatment; it is only beneficial in patients whose primary disease is reversible. ECMO complications-which can lead to mortality, morbidity, long-term disability and reduced quality of life-include surgical and organ bleeding, renal and multi-organ failure and central nervous system problems. The aim of this article was to provide a general overview of ECMO use and outcomes patients with severe acute respiratory distress syndrom.

  17. 21 CFR 860.93 - Classification of implants, life-supporting or life-sustaining devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Classification of implants, life-supporting or life-sustaining devices. 860.93 Section 860.93 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES MEDICAL DEVICE CLASSIFICATION...

  18. Factors influencing the outcome of paediatric cardiac surgical patients during extracorporeal circulatory support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peek Giles J

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Veno-arterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO is a common modality of circulatory assist device used in children. We assessed the outcome of children who had ECMO following repair of congenital cardiac defects (CCD and identified the risk factors associated with hospital mortality. Methods From April 1990 to December 2003, 53 patients required ECMO following surgical correction of CCD. Retrospectively collected data was analyzed with univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis. Results Median age and weight of the patients were 150 days and 5.4 kgs respectively. The indications for ECMO were low cardiac output in 16, failure to wean cardiopulmonary bypass in 13, cardiac arrest in 10 and cardio-respiratory failure in 14 patients. The mean duration of ECMO was 143 hours. Weaning off from ECMO was successful in 66% and of these 83% were survival to hospital-discharge. 37.7% of patients were alive for the mean follow-up period of 75 months. On univariate analysis, arrhythmias, ECMO duration >168 hours, bleeding complications, renal replacement therapy on ECMO, arrhythmias and cardiac arrest after ECMO were associated with hospital mortality. On multivariate analysis, abnormal neurology, bleeding complications and arrhythmias after ECMO were associated with hospital mortality. Extra and intra-thoracic cannulations were used in 79% and 21% of patients respectively and extra-thoracic cannulation had significantly less bleeding complications (p = 0.031. Conclusion ECMO provides an effective circulatory support following surgical repair of CCD in children. Extra-thoracic cannulation is associated with less bleeding complications. Abnormal neurology, bleeding complications on ECMO and arrhythmias after ECMO are poor prognostic indicators for hospital survival.

  19. Clinical advances on Cardiac Insuffiency Avances clínicos en insuficiencia cardiaca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo Rivero González

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Cardiac insuffiency is a complex clinical syndrome which constitutes a common final path to get in by the majority of the cardiac diseases. Studies based on the communitarian surveys shows that from 30 to 40 % of the patients decease within the first year of the diagnosis. The rest of the patients (from 60 to 70 % die within the 5 years after being diagnosed. For this reason it has been called as the ¨cancer of cardiology¨. The objective of this article is to update the advances reached in the clinical and therapeutic aspects of this important syndrome.

    La insuficiencia cardiaca es un síndrome clínico complejo que constituye una vía final común a la que van a llegar la mayoría de las enfermedades cardiacas. Los estudios basados en encuestas comunitarias muestran que entre el 30 – 40 % de los pacientes mueren dentro del primer año del diagnóstico y el 60 – 70 % dentro de los 5 años, por lo que ha sido denominada, como el ¨cáncer de la cardiología¨. El objetivo de este artículo consiste en actualizar los avances alcanzados en los aspectos clínicos y terapéuticos de este importante síndrome.

  20. Recent Advances on Pathophysiology, Diagnostic and Therapeutic Insights in Cardiac Dysfunction Induced by Antineoplastic Drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilisa Molinaro

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Along with the improvement of survival after cancer, cardiotoxicity due to antineoplastic treatments has emerged as a clinically relevant problem. Potential cardiovascular toxicities due to anticancer agents include QT prolongation and arrhythmias, myocardial ischemia and infarction, hypertension and/or thromboembolism, left ventricular (LV dysfunction, and heart failure (HF. The latter is variable in severity, may be reversible or irreversible, and can occur soon after or as a delayed consequence of anticancer treatments. In the last decade recent advances have emerged in clinical and pathophysiological aspects of LV dysfunction induced by the most widely used anticancer drugs. In particular, early, sensitive markers of cardiac dysfunction that can predict this form of cardiomyopathy before ejection fraction (EF is reduced are becoming increasingly important, along with novel therapeutic and cardioprotective strategies, in the attempt of protecting cardiooncologic patients from the development of congestive heart failure.

  1. Work/Life Satisfaction Policy in ADVANCE Universities: Assessing Levels of Flexibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tower, Leslie E.; Dilks, Lisa M.

    2015-01-01

    Work/life satisfaction policies are seen as key to recruiting, retaining, and advancing high quality faculty. This article explores the work/life policies prevalent at NSF ADVANCE institutions (PAID, Catalyst, and IT). We systematically review ADVANCE university websites (N = 124) and rank 9 categories of work/life policy including dual career…

  2. Phase Change Permeation Technology For Environmental Control Life Support Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Raymond M.

    2014-01-01

    Use of a phase change permeation membrane (Dutyion [Trademark]) to passively and selectively mobilize water in microgravity to enable improved water recovery from urine/brine for Environment Control and Life Support Systems (ECLSS) and water delivery to plans for potential use in microgravity.

  3. Religiosity, Social Support, and Life Satisfaction among Elderly Korean Immigrants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jisung; Roh, Soonhee; Yeo, Younsook

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The present study tested Smith's (2003. Theorizing religious effects among American adolescents. "Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 42", 17-30. doi:10.1111/1468-5906.t01-1-00158) theory of religious effects to explore the relationship of religiosity, social support, and life satisfaction among elderly Korean immigrants. The…

  4. Life Events, Social Support, and Immune Response in Elderly Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, William Alex; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Investigated effects of recent life events, psychological adjustment, and social support on lymphocyte count among 192 older adults. For males, recent sexual dysfunction lowered lymphocyte count, whereas psychological adjustment and percentage kin in intimate network elevated it. For females, family or legal problems elevated count as did frequent…

  5. Crop candidates for the bioregenerative life support systems in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chunxiao, Xu; Hong, Liu

    The use of plants for life support applications in space is appealing because of the multiple life support functions by the plants. Research on crops that were grown in the life support system to provide food and oxygen, remove carbon dioxide was begun from 1960. To select possible crops for research on the bioregenerative life support systems in China, criteria for the selection of potential crops were made, and selection of crops was carried out based on these criteria. The results showed that 14 crops including 4 food crops (wheat, rice, soybean and peanut) and 7 vegetables (Chinese cabbage, lettuce, radish, carrot, tomato, squash and pepper) won higher scores. Wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.), rice ( Oryza sativa L.), soybean ( Glycine max L.) and peanut ( Arachis hypogaea L.) are main food crops in China. Chinese cabbage ( Brassica campestris L. ssp. chinensis var. communis), lettuce ( Lactuca sativa L. var. longifolia Lam.), radish ( Raphanus sativus L.), carrot ( Daucus carota L. var. sativa DC.), tomato ( Lycopersicon escalentum L.), squash ( Cucurbita moschata Duch.) and pepper ( Capsicum frutescens L. var. longum Bailey) are 7 vegetables preferred by Chinese. Furthermore, coriander ( Coriandum sativum L.), welsh onion ( Allium fistulosum L. var. giganteum Makino) and garlic ( Allium sativum L.) were selected as condiments to improve the taste of space crew. To each crop species, several cultivars were selected for further research according to their agronomic characteristics.

  6. Religiosity, Social Support, and Life Satisfaction among Elderly Korean Immigrants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jisung; Roh, Soonhee; Yeo, Younsook

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The present study tested Smith's (2003. Theorizing religious effects among American adolescents. "Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 42", 17-30. doi:10.1111/1468-5906.t01-1-00158) theory of religious effects to explore the relationship of religiosity, social support, and life satisfaction among elderly Korean…

  7. Soluble receptor for advanced glycation end products as an indicator of pulmonary vascular injury after cardiac surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Tuinman (Sietske); A.D. Cornet (Alexander); M.T. Kuipers (Maria); A.P.J. Vlaar (Alexander); M.J. Schultz (Marcus); A. Beishuizen (Auke); A.B.J. Groeneveld (Johan); N.P. Juffermans (Nicole)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Cardiac surgery is frequently complicated by an acute vascular lung injury and this may be mediated, at least in part, by the (soluble) receptor for advanced glycation end products (sRAGE).Methods: In two university hospital intensive care units, circulating sRAGE was measure

  8. End-of-Life Care for Undocumented Immigrants With Advanced Cancer: Documenting the Undocumented.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaramillo, Sylvia; Hui, David

    2016-04-01

    There are approximately 11.1 million undocumented immigrants in the United States, with a majority being Latino. Cancer is now the leading cause of death in Latinos. There is little research guiding providers on how to deliver optimal end-of-life care in this population. We describe a case of an undocumented Latino patient with advanced cancer, and provide a review of the literature on end-of-life care in undocumented immigrants. Our patient encountered many challenges as he navigated through the healthcare system in the last months of life. These included delayed diagnosis, limited social support, financial issues, fear of deportation, and language and cultural barriers, which resulted in significant physical and psychological distress. Within the undocumented patient population, there is often a lack of advance care planning, prognostic understanding, mistrust, religious practices, and cultural beliefs that may affect decision making. Given the growing number of undocumented immigrants in the United States, it is important for clinicians and policy makers to have a better understanding of the issues surrounding end-of-life care for undocumented immigrants, and work together to improve the quality of life and quality of end-of-life care for these disadvantaged individuals.

  9. A case of catastrophic antiphospholipid syndrome: first report with advanced cardiac imaging using MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbaum, A N; Anavekar, N S; Ernste, F C; Mankad, S V; Le, R J; Manocha, K K; Barsness, G W

    2015-10-01

    This present case pertains to a 48-year-old woman with a history of antiphospholipid syndrome, who presented with progressive fatigue, generalized weakness, and orthopnea acutely. She had a prior diagnosis of antiphospholipid syndrome with recurrent deep vein thromboses (DVTs) and repeated demonstration of lupus anticoagulants. She presented in cardiogenic shock with markedly elevated troponin and global myocardial dysfunction on echocardiography, and cardiac catheterization revealed minimal disease. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging was performed, which revealed findings of perfusion defects and microvascular obstruction, consistent with the pathophysiology of catastrophic antiphospholipid syndrome (CAPS). Diagnosis was made based on supportive imaging, including head magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealing multifocal, acute strokes; microvascular thrombosis in the dermis; and subacute renal infarctions. The patient was anticoagulated with intravenous unfractionated heparin and received high-dose methylprednisolone, plasmapheresis, intravenous immunoglobulin, and one dose each of rituximab and cyclophosphamide. She convalesced with eventual myocardial recovery after a complicated course. The diagnosis of CAPS relies on the presence of (1) antiphospholipid antibodies and (2) involvement of multiple organs in a microangiopathic thrombotic process with a close temporal association. The myocardium is frequently affected, and heart failure, either as the presenting symptom or cause of death, is common. Despite echocardiographic evidence of myocardial dysfunction in such patients, MRIs of CAPS have not previously been reported. This case highlights the utility in assessing the involvement of the myocardium by the microangiopathic process with MRI. Because the diagnosis of CAPS requires involvement in multiple organ systems, cardiac MRI is likely an underused tool that not only reaffirms the pathophysiology of CAPS, but could also clue clinicians in to the

  10. Life-cycle cost analysis of advanced design mixer pump

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, M.N., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-07-23

    This analysis provides cost justification for the Advanced Design Mixer Pump program based on the cost benefit to the Hanford Site of 4 mixer pump systems defined in terms of the life-cycle cost.A computer model is used to estimate the total number of service hours necessary for each mixer pump to operate over the 20-year retrieval sequence period for single-shell tank waste. This study also considered the double-shell tank waste retrieved prior to the single-shell tank waste which is considered the initial retrieval.

  11. Basic life support knowledge of first-year university students from Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Santos

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to evaluate knowledge of first aid among new undergraduates and whether it is affected by their chosen course. A questionnaire was developed to assess knowledge of how to activate the Mobile Emergency Attendance Service - MEAS (Serviço de Atendimento Móvel de Urgência; SAMU, recognize a pre-hospital emergency situation and the first aid required for cardiac arrest. The students were also asked about enrolling in a first aid course. Responses were received from 1038 of 1365 (76.04% new undergraduates. The questionnaires were completed in a 2-week period 1 month after the beginning of classes. Of the 1038 respondents (59.5% studying biological sciences, 11.6% physical sciences, and 28.6% humanities, 58.5% knew how to activate the MEAS/SAMU (54.3% non-biological vs 61.4% biological, P=0.02, with an odds ratio (OR=1.39 (95%CI=1.07-1.81 regardless of age, sex, origin, having a previous degree or having a relative with cardiac disease. The majority could distinguish emergency from non-emergency situations. When faced with a possible cardiac arrest, 17.7% of the students would perform chest compressions (15.5% non-biological vs 19.1% biological first-year university students, P=0.16 and 65.2% would enroll in a first aid course (51.1% non-biological vs 74.7% biological, P<0.01, with an OR=2.61 (95%CI=1.98-3.44 adjusted for the same confounders. Even though a high percentage of the students recognized emergency situations, a significant proportion did not know the MEAS/SAMU number and only a minority had sufficient basic life support skills to help with cardiac arrest. A significant proportion would not enroll in a first aid course. Biological first-year university students were more prone to enroll in a basic life support course.

  12. Withdrawal of nonfutile life support after attempted suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Samuel M; Elliott, C Gregory; Paine, Robert

    2013-01-01

    End-of-life decision making is fraught with ethical challenges. Withholding or withdrawing life support therapy is widely considered ethical in patients with high treatment burden, poor premorbid status, or significant projected disability even when such treatment is not "futile." Whether such withdrawal of therapy in the aftermath of attempted suicide is ethical is not well established in the literature. We provide a clinical vignette and propose criteria under which such withdrawal would be ethical. We suggest that it is appropriate to withdraw life support, regardless of the cause of the critical illness or disability, when the following criteria are met: (1) Surrogates request withdrawal of care and the adequacy of surrogates is confirmed, (2) an external reasonability standard is met, (3) passage of time, perhaps 72 hours, to allow certainty regarding the patient's wishes, and (4) psychiatric morbidity should be considered as grounds for withdrawal only in truly treatment-refractory cases. Fundamentally, we believe the question to ask is, "If this were not an attempted suicide, would a request to withdraw care be reasonable?" We believe that under these circumstances, such withdrawal of life support, even in an individual who has attempted suicide, does not constitute physician assistance with suicide and is distinct from physician aid-in-dying in several important respects.

  13. Emergency Neurological Life Support: Approach to the Patient with Coma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Robert D; Cadena, Rhonda S; Pineda, Jose

    2015-12-01

    Coma is an acute failure of neuronal systems governing arousal and awareness and represents a medical emergency. When encountering a comatose patient, the clinician must have an organized approach to detect easily remediable causes, prevent ongoing neurologic injury, and determine a hierarchical plan for diagnostic tests, treatments, and neuromonitoring. Coma was chosen as an Emergency Neurological Life Support protocol because timely medical and surgical interventions can be life-saving, and the initial work-up of such patients is critical to establishing a correct diagnosis.

  14. Advances in Metal Supported Cells in the METSOFC EU Consortium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McKenna, Brandon J.; Christiansen, Niels; Schauperl, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Employing a mechanically robust metal support as the structural element in SOFC has been the objective of various development efforts. The EU-sponsored project “METSOFC”, completed at the end of 2011, resulted in a number of advancements towards implementing this strategy. These include robust......). Further success was attained with even larger cell areas of 12 cm squares, which facilitated integration into stacks at Topsoe Fuel Cell. Development of MSC stacks showed that the MSCs could achieve similar or better performance, compared to SoA anode supported ceramic cells. The best stacked MSCs had...

  15. Crib death: further support for the concept of fatal cardiac electrical instability as the final common pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottaviani, Giulia; Matturri, Luigi; Rossi, Lino; James, Thomas N

    2003-11-01

    This work intends to be a review of the current status of knowledge on the cardiac conduction system in the crib death as well as remaining challenges, including reflections upon authors' personal works as well as many studies by others. The cardiac conduction system findings of resorptive degeneration, His bundle dispersion, Mahaim fibers, cartilaginous meta-hyperplasia, persistent fetal dispersion, left sided His bundle, hemorrhage of the atrio-ventricular junction, septation of the bifurcation, atrio-ventricular node dispersion, sinus node hypoplasia, Zahn node, His bundle hypoplasia, atrio-ventricular node and His bundle dualism are hereby discussed by the authors. The cardiac hypotheses postulating that crib death could be due to lethal cardiac arrhythmias or heart block were considered of great interest in the 1970s. After a general abandon of the conduction studies in crib death, the cardiac concept of crib death is gathering a renewed interest, as well as the occurrence of infantile junctional tachycardia. Both the morphological and functional derangement underlying crib death remain poorly understood, assuring that it remains to be a major medical and social problem. Despite the non-specificity of most of the cardiac conduction findings in crib death, we believe that they, in association with altered neurovegetative stimuli, could underlie potentially malignant arrhythmias, providing a morphologic support for the cardiac concept of crib death.

  16. Constitutional and legal protection for life support limitation in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R K Mani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Appropriate treatment limitations towards the end of life to reduce unwanted burdens require ethical clarity that is supported by appropriate legislation. The lack of knowledge of enabling legal provisions, physicians feel vulnerable to legal misinterpretation of treatment limiting decisions. In India the lack of societal awareness, inadequate exploration of the gray areas of bio-ethics and unambiguous legal position relating to terminal illness have resulted in poor quality end of life care. Much of the perceived vulnerability by the physician is attributable to insufficient knowledge and understanding of existing constitutional and legal position in India. While we await informed legal and legislative opinion, this paper highlights possible legal liabilities arising from treatment limitation decisions with available defense. It is hoped that such clarity would lead to more confident ethical decisions and improved end of life care for patients.

  17. Clinical Outcomes and Quality of Life in Recipients of Livers Donated after Cardiac Death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neehar D. Parikh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Donation after cardiac death (DCD has expanded in the last decade in the US; however, DCD liver utilization has flattened in recent years due to poor outcomes. We examined clinical and quality of life (QOL outcomes of DCD recipients by conducting a retrospective and cross-sectional review of patients from 2003 to 2010. We compared clinical outcomes of DCD recipients (n=60 to those of donation after brain death (DBD liver recipients (n=669 during the same time period. DCD recipients had significantly lower rates of 5-year graft survival (P<0.001 and a trend toward lower rates of 5-year patient survival (P=0.064 when compared to the DBD cohort. In order to examine QOL outcomes in our cohorts, we administered the Short Form Liver Disease Quality of Life questionnaire to 30 DCD and 60 DBD recipients. The DCD recipients reported lower generic and liver-specific QOL. We further stratified the DCD cohort by the presence of ischemic cholangiopathy (IC. Patients with IC reported lower QOL when compared to DBD recipients and those DCD recipients without IC (P<0.05. While the results are consistent with clinical experience, this is the first report of QOL in DCD recipients using standardized measures. These data can be used to guide future comparative effectiveness studies.

  18. [The basic life support guidance of American Heart Association (AHA)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higashioka, Hiroaki; Yonemori, Terutake; Maeda, Daigen

    2011-04-01

    The American Heart Association (AHA) and other member councils of International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation (ILCOR) complete review of resuscitation science every 5 years. And ILCOR publishes Consensus on Science with Treatment Recommendations(CoSTR). The AHA published "American Heart Association (AHA) Guidelines for Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation(CPR) and Emergency Cardiovascular Care (ECC)" (G2010), that basis on CoSTR 2010 on Oct. 18th, 2010. The switchover to new curriculum based on G2010 on and after Mar. 1st, 2011 is the policy of AHA in their all training courses. The AHA maintains the quality of their training courses by some systems. AHA instructors are trained by some steps of instructor courses and monitoring systems and update their scientific knowledge on resuscitation by e-learning. The authors introduce an outline of basic life support for healthcare providers, the instructor training systems of AHA and summary of basic life support basis on G2010.

  19. Association between prehospital physician involvement and survival after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamilton, Annika; Steinmetz, Jacob; Wissenberg, Mads

    2016-01-01

    AIM: Sudden out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) is an important public health problem. While several interventions are known to improve survival, the impact of physician-delivered advanced cardiac life support for OHCA is unclear. We aimed to assess the association between prehospital physician.......13 (95% CI=0.99-1.29). CONCLUSION: In this large population-based observational study, we found prehospital physician involvement after OHCA associated with better 30-day survival. This association was also found for ROSC, but with less certainty for 1-year survival....... involvement and 30-day survival. METHODS: Observational study including persons registered with first-time OHCA of any cause in the Danish Cardiac Arrest Registry during 2005-2012. We used logistic regression analysis to assess the association between 30-day survival and involvement of a physician at any time......AIM: Sudden out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) is an important public health problem. While several interventions are known to improve survival, the impact of physician-delivered advanced cardiac life support for OHCA is unclear. We aimed to assess the association between prehospital physician...

  20. Plants for space plantations. [crops for closed life support systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikishanova, T. I.

    1978-01-01

    Criteria for selection of candidate crops for closed life support systems are presented and discussed, and desired characteristics of candidate higher plant crops are given. Carbohydrate crops, which are most suitable, grown worldwide are listed and discussed. The sweet potato, ipomoea batatas Poir., is shown to meet the criteria to the greatest degree, and the criteria are recommended as suitable for initial evaluation of candidate higher plant crops for such systems.

  1. Adsorption processes in spacecraft environmental control and life support systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DallBauman, L A; Finn, J E

    1999-01-01

    The environmental control and life support system on a spacecraft maintains a safe and comfortable environment in which the crew can live and work by supplying oxygen and water and by removing carbon dioxide, water vapor, and trace contaminants from cabin air. Although open-loop systems have been used successfully in the past for short-duration missions, the economics of current and future long-duration missions in space will make nearly complete recycling of air and water imperative. A variety of operations will be necessary to achieve the goal of nearly complete recycling. These include separation and reduction of carbon dioxide, removal of trace gas-phase contaminants, recovery and purification of humidity condensate, purification and polishing of wastewater streams, and others. Several of these can be performed totally or in part by adsorption processes. These processes are good candidates to perform separations and purifications in space due to their gravity independence, high reliability, relative high energy efficiency, design flexibility, technological maturity, and regenerative nature. For these reasons, adsorption has historically played a key role in life support on U.S. and Russian piloted spacecraft. Among the life support applications that can be achieved through use of adsorption technology are removal of trace contaminants and carbon dioxide from cabin air and recovery of potable water from waste streams. In each of these cases adsorption technology has been selected for use onboard the International Space Station. The requirements, science, and hardware for these applications are discussed. Human space exploration may eventually lead to construction of planetary habitats. These habitats may provide additional opportunities for use of adsorption processes, such as control of greenhouse gas composition, and may have different resources available to them, such as gases present in the planetary atmosphere. Separation and purification processes based on

  2. Scaling Impacts in Life Support Architecture and Technology Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    For long-duration space missions outside of Earth orbit, reliability considerations will drive higher levels of redundancy and/or on-board spares for life support equipment. Component scaling will be a critical element in minimizing overall launch mass while maintaining an acceptable level of system reliability. Building on an earlier reliability study (AIAA 2012-3491), this paper considers the impact of alternative scaling approaches, including the design of technology assemblies and their individual components to maximum, nominal, survival, or other fractional requirements. The optimal level of life support system closure is evaluated for deep-space missions of varying duration using equivalent system mass (ESM) as the comparative basis. Reliability impacts are included in ESM by estimating the number of component spares required to meet a target system reliability. Common cause failures are included in the analysis. ISS and ISS-derived life support technologies are considered along with selected alternatives. This study focusses on minimizing launch mass, which may be enabling for deep-space missions.

  3. Melissa: The European project of closed life support system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasseur, Ch.; Paillé, C.; Lamaze, B.; Rebeyre, P.; Rodriguez, A.; Ordonez, L.; Marty, F.

    The MELISSA Micro-Ecological Life Support Alternative project was initiated in 1989 It is intended as a tool to gain understanding of closed life support as well as the development of the technology for a future life support system for long term manned space missions e g a lunar base or a mission to Mars The collaboration was established through a Memorandum of Understanding and is managed by ESA It involves several independent organisations University of Ghent EPAS SCK VITO B University of Clermont Ferrand SHERPA F University Autonoma of Barcelona E University of Guelph CND It is co-funded by ESA the MELISSA partners the Belgian DWTC the Spanish CIRIT and CICYT and the Canadian CRESTech CSA authorities The driving element of MELISSA is the production of food water and oxygen from organic waste inedible biomass CO 2 faeces urea Based on the principle of an aquatic ecosystem MELISSA process comprises 5 compartments from the anoxygenic fermenter up to the photosynthetic one algae and higher plants The choice of this compartmentalised structure is required by the very high level of safety requirements and justified by the need of an engineering approach and to build deterministic control strategy During the past 15 years of research and development a very progressive approach has been developed to understand and control the MELISSA loop This approach starts from the selection of processes their characterisation and mathematical modelling the validation of the control strategy up to the

  4. Closed ecological life-support systems and their applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gitelson, Josef I.

    The advent of man-made closed ecosystems (CES) is a solution of the fundamental problem-egress of humans beyond the Earth's biosphere, providing biological basis for exploitation of Space and celestial bodies. Yet, before proceeding to these ambitious project elements of closed life-support biotechnologies, there can be found diverse applications on Earth in human settlements providing for high quality of life under extreme environment conditions: high latitudes, deserts, mountains and industrially polluted areas. This presentation considers these variations of terrestrial applications of CELSS technologies. The version of CES under development is based on making direct use of the light energy in plant photosynthesis. In this case life support of one man on the Earth orbit requires solar light collected from 5-10m2. Among terrestrial applications of prime importance is the development of an ecohome designed to provide people with a high quality of life in Arctic and Antarctic territories. The developed technology of cascade employment of energy makes possible (expending 10-15 kw of installed power per a house-3-5 member family) to provide for: permanent supply of fresh vitamin-full vegetables, absorption and processing oaf excreta, purification of water and air in the living quarters, habitual colour and light conditions in the premises in winter making up to sensorial deprivation and, finally, psychological comfort of close contact with the plants during the long polar night. Ecohabitat based on the technology described in realistic today and depends only on the energy available and the resolution and readiness (sagacity) of the decision-makers to be committed with ecohome assigning. The ecological and economical significance of construction of ecohabitats for the northern territories of Canada, Alaska and Russia is apparent. This principle can be used (with considerable economy of energy and construction costs) to maintain normal partial pressure of oxygen inside

  5. Lack of Emotional Support from Parents Early in Life and Alcohol Abuse Later in Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Benjamin A.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the association between lacking emotional support from parents early in life and adult alcohol abuse. A series of logistic regression models were run with data collected from a nationally representative sample of over 2,500 adults ages 25-74. The findings reveal a linear relationship between level of…

  6. Elaboração e aplicação de um instrumento de avaliação no pós-operatório imediato com base no protocolo do Advanced Trauma Life Suport Elaboración y aplicación de un instrumento de evaluación en el post operatorio inmediato con base en el protocolo del Advanced Trauma Life Suport Elaboration and application of an evaluation instrument in the immediate postoperative period, based on the Advanced Trauma Life Support protocol

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Elaborar e aplicar um instrumento de avaliação do paciente no pós-operatório imediato (POI) de anestesia geral baseado no protocolo do Advanced Trauma Life Suport. MÉTODOS: Foi criado um instrumento baseado no ABCDE do Trauma e aplicado na Sala de Recuperação Pós-Anestésica em todos os pacientes adultos submetidos a cirurgias sob efeito de anestesia geral no período de setembro a novembro de 2007. RESULTADOS: Observou-se que 93,5% dos pacientes tinham vias aéreas pérvias, porém 92,2...

  7. Cardiac rehabilitation: a good measure to improve quality of life in peri- and postmenopausal women with microvascular angina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech Szot

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Cardiac Syndrome X (CSX was considered a stable coronary syndrome, yet due to its nature, CSX symptoms often have a great impact on patients’ Quality of Life (QoL. According to ESC 2013 stable coronary artery disease criteria, CSX was replaced by Microvascular Angina (MA.Unfortunately, most CSX or MA patients, after classical angina (involving main coronary vessels has been ruled out, often do not receive proper treatment. Indications for pharmacological treatment of MA patients were introduced only recently. Another problematic issue is that scientists describing the pathophysiology of both CSX and MA stress a lack of a deeper insight into the multifactorial etiology of the source of pain associated with this disease. In the presented article we have attempted to study the influence of cardiac rehabilitation (3 months programme on the QoL of patients recognized as suffering from MA, as well as to check if changes in myocardial perfusion in these patients at baseline and after completion of cardiac rehabilitation match changes in their QoL. Therefore, after screening 436 women for MA, we studied 55 of them who were confirmed as having MA and who agreed to participate in the study. Exercise tests, Myocardial Perfusion Imaging, and QoL questionnaires were studied at baseline and after completing 3 months period of cardiac rehabilitation. Results were subsequently compared, which showed a link between improved perfusion score in SPECT study and improved overall physical capacity, on one hand, and improved QoL score on the other. These results confirm that cardiac rehabilitation is a very useful treatment option for MA patients. It seems that training during cardiac rehabilitation is a very important factor (improved physical efficiency –> increase in self-belief, and that taking into consideration the multifactor pathophysiology of pain, it is connected with a better quality of life for MA patients.

  8. Recent Stem Cell Advances: Cord Blood and Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell for Cardiac Regeneration- a Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medhekar, Sheetal Kashinath; Shende, Vikas Suresh; Chincholkar, Anjali Baburao

    2016-05-30

    Stem cells are primitive self renewing undifferentiated cell that can be differentiated into various types of specialized cells like nerve cell, skin cells, muscle cells, intestinal tissue, and blood cells. Stem cells live in bone marrow where they divide to make new blood cells and produces peripheral stem cells in circulation. Under proper environment and in presence of signaling molecules stem cells begin to develop into specialized tissues and organs. These unique characteristics make them very promising entities for regeneration of damaged tissue. Day by day increase in incidence of heart diseases including left ventricular dysfunction, ischemic heart disease (IHD), congestive heart failure (CHF) are the major cause of morbidity and mortality. However infracted tissue cannot regenerate into healthy tissue. Heart transplantation is only the treatment for such patient. Due to limitation of availability of donor for organ transplantation, a focus is made for alternative and effective therapy to treat such condition. In this review we have discussed the new advances in stem cells such as use of cord stem cells and iPSC technology in cardiac repair. Future approach of CB cells was found to be used in tissue repair which is specifically observed for improvement of left ventricular function and myocardial infarction. Here we have also focused on how iPSC technology is used for regeneration of cardiomyocytes and intiating neovascularization in myocardial infarction and also for study of pathophysiology of various degenerative diseases and genetic disease in research field.

  9. Two successful neonatal extracorporeal membrane oxygenation treatment for severe heart failure after cardiac surgery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAN Lin-hua; DU Li-zhong; HE Xiao-jun; SUN Mei-yue; ZHANG Ze-wei; LIN Ru

    2009-01-01

    @@ Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation(ECMO)can play an important role by providing short-term circulatory support to enable myocardial recovery in patients with life-threatening heart failure.Currently,over 4000 children who received ECMO for cardiac support have been reported to the Extracorporeal Life Support Registry,with the majority of patients placed on ECMO following cardiac surgery.

  10. Waon therapy improves quality of life as well as cardiac function and exercise capacity in patients with chronic heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobajima, Mitsuo; Nozawa, Takashi; Fukui, Yasutaka; Ihori, Hiroyuki; Ohori, Takashi; Fujii, Nozomu; Inoue, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Waon therapy (WT), which in Japanese means soothing warmth, is a repeated sauna therapy that improves cardiac and vascular endothelial function in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF). We investigated whether WT could improve the quality of life (QOL) of CHF patients in addition to improving cardiac function and exercise capacity.A total of 49 CHF patients (69 ± 14 years old) were treated with a 60°C far infrared-ray dry sauna bath for 15 minutes and then kept in a bed covered with blankets for 30 minutes once a day for 3 weeks. At baseline and 3 weeks after starting WT, cardiac function, 6-minute walk distance (6MWD), flow mediated dilation (FMD) of the brachial artery, and SF36-QOL scores were determined.WT significantly improved left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP), 6MWD, and FMD (3.6 ± 2.3 to 5.1 ± 2.8%, P improved not only the physical (PC) but also mental component (MC) of the QOL scores. WT-induced improvement of PC was negatively correlated with changes in BNP (r = -0.327, P improvement was not related directly to changes in BNP, LVEF, or 6MWD. WT-induced changes in MC were not parallel to PC improvement.WT improved QOL as well as cardiac function and exercise capacity in patients with CHF. Mental QOL improved independently of WT-induced improvement of cardiac function and exercise capacity.

  11. Analysis of Advanced Respiratory Support Onboard ISS and CCV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Ronak V.; Kertsman, Eric L.; Alexander, David J.; Duchesne, Ted; Law, Jennifer; Roden, Sean K.

    2014-01-01

    NASA is collaborating with private entities for the development of commercial space vehicles. The Space and Clinical Operations Division was tasked to review the oxygen and respiratory support system and recommend what capabilities, if any, the vehicle should have to support the return of an ill or injured crewmember. The Integrated Medical Model (IMM) was utilized as a data source for the development of these recommendations. The Integrated Medical Model (IMM) was used to simulate a six month, six crew, International Space Station (ISS) mission. Three medical system scenarios were considered based on the availability of (1) oxygen only, (2) oxygen and a ventilator, or (3) neither oxygen nor ventilator. The IMM analysis provided probability estimates of medical events that would require either oxygen or ventilator support. It also provided estimates of crew health, the probability of evacuation, and the probability of loss of crew life secondary to medical events for each of the three medical system scenarios. These IMM outputs were used as objective data to enable evidence-based decisions regarding oxygen and respiratory support system requirements for commercial crew vehicles. The IMM provides data that may be utilized to support informed decisions regarding the development of medical systems for commercial crew vehicles.

  12. Advances in Metal Supported Cells in the METSOFC EU Consortium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McKenna, B. J.; Christiansen, N.; Schauperl, R.;

    2013-01-01

    ). Further success was attained with even larger cell areas of 12 × 12 cm2 squares, which facilitated integration into small stacks at Topsoe Fuel Cell having powers approaching 1/2 kW. Development of MSC stacks showed that the MSCs could achieve similar or better performance, compared to most standard...... industrial anode supported ceramic cells. The best stacked MSCs had power densities approaching 275 mW cm–2 (at 680 °C and 0.8 V). Furthermore, extended testing at AVL determined extra stack performance and reliability characteristics, including behavior toward sulfur and simulated diesel reformate......, and tolerance to thermal cycles and load cycles. These and other key outcomes of the METSOFC consortium are covered, along with associated work supported by the Danish National Advanced Technology Foundation....

  13. Development of Life Support System Technologies for Human Lunar Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barta, Daniel J.; Ewert, Michael K.

    2009-01-01

    With the Preliminary Design Review (PDR) for the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle planned to be completed in 2009, Exploration Life Support (ELS), a technology development project under the National Aeronautics and Space Administration s (NASA) Exploration Technology Development Program, is focusing its efforts on needs for human lunar missions. The ELS Project s goal is to develop and mature a suite of Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) technologies for potential use on human spacecraft under development in support of U.S. Space Exploration Policy. ELS technology development is directed at three major vehicle projects within NASA s Constellation Program (CxP): the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV), the Altair Lunar Lander and Lunar Surface Systems, including habitats and pressurized rovers. The ELS Project includes four technical elements: Atmosphere Revitalization Systems, Water Recovery Systems, Waste Management Systems and Habitation Engineering, and two cross cutting elements, Systems Integration, Modeling and Analysis, and Validation and Testing. This paper will provide an overview of the ELS Project, connectivity with its customers and an update to content within its technology development portfolio with focus on human lunar missions.

  14. Crop growth and associated life support for a lunar farm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volk, Tyler; Cullingford, Hatice

    1992-01-01

    Supporting human life on a lunar base will require growing many different food crops. This paper investigates the growth dynamics of four crops (wheat, soybeans, potatoes, and lettuce) for general similarities and differences, along with associated material flows of the gases, liquids, and solids in a lunar farm. The human dietary requirements are compared with the protein, carbohydrate, and lipid contents of these hydroponically grown, high-productivity crops to derive a lunar farm diet. A simple and general analytical model is used to calculate the mass fluxes of CO2, H2O, HNO3, and O2 during the life cycle of each of the four crops. The resulting farm crop areas and corresponding biomass production rates are given. One significant conclusion of this study is that there is a 'lipid problem' associated with the incorporation of these four crops into a viable diet.

  15. Comparison of an advanced minimally invasive cardiac output monitoring with a continuous invasive cardiac output monitoring during lung transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasi, Roland; Prueckner, Stephan; Czerner, Stephan; Schramm, Renè; Preissler, Gerhard; Zwißler, Bernhard; von Dossow-Hanfstingl, Vera

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to compare a continuous non-calibrated left heart cardiac index (CI) measurement by arterial waveform analysis (FloTrac(®)/Vigileo(®)) with a continuous calibrated right heart CI measurement by pulmonary artery thermodilution (CCOmbo-PAC(®)/Vigilance II(®)) for hemodynamic monitoring during lung transplantation. CI was measured simultaneously by both techniques in 13 consecutive lung transplants (n = 4 single-lung transplants, n = 9 sequential double-lung transplants) at distinct time points perioperatively. Linear regression analysis and Bland-Altman analysis with percentage error calculation were used for statistical comparison of CI measurements by both techniques. In this study the FloTrac(®) system underestimated the CI in comparison with the continuous pulmonary arterial thermodilution (p waveform and continuous pulmonary artery thermodilution are, therefore, not interchangeable during these complex operations.

  16. Melissa: The European project of a closed life support system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasseur, Christophe

    The MELISSA (Micro-Ecological Life Support Alternative) project was initiated in 1989. It is intended as a tool to gain understanding of closed life support, as well as the development of the technology for a future life support system for long term manned space missions, e.g. a lunar base or a mission to Mars. The collaboration was established through a Memorandum of Understanding and is managed by ESA. It involves several independent organisations: Ghent University, EPAS, SCK, VITO (B), University of Clermont-Ferrand, SHERPA (F), University Autonoma of Barcelona (E), University of Guelph (CND). It is co-funded by ESA, the MELISSA partners, the Belgian, the Spanish and the Canadian authorities. The driving element of MELISSA is the production of food, water and oxygen from organic waste (inedible biomass, CO2, faeces, urea). Inspired by the principle of an "aquatic" ecosystem, MELISSA process comprises several sub-processes, called compartments, from the anoxygenic fermentor up to the photosynthetic units (i.e. algae and higher plants). The choice of this compartmentalised structure is required by the very high level of safety requirements and justified by the need of an engineering approach and to build deterministic control strategy. During the past 19 years of research and development, a very progressive approach has been developed to understand and control the MELISSA loop. This approach starts from the selection of processes, their characterisation and mathematical modelling, the validation of the control strategy, up to the demonstration on Earth, at pilot scale. The project is organised in 5 phases: Basic Research and Development, Preliminary flight experiment, Ground and space demonstration, Terrestrial transfer, Education and communication.

  17. Aquaculture in bio-regenerative life support systems (BLSS): Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, John M.

    2009-04-01

    A significant amount of research has been invested into understanding the effects of including fish culture in bio-regenerative life support systems (BLSS) for long duration space habitation. While the benefits of fish culture as a sub-process for waste treatment and food production continue to be identified, other pressing issues arise that affect the overall equivalent system mass associated with fish culture in a BLSS. This paper is meant to provide insight into several issues affecting fish culture in a BLSS that will require attention in the future if fish meant for consumption are to be cultured in a BLSS.

  18. Bioregenerative life support system for a lunar base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, H.; Wang, J.; Manukovsky, N. S.; Kovalev, V. S.; Gurevich, Yu. L.

    We have studied a modular approach to construction of bioregenerative life support system BLSS for a lunar base using soil-like substrate SLS for plant cultivation Calculations of massflow rates in BLSS were based mostly on a vegetarian diet and biological conversion of plant residues in SLS Plant candidate list for lunar BLSS includes the following basic species rice Oryza sativa soy Glycine max sweet potato Ipomoea batatas and wheat Triticum aestivum To reduce the time necessary for transition of the system to steady state we suggest that the first seeding and sprouting could be made on Earth

  19. Functional Interface Considerations within an Exploration Life Support System Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Jay L.; Sargusingh, Miriam J.; Toomarian, Nikzad

    2016-01-01

    As notional life support system (LSS) architectures are developed and evaluated, myriad options must be considered pertaining to process technologies, components, and equipment assemblies. Each option must be evaluated relative to its impact on key functional interfaces within the LSS architecture. A leading notional architecture has been developed to guide the path toward realizing future crewed space exploration goals. This architecture includes atmosphere revitalization, water recovery and management, and environmental monitoring subsystems. Guiding requirements for developing this architecture are summarized and important interfaces within the architecture are discussed. The role of environmental monitoring within the architecture is described.

  20. Advanced Modular Power Approach to Affordable, Supportable Space Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oeftering, Richard C.; Kimnach, Greg L.; Fincannon, James; Mckissock,, Barbara I.; Loyselle, Patricia L.; Wong, Edmond

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies of missions to the Moon, Mars and Near Earth Asteroids (NEA) indicate that these missions often involve several distinct separately launched vehicles that must ultimately be integrated together in-flight and operate as one unit. Therefore, it is important to see these vehicles as elements of a larger segmented spacecraft rather than separate spacecraft flying in formation. The evolution of large multi-vehicle exploration architecture creates the need (and opportunity) to establish a global power architecture that is common across all vehicles. The Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Modular Power System (AMPS) project managed by NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) is aimed at establishing the modular power system architecture that will enable power systems to be built from a common set of modular building blocks. The project is developing, demonstrating and evaluating key modular power technologies that are expected to minimize non-recurring development costs, reduce recurring integration costs, as well as, mission operational and support costs. Further, modular power is expected to enhance mission flexibility, vehicle reliability, scalability and overall mission supportability. The AMPS project not only supports multi-vehicle architectures but should enable multi-mission capability as well. The AMPS technology development involves near term demonstrations involving developmental prototype vehicles and field demonstrations. These operational demonstrations not only serve as a means of evaluating modular technology but also provide feedback to developers that assure that they progress toward truly flexible and operationally supportable modular power architecture.

  1. Architecture and life support systems for a rotating space habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Gaurav

    Life Support Systems are critical to sustain human habitation of space over long time periods. As orbiting space habitats become operational in the future, support systems such as atmo-sphere, food, water etc. will play a very pivotal role in sustaining life. To design a long-duration space habitat, it's important to consider the full gamut of human experience of the environment. Long-term viability depends on much more than just the structural or life support efficiency. A space habitat isn't just a machine; it's a life experience. To be viable, it needs to keep the inhabitants satisfied with their condition. This paper provides conceptual research on several key factors that influence the growth and sustainability of humans in a space habitat. Apart from the main life support system parameters, the architecture (both interior and exterior) of the habitat will play a crucial role in influencing the liveability in the space habitat. In order to ensure the best possible liveability for the inhabitants, a truncated (half cut) torus is proposed as the shape of the habitat. This structure rotating at an optimum rpm will en-sure 1g pseudo gravity to the inhabitants. The truncated torus design has several advantages over other proposed shapes such as a cylinder or a sphere. The design provides minimal grav-ity variation (delta g) in the living area, since its flat outer pole ensures a constant gravity. The design is superior in economy of structural and atmospheric mass. Interior architecture of the habitat addresses the total built environment, drawing from diverse disciplines includ-ing physiology, psychology, and sociology. Furthermore, factors such as line of sight, natural sunlight and overhead clearance have been discussed in the interior architecture. Substantial radiation shielding is also required in order to prevent harmful cosmic radiations and solar flares from causing damage to inhabitants. Regolith shielding of 10 tons per meter square is proposed for the

  2. Monitoring Grinding Wheel Redress-life Using Support Vector Machines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xun Chen; Thitikorn Limchimchol

    2006-01-01

    Condition monitoring is a very important aspect in automated manufacturing processes. Any malfunction of a machining process will deteriorate production quality and efficiency. This paper presents an application of support vector machines in grinding process monitoring. The paper starts with an overview of grinding behaviour. Grinding force is analysed through a Short Time Fourier Transform (STFT) to identify features for condition monitoring. The Support Vector Machine (SVM) methodology is introduced as a powerful tool for the classification of different wheel wear situations.After training with available signal data, the SVM is able to identify the state of a grinding process. The requirement and strategy for using SVM for grinding process monitoring is discussed, while the result of the example illustrates how effective SVMs can be in determining wheel redress-life.

  3. Advanced Grid Support Functionality Testing for Florida Power and Light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, Austin [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Martin, Gregory [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hurtt, James [Florida Power and Light, Juno Beach, FL (United States)

    2017-03-21

    This report describes the results of laboratory testing of advanced photovoltaic (PV) inverter testing undertaken by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) on behalf of the Florida Power and Light Company (FPL). FPL recently commissioned a 1.1 MW-AC PV installation on a solar carport at the Daytona International Speedway in Daytona Beach, Florida. In addition to providing a source of clean energy production, the site serves as a live test bed with 36 different PV inverters from eight different manufacturers. Each inverter type has varied support for advanced grid support functions (GSFs) that are becoming increasingly commonplace, and are being required through revised interconnection standards such as UL1741, IEEE1547, and California (CA) Rule 21. FPL is interested in evaluating the trade-offs between different GSFs, their compliance to emerging standards, and their effects on efficiency and reliability. NREL has provided a controlled laboratory environment to undertake such a study. This work covered nine different classes of tests to compare inverter capabilities and performance for four different inverters that were selected by FPL. The test inverters were all three-phase models rated between 24-36 kW, and containing multiple PV input power point trackers. Advanced grid support functions were tested for functional behavior, and included fixed power factor operation, voltage-ride through, frequency ride-through, volt-var control, and frequency-Watt control. Response to abnormal grid conditions with GSFs enabled was studied through anti-islanding, fault, and load rejection overvoltage tests. Finally, efficiency was evaluated across a range of operating conditions that included power factor, output power, and input voltage variations. Test procedures were derived from requirements of a draft revision of UL741, CA Rule 21, and/or previous studies at NREL. This reports summarizes the results of each test case, providing a comparative performance analysis

  4. Continued Development of Compact Multi-gas Monitor for Life Support Systems Control in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-Alonso, Jesús; Phillips, Straun; Chullen, Cinda; Quinn, Gregory

    2016-01-01

    Miniature optic gas sensors (MOGS) based on luminescent materials have shown great potential as alternatives to Near-Infrared-based gas sensor systems for the advanced space suit portable life support system (PLSS). The unique capability of MOGS for carbon dioxide and oxygen monitoring under wet conditions has been reported, as has the fast recovery of MOGS humidity sensors after long periods of being wet. Lower volume and power requirements are also potential advantages of MOGS over both traditional and advanced Non-Dispersive Infrared (NDIR) gas sensors, which have shown so far longer life than luminescent sensors. This paper presents the most recent results in the development and analytical validation of a compact multi-gas sensor unit based on luminescent sensors for the PLSS. Results of extensive testing are presented, including studies conducted at Intelligent Optical Systems laboratories, a United Technology Corporation Aerospace Systems (UTAS) laboratory, and a Johnson Space Center laboratory. The potential of this sensor technology for gas monitoring in PLSSs and other life support systems and the advantages and limitations found through detailed sensor validation are discussed.

  5. Enzyme-based CO2 capture for advanced life support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Jijun; Cowan, Robert M.; Tu, Chingkuang; McGregor, Martin L.; Trachtenberg, Michael C.

    2002-01-01

    Elevated CO2 levels in air can lead to impaired functioning and even death to humans. Control of CO2 is critical in confined spaces that have little physical or biological buffering capacity (e.g., spacecraft, submarines, or aircraft). A novel enzyme-based contained liquid membrane bioreactor was designed for CO2 capture and certain application cases are reported in this article. The results show that the liquid layer accounts for the major transport resistance. With addition of carbonic anhydrase, the transport resistance decreased by 71%. Volatile organic compounds of the type and concentration expected to be present in either the crew cabin or a plant growth chamber did not influence carbonic anhydrase activity or reactor operation during 1-day operation. Alternative sweep method studies, examined as a means of eliminating consumables, showed that the feed gas could be used successfully in a bypass mode when combined with medium vacuum pressure (-85 kPa) to achieve CO2 separation comparable to that with an inert sweep gas. The reactor exhibited a selectivity for CO2 versus N2 of 1400:1 and CO2 versus O2 is 866:1. The CO2 permeance was 1.44 x 10(-7) mol m-2 Pa-1 s-1 (4.3 x 10(-4) cm3 cm-2 s-1 cmHg-1) at a feed concentration of 0.1% CO2. These data show that the enzyme-based contained liquid membrane is a promising candidate technology that may be suitable for NASA applications to control CO2 in the crew or plant chambers.

  6. Introducing the advanced burn life support (ABLS) course in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Asta, F; Homsi, J; Clark, P; Buffalo, M C; Melandri, D; Carboni, A; Pinzauti, E; Graziano, A; Masellis, A; Bussolin, L; Messineo, A

    2014-05-01

    Systematic education based on internationally standardized programs is a well-established practice in Italy, especially in the emergency health care system. However, until recently, a specific program to treat burns was not available to guide emergency physicians, nurses, or volunteers acting as first responders. In 2010, two national faculty members, acting as ABA observers, and one Italian course coordinator, trained and certified in the United States, conducted a week-long training program which fully certified 10 Italian instructors. Authorized ABLS provider courses were conducted in Italy between 2010 and 2012, including one organized prior to the 20th annual meeting of the Italian Society of Burns (SIUst). In order to increase the effectiveness and diffusion of the course in Italy, changes were approved by the ABA to accommodate societal differences, including the translation of the manual into Italian. The ABA has also approved the creation and publication of a bilingual ABLS Italian website for the purpose of promoting the ABLS course in Italy. In response to high demand, a second ABLS Instructor course was organized in 2012 and has been attended by physicians and nurses from several Italian burn centers. In the following discourse the experiences of the first 15 Italian ABLS courses will be discussed.

  7. Research and Development of Advanced Life Support Equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-02-01

    Wiegman , Janet F. Yarbrough, Shawn R. Zhou, Yi 1989-1997 1,10, 12,26.9,26.14 1983-1995 11,26.8 1993-1997 9 1993-1997 u 1993-1997 1,26.13,26.19 1997...Sustained +GS" (AUACHE 91-21) Fischer MD, Heaps CL, Wiegman JF, Hill RC. Female +GZ tolerance to the 4.5-7 simulated aerial combat maneuvers acceleration...Accomplishments Research reported (DIN A005, DIN A009, DIN A010, and/or DIN A016) from this effort includes: Wiegman JF, Burton RR, Forster EM. The role

  8. Cardiac rehabilitation in Europe: results from the European Cardiac Rehabilitation Inventory Survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjarnason-Wehrens, Birna; McGee, Hannah; Zwisler, Ann-Dorthe

    2010-01-01

    Cardiac rehabilitation (CR) programmes support patients to achieve professionally recommended cardiovascular prevention targets and thus good clinical status and improved quality of life and prognosis. Information on CR service delivery in Europe is sketchy....

  9. Depression after myocardial infarction is a risk factor for declining health related quality of life and increased disability and cardiac complaints at 12 months

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jonge, P; Spijkerman, TA; van den Brink, RHS; Ormel, J

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To study the prospective effects of post- myocardial infarction (MI) depressive disorder on health status, including self reported cardiac symptoms, disability, and health related quality of life, at 12 months after MI while controlling for cardiac condition and health status at three mon

  10. A comparison of pediatric basic life support self-led and instructor-led training among nurses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Lone D; Løfgren, Bo; Jessen, Casper L

    2015-01-01

    .5 in the self-training group vs. 10.0 in the instructor-led group, P=0.51) or in any of the 15 parameters. After the study, all participants felt that they had improved their skills and felt capable of performing PBLS. CONCLUSION: Self-training is not statistically different to instructor-led training......OBJECTIVE: Pediatric cardiac arrest carries a poor prognosis. Basic life support improves survival. Studies on pediatric basic life support (PBLS) training are sparse. The aim of our study was to investigate the effect of self-training in PBLS. PARTICIPANTS AND METHODS: We conducted a prospective...... in teaching PBLS. Self-evaluated confidence improved, but showed no difference between groups. PBLS may be disseminated through self-training....

  11. Bioregenerative Life Support System Research as part of the DLR EDEN Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamsey, Matthew; Schubert, Daniel; Zabel, Paul; Poulet, Lucie; Zeidler, Conrad

    In 2011, the DLR Institute of Space Systems launched a research initiative called EDEN - Evolution and Design of Environmentally-closed Nutrition-Sources. The research initiative focuses on bioregenerative life support systems, especially greenhouse modules, and technologies for future crewed vehicles. The EDEN initiative comprises several projects with respect to space research, ground testing and spin-offs. In 2014, EDEN’s new laboratory officially opened. This new biological cleanroom laboratory comprises several plant growth chambers incorporating a number of novel controlled environment agriculture technologies. This laboratory will be the nucleus for a variety of plant cultivation experiments within closed environments. The utilized technologies are being advanced using the pull of space technology and include such items as stacked growth systems, PAR-specific LEDs, intracanopy lighting, aeroponic nutrient delivery systems and ion-selective nutrient sensors. The driver of maximizing biomass output per unit volume and energy has much application in future bioregenerative life support systems but can also provide benefit terrestrially. The EDEN laboratory also includes several specially constructed chambers for advancing models addressing the interaction between bioregenerative and physical-chemical life support systems. The EDEN team is presently developing designs for containerized greenhouse modules. One module is planned for deployment to the German Antarctic Station, Neumayer III. The shipping container based system will provide supplementation to the overwintering crew’s diet, provide psychological benefit while at the same time advancing the technology and operational readiness of harsh environment plant production systems. In addition to hardware development, the EDEN team has participated in several early phase designs such as for the ESA Greenhouse Module for Space System and for large-scale vertical farming. These studies often utilize the

  12. Radio Searches for Signatures of Advanced Extraterrestrial Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siemion, Andrew

    Over the last several decades, observational astronomy has produced a flood of discoveries that suggest that the building blocks and circumstances that gave rise to life on Earth may be the rule rather than the exception. It has now been conclusively shown that planets are common and that some 5-15% of FGKM stars host planets existing in their host star's habitable zone. Further, terrestrial biology has demonstrated that life on our own planet can thrive in extraordinarily extreme environments, dramatically extending our notion of what constitutes habitability. The deeper question, yet unanswered, is whether or not life in any form has ever existed in an environment outside of the Earth. As humans, we are drawn to an even more profound question, that of whether or not extraterrestrial life may have evolved a curiosity about the universe similar to our own and the technology with which to explore it. Radio astronomy has long played a prominent role in searches for extraterrestrial intelligence (SETI), beginning with the first suggestions by Cocconi and Morrison (1959) that narrow-band radio signals near 1420 MHz might be effective tracers of advanced technology and early experiments along these lines by Frank Drake in 1961, continuing through to more recent investigations searching for several types of coherent radio signals indicative of technology at a wider range of frequencies. The motivations for radio searches for extraterrestrial intelligence have been throughly discussed in the literature, but the salient arguments are the following: 1. coherent radio emission is commonly produced by advanced technology (judging by Earth’s technological development), 2. electromagnetic radiation can convey information at the maximum velocity currently known to be possible, 3. radio photons are energetically cheap to produce, 4. certain types of coherent radio emissions are easily distinguished from astrophysical background sources, especially within the so

  13. Environmental Control and Life Support System, Oxygen Generation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    The Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) Group of the Flight Projects Directorate at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in Huntsville, Alabama, is responsible for designing and building the life support systems that will provide the crew of the International Space Station (ISS) a comfortable environment in which to live and work. This is a close-up view of ECLSS Oxygen Generation System (OGS) rack. The ECLSS Group at the MSFC oversees the development of the OGS, which produces oxygen for breathing air for the crew and laboratory animals, as well as for replacing oxygen lost due to experiment use, airlock depressurization, module leakage, and carbon dioxide venting. The OGS consists primarily of the Oxygen Generator Assembly (OGA), provided by the prime contractor, the Hamilton Sundstrand Space Systems, International (HSSSI) in Windsor Locks, Cornecticut and a Power Supply Module (PSM), supplied by the MSFC. The OGA is comprised of a cell stack that electrolyzes (breaks apart the hydrogen and oxygen molecules) some of the clean water provided by the Water Recovery System and the separators that remove the gases from water after electrolysis. The PSM provides the high power to the OGA needed to electrolyze the water.

  14. Optimization of life support systems and their systems reliability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, L. T.; Hwang, C. L.; Erickson, L. E.

    1971-01-01

    The identification, analysis, and optimization of life support systems and subsystems have been investigated. For each system or subsystem that has been considered, the procedure involves the establishment of a set of system equations (or mathematical model) based on theory and experimental evidences; the analysis and simulation of the model; the optimization of the operation, control, and reliability; analysis of sensitivity of the system based on the model; and, if possible, experimental verification of the theoretical and computational results. Research activities include: (1) modeling of air flow in a confined space; (2) review of several different gas-liquid contactors utilizing centrifugal force: (3) review of carbon dioxide reduction contactors in space vehicles and other enclosed structures: (4) application of modern optimal control theory to environmental control of confined spaces; (5) optimal control of class of nonlinear diffusional distributed parameter systems: (6) optimization of system reliability of life support systems and sub-systems: (7) modeling, simulation and optimal control of the human thermal system: and (8) analysis and optimization of the water-vapor eletrolysis cell.

  15. Primary cardiac lymphoma complicated by cardiogenic shock: successful treatment with chemotherapy delivered under extracorporeal membrane oxygenation support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allain, Géraldine; Hajj-Chahine, Jamil; Lacroix, Corentin; Jayle, Christophe

    2015-12-01

    Primary cardiac lymphomas (PCLs) are rare in immunocompetent patients. Their clinical presentation is highly variable and in case of cardiogenic shock, death is often inevitable with a diagnosis made post-mortem. We report the case of a 65-year old immunocompetent man with cardiogenic shock requiring emergent extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). Soon after, a diagnosis of PCL was given and chemotherapy was delivered under ECMO support. The patient was progressively weaned from the mechanical support. Six months later, he had fully recovered.

  16. Multi-Agent Diagnosis and Control of an Air Revitalization System for Life Support in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malin, Jane T.; Kowing, Jeffrey; Nieten, Joseph; Graham, Jeffrey s.; Schreckenghost, Debra; Bonasso, Pete; Fleming, Land D.; MacMahon, Matt; Thronesbery, Carroll

    2000-01-01

    An architecture of interoperating agents has been developed to provide control and fault management for advanced life support systems in space. In this adjustable autonomy architecture, software agents coordinate with human agents and provide support in novel fault management situations. This architecture combines the Livingstone model-based mode identification and reconfiguration (MIR) system with the 3T architecture for autonomous flexible command and control. The MIR software agent performs model-based state identification and diagnosis. MIR identifies novel recovery configurations and the set of commands required for the recovery. The AZT procedural executive and the human operator use the diagnoses and recovery recommendations, and provide command sequencing. User interface extensions have been developed to support human monitoring of both AZT and MIR data and activities. This architecture has been demonstrated performing control and fault management for an oxygen production system for air revitalization in space. The software operates in a dynamic simulation testbed.

  17. Gastrostomy tube placement in patients with advanced dementia or near end of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Denise Baird; Barrocas, Albert; Wesley, John R; Kliger, Gustavo; Pontes-Arruda, Alessandro; Márquez, Humberto Arenas; James, Rosemarie Lembo; Monturo, Cheryl; Lysen, Lucinda K; DiTucci, Angela

    2014-12-01

    Based on current scientific literature, gastrostomy tube (G-tube) placement or other long-term enteral access devices should be withheld in patients with advanced dementia or other near end-of-life conditions. In many instances healthcare providers are not optimally equipped to implement this recommendation at the bedside. Autonomy of the patient or surrogate decision maker should be respected, as should the patient's cultural, religious, social, and emotional value system. Clinical practice needs to address risks, burdens, benefits, and expected short-term and long-term outcomes in order to clarify practice changes. This paper recommends a change in clinical practice and care strategy based on the results of a thorough literature review and provides tools for healthcare clinicians, particularly in the hospital setting, including an algorithm for decision making and a checklist to use prior to the placement of G-tubes or other long-term enteral access devices. Integrating concepts of patient-centered care, shared decision making, health literacy, and the teach-back method of education enhances the desired outcome of ethical dilemma prevention. The goal is advance care planning and a timely consensus among health team members, family members, and significant others regarding end-of-life care for patients who do not have an advance directive and lack the capacity to advocate for themselves. Achieving this goal requires interdisciplinary collaboration and proactive planning within a supportive healthcare institution environment.

  18. Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Basic Life Support Training on the Knowledge and Skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afzalimoghaddam M

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Basic Life Support (BLS as the first level of medical care in sudden cardiac arrest and life-threatening illnesses can improve survival outcomes. The aim of this study was to compare the knowledge and skills of BLS among medical students at the beginning and the end of the training course in the emergency department. Materials and Methods:This study was a descriptive analytic cross- sectional study among 90 medical students in their sixth academic year during emergency medicine training course. At first, a standard Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE was performed to obtain their basic knowledge and skills of BLS. Then a training course was provided in two theoretical and practical parts using the 2006 American Heart Association guidelines for cardiopulmonary resuscitation and emergency cardiovascular care. At the end of the study, the same standard OSCE was performed. Results: The mean score of the primary OSCE was 4.9 with 55 students (61.11% having a score between zero to five and 35 (35.89% between five to ten.  The mean scores increased significantly after training regarding checking the patient's response, head tilt and chin lift maneuvers, number of massages and correct breathing (p

  19. Which Form of Medical Training is the Best in Improving Interns’ knowledge Related to Advanced Cardiac Life Support Drugs Pharmacology? An Educational Analytical Intervention Study Between Electronic Learning and Lecture-Based Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoshbaten, Manouchehr; Soleimanpour, Hassan; Ala, Alireza; Shams Vahdati, Samad; Ebrahimian, Kimia; Safari, Saeid; Golzari, Samad EJ; Salek Ranjbarzadeh, Fariba; Mehdizadeh Esfanjani, Robab

    2014-01-01

    Background: Conventional educational systems seem to be improper throughout the cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) teaching process. The most common causes of failed resuscitation are unfamiliarity with cardiopulmonary resuscitation algorithms, poor performance of leader of the CPR team and lack of skilled personnel, coordination among members during resuscitation, and responsibility of staff. Objectives: Electronic learning, as a new educational method is controversial issue in medical education for improving physicians’ practical knowledge and it is inevitable that further research on its effectiveness should be done. Materials and Methods: The present study is a prospective, pre- and post-educational, cross-sectional research, in which 84 interns were randomly divided into two groups. pre- and post- educational interventions that took place in the Department of Emergency Medicine, interns were evaluated by 21 multiple choice questions related to American Heart Association guidelineson cardiopulmonary resuscitation drugs. Questions were assessed in terms of routes for CPR drugs administration, CPR drug dosage forms, clinical judgment and appropriate CPR drug administration, and the alternative drugs in emergency situations. Data were analyzed by generalized estimating equations regression models and P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Evaluating the effectiveness of both educational methods revealed that the mean answering score for 21 questions before education was 7.5 ± 2.6 and no significant difference was observed in groups (P = 0.55). However, after education, the average scores significantly increased to 11.0 ± 3.9 (P < 0.001). Electronic learning method was not associated with considerable increase in the knowledge of interns in this group compared with the lecture-based group (P = 0.49). Conclusions: No significant differences were observed between electronic learning and lecture-based education in improving interns’ knowledge of CPR drugs. PMID:24719802

  20. Requirements for Designing Life Support System Architectures for Crewed Exploration Missions Beyond Low-Earth Orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, David; Perry,Jay; Sargusingh, Miriam; Toomarian, Nikzad

    2016-01-01

    NASA's technology development roadmaps provide guidance to focus technological development on areas that enable crewed exploration missions beyond low-Earth orbit. Specifically, the technology area roadmap on human health, life support and habitation systems describes the need for life support system (LSS) technologies that can improve reliability and in-situ maintainability within a minimally-sized package while enabling a high degree of mission autonomy. To address the needs outlined by the guiding technology area roadmap, NASA's Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Program has commissioned the Life Support Systems (LSS) Project to lead technology development in the areas of water recovery and management, atmosphere revitalization, and environmental monitoring. A notional exploration LSS architecture derived from the International Space has been developed and serves as the developmental basis for these efforts. Functional requirements and key performance parameters that guide the exploration LSS technology development efforts are presented and discussed. Areas where LSS flight operations aboard the ISS afford lessons learned that are relevant to exploration missions are highlighted.

  1. Staff attitudes towards continuation of life-support in newborns with major congenital anomalies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hazebroek, FWJ; Bos, AP; Ouwens, C; Tibboel, D; Molenaar, JC

    1996-01-01

    This study was conducted to gain insight into the attitudes of medical staff towards life-support of newborns with life-threatening problems, seen against the background of these children's expected morbidity and quality of life. The opinions about the mode of life-support were determined by questio

  2. Space Suit Portable Life Support System Test Bed (PLSS 1.0) Development and Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Carly; Campbell, Colin; Vogel, Matthew; Conger, Bruce

    2012-01-01

    A multi-year effort has been carried out at NASA-JSC to develop an advanced extra-vehicular activity Portable Life Support System (PLSS) design intended to further the current state of the art by increasing operational flexibility, reducing consumables, and increasing robustness. Previous efforts have focused on modeling and analyzing the advanced PLSS architecture, as well as developing key enabling technologies. Like the current International Space Station Extra-vehicular Mobility Unit PLSS, the advanced PLSS comprises three subsystems required to sustain the crew during extra-vehicular activity including the Thermal, Ventilation, and Oxygen Subsystems. This multi-year effort has culminated in the construction and operation of PLSS 1.0, a test bed that simulates full functionality of the advanced PLSS design. PLSS 1.0 integrates commercial off the shelf hardware with prototype technology development components, including the primary and secondary oxygen regulators, Ventilation Subsystem fan, Rapid Cycle Amine swingbed carbon dioxide and water vapor removal device, and Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporator heat rejection device. The overall PLSS 1.0 test objective was to demonstrate the capability of the Advanced PLSS to provide key life support functions including suit pressure regulation, carbon dioxide and water vapor removal, thermal control and contingency purge operations. Supplying oxygen was not one of the specific life support functions because the PLSS 1.0 test was not oxygen rated. Nitrogen was used for the working gas. Additional test objectives were to confirm PLSS technology development components performance within an integrated test bed, identify unexpected system level interactions, and map the PLSS 1.0 performance with respect to key variables such as crewmember metabolic rate and suit pressure. Successful PLSS 1.0 testing completed 168 test points over 44 days of testing and produced a large database of test results that characterize system level

  3. Empowered to gain a new foothold in life--A study of the meaning of participating in cardiac rehabilitation to patients afflicted by a minor heart attack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonÿ, Charlotte P; Dreyer, Pia; Pedersen, Birthe D; Birkelund, Regner

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate what it means to patients afflicted by a minor heart attack to participate in cardiac rehabilitation (CR). CR is well-established internationally to support patients towards moving forward in satisfying, healthy, and well-functioning lives. Studies indicate that patients achieve improvement in quality of life when participating in CR. However, knowledge of how patients are supported during CR is sparse. Moreover, knowledge of what participating in CR means to patients afflicted by a minor heart attack is lacking. In-depth knowledge in this area is crucial in order to understand these patients' particular gains and needs. In a phenomenological-hermeneutic frame field observations, focus group interviews, and individual interviews were conducted among 11 patients during and after their participation in CR. Field notes and transcribed interviews underwent three-phased interpretation. It was found that patients were supported to gain renewed balance in their lives during CR. Three themes were identified: (1) receiving a helpful but limited caring hand, (2) being supported to find new values in life, and (3) developing responsibility for the remaining time. The patients were carefully guided through a difficult time and supported to continue in healthy everyday lives. They were given hope which enabled them to find themselves a new foothold in life with respect to their own sense of well-being. This guidance and a sense of hopefulness were provided by heart specialists and more seasoned heart patients. In conclusion, patients were empowered to achieve a healthier lifestyle and improve their personal well-being during CR. However, structural barriers in the programme prevented adequate support regarding the patients' total needs. Knowledge of the benefits of CR emphasizes the significance of the programme and highlights the importance of high inclusion. Efforts should be made to develop more flexible and longer lasting programmes and

  4. Empowered to gain a new foothold in life-A study of the meaning of participating in cardiac rehabilitation to patients afflicted by a minor heart attack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonÿ, Charlotte P; Dreyer, Pia; Pedersen, Birthe D; Birkelund, Regner

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate what it means to patients afflicted by a minor heart attack to participate in cardiac rehabilitation (CR). CR is well-established internationally to support patients towards moving forward in satisfying, healthy, and well-functioning lives. Studies indicate that patients achieve improvement in quality of life when participating in CR. However, knowledge of how patients are supported during CR is sparse. Moreover, knowledge of what participating in CR means to patients afflicted by a minor heart attack is lacking. In-depth knowledge in this area is crucial in order to understand these patients' particular gains and needs. In a phenomenological-hermeneutic frame field observations, focus group interviews, and individual interviews were conducted among 11 patients during and after their participation in CR. Field notes and transcribed interviews underwent three-phased interpretation. It was found that patients were supported to gain renewed balance in their lives during CR. Three themes were identified: (1) receiving a helpful but limited caring hand, (2) being supported to find new values in life, and (3) developing responsibility for the remaining time. The patients were carefully guided through a difficult time and supported to continue in healthy everyday lives. They were given hope which enabled them to find themselves a new foothold in life with respect to their own sense of well-being. This guidance and a sense of hopefulness were provided by heart specialists and more seasoned heart patients. In conclusion, patients were empowered to achieve a healthier lifestyle and improve their personal well-being during CR. However, structural barriers in the programme prevented adequate support regarding the patients' total needs. Knowledge of the benefits of CR emphasizes the significance of the programme and highlights the importance of high inclusion. Efforts should be made to develop more flexible and longer lasting programmes and

  5. Lithium-ion battery remaining useful life prediction based on grey support vector machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaogang Li

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article, an improved grey prediction model is proposed to address low-accuracy prediction issue of grey forecasting model. The first step is using a trigonometric function to transform the original data sequence to smooth the data, which is called smoothness of grey prediction model, and then a grey support vector machine model by integrating the improved grey model with support vector machine is introduced. At the initial stage of the model, trigonometric functions and accumulation generation operation can be used to preprocess the data, which enhances the smoothness of the data and reduces the associated randomness. In addition, support vector machine is implemented to establish a prediction model for the pre-processed data and select the optimal model parameters via genetic algorithms. Finally, the data are restored through the ‘regressive generate’ operation to obtain the forecasting data. To prove that the grey support vector machine model is superior to the other models, the battery life data from the Center for Advanced Life Cycle Engineering are selected, and the presented model is used to predict the remaining useful life of the battery. The predicted result is compared to that of grey model and support vector machines. For a more intuitive comparison of the three models, this article quantifies the root mean square errors for these three different models in the case of different ratio of training samples and prediction samples. The results show that the effect of grey support vector machine model is optimal, and the corresponding root mean square error is only 3.18%.

  6. The use of extracorporeal life support in adolescent amlodipine overdose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persad, Elizabeth A.; Raman, Lakshmi; Thompson, Marita T.; Sheeran, Paul W.

    2012-01-01

    Calcium channel blocker (CCB) toxicity is associated with refractory hypotension and can be fatal. A 13 year old young woman presented to the emergency department(ED) six hours after an intentional overdose of amlodipine, barbiturates, and alcohol. She remained extremely hypotensive despite the administration of normal saline and calcium chloride and despite infusions of norepinephrine, epinephrine, insulin, and dextrose. Due to increasing evidence of end organ dysfunction, Extracorporeal Life Support (ECLS) was initiated 9 hours after presentation to the ED. The patient's blood pressure and end organ function immediately improved after cannulation. She was successfully decannulated after 57 hours of ECLS and was neurologically intact. Patients with calcium channel blocker overdose who are resistant to medical interventions may respond favorably to early ECLS. PMID:23559727

  7. Portable Life Support Subsystem Thermal Hydraulic Performance Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Bruce; Pinckney, John; Conger, Bruce

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the current state of the thermal hydraulic modeling efforts being conducted for the Constellation Space Suit Element (CSSE) Portable Life Support Subsystem (PLSS). The goal of these efforts is to provide realistic simulations of the PLSS under various modes of operation. The PLSS thermal hydraulic model simulates the thermal, pressure, flow characteristics, and human thermal comfort related to the PLSS performance. This paper presents modeling approaches and assumptions as well as component model descriptions. Results from the models are presented that show PLSS operations at steady-state and transient conditions. Finally, conclusions and recommendations are offered that summarize results, identify PLSS design weaknesses uncovered during review of the analysis results, and propose areas for improvement to increase model fidelity and accuracy.

  8. The use of extracorporeal life support in adolescent amlodipine overdose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth A Persad

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Calcium channel blocker (CCB toxicity is associated with refractory hypotension and can be fatal. A 13 year old young woman presented to the emergency department(ED six hours after an intentional overdose of amlodipine, barbiturates, and alcohol. She remained extremely hypotensive despite the administration of normal saline and calcium chloride and despite infusions of norepinephrine, epinephrine, insulin, and dextrose. Due to increasing evidence of end organ dysfunction, Extracorporeal Life Support (ECLS was initiated 9 hours after presentation to the ED. The patient′s blood pressure and end organ function immediately improved after cannulation. She was successfully decannulated after 57 hours of ECLS and was neurologically intact. Patients with calcium channel blocker overdose who are resistant to medical interventions may respond favorably to early ECLS.

  9. Shuttle Orbiter Environmental Control and Life Support System - Flight experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, H. E.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes the overall design of the Shuttle Orbiter Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS). The Orbiter ECLSS consists of six major subsystems which accomplish the functions of providing a habitable pressurized cabin atmosphere and removing gaseous contaminants, controlling the temperature of the cabin and vehicle components within acceptable ranges, providing fire detection and suppression capability, maintaining a supply of potable water, collecting and removing metabolic waste materials, and providing utilities and access for extravehicular activity. The operational experience is summarized for the 45 space flights accomplished to date during which the Orbiter ECLSS has been demonstrated to perform reliably, and has proved to have the flexibility to meet a variety of mission needs. Significant flight problems are described, along with the design or procedure changes which were implemented to resolve the problems.

  10. Characterization of the Cardiac Overexpression of HSPB2 Reveals Mitochondrial and Myogenic Roles Supported by a Cardiac HspB2 Interactome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julianne H Grose

    Full Text Available Small Heat Shock Proteins (sHSPs are molecular chaperones that transiently interact with other proteins, thereby assisting with quality control of proper protein folding and/or degradation. They are also recruited to protect cells from a variety of stresses in response to extreme heat, heavy metals, and oxidative-reductive stress. Although ten human sHSPs have been identified, their likely diverse biological functions remain an enigma in health and disease, and much less is known about non-redundant roles in selective cells and tissues. Herein, we set out to comprehensively characterize the cardiac-restricted Heat Shock Protein B-2 (HspB2, which exhibited ischemic cardioprotection in transgenic overexpressing mice including reduced infarct size and maintenance of ATP levels. Global yeast two-hybrid analysis using HspB2 (bait and a human cardiac library (prey coupled with co-immunoprecipitation studies for mitochondrial target validation revealed the first HspB2 "cardiac interactome" to contain many myofibril and mitochondrial-binding partners consistent with the overexpression phenotype. This interactome has been submitted to the Biological General Repository for Interaction Datasets (BioGRID. A related sHSP chaperone HspB5 had only partially overlapping binding partners, supporting specificity of the interactome as well as non-redundant roles reported for these sHSPs. Evidence that the cardiac yeast two-hybrid HspB2 interactome targets resident mitochondrial client proteins is consistent with the role of HspB2 in maintaining ATP levels and suggests new chaperone-dependent functions for metabolic homeostasis. One of the HspB2 targets, glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH, has reported roles in HspB2 associated phenotypes including cardiac ATP production, mitochondrial function, and apoptosis, and was validated as a potential client protein of HspB2 through chaperone assays. From the clientele and phenotypes identified herein, it is

  11. NASA Glenn Research Center Support of the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Scott D.; Wong, Wayne A.

    2015-01-01

    A high-efficiency radioisotope power system was being developed for long-duration NASA space science missions. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) managed a flight contract with Lockheed Martin Space Systems Company to build Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generators (ASRGs), with support from NASA Glenn Research Center. DOE initiated termination of that contract in late 2013, primarily due to budget constraints. Sunpower, Inc., held two parallel contracts to produce Advanced Stirling Convertors (ASCs), one with Lockheed Martin to produce ASC-F flight units, and one with Glenn for the production of ASC-E3 engineering unit "pathfinders" that are built to the flight design. In support of those contracts, Glenn provided testing, materials expertise, Government-furnished equipment, inspection capabilities, and related data products to Lockheed Martin and Sunpower. The technical support included material evaluations, component tests, convertor characterization, and technology transfer. Material evaluations and component tests were performed on various ASC components in order to assess potential life-limiting mechanisms and provide data for reliability models. Convertor level tests were conducted to characterize performance under operating conditions that are representative of various mission conditions. Despite termination of the ASRG flight development contract, NASA continues to recognize the importance of high-efficiency ASC power conversion for Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) and continues investment in the technology, including the continuation of the ASC-E3 contract. This paper describes key Government support for the ASRG project and future tests to be used to provide data for ongoing reliability assessments.

  12. Animal life support transporters for Shuttle/Spacelab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, W. E.; Hunt, S. R.

    1978-01-01

    Two transporter devices have been developed by the NASA Ames Research Center, primarily for the purpose of stowing small vertebrates and primates in the mid-deck avionics bay of the Shuttle during launch and re-entry. These animals will be used in Life Science Spacelab experiments. Stowage in the mid-deck area will reduce animal exposure to the high noise levels existing in Spacelab during launch; further, the possible exposure of the animals to high temperatures in Spacelab during re-entry and post-landing will be eliminated. The transporters will provide experimenters more timely access to their animals during experiment-critical, pre-launch, and post-landing periods. Rechargeable batteries in the transporters will provide life support system functions for the animals during periods of transfer and during mission phases in which power is temporarily unavailable. The transporters have been successfully designed, fabricated, and tested. Integrated testing of the transporters was performed in the Space Mission Development III (SMD III) Simulation at the NASA Johnson Space Center.

  13. Support Policies in Clusters: Prioritization of Support Needs by Cluster Members According to Cluster Life Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulcin Salıngan

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Economic development has always been a moving target. Both the national and local governments have been facing the challenge of implementing the effective and efficient economic policy and program in order to best utilize their limited resources. One of the recent approaches in this area is called cluster-based economic analysis and strategy development. This study reviews key literature and some of the cluster based economic policies adopted by different governments. Based on this review, it proposes “the cluster life cycle” as a determining factor to identify the support requirements of clusters. A survey, designed based on literature review of International Cluster support programs, was conducted with 30 participants from 3 clusters with different maturity stage. This paper discusses the results of this study conducted among the cluster members in Eskişehir- Bilecik-Kütahya Region in Turkey on the requirement of the support to foster the development of related clusters.

  14. How Can Nanotechnology Help to Repair the Body? Advances in Cardiac, Skin, Bone, Cartilage and Nerve Tissue Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Antonio Marchal

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Nanotechnologists have become involved in regenerative medicine via creation of biomaterials and nanostructures with potential clinical implications. Their aim is to develop systems that can mimic, reinforce or even create in vivo tissue repair strategies. In fact, in the last decade, important advances in the field of tissue engineering, cell therapy and cell delivery have already been achieved. In this review, we will delve into the latest research advances and discuss whether cell and/or tissue repair devices are a possibility. Focusing on the application of nanotechnology in tissue engineering research, this review highlights recent advances in the application of nano-engineered scaffolds designed to replace or restore the followed tissues: (i skin; (ii cartilage; (iii bone; (iv nerve; and (v cardiac.

  15. Correlation between changes in diastolic dysfunction and health-related quality of life after cardiac rehabilitation program in dilated cardiomyopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherin H.M. Mehani

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Chronic heart failure (CHF is a complex syndrome characterized by progressive decline in left ventricular function, low exercise tolerance and raised mortality and morbidity. Left ventricular diastolic dysfunction plays a major role in CHF and progression of most cardiac diseases. The current recommended goals can theoretically be accomplished via exercise and pharmacological therapy so the aim of the present study was to evaluate the impact of cardiac rehabilitation program on diastolic dysfunction and health related quality of life and to determine the correlation between changes in left ventricular diastolic dysfunction and domains of health-related quality of life (HRQoL. Forty patients with chronic heart failure were diagnosed as having dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM with systolic and diastolic dysfunction. The patients were equally and randomly divided into training and control groups. Only 30 of them completed the study duration. The training group participated in rehabilitation program in the form of circuit-interval aerobic training adjusted according to 55–80% of heart rate reserve for a period of 7 months. Circuit training improved both diastolic and systolic dysfunction in the training group. On the other hand, only a significant correlation was found between improvement in diastolic dysfunction and health related quality of life measured by Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire. It was concluded that improvement in diastolic dysfunction as a result of rehabilitation program is one of the important underlying mechanisms responsible for improvement in health-related quality of life in DCM patients.

  16. Development of an advanced support system for site investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno, T.; Hama, K.; Iwatsuki, T.; Semba, T.

    2009-12-01

    JAEA has the responsibility for R&D to enhance reliability of High Level Waste (HLW) disposal technology and to develop safety assessment methodology with associated databases; these should support both the implementer (NUMO) and the relevant regulatory organizations. With this responsibility, JAEA has initiated development of advanced technology in the field of Knowledge Engineering. Known as the Information Synthesis and Interpretation System (ISIS), it incorporates knowledge currently being obtained in the Underground Research Laboratory (URL) projects in Expert System (ES) modules for the Japanese HLW disposal program. This knowledge includes fundamental understanding of relevant geological environments, technical know-how for the application of complex investigation techniques, experience gained in earlier site work, etc. However, much knowledge is not undocumented because the knowledge is treated as tacit knowledge and, without focused action soon, may be permanently lost. Therefore, a new approach is necessary to transfer the knowledge obtained in these URL projects to support the site characterization and subsequent safety assessment of potential repository sites by NUMO and the formulation of guidelines by regulatory organizations. In this paper, we introduce the ES for selecting tracers for borehole drilling. ES is the system built by applying electronic information technology to support the planning, conducting investigations and assessing of investigation results. Tracers are generally used for borehole drilling to monitor and quantitatively assess the degree of contamination of groundwater by drilling fluid. JAEA uses fluorescent dye as tracer in drilling fluid. When a fluorescent dye is used for drilling, suitable type and concentration must be selected. The technical points to be considered are; 1) linearity of fluorescent spectrum intensity with variations in concentration, 2) pH dependence of fluorescent spectrum intensity, 3) stability of

  17. Myocardial perfusion imaging for predicting cardiac events in Japanese patients with advanced chronic kidney disease: 1-year interim report of the J-ACCESS 3 investigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joki, Nobuhiko; Hase, Hiroki [Toho University Ohashi Medical Center, Department of Nephrology, Tokyo (Japan); Kawano, Yuhei; Nakamura, Satoko [National Cerebral and Cardiovascular Center, Division of Hypertension and Nephrology, Osaka (Japan); Nakajima, Kenichi [Kanazawa University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Kanazawa (Japan); Hatta, Tsuguru [Hatta Medical Office of Internal Medicine, Kyoto (Japan); Nishimura, Shigeyuki [Saitama Medical University International Medical Center, Saitama (Japan); Moroi, Masao [Toho University Ohashi Medical Center, Department of Cardiology, Tokyo (Japan); Nakagawa, Susumu [Saiseikai Central Hospital, Department of Cardiology, Tokyo (Japan); Kasai, Tokuo [Tokyo Medical University Hachioji Medical Center, Tokyo (Japan); Kusuoka, Hideo [Osaka National Hospital, Osaka (Japan); Takeishi, Yasuchika [Fukushima Medical University, Department of Cardiology and Hematology, Fukushima (Japan); Momose, Mitsuru [Tokyo Women' s Medical University, Department of Diagnostic Imaging and Nuclear Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Takehana, Kazuya [Kansai Medical University, Department of Cardiology, Osaka (Japan); Nanasato, Mamoru [Cardiovascular Center, Nagoya Daini Red Cross Hospital, Nagoya (Japan); Yoda, Shunichi [Nihon University Itabashi Hospital, Department of Cardiology, Tokyo (Japan); Nishina, Hidetaka [Tsukuba Medical Center Hospital, Department of Cardiology, Tsukuba (Japan); Matsumoto, Naoya [Suruga-dai Nihon University Hospital, Department of Cardiology, Tokyo (Japan); Nishimura, Tsunehiko [Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Kamigyo-ku, Kyoto (Japan)

    2014-09-15

    Whether myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) can predict cardiac events in patients with advanced conservative chronic kidney disease (CKD) remains unclear. The present multicenter prospective cohort study aimed to clarify the ability of MPI to predict cardiac events in 529 patients with CKD and estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFR) < 50 ml/min per 1.73{sup 2} without a definitive diagnosis of coronary artery disease. All patients were assessed by stress-rest MPI with {sup 99m}Tc-tetrofosmin and analyzed using summed defect scores and QGS software. Cardiac events were analyzed 1 year after registration. Myocardial perfusion abnormalities defined as summed stress score (SSS) ≥4 and ≥8 were identified in 19 and 7 % of patients, respectively. At the end of the 1-year follow-up, 33 (6.2 %) cardiac events had occurred that included cardiac death, sudden death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, and hospitalization due to heart failure. The event-free rates at that time were 0.95, 0.90, and 0.81 for groups with SSS 0-3, 4-7, and ≥8, respectively (p = 0.0009). Thus, patients with abnormal SSS had a higher incidence of cardiac events. Multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that SSS significantly impacts the prediction of cardiac events independently of eGFR and left ventricular ejection fraction. MPI would be useful to stratify patients with advanced conservative CKD who are at high risk of cardiac events without adversely affecting damaged kidneys. (orig.)

  18. Chemotherapy versus support cancer treatment in advanced gastric cancer: a meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Casaretto

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to compare the efficacy of chemotherapy and support treatment in patients with advanced non-resectable gastric cancer in a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials that included a comparison of chemotherapy and support care treatment in patients diagnosed with gastric adenocarcinoma, regardless of their age, gender or place of treatment. The search strategy was based on the criteria of the Cochrane Base, using the following key words: 1 randomized clinical trials and antineoplastic combined therapy or gastrointestinal neoplasm, 2 stomach neoplasm and drug therapy, 3 clinical trial and multi-modality therapy, 4 stomach neoplasm and drug therapy or quality of life, 5 double-blind method or clinical trial. The search was carried out using the Cochrane, Medline and Lilacs databases. Five studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria, for a total of 390 participants, 208 (53% receiving chemotherapy, 182 (47% receiving support care treatment and 6 losses (1.6%. The 1-year survival rate was 8% for support care and 20% for chemotherapy (RR = 2.14, 95% CI = 1.00-4.57, P = 0.05; 30% of the patients in the chemotherapy group and 12% in the support care group attained a 6-month symptom-free period (RR = 2.33, 95% CI = 1.41-3.87, P < 0.01. Quality of life evaluated after 4 months was significantly better for the chemotherapy patients (34%; RR = 2.07, 95% CI = 1.31-3.28, P < 0.01 with tumor mass reduction (RR = 3.32, 95% CI = 0.77-14.24, P = 0.1. Chemotherapy increased the 1-year survival rate of the patients and provided a longer symptom-free period of 6 months and an improvement in quality of life.

  19. Advancing Integrated Systems Modelling Framework for Life Cycle Sustainability Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Halog

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The need for integrated methodological framework for sustainability assessment has been widely discussed and is urgent due to increasingly complex environmental system problems. These problems have impacts on ecosystems and human well-being which represent a threat to economic performance of countries and corporations. Integrated assessment crosses issues; spans spatial and temporal scales; looks forward and backward; and incorporates multi-stakeholder inputs. This study aims to develop an integrated methodology by capitalizing the complementary strengths of different methods used by industrial ecologists and biophysical economists. The computational methodology proposed here is systems perspective, integrative, and holistic approach for sustainability assessment which attempts to link basic science and technology to policy formulation. The framework adopts life cycle thinking methods—LCA, LCC, and SLCA; stakeholders analysis supported by multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA; and dynamic system modelling. Following Pareto principle, the critical sustainability criteria, indicators and metrics (i.e., hotspots can be identified and further modelled using system dynamics or agent based modelling and improved by data envelopment analysis (DEA and sustainability network theory (SNT. The framework is being applied to development of biofuel supply chain networks. The framework can provide new ways of integrating knowledge across the divides between social and natural sciences as well as between critical and problem-solving research.

  20. Environmental control and life support systems analysis for a Space Station life sciences animal experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    So, Kenneth T.; Hall, John B., Jr.; Thompson, Clifford D.

    1987-01-01

    NASA's Langley and Goddard facilities have evaluated the effects of animal science experiments on the Space Station's Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) by means of computer-aided analysis, assuming an animal colony consisting of 96 rodents and eight squirrel monkeys. Thirteen ECLSS options were established for the reclamation of metabolic oxygen and waste water. Minimum cost and weight impacts on the ECLSS are found to accrue to the system's operation in off-nominal mode, using electrochemical CO2 removal and a static feed electrolyzer for O2 generation.

  1. Don't Trust a Management Metric, Especially in Life Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Harry W.

    2014-01-01

    Goodhart's law states that metrics do not work. Metrics become distorted when used and they deflect effort away from more important goals. These well-known and unavoidable problems occurred when the closure and system mass metrics were used to manage life support research. The intent of life support research should be to develop flyable, operable, reliable systems, not merely to increase life support system closure or to reduce its total mass. It would be better to design life support systems to meet the anticipated mission requirements and user needs. Substituting the metrics of closure and total mass for these goals seems to have led life support research to solve the wrong problems.

  2. Methotrexate for immunosuppression in life-supporting pig-to-cynomolgus monkey renal xenotransplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cozzi, Emanuele; Cadrobbi, Roberto; Baldan, Nicola; Dedja, Arben; Calabrese, Fiorella; Castagnaro, Massimo; Fante, Fabio; Boldrin, Massimo; Iacopetti, Ilaria; Ravarotto, Licia; Carraro, Paolo; Bronte, Vincenzo; De Santo, Carmela; Busetto, Roberto; Plebani, Mario; Cancellotti, Francesco Maria; Rigotti, Paolo; Thiene, Gaetano; Ancona, Ermanno

    2003-11-01

    Methotrexate (MTX) has been used successfully as an immunosuppressant in rodent xenotransplantation models, but the data generated so far with MTX in pig-to-baboon cardiac transplantation studies have been disappointing. The potential of this agent was consequently explored in a life-supporting pig-to-primate renal model using the cynomolgus monkey as the recipient species. Introductory in vitro and in vivo pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic studies with MTX were conducted in three cynomolgus monkeys. Subsequently, 10 cynomolgus monkey recipients of a life-supporting kidney from human decay-accelerating factor transgenic pigs were administered MTX intravenously according to three different regimens. All the animals also received cyclosporine A and steroids. In addition, mycophenolate sodium (MPS) was administered post-operatively in two of the three groups of transplanted animals. At clinically relevant concentrations, MTX is able in vitro to inhibit the mixed lymphocyte reactions (MLR) in cynomolgus monkeys. After intravenous administration, moreover, exposure of cynomolgus monkeys to MTX appeared to be higher than had been previously reported in baboons. Graft function was observed in the transplanted animals, which survived from 0 to 41 days. All but two animals revealed acute humoral rejection in the explanted graft and developed diarrhea. Diarrhea was the cause of euthanasia in five cases. It was unrelated to the administration of MPS and associated with severe histopathological signs of enteritis. This study demonstrates that the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profiles if MTX vary substantially between non-human primate species. In vitro, MTX has immunosuppressive properties in the cynomolgus monkey at clinically relevant concentrations. In vivo, MTX has a very narrow therapeutic window in cynomolgus monkeys, however, as it does in baboons. We conclude that MTX is scarcely effective as an immunosuppressant, be it for induction or maintenance, in pig

  3. The Virtual Habitat - a tool for Life Support Systems optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czupalla, Markus; Dirlich, Thomas; Harder, Jan; Pfeiffer, Matthias

    In the course of designing Life Support Systems (LSS) a great multitude of concepts for and various combinations of subsystems and components are developed. In order to find an optimal LSS solution, thus the right combination of subsystems, the parameters for the definition of the optimization itself have to be determined. The often times used Equivalent Systems Mass (ESM) based trade study approach for life support systems is well suited for phase A conceptual design evaluations. The ESM approach allows an efficient evaluation of LSS on a component or subsystem level. The necessary next step in the process is the design, evaluation and optimization of the LSS on a system level. For the system level LSS design a classic ESM-based trade study seems not to be able to provide the information that is necessary to evaluate the concept correctly. Important decisive criteria such as system stability, controllability and effectiveness are not represented in the ESM approach. These parameters directly and decisively impact the scientific efficiency of the crew, thereby the mission in total. Thus, for system level optimization these criteria must be included alongside the ESM in a new integral optimization method. In order to be able to apply such an integral criterion dynamic modeling of most involved LSS subsystems, especially of the human crew, is necessary. Only then the required information about the efficiency of the LSS, over time, e.g. the systems stability, becomes available. In an effort to establish a dynamic simulation environment for habitats in extreme environmental conditions, the "Virtual Habitat" tool is being developed by the Human Spaceflight Group of the Technische Universit¨t M¨nchen (TUM). The paper discussed here presents the concept of a u the virtual habitat simulation. It discusses in what way the simulation tool enables a prediction of system characteristics and required information demanded by an integral optimization criterion. In general the

  4. The Life Cycle Cost (LCC) of Life Support Recycling and Resupply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Harry W.

    2015-01-01

    Brief human space missions supply all the crew's water and oxygen from Earth. The multiyear International Space Station (ISS) program instead uses physicochemical life support systems to recycle water and oxygen. This paper compares the Life Cycle Cost (LCC) of recycling to the LCC of resupply for potential future long duration human space missions. Recycling systems have high initial development costs but relatively low durationdependent support costs. This means that recycling is more cost effective for longer missions. Resupplying all the water and oxygen requires little initial development cost but has a much higher launch mass and launch cost. The cost of resupply increases as the mission duration increases. Resupply is therefore more cost effective than recycling for shorter missions. A recycling system pays for itself when the resupply LCC grows greater over time than the recycling LCC. The time when this occurs is called the recycling breakeven date. Recycling will cost very much less than resupply for long duration missions within the Earth-Moon system, such as a future space station or Moon base. But recycling would cost about the same as resupply for long duration deep space missions, such as a Mars trip. Because it is not possible to provide emergency supplies or quick return options on the way to Mars, more expensive redundant recycling systems will be needed.

  5. Life-Threatening Cardiac Tamponade Secondary to Chylopericardium Following Orthotopic Heart Transplantation-A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wierzbicki, Karol; Mazur, Piotr; Węgrzyn, Piotr; Kapelak, Bogusław

    2016-08-23

    Chylopericardium is a rare complication in cardiac surgery, and an extremely rare occurrence in patients following orthotopic heart transplantation (OHT), which, however, can lead to cardiac tamponade. Here we present a case of a 59-year-old man who underwent OHT and suffered from chylopericardium resulting in cardiac tamponade late in the postoperative course, despite the initially uneventful early postoperative period (decreasing blood drainage was observed directly after the procedure, and the drains were safely removed). After the diagnosis of chylopericardium was made, the conservative treatment was initiated, which turned out to be insufficient, and eventually invasive approach for the recurrence of tamponade secondary to chylopericardium was required. We discuss the available therapeutic options for chylopericardium and demonstrate the successful invasive therapeutic approach with use of the absorbable fibrin sealant patch.

  6. Extracorporeal life support systems: alternative vs. conventional circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Sameer; Vasavada, Rahul; Qiu, Feng; Kunselman, Allan; Undar, Akif

    2011-05-01

    Emerging technologies and practices for pediatric and neonatal extracorporeal life support (ECLS) are promising. This experiment sought to compare the Medtronic 0800 silicon rubber membrane oxygenator to the Quadrox-iD Pediatric oxygenator in the conventional roller pump circuit, as well as comparing the conventional circuit to an alternative circuit. Three circuits were set up in the experiment. Two conventional roller pump circuits were used to compare the two oxygenators and an alternative circuit consisting of the Quadrox-iD Pediatric oxygenator and Maquet Rotaflow centrifugal pump system was used to identify differences between circuits. All three circuits were primed with Lactated Ringers' solution and human blood, with an hematocrit of 40%. Testing occurred at flow rates of 250, 500, and 750 ml/ min at 37°C for mean arterial line pressures of 60, 80, and 100 mmHg. The results of the experiment showed lower pressure drops and greater retention of total hemodynamic energy (THE) across the Quadrox-iD Pediatric oxygenator compared to the Medtronic 0800 oxygenator. Furthermore, the centrifugal pump used in the alternative circuit showed no back flow at flow rates as low as 250 ml/min while, on the other hand, rpm levels were kept below 2200 for flow rates as high as 750 ml/min. Findings support the usage of the Quadrox-iD Pediatric oxygenator in a circuit utilizing the Maquet Rotaflow centrifugal pump system due to lower pressure drops and greater percentage of THE retained across the circuit. Additional advantages of the alternative circuit include rapid set-up time, easy transport, lower priming volumes, and no gravity-dependent venous drainage system so that it can be situated in close proximity to and at the level of the patient.

  7. Development of Mass-casualty Life Support-CBRNE (MCLS-CBRNE) in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anan, Hideaki; Otomo, Yasuhiro; Kondo, Hisayoshi; Homma, Masato; Koido, Yuichi; Morino, Kazuma; Oshiro, Kenichi; Harikae, Kiyokazu; Akasaka, Osamu

    2016-10-01

    This report outlines the need for the development of an advanced course in mass-casualty life support (MCLS) and introduces the course content. The current problems with education on disasters involving chemical agents, biological agents, radiation/nuclear attacks, or explosives (CBRNE) in Japan are presented. This newly developed "MCLS-CBRNE" program was created by a Ministry of Health, Labour, and Welfare (Tokyo, Japan) research group based on these circumstances. Modifications were then made after a trial course. Training opportunities for relevant organizations to learn how to act at a CBRNE disaster site currently are lacking. The developed course covers initial responses at a disaster site. This one-day training course comprises lectures, three tabletop simulations, and practical exercises in pre-decontamination triage and post-decontamination triage. With regard to field exercises conducted to date, related organizations have experienced difficulties in understanding each other and adapting their approaches. Tabletop simulations provide an opportunity for participants to learn how organizations working on-site, including fire, police, and medical personnel, act with differing goals and guiding principles. This course appears useful as a means for relevant organizations to understand the importance of developing common guidelines. The MCLS-CBRNE training is proposed to support CBRNE disaster control measures during future events. Anan H , Otomo Y , Kondo H , Homma M , Koido Y , Morino K , Oshiro K , Harikae K , Akasaka O . Development of mass-casualty life support-CBRNE (MCLS-CBRNE) in Japan. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2016;31(5):547-550.

  8. Lunar Portable Life Support System Heat Rejection Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conger, Bruce; Sompayrac,Robert G.; Trevino, Luis A.; Bue, Grant C.

    2009-01-01

    Performing extravehicular activity (EVA) at various locations of the lunar surface presents thermal challenges that exceed those experienced in space flight to date. The lunar Portable Life Support System (PLSS) cooling unit must maintain thermal conditions within the space suit and reject heat loads generated by the crewmember and the PLSS equipment. The amount of cooling required varies based on the lunar location and terrain due to the heat transferred between the suit and its surroundings. A study has been completed which investigated the resources required to provide cooling under various lunar conditions, assuming three different thermal technology categories: 1. Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporator (SWME) 2. Subcooled Phase Change Material (SPCM) 3. Radiators with and without heat pumps Results from the study are presented that show mass and power impacts on the cooling system as a function of the location and terrain on the lunar surface. Resources (cooling equipment mass and consumables) are greater at the equator and inside sunlit craters due to the additional heat loads on the cooling system. While radiator and SPCM technologies require minimal consumables, they come with carry-weight penalties and have limitations. A wider investigation is recommended to determine if these penalties and limitations are offset by the savings in consumables.

  9. On the assessment of biological life support system operation range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartsev, Sergey

    Biological life support systems (BLSS) can be used in long-term space missions only if well-thought-out assessment of the allowable operating range is obtained. The range has to account both permissible working parameters of BLSS and the critical level of perturbations of BLSS stationary state. Direct approach to outlining the range by statistical treatment of experimental data on BLSS destruction seems to be not applicable due to ethical, economical, and saving time reasons. Mathematical model is the unique tool for the generalization of experimental data and the extrapolation of the revealed regularities beyond empirical experience. The problem is that the quality of extrapolation depends on the adequacy of corresponding model verification, but good verification requires wide range of experimental data for fitting, which is not achievable for manned experimental BLSS. Possible way to improve the extrapolation quality of inevitably poorly verified models of manned BLSS is to extrapolate general tendency obtained from unmanned LSS theoretical-experiment investigations. Possibilities and limitations of such approach are discussed.

  10. Supporting Students' Pedagogical Working Life Horizon in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penttinen, Leena; Skaniakos, Terhi; Lairio, Marjatta

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we introduce a model of a pedagogical working life horizon. It encompasses questions posed by individual students concerning their future and incorporates the idea of a working life orientation to the pedagogical possibilities within education. Working life orientation consists of three elements: individual relationship, knowledge…

  11. Life cycle assessment in support of sustainable transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckelman, Matthew J.

    2013-06-01

    In our rapidly urbanizing world, sustainable transportation presents a major challenge. Transportation decisions have considerable direct impacts on urban society, both positive and negative, for example through changes in transit times and economic productivity, urban connectivity, tailpipe emissions and attendant air quality concerns, traffic accidents, and noise pollution. Much research has been dedicated to quantifying these direct impacts for various transportation modes. Transportation planning decisions also result in a variety of indirect environmental and human health impacts, a portion of which can accrue outside of the transit service area and so outside of the local decision-making process. Integrated modeling of direct and indirect impacts over the life cycle of different transportation modes provides decision support that is more comprehensive and less prone to triggering unintended consequences than a sole focus on direct tailpipe emissions. The recent work of Chester et al (2013) in this journal makes important contributions to this research by examining the environmental implications of introducing bus rapid transit and light rail in Los Angeles using life cycle assessment (LCA). Transport in the LA region is dominated by automobile trips, and the authors show that potential shifts to either bus or train modes would reduce energy use and emissions of criteria air pollutants, on an average passenger mile travelled basis. This work compares not just the use of each vehicle, but also upstream impacts from its manufacturing and maintenance, as well as the construction and maintenance of the entire infrastructure required for each mode. Previous work by the lead author (Chester and Horvath 2009), has shown that these non-operational sources and largely non-local can dominate life cycle impacts from transportation, again on an average (or attributional) basis, for example increasing rail-related GHG emissions by >150% over just operational emissions

  12. A cardiac-specific health-related quality of life module for young adults with congenital heart disease: development and validation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamphuis, M.; Zwinderman, K.A.H.; Vogels, T.; Vliegen, H.W.; Kamphuis, R.P.; Ottenkamp, J.; Verloove-Vanhorick, S.P.; Bruil, J.

    2004-01-01

    This study represents the development and validation of a cardiac-specific module of the generic health-related quality of life (HRQoL) instrument, the TAAQOL (TNO/AZL Adult Quality Of Life), for young adults with congenital heart disease (CHD). Items were selected based on literature, an explorativ

  13. Recent advances in animal and human pluripotent stem cell modeling of cardiac laminopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yee-Ki; Jiang, Yu; Ran, Xin-Ru; Lau, Yee-Man; Ng, Kwong-Man; Lai, Wing-Hon Kevin; Siu, Chung-Wah; Tse, Hung-Fat

    2016-01-01

    Laminopathy is a disease closely related to deficiency of the nuclear matrix protein lamin A/C or failure in prelamin A processing, and leads to accumulation of the misfold protein causing progeria. The resultant disrupted lamin function is highly associated with abnormal nuclear architecture, cell senescence, apoptosis, and unstable genome integrity. To date, the effects of loss in nuclear integrity on the susceptible organ, striated muscle, have been commonly associated with muscular dystrophy, dilated cardiac myopathy (DCM), and conduction defeats, but have not been studied intensively. In this review, we aim to summarize recent breakthroughs in an in vivo laminopathy model and in vitro study using patient-specific human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) that reproduce the pathophysiological phenotype for further drug screening. We describe several in-vivo transgenic mouse models to elucidate the effects of Lmna H222P, N195K mutations, and LMNA knockout on cardiac function, in terms of hemodynamic and electrical signal propagation; certain strategies targeted on stress-related MAPK are mentioned. We will also discuss human iPSC cardiomyocytes serving as a platform to reveal the underlying mechanisms, such as the altered mechanical sensation in electrical coupling of the heart conduction system and ion channel alternation in relation to altered nuclear architecture, and furthermore to enable screening of drugs that can attenuate this cardiac premature aging phenotype by inhibition of prelamin misfolding and oxidative stress, and also enhancement of autophagy protein clearance and cardiac-protective microRNA.

  14. Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis requiring "hybrid" extracorporeal life support, and complicated by acute necrotizing pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moisan, M; Lafargue, M; Calderon, J; Oses, P; Ouattara, A

    2013-04-01

    Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP), which was first described by Rosen in 1958, is a rare disease characterized by impaired surfactant metabolism that provokes the accumulation of proteinaceous material in the alveoli. PAP is usually an auto-immune disease though, less commonly, may be congenital or secondary to another underlying disorder, such as infection, an immunodeficiency or a haematological disease. A positive diagnosis can be made with the appearance of "crazy-paving" on a computed tomography scan, with a milky fluid bronchial aspiration. A cytological examination will also show eosinophilic material and pink stained periodic acid-Schiff-positive material. A whole lung lavage is the most widely accepted therapy for hypoxemic PAP. Herein, we report the case of a 27-year-old woman admitted into our intensive care unit for hypoxemic PAP that was complicated by a pulmonary embolism. Because the patient presented with refractory hypoxemia associated with a brief cardiac arrest, femoral veno-arterial extracorporeal life support (ECLS) was rapidly inserted. Under ECLS, the patient subsequently developed "Harlequin syndrome", which was managed using an original and minimally invasive method. A whole lung lavage as well as prone positioning was effectively performed under ECLS, and resulted in substantial improvement in oxygenation. The patient could be discharged from the hospital 40 days later.

  15. Impact of Duodopa on Quality of Life in Advanced Parkinson's Disease: A UK Case Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Foltynie

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Treatment options in advanced Parkinson’s disease (PD include subcutaneous apomorphine, pallidal or subthalamic nucleus Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS, or levodopa/carbidopa intestinal gel (LCIG/Duodopa. In this study, we describe the outcome of 12 PD patients with PD related complications started on LCIG, with respect to their quality of life measured by a disease specific validated scale—the PDQ39, together with diaries recording time spent “On,” “Off,” “Dyskinetic,” or “Asleep.” At the time of latest follow up, improvements were observed in both the PDQ39 Summary index as well as diary reports of PD symptom control following introduction of LCIG, supporting its use in well selected patients. The use of a trial period of LCIG via naso-jejunal administration allows objective evaluation of improvement in PD symptom control in advance of the placement of the more invasive percutaneous jejunostomy procedure. The decision to embark on LCIG, apomorphine or DBS should be supported by input from centres with experience of all 3 approaches. Since LCIG is an expensive option, development of the most appropriate future commissioning of this therapy in the absence of Class 1 evidence requires careful scrutiny of the outcomes of its use in a broad range of published series.

  16. Methodology and Assumptions of Contingency Shuttle Crew Support (CSCS) Calculations Using ISS Environmental Control and Life Support Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokhorov, Kimberlee; Shkedi, Brienne

    2006-01-01

    The current International Space Station (ISS) Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) system is designed to support an ISS crew size of three people. The capability to expand that system to support nine crew members during a Contingency Shuttle Crew Support (CSCS) scenario has been evaluated. This paper describes how the ISS ECLS systems may be operated for supporting CSCS, and the durations expected for the oxygen supply and carbon dioxide control subsystems.

  17. Precursor life science experiments and closed life support systems on the Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, A.; Paille, C.; Rebeyre, P.; Lamaze, B.; Lobo, M.; Lasseur, C.

    Nowadays the Moon is not only a scientific exploration target but also potentially also a launch pad for deeper space exploration. Establishing an extended human presence on the Moon could reduce the cost of further space exploration, and gather the technical and scientific experience that would make possible the next steps of space exploration, namely manned-missions to Mars. To enable the establishment of such a Moon base, a reliable and regenerative life support system (LSS) is required: without any recycling of metabolic consumables (oxygen, water and food), a 6-person crew during the course of one year would require a supply of 12t from Earth (not including water for hygiene purposes), with a prohibitive associated cost! The recycling of consumables is therefore mandatory for a combination of economic, logistical and also safety reasons. Currently the main regenerative technologies used, namely water recycling in the ISS, are physical-chemical but they do not solve the issue of food production. In the European Space Agency, for the last 15 years, studies are being performed on several life support topics, namely in air revitalisation, food, water and waste management, contaminants, monitoring and control. Ground demonstration, namely the MELiSSA Pilot Plant and Concordia Station, and simulation studies demonstrated the studies feasibility and the recycling levels are promising. To be able to build LSS in a Moon base, the temperature amplitude, the dust and its 14-day night, which limits solar power supply, should be regarded. To reduce these technical difficulties, a landing site should be carefully chosen. Considering the requirements of a mission to the Moon and within the Aurora programme phase I, a preliminary configuration for a regenerative LSS can be proposed as an experiment for a precursor mission to the Moon. An overview of the necessary LSS to a Moon base will be presented, identifying Moon?s specific requirements and showing preliminary

  18. Grandmothers Raising Grandchildren with Disabilities: Sources of Support and Family Quality of Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kresak, Karen E.; Gallagher, Peggy A.; Kelley, Susan J.

    2014-01-01

    Sources of support and quality of life of 50 grandmother-headed families raising grandchildren with and without disabilities were examined. Comparative analyses revealed significant differences between grandmothers raising grandchildren with and without disabilities in regard to sources of support and family quality of life. Informal support was…

  19. Influences on Employee Perceptions of Organizational Work-Life Support: Signals and Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valcour, Monique; Ollier-Malaterre, Ariane; Matz-Costa, Christina; Pitt-Catsouphes, Marcie; Brown, Melissa

    2011-01-01

    This study examined predictors of employee perceptions of organizational work-life support. Using organizational support theory and conservation of resources theory, we reasoned that workplace demands and resources shape employees' perceptions of work-life support through two mechanisms: signaling that the organization cares about their work-life…

  20. Endogenous subclinical hyperthyroidism affects quality of life and cardiac morphology and function in young and middle-aged patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biondi, B; Palmieri, E A; Fazio, S; Cosco, C; Nocera, M; Saccà, L; Filetti, S; Lombardi, G; Perticone, F

    2000-12-01

    To determine the clinical impact of endogenous subclinical hyperthyroidism, specific symptoms and signs of thyroid hormone excess and quality of life were assessed in 23 patients (3 males and 20 females; mean age, 43 +/- 9 yr) and 23 age-, sex-, and lifestyle-matched normal subjects by using the Symptoms Rating Scale and the Short Form 36 Health Survey questionnaires. Because the heart is one of the main target organs of the thyroid hormone, cardiac morphology and function were also investigated by means of standard 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG), 24-h Holter ECG, and complete Doppler echocardiography. Stable endogenous subclinical hyperthyroidism had been diagnosed in all patients at least 6 months before the study (TSH, 0.15 +/- 0.1 mU/L; free T(3), 6.9 +/- 1.1, pmol/L; free T(4), 17.2 +/- 2.3, pmol/L). Fifteen patients were affected by multinodular goiter, and eight patients by autonomously functioning thyroid nodule. The mean Symptoms Rating Scale score (9. 8 +/- 5.5 vs. 4.3 +/- 2.2, P: affects cardiac morphology and function. Moreover, they suggest that treatment of persistent endogenous subclinical hyperthyroidism should be considered also in young and middle-aged patients to attenuate specific symptoms and signs of thyroid hormone excess, ameliorate the quality of life, and avoid the consequences to the heart of long exposure to a mild excess of thyroid hormone.

  1. Compact Water Vapor Exchanger for Regenerative Life Support Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izenson, Michael G.; Chen, Weibo; Anderson, Molly; Hodgson, Edward

    2012-01-01

    Thermal and environmental control systems for future exploration spacecraft must meet challenging requirements for efficient operation and conservation of resources. Regenerative CO2 removal systems are attractive for these missions because they do not use consumable CO2 absorbers. However, these systems also absorb and vent water to space along with carbon dioxide. This paper describes an innovative device designed to minimize water lost from regenerative CO2 control systems. Design studies and proof-of-concept testing have shown the feasibility of a compact, efficient membrane water vapor exchanger (WVX) that will conserve water while meeting challenging requirements for operation on future spacecraft. Compared to conventional WVX designs, the innovative membrane WVX described here has the potential for high water recovery efficiency, compact size, and very low pressure losses. The key innovation is a method for maintaining highly uniform flow channels in a WVX core built from water-permeable membranes. The proof-of-concept WVX incorporates all the key design features of a prototypical unit, except that it is relatively small scale (1/23 relative to a unit sized for a crew of six) and some components were fabricated using non-prototypical methods. The proof-of-concept WVX achieved over 90% water recovery efficiency in a compact core in good agreement with analysis models. Furthermore the overall pressure drop is very small (less than 0.5 in. H2O, total for both flow streams) and meets requirements for service in environmental control and life support systems on future spacecraft. These results show that the WVX provides very uniform flow through flow channels for both the humid and dry streams. Measurements also show that CO2 diffusion through the water-permeable membranes will have negligible effect on the CO2 partial pressure in the spacecraft atmosphere.

  2. Advanced SiC-Matrix Composites with Improved Oxidation Resistance and Life Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of this proposed effort is to demonstrate the promise of advanced C/SiC and SiC/SiC composites having improved environmental durability and longer life...

  3. Portable Life Support System 2.5 Fan Design and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Gregory; Carra, Michael; Converse, David; Chullen, Cinda

    2016-01-01

    NASA is building a high-fidelity prototype of an advanced Portable Life Support System (PLSS) as part of the Advanced Exploration Systems Program. This new PLSS, designated as PLSS 2.5, will advance component technologies and systems knowledge to inform a future flight program. The oxygen ventilation loop of its predecessor, PLSS 2.0, was driven by a centrifugal fan developed using specifications from the Constellation Program. PLSS technology and system parameters have matured to the point where the existing fan will not perform adequately for the new prototype. In addition, areas of potential improvement were identified with the PLSS 2.0 fan that could be addressed in a new design. As a result, a new fan was designed and tested for the PLSS 2.5. The PLSS 2.5 fan is a derivative of the one used in PLSS 2.0, and it uses the same nonmetallic, canned motor, with a larger volute and impeller to meet the higher pressure drop requirements of the PLSS 2.5 ventilation loop. The larger impeller allows it to operate at rotational speeds that are matched to rolling element bearings, and which create reasonably low impeller tip speeds consistent with prior, oxygen-rated fans. Development of the fan also considered a shrouded impeller design that could allow larger clearances for greater oxygen safety, assembly tolerances and particle ingestion. This paper discusses the design, manufacturing and performance testing of the new fans.

  4. Individualized real-time clinical decision support to monitor cardiac loading during venoarterial ECMO

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broomé, Michael; Donker, DW

    2016-01-01

    Veno-arterial extracoporeal membrane oxygenation (VA ECMO) is increasingly used for acute and refractory cardiogenic shock. Yet, in clinical practice, monitoring of cardiac loading conditions during VA ECMO can be cumbersome. To this end, we illustrate the validity and clinical applicability of a re

  5. Recent advances in understanding cardiac contractility in health and disease [version 1; referees: 4 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken T. MacLeod

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this review is to provide the reader with a synopsis of some of the emerging ideas and experimental findings in cardiac physiology and pathophysiology that were published in 2015. To provide context for the non-specialist, a brief summary of cardiac contraction and calcium (Ca regulation in the heart in health and disease is provided. Thereafter, some recently published articles are introduced that indicate the current thinking on (1 the Ca regulatory pathways modulated by Ca/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II, (2 the potential influences of nitrosylation by nitric oxide or S-nitrosated proteins, (3 newly observed effects of reactive oxygen species (ROS on contraction and Ca regulation following myocardial infarction and a possible link with changes in mitochondrial Ca, and (4 the effects of some of these signaling pathways on late Na current and pro-arrhythmic afterdepolarizations as well as the effects of transverse tubule disturbances.

  6. Modeling the growth dynamics of four candidate crops for Controlled Ecological Life Support Systems (CELSS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volk, Tyler

    1987-01-01

    The production of food for human life support for advanced space missions will require the management of many different crops. The research to design these food production capabilities along with the waste management to recycle human metabolic wastes and inedible plant components are parts of Controlled Ecological Life Support Systems (CELSS). Since complete operating CELSS were not yet built, a useful adjunct to the research developing the various pieces of a CELSS are system simulation models that can examine what is currently known about the possible assembly of subsystems into a full CELSS. The growth dynamics of four crops (wheat, soybeans, potatoes, and lettuce) are examined for their general similarities and differences within the context of their important effects upon the dynamics of the gases, liquids, and solids in the CELSS. Data for the four crops currently under active research in the CELSS program using high-production hydroponics are presented. Two differential equations are developed and applied to the general characteristics of each crop growth pattern. Model parameters are determined by closely approximating each crop's data.

  7. Environmental Control and Life Support System Reliability for Long-Duration Missions Beyond Lower Earth Orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargusingh, Miriam J.; Nelson, Jason R.

    2014-01-01

    NASA has highlighted reliability as critical to future human space exploration, particularly in the area of environmental controls and life support systems. The Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) projects have been encouraged to pursue higher reliability components and systems as part of technology development plans. However, no consensus has been reached on what is meant by improving on reliability, or on how to assess reliability within the AES projects. This became apparent when trying to assess reliability as one of several figures of merit for a regenerable water architecture trade study. In the spring of 2013, the AES Water Recovery Project hosted a series of events at Johnson Space Center with the intended goal of establishing a common language and understanding of NASA's reliability goals, and equipping the projects with acceptable means of assessing the respective systems. This campaign included an educational series in which experts from across the agency and academia provided information on terminology, tools, and techniques associated with evaluating and designing for system reliability. The campaign culminated in a workshop that included members of the Environmental Control and Life Support System and AES communities. The goal of this workshop was to develop a consensus on what reliability means to AES and identify methods for assessing low- to mid-technology readiness level technologies for reliability. This paper details the results of that workshop.

  8. Women and advancement in neuropsychology: real-life lessons learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilsabeck, Robin C; Martin, Eileen M

    2010-04-01

    The number of women in neuropsychology has been increasing over the past 20 years while the number of women in senior and leadership positions within neuropsychology has not. The field of neuropsychology has much to gain by facilitating the advancement of women into leadership roles, including access to some of the brightest and creative minds in the field. The purpose of this article is to offer practical advice about how to overcome barriers and advance within neuropsychology. Suggestions for professional organizations, women, and mentors of women are provided that will likely benefit trainees and junior colleagues regardless of their gender.

  9. Fan Performance Testing and Oxygen Compatibility Assessment Results for Future Space Suit Life Support Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Heather L.; Jennings, Mallory A.; Vogel, Matthew

    2009-01-01

    An advanced portable life support system (PLSS) for the space suit will require a small, robust, and energyefficient system to transport the ventilation gas through the space suit for lunar Extravehicular Activity (EVA) operations. A trade study identified and compared ventilation transport technologies in commercial, military, and space applications to determine which technologies could be adapted for EVA use. Based on the trade study results, five commercially available, 24-volt fans were selected for performance testing at various pressures and flow rates. Measured fan parameters included fan delta-pressures, input voltages, input electrical currents, and in some cases motor windings electrical voltages and currents. In addition, a follow-on trade study was performed to identify oxygen compatibility issues and assess their impact on fan design. This paper outlines the results of the fan performance characterization testing, as well as the results from the oxygen compatibility assessment.

  10. Request for Symposia Support: Advances in Olefin Polymerization Catalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-24

    included, but were not limited to, heterogeneous catalysis , homogeneous catalysis , advances in catalyst activation, methods for polymer topological...SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: This Advances in Olefin Polymerization Catalysis symposium was held at the 247th ACS National Meeting and Exposition...March 19, 2014 in Dallas, Texas and consisted of twelve (12) invited/contributed talks. The hosting ACS division was the Division of Catalysis Science

  11. In-Service Aircraft Engine System Life Monitor Using Advanced Life-Estimating Technique Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — It is proposed to develop an accurate in-service aircraft engine life monitor system for the prediction of remaining component and system life for aircraft engines....

  12. Recent advances in chemical evolution and the origins of life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oro, John; Lazcano, Antonio

    1992-01-01

    Consideration is given to the ideas of Oparin and Haldane who independently suggested more than 60 years ago that the first forms of life were anaerobic, heterotrophic bacteria that emerged as the result of a long period of chemical abiotic synthesis of organic compounds. It is suggested that at least some requirements for life are met in the Galaxy due to the cosmic abundance of carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, and other biogenic elements; the existence of extraterrestrial organic compounds; and the processes of stellar and interstellar planetary formation.

  13. Circles of care: development and initial evaluation of a peer support model for African Americans with advanced cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Laura C; Armstrong, Tonya D; Green, Melissa A; Hayes, Michelle; Peacock, Stacie; Elliot-Bynum, Sharon; Goldmon, Moses V; Corbie-Smith, Giselle; Earp, Jo Anne

    2013-10-01

    Peer support interventions extend care and health information to underserved populations yet rarely address serious illness. Investigators from a well-defined academic-community partnership developed and evaluated a peer support intervention for African Americans facing advanced cancer. Evaluation methods used the Reach, Efficacy, Adoption, Implementation, Maintenance (RE-AIM) framework. Investigators initially recruited and trained 24 lay health advisors who shared information or support with 210 individuals. However, lay advisors reported barriers of medical privacy and lack of confidence working alone with people with cancer. Training was modified to match the support team model for peer support; training reached 193 volunteers, 104 of whom formed support teams for 47 persons with serious illness. Support teams were adopted by 23 community organizations, including 11 African American churches. Volunteers in teams felt prepared to implement many aspects of supportive care such as practical support (32%) or help with cancer or palliative care resources (43%). People with serious illness requested help with practical, emotional, spiritual, and quality of life needs; however, they rarely wanted advocacy (3%) or cancer or palliative care resources (5%) from support teams. Volunteers had difficulty limiting outreach to people with advanced cancer due to medical privacy concerns and awareness that others could benefit. Support teams are a promising model of peer support for African Americans facing advanced cancer and serious illness, with reach, adoption, and implementation superior to the lay advisor model. This formative initial evaluation provides evidence for feasibility and acceptance. Further research should examine the efficacy and potential for maintenance of this intervention.

  14. Extravehicular Activity Suit/Portable Life Support System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of this project is to mature technologies and systems that will enable future Extravehicular Activity (EVA) systems. Advanced EVA systems have...

  15. Advanced catalyst supports for PEM fuel cell cathodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du, Lei; Shao, Yuyan; Sun, Junming; Yin, Geping; Liu, Jun; Wang, Yong

    2016-11-01

    Electrocatalyst support materials are key components for polymer exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells, which play a critical role in determining electrocatalyst durability and activity, mass transfer and water management. The commonly-used supports, e.g. porous carbon black, cannot meet all the requirements under the harsh operation condition of PEM fuel cells. Great efforts have been made in the last few years in developing alternative support materials. In this paper, we selectively review recent progress on three types of important support materials: carbon, non-carbon and hybrid carbon-oxides nanocomposites. A perspective on future R&D of electrocatalyst support materials is also provided.

  16. Plants survive rapid decompression: Implications for bioregenerative life support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, R. M.; Wehkamp, C. A.; Stasiak, M. A.; Dixon, M. A.; Rygalov, V. Y.

    2011-05-01

    Radish (Raphanus sativus), lettuce (Latuca sativa), and wheat (Triticum aestivum) plants were grown at either 98 kPa (ambient) or 33 kPa atmospheric pressure with constant 21 kPa oxygen and 0.12 kPa carbon dioxide in atmospherically closed pressure chambers. All plants were grown rockwool using recirculating hydroponics with a complete nutrient solution. At 20 days after planting, chamber pressures were pumped down as rapidly as possible, reaching 5 kPa after about 5 min and ˜1.5 kPa after about 10 min. The plants were held at 1.5 kPa for 30 min and then pressures were restored to their original settings. Temperature (22 °C) and humidity (65% RH) controls were engaged throughout the depressurization, although temperatures dropped to near 16 °C for a brief period. CO2 and O2 were not detectable at the low pressure, suggesting that most of the 1.5 kPa atmosphere consisted of water vapor. Following re-pressurization, plants were grown for another 7 days at the original pressures and then harvested. The lettuce, radish, and wheat plants showed no visible effects from the rapid decompression, and there were no differences in fresh or dry mass when compared to control plants maintained continuously at 33 or 98 kPa. But radish storage root fresh mass and lettuce head fresh and dry masses were less at 33 kPa compared to 98 kPa for both the controls and decompression treatment. The results suggest that plants are extremely resilient to rapid decompression, provided they do not freeze (from evaporative cooling) or desiccate. The water of the hydroponic system was below the boiling pressure during these tests and this may have protected the plants by preventing pressures from dropping below 1.5 kPa and maintaining humidity near 1.5 kPa. Further testing is needed to determine how long plants can withstand such low pressure, but the results suggest there are at least 30 min to respond to catastrophic pressure losses in a plant production chamber that might be used for life

  17. Life Support and Environmental Monitoring International System Maturation Team Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Molly; Gatens, Robyn; Ikeda, Toshitami; Ito, Tsuyoshi; Hovland, Scott; Witt, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    Human exploration of the solar system is an ambitious goal. Future human missions to Mars or other planets will require the cooperation of many nations to be feasible. Exploration goals and concepts have been gathered by the International Space Exploration Coordination Group (ISECG) at a very high level, representing the overall goals and strategies of each participating space agency. The Global Exploration Roadmap published by ISECG states that international partnerships are part of what drives the mission scenarios. It states "Collaborations will be established at all levels (missions, capabilities, technologies), with various levels of interdependency among the partners." To make missions with interdependency successful, technologists and system experts need to share information early, before agencies have made concrete plans and binding agreements. This paper provides an overview of possible ways of integrating NASA, ESA, and JAXA work into a conceptual roadmap of life support and environmental monitoring capabilities for future exploration missions. Agencies may have immediate plans as well as long term goals or new ideas that are not part of official policy. But relationships between plans and capabilities may influence the strategies for the best ways to achieve partner goals. Without commitments and an organized program like the International Space Station, requirements for future missions are unclear. Experience from ISS has shown that standards and an early understanding of requirements are an important part of international partnerships. Attempting to integrate systems that were not designed together can create many problems. Several areas have been identified that could be important to discuss and understand early: units of measure, cabin CO2 levels, and the definition and description of fluids like high purity oxygen, potable water and residual biocide, and crew urine and urine pretreat. Each of the partners is exploring different kinds of technologies

  18. The perspective crops for the bioregenerative human life support systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polonskiy, Vadim; Polonskaya, Janna

    The perspective crops for the bioregenerative human life support systems V.I. Polonskiy, J.E. Polonskaya aKrasnoyarsk State Agrarian University, 660049, Krasnoyarsk, Russia In the nearest future the space missions will be too long. In this case it is necessary to provide the crew by vitamins, antioxidants, and water-soluble dietary fibers. These compounds will be produced by higher plants. There was not enough attention at present to increasing content of micronutrients in edible parts of crops candidates for CELSS. We suggested to add the new crops to this list. 1. Barley -is the best crop for including to food crops (wheat, rice, soybean). Many of the health effects of barley are connected to dietary fibers beta-glucan of barley grains. Bar-ley is the only seed from cereals including wheat with content of all eight tocopherols (vitamin E, important antioxidant). Barley grains contain much greater amounts of phenolic compounds (potential antioxidant activities) than other cereal grains. Considerable focus is on supplement-ing wheat-based breads with barley to introduce the inherent nutritional advantages of barley flour, currently only 20We have selected and tested during 5 generations two high productive barley lines -1-K-O and 25-K-O. Our investigations (special breeding program for improving grain quality of barley) are in progress. 2. Volatile crops. Young leaves and shoots of these crops are edible and have a piquant taste. A lot of organic volatile compounds, oils, vitamins, antioxidants are in their biomass. These micronutrients are useful for good appetite and health of the crew. We have investigated 11 species: basil (Ocimum basilicum), hyssop (Hyssopus officinalis), marjoram (Origanum majorana), sweet-Mary (Melissa officinalis), common thyme (Thymus vulgaris), creeping thyme (Thymus serpyllum), summer savory (Satureja hortensis), catnip (Nepeta cataria), rue (Ruta graveolens), coriander (Coriandrum Ativum), sulfurwort (Levisticum officinale). These

  19. Advancing life cycle economics in the Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugbølle, Kim; Hansen, Ernst Jan de Place

    2005-01-01

    that the configuration of the roles as client, owner and user is indicative of a client's interest in life cycle economics. Second, a proposal for a common Nordic cost classification was put forward. Third, it was argued that there is a strong need to develop tools and methodologies to depict the cost/value ratio...

  20. Life prediction of advanced materials for gas turbine application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zamrik, S.Y.; Ray, A.; Koss, D.A.

    1995-12-31

    Emphasis is placed on life characterization based on low cycle fatigue under isothermal conditions and thermomechanical fatigue. Microstructure of failed coated and uncoated specimens is being analyzed. IN 738 LC is the material; the coating is either overlay (NiCoCrAly) or NiAl-based aluminide.

  1. Human cardiac extracellular matrix supports myocardial lineage commitment of pluripotent stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oberwallner, Barbara; Brodarac, Andreja; Anić, Petra;

    2015-01-01

    lysis buffer, sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) and foetal bovine serum (FBS). Murine embryonic stem cells (ESCs), induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) and mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) were seeded and grown in standard culture, on cECM or on non-specific ECM preparations (Matrigel® or Geltrex®). Cell......OBJECTIVES: Cross-talk between organ-specific extracellular matrix (ECM) and stem cells is often assumed but has not been directly demonstrated. We developed a protocol for the preparation of human cardiac ECM (cECM) and studied whether cECM has effects on pluripotent stem cell differentiation...... that may be useful for future cardiac regeneration strategies in patients with end-stage heart failure. METHODS: Of note, 0.3 mm-thick cECM slices were prepared from samples of myocardium from patients with end-stage non-ischaemic dilated cardiomyopathy, using a three-step protocol involving hypotonic...

  2. Nanostructured Humidity Sensor for Spacecraft Life Support Systems Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Humidity is a critical variable for monitoring and control on extended duration missions because it can affect the operation and efficiency of closed loop life...

  3. Space Suit Portable Life Support System (PLSS) 2.0 Pre-Installation Acceptance (PIA) Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anchondo, Ian; Cox, Marlon; Meginnis, Carly; Westheimer, David; Vogel, Matt R.

    2016-01-01

    Following successful completion of the space suit Portable Life Support System (PLSS) 1.0 development and testing in 2011, the second system-level prototype, PLSS 2.0, was developed in 2012 to continue the maturation of the advanced PLSS design. This advanced PLSS is intended to reduce consumables, improve reliability and robustness, and incorporate additional sensing and functional capabilities over the current Space Shuttle/International Space Station Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) PLSS. PLSS 2.0 represents the first attempt at a packaged design comprising first generation or later component prototypes and medium fidelity interfaces within a flight-like representative volume. Pre-Installation Acceptance (PIA) is carryover terminology from the Space Shuttle Program referring to the series of test sequences used to verify functionality of the EMU PLSS prior to installation into the Space Shuttle airlock for launch. As applied to the PLSS 2.0 development and testing effort, PIA testing designated the series of 27 independent test sequences devised to verify component and subsystem functionality, perform in situ instrument calibrations, generate mapping data, define set-points, evaluate control algorithms, evaluate hardware performance against advanced PLSS design requirements, and provide quantitative and qualitative feedback on evolving design requirements and performance specifications. PLSS 2.0 PIA testing was carried out in 2013 and 2014 using a variety of test configurations to perform test sequences that ranged from stand-alone component testing to system-level testing, with evaluations becoming increasingly integrated as the test series progressed. Each of the 27 test sequences was vetted independently, with verification of basic functionality required before completion. Because PLSS 2.0 design requirements were evolving concurrently with PLSS 2.0 PIA testing, the requirements were used as guidelines to assess performance during the tests; after the

  4. The role of interpersonal sensitivity, social support, and quality of life in rural older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wedgeworth, Monika; LaRocca, Michael A; Chaplin, William F; Scogin, Forrest

    The mental health of elderly individuals in rural areas is increasingly relevant as populations age and social structures change. While social support satisfaction is a well-established predictor of quality of life, interpersonal sensitivity symptoms may diminish this relation. The current study extends the findings of Scogin et al by investigating the relationship among interpersonal sensitivity, social support satisfaction, and quality of life among rural older adults and exploring the mediating role of social support in the relation between interpersonal sensitivity and quality of life (N = 128). Hierarchical regression revealed that interpersonal sensitivity and social support satisfaction predicted quality of life. In addition, bootstrapping resampling supported the role of social support satisfaction as a mediator between interpersonal sensitivity symptoms and quality of life. These results underscore the importance of nurses and allied health providers in assessing and attending to negative self-perceptions of clients, as well as the perceived quality of their social networks.

  5. Advanced glycation end products accelerate ischemia/reperfusion injury through receptor of advanced end product/nitrative thioredoxin inactivation in cardiac microvascular endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yi; Ma, Yanzhuo; Wang, Rutao; Xia, Chenhai; Zhang, Rongqing; Lian, Kun; Luan, Ronghua; Sun, Lu; Yang, Lu; Lau, Wayne B; Wang, Haichang; Tao, Ling

    2011-10-01

    The advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are associated with increased cardiac endothelial injury. However, no causative link has been established between increased AGEs and enhanced endothelial injury after ischemia/reperfusion. More importantly, the molecular mechanisms by which AGEs may increase endothelial injury remain unknown. Adult rat cardiac microvascular endothelial cells (CMECs) were isolated and incubated with AGE-modified bovine serum albumin (BSA) or BSA. After AGE-BSA or BSA preculture, CMECs were subjected to simulated ischemia (SI)/reperfusion (R). AGE-BSA increased SI/R injury as evidenced by enhanced lactate dehydrogenase release and caspase-3 activity. Moreover, AGE-BSA significantly increased SI/R-induced oxidative/nitrative stress in CMECs (as measured by increased inducible nitric oxide synthase expression, total nitric oxide production, superoxide generation, and peroxynitrite formation) and increased SI/R-induced nitrative inactivation of thioredoxin-1 (Trx-1), an essential cytoprotective molecule. Supplementation of EUK134 (peroxynitrite decomposition catalyst), human Trx-1, or soluble receptor of advanced end product (sRAGE) (a RAGE decoy) in AGE-BSA precultured cells attenuated SI/R-induced oxidative/nitrative stress, reduced SI/R-induced Trx-1 nitration, preserved Trx-1 activity, and reduced SI/R injury. Our results demonstrated that AGEs may increase SI/R-induced endothelial injury by increasing oxidative/nitrative injury and subsequent nitrative inactivation of Trx-1. Interventions blocking RAGE signaling or restoring Trx activity may be novel therapies to mitigate endothelial ischemia/reperfusion injury in the diabetic population.

  6. Life prediction of advanced materials for gas turbine application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zamrik, S.Y.; Ray, A.; Koss, D.A. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)

    1995-10-01

    Most of the studies on the low cycle fatigue life prediction have been reported under isothermal conditions where the deformation of the material is strain dependent. In the development of gas turbines, components such as blades and vanes are exposed to temperature variations in addition to strain cycling. As a result, the deformation process becomes temperature and strain dependent. Therefore, the life of the component becomes sensitive to temperature-strain cycling which produces a process known as {open_quotes}thermomechanical fatigue, or TMF{close_quotes}. The TMF fatigue failure phenomenon has been modeled using conventional fatigue life prediction methods, which are not sufficiently accurate to quantitatively establish an allowable design procedure. To add to the complexity of TMF life prediction, blade and vane substrates are normally coated with aluminide, overlay or thermal barrier type coatings (TBC) where the durability of the component is dominated by the coating/substrate constitutive response and by the fatigue behavior of the coating. A number of issues arise from TMF depending on the type of temperature/strain phase cycle: (1) time-dependent inelastic behavior can significantly affect the stress response. For example, creep relaxation during a tensile or compressive loading at elevated temperatures leads to a progressive increase in the mean stress level under cyclic loading. (2) the mismatch in elastic and thermal expansion properties between the coating and the substrate can lead to significant deviations in the coating stress levels due to changes in the elastic modulii. (3) the {open_quotes}dry{close_quotes} corrosion resistance coatings applied to the substrate may act as primary crack initiation sites. Crack initiation in the coating is a function of the coating composition, its mechanical properties, creep relaxation behavior, thermal strain range and the strain/temperature phase relationship.

  7. Sweetpotato vine management for confined food production in a space life-support system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massa, Gioia D.; Mitchell, Cary A.

    2012-01-01

    Sweetpotato (Ipomea batatas L.) 'Whatley-Loretan' was developed for space life support by researchers at Tuskegee University for its highly productive, nutritious storage roots. This promising candidate space life-support crop has a sprawling habit and aggressive growth rate in favorable environments that demands substantial growing area. Shoot pruning is not a viable option for vine control because removal of the main shoot apex drastically inhibits storage-root initiation and development, and chemical growth retardants typically are not cleared for use with food crops. As part of a large effort by the NASA Specialized Center of Research and Training in Advanced Life Support to reduce equivalent system mass (ESM) for food production in space, the dilemma of vine management for sweetpotato was addressed in effort to conserve growth area without compromising root yield. Root yields from unbranched vines trained spirally around wire frames configured either in the shapes of cones or cylinders were similar to those from vines trained horizontally along the bench, but occupying only a small fraction of the bench area. This finding indicates that sweetpotato is highly adaptable to a variety of vine-training architectures. Planting a second plant in the growth container and training the two vines in opposite directions around frames enhanced root yield and number, but had little effect on average length of each vine or bench area occupied. Once again, root yields were similar for both configurations of wire support frames. The 3-4-month crop-production cycles for sweetpotato in the greenhouse spanned all seasons of multiple years during the course of the study, and although electric lighting was used for photoperiod control and to supplement photosynthetic light during low-light seasons, there still were differences in total light available across seasons. Light variations and other environmental differences among experiments in the greenhouse had more effects on vine

  8. Advanced Supported Liquid Membranes for Carbon Dioxide Control in Cabin Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickham, David T.; Gleason, Kevin J.; Engel, Jeffrey R.; Chullen, Cinda

    2016-01-01

    The development of new, robust, life support systems is critical to NASA's continued progress in space exploration. One vital function is maintaining the carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration in the cabin at levels that do not impair the health or performance of the crew. The CO2 removal assembly (CDRA) is the current CO2 control technology on-board the International Space Station (ISS). Although the CDRA has met the needs of the ISS to date, the repeated cycling of the molecular sieve sorbent causes it to break down into small particles that clog filters or generate dust in the cabin. This reduces reliability and increases maintenance requirements. Another approach that has potential advantages over the current system is a membrane that separates CO2 from air. In this approach, cabin air contacts one side of the membrane while other side of the membrane is maintained at low pressure to create a driving force for CO2 transport across the membrane. In this application, the primary power requirement is for the pump that creates the low pressure and then pumps the CO2 to the oxygen recovery system. For such a membrane to be practical, it must have high CO2 permeation rate and excellent selectivity for CO2 over air. Unfortunately, conventional gas separation membranes do not have adequate CO2 permeability and selectivity to meet the needs of this application. However, the required performance could be obtained with a supported liquid membrane (SLM), which consists of a microporous material filled with a liquid that selectively reacts with CO2 over air. In a recently completed Phase II SBIR project, Reaction Systems, Inc. fabricated an SLM that is very close to meeting permeability and selectivity objectives for use in the advanced space suit portable life support system. This paper describes work carried out to evaluate its potential for use in spacecraft cabin application.

  9. Hydroponic cultivation of soybean for Bioregenerative Life Support Systems (BLSSs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Pascale, Stefania; De Micco, Veronica; Aronne, Giovanna; Paradiso, Roberta

    For long time our research group has been involved in experiments aiming to evaluate the possibility to cultivate plants in Space to regenerate resources and produce food. Apart from investigating the response of specific growth processes (at morpho-functional levels) to space factors (namely microgravity and ionising radiation), wide attention has been dedicated to agro-technologies applied to ecologically closed systems. Based on technical and human dietary requirements, soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] is studied as one of the candidate species for hydroponic (soilless) cultivation in the research program MELiSSA (Micro-Ecological Life Support System Alternative) of the European Space Agency (ESA). Soybean seeds show high nutritional value, due to the relevant content of protein, lipids, dietary fiber and biologically active substances such as isoflavones. They can produce fresh sprouts or be transformed in several edible products (soymilk and okara or soy pulp). Soybean is traditionally grown in open field where specific interactions with soil microrganisms occur. Most available information on plant growth, seed productivity and nutrient composition relate to cultivated varieties (cultivars) selected for soil cultivation. However, in a space outpost, plant cultivation would rely on soilless systems. Given that plant growth, seed yield and quality strictly depend on the environmental conditions, to make successful the cultivation of soybean in space, it was necessary to screen all agronomic information according to space constraints. Indeed, selected cultivars have to comply with the space growth environment while providing a suitable nutritional quality to fulfill the astronauts needs. We proposed an objective criterion for the preliminary theoretical selection of the most suitable cultivars for seed production, which were subsequently evaluated in bench tests in hydroponics. Several Space-oriented experiments were carried out in a closed growth chamber to

  10. Developing Anticipatory Life Cycle Assessment Tools to Support Responsible Innovation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wender, Benjamin

    Several prominent research strategy organizations recommend applying life cycle assessment (LCA) early in the development of emerging technologies. For example, the US Environmental Protection Agency, the National Research Council, the Department of Energy, and the National Nanotechnology Initiative identify the potential for LCA to inform research and development (R&D) of photovoltaics and products containing engineered nanomaterials (ENMs). In this capacity, application of LCA to emerging technologies may contribute to the growing movement for responsible research and innovation (RRI). However, existing LCA practices are largely retrospective and ill-suited to support the objectives of RRI. For example, barriers related to data availability, rapid technology change, and isolation of environmental from technical research inhibit application of LCA to developing technologies. This dissertation focuses on development of anticipatory LCA tools that incorporate elements of technology forecasting, provide robust explorations of uncertainty, and engage diverse innovation actors in overcoming retrospective approaches to environmental assessment and improvement of emerging technologies. Chapter one contextualizes current LCA practices within the growing literature articulating RRI and identifies the optimal place in the stage gate innovation model to apply LCA. Chapter one concludes with a call to develop anticipatory LCA---building on the theory of anticipatory governance---as a series of methodological improvements that seek to align LCA practices with the objectives of RRI. Chapter two provides a framework for anticipatory LCA, identifies where research from multiple disciplines informs LCA practice, and builds off the recommendations presented in the preceding chapter. Chapter two focuses on crystalline and thin film photovoltaics (PV) to illustrate the novel framework, in part because PV is an environmentally motivated technology undergoing extensive R&D efforts and

  11. Modeling snail breeding in Bioregenerative Life Support System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalev, Vladimir; Tikhomirov, Alexander A.; Nickolay Manukovsky, D..

    It is known that snail meat is a high quality food that is rich in protein. Hence, heliciculture or land snail farming spreads worldwide because it is a profitable business. The possibility to use the snails of Helix pomatia in Biological Life Support System (BLSS) was studied by Japanese Researches. In that study land snails were considered to be producers of animal protein. Also, snail breeding was an important part of waste processing, because snails were capable to eat the inedible plant biomass. As opposed to the agricultural snail farming, heliciculture in BLSS should be more carefully planned. The purpose of our work was to develop a model for snail breeding in BLSS that can predict mass flow rates in and out of snail facility. There are three linked parts in the model called “Stoichiometry”, “Population” and “Mass balance”, which are used in turn. Snail population is divided into 12 age groups from oviposition to one year. In the submodel “Stoichiometry” the individual snail growth and metabolism in each of 12 age groups are described with stoichiometry equations. Reactants are written on the left side of the equations, while products are written on the right side. Stoichiometry formulas of reactants and products consist of four chemical elements: C, H, O, N. The reactants are feed and oxygen, products are carbon dioxide, metabolic water, snail meat, shell, feces, slime and eggs. If formulas of substances in the stoichiometry equations are substituted with their molar masses, then stoichiometry equations are transformed to the equations of molar mass balance. To get the real mass balance of individual snail growth and metabolism one should multiply the value of each molar mass in the equations on the scale parameter, which is the ratio between mass of monthly consumed feed and molar mass of feed. Mass of monthly consumed feed and stoichiometry coefficients of formulas of meat, shell, feces, slime and eggs should be determined experimentally

  12. Globular Clusters as Cradles of Life and Advanced Civilizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Stefano, R.; Ray, A.

    2016-08-01

    Globular clusters are ancient stellar populations in compact dense ellipsoids. There is no star formation and there are no core-collapse supernovae, but several lines of evidence suggest that globular clusters are rich in planets. If so, and if advanced civilizations can develop there, then the distances between these civilizations and other stars would be far smaller than typical distances between stars in the Galactic disk, facilitating interstellar communication and travel. The potent combination of long-term stability and high stellar densities provides a globular cluster opportunity. Yet the very proximity that promotes interstellar travel also brings danger, as stellar interactions can destroy planetary systems. We find, however, that large portions of many globular clusters are “sweet spots,” where habitable-zone planetary orbits are stable for long times. Globular clusters in our own and other galaxies are, therefore, among the best targets for searches for extraterrestrial intelligence (SETI). We use the Drake equation to compare the likelihood of advanced civilizations in globular clusters to that in the Galactic disk. We also consider free-floating planets, since wide-orbit planets can be ejected to travel through the cluster. Civilizations spawned in globular clusters may be able to establish self-sustaining outposts, reducing the probability that a single catastrophic event will destroy the civilization. Although individual civilizations may follow different evolutionary paths, or even be destroyed, the cluster may continue to host advanced civilizations once a small number have jumped across interstellar space. Civilizations residing in globular clusters could therefore, in a sense, be immortal.

  13. Time, Interaction, and Design in Support of a Good Life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Froes, Isabel Cristina G.; Laaksolahti, Jarmo Matti; Witzner Hansen, Dan

    This position paper outlines a research program for the IxD Research Group at the IT University of Copenhagen. As such, it presents a range of questions addressing different corners of the question of time in IxD from the point of view of HCI, social interaction, material expressions, and software...... development. Our ongoing investigation of Interaction Design for a Good Life (http://itu.dk/IxDLab/) has uncovered a broad diversity of perspectives on how to unpack ‘a good life’ through research and design, and indeed what constitutes a good life to begin with. Through our investigations, time has surfaced...... as pivotal to our budding understanding of elements of a good life and a useful framing for future investigations. Time is also an important topic for interaction design, because it is at the core of interaction, the practice of design, and, in many ways, our use and relationships with technological...

  14. Life cycle assessment of advanced waste water treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Henrik Fred; Hansen, Peter Augusto

    The EU FP6 NEPTUNE project is related to the EU Water Framework Directive and the main goal is to develop new and optimize existing waste water treatment technologies (WWTT) and sludge handling methods for municipal waste water. Besides nutrients, a special focus area is micropollutants (e....... In total more that 20 different waste water and sludge treatment technologies are to be assessed. This paper will present the preliminary LCA results from running the induced versus avoided impact approach (mainly based on existing LCIA methodology) on one of the advanced treatment technologies, i...

  15. An Exploratory Study of Life-Change Events, Social Support and Pregnancy Decisions in Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Mary L.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Examined influences on decisions regarding pregnancy outcome in 43 adolescents who completed the Adolescent Life Change Event Questionnaire and the Social Support Questionnaire. Those continuing the pregnancy (N=30) had higher life event change scores, lower social support scores, and more personal and family problems. (JAC)

  16. First-Generation Undergraduate Students' Social Support, Depression, and Life Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Sharon Rae; Belanger, Aimee; Connally, Melissa Londono; Boals, Adriel; Duron, Kelly M.

    2013-01-01

    First-generation undergraduate students face challenging cross-socioeconomic cultural transitions into college life. The authors compared first- and non-first-generation undergraduate students' social support, posttraumatic stress, depression symptoms, and life satisfaction. First-generation participants reported less social support from family…

  17. First-Generation Undergraduate Students' Social Support, Depression, and Life Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Sharon Rae; Belanger, Aimee; Connally, Melissa Londono; Boals, Adriel; Duron, Kelly M.

    2013-01-01

    First-generation undergraduate students face challenging cross-socioeconomic cultural transitions into college life. The authors compared first- and non-first-generation undergraduate students' social support, posttraumatic stress, depression symptoms, and life satisfaction. First-generation participants reported less social support from…

  18. Social Support and Optimism as Predictors of Life Satisfaction of College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalcin, Ilhan

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the predictive value of optimism, perceived support from family and perceived support from faculty in determining life satisfaction of college students in Turkey. One hundred and thirty three students completed the Satisfaction with Life Scale (Diener et al., Journal of Personality Assessment…

  19. Arab Youth in Canada: Acculturation, Enculturation, Social Support, and Life Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterson, Ashley D.; Hakim-Larson, Julie

    2012-01-01

    Results from 98 Arab youth in Canada showed that having a positive Arab culture orientation was related to greater family life satisfaction with family social support as a mediator. A positive European Canadian orientation was related to greater school life satisfaction, but this relation was not mediated by friend social support. Implications for…

  20. Successful outsourcing: improving quality of life through integrated support services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Jason; Sharratt, Martin; King, John

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the way that non-clinical support services are provided in healthcare settings through outsourcing partnerships. The integrated support services model and benefits to patient experience and safety as well as organizational efficiency and effectiveness are explored through an examination of services at a busy urban community hospital.

  1. Recent Advances in the Development of Polymer-supported Phosphines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Patrick H. Toy; Helen Song He; Cathy Kar-Wing Kwong

    2005-01-01

    @@ 1Introduction Recent years have seen a growing use of polymer-supported reagents by organic chemists in traditional so lution-phase synthesis. Of the many reagents supported by polymers available, variations of triphenylphosphine are among the most broadly used. This is because triphenylphosphine is not only a reagent in a wide range of organic reactions[1], but it also serves as a ligand in many organometallic reagents[2]. Most importantly, poly mer-supported triphenylphosphine affords the great advantage that the byproduct of most reactions involving it, triphenylphosphine oxide, can be easily removed.

  2. Fire fighters as basic life support responders: A study of successful implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christensen Erika

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background First responders are recommended as a supplement to the Emergency Medical Services (EMS in order to achieve early defibrillation. Practical and organisational aspects are essential when trying to implement new parts in the "Chain of Survival"; areas to address include minimizing dispatch time, ensuring efficient and quick communication, and choosing areas with appropriate driving distances. The aim of this study was to implement a system using Basic Life Support (BLS responders equipped with an automatic external defibrillator in an area with relatively short emergency medical services' response times. Success criteria for implementation was defined as arrival of the BLS responders before the EMS, attachment (and use of the AED, and successful defibrillation. Methods This was a prospective observational study from September 1, 2005 to December 31, 2007 (28 months in the city of Aarhus, Denmark. The BLS responder system was implemented in an area up to three kilometres (driving distance from the central fire station, encompassing approximately 81,500 inhabitants. The team trained on each shift and response times were reduced by choice of area and by sending the alarm directly to the fire brigade dispatcher. Results The BLS responders had 1076 patient contacts. The median response time was 3.5 minutes (25th percentile 2.75, 75th percentile 4.25. The BLS responders arrived before EMS in 789 of the 1076 patient contacts (73%. Cardiac arrest was diagnosed in 53 cases, the AED was attached in 29 cases, and a shockable rhythm was detected in nine cases. Eight were defibrillated using an AED. Seven of the eight obtained return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC. Six of the seven obtaining ROSC survived more than 30 days. Conclusion In this study, the implementation of BLS responders may have resulted in successful resuscitations. On basis of the close corporation between all participants in the chain of survival this project

  3. The Controlled Ecological Life Support System Antarctic Analog Project: Prototype Crop Production and Water Treatment System Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bubenheim, David L.; Flynn, Michael T.; Bates, Maynard; Schlick, Greg; Kliss, Mark (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    The Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) Antarctic Analog Project (CAAP), is a joint endeavor between the National Science Foundation, Office of Polar Programs (NSF-OPP) and the NASA. The fundamental objective is to develop, deploy, and operate a testbed of advanced life support technologies at the Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station that enable the objectives of both the NSF and NASA. The functions of food production, water purification, and waste treatment, recycle and reduction provided by CAAP will improve the quality of life for the South Pole inhabitants, reduce logistics dependence, enhance safety and minimize environmental impacts associated with human presence on the polar plateau. Because of the analogous technical, scientific, and mission features with Planetary missions such as a mission to Mars, CAAP provides NASA with a method for validating technologies and overall approaches to supporting humans. Prototype systems for sewage treatment, water recycle and crop production are being evaluated at Ames Research Center. The product water from sewage treatment using a Wiped-Film Rotating Disk is suitable for input to the crop production system. The crop production system has provided an enhanced level of performance compared with projected performance for plant-based life support: an approximate 50% increase in productivity per unit area, more than a 65% decrease in power for plant lighting, and more than a 75% decrease in the total power requirement to produce an equivalent mass of edible biomass.

  4. European top managers' support for work-life arrangements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Been, W.M.

    2015-01-01

    In recent decades, work-life arrangements increasingly became an integral part of the organization of work. Arrangements such as telecommuting, flextime, part-time hours, and various types of leave arrangements are available to employees in many organizations. Top managers, such as CEOs, CFOs and me

  5. Relationships among the perceived health status, family support and life satisfaction of older Korean adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sook-Young; Sok, Sohyune R

    2012-08-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the perceived health status, family support and life satisfaction of older Korean adults and the relationships among them. This study was designed to be a descriptive correlation study using questionnaire. Subjects were 246 older people who were over 65 years of age in Seoul and Daegu metropolitan city, Korea. Measures were the Cornell Medical Index-Simple Korean Form to measure the perceived health status, the Family Support Instrument to measure the family support and the Standard Life Satisfaction Instrument for Korean people to measure the life satisfaction. Perceived health state was worse as average 3.3, family support was good as average 3.4 and life satisfaction was low as average 3.1. There were statistically significant positive correlations among perceived health state, family support and life satisfaction and between family support and life satisfaction. The predictors of life satisfaction in elderly were family support, age, monthly allowance and perceived health state. These factors explained 37.5% of the total variance. The major influencing factor was family support. This cross-sectional study provides preliminary evidence that to develop nursing strategy to increase family support of older Korean adults is needed.

  6. Advances in Ceramic Supports for Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oran Lori

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Durability of catalyst supports is a technical barrier for both stationary and transportation applications of polymer-electrolyte-membrane fuel cells. New classes of non-carbon-based materials were developed in order to overcome the current limitations of the state-of-the-art carbon supports. Some of these materials are designed and tested to exceed the US DOE lifetime goals of 5000 or 40,000 hrs for transportation and stationary applications, respectively. In addition to their increased durability, the interactions between some new support materials and metal catalysts such as Pt result in increased catalyst activity. In this review, we will cover the latest studies conducted with ceramic supports based on carbides, oxides, nitrides, borides, and some composite materials.

  7. Neurologic function and health-related quality of life in patients following targeted temperature management at 33°C vs 36°C after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cronberg, Tobias; Lilja, Gisela; Horn, Janneke;

    2015-01-01

    Importance: Brain injury affects neurologic function and quality of life in survivors after cardiac arrest. Objective: To compare the effects of 2 target temperature regimens on long-term cognitive function and quality of life after cardiac arrest. Design, Setting, and Participants: In this multi...

  8. Advanced Naval Surface fire support weapon employment against mobile targets

    OpenAIRE

    Le, Hung B.

    1999-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited Key threat trends have identified shortfalls in Naval Surface Fire Support (NSFS), a mission area that is undergoing rapid evolution. The Navy's ability to effectively provide sea-based fire support to ground forces is profoundly challenged by mobile and reduced dwell time targets. Furthermore, longer range enemy weapon systems, which must be destroyed at greater ranges prior to their engagement of friendly forces, will make NSFS timel...

  9. Social support in later life: family, friends and community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Josefina Arias

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to carry out an analysis of the importance of social support and participation in old age. Contributions are presented first that various international agencies concerned with old age and aging have been made to strengthen this support and increased participation of older people. Different sources of social support are described: formal and informal interventions that can be made with varied promotion and preventive-wellness-care objectives and action at various levels-individual, group, family, organizational and community-and is made an analysis of the impact on the well-being have the resources of social support available to older people. Finally we reflect on Certain negative assumptions about the availability of support and social participation of older people in relation to recent research findings on the subject. Problematize the importance of these negative stereotypes about aging in general and on the participation and the availability of social support in particular in order to achieve more supportive environments that promote the development of the potential of older persons is concluded.

  10. "The state of the heart": Recent advances in engineering human cardiac tissue from pluripotent stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirabella, Dario; Cimetta, Elisa; Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana

    2015-08-01

    The pressing need for effective cell therapy for the heart has led to the investigation of suitable cell sources for tissue replacement. In recent years, human pluripotent stem cell research expanded tremendously, in particular since the derivation of human-induced pluripotent stem cells. In parallel, bioengineering technologies have led to novel approaches for in vitro cell culture. The combination of these two fields holds potential for in vitro generation of high-fidelity heart tissue, both for basic research and for therapeutic applications. However, this new multidisciplinary science is still at an early stage. Many questions need to be answered and improvements need to be made before clinical applications become a reality. Here we discuss the current status of human stem cell differentiation into cardiomyocytes and the combined use of bioengineering approaches for cardiac tissue formation and maturation in developmental studies, disease modeling, drug testing, and regenerative medicine.

  11. Life Support Catalyst Regeneration Using Ionic Liquids and In Situ Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abney, Morgan B.; Karr, Laurel; Paley, Mark S.; Donovan, David N.

    2016-01-01

    Oxygen recovery from metabolic carbon dioxide is an enabling capability for long-duration manned space flight. Complete recovery of oxygen (100%) involves the production of solid carbon. Catalytic approaches for this purpose, such as Bosch technology, have been limited in trade analyses due in part to the mass penalty for high catalyst resupply caused by carbon fouling of the iron or nickel catalyst. In an effort to mitigate this challenge, several technology approaches have been proposed. These approaches have included methods to prolong the life of the catalysts by increasing the total carbon mass loading per mass catalyst, methods for simplified catalyst introduction and removal to limit the resupply container mass, methods of using in situ resources, and methods to regenerate catalyst material. Research and development into these methods is ongoing, but only use of in situ resources and/or complete regeneration of catalyst material has the potential to entirely eliminate the need for resupply. The use of ionic liquids provides an opportunity to combine these methods in a technology approach designed to eliminate the need for resupply of oxygen recovery catalyst. Here we describe the results of an initial feasibility study using ionic liquids and in situ resources for life support catalyst regeneration, we discuss the key challenges with the approach, and we propose future efforts to advance the technology.

  12. Globular Clusters as Cradles of Life and Advanced Civilizations

    CERN Document Server

    Di Stefano, R

    2016-01-01

    Globular clusters are ancient stellar populations with no star formation or core-collapse supernovae. Several lines of evidence suggest that globular clusters are rich in planets. If so, and if advanced civilizations can develop there, then the distances between these civilizations and other stars would be far smaller than typical distances between stars in the Galactic disk. The relative proximity would facilitate interstellar communication and travel. However, the very proximity that promotes interstellar travel also brings danger, since stellar interactions can destroy planetary systems. However, by modeling globular clusters and their stellar populations, we find that large regions of many globular clusters can be thought of as "sweet spots" where habitable-zone planetary orbits can be stable for long times. We also compute the ambient densities and fluxes in the regions within which habitable-zone planets can survive. Globular clusters are among the best targets for searches for extraterrestrial intellig...

  13. Parent decision making for life support for extremely premature infants: from the prenatal through end-of-life period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moro, Teresa T; Kavanaugh, Karen; Savage, Teresa A; Reyes, Maria R; Kimura, Robert E; Bhat, Rama

    2011-01-01

    Most deaths of extremely premature infants occur in the perinatal period. Yet, little is known about how parents make life support decisions in such a short period of time. In the paper, how parents make life support decisions for extremely premature infants from the prenatal period through death from the perspectives of parents, nurses, and physicians is described. Five cases, comprised of five mothers, four neonatologists, three nurses, and one neonatal nurse practitioner, are drawn from a larger collective case study. Prenatal, postnatal and end-of-life interviews were conducted, and medical record data were obtained. In an analysis by two research team members, mothers were found to exhibit these characteristics: desire for and actual involvement in life support decisions, weighing pain, suffering and hope in decision making, and wanting everything done for their infants. All mothers received decision making help and support from partners and family, but relationships with providers were also important. Finally, external resources impacted parental decision making in several of the cases. By understanding what factors contribute to parents' decision making, providers may be better equipped to prepare and assist parents when making life support decisions for their extremely premature infants.

  14. Almanac 2013: cardiac arrhythmias and pacing--an editorial overview of selected research that has driven recent advances in clinical cardiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liew, Reginald

    2014-04-01

    Important advances have been made in the past few years in the fields of clinical cardiac electrophysiology and pacing. Researchers and clinicians have a greater understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying atrial fibrillation (AF), which has transpired into improved methods of detection, risk stratification, and treatments. The introduction of novel oral anticoagulants has provided clinicians with alternative options in managing patients with AF at moderate to high thromboembolic risk and further data has been emerging on the use of catheter ablation for the treatment of symptomatic AF. Another area of intense research in the field of cardiac arrhythmias and pacing is in the use of cardiac resynchronisation therapy (CRT) for the treatment of patients with heart failure. Following the publication of major landmark randomised controlled trials reporting that CRT confers a survival advantage in patients with severe heart failure and improves symptoms, many subsequent studies have been performed to further refine the selection of patients for CRT and determine the clinical characteristics associated with a favourable response. The field of sudden cardiac death and implantable cardioverter defibrillators also continues to be actively researched, with important new epidemiological and clinical data emerging on improved methods for patient selection, risk stratification, and management.This review covers the major recent advances in these areas related to cardiac arrhythmias and pacing.

  15. Advanced Turbine Technology Applications Project (ATTAP) and Hybrid Vehicle Turbine Engine Technology Support project (HVTE-TS): Final summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    This final technical report was prepared by Rolls-Royce Allison summarizing the multiyear activities of the Advanced Turbine Technology Applications Project (ATTAP) and the Hybrid Vehicle Turbine Engine Technology Support (HVTE-TS) project. The ATTAP program was initiated in October 1987 and continued through 1993 under sponsorship of the US Department of Energy (DOE), Energy Conservation and Renewable Energy, Office of Transportation Technologies, Propulsion Systems, Advanced Propulsion Division. ATTAP was intended to advance the technological readiness of the automotive ceramic gas turbine engine. The target application was the prime power unit coupled to conventional transmissions and powertrains. During the early 1990s, hybrid electric powered automotive propulsion systems became the focus of development and demonstration efforts by the US auto industry and the Department of energy. Thus in 1994, the original ATTAP technology focus was redirected to meet the needs of advanced gas turbine electric generator sets. As a result, the program was restructured to provide the required hybrid vehicle turbine engine technology support and the project renamed HVTE-TS. The overall objective of the combined ATTAP and HVTE-TS projects was to develop and demonstrate structural ceramic components that have the potential for competitive automotive engine life cycle cost and for operating 3,500 hr in an advanced high temperature turbine engine environment. This report describes materials characterization and ceramic component development, ceramic components, hot gasifier rig testing, test-bed engine testing, combustion development, insulation development, and regenerator system development. 130 figs., 12 tabs.

  16. Cardiac resynchronization therapy for chronic heart failure in China: guideline and practice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUA Wei

    2010-01-01

    @@ The value of cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT)in chronic heart failure has been well recognized around the world. Multi-center clinical trials have confirmed that CRT not only can improve cardiac function and quality of life, but also reduce mortality and improve the prognosis in patients with advanced heart failure and ventricular dyssynchrony.

  17. Quality of Life Is Related to Social Support in Elderly Osteoporosis Patients in a Chinese Population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Ma

    Full Text Available To explore the association between quality of life and social support in elderly osteoporosis patients in a Chinese population.A total of 214 elderly patients who underwent bone mineral density screening were divided into two groups: elderly patients with primary osteoporosis (case group, n = 112 and normal elderly patients (control group, n = 102. Quality of life and social support were compared between the two groups.Quality of life and social support were significantly different between the case and control groups. The physical function, role-physical, bodily pain, general health, vitality, social-functioning, role-emotional and mental health scores in case group were significantly lower than those in the control group (P < 0.01. The objective support, subjective support, utilization of support, and total scores in case group were significantly lower than those in the control group (P < 0.01. Quality of life and social support were positively correlated in the case group (r = 0.672, P < 0.01.Quality of life and social support in elderly patients with osteoporosis in China were poorer than in elderly patients without osteoporosis and were positively correlated. Our findings indicate that increased efforts to improve the social support and quality of life in elderly osteoporosis patients are urgently needed in China. Further longitudinal studies should be conducted to provide more clinical evidence to determine causative factors for the observed association between risk factors and outcomes.

  18. Application of case-simulated teaching combining problem-based learning in teaching of advanced cardiovascular life support%模拟案例结合PBL教学在高级心血管生命支持教学中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方珊娟; 聂绍平; 王春梅

    2016-01-01

    Objective To discuss the result of case-simulated teaching combining problem-based learning (PBL) in teaching of advanced cardiovascular life support (ACLS) for medical students. Methods The medical students of grade 2010 (n=60, male 36 and female 24) were chosen from Sept. 2014 to Jun. 2015. All students were divided into control group and test group (each n=30) and given ACLS training. The traditional teaching method was used in control group and case-simulated teaching combining PBL was used in test group. After the training, the reviews on theory assessment, field simulation assessment and team performance were conducted. Results The theoretical achievements were significantly increased [(87.1±6.3) vs. (78.1±9.9)] and achievements of field simulation assessment were also significantly increased [(84.1±9.5) vs. (73.4±9.1)] in test group compared with control group after the training (all P<0.01). Compared with control group, the performance of leadership and team coordination, verbal information communication and interactive performance monitoring were significantly improved in test group after the training (all P<0.01). Conclusion The method of case-simulated teaching combining PBL can significantly improve the teaching results in ACLS training for medical students.%目的:探讨模拟案例结合以问题为中心的教学法(PBL)在医学生高级心血管生命支持(ACLS)教学中的效果。方法选择2014年9月~2015年6月在北京安贞医院实习的2010级临床医学专业学生60例作为研究对象,男性36例,女性24例。随机分为对照组(30例)和实验组(30例)进行ACLS培训,对照组采用传统的教学法,实验组采用模拟案例结合PBL教学法,培训结束后,进行理论考核、现场模拟考核、团队表现的评估。结果模拟案例结合PBL教学的实验组医学生培训后理论成绩较对照组显著升高[(87.1±6.3)分 vs.(78.1±9.9)分],现场模拟考核

  19. Risco ocupacional em unidades de Suporte Básico e Avançado de Vida em Emergências Riesgo laboral en las Unidades de Soporte Básico y Avanzado de Vida en Emergencia Occupational risk in Basic and Advanced Emergency Life Support Units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda dos Santos Zapparoli

    2006-02-01

    automovilísticos (90% de los trabajadores, agresiones física y moral (90% de los trabajadores y accidentes con material punzante o cortante (72,5% de los trabajadores. 75% de los trabajadores describieron la violencia como factor de riesgo más preocupante en el trabajo efectuado. La mayoría de los trabajadores identificó los riesgos laborales. Sin embargo, una minoría de los trabajadores utiliza medidas adecuadas de seguridad, manifestando la necesidad de intervenciones.This study aimed to identify occupational risk factors the professionals of Basic and Advanced Emergency Life Support are exposed. Semi-structured interview was used. The study subjects were 40 workers who are part of two Emergency Healthcare System teams in a city of São Paulo State-Brazil. Most workers identified the following risk factors: physical (high temperature and environmental noise levels; chemical (manipulating chemical substances; biological (exposure to microorganisms and lack of material available. Typical risks of emergency activities were: risk of car accidents (90% of the workers, physical and moral aggression (90% of the workers and accidents with piercing and cutting material (72,5% of the workers. 75% of the workers described violence as the most worrying risk factor at work. Most of the workers identified the occupational risks. However only a minority of them uses adequate safety measures, which reveals the need for interventions.

  20. Health-Related Quality of Life Among Cancer Survivors Attending Support Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medeiros, Elizabeth A; Castañeda, Sheila F; Gonzalez, Patricia; Rodríguez, Bárbara; Buelna, Christina; West, Demy; Talavera, Gregory A

    2015-09-01

    There is limited research on the relationship between Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and socioeconomic status (SES) among long-term cancer survivors. The goal of this study was to assess Global HRQoL among 102 adult cancer survivors attending support groups in San Diego County and to examine differences by SES and acculturation. Community-based participatory research methods were followed to recruit a purposive sample of English and Spanish-speaking adult cancer survivors attending cancer support groups. Self-report questionnaires assessing age, acculturation (i.e., language), SES (i.e., income and education), cancer history, and Global HRQoL measured by the FACT-G were administered. Multivariate regression examined the relationship between SES and acculturation with HRQoL, adjusting for covariates. Participants were 58.8 years on average (SD = 10.06) and varied in terms of SES. Most participants (91.5 %) were women, 51.7 % were non-Hispanic white, and 48.3 % were Hispanic/Latino. Global HRQoL scores in the study sample were lower compared to previously reported studies. After adjusting for covariates, SES and acculturation were not significantly related to HRQoL. Stage at diagnosis was significantly related to HRQoL measures in adjusted analyses. HRQoL did not vary by SES or acculturation. There is a need to increase access to linguistically and culturally appropriate cancer care and supportive care services. Future studies may find existing support group settings useful for targeting psychosocial issues for more advanced stage cancer survivors.

  1. Beyond advance directives: importance of communication skills at the end of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulsky, James A

    2005-07-20

    Patients and their families struggle with myriad choices concerning medical treatments that frequently precede death. Advance directives have been proposed as a tool to facilitate end-of-life decision making, yet frequently fail to achieve this goal. In the context of the case of a man with metastatic cancer for whom an advance directive was unable to prevent a traumatic death, I review the challenges in creating and implementing advance directives, discuss factors that can affect clear decision making; including trust, uncertainty, emotion, hope, and the presence of multiple medical providers; and offer practical suggestions for physicians. Advance care planning remains a useful tool for approaching conversations with patients about the end of life. However, such planning should occur within a framework that emphasizes responding to patient and family emotions and focuses more on goals for care and less on specific treatments.

  2. The role of advance directives in end-of-life decisions in Austria: survey of intensive care physicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schopper Andrea

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Currently, intensive care medicine strives to define a generally accepted way of dealing with end-of-life decisions, therapy limitation and therapy discontinuation. In 2006 a new advance directive legislation was enacted in Austria. Patients may now document their personal views regarding extension of treatment. The aim of this survey was to explore Austrian intensive care physicians' experiences with and their acceptance of the new advance directive legislation two years after enactment (2008. Methods Under the aegis of the OEGARI (Austrian Society of Anaesthesiology, Resuscitation and Intensive Care an anonymised questionnaire was sent to the medical directors of all intensive care units in Austria. The questions focused on the physicians' experiences regarding advance directives and their level of knowledge about the underlying legislation. Results There were 241 questionnaires sent and 139 were turned, which was a response rate of 58%. About one third of the responders reported having had no experience with advance directives and only 9 directors of intensive care units had dealt with more than 10 advance directives in the previous two years. Life-supporting measures, resuscitation, and mechanical ventilation were the predominantly refused therapies, wishes were mainly expressed concerning pain therapy. Conclusion A response rate of almost 60% proves the great interest of intensive care professionals in making patient-oriented end-of-life decisions. However, as long as patients do not make use of their right of co-determination, the enactment of the new law can be considered only a first important step forward.

  3. Effects of subdiaphragmatic cardiac compression on cardiac arrest during liver transplantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Li-xiang; JI Zhi-xin; LIU Ya-hua; ZHOU Man-hong; SHI Hong-zhi; GUO Xiao-dong; SUN Kun; MA Li-zhi; CHEN Xin-guo; SHEN Zhong-yang

    2012-01-01

    Cardiac arrest during upper abdominal surgery such as liver transplantation is a rare but very severe complication.Traditional external cardiac compression has been the mainstay of basic life support in general circumstances.Subdiaphragmatic cardiac compression (SDCC),with no incision in the diaphragm,may be a more effective measure.This maneuver can provide more effective and timely cardiac compression via the already open abdomen in surgery and not add extra trauma.This method can provide a quicker and more effective means of circulation support for intraoperative cardiac arrest patients without adding new injuries.Five cases are reported and all the patients had return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC).This is the first report of the SDCC method.

  4. Self-supported electrocatalysts for advanced energy conversion processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian Yi Ma

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The biggest challenge in developing new energy conversion technologies such as rechargeable metal-air batteries, regenerated fuel cells and water splitting devices is to find suitable catalysts that can efficiently and stably catalyze the key electrochemical processes involved. This paper reviews the new development of self-supported electrocatalysts in three categories: electrocatalysts growing on rigid substrates, electrocatalysts growing on soft substrates, and free-standing catalyst films. They are distinct and superior to the conventional powdery electrocatalysts, showing advantages in controllable nanostructure and chemical component, flexible electrode configuration, and outstanding catalytic performance. The self-supported electrocatalysts with various architectures like nanowire/plate/pillar arrays and porous films, composed of metals, metal oxides/selenides/phosphides, organic polymers, carbons and their corresponding hybrids, are presented and discussed. These catalysts exhibit high activity, durability and selectivity toward oxygen reduction, oxygen evolution, and/or hydrogen evolution reactions. The perspectives on the relevant areas are also proposed.

  5. [Redesign of the Spacesuit Long Life Battery and the Personal Life Support System Battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharf, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    This fall I was working on two different projects that culminated into a redesign of the spacesuit LLB (long life battery). I also did some work on the PLSS (personal life support system) battery with EC. My first project was redlining the work instruction for completing DPAs (destructive physical analysis) on battery cells in the department. The purpose of this document is to create a standard process and ensure that the data in the same way no matter who carries out the analysis. I observed three DPAs, conducted one with help, and conducted two on my own all while taking notes on the procedure. These notes were used to write the final work instruction that will become is the department standard. My second project continued the work of the summer co-op before me. I was testing aluminum heat sinks for their ability to provide good thermal conduction and structural support during a thermal runaway event. The heat sinks were designed by the summer intern but there was not much time for testing before he left. We ran tests with a heater on the bottom of a trigger cell to try to drive thermal runaway and ensure that it will not propagate to adjacent cells. We also ran heat-to-vent tests in an oven to see if the assembly provided structural support and prevented sidewall rupture during thermal runaway. These tests were carried out at ESTA (energy systems test area) and are providing very promising results that safe, high performing (greater than 180 Wh/kg) designs are possible. My main project was a redesign of the LLB battery. Another summer intern did some testing and concluded that there was no simple fix to mitigate thermal runaway propagation hazards in the current design. The only option was a clean sheet redesign of the battery. I was given a volume and ideal energy density and the rest of the design was up to me. First, I created new heat sink banks in Creo using the information gathered in the metal heat sink tests from the summer intern. After this, I made

  6. Knowledge, Models and Tools in Support of Advanced Distance Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-06-01

    instruction, such as the need for frequent assessment and for customized pedagogy . In addition, however, 1 Certain types of procedural skills cannot...requiring that such components be reinvented in the iRides simulation language. For example, the Text Entry Dialog function makes it possible to use a...that the student can have more than one chance to produce the correct response. A lesson authoring dialog in iRides author supports the specification of

  7. Economics of coal conversion processing. Advances in coal gasification: support research. Advances in coal gasification: process development and analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-01-01

    The fall meeting of the American Chemical Society, Division of Fuel Chemistry, was held at Miami Beach, Florida, September 10-15, 1978. Papers involved the economics of coal conversion processing and advances in coal gasification, especially support research and process development and analysis. Fourteen papers have been entered individually into EDB and ERA; three papers had been entered previously from other sources. (LTN)

  8. A Preliminary Validation on Strategies that Support the Transition from School to Adult Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Carolyn; Hwang, Bogseon; Kim, Jim-Ho; Killian, Daniel J.; Harmer, Melinda L.; Alcantara, Paulo R.

    1997-01-01

    A study that reviewed 113 transition articles, developed a candidate list of all support strategies, conducted a survey of 54 transition researchers, and corroborated multiple strategies that support students with disabilities in transition to adult life, including family and peer support, student choice and preference, and student…

  9. Gout: History, Research, and Recent NIH–Supported Advances | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... please turn Javascript on. Feature: Detecting and Treating Gout Gout: History, Research, and Recent NIH–Supported Advances Past ... History of Medicine Division, National Library of Medicine Gout—Before Modern Medicine Before medical research discovered the ...

  10. Technology Advancement in Support of NASAs Evolutionary Xenon Thruster (NEXT) System Power Processing Unit Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of this IRAD is to advance the TRL of the PPU to 6.  This includes supporting GRC with requirements review and validation, design updates and...

  11. Left ventricular flow analysis: recent advances in numerical methods and applications in cardiac ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borazjani, Iman; Westerdale, John; McMahon, Eileen M; Rajaraman, Prathish K; Heys, Jeffrey J; Belohlavek, Marek

    2013-01-01

    The left ventricle (LV) pumps oxygenated blood from the lungs to the rest of the body through systemic circulation. The efficiency of such a pumping function is dependent on blood flow within the LV chamber. It is therefore crucial to accurately characterize LV hemodynamics. Improved understanding of LV hemodynamics is expected to provide important clinical diagnostic and prognostic information. We review the recent advances in numerical and experimental methods for characterizing LV flows and focus on analysis of intraventricular flow fields by echocardiographic particle image velocimetry (echo-PIV), due to its potential for broad and practical utility. Future research directions to advance patient-specific LV simulations include development of methods capable of resolving heart valves, higher temporal resolution, automated generation of three-dimensional (3D) geometry, and incorporating actual flow measurements into the numerical solution of the 3D cardiovascular fluid dynamics.

  12. PalliPA: How can general practices support caregivers of patients at their end of life in a home-care setting? A study protocol.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermann, K.; Boelter, R.; Engeser, P.; Szecsenyi, J.; Campbell, S.M.; Peters-Klimm, F.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The care of patients with a life-threatening, progressive and far advanced illness in a home-care setting requires appropriate individual care and requires the active support of family caregivers. General practice teams are usually the primary care givers and first contact and are best p

  13. Prospective evaluation of health-related quality of life in long-term oral and oropharyngeal cancer survivors and the perceived need for supportive care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oskam, Inge M.; Verdonck-de Leeuw, Irma M.; Aaronson, Neil K.; Witte, Birgit I.; de Bree, Remco; Doornaert, Patricia; Langendijk, Johannes A.; Leemans, C. Rene

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate long-term changes in health related quality of life (HRQOL) in oral/oropharyngeal cancer survivors and their need for and use of supportive care. Methods: Between 1999 and 2001, 80 advanced oral or oropharyngeal cancer patients treated with free-flap reconstruction and postopera

  14. Supporting requirements model evolution throughout the system life-cycle

    OpenAIRE

    Ernst, Neil; Mylopoulos, John; Yu, Yijun; Ngyuen, Tien T.

    2008-01-01

    Requirements models are essential not just during system implementation, but also to manage system changes post-implementation. Such models should be supported by a requirements model management framework that allows users to create, manage and evolve models of domains, requirements, code and other design-time artifacts along with traceability links between their elements. We propose a comprehensive framework which delineates the operations and elements necessary, and then describe a tool imp...

  15. Quality of Life and Physical Ability Changes After Hospital-Based Cardiac Rehabilitation in Patients With Myocardial Infarction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effect of hospital-based cardiac rehabilitation (CR) on quality of life (QOL) and physical ability in patients with myocardial infarction (MI). Methods Patients with MI who were referred to the Cardiac Health and Rehabilitation Center 2 weeks after percutaneous coronary intervention were divided into CR and non-CR groups. The CR group performed supervised exercises 3 times a week for 2 months. QOL assessment, using the 36-item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36) and physical ability evaluation were performed at the beginning and end of CR. Results The CR group demonstrated statistically significant improvements in physical functioning (PF), physical role functioning (RP), bodily pain (BP), general health perceptions (GH), vitality (VT), social role functioning (SF), emotional role functioning (RE), mental health (MH), physical component summary (PCS), and mental component summary (MCS). The non-CR group showed improvement in RP. Secondary outcomes, including resting heart rate (RHR), maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max), metabolic equivalent of task (MET), maximal exercise time (ETmax), stage 3 Borg rating of perceived exertion (3RPE), maximal Borg rating of perceived exertion (RPEmax), and stage 3 rate pressure product (3RPP), improved in the CR group. The non-CR group showed improvements in VO2max, MET, ETmax, and 3RPE. There were significant differences in improvements in PF, RP, BP, VT, SF, MH, MCS, RHR, VO2max, MET, ETmax, 3RPE, and 3RPP between the two groups. Conclusion Male patients with MI demonstrated improvements in QOL and physical ability following hospital-based CR; the impact on the mental component was greater than that on the physical component. PMID:28289644

  16. Cardiac Rehabilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your risk of future heart problems, and to improve your health and quality of life. Cardiac rehabilitation programs increase ... exercise routine at home or at a local gym. You may also continue to ... health concerns. Education about nutrition, lifestyle and weight loss ...

  17. ADVANCED RADIATION THEORY SUPPORT ANNUAL REPORT 2002, FINAL REPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. DAVIS; J. APRUZESE; , Y. CHONG; R. CLARK; A. DASGUPTA; J. GIULIANI; P. KEPPLE; R. TERRY; J. THORNHILL; A. VELIKOVICH

    2003-05-01

    Z-PINCH PHYSICS RADIATION FROM WIRE ARRAYS. This report describes the theory support of DTRA's Plasma Radiation Source (PRS) program carried out by NRL's Radiation Hydrodynamics Branch (Code 6720) in FY 2002. Included is work called for in DTRA MIPR 02-2045M - ''Plasma Radiation Theory Support'' and in DOE's Interagency Agreement DE-AI03-02SF22562 - ''Spectroscopic and Plasma Theory Support for Sandia National Laboratories High Energy Density Physics Campaign''. Some of this year's work was presented at the Dense Z-Pinches 5th International Conference held June 23-28 in Albuquerque, New Mexico. A common theme of many of these presentations was a demonstration of the importance of correctly treating the radiation physics for simulating Plasma Radiation Source (PRS) load behavior and diagnosing load properties, e.g, stagnation temperatures and densities. These presentations are published in the AIP Conference Proceedings and, for reference, they are included in Section 1 of this report. Rather than describe each of these papers in the Executive Summary, they refer to the abstracts that accompany each paper. As a testament to the level of involvement and expertise that the Branch brings to DTRA as well as the general Z-Pinch community, eight first-authored presentations were contributed at this conference as well as a Plenary and an Invited Talk. The remaining four sections of this report discuss subjects either not presented at the conference or requiring more space than allotted in the Proceedings.

  18. Recent advances in cardiac magnetic resonance [version 1; referees: 3 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Greulich

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR is a non-invasive imaging modality that has rapidly emerged during the last few years and has become a valuable, well-established clinical tool. Beside the evaluation of anatomy and function, CMR has its strengths in providing detailed non-invasive myocardial tissue characterization, for which it is considered the current diagnostic gold standard. Late gadolinium enhancement (LGE, with its capability to detect necrosis and to separate ischemic from non-ischemic cardiomyopathies by distinct LGE patterns, offers unique clinical possibilities. The presence of LGE has also proven to be a good predictor of an adverse outcome in various studies. T2-weighted (T2w images, which are supposed to identify areas of edema and inflammation, are another CMR approach to tissue characterization. However, T2w images have not held their promise owing to several technical limitations and potential physiological concerns. Newer mapping techniques may overcome some of these limitations: they assess quantitatively myocardial tissue properties in absolute terms and show promising results in studies for characterization of diffuse fibrosis (T1 mapping and/or inflammatory processes (T2 mapping. However, these techniques are still research tools and are not part of the clinical routine yet. T2* CMR has had significant impact in the management of thalassemia because it is possible to image the amount of iron in the heart and the liver, improving both diagnostic imaging and the management of patients with thalassemia. CMR findings frequently have clinical impact on further patient management, and CMR seems to be cost effective in the clinical routine.

  19. Evaluation of Carbon Dioxide Sensors for the Constellation Space Suit Life Support System for Surface Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, Daniel L.; Paul, Heather L.; Conger, Bruce C.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the findings of the trade study to evaluate carbon dioxide (CO2) sensing technologies for the Constellation (Cx) space suit life support system for surface exploration. The trade study found that nondispersive infrared absorption (NDIR) is the most appropriate high Technology Readiness Level (TRL) technology for the CO2 sensor for the Cx space suit. The maturity of the technology is high, as it is the basis for the CO2 sensor in the Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU). The study further determined that while there is a range of commercial sensors available, the Cx CO2 sensor should be a new design. Specifically, there are light sources (e.g., infrared light emitting diodes) and detectors (e.g., cooled detectors) that are not in typical commercial sensors due to cost. These advanced technology components offer significant advantages in performance (weight, volume, power, accuracy) to be implemented in the new sensor. The exact sensor design (light source, transmitting optics, path length, receiving optics and detector) will be specific for the Cx space suit and will be determined by the performance requirements of the Cx space suit. The paper further identifies specifications for some of the critical performance parameters as well as discussing the engineering aspects of implementing the sensor into the Portable Life Support System (PLSS). The paper then presents testing results from three CO2 sensors with respect to issues important to Extravehicular Activity (EVA) applications; stability, humidity dependence and low pressure compatibility. The three sensors include two NDIR sensors, one commercial and one custom-developed by NASA (for a different purpose), and one commercial electrochemical sensor. The results show that both NDIR sensors have excellent stability, no dependence on ambient humidity (when the ambient temperature is above the dew point) and operate in low pressure conditions and after being exposed to a full vacuum. The commercial

  20. Cardiac cameras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travin, Mark I

    2011-05-01

    Cardiac imaging with radiotracers plays an important role in patient evaluation, and the development of suitable imaging instruments has been crucial. While initially performed with the rectilinear scanner that slowly transmitted, in a row-by-row fashion, cardiac count distributions onto various printing media, the Anger scintillation camera allowed electronic determination of tracer energies and of the distribution of radioactive counts in 2D space. Increased sophistication of cardiac cameras and development of powerful computers to analyze, display, and quantify data has been essential to making radionuclide cardiac imaging a key component of the cardiac work-up. Newer processing algorithms and solid state cameras, fundamentally different from the Anger camera, show promise to provide higher counting efficiency and resolution, leading to better image quality, more patient comfort and potentially lower radiation exposure. While the focus has been on myocardial perfusion imaging with single-photon emission computed tomography, increased use of positron emission tomography is broadening the field to include molecular imaging of the myocardium and of the coronary vasculature. Further advances may require integrating cardiac nuclear cameras with other imaging devices, ie, hybrid imaging cameras. The goal is to image the heart and its physiological processes as accurately as possible, to prevent and cure disease processes.

  1. Body Image and quality of life of senior citizens included in a cardiac rehabilitation program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Vargas Amaral

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Most people who have to live with some kind of disease tend to adopt healthy habits and create new ways of seeing themselves. The aim of this study is to explore the relationship between the index of quality of life and self perception of patients included in a cardiovascular rehabilitation program in Florianopolis/Brazil. The sample consists of 24 subjects of 62 ± 1.3 years of age, who have coronary artery disease. The Minnesota Living With Heart Failure Questionnaire (MLHFQ was used to assess the quality of life, and to identify the degree of body image discontentment the Stunkard and Sorensen questionnaire (1993 was applied. Statistical analysis was made through statistics programs and the software SPSS 11.0. The degree of association between variables was studied with Kendall test. It was verified that the higher the BMI and the current body shape, the greatest the degree of body image dissatisfaction. The emotional symptoms also appear to be significantly correlated with a desire for a smaller body shape and with indicators of lower quality of life (r = 0474 = 0735, p major 0.05. The physical symptoms were also considerably associated with the emotional symptoms. These results suggest that the variables concerning the quality of life are meaningful to significant body image and satisfaction, which seems to correlate with fewer emotional problems and better facing of the disease. Cardiovascular Rehabilitation Programs that implement physical activity in daily habits proves to be a suitable tool for improving these ailments in this post-acute phase

  2. A Rare And Life Threatening Complication Of Percutaneously Inserted Central Venous Catheters: Cardiac Tamponade.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    seyma Kayali

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Percutaneously inserted central venous catheters are commonly used to provide parenteral nutrition for premature neonates. This study presents report of two preterm neonates who developed pericardial effusion resulting from osmotic damage of parenteral nutrition. When a neonate with percutaneously inserted central venous catheter clinical status worsens a high index of clinical suspicion for diagnosing pericardial effusion and immediate treatment might be life saving. [J Contemp Med 2016; 6(3.000: 226-230

  3. The role of government in supporting technological advance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Christopher K.

    A broad and poorly focused debate has, for quite some time, raged across the range of social science disciplines and policy related professions. This debate has dealt, in different ways, with the question of the proper role of the government in a mixed economy. Current debates over the appropriate role of government in a mixed economy are largely constrained by a basic set of 'market failure' concepts developed in economics. This dissertation interrogates the histories of the automobile, electrical and aircraft industries in the six decades spanning the turn of the 20th century with a theoretical framework that draws on recent theorizing on the co-evolution of technologies, industrial structure, and supporting institutions. In highlighting institutional and technological aspects of industrial development, this dissertation informs a basis for science and technology policy making that moves beyond 'market failure' analysis.

  4. Antibody production in early life supported by maternal lymphocyte factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimamura, Michio; Huang, Yi-Ying; Goji, Hiroshi

    2003-01-20

    To examine the influence of maternal lymphocyte factors on the immune responses in offspring in early life, antibody production in neonates born to either normal or lymphocyte-deficient mothers was analyzed. Recombination activating gene (Rag)-2(+/-) mouse neonates born to Rag-2(+/+), Rag-2(+/-)or Rag-2(-/-)mothers were injected with goat anti-mouse IgD antiserum, and IgE and IgG(1) production was evaluated. The levels of IgE and IgG(1) were higher in the pups born to Rag-2(+/+)and Rag-2(+/-) dams than to lymphocyte-deficient Rag-2(-/-) dams. The enhanced antibody production in the former compared with the latter neonates was also found following immunization with ovalbumin or TNP-Ficoll. Thus, the presence of maternal lymphocyte factors was suggested in neonates that augmented antigen-specific antibody production in both T cell-dependent and -independent pathways. A reduction in antibody production was observed in normal neonates when they were foster-nursed by Rag-2(-/-) mothers. Thus, the maternal lymphocyte factors enhancing the immune responses in newborns were shown to be present in breast-milk.

  5. Water Walls: Highly Reliable and Massively Redundant Life Support Architecture Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — WATER WALLS (WW) takes an approach to providing a life support system that is biologically and chemically passive, using mechanical systems only for plumbing to...

  6. Next Generation Life Support (NGLS): Continuous Electrochemical Gas Separator (CEGS) Element

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Life support systems on human spacecraft are designed to provide a safe, habitable environment for the astronauts, and one of the most significant challenges is...

  7. Bio-Electrochemical Carbon Dioxide Removal for Air Revitalization in Exploration Life Support Systems Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — An important aspect of the ISS air revitalization system for life support is the removal of carbon dioxide from cabin air and retrieves oxygen from CO2. The current...

  8. Regenerable Trace-Contaminant Sorbent for the Primary Life Support System (PLSS) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The NASA objective of expanding the human experience into the far reaches of space requires the development of regenerable life support systems. This proposal...

  9. National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Partnered Development of Cryogenic Life Support Technologies Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Partnering with National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) to develop several cryogenically based life support technologies to be used in mine...

  10. From the deep sea to the stars: human life support through minimal communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrickx, Larissa; Mergeay, Max

    2007-06-01

    Support of human life during long-distance exploratory space travel or in the creation of human habitats in extreme environments can be accomplished using the action of microbial consortia inhabiting interconnected bioreactors, designed for the purpose of reconversion of solid, liquid and gaseous wastes produced by the human crew or by one of the compartments of the bioregenerative loop, into nutritional biomass, oxygen and potable water. The microorganisms responsible for bioregenerative life support are part of Earth's own geomicrobial reconversion cycle. Depending on the resources and conditions available, minimal life support systems can be assembled using appropriately selected microorganisms that possess metabolic routes for each specific purpose in the transformation cycle. Under control of an engineered system, a reliable life-support system can hence be provided for.

  11. Gaps in Social Support Resources in Later Life: An Adaptational Challenge in Need of Further Research

    OpenAIRE

    Rook, Karen S.

    2009-01-01

    Gaps in social support resources in later life may arise when older adults lose social network members due to illness, death, or residential relocation. Gaps also may arise when social networks remain intact but are not well suited to meet older adults’ intensifying support needs, such as needs for extended or highly personal instrumental support. Significant gaps in support resources are likely to require adaptive responses by older adults. This discussion highlights theoretical perspectives...

  12. Effect of ACE inhibitor trandolapril on life expectancy of patients with reduced left-ventricular function after acute myocardial infarction. TRACE Study Group. Trandolapril Cardiac Evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torp-Pedersen, C; Køber, L

    1999-01-01

    be in terms of an increase in life expectancy, but this approach has not previously been possible because of limited data on long-term outcome. We aimed to calculate the effect of trandolapril on life expectancy with follow-up data from the Trandolapril Cardiac Evaluation (TRACE) Study. METHODS: The TRACE...... they had been followed up for a minimum of 6 years. We estimated life expectancy as median lifetime, which was the time for 50% of the patients to have died. Change in life expectancy is expressed as change in median lifetime. Analysis was by intention to treat. FINDINGS: The life expectancy of patients......-blind treatment; continued use of trandolapril was recommended at study closure. INTERPRETATION: In patients with severely reduced left-ventricular function, long-term treatment with an ACE inhibitor during the critical period after myocardial infarction is associated with a substantial increase in life...

  13. Noninvasive imaging modalities and sudden cardiac arrest in the young: can they help distinguish subjects with a potentially life-threatening abnormality from normals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Printz, Beth Feller

    2012-03-01

    Sudden cardiac arrest (SCA) in the young is always tragic, but fortunately it is an unusual event. When it does occur, it usually happens in active individuals, often while they are participating in physical activity. Depending on the population's characteristics, the most common causes of sudden cardiac arrest in these subjects are hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, congenital coronary abnormalities, arrhythmia in the presence of a structurally normal heart (ion channelopathies or abnormal conduction pathways), aortic rupture, and arrhythmogenic right-ventricular cardiomyopathy. Two-dimensional echocardiography (2-DE) has been proposed as a screening tool that can potentially detect four of these five causes of SCA, and many groups now sponsor community-based 2-DE SCA-screening programs. "Basic" 2-DE screening may include assessment of ventricular volumes, mass, and function; left atrial size; and cardiac and thoracic vascular (including coronary) anatomy. "Advanced" echocardiographic techniques, such as tissue Doppler and strain imaging, can help in diagnosis when the history, electrocardiogram (ECG), and/or standard 2-DE screening suggest there may be an abnormality, e.g., to help differentiate those with "athlete's heart" from hypertrophic or dilated cardiomyopathy. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging or cardiac computed tomography can be added to increase diagnostic sensitivity and specificity in select cases when an abnormality is suggested during SCA screening. Test availability, cost, and ethical issues related to who to screen, as well as the detection of those with potential disease but low risk, must be balanced when deciding what tests to perform to assess for increased SCA risk.

  14. Support as a promoting factor of quality of life of the elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ermelinda Maria Bernardo Gonçalves Marques

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The rapid increase in the aging population poses real challenges to society, making it necessary to get a better understanding of this reality, namely the study of the quality of life and the support given to the elderly. The main objective of this study was to assess the quality of life of the elderly and to determine whether it depends on the support received or not. This is an exploratory, descriptive, analytical, cross-sectional and quantitative study. Methods. For data collection, a questionnaire of characterization sociodemographic was used, the Health StatusQuestionnaire (SF-36 to assess the perception of quality of life, the Smilkstein Family Apgar and the Duke Functional Social SupportQuestionaire.All instrumentswere applied by interview,workingwith a sample btained at a random and probabilistic way, from lists of seniors enrolled in a Health Center in the district of the Guarda, consisting of 247 elderly people, of whom 101 men and 146 women. Results and Discussion. As main results, we point out that the elderly studied reveal a reasonable quality of life and that this depends on the support given. For most of them, the support is received from the formal support network. The elderly who said they did not need support, those who perceive greater social and functional support and greater family apgar tend to perceive better quality of life and reduced degradation of their health status during the last year. Conclusion. This study allowed us to recognize the important role that support (formal and informal has on the quality of life of the elderly, thereby concluding that it is assumed as a promoting factor of the quality of life of this age group.

  15. Research advance on airway management of patients with cardiac arrest%心搏骤停患者气道管理的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李瑞萍; 薛富善; 刘高谱; 孙超; 杨桂珍

    2015-01-01

    Background Recent discoveries surrounding the physiology of cardiac arrest have turned the ABC mnemonic around.Objective This review will focus on issues regarding airway management in patients with cardiac arrest.Content The main contents include the paradigm shifts in emergency airway management, airway management methods, ventilatory management strategies, etc.It is specially emphasized that the initial goal of emergency airway management is the provision of effective ventilation, and can be achieved with a bag-valve-mask (BVM) or supraglottic airway device in the first few minutes of resuscitation.The deployment of an advanced airway should be deferred until the completion of 3 chest compression cycles.Furthermore, the goals of ventilator support of the resuscitated patients include the need to use the lowest possiblepositive end expiratory pressure (PEEP) while carefully titrating inspiratory oxygen concernation to avoid hyperoxia.Trend Paradigm shifts by the understanding of cardiac arrest physiology have resulted in changes to overall management strategies of the resuscitated patients.It is hopeful that these changes would improve the outcomes of patients resuscitated from cardiac arrest.%背景 对心搏骤停的生理研究已经使人们对气道(airway)、呼吸(breathing)和循环(circulation)即ABC复苏三步骤的顺序进行了调整. 目的 综述心搏骤停患者的气道管理问题. 内容 包括紧急气道管理模式的转变、气道管理的方法和通气管理策略等.特别强调紧急气道管理的最初目标是保证有效通气.在复苏的最初几分钟内,应用简易呼吸囊-面罩(bag-valve-mask,BVM)或声门上气道装置即足以达到此目标,高级气道管理应推迟至3个胸部按压循环后实施.再者,复苏患者通气支持的目标是应用尽可能低的呼气末正压通气(positive end expiratory pressure,PEEP),同时调定吸入氧浓度避免高氧. 趋向 心搏骤停生理研究产生的治疗模式

  16. Developing Biological ISRU: Implications for Life Support and Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, I. I.; Allen, C. C.; Garrison, D. H.; Sarkisova, S. A.; Galindo, C.; Mckay, David S.

    2010-01-01

    Main findings: 1) supplementing very dilute media for cultivation of CB with analogs of lunar or Martian regolith effectively supported the proliferation of CB; 2) O2 evolution by siderophilic cyanobacteria cultivated in diluted media but supplemented with iron-rich rocks was higher than O2 evolution by same strain in undiluted medium; 3) preliminary data suggest that organic acids produced by CB are involved in iron-rich mineral dissolution; 4) the CB studied can accumulate iron on and in their cells; 4) sequencing of the cyanobacterium JSC-1 genome revealed that this strain possesses molecular features which make it applicable for the cultivation in special photoreactors on Moon and Mars. Conclusion: As a result of pilot studies, we propose, to develop a concept for semi-closed integrated system that uses CB to extract useful elements to revitalize air and produce valuable biomolecules. Such a system could be the foundation of a self-sustaining extraterrestrial outpost (Hendrickx, De Wever et al., 2005; Handford, 2006). A potential advantage of a cyanobacterial photoreactor placed between LSS and ISRU loops is the possibility of supplying these systems with extracted elements and compounds from the regolith. In addition, waste regolith may be transformed into additional products such as methane, biomass, and organic and inorganic soil enrichment for the cultivation of higher plants.

  17. Engineering stategies and implications of using higher plants for throttling gas and water exchange in a controlled ecological life support system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberland, Dennis; Wheeler, Raymond M.; Corey, Kenneth A.

    1993-01-01

    Engineering stategies for advanced life support systems to be used on Lunar and Mars bases involve a wide spectrum of approaches. These range from purely physical-chemical life support strategies to purely biological approaches. Within the context of biological based systems, a bioengineered system can be devised that would utilize the metabolic mechanisms of plants to control the rates of CO2 uptake and O2 evolution (photosynthesis) and water production (transpiration). Such a mechanism of external engineering control has become known as throttling. Research conducted at the John F. Kennedy Space Center's Controlled Ecological Life Support System Breadboard Project has demonstrated the potential of throttling these fluxes by changing environmental parameters affecting the plant processes. Among the more effective environmental throttles are: light and CO2 concentration for controllingthe rate of photsynthesis and humidity and CO2 concentration for controlling transpiration. Such a bioengineered strategy implies control mechanisms that in the past have not been widely attributed to life support systems involving biological components and suggests a broad range of applications in advanced life support system design.

  18. Advancing Polymer-Supported Ionogel Electrolytes Formed via Radical Polymerization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visentin, Adam F.

    Applications ranging from consumer electronics to the electric grid have placed demands on current energy storage technologies. There is a drive for devices that store more energy for rapid consumption in the case of electric cars and the power grid, and safer, versatile design options for consumer electronics. Electrochemical double-layer capacitors (EDLCs) are an option that has garnered attention as a means to address these varied energy storage demands. EDLCs utilize charge separation in electrolytes to store energy. This energy storage mechanism allows for greater power density (W kg -1) than batteries and higher energy density (Wh kg-1) than conventional capacitors - along with a robust lifetime in the range of thousands to millions of charge-discharge cycles. Safety and working voltage windows of EDLCs currently on the market are limited by the organic solvents utilized in the electrolyte. A potential solution lies in the replacement of the organic solvents with ionic liquids, or room-temperature molten salts. Ionic liquids possess many superior properties in comparison to conventional solvents: wide electrochemical window, low volatility, nonflammability, and favorable ionic conductivity. It has been an endeavor of this work to exploit these advantages while altering the liquid form factor into a gel. An ionic liquid/solid support scaffold composite electrolyte, or ionogel, adds additional benefits: flexible device design, lower encapsulation weight, and elimination of electrolyte leakage. This work has focused on investigations of a UV-polymerizable monomer, poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate, as a precursor for forming ionogels in situ. The trade-off between gaining mechanical stability at the cost of ionic conductivity has been investigated for numerous ionogel systems. While gaining a greater understanding of the interactions between the gel scaffold and ionic liquid, an ionogel with the highest known ionic conductivity to date (13.1 mS cm-1) was

  19. Mathematical Analysis of a Novel Approach to Maximize Waste Recovery in a Life Support System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael G. McKellar; Rick A. Wood; Carl M. Stoots; Lila Mulloth; Bernadette Luna

    2011-02-01

    NASA has been evaluating closed-loop atmosphere revitalization architectures carbon dioxide, CO2, reduction technologies. The CO2 and steam, H2O, co-electrolysis process is another option that NASA has investigated. Utilizing recent advances in the fuel cell technology sector, the Idaho National Laboratory, INL, has developed a CO2 and H2O co-electrolysis process to produce oxygen and syngas (carbon monoxide, CO and hydrogen, H2 mixture) for terrestrial (energy production) application. The technology is a combined process that involves steam electrolysis, CO2 electrolysis, and the reverse water gas shift (RWGS) reaction. Two process models were developed to evaluate novel approaches for waster recovery in a life support system. The first is a model INL co-electrolysis process combined with a methanol production process. The second is the INL co-electrolysis process combined with a pressure swing adsorption (PSA) process. For both processes, the overall power increases as the syngas ratio, H2/CO, increases because more water is needed to produce more hydrogen at a set CO2 incoming flow rate. The power for the methanol cases is less than the PSA because heat is available from the methanol reactor to preheat the water and carbon dioxide entering the co-electrolysis process.

  20. THE MATHEMATICAL ANALYSIS OF A NOVEL APPROACH TO MAXIMIZE WASTE RECOVERY IN A LIFE SUPPORT SYSTEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael G. McKellar; Rick A. Wood; Carl M. Stoots; Lila Mulloth; Bernadette Luna

    2011-11-01

    NASA has been evaluating closed-loop atmosphere revitalization architectures that include carbon dioxide (CO2) reduction technologies. The CO2 and steam (H2O) co-electrolysis process is one of the reduction options that NASA has investigated. Utilizing recent advances in the fuel cell technology sector, the Idaho National Laboratory, INL, has developed a CO2 and H2O co-electrolysis process to produce oxygen and syngas (carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrogen (H2) mixture) for terrestrial (energy production) application. The technology is a combined process that involves steam electrolysis, CO2 electrolysis, and the reverse water gas shift (RWGS) reaction. Two process models were developed to evaluate novel approaches for energy storage and resource recovery in a life support system. In the first model, products from the INL co-electrolysis process are combined to produce methanol fuel. In the second co-electrolysis, products are separated with a pressure swing adsorption (PSA) process. In both models the fuels are burned with added oxygen to produce H2O and CO2, the original reactants. For both processes, the overall power increases as the syngas ratio, H2/CO, increases because more water is needed to produce more hydrogen at a set CO2 incoming flow rate. The power for the methanol cases is less than pressure swing adsorption, PSA, because heat is available from the methanol reactor to preheat the water and carbon dioxide entering the co-electrolysis process.

  1. Reagentless chemiluminescence-based fiber optic sensors for regenerative life support in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwater, James E.; Akse, James R.; DeHart, Jeffrey; Wheeler, Richard R., Jr.

    1995-04-01

    The initial feasibility demonstration of a reagentless chemiluminescence based fiber optic sensor technology for use in advanced regenerative life support applications in space and planetary outposts is described. The primary constraints for extraterrestrial deployment of any technology are compatibility with microgravity and hypogravity environments; minimal size, weight, and power consumption; and minimal use of expendables due to the great expense and difficulty inherent to resupply logistics. In the current research, we report the integration of solid state flow through modules for the production of aqueous phase reagents into an integrated system for the detection of important analytes by chemiluminescence, with fiber optic light transmission. By minimizing the need for resupply expendables, the use of solid phase modules makes complex chemical detection schemes practical. For the proof of concept, hydrogen peroxide and glucose were chosen as analytes. The reaction is catalyzed by glucose oxidase, an immobilized enzyme. The aqueous phase chemistry required for sensor operation is implemented using solid phase modules which adjust the pH of the influent stream, catalyze the oxidation of analyte, and provide the controlled addition of the luminophore to the flowing aqueous stream. Precise control of the pH has proven essential for the long-term sustained release of the luminophore. Electrocatalysis is achieved using a controlled potential across gold mesh and gold foil electrodes which undergo periodic polarity reversals. The development and initial characterization of performance of the reagentless fiber optic chemiluminescence sensors are presented in this paper.

  2. Design and test status for life support applications of SPE oxygen generation systems. [Solid Polymer Electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titterington, W. A.; Erickson, A. C.

    1975-01-01

    An advanced six-man rated oxygen generation system has been fabricated and tested as part of a NASA/JSC technology development program for a long lived, manned spacecraft life support system. Details of the design and tests results are presented. The system is based on the Solid Polymer Electrolyte (SPE) water electrolysis technology and its nominal operating conditions are 2760 kN/sq m (400 psia) and 355 K (180 F) with an electrolysis module current density capability up to 350 mA/sq cm (326 ASF). The system is centered on a 13-cell SPE water electrolysis module having a single cell active area of 214 sq cm (33 sq in) and it incorporates instrumentation and controls for single pushbutton automatic startup/shutdown, component fault detection and isolation, and self-contained sensors and controls for automatic safe emergency shutdown. The system has been tested in both the orbital cyclic and continuous mode of operation. Various parametric tests have been completed to define the system capability for potential application in spacecraft environmental systems.

  3. Percutaneous Hemodynamic Support (Impella) in Patients with Advanced Heart Failure and/or Cardiogenic Shock Not Eligible to PROTECT II Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Mukku, Venkata Kishore; Gilani, Syed; Fujise, Ken; Barbagelata, Alejandro

    2013-12-01

    PROTECT I and II trials have tested the efficacy of Impella in patents with high-risk percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). However, patients with severe hemodynamic instability such as cardiac arrest, ST-segment elevated myocardial infarction (STEMI), or cardiogenic shock were excluded. The objective was to investigate the efficacy of Impella in sicker patient population who were not included in PROTECT trials. These patients merit high-risk PCI who had cardiogenic shock and unstable or decompensated heart failure (HF). From December 2010 to March 2012, 10 consecutive patients with extremely high surgical risk and hemodynamic instability underwent urgent PCI with Impella 2.5 support (Abiomed Inc., Danvers, MA). These patients were presented with advance HF and/or cardiogenic shock. Among the 10 included patients, 3 patients were with cardiac arrest and 1 patient was with acute myocardial infarction. All patients had successful Impella implantation and remained hemodynamically stable during high-risk PCI. Among the 10 patients 2 patients (20%) died within 1 month and 1 patient developed limb ischemia. In high-risk population nonrandomizable to PROTECT trials with advance HF/cardiogenic shock, Impella could be an important tool for hemodynamic support to PCI or could be a bridge to left ventricle assist device to achieve good recovery. Larger studies need to be conducted on this high-risk population.

  4. Pharmacokinetics of continuous-infusion meropenem in a pediatric patient receiving extracorporeal life support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cies, Jeffrey J; Moore, Wayne S; Dickerman, Mindy J; Small, Christine; Carella, Dominick; Chopra, Arun; Parker, Jason

    2014-10-01

    Meropenem, a broad-spectrum carbapenem, is commonly used for empirical and definitive therapy in the pediatric intensive care unit (ICU). Pharmacokinetic data to guide dosing in children, however, are limited to healthy volunteers or patients who are not in the ICU. Adult data demonstrate that pharmacokinetic parameters such as the volume of distribution and clearance can be significantly altered in individuals receiving extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). Alterations in the volume of distribution and clearance of antimicrobials in patients with sepsis and septic shock have also been documented, and these patients have demonstrated lower than expected antimicrobial serum concentrations based on standard dosing regimens. Therefore, an understanding of the pharmacokinetic changes in critically ill children receiving ECMO is crucial to determining the most appropriate dose and dosing interval selection for any antimicrobial therapy. In this case report, we describe the pharmacokinetics of a continuous infusion of meropenem in a pediatric cardiac ICU patient who was receiving concurrent extracorporeal life support. The patient was an 8-month-old male infant who underwent a Glenn procedure and pulmonary artery reconstruction. Postoperatively, he required ECMO with a total run of 21 days. On day 11 of ECMO, a bronchoalveolar lavage was performed, and blood cultures from days 11 and 12 of ECMO grew Pseudomonas aeruginosa, with a meropenem minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 0.5 μg/ml. On ECMO day 13, meropenem was initiated with a loading dose of 40 mg/kg and infused over 30 minutes, followed by a continuous infusion of 200 mg/kg/day. A meropenem serum concentration measured 8 hours after the start of the infusion was 46 μg/ml. Repeat levels were measured on days 3 and 9 of meropenem therapy and were 39 and 42 μg/ml, respectively. Repeat blood and respiratory cultures remained negative. This meropenem regimen (40-mg/kg bolus followed by a

  5. Concerns about end-of-life care and support for euthanasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Givens, Jane L; Mitchell, Susan L

    2009-08-01

    Popular support for euthanasia is known to vary according to sociodemographic characteristics. However, little is known about whether support is associated with concerns regarding the emotional, physical, and economic burdens of end-of-life care. This study used data from the 1998 General Social Survey, a national survey of community-dwelling adults. The outcome variable assessed the respondents' support for a doctor's right to end life in the setting of terminal illness. Independent variables assessed the following concerns: 1) concern about the emotional burden of end-of-life decision making for family members; 2) worry about the economic burden of terminal illness; 3) concern about pain at the end of life; 4) worry that lack of money or insurance will result in second-class end-of-life care; and 5) belief that their religious community will be helpful at the end of life. Multivariable logistic regression estimated the independent effect of these concerns on support for euthanasia, adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics. Of 786 respondents, 70.6% approved of euthanasia in the setting of terminal illness. In adjusted analyses, respondents with concerns about the emotional toll of decision making on family members, economic burden, and poor health care because of lack of insurance were significantly more likely to support euthanasia. Respondents with faith in the helpfulness of their religious community were less likely to support euthanasia. In conclusion, emotional and economic concerns about end-of-life care were associated with support for the right to euthanasia. Future work can evaluate whether alleviating these concerns may reduce the perceived desire for euthanasia by patients near the end of life.

  6. Status of Perceived Social Support and Quality of Life among Hearing-Impaired Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tayebeh Reyhani

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Annual four to five thousand babies are born with hearing loss in the Iran. Hearing impairment is a disability that affects the quality of life of people with this problem. These individuals need to support from family and friends because of their specific conditions that this received support has impact on their quality of life. This study was conducted to assess the status of perceived social support and quality of life of hearing-impaired adolescent. Material and Methods A cross-correlation study was performed with cluster and multi stage random sampling method on 83 students with hearing impairment who met the inclusion criteria of the study in Mashhad. The data collection tools included Pediatric quality of life inventory (adolescent form and perceived social support inventory (from family and friends.The data obtained from the questionnaires were analyzed through SPSS software version 16. Results The results showed that the majority of the most of adolescents with hearing impairment were reported moderate total quality of life (%51.8. But the majority of them reported perceived social support from family was moderate (%61.5 and from friends was week (%45.8. Also there was a significant relationship between category of total quality of life of adolescent viewpoint with perceived social support from family (P=0.056. Conclusion Based on the obtained results, the majority of the most of adolescents with hearing impairment were reported moderate total quality of life. Disability and condition of these persons affects quality of life of them, so need for adequate support from family, friends and society. Nurses play an important role in identifying and introduce these needs and condition and how to deal with them.

  7. Development of advanced techniques for life management and inspection of advanced heavy water reactor (AWHR) coolant channel components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madhusoodanan, K.; Sinha, S.K.; Kumar, K.; Shyam, T.V.; Panwar, S.; Sharma, B.S.V.G. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Reactor Engineering Div., Trombay, Mumbai (India); Sinha, R. K. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Reactor Design and Development Group., Trombay, Mumbai (India)

    2011-07-01

    Operating life of pressure tubes of Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor (PHWR) is limited due to the presence of various issues associated with the material like hydrogen pick up, delayed hydride cracking, axial elongation and increase in diameter due to irradiation creep and growth. Periodic monitoring of the health of the pressure tube under in-situ conditions is essential to ensure the safe operation of the reactor. New designs of reactor call for innovative design philosophy, modification in fabrication route of pressure tube, development of reactor specific tools, both analytical and hardware for assessing the fitness for service of the pressure tube. Feedback from existing reactors has enhanced the understanding about life limiting parameters. This paper gives an insight into the life limiting issues associated with pressure tube and the efforts pursued for development of life management techniques for coolant channel of Advanced Heavy Water Reactor (AHWR) designed in India. The tools and techniques for in-situ property/hydrogen measurement, pulsed eddy current technique for zirconium alloy in-homogeneity characterization, horizontal shear wave EMAT system for dissimilar metal weld inspection, sliver sampling of vertical channel etc. are elaborated in the paper. (author)

  8. Guiding Requirements for Designing Life Support System Architectures for Crewed Exploration Missions Beyond Low-Earth Orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Jay L.; Sargusingh, Miriam J.; Toomarian, Nikzad

    2016-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) technology development roadmaps provide guidance to focus technological development in areas that enable crewed exploration missions beyond low-Earth orbit. Specifically, the technology area roadmap on human health, life support and habitation systems describes the need for life support system (LSS) technologies that can improve reliability and in-flight maintainability within a minimally-sized package while enabling a high degree of mission autonomy. To address the needs outlined by the guiding technology area roadmap, NASA's Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Program has commissioned the Life Support Systems (LSS) Project to lead technology development in the areas of water recovery and management, atmosphere revitalization, and environmental monitoring. A notional exploration LSS architecture derived from the International Space has been developed and serves as the developmental basis for these efforts. Functional requirements and key performance parameters that guide the exploration LSS technology development efforts are presented and discussed. Areas where LSS flight operations aboard the ISS afford lessons learned that are relevant to exploration missions are highlighted.

  9. Regression of electrocardiographic left ventricular hypertrophy during antihypertensive therapy and reduction in sudden cardiac death: the LIFE Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wachtell, Kristian; Okin, Peter M; Olsen, Michael H;

    2007-01-01

    -lower SLV (10.5 mm) with a 26% lower risk (HR, 0.74; 95% CI, 0.65 to 0.84). After adjustment for time-varying systolic and diastolic blood pressures, treatment allocation, age, gender, baseline Framingham risk score, ECG strain, heart rate, urine albumin/creatinine ratio, smoking, diabetes, congestive heart......BACKGROUND: Sudden cardiac death (SCD) occurs more often in patients with ECG left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy. However, whether LV hypertrophy regression is associated with a reduced risk of SCD remains unclear. METHODS AND RESULTS: The Losartan Intervention for End Point Reduction...... in Hypertension (LIFE) study included 9193 patients 55 to 80 years of age with essential hypertension and ECG LV hypertrophy by gender-adjusted Cornell product (CP) (RaVL+SV(3) [+6 mm in women]). QRS duration>2440 mm x ms) and/or Sokolow-Lyon voltage (SLV) (SV1+RV(5/6)>38 mm). During follow-up (mean, 4.8 years...

  10. 实时视频录像和定期自我指导方法在高级创伤生命支持培训中的作用%Effect of the real-time video recording and regular self-instruction on the education of advanced trauma life support

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    涂建锋; 朱蔚; 张可; 周晟昂; 陈环; 蔡文伟; 张美齐; 杨悦

    2015-01-01

    accepted and was willing to choosing the training method in the future.Conclusions Compare to the traditional ATLS training way,the real-time video recording and regular self-instruction could obviously increase the test score of the trainees after training on the emergency skills on trauma,secondary evaluation and airway management and enhance the cooperative awareness and communication skills of the trauma team members to improve the effect of the training,which was certified to be an effective training method.%目的 分析与评估实时视频录像和定期自我指导方法(以下简称“视频法”)在对医师高级创伤生命支持(advanced trauma life support,ATLS)培训中的作用.方法 选取2012年参加以色列RAMBAM创伤中心ATLS国际培训班的13名中方人员为实验组,浙江省内一家综合性三级甲等医院急诊医学科传统ATLS培训的12人为对照组,比较视频法和传统培训方法对学员ATLS知识与技能掌握情况的影响.同时,就视频法对实验组学员进行问卷调查.采用SPSS 18.0统计软件分析处理所有数据,计数资料以百分比表示,t检验比较两组之间各项目改善情况的差异,以P<0.05表示差异有统计学意义.结果 培训后两组学员在高级创伤生命支持理论知识、创伤急救技能、检伤分类、二次评估和气道管理掌握方面均较培训前明显改善,但是,实验组学员在创伤急救技能、二次评估和气道管理方面改善程度优于对照组(P<0.05),而在理论知识和检伤分类方面的改善情况两者无区别(P>0.05).实验组学员认为,视频法能够使学员较快地明确自己在ATLS救治环节中的错误点,加快自我纠正速度,减少差错率,加强成员团队协作意识和沟通能力,学员对该培训方法的接受度较高.结论 视频法与传统培训方法相比能够明显改善ATLS课程培训效果,提高学员对创伤急救技能、二次评估和气道管理等关键救治步骤的掌

  11. PROSPECTS OF DISK PUMP FOR MECHANICAL CIRCULATORY SUPPORT IN CARDIAC SURGERY (REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Chernyavskiy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The need of circulatory support systems in the treatment of chronic heart failure is increasing constantly, as 20% of the patients on the waiting list die every year. Despite the great need for mechanical heart support systems, the use of available systems is limited by its expensiveness. In addition, there is no one system that is 100% responsible to all medical and technical requirements and that would be completely safe for patient. Therefore, further research in the field of circulatory support systems considering health and technical requirements is relevant. One of the new directions in the study are disc pumps of viscous friction for liquid transporting, based on the Tesla pump principle. The operation principle of such pumps is based on the phenomenon of the boundary layer which is formed on the disk rotating in a fluid. There are experimental studies of models with different variants of the rotor suspension, various forms and numbers of the disks, forms of the pump housing. However, none of the above samples was brought to clinical trials. Furthermore, despite the potential of that model there have been no pumps of similar type used so far in circulatory support systems. Published data provide a basis for further development and testing of the pump model and allow hoping for leveling a number of significant shortcomings of modern left ventricular bypass systems. 

  12. Human Exploration System Test-Bed for Integration and Advancement (HESTIA) Support of Future NASA Deep-Space Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmolejo, Jose; Ewert, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The Engineering Directorate at the NASA - Johnson Space Center is outfitting a 20-Foot diameter hypobaric chamber in Building 7 to support future deep-space Environmental Control & Life Support System (ECLSS) research as part of the Human Exploration System Test-bed for Integration and Advancement (HESTIA) Project. This human-rated chamber is the only NASA facility that has the unique experience, chamber geometry, infrastructure, and support systems capable of conducting this research. The chamber was used to support Gemini, Apollo, and SkyLab Missions. More recently, it was used to conduct 30-, 60-, and 90-day human ECLSS closed-loop testing in the 1990s to support the International Space Station and life support technology development. NASA studies show that both planetary surface and deep-space transit crew habitats will be 3-4 story cylindrical structures driven by human occupancy volumetric needs and launch vehicle constraints. The HESTIA facility offers a 3-story, 20-foot diameter habitat consistent with the studies' recommendations. HESTIA operations follow stringent processes by a certified test team that including human testing. Project management, analysis, design, acquisition, fabrication, assembly and certification of facility build-ups are available to support this research. HESTIA offers close proximity to key stakeholders including astronauts, Human Research Program (who direct space human research for the agency), Mission Operations, Safety & Mission Assurance, and Engineering Directorate. The HESTIA chamber can operate at reduced pressure and elevated oxygen environments including those proposed for deep-space exploration. Data acquisition, power, fluids and other facility resources are available to support a wide range of research. Recently completed HESTIA research consisted of unmanned testing of ECLSS technologies. Eventually, the HESTIA research will include humans for extended durations at reduced pressure and elevated oxygen to demonstrate

  13. The Alfred Hospital experience of resumption of cardiac activity after withdrawal of life-sustaining therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, S A; D'Souza, S; Philpot, S; Pilcher, D V

    2016-09-01

    With the advent of donation after circulatory death programs in Australia and New Zealand, greater knowledge is needed about physiologic variation in haemodynamic activity following withdrawal of cardiorespiratory support. The ANZICS Statement on Death and Organ Donation allows provision for variation in the observation times between two and five minutes after cessation of the circulation prior to declaration of death. We report our experience of two cases, the first where electrical activity and pulse returned after a 102 second pause and the second where electrical activity returned after a three minute pause; both longer than previously reported cases.

  14. Relationship among social support, quality of life and loneliness of the elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fereshteh Niknam

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Old age is a sensitive period of human life. Attention to the needs and issues is of utmost importance.The present study was performed to investigate the relationship among social support, quality of life and loneliness of the elderly. The research is descriptive-analytical based on correlation.105 of the elderly lived at nursing home of Ramsar and they were selected in sampling method. Research data were collected through a questionnaire of multidimensional perceived social support, the world health organization quality of life scale and the social and emotional loneliness scale for adults. Analysis of data using Pearson correlation statistical and multivariate regression methods and using the software SPSS16 was performed. The results showed that there was a significant and negative relationship between emotional support and loneliness of the elderly. There is a significant and negative relationship between quality of life and loneliness of the elderly and they are good predictor emotional support and quality of life for loneliness of the elderly. Therefore, the attention to social factors of health in the elderly, such as social support and quality of life is of paramount importance.

  15. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation as a support for TGA/IVS with low cardiac output syndrome and pulmonary hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyang Hong

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A 15-day-old neonate with complete transposition of the great arteries/intact ventricular septum was admitted with life-threatening hypoxemia and heart arrest. After successful resuscitation, heart beat recovered but blood lactate began to arise and maintained above 15 mmol/L 6 hours later. Emergency arterial switch operation was done at 20 hours after resuscitation. Planned extracorporeal membrane oxygenation support was employed postoperatively. The baby experienced severe pulmonary hemorrhage and severe hypoxemia after weaning from cardiopulmonary bypass, which were treated with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation support.

  16. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation as a support for TGA/IVS with low cardiac output syndrome and pulmonary hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Xiaoyang; Feng, Zhichun; Zhou, Gengxu; Xu, Xuan

    2013-06-01

    A 15-day-old neonate with complete transposition of the great arteries/intact ventricular septum was admitted with life-threatening hypoxemia and heart arrest. After successful resuscitation, heart beat recovered but blood lactate began to arise and maintained above 15 mmol/L 6 hours later. Emergency arterial switch operation was done at 20 hours after resuscitation. Planned extracorporeal membrane oxygenation support was employed postoperatively. The baby experienced severe pulmonary hemorrhage and severe hypoxemia after weaning from cardiopulmonary bypass, which were treated with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation support.

  17. Suicidal Ideation and Distress among Immigrant Adolescents: The Role of Acculturation, Life Stress, and Social Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Yong-Beom; Haslam, Nick

    2010-01-01

    Acculturative stress and social support play important roles in suicide-related phenomena among adolescent immigrants. To examine their contributions, measures of acculturative and general life stress and a measure of multiple sources of social support were used to predict psychological distress and suicidal ideation among Korean-born high school…

  18. A one year study of coping, social support and quality of life in Parkinson's disease.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreurs, K.M.G.; Ridder, D.T.D. de; Bensing, J.M.

    2000-01-01

    The role of coping and social support in the quality of life for Parkinson's Disease (PD) patients is not well understood. Most studies are cross-sectional and concentrate on depression as an outcome measure. The aim of the present study was to explore the role of coping and social support in qualit

  19. Life Course Status and Exchanges of Support between Young Adults and Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucx, Freek; van Wel, Frits; Knijn, Trudie

    2012-01-01

    The authors investigated intergenerational support exchanges in relation to young adults' life course status. In a sample of 2,022 young adults (ages 18-34 years) in The Netherlands, single young adults reported receiving more advice from parents than married young adults, and those with children of their own received more practical support.…

  20. Peers' Perceived Support, Student Engagement in Academic Activities and Life Satisfaction: A Structural Equation Modeling Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakimzadeh, Rezvan; Besharat, Mohammad-Ali; Khaleghinezhad, Seyed Ali; Ghorban Jahromi, Reza

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the relationships among peers' perceived support, life satisfaction, and student engagement in academic activities. Three hundred and fifteen Iranian students (172 boys and 143 girls) who were studying in one suburb of Tehran participated in this study. All participants were asked to complete Peers' Perceived Support scale…

  1. Teacher Support and Life Satisfaction: An Investigation with Urban, Middle School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guess, Pamela E.; McCane-Bowling, Sara J.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between perceived teacher support and overall life satisfaction (LS) in a sample of urban middle school students. Based on correlations between measures of student perceptions related to these constructs, results indicated that student perceptions of teacher support correlated significantly with LS, with the…

  2. [Computer modeling of electrodynamic processes in SHF-based water disinfection and heating system as part of the spacecrew life support system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimarev, S I; Zaĭtsev, K A

    2012-01-01

    To optimize the design of SHF-based potable water disinfection and heating subsystem within the life support system (LSS), computer modeling of the super-high frequency electromagnetic field in SHF-based waveguide-coaxial and coaxial running water heaters was performed Software package CST Microwave Studio 2010 was used as the main instrument in the investigation. Results of the investigation can contribute to the development and prototyping of an HSF-based water heater as an integral part of advanced life support system for spacecrews

  3. Biomimetic materials design for cardiac tissue regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, David A; Hodge, Alexander J; Lipke, Elizabeth A

    2014-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death worldwide. In the absence of sufficient numbers of organs for heart transplant, alternate approaches for healing or replacing diseased heart tissue are under investigation. Designing biomimetic materials to support these approaches will be essential to their overall success. Strategies for cardiac tissue engineering include injection of cells, implantation of three-dimensional tissue constructs or patches, injection of acellular materials, and replacement of valves. To replicate physiological function and facilitate engraftment into native tissue, materials used in these approaches should have properties that mimic those of the natural cardiac environment. Multiple aspects of the cardiac microenvironment have been emulated using biomimetic materials including delivery of bioactive factors, presentation of cell-specific adhesion sites, design of surface topography to guide tissue alignment and dictate cell shape, modulation of mechanical stiffness and electrical conductivity, and fabrication of three-dimensional structures to guide tissue formation and function. Biomaterials can be engineered to assist in stem cell expansion and differentiation, to protect cells during injection and facilitate their retention and survival in vivo, and to provide mechanical support and guidance for engineered tissue formation. Numerous studies have investigated the use of biomimetic materials for cardiac regeneration. Biomimetic material design will continue to exploit advances in nanotechnology to better recreate the cellular environment and advance cardiac regeneration. Overall, biomimetic materials are moving the field of cardiac regenerative medicine forward and promise to deliver new therapies in combating heart disease.

  4. Prioritization of engineering support requests and advanced technology projects using decision support and industrial engineering models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavana, Madjid

    1995-01-01

    The evaluation and prioritization of Engineering Support Requests (ESR's) is a particularly difficult task at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) -- Shuttle Project Engineering Office. This difficulty is due to the complexities inherent in the evaluation process and the lack of structured information. The evaluation process must consider a multitude of relevant pieces of information concerning Safety, Supportability, O&M Cost Savings, Process Enhancement, Reliability, and Implementation. Various analytical and normative models developed over the past have helped decision makers at KSC utilize large volumes of information in the evaluation of ESR's. The purpose of this project is to build on the existing methodologies and develop a multiple criteria decision support system that captures the decision maker's beliefs through a series of sequential, rational, and analytical processes. The model utilizes the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP), subjective probabilities, the entropy concept, and Maximize Agreement Heuristic (MAH) to enhance the decision maker's intuition in evaluating a set of ESR's.

  5. Human life support during interplanetary travel and domicile. VI - Generic modular flow schematic for hybrid physical/chemical-biological life support systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganapathi, Gani B.; Seshan, P. K.; Ferrall, Joseph; Rohatgi, Naresh

    1992-01-01

    An extension is proposed for the NASA Space Exploration Initiative's Generic Modular Flow Schematics for physical/chemical life support systems which involves the addition of biological processes. The new system architecture includes plant, microbial, and animal habitat, as well as the human habitat subsystem. Major Feedstock Production and Food Preparation and Packaging components have also been incorporated. Inedible plant, aquaculture, microbial, and animal solids are processed for recycling.

  6. INSPIRE (INvestigating Social and PractIcal suppoRts at the End of life): Pilot randomised trial of a community social and practical support intervention for adults with life-limiting illness.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McLoughlin, Kathleen

    2015-11-24

    For most people, home is the preferred place of care and death. Despite the development of specialist palliative care and primary care models of community based service delivery, people who are dying, and their families\\/carers, can experience isolation, feel excluded from social circles and distanced from their communities. Loneliness and social isolation can have a detrimental impact on both health and quality of life. Internationally, models of social and practical support at the end of life are gaining momentum as a result of the Compassionate Communities movement. These models have not yet been subjected to rigorous evaluation. The aims of the study described in this protocol are: (1) to evaluate the feasibility, acceptability and potential effectiveness of The Good Neighbour Partnership (GNP), a new volunteer-led model of social and practical care\\/support for community dwelling adults in Ireland who are living with advanced life-limiting illness; and (2) to pilot the method for a Phase III Randomised Controlled Trial (RCT).

  7. Antenatal depressive symptoms associated with specific life events and sources of social support among Italian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agostini, Francesca; Neri, Erica; Salvatori, Paola; Dellabartola, Sara; Bozicevic, Laura; Monti, Fiorella

    2015-05-01

    This study aimed to identify different kinds of stressful life events and social support associated with antenatal depressive symptoms in a sample of pregnant Italian women. We conducted the study at a primary health-care centre in an urban area (northeast Italy). Mainly recruited at antenatal classes, 404 eligible pregnant women completed a socio-demographic questionnaire that included questions about the present pregnancy, the Edinburgh Depression Scale (EDS) to estimate the prevalence of depressive symptoms, the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support and List of Threatening Experiences Questionnaire to investigate the quality and nature of social support and recent negative life events. Of the 404 women, 60 (14.9 %) scored 13 or higher on the EDS. This group reported significantly lower social support from various sources-family, friends, and significant others; only in primiparous women were depressive symptoms significantly related to lower support from friends. Women with EDS scores equal or higher than 13 also reported a higher occurrence of recent stressful life events-specifically, death or a serious problem with a close friend or relative, unemployment, financial problems, and moving or housing difficulties. Regression analyses showed that women with high levels of social support or with a positive experience of pregnancy were less likely to experience antenatal depressive symptoms. Our results underscore the associations among antenatal depression, specific life stressors, and low social support from various sources. Clinical attention to these psychosocial correlates is recommended toward detecting vulnerability to antenatal depressive symptoms.

  8. Integration and communication for the continuity of cardiac care (I4C)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bemmel, J.H. van; Ginneken, A.M. van; Stam, H.; Assanelli, D.; Macfarlane, P.W.; Maglaveras, N.; Rubel, P.; Zeelenberg, C.; Zywietz, Chr.

    1998-01-01

    The project I4C (Integration and Communication for the Continuity of Cardiac Care) is carried out for the advancement of cardiac care, from prevention to follow-up. The goals of I4C are: (1) integrated access to patient data, wherever they are stored; (2) support of evidence-based care; (3) consiste

  9. Advanced life events (ALEs) that impede aging-in-place among seniors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindquist, Lee A; Ramirez-Zohfeld, Vanessa; Sunkara, Priya; Forcucci, Chris; Campbell, Dianne; Mitzen, Phyllis; Cameron, Kenzie A

    2016-01-01

    Despite the wishes of many seniors to age-in-place in their own homes, critical events occur that impede their ability to do so. A gap exists as to what these advanced life events (ALEs) entail and the planning that older adults perceive is necessary. The purpose of this study was to identify seniors' perceptions and planning toward ALEs that may impact their ability to remain in their own home. We conducted focus groups with 68 seniors, age ≥65 years (mean age 73.8 years), living in the community (rural, urban, and suburban), using open-ended questions about perceptions of future heath events, needs, and planning. Three investigators coded transcriptions using constant comparative analysis to identify emerging themes, with disagreements resolved via consensus. Subjects identified five ALEs that impacted their ability to remain at home: (1) Hospitalizations, (2) Falls, (3) Dementia, (4) Spousal Loss, and (5) Home Upkeep Issues. While recognizing that ALEs frequently occur, many subjects reported a lack of planning for ALEs and perceived that these ALEs would not happen to them. Themes for the rationale behind the lack of planning emerged as: uncertainty in future, being too healthy/too sick, offspring influences, denial/procrastination, pride, feeling overwhelmed, and financial concerns. Subjects expressed reliance on offspring for navigating future ALEs, although many had not communicated their needs with their offspring. Overcoming the reasons for not planning for ALEs is crucial, as being prepared for future home needs provides seniors a voice in their care while engaging key supporters (e.g., offspring).

  10. Spousal recovery support, recovery experiences, and life satisfaction crossover among dual-earner couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, YoungAh; Fritz, Charlotte

    2015-03-01

    Research has indicated the importance of recovery from work stress for employee well-being and work engagement. However, very little is known about the specific factors that may support or hinder recovery in the context of dual-earner couples. This study proposes spousal recovery support as a potential resource that dual-earner couples can draw on to enhance their recovery experiences and well-being. It was hypothesized that spousal recovery support would be related to the recipient spouse's life satisfaction via his or her own recovery experiences (i.e., psychological detachment, relaxation, and mastery experiences). The study further investigated the crossover of life satisfaction between working spouses as a potential outcome of recovery processes. Data from 318 full-time employed married couples in South Korea were analyzed using structural equation modeling. Results showed that spousal recovery support was positively related to all 3 recovery experiences of the recipient spouse. Moreover, this recovery support was related to the recipient spouse's life satisfaction via relaxation and mastery experiences. Unexpectedly, psychological detachment was negatively related to life satisfaction, possibly indicating a suppression effect. Life satisfaction crossed over between working spouses. No gender differences were found in the hypothesized paths. Based on these findings, theoretical and practical implications are discussed, and future research directions are presented.

  11. Improving quality of life in patients with advanced cancer: Targeting metastatic bone pain

    OpenAIRE

    von Moos, Roger; Costa, Luis; Ripamonti, Carla Ida; Niepel, Daniela; Santini, Daniele

    2017-01-01

    Metastatic bone disease in patients with advanced cancer is frequently associated with skeletal complications. These can be debilitating, causing pain, impaired functioning and decreased quality of life, as well as reduced survival. This review considers how the management of metastatic bone pain might be optimised, to limit the considerable burden it can impose on affected patients. Cancer-related pain is notoriously under-reported and under-treated, despite the availability of many therapeu...

  12. Type D personality, illness perception, social support and quality of life in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jianying; Wu, Xiaofeng; Lin, Jianxiong; Zou, Dongmei; Yang, Xiao; Cheng, Shouzhen; Guo, Qunying

    2017-02-01

    The previous studies reported Type D was associated with poor quality of life (QoL), increased psychological distress, and impaired health status in cardiac patients. The aim of this study is to assess the relationships among Type D personality, illness perception, social support, and investigate the impact of Type D personality on QoL in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) patients. Type D personality was assessed by the Chinese 14-item Type D Personality Scale (DS14). Illness perceptions were assessed using the Chinese version of the Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire (B-IPQ). Social support status was assessed by the well-validated social support rating scale (SSRS). Patients' QoL was assessed by using Medical Outcomes Short Form 36 (SF-36), respectively. The Type Ds had significantly lower objective support score (8.18 ± 2.56 vs. 9.67 ± 3.28, p = 0.0001), subjective support score (6.71 ± 2.0 vs. 7.62 ± 1.93, p = 0.0001) and utilization of social support score (6.76 ± 2.0 vs. 7.61 ± 1.94, p = 0.0001) than that of the non-type Ds. Type Ds believed their illness had much more serious consequences (7.67 ± 2.64 vs. 6.27 ± 3.45, p Type Ds and non-Type Ds in PCS (40.53 ± 6.42 vs. 48.54 ± 6.21 p Type D was negatively associated with physical component score (PCS) (r = -0.29, p Type D personality was independently associated with PCS (β = -0.32, p Type D personality was a predictor of poor QoL in CAPD patients. The current study is the first to identify a strong association among Type D, illness perceptions, social support and QoL in CAPD patients. The worse illness perceptions and lower social support level therefore represent possible mechanisms to explain the link between Type D and poor QoL in CAPD patients.

  13. Results of the Particulate Contamination Control Trade Study for Space Suit Life Support Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cognata, Thomas J.; Conger, Bruce; Paul, Heather L.

    2009-01-01

    As the United States plans to return astronauts to the moon and eventually to Mars, designing the most effective, efficient, and robust space suit life support system that will operate successfully in these dusty environments is vital. There is some knowledge of the contaminants and level of infiltration expected from the Lunar and Mars dust, however risk mitigation strategies and filtration designs to prevent contamination within the space suit life support system are still undefined. A trade study was initiated to identify and address these concerns, and to develop new requirements for the Constellation Space Suit Element (CSSE) Portable Life Support System (PLSS). This trade study investigates historical methods of particulate contamination control in space suits and vehicles, and evaluated the possibility of using commercial technologies for this application. In addition, the trade study examined potential filtration designs. This paper summarizes the results of this trade study.

  14. End-of-Life Decisions and Palliative Care in Advanced Heart Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, Deborah E; Goodlin, Sarah J

    2016-09-01

    Advanced heart failure (HF) therapies are focused on extending life and improving function. In contrast, palliative care is a holistic approach that focuses on symptom alleviation and patients' physical, psychosocial, and spiritual needs. HF clinicians can integrate palliative care strategies by incorporating several important components of planning and decision-making for HF patients. Future care planning (FCP) for HF patients should incorporate the basic tenets of shared decision-making (SDM). These include understanding the patient's perspective and care preferences, articulating what is medically feasible, and integrating these considerations into the overall care plan. Use of defined triggers for FCP can stimulate important patient-caregiver conversations. Guidelines advocate an annual review of HF status and future care preferences. Advance directives are important for any individual with a chronic, life-limiting illness and should be integrated into FCP. Nevertheless, use of advance directives by HF patients is extremely low. Consideration of illness trajectories and risk-scoring tools might facilitate prognostication and delivery of appropriate HF care. Decisions about heart transplantation or left ventricular assist device implantation should include planning for potential complications associated with these therapies. Such decisions also should include a discussion of palliative management, as an alternative to intervention and also as an option for managing symptoms or adverse events after intervention. Palliative care, including FCP and SDM, should be integrated into the course of all patients with advanced HF. Clinicians who provide HF care should acquire the skills necessary for conducting FCP and SDM discussions.

  15. VEGETATIVE SUPPORT OF CARDIAC ACTIVITY IN ATHLETES WITH DIFFERENT ANTHROPOMETRIC PROFILE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. N. Kudrya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of research – to study the features of the functioning of the cardiovascular system and regulatory mechanisms of the young athletes of different heights.Materials and methods. The study included athletes aged 15-16 (32 girls and 36 boys engaged in competitive sports. To study the autonomic regulation of the cardiovascular system using mathematical methods and spectral analysis of heart rate variability. To characterize the vegetative support the circulatory apparatus, all subjects performed an active orthostatic test.Results. The features of vegetative maintenance of heart activity in tall athletes: stress regulatory mechanisms observed resting in tall men and decrease the functionality of the sympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system during active orthostatic test in athletes of different sex. Athletes tall urgent adaptation of the cardiovascular system to changing external conditions associated with activation of suprasegmental divisions of the autonomic nervous system and the excessive activation of the sympathetic division, which is an inefficient way of adaptation.Conclusion. Thus, high growth is evident not only in the increase of total size of the body of athletes, but also in the peculiarities of morphofunctional state involved, indicating the need of individual rationing of loads for tall players. The revealed morphofunctional characteristics of the organism tall athletes allow us to recommend an increase in the proportion of aerobic exercise to enhance the adaptive capacities of the organism. 

  16. Screw Remaining Life Prediction Based on Quantum Genetic Algorithm and Support Vector Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaochen Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To predict the remaining life of ball screw, a screw remaining life prediction method based on quantum genetic algorithm (QGA and support vector machine (SVM is proposed. A screw accelerated test bench is introduced. Accelerometers are installed to monitor the performance degradation of ball screw. Combined with wavelet packet decomposition and isometric mapping (Isomap, the sensitive feature vectors are obtained and stored in database. Meanwhile, the sensitive feature vectors are randomly chosen from the database and constitute training samples and testing samples. Then the optimal kernel function parameter and penalty factor of SVM are searched with the method of QGA. Finally, the training samples are used to train optimized SVM while testing samples are adopted to test the prediction accuracy of the trained SVM so the screw remaining life prediction model can be got. The experiment results show that the screw remaining life prediction model could effectively predict screw remaining life.

  17. The partial mediation effect of satisfaction with social support and coping effectiveness on health-related quality of life and perceived stress long-term after heart transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    White-Williams C

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Connie White-Williams,1 Kathleen L Grady,2 Pariya Fazeli,1 Susan Myers,1 Linda Moneyham,3 Karen Meneses,3 Bruce Rybarczyk4 1University of Alabama Medical Center, Birmingham, AL, USA; 2Division of Cardiac Surgery, Department of Surgery, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL, USA; 3School of Nursing, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USA; 4Department of Psychology, Clinical Psychology Program, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA, USA Abstract: The purpose of this research was to examine whether satisfaction with social support and coping effectiveness mediate the relationship between stress and health-related quality of life (HRQOL 5 years after heart transplantation. Data were collected from 212 heart transplant patients (80% male, 92% white, mean age 59.9 years at four United States sites using the Heart Transplant Stressor Scale, Social Support Index, Jalowiec Coping Scale, and Quality of Life Index. Using Baron and Kenny's approach, a series of regression equations for mediation revealed that both satisfaction with social support and coping partially mediated the relationship between perceived stress and HRQOL. Understanding the relationships of social support, stress, and coping on patients' HRQOL is important for the development of interventions to provide optimal patient care. Keywords: heart transplantation, social support, coping, stress, mediation

  18. Space Suit Portable Life Support System (PLSS) 2.0 Human-in-the-Loop (HITL) Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Carly; Vogel, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    The space suit Portable Life Support System (PLSS) 2.0 represents the second integrated prototype developed and tested to mature a design that uses advanced technologies to reduce consumables, improve robustness, and provide additional capabilities over the current state of the art. PLSS 2.0 was developed in 2012, with extensive functional evaluations and system performance testing through mid-2014. In late 2014, PLSS 2.0 was integrated with the Mark III space suit in an ambient laboratory environment to facilitate manned testing, designated PLSS 2.0 Human-in-the-Loop (HITL) testing, in which the PLSS prototype performed the primary life support functions, including suit pressure regulation, ventilation, carbon dioxide control, and cooling of the test subject and PLSS avionics. The intent of this testing was to obtain subjective test subject feedback regarding qualitative aspects of PLSS 2.0 performance such as thermal comfort, sounds, smells, and suit pressure fluctuations due to the cycling carbon dioxide removal system, as well as to collect PLSS performance data over a range of human metabolic rates from 500-3000 Btu/hr. Between October 27 and December 18, 2014, nineteen two-hour simulated EVA test points were conducted in which suited test subjects walked on a treadmill to achieve a target metabolic rate. Six test subjects simulated nominal and emergency EVA conditions with varied test parameters including metabolic rate profile, carbon dioxide removal control mode, cooling water temperature, and Liquid Cooling and Ventilation Garment (state of the art or prototype). The nineteen test points achieved more than 60 hours of test time, with 36 hours accounting for simulated EVA time. The PLSS 2.0 test article performed nominally throughout the test series, confirming design intentions for the advanced PLSS. Test subjects' subjective feedback provided valuable insight into thermal comfort and perceptions of suit pressure fluctuations that will influence future

  19. [Physiological and ecological characteristics of Azolla pinnata and its possible use in biological life support systems].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepelev, E Ia; Tkhyok, N; Meleshko, G I; Antonian, A A; Galkina, T B

    1983-01-01

    The principal physiological and ecological characteristics of Azolla pinnata were investigated in order to determine its potential use in biological life support systems. Plant requirements for biogenic elements were specified in order to develop balanced nutrient mixtures for continuous cultivation. Data on the growth and development, photosynthetic and nitrogen fixation rate, and biochemical composition of the plant were obtained for optimal cultivation conditions. The plant biomass contains large quantities of carotenoids and sulfur-containing amino acids, which are deficient in unicellular algae. This makes Azolla an attractive source of the above compounds for biological life support systems and other applications.

  20. Implementing supercritical water oxidation technology in a lunar base environmental control/life support system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer Sedej, M.

    1985-01-01

    A supercritical water oxidation system (SCWOS) offers several advantages for a lunar base environmental control/life support system (ECLSS) compared to an ECLSS based on Space Station technology. In supercritically heated water (630 K, 250 atm) organic materials mix freely with oxygen and undergo complete combustion. Inorganic salts lose solubility and precipitate out. Implementation of SCWOS can make an ECLSS more efficient and reliable by elimination of several subsystems and by reduction in potential losses of life support consumables. More complete closure of the total system reduces resupply requirements from the earth, a crucial cost item in maintaining a lunar base.

  1. A case of thyroid storm with cardiac arrest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakashima Y

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Yutaka Nakashima,1 Tsuneaki Kenzaka,2 Masanobu Okayama,3 Eiji Kajii31Department for Support of Rural Medicine, Yamaguchi Grand Medical Center, 2Division of General Medicine, Center for Community Medicine, Jichi Medical University School of Medicine, Shimotsuke, Japan; 3Division of Community and Family Medicine, Center for Community Medicine, Jichi Medical University School of Medicine, Shimotsuke, JapanAbstract: A 23-year-old man became unconscious while jogging. He immediately received basic life support from a bystander and was transported to our hospital. On arrival, his spontaneous circulation had returned from a state of ventricular fibrillation and pulseless electrical activity. Following admission, hyperthyroidism led to a suspicion of thyroid storm, which was then diagnosed as a possible cause of the cardiac arrest. Although hyperthyroidism-induced cardiac arrest including ventricular fibrillation is rare, it should be considered when diagnosing the cause of treatable cardiac arrest.Keywords: hyperthyroidism, ventricular fibrillation, treatable cardiac arrest, cardiac arrest, cardiopulmonary arrest

  2. The Role and Timing of Palliative Care in Supporting Persons with Intellectual Disability and Advanced Dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarron, Mary; McCallion, Philip; Fahey-McCarthy, Elizabeth; Connaire, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    Aim: To better describe the role and timing of palliative care in supporting persons with intellectual disabilities and advanced dementia (AD). Background: Specialist palliative care providers have focused mostly on people with cancers. Working with persons with intellectual disabilities and AD offers opportunities to expand such palliative care…

  3. Comparison of the quality of basic life support provided by rescuers trained using the 2005 or 2010 ERC guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jones Christopher M

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Effective delivery of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR and prompt defibrillation following sudden cardiac arrest (SCA is vital. Updated guidelines for adult basic life support (BLS were published in 2010 by the European Resuscitation Council (ERC in an effort to improve survival following SCA. There has been little assessment of the ability of rescuers to meet the standards outlined within these new guidelines. Methods We conducted a retrospective analysis of the performance of first year healthcare students trained and assessed using either the new 2010 ERC guidelines or their 2005 predecessor, within the University of Birmingham, United Kingdom. All students were trained as lay rescuers during a standardised eight hour ERC-accredited adult BLS course. Results We analysed the examination records of 1091 students. Of these, 561 were trained and assessed using the old 2005 ERC guidelines and 530 using the new 2010 guidelines. A significantly greater proportion of candidates failed in the new guideline group (16.04% vs. 11.05%; p  Conclusions The new ERC guidelines lead to a greater proportion of lay rescuers performing chest compressions at an erroneously fast rate and may therefore worsen BLS efficacy. Additional study is required in order to define the clinical impact of compressions performed to a greater depth and at too fast a rate.

  4. The Effect of the Duration of Basic Life Support Training on the Learners’ Cardiopulmonary and Automated External Defibrillator Skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Hyuck Lee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Basic life support (BLS training with hands-on practice can improve performance during simulated cardiac arrest, although the optimal duration for BLS training is unknown. This study aimed to assess the effectiveness of various BLS training durations for acquiring cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR and automated external defibrillator (AED skills. Methods. We randomised 485 South Korean nonmedical college students into four levels of BLS training: level 1 (40 min, level 2 (80 min, level 3 (120 min, and level 4 (180 min. Before and after each level, the participants completed questionnaires regarding their willingness to perform CPR and use AEDs, and their psychomotor skills for CPR and AED use were assessed using a manikin with Skill-Reporter™ software. Results. There were no significant differences between levels 1 and 2, although levels 3 and 4 exhibited significant differences in the proportion of overall adequate chest compressions (p<0.001 and average chest compression depth (p=0.003. All levels exhibited a greater posttest willingness to perform CPR and use AEDs (all, p<0.001. Conclusions. Brief BLS training provided a moderate level of skill for performing CPR and using AEDs. However, high-quality skills for CPR required longer and hands-on training, particularly hands-on training with AEDs.

  5. Space Suit Portable Life Support System (PLSS) 2.0 Unmanned Vacuum Environment Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Carly; Vogel, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    For the first time in more than 30 years, an advanced space suit Portable Life Support System (PLSS) design was operated inside a vacuum chamber representative of the flight operating environment. The test article, PLSS 2.0, was the second system-level integrated prototype of the advanced PLSS design, following the PLSS 1.0 Breadboard that was developed and tested throughout 2011. Whereas PLSS 1.0 included five technology development components with the balance the system simulated using commercial-off-the-shelf items, PLSS 2.0 featured first generation or later prototypes for all components less instrumentation, tubing and fittings. Developed throughout 2012, PLSS 2.0 was the first attempt to package the system into a flight-like representative volume. PLSS 2.0 testing included an extensive functional evaluation known as Pre-Installation Acceptance (PIA) testing, Human-in-the-Loop testing in which the PLSS 2.0 prototype was integrated via umbilicals to a manned prototype space suit for 19 two-hour simulated EVAs, and unmanned vacuum environment testing. Unmanned vacuum environment testing took place from 1/9/15-7/9/15 with PLSS 2.0 located inside a vacuum chamber. Test sequences included performance mapping of several components, carbon dioxide removal evaluations at simulated intravehicular activity (IVA) conditions, a regulator pressure schedule assessment, and culminated with 25 simulated extravehicular activities (EVAs). During the unmanned vacuum environment test series, PLSS 2.0 accumulated 378 hours of integrated testing including 291 hours of operation in a vacuum environment and 199 hours of simulated EVA time. The PLSS prototype performed nominally throughout the test series, with two notable exceptions including a pump failure and a Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporator (SWME) leak, for which post-test failure investigations were performed. In addition to generating an extensive database of PLSS 2.0 performance data, achievements included requirements and

  6. [Cardiac tamponade as the first symptom of lung cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gromadziński, Leszek; Przelaskowski, Piotr; Januszko-Giergielewicz, Beata; Górny, Jerzy; Stankiewicz, Aleksander; Każarnowicz, Andrzej; Pruszczyk, Piotr

    2013-01-01

    Pericardial effusion is a relatively common clinical problem. It is, however, rarely the first symptom of cancer. Cardiac tamponade testifies to an advanced stage of cancer and is a negative prognostic factor. This paper presents a patient in whom cardiac tamponade was the first symptom of lung cancer. A 63-year-old male, habitual smoker, was admitted to hospital due to progressive symptoms of exertional dyspnoea lasting for a few days and chest pain. Echocardiographic examination revealed a large amount of fluid in the pericardium with echocardiographic signs of a life-threatening cardiac tamponade. The patient underwent pericardial puncture and additional imaging examinations. Lung adenocarcinoma was recognized as the underlying disease. Due to the recurrence of the life-threatening cardiac tamponade, video-assisted thoracoscopic pericardial fenestration was performed and systemic chemotherapy was introduced with good results.

  7. Evaluation of Aquaponics Techniques for Enhancing Productivity and Degree of Closure of Bioregenerative Life Support Systems (BLSS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Mark; Dempster, William; Highfield, Eric

    A number of researchers in space bioregenerative life support systems (BLSS) have advocated the inclusion of fish-rearing. Fish have relatively high feed to production ratios and can utilize some waste products from other system components. In recent years, there has been much advance in an approach to combining fish-culture with hydroponically-grown crops called “aquaponics”. Aquaponics systems vary but generally include: fish-rearing unit, settling basin, biofilter, hydroponic plant unit and sump where water is pumped back and the cycle continues. Aquaponics research and application has grown since these systems have the potential to increase overall productivity of both crops and fish. Since the fish waste is used as the growth medium of the food plants, there are environmental benefits in reduced discharge of nutrient-rich wastewater which has been one of the drawbacks of conventional aquaculture. In addition, since water use is reduced 95+% over field agriculture, since water from the hydroponic tanks is fed back to the fish tanks and water is recycled apart from evapotranspiration losses, conservation of water resources and applications in water-limited arid regions are other benefits fueling the spread of aquaponics around the world. These considerations also make utilization of aquaponic approaches desirable in BLSS for space application. This paper will examine some recent research results with aquaponics and explore how it might be utilized for food production and reduction of consumables in space life support. In addition, a review and comparison with other fish-culture options previously advanced will evaluate whether aquaponics can improve production efficiency, reduce inputs and better recycle critical resources. Finally, we will explore whether for the space environment, even more advanced aquaponics systems are possible where consumables such as fish-food can be partially or completely supplied from other subsystems of the BLSS and ET water

  8. Calendar Life Studies of Advanced Technology Development Program Gen 1 Lithium Ion Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, Randy Ben; Motloch, Chester George

    2001-03-01

    This report presents the test results of a special calendar-life test conducted on 18650-size, prototype, lithium-ion battery cells developed to establish a baseline chemistry and performance for the Advanced Technology Development Program. As part of electrical performance testing, a new calendar-life test protocol was used. The test consisted of a once-per-day discharge and charge pulse designed to have minimal impact on the cell yet establish the performance of the cell over a period of time such that the calendar life of the cell could be determined. The calendar life test matrix included two states of charge (i.e., 60 and 80%) and four temperatures (40, 50, 60, and 70°C). Discharge and regen resistances were calculated from the test data. Results indicate that both discharge and regen resistance increased nonlinearly as a function of the test time. The magnitude of the discharge and regen resistance depended on the temperature and state of charge at which the test was conducted. The calculated discharge and regen resistances were then used to develop empirical models that may be useful to predict the calendar life or the cells.

  9. Cycle Life Studies of Advanced Technology Development Program Gen 1 Lithium Ion Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, Randy Ben; Motloch, Chester George

    2001-03-01

    This report presents the test results of a special calendar-life test conducted on 18650-size, prototype, lithium-ion battery cells developed to establish a baseline chemistry and performance for the Advanced Technology Development Program. As part of electrical performance testing, a new calendar-life test protocol was used. The test consisted of a once-per-day discharge and charge pulse designed to have minimal impact on the cell yet establish the performance of the cell over a period of time such that the calendar life of the cell could be determined. The calendar life test matrix included two states of charge (i.e., 60 and 80%) and four temperatures (40, 50, 60, and 70°C). Discharge and regen resistances were calculated from the test data. Results indicate that both discharge and regen resistance increased nonlinearly as a function of the test time. The magnitude of the discharge and regen resistance depended on the temperature and state of charge at which the test was conducted. The calculated discharge and regen resistances were then used to develop empirical models that may be useful to predict the calendar life or the cells.

  10. Quality of life in cancer patients: The role of optimism, hopelessness, and partner support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustavsson-Lilius, Mila; Julkunen, Juhani; Hietanen, Päivi

    2007-02-01

    The interaction of optimism, hopelessness and social support as predictors of Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQL) among seriously ill people is not well understood. Also, the impact of partner characteristics on patient quality of life has often been overlooked. In this study the relationships between optimism, hopelessness, partner support and HRQL were investigated in 155 cancer patients and their partners. Special attention was given to the effects of optimism and hopelessness as mediators and moderators in the partner support-HRQL relationship. The impact of partner optimism and hopelessness on perceived partner support and patient HRQL was also studied. The results indicated substantial gender differences in the relationships between the study variables. High levels of partner support were associated with female patients' optimistic appraisals, and together they predicted better HRQL at 8 months follow-up. Partial support was found for the effect of optimism as a mediator. For male patients, low hopelessness was the key variable predicting good HRQL. Clear evidence for the moderator effects of optimism/hopelessness was not found, and the expected impact of partner's characteristics on partner support or patient HRQL could not be confirmed. Although partner support, patient optimism and hopelessness all appeared to be important determinants of HRQL in cancer patients, the relationships between these variables differed by gender. The proposed mediation and moderation models needs to be confirmed in future studies.

  11. Quality of Life, Family Support, and Comorbidities in Institutionalized Elders With and Without Symptoms of Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Araújo, Aurigena Antunes; Rebouças Barbosa, Rosa Angélica Silveira; de Menezes, Marília Stefani Souza; de Medeiros, Ingrid Iana Fernandes; de Araújo, Raimundo Fernandes; de Medeiros, Caroline Addison Carvalho Xavier

    2016-06-01

    The institutionalization of elders can decrease the health status and quality of life in this population. The aim of this study was to analyze the socio-demographic, quality of life, family support, and comorbidities variables in institutionalized elders with and without symptoms of depression. This was a cross-sectional study in institutions for long permanence for the elderly in the State of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil. Two institutionalized elderly groups were compared (138 elders: 69 with and 69 without depressive symptoms). The instruments used were: mini-mental state examination, geriatric depression scale in the reduced version, socio-demographic questionnaire, quality of life (World Health Organization Quality of Life abbreviated-WHOQOL-bref), and inventory of perception of family support. Elders with depressive symptoms had inferior quality of life than those without depressive symptoms. Other factors that negatively influenced the quality of life in this population include: low economic conditions, occurrence of comorbidities, and deficient family assistance. These results have important implications in the decision making process with regard to strategies for improving the health status of institutionalized elders.

  12. In Situ Resource Utilization Technology Research and Facilities Supporting the NASA's Human Systems Research and Technology Life Support Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlagheck, Ronald A.; Sibille, Laurent; Sacksteder, Kurt; Owens, Chuck

    2005-01-01

    The NASA Microgravity Science program has transitioned research required in support of NASA s Vision for Space Exploration. Research disciplines including the Materials Science, Fluid Physics and Combustion Science are now being applied toward projects with application in the planetary utilization and transformation of space resources. The scientific and engineering competencies and infrastructure in these traditional fields developed at multiple NASA Centers and by external research partners provide essential capabilities to support the agency s new exploration thrusts including In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU). Among the technologies essential to human space exploration, the production of life support consumables, especially oxygen and; radiation shielding; and the harvesting of potentially available water are realistically achieved for long-duration crewed missions only through the use of ISRU. Ongoing research in the physical sciences have produced a body of knowledge relevant to the extraction of oxygen from lunar and planetary regolith and associated reduction of metals and silicon for use meeting manufacturing and repair requirements. Activities being conducted and facilities used in support of various ISRU projects at the Glenn Research Center and Marshall Space Flight Center will be described. The presentation will inform the community of these new research capabilities, opportunities, and challenges to utilize their materials, fluids and combustion science expertise and capabilities to support the vision for space exploration.

  13. Optimization of controlled environments for hydroponic production of leaf lettuce for human life support in CELSS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, C. A.; Knight, S. L.; Ford, T. L.

    1986-01-01

    A research project in the food production group of the Closed Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) program sought to define optimum conditions for photosynthetic productivity of a higher plant food crop. The effects of radiation and various atmospheric compositions were studied.

  14. Effects of Game Design Patterns on Basic Life Support Training Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelle, Sebastian; Klemke, Roland; Specht, Marcus

    2013-01-01

    Based on a previous analysis of game design patterns and related effects in an educational scenario, the following paper presents an experimental study. In the study a course for Basic Life Support training has been evaluated and two game design patterns have been applied to the course. The hypotheses evaluated in this paper relate to game design…

  15. Loneliness and Self-Esteem as Mediators between Social Support and Life Satisfaction in Late Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Feng; You, Xuqun

    2013-01-01

    This study examined both the mediation effects of loneliness and self-esteem for the relationship between social support and life satisfaction. Three hundred and eighty nine Chinese college students, ranging in age from 17 to 25 (M = 20.39), completed the emotional and social loneliness scale, the self-esteem scale, the satisfaction with life…

  16. National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Partnered Development of Cryogenic Life Support Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, David R.

    2014-01-01

    Partnering with National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) to develop several cyrogenically based life support technologies to be used in mine escape and rescue scenarios. Technologies developed for mine rescue directly benefit future NASA rescue and ground operation missions.

  17. Religion, Purpose in Life, Social Support, and Psychological Distress in Chinese University Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhizhong; Koenig, Harold G; Ma, Hui; Al Shohaib, Saad

    2016-06-01

    We examined the relationship between religious involvement and psychological distress and explored the mediating effects of social support and purpose in life in university students in western, mid-western, and eastern China. Cross-sectional survey of a representative sample of 1812 university students was conducted. The Purpose in Life scale, Duke Social Support Index, and Religious Commitment Inventory-10 were administered, along with Kessler's Psychological Distress Scale. Structural equation modeling was used to test two models of the mediation hypothesis, examining direct, indirect, and total effects. Model 1 (with direction of effect hypothesized from religiosity to psychological distress) indicated that religious involvement had a direct effect on increasing psychological distress (β = 0.23, p psychological distress to religiosity) indicated strong indirect protective effects of religiosity on psychological distress through purpose in life and social support (β = -.40, p psychological distress increases religious involvement, which then increases purpose in life and social support that then lead to lower psychological distress.

  18. A Living Laboratory Exploring Mobile Support for Everyday Life with Diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kanstrup, Anne Marie; Bjerge, Kim; Kristensen, Jens E.

    2010-01-01

    The paper presents the set up of a Living Laboratory in a city of North Denmark exploring mobile support for everyday life with diabetes. Background and definitions of the living lab method is presented together with descriptions of the technical setup, applications and explorations. The living l...

  19. Social support, hopelessness and life satisfaction among Roma and non-Roma adolescents in Slovakia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolarcik, P.; Geckova, A. Madarasova; Reijneveld, S. A.; van Dijk, J. P.

    2012-01-01

    Evidence on the psychosocial determinants of health among Roma adolescents is completely lacking. Our aim was to compare social support, life satisfaction and hopelessness of Slovak Roma and non-Roma adolescents and to assess the impact of parental education and social desirability on these differen

  20. Psychological support and quality of life in patients with gynecological cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgios Karabinis

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The gynecological cancer is the fourth in rate of occurrence in women and its treatment has a significant impact on their quality of life. The aim of the present study was to review the literature related to the impact of cancer on the quality of women' life, the psychosocial adjustment of women and the possible ways of psychological support. A search was conducted using the CINAHL, Medline, Google, and PubMed. The quality of life of women facing gynecological cancer is significantly affected. Various changes in the everyday life of the patients are observed as well as psychological exhaustion, which often occurs with depressive symptoms including fear and strong anxiety leading sometimes to panic. Sexual disorders also occur, and support should be immediately provided, prior to the announcement of the bad news from a health care professional. The supportive psychotherapy group contributes to the full understanding of the different aspects of the problem. It is also important for the patient to realize that she is not alone in coping with this difficult problem. The use of specific cognitive and behavioural methods can change her way of thinking and coping with her problem by using the most efficient ways. The diagnosis of gynecological cancer can, in many cases, cause severe anxiety and depression. The role of the nurse is important in psychological support and generally in dealing with problems arising from its treatment. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(11.000: 2992-2997

  1. Development of fiber optic sensor for fluid flow of astronauts’ life-support system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shachneva, E. A.; Murashkina, T. I.

    2016-08-01

    This paper proposes a fiber optic sensor consumption (volume, speed) of liquids in life-support systems of astronauts, as well as offers a simple method and apparatus for reproducing the parameters of fluid flow needed in research, yustiovke and adjusting the optical sensor system.

  2. Standardization of Experimental Design for Crop Cultivation in Life Support Systems for Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Silje Aase; Coelho, Liz Helena; Karoliussen, Irene; Kittang Jost, Ann-Iren

    Due to logistical challenges, long-term human space exploration missions require a life support system capable of regenerating all the essentials for survival. Higher plants can be utilized to provide a continuous supply of fresh food, fresh air, and clean water for humans. The extensive work performed have shown that higher plants are able to adapt to space conditions in low Earth orbit, at least from one generation from seed to seed. Since the hardware has turned out to be of great importance for the results in microgravity research, full environmental monitoring and control must be the standard for future experiments. Selecting a few model plants, including crop plants for life support, would further increase the comparability between studies. The European Space Agency (ESA) has developed the Micro-Ecological Life Support System Alternative (MELiSSA) program to develop a closed regenerative life support system, based on micro-organisms and higher plants, with continuous recycling of resources. In the present study, recommended standardization of the experimental design for future scientific work assessing the effects of graded gravity on plant metabolism will be presented. This includes the environmental conditions required for cultivation of the selected MEliSSA species (wheat, bread wheat, soybean and potato), as well as guidelines for sowing, plant handling and analysis. Keywords: microgravity; magnetic field; radiation; MELiSSA; Moon; Mars.

  3. Life Satisfaction of Older Adults in Hong Kong: The Role of Social Support from Grandchildren

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Vivian W. Q.

    2010-01-01

    This study explores the relationship between the life satisfaction of older adults and the social support from grandchildren in Hong Kong. Two hundred and fifteen older people (from the ages of 64 to 101, mean age 79.3), whose youngest grandchild was aged 12 or older, were recruited from elderly service agencies to participate in the study.…

  4. Design and Analysis of a Flexible, Reliable Deep Space Life Support System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Harry W.

    2012-01-01

    This report describes a flexible, reliable, deep space life support system design approach that uses either storage or recycling or both together. The design goal is to provide the needed life support performance with the required ultra reliability for the minimum Equivalent System Mass (ESM). Recycling life support systems used with multiple redundancy can have sufficient reliability for deep space missions but they usually do not save mass compared to mixed storage and recycling systems. The best deep space life support system design uses water recycling with sufficient water storage to prevent loss of crew if recycling fails. Since the amount of water needed for crew survival is a small part of the total water requirement, the required amount of stored water is significantly less than the total to be consumed. Water recycling with water, oxygen, and carbon dioxide removal material storage can achieve the high reliability of full storage systems with only half the mass of full storage and with less mass than the highly redundant recycling systems needed to achieve acceptable reliability. Improved recycling systems with lower mass and higher reliability could perform better than systems using storage.

  5. Needs for everyday life support for brain tumour patients' relatives: systematic literature review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Karina; Poulsen, H S

    2011-01-01

    . The relatives lacked information about how to provide day-to-day care and how to manage psychoses and neuropsychiatric problems at home. Likewise, they needed help from the professionals to talk with each other about potentially reduced life expectancy. Most relatives appeared to value specialist nurse support...

  6. Exploring Life Support Architectures for Evolution of Deep Space Human Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Molly S.; Stambaugh, Imelda C.

    2015-01-01

    Life support system architectures for long duration space missions are often explored analytically in the human spaceflight community to find optimum solutions for mass, performance, and reliability. But in reality, many other constraints can guide the design when the life support system is examined within the context of an overall vehicle, as well as specific programmatic goals and needs. Between the end of the Constellation program and the development of the "Evolvable Mars Campaign", NASA explored a broad range of mission possibilities. Most of these missions will never be implemented but the lessons learned during these concept development phases may color and guide future analytical studies and eventual life support system architectures. This paper discusses several iterations of design studies from the life support system perspective to examine which requirements and assumptions, programmatic needs, or interfaces drive design. When doing early concept studies, many assumptions have to be made about technology and operations. Data can be pulled from a variety of sources depending on the study needs, including parametric models, historical data, new technologies, and even predictive analysis. In the end, assumptions must be made in the face of uncertainty. Some of these may introduce more risk as to whether the solution for the conceptual design study will still work when designs mature and data becomes available.

  7. The Role of Musical Possible Selves in Supporting Subjective Well-Being in Later Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creech, Andrea; Hallam, Susan; Varvarigou, Maria; Gaunt, Helena; McQueen, Hilary; Pincas, Anita

    2014-01-01

    There is now an accepted need for initiatives that support older people's well-being. There is increasing evidence that active engagement with music has the potential to contribute to this. This paper explores the relationship between musical possible selves and subjective well-being in later life. The research reported here formed part of a…

  8. [Quality of life and supportive care in head and neck cancers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babin, Emmanuel; Heutte, Natacha; Grandazzi, Guillaume; Prévost, Virginie; Robard, Laetitia

    2014-05-01

    The quality of life of patients treated for head and neck cancers and their carers is part of the current concerns of health care teams. Assessment tools were created and helped to highlight the severe physical effects (pain, mucositis…) and chronic (mutilation, post-radiation complications…) related to the disease or to different treatments but also to consider the psychosocial impact of this disease. Improving the quality of life through a thoughtful and comprehensive support that must be associated with somatic care, mental health care, rehabilitation and inclusion of social difficulties and suffering relatives. Supportive care shall ensure a good quality of life for patients treated and their families but also reduce the physical effects associated with the disease and treatment. They rely on coordination of care including the cancer networks established in the cancer plan to ensure comprehensive and continuous care for these patients.

  9. Community gardens as sites of solace and end-of-life support: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Pauline; Spinaze, Anna

    2016-05-01

    In a pilot project, members of a community garden explored how they might provide better end-of-life support for their regional community. As part of the project, a literature review was undertaken to investigate the nexus between community gardens and end-of-life experiences (including grief and bereavement) in academic research. This article documents the findings of that review. The authors discovered there is little academic material that focuses specifically on community gardens and end-of-life experiences, but nonetheless the two subjects were seen to intersect. The authors found three points of commonality: both share a need and capacity for a) social/informal support, b) therapeutic space, and c) opportunities for solace.

  10. Beneficial triple-site cardiac resynchronization in a patient supported with an intra-aortic balloon pump for end-stage heart failure

    OpenAIRE

    Ciszewski, Jan; Maciąg, Aleksander; Gepner, Katarzyna; Smolis-Bąk, Edyta; Sterliński, Maciej

    2014-01-01

    The authors present the case of a 62-year-old male patient with an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator and end-stage heart failure supported with an intra-aortic balloon pump. Implantation of a triple-site cardiac resynchronization system and complex heart failure treatment brought a significant improvement, return to home activity and 17-month survival. The patient died due to heart failure aggravation. Within this time he was rehospitalized and successfully treated twice for an electrica...

  11. Dignity and Deferral Narratives as Strategies in Facilitated Technology-Based Support Groups for People with Advanced Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annette F. Street

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the value of facilitated telephone and online support groups for palliative care. Telephone interviews were conducted with twenty people living with advanced cancer who had participated in either a telephone or online support group facilitated by the Cancer Council Victoria, Melbourne, Australia. Two dominant participant narratives emerged: a focus on dying with dignity or an interest in deferring discussion of death and dying to focus on the present. Despite the different approaches, participants found the technology-based support groups to be accessible and safe environments in which to discuss difficult topics in privacy. Technology-based strategies provide opportunities for health professionals to provide social and emotional care to more people by moving beyond individualised care and facilitate peer-to-peer support at the end of life, especially to those with specific needs. Such options are feasible for palliative care services to set up and acceptable to a group of clients, especially for younger clients or those socially or geographically isolated.

  12. Assessment of the Impacts of ACLS on the ISS Life Support System using Dynamic Simulations in V-HAB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puetz, Daniel; Olthoff, Claas; Ewert, Michael K.; Anderson, Molly S.

    2016-01-01

    The Advanced Closed Loop System (ACLS) is currently under development by Airbus Defense and Space and is slated for launch to the International Space Station (ISS) in 2017. The addition of new hardware into an already complex system such as the ISS life support system (LSS) always poses operational risks. It is therefore important to understand the impacts ACLS will have on the existing systems to ensure smooth operations for the ISS. This analysis can be done by using dynamic computer simulations and one possible tool for such a simulation is Virtual Habitat (V-HAB). Based on Matlab (Registered Trademark) V-HAB has been under development at the Institute of Astronautics of the Technical University Munich (TUM) since 2006 and in the past has been successfully used to simulate the ISS life support systems. The existing V-HAB ISS simulation model treated the interior volume of the space station as one large ideally-stirred container. This model was improved to allow the calculation of the atmospheric composition inside the individual modules of the ISS by splitting it into ten distinct volumes. The virtual volumes are connected by a simulation of the inter-module ventilation flows. This allows for a combined simulation of the LSS hardware and the atmospheric composition aboard the ISS. A dynamic model of ACLS is added to the ISS simulation and different operating modes for both ACLS and the existing ISS life support systems are studied to determine the impacts of ACLS on the rest of the system. The results suggest that the US, Russian and ACLS CO2 systems can operate at the same time without impeding each other. Furthermore, based on the results of this analysis, the US and ACLS Sabatier systems can be operated in parallel as well to achieve the highest possible CO2 recycling together with a low CO2 concentration.

  13. Conducting Closed Habitation Experiments: Experience from the Lunar Mars Life Support Test Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barta, Daniel J.; Edeen, Marybeth A.; Henninger, Donald L.

    2006-01-01

    The Lunar-Mars Life Support Test Project (LMLSTP) was conducted from 1995 through 1997 at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration s (NASA) Johnson Space Center (JSC) to demonstrate increasingly longer duration operation of integrated, closed-loop life support systems that employed biological and physicochemical techniques for water recycling, waste processing, air revitalization, thermal control, and food production. An analog environment for long-duration human space travel, the conditions of isolation and confinement also enabled studies of human factors, medical sciences (both physiology and psychology) and crew training. Four tests were conducted, Phases I, II, IIa and III, with durations of 15, 30, 60 and 91 days, respectively. The first phase focused on biological air regeneration, using wheat to generate enough oxygen for one experimental subject. The systems demonstrated in the later phases were increasingly complex and interdependent, and provided life support for four crew members. The tests were conducted using two human-rated, atmospherically-closed test chambers, the Variable Pressure Growth Chamber (VPGC) and the Integrated Life Support Systems Test Facility (ILSSTF). Systems included test articles (the life support hardware under evaluation), human accommodations (living quarters, kitchen, exercise equipment, etc.) and facility systems (emergency matrix system, power, cooling, etc.). The test team was managed by a lead engineer and a test director, and included test article engineers responsible for specific systems, subsystems or test articles, test conductors, facility engineers, chamber operators and engineering technicians, medical and safety officers, and science experimenters. A crew selection committee, comprised of psychologists, engineers and managers involved in the test, evaluated male and female volunteers who applied to be test subjects. Selection was based on the skills mix anticipated for each particular test, and utilized

  14. Doctors’ Support – An important part of medical therapy and quality of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariusz Jaworski

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The correct patient – doctor relationship is important in shaping the whole process of treatment. The scientific studies highlight the various irregularities in this relationship and its negative impact on the effectiveness of medical treatment. The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between levels of doctors’ support and attitude to certain aspects of the treatment process and quality of life among patients with psoriasis. Material and Methods: The study was conducted on 50 patients with psoriasis aged from 21 to 78 who are treated in dermatological clinics. The Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI was used to assess the severity of psoriatic skin changes. The patients completed a questionnaire for the assessment of receive doctors’ support, and its relationship with the attitude towards the disease. The research tool was developed based on literature review. Results: The level of doctors’ support had a direct impact on the patients’ attitude the disease, including attitudes towards the treatment and medical personnel, as well as adherence to medical recommendations; and indirectly on satisfaction with the treatment and the quality of life. Conclusions: Results of this study have shown clear evidence the importance of the level of doctors’ support in psoriasis which could help to improve the overall functioning of these patients. The level of doctors’ support indirectly affects the quality of life in patients with psoriasis.

  15. History, progress and prospect for controlled ecological life support technique in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Shuangsheng

    2016-07-01

    Constructing controlled ecological life support system is an important supporting condition for carrying out manned deep-space exploration and extraterrestrial inhabitation and development in the future. In China, the controlled ecological life support technique has gone through a developmental process of more than twenty years, undergoing the course of from conceptual research, to key unit-level technique and key system-level integrated technique, and from ground-based simulated tests to spaceflight demonstrating test, and gained many important stagy harvests. In this paper, the present status, subsistent problems and next plans in the domain of CELSS techniques in China are introduced briefly, so as to play a referential role for promoting development of the techniques internationally.

  16. Physical sciences and engineering advances in life sciences and oncology a WTEC global assessment

    CERN Document Server

    Fletcher, Daniel; Gerecht, Sharon; Levine, Ross; Mallick, Parag; McCarty, Owen; Munn, Lance; Reinhart-King, Cynthia

    2016-01-01

    This book presents an Assessment of Physical Sciences and Engineering Advances in Life Sciences and Oncology (APHELION) by a panel of experts. It covers the status and trends of applying physical sciences and engineering principles to oncology research in leading laboratories and organizations in Europe and Asia. The book elaborates on the six topics identified by the panel that have the greatest potential to advance understanding and treatment of cancer, each covered by a chapter in the book. The study was sponsored by the National Cancer Institute (NCI) at the National Institute of Health (NIH), the National Science Foundation (NSF) and the National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering at the NIH in the US under a cooperative agreement with the World Technology Evaluation Center (WTEC).

  17. Compact Multi-Gas Monitor for Life Support Systems Control in Space: Evaluation Under Realistic Environmental Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Jesus Delgado; Phillips, Straun; Chullen, Cinda; Mendoza, Edgar

    2014-01-01

    Advanced space life support systems require lightweight, low-power, durable sensors for monitoring critical gas components. A luminescence-based optical flow-through cell to monitor carbon dioxide, oxygen, and humidity has been developed and was demonstrated using bench-top instrumentation under environmental conditions relevant to portable life support systems, including initially pure oxygen atmosphere, temperature range from 50 F to 150 F, and humidity from dry to 100% RH and under conditions of water condensation. This paper presents the most recent progress in the development of this sensor technology. Trace gas contaminants in a space suit, originating from hardware and material off-gassing and crew member metabolism, are from many chemical families. The result is a gas mix much more complex than the pure oxygen fed into the space suit, and this complexity may interfere with gas sensor readings. This paper presents an evaluation of optical sensor performance when exposed to the most significant trace gases reported to be found in space suits. A study of the calibration stability of the sensors is also presented. For that purpose, a profile of temperature, pressure, humidity, and gas composition for the duration of an EVA has been defined, and the performance of sensors operated repeatedly under those conditions has been studied. Finally, this paper presents the first compact readout unit for these optical sensors, designed for the volume, power, and weight restrictions of a PLSS.

  18. A cardiac-specific health-related quality of life module for young adults with congenital heart disease: development and validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamphuis, M; Zwinderman, K H; Vogels, T; Vliegen, H W; Kamphuis, R P; Ottenkamp, J; Verloove-Vanhorick, S P; Bruil, J

    2004-05-01

    This study represents the development and validation of a cardiac-specific module of the generic health-related quality of life (HRQoL) instrument, the TAAQOL (TNO/AZL Adult Quality Of Life), for young adults with congenital heart disease (CHD). Items were selected based on literature, an explorative previous study in CHD patients, interviews with patients, and the advice of experts. The newly developed Congenital Heart Disease-TNO/AZL Adult Quality of Life (CHD-TAAQOL) was tested in 156 patients with mild or complex CHD and consisted of three hypothesised subject scales: 'Symptoms' (9 items), 'Impact Cardiac Surveillance' (7 items), and 'Worries' (10 items). Cronbach's alpha for the three scales were 0.77, 0.78, and 0.82, respectively. Scale structure was confirmed by Principal Component Analysis, corrected item-scale and interscale correlations. Overall, 55% of reported health status problems were associated with negative emotions, which is an argument for assessing HRQoL as a concept distinct from health status. Convergent validity with validated generic instruments (TAAQOL and Short Form-36, SF-36) showed satisfactory coefficients. Discriminant validity was proven by significantly higher scores for mild CHD patients compared with those with complex CHD. In conclusion, the CHD-TAAQOL module together with the generic TAAQOL can be used to assess group differences for cardiac-specific HRQoL in young adults with CHD. Testing psychometric properties of the CHD-TAAQOL shows satisfactory results. However, to detect changes in HRQoL over time, further research is needed.

  19. Adolescent adjustment in the context of life change: the supportive role of parental structure provision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flamm, Elizabeth S; Grolnick, Wendy S

    2013-10-01

    This study examined the associations among disruptive life events, supportive parenting practices, adolescent self-perceptions, and emotional outcomes. One-hundred and three 7th graders (68% minority, 32% European American) and their parents completed recent negative life events checklists. Parents also reported the total number of major transitions (changes in residences, schools, parent's romantic partners) that adolescents experienced since birth. Life events were related to lower adolescent-reported perceptions of competence and control, higher adolescent-reported depression and behavior problems, and higher parent-reported conduct problems. Regression analyses supported a mediational model in which competence and control perceptions explained relations between adolescent life events and symptomatology. Parental structure-the provision of clear, consistent and predictable rules and expectations-was associated with more adaptive adolescent functioning, especially among girls. Regressions indicated that structure related to higher perceptions of competence and control and fewer behavioral problems, even after accounting for the risk associated with negative life events and transitions.

  20. Goals of care in advanced dementia: quality of life, dignity and comfort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volicer, L

    2007-01-01

    Prolongation of human lifespan is increasing the number of individuals suffering from Alzheimer's disease and other progressive dementia worldwide. There are about 5 million of these individuals in both United States and European Union and many more in other countries of the world (1). Because there is no curative treatment for these diseases, most individuals with dementia survive to an advanced stage of dementia at which time many of them require institutional care. Home care for individuals with advanced dementia and especially institutional care are very expensive and are becoming major public health problems. The cost of care for advanced dementia is often increased by the use of aggressive medical interventions that may not be in the best interest of the patient. Because advanced dementia is currently incurable, it should be considered a terminal illness, similar to terminal cancer. Therefore, palliative care may be the most appropriate strategy for management of advanced dementia (2). The goals of palliative care are maintenance of quality of life, dignity and comfort and the four articles in this special issue are addressing these goals. Enhancement of quality of life in dementia requires attention to three main domains: provision of meaningful activities, appropriate medical care, and treatment of behavioral symptoms (3). Individuals with advanced dementia may not be able to participate in many activity programs but they still may maintain some quality of life if they are provided care in a pleasant environment with constant presence of a caregiver. Simard describes a program, Namaste Care, which is specifically tailored for individuals with advanced dementia. This program requires neither major expenditure nor increased staffing and should be instituted in all facilities that care for individuals with advanced dementia. Maintaining functional status of individuals with advanced dementia is important because it improves their self esteem and facilitates