WorldWideScience

Sample records for advanced anodic materials

  1. Reduced Graphene Oxide/Tin-Antimony Nanocomposites as Anode Materials for Advanced Sodium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Liwen; Zhou, Weidong; Chabot, Victor; Yu, Aiping; Xiao, Xingcheng

    2015-11-11

    Reduced graphene oxides loaded with tin-antimony alloy (RGO-SnSb) nanocomposites were synthesized through a hydrothermal reaction and the subsequent thermal reduction treatments. Transmission electron microscope images confirm that SnSb nanoparticles with an average size of about 20-30 nm are uniformly dispersed on the RGO surfaces. When they were used as anodes for rechargeable sodium (Na)-ion batteries, these as-synthesized RGO-SnSb nanocomposite anodes delivered a high initial reversible capacity of 407 mAh g(-1), stable cyclic retention for more than 80 cycles and excellent cycle stability at ultra high charge/discharge rates up to 30C. The significantly improved performance of the synthesized RGO-SnSb nanocomposites as Na-ion battery anodes can be attributed to the synergetic effects of RGO-based flexible framework and the nanoscale dimension of the SnSb alloy particles (batteries.

  2. Preparation of Advanced Carbon Anode Materials from Mesocarbon Microbeads for Use in High C-Rate Lithium Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Dar Fang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Mesophase soft carbon (MSC and mesophase graphite (SMG, for use in comparative studies of high C-rate Lithium Ion Battery (LIB anodes, were made by heating mesocarbon microbeads (MCMB at 1300 °C and 3000 °C; respectively. The crystalline structures and morphologies of the MSC, SMG, and commercial hard carbon (HC were investigated by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and Raman spectroscopy. Additionally, their electrochemical properties, when used as anode materials in LIBs, were also investigated. The results show that MSC has a superior charging rate capability compared to SMG and HC. This is attributed to MSC having a more extensive interlayer spacing than SMG, and a greater number of favorably-oriented pathways when compared to HC.

  3. High performance anode for advanced Li batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lake, Carla [Applied Sciences, Inc., Cedarville, OH (United States)

    2015-11-02

    The overall objective of this Phase I SBIR effort was to advance the manufacturing technology for ASI’s Si-CNF high-performance anode by creating a framework for large volume production and utilization of low-cost Si-coated carbon nanofibers (Si-CNF) for the battery industry. This project explores the use of nano-structured silicon which is deposited on a nano-scale carbon filament to achieve the benefits of high cycle life and high charge capacity without the consequent fading of, or failure in the capacity resulting from stress-induced fracturing of the Si particles and de-coupling from the electrode. ASI’s patented coating process distinguishes itself from others, in that it is highly reproducible, readily scalable and results in a Si-CNF composite structure containing 25-30% silicon, with a compositionally graded interface at the Si-CNF interface that significantly improve cycling stability and enhances adhesion of silicon to the carbon fiber support. In Phase I, the team demonstrated the production of the Si-CNF anode material can successfully be transitioned from a static bench-scale reactor into a fluidized bed reactor. In addition, ASI made significant progress in the development of low cost, quick testing methods which can be performed on silicon coated CNFs as a means of quality control. To date, weight change, density, and cycling performance were the key metrics used to validate the high performance anode material. Under this effort, ASI made strides to establish a quality control protocol for the large volume production of Si-CNFs and has identified several key technical thrusts for future work. Using the results of this Phase I effort as a foundation, ASI has defined a path forward to commercialize and deliver high volume and low-cost production of SI-CNF material for anodes in Li-ion batteries.

  4. FeS anchored reduced graphene oxide nanosheets as advanced anode material with superior high-rate performance for alkaline secondary batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shangguan, Enbo; Guo, Litan; Li, Fei; Wang, Qin; Li, Jing; Li, Quanmin; Chang, Zhaorong; Yuan, Xiao-Zi

    2016-09-01

    A new nanocomposite formulation of the iron-based anode for alkaline secondary batteries is proposed. For the first time, FeS nanoparticles anchored on reduced graphene oxide (RGO) nanosheets are synthesized via a facile, environmentally friendly direct-precipitation approach. In this nanocomposite, FeS nanoparticles are anchored uniformly and tightly on the surface of RGO nanosheets. As an alkaline battery anode, the FeS@RGO electrode delivers a superior high-rate charge/discharge capability and outstanding cycling stability, even at a condition without any conductive additives and a high electrode loading of ∼40 mg cm-2. At high charge/discharge rates of 5C, 10C and 20C (6000 mA g-1), the FeS@RGO electrode presents a specific capacity of ∼288, 258 and 220 mAh g-1, respectively. Moreover, the FeS@RGO electrode exhibits an admirable long cycling stability with a superior capacity retention of 87.6% for 300 cycles at a charge/discharge rate of 2C. The excellent electrochemical properties of the FeS@RGO electrode can be stemmed from the high specific surface area, peculiar electric conductivity and robust sheet-anchored structure of the FeS@RGO nanocomposite. By virtue of its superior fast charge/discharge properties, the FeS@RGO nanocomposite is suitable as an advanced anode material for high-performance alkaline secondary batteries.

  5. Anodic Materials for Electrocatalytic Ozone Generation

    OpenAIRE

    Yun-Hai Wang; Qing-Yun Chen

    2013-01-01

    Ozone has wide applications in various fields. Electrocatalytic ozone generation technology as an alternative method to produce ozone is attractive. Anodic materials have significant effect on the ozone generation efficiency. The research progress on anodic materials for electrocatalytic ozone generation including the cell configuration and mechanism is addressed in this review. The lead dioxide and nickel-antimony-doped tin dioxide anode materials are introduced in detail, including their st...

  6. Defective Ti2Nb10O27.1: an advanced anode material for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chunfu; Yu, Shu; Zhao, Hua; Wu, Shunqing; Wang, Guizhen; Yu, Lei; Li, Yanfang; Zhu, Zi-Zhong; Li, Jianbao; Lin, Shiwei

    2015-12-01

    To explore anode materials with large capacities and high rate performances for the lithium-ion batteries of electric vehicles, defective Ti2Nb10O27.1 has been prepared through a facile solid-state reaction in argon. X-ray diffractions combined with Rietveld refinements indicate that Ti2Nb10O27.1 has the same crystal structure with stoichiometric Ti2Nb10O29 (Wadsley-Roth shear structure with A2/m space group) but larger lattice parameters and 6.6% O2- vacancies (vs. all O2- ions). The electronic conductivity and Li+ion diffusion coefficient of Ti2Nb10O27.1 are at least six orders of magnitude and ~2.5 times larger than those of Ti2Nb10O29, respectively. First-principles calculations reveal that the significantly enhanced electronic conductivity is attributed to the formation of impurity bands in Ti2Nb10O29-x and its conductor characteristic. As a result of the improvements in the electronic and ionic conductivities, Ti2Nb10O27.1 exhibits not only a large initial discharge capacity of 329 mAh g-1 and charge capacity of 286 mAh g-1 at 0.1 C but also an outstanding rate performance and cyclability. At 5 C, its charge capacity remains 180 mAh g-1 with large capacity retention of 91.0% after 100 cycles, whereas those of Ti2Nb10O29 are only 90 mAh g-1 and 74.7%.

  7. Anatase TiO2@C composites with porous structure as an advanced anode material for Na ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xiaodong; Zhang, Zhian; Du, Ke; Lai, Yanqing; Fang, Jing; Li, Jie

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, we propose a facile strategy to synthesize the porous structure TiO2@C composites through a two-step method, in which the precursor of MIL-125(Ti) was firstly prepared by solvent thermal method and then calcined under inert atmosphere. When employed as anodes for Na ion batteries, TiO2@C composites can exhibit a superior cyclability with a reversible sodium storage capacity of 148 mAh g-1 at the current density 0.5 A g-1 after 500 cycles and an excellent rate performance with a capacity of 88.9 mAh g-1 even the current reached to 2.5 A g-1 due to the dispersion of anatase TiO2 throughout amorphous carbon matrix and the synergistic effect between the anatase TiO2 nanocrystals and carbon matrix, which can availably enhance the electric conductivity and alleviate the volumetric variation of TiO2 during the insertion/extraction process of Na+.

  8. Hydrogenated TiO2 Branches Coated Mn3O4 Nanorods as an Advanced Anode Material for Lithium Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Nana; Yue, Jie; Chen, Liang; Qian, Yitai; Yang, Jian

    2015-05-20

    Rational design and delicate control on the component, structure, and surface of electrodes in lithium ion batteries are highly important to their performances in practical applications. Compared with various components and structures for electrodes, the choices for their surface are quite limited. The most widespread surface for numerous electrodes, a carbon shell, has its own issues, which stimulates the desire to find another alternative surface. Here, hydrogenated TiO2 is exemplified as an appealing surface for advanced anodes by the growth of ultrathin hydrogenated TiO2 branches on Mn3O4 nanorods. High theoretical capacity of Mn3O4 is well matched with low volume variation (∼4%), enhanced electrical conductivity, good cycling stability, and rate capability of hydrogenated TiO2, as demonstrated in their electrochemical performances. The proof-of-concept reveals the promising potential of hydrogenated TiO2 as a next-generation material for the surface in high-performance hybrid electrodes. PMID:25928277

  9. New High-Energy Nanofiber Anode Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xiangwu; Fedkiw, Peter; Khan, Saad; Huang, Alex; Fan, Jiang

    2013-11-15

    The overall goal of the proposed work was to use electrospinning technology to integrate dissimilar materials (lithium alloy and carbon) into novel composite nanofiber anodes, which simultaneously had high energy density, reduced cost, and improved abuse tolerance. The nanofiber structure allowed the anodes to withstand repeated cycles of expansion and contraction. These composite nanofibers were electrospun into nonwoven fabrics with thickness of 50 μm or more, and then directly used as anodes in a lithium-ion battery. This eliminated the presence of non-active materials (e.g., conducting carbon black and polymer binder) and resulted in high energy and power densities. The nonwoven anode structure also provided a large electrode-electrolyte interface and, hence, high rate capacity and good lowtemperature performance capability. Following are detailed objectives for three proposed project periods. • During the first six months: Obtain anodes capable of initial specific capacities of 650 mAh/g and achieve ~50 full charge/discharge cycles in small laboratory scale cells (50 to 100 mAh) at the 1C rate with less than 20 percent capacity fade; • In the middle of project period: Assemble, cycle, and evaluate 18650 cells using proposed anode materials, and demonstrate practical and useful cycle life (750 cycles of ~70% state of charge swing with less than 20% capacity fade) in 18650 cells with at least twice improvement in the specific capacity than that of conventional graphite electrodes; • At the end of project period: Deliver 18650 cells containing proposed anode materials, and achieve specific capacities greater than 1200 mAh/g and cycle life longer than 5000 cycles of ~70% state of charge swing with less than 20% capacity fade.

  10. Cu0.02Ti0.94Nb2.04O7: An advanced anode material for lithium-ion batteries of electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chao; Lin, Chunfu; Lin, Shiwei; Chen, Yongjun; Li, Jianbao

    2016-10-01

    To explore advanced anode materials for lithium-ion batteries of electric vehicles, Cu2+/Nb5+ co-doped TiNb2O7 is studied. Cu0.02Ti0.94Nb2.04O7 is successfully fabricated using a facile solid-state reaction. X-ray diffraction analyses combined with Rietveld refinements demonstrate that the trace Cu2+/Nb5+ co-doping does not destroy the shear ReO3 crystal structure of TiNb2O7 but increases the lattice parameters and unit cell volume. Specific surface area tests and scanning electron microscopy images reveal a smaller average particle size in Cu0.02Ti0.94Nb2.04O7. Due to the increased unit cell volume and free 3d electrons in Cu2+ ions, the Li+-ion diffusion coefficient and electronic conductivity of Cu0.02Ti0.94Nb2.04O7 are respectively enhanced by 14.8 times and at least 220 times. Consequently, Cu0.02Ti0.94Nb2.04O7 exhibits advanced electrochemical properties in terms of specific capacity, rate capability and cyclic stability. At 0.1 C, it delivers a large first-cycle discharge/charge capacity of 346/315 mAh g-1. At 10 C, it still provides a large capacity of 182 mAh g-1 with tiny loss of only 1.2% over 1000 cycles. In sharp contrast, TiNb2O7 shows a small capacity of only 90 mAh g-1 and large loss of 59.8%. Therefore, Cu0.02Ti0.94Nb2.04O7 possesses great potential for the application in lithium-ion batteries for electric vehicles.

  11. Multiwalled carbon nanotube@a-C@Co9S8 nanocomposites: a high-capacity and long-life anode material for advanced lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yanli; Yan, Dong; Xu, Huayun; Liu, Shuo; Yang, Jian; Qian, Yitai

    2015-02-01

    A one-dimensional MWCNT@a-C@Co9S8 nanocomposite has been prepared via a facile solvothermal reaction followed by a calcination process. The amorphous carbon layer between Co9S8 and MWCNT acts as a linker to increase the loading of sulfides on MWCNT. When evaluated as anode materials for lithium ion batteries, the MWCNT@a-C@Co9S8 nanocomposite shows the advantages of high capacity and long life, superior to Co9S8 nanoparticles and MWCNT@Co9S8 nanocomposites. The reversible capacity could be retained at 662 mA h g-1 after 120 cycles at 1 A g-1. The efficient synthesis and excellent performances of this nanocomposite offer numerous opportunities for other sulfides as a new anode for lithium ion batteries.A one-dimensional MWCNT@a-C@Co9S8 nanocomposite has been prepared via a facile solvothermal reaction followed by a calcination process. The amorphous carbon layer between Co9S8 and MWCNT acts as a linker to increase the loading of sulfides on MWCNT. When evaluated as anode materials for lithium ion batteries, the MWCNT@a-C@Co9S8 nanocomposite shows the advantages of high capacity and long life, superior to Co9S8 nanoparticles and MWCNT@Co9S8 nanocomposites. The reversible capacity could be retained at 662 mA h g-1 after 120 cycles at 1 A g-1. The efficient synthesis and excellent performances of this nanocomposite offer numerous opportunities for other sulfides as a new anode for lithium ion batteries. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Infrared spectrogram (IR) of glucose treated MWCNT; TEM images of MWCNT@a-C treated by different concentrations of glucose; SEM and TEM images of the intermediate product obtained from the solvothermal reaction between thiourea and Co(Ac)2; EDS spectrum of MWCNT@a-C@Co9S8 composites; SEM and TEM images of MWCNT@Co9S8 nanocomposites obtained without the hydrothermal treatment by glucose; SEM and TEM images of Co9S8 nanoparticles; Galvanostatic discharge-charge profiles and cycling performance of MWCNT@a-C; TEM images

  12. Integrating 3D Flower-Like Hierarchical Cu2NiSnS4 with Reduced Graphene Oxide as Advanced Anode Materials for Na-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Shuang; Wang, Sai; Li, Lin; Zhu, Yun-hai; Zhang, Xin-bo; Yan, Jun-min

    2016-04-13

    Development of an anode material with high performance and low cost is crucial for implementation of next-generation Na-ion batteries (NIBs) electrode, which is proposed to meet the challenges of large scale renewable energy storage. Metal chalcogenides are considered as promising anode materials for NIBs due to their high theoretical capacity, low cost, and abundant sources. Unfortunately, their practical application in NIBs is still hindered because of low conductivity and morphological collapse caused by their volume expansion and shrinkage during Na(+) intercalation/deintercalation. To solve the daunting challenges, herein, we fabricated novel three-dimensional (3D) Cu2NiSnS4 nanoflowers (CNTSNs) as a proof-of-concept experiment using a facile and low-cost method. Furthermore, homogeneous integration with reduced graphene oxide nanosheets (RGNs) endows intrinsically insulated CNTSNs with superior electrochemical performances, including high specific capacity (up to 837 mAh g(-1)), good rate capability, and long cycling stability, which could be attributed to the unique 3D hierarchical structure providing fast ion diffusion pathway and high contact area at the electrode/electrolyte interface. PMID:26986821

  13. Advanced Electrolyte/Additive for Lithium-Ion Batteries with Silicon Anode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Shuo; He, Meinan; Su, Chi-Cheung; Zhang, Zhengcheng

    2016-07-01

    State-of-the-art lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) are based on a lithium transition metal oxide cathode, a graphite anode and a nonaqueous carbonate electrolyte. To further increase the energy and power density of LIBs, silicon anodes have been intensively explored due to their high theoretical capacity, low operation potential, and low cost. However, the main challenges for Si anode are the large volume change during lithiation/delithiation process and the instability of the solid-electrolyte-interphase associated with this process. Recently, significant progress has been achieved via advanced material fabrication technologies and rational electrolyte design in terms of improving the Coulombic efficiency and capacity retention. In this paper, new developments in advanced electrolyte and additive for LIBs with Si anode were systematically reviewed, and perspectives over future research were suggested.

  14. Facile synthesis of porous NiCo2O4 microflowers as high-performance anode materials for advanced lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: - Abstract: Porous NiCo2O4 microflowers having very high Brunner-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area (∼109.283 m2/g) are fabricated by a facile solvothermal method followed by calcinating the Co-Ni hydroxides precursor in air. The as-prepared porous NiCo2O4 microflowers exhibit excellent cycling stability (952 mA h g−1 at a current density of 100 mA g−1 after 60 cycles and 720 mA h g−1 at a current density of 500 mA g−1 after 100 cycles). This outstanding electrochemical performance is attributed to the unique hierarchical structure and high porosity, which can provide enough space to buffer the volume expansion during the discharge and charge processes, increase the contact area between the electrode and electrolyte, and reduce the transport lengths of both lithium ions and electrons. The porous NiCo2O4 microflowers show great potential in high-capacity anode materials for next-generation lithium-ion batteries

  15. Material and Energy Flows in the Production of Cathode and Anode Materials for Lithium Ion Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunn, Jennifer B. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); James, Christine [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States); Gaines, Linda [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Gallagher, Kevin [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Dai, Qiang [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Kelly, Jarod C. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2015-09-01

    The Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions and Energy use in Transportation (GREET) model has been expanded to include four new cathode materials that can be used in the analysis of battery-powered vehicles: lithium nickel cobalt manganese oxide (LiNi0.4Co0.2Mn0.4O2 [NMC]), lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO4 [LFP]), lithium cobalt oxide (LiCoO2 [LCO]), and an advanced lithium cathode (0.5Li2MnO3∙0.5LiNi0.44Co0.25Mn0.31O2 [LMR-NMC]). In GREET, these cathode materials are incorporated into batteries with graphite anodes. In the case of the LMR-NMC cathode, the anode is either graphite or a graphite-silicon blend. Lithium metal is also an emerging anode material. This report documents the material and energy flows of producing each of these cathode and anode materials from raw material extraction through the preparation stage. For some cathode materials, we considered solid state and hydrothermal preparation methods. Further, we used Argonne National Laboratory’s Battery Performance and Cost (BatPaC) model to determine battery composition (e.g., masses of cathode, anode, electrolyte, housing materials) when different cathode materials were used in the battery. Our analysis concluded that cobalt- and nickel-containing compounds are the most energy intensive to produce.

  16. Materials characterization of cermet anodes tested in a pilot cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Windisch, C.F. Jr.; Strachan, D.M.; Henager, C.H. Jr. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)); Alcorn, T.R.; Tabereaux, A.T.; Richards, N.E. (Reynolds Metals Co., Muscle Shoals, AL (United States). Mfg. Technology Lab.)

    1993-02-01

    Cermet anodes were evaluated as nonconsumable substitutes for carbon anodes using a pilot-scale reduction cell at the Reynolds Manufacturing Technology Laboratory. After pilot cell testing, tile anodes were subjected to extensive materials characterization and physical properties measurements at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory. Significant changes in the composition of the cermet anodes were observed including the growth of a reaction layer and penetration of electrolyte deep into the cermet matrix. Fracture strength and toughness were measured as a function of temperature and the ductile-brittle transition wasreduced by 500C following pilot cell testing. These results imply difficulties with anode material and control of operating conditions in the pilot cell, and suggest that additional development work be performed before the cermet anodes are used in commercial reduction cells. The results also highlight specific fabrication and operational considerations that should be addressed in future testing.

  17. Nanocomposite anode materials for sodium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manthiram, Arumugam; Kim Il, Tae; Allcorn, Eric

    2016-06-14

    The disclosure relates to an anode material for a sodium-ion battery having the general formula AO.sub.x--C or AC.sub.x--C, where A is aluminum (Al), magnesium (Mg), titanium (Ti), vanadium (V), chromium (Cr), manganese (Mn), iron (Fe), cobalt (Co), nickel (Ni), zirconium (Zr), molybdenum (Mo), tungsten (W), niobium (Nb), tantalum (Ta), silicon (Si), or any combinations thereof. The anode material also contains an electrochemically active nanoparticles within the matrix. The nanoparticle may react with sodium ion (Na.sup.+) when placed in the anode of a sodium-ion battery. In more specific embodiments, the anode material may have the general formula M.sub.ySb-M'O.sub.x--C, Sb-MO.sub.x--C, M.sub.ySn-M'C.sub.x--C, or Sn-MC.sub.x--C. The disclosure also relates to rechargeable sodium-ion batteries containing these materials and methods of making these materials.

  18. ANODE CATALYST MATERIALS FOR USE IN FUEL CELLS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2002-01-01

    a substrate material selected from Ru and Os; the respective components being present within specific ranges, display improved properties for use inanodes for low-temperature fuel cell anodes for PENFC fuel cells and direct methanol fuel cells....

  19. Advanced functional materials

    CERN Document Server

    2011-01-01

    This book reviews the results of recent research on new materials arising from progress in polymer, ceramic, sensor, and fuel cell technology, including advanced inorganic-organic-hybrid polymeric materials, high functional sensor, and microbial fuel cells.

  20. Advanced image analysis of the surface pattern emerging in Ni3Al intermetallic alloys on anodization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Salerno

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Anodization of Ni3Al alloy is of interest in the field of industrial manufacturing, thanks to the formation of protective oxide layer on the materials working in corrosive environments and high temperatures. However, homogeneous surface treatment is paramount for technological applications of this material. The anodization conditions have to be set outside the ranges of corrosion and burning, which is the electric field enhanced anodic dissolution of the metal. In order to check against occurrence of these events, proper quantitative means for assessing the surface quality have to be developed and established. We approached this task by advanced analysis of scanning electron microscope images of anodized Ni3Al plates. The anodization was carried out in 0.3 M citric acid at two temperatures of 0 and 30°C and at voltages in the range of 2 12 V. Different figures can be used to characterize the quality of the surface, in terms of uniformity. Here, the concept of regularity ratio spread is used for the first time on surfaces of technological interest. Additionally, the Minkowski parameters have been calculated and their meaning is discussed.

  1. Facile synthesis of reduced graphene oxide-porous silicon composite as superior anode material for lithium-ion battery anodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Lian-Sheng; Liu, Jin-Yu; Li, Hong-Yan; Wu, Tong-Shun; Li, Fenghua; Wang, Hao-Yu; Niu, Li

    2016-05-01

    We report a new method for synthesizing reduced graphene oxide (rGO)-porous silicon composite for lithium-ion battery anodes. Rice husks were used as a as a raw material source for the synthesis of porous Si through magnesiothermic reduction process. The as-obtained composite exhibits good rate and cycling performance taking advantage of the porous structure of silicon inheriting from rice husks and the outstanding characteristic of graphene. A considerably high delithiation capacity of 907 mA h g-1 can be retained even at a rate of 16 A g-1. A discharge capacity of 830 mA h g-1 at a current density of 1 A g-1 was delivered after 200 cycles. This may contribute to the further advancement of Si-based composite anode design.

  2. Na-Ion Battery Anodes: Materials and Electrochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Wei; Shen, Fei; Bommier, Clement; Zhu, Hongli; Ji, Xiulei; Hu, Liangbing

    2016-02-16

    The intermittent nature of renewable energy sources, such as solar and wind, calls for sustainable electrical energy storage (EES) technologies for stationary applications. Li will be simply too rare for Li-ion batteries (LIBs) to be used for large-scale storage purposes. In contrast, Na-ion batteries (NIBs) are highly promising to meet the demand of grid-level storage because Na is truly earth abundant and ubiquitous around the globe. Furthermore, NIBs share a similar rocking-chair operation mechanism with LIBs, which potentially provides high reversibility and long cycling life. It would be most efficient to transfer knowledge learned on LIBs during the last three decades to the development of NIBs. Following this logic, rapid progress has been made in NIB cathode materials, where layered metal oxides and polyanionic compounds exhibit encouraging results. On the anode side, pure graphite as the standard anode for LIBs can only form NaC64 in NIBs if solvent co-intercalation does not occur due to the unfavorable thermodynamics. In fact, it was the utilization of a carbon anode in LIBs that enabled the commercial successes. Anodes of metal-ion batteries determine key characteristics, such as safety and cycling life; thus, it is indispensable to identify suitable anode materials for NIBs. In this Account, we review recent development on anode materials for NIBs. Due to the limited space, we will mainly discuss carbon-based and alloy-based anodes and highlight progress made in our groups in this field. We first present what is known about the failure mechanism of graphite anode in NIBs. We then go on to discuss studies on hard carbon anodes, alloy-type anodes, and organic anodes. Especially, the multiple functions of natural cellulose that is used as a low-cost carbon precursor for mass production and as a soft substrate for tin anodes are highlighted. The strategies of minimizing the surface area of carbon anodes for improving the first-cycle Coulombic efficiency are

  3. Na-Ion Battery Anodes: Materials and Electrochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Wei; Shen, Fei; Bommier, Clement; Zhu, Hongli; Ji, Xiulei; Hu, Liangbing

    2016-02-16

    The intermittent nature of renewable energy sources, such as solar and wind, calls for sustainable electrical energy storage (EES) technologies for stationary applications. Li will be simply too rare for Li-ion batteries (LIBs) to be used for large-scale storage purposes. In contrast, Na-ion batteries (NIBs) are highly promising to meet the demand of grid-level storage because Na is truly earth abundant and ubiquitous around the globe. Furthermore, NIBs share a similar rocking-chair operation mechanism with LIBs, which potentially provides high reversibility and long cycling life. It would be most efficient to transfer knowledge learned on LIBs during the last three decades to the development of NIBs. Following this logic, rapid progress has been made in NIB cathode materials, where layered metal oxides and polyanionic compounds exhibit encouraging results. On the anode side, pure graphite as the standard anode for LIBs can only form NaC64 in NIBs if solvent co-intercalation does not occur due to the unfavorable thermodynamics. In fact, it was the utilization of a carbon anode in LIBs that enabled the commercial successes. Anodes of metal-ion batteries determine key characteristics, such as safety and cycling life; thus, it is indispensable to identify suitable anode materials for NIBs. In this Account, we review recent development on anode materials for NIBs. Due to the limited space, we will mainly discuss carbon-based and alloy-based anodes and highlight progress made in our groups in this field. We first present what is known about the failure mechanism of graphite anode in NIBs. We then go on to discuss studies on hard carbon anodes, alloy-type anodes, and organic anodes. Especially, the multiple functions of natural cellulose that is used as a low-cost carbon precursor for mass production and as a soft substrate for tin anodes are highlighted. The strategies of minimizing the surface area of carbon anodes for improving the first-cycle Coulombic efficiency are

  4. Joining of advanced materials

    CERN Document Server

    Messler, Robert W

    1993-01-01

    Provides an unusually complete and readable compilation of the primary and secondary options for joining conventional materials in non-conventional ways. Provides unique coverage of adhesive bonding using both organic and inorganic adhesives, cements and mortars. Focuses on materials issues without ignoring issues related to joint design, production processing, quality assurance, process economics, and joining performance in service.Joining of advanced materials is a unique treatment of joining of both conventional and advanced metals andalloys, intermetallics, ceramics, glasses, polymers, a

  5. Advanced Aircraft Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivek Kumar Prince

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available There has been long debate on “advanced aircraft material” from past decades & researchers too came out with lots of new advanced material like composites and different aluminum alloys. Now days a new advancement that is in great talk is third generation Aluminum-lithium alloy. Newest Aluminum-lithium alloys are found out to have low density, higher elastic modulus, greater stiffness, greater cryogenic toughness, high resistance to fatigue cracking and improved corrosion resistance properties over the earlier used aircraft material as mentioned in Table 3 [1-5]. Comparison had been made with nowadays used composite material and is found out to be more superior then that

  6. Advanced healthcare materials

    CERN Document Server

    Tiwari, Ashutosh

    2014-01-01

    Advanced materials are attracting strong interest in the fundamental as well as applied sciences and are being extensively explored for their potential usage in a range of healthcare technological and biological applications. Advanced Healthcare Nanomaterials summarises the current status of knowledge in the fields of advanced materials for functional therapeutics, point-of-care diagnostics, translational materials, up and coming bio-engineering devices. The book highlights the key features which enable engineers to design stimuli-responsive smart nanoparticles, novel biomaterials, nan

  7. Carbon Fiber as Anode Material for Cathodic Prevention in Cementitious Materials

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Emma Qingnan; Tang, Luping; Zack, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Cathodic prevention (CPre) technique is a promising method and has been used for the past two decades to prevent steel from corrosion in concrete structures. However, wide application of this technique has been restricted due to high costs of anode materials. In order to lower the cost and further improve this technique, carbon fiber composite anode has been introduced as an alternative anode material with affordable price and other outstanding properties. This paper presents the study of usi...

  8. Carbon Cryogel Silicon Composite Anode Materials for Lithium Ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodworth James; Baldwin, Richard; Bennett, William

    2010-01-01

    A variety of materials are under investigation for use as anode materials in lithium-ion batteries, of which, the most promising are those containing silicon. 10 One such material is a composite formed via the dispersion of silicon in a resorcinol-formaldehyde (RF) gel followed by pyrolysis. Two silicon-carbon composite materials, carbon microspheres and nanofoams produced from nano-phase silicon impregnated RF gel precursors have been synthesized and investigated. Carbon microspheres are produced by forming the silicon-containing RF gel into microspheres whereas carbon nano-foams are produced by impregnating carbon fiber paper with the silicon containing RF gel to create a free standing electrode. 1-4,9 Both materials have demonstrated their ability to function as anodes and utilize the silicon present in the material. Stable reversible capacities above 400 mAh/g for the bulk material and above 1000 mAh/g of Si have been observed.

  9. Machinability of advanced materials

    CERN Document Server

    Davim, J Paulo

    2014-01-01

    Machinability of Advanced Materials addresses the level of difficulty involved in machining a material, or multiple materials, with the appropriate tooling and cutting parameters.  A variety of factors determine a material's machinability, including tool life rate, cutting forces and power consumption, surface integrity, limiting rate of metal removal, and chip shape. These topics, among others, and multiple examples comprise this research resource for engineering students, academics, and practitioners.

  10. Phase III Advanced Anodes and Cathodes Utilized in Energy Efficient Aluminum Production Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R.A. Christini; R.K. Dawless; S.P. Ray; D.A. Weirauch, Jr.

    2001-11-05

    During Phase I of the present program, Alcoa developed a commercial cell concept that has been estimated to save 30% of the energy required for aluminum smelting. Phase ii involved the construction of a pilot facility and operation of two pilots. Phase iii of the Advanced Anodes and Cathodes Program was aimed at bench experiments to permit the resolution of certain questions to be followed by three pilot cells. All of the milestones related to materials, in particular metal purity, were attained with distinct improvements over work in previous phases of the program. NiO additions to the ceramic phase and Ag additions to the Cu metal phase of the cermet improved corrosion resistance sufficiently that the bench scale pencil anodes met the purity milestones. Some excellent metal purity results have been obtained with anodes of the following composition: Further improvements in anode material composition appear to be dependent on a better understanding of oxide solubilities in molten cryolite. For that reason, work was commissioned with an outside consultant to model the MeO - cryolite systems. That work has led to a better understanding of which oxides can be used to substitute into the NiO-Fe2O3 ceramic phase to stabilize the ferrites and reduce their solubility in molten cryolite. An extensive number of vertical plate bench electrolysis cells were run to try to find conditions where high current efficiencies could be attained. TiB2-G plates were very inconsistent and led to poor wetting and drainage. Pure TiB2 did produce good current efficiencies at small overlaps (shadowing) between the anodes and cathodes. This bench work with vertical plate anodes and cathodes reinforced the importance of good cathode wetting to attain high current efficiencies. Because of those conclusions, new wetting work was commissioned and became a major component of the research during the third year of Phase III. While significant progress was made in several areas, much work needs to be

  11. Advanced energy materials

    CERN Document Server

    Tiwari, Ashutosh

    2014-01-01

    An essential resource for scientists designing new energy materials for the vast landscape of solar energy conversion as well as materials processing and characterization Based on the new and fundamental research on novel energy materials with tailor-made photonic properties, the role of materials engineering has been to provide much needed support in the development of photovoltaic devices. Advanced Energy Materials offers a unique, state-of-the-art look at the new world of novel energy materials science, shedding light on the subject's vast multi-disciplinary approach The book focuses p

  12. Nanocomposite anode materials for sodium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manthiram, Arumugam; Kim Il, Tae; Allcorn, Eric

    2016-06-14

    The disclosure relates to an anode material for a sodium-ion battery having the general formula AO.sub.x--C or AC.sub.x--C, where A is aluminum (Al), magnesium (Mg), titanium (Ti), vanadium (V), chromium (Cr), manganese (Mn), iron (Fe), cobalt (Co), nickel (Ni), zirconium (Zr), molybdenum (Mo), tungsten (W), niobium (Nb), tantalum (Ta), silicon (Si), or any combinations thereof. The anode material also contains an electrochemically active nanoparticles within the matrix. The nanoparticle may react with sodium ion (Na.sup.+) when placed in the anode of a sodium-ion battery. In more specific embodiments, the anode material may have the general formula M.sub.ySb-M'O.sub.x--C, Sb-MO.sub.x--C, M.sub.ySn-M'C.sub.x--C, or Sn-MC.sub.x--C. The disclosure also relates to rechargeable sodium-ion batteries containing these materials and methods of making these materials.

  13. Organic anodes and sulfur/selenium cathodes for advanced Li and Na batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Chao

    To address energy crisis and environmental pollution induced by fossil fuels, there is an urgent demand to develop sustainable, renewable, environmental benign, low cost and high capacity energy storage devices to power electric vehicles and enhance clean energy approaches such as solar energy, wind energy and hydroenergy. However, the commercial Li-ion batteries cannot satisfy the critical requirements for next generation rechargeable batteries. The commercial electrode materials (graphite anode and LiCoO 2 cathode) are unsustainable, unrenewable and environmental harmful. Organic materials derived from biomasses are promising candidates for next generation rechargeable battery anodes due to their sustainability, renewability, environmental benignity and low cost. Driven by the high potential of organic materials for next generation batteries, I initiated a new research direction on exploring advanced organic compounds for Li-ion and Na-ion battery anodes. In my work, I employed croconic acid disodium salt and 2,5-Dihydroxy-1,4-benzoquinone disodium salt as models to investigate the effects of size and carbon coating on electrochemical performance for Li-ion and Na-ion batteries. The results demonstrate that the minimization of organic particle size into nano-scale and wrapping organic materials with graphene oxide can remarkably enhance the rate capability and cycling stability of organic anodes in both Li-ion and Na-ion batteries. To match with organic anodes, high capacity sulfur and selenium cathodes were also investigated. However, sulfur and selenium cathodes suffer from low electrical conductivity and shuttle reaction, which result in capacity fading and poor lifetime. To circumvent the drawbacks of sulfur and selenium, carbon matrixes such as mesoporous carbon, carbonized polyacrylonitrile and carbonized perylene-3, 4, 9, 10-tetracarboxylic dianhydride are employed to encapsulate sulfur, selenium and selenium sulfide. The resulting composites exhibit

  14. Optimization and Domestic Sourcing of Lithium Ion Battery Anode Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, III, D. L.; Yoon, S. [A123 Systems, Inc.

    2012-10-25

    The purpose of this Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) between ORNL and A123Systems, Inc. was to develop a low-temperature heat treatment process for natural graphite based anode materials for high-capacity and long-cycle-life lithium ion batteries. Three major problems currently plague state-of-the-art lithium ion battery anode materials. The first is the cost of the artificial graphite, which is heat-treated well in excess of 2000°C. Because of this high-temperature heat treatment, the anode active material significantly contributes to the cost of a lithium ion battery. The second problem is the limited specific capacity of state-of-the-art anodes based on artificial graphites, which is only about 200-350 mAh/g. This value needs to be increased to achieve high energy density when used with the low cell-voltage nanoparticle LiFePO4 cathode. Thirdly, the rate capability under cycling conditions of natural graphite based materials must be improved to match that of the nanoparticle LiFePO4. Natural graphite materials contain inherent crystallinity and lithium intercalation activity. They hold particular appeal, as they offer huge potential for industrial energy savings with the energy costs essentially subsidized by geological processes. Natural graphites have been heat-treated to a substantially lower temperature (as low as 1000-1500°C) and used as anode active materials to address the problems described above. Finally, corresponding graphitization and post-treatment processes were developed that are amenable to scaling to automotive quantities.

  15. Advances in electronic materials

    CERN Document Server

    Kasper, Erich; Grimmeiss, Hermann G

    2008-01-01

    This special-topic volume, Advances in Electronic Materials, covers various fields of materials research such as silicon, silicon-germanium hetero-structures, high-k materials, III-V semiconductor alloys and organic materials, as well as nano-structures for spintronics and photovoltaics. It begins with a brief summary of the formative years of microelectronics; now the keystone of information technology. The latter remains one of the most important global technologies, and is an extremely complex subject-area. Although electronic materials are primarily associated with computers, the internet

  16. Research Advances in Silicon-Based Anode Materials of High Capacity Lithium Ion Battery%高容量型锂离子电池硅基负极材料的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡社军; 张苗; 侯贤华; 王洁; 李敏; 刘祥

    2013-01-01

    Due to its high capacity , silicon based anode materials have been widely studied in recent years .How-ever,the commercialization of silicon-based materials as the anode of lithium-ion batteries( LIBs) has been hindered by the huge volume change , poor cycle life and low initial coulombic efficiency during the charge /discharge process .This article analyses the insertion/interinsertion lithium ion principle of silicon anodes , reviews the change of the crystal structure and the surface/interface of Si-based material during the intercalation/deintercalation of lith-ium, and the methods for improving the electrochemical performance .The prospects of silicon-based materials as the anode of LIBs are also discussed .%硅基负极材料由于具有高容量而被广泛研究,该材料在充/放电过程中巨大的体积变化、低的循环寿命和初始库仑效率阻碍了其商业化应用。在作者多年从事硅基负极材料的研究基础上,分析了硅基负极材料的工作原理,回顾了Si负极在脱/嵌锂过程中的晶体结构、表面/界面的变化以及提高其电化学性能的方法,讨论了锂离子电池硅基负极材料的前景。

  17. Trends in Catalytic Activity for SOFC Anode materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossmeisl, Jan; Bessler, W. G.

    2008-01-01

    Quantum mechanical calculations on the level of density-functional theory are used to calculate the stability of surface-adsorbed hydrogen atoms, oxygen atoms, and hydroxyl radicals for a variety of metals (Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Ru, Rh, Pd, Ag, Pt, Au) that may be used as electrode materials...... for solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) anodes. The reaction energies along the hydrogen oxidation pathway were quantified for both, oxygen spillover and hydrogen spillover mechanisms at the three-phase boundary. The ab initio results are compared to previously-obtained experimental anode activities measured...... that oxygen spillover, where adsorbed oxygen is a key intermediate, is the dominant reaction pathway under the conditions used in the experiments. In this way the activity is linked directly to the microscopic binding affinities of reaction intermediates, providing a new understanding of the anode reaction...

  18. Materials for advanced packaging

    CERN Document Server

    Wong, CP

    2008-01-01

    Significant progress has been made in advanced packaging in recent years. Several new packaging techniques have been developed and new packaging materials have been introduced. This book provides a comprehensive overview of the recent developments in this industry, particularly in the areas of microelectronics, optoelectronics, digital health, and bio-medical applications. The book discusses established techniques, as well as emerging technologies, in order to provide readers with the most up-to-date developments in advanced packaging.

  19. Materials for advanced packaging

    CERN Document Server

    Lu, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Significant progress has been made in advanced packaging in recent years. Several new packaging techniques have been developed and new packaging materials have been introduced. This book provides a comprehensive overview of the recent developments in this industry, particularly in the areas of microelectronics, optoelectronics, digital health, and bio-medical applications. The book discusses established techniques, as well as emerging technologies, in order to provide readers with the most up-to-date developments in advanced packaging.

  20. Advanced thermal management materials

    CERN Document Server

    Jiang, Guosheng; Kuang, Ken

    2012-01-01

    ""Advanced Thermal Management Materials"" provides a comprehensive and hands-on treatise on the importance of thermal packaging in high performance systems. These systems, ranging from active electronically-scanned radar arrays to web servers, require components that can dissipate heat efficiently. This requires materials capable of dissipating heat and maintaining compatibility with the packaging and dye. Its coverage includes all aspects of thermal management materials, both traditional and non-traditional, with an emphasis on metal based materials. An in-depth discussion of properties and m

  1. High capacity anode materials for lithium ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, Herman A.; Anguchamy, Yogesh Kumar; Deng, Haixia; Han, Yongbon; Masarapu, Charan; Venkatachalam, Subramanian; Kumar, Suject

    2015-11-19

    High capacity silicon based anode active materials are described for lithium ion batteries. These materials are shown to be effective in combination with high capacity lithium rich cathode active materials. Supplemental lithium is shown to improve the cycling performance and reduce irreversible capacity loss for at least certain silicon based active materials. In particular silicon based active materials can be formed in composites with electrically conductive coatings, such as pyrolytic carbon coatings or metal coatings, and composites can also be formed with other electrically conductive carbon components, such as carbon nanofibers and carbon nanoparticles. Additional alloys with silicon are explored.

  2. Development of Nanosized/Nanostructured Silicon as Advanced Anodes for Lithium-Ion Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, James J.

    2015-01-01

    NASA is developing high energy and high capacity Li-ion cell and battery designs for future exploration missions under the NASA Advanced Space Power System (ASPS) Program. The specific energy goal is 265 Wh/kg at 10 C. center dot Part of effort for NASA advanced Li-ion cells ? Anode: Silicon (Si) as an advanced anode. ? Electrolyte: advanced electrolyte with flame-retardant additives for enhanced performance and safety (NASA JPL).

  3. Nanoscale Engineering of Heterostructured Anode Materials for Boosting Lithium-Ion Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Gen; Yan, Litao; Luo, Hongmei; Guo, Shaojun

    2016-09-01

    Rechargeable lithium-ion batteries (LIBs), as one of the most important electrochemical energy-storage devices, currently provide the dominant power source for a range of devices, including portable electronic devices and electric vehicles, due to their high energy and power densities. The interest in exploring new electrode materials for LIBs has been drastically increasing due to the surging demands for clean energy. However, the challenging issues essential to the development of electrode materials are their low lithium capacity, poor rate ability, and low cycling stability, which strongly limit their practical applications. Recent remarkable advances in material science and nanotechnology enable rational design of heterostructured nanomaterials with optimized composition and fine nanostructure, providing new opportunities for enhancing electrochemical performance. Here, the progress as to how to design new types of heterostructured anode materials for enhancing LIBs is reviewed, in the terms of capacity, rate ability, and cycling stability: i) carbon-nanomaterials-supported heterostructured anode materials; ii) conducting-polymer-coated electrode materials; iii) inorganic transition-metal compounds with core@shell structures; and iv) combined strategies to novel heterostructures. By applying different strategies, nanoscale heterostructured anode materials with reduced size, large surfaces area, enhanced electronic conductivity, structural stability, and fast electron and ion transport, are explored for boosting LIBs in terms of high capacity, long cycling lifespan, and high rate durability. Finally, the challenges and perspectives of future materials design for high-performance LIB anodes are considered. The strategies discussed here not only provide promising electrode materials for energy storage, but also offer opportunities in being extended for making a variety of novel heterostructured nanomaterials for practical renewable energy applications.

  4. Review on recent progress of nanostructured anode materials for Li-ion batteries

    KAUST Repository

    Goriparti, Subrahmanyam

    2014-07-01

    This review highlights the recent research advances in active nanostructured anode materials for the next generation of Li-ion batteries (LIBs). In fact, in order to address both energy and power demands of secondary LIBs for future energy storage applications, it is required the development of innovative kinds of electrodes. Nanostructured materials based on carbon, metal/semiconductor, metal oxides and metal phosphides/nitrides/sulfides show a variety of admirable properties for LIBs applications such as high surface area, low diffusion distance, high electrical and ionic conductivity. Therefore, nanosized active materials are extremely promising for bridging the gap towards the realization of the next generation of LIBs with high reversible capacities, increased power capability, long cycling stability and free from safety concerns. In this review, anode materials are classified, depending on their electrochemical reaction with lithium, into three groups: intercalation/de-intercalation, alloy/de-alloy and conversion materials. Furthermore, the effect of nanoscale size and morphology on the electrochemical performance is presented. Synthesis of the nanostructures, lithium battery performance and electrode reaction mechanisms are also discussed. To conclude, the main aim of this review is to provide an organic outline of the wide range of recent research progresses and perspectives on nanosized active anode materials for future LIBs.

  5. Accelerating advanced-materials commercialization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maine, Elicia; Seegopaul, Purnesh

    2016-05-01

    Long commercialization times, high capital costs and sustained uncertainty deter investment in innovation for advanced materials. With appropriate strategies, technology and market uncertainties can be reduced, and the commercialization of advanced materials accelerated.

  6. Polarons in advanced materials

    CERN Document Server

    Alexandrov, Alexandre Sergeevich

    2008-01-01

    Polarons in Advanced Materials will lead the reader from single-polaron problems to multi-polaron systems and finally to a description of many interesting phenomena in high-temperature superconductors, ferromagnetic oxides, conducting polymers and molecular nanowires. The book divides naturally into four parts. Part I introduces a single polaron and describes recent achievements in analytical and numerical studies of polaron properties in different electron-phonon models. Part II and Part III describe multi-polaron physics, and Part IV describes many key physical properties of high-temperature superconductors, colossal magnetoresistance oxides, conducting polymers and molecular nanowires, which were understood with polarons and bipolarons. The book is written in the form of self-consistent reviews authored by well-established researchers actively working in the field and will benefit scientists and postgraduate students with a background in condensed matter physics and materials sciences.

  7. Investigation of Metal Oxide/Carbon Nano Material as Anode for High Capacity Lithium-ion Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, James Jianjun; Hong, Haiping

    2014-01-01

    NASA is developing high specific energy and high specific capacity lithium-ion battery (LIB) technology for future NASA missions. Current state-of-art LIBs have issues in terms of safety and thermal stability, and are reaching limits in specific energy capability based on the electrochemical materials selected. For example, the graphite anode has a limited capability to store Li since the theoretical capacity of graphite is 372 mAh/g. To achieve higher specific capacity and energy density, and to improve safety for current LIBs, alternative advanced anode, cathode, and electrolyte materials are pursued under the NASA Advanced Space Power System Project. In this study, the nanostructed metal oxide, such as Fe2O3 on carbon nanotubes (CNT) composite as an LIB anode has been investigated.

  8. Handbook of Advanced Magnetic Materials

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Yi; Shindo, Daisuke

    2006-01-01

    From high-capacity, inexpensive hard drives to mag-lev trains, recent achievements in magnetic materials research have made the dreams of a few decades ago reality. The objective of Handbook of Advanced Magnetic Materials is to provide a timely, comprehensive review of recent progress in magnetic materials research. This broad yet detailed reference consists of four volumes: 1.) Nanostructured advanced magnetic materials, 2.) Characterization and simulation of advanced magnetic materials, 3.) Processing of advanced magnetic materials, and 4.) Properties and applications of advanced magnetic materials The first volume documents and explains recent development of nanostructured magnetic materials, emphasizing size effects. The second volume provides a comprehensive review of both experimental methods and simulation techniques for the characterization of magnetic materials. The third volume comprehensively reviews recent developments in the processing and manufacturing of advanced magnetic materials. With the co...

  9. Preparation and properties of antimony thin film anode materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SU Shufa; CAO Gaoshao; ZHAO Xinbing

    2004-01-01

    Metallic antimony thin films were deposited by magnetron sputtering and electrodeposition. Electrochemical properties of the thin film as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries were investigated and compared with those of antimony powder. It was found that both magnetron sputtering and electrodeposition are easily controllable processes to deposit antimony films with fiat charge/discharge potential plateaus. The electrochemical performances of antimony thin films, especially those prepared with magnetron sputtering, are better than those of antimony powder. The reversible capacities of the magnetron sputtered antimony thin film are above 400 mA h g-1 in the first 15 cycles.

  10. Graphene composites as anode materials in lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazar Atabaki, M.; Kovacevic, R.

    2013-03-01

    Since the world of mobile phones and laptops has significantly altered by a big designer named Steve Jobs, the electronic industries have strived to prepare smaller, thinner and lower weight products. The giant electronic companies, therefore, compete in developing more efficient hardware such as batteries used inside the small metallic or polymeric frame. One of the most important materials in the production lines is the lithium-based batteries which is so famous for its ability in recharging as many times as a user needs. However, this is not an indication of being long lasted, as many of the electronic devices are frequently being used for a long time. The performance, chemistry, safety and above all cost of the lithium ion batteries should be considered when the design of the compounds are at the top concern of the engineers. To increase the efficiency of the batteries a combination of graphene and nanoparticles is recently introduced and it has shown to have enormous technological effect in enhancing the durability of the batteries. However, due to very high electronic conductivity, these materials can be thought of as preparing the anode electrode in the lithiumion battery. In this paper, the various approaches to characterize different types of graphene/nanoparticles and the process of preparing the anode for the lithium-ion batteries as well as their electrical properties are discussed.

  11. Anode materials for sour natural gas solid oxide fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danilovic, Nemanja

    Novel anode catalysts have been developed for sour natural gas solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) applications. Sour natural gas comprises light hydrocarbons, and typically also contains H2S. An alternative fuel SOFC that operates directly on sour natural gas would reduce the overall cost of plant construction and operation for fuel cell power generation. The anode for such a fuel cell must have good catalytic and electrocatalytic activity for hydrocarbon conversion, sulfur-tolerance, resistance to coking, and good electronic and ionic conductivity. The catalytic activity and stability of ABO3 (A= La, Ce and/or Sr, B=Cr and one or more of Ti, V, Cr, Fe, Mn, or Co) perovskites as SOFC anode materials depends on both A and B, and are modified by substituents. The materials have been prepared by both solid state and wet-chemical methods. The physical and chemical characteristics of the materials have been fully characterized using electron microscopy, XRD, calorimetry, dilatometry, particle size and area, using XPS and TGA-DSC-MS. Electrochemical performance was determined using potentiodynamic and potentiostatic cell testing, electrochemical impedance analysis, and conductivity measurements. Neither Ce0.9Sr0.1VO3 nor Ce0.9 Sr0.1Cr0.5V0.5O3 was an active anode for oxidation of H2 and CH4 fuels. However, active catalysts comprising Ce0:9Sr0:1V(O,S)3 and Ce0.9Sr 0.1Cr0.5V0.5(O,S)3 were formed when small concentrations of H2S were present in the fuels. The oxysulfides formed in-situ were very active for conversion of H2S. The maximum performance improved from 50 mW cm-2 to 85 mW cm -2 in 0.5% H2S/CH4 at 850°C with partial substitution of V by Cr in Ce0.9Sr0.1V(O,S)3. Selective conversion of H2S offers potential for sweetening of sour gas without affecting the hydrocarbons. Perovskites La0.75Sr0.25Cr0.5X 0.5O3--delta, (henceforth referred to as LSCX, X=Ti, Mn, Fe, Co) are active for conversion of H2, CH4 and 0.5% H2S/CH4. The order of activity in the different fuels depends on

  12. Pulsed laser deposited Si on multilayer graphene as anode material for lithium ion batteries

    OpenAIRE

    Gouri Radhakrishnan; Paul M. Adams; Brendan Foran; Michael V. Quinzio; Miles J. Brodie

    2013-01-01

    Pulsed laser deposition and chemical vapor deposition were used to deposit very thin silicon on multilayer graphene (MLG) on a nickel foam substrate for application as an anode material for lithium ion batteries. The as-grown material was directly fabricated into an anode without a binder, and tested in a half-cell configuration. Even under stressful voltage limits that accelerate degradation, the Si-MLG films displayed higher stability than Si-only electrodes. Post-cycling images of the anod...

  13. Rational design of metal oxide nanocomposite anodes for advanced lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yong; Yu, Shenglan; Yuan, Tianzhi; Yan, Mi; Jiang, Yinzhu

    2015-05-01

    Metal-oxide anodes represent a significant future direction for advanced lithium ion batteries. However, their practical applications are still seriously hampered by electrode disintegration and capacity fading during cycling. Here, we report a rational design of 3D-staggered metal-oxide nanocomposite electrode directly fabricated by pulsed spray evaporation chemical vapor deposition, where various oxide nanocomponents are in a staggered distribution uniformly along three dimensions and across the whole electrode. Such a special design of nanoarchitecture combines the advantages of nanoscale materials in volume change and Li+/electron conduction as well as uniformly staggered and compact structure in atom migration during lithiation/delithiation, which exhibits high specific capacity, good cycling stability and excellent rate capability. The rational design of metal-oxide nanocomposite electrode opens up new possibilities for high performance lithium ion batteries.

  14. Lithium-Ion-Battery Anode Materials with Improved Capacity from a Metal-Organic Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xiao-Ming; Niu, Ji-Liang; Lin, Jia; Wei, Lei-Ming; Hu, Lei; Zhang, Gang; Cai, Yue-Peng

    2016-09-01

    We present a porous metal-organic framework (MOF) with remarkable thermal stability that exhibits a discharge capacity of 300 mAh g(-1) as an anode material for a lithium-ion battery. Pyrolysis of the obtained MOF gives an anode material with improved capacity (741 mAh g(-1)) and superior cyclic stability. PMID:27548622

  15. Laser machining of advanced materials

    CERN Document Server

    Dahotre, Narendra B

    2011-01-01

    Advanced materialsIntroductionApplicationsStructural ceramicsBiomaterials CompositesIntermetallicsMachining of advanced materials IntroductionFabrication techniquesMechanical machiningChemical Machining (CM)Electrical machiningRadiation machining Hybrid machiningLaser machiningIntroductionAbsorption of laser energy and multiple reflectionsThermal effectsLaser machining of structural ceramicsIntrodu

  16. Building Self-Healing Alloy Architecture for Stable Sodium-Ion Battery Anodes: A Case Study of Tin Anode Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Jianfeng; Fan, Xiulin; Luo, Chao; Wang, Chunsheng

    2016-03-23

    The rational design of anode materials is a challenge in developing sodium ion batteries. Alloy anodes provide high gravimetric and volumetric capacities but suffer the short cycle life as a result of the continuous and accumulated pulverization, resulting from a large volume change during the cycling process. Herein, using pure Sn, an irreversible conversion reaction combined with an alloy reaction (SnO), and a reversible conversion reaction combined with an alloy reaction (Sn4P3) as samples, we demonstrate that the pulverization and aggregation of the alloy anode can be partially recovered and the accumulation of pulverization and aggregation during charge/discharge cycles can be terminated using a reversible conversion reaction combined with an alloy reaction. The cycling stability of three Sn-based anodes increases in order of Sn4P3 > SnO > Sn. The enhancement in Sn4P3 can be attributed to a reversible reaction of Sn4P3 + 9Na ↔ 4Sn + 3Na3P, which repairs the cracks, damage, and aggregation of Sn particles that occurred in the alloy process of 4Sn + 15Na ↔ Na15Sn4 during cycling and, hence, terminates the pulverization. The repair mechanism looks like the self-healing feature in nature, where the damage can be healed by itself. Therefore, the suggested mechanism can be called self-healing, while the repaired anode can be termed as the self-healing anode. The use of self-healing strategies to build an electrode architecture is new and highly desirable because it can increase the cycle life and provide a general approach toward stable electrode materials. PMID:26937998

  17. Metal carbonates as anode materials for lithium ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shao, Lianyi; Ma, Rui; Wu, Kaiqiang; Shui, Miao; Lao, Mengmeng; Wang, Dongjie; Long, Nengbing; Ren, Yuanlong; Shu, Jie, E-mail: sergio_shu@hotmail.com

    2013-12-25

    Highlights: •Metal carbonates are probable anode materials for lithium ion batteries. •CoCO{sub 3}/C composite can deliver an initial discharge capacity of 2096.6 mAh g{sup −1} . •Co, Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3}, Li{sub 2}O, and low-valence carbon are final lithiated products for CoCO{sub 3}. -- Abstract: Six metal carbonates (Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3}, Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}, SrCO{sub 3}, BaCO{sub 3}, K{sub 2}CO{sub 3}, CoCO{sub 3}) are tested and compared as anode materials for lithium ion batteries. The electrochemical results show that only CoCO{sub 3} is electrochemically active material and can deliver a high initial capacity of 1425.9 mAh g{sup −1}. The lithium storage mechanism in CoCO{sub 3} is studied by ex situ X-ray diffraction technique, ex situ infrared method, ex situ X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and in situ X-ray diffraction technique. It is found that the electrochemical reactions between CoCO{sub 3} and Li firstly result in the formation of metal Co and Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3}, and then partial Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3} is further reduced into carbon (C{sup 0}), low-valence carbon (C{sup 2+}), and Li{sub 2}O. It also demonstrates that the electrochemical reaction between CoCO{sub 3} and Li is a partially reversible process. Based on these electrochemical results, it is obvious that narrow potential range can acquire a better reversibility for CoCO{sub 3}/Li batteries by suppressing particle pulverization. Besides, the comparison of CoCO{sub 3}, ball-milled CoCO{sub 3} and ball-milled CoCO{sub 3}/C composite also indicates that smaller active particle and carbon buffer are beneficial to obtain better cycling performance and higher reversible capacity.

  18. Optical properties of advanced materials

    CERN Document Server

    Kajikawa, Kotaro

    2013-01-01

    In the last decade, optically functionalized materials have developed rapidly, from bulk matters to structured forms. Now we have a rich variety of attractive advanced materials. They are applied to optical and electrical devices that support the information communication technology in the mid 21-th century. Accordingly, it is quite important to have a broad knowledge of the optical properties of advanced materials for students, scientists and engineers working in optics and related fields. This book is designed to teach fundamental optical properties of such advanced materials effectively. These materials have their own peculiarities which are very interesting in modern optical physics and also for applications because the concepts of optical properties are quite different from those in conventional optical materials. Hence each chapter starts to review the basic concepts of the materials briefly and proceeds to the practical use. The important topics covered in this book include:  quantum structures of sem...

  19. Advanced morphological analysis of patterns of thin anodic porous alumina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Different conditions of fabrication of thin anodic porous alumina on glass substrates have been explored, obtaining two sets of samples with varying pore density and porosity, respectively. The patterns of pores have been imaged by high resolution scanning electron microscopy and analyzed by innovative methods. The regularity ratio has been extracted from radial profiles of the fast Fourier transforms of the images. Additionally, the Minkowski measures have been calculated. It was first observed that the regularity ratio averaged across all directions is properly corrected by the coefficient previously determined in the literature. Furthermore, the angularly averaged regularity ratio for the thin porous alumina made during short single-step anodizations is lower than that of hexagonal patterns of pores as for thick porous alumina from aluminum electropolishing and two-step anodization. Therefore, the regularity ratio represents a reliable measure of pattern order. At the same time, the lower angular spread of the regularity ratio shows that disordered porous alumina is more isotropic. Within each set, when changing either pore density or porosity, both regularity and isotropy remain rather constant, showing consistent fabrication quality of the experimental patterns. Minor deviations are tentatively discussed with the aid of the Minkowski measures, and the slight decrease in both regularity and isotropy for the final data-points of the porosity set is ascribed to excess pore opening and consequent pore merging. - Highlights: • Thin porous alumina is partly self-ordered and pattern analysis is required. • Regularity ratio is often misused: we fix the averaging and consider its spread. • We also apply the mathematical tool of Minkowski measures, new in this field. • Regularity ratio shows pattern isotropy and Minkowski helps in assessment. • General agreement with perfect artificial patterns confirms the good manufacturing

  20. Advanced morphological analysis of patterns of thin anodic porous alumina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toccafondi, C. [Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Department of Nanophysics, Via Morego 30, Genova I 16163 (Italy); Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Department of Nanostructures, Via Morego 30, Genova I 16163 (Italy); Stępniowski, W.J. [Department of Advanced Materials and Technologies, Faculty of Advanced Technologies and Chemistry, Military University of Technology, 2 Kaliskiego Str., 00-908 Warszawa (Poland); Leoncini, M. [Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Department of Nanostructures, Via Morego 30, Genova I 16163 (Italy); Salerno, M., E-mail: marco.salerno@iit.it [Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Department of Nanophysics, Via Morego 30, Genova I 16163 (Italy)

    2014-08-15

    Different conditions of fabrication of thin anodic porous alumina on glass substrates have been explored, obtaining two sets of samples with varying pore density and porosity, respectively. The patterns of pores have been imaged by high resolution scanning electron microscopy and analyzed by innovative methods. The regularity ratio has been extracted from radial profiles of the fast Fourier transforms of the images. Additionally, the Minkowski measures have been calculated. It was first observed that the regularity ratio averaged across all directions is properly corrected by the coefficient previously determined in the literature. Furthermore, the angularly averaged regularity ratio for the thin porous alumina made during short single-step anodizations is lower than that of hexagonal patterns of pores as for thick porous alumina from aluminum electropolishing and two-step anodization. Therefore, the regularity ratio represents a reliable measure of pattern order. At the same time, the lower angular spread of the regularity ratio shows that disordered porous alumina is more isotropic. Within each set, when changing either pore density or porosity, both regularity and isotropy remain rather constant, showing consistent fabrication quality of the experimental patterns. Minor deviations are tentatively discussed with the aid of the Minkowski measures, and the slight decrease in both regularity and isotropy for the final data-points of the porosity set is ascribed to excess pore opening and consequent pore merging. - Highlights: • Thin porous alumina is partly self-ordered and pattern analysis is required. • Regularity ratio is often misused: we fix the averaging and consider its spread. • We also apply the mathematical tool of Minkowski measures, new in this field. • Regularity ratio shows pattern isotropy and Minkowski helps in assessment. • General agreement with perfect artificial patterns confirms the good manufacturing.

  1. Recent Progress in Advanced Materials for Lithium Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiajun Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The development and commercialization of lithium ion batteries is rooted in material discovery. Promising new materials with high energy density are required for achieving the goal toward alternative forms of transportation. Over the past decade, significant progress and effort has been made in developing the new generation of Li-ion battery materials. In the review, I will focus on the recent advance of tin- and silicon-based anode materials. Additionally, new polyoxyanion cathodes, such as phosphates and silicates as cathode materials, will also be discussed.

  2. Pulsed laser deposited Si on multilayer graphene as anode material for lithium ion batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gouri Radhakrishnan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Pulsed laser deposition and chemical vapor deposition were used to deposit very thin silicon on multilayer graphene (MLG on a nickel foam substrate for application as an anode material for lithium ion batteries. The as-grown material was directly fabricated into an anode without a binder, and tested in a half-cell configuration. Even under stressful voltage limits that accelerate degradation, the Si-MLG films displayed higher stability than Si-only electrodes. Post-cycling images of the anodes reveal the differences between the two material systems and emphasize the role of the graphene layers in improving adhesion and electrochemical stability of the Si.

  3. Tremella-like Molybdenum Dioxide as an Anode Material for Lithium ion Battery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    L.C.Yang; Q.S.Gao; Y.H.Zhang; Y.Tang; Y.P.Wu

    2007-01-01

    1 Results Molybdenum dioxide, with excellent chemical and physical properties, has been widely used in various fields[1]. As an anode material for lithium ion battery, it exhibits higher capacity than commercial carbonaceous materials, and proper morphology, structure and particle size are necessary for MoO2 to be employed as an anode material for lithium ion battery[2].We have successfully obtained tremella-like structure self-assembled with hexagonal MoO2 nanosheets via hydrothermal method using ethyl...

  4. Cyclic performance of silicon as anode material in lithium ion batteries

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Seongseop; Cho, Maenghyo; Zhou, Min

    2014-01-01

    Silicon is a promising anode material owing to its high energy density which is an important aspect of the -performance metric for lithium ion batteries. In this study, the cyclic behavior of silicon as the anode material in lithium ion batteries is investigated. Chemical–mechanical coupling is considered to analyze the interactions between diffusion and factors influencing the mechanical response of materials. Galvanostatic–potentiostatic -charging/discharging cycles are used to investigate ...

  5. Tin-based anode materials with well-designed architectures for next-generation lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lehao; Xie, Fan; Lyu, Jing; Zhao, Tingkai; Li, Tiehu; Choi, Bong Gill

    2016-07-01

    Tin (Sn) has long been considered to be a promising replacement anode material for graphite in next-generation lithium-ion batteries (LIBs), because of its attractive comprehensive advantages of high gravimetric/volumetric capacities, environmental benignity, low cost, high safety, etc. However, Sn-based anodes suffer from severe capacity fading resulting mainly from their large volume expansions/contractions during lithiation/delithiation and subsequent pulverization, coalescence, delamination from current collectors, and poor Li+/electron transport. To circumvent these issues, a number of extraordinary architectures from nanostructures to anchored, layered/sandwich, core-shell, porous and even integrated structures have been exquisitely constructed to enhance the cycling performance. To cater for the rapid development of Sn-based anodes, we summarize the advances made in structural design principles, fabrication methods, morphological features and battery performance with focus on material structures. In addition, we identify the associated challenges and problems presented by recently-developed anodes and offer suggestions and perspectives for facilitating their practical implementations in next-generation LIBs.

  6. Porous Silicon as Anode Material for Li-ion Batteries : Structure and Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Ulvestad, Asbjørn

    2013-01-01

    Silicon has proven to have a great potential as anode material in lithium-ion batteries due to its high theoretical electrochemical capacity. However, silicon anodes deteriorate quickly during cyclic charging and discharging, rendering them useless in only a few cycles. This has been attributed to the stresses induced by the large volume change of the material during cycling. By using finely structured silicon, these stresses can be effectively reduced, in what is aptly called dimensional sta...

  7. Advanced materials for energy storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chang; Li, Feng; Ma, Lai-Peng; Cheng, Hui-Ming

    2010-02-23

    Popularization of portable electronics and electric vehicles worldwide stimulates the development of energy storage devices, such as batteries and supercapacitors, toward higher power density and energy density, which significantly depends upon the advancement of new materials used in these devices. Moreover, energy storage materials play a key role in efficient, clean, and versatile use of energy, and are crucial for the exploitation of renewable energy. Therefore, energy storage materials cover a wide range of materials and have been receiving intensive attention from research and development to industrialization. In this Review, firstly a general introduction is given to several typical energy storage systems, including thermal, mechanical, electromagnetic, hydrogen, and electrochemical energy storage. Then the current status of high-performance hydrogen storage materials for on-board applications and electrochemical energy storage materials for lithium-ion batteries and supercapacitors is introduced in detail. The strategies for developing these advanced energy storage materials, including nanostructuring, nano-/microcombination, hybridization, pore-structure control, configuration design, surface modification, and composition optimization, are discussed. Finally, the future trends and prospects in the development of advanced energy storage materials are highlighted.

  8. An investigation of anode and cathode materials in photomicrobial fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Kenneth; Thorne, Rebecca J; Cameron, Petra J

    2016-02-28

    Photomicrobial fuel cells (p-MFCs) are devices that use photosynthetic organisms (such as cyanobacteria or algae) to turn light energy into electrical energy. In a p-MFC, the anode accepts electrons from microorganisms that are either growing directly on the anode surface (biofilm) or are free floating in solution (planktonic). The nature of both the anode and cathode material is critical for device efficiency. An ideal anode is biocompatible and facilitates direct electron transfer from the microorganisms, with no need for an electron mediator. For a p-MFC, there is the additional requirement that the anode should not prevent light from perfusing through the photosynthetic cells. The cathode should facilitate the rapid reaction of protons and oxygen to form water so as not to rate limit the device. In this paper, we first review the range of anode and cathode materials currently used in p-MFCs. We then present our own data comparing cathode materials in a p-MFC and our first results using porous ceramic anodes in a mediator-free p-MFC.

  9. Revisiting Surface Modification of Graphite: Dual-Layer Coating for High-Performance Lithium Battery Anode Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Gyujin; Ryu, Jaegeon; Ko, Seunghee; Bang, Byoung Man; Choi, Sinho; Shin, Myoungsoo; Lee, Sang-Young; Park, Soojin

    2016-06-01

    Surface modification of electrode active materials has garnered considerable attention as a facile way to meet stringent requirements of advanced lithium-ion batteries. Here, we demonstrated a new coating strategy based on dual layers comprising antimony-doped tin oxide (ATO) nanoparticles and carbon. The ATO nanoparticles are synthesized via a hydrothermal method and act as electronically conductive/electrochemically active materials. The as-synthesized ATO nanoparticles are introduced on natural graphite along with citric acid used as a carbon precursor. After carbonization, the carbon/ATO-decorated natural graphite (c/ATO-NG) is produced. In the (carbon/ATO) dual-layer coating, the ATO nanoparticles coupled with the carbon layer exhibit unprecedented synergistic effects. The resultant c/ATO-NG anode materials display significant improvements in capacity (530 mA h g(-1) ), cycling retention (capacity retention of 98.1 % after 50 cycles at a rate of C/5), and low electrode swelling (volume expansion of 38 % after 100 cycles) which outperform that of typical graphite materials. Furthermore, a full-cell consisting of a c/ATO-NG anode and an LiNi0.5 Mn1.5 O4 cathode presents excellent cycle retention (capacity retention of >80 % after 100 cycles). We envision that the dual-layer coating concept proposed herein opens a new route toward high-performance anode materials for lithium-ion batteries. PMID:27027583

  10. Advanced materials for clean energy

    CERN Document Server

    Xu (Kyo Jo), Qiang

    2015-01-01

    Arylamine-Based Photosensitizing Metal Complexes for Dye-Sensitized Solar CellsCheuk-Lam Ho and Wai-Yeung Wongp-Type Small Electron-Donating Molecules for Organic Heterojunction Solar CellsZhijun Ning and He TianInorganic Materials for Solar Cell ApplicationsYasutake ToyoshimaDevelopment of Thermoelectric Technology from Materials to GeneratorsRyoji Funahashi, Chunlei Wan, Feng Dang, Hiroaki Anno, Ryosuke O. Suzuki, Takeyuki Fujisaka, and Kunihito KoumotoPiezoelectric Materials for Energy HarvestingDeepam Maurya, Yongke Yan, and Shashank PriyaAdvanced Electrode Materials for Electrochemical Ca

  11. Durability Prediction of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Anode Material under Thermo-Mechanical and Fuel Gas Contaminants Effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iqbal, Gulfam; Guo, Hua; Kang , Bruce S.; Marina, Olga A.

    2011-01-10

    Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFCs) operate under harsh environments, which cause deterioration of anode material properties and service life. In addition to electrochemical performance, structural integrity of the SOFC anode is essential for successful long-term operation. The SOFC anode is subjected to stresses at high temperature, thermal/redox cycles, and fuel gas contaminants effects during long-term operation. These mechanisms can alter the anode microstructure and affect its electrochemical and structural properties. In this research, anode material degradation mechanisms are briefly reviewed and an anode material durability model is developed and implemented in finite element analysis. The model takes into account thermo-mechanical and fuel gas contaminants degradation mechanisms for prediction of long-term structural integrity of the SOFC anode. The proposed model is validated experimentally using a NexTech ProbostatTM SOFC button cell test apparatus integrated with a Sagnac optical setup for simultaneously measuring electrochemical performance and in-situ anode surface deformation.

  12. Advanced batteries materials science aspects

    CERN Document Server

    Huggins, Robert A

    2008-01-01

    Storage and conversion are critical components of important energy-related technologies. This title employs materials science concepts and tools to describe the features that control the behavior of advanced electrochemical storage systems. It focuses on the basic phenomena that determine the properties of the components.

  13. FTIR characterization of advanced materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, P. R.; Chang, A. C.

    1986-01-01

    This paper surveys the application of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy to the characterization of advanced materials. FTIR sampling techniques including internal and external reflectance and photoacoustic spectroscopy are discussed. Representative examples from the literature of the analysis of resins, fibers, prepregs and composites are reviewed. A discussion of several promising specialized FTIR techniques is also presented.

  14. Mechanics of advanced functional materials

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Biao

    2013-01-01

    Mechanics of Advanced Functional Materials emphasizes the coupling effect between the electric and mechanical field in the piezoelectric, ferroelectric and other functional materials. It also discusses the size effect on the ferroelectric domain instability and phase transition behaviors using the continuum micro-structural evolution models. Functional materials usually have a very wide application in engineering due to their unique thermal, electric, magnetic, optoelectronic, etc., functions. Almost all the applications demand that the material should have reasonable stiffness, strength, fracture toughness and the other mechanical properties. Furthermore, usually the stress and strain fields on the functional materials and devices have some important coupling effect on the functionality of the materials. Much progress has been made concerning the coupling electric and mechanical behaviors such as the coupled electric and stress field distribution in piezoelectric solids, ferroelectric domain patterns in ferr...

  15. Selection of Anodic Material Used in Electrolytic Process for Producing Hypophosphorous Acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fu Sheng WANG; Bing Kui SONG; Xiao Li HAN; Bao Gui ZHANG

    2004-01-01

    Black lead, Ti-Ru and Ti-PbO2 were used as anode and stainless steel was used as cathode.The electrolytic process of producing hypophosphorous acid with four-compartment electrodialytic cell was studied. The comparison of some factors, such as anodic voltage, product concentration and current efficiency, of black lead, Ti-Ru, and Ti-PbO2 electrodes was conducted. As a result, the Ti-PbO2 electrode is the optimal anode material used, it can be in electrolytic process for producing hypophosphorous acid.

  16. Novel Ceramic Materials for Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Water Electrolysers' Anodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Polonsky, J.; Bouzek, K.; Prag, Carsten Brorson;

    2012-01-01

    Tantalum carbide was evaluated as a possible new support for the IrO2 for use in anodes of polymer electrolyte membrane water electrolysers. A series of supported electrocatalysts varying in mass content of iridium oxide was prepared. XRD, powder conductivity measurements and cyclic and linear...... sweep voltammetry were used to characterise the electrocatalysts. The most performing composition was found to lie between 50 and 90 wt.% IrO2 on TaC...

  17. Investigation of Anode Materials for Lithium Ion Batteries

    OpenAIRE

    Zhong, Lanlan

    2016-01-01

    Lithium ion batteries, Lithium ion batteries (LIBs) have for several years dominated the market for cell phones, laptops, and several other portable electronic devices. In order to match the necessity of increasing need for higher energy density storage devices, for example, hybrid/electric vehicles. Higher energy density lithium ion batteries have to be investigated. Anode as one of the most important components of in LIBs has been intensively studied in recent years. Silicon, tin and metal...

  18. A disordered carbon as a novel anode material in lithium-ion cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonino, F.; Brutti, S.; Reale, P.; Scrosati, B. [Dipartimento di Chimica, Universita ' ' La Sapienza' ' , I-00185 Rome (Italy); Gherghel, L.; Wu, J.; Muellen, K. [Max Planck Institute for Polymer Research, Ackermannweg 10, D-55124 Mainz (Germany)

    2005-03-22

    The electrochemical behavior of a disordered carbon used as the anode in a lithium battery has been tested. The characteristics of this carbon, especially its specific capacity and cycle life, are such that it is a potentially unique, high-performance anode material for new types of lithium-ion batteries. The Figure shows the specific capacity versus cycle number of the disordered carbon electrode in a lithium-ion cell. (Abstract Copyright [2005], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  19. The developments of SnO2/graphene nanocomposites as anode materials for high performance lithium ion batteries: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yuanfu; Fang, Chengcheng; Chen, Guohua

    2016-02-01

    With the increasing energy demands for electronic devices and electrical vehicles, anode materials for lithium ion batteries (LIBs) with high specific capacity, good cyclic and rate performances become one of the focal areas of research. Among the various anode materials, SnO2/graphene nanocomposites have drawn extensive attentions due to their high theoretical specific capacities, low charge potential vs. Li/Li+ and environmental benignity. In this review, the advances, including the synthetic methods and structural optimizations, of the SnO2/graphene nanocomposites as anode materials for LIBs have been reviewed in detail. By providing an in-depth discussion of SnO2/graphene nanocomposites, we aim to demonstrate that the electrochemical performances of SnO2/graphene nanocomposites could be significantly enhanced by rational modifications of morphology and crystal structures, chemical compositions and surface features. Though only focusing on SnO2/graphene-based composites, the concepts and strategies should be referential to other metal oxide/graphene composites.

  20. Recent advances on thermoelectric materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin-cheng ZHENG

    2008-01-01

    By converting waste heat into electricity through the thermoelectric power of solids without producing greenhouse gas emissions,thermoelectric generators could be an important part of the solution to today's energy challenge.There has been a resurgence in the search for new materials for advanced thermoelectric energy conversion applications. In this paper,we will review recent efforts on improving thermoelectric efficiency. Particularly,several novel proof-of-principle approaches such as phonon disorder in phonon-glasselectron crystals,low dimensionality in nanostructured materials and charge-spin-orbital degeneracy in strongly correlated systems on thermoelectric performance will be discussed.

  1. Alternative anode materials for solid oxide fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodenough, John B.; Huang, Yun-Hui [Texas Materials Institute, ETC 9.102, 1 University Station, C2200, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States)

    2007-11-08

    The electrolyte of a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) is an O{sup 2-}-ion conductor. The anode must oxidize the fuel with O{sup 2-} ions received from the electrolyte and it must deliver electrons of the fuel chemisorption reaction to a current collector. Cells operating on H{sub 2} and CO generally use a porous Ni/electrolyte cermet that supports a thin, dense electrolyte. Ni acts as both the electronic conductor and the catalyst for splitting the H{sub 2} bond; the oxidation of H{sub 2} to H{sub 2}O occurs at the Ni/electrolyte/H{sub 2} triple-phase boundary (TPB). The CO is oxidized at the oxide component of the cermet, which may be the electrolyte, yttria-stabilized zirconia, or a mixed oxide-ion/electron conductor (MIEC). The MIEC is commonly a Gd-doped ceria. The design and fabrication of these anodes are evaluated. Use of natural gas as the fuel requires another strategy, and MIECs are being explored for this application. The several constraints on these MIECs are outlined, and preliminary results of this on-going investigation are reviewed. (author)

  2. Nanotemplated platinum fuel cell catalysts and copper-tin lithium battery anode materials for microenergy devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rohan, J.F., E-mail: james.rohan@tyndall.ie [Tyndall National Institute, University College Cork, Lee Maltings, Cork (Ireland); Hasan, M.; Holubowitch, N. [Tyndall National Institute, University College Cork, Lee Maltings, Cork (Ireland)

    2011-11-01

    Highlights: > Anodic Aluminum oxide formation on Si substrate. > High density nanotemplated Pt catalyst on Si for integrated energy and electronics. > CuSn alloy deposition from a single, high efficiency methanesulfonate plating bath. > Nanotemplated CuSn Li anode electrodes with high capacity retention. - Abstract: Nanotemplated materials have significant potential for applications in energy conversion and storage devices due to their unique physical properties. Nanostructured materials provide additional electrode surface area beneficial for energy conversion or storage applications with short path lengths for electronic and ionic transport and thus the possibility of higher reaction rates. We report on the use of controlled growth of metal and alloy electrodeposited templated nanostructures for energy applications. Anodic aluminium oxide templates fabricated on Si for energy materials integration with electronic devices and their use for fuel cell and battery materials deposition is discussed. Nanostructured Pt anode catalysts for methanol fuel cells are shown. Templated CuSn alloy anodes that possess high capacity retention with cycling for lithium microbattery integration are also presented.

  3. Plasma Processing of Advanced Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heberlein, Joachim, V.R.; Pfender, Emil; Kortshagen, Uwe

    2005-02-28

    Plasma Processing of Advanced Materials The project had the overall objective of improving our understanding of the influences of process parameters on the properties of advanced superhard materials. The focus was on high rate deposition processes using thermal plasmas and atmospheric pressure glow discharges, and the emphasis on superhard materials was chosen because of the potential impact of such materials on industrial energy use and on the environment. In addition, the development of suitable diagnostic techniques was pursued. The project was divided into four tasks: (1) Deposition of superhard boron containing films using a supersonic plasma jet reactor (SPJR), and the characterization of the deposition process. (2) Deposition of superhard nanocomposite films in the silicon-nitrogen-carbon system using the triple torch plasma reactor (TTPR), and the characterization of the deposition process. (3) Deposition of films consisting of carbon nanotubes using an atmospheric pressure glow discharge reactor. (4) Adapting the Thomson scattering method for characterization of atmospheric pressure non-uniform plasmas with steep spatial gradients and temporal fluctuations. This report summarizes the results.

  4. Nitrogen-Doped Carbon Embedded MoS2 Microspheres as Advanced Anodes for Lithium- and Sodium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Dong; Xia, Xinhui; Wang, Yadong; Wang, Donghuang; Zhong, Yu; Tang, Wangjia; Wang, Xiuli; Tu, Jiangping

    2016-08-01

    Rational design and synthesis of advanced anode materials are extremely important for high-performance lithium-ion and sodium-ion batteries. Herein, a simple one-step hydrothermal method is developed for fabrication of N-C@MoS2 microspheres with the help of polyurethane as carbon and nitrogen sources. The MoS2 microspheres are composed of MoS2 nanoflakes, which are wrapped by an N-doped carbon layer. Owing to its unique structural features, the N-C@MoS2 microspheres exhibit greatly enhanced lithium- and sodium-storage performances including a high specific capacity, high rate capability, and excellent capacity retention. Additionally, the developed polyurethane-assisted hydrothermal method could be useful for the construction of many other high-capacity metal oxide/sulfide composite electrode materials for energy storage. PMID:27355199

  5. Emerging materials by advanced processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This volume contains 36 contributions with following subjects (selection): Densification of highly reactive aluminium titanate powders; influence of precursor history on carbon fiber characteristics; influence of water removal rate during calcination on the crystallization of ZrO2 from amorphous hydrous precipitates; tape casting of AlN; influence of processing on the properties of beta-SiC powders; corrosion of SiSiC by gases and basic slag at high temperature; influence of sintering and thermomechanical treatment on microstructure and properties of W-Ni-Fe alloys; mechanical alloying for development of sintered steels with high hard phase content (NbC); early stages of mechanical alloying in Ni-Ti and Ni-Al powder mixtures; growth and microstructural development of melt-oxidation derived Al2O3/Al-base composites; fabrication of RSBN composites; synthesis of high density coridierite bodies; comparative studies on post-HIP and sinter-HIP treatments on transformation thoughened ceramics; sinter HIP of SiC; precipitation mixing of Si3N4 with bimetallic oxides; temperature dependence of the interfacial energies in Al2O3-liquid metal systems; synthesis and microstructural examination of Synroc B; solid state investigation of ceramic-metal bonding; thermophysical properties of MgAl2O4; preparation, sintering and thermal expansion of MgAl2O4; microstructural studies on alumina-zirconia and metallized alumina ceramics; electrodeposition of metals (e.g. Ti, Mo, In) and metal oxides from molten salts; electrochemical deposition of Ti from nonaqueous media (DMSO, DMF); lithium as anode material in power sources (passivation); reduction of chromium(VI) when solar selective black chromium is deposited; thermodynamic optimization of phase diagrams (computer calculations); optimization of Na-Tl phase diagram; phase relations in the Y-Si-Al-O-N system: Controlled manufacturing of alpha/beta-SIALON composites. (MM)

  6. Dissolution of Plutonium Scrub Alloy and Anode Heel Materials in H-Canyon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    H-Canyon has a ''gap'' in dissolver operations during the last three months of FY03. One group of material to be processed during the gap is pre-existing scrub alloy material. There are 14 cans of material containing approximately 3.8 kilograms of plutonium. Of the 14 cans, it was anticipated that four cans contain salts, two cans contain anode heel materials, and eight cans contain scrub alloy buttons. H-Canyon desires to process the materials using a flowsheet similar to the SS and C (sand, slag and crucible) dissolution flowsheet used in F-Canyon. The materials will be loaded into carbon steel cans and then placed into aluminum metal charging bundles. Samples were sent to Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) for characterization and flowsheet testing -- four MSE salts, two anode heels, and seven scrub alloy buttons. SRTC dissolved and characterized each of the samples. Two of them, originally thought to be MSE salts, were found to be graphite mold materials and were unsuitable for processing in H-Canyon. Characterization studies confirmed that the identification of the remaining items as MSE salts, scrub alloy buttons, and anode heel materials was correct. The MSE salts and anode heels solids are comprised primarily of plutonium, potassium, sodium and chloride. Both the MSE salts and anode heels left behind small amounts of residual solids. The scrub alloy buttons are comprised primarily of plutonium and aluminum. The solids dissolve readily with light, effervescent gas generation at the material surface and only trace amounts of NOx generation. Of the seven button samples, four dissolved completely. Two button samples contained small amounts of tantalum that did not dissolve. The last of the seven scrub alloy samples left a trace amount of residual plutonium solids. It is anticipated that the presence of undissolved fissile material is a function of where the sample was located relative to the button surface

  7. Nano-sized carboxylates as anode materials for rechargeable lithium-ion batteries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaoyan Wu; Jie Ma; Yong-Sheng Hu; Hong Li; Liquan Chen

    2014-01-01

    Nano-sized carboxylates Na2C7H3NO4 and Na2C6H2N2O4 were prepared and investigated as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries. Both carboxylates exhibit high reversible capacities around 190 mAh/g above a cut-off voltage of 0.8 V vs. Li+/Li, potentially improving the safety of the batteries. In addition, good rate performance and long cycle life of these carboxylates make them promising candidates as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries.

  8. Hybrid Direct Carbon Fuel Cell Performance with Anode Current Collector Material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deleebeeck, Lisa; Kammer Hansen, Kent

    2015-01-01

    The influence of the current collector on the performance of a hybrid direct carbon fuel cell (HDCFC), consisting of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) with a molten carbonate-carbon slurry in contact with the anode, has been investigated using current-voltage curves. Four different anode current...... collectors were studied: Au, Ni, Ag, and Pt. It was shown that the performance of the direct carbon fuel cell (DCFC) is dependent on the current collector materials, Ni and Pt giving the best performance, due to their catalytic activity. Gold is suggested to be the best material as an inert current collector...

  9. Carbon Cryogel and Carbon Paper-Based Silicon Composite Anode Materials for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodworth, James; Baldwin, Richard; Bennett, William

    2010-01-01

    A variety of materials are under investigation for use as anode materials in lithium-ion batteries, of which, the most promising are those containing silicon. 6 One such material is a composite formed via the dispersion of silicon in a resorcinol-formaldehyde (RF) gel followed by pyrolysis. Two silicon-carbon composite materials, carbon microspheres and nanofoams produced from nano-phase silicon impregnated RF gel precursors have been synthesized and investigated. Carbon microspheres are produced by forming the silicon-containing RF gel into microspheres whereas carbon nano-foams are produced by impregnating carbon fiber paper with the silicon containing RF gel to create a free standing electrode. 1-5 Both materials have demonstrated their ability to function as anodes and utilize the silicon present in the material. Stable reversible capacities above 400 mAh/g for the bulk material and above 1000 mAh/g of Si have been observed.

  10. Silicon Composite Anode Materials for Lithium Ion Batteries Based on Carbon Cryogels and Carbon Paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodworth, James; Baldwin, Richard; Bennett, William

    2010-01-01

    A variety of materials are under investigation for use as anode materials in lithium-ion batteries, of which, the most promising are those containing silicon. One such material is a composite formed via the dispersion of silicon in a resorcinol-formaldehyde (RF) gel followed by pyrolysis. Two silicon-carbon composite materials, carbon microspheres and nanofoams produced from nano-phase silicon impregnated RF gel precursors have been synthesized and investigated. Carbon microspheres are produced by forming the silicon-containing RF gel into microspheres whereas carbon nanofoams are produced by impregnating carbon fiber paper with the silicon containing RF gel to create a free standing electrode. Both materials have demonstrated their ability to function as anodes and utilize the silicon present in the material. Stable reversible capacities above 400 mAh/g for the bulk material and above 1000 mAh/g of Si have been observed.

  11. Advances in polypropylene based materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polypropylene is an extremely versatile thermoplastic polymer known for its good performance/price ratio, excellent heat, moisture and chemical resistance, favorable processing characteristics and recyclability. Due to its universal properties, polypropylene is applied in numerous industrial fields such as electronic and electrical, automobile, textile, pipeline, etc. Furthermore, the progress in its synthesis and property modification in the last decade has contributed to the development of new polypropylene based materials with advanced performance. This review aims at reporting on some recent developments in polypropylene based materials, such as nano fibers, natural fiber reinforced composites, self-reinforced polypropylene and polypropylene/clay hybrids, that have replaced many types of engineering thermoplastics in high-performance applications. (Author)

  12. Lithium alloys and metal oxides as high-capacity anode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: •Progress in lithium alloys and metal oxides as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries is reviewed. •Electrochemical characteristics and lithium storage mechanisms of lithium alloys and metal oxides are summarized. •Strategies for improving electrochemical lithium storage properties of lithium alloys and metal oxides are discussed. •Challenges in developing lithium alloys and metal oxides as commercial anodes for lithium-ion batteries are pointed out. -- Abstract: Lithium alloys and metal oxides have been widely recognized as the next-generation anode materials for lithium-ion batteries with high energy density and high power density. A variety of lithium alloys and metal oxides have been explored as alternatives to the commercial carbonaceous anodes. The electrochemical characteristics of silicon, tin, tin oxide, iron oxides, cobalt oxides, copper oxides, and so on are systematically summarized. In this review, it is not the scope to retrace the overall studies, but rather to highlight the electrochemical performances, the lithium storage mechanism and the strategies in improving the electrochemical properties of lithium alloys and metal oxides. The challenges and new directions in developing lithium alloys and metal oxides as commercial anodes for the next-generation lithium-ion batteries are also discussed

  13. Synthesis, Characterization and Testing of Novel Anode and Cathode Materials for Li-Ion Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, Ralph E.; Popov, Branko N.

    2002-10-31

    During this program we have synthesized and characterized several novel cathode and anode materials for application in Li-ion batteries. Novel synthesis routes like chemical doping, electroless deposition and sol-gel method have been used and techniques like impedance, cyclic voltammetry and charge-discharge cycling have been used to characterize these materials. Mathematical models have also been developed to fit the experimental result, thus helping in understanding the mechanisms of these materials.

  14. Study of Silicon Oxycarbide(SiOC) as Anode Materials for Li-ion Batteries

    OpenAIRE

    Vallachira Warriam Sasikumar Pradeep, Pradeep

    2013-01-01

    The principal object of this thesis is the investigation of silicon oxycarbide (SiOC) ceramics as anode material for Li-ion batteries. The investigated materials are prepared by cross linking commercial polymer siloxanes via hydrosylilation reactions or hybrid alkoxide precursors via sol-gel. The cross linked polymer networks are then converted in to ceramic materials by a pyrolysis process in controlled argon atmosphere at 800-1300 °C. In details the influence of carbon content on lithium...

  15. Bacterial nanometric amorphous Fe-based oxide: a potential lithium-ion battery anode material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Hideki; Kobayashi, Genki; Sakuma, Ryo; Fujii, Tatsuo; Hayashi, Naoaki; Suzuki, Tomoko; Kanno, Ryoji; Takano, Mikio; Takada, Jun

    2014-04-23

    Amorphous Fe(3+)-based oxide nanoparticles produced by Leptothrix ochracea, aquatic bacteria living worldwide, show a potential as an Fe(3+)/Fe(0) conversion anode material for lithium-ion batteries. The presence of minor components, Si and P, in the original nanoparticles leads to a specific electrode architecture with Fe-based electrochemical centers embedded in a Si, P-based amorphous matrix.

  16. Electrochemical Characteristics of Tin Oxide-Graphite as Anode Material for Lithium-ion Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasanaly, Siti Munirah

    2010-03-01

    Tin oxide anode materials used in lithium-ion cells experience large volume changes during charging and discharging which cause substantial losses in capacity. In this work, the tin oxide-graphite composite is proposed as an alternative anode material to overcome this problem. The composite was synthesised from a solution of tin chloride dihydrate and graphite powders with citric acid as the chelating agent. In this sol-gel method, a solid phase is formed through a chemical reaction in a liquid phase at moderate temperature. The technique offers several advantages compared to the solid state synthesis technique such as the ability to maintain the homogeneous mixture of precursors during synthesis and to produce small particles. The electrochemical behaviour of the anode material was investigated by means of galvanostatic charge discharge technique. An initial reversible capacity of 748 mAh/g is obtained and nearly 600 mAh/g was retained upon the reaching the fifth cycle. This study shows that the presence of graphite is able to minimise the agglomeration of tin particles that causes large volume changes during cycling, thereby improving cyclability of the anode material.

  17. Submicron organic nanofiber devices with different anode-cathode materials: A simple approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henrichsen, Henrik Hartmann; Sturm, Heinz; Bøggild, Peter;

    2010-01-01

    The authors present a simple general method for simultaneously producing tens of submicron electrode gaps with different cathode and anode materials on top of nanofibers, nanowires, and nanotubes, with an optional gap size variation. Using this method, an ensemble of para-hexaphenylene (p6P...

  18. Carbon-Coated SnO2 Nanorod Array for Lithium-Ion Battery Anode Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Xiaoxu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Carbon-coated SnO2 nanorod array directly grown on the substrate has been prepared by a two-step hydrothermal method for anode material of lithium-ion batteries (LIBs. The structural, morphological and electrochemical properties were investigated by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, transmission electron microscopy (TEM and electrochemical measurement. When used as anodes for LIBs with high current density, as-obtained array reveals excellent cycling stability and rate capability. This straightforward approach can be extended to the synthesis of other carbon-coated metal oxides for application of LIBs.

  19. Tantalum carbide as a novel support material for anode electrocatalysts in polymer electrolyte membrane water electrolysers

    OpenAIRE

    Polonský, Jakub; Petrushina, Irina; Christensen, Erik; Bouzek, K.; Prag, Carsten Brorson; Andersen, Jens Enevold Thaulov; Bjerrum, Niels

    2012-01-01

    Iridium oxide (IrO2) currently represents a state of the art electrocatalyst for anodic oxygen evolution. Since iridium is both expensive and scarce, the future practical application of this process makes it essential to reduce IrO2 loading on the anodes of PEM water electrolysers. In the present study an approach to utilising a suitable electrocatalyst support was followed. Of the materials selected from a literature review, TaC has proved to be stable under the conditions of the accelerated...

  20. Materials Advance Chemical Propulsion Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    In the future, the Planetary Science Division of NASA's Science Mission Directorate hopes to use better-performing and lower-cost propulsion systems to send rovers, probes, and observers to places like Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn. For such purposes, a new propulsion technology called the Advanced Materials Bipropellant Rocket (AMBR) was developed under NASA's In-Space Propulsion Technology (ISPT) project, located at Glenn Research Center. As an advanced chemical propulsion system, AMBR uses nitrogen tetroxide oxidizer and hydrazine fuel to propel a spacecraft. Based on current research and development efforts, the technology shows great promise for increasing engine operation and engine lifespan, as well as lowering manufacturing costs. In developing AMBR, ISPT has several goals: to decrease the time it takes for a spacecraft to travel to its destination, reduce the cost of making the propulsion system, and lessen the weight of the propulsion system. If goals like these are met, it could result in greater capabilities for in-space science investigations. For example, if the amount (and weight) of propellant required on a spacecraft is reduced, more scientific instruments (and weight) could be added to the spacecraft. To achieve AMBR s maximum potential performance, the engine needed to be capable of operating at extremely high temperatures and pressure. To this end, ISPT required engine chambers made of iridium-coated rhenium (strong, high-temperature metallic elements) that allowed operation at temperatures close to 4,000 F. In addition, ISPT needed an advanced manufacturing technique for better coating methods to increase the strength of the engine chamber without increasing the costs of fabricating the chamber.

  1. Evaluation of anode (electro)catalytic materials for the direct borohydride fuel cell: Methods and benchmarks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olu, Pierre-Yves; Job, Nathalie; Chatenet, Marian

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, different methods are discussed for the evaluation of the potential of a given catalyst, in view of an application as a direct borohydride fuel cell DBFC anode material. Characterizations results in DBFC configuration are notably analyzed at the light of important experimental variables which influence the performances of the DBFC. However, in many practical DBFC-oriented studies, these various experimental variables prevent one to isolate the influence of the anode catalyst on the cell performances. Thus, the electrochemical three-electrode cell is a widely-employed and useful tool to isolate the DBFC anode catalyst and to investigate its electrocatalytic activity towards the borohydride oxidation reaction (BOR) in the absence of other limitations. This article reviews selected results for different types of catalysts in electrochemical cell containing a sodium borohydride alkaline electrolyte. In particular, propositions of common experimental conditions and benchmarks are given for practical evaluation of the electrocatalytic activity towards the BOR in three-electrode cell configuration. The major issue of gaseous hydrogen generation and escape upon DBFC operation is also addressed through a comprehensive review of various results depending on the anode composition. At last, preliminary concerns are raised about the stability of potential anode catalysts upon DBFC operation.

  2. SiCN based Anode Materials for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    OpenAIRE

    Reinold, Lukas Mirko

    2016-01-01

    This thesis deals with the investigation of polymer-derived silicon carbonitride based anode materials for their application in lithium-ion batteries. Carbon-rich silicon carbonitrides are obtained by a pyrolysis of different organosilicon precursors, namely poly(phenylvinylsilylcarbodiimide), poly(phenylvinylsilazane), poly(diphenylsilylcarbodiimide), poly(phenylsilsesquicarbodiimide) and poly(phenylsilsesquiazane). The materials are characterized by means of Raman spectroscopy, elemental an...

  3. Investigation of residual anode material after electrorefining uranium in molten chloride salt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, M. A.; Williamson, M. A.; Willit, J.

    2015-12-01

    A buildup of material at uranium anodes during uranium electrorefining in molten chloride salts has been observed. Potentiodynamic testing has been conducted using a three electrode cell, with a uranium working electrode in both LiCl/KCl eutectic and LiCl each containing ∼5 mol% UCl3. The anodic current response was observed at 50° intervals between 450 °C and 650 °C in the eutectic salt. These tests revealed a buildup of material at the anode in LiCl/KCl salt, which was sampled at room temperature, and analyzed using ICP-MS, XRD and SEM techniques. Examination of the analytical data, current response curves and published phase diagrams has established that as the uranium anode dissolves, the U3+ ion concentration in the diffusion layer surrounding the electrode rises precipitously to levels, which may at low temperatures exceed the solubility limit for UCl3 or in the case of the eutectic salt for K2UCl5. The reduction in current response observed at low temperature in eutectic salt is eliminated at 650 °C, where K2UCl5 is absent due to its congruent melting and only simple concentration polarization effects are seen. In LiCl similar concentration effects are seen though significantly longer time at applied potential is required to effect a reduction in the current response as compared to the eutectic salt.

  4. Interfacial Materials for Organic Solar Cells: Recent Advances and Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Zhigang; Wei, Jiajun

    2016-01-01

    Organic solar cells (OSCs) have shown great promise as low‐cost photovoltaic devices for solar energy conversion over the past decade. Interfacial engineering provides a powerful strategy to enhance efficiency and stability of OSCs. With the rapid advances of interface layer materials and active layer materials, power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) of both single‐junction and tandem OSCs have exceeded a landmark value of 10%. This review summarizes the latest advances in interfacial layers for single‐junction and tandem OSCs. Electron or hole transporting materials, including metal oxides, polymers/small‐molecules, metals and metal salts/complexes, carbon‐based materials, organic‐inorganic hybrids/composites, and other emerging materials, are systemically presented as cathode and anode interface layers for high performance OSCs. Meanwhile, incorporating these electron‐transporting and hole‐transporting layer materials as building blocks, a variety of interconnecting layers for conventional or inverted tandem OSCs are comprehensively discussed, along with their functions to bridge the difference between adjacent subcells. By analyzing the structure–property relationships of various interfacial materials, the important design rules for such materials towards high efficiency and stable OSCs are highlighted. Finally, we present a brief summary as well as some perspectives to help researchers understand the current challenges and opportunities in this emerging area of research.

  5. Porous silicon based anode material formed using metal reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anguchamy, Yogesh Kumar; Masarapu, Charan; Deng, Haixia; Han, Yongbong; Venkatachalam, Subramanian; Kumar, Sujeet; Lopez, Herman A.

    2015-09-22

    A porous silicon based material comprising porous crystalline elemental silicon formed by reducing silicon dioxide with a reducing metal in a heating process followed by acid etching is used to construct negative electrode used in lithium ion batteries. Gradual temperature heating ramp(s) with optional temperature steps can be used to perform the heating process. The porous silicon formed has a high surface area from about 10 m.sup.2/g to about 200 m.sup.2/g and is substantially free of carbon. The negative electrode formed can have a discharge specific capacity of at least 1800 mAh/g at rate of C/3 discharged from 1.5V to 0.005V against lithium with in some embodiments loading levels ranging from about 1.4 mg/cm.sup.2 to about 3.5 mg/cm.sup.2. In some embodiments, the porous silicon can be coated with a carbon coating or blended with carbon nanofibers or other conductive carbon material.

  6. Synthesis of nano Sb-encapsulated pyrolytic polyacrylonitrile composite for anode material in lithium secondary batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Xiangming; Pu, Weihua; Wang, Li; Ren, Jianguo; Jiang, Changyin; Wan, Chunrong [Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2007-03-01

    A novel process was proposed to synthesize nano Sb-encapsulated pyrolytic polyacrylonitrile composite for anode material in lithium secondary batteries. The preparation started with the dissolution of SbCl{sub 3} and polyacrylonitrile (PAN) in dimethylformamide (DMF) solution, followed by the addition of KBH{sub 4} to reduce Sb{sup 3+} in the solution. The Sb composite was obtained by pyrolysis of the Sb/PAN mixture that precipitated out when the DMF solution was added by plentiful water. The TEM analysis showed that about 100-200 nm Sb particles were embedded by the pyrolyzed PAN, which provided a conductive matrix to relieve the morphological change of Sb during electrochemical cycling. As-prepared composite presented good cycleability for lithium storage. The proposed process paves an effective way to prepare high performance alloy based composite anode materials for high performance lithium-ion batteries. (author)

  7. Relationship between initial efficiency and structure parameters of carbon anode material for Li-ion battery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Jian-bin; TANG You-gen; LIANG Yi-zeng; TAN Xin-xin

    2008-01-01

    The initial efficiency is a very important criterion for carbon anode material of Li-ion battery. The relationship between initial efficiency and structure parameters of carbon anode material of Li-ion battery was investigated by an artificial intelligence approach called Random Forests using D10, D50, D90, BET specific surface area and TP density as inputs, initial efficiency as output.The results give good classification performance with 91% accuracy. The variable importance analysis results show the impact of 5 variables on the initial efficiency descends in the order of D90, TP density, BET specific surface area, D50 and D10; smaller D90 and larger TP density have positive impact on initial efficiency. The contribution of BET specific surface area on classification is only 18.74%, which indicates the shortcoming of BET specific surface area as a widely used parameter for initial efficiency evaluation.

  8. High Temperature Materials Characterization and Advanced Materials Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The project has been carried out for 2 years in stage III in order to achieve the final goals of performance verification of the developed materials, after successful development of the advanced high temperature material technologies for 3 years in Stage II. The mechanical and thermal properties of the advanced materials, which were developed during Stage II, were evaluated at high temperatures, and the modification of the advanced materials were performed. Moreover, a database management system was established using user-friendly knowledge-base scheme to complete the integrated-information material database in KAERI material division

  9. Solid state cathode materials for secondary magnesium-ion batteries that are compatible with magnesium metal anodes in water-free electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowe, Adam J.; Bartlett, Bart M.

    2016-10-01

    With high elemental abundance, large volumetric capacity, and dendrite-free metal deposition, magnesium metal anodes offer promise in beyond-lithium-ion batteries. However, the increased charge density associated with the divalent magnesium-ion (Mg2+), relative to lithium-ion (Li+) hinders the ion-insertion and extraction processes within many materials and structures known for lithium-ion cathodes. As a result, many recent investigations incorporate known amounts of water within the electrolyte to provide temporary solvation of the Mg2+, improving diffusion kinetics. Unfortunately with the addition of water, compatibility with magnesium metal anodes disappears due to forming an ion-insulating passivating layer. In this short review, recent advances in solid state cathode materials for rechargeable magnesium-ion batteries are highlighted, with a focus on cathode materials that do not require water contaminated electrolyte solutions for ion insertion and extraction processes.

  10. Facile synthesis of one-dimensional zinc vanadate nanofibers for high lithium storage anode material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Lei [Key Laboratory of Eco-textiles, Ministry of Education, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122 (China); International Joint Research Laboratory for Advanced Functional Textile Materials, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122 (China); Fei, Yaqian; Chen, Ke; Li, Dawei; Wang, Xin [Key Laboratory of Eco-textiles, Ministry of Education, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122 (China); Wang, Qingqing [Key Laboratory of Eco-textiles, Ministry of Education, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122 (China); International Joint Research Laboratory for Advanced Functional Textile Materials, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122 (China); Wei, Qufu, E-mail: qfwei@jiangnan.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Eco-textiles, Ministry of Education, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122 (China); International Joint Research Laboratory for Advanced Functional Textile Materials, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122 (China); Qiao, Hui [Key Laboratory of Eco-textiles, Ministry of Education, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122 (China)

    2015-11-15

    One-dimensional (1D) zinc vanadate (α-Zn{sub 2}V{sub 2}O{sub 7}) nanofibers have been synthesized through electrospinning combined with an annealing process. When used as anode material for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs), electrospun 1D α-Zn{sub 2}V{sub 2}O{sub 7} nanofibers exhibit a reversible capacity of ∼708 mAh g{sup −1} after 100 cycles at a current density of 50 mA g{sup −1}. A good rate capability is also achieved even at higher current densities. When cycled at a current density of 2000 mA g{sup −1}, the electrode can still show a reversible capacity of ∼311 mAh g{sup −1}. The excellent cycle performance and rate capability may be due to the 1D nanofiber architectures, mesoporous structures, and relatively large specific surface area, which can provide a short ion diffusion path and continuous electron transportation. Therefore, this work presents a simple and efficient approach for fabrication of 1D α-Zn{sub 2}V{sub 2}O{sub 7} nanofibers, which are promising high-performance anode materials for LIBs. - Highlights: • Electrospun 1D α-Zn{sub 2}V{sub 2}O{sub 7} nanofibers are first synthesized for anode material. • The electrochemical reaction mechanism of this material is discussed. • A reversible capacity of ∼708 mAh g{sup −1} is obtained after 100 cycles at 50 mA g{sup −1}. • 1D α-Zn{sub 2}V{sub 2}O{sub 7} nanofiber anodes show excellent rate capability for LIBs.

  11. Facile synthesis of one-dimensional zinc vanadate nanofibers for high lithium storage anode material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One-dimensional (1D) zinc vanadate (α-Zn2V2O7) nanofibers have been synthesized through electrospinning combined with an annealing process. When used as anode material for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs), electrospun 1D α-Zn2V2O7 nanofibers exhibit a reversible capacity of ∼708 mAh g−1 after 100 cycles at a current density of 50 mA g−1. A good rate capability is also achieved even at higher current densities. When cycled at a current density of 2000 mA g−1, the electrode can still show a reversible capacity of ∼311 mAh g−1. The excellent cycle performance and rate capability may be due to the 1D nanofiber architectures, mesoporous structures, and relatively large specific surface area, which can provide a short ion diffusion path and continuous electron transportation. Therefore, this work presents a simple and efficient approach for fabrication of 1D α-Zn2V2O7 nanofibers, which are promising high-performance anode materials for LIBs. - Highlights: • Electrospun 1D α-Zn2V2O7 nanofibers are first synthesized for anode material. • The electrochemical reaction mechanism of this material is discussed. • A reversible capacity of ∼708 mAh g−1 is obtained after 100 cycles at 50 mA g−1. • 1D α-Zn2V2O7 nanofiber anodes show excellent rate capability for LIBs

  12. Enhancement of Electrochemical Stability about Silicon/Carbon Composite Anode Materials for Lithium Ion Batteries

    OpenAIRE

    Wei Xiao; Chang Miao; Xuemin Yan; Qing Sun; Ping Mei

    2015-01-01

    Silicon/carbon (Si/C) composite anode materials are successfully synthesized by mechanical ball milling followed by pyrolysis method. The structure and morphology of the composite are characterized by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscope, respectively. The results show that the composite is composed of Si, flake graphite, and phenolic resin-pyrolyzed carbon, and Si and flake graphite are enwrapped by phenolic resin-pyrolyzed carbon, which can...

  13. A Chemo-Mechanical model of delithiation in high-capacity anode materials

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Hui; Zhang, Sulin

    2014-01-01

    We present a chemo-mechanical model to investigate the delithiation-induced phase transformation, morphological evolution, stress generation, void nucleation, and growth in high-capacity anode materials such as silicon (Si) and germanium (Ge). The model couples lithium (Li) diffusion with large elasto-plastic deformation by solving a set of coupled phase field and mechanical equilibrium equations using the finite element method, which leads to the coevolution of the Li concentration, stress d...

  14. Advanced Materials and Processing 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yunfeng; Su, Chun Wei; Xia, Hui; Xiao, Pengfei

    2011-06-01

    Strain sensors made from MWNT/polymer nanocomposites / Gang Yin, Ning Hu and Yuan Li -- Shear band evolution and nanostructure formation in titanium by cold rolling / Dengke Yang, Peter D. Hodgson and Cuie Wen -- Biodegradable Mg-Zr-Ca alloys for bone implant materials / Yuncang Li ... [et al.] -- Hydroxyapatite synthesized from nanosized calcium carbonate via hydrothermal method / Yu-Shiang Wu, Wen-Ku Chang and Min Jou -- Modeling of the magnetization process and orthogonal fluxgate sensitivity of ferromagnetic micro-wire arrays / Fan Jie ... [et al.] -- Fabrication of silicon oxide nanowires on Ni coated silicon substrate by simple heating process / Bo Peng and Kwon-Koo Cho -- Deposition of TiOxNy thin films with various nitrogen flow rate: growth behavior and structural properties / S.-J. Cho ... [et al.] -- Observation on photoluminescence evolution in 300 KeV self-ion implanted and annealed silicon / Yu Yang ... [et al.] -- Facile synthesis of lithium niobate from a novel precursor H[symbol] / Meinan Liu ... [et al.] -- Effects of the buffer layers on the adhesion and antimicrobial properties of the amorphous ZrAlNiCuSi films / Pai-Tsung Chiang ... [et al.] -- Fabrication of ZnO nanorods by electrochemical deposition process and its photovoltaic properties / Jin-Hwa Kim ... [et al.] -- Cryogenic resistivities of NbTiAlVTaLax, CoCrFeNiCu and CoCrFeNiAl high entropy alloys / Xiao Yang and Yong Zhang -- Modeling of centrifugal force field and the effect on filling and solidification in centrifugal casting / Wenbin Sheng, Chunxue Ma and Wanli Gu -- Electrochemical properties of TiO[symbol] nanotube arrays film prepared by anodic oxidation / Young-Jin Choi ... [et al.] -- Effect of Ce additions on high temperature properties of Mg-5Sn-3Al-1Zn alloy / Byoung Soo Kang ... [et al.] -- Sono-electroless plating of Ni-Mo-P film / Atsushi Chiba, Masato Kanou and Wen-Chang Wu -- Diameter dependence of giant magneto-impedance effect in co-based melt extracted amorphous

  15. Bismuth Nanoparticles Embedded in Carbon Spheres as Anode Materials for Sodium/Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fuhua; Yu, Fan; Zhang, Zhian; Zhang, Kai; Lai, Yanqing; Li, Jie

    2016-02-12

    Sodium-ion batteries (SIBs) are regarded as an attractive alternative to lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) for large-scale commercial applications, because of the abundant terrestrial reserves of sodium. Exporting suitable anode materials is the key to the development of SIBs and LIBs. In this contribution, we report on the fabrication of Bi@C microspheres using aerosol spray pyrolysis technique. When used as SIBs anode materials, the Bi@C microsphere delivered a high capacity of 123.5 mAh g(-1) after 100 cycles at 100 mA g(-1) . The rate performance is also impressive (specific capacities of 299, 252, 192, 141, and 90 mAh g(-1) are obtained under current densities of 0.1, 0.2, 0.5, 1, and 2 A g(-1) , respectively). Furthermore, the Bi@C microsphere also proved to be suitable LIB anode materials. The excellent electrochemical performance for both SIBs and LIBs can attributed to the Bi@C microsphere structure with Bi nanoparticles uniformly dispersed in carbon spheres.

  16. Recovery of valuable metals from anode material of hydrogen-nickel battery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Fang; XU Sheng-ming; LI Lin-yan; CHEN Song-zhe; XU Gang; XU Jing-ming

    2009-01-01

    Simultaneous recovery of rare earth, nickel and cobalt resources from the anode material of hydrogen-nickel battery was performed through a hydrometallurgical process. Most of rare earth elements are separated from nickel and cobalt in the form of sulfates when the anode material is firstly leached with sulfuric acid. Then, the precipitated rare earth sulfates are dissolved with sodium hydroxide to form rare earth hydroxides. The rare earth element, zinc and manganese ions in the lixivium are also separated from nickel and cobalt by using PC-88A extractant system, and the organic phase loaded rare earth is stripped with hydrochloric acid. By neutralizing the stripping solution with rare earth hydroxide, the rare earth chloride is obtained. Under the suitable leaching conditions of sulfuric acid 3 mol/L, leaching time 4 h and temperature 95 ℃, 94.5% of rare earth in the anode material is transformed into the sulfate precipitates, and the leaching ratios of nickel and cobalt can approach 99.5%. When the pH value of the extractive system is controlled in the range of 3.0-3.5, the rare earth elements in the lixivium can be extracted completely into the organic phase, and the stripping recovery of the rare earth can reach 98% in the extraction stage. The total recoveries of rare earth, nickel and cobalt are 98.9%, 98.4% and 98.5%, respectively.

  17. Enhancement of Electrochemical Stability about Silicon/Carbon Composite Anode Materials for Lithium Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Xiao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Silicon/carbon (Si/C composite anode materials are successfully synthesized by mechanical ball milling followed by pyrolysis method. The structure and morphology of the composite are characterized by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscope, respectively. The results show that the composite is composed of Si, flake graphite, and phenolic resin-pyrolyzed carbon, and Si and flake graphite are enwrapped by phenolic resin-pyrolyzed carbon, which can provide not only a good buffering matrix but also a conductive network. The Si/C composite also shows good electrochemical stability, in which the composite anode material exhibits a high initial charge capacity of 805.3 mAh g−1 at 100 mA g−1 and it can still deliver a high charge capacity of 791.7 mAh g−1 when the current density increases to 500 mA g−1. The results indicate that it could be used as a promising anode material for lithium ion batteries.

  18. Bismuth Nanoparticles Embedded in Carbon Spheres as Anode Materials for Sodium/Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fuhua; Yu, Fan; Zhang, Zhian; Zhang, Kai; Lai, Yanqing; Li, Jie

    2016-02-12

    Sodium-ion batteries (SIBs) are regarded as an attractive alternative to lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) for large-scale commercial applications, because of the abundant terrestrial reserves of sodium. Exporting suitable anode materials is the key to the development of SIBs and LIBs. In this contribution, we report on the fabrication of Bi@C microspheres using aerosol spray pyrolysis technique. When used as SIBs anode materials, the Bi@C microsphere delivered a high capacity of 123.5 mAh g(-1) after 100 cycles at 100 mA g(-1) . The rate performance is also impressive (specific capacities of 299, 252, 192, 141, and 90 mAh g(-1) are obtained under current densities of 0.1, 0.2, 0.5, 1, and 2 A g(-1) , respectively). Furthermore, the Bi@C microsphere also proved to be suitable LIB anode materials. The excellent electrochemical performance for both SIBs and LIBs can attributed to the Bi@C microsphere structure with Bi nanoparticles uniformly dispersed in carbon spheres. PMID:26757402

  19. Preparation and characterization of Li2Mo0.9La0.2O4 anode material

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MO Zunli; CHEN Hong; SUN Yaling; LIU Yanzhi; LI Hejun; LIU Yongzhong

    2006-01-01

    La-doped Li2Mo0.9La0.2O4 was synthesized as an active anode material via the sol-gel process. The structural and morphological characteristics of the target product and the precursor were analyzed by XRD, SEM, and TG-DTA. Crystal started to format at 300℃ and the optimum crystal structure was obtained at 700℃. By detecting battery performance, the charged and discharged platform was over 3.6 V; the anode exhibited a discharge capacity decay of 2% from its initial capacity (165 mA·h/g) after 20 cycles. Therefore, it was a perfect anode material.

  20. Advanced materials for solid oxide fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armstrong, T.R.; Stevenson, J.

    1995-08-01

    The purpose of this research is to improve the properties of the current state-of-the-art materials used for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). The objectives are to: (1) develop materials based on modifications of the state-of-the-art materials; (2) minimize or eliminate stability problems in the cathode, anode, and interconnect; (3) Electrochemically evaluate (in reproducible and controlled laboratory tests) the current state-of-the-art air electrode materials and cathode/electrolyte interfacial properties; (4) Develop accelerated electrochemical test methods to evaluate the performance of SOFCs under controlled and reproducible conditions; and (5) Develop and test materials for use in low-temperature SOFCs. The goal is to modify and improve the current state-of-the-art materials and minimize the total number of cations in each material to avoid negative effects on the materials properties. Materials to reduce potential deleterious interactions, (3) improve thermal, electrical, and electrochemical properties, (4) develop methods to synthesize both state-of-the-art and alternative materials for the simultaneous fabricatoin and consolidation in air of the interconnections and electrodes with the solid electrolyte, and (5) understand electrochemical reactions at materials interfaces and the effects of component composition and processing on those reactions.

  1. Carbon matrix/SiNWs heterogeneous block as improved reversible anodes material for lithium ion batteries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yao; Wang; Long; Ren; Yundan; Liu; Xuejun; Liu; Kai; Huang; Xiaolin; Wei; Jun; Li; Xiang; Qi; Jianxin; Zhong

    2014-01-01

    A novel carbon matrix/silicon nanowires(SiNWs) heterogeneous block was successfully produced by dispersing SiNWs into templated carbon matrix via a modified evaporation induced self-assembly method. The heterogeneous block was determined by X-ray diffraction, Raman spectra and scanning electron microscopy. As an anode material for lithium batteries, the block was investigated by cyclic voltammograms(CV), charge/discharge tests, galvanostatic cycling performance and A. C. impedance spectroscopy. We show that the SiNWs disperse into the framework, and are nicely wrapped by the carbon matrix. The heterogeneous block exhibits superior electrochemical reversibility with a high specific capacity of 529.3 mAh/g in comparison with bare SiNWs anode with merely about 52.6 mAh/g capacity retention. The block presents excellent cycle stability and capacity retention which can be attributed to the improvement of conductivity by the existence of carbon matrix and the enhancement of ability to relieve the large volume expansion of SiNWs during the lithium insertion/extraction cycle. The results indicate that the as-prepared carbon matrix/SiNWs heterogeneous block can be an attractive and potential anode material for lithium-ion battery applications.

  2. Materials for advanced power engineering 2010. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 9th Liege Conference on ''Materials for Advanced Power Engineering'' presents the results of the materials related COST Actions 536 ''Alloy Development for Critical Components of Environmentally Friendly Power Plants'' and 538 ''High Temperature Plant Lifetime Extension''. In addition, the broad field of current materials research perspectives for high efficiency, low- and zero- emission power plants and new energy technologies for the next decades are reported. The Conference proceedings are structured as follows: 1. Materials for advanced steam power plants; 2. Gas turbine materials; 3. Materials for nuclear fission and fusion; 4. Solid oxide fuel cells; 5. Corrosion, thermomechanical fatigue and modelling; 6. Zero emission power plants.

  3. Electrolytic deposition of Sn-coated mesocarbon microbeads as anode material for lithium ion battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, Min-Jen [Department of Materials Engineering, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung 40227, Taiwan (China); Jen-Teh Junior College of Medicine, Nursing and Management, Taiwan (China); Tsai, Du-Cheng [Department of Materials Engineering, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung 40227, Taiwan (China); Ho, Wen-Hsien [Taiwan Textile Research Institute, Taipei 23674, Taiwan (China); Li, Ching-Fei, E-mail: chingfei.li@gmail.com [Phoenix Silicon International Corporation, Hsinchu 30094, Taiwan (China); Shieu, Fuh-Sheng, E-mail: fsshieu@dragon.nchu.edu.tw [Department of Materials Engineering, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung 40227, Taiwan (China); Center of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung 40227, Taiwan (China)

    2013-11-15

    Deposited of crystalline tin (Sn) coatings on mesocarbon microbead (MCMB) powder as anodes of lithium ion (Li-ion) battery was conducted in the SnSO{sub 4} solution by a cathodic electrochemical synthesis. The Sn-coated MCMB specimens were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and charge/discharge tests. The synthesis condition of Sn-coated MCMB was optimized by considering the agglomeration, size, and adhesion of the samples to the current collectors in the battery. The Sn-coated MCMB electrodes exhibit increased reversible capacity without sacrificing its cycling behavior, compared with bare MCMB electrodes. It is concluded that electrolysis-deposited Sn-coated MCMB electrodes may emerge as a practical and promising anode material for secondary Li-ion batteries.

  4. Joining and surfacing of advanced materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Andrzej Kolasa; Wladyslaw Wlosinski

    2004-01-01

    The application of advanced materials, i.e. advanced ceramics, glasses, intermetallic phases and various type of composites, not only depends on their manufacture processes including a great input of know-how, but also on their abilities for processing, among which the joining processes play an important role. The uses of advanced materials are changing rapidly, with a major emphasis on technical applications, especially the components of machines, apparatus and technical devices expected to withstand very heavy exploitation conditions. Furthermore,these materials are becoming more complex, in terms of being strengthened and toughened by transformation processes as well as by the addition of other ceramic or metallic materials including nanomaterials. The successful use of advanced materials requires the development of equally advanced joining materials, processes and technology. Some selected examples of results of joining advanced materials with the use of various procedures as well as surface modification of structural components with the use of advanced materials obtained in the Welding Engineering Department of Warsaw University of Technology, Poland, are presented.

  5. Effects of graphite on Zn-Sb alloys as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The electrochemical properties of multiphases Zn4Sb3C7 and ZnSbC2 as new lithium-ion anode materials wereinvestigated. The composition and microstructures of these multiphase materials were analyzed by XRD and TEM. It wasfound that the addition of graphite modifies the microstructures of pure alloys. The capacities and the cycle stability of theanodes are greatly improved. The reversible capacity of Zn4Sb3C7 reaches as high as 510 mAh/g at the first cycle, andkeeps higher than 300 mAh/g after 10 charge/discharge cycles

  6. Sol-gel Method Synthesized Polyhedron SnO_2 Anode Material for Lithium Ion Battery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    1 Introduction Tin-based oxides will be promising anode materials for lithium ion batteries due to its high specific capacity, low potential platform, and safety[1]. Many methods have been applied to synthesize SnO2 materials of different morphologies, such as chemical vapor deposition, spray, sol-gel method[2]. Triblock copolymer poly (ethylene oxide)-block-poly (propylene oxide)-block-poly (ethane oxide) (P123) has been used as surfactant to prepare nano-crystalline tin oxide particles[3]. In this pap...

  7. Recent Advances in Superhard Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhisheng; Xu, Bo; Tian, Yongjun

    2016-07-01

    In superhard materials research, two topics are of central focus. One is to understand hardness microscopically and to establish hardness models with atomic parameters, which can be used to guide the design or prediction of novel superhard crystals. The other is to synthesize superhard materials with enhanced comprehensive performance (i.e., hardness, fracture toughness, and thermal stability), with the ambition of achieving materials harder than natural diamond. In this review, we present recent developments in both areas. The microscopic hardness models of covalent single crystals are introduced and further generalized to polycrystalline materials. Current research progress in novel superhard materials and nanostructuring approaches for high-performance superhard materials are discussed. We also clarify a long-standing controversy about the criterion for performing a reliable indentation hardness measurement.

  8. Glycopolymeric Materials for Advanced Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Muñoz-Bonilla

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, glycopolymers have particularly revolutionized the world of macromolecular chemistry and materials in general. Nevertheless, it has been in this century when scientists realize that these materials present great versatility in biosensing, biorecognition, and biomedicine among other areas. This article highlights most relevant glycopolymeric materials, considering that they are only a small example of the research done in this emerging field. The examples described here are selected on the base of novelty, innovation and implementation of glycopolymeric materials. In addition, the future perspectives of this topic will be commented on.

  9. Advanced materials and technologies. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindroos, V.K.; Alander, T.K.R. [eds.] [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland). Lab. of Physical Metallurgy and Materials Science

    1995-12-31

    The contents of the proceedings consist of three chapters, of which, the first discusses common megatrends, both nationally and globally, in different fields of materials technology. The second chapter is dealing with novel production and processing of base metals and, finally, the third chapter is related with current achievements and future goals of electronic, magnetic, optical and coating materials and their processing

  10. Advanced Materials for Automotive Application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper some recent material developments will be overviewed mainly from the point of view of automotive industry. In car industry, metal forming is one of the most important manufacturing processes imposing severe restrictions on materials; these are often contradictory requirements, e.g. high strength simultaneously with good formability, etc. Due to these challenges and the ever increasing demand new material classes have been developed; however, the more and more wide application of high strength materials meeting the requirements stated by the mass reduction lead to increasing difficulties concerning the formability which requires significant technological developments as well. In this paper, the recent materials developments will be overviewed from the point of view of the automotive industry

  11. Fibres : future materials for advanced emerging applications

    OpenAIRE

    Fangueiro, Raúl; Rana, S

    2012-01-01

    Fibrous materials are finding widespread applications in diversified areas, starting from clothing sector to medical fields, various structural and infrastructural applications of civil engineering, aerospace industries and even for energy harvesting and storage applications. In this paper, the results of various research activities conducted by the Fibrous Materials Research Group (FMRG), University of Minho to explore fibrous materials in several advanced and emerging applicatio...

  12. Monodisperse porous silicon spheres as anode materials for lithium ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Favors, Zachary; Ionescu, Robert; Ye, Rachel; Bay, Hamed Hosseini; Ozkan, Mihrimah; Ozkan, Cengiz S

    2015-03-05

    Highly monodisperse porous silicon nanospheres (MPSSs) are synthesized via a simple and scalable hydrolysis process with subsequent surface-protected magnesiothermic reduction. The spherical nature of the MPSSs allows for a homogenous stress-strain distribution within the structure during lithiation and delithiation, which dramatically improves the electrochemical stability. To fully extract the real performance of the MPSSs, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were added to enhance the electronic conductivity within the composite electrode structure, which has been verified to be an effective way to improve the rate and cycling performance of anodes based on nano-Si. The Li-ion battery (LIB) anodes based on MPSSs demonstrate a high reversible capacity of 3105 mAh g(-1). In particular, reversible Li storage capacities above 1500 mAh g(-1) were maintained after 500 cycles at a high rate of C/2. We believe this innovative approach for synthesizing porous Si-based LIB anode materials by using surface-protected magnesiothermic reduction can be readily applied to other types of SiOx nano/microstructures.

  13. Development of high-energy silicon-based anode materials for lithium-ion storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Ran

    The emerging markets of electric vehicles (EV) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) generate a tremendous demand for low-cost lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) with high energy and power densities, and long cycling life. The development of such LIBs requires development of low cost, high-energy-density cathode and anode materials. Conventional anode materials in commercial LIBs are primarily synthetic graphite-based materials with a capacity of ˜370 mAh/g. Improvements in anode performance, particularly in anode capacity, are essential to achieving high energy densities in LIBs for EV and HEV applications. This dissertation focuses on development of micro-sized silicon-carbon (Si-C) composites as anode materials for high energy and power densities LIBs. First, a new, low-cost, large-scale approach was developed to prepare a micro-sized Si-C composite with excellent performance as an anode material for LIBs. The composite shows a reversible capacity of 1459 mAh/g after 200 cycles at 1 A/g (97.8% capacity retention) and excellent high rate performance of 700 mAh/g at 12.8 A/g, and also has a high tap density of 0.78 g/cm3. The structure of the composite, micro-sized as a whole, features the interconnected nanoscale size of the Si building blocks and the uniform carbon filling, which enables the maximum utilization of silicon even when the micro-sized particles break into small pieces upon cycling. To understand the effects of key parameters in designing the micro-sized Si-C composites on their electrochemical performance and explore how to optimize them, the influence of Si nanoscale building block size and carbon coating on the electrochemical performance of the micro-sized Si-C composites were investigated. It has been found that the critical Si building block size is 15 nm, which enables a high capacity without compromising the cycling stability, and that carbon coating at higher temperature improves the 1st cycle coulombic efficiency (CE) and the rate capability

  14. A new anode material LiMoS2 for use in rechargeable Lithium Ion Batteries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Shui-jin; AI Chang-chun; LIANG Yong-guang; SUN Ju-tang

    2004-01-01

    The novel applications of molybdenum disulfide in recent research were reviewed, such as in lubricant, catalyst and photoelectrochemical solar cells. Recently, we found that LiMoS2 is a good candidate for new anode materials for lithium ion batteries with high lithium storage capacity.Here, the anode material LiMoS2 was synthesized by a hydrothermal method at 150℃ and the electrochemical characterization as an anode material for lithium ion batteries was examined.put in Teflon-lined stainless steel autoclaves of capacity 40 mL. Distilled water was used to fill the autoclaves to 70 % of the total volume. The autoclaves were maintained at 150℃ for 24 h and then cooled naturally. The resulting dark-gray powders were filled and washed with distilled water,diluted hydrochloric acid and ethanol, successively. The final products were dried at 80℃ for 24 h.The powder X-ray diffraction pattern showed the prepared LiMoS2 was amorphous structure. A test cell using LiMoS2 as the active material was discharged and charged between 3 and 0.01 V with respect to Li metal at a constant current density of C/5 (that is, one lithium per formula unit in 5 hours). During the first discharge, the potential rapidly drops to reach a large plateau at 2.2 V, then slowly drops to the other plateau at 0.8 V, and then continuously decreases down to 0.01V. There is only a plateau at 1.35 V in the subsequent discharge curves. The plateaus of charge potential appear at about 1.9 V.The irreversible loss was 41% in the first cycle. The ratio of discharge and charge is more than 99%in the subsequent cycles. Moreover, the ratio of discharge and charge almost reaches 100% after thedemonstrated that LiMoS2 has a very high capacity and a good cycle-ability as an anode material forlithium ion batteries.

  15. An investigation of oxide composite anode materials for lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bo

    This thesis is aimed to develop high-capacity, inexpensive, long cycle life and environmentally benign anode for lithium-ion batteries. With those goals in mind, a novel oxide alloy composite materials MO-Sn xCoyCz (MO=GeO2, SnO2, SiO and SiO2) have been proposed and investigated. Mechanical alloying method has been used to synthesize oxide alloy composite anode material. The MO-SnxCo yCz composite has the potential to combine the advantageous properties of both Sn-Co-C (long cycle life) and MO (high capacity) and, thereby, improve the overall electrochemical performance. The as-milled materials were studied by BET, laser particle analyzer, X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), pair distribution function (PDF), extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS). Evaluating from electrochemical performance, tap density, and cost, GeO2 and SiO are the most promising candidates alloyed with Sn-Co-C system. The GeO 2 composite anode shows a reversible capacity over 800 mAh/g with good capacity retention. Furthermore, the 1st cycle coulombic efficiency has been improved up to 80%. Compared with GeO2, SiO has an advantage on the price. A series of composite anode materials of xSiO * (1-x)SnxCoyC z were studied by electrochemical method. The composition of 50 wt.%SiO-50 wt.%Sn30Co30C40 shows the best electrochemical performance. Two different milling methods (ultra high-energy milling and SPEX milling) were employed to prepare the samples. Ultra high-energy milling sample exhibited superior electrochemical performance. Stabilized lithium metallic powder technique is employed on this anode to improve the first cycle coulombic efficiency. Full-cell configuration (Li1.2Ni 0.15Co0.10Mn0.55O2 vs. 50 wt.%SiO-50 wt.% Sn30Co30C40) has been cycled over 200 cycles successfully. The SiO-SnxFeyC z (x : y: z molar ratio) composite has been milled in different compositions. Metallic iron was employed instead of cobalt, which cuts the cost significantly but does not

  16. Electrochemical performance of graphene nanosheets as anode material for lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Peng; Song, Huaihe; Chen, Xiaohong [State Key Laboratory of Chemical Resource Engineering, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, 100029 Beijing (China)

    2009-06-15

    Graphene nanosheets (GNSs) were prepared from artificial graphite by oxidation, rapid expansion and ultrasonic treatment. The morphology, structure and electrochemical performance of GNSs as anode material for lithium-ion batteries were systematically investigated by high-resolution transmission electron microscope, scanning electron microscope, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and a variety of electrochemical testing techniques. It was found that GNSs exhibited a relatively high reversible capacity of 672 mA h/g and fine cycle performance. The exchange current density of GNSs increased with the growth of cycle numbers exhibiting the peculiar electrochemical performance. (author)

  17. Methane steam reforming kinetics over Ni-YSZ anode materials for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, David

    of internal reforming has to be carefully controlled. The objective of this thesis is to make such a careful control possible by examining the rate of internal steam reforming in SOFCs. The catalytic steam reforming activity of Ni-YSZ anode material was tested both in a packed bed reactor to determine...... intrinsic kinetics, and in a stack configuration to determine the rate observed under realistic SOFC conditions. The kinetic expressions obtained from respectively the packed bed measurements and the stack measurements are shown in Equations 3 and 4. Furthermore, a simple model was derived, which can...

  18. Ion beam processing of advanced electronic materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheung, N.W.; Marwick, A.D.; Roberto, J.B. (eds.) (California Univ., Berkeley, CA (USA); International Business Machines Corp., Yorktown Heights, NY (USA). Thomas J. Watson Research Center; Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA))

    1989-01-01

    This report contains research programs discussed at the materials research society symposia on ion beam processing of advanced electronic materials. Major topics include: shallow implantation and solid-phase epitaxy; damage effects; focused ion beams; MeV implantation; high-dose implantation; implantation in III-V materials and multilayers; and implantation in electronic materials. Individual projects are processed separately for the data bases. (CBS)

  19. Ion beam processing of advanced electronic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains research programs discussed at the materials research society symposia on ion beam processing of advanced electronic materials. Major topics include: shallow implantation and solid-phase epitaxy; damage effects; focused ion beams; MeV implantation; high-dose implantation; implantation in III-V materials and multilayers; and implantation in electronic materials. Individual projects are processed separately for the data bases

  20. A Co(OH){sub 2}-graphene nanosheets composite as a high performance anode material for rechargeable lithium batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Y.S.; Yang, X.; Liao, X.Z.; Ma, Z.F. [Shanghai Jiao Tong Univ. (China). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Chen, J. [Wollongong Univ., NSW (Australia). ARC Centre of Excellence for Electromaterials Science, Intelligent Polymer Research Inst.

    2010-07-01

    The 2-D structure of graphene provides it with excellent electronic conductivity, and a high surface area. Graphene nanosheets have been investigated for use in lithium-ion (Li-ion) storage applications. In this study nanostructured TiO{sub 2}-graphene hybrid materials were fabricated in order to investigate their potential uses in Li-ion batteries. The study showed that the materials showed significantly enhanced Li-ion insertion and extraction capabilities in TiO{sub 2}. A cobalt oxide (Co(OH){sub 2})-graphene nanosheet was also developed as an advanced anode material for Li-storage. The discharge-charge cycling performance of the material was discussed, as well as the coulombic efficiency of the synthesized samples. Results of the experimental study showed that after 30 cycles, the reversible capacity of the composite achieved approximately 82 per cent of its initial value. The corresponding capacity retentions of the graphene nanosheets and the Co(OH)2 after 30 cycles were approximately 66 per cent and 58 per cent, respectively. 5 refs.

  1. Orthorhombic Lithium Titanium Phosphate as an Anode Material for Li-ion Rechargeable Battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Li-rich orthorhombic lithium titanium phosphate (OLTP) has been synthesized via a sol-gel route. • OLTP adopts a different space group from the previously reported rhombohedral lithium titanium phosphate (RLTP) and shows solid-solution charge/discharge curves. • OLTP shows higher Li+ diffusivity and electrical conductivity, which makes it an attractive alternative for RLTP. - Abstract: Rhombohedral lithium titanium phosphate, LiTi2(PO4)3, has been considered a suitable anode material for aqueous lithium-ion batteries. However, the electrochemical behaviors of pure lithium-rich polymorphs have not been described yet even Li-rich phase may show better electrochemical properties than conventional LiTi2(PO4)3 at the expense of somewhat lowered capacity. We have synthesized orthorhombic Li1.5Ti2(PO4)3 (OLTP) and rhombohedral LiTi2(PO4)3 (RLTP) via sol-gel reactions and studied their fundamental electrochemical properties using galvanostatic charge/discharge and cyclic voltammetry (CV). Their feasibility as anode materials in LiFePO4//LixTi2(PO4)3 configurations using aqueous electrolytes were also considered. The faster kinetics of the orthorhombic lithium titanium phosphate in this study were attributed to higher Li+ diffusivity and electrical conductivity, making this material an attractive alternative for conventional rhombohedral LiTi2(PO4)3

  2. Advanced materials in radiation dosimetry

    CERN Document Server

    Bruzzi, M; Nava, F; Pini, S; Russo, S

    2002-01-01

    High band-gap semiconductor materials can represent good alternatives to silicon in relative dosimetry. Schottky diodes made with epitaxial n-type 4 H SiC and Chemical Vapor Deposited diamond films with ohmic contacts have been exposed to a sup 6 sup 0 Co gamma-source, 20 MeV electrons and 6 MV X photons from a linear accelerator to test the current response in on-line configuration in the dose range 0.1-10 Gy. The released charge as a function of the dose and the radiation-induced current as a function of the dose-rate are found to be linear. No priming effects have been observed using epitaxial SiC, due to the low density of lattice defects present in this material.

  3. SYNTHESIS OF NANO-ZnO PARTICLES FOR ALUMINUM METALLURGY AS INERT ANODE MATERIAL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A.A.A. Saleh; Y. Fu; X.J. Zhai; Y.C. Zhai; M.M. Elomella; A.L. Zhang

    2004-01-01

    Nano-ZnO particle was produced by evaporating zinc powders in air at air flow-rate from 0.2 to 0.6m3/h. Nano-ZnO particles was formed by the oxidation of the evaporated zinc vapor. X-ray diffraction shows the powders to be ZnO with lattice parameters of a=0.3249nm and c=0.5205nm. The particle size is dependent upon the transit time from the source to the collection area. The size of particles was ranged between 81 to 103nm. The average density resulted was 4.865g/cm3.Normal ZnO and nano-ZnO were investigated to use them in aluminum metallurgy as an inert anode material. A certain amount of both oxides were molded subsequently inserted to the molten cryolite-aluminum oxide to investigate the corrosive behavior of both oxides. When the sintering temperature increased up to 1300 ℃, the weight loss ratio rose to 5.01%-7.33% and up to 7.67%-10.18% for nano-ZnO and normal ZnO, respectively. However, when the samples in the molten cryolite aluminum oxide were put for long time, the corrosive rate was found to be higher. It was found that the corrosive loss weight ratio of nano-ZnO anode was much lower than the normal one made from ordinary-ZnO providing that the nano-ZnO is more possible to be use inert anode material.

  4. Surface-modified graphite for improving electrochemical performance of Li-ion battery anode material

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Jin-ming; WANG Fu-tian; LIU Mao-huang

    2004-01-01

    The graphite materials have been used as negative electrodes in commercial Li-ion batteries for many years. In order to avoid the exfoliation of graphite sheet in the PC-based electrolyte system, it is necessary to make the surface modification on the graphite material. In this study, the electrochemical behavior of carbon-coated graphite in PC-based electrolyte was investigated by charge and discharge cycling process. The carbon-coated graphite can increase the reversible from 366 mA/g to 399mAh/g and improve cycle ability in the PC-based electrolyte system. So the carbon-coated graphite can become the promising high-capacity anode materials of Li-ion battery.

  5. Failure and damage analysis of advanced materials

    CERN Document Server

    Sadowski, Tomasz

    2015-01-01

    The papers in this volume present basic concepts and new developments in failure and damage analysis with focus on advanced materials such as composites, laminates, sandwiches and foams, and also new metallic materials. Starting from some mathematical foundations (limit surfaces, symmetry considerations, invariants) new experimental results and their analysis are shown. Finally, new concepts for failure prediction and analysis will be introduced and discussed as well as new methods of failure and damage prediction for advanced metallic and non-metallic materials. Based on experimental results the traditional methods will be revised.

  6. Heat-treated stainless steel felt as scalable anode material for bioelectrochemical systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Kun; Soeriyadi, Alexander H; Feng, Huajun; Prévoteau, Antonin; Patil, Sunil A; Gooding, J Justin; Rabaey, Korneel

    2015-11-01

    This work reports a simple and scalable method to convert stainless steel (SS) felt into an effective anode for bioelectrochemical systems (BESs) by means of heat treatment. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry elucidated that the heat treatment generated an iron oxide rich layer on the SS felt surface. The iron oxide layer dramatically enhanced the electroactive biofilm formation on SS felt surface in BESs. Consequently, the sustained current densities achieved on the treated electrodes (1 cm(2)) were around 1.5±0.13 mA/cm(2), which was seven times higher than the untreated electrodes (0.22±0.04 mA/cm(2)). To test the scalability of this material, the heat-treated SS felt was scaled up to 150 cm(2) and similar current density (1.5 mA/cm(2)) was achieved on the larger electrode. The low cost, straightforwardness of the treatment, high conductivity and high bioelectrocatalytic performance make heat-treated SS felt a scalable anodic material for BESs.

  7. Methane storage in advanced porous materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makal, Trevor A; Li, Jian-Rong; Lu, Weigang; Zhou, Hong-Cai

    2012-12-01

    The need for alternative fuels is greater now than ever before. With considerable sources available and low pollution factor, methane is a natural choice as petroleum replacement in cars and other mobile applications. However, efficient storage methods are still lacking to implement the application of methane in the automotive industry. Advanced porous materials, metal-organic frameworks and porous organic polymers, have received considerable attention in sorptive storage applications owing to their exceptionally high surface areas and chemically-tunable structures. In this critical review we provide an overview of the current status of the application of these two types of advanced porous materials in the storage of methane. Examples of materials exhibiting high methane storage capacities are analyzed and methods for increasing the applicability of these advanced porous materials in methane storage technologies described. PMID:22990753

  8. Materials for advanced power engineering 2010. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lecomte-Beckers, Jacqueline; Contrepois, Quentin; Beck, Tilmann; Kuhn, Bernd (eds.)

    2010-07-01

    The 9th Liege Conference on ''Materials for Advanced Power Engineering'' presents the results of the materials related COST Actions 536 ''Alloy Development for Critical Components of Environmentally Friendly Power Plants'' and 538 ''High Temperature Plant Lifetime Extension''. In addition, the broad field of current materials research perspectives for high efficiency, low- and zero- emission power plants and new energy technologies for the next decades are reported. The Conference proceedings are structured as follows: 1. Materials for advanced steam power plants; 2. Gas turbine materials; 3. Materials for nuclear fission and fusion; 4. Solid oxide fuel cells; 5. Corrosion, thermomechanical fatigue and modelling; 6. Zero emission power plants.

  9. Materials for Advanced Power Engineering 2014

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The 10th Liege Conference on Materials for Advanced Power Engineering presents theachievements of international materials related research for high eciency, low-emissionpower plants. Furthermore the new demands of the transition of electricity supply towardsmore and more regenerative power sources are reported.Resource preservation and maximization of economic success by improved plant e-ciency were the driving forces in past materials and power plant technology development.Fossil fuels will ...

  10. Advanced materials for aircraft engine applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backman, D G; Williams, J C

    1992-02-28

    A review of advances for aircraft engine structural materials and processes is presented. Improved materials, such as superalloys, and the processes for making turbine disks and blades have had a major impact on the capability of modern gas turbine engines. New structural materials, notably composites and intermetallic materials, are emerging that will eventually further enhance engine performance, reduce engine weight, and thereby enable new aircraft systems. In the future, successful aerospace manufacturers will combine product design and materials excellence with improved manufacturing methods to increase production efficiency, enhance product quality, and decrease the engine development cycle time.

  11. Structures, phase stabilities, and electrical potentials of Li-Si battery anode materials

    KAUST Repository

    Tipton, William W.

    2013-05-28

    The Li-Si materials system holds promise for use as an anode in Li-ion battery applications. For this system, we determine the charge capacity, voltage profiles, and energy storage density solely by ab initio methods without any experimental input. We determine the energetics of the stable and metastable Li-Si phases likely to form during the charging and discharging of a battery. Ab initio molecular dynamics simulations are used to model the structure of amorphous Li-Si as a function of composition, and a genetic algorithm coupled to density-functional theory searches the Li-Si binary phase diagram for small-cell, metastable crystal structures. Calculations of the phonon densities of states using density-functional perturbation theory for selected structures determine the importance of vibrational, including zero-point, contributions to the free energies. The energetics and local structural motifs of these metastable Li-Si phases closely resemble those of the amorphous phases, making these small unit cell crystal phases good approximants of the amorphous phase for use in further studies. The charge capacity is estimated, and the electrical potential profiles and the energy density of Li-Si anodes are predicted. We find, in good agreement with experimental measurements, that the formation of amorphous Li-Si only slightly increases the anode potential. Additionally, the genetic algorithm identifies a previously unreported member of the Li-Si binary phase diagram with composition Li5Si2 which is stable at 0 K with respect to previously known phases. We discuss its relationship to the partially occupied Li7Si3 phase. © 2013 American Physical Society.

  12. Evaluation of Al and Some of Its Alloys as Anode Materials vs γ-MnO2 as Cathode Material and Ore Produced γ-MnO2 vs Zn Anode in KOH Solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A.M.A.Hashem; Kh.S. Abou-El-Sherbini; S. Zein El Abedin; H. Abbas

    2006-01-01

    In this study electrochemical performance of Al and some of its alloys (Al-Zn, Al-Mg and Al-Mn) anodes vs MnO2 cathode were carried out in alkaline solution. The results show that the Al-Zn alloy anode has the best cell capacity among the other alloys. Cell capacity values go in the order Al-Zn>Al-Mg>Al>Al-Mn. This result is probably related to the nature of passive films formed on the surface of the alloys which examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). SEM morphologies of Al and its alloys showed coarse grains of passive films formed on the surface of these anode materials while Al-Mn morphology shows a needle-like structure.Electrolytic manganese dioxide (EMD) produced by electrodepositing on platinum anode from liquor resulting from reduction of low grade pyrolusite ore (β-MnO2) by sulfur slag was characterized as cathode in alkaline Zn-MnO2 batteries. Ore produced sample (EMD1) was performed well in comparison with EMD standard (EMD2) (commercial battery grade electrolytic manganese dioxide, TOSOH-Hellas GH-S). SEM morphology of Zn anode after cell reaction was carried out and showed that Zn anode has fine grains of passive film on its surface.

  13. Electrochemical properties of some cobalt antimonides as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Xinbing; CAO Gaoshao; ZHANG Lijuan; XIE Jian

    2003-01-01

    Some cobalt antimonides have been prepared and studied as the candidate anode materials for lithium ion batteries. Reversible capacities of 424, 423 and 546 mA@h@g -1 were measured at the first cycle for as-solidified CoSb2, CoSb3 and annealed CoSb3 respectively. A low lithium ions diffusion coefficient in the order of 10-16 m 2@s -1 was estimated from the coulometric titration measurements in the annealed CoSb3 electrode. It was found that the electrochemical properties of fine powders are significantly better than coarse powders. However the SEM picture shows that the nano-sized CoSb3powders gathered to larger granules, which worsens somewhat the capacity retention of the nano-sized materials, although the volume capacities of the annealed and ball milled CoSb3 remain near twice of that of graphite after 50 cycles.

  14. Preparation and Characterization of Carbon Coated Silicon Nanoparticle as Anode Material for Li-ion Batteries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    T. Zhancg; L.J. Fu; J. Gao; Y. P. Wu; H.Q. Wu

    2005-01-01

    @@ 1Introduction Silicon has been regarded as one of the most promising anode materials for Li-ion batteries. Its theoretical capacity (4 000 mAh/g) is much higher than that of the commercialized graphite (372 mAh/g)[1]. However,the cycle performance of silicon is poor due to the severe volume expansion and shrinkage during Li+ insertion/extraction which results in pulverization of Si particles, eventually losing its Li+ storage ability[2]. To solve this problem, nanosized Si particles were utilized and achieved a partial improvement by reducing the absolute volume change. Nevertheless, a new problem was encountered with nanosized material that small Si particles were aggregated to be larger one during Li+ insertion/extraction, and then pulverized again[3]. In this work, we have succeeded to improve the cycle performance of nanosized Si particles by synthesis of carbon coated silicon nanoparticle.

  15. Novel TiO{sub 2}/C nanocomposites for anode materials of lithium ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, L.J.; Liu, H.; Zhang, H.P.; Li, C.; Zhang, T.; Wu, Y.P.; Wu, H.Q. [Department of Chemistry, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Molecular Catalysis and Innovative Materials, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China)

    2006-09-13

    Here we reported an effective method to prepare TiO{sub 2}/C core-shell nanocomposites as active anode materials for lithium ion batteries with markedly ameliorated electrochemical performance. At first, a precursor, polyacrylonitrile coated nano-TiO{sub 2} particles, was formed by emulsion polymerization. Then the precursor was heat-treated under argon atmosphere to achieve the nanocomposites. The conductive carbon shell enveloped TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles and suppressed the aggregation of nanoparticles during cycling. Meanwhile, it combined closely with the nanocores, significantly enhanced kinetics of lithium intercalation and de-intercalation and diffusion coefficient of lithium ion. This provides a good way to improve the cycling and kinetics of nanoanode materials. (author)

  16. Materials for advanced water cooled reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current IAEA programme in advanced nuclear power technology promotes technical information exchange between Member States with major development programmes. The International Working Group on Advanced Technologies for Water Cooled Reactors recommended to organize a Technical Committee Meeting for the purpose of providing an international forum for technical specialists to review and discuss aspects regarding development trends in material application for advanced water cooled reactors. The experience gained from the operation of current water cooled reactors, and results from related research and development programmes, should be the basis for future improvements of material properties and applications. This meeting enabled specialists to exchange knowledge about structural materials application in the nuclear island for the next generation of nuclear power plants. Refs, figs, tabs

  17. Annual report 90. Institute for advanced materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Annual Report 1990 of the Institute for Advanced Materials of the JRC highlights the Scientific Technical Achievements and presents in the Annex the Institute's Competence and Facilities available to industry for services and research under contract. The Institute executed in 1990 the R and D programme on advanced materials of the JRC and contributed to the programmes: reactor safety, radio-active waste management, fusion technology and safety, nuclear fuel and actinide research. The supplementary programme: Operation of the High Flux Reactor is presented in condensed form. A full report is published separately

  18. Could Borophene Be Used as a Promising Anode Material for High-Performance Lithium Ion Battery?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yang; Wu, Zhi-Feng; Gao, Peng-Fei; Zhang, Sheng-Li; Wen, Yu-Hua

    2016-08-31

    The rapid development of electronic products has inspired scientists to design and explore novel electrode materials with an ultrahigh rate of charging/discharging capability, such as two-dimensional (2-D) nanostructures of graphene and MoS2. In this study, another 2-D nanosheet, that is a borophene layer, has been predicted to be utilized as a promising anode material for high-performance Li ion battery based on density functional theory calculations. Our study has revealed that Li atom can combine strongly with borophene surface strongly and easily, and exist as a pure Li(+) state. A rather small energy barrier (0.007 eV) of Li diffusion leads to an ultrahigh diffusivity along an uncorrugated direction of borophene, which is estimated to be 10(4) (10(5)) times faster than that on MoS2 (graphene) at room temperature. A high Li storage capacity of 1239 mA·h/g can be achieved when Li content reaches 0.5. A low average operating voltage of 0.466 V and metallic properties result in that the borophene can be used as a possible anode material. Moreover, the properties of Li adsorption and diffusion on the borophene affected by Ag (111) substrate have been studied. It has been found that the influence of Ag (111) substrate is very weak. Li atom can still bind on the borophene with a strong binding energy of -2.648 eV. A small energy barrier of 0.033 eV can be retained for Li diffusion along the uncorrugated direction, which can give rise to a high Li diffusivity. Besides, the performances of borophene-based Na ion battery have been explored. Our results suggest that an extremely high rate capability could be expected in borophene-based Li ion battery. PMID:27487298

  19. An advanced lithium-ion battery based on a graphene anode and a lithium iron phosphate cathode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassoun, Jusef; Bonaccorso, Francesco; Agostini, Marco; Angelucci, Marco; Betti, Maria Grazia; Cingolani, Roberto; Gemmi, Mauro; Mariani, Carlo; Panero, Stefania; Pellegrini, Vittorio; Scrosati, Bruno

    2014-08-13

    We report an advanced lithium-ion battery based on a graphene ink anode and a lithium iron phosphate cathode. By carefully balancing the cell composition and suppressing the initial irreversible capacity of the anode in the round of few cycles, we demonstrate an optimal battery performance in terms of specific capacity, that is, 165 mAhg(-1), of an estimated energy density of about 190 Wh kg(-1) and a stable operation for over 80 charge-discharge cycles. The components of the battery are low cost and potentially scalable. To the best of our knowledge, complete, graphene-based, lithium ion batteries having performances comparable with those offered by the present technology are rarely reported; hence, we believe that the results disclosed in this work may open up new opportunities for exploiting graphene in the lithium-ion battery science and development.

  20. Composit, Nanoparticle-Based Anode material for Li-ion Batteries Applied in Hybrid Electric (HEV's)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Malgorzata Gulbinska

    2009-08-24

    Lithium-ion batteries are promising energy storage devices in hybrid and electric vehicles with high specific energy values ({approx}150 Wh/kg), energy density ({approx}400 Wh/L), and long cycle life (>15 years). However, applications in hybrid and electric vehicles require increased energy density and improved low-temperature (<-10 C) performance. Silicon-based anodes are inexpensive, environmentally benign, and offer excellent theoretical capacity values ({approx}4000 mAh/g), leading to significantly less anode material and thus increasing the overall energy density value for the complete battery (>500 Wh/L). However, tremendous volume changes occur during cycling of pure silicon-based anodes. The expansion and contraction of these silicon particles causes them to fracture and lose electrical contact to the current collector ultimately severely limiting their cycle life. In Phase I of this project Yardney Technical Products, Inc. proposed development of a carbon/nano-silicon composite anode material with improved energy density and silicon's cycleability. In the carbon/nano-Si composite, silicon nanoparticles were embedded in a partially-graphitized carbonaceous matrix. The cycle life of anode material would be extended by decreasing the average particle size of active material (silicon) and by encapsulation of silicon nanoparticles in a ductile carbonaceous matrix. Decreasing the average particle size to a nano-region would also shorten Li-ion diffusion path and thus improve rate capability of the silicon-based anodes. Improved chemical inertness towards PC-based, low-temperature electrolytes was expected as an additional benefit of a thin, partially graphitized coating around the active electrode material.

  1. Materials as additives for advanced lubrication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pol, Vilas G.; Thackeray, Michael M.; Mistry, Kuldeep; Erdemir, Ali

    2016-09-13

    This invention relates to carbon-based materials as anti-friction and anti-wear additives for advanced lubrication purposes. The materials comprise carbon nanotubes suspended in a liquid hydrocarbon carrier. Optionally, the compositions further comprise a surfactant (e.g., to aid in dispersion of the carbon particles). Specifically, the novel lubricants have the ability to significantly lower friction and wear, which translates into improved fuel economies and longer durability of mechanical devices and engines.

  2. Advanced Materials for Redox Flow Batteries

    OpenAIRE

    Friedl, Jochen

    2015-01-01

    We investigate two advanced materials electrochemically in order to see if they can be applied to improve energy- and power-density of Redox Flow Batteries (RFBs). First, multi-walled carbon nanotubes are analyzed as electrode material for the All-Vanadium RFB. We discovered that an enhanced activity assigned by previous studies was a misinterpretation caused by an apparent catalytic effect. Second, large inorganic molecules, polyoxometalates (POMs), were investigated as nano-sized el...

  3. Advancing Material Models for Automotive Forming Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vegter, H.; An, Y.; ten Horn, C. H. L. J.; Atzema, E. H.; Roelofsen, M. E.

    2005-08-01

    Simulations in automotive industry need more advanced material models to achieve highly reliable forming and springback predictions. Conventional material models implemented in the FEM-simulation models are not capable to describe the plastic material behaviour during monotonic strain paths with sufficient accuracy. Recently, ESI and Corus co-operate on the implementation of an advanced material model in the FEM-code PAMSTAMP 2G. This applies to the strain hardening model, the influence of strain rate, and the description of the yield locus in these models. A subsequent challenge is the description of the material after a change of strain path. The use of advanced high strength steels in the automotive industry requires a description of plastic material behaviour of multiphase steels. The simplest variant is dual phase steel consisting of a ferritic and a martensitic phase. Multiphase materials also contain a bainitic phase in addition to the ferritic and martensitic phase. More physical descriptions of strain hardening than simple fitted Ludwik/Nadai curves are necessary. Methods to predict plastic behaviour of single-phase materials use a simple dislocation interaction model based on the formed cells structures only. At Corus, a new method is proposed to predict plastic behaviour of multiphase materials have to take hard phases into account, which deform less easily. The resulting deformation gradients create geometrically necessary dislocations. Additional micro-structural information such as morphology and size of hard phase particles or grains is necessary to derive the strain hardening models for this type of materials. Measurements available from the Numisheet benchmarks allow these models to be validated. At Corus, additional measured values are available from cross-die tests. This laboratory test can attain critical deformations by large variations in blank size and processing conditions. The tests are a powerful tool in optimising forming simulations

  4. NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Molecular Engineering for Advanced Materials

    CERN Document Server

    Schaumburg, Kjeld

    1995-01-01

    An important aspect of molecular engineering is the `property directed' synthesis of large molecules and molecular assemblies. Synthetic expertise has advanced to a state which allows the assembly of supramolecules containing thousands of atoms using a `construction kit' of molecular building blocks. Expansion in the field is driven by the appearance of new building blocks and by an improved understanding of the rules for joining them in the design of nanometer-sized devices. Another aspect is the transition from supramolecules to materials. At present no single molecule (however large) has been demonstrated to function as a device, but this appears to be only a matter of time. In all of this research, which has a strongly multidisciplinary character, both existing and yet to be developed analytical techniques are and will remain indispensable. All this and more is discussed in Molecular Engineering for Advanced Materials, which provides a masterly and up to date summary of one of the most challenging researc...

  5. Efficient Natural Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Based on Spin-Coated TiO2 Anode Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiao-Hong; Sun, Zhao-Zong; Lian, Jie; Li, Yi-Tan; Chen, Yan-Xue; Gao, Shang; Wang, Xiao; Wang, Ying-Shun; Zhao, Ming-Lin

    2013-11-01

    TiO2 anode materials are prepared on ITO glass by spin-coated method. Dye-sensitized solar cells are assembled with these anodes and natural dyes extracted from radix ophiopogonis by different solvents. The formation and characterization of anode materials are confirmed by field-emission scanning electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, UV-visible absorption spectroscopy. Photovoltaic testing results show that energy conversion efficiency could reach 1.67% with fill factor of 0.51, open-circuit voltage of 457 mV, and short-circuit photocurrent density of 7.2 mA/cm2. The short-circuit photocurrent density can reach 7.6 mA/cm2 with efficiency of 1.33.

  6. Advanced quantum mechanics materials and photons

    CERN Document Server

    Dick, Rainer

    2012-01-01

    Advanced Quantum Mechanics: Materials and Photons is a textbook which emphasizes the importance of advanced quantum mechanics for materials science and all experimental techniques which employ photon absorption, emission, or scattering. Important aspects of introductory quantum mechanics are covered in the first seven chapters to make the subject self-contained and accessible for a wide audience. The textbook can therefore be used for advanced undergraduate courses and introductory graduate courses which are targeted towards students with diverse academic backgrounds from the Natural Sciences or Engineering. To enhance this inclusive aspect of making the subject as accessible as possible, Appendices A and B also provide introductions to Lagrangian mechanics and the covariant formulation of electrodynamics. Other special features include an introduction to Lagrangian field theory and an integrated discussion of transition amplitudes with discrete or continuous initial or final states. Once students have acquir...

  7. Advanced quantum mechanics materials and photons

    CERN Document Server

    Dick, Rainer

    2016-01-01

    In this updated and expanded second edition of a well-received and invaluable textbook, Prof. Dick emphasizes the importance of advanced quantum mechanics for materials science and all experimental techniques which employ photon absorption, emission, or scattering. Important aspects of introductory quantum mechanics are covered in the first seven chapters to make the subject self-contained and accessible for a wide audience. Advanced Quantum Mechanics, Materials and Photons can therefore be used for advanced undergraduate courses and introductory graduate courses which are targeted towards students with diverse academic backgrounds from the Natural Sciences or Engineering. To enhance this inclusive aspect of making the subject as accessible as possible Appendices A and B also provide introductions to Lagrangian mechanics and the covariant formulation of electrodynamics. This second edition includes an additional 62 new problems as well as expanded sections on relativistic quantum fields and applications of�...

  8. Annual report 1991. Institute for Advanced Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Institute executed in 1991 the R and D programme on advanced materials of the Joint Research Centre and contributed to the programmes: reactor safety, radio-active waste management, fusion technology and safety, nuclear fuel and actinide research. The supplementary programme: Operation of the High Flux Reactor is presented in condensed form. A full report is published separately. (Author). refs., figs., tabs

  9. Mechanism of lithium insertion into NiSi2 anode material for lithium ion batteries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEN Zhongsheng; JI Shijun; SUN Juncai; TIAN Feng; TIAN Rujin; XIE Jingying

    2006-01-01

    As a promising high capacity anode material for lithium ion batteries, the lithium insertion performance and possible insertion mechanism of binary alloy of NiSi2 were discussed. The initial lithium insertion of crystal NiSi2 can reach up to 600 mAh·g-1 , but large irreversible capacity occurrs simultaneously for serious structure transformation and the irreversible phase forms. XRD and XPS were employed to detect the crystal structure and composition changes produced by lithium insertion. The lithium insertion-extraction behavior of NiSi2 electrode is similar to that of silicon after the first discharge. The structure stability seems related to the non-stoichimometric Ni-Si compound formed by lithium insertion into NiSi2.

  10. Dead lithium phase investigation of Sn-Zn alloy as anode materials for lithium ion battery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG ZhaoWen; HU SheJun; HOU XianHua; RU Qiang; YU HongWen; ZHAO LingZhi; LI WeiShan

    2009-01-01

    In this work, based on First-principle plane wave pseudo-potential method, we have carried out an in-depth study on the possible dead lithium phase of Sn-Zn alloy as anode materials for lithium ion batteries. Through investigation, we found that the phases LixSn4Zn4(x = 2, 4, 6, 8) contributed to reversible capacity, while the phases LixSn4Zns-(x-4)(x = 4.74, 7.72) led to capacity loss due to high formation energy, namely, they were the dead lithium phases during the charge/discharge process. And we come up with a new idea that stable lithium alloy phase with high lithiation formation energy (dead lithium phase) can also result in high loss of active lithium ion, besides the traditional expression that the formation of solid electrolyte interface film leads to high capacity loss.

  11. Mono-layer BC2 a high capacity anode material for Li-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardikar, Rahul; Samanta, Atanu; Han, Sang Soo; Lee, Kwang-Ryeol; Singh, Abhishek

    2015-04-01

    Mono-layer of graphene with high surface area compared to the bulk graphite phase, shows less Li uptake. The Li activity or kinetics can be modified via defects and/or substitutional doping. Boron and Nitrogen are the best known dopants for carbonaceous anode materials. In particular, boron doped graphene shows higher capacity and better Li adsorption compared to Nitrogen doped graphene. Here, using first principles density functional theory calculations, we study the spectrum of boron carbide (BCx) mono-layer phases in order to estimate the maximum gravimetric capacity that can be achieved by substitutional doping in graphene. Our results show that uniformly boron doped BC2 phase shows a high capacity of? 1400 mAh/g, much higher than previously reported capacity of BC3. Supported by Korea Institute of Science and Technology.

  12. Defective graphene as promising anode material for Na-ion battery and Ca-ion battery

    CERN Document Server

    Datta, Dibakar; Shenoy, Vivek B

    2013-01-01

    We have investigated adsorption of Na and Ca on graphene with divacancy (DV) and Stone-Wales (SW) defect. Our results show that adsorption is not possible on pristine graphene. However, their adsorption on defective sheet is energetically favorable. The enhanced adsorption can be attributed to the increased charge transfer between adatoms and underlying defective sheet. With the increase in defect density until certain possible limit, maximum percentage of adsorption also increases giving higher battery capacity. For maximum possible DV defect, we can achieve maximum capacity of 1459 mAh/g for Na-ion batteries (NIBs) and 2900 mAh/g for Ca-ion batteries (CIBs). For graphene full of SW defect, we find the maximum capacity of NIBs and CIBs is around 1071 mAh/g and 2142 mAh/g respectively. Our results will help create better anode materials with much higher capacity and better cycling performance for NIBs and CIBs.

  13. Properties and microstructure of NiO/SDC materials for SOFC anode applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Jigui; DENG Liping; ZHANG Benrui; SHI Ping; MENG Guangyao

    2007-01-01

    NiO/SDC composites and Ni/SDC cermets for solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) anode applications were prepared from nickel oxide (NiO) and samaria doped ceria (SDC) powders by the powder metallurgy process. The physical and mechanical properties, as well as the microstructure of the NiO/SDC composites and the Ni/SDC cermets were investigated. It is shown that the sintering temperature of the NiO/SDC composites and NiO content plays an important role in determining the microstructure and properties of the NiO/SDC composites, which, in turn, influences the microstructure, electrical conductivity, and mechanical properties of the Ni/SDC cermets. The present study demonstrated that composition and tprocess parameters must be appropriately selected to optimize the microstructure and the properties of NiO/SDC materials for solid oxide fuel cell applications.

  14. Electrodeposited gold nanoparticles on carbon nanotube-textile: Anode material for glucose alkaline fuel cells

    KAUST Repository

    Pasta, Mauro

    2012-06-01

    In the present paper we propose a new anode material for glucose-gluconate direct oxidation fuel cells prepared by electrodepositing gold nanoparticles onto a conductive textile made by conformally coating single walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT) on a polyester textile substrate. The electrodeposition conditions were optimized in order to achieve a uniform distribution of gold nanoparticles in the 3D porous structure of the textile. On the basis of previously reported studies, the reaction conditions (pH, electrolyte composition and glucose concentration) were tuned in order to achieve the highest oxidation rate, selectively oxidizing glucose to gluconate. The electrochemical characterization was carried out by means of cyclic voltammetry. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Nitrogen-rich graphene from small molecules as high performance anode material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Weiwei; Huang, Hao; Shi, Hongyan; Feng, Xun; Song, Wenbo

    2014-10-17

    Nitrogen-rich graphene sheets were successfully achieved via facile thermal condensation of glucose and dicyandiamide at different temperatures during which dicyandiamide acts both as nitrogen source and sacrifice template. Devoid of surfactants or poisonous organic solvents, this small-molecule synthetic approach is a simple and cost-effective way to obtain nitrogen-rich graphene sheets (NRGS) with high specific surface area and large pore volume. Shown to be a promising anode material, the NRGS displayed high reversible capacity, excellent rate capability, and superior cycle performance. The superior lithium-storage performance is ascribed to the unique features of NRGS, including a large quantity of defects due to the high nitrogen doping level, favorable lithium ion transportation channels by virtue of the large surface area, and ultrahigh pore volume, as well as the crumpled two-dimensional structure.

  16. Effect of the synthesis method of SnSb anode materials on their electrochemical properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chaoli Yin; Hailei Zhao; Hong Guo; Xianliang Huang; Weihua Qiu

    2007-01-01

    SnSb alloy powders for the anode of Li-ion batteries were synthesized by two kinds of reduction precipitation methods:solution titration and rapid mixing. Two kinds of SnSb alloy powders showed different phase compositions and particle morphologies although the same starting materials were used. The SnSb alloy electrode synthesized by titration exhibits high reversible specific capacity and good cycling stability, whereas the rapid-mixing sample shows high irreversible capacity and fast capacity fade. The broad particle size distribution of SnSb powders synthesized by titration is considered to be responsible for the improvement of cycling stability. The initial charge-discharge efficiency exceeding 80% has been obtained for the titration sample. The electrochemical reaction process of two kinds of synthesized SnSb composite electrodes was characterized by cyclic voltammetry and AC impedance techniques.

  17. Onion-like carbon coated CuO nanocapsules: A highly reversible anode material for lithium ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xianguo, E-mail: liuxianguohugh@gmail.com [Anhui Key Laboratory of Metal Materials and Processing, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Anhui University of Technology, Maanshan 243002 (China); Bi, Nannan; Feng, Chao [Anhui Key Laboratory of Metal Materials and Processing, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Anhui University of Technology, Maanshan 243002 (China); Or, Siu Wing [Department of Electrical Engineering, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Sun, Yuping [Center for Engineering practice and Innovation Education, Anhui University of Technology, Maanshan 243002 (China); Jin, Chuangui; Li, Weihuo; Xiao, Feng [Anhui Key Laboratory of Metal Materials and Processing, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Anhui University of Technology, Maanshan 243002 (China)

    2014-02-25

    Highlights: • Onion-like carbon–coated CuO nanocapsules have been synthesized. • Onion-like carbon leads to the improved stability and electric conductivity. • CuO/C nanocapsules maintain a reversible capacity of 628.7 mA h g{sup −1} after 50 cycles. -- Abstract: The synthesis and characterization of CuO/C nanocapsules for application as anode material in lithium ion batteries are reported. Introduction of onion-like carbon shell on the CuO nanoparticles leads to the improved stability, electric conductivity and electrochemical performance. When evaluated as potential anode materials for lithium-ion batteries, the novel CuO/C nanocapsules deliver an initial discharge capacity of 1043.9 mA h g{sup −1} at 100 mA g{sup −1} and maintain a high reversible capacity of 628.7 mA h g{sup −1} after 50 charge–discharge cycles, much higher than those of the CuO nanoparticles. A postmortem analysis of the CuO and CuO/C anodes subjected to prolonged cycling reveals the existence of a lower degree of surface cracking and particle breakage in the CuO/C anode than the CuO anode.

  18. Anode materials for hydrogen sulfide containing feeds in a solid oxide fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roushanafshar, Milad

    SOFCs which can directly operate under high concentration of H2S would be economically beneficial as this reduces the cost of gas purification. H2S is highly reactive gas specie which can poison most of the conventional catalysts. As a result, developing anode materials which can tolerate high concentrations of H2S and also display high activity toward electrochemical oxidation of feed is crucial and challenging for this application. The performance of La0.4Sr0.6TiO3+/-delta -Y0.2Ce0.8O2-delta (LST-YDC) composite anodes in solid oxide fuel cells significantly improved when 0.5% H2 S was present in syngas (40% H2, 60% CO) or hydrogen. Gas chromatography and mass spectrometry analyses revealed that the rate of electrochemical oxidation of all fuel components improved when H2S containing syngas was present in the fuel. Electrochemical stability tests performed under potentiostatic condition showed that there was no power degradation for different feeds, and that there was power enhancement when 0.5% H2S was present in various feeds. The mechanism of performance improvement by H2S was discussed. Active anodes were synthesized via wet chemical impregnation of different amounts of La0.4Ce0.6O1.8 (LDC) and La 0.4Sr0.6TiO3 (L4ST) into porous yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ). Co-impregnation of LDC with LS4T significantly improved the performance of the cell from 48 mW.cm-2 (L4ST) to 161 mW.cm -2 (LDC-L4ST) using hydrogen as fuel at 900 °C. The contribution of LDC to this improvement was investigated using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) as well as transmission electron microscopy (TEM). EIS measurements using symmetrical cells showed that the polarization resistance decreased from 3.1¦O.cm 2 to 0.5 O.cm2 when LDC was co-impregnated with LST, characterized in humidified H2 (3% H2O) at 900 °C. In addition, the microstructure of the cell was modified when LDC was impregnated prior to L4ST into the porous YSZ. TEM and SEM

  19. Advanced Industrial Materials (AIM) fellowship program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCleary, D.D. [Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education, TN (United States)

    1997-04-01

    The Advanced Industrial Materials (AIM) Program administers a Graduate Fellowship Program focused toward helping students who are currently under represented in the nation`s pool of scientists and engineers, enter and complete advanced degree programs. The objectives of the program are to: (1) establish and maintain cooperative linkages between DOE and professors at universities with graduate programs leading toward degrees or with degree options in Materials Science, Materials Engineering, Metallurgical Engineering, and Ceramic Engineering, the disciplines most closely related to the AIM Program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); (2) strengthen the capabilities and increase the level of participation of currently under represented groups in master`s degree programs, and (3) offer graduate students an opportunity for practical research experience related to their thesis topic through the three-month research assignment or practicum at ORNL. The program is administered by the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE).

  20. Synthesis of nickel oxide nanospheres by a facile spray drying method and their application as anode materials for lithium ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao, Anguo, E-mail: hixiaoanguo@126.com; Zhou, Shibiao; Zuo, Chenggang; Zhuan, Yongbing; Ding, Xiang

    2015-10-15

    Graphical abstract: NiO nanospheres prepared by a facile spray drying method show high lithium ion storage performance as anode of lithium ion battery. - Highlights: • NiO nanospheres are prepared by a spray drying method. • NiO nanospheres are composed of interconnected nanoparticles. • NiO nanospheres show good lithium ion storage properties. - Abstract: Fabrication of advanced anode materials is indispensable for construction of high-performance lithium ion batteries. In this work, nickel oxide (NiO) nanospheres are fabricated by a facial one-step spray drying method. The as-prepared NiO nanospheres show diameters ranging from 100 to 600 nm and are composed of nanoparticles of 30–50 nm. As an anode for lithium ion batteries, the electrochemical properties of the NiO nanospheres are investigated by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and galvanostatic charge/discharge tests. The specific reversible capacity of NiO nanospheres is 656 mA h g{sup −1} at 0.1 C, and 476 mA h g{sup −1} at 1 C. The improvement of electrochemical properties is attributed to nanosphere structure with large surface area and short ion/electron transfer path.

  1. Sodium Titanium Phosphate as Anode Materials for Aqueous Sodium-ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wei

    Renewable energy technology has become one of the promising energy solutions in the future. However, limited by their cyclic behavior, large scale energy storage devices are needed to boost their adoptions in the market. The existing energy storage technologies have limitations that inhibit their adoptions for large scale applications. Our group suggests that one reasonable technology that might overcome these issues is the neutral pH aqueous electrolyte sodium-ion battery. One potential anode material is NaTi2(PO4)3, which has a relatively flexible NASICON skeleton structure and is known in general to have stable performance characteristics in extreme environments. In this work, there are four objectives to study this potential anode material: 1) Develop a rapid method to synthesize electrochemically functional NaTi2(PO4)3. In this case "Electrochemically functional" means the material can store usable capacity for practical application in a composite electrode. 2) Quantify the effect of intimate carbon on NaTi2(PO4)3 electrochemical functionality. (Electrochemical functionality regards the capacity and rate capability of electrode materials) 3) Investigate the stability of NaTi2(PO 4)3 in pH and thermal extremes and the mechanism of capacity fading under different cycling conditions. 4) Examine the performance of NaTi 2(PO4)3 in high salt concentration electrolyte and Li+ electrolyte. NaTi2(PO4)3 has been successfully synthesized via a rapid microwave method. The highest specific capacity is around 85mAh/g has been demonstrated. The effect of different carbon materials (namely graphite and carbon nanotubes) and different processes of adding them (pre and post- synthesis) on the electrochemical performance for sodium titanium phosphate has been extensively studied. Graphite coated NaTi2(PO4) 3 with carbon nanotubes composite electrode has demonstrated a specific capacity of 130mAh/g around theoretical value at 0.1C rate. The effect of the electrolyte (with

  2. Green synthesis of boron doped graphene and its application as high performance anode material in Li ion battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahoo, Madhumita; Sreena, K.P.; Vinayan, B.P.; Ramaprabhu, S., E-mail: ramp@iitm.ac.in

    2015-01-15

    Graphical abstract: Boron doped graphene (B-G), synthesized by simple hydrogen induced reduction technique using boric acid as boron precursor, have more uneven surface as a result of smaller bonding distance of boron compared to carbon, showed high capacity and high rate capability compared to pristine graphene as an anode material for Li ion battery application. - Abstract: The present work demonstrates a facile route for the large-scale, catalyst free, and green synthesis approach of boron doped graphene (B-G) and its use as high performance anode material for Li ion battery (LIB) application. Boron atoms were doped into graphene framework with an atomic percentage of 5.93% via hydrogen induced thermal reduction technique using graphite oxide and boric acid as precursors. Various characterization techniques were used to confirm the boron doping in graphene sheets. B-G as anode material shows a discharge capacity of 548 mAh g{sup −1} at 100 mA g{sup −1} after 30th cycles. At high current density value of 1 A g{sup −1}, B-G as anode material enhances the specific capacity by about 1.7 times compared to pristine graphene. The present study shows a simplistic way of boron doping in graphene leading to an enhanced Li ion adsorption due to the change in electronic states.

  3. Synthesis and electrochemical characterization of Silicon clathrates as anode materials for Lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghavan, Rahul

    Novel materials for Li-ion batteries is one of the principle thrust areas for current research in energy storage, more so than most, considering its widespread use in portable electronic gadgets and plug-in electric and hybrid cars. One of the major limiting factors in a Li-ion battery's energy density is the low specific capacities of the active materials in the electrodes. In the search for high-performance anode materials for Li-ion batteries, many alternatives to carbonaceous materials have been studied. Both cubic and amorphous silicon can reversibly alloy with lithium and have a theoretical capacity of 3500 mAh/g, making silicon a potential high density anode material. However, a large volume expansion of 300% occurs due to changes in the structure during lithium insertion, often leading to pulverization of the silicon. To this end, a class of silicon based cage compounds called clathrates are studied for electrochemical reactivity with lithium. Silicon-clathrates consist of silicon covalently bonded in cage structures comprised of face sharing Si20, Si24 and/or Si28 clusters with guest ions occupying the interstitial positions in the polyhedra. Prior to this, silicon clathrates have been studied primarily for their superconducting and thermoelectric properties. In this work, the synthesis and electrochemical characterization of two categories of silicon clathrates - Type-I silicon clathrate with aluminum framework substitution and barium guest ions (Ba8AlxSi46-x) and Type-II silicon clathrate with sodium guest ions (Nax Si136), are explored. The Type-I clathrate, Ba8AlxSi46-x consists of an open framework of aluminium and silicon, with barium (guest) atoms occupying the interstitial positions. X-ray diffraction studies have shown that a crystalline phase of clathrate is obtained from synthesis, which is powdered to a fine particle size to be used as the anode material in a Li-ion battery. Electrochemical measurements of these type of clathrates have shown

  4. Structural materials challenges for advanced reactor systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yvon, P.; Carré, F.

    2009-03-01

    Key technologies for advanced nuclear systems encompass high temperature structural materials, fast neutron resistant core materials, and specific reactor and power conversion technologies (intermediate heat exchanger, turbo-machinery, high temperature electrolytic or thermo-chemical water splitting processes, etc.). The main requirements for the materials to be used in these reactor systems are dimensional stability under irradiation, whether under stress (irradiation creep or relaxation) or without stress (swelling, growth), an acceptable evolution under ageing of the mechanical properties (tensile strength, ductility, creep resistance, fracture toughness, resilience) and a good behavior in corrosive environments (reactor coolant or process fluid). Other criteria for the materials are their cost to fabricate and to assemble, and their composition could be optimized in order for instance to present low-activation (or rapid desactivation) features which facilitate maintenance and disposal. These requirements have to be met under normal operating conditions, as well as in incidental and accidental conditions. These challenging requirements imply that in most cases, the use of conventional nuclear materials is excluded, even after optimization and a new range of materials has to be developed and qualified for nuclear use. This paper gives a brief overview of various materials that are essential to establish advanced systems feasibility and performance for in pile and out of pile applications, such as ferritic/martensitic steels (9-12% Cr), nickel based alloys (Haynes 230, Inconel 617, etc.), oxide dispersion strengthened ferritic/martensitic steels, and ceramics (SiC, TiC, etc.). This article gives also an insight into the various natures of R&D needed on advanced materials, including fundamental research to investigate basic physical and chemical phenomena occurring in normal and accidental operating conditions, lab-scale tests to characterize candidate materials

  5. Electrical and Mechanical Performance of Carbon Fiber-Reinforced Polymer Used as the Impressed Current Anode Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Hua Zhu

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available An investigation was performed by using carbon fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP as the anode material in the impressed current cathodic protection (ICCP system of steel reinforced concrete structures. The service life and performance of CFRP were investigated in simulated ICCP systems with various configurations. Constant current densities were maintained during the tests. No significant degradation in electrical and mechanical properties was found for CFRP subjected to anodic polarization with the selected applied current densities. The service life of the CFRP-based ICCP system was discussed based on the practical reinforced concrete structure layout.

  6. Synthesis and characterization of SnO-carbon nanotube composite as anode material for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SnO-carbon nanotube composite was synthesized by a sol-gel method. The electrochemical behavior of the composite using an anode active material in lithium-ion batteries was investigated. It was found that the composite showed enhanced anode performance compared with the unsupported SnO or carbon nanotube (CNT). The capacity fade of the composite electrode was reduced over unsupported SnO or CNT. We attribute the results to the conductivity and ductility of the CNT matrix, and the high dispersion of SnO

  7. Dual-carbon enhanced silicon-based composite as superior anode material for lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jie; Liu, Dai-Huo; Wang, Ying-Ying; Hou, Bao-Hua; Zhang, Jing-Ping; Wang, Rong-Shun; Wu, Xing-Long

    2016-03-01

    Dual-carbon enhanced Si-based composite (Si/C/G) has been prepared via employing the widely distributed, low-cost and environmentally friendly Diatomite mineral as silicon raw material. The preparation processes are very simple, non-toxic and easy to scale up. Electrochemical tests as anode material for lithium ion batteries (LIBs) demonstrate that this Si/C/G composite exhibits much improved Li-storage properties in terms of superior high-rate capabilities and excellent cycle stability compared to the pristine Si material as well as both single-carbon modified composites. Specifically for the Si/C/G composite, it can still deliver a high specific capacity of about 470 mAh g-1 at an ultrahigh current density of 5 A g-1, and exhibit a high capacity of 938 mAh g-1 at 0.1 A g-1 with excellent capacity retention in the following 300 cycles. The significantly enhanced Li-storage properties should be attributed to the co-existence of both highly conductive graphite and amorphous carbon in the Si/C/G composite. While the former can enhance the electrical conductivity of the obtained composite, the latter acts as the adhesives to connect the porous Si particulates and conductive graphite flakes to form robust and stable conductive network.

  8. New Sn-based composites as anode materials for Li-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboulaich, A.; Mouyane, M.; Robert, F.; Lippens, P.-E.; Olivier-Fourcade, J.; Willmann, P.; Jumas, J.-C.

    A new strategy was developed to synthesize tin-composite materials. The Sn:BPO 4 and Sn:CaSiO 3 composites were obtained by solid state reaction, but the BPO 4 and CaSiO 3 matrices were synthesized by solid state reaction and sol-gel method, respectively. These materials are characterized by X-ray diffraction, 119Sn Mössbauer spectroscopy and electrochemical tests. The results show that these new materials are efficient during electrochemical cycling (500 mAh g -1), because of a good dispersion of Sn particles into the matrix. From the second cycle, charge and discharge reversibility is linked to both reversible Li XSn alloy forming and the modification of the tin particle surface showed by Conversion Electron Mössbauer spectroscopy (CEMS) which allows us to characterize the sample surface. The irreversible capacity observed for the first charge/discharge cycle is due to tin oxide reduction and passivation of the anode surface by electrolyte solution decomposition (SEI layer).

  9. Photon CT scanning of advanced ceramic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Advanced ceramic materials are being developed for high temperature applications in advanced heat engines and high temperature heat recovery systems. Small size flaws (10 - 200 μm) and small nonuniformities in density distributions (0.1 -2%) present as long-range density gradients, are critical in most ceramics and their detection is of crucial importance. Computed tomographic (CT) imaging provides a means of obtaining a precise two-dimensional density map of a cross section through an object from which accurate information about small flaws and small density gradients can be obtained. With the use of high energy photon sources high contrast CT images can be obtained for both low and high density ceramics. In the present paper we illustrate the applicability of the photon CT technique to the examination of advanced ceramics. CT images of sintered alumina tiles are presented from which data on high-density inclusions, cracks and density gradients have been extracted

  10. Effects of phosphorous incorporation on the microstructure of Si nanoparticles as an anode material for lithium-ion battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Chun-young; Koo, Jeong-boon [Korea Institute of Energy Research, 152 Gajeong-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 304-343 (Korea, Republic of); Graduate School of Energy Science and Technology, Chungnam National University, 99 Deahak-ro Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Jang, Bo-yun, E-mail: byjang@kier.re.kr [Korea Institute of Energy Research, 152 Gajeong-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 304-343 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Joon-soo; Lee, Jin-seok [Korea Institute of Energy Research, 152 Gajeong-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 304-343 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sung-soo; Han, Moon-hee [Graduate School of Energy Science and Technology, Chungnam National University, 99 Deahak-ro Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-07-31

    Si nanoparticles were synthesized by inductively coupled plasma and a specially designed double tube reactor. By injection of large amount of PH{sub 3} during the synthesis, the effects of phosphorous incorporation on their microstructures and chemical binding environments were investigated. Injection of PH{sub 3} gas during the synthesis resulted in a change from crystalline to amorphous phase, a reduction of particle size as well as a process yield. All of the above results were attributed to a lower plasma density when higher amount of PH{sub 3} was injected. From energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, secondary ion mass spectrometry, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis, it was revealed that P was doped in Si nanoparticles. However, secondary phases such as P{sub 4} and P{sub 2}O{sub 5} were formed as amorphous ones in nano-scale when a relatively large amount of PH{sub 3} was injected. In addition, those nanoparticles were applied as an active material in the lithium-ion battery's anode. Unexpectedly, amorphous Si nanoparticles with secondary phases showed improved electrochemical properties. P-doping in Si nanoparticles could not directly advance cycling performance by improvement of electrical conductivity of Si nanoparticles. It was rather assumed that a secondary phase influenced and enhanced electrochemical properties by additional capacity due to a formation of Li{sub 3}P and forming an effective buffer against large volumetric change of Si nanoparticles during the charge/discharge. The initial reversible capacity of amorphous Si nanoparticles synthesized with 100 sccm of PH{sub 3} flow rate was 2113 mAh g{sup −1}, and that at the 100th cycle was still about 1000 mAh g{sup −1}, which was twice as high as that of Si nanoparticles synthesized without PH{sub 3} injection. - Highlights: • Silicon nanoparticles with phosphorous were synthesized by inductively coupled plasma. • Effects of phosphorous incorporation on the microstructure

  11. Effects of phosphorous incorporation on the microstructure of Si nanoparticles as an anode material for lithium-ion battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Si nanoparticles were synthesized by inductively coupled plasma and a specially designed double tube reactor. By injection of large amount of PH3 during the synthesis, the effects of phosphorous incorporation on their microstructures and chemical binding environments were investigated. Injection of PH3 gas during the synthesis resulted in a change from crystalline to amorphous phase, a reduction of particle size as well as a process yield. All of the above results were attributed to a lower plasma density when higher amount of PH3 was injected. From energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, secondary ion mass spectrometry, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis, it was revealed that P was doped in Si nanoparticles. However, secondary phases such as P4 and P2O5 were formed as amorphous ones in nano-scale when a relatively large amount of PH3 was injected. In addition, those nanoparticles were applied as an active material in the lithium-ion battery's anode. Unexpectedly, amorphous Si nanoparticles with secondary phases showed improved electrochemical properties. P-doping in Si nanoparticles could not directly advance cycling performance by improvement of electrical conductivity of Si nanoparticles. It was rather assumed that a secondary phase influenced and enhanced electrochemical properties by additional capacity due to a formation of Li3P and forming an effective buffer against large volumetric change of Si nanoparticles during the charge/discharge. The initial reversible capacity of amorphous Si nanoparticles synthesized with 100 sccm of PH3 flow rate was 2113 mAh g−1, and that at the 100th cycle was still about 1000 mAh g−1, which was twice as high as that of Si nanoparticles synthesized without PH3 injection. - Highlights: • Silicon nanoparticles with phosphorous were synthesized by inductively coupled plasma. • Effects of phosphorous incorporation on the microstructure were studied. • Silicon nanoparticles were applied as an anode material

  12. Advances in geochemical research on nanometer materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Important advances have been made in the field of geochemistry since nanometer science and technology were introduced into the field of geoscience. The nanometer particulates have been discovered in naturally-occurring ore deposits, volcano-eruptive materials and geo-gases, and a more detailed exploration of the metallogenic mechanism of endogenic metallic ore deposits has been conducted. It is considered that some ore-forming metals may transport in the form of native particulates. Because they have very strong capabilities of adsorption, adsorption is always regarded as an important mechanism of metallogenesis under supergenic and low temperature conditions.Therefore, a new technology of ore exploration has also been developed. This paper attempts to review the new advances in geochemical research on nanometer materials, as well as its perspectivess.

  13. Nondestructive characterization of advanced composite materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A comprehensive review of nondestructive characterization (NDC) techniques and their application to metal-matrix, polymer-matrix and ceramic-matrix composites is presented. Particular attention is given to the identification of critical materials properties and defects in these advanced composites. NDC is required: (i) to detect discrete defects, such as delaminations and cracking, and (ii) to measure distributed material properties, such as density, resistivity and elastic constants. Ultrasonic and eddy-current characterization are described in detail, along with new NDC results obtained at the Aeronautical and Maritime Research Laboratory. These include a method for the determination of fibre volume fraction in continuous fibre reinforced metal-matrix composites using eddy-current NDC, and the use of eddy-current methods to complement ultrasonic testing for characterization of impact damage in graphite-epoxy laminates. Future problem areas and possible solutions in NDC of advanced composites are also discussed. 90 refs., 1 tab., 6 figs

  14. Caramel popcorn shaped silicon particle with carbon coating as a high performance anode material for Li-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Meinan; Sa, Qina; Liu, Gao; Wang, Yan

    2013-11-13

    Silicon is a very promising anode material for lithium ion batteries. It has a 4200 mAh/g theoretical capacity, which is ten times higher than that of commercial graphite anodes. However, when lithium ions diffuse to Si anodes, the volume of Si will expand to almost 400% of its initial size and lead to the crack of Si. Such a huge volume change and crack cause significant capacity loss. Meanwhile, with the crack of Si particles, the conductivity between the electrode and the current collector drops. Moreover, the solid electrolyte interphase (SEI), which is generated during the cycling, reduces the discharge capacity. These issues must be addressed for widespread application of this material. In this work, caramel popcorn shaped porous silicon particles with carbon coating are fabricated by a set of simple chemical methods as active anode material. Si particles are etched to form a porous structure. The pores in Si provide space for the volume expansion and liquid electrolyte diffusion. A layer of amorphous carbon is formed inside the pores, which gives an excellent isolation between the Si particle and electrolyte, so that the formation of the SEI layer is stabilized. Meanwhile, this novel structure enhances the mechanical properties of the Si particles, and the crack phenomenon caused by the volume change is significantly restrained. Therefore, an excellent cycle life under a high rate for the novel Si electrode is achieved. PMID:24111737

  15. Advanced laser processing of glass materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugioka, Koji; Obata, Kotaro; Cheng, Ya; Midorikawa, Katsumi

    2003-09-01

    Three kinds of advanced technologies using lasers for glass microprocessing are reviewed. Simultaneous irradiation of vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) laser beam, which possesses extremely small laser fluence, with ultraviolet (UV) laser achieves enhanced high surface and edge quality ablation in fused silica and other hard materials with little debris deposition as well as high-speed and high-efficiency refractive index modification of fused silica (VUV-UV multiwavelength excitation processing). Metal plasma generated by the laser beam effectively assists high-quality ablation of transparent materials, resulting in surface microstructuring, high-speed holes drilling, crack-free marking, color marking, painting and metal interconnection for the various kinds of glass materials (laser-induced plasma-assisted ablation (LIPAA)). In the meanwhile, a nature of multiphoton absorption of femtosecond laser by transparent materials realizes fabrication of true three-dimensional microstructures embedded in photosensitive glass.

  16. Advanced Thermoelectric Materials for Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caillat, Thierry; Hunag, C.-K.; Cheng, S.; Chi, S. C.; Gogna, P.; Paik, J.; Ravi, V.; Firdosy, S.; Ewell, R.

    2008-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the progress and processes involved in creating new and advanced thermoelectric materials to be used in the design of new radioiootope thermoelectric generators (RTGs). In a program with Department of Energy, NASA is working to develop the next generation of RTGs, that will provide significant benefits for deep space missions that NASA will perform. These RTG's are planned to be capable of delivering up to 17% system efficiency and over 12 W/kg specific power. The thermoelectric materials being developed are an important step in this process.

  17. Advanced Ceramic Materials for Future Aerospace Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Ajay

    2015-01-01

    With growing trend toward higher temperature capabilities, lightweight, and multifunctionality, significant advances in ceramic matrix composites (CMCs) will be required for future aerospace applications. The presentation will provide an overview of material requirements for future aerospace missions, and the role of ceramics and CMCs in meeting those requirements. Aerospace applications will include gas turbine engines, aircraft structure, hypersonic and access to space vehicles, space power and propulsion, and space communication.

  18. Ultrathin Li4Ti5O12 nanosheets as anode materials for lithium and sodium storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Xuyong; Zou, Hailin; Xiang, Hongfa; Guo, Xin; Zhou, Tianpei; Wu, Yucheng; Xu, Wu; Yan, Pengfei; Wang, Chong M.; Zhang, Jiguang; Yu, Yan

    2016-06-13

    Two-dimensional Li4Ti5O12 (LTO) nanosheets are prepared via a surfactant assisted hydrothermal process. Polyether (P123) was added as the surfactant to modify the surface and control the microstructure of the hydrothermal products and thus affect the electrochemical performance of the as-synthesized LTO anode material. XRD results show that the addition of P123 can restrain the growth of Li2TiO3 during the hydrothermal process, thus affecting the morphology and enhancing the rate performance of the final products. With the addition of P123, the growth of LTO can be restrained and ultrathin LTO nanosheets can be obtained after high temperature sintering, which is beneficial for the charge transfer and Li+ ion diffusion. The rate performance of these two different LTO materials is very different because of their differences in phase composition and fine morphology. The P123-assisted nanostructured LTO sample (P-LTO) shows a much higher rate capability than the LTO sample without P123, with over 130 mAh g-1 capacity retained at the charge-discharge rate of 64C when used in a lithium battery. For intercalation of larger size Na+ ions, the P-LTO still exhibit a capacity of 115 mAh g-1 at a charge (de-sodiation process) rate of 10C and maintains 96% capacity after 400 cycles

  19. Advanced research workshop: nuclear materials safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jardine, L J; Moshkov, M M

    1999-01-28

    The Advanced Research Workshop (ARW) on Nuclear Materials Safety held June 8-10, 1998, in St. Petersburg, Russia, was attended by 27 Russian experts from 14 different Russian organizations, seven European experts from six different organizations, and 14 U.S. experts from seven different organizations. The ARW was conducted at the State Education Center (SEC), a former Minatom nuclear training center in St. Petersburg. Thirty-three technical presentations were made using simultaneous translations. These presentations are reprinted in this volume as a formal ARW Proceedings in the NATO Science Series. The representative technical papers contained here cover nuclear material safety topics on the storage and disposition of excess plutonium and high enriched uranium (HEU) fissile materials, including vitrification, mixed oxide (MOX) fuel fabrication, plutonium ceramics, reprocessing, geologic disposal, transportation, and Russian regulatory processes. This ARW completed discussions by experts of the nuclear materials safety topics that were not covered in the previous, companion ARW on Nuclear Materials Safety held in Amarillo, Texas, in March 1997. These two workshops, when viewed together as a set, have addressed most nuclear material aspects of the storage and disposition operations required for excess HEU and plutonium. As a result, specific experts in nuclear materials safety have been identified, know each other from their participation in t he two ARW interactions, and have developed a partial consensus and dialogue on the most urgent nuclear materials safety topics to be addressed in a formal bilateral program on t he subject. A strong basis now exists for maintaining and developing a continuing dialogue between Russian, European, and U.S. experts in nuclear materials safety that will improve the safety of future nuclear materials operations in all the countries involved because of t he positive synergistic effects of focusing these diverse backgrounds of

  20. Development for advanced materials and testing techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hishinuma, Akimichi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1998-03-01

    Recent studies using a JMTR and research reactors of JRR-2 and JRR-3 are briefly summarized. Small specimen testing techniques (SSTT) required for an effective use of irradiation volume and also irradiated specimens have been developed focussing on tensile test, fatigue test, Charpy test and small punch test. By using the small specimens of 0.1 - several mm in size, similar values of tensile and fatigue properties to those by standard size specimens can be taken, although the ductile-brittle transition temperature (DBTT) depends strongly on Charpy specimen size. As for advanced material development, R and D about low activation ferritic steels have been done to investigate irradiation response. The low activation ferritic steel, so-called F82H jointly-developed by JAERI and NKK for fusion, has been confirmed to have good irradiation resistance within a limited dose and now selected as a standard material in the fusion material community. It is also found that TiAi intermetallic compounds, which never been considered for nuclear application in the past, have an excellent irradiation resistance under an irradiation condition. Such knowledge can bring about a large expectation for developing advanced nuclear materials. (author)

  1. Centrifugally-spun carbon microfibers and porous carbon microfibers as anode materials for sodium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirican, Mahmut; Zhang, Xiangwu

    2016-09-01

    Natural abundance and low cost of sodium resources bring forward the sodium-ion batteries as a promising alternative to widely-used lithium-ion batteries. However, insufficient energy density and low cycling stability of current sodium-ion batteries hinder their practical use for next-generation smart power grid and stationary storage applications. Electrospun carbon microfibers have recently been introduced as a high-performance anode material for sodium-ion batteries. However, electrospinning is not feasible for mass production of carbon microfibers due to its complex processing condition, low production rate and high cost. Herein, we report centrifugal spinning, a high-rate and low-cost microfiber production method, as an alternative approach to electrospinning for carbon microfiber production and introduce centrifugally-spun carbon microfibers (CMFs) and porous carbon microfibers (PCMFs) as anode materials for sodium-ion batteries. Electrochemical performance results indicated that the highly porous nature of centrifugally-spun PCMFs led to increased Na+ storage capacity and improved cycling stability. The reversible capacity of centrifugally-spun PCMF anodes at the 200th cycle was 242 mAh g-1, which was much higher than that of centrifugally-spun CMFs (143 mAh g-1). The capacity retention and coulombic efficiency of the centrifugally-spun PCMF anodes were 89.0% and 99.9%, respectively, even at the 200th cycle.

  2. Facile synthesis of multilayer-like Si thin film as high-performance anode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mingxu; Geng, Zhongrong

    2016-05-01

    For the silicon anodes in lithium-ion batteries, it is well known that the enormous volumetric expansion/contraction is also the mainly reason for the capacity fading. In this manuscript, a new kind of Si thin films was prepared with a radio frequency magnetron sputtering method. By using a periodic modulation negative bias on the substrate, a density-modulated multilayer-like silicon thin films with different layer densities were used as anode materials of lithium-ion batteries, and which displayed a high capacity and stable cycling performances. The reason for the charming electrochemical performances may be owned to the particular density modulated microstructure of the Si thin films. It is conjectured that the lower density can as compliant layers and which provided the volume for the higher-density layer expansion in the process of the lithiation/delithiation. In contrast to the conventional silicon anodes, the density modulated microstructure in this work could exploit a new approach to silicon thin-film anode materials with outstanding electrochemical properties and mechanical stability. And these reports may be provide a new way to prepare the Si thin films for the high-energy, safe, and low-cost batteries.

  3. Degradation of 1-hydroxy-2,4-dinitrobenzene from aqueous solutions by electrochemical oxidation: role of anodic material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiroz, Marco A; Sánchez-Salas, José L; Reyna, Silvia; Bandala, Erick R; Peralta-Hernández, Juan M; Martínez-Huitle, Carlos A

    2014-03-15

    Electrochemical oxidation (ECOx) of 1-hydroxy-2,4-dinitrobenzene (or 2,4-dinitrophenol: 2,4-DNP) in aqueous solutions by electrolysis under galvanostatic control was studied at Pb/PbO2, Ti/SnO2, Ti/IrxRuySnO2 and Si/BDD anodes as a function of current density applied. Oxidative degradation of 2,4-DNP has clearly shown that electrode material and the current density applied were important parameters to optimize the oxidation process. It was observed that 2,4-DNP was oxidized at few substrates to CO2 with different results, obtaining good removal efficiencies at Pb/PbO2, Ti/SnO2 and Si/BDD anodes. Trends in degradation way depend on the production of hydroxyl radicals (OH) on these anodic materials, as confirmed in this study. Furthermore, HPLC results suggested that two kinds of intermediates were generated, polyhydroxylated intermediates and carboxylic acids. The formation of these polyhydroxylated intermediates seems to be associated with the denitration step and substitution by OH radicals on aromatic rings, this being the first proposed step in the reaction mechanism. These compounds were successively oxidized, followed by the opening of aromatic rings and the formation of a series of carboxylic acids which were at the end oxidized into CO2 and H2O. On the basis of these information, a reaction scheme was proposed for each type of anode used for 2,4-D oxidation.

  4. Recent advances in organic semiconducting materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostroverkhova, Oksana

    2011-10-01

    Organic semiconductors have attracted attention due to their low cost, easy fabrication, and tunable properties. Applications of organic materials in thin-film transistors, solar cells, light-emitting diodes, sensors, and many other devices have been actively explored. Recent advances in organic synthesis, material processing, and device fabrication led to significant improvements in (opto)electronic device performance. However, a number of challenges remain. These range from lack of understanding of basic physics of intermolecular interactions that determine optical and electronic properties of organic materials to difficulties in controlling film morphology and stability. In this presentation, current state of the field will be reviewed and recent results related to charge carrier and exciton dynamics in organic thin films will be presented.[4pt] In collaboration with Whitney Shepherd, Mark Kendrick, Andrew Platt, Oregon State University; Marsha Loth and John Anthony, University of Kentucky.

  5. Machining, joining and modifications of advanced materials

    CERN Document Server

    Altenbach, Holm

    2016-01-01

    This book presents the latest advances in mechanical and materials engineering applied to the machining, joining and modification of modern engineering materials. The contributions cover the classical fields of casting, forming and injection moulding as representative manufacturing methods, whereas additive manufacturing methods (rapid prototyping and laser sintering) are treated as more innovative and recent technologies that are paving the way for the manufacturing of shapes and features that traditional methods are unable to deliver. The book also explores water jet cutting as an innovative cutting technology that avoids the heat build-up typical of classical mechanical cutting. It introduces readers to laser cutting as an alternative technology for the separation of materials, and to classical bonding and friction stir welding approaches in the context of joining technologies. In many cases, forming and machining technologies require additional post-treatment to achieve the required level of surface quali...

  6. Electron energy loss spectroscopy in advanced materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaluzec, N.J.

    1991-01-01

    The combination of a Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) with an electron energy loss spectrometer (EELS) yields a powerful tool for the microcharacterization of materials. However, the application of this technique to advanced materials problems can only be fully appreciated when the information obtained using EELS is related to that obtained from other analytical spectroscopies. In this chapter, we briefly discuss the relative performance of X-ray, Auger and Photoelectron Spectroscopies with EELS pointing out the limitations and merits of each. This comparison is followed by examples of the application of EELS to investigations involving high {Tc} superconductors, artificial metallic superlattices, amorphous magnetic materials and the characterization of metallic hydride phases. 14 refs., 22 figs.

  7. Interweaved Si@C/CNTs and CNFs composites as anode materials for Li-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Miao [School of Physics and Telecommunication Engineering, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Hou, Xianhua, E-mail: houxh@scnu.edu.cn [School of Physics and Telecommunication Engineering, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Engineering Research Center of Materials and Technology for Electrochemical Energy Storage Ministry of Education, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Wang, Jie; Li, Min [School of Physics and Telecommunication Engineering, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Hu, Shejun [School of Physics and Telecommunication Engineering, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Engineering Research Center of Materials and Technology for Electrochemical Energy Storage Ministry of Education, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Shao, Zongping [Nanjing University of Technology, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Nanjing 210009 (China); Liu, Xiang [Institute of Advanced Materials, Nanjing University of Technology, Nanjing 210009 (China)

    2014-03-05

    Graphical abstract: In summary, a serious of high-energy wet ball milling, closed spray drying and subsequent chemical vapor deposition methods were introduced successfully to fabricated novel Si@C/CNTs and CNFs composites with carbon nanotubes and carbon nanofibres interweaved with carbon coated silicon spherical composites as superior anodes in lithium-ion batteries. The core-shell structure of Si@C composites can accommodate the volume change of electrode during charge and discharge. Meanwhile, the citric acid pyrolyzed carbon was coated on the surface of the silicon perfectly and constructs the connection network of nano silicon particles. Moreover, the carbon nanotubes and carbon nanofibres, which is interweaved with nano-silicon, also allows high electrical conductivity, improved solid–electrolyte interface formation and structural integrity. Compared with pure silicon and Si@C composites, the novel Si@C/CNTs and CNFs composites had the best combination of reversible capacity and cycleablity, and this anode materials exhibited excellent electrochemical performance. The Si/C composite had a fairly high initial discharge capacity of 2168.7 mA h g{sup −1} with an efficiency of 73%, and the discharge capacity of the 50th cycle maintained surprisingly of 1194.9 mA h g{sup −1}. Meanwhile, spray drying and chemical vapor deposition are environmentally friendly, economical, and relatively high-yield method for the production of the Si@C/CNTs and CNFs composites in large quantities. Consequently, the novel Si@C/CNTs and CNFs composite electrodes may be a potential alternative to graphite for high energy density lithium ion batteries. Highlights: • The core/shell structured silicon/carbon composites were prepared by a facile way. • The as-prepared Si@C/CNTs and CNFs composites shows excellent electrochemical performance. • The preparation method has mild experiment conditions and high production rate. • The structure benefited electronic transfer and

  8. International Symposium on Advanced Materials (ISAM 2013)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    This proceeding is a compilation of peer reviewed papers presented at the 13th International Symposium on Advanced Materials (ISAM 2013) held from September 23-27, 2013, at Islamabad, Pakistan. In my capacity as ISAM-2013 Secretary, I feel honoured that the symposium has ended on a positive note. The ever increasing changes and intricacies that characterize modern industry necessitate a growing demand for technical information on advanced materials. ISAM and other similar forums serve to fulfill this need. The five day deliberations of ISAM 2013, consisted of 19 technical sessions and 2 poster sessions. In all, 277 papers were presented, inclusive of 80 contributory, invited and oral presentations. The symposium also hosted panel discussions led by renowned scientists and eminent researchers from foreign as well as local institutes. The ultimate aim of this proceeding is to record in writing the new findings in the field of advanced materials. I hope that the technical data available in this publication proves valuable to young scientists and researchers working in this area of science. At the same time, I wish to acknowledge Institute of Physics (IOP) Publishing UK, for accepting the research papers from ISAM-2013 for publication in the IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering. The proceeding will be available on the IOP website as an online open access document. I am profoundly thankful to the Symposium Chairman for his steadfast support and valuable guidance without which ISAM 2013 could not have been the mega event that it turned out to be. My gratitude to all our distinguished participants, session chairs/co-chairs, and reviewers for their active role in the symposium. I appreciate the entire organizing committee for the zest and ardor with which each committee fulfilled its obligations to ISAM. Last yet not the least, my thankfulness goes to all our sponsors for wilfully financing the event. Dr. Sara Qaisar Symposium Secretary Further

  9. Gallium phosphide as a new material for anodically bonded atomic sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nezih Dural

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Miniaturized atomic sensors are often fabricated using anodic bonding of silicon and borosilicate glass. Here we describe a technique for fabricating anodically bonded alkali-metal cells using GaP and Pyrex. GaP is a non-birefringent semiconductor that is transparent at alkali-metal resonance wavelengths, allowing new sensor geometries. GaP also has a higher thermal conductivity and lower He permeability than borosilicate glass and can be anodically bonded below 200 °C, which can also be advantageous in other vacuum sealing applications.

  10. ASME Material Challenges for Advanced Reactor Concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piyush Sabharwall; Ali Siahpush

    2013-07-01

    This study presents the material Challenges associated with Advanced Reactor Concept (ARC) such as the Advanced High Temperature Reactor (AHTR). ACR are the next generation concepts focusing on power production and providing thermal energy for industrial applications. The efficient transfer of energy for industrial applications depends on the ability to incorporate cost-effective heat exchangers between the nuclear heat transport system and industrial process heat transport system. The heat exchanger required for AHTR is subjected to a unique set of conditions that bring with them several design challenges not encountered in standard heat exchangers. The corrosive molten salts, especially at higher temperatures, require materials throughout the system to avoid corrosion, and adverse high-temperature effects such as creep. Given the very high steam generator pressure of the supercritical steam cycle, it is anticipated that water tube and molten salt shell steam generators heat exchanger will be used. In this paper, the ASME Section III and the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Section VIII requirements (acceptance criteria) are discussed. Also, the ASME material acceptance criteria (ASME Section II, Part D) for high temperature environment are presented. Finally, lack of ASME acceptance criteria for thermal design and analysis are discussed.

  11. Nano-sized Fe3O4/carbon as anode material for lithium ion battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nano-sized Fe3O4/carbon material is prepared via a simple citric-nitrate combustion method combining with a hydrothermal carbon coating technique. The synthesized Fe3O4/carbon composite shows a high reversible specific capacity (ca. 850 mAh g−1 at 100 mA g−1; ca. 600 mAh g−1 at 500 mA g−1), good rate-capability as well as superior cycling stability as anode for lithium-ion batteries. The ameliorated electrochemical performance of Fe3O4/carbon electrode is associated to the nano-sized particle feature and the continuous carbon coating layer. The former provides short lithium-ion/electron diffusion distance, while the latter enables the fast electron transport pathways. Besides, the carbon layer can act as a protective component to prevent the active particle Fe3O4 from aggregation and pulverization during the charge/discharge processes. - Highlights: • Nano-sized Fe3O4/C was prepared by a simple citric-nitrate combustion process. • Fe3O4/C particles show core–shell structure. • Fe3O4/C powder displays high specific capacity and good cycling stability. • Fe3O4/C composite exhibits a superior rate-capability

  12. Novel synthesis of tin oxide/graphene aerogel nanocomposites as anode materials for lithium ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Zheyu [College of Material Science and Engineering, Liaoning Technical University, Fuxin 123000 (China); Energy & Materials Engineering Centre, College of Physics and Materials Science, Tianjin Normal University, Tianjin 300387 (China); Li, Xifei, E-mail: xfli2011@hotmail.com [Energy & Materials Engineering Centre, College of Physics and Materials Science, Tianjin Normal University, Tianjin 300387 (China); Tai, Limin, E-mail: tailimin@163.com [College of Material Science and Engineering, Liaoning Technical University, Fuxin 123000 (China); Song, Haoze; Zhang, Yiyan; Yan, Bo; Fan, Linlin; Shan, Hui [Energy & Materials Engineering Centre, College of Physics and Materials Science, Tianjin Normal University, Tianjin 300387 (China); Li, Dejun, E-mail: dli1961@126.com [Energy & Materials Engineering Centre, College of Physics and Materials Science, Tianjin Normal University, Tianjin 300387 (China)

    2015-10-15

    A novel method of mechanical exfoliation followed by hydrothermal approach was proposed to synthesize the tin oxide/graphene aerogels (SnO{sub 2}/GAs) nanocomposites. Homogeneous distribution of SnO{sub 2} nanocrystals on GAs was confirmed by SEM, XRD and TEM characterization. It was found that optimized exfoliation of the SnS{sub 2} is the key factor to obtain high electrochemical lithiation/delithiation performance of the anodes. The as-prepared SnO{sub 2}/GA nanocomposites exhibited high reversible capacity (up to 1086.7 mAh g{sup −1} after 100 cycles) and excellent cycling stability. The improved rate capability was also obtained, for instance, the reversible capacity at a current density of 800 mA g{sup −1} is over 447.9 mAh g{sup −1}, and then recovered to as high as 784.4 mAh g{sup −1} at a current density of 100 mA g{sup −1}. - Highlights: • A novel approach was employed to synthesize the SnO{sub 2}/GA nanocomposites. • The designed SnO{sub 2}/GAs exhibited high reversible capacity and excellent cycling stability. • The volume change challenge of SnO{sub 2} was markedly alleviated by the GA matrix. • The novel synthesis method can be extended for other materials in lithium ion batteries.

  13. Protein-releasing conductive anodized alumina membranes for nerve-interface materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altuntas, Sevde; Buyukserin, Fatih; Haider, Ali; Altinok, Buket; Biyikli, Necmi; Aslim, Belma

    2016-10-01

    Nanoporous anodized alumina membranes (AAMs) have numerous biomedical applications spanning from biosensors to controlled drug delivery and implant coatings. Although the use of AAM as an alternative bone implant surface has been successful, its potential as a neural implant coating remains unclear. Here, we introduce conductive and nerve growth factor-releasing AAM substrates that not only provide the native nanoporous morphology for cell adhesion, but also induce neural differentiation. We recently reported the fabrication of such conductive membranes by coating AAMs with a thin C layer. In this study, we investigated the influence of electrical stimulus, surface topography, and chemistry on cell adhesion, neurite extension, and density by using PC 12 pheochromocytoma cells in a custom-made glass microwell setup. The conductive AAMs showed enhanced neurite extension and generation with the electrical stimulus, but cell adhesion on these substrates was poorer compared to the naked AAMs. The latter nanoporous material presents chemical and topographical features for superior neuronal cell adhesion, but, more importantly, when loaded with nerve growth factor, it can provide neurite extension similar to an electrically stimulated CAAM counterpart. PMID:27287158

  14. Ordered CoO/CMK-3 nanocomposites as the anode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Haijiao; Jiao, Zheng [Institute of Nanochemistry and Nanobiology, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444 (China); Shanghai Applied Radiation Institute, School of Environmental and Chemical Engineering, Shanghai University, Shangda Road 99, Shanghai 200444 (China); Tao, Haihua; Jiang, Yong; Wu, Minghong; Zhao, Bing [Shanghai Applied Radiation Institute, School of Environmental and Chemical Engineering, Shanghai University, Shangda Road 99, Shanghai 200444 (China)

    2010-05-01

    A novel ordered mesoporous carbon hybrid composite, CoO/CMK-3, is prepared by an infusing method using Co(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}.6H{sub 2}O as the cobalt source. The products are characterized by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and N{sub 2} adsorption-desorption analysis techniques. It is observed that the CoO nanoparticles are loaded in the channels of mesoporous carbon. The mesopore structure of CMK-3 is destroyed gradually with increasing of the CoO content. The electrochemical properties of samples as the anode materials for lithium-ion batteries are studied by galvanostatic method. The results show that the CoO/CMK-3 composites have higher reversible capacities (more than 700 mAh g{sup -1}) and better cycle performance in comparison with the pure mesoporous carbon (CMK-3). Based on the above results, a mechanism is proposed to explain the reason of such a substantial improvement of electrochemical performance in the CoO/CMK-3 composites. (author)

  15. Improvement of thermal stability and safety of lithium ion battery using SiO anode material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yi-Hung; Okano, Miki; Mukai, Takashi; Inoue, Kenshi; Yanagida, Masahiro; Sakai, Tetsuo

    2016-02-01

    The thermal stability, in terms of cycle and rate performances at 80 °C, and its safety related to lithium ion batteries composed of a LiFePO4 cathode and SiO anode are investigated. Based on an STEM-EELS analysis, the SiO powder is found to have an amorphous structure, in which nanosized Si particles (Si-rich phase) are uniformly dispersed in the SiO2 matrix (SiO2-rich phase). During the charge/discharge cycling, the cell exhibits a satisfactory cycle performance with a discharge capacity retention of 93.6% and a voltage retention of 93.9% at the 1500th cycle. Also, the charge and discharge capacity retentions at 10 C are 97.5% and 94.7%, respectively, together with a limited polarization, demonstrating its high rate performance. Furthermore, a 1.16 Ah LiFePO4/SiO laminated cell shows negligible voltage and temperature changes during the nail penetration test. The Li concentration in the active material (Si-rich phase) is found to be almost the same as that in the SiO2-rich phase after the test. This high thermal stability and safety may be due to the formed layer from the SiO2 matrix, preventing any side reaction from occurring on the Si surface and isolating the internal current path during the nail penetration.

  16. Novel synthesis of tin oxide/graphene aerogel nanocomposites as anode materials for lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A novel method of mechanical exfoliation followed by hydrothermal approach was proposed to synthesize the tin oxide/graphene aerogels (SnO2/GAs) nanocomposites. Homogeneous distribution of SnO2 nanocrystals on GAs was confirmed by SEM, XRD and TEM characterization. It was found that optimized exfoliation of the SnS2 is the key factor to obtain high electrochemical lithiation/delithiation performance of the anodes. The as-prepared SnO2/GA nanocomposites exhibited high reversible capacity (up to 1086.7 mAh g−1 after 100 cycles) and excellent cycling stability. The improved rate capability was also obtained, for instance, the reversible capacity at a current density of 800 mA g−1 is over 447.9 mAh g−1, and then recovered to as high as 784.4 mAh g−1 at a current density of 100 mA g−1. - Highlights: • A novel approach was employed to synthesize the SnO2/GA nanocomposites. • The designed SnO2/GAs exhibited high reversible capacity and excellent cycling stability. • The volume change challenge of SnO2 was markedly alleviated by the GA matrix. • The novel synthesis method can be extended for other materials in lithium ion batteries

  17. Electrochemical performance of polygonized carbon nanofibers as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jinjin Jiang; xiaolin Tang; Rui Wu; Haoqiang Lin; Meizhen Qu

    2013-01-01

    Carbon nanofibers with a polygonal cross section (P-CNFs) synthesized using a catalytic chemical vapor deposition (CCVD) technology have been investigated for potential applications in lithium batteries as anode materials.P-CNFs exhibit excellent high-rate capabilities.At a current density as high as 3.7 and 7.4A/g,P-CNFs can still deliver a reversible capacity of 198.4 and 158.2 mAh/g,respectively.To improve their first coulombic efficiency,carbon-coated P-CNFs were prepared through thermal vapor deposition (TVD) of benzene at 900 ℃.The electrochemical results demonstrate that appropriate amount of carbon coating can improve the first coulombic efficiency,the cycling stability and the rate performance of P-CNFs.After carbon coating,P-CNFs gain a weight increase approximately by 103 wt%,with its first coulombic efficiency increasing from 63.1 to 78.4%,and deliver a reversible capacity of 197.4mAh/g at a current density of 3.7 A/g.After dozens of cycles,there is no significant capacity degradation at both low and high current densities.

  18. Electrospun carbon nanofibers from polyacrylonitrile blended with activated or graphitized carbonaceous materials for improving anodic bioelectrocatalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Sunil A; Chigome, Samuel; Hägerhäll, Cecilia; Torto, Nelson; Gorton, Lo

    2013-03-01

    The electrospun carbon nanofibers obtained from polyacrylonitrile (PAN) and PAN blends with either activated carbon (PAN-AC) or graphite (PAN-GR) were tested as anodes using Shewanella oneidensis MR-1. Extensive physico-chemical and electrochemical characterization confirmed their formation, their fibrous and porous nature, and their suitability as electrodes. N2 adsorption measurements revealed high specific surface area (229.8, 415.8 and 485.2m(2) g(-1)) and porosity (0.142, 0.202 and 0.239cm(3)g(-1)) for PAN, PAN-AC and PAN-GR, respectively. The chronoamperometric measurements showed a considerable decrease in start-up time and more than a 10-fold increase in the generation of current with these electrodes (115, 139 and 155μAcm(-2) for PAN, PAN-AC and PAN-GR, respectively) compared to the graphite electrode (11.5μAcm(-2)). These results indicate that the bioelectrocatalysis benefits from the blending of PAN with activated or graphitized carbonaceous materials, presumably due to the increased specific surface area, total pore volume and modification of the carbon microstructure. PMID:23399497

  19. Hollow Cobalt Selenide Microspheres: Synthesis and Application as Anode Materials for Na-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, You Na; Choi, Seung Ho; Kang, Yun Chan

    2016-03-16

    The electrochemical properties of hollow cobalt oxide and cobalt selenide microspheres are studied for the first time as anode materials for Na-ion batteries. Hollow cobalt oxide microspheres prepared by one-pot spray pyrolysis are transformed into hollow cobalt selenide microspheres by a simple selenization process using hydrogen selenide gas. Ultrafine nanocrystals of Co3O4 microspheres are preserved in the cobalt selenide microspheres selenized at 300 °C. The initial discharge capacities for the Co3O4 and cobalt selenide microspheres selenized at 300 and 400 °C are 727, 595, and 586 mA h g(-1), respectively, at a current density of 500 mA g(-1). The discharge capacities after 40 cycles for the same samples are 348, 467, and 251 mA h g(-1), respectively, and their capacity retentions measured from the second cycle onward are 66, 91, and 50%, respectively. The hollow cobalt selenide microspheres have better rate performances than the hollow cobalt oxide microspheres. PMID:26918934

  20. Advances in radiation processing of polymeric materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper we review recent advances in industrial applications of electron-beam irradiation in the field of polymer processing at the Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment (TRCRE) of JAERI (Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute), and the Whiteshell Laboratories of AECL Research, Canada. Irradiation of a substrate with ionizing radiation produces free radicals through ionization and excitation events. The subsequent chemistry of these radicals is used in radiation processing as a substitute for conventional processing techniques based on heating and/or the addition of chemicals. The advantages of radiation processing include the formation of novel products with desirable material properties, favourable overall process economics and, often, environmental benefits

  1. Advances in High Energy Materials (Review Paper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. R. Nair

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Research and development efforts for realizing higher performance levels of high energy materials (HEMs are continued unabated all over the globe. Of late, it is becoming increasingly necessary to ensure that such materials are also eco-friendly. This has provided thrust to research in the area of force multiplying HEMs and compounds free from pollution causing components. Enhancement of the performance necessitates introduction of strained structure or increase in oxygen balance to achieve near stoichiometry. The search for environment friendly molecules is focused on chlorine free propellant compositions and lead free primary explosives. Energetic polymers offer added advantage of partitioning of energy and thus not necessitating the concentration of only solid components (HEMs and metal fuels in the formulations, to achieve higher performance, thereby leading to improvement in energetics without adversely affecting the processability and mechanical properties. During recent times, research in the area of insensitive explosives has received impetus particularly with the signature of STANAG. This paper gives a review of the all-round advances in the areas of HEMs encompassing oxidizers, high-energy dense materials, insensitive high-energy materials, polymers and plasticizers. Selected formulations based on these materials are also included.Defence Science Journal, 2010, 60(2, pp.137-151, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.60.327

  2. The electrochemical performance and mechanism of cobalt (II) fluoride as anode material for lithium and sodium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: •The as-prepared CoF2 shows excellent electrochemical performance as anode material for lithium ion batteries. •The Li insertion/extraction mechanism of CoF2 below 1.2 V was firstly proposed. •The electrochemical performance of CoF2 as anode material in sodium ion batteries was firstly studied. -- Abstract: Cobalt (II) fluoride begins to enter into the horizons of people along with the research upsurge of metal fluorides. It is very significative and theoretically influential to make certain its electrochemical reaction mechanism. In this work, we discover a new and unrevealed reversible interfacial intercalation mechanism reacting below 1.2 V for cobalt (II) fluoride electrode material, which contributes a combined discharge capacity of about 400 mA h g−1 with the formation of SEI film at the initial discharge process. A highly reversible storage capacity of 120 mA h g−1 is observed when the cell is cycled over the voltage of 0.01-1.2 V at 0.2 C, and the low-potential voltage reaction process has a significant impact for the whole electrochemical process. Electrochemical analyses suggest that pure cobalt (II) fluoride shows better electrochemical performance when it is cycled at 3.2-0.01 V compared to the high range (1.0-4.5 V). So, we hold that cobalt (II) fluoride is more suitable to serve as anode material for lithium ion batteries. In addition, we also try to reveal the relevant performance and reaction mechanism, and realize the possibility of cobalt (II) fluoride as anode material for sodium ion batteries

  3. TiO2 anode materials for lithium-ion batteries with different morphology and additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiang; Ng, Yip Hang; Leung, Yu Hang; Liu, Fangzhou; Djurišic, Aleksandra B.; Xie, Mao Hai; Chan, Wai Kin

    2014-03-01

    Electrochemical performances of different TiO2 nanostructures, TiO2/CNT composite and TiO2 with titanium isopropoxide (TTIP) treatment anode were investigated. For different TiO2 nanostructures, we investigated vertically aligned TiO2 nanotubes on Ti foil and TiO2 nanotube-powders fabricated by rapid breakdown anodization technique. The morphology of the prepared samples was characterized by scanning probe microscopy (SEM). The electrochemical lithium storage abilities were studied by galvanostatic method. In addition, carbon nanotubes (CNT) additives and solution treatment process of TiO2 anode were investigated, and the results show that the additives and treatment could enhance the cycling performance of the TiO2 anode on lithium ion batteries.

  4. Potential threshold of anode materials for foldable lithium-ion batteries featuring carbon nanotube current collectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qing Hui; Zhong, Sheng Wen; Hu, Jing Wei; Liu, Ting; Zhu, Xian Yan; Chen, Jing; Hong, Yin Yan; Wu, Zi Ping

    2016-04-01

    Flexible carbon nanotube macro-films (CMFs) are perfect current collectors for preparing foldable lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). However, selecting appropriate anodes for electrode is difficult because of the different potentials (vs. Li/Li+) of carbon nanotubes and traditional metallic current collector. This study demonstrated an additional reaction at potential below 0.9 V (vs. Li/Li+) caused by CMF, And Li+ will be constrained, which decreased capacity of anode/CMF electrode. Conversely, results changed when the anode potential exceeded 0.9 V (vs. Li/Li+) because Li+ passed the potential threshold, and the CMF retained its electrochemical inactivity. Consequently, the CMF-based foldable LIBs performed well. The potential threshold mechanism of anode is expected to provide new impetus to both academia and industry for exploring flexible or foldable LIBs.

  5. Synthesis and characterization of inorganic nanostructured materials for advanced energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Jin

    The performance of advanced energy storage devices is intimately connected to the designs of electrodes. To enable significant developments in this research field, we need detailed information and knowledge about how the functions and performances of the electrodes depend on their chemical compositions, dimensions, morphologies, and surface properties. This thesis presents my successes in synthesizing and characterizing electrode materials for advanced electrochemical energy storage devices, with much attention given to understanding the operation and fading mechanism of battery electrodes, as well as methods to improve their performances and stabilities. This dissertation is presented within the framework of two energy storage technologies: lithium ion batteries and lithium oxygen batteries. The energy density of lithium ion batteries is determined by the density of electrode materials and their lithium storage capabilities. To improve the overall energy densities of lithium ion batteries, silicon has been proposed to replace lithium intercalation compounds in the battery anodes. However, with a ~400% volume expansion upon fully lithiation, silicon-based anodes face serious capacity degradation in battery operation. To overcome this challenge, heteronanostructure-based Si/TiSi2 were designed and synthesized as anode materials for lithium ion batteries with long cycling life. The performance and morphology relationship was also carefully studied through comparing one-dimensional and two-dimensional heteronanostructure-based silicon anodes. Lithium oxygen batteries, on the other hand, are devices based on lithium conversion chemistries and they offer higher energy densities compared to lithium ion batteries. However, existing carbon based electrodes in lithium oxygen batteries only allow for battery operation with limited capacity, poor stability and low round-trip efficiency. The degradation of electrolytes and carbon electrodes have been found to both contribute

  6. Hierarchical silicon nanowires-carbon textiles matrix as a binder-free anode for high-performance advanced lithium-ion batteries

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Bin; Wang, Xianfu; Chen, Haitian; Wang, Zhuoran; Chen, Di; Cheng, Yi-Bing; Zhou, Chongwu; Shen, Guozhen

    2013-01-01

    Toward the increasing demands of portable energy storage and electric vehicle applications, the widely used graphite anodes with significant drawbacks become more and more unsuitable. Herein, we report a novel scaffold of hierarchical silicon nanowires-carbon textiles anodes fabricated via a facile method. Further, complete lithium-ion batteries based on Si and commercial LiCoO2 materials were assembled to investigate their corresponding across-the-aboard performances, demonstrating their enh...

  7. Advanced Materials Laboratory User Test Planning Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orndoff, Evelyne

    2012-01-01

    Test process, milestones and inputs are unknowns to first-time users of the Advanced Materials Laboratory. The User Test Planning Guide aids in establishing expectations for both NASA and non-NASA facility customers. The potential audience for this guide includes both internal and commercial spaceflight hardware/software developers. It is intended to assist their test engineering personnel in test planning and execution. Material covered includes a roadmap of the test process, roles and responsibilities of facility and user, major milestones, facility capabilities, and inputs required by the facility. Samples of deliverables, test article interfaces, and inputs necessary to define test scope, cost, and schedule are included as an appendix to the guide.

  8. On the fracture toughness of advanced materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Launey, Maximilien E.; Ritchie, Robert O.

    2008-11-24

    Few engineering materials are limited by their strength; rather they are limited by their resistance to fracture or fracture toughness. It is not by accident that most critical structures, such as bridges, ships, nuclear pressure vessels and so forth, are manufactured from materials that are comparatively low in strength but high in toughness. Indeed, in many classes of materials, strength and toughness are almost mutually exclusive. In the first instance, such resistance to fracture is a function of bonding and crystal structure (or lack thereof), but can be developed through the design of appropriate nano/microstructures. However, the creation of tough microstructures in structural materials, i.e., metals, polymers, ceramics and their composites, is invariably a compromise between resistance to intrinsic damage mechanisms ahead of the tip of a crack (intrinsic toughening) and the formation of crack-tip shielding mechanisms which principally act behind the tip to reduce the effective 'crack-driving force' (extrinsic toughening). Intrinsic toughening is essentially an inherent property of a specific microstructure; it is the dominant form of toughening in ductile (e.g., metallic) materials. However, for most brittle (e.g., ceramic) solids, and this includes many biological materials, it is largely ineffective and toughening conversely must be developed extrinsically, by such shielding mechanisms as crack bridging. From a fracture mechanics perspective, this results in toughening in the form of rising resistance-curve behavior where the fracture resistance actually increases with crack extension. The implication of this is that in many biological and high-strength advanced materials, toughness is developed primarily during crack growth and not for crack initiation. This is an important realization yet is still rarely reflected in the way that toughness is measured, which is invariably involves the use of single-value (crack-initiation) parameters such as

  9. Spongelike Nanosized Mn 3 O 4 as a High-Capacity Anode Material for Rechargeable Lithium Batteries

    KAUST Repository

    Gao, Jie

    2011-07-12

    Mn3O4 has been investigated as a high-capacity anode material for rechargeable lithium ion batteries. Spongelike nanosized Mn 3O4 was synthesized by a simple precipitation method and characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, Raman scattering and scanning electron microscopy. Its electrochemical performance, as an anode material, was evaluated by galvanostatic discharge-charge tests. The results indicate that this novel type of nanosized Mn3O4 exhibits a high initial reversible capacity (869 mA h/g) and significantly enhanced first Coulomb efficiency with a stabilized reversible capacity of around 800 mA h/g after over 40 charge/discharge cycles. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  10. Synthesis and Characterization of Silicon Nanoparticles Inserted into Graphene Sheets as High Performance Anode Material for Lithium Ion Batteries

    OpenAIRE

    Yong Chen; Xuejun Zhang; Yanhong Tian; Xi Zhao

    2014-01-01

    Silicon nanoparticles have been successfully inserted into graphene sheets via a novel method combining freeze-drying and thermal reduction. The structure, electrochemical performance, and cycling stability of this anode material were characterized by SEM, X-ray diffraction (XRD), charge/discharge cycling, and cyclic voltammetry (CV). CV showed that the Si/graphene nanocomposite exhibits remarkably enhanced cycling performance and rate performance compared with bare Si nanoparticles for lithi...

  11. Advances in material capsule technology in HANARO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A material capsule system has been developed for irradiation tests of non-fissile materials in HANARO. This capsule system has been actively utilized for various material irradiation tests requested by users from research institutes, universities, and the industries. Based on the accumulated experience and the user's sophisticated requirements, several advances in material capsule technologies were obtained recently for a more precise control and analysis of the neutron irradiation effect in HANARO. New instrumented capsule technologies for a more precise control of the irradiation temperature and fluence of a specimen, irrespective of the reactor operation, have been developed and out-pile tested. The OR/IP capsule technologies for an irradiation test in the HANARO OR and IP test holes with a relatively lower neutron flux than the CT and IR test holes have also been developed and in-pile tested, successfully. A high temperature irradiation technology up to 1000degC is under development. An evaluation of the DPA (Displacement Per Atom) and activation of irradiated specimens was attempted by using the SPECTOR and ORIGEN2 codes, respectively. A new fluence monitor with a decreased activity was designed to measure the thermal and fast neutron fluences of the irradiated specimens. A friction welded tube using STS304 and Al1050 alloys was introduced to prevent a coolant leakage into a capsule during a capsule cutting process after an irradiation. (author)

  12. Nano Structure Plays an Important Role in the Present and Future Anode Materials of Li-ion Batteries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tsutomu; Takamura

    2007-01-01

    1 ResultsLi-ion batteries are the most promising secondary batteries for IT and EV applications, where it is required to increase the capacity and power capability to a great extent. In responding to the demand we have been studied on the anode materials especially paying attention on the improved graphite active materials and modified silicon. In both cases we realized that the nano-structured design plays an important role. In this paper the examples of nano-size structure working in the actual materi...

  13. High temperature material characterization and advanced materials development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryu, Woo Seog; Kim, D. H.; Kim, S. H. and others

    2005-03-15

    The study is to characterize the structural materials under the high temperature, one of the most significant environmental factors in nuclear systems. And advanced materials are developed for high temperature and/or low activation in neutron irradiation. Tensile, fatigue and creep properties have been carried out at high temperature to evaluate the mechanical degradation. Irradiation tests were performed using the HANARO. The optimum chemical composition and heat treatment condition were determined for nuclear grade 316NG stainless steel. Nitrogen, aluminum, and tungsten were added for increasing the creep rupture strength of FMS steel. The new heat treatment method was developed to form more stable precipitates. By applying the novel whiskering process, high density SiC/SiC composites with relative density above 90% could be obtained even in a shorter processing time than the conventional CVI process. Material integrated databases are established using data sheets. The databases of 6 kinds of material properties are accessible through the home page of KAERI material division.

  14. Kinetics of the electrolytic Fe+2/Fe+3 oxidation on various anode materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cifuentes, L.

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available The kinetics of the electrolytic Fe+2/Fe+3 oxidation, relevant to hydro-electrometallurgical processing, have been studied on lead, platinum, ruthenium oxide, iridium oxide and graphite anodes in ferrous sulfate-sulfuric acid solutions. The oxidation rate depends on ferrous sulfate concentration, solution temperature and degree of agitation. Potentiodynamic studies show that: a the highest oxidation rate is obtained on platinum; b lead is unsuitable as anodic material for the said reaction; c the remaining anode materials show a similar and satisfactory performance.

    Se ha estudiado la cinética de la oxidación electrolítica Fe+2/Fe+3 -relevante para el procesamiento hidroelectrometalúrgico- sobre plomo, platino, óxido de rutenio, óxido de iridio y grafito en soluciones de sulfato ferroso en ácido sulfúrico. La velocidad de oxidación depende de la concentración de sulfato ferroso, la temperatura de la solución y el grado de agitación. Estudios potenciodinámicos demuestran que: a las mayores velocidades de oxidación se obtienen sobre platino; b el plomo es inadecuado como material anódico para la reacción mencionada; c los materiales anódicos restantes exhiben un desempeño similar y satisfactorio.

  15. Materials for advanced ultrasupercritical steam turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Purgert, Robert [Energy Industries Of Ohio Inc., Independence, OH (United States); Shingledecker, John [Energy Industries Of Ohio Inc., Independence, OH (United States); Saha, Deepak [Energy Industries Of Ohio Inc., Independence, OH (United States); Thangirala, Mani [Energy Industries Of Ohio Inc., Independence, OH (United States); Booras, George [Energy Industries Of Ohio Inc., Independence, OH (United States); Powers, John [Energy Industries Of Ohio Inc., Independence, OH (United States); Riley, Colin [Energy Industries Of Ohio Inc., Independence, OH (United States); Hendrix, Howard [Energy Industries Of Ohio Inc., Independence, OH (United States)

    2015-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO) have sponsored a project aimed at identifying, evaluating, and qualifying the materials needed for the construction of the critical components of coal-fired power plants capable of operating at much higher efficiencies than the current generation of supercritical plants. This increased efficiency is expected to be achieved principally through the use of advanced ultrasupercritical (A-USC) steam conditions. A limiting factor in this can be the materials of construction for boilers and for steam turbines. The overall project goal is to assess/develop materials technology that will enable achieving turbine throttle steam conditions of 760°C (1400°F)/35MPa (5000 psi). This final technical report covers the research completed by the General Electric Company (GE) and Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), with support from Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) – Albany Research Center, to develop the A-USC steam turbine materials technology to meet the overall project goals. Specifically, this report summarizes the industrial scale-up and materials property database development for non-welded rotors (disc forgings), buckets (blades), bolting, castings (needed for casing and valve bodies), casting weld repair, and casting to pipe welding. Additionally, the report provides an engineering and economic assessment of an A-USC power plant without and with partial carbon capture and storage. This research project successfully demonstrated the materials technology at a sufficient scale and with corresponding materials property data to enable the design of an A-USC steam turbine. The key accomplishments included the development of a triple-melt and forged Haynes 282 disc for bolted rotor construction, long-term property development for Nimonic 105 for blading and bolting, successful scale-up of Haynes 282 and Nimonic 263 castings using

  16. Novel Mg-Doped SrMoO3 Perovskites Designed as Anode Materials for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Cascos

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available SrMo1−xMxO3−δ (M = Fe and Cr, x = 0.1 and 0.2 oxides have been recently described as excellent anode materials for solid oxide fuel cells at intermediate temperatures (IT-SOFC with LSGM as the electrolyte. In this work, we have improved their properties by doping with aliovalent Mg ions at the B-site of the parent SrMoO3 perovskite. SrMo1−xMgxO3−δ (x = 0.1, 0.2 oxides have been prepared, characterized and tested as anode materials in single solid-oxide fuel cells, yielding output powers near 900 mW/cm−2 at 850 °C using pure H2 as fuel. We have studied its crystal structure with an “in situ” neutron power diffraction (NPD experiment at temperatures as high as 800 °C, emulating the working conditions of an SOFC. Adequately high oxygen deficiencies, observed by NPD, together with elevated disk-shaped anisotropic displacement factors suggest a high ionic conductivity at the working temperatures. Furthermore, thermal expansion measurements, chemical compatibility with the LSGM electrolyte, electronic conductivity and reversibility upon cycling in oxidizing-reducing atmospheres have been carried out to find out the correlation between the excellent performance as an anode and the structural features.

  17. Nanostructured Black Phosphorus/Ketjenblack-Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes Composite as High Performance Anode Material for Sodium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Gui-Liang; Chen, Zonghai; Zhong, Gui-Ming; Liu, Yuzi; Yang, Yong; Ma, Tianyuan; Ren, Yang; Zuo, Xiaobing; Wu, Xue-Hang; Zhang, Xiaoyi; Amine, Khalil

    2016-06-01

    Sodium-ion batteries are promising alternatives to lithium-ion batteries for large-scale applications. However, the low capacity and poor rate capability of existing anodes for sodium-ion batteries are bottlenecks for future developments. Here, we report a high performance nanostructured anode material for sodium-ion batteries that is fabricated by high energy ball milling to form black phosphorus/Ketjenblack-multiwalled carbon nanotubes (BPC) composite. With this strategy, the BPC composite with a high phosphorus content (70 wt %) could deliver a very high initial Coulombic efficiency (>90%) and high specific capacity with excellent cyclability at high rate of charge/discharge (∼1700 mAh g(-1) after 100 cycles at 1.3 A g(-1) based on the mass of P). In situ electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, synchrotron high energy X-ray diffraction, ex situ small/wide-angle X-ray scattering, high resolution transmission electronic microscopy, and nuclear magnetic resonance were further used to unravel its superior sodium storage performance. The scientific findings gained in this work are expected to serve as a guide for future design on high performance anode material for sodium-ion batteries.

  18. Nanostructured Black Phosphorus/Ketjenblack-Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes Composite as High Performance Anode Material for Sodium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Gui-Liang; Chen, Zonghai; Zhong, Gui-Ming; Liu, Yuzi; Yang, Yong; Ma, Tianyuan; Ren, Yang; Zuo, Xiaobing; Wu, Xue-Hang; Zhang, Xiaoyi; Amine, Khalil

    2016-06-01

    Sodium-ion batteries are promising alternatives to lithium-ion batteries for large-scale applications. However, the low capacity and poor rate capability of existing anodes for sodium-ion batteries are bottlenecks for future developments. Here, we report a high performance nanostructured anode material for sodium-ion batteries that is fabricated by high energy ball milling to form black phosphorus/Ketjenblack-multiwalled carbon nanotubes (BPC) composite. With this strategy, the BPC composite with a high phosphorus content (70 wt %) could deliver a very high initial Coulombic efficiency (>90%) and high specific capacity with excellent cyclability at high rate of charge/discharge (∼1700 mAh g(-1) after 100 cycles at 1.3 A g(-1) based on the mass of P). In situ electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, synchrotron high energy X-ray diffraction, ex situ small/wide-angle X-ray scattering, high resolution transmission electronic microscopy, and nuclear magnetic resonance were further used to unravel its superior sodium storage performance. The scientific findings gained in this work are expected to serve as a guide for future design on high performance anode material for sodium-ion batteries. PMID:27222911

  19. Synthesis of Li2Ti3O7 Anode Materials by Ultrasonic Spray Pyrolysis and Their Electrochemical Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takayuki Kodera

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Ramsdellite-type lithium titanate (Li2Ti3O7 powders were synthesized by performing ultrasonic spray pyrolysis, and their chemical and physical properties were characterized by performing Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM, powder X-ray Diffraction (XRD, and Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP analyses. The as-prepared Li2Ti3O7 precursor powders had spherical morphologies with hollow microstructures, but an irregularly shaped morphology was obtained after calcination above 900 °C. The ramsdellite Li2Ti3O7 crystal phase was obtained after the calcination at 1100 °C under an argon/hydrogen atmosphere. The first rechargeable capacity of the Li2Ti3O7 anode material was 168 mAh/g at 0.1 C and 82 mAh/g at 20 C, and the discharge capacity retention ratio was 99% at 1 C after the 500th cycle. The cycle performance of the Li2Ti3O7 anode was also highly stable at 50 °C, demonstrating the superiority of Li2Ti3O7 anode materials reported previously.

  20. Advanced materials for integrated optical waveguides

    CERN Document Server

    Tong Ph D, Xingcun Colin

    2014-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive introduction to integrated optical waveguides for information technology and data communications. Integrated coverage ranges from advanced materials, fabrication, and characterization techniques to guidelines for design and simulation. A concluding chapter offers perspectives on likely future trends and challenges. The dramatic scaling down of feature sizes has driven exponential improvements in semiconductor productivity and performance in the past several decades. However, with the potential of gigascale integration, size reduction is approaching a physical limitation due to the negative impact on resistance and inductance of metal interconnects with current copper-trace based technology. Integrated optics provides a potentially lower-cost, higher performance alternative to electronics in optical communication systems. Optical interconnects, in which light can be generated, guided, modulated, amplified, and detected, can provide greater bandwidth, lower power consumption, ...

  1. Thermal fatigue durability for advanced propulsion materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halford, Gary R.

    1989-01-01

    A review is presented of thermal and thermomechanical fatigue (TMF) crack initiation life prediction and cyclic constitutive modeling efforts sponsored recently by the NASA Lewis Research Center in support of advanced aeronautical propulsion research. A brief description is provided of the more significant material durability models that were created to describe TMF fatigue resistance of both isotropic and anisotropic superalloys, with and without oxidation resistant coatings. The two most significant crack initiation models are the cyclic damage accumulation model and the total strain version of strainrange partitioning. Unified viscoplastic cyclic constitutive models are also described. A troika of industry, university, and government research organizations contributed to the generation of these analytic models. Based upon current capabilities and established requirements, an attempt is made to project which TMF research activities most likely will impact future generation propulsion systems.

  2. NATO Conference on Materials for Advanced Batteries

    CERN Document Server

    Broadhead, J; Steele, B

    1980-01-01

    The idea of a NATO Science Committee Institute on "Materials for Advanced Batteries" was suggested to JB and DWM by Dr. A. G. Chynoweth. His idea was to bring together experts in the field over the entire spectrum of pure research to applied research in order to familiarize everyone with potentially interesting new systems and the problems involved in their development. Dr. M. C. B. Hotz and Professor M. N. Ozdas were instrumental in helping organize this meeting as a NATO Advanced Science Institute. An organlzlng committee consisting of the three of us along with W. A. Adams, U. v Alpen, J. Casey and J. Rouxel organized the program. The program consisted of plenary talks and poster papers which are included in this volume. Nearly half the time of the conference was spent in study groups. The aim of these groups was to assess the status of several key aspects of batteries and prospects for research opportunities in each. The study groups and their chairmen were: Current status and new systems J. Broadhead Hig...

  3. Nanoparticle Cookies Derived from Metal-Organic Frameworks: Controlled Synthesis and Application in Anode Materials for Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuhai; Chen, Minqi; Xie, Yanyu; Fan, Yanan; Wang, Dawei; Jiang, Ji-Jun; Li, Yongguang; Grützmacher, Hansjörg; Su, Cheng-Yong

    2016-05-01

    The capacity of anode materials plays a critical role in the performance of lithium-ion batteries. Using the nanocrystals of oxygen-free metal-organic framework ZIF-67 as precursor, a one-step calcination approach toward the controlled synthesis of CoO nanoparticle cookies with excellent anodic performances is developed in this work. The CoO nanoparticle cookies feature highly porous structure composed of small CoO nanoparticles (≈12 nm in diameter) and nitrogen-rich graphitic carbon matrix (≈18 at% in nitrogen content). Benefiting from such unique structure, the CoO nanoparticle cookies are capable of delivering superior specific capacity and cycling stability (1383 mA h g(-1) after 200 runs at 100 mA g(-1) ) over those of CoO and graphite.

  4. Nano-crystalline FeOOH mixed with SWNT matrix as a superior anode material for lithium batteries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mingzhong Zou; Weiwei Wen; Jiaxin Li; Yingbin Lin; Heng Lai; Zhigao Huang

    2014-01-01

    Nano-crystalline FeOOH particles (5∼10 nm) have been uniformly mixed with electric matrix of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) for forming FeOOH/SWNT composite via a facile ultrasonication method. Directly using the FeOOH/SWNT composite (containing 15 wt%SWNTs) as anode material for lithium battery enhances kinetics of the Li+ insertion/extraction processes, thereby effectively improving re-versible capacity and cycle performance, which delivers a high reversible capacity of 758 mAh·g-1 under a current density of 400 mA·g-1 even after 180 cycles, being comparable with previous reports in terms of electrochemical performance for FeOOH anode. The good electrochemical performance should be ascribed to the small particle size and nano-crystalline of FeOOH, as well as the good electronic conductivity of SWNT matrix.

  5. Dispersing SnO2 nanocrystals in amorphous carbon as a cyclic durable anode material for lithium ion batteries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Renzong Hu; Wei Sun; Meiqin Zeng; Min Zhu

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate a facile route for the massive production of SnO2/carbon nanocomposite used as high-capacity anode materials of next-generation lithium-ion batteries. The nanocomposite had a unique structure of ultrafine SnO2 nanocrystals (∼5 nm, 80 wt%) homogeneously dispersed in amorphous carbon matrix. This structure design can well accommodate the volume change of Li+insertion/desertion in SnO2, and prevent the aggregation of the nanosized active materials during cycling, leading to superior cycle performance with stable reversible capacity of 400 mAh/g at a high current rate of 3.3 A/g.

  6. Advanced materials for thermal protection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heng, Sangvavann; Sherman, Andrew J.

    1996-03-01

    Reticulated open-cell ceramic foams (both vitreous carbon and silicon carbide) and ceramic composites (SiC-based, both monolithic and fiber-reinforced) were evaluated as candidate materials for use in a heat shield sandwich panel design as an advanced thermal protection system (TPS) for unmanned single-use hypersonic reentry vehicles. These materials were fabricated by chemical vapor deposition/infiltration (CVD/CVI) and evaluated extensively for their mechanical, thermal, and erosion/ablation performance. In the TPS, the ceramic foams were used as a structural core providing thermal insulation and mechanical load distribution, while the ceramic composites were used as facesheets providing resistance to aerodynamic, shear, and erosive forces. Tensile, compressive, and shear strength, elastic and shear modulus, fracture toughness, Poisson's ratio, and thermal conductivity were measured for the ceramic foams, while arcjet testing was conducted on the ceramic composites at heat flux levels up to 5.90 MW/m2 (520 Btu/ft2ṡsec). Two prototype test articles were fabricated and subjected to arcjet testing at heat flux levels of 1.70-3.40 MW/m2 (150-300 Btu/ft2ṡsec) under simulated reentry trajectories.

  7. Pulsed laser deposited Cr2O3 nanostructured thin film on graphene as anode material for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: A different approach for the fabrication of an anode material system that comprises pulsed laser-deposited (PLD) Cr2O3 grown on few layer graphene (FLG) by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) was used. The electrochemical performance of Cr2O3 nanostructured thin film was improved by FLG, which make it a promising candidate for future lithium-ion batteries application. - Highlights: • Pulsed laser deposition technique was used to deposit Cr2O3 on few-layer graphene (FLG). • FLG improved the electrochemical performance of Cr2O3 nanostructured thin film. • Good stable cycle of Cr2O3/FLG/Ni electrode make it one of the promise anode materials for future lithium-ion batteries. - Abstract: Pulsed laser deposition technique was used to deposit Cr2O3 nanostructured thin film on a chemical vapor deposited few-layer graphene (FLG) on nickel (Ni) substrate for application as anode material for lithium-ion batteries. The experimental results show that graphene can effectively enhance the electrochemical property of Cr2O3. For Cr2O3 thin film deposited on Ni (Cr2O3/Ni), a discharge capacity of 747.8 mA h g−1 can be delivered during the first lithiation process. After growing Cr2O3 thin film on FLG/Ni, the initial discharge capacity of Cr2O3/FLG/Ni was improved to 1234.5 mA h g−1. The reversible lithium storage capacity of the as-grown material is 692.2 mA h g−1 after 100 cycles, which is much higher than that of Cr2O3/Ni (111.3 mA h g−1). This study reveals the differences between the two material systems and emphasizes the role of the graphene layers in improving the electrochemical stability of the Cr2O3 nanostructured thin film

  8. Marine microbial fuel cell: Use of stainless steel electrodes as anode and cathode materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dumas, C.; Basseguy, R.; Etcheverry, L.; Bergel, A. [Laboratoire de Genie Chimique, CNRS-INPT, Toulouse Cedex (France); Mollica, A. [CNR-ISMAR, Genoa (Italy); Feron, D. [SCCME, CEA Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2007-12-01

    Numerous biocorrosion studies have stated that biofilms formed in aerobic seawater induce an efficient catalysis of the oxygen reduction on stainless steels. This property was implemented here for the first time in a marine microbial fuel cell (MFC). A prototype was designed with a stainless steel anode embedded in marine sediments coupled to a stainless steel cathode in the overlying seawater. Recording current/potential curves during the progress of the experiment confirmed that the cathode progressively acquired effective catalytic properties. The maximal power density produced of 4 mW m{sup -2} was lower than those reported previously with marine MFC using graphite electrodes. Decoupling anode and cathode showed that the cathode suffered practical problems related to implementation in the sea, which may found easy technical solutions. A laboratory fuel cell based on the same principle demonstrated that the biofilm-covered stainless steel cathode was able to supply current density up to 140 mA m{sup -2} at +0.05 V versus Ag/AgCl. The power density of 23 mW m{sup -2} was in this case limited by the anode. These first tests presented the biofilm-covered stainless steel cathodes as very promising candidates to be implemented in marine MFC. The suitability of stainless steel as anode has to be further investigated. (author)

  9. Advanced Materials in Support of EERE Needs to Advance Clean Energy Technologies Program Implementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liby, Alan L [ORNL; Rogers, Hiram [ORNL

    2013-10-01

    The goal of this activity was to carry out program implementation and technical projects in support of the ARRA-funded Advanced Materials in Support of EERE Needs to Advance Clean Energy Technologies Program of the DOE Advanced Manufacturing Office (AMO) (formerly the Industrial Technologies Program (ITP)). The work was organized into eight projects in four materials areas: strategic materials, structural materials, energy storage and production materials, and advanced/field/transient processing. Strategic materials included work on titanium, magnesium and carbon fiber. Structural materials included work on alumina forming austentic (AFA) and CF8C-Plus steels. The advanced batteries and production materials projects included work on advanced batteries and photovoltaic devices. Advanced/field/transient processing included work on magnetic field processing. Details of the work in the eight projects are available in the project final reports which have been previously submitted.

  10. Fabrication of electrospun ZnMn2O4 nanofibers as anode material for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • ZnMn2O4 nanofibers were successfully synthesized by a facile electrospinning and calcination method for lithium-ion batteries. • The as-prepared ZnMn2O4 nanofibers, containing PVP and PAN with ratio of 1:9, exhibited a high initial discharge capacity of 1274 mAh g−1, and the stabilized capacity was as high as 603 mAh g−1 after 60 cycles at a current density of 50 mA g−1. • The as-prepared ZnMn2O4 anode material showed good lithium storage performances and excellent rate capability and can be a promising electrode material for lithium-ion batteries in the future. - Abstract: In this paper, ZnMn2O4 nanofibers were synthesized by a facile electrospinning and calcination method. Electrochemical properties of the nanofiber anode material for lithium-ion batteries were investigated. The as-prepared ZnMn2O4 nanofibers, containing PVP and PAN with ratio of 1:9, exhibited a high initial discharge capacity of 1274 mAh g−1, and the stabilized capacity was as high as 603 mAh g−1 after 60 cycles at a current density of 50 mA g−1. Besides the high specific capacity and good cyclability, the electrode also showed good rate capability. Even at 2000 mA g−1, the electrode could deliver a capacity of as high as 352 mAh g−1. The results suggest a promising application of the electrospun ZnMn2O4 nanofibers as anode material for lithium-ion batteries

  11. Synthetic, structural, and electrochemical study of monoclinic Na4Ti5O12 as sodium-ion battery anode material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since lithium-ion batteries were commercialized in 1991, they have dominated the portable electronics market. In 2014, over one-fourth of the world’s mined lithium was devoted to lithiumion battery applications. Increased future demand will be driven by the electric/hybrid vehicle market and load leveling solutions for renewable energy sources. Therefore, the development of new, low-cost alternatives to lithium-ion batteries with comparable electrochemical properties is highly desirable. Sodium is the most obvious choice, as an inexpensive, abundant, and easily extractable element. As well as the decreased cost in starting material, sodium-ion batteries can use aluminum as the current collector for the anode because, unlike lithium, sodium does not alloy with aluminum metal. Aluminum offers both a less-expensive and lighter alternative to the copper usually used in lithium-ion batteries. However, challenges still remain in developing sodium intercalation materials capable of achieving a high reversible capacity and energy density. In particular, because of the inability of Na ions to intercalate with graphite, anode materials must be significantly improved. We have investigated the monoclinic phase of Na4Ti5O12 (M-Na4Ti5O12) as a potential sodium-ion battery anode material. In contrast to the previously investigated trigonal phase (T-Na4Ti5O12), MNa4Ti5O12 has continuous two-dimensional (2D) channels with partially occupied Na sites, providing broader pathways and more space for the intercalation of excess sodium. Neutron powder diffraction reveals the preferred sites and occupancies of the excess sodium as well as the sodium ion conduction pathway. Electrochemical measurements show that it exhibits a comparable or higher reversible capacity than T-Na4Ti5O12. In situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction under electrochemical cycling shows that the crystal lattice undergoes strongly anisotropic volume changes during cycling.

  12. Effect of anodization and alkali-heat treatment on the bioactivity of titanium implant material (an in vitro study)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelrahim, Ramy A.; Badr, Nadia A.; Baroudi, Kusai

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This study was aimed to assess the effect of anodized and alkali-heat surface treatment on the bioactivity of titanium alloy (Ti-6Al-4V) after immersion in Hank's solution for 7 days. Materials and Methods: Fifteen titanium alloy samples were used in this study. The samples were divided into three groups (five for each), five samples were anodized in 1M H3PO4 at constant voltage value of 20 v and another five samples were alkali-treated in 5 M NaOH solution for 25 min at temperature 60°C followed by heat treatment at 600°C for 1 h. All samples were then immersed in Hank's solution for 7 days to assess the effect of surface modifications on the bioactivity of titanium alloy. The different treated surfaces and control one were characterized by X-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and Fourier transformation infra-red spectroscopy. Statistical analysis was performed with PASW Statistics 18.0® (Predictive Analytics Software). Results: Anodization of Ti-alloy samples (Group B) led to the formation of bioactive titanium oxide anatase phase and PO43− group on the surface. The alkali-heat treatment of titanium alloy samples (Group C) leads to the formation of bioactive titania hydrogel and supplied sodium ions. The reaction between the Ti sample and NaOH alkaline solution resulted in the formation of a layer of amorphous sodium titania on the Ti surface, and this layer can induce apatite deposition. Conclusions: The surface roughness and surface chemistry had an excellent ability to induce bioactivity of titanium alloy. The anodization in H3PO4 produced anatase titanium oxide on the surface with phosphate originated from electrolytes changed the surface topography and allowed formation of calcium-phosphate. PMID:27382532

  13. Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy Illuminating Performance Evolution of Porous Core–Shell Structured Nickel/Nickel Oxide Anode Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The electrochemical reaction kinetics of the Ni/NiO anode was studied for the first time. • Charge transfer resistance is main contribution to total resistance during discharge process. • The slow growth of the SEI film is responsible for the capacity fading upon cycling. • Some promising strategies to optimize NiO anode performance were summarized. - Abstract: The electrochemical reaction kinetics of the porous core–shell structured Ni/NiO anode for Li ion battery application is systematically investigated by monitoring the electrochemical impedance evolution for the first time. The electrochemical impedance under prescribed condition is measured by using impedance spectroscopy in equilibrium conditions at various depths of discharge (DOD) during charge–discharge cycles. The Nyquist plots of the binder-free porous Ni/NiO electrode are interpreted with a selective equivalent circuit composed of solution resistance, solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) film, charge transfer and solid state diffusion. The impedance analysis shows that the change of charge transfer resistance is the main contribution to the total resistance change during discharge, and the surface configuration of the obtained electrode may experience significant change during the first two cycles. Meanwhile, the increase of internal resistance reduced the utilization efficiency of the active material may be another convincing factor to increase the irreversible capacity. In addition, the impedance evolution of the as-prepared electrode during charge–discharge cycles reveals that the slow growth of the SEI film is responsible for the capacity fading after long term cycling. As a result, several strategies are summarized to optimize the electrochemical performances of transition metal oxide anodes for lithium ion batteries

  14. Synthesis of nano structured particles for Li-ion cathodic and anodic materials obtained by spray pyrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of the nano technology has contributed to improve the electrochemical properties in rechargeable batteries. The Spray Pyrolysis method allows to obtain nano structured materials with spherical morphology, narrow particle size distribution and compositional homogeneity. Nano structured particles have been prepared in this work to be used as anodic and cathodic materials in lithium-ion batteries. Among the cathodic materials, the Na-Si-Con (Li3Fe2(PO4)3) structure and the olivine (LiFePO4) phases have been synthesised. The Na-Si-Con iron phosphate favours the accommodation of the ion host, the diffusion and thermal stability. The olivine structure has an open three-dimensional network, favourable for hosting Lithium ions. The characterization by X ray diffraction, electron microscopy (scanning and transmission) and electron diffraction have allowed to identify a mix of crystalline phases of LiFePO4 (Olivine) and Li3Fe2(PO4)3 (Na-Si-Con). Thermal treatments produce porous particles. The tryphilite phase (olivine) appears after a thermal treatment at 800 degree centigrade/12h. Electrochemical results confirm the presence of the Na-Si-Con and olivine phases. Among the materials for being used as anode, the titanium oxides have been classified as good candidates as lithium ion host. The synthesis results in different experimental conditions for obtaining spherical and nano structured titanium oxide particles are presented. (Author)

  15. Electrical Conductivity and Corrosion Resistance of ZnFe2O4-Based Materials Used as Inert Anode for Aluminum Electrolysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    ZnFe2O4 and ZnFe2O4-based materials were tested to obtain the electrical conductivity and corrosion resistance in melting bath for aluminum electrolysis. The results proved that adequate additives, such as Ni2O3 CuO,Cu, ZnO and CeO2 would increase the electrical conductivity, and the ZnFe2O4-based anodes with these additives were of good corrosion resistance. The current density on anode, the mole ratio of NaF/AlF3 (MR) and the content of alumina in the bath effect the anode corrosion rate in different way.

  16. Advanced High-Temperature Engine Materials Technology Progresses

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    The objective of the Advanced High Temperature Engine Materials Technology Program (HITEMP) at the NASA Lewis Research Center is to generate technology for advanced materials and structural analysis that will increase fuel economy, improve reliability, extend life, and reduce operating costs for 21st century civil propulsion systems. The primary focus is on fan and compressor materials (polymer-matrix composites - PMC's), compressor and turbine materials (superalloys, and metal-matrix and intermetallic-matrix composites - MMC's and IMC's), and turbine materials (ceramic-matrix composites - CMC's). These advanced materials are being developed in-house by Lewis researchers and on grants and contracts.

  17. Lignin-based active anode materials synthesized from low-cost renewable resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rios, Orlando; Tenhaeff, Wyatt Evan; Daniel, Claus; Dudney, Nancy Johnston; Johs, Alexander; Nunnery, Grady Alexander; Baker, Frederick Stanley

    2016-06-07

    A method of making an anode includes the steps of providing fibers from a carbonaceous precursor, the carbon fibers having a glass transition temperature T.sub.g. In one aspect the carbonaceous precursor is lignin. The carbonaceous fibers are placed into a layered fiber mat. The fiber mat is fused by heating the fiber mat in the presence of oxygen to above the T.sub.g but no more than 20% above the T.sub.g to fuse fibers together at fiber to fiber contact points and without melting the bulk fiber mat to create a fused fiber mat through oxidative stabilization. The fused fiber mat is carbonized by heating the fused fiber mat to at least 650.degree. C. under an inert atmosphere to create a carbonized fused fiber mat. A battery anode formed from carbonaceous precursor fibers is also disclosed.

  18. Marine microbial fuel cell : use of stainless steel electrodes as anode and cathode materials

    OpenAIRE

    Dumas, Claire; Mollica, Alfonso; Féron, Damien; Basséguy, Régine; Etcheverry, Luc; Bergel, Alain

    2007-01-01

    Numerous biocorrosion studies have stated that biofilms formed in aerobic seawater induce an efficient catalysis of the oxygen reduction on stainless steels. This property was implemented here for the first time in a marine microbial fuel cell (MFC). A prototype was designed with a stainless steel anode embedded in marine sediments coupled to a stainless steel cathode in the overlying seawater. Recording current/potential curves during the progress of the experiment confirmed that the cath...

  19. Electrochemical characteristics of ternary and quadruple lithium silicon nitrides as anode material for lithium ion batteries: the influence of precursors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEN Zhongsheng; TIAN Feng; SUN Juncai; JI Shijun; XIE Jingying

    2008-01-01

    Ternary and quadruple lithium silicon nitride anode materials for lithium ion batteries with different precursors were prepared by the simple process of high-energy ball milling.High capacity and excellent cyclability were obtained.The influence of precursor introduction on the electrochemical performance of products was investigated.This research reveals that the electrochemical performance of lithium silicon hiaide can be enhanced significantly by doping O.The cyclability of quadruple lithium silicon nitride can be optimized remarkably by controlling the introduction quantity of the precursors.It is possible for the composite to be used as a capacity compensator within a wide voltage cut-off window.

  20. Engineered Materials for Advanced Gas Turbine Engine Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This project will develop innovative composite powders and composites that will surpass the properties of currently identified materials for advanced gas turbine...

  1. Synthesis of SnO2 pillared carbon using long chain alkylamine grafted graphene oxide: an efficient anode material for lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, M. Jeevan Kumar; Ryu, Sung Hun; Shanmugharaj, A. M.

    2015-12-01

    With the objective of developing new advanced composite materials that can be used as anodes for lithium ion batteries (LIBs), herein we describe the synthesis of SnO2 pillared carbon using various alkylamine (hexylamine; dodecylamine and octadecylamine) grafted graphene oxides and butyl trichlorotin precursors followed by its calcination at 500 °C for 2 h. While the grafted alkylamine induces crystalline growth of SnO2 pillars, thermal annealing of alkylamine grafted graphene oxide results in the formation of amorphous carbon coated graphene. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) results reveal the successful formation of SnO2 pillared carbon on the graphene surface. X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Raman spectroscopy characterization corroborates the formation of rutile SnO2 crystals on the graphene surface. A significant rise in the BET surface area is observed for SnO2 pillared carbon, when compared to pristine GO. Electrochemical characterization studies of SnO2 pillared carbon based anode materials showed an enhanced lithium storage capacity and fine cyclic performance in comparison with pristine GO. The initial specific capacities of SnO2 pillared carbon are observed to be 1379 mA h g-1, 1255 mA h g-1 and 1360 mA h g-1 that decrease to 750 mA h g-1, 643 mA h g-1 and 560 mA h g-1 depending upon the chain length of grafted alkylamine on the graphene surface respectively. Electrochemical impedance spectral analysis reveals that the exchange current density of SnO2 pillared carbon based electrodes is higher, corroborating its enhanced electrochemical activity in comparison with GO based electrodes.With the objective of developing new advanced composite materials that can be used as anodes for lithium ion batteries (LIBs), herein we describe the synthesis of SnO2 pillared carbon using various alkylamine (hexylamine; dodecylamine and octadecylamine) grafted graphene oxides and butyl trichlorotin precursors

  2. A novel Si/Sn composite with entangled ribbon structure as anode materials for lithium ion battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jinbo; Zhu, Zhengwang; Zhang, Hongwei; Fu, Huameng; Li, Hong; Wang, Aimin; Zhang, Haifeng

    2016-07-01

    A novel Si/Sn composite anode material with unique ribbon structure was synthesized by Mechanical Milling (MM) and the structural transformation was studied in the present work. The microstructure characterization shows that Si/Sn composite with idealized entangled ribbon structured can be obtained by milling the mixture of the starting materials, Si and Sn for 20 h. According to the calculated results based on the XRD data, the as-milled 20 h sample has the smallest avergae crystalline size. It is supposed that the flexible ribbon structure allows for accommodation of intrinsic damage, which significantly improves the fracture toughness of the composite. The charge and discharge tests of the as-milled 20 h sample have been performed with reference to Li+/Li at a current density of 400 mA g‑1 in the voltage from 1.5 to 0.03 V (vs Li/Li+) and the result shows that the initial capacity is ∼1400 mA h g‑1, with a retention of ∼1100 mA h g‑1 reversible capacity after 50 cycles, which is possible serving as the promising anode material for the lithium ion battery application.

  3. Synthesis and Electrochemical Properties of CNFs-Si Composites as an Anode Material for Li Secondary Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Eun-Sil; Park, Heai-Ku; Park, Ho-Seon; Lee, Chang-Seop

    2015-11-01

    We have performed a study on the electrochemical and structural characteristics of CNFs-Si composites which are active anode material for lithium secondary batteries. Carbon nanofibers (CNFs) have been synthesized by Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) using Co and Cu catalysts. The CNFs on the surface of the Si particle can provide a flexible space to relieve the volumetric expansion during a charge. Therefore, the CNFs composites on Si particles were prepared on the basis of the following two processes: (1) CNFs were grown on the simple mechanical mixture of Si particles and catalysts (CNFs/Si); (2) CNFs were grown on the surface of a pyrolytic carbon that was coated with Si particles (CNFs/PC/Si). The morphology and composition of CNFs-Si composites were analyzed by SEM and EDS measurements. Crystallinity and amorphicity were investigated using XRD and Raman spectroscopy. The characteristics of the synthesized CNFs-Si composites were analyzed through XPS, TGA, and BET. The two different CNFs-Si composite materials were evaluated as the anodic material in three different electrode cells. We found that the initial capacity of the CNFs/PC/Si composite electrode was 1,361 mAh/g with retention rate of 28.4%, which was better than the retention rate of 4.9% with the CNFs/Si electrode.

  4. Biotemplated fabrication of Sn@C anode materials based on the unique metal biosorption behavior of microalgae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Xinyong; Wu, Rui; Xia, Yang; Huang, Hui; Chai, Weicong; Feng, Tong; Gan, Yongping; Zhang, Wenkui

    2014-03-12

    Biotemplating is an effective strategy to obtain morphology-controllable materials with structural specificity, complexity, and corresponding unique functions. Different from traditional biotemplating strategies replicating the morphology and using biogenic elements of biomaterials (e.g., C, Si, N, Fe, P, S), we take advantage of the unique heavy-metal-ion biosorption behavior of microalgae to fabricate tin-decorated carbon (Sn@C) anode materials for lithium-ion batteries. Microalgae Spirulina platensis is used as the biotemplate, the renewable carbon source, and the biosorbent. After a facile one-step heat treatment, Sn@C with tin particles (20-30 nm) dispersing into the porous carbon matrix can be obtained. Fourier transform infrared spectra reveal that metal-ion biosorption results from the complexation reactions between Sn(4+) ions and the hydroxyl groups associated with alginate. The Sn@C anode shows a discharge capacity of 520 mAh g(-1) after 100 cycles, as well as excellent cycle stability and high coulombic efficiency (approximately 100%), exhibiting fascinating electrochemical performance. This facile, green, and economical strategy not only will extend the scope of biotemplating synthesis of functional materials but also will provide reference for environmental protection and water purification. PMID:24517475

  5. A novel Si/Sn composite with entangled ribbon structure as anode materials for lithium ion battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jinbo; Zhu, Zhengwang; Zhang, Hongwei; Fu, Huameng; Li, Hong; Wang, Aimin; Zhang, Haifeng

    2016-01-01

    A novel Si/Sn composite anode material with unique ribbon structure was synthesized by Mechanical Milling (MM) and the structural transformation was studied in the present work. The microstructure characterization shows that Si/Sn composite with idealized entangled ribbon structured can be obtained by milling the mixture of the starting materials, Si and Sn for 20 h. According to the calculated results based on the XRD data, the as-milled 20 h sample has the smallest avergae crystalline size. It is supposed that the flexible ribbon structure allows for accommodation of intrinsic damage, which significantly improves the fracture toughness of the composite. The charge and discharge tests of the as-milled 20 h sample have been performed with reference to Li(+)/Li at a current density of 400 mA g(-1) in the voltage from 1.5 to 0.03 V (vs Li/Li(+)) and the result shows that the initial capacity is ∼1400 mA h g(-1), with a retention of ∼1100 mA h g(-1) reversible capacity after 50 cycles, which is possible serving as the promising anode material for the lithium ion battery application. PMID:27390015

  6. Highly Flexible Graphene/Mn3O4 Nanocomposite Membrane as Advanced Anodes for Li-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian-Gan; Jin, Dandan; Zhou, Rui; Li, Xu; Liu, Xing-Rui; Shen, Chao; Xie, Keyu; Li, Baohua; Kang, Feiyu; Wei, Bingqing

    2016-06-28

    Advanced electrode design is crucial in the rapid development of flexible energy storage devices for emerging flexible electronics. Herein, we report a rational synthesis of graphene/Mn3O4 nanocomposite membranes with excellent mechanical flexibility and Li-ion storage properties. The strong interaction between the large-area graphene nanosheets and long Mn3O4 nanowires not only enables the membrane to endure various mechanical deformations but also produces a strong synergistic effect of enhanced reaction kinetics by providing enlarged electrode/electrolyte contact area and reduced electron/ion transport resistance. The mechanically robust membrane is explored as a freestanding anode for Li-ion batteries, which delivers a high specific capacity of ∼800 mAh g(-1) based on the total electrode mass, along with superior high-rate capability and excellent cycling stability. A flexible full Li-ion battery is fabricated with excellent electrochemical properties and high flexibility, demonstrating its great potential for high-performance flexible energy storage devices. PMID:27172485

  7. Highly Flexible Graphene/Mn3O4 Nanocomposite Membrane as Advanced Anodes for Li-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian-Gan; Jin, Dandan; Zhou, Rui; Li, Xu; Liu, Xing-Rui; Shen, Chao; Xie, Keyu; Li, Baohua; Kang, Feiyu; Wei, Bingqing

    2016-06-28

    Advanced electrode design is crucial in the rapid development of flexible energy storage devices for emerging flexible electronics. Herein, we report a rational synthesis of graphene/Mn3O4 nanocomposite membranes with excellent mechanical flexibility and Li-ion storage properties. The strong interaction between the large-area graphene nanosheets and long Mn3O4 nanowires not only enables the membrane to endure various mechanical deformations but also produces a strong synergistic effect of enhanced reaction kinetics by providing enlarged electrode/electrolyte contact area and reduced electron/ion transport resistance. The mechanically robust membrane is explored as a freestanding anode for Li-ion batteries, which delivers a high specific capacity of ∼800 mAh g(-1) based on the total electrode mass, along with superior high-rate capability and excellent cycling stability. A flexible full Li-ion battery is fabricated with excellent electrochemical properties and high flexibility, demonstrating its great potential for high-performance flexible energy storage devices.

  8. Hierarchical silicon nanowires-carbon textiles matrix as a binder-free anode for high-performance advanced lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bin; Wang, Xianfu; Chen, Haitian; Wang, Zhuoran; Chen, Di; Cheng, Yi-Bing; Zhou, Chongwu; Shen, Guozhen

    2013-04-01

    Toward the increasing demands of portable energy storage and electric vehicle applications, the widely used graphite anodes with significant drawbacks become more and more unsuitable. Herein, we report a novel scaffold of hierarchical silicon nanowires-carbon textiles anodes fabricated via a facile method. Further, complete lithium-ion batteries based on Si and commercial LiCoO2 materials were assembled to investigate their corresponding across-the-aboard performances, demonstrating their enhanced specific capacity (2950 mAh g-1 at 0.2 C), good repeatability/rate capability (even >900 mAh g-1 at high rate of 5 C), long cycling life, and excellent stability in various external conditions (curvature, temperature, and humidity). Above results light the way to principally replacing graphite anodes with silicon-based electrodes which was confirmed to have better comprehensive performances.

  9. Ce-doped α-FeOOH nanorods as high-performance anode material for energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Yanjun; Xu, Liqiang; Qian, Yitai

    2016-09-01

    Ce-doped α-FeOOH nanorods with high yields were conveniently prepared by a hydrothermal method followed by an acid-treatment process. It is found that Ce uniformly distributes in the α-FeOOH nanorod nanostructures through elemental mapping analysis. The 0.5 wt% Ce-doped α-FeOOH electrode displayed excellent cycling performance with a high discharge capacity of 830 mA h g-1 after 800 charge/discharge cycles at a high current of 2000 mA g-1. The enhanced electrochemical performance can be attributed to the improved electronic conductivity, Li-ion diffusion kinetics and structure stability after Ce doping. Furthermore, a 0.5 wt% Ce-doped α-FeOOH//LiFePO4 lithium ion cell with an initial discharge capacity of 580 mA h g-1 at 1000 mA g-1 based on the total weight of the anode material has been fabricated for the first time. The obtained 0.5 wt% Ce-doped α-FeOOH electrode as anode material for sodium-ion batteries also exhibits a high initial discharge capacity of 587 mA h g-1 at 100 mA g-1.

  10. Ultrahigh capacity anode material for lithium ion battery based on rod gold nanoparticles decorated reduced graphene oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atar, Necip, E-mail: necipatar@gmail.com [Department of Chemical Engineering, Pamukkale University, Denizli (Turkey); Eren, Tanju [Department of Chemical Engineering, Pamukkale University, Denizli (Turkey); Yola, Mehmet Lütfi [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Sinop University, Sinop (Turkey)

    2015-09-01

    In this study, we report the synthesis of rod shaped gold nanoparticles/2-aminoethanethiol functionalized reduced graphene oxide composite (rdAuNPs/AETrGO) and its application as an anode material for lithium-ion batteries. The structure of the rdAuNPs/AETrGO composite was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. The electrochemical performance was investigated at different current rates by using a coin-type cell. It was found that the rod shaped gold nanoparticles were highly dispersed on the reduced graphene oxide sheets. Moreover, the rdAuNPs/AETrGO composite showed a high specific gravimetric capacity of about 1320 mAh g{sup −1} and a long-term cycle stability. - Highlights: • We prepared rod shaped gold nanoparticles functionalized reduced graphene oxide. • The nanocomposite was used as an anode material for lithium-ion batteries. • The nanocomposite showed a high specific gravimetric capacity of about 1320 mAh g{sup −1}. • The nanocomposite exhibited a long-term cycle stability.

  11. Ultrahigh capacity anode material for lithium ion battery based on rod gold nanoparticles decorated reduced graphene oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, we report the synthesis of rod shaped gold nanoparticles/2-aminoethanethiol functionalized reduced graphene oxide composite (rdAuNPs/AETrGO) and its application as an anode material for lithium-ion batteries. The structure of the rdAuNPs/AETrGO composite was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. The electrochemical performance was investigated at different current rates by using a coin-type cell. It was found that the rod shaped gold nanoparticles were highly dispersed on the reduced graphene oxide sheets. Moreover, the rdAuNPs/AETrGO composite showed a high specific gravimetric capacity of about 1320 mAh g−1 and a long-term cycle stability. - Highlights: • We prepared rod shaped gold nanoparticles functionalized reduced graphene oxide. • The nanocomposite was used as an anode material for lithium-ion batteries. • The nanocomposite showed a high specific gravimetric capacity of about 1320 mAh g−1. • The nanocomposite exhibited a long-term cycle stability

  12. Yolk-shell ZnO-C microspheres with enhanced electrochemical performance as anode material for lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • ZnO-C yolk-shell microspheres, hollow microspheres and solid microspheres are prepared. • Yolk-shell ZnO-C microspheres possess the best electrochemical properties when used as the anode materials for lithium-ion batteries. • The special yolk-shell structures and extra carbon support account for the enhanced electrochemical properties. - Abstract: Three ZnO-C samples with distinct structures including yolk-shell microspheres, hollow microspheres and solid microspheres are fabricated through a facile chemical solution reaction followed by calcination in argon. When employed as the anode materials for lithium ion batteries, yolk-shell ZnO-C microspheres exhibit the best electrochemical properties than the hollow and solid microspheres. After 150 cycles, yolk-shell ZnO-C microspheres demonstrate a relative high capacity of 520 mA h g−1 at a current density of 100 mA g−1 with a Coulombic efficiency of about 99.3%. The excellent cycling stability and good rate capability of yolk-shell ZnO-C microspheres stem from the synergistic effect of the unique yolk-shell structures and extra carbon support

  13. Synthesis And Electrochemical Characteristics Of Mechanically Alloyed Anode Materials SnS2 For Li/SnS2 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong J.H.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available With the increasing demand for efficient and economic energy storage, tin disulfide (SnS2, as one of the most attractive anode candidates for the next generation high-energy rechargeable Li-ion battery, have been paid more and more attention because of its high theoretical energy density and cost effectiveness. In this study, a new, simple and effective process, mechanical alloying (MA, has been developed for preparing fine anode material tin disulfides, in which ammonium chloride (AC, referred to as process control agents (PCAs, were used to prevent excessive cold-welding and accelerate the synthesis rates to some extent. Meanwhile, in order to decrease the mean size of SnS2 powder particles and improve the contact areas between the active materials, wet milling process was also conducted with normal hexane (NH as a solvent PCA. The prepared powders were both characterized by X-ray diffraction, Field emission-scanning electron microscopeand particle size analyzer. Finally, electrochemical measurements for Li/SnS2 cells were takenat room temperature, using a two-electrode cell assembled in an argon-filled glove box and the electrolyte of 1M LiPF6 in a mixture of ethylene carbonate(EC/dimethylcarbonate (DMC/ethylene methyl carbonate (EMC (volume ratio of 1:1:1.

  14. Trace analysis of Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn in various materials using differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sampling and sample preparation methods have been described. Digestion methods for different types of materials and acid purification systems have been developed. For trace analysis purposes cleaning methods for glassware etc. have been described. Differential pulse anodic stripping voltametric (DPASV) method has been worked out for the trace analysis of zn, cd, pb and Cu in different types of materials. Linearity of the method has been checked by drawing concentration versus currents (peak height) curves. Precision of the method has been checked by analysing a number of actual samples. of the method has been verified by analysing standards of U.S.A. Comparative studies have been done between Differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetric method and Atomic Absorption spectroscopic method. Problems of contamination and systematic errors during trace and ultra-trace analysis have been discussed. A variety of samples including soil, spinach, wheat flour, rice flour, dry milk, coriander, kidney stones, bladder stones etc. have been analysed and preliminary results have been reported. (author)

  15. Advanced insider threat mitigation workshop instructional materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibbs, Philip [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Larsen, Robert [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); O Brien, Mike [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Edmunds, Tom [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2008-11-01

    Insiders represent a formidable threat to nuclear facilities. This set of workshop materials covers methodologies to analyze and approaches to mitigate the threat of an insider attempting abrupt and protracted theft of nuclear materials. This particular set of materials is a n update of a January 2008 version to add increased emphasis on Material Control and Accounting and its role with respect to protracted insider nuclear material theft scenarios.

  16. Electrocatalytic Materials and Techniques for the Anodic Oxidation of Various Organic Compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephen Everett Treimer

    2002-06-27

    The focus of this thesis was first to characterize and improve the applicability of Fe(III) and Bi(V) doped PbO{sub 2} film electrodes for use in anodic O-transfer reactions of toxic and waste organic compounds, e.g. phenol, aniline, benzene, and naphthalene. Further, they investigated the use of alternative solution/electrode interfacial excitation techniques to enhance the performance of these electrodes for remediation and electrosynthetic applications. Finally, they have attempted to identify a less toxic metal oxide film that may hold promise for future studies in the electrocatalysis and photoelectrocatalysis of O-transfer reactions using metal oxide film electrodes.

  17. Catalytic Methods in Asymmetric Synthesis Advanced Materials, Techniques, and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Gruttadauria, Michelangelo

    2011-01-01

    This book covers advances in the methods of catalytic asymmetric synthesis and their applications. Coverage moves from new materials and technologies to homogeneous metal-free catalysts and homogeneous metal catalysts. The applications of several methodologies for the synthesis of biologically active molecules are discussed. Part I addresses recent advances in new materials and technologies such as supported catalysts, supports, self-supported catalysts, chiral ionic liquids, supercritical fluids, flow reactors and microwaves related to asymmetric catalysis. Part II covers advances and milesto

  18. Engineering with advanced materials for tailing dam designing

    OpenAIRE

    Kostadinov, Ljubisa; Krstev, Boris; Golomeov, Blagoj; Golomeova, Mirjana; Ilievski, Darko

    2012-01-01

    Tailing dam accidents hapened in the past serve as "alarm" for application of advanced methods and techniques at designing of tailing dams. The designing of advanced tailing dam nowdays is very current topic, due to the fact that designing would resolve very important issues for environmental protection. Advanced materials (geosyntetics) are used at process of construction in order the tailing dam to be constructed and to perform according to the advanced world standards. By applying the geos...

  19. Cellulose-based carbon-A potential anode material for lithium-ion battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kierzek, Krzysztof; Piotrowska, Aleksandra; Machnikowski, Jacek

    2015-11-01

    A series of hard carbons was produced by the carbonization of microcrystalline cellulose powder in the temperature range of 950-1100 °C. The properties of the carbons were characterized using elemental analysis, X-ray diffraction and N2 and CO2 adsorption. The effect of heat-treatment temperature (HTT), pyrolytic carbon (PC) coating and discharging mode on the lithium insertion/deinsertion behavior of the carbons was assessed in a coin-type half-cell with metal lithium cathode. Increasing cellulose HTT modifies mostly carbon porosity, the surface area (SDFT) decreases from about 500 to 167 m2 g-1. It is associated with lowering the reversible Crev and irreversible Cirr capacities, but without improving relatively low (0.72) 1st cycle coulombic efficiency. Applying constant current (CC)+constant voltage (CV) discharging mode instead of conventional CC enhances the reversible capacity by 15-18%. PC coating is effective in reducing Cirr by ∼20% with a little change of Crev. The best capacity parameters, Crev of 458 mA h g-1 and Cirr of 139 mA h g-1, were measured for PC coated 1000 °C carbon. The prolonged cycling of full-cell assembled with anode of the carbon and commercial cathode revealed that after initial 20 cycles the capacity decay (0.029 mA h/cycle) is comparable to that of commercial cell with graphite-based anode.

  20. Electrospun fibers for high performance anodes in microbial fuel cells. Optimizing materials and architecture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Shuiliang

    2010-04-15

    A novel porous conducting nanofiber mat (PCNM) with nanostructured polyaniline (nanoPANi) on the fiber surface was successfully prepared by simple oxidative polymerization. The composite PCNM displayed a core/shell structure with highly rough surface. The thickness and the morphology of PANi layer on the electrospun polyamide (PA) fiber surface could be controlled by varying aniline concentration and temperature. The combination of the advantages of electrospinning technique and nanostructured PANi, let the PA/PANi composite PCNM possess more than five good properties, i.e. high conductivity of 6.759 S.m{sup -1}, high specific surface area of 160 m2.g{sup -1}, good strength of 82.88 MPa for mat and 161.75 MPa for highly aligned belts, good thermal properties with 5% weight loss temperature up to 415 C and excellent biocompatibility. In the PA/PANi composite PCNM, PANi is the only conducting component, its conductivity of 6.759 S.m{sup -1} which is measured in dry-state, is not enough for electrode. Moreover, the conductivity decreases in neutral pH environment due to the de-doping of proton. However, the method of spontaneous growth of nanostructured PANi on electrospun fiber mats provides an effective method to produce porous electrically conducting electrospun fiber mats. The combination advantages of nanostructured PANi with the electrospun fiber mats, extends the applications of PANi and electrospun nanofibers, such as chemical- and bio-sensors, actuators, catalysis, electromagnetic shielding, corrosion protection, separation membranes, electro-optic devices, electrochromic devices, tissue engineering and many others. The electrical conductivity of electrospun PCNM with PANi as the only conducting component is too low for application of as anode in microbial fuel cells (MFCs). So, we turn to electrospun carbon fiber due to its high electrical conductivity and environmental stability. The current density is greatly dependent on the microorganism density of anode

  1. Electrospinning synthesis of 3D porous NiO nanorods as anode material for lithium-ion batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Kong Xiang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Three-dimensional NiO nanorods were synthesized as anode material by electrospinning method. X-ray diffraction results revealed that the product sintered at 400 °C had impure metallic nickel phase which, however, became pure NiO phase as the sintering temperature rose. Nevertheless, the nanorods sintered at 400, 500 and 600 °C had similar diameters (∼200 nm.The NiO nanorod material sintered at 500 °C was chip-shaped with a diameter of 200 nm and it exhibited a porous 3D structure. The nanorod sintered at 500 °C had the optimal electrochemical performance. Its discharge specific capacity was 1127 mAh·g−1 initially and remained as high as 400 mAh·g−1 at a current density of 55 mA·g−1 after 50 cycles.

  2. Zinc pyridinedicarboxylate micro-nanostructures: Promising anode materials for lithium-ion batteries with excellent cycling performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fei, Hailong; Lin, Yaqin

    2016-11-01

    It is important to discover new, cheap and environmental friendly coordination polymer electrode materials for lithium-ion batteries. Zinc 2,6-pyridilinedicarboxylate particles show better cycling stability and higher discharge capacity than 2,5-pyridilinedicarboxylate micro-platelets when they are firstly tested as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries. The former can steadily cycle at current densities of 750, 1000 and 2000mAg(-1). It is also stable in multiple insertion/extraction processes at current densities of 750, 1500, 2000, 2500, 3000, and 750mAg(-1), and the capacity retention is 77.9% after 60cycles. While the latter is apt to show good cycling performance at smaller discharge current density. PMID:27490195

  3. Development of Low Cost Carbonaceous Materials for Anodes in Lithium-Ion Batteries for Electric and Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barsukov, Igor V.

    2002-12-10

    Final report on the US DOE CARAT program describes innovative R & D conducted by Superior Graphite Co., Chicago, IL, USA in cooperation with researchers from the Illinois Institute of Technology, and defines the proper type of carbon and a cost effective method for its production, as well as establishes a US based manufacturer for the application of anodes of the Lithium-Ion, Lithium polymer batteries of the Hybrid Electric and Pure Electric Vehicles. The three materials each representing a separate class of graphitic carbon, have been developed and released for field trials. They include natural purified flake graphite, purified vein graphite and a graphitized synthetic carbon. Screening of the available on the market materials, which will help fully utilize the graphite, has been carried out.

  4. Insulation materials for advanced water storages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Jørgen Munthe

    2005-01-01

    This chapter gives an overview of different insulation materials that may be of interest for insulation of solar storage tanks. In order to understand the special characteristics of the different insulation materials the heat transfer mechanisms involved are shortly described. In the following...... sections different insulation materials are described with respect to material characteristics and some comments on the easiness of application for tank insulation. The material properties listed in this paper are typical values, which gives an idea of the possibilities but in case of a specific design...

  5. Research progress in anode materials for Li-ion battery%锂离子电池负极材料的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武明昊; 陈剑; 王崇; 衣宝廉

    2011-01-01

    综述了近年来锂离子电池负极材料的研究进展,包括碳材料、过渡金属氧化物,锡基和硅基材料等,重点评述了锡基和硅基材料的研究进展,并对锂离子电池负极材料的发展趋势进行了展望.%Research progress in anode materials for Li-ion battery in recent years, including carbon, transition metal oxides, tin based composites and silicon based composites was reviewed. The research progress in tin based and silicon based anode materials was commented emphatically,the development tendency of Li-ion battery anode materials was prospected.

  6. Advanced Insider Threat Mitigation Workshop Instructional Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibbs, Philip [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Larsen, Robert [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); O' Brien, Mike [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Edmunds, Tom [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2009-02-01

    Insiders represent a formidable threat to nuclear facilities. This set of workshop materials covers methodologies to analyze and approaches to mitigate the threat of an insider attempting abrupt and protracted theft of nuclear materials. This particular set of materials is an update of a January 2008 version to add increased emphasis on Material Control and Accounting and its role with respect to protracted insider nuclear material theft scenarios. This report is a compilation of workshop materials consisting of lectures on technical and administrative measures used in Physical Protection (PP) and Material Control and Accounting (MC&A) and methods for analyzing their effectiveness against a postulated insider threat. The postulated threat includes both abrupt and protracted theft scenarios. Presentation is envisioned to be through classroom instruction and discussion. Several practical and group exercises are included for demonstration and application of the analysis approach contained in the lecture/discussion sessions as applied to a hypothetical nuclear facility.

  7. Materials Challenges for Advanced Combustion and Gasification Fossil Energy Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridhar, S.; Rozzelle, P.; Morreale, B.; Alman, D.

    2011-04-01

    This special section of Metallurgical and Materials Transactions is devoted to materials challenges associated with coal based energy conversion systems. The purpose of this introductory article is to provide a brief outline to the challenges associated with advanced combustion and advanced gasification, which has the potential of providing clean, affordable electricity by improving process efficiency and implementing carbon capture and sequestration. Affordable materials that can meet the demanding performance requirements will be a key enabling technology for these systems.

  8. A silicon nanowire-reduced graphene oxide composite as a high-performance lithium ion battery anode material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Jian-Guo; Wang, Chundong; Wu, Qi-Hui; Liu, Xiang; Yang, Yang; He, Lifang; Zhang, Wenjun

    2014-03-21

    Toward the increasing demands of portable energy storage and electric vehicle applications, silicon has been emerging as a promising anode material for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) owing to its high specific capacity. However, serious pulverization of bulk silicon during cycling limits its cycle life. Herein, we report a novel hierarchical Si nanowire (Si NW)-reduced graphene oxide (rGO) composite fabricated using a solvothermal method followed by a chemical vapor deposition process. In the composite, the uniform-sized [111]-oriented Si NWs are well dispersed on the rGO surface and in between rGO sheets. The flexible rGO enables us to maintain the structural integrity and to provide a continuous conductive network of the electrode, which results in over 100 cycles serving as an anode in half cells at a high lithium storage capacity of 2300 mA h g(-1). Due to its [111] growth direction and the large contact area with rGO, the Si NWs in the composite show substantially enhanced reaction kinetics compared with other Si NWs or Si particles.

  9. Corrosion and Discharge Behaviors of Mg-Al-Zn and Mg-Al-Zn-In Alloys as Anode Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiarun Li

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The Mg-6%Al-3%Zn and Mg-6%Al-3%Zn-(1%, 1.5%, 2%In alloys were prepared by melting and casting. Their microstructures were investigated via metallographic and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS analysis. Moreover, hydrogen evolution and electrochemical tests were carried out in 3.5 wt% NaCl solution aiming at identifying their corrosion mechanisms and discharge behaviors. The results suggested that indium exerts an improvement on both the corrosion rate and the discharge activity of Mg-Al-Zn alloy via the effects of grain refining, β-Mg17Al12 precipitation, dissolving-reprecipitation, and self-peeling. The Mg-6%Al-3%Zn-1.5%In alloy with the highest corrosion rate at free corrosion potential did not perform desirable discharge activity indicating that the barrier effect caused by the β-Mg17Al12 phase would have been enhanced under the conditions of anodic polarization. The Mg-6%Al-3%Zn-1.0%In alloy with a relative low corrosion rate and a high discharge activity is a promising anode material for both cathodic protection and chemical power source applications.

  10. Micro-nanostructured CuO/C spheres as high-performance anode materials for Na-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yanying; Zhang, Ning; Zhao, Qing; Liang, Jing; Chen, Jun

    2015-02-14

    In this paper, we report on the synthesis of micro-nanostructured CuO/C spheres by aerosol spray pyrolysis and their application as high-performance anodes in sodium-ion batteries. Micro-nanostructured CuO/C spheres with different CuO contents were synthesized through aerosol spray pyrolysis by adjusting the ratio of reactants and heat-treated by an oxidation process. The as-prepared CuO/C spheres show uniformly spherical morphology, in which CuO nanoparticles (∼10 nm) are homogeneously embedded in the carbon matrix (denoted as 10-CuO/C). The electrochemical performance of 10-CuO/C with a carbon weight of 44% was evaluated as the anode material for Na-ion batteries. It can deliver a capacity of 402 mA h g(-1) after 600 cycles at a current density of 200 mA g(-1). Furthermore, a capacity of 304 mA h g(-1) was obtained at a high current density of 2000 mA g(-1). The superior electrochemical performance of the micro-nanostructured CuO/C spheres leads to the enhancement of the electronic conductivity of the nanocomposite and the accommodation of the volume variation of CuO/C during charge/discharge cycling. PMID:25584745

  11. Advanced Magnetostrictive Materials for Sonar Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajapan Rajapan

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Piezoelectric or magnetostrictive materials can be utilised as active materials for electroacoustic underwater transducers. Piezoceramic materials gained edge over the conventional magnetostrictive materials during 1940s due to their unique electro-acoustic properties. At present, inspite of passive sonars there is a need of low-frequency high-power active sonars for the Navy. This led toresearch for new activematerials with competing characteristics to that of the existing piezo transducers. The discovery of a giant magnetostrictive material, commercially known as Terfenol-D, led to a breakthrough in the development of a new generation of sonar transducers. Now, the materials (including composites as well as sensors are commercially available. A new generation of transducers have emerged in ocean-related areas like acoustic tomography, longrange underwater communication, geophysical exploration, oil well exploration, etc.Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai, has also developed the basic material technology a few years back. At present, in India, National Institute of Ocean Technology, Chennai, is developing underwater transducers utilising giant magnetostrictive materials as well as piezoelectric materials for marine applications like sub-bottom profiling (seafloor mapping and long-range underwater communications. A prototype of a portable, low-frequency medium power transmitter operating over a wide-frequency range has been developed. The main advantage of this transducer is its simplicity in design. In this paper, (he recent developments in material processes, importance of device-oriented material characterisation, and transducer design aspects have been emphasised. Some results on the underwater performance of a wide-band transducer have also been presented. These materials also have ultrasonic applications, capable of revolutionising the processing industry.

  12. Effect of tar fractions from coal gasification on nickel-yttria stabilized zirconia and nickel-gadolinium doped ceria solid oxide fuel cell anode materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorente, E.; Berrueco, C.; Millan, M.; Brandon, N. P.

    2013-11-01

    The allowable tar content in gasification syngas is one of the key questions for the exploitation of the full potential of fuel cell concepts with integrated gasification systems. A better understanding of the interaction between tars and the SOFC anodes which leads to carbon formation and deposition is needed in order to design systems where the extent of gas cleaning operations is minimized. Model tar compounds (toluene, benzene, naphthalene) have been used in experimental studies to represent those arising from biomass/coal gasification. However, the use of toluene as a model tar overestimates the negative impact of a real gasification tar on SOFC anode degradation associated with carbon formation. In the present work, the effect of a gasification tar and its distillation fractions on two commercially available fuel cell anodes, Ni/YSZ (yttria stabilized zirconia) and Ni/CGO (gadolinium doped ceria), is reported. A higher impact of the lighter tar fractions was observed, in terms of more carbon formation on the anodes, in comparison with the whole tar sample. The characterization of the recovered tars after contact with the anode materials revealed a shift towards a heavier molecular weight distribution, reinforcing the view that these fractions have reacted on the anode.

  13. Advanced materials for space nuclear power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titran, Robert H.; Grobstein, Toni L.; Ellis, David L.

    1991-01-01

    The overall philosophy of the research was to develop and characterize new high temperature power conversion and radiator materials and to provide spacecraft designers with material selection options and design information. Research on three candidate materials (carbide strengthened niobium alloy PWC-11 for fuel cladding, graphite fiber reinforced copper matrix composites for heat rejection fins, and tungsten fiber reinforced niobium matrix composites for fuel containment and structural supports) considered for space power system applications is discussed. Each of these types of materials offers unique advantages for space power applications.

  14. Mesoporous Carbon-Tin Nanocomposites as Anode Materials for Li-ion Battery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Z.W.Zhao; Z.P.Guo; P.Yao; H.K.Liu

    2008-01-01

    A new mesoporous carbon-tin (MC-Sn) nanocomposite has been successfully prepared via a two-step method. From the transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observations, the tin nanoparticles were decorated on the as-prepared mesoporous carbons. The mesoprous structure of the carbon can effectively buffer the volume changes during the Li-Sn alloying and de-alloying cycles. The as-prepared MC/Sn nanocomposite electrodes exhibited extremely good cycling stability, with the specific capacity of Sn in the composite electrode calculated to be 959.7 mAh-g-1, which amounts to an impressive 96.9% of the theoretical value (990 mAh·g-1). The reversible capacity after 200 cycles is 96.1% of the first cycle reversible capacity, i.e., the capacity fade rate is only 0.0195% per cycle, which is even better than that of commercial graphite-based anodes.

  15. Advanced Mechanical Testing of Sandwich Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hayman, Brian; Berggreen, Christian; Jenstrup, Claus;

    2008-01-01

    An advanced digital optical system has been used to measure surface strains on sandwich face and core specimens tested in a project concerned with improved criteria for designing sandwich X-joints. The face sheet specimens were of glass reinforced polyester and were tested in tension. The core sp...

  16. Facile hybridization of Ni@Fe2O3 superparticles with functionalized reduced graphene oxide and its application as anode material in lithium-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backert, Gregor; Oschmann, Bernd; Tahir, Muhammad Nawaz; Mueller, Franziska; Lieberwirth, Ingo; Balke, Benjamin; Tremel, Wolfgang; Passerini, Stefano; Zentel, Rudolf

    2016-09-15

    In our present work we developed a novel graphene wrapping approach of Ni@Fe2O3 superparticles, which can be extended as a concept approach for other nanomaterials as well. It uses sulfonated reduced graphene oxide, but avoids thermal treatments and use of toxic agents like hydrazine for its reduction. The modification of graphene oxide is achieved by the introduction of sulfate groups accompanied with reduction and elimination reactions, due to the treatment with oleum. The successful wrapping of nanoparticles is proven by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. The developed composite material shows strongly improved performance as anode material in lithium-ion batteries (compared to unwrapped Ni@Fe2O3) as it offers a reversible capacity of 1051mAhg(-1) after 40 cycles at C/20, compared with 460mAhg(-1) for unwrapped Ni@Fe2O3. The C rate capability is also improved by the wrapping approach, as specific capacities for wrapped particles are about twice of those offered by unwrapped particles. Additionally, the benefit for the use of the advanced superparticle morphology is demonstrated by comparing wrapped Ni@Fe2O3 particles with wrapped Fe2O3 nanorice.

  17. Facile hybridization of Ni@Fe2O3 superparticles with functionalized reduced graphene oxide and its application as anode material in lithium-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backert, Gregor; Oschmann, Bernd; Tahir, Muhammad Nawaz; Mueller, Franziska; Lieberwirth, Ingo; Balke, Benjamin; Tremel, Wolfgang; Passerini, Stefano; Zentel, Rudolf

    2016-09-15

    In our present work we developed a novel graphene wrapping approach of Ni@Fe2O3 superparticles, which can be extended as a concept approach for other nanomaterials as well. It uses sulfonated reduced graphene oxide, but avoids thermal treatments and use of toxic agents like hydrazine for its reduction. The modification of graphene oxide is achieved by the introduction of sulfate groups accompanied with reduction and elimination reactions, due to the treatment with oleum. The successful wrapping of nanoparticles is proven by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. The developed composite material shows strongly improved performance as anode material in lithium-ion batteries (compared to unwrapped Ni@Fe2O3) as it offers a reversible capacity of 1051mAhg(-1) after 40 cycles at C/20, compared with 460mAhg(-1) for unwrapped Ni@Fe2O3. The C rate capability is also improved by the wrapping approach, as specific capacities for wrapped particles are about twice of those offered by unwrapped particles. Additionally, the benefit for the use of the advanced superparticle morphology is demonstrated by comparing wrapped Ni@Fe2O3 particles with wrapped Fe2O3 nanorice. PMID:27295319

  18. Advances in Rare Earth Application to Semiconductor Materials and Devices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    屠海令

    2004-01-01

    The development of rare earths (RE) applications to semiconductor materials and devices is reviewed. The recent advances in RE doped silicon light emitting diodes (LED) and display materials are described. The various technologies of incorporating RE into semiconductor materials and devices are presented. The RE high dielectric materials, RE silicides and the phase transition of RE materials are also discussed. Finally, the paper describes the prospects of the RE application to semiconductor industry.

  19. Production of Construction Materials Using Advanced Recycling Technologies

    OpenAIRE

    ECT Team, Purdue

    2007-01-01

    Waste reduction, material reuse, and use of recycle-content products can be focused on the management system somewhat. In contrast, material recycling is the technical issue how to create new materials using wastes. Thus, three advanced recycling technologies; 1) Synthetic Lightweight Aggregate technology (SLA), 2) Clean Coal Technology (CCT), and 3) RP-1 Polymer Identification System are introduced.

  20. Advanced materials for radiation-cooled rockets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Brian; Biaglow, James; Schneider, Steven

    1993-11-01

    The most common material system currently used for low thrust, radiation-cooled rockets is a niobium alloy (C-103) with a fused silica coating (R-512A or R-512E) for oxidation protection. However, significant amounts of fuel film cooling are usually required to keep the material below its maximum operating temperature of 1370 C, degrading engine performance. Also the R-512 coating is subject to cracking and eventual spalling after repeated thermal cycling. A new class of high-temperature, oxidation-resistant materials are being developed for radiation-cooled rockets, with the thermal margin to reduce or eliminate fuel film cooling, while still exceeding the life of silicide-coated niobium. Rhenium coated with iridium is the most developed of these high-temperature materials. Efforts are on-going to develop 22 N, 62 N, and 440 N engines composed of these materials for apogee insertion, attitude control, and other functions. There is also a complimentary NASA and industry effort to determine the life limiting mechanisms and characterize the thermomechanical properties of these materials. Other material systems are also being studied which may offer more thermal margin and/or oxidation resistance, such as hafnium carbide/tantalum carbide matrix composites and ceramic oxide-coated iridium/rhenium chambers.

  1. Advances in Processing of Bulk Ferroelectric Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galassi, Carmen

    The development of ferroelectric bulk materials is still under extensive investigation, as new and challenging issues are growing in relation to their widespread applications. Progress in understanding the fundamental aspects requires adequate technological tools. This would enable controlling and tuning the material properties as well as fully exploiting them into the scale production. Apart from the growing number of new compositions, interest in the first ferroelectrics like BaTiO3 or PZT materials is far from dropping. The need to find new lead-free materials, with as high performance as PZT ceramics, is pushing towards a full exploitation of bariumbased compositions. However, lead-based materials remain the best performing at reasonably low production costs. Therefore, the main trends are towards nano-size effects and miniaturisation, multifunctional materials, integration, and enhancement of the processing ability in powder synthesis. Also, in control of dispersion and packing, to let densification occur in milder conditions. In this chapter, after a general review of the composition and main properties of the principal ferroelectric materials, methods of synthesis are analysed with emphasis on recent results from chemical routes and cold consolidation methods based on the colloidal processing.

  2. Advanced materials for radiation-cooled rockets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Brian; Biaglow, James; Schneider, Steven

    1993-01-01

    The most common material system currently used for low thrust, radiation-cooled rockets is a niobium alloy (C-103) with a fused silica coating (R-512A or R-512E) for oxidation protection. However, significant amounts of fuel film cooling are usually required to keep the material below its maximum operating temperature of 1370 C, degrading engine performance. Also the R-512 coating is subject to cracking and eventual spalling after repeated thermal cycling. A new class of high-temperature, oxidation-resistant materials are being developed for radiation-cooled rockets, with the thermal margin to reduce or eliminate fuel film cooling, while still exceeding the life of silicide-coated niobium. Rhenium coated with iridium is the most developed of these high-temperature materials. Efforts are on-going to develop 22 N, 62 N, and 440 N engines composed of these materials for apogee insertion, attitude control, and other functions. There is also a complimentary NASA and industry effort to determine the life limiting mechanisms and characterize the thermomechanical properties of these materials. Other material systems are also being studied which may offer more thermal margin and/or oxidation resistance, such as hafnium carbide/tantalum carbide matrix composites and ceramic oxide-coated iridium/rhenium chambers.

  3. Lignin-Derived Advanced Carbon Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Sabornie; Saito, Tomonori

    2015-12-01

    Lignin is a highly abundant source of renewable carbon that can be considered as a valuable sustainable source of biobased materials. By applying specific pretreatments and manufacturing methods, lignin can be converted into a variety of value-added carbon materials. However, the physical and chemical heterogeneities of lignin complicate its use as a feedstock. Herein lignin manufacturing process, the effects of pretreatments and manufacturing methods on the properties of product lignin, and structure-property relationships in various applications of lignin-derived carbon materials, such as carbon fibers, carbon mats, activated carbons, carbon films, and templated carbon, are discussed. PMID:26568373

  4. Lignin-Derived Advanced Carbon Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Sabornie; Saito, Tomonori

    2015-12-01

    Lignin is a highly abundant source of renewable carbon that can be considered as a valuable sustainable source of biobased materials. By applying specific pretreatments and manufacturing methods, lignin can be converted into a variety of value-added carbon materials. However, the physical and chemical heterogeneities of lignin complicate its use as a feedstock. Herein lignin manufacturing process, the effects of pretreatments and manufacturing methods on the properties of product lignin, and structure-property relationships in various applications of lignin-derived carbon materials, such as carbon fibers, carbon mats, activated carbons, carbon films, and templated carbon, are discussed.

  5. Advanced lubrication systems and materials. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, S.

    1998-05-07

    This report described the work conducted at the National Institute of Standards and Technology under an interagency agreement signed in September 1992 between DOE and NIST for 5 years. The interagency agreement envisions continual funding from DOE to support the development of fuel efficient, low emission engine technologies in terms of lubrication, friction, and wear control encountered in the development of advanced transportation technologies. However, in 1994, the DOE office of transportation technologies was reorganized and the tribology program was dissolved. The work at NIST therefore continued at a low level without further funding from DOE. The work continued to support transportation technologies in the development of fuel efficient, low emission engine development. Under this program, significant progress has been made in advancing the state of the art of lubrication technology for advanced engine research and development. Some of the highlights are: (1) developed an advanced high temperature liquid lubricant capable of sustaining high temperatures in a prototype heat engine; (2) developed a novel liquid lubricant which potentially could lower the emission of heavy duty diesel engines; (3) developed lubricant chemistries for ceramics used in the heat engines; (4) developed application maps for ceramic lubricant chemistry combinations for design purpose; and (5) developed novel test methods to screen lubricant chemistries for automotive air-conditioning compressors lubricated by R-134a (Freon substitute). Most of these findings have been reported to the DOE program office through Argonne National Laboratory who manages the overall program. A list of those reports and a copy of the report submitted to the Argonne National Laboratory is attached in Appendix A. Additional reports have also been submitted separately to DOE program managers. These are attached in Appendix B.

  6. Advances in research and utilization of electrolytic manganese anode slime%电解锰阳极泥的利用研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄良取; 黄升谋; 唐疆蜀; 张宏波; 杨欢

    2015-01-01

    在电解金属锰的生产过程中不可避免的会产生高含锰率的阳极泥,因其组成和结构较为复杂,大部分阳极泥被作为危险废物堆存或廉价销售,并未得到合理利用. 结合近年的文献资料,分析了阳极泥的元素组成、含量及其赋存形态,指出了以还原法、活化法及物理法实现阳极泥资源化存在二次环境污染、电池材料电化学性能差等缺点,明确了以深入分析阳极泥中杂质元素的净化机理为研究方向,提出了以阳极泥为锰源制备锰酸锂电池材料是实现阳极泥资源化的有效途径.%The anode slimes with high rate of manganese were produced in the process of electrolytic man-ganese metal production. They were piled up as hazardous waste and sold with low price because of their complicated composition and structure, thus they were not reasonably used. Based on the references in recent years, we analyzed the elemental composition, content and speciation of anode slime, and pointed out the disadvantages of resource utilization of anode slim by reduction, activation and physical method, such as sec-ondary environmental pollution and poor electrochemical performance of battery material. Finally, we propose the research direction of the purification mechanism of impurity elements in the anode slime and the efficient way of preparing lithium manganese battery material with anode slime.

  7. Advances in ultrafine-grained materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Huang

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This review addresses new developments in the processing and properties of ultrafine-grained (UFG materials. These materials are produced through the application of severe plastic deformation to conventional coarse-grained metals and typically they have grain sizes within the submicrometer or even the nanometer range. Although several techniques are now available for achieving excellent homogeneity and high fractions of high-angle grain boundaries, this review concentrates on the major procedures of equal-channel angular pressing and high-pressure torsion. It is shown that UFG materials exhibit both excellent strength at ambient temperature and, if the grains are reasonably stable, outstanding superplastic properties at elevated temperatures. These materials also have a high innovation potential for use in commercial applications.

  8. Advanced Materials Growth and Processing Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This most extensive of U.S. Army materials growth and processing facilities houses seven dedicated, state-of-the-art, molecular beam epitaxy and three metal organic...

  9. Nanoparticle Decorated Ultrathin Porous Nanosheets as Hierarchical Co3O4 Nanostructures for Lithium Ion Battery Anode Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mujtaba, Jawayria; Sun, Hongyu; Huang, Guoyong;

    2016-01-01

    We report a facile synthesis of a novel cobalt oxide (Co3O4) hierarchical nanostructure, in which crystalline core-amorphous shell Co3O4 nanoparticles with a bimodal size distribution are uniformly dispersed on ultrathin Co3O4 nanosheets. When tested as anode materials for lithium ion batteries......, the as-prepared Co3O4 hierarchical electrodes delivered high lithium storage properties comparing to the other Co3O4 nanostructures, including a high reversible capacity of 1053.1 mAhg-1 after 50 cycles at a current density of 0.2 C (1 C = 890 mAg-1), good cycling stability and rate capability....

  10. Interconnected MoO2 nanocrystals with carbon nanocoating as high-capacity anode materials for lithium-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Liang; Wu, Hao Bin; Wang, Zhiyu; Lou, Xiong Wen David

    2011-12-01

    A facile one-pot hydrothermal method has been developed for the preparation of carbon-coated MoO(2) nanocrystals. The annealed MoO(2)-C nanocomposite consists of interconnected MoO(2)@C nanocrystals. When evaluated for lithium storage capabilities, these MoO(2)@C nanocrystals exhibit high specific capacities (~640 mA h g(-1) at 200 mA g(-1) and ~575 mA h g(-1) at 400 mA g(-1)) and excellent cycling stability. In view of the excellent lithium storage properties and the ease in large-scale preparation, the as-synthesized MoO(2)-C nanocomposite might be used as promising anode materials for high-performance lithium-ion batteries. PMID:22077330

  11. A novel ZnO@Ag@Polypyrrole hybrid composite evaluated as anode material for zinc-based secondary cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jianhang; Yang, Zhanhong; Feng, Zhaobin; Xie, Xiaoe; Wen, Xing

    2016-04-01

    A novel ZnO@Ag@Polypyrrole nano-hybrid composite has been synthesized with a one-step approach, in which silver-ammonia complex ion serves as oxidant to polymerize the pyrrole monomer. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and infrared spectroscopy (IR) show the existence of metallic silver and polypyrrole. The structure of nano-hybrid composites are characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM), which demonstrates that the surface of ZnO is decorated with nano silver grain coated with polypyrrole. When evaluated as anode material, the silver grain and polypyrrole layer not only suppress the dissolution of discharge product, but also helps to uniform electrodeposition due to substrate effect and its good conductivity, thus shows better cycling performance than bare ZnO electrode does.

  12. Effect of carbon coating on electrochemical performance of hard carbons as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jong-Hyuk; Lee, Heon-Young; Oh, Seh-Min; Lee, Seo-Jae; Lee, Ki-Young; Lee, Sung-Man

    Surface modification by a soft-carbon coating is used to improve the electrochemical performance of hard carbons as the negative-electrode (anode) material in lithium-ion batteries. The coating process involves simple heat-treatment of a mixture of coal-tar pitch and hard carbon powders at 1000 °C. The carbon coating significantly reduces the reaction of lithium with surface functional groups or absorbed species caused by air exposure. This is attributed to the effective suppression of the diffusion of both air and water into the hard carbon by the soft-carbon coating, and the better resistance of soft carbon to air. As a result, the charge-discharge coulombic efficiency during cycling, as well as during the first cycle, is improved.

  13. Carbon-coated Ni 20Si 80 alloy-graphite composite as an anode material for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Heon-Yong; Kim, Young-Lae; Hong, Moon-Ki; Lee, Sung-Man

    A carbon-coated Ni 20Si 80 alloy-graphite composite has been studied as the anode for lithium-ion batteries. The composite is prepared by simple heat-treatment of a mixture of coal tar pitch and a Ni 20Si 80-graphite composite at 900 °C and under argon. The Ni 20Si 80 alloy powders are synthesized by mechanical alloying. The composite demonstrates promising electrochemical properties such as high reversible capacity, excellent cycle performance, and sufficiently high initial charge-discharge coulombic efficiency. This suggests buffering and conductive actions on the main active material, viz., Ni 20Si 80 alloy, of the graphite. These two effects are strongly enhanced by the carbon coating treatment.

  14. Synthesis of Hierarchical CoO Nano/Microstructures as Anode Materials for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Qin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hierarchical CoO nano/microstructures are synthesized via a hydrothermal method and a subsequent annealed process. When evaluated for use in lithium-ion batteries, hierarchical CoO nano/microstructures show a high initial discharge capacity of 1370 mAh/g and a high reversible capacity of 1148 mAh/g over 20 cycles at a current density of 100 mA/g. Superior rate performance with coulombic efficiency of about 100% upon galvanostatic cycling is also revealed. The excellent electrochemical properties of hierarchical CoO nano/microstructures make it a promising alternative anode material for high power lithium-ion batteries applications.

  15. Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} hollow nanospheres as anode material for enhanced performance in lithium ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasidharan, Manickam [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Saga University, 1 Honjo-machi, Saga 840-8502 (Japan); Gunawardhana, Nanda [Advanced Research Center, Saga University, 1341 Yoga-machi, Saga 840-0047 (Japan); Yoshio, Masaki, E-mail: yoshio@cc.saga-u.ac.jp [Advanced Research Center, Saga University, 1341 Yoga-machi, Saga 840-0047 (Japan); Nakashima, Kenichi, E-mail: nakashik@cc.saga-u.ac.jp [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Saga University, 1 Honjo-machi, Saga 840-8502 (Japan)

    2012-09-15

    Graphical abstract: Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} hollow nanosphere constructed electrode delivers high capacity of 172 mAh g{sup −1} after 250 cycles and maintains structural integrity and excellent cycling stability. Highlights: ► Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} hollow nanospheres synthesis was synthesized by soft-template. ► Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} hollow nanospheres were investigated as anode material in Li-ion battery. ► Nanostructured electrode delivers high capacity of 172 mAh g{sup −1} after 250 cycles. ► The electrode maintains the structural integrity and excellent cycling stability. ► Nanosized shell domain facilitates fast lithium intercalation/deintercalation. -- Abstract: Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} hollow nanospheres of average diameter ca. ∼29 nm and hollow cavity size ca. 17 nm were synthesized using polymeric micelles with core–shell–corona architecture under mild conditions. The hollow particles were thoroughly characterized by transmission electron microscope (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermal (TG/DTA) and nitrogen adsorption analyses. Thus obtained Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} hollow nanospheres were investigated as anode materials for lithium ion rechargeable batteries for the first time. The nanostructured electrode delivers high capacity of 172 mAh g{sup −1} after 250 cycles of charge/discharge at a rate of 0.5 C. More importantly, the hollow particles based electrodes maintains the structural integrity and excellent cycling stability even after exposing to high current density 6.25 A g{sup −1}. The enhanced electrochemical behavior is ascribed to hollow cavity coupled with nanosized Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} shell domain that facilitates fast lithium intercalation/deintercalation kinetics.

  16. FeS/C composite as high-performance anode material for alkaline nickel-iron rechargeable batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shangguan, Enbo; Li, Fei; Li, Jing; Chang, Zhaorong; Li, Quanmin; Yuan, Xiao-Zi; Wang, Haijiang

    2015-09-01

    FeS and its composite, FeS/C, are synthesized via a simple calcination method followed by a co-precipitation process. The electrochemical properties of the bare FeS and FeS/C composite as anode materials for alkaline nickel-iron batteries are investigated. The results show that the FeS/C-3wt%Bi2O3-mixed electrode delivers a high specific capacity of 325 mAh g-1 at a current density of 300 mA g-1 with a faradaic efficiency of 90.3% and retains 99.2% of the initial capacity after 200 cycles. For the first time, it is demonstrated that even at a discharge rate as high as 1500 mA g-1 (5C) the FeS/C-3wt%Bi2O3-mixed electrode delivers a specific capacity of nearly 230 mAh g-1. SEM results confirm that after 200 discharge-charge cycles, the size of FeS/C particles reduces from 5 to 15 μm to less than 300 nm in diameter and the particles are highly dispersed on the surface of carbon black, which is likely caused by the dissolution-deposition process of Fe(OH)2 and Fe via intermediate iron species. As a result, the FeS/C composite exhibits considerably high charge efficiency, high discharge capacities, excellent rate capability and superior cycling stability. We believe that this composite is a potential candidate of high-performance anode materials for alkaline iron-based rechargeable batteries.

  17. NATO Advanced Study Institute and International School of Materials Science and Technology

    CERN Document Server

    Balkanski, Minko; 15th Course on Solid State Microbatteries

    1990-01-01

    This Advanced Study Institute on the topic of SOLID STATE MICROBATTERIES is the third and final institute on the general theme of a field of study now termed "SOLID STATE IONICS". The institute was held in Erice, Sicily, Italy, 3 - 15 July 1988. The objective was to assemble in one location individuals from industry and academia expert in the fields of microelectronics and solid state ionics to determine the feasibility of merging a solid state microbattery with microelectronic memory. Solid electrolytes are in principle amenable to vapor deposition, RF or DC sputtering, and other techniques used to fabricate microelectronic components. A solid state microbattery 1 1 mated on the same chip carrier as the chip can provide on board memory backup power. A solid state microbattery assembled from properly selected anode/solid electrolyte/cathode materials could have environmental endurance properties equal or superior to semiconductor memory chips. Lectures covering microelectronics, present state-of-art solid sta...

  18. Recent advances in mass transport in materials

    CERN Document Server

    Ochsner, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    The present topical volume presents a representative cross-section of some recent advances made in the area of diffusion. The range of topics covered is very large, and, this reflects the enormous breadth of the topic of diffusion. The areas covered include diffusion in intermetallics, phenomenological diffusion theory, diffusional creep, kinetics of steel-making, diffusion in thin films, precipitation, diffusional phase transformations, atomistic diffusion simulations, epitaxial growth and diffusion in porous media. Review from Book News Inc.: In 13 invited and peer-reviewed papers, scientist

  19. Advanced Materials and Solids Analysis Research Core (AMSARC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Advanced Materials and Solids Analysis Research Core (AMSARC), centered at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Andrew W. Breidenbach Environmental Research Center in Cincinnati, Ohio, is the foundation for the Agency's solids and surfaces analysis capabilities. ...

  20. Advanced Polymeric Materials for High-tech Innovations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@ High technology is advancing our society and modernizing our life and advanced materials play an important role in the technological innovations. My research group has been working on the development of advanced polymeric materials and in this talk I will report our recent work on the creation of new conjugated polymers with novel molecular structures and unique materials properties.1-18 Our work include the design of molecular structures of monomeric building blocks, development of stable, effective and environmentally benign "green” polymerization catalysts, discovery of new polymerization reactions, synthesis of functional macromolecules, fabrication of nanodimensional composites, assembly and control of hierarchical structures, and construction of electrooptical devices. We have revealed the liquid crystallinity, light emission, photoconductivity, optical limiting, nano-hybridization, solvatochromism, optical activity, self-organization, and biological activity of the linear polyacetylenes and hyperbranched polyarylenes. The utilization of the advanced polymers and their interesting materials properties for high-tech innovations will be discussed.

  1. Advanced Polymeric Materials for High-tech Innovations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG; BenZhong

    2001-01-01

    High technology is advancing our society and modernizing our life and advanced materials play an important role in the technological innovations. My research group has been working on the development of advanced polymeric materials and in this talk I will report our recent work on the creation of new conjugated polymers with novel molecular structures and unique materials properties.1-18 Our work include the design of molecular structures of monomeric building blocks, development of stable, effective and environmentally benign "green” polymerization catalysts, discovery of new polymerization reactions, synthesis of functional macromolecules, fabrication of nanodimensional composites, assembly and control of hierarchical structures, and construction of electrooptical devices. We have revealed the liquid crystallinity, light emission, photoconductivity, optical limiting, nano-hybridization, solvatochromism, optical activity, self-organization, and biological activity of the linear polyacetylenes and hyperbranched polyarylenes. The utilization of the advanced polymers and their interesting materials properties for high-tech innovations will be discussed.  ……

  2. Advanced Insulation Materials for Cryogenic Propellant Storage Applications Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Advanced Materials Technology, Inc responds to the NASA solicitation Topic X9 entitled "Propulsion and Propellant Storage" under subtopic X9-01, "Long Term...

  3. Research and development of advanced materials using ion beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Namba, Susumu [Nagasaki Inst. of Applied Science, Nagasaki (Japan)

    1997-03-01

    A wide range of research and development activities of advanced material synthesis using ion beams will be discussed, including ion beam applications to the state-of-the-art electronics from giant to nano electronics. (author)

  4. Evolutionary developments of advanced PWR nuclear fuels and cladding materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • PWR fuel and cladding materials development processes are provided. • Evolution of PWR advanced fuel in U.S.A. and in Korea is described. • Cutting-edge design features against grid-to-rod fretting and debris are explained. • High performance data of advanced grids, debris filters and claddings are given. -- Abstract: The evolutionary developments of advanced PWR fuels and cladding materials are explained with outstanding design features of nuclear fuel assembly components and zirconium-base cladding materials. The advanced PWR fuel and cladding materials development processes are also provided along with verification tests, which can be used as guidelines for newcomers planning to develop an advanced fuel for the first time. The up-to-date advanced fuels with the advanced cladding materials may provide a high level of economic utilization and reliable performance even under current and upcoming aggressive operating conditions. To be specific, nuclear fuel vendors may achieve high fuel burnup capability of between 45,000 and 65,000 MWD/MTU batch average, overpower thermal margin of as much as 15% and longer cycle length up to 24 months on the one hand and fuel failure rates of around 10−6 on the other hand. However, there is still a need for better understanding of grid-to-rod fretting wear mechanisms leading to major PWR fuel defects in the world and subsequently a driving force for developing innovative spacer grid designs with zero fretting wear-induced fuel failure

  5. Evolutionary developments of advanced PWR nuclear fuels and cladding materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kyu-Tae, E-mail: ktkim@dongguk.ac.kr

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: • PWR fuel and cladding materials development processes are provided. • Evolution of PWR advanced fuel in U.S.A. and in Korea is described. • Cutting-edge design features against grid-to-rod fretting and debris are explained. • High performance data of advanced grids, debris filters and claddings are given. -- Abstract: The evolutionary developments of advanced PWR fuels and cladding materials are explained with outstanding design features of nuclear fuel assembly components and zirconium-base cladding materials. The advanced PWR fuel and cladding materials development processes are also provided along with verification tests, which can be used as guidelines for newcomers planning to develop an advanced fuel for the first time. The up-to-date advanced fuels with the advanced cladding materials may provide a high level of economic utilization and reliable performance even under current and upcoming aggressive operating conditions. To be specific, nuclear fuel vendors may achieve high fuel burnup capability of between 45,000 and 65,000 MWD/MTU batch average, overpower thermal margin of as much as 15% and longer cycle length up to 24 months on the one hand and fuel failure rates of around 10{sup −6} on the other hand. However, there is still a need for better understanding of grid-to-rod fretting wear mechanisms leading to major PWR fuel defects in the world and subsequently a driving force for developing innovative spacer grid designs with zero fretting wear-induced fuel failure.

  6. Anodes for alkaline electrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soloveichik, Grigorii Lev

    2011-02-01

    A method of making an anode for alkaline electrolysis cells includes adsorption of precursor material on a carbonaceous material, conversion of the precursor material to hydroxide form and conversion of precursor material from hydroxide form to oxy-hydroxide form within the alkaline electrolysis cell.

  7. Advanced materials: processing, characterisation and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The topics discussed in this symposium are: polymer nanocomposites, Li-ion batteries, materials for electrochemical systems, photoelectrochemical and photovoltaic solar cells, crystal growth, thin films, reaction dynamics and kinetics, catalysis, coordination compounds and irradiation studies. Papers relevant to INIS are indexed separately

  8. Applied solid state science advances in materials and device research

    CERN Document Server

    Wolfe, Raymond

    2013-01-01

    Applied Solid State Science: Advances in Materials and Device Research, Volume 4 covers articles on single crystal compound semiconductors and complex polycrystalline materials. The book discusses narrow gap semiconductors and solid state batteries. The text then describes the advantages of hot-pressed microcrystalline compacts of oxygen-octahedra ferroelectrics over single crystal materials, as well as heterostructure junction lasers. Solid state physicists, materials scientists, electrical engineers, and graduate students studying the subjects being discussed will find the book invaluable.

  9. Facile complex-coprecipitation synthesis of mesoporous Fe3O4 nanocages and their high lithium storage capacity as anode material for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A facile complex-coprecipitation synthesis of mesoporous Fe3O4 nanocages and their high capacities and excellent cycling performance as anode material for LIBs are reported. - Highlights: • MFONs are synthesized by a facile complex-coprecipitation method. • MFONs with high surface area lead to excellent electrochemical performance. • MFONs anode retains a capacity of 573 mAh g−1 at 1 A g−1 after 300 cycles. - Abstract: In this study, high-quality mesoporous Fe3O4 nanocages (MFONs) have been synthesized by a facile complex-coprecipitation method at 100 °C with addition of triethanolamine and ethylene glycol. The as-prepared Fe3O4 nanocages possess a mesoporous structure and highly uniform dispersion. When used as an anode material for rechargeable lithium-ion batteries, MFONs anode shows high specific capacities and excellent cycling performance at high and low current rates. At a current density of 200 mA g−1, the discharge specific capacities are 876 mAh g−1 at the 2nd cycle and 830 mAh g−1 at the 100th cycle. Even at the high current density of 1000 mA g−1, MFONs anode still retains a stable capacity of 573 mAh g−1 after 300 cycles. This superior electrochemical performance is attributed to the unique mesoporous cage-like structure and high specific surface area (133 m2 g−1) of MFONs, which may offer large electrode/electrolyte contact area for the electron conduction and Li+ storage. Furthermore, the good mechanical flexibility of the mesoporous nanocages can readily buffer the massive volume expansion/shrinkage associated with the reversible electrode reaction. These results indicate that MFONs can be used as a promising high-performance anode material for lithium-ion batteries

  10. Radiation Processing of Advanced Composite Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Advanced composites, such as carbon-fiber-reinforced plastics, are being used widely for many applications. Carbon fiber/epoxies composites have attracted special attention from the aircraft, aerospace, marine engineering, sporting goods and transportation industries, because they have useful mechanical properties including high strength-to-weight and stiffness-to-weight ratios, a corrosion resistant, impact and damage tolerance characteristics and wear properties. Thermal curing has been the dominant industrial process for advanced composites until now, however, a radiation curing process using UV, microwave x-ray, electron-beam(E-beam) and γ-ray has emerged as a better alternative in recent years. These processes are compatible with the manufacturing of composites using traditional fabrication methods including a filament/tape winding, pultrusion, resin transfer moulding and hand lay-up. In this study, E-beam curable carbon fiber/epoxy composites were manufactured, and their mechanical properties were investigated. Two epoxy resins (bisphenol-A, bisphenol-F) containing photo-initiators (tri aryl sulfonium hexafluorophosphate, tri aryl sulfonium hexafluoroantimonate) were used as a matrix and a 4H-satin carbon woven fabric was used as a reinforcement. And then an electron beam irradiated the composites up to 200 kGy in a vacuum and an inert atmosphere. The cure cycle was optimized and the properties of composites were evaluated and analyzed via a differential scanning calorimetry, scanning electron microscopy, sol-gel extractions, FT-NIR, universal test machine, and an impact tester. The gel content, glass transition temperature and mechanical strength of the irradiated composites were increased with an increasing radiation dose

  11. Ionic liquid-assisted solvothermal synthesis of hollow Mn2O3 anode and LiMn2O4 cathode materials for Li-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xin; Wang, Jun; Jia, Haiping; Kloepsch, Richard; Liu, Haidong; Beltrop, Kolja; Li, Jie

    2015-10-01

    Mn-based Mn2O3 anode and LiMn2O4 cathode materials are prepared by a solvothermal method combined with post annealing process. Environmentally friendly ionic liquid 1-Butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate as both structure-directing agent and fluorine source is used to prepare hollow polyhedron MnF2 precursor. Both target materials Mn2O3 anode and LiMn2O4 cathode have the morphology of the MnF2 precursor. The Mn2O3 anode using carboxymethyl cellulose as binder could deliver slight better electrochemical performance than the one using poly (vinyldifluoride) as binder. The former has an initial charge capacity of 800 mAh g-1 at a current density of 101.8 mA g-1, and exhibits no obvious capacity decay for 150 cycles at 101.8 mA g-1. The LiMn2O4 cathode material prepared with molten salt assistant could display much better electrochemical performance than the one prepared without molten salt assistance. In particular, it has an initial discharge capacity of 117.5 mAh g-1 at a current density of 0.5C and good rate capability. In the field of lithium ion batteries, both the Mn2O3 anode and LiMn2O4 cathode materials could exhibit enhanced electrochemical performance due to the well formed morphology based on the ionic liquid-assisted solvothermal method.

  12. Polymers Advance Heat Management Materials for Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    For 6 years prior to the retirement of the Space Shuttle Program, the shuttles carried an onboard repair kit with a tool for emergency use: two tubes of NOAX, or "good goo," as some people called it. NOAX flew on all 22 flights following the Columbia accident, and was designed to repair damage that occurred on the exterior of the shuttle. Bill McMahon, a structural materials engineer at Marshall Space Flight Center says NASA needed a solution for the widest range of possible damage to the shuttle s exterior thermal protection system. "NASA looked at several options in early 2004 and decided on a sealant. Ultimately, NOAX performed the best and was selected," he says. To prove NOAX would work effectively required hundreds of samples manufactured at Marshall and Johnson, and a concerted effort from various NASA field centers. Johnson Space Center provided programmatic leadership, testing, tools, and crew training; Glenn Research Center provided materials analysis; Langley Research Center provided test support and led an effort to perform large patch repairs; Ames Research Center provided additional testing; and Marshall provided further testing and the site of NOAX manufacturing. Although the sealant never had to be used in an emergency situation, it was tested by astronauts on samples of reinforced carbon-carbon (RCC) during two shuttle missions. (RCC is the thermal material on areas of the shuttle that experience the most heat, such as the nose cone and wing leading edges.) The material handled well on orbit, and tests showed the NOAX patch held up well on RCC.

  13. Template-free electrodeposition of AlFe alloy nanowires from a room-temperature ionic liquid as an anode material for Li-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Gang; Chen, Yuqi; Guo, Qingjun; Wang, Heng; Li, Bing

    2016-08-15

    AlFe alloy nanowires were directly electrodeposited on copper substrates from trimethylamine hydrochloride (TMHC)-AlCl3 ionic liquids with small amounts of FeCl3 at room temperature without templates. Coin cells composed of AlFe alloy nanowire electrodes and lithium foils were assembled to characterize the alloy electrochemical properties by galvanostatic charge/discharge tests. Effects of FeCl3 concentration, potential and temperature on the alloy morphology, composition and cyclic performance were examined. Addition of Fe into the alloy changed the nanowires from a 'hill-like' bulk morphology to a free-standing morphology, and increased the coverage area of the alloy on Cu substrates. As an inactive element, Fe could also buffer the alloys' large volume changes during Li intercalation and deintercalation. AlFe alloy nanowires composed of a small amount of Fe with an average diameter of 140 nm exhibited an outstanding cyclic performance and delivered a specific capacity of about 570 mA h g(-1) after 50 cycles. This advanced template-free method for the direct preparation of high performance nanostructure AlFe alloy anode materials is quite simple and inexpensive, which presents a promising prospect for practical application in Li-ion batteries. PMID:27200436

  14. Interconnected sandwich structure carbon/Si-SiO2/carbon nanospheres composite as high performance anode material for lithium-ion batteries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuanjin Du; Mengyan Hou; Dandan Zhou; Yonggang Wang; Congxiao Wang; Yongyao Xia

    2014-01-01

    In the present work, an interconnected sandwich carbon/Si-SiO2/carbon nanospheres composite was prepared by template method and carbon thermal vapor deposition (TVD). The carbon conductive layer can not only efficiently improve the electronic conductivity of Si-based anode, but also play a key role in alleviating the negative effect from huge volume expansion over discharge/charge of Si-based anode. The resulting material delivered a reversible capacity of 1094 mAh/g, and exhibited excellent cycling stability. It kept a reversible capacity of 1050 mAh/g over 200 cycles with a capacity retention of 96%.

  15. Mn 3 O 4 −Graphene Hybrid as a High-Capacity Anode Material for Lithium Ion Batteries

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Hailiang

    2010-10-13

    We developed two-step solution-phase reactions to form hybrid materials of Mn3O4 nanoparticles on reduced graphene oxide (RGO) sheets for lithium ion battery applications. Selective growth of Mn3O 4 nanoparticles on RGO sheets, in contrast to free particle growth in solution, allowed for the electrically insulating Mn3O4 nanoparticles to be wired up to a current collector through the underlying conducting graphene network. The Mn3O4 nanoparticles formed on RGO show a high specific capacity up to ∼900 mAh/g, near their theoretical capacity, with good rate capability and cycling stability, owing to the intimate interactions between the graphene substrates and the Mn 3O4 nanoparticles grown atop. The Mn3O 4/RGO hybrid could be a promising candidate material for a high-capacity, low-cost, and environmentally friendly anode for lithium ion batteries. Our growth-on-graphene approach should offer a new technique for the design and synthesis of battery electrodes based on highly insulating materials. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  16. Nanoporous anodic aluminum oxide as a promising material for the electrostatically-controlled thin film interference filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study presents the approach to implement the electrostatically-controlled thin film optical filter by using a nanoporous anodic aluminum oxide (np-AAO) layer as the key suspended micro structure. The bi-stable optical filter operates in the visible spectral range. In this work, the presented bi-stable optical filter has averaged reflectivity of 60%, and the central wavelengths are 580 and 690 nm respectively for on and off states. The presented np-AAO layer offers the following merits for the thin film optical filter: (1) material properties of np-AAO film, such as refractive index, elastic modulus and dielectric constant, can be easily changed by a low temperature pore-widening process, (2) in-use stiction of the suspended np-AAO structure can be reduced by the small contact area of nanoporous textures, (3) driving (pull-in) voltage can be reduced due to a large dielectric constant (εAAO is 7.05) and small stiffness of np-AAO film and (4) dielectric charging can be reduced by the np-AAO material; thus the offset voltage is small. The study reports the design, fabrication and experimental results of the bi-stable optical filter to demonstrate the advantages of the presented device. The np-AAO material also has the potential for applications of other electrostatic drive micro devices. (paper)

  17. High reversible capacity of SnO{sub 2}/graphene nanocomposite as an anode material for lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lian Peichao [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, South China University of Technology, No. 381 Wushan Road, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Zhu Xuefeng [State Key Laboratory of Catalysis, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Dalian 116023 (China); Liang Shuzhao; Li Zhong [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, South China University of Technology, No. 381 Wushan Road, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Yang Weishen [State Key Laboratory of Catalysis, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Dalian 116023 (China); Wang Haihui, E-mail: hhwang@scut.edu.c [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, South China University of Technology, No. 381 Wushan Road, Guangzhou 510640 (China)

    2011-04-30

    Highlights: {yields} Gas-liquid interfacial reaction was used to prepare SnO{sub 2}/graphene nanocomposite. {yields} SnO{sub 2}/graphene nanocomposite as an anode for lithium-ion batteries. {yields} It exhibited high reversible specific capacity and excellent cycle capability. {yields} Graphene sheets can improve the cycling performance and reverible capacity of SnO{sub 2}. - Abstract: A gas-liquid interfacial synthesis approach has been developed to prepare SnO{sub 2}/graphene nanocomposite. The as-prepared nanocomposite was characterized by X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller measurements. Field emission scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy observation revealed the homogeneous distribution of SnO{sub 2} nanoparticles (2-6 nm in size) on graphene matrix. The electrochemical performances were evaluated by using coin-type cells versus metallic lithium. The SnO{sub 2}/graphene nanocomposite prepared by the gas-liquid interface reaction exhibits a high reversible specific capacity of 1304 mAh g{sup -1} at a current density of 100 mA g{sup -1} and excellent rate capability, even at a high current density of 1000 mA g{sup -1}, the reversible capacity was still as high as 748 mAh g{sup -1}. The electrochemical test results show that the SnO{sub 2}/graphene nanocomposite prepared by the gas-liquid interfacial synthesis approach is a promising anode material for lithium-ion batteries.

  18. Composite anodes for lithium-ion batteries: status and trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alain Mauger

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Presently, the negative electrodes of lithium-ion batteries (LIBs is constituted by carbon-based materials that exhibit a limited specific capacity 372 mAh g−1 associated with the cycle between C and LiC6. Therefore, many efforts are currently made towards the technological development nanostructured materials in which the electrochemical processes occurs as intercalation, alloying or conversion reactions with a good accommodation of dilatation/contraction during cycling. In this review, attention is focused on advanced anode composite materials based on carbon, silicon, germanium, tin, titanium and conversion anode composite based on transition-metal oxides.

  19. Synthesis of Octahedral-Shaped NiO and Approaches to an Anode Material of Manufactured Solid Oxide Fuel Cells Using the Decalcomania Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haeran Cho

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Micrometer-sized and octahedral-shaped NiO particles were synthesized by microwave thermal treatment at 300 watt power for 15 min in a microwave chamber to be used as an anode material in solid oxide fuel cells. SEM image and particle size distribution revealed near-perfect octahedral NiO microparticle with sizes ranging from 4.0~11.0 μm. The anode functional layer (AFL, 60 wt% NiO synthesized: commercial 40 wt% YSZ, electrolyte (commercial Yttria-stabilized zirconia, YSZ, and cathode (commercial La0.8Sr0.2MnO3, LSM layers were manufactured using the decalcomania method on a porous anode support, sequentially. The sintered electrolyte at 1450°C for 2 h using the decalcomania method was dense and had a thickness of about 10 μm. The cathode was sintered at 1250°C for 2 h, and it was porous. Using humidified hydrogen as a fuel, a coin cell with a 15 μm thick anode functional layer exhibited maximum power densities of 0.28, 0.38, and 0.65 W/cm2 at 700, 750, and 800°C, respectively. Otherwise, when a commercial YSZ anode functional layer was used, the maximum power density was 0.55 W/cm2 at 800°C.

  20. Advanced new materials with various applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radu-Claudiu, Fierascu; Rodica-Mariana, Ion; Irina, Dumitriu

    2009-01-01

    Nanotechnology is the manufacture and science of materials with at least one dimension in the nanometer scale [1]. Many nanomaterials have novel chemical and biological properties and most of them are not naturally occurring. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are an example of a carbon-based nanomaterial which has won enormous popularity in nanotechnology for its unique properties and applications [2]. CNTs have highly desirable physicochemical properties for use in commercial, environmental and medical sectors. The inclusion of CNTs to improve the quality and performance of many widely used products, as well as potentially in medicine, will dramatically affect occupational and public exposure to CNT based nanomaterials in the near future [3].

  1. Rapid Prototyping: Technologies, Materials and Advances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dudek P.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the context of product development, the term rapid prototyping (RP is widely used to describe technologies which create physical prototypes directly from digital data. Recently, this technology has become one of the fastest-growing methods of manufacturing parts. The paper provides brief notes on the creation of composites using RP methods, such as stereolithography, selective laser sintering or melting, laminated object modelling, fused deposition modelling or three-dimensional printing. The emphasis of this work is on the methodology of composite fabrication and the variety of materials used in these technologies.

  2. Achievements and prospects of advanced materials processed by powder technology

    OpenAIRE

    Kaysser, W.

    1993-01-01

    In this paper examples from intermetallics, composites with ductile and high strength reinforcements, nanocrystalline and superplastic materials are used to illustrate generic and special achievements and prospects of advanced materials processed by powder technology. Processing technologies include reactive powder metallurgy, nanocrystalline processing, rapid solidification and mechanical alloying.

  3. Recent Advances in the Synthesis of High Explosive Materials

    OpenAIRE

    Jesse J. Sabatini; Karl D. Oyler

    2015-01-01

    This review discusses the recent advances in the syntheses of high explosive energetic materials. Syntheses of some relevant modern primary explosives and secondary high explosives, and the sensitivities and properties of these molecules are provided. In addition to the synthesis of such materials, processing improvement and formulating aspects using these ingredients, where applicable, are discussed in detail.

  4. Advanced materials and design for electromagnetic interference shielding

    CERN Document Server

    Tong, Xingcun Colin

    2008-01-01

    Exploring the role of EMI shielding in EMC design, this book introduces the design guidelines, materials selection, characterization methodology, manufacturing technology, and future potential of EMI shielding. It covers an array of issues in advanced shielding materials and design solutions, including enclosures and composites.

  5. Recent Advances in the Synthesis of High Explosive Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesse J. Sabatini

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This review discusses the recent advances in the syntheses of high explosive energetic materials. Syntheses of some relevant modern primary explosives and secondary high explosives, and the sensitivities and properties of these molecules are provided. In addition to the synthesis of such materials, processing improvement and formulating aspects using these ingredients, where applicable, are discussed in detail.

  6. Interconnected hollow carbon nanospheres for stable lithium metal anodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Guangyuan; Lee, Seok Woo; Liang, Zheng; Lee, Hyun-Wook; Yan, Kai; Yao, Hongbin; Wang, Haotian; Li, Weiyang; Chu, Steven; Cui, Yi

    2014-08-01

    For future applications in portable electronics, electric vehicles and grid storage, batteries with higher energy storage density than existing lithium ion batteries need to be developed. Recent efforts in this direction have focused on high-capacity electrode materials such as lithium metal, silicon and tin as anodes, and sulphur and oxygen as cathodes. Lithium metal would be the optimal choice as an anode material, because it has the highest specific capacity (3,860 mAh g(-1)) and the lowest anode potential of all. However, the lithium anode forms dendritic and mossy metal deposits, leading to serious safety concerns and low Coulombic efficiency during charge/discharge cycles. Although advanced characterization techniques have helped shed light on the lithium growth process, effective strategies to improve lithium metal anode cycling remain elusive. Here, we show that coating the lithium metal anode with a monolayer of interconnected amorphous hollow carbon nanospheres helps isolate the lithium metal depositions and facilitates the formation of a stable solid electrolyte interphase. We show that lithium dendrites do not form up to a practical current density of 1 mA cm(-2). The Coulombic efficiency improves to ∼ 99% for more than 150 cycles. This is significantly better than the bare unmodified samples, which usually show rapid Coulombic efficiency decay in fewer than 100 cycles. Our results indicate that nanoscale interfacial engineering could be a promising strategy to tackle the intrinsic problems of lithium metal anodes. PMID:25064396

  7. International workshop on advanced materials for high precision detectors. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    These proceedings gather together the contributions to the Workshop on Advanced Materials for High Precision Detectors, which was held from 28-30 September 1994 in Archamps, Haute-Savoie, France. This meeting brought together international experts (researchers, physicists and engineers) in the field of advanced materials and their use in high energy physics detectors or spacecraft applications. Its purpose was to discuss the status of the different materials currently in use in the structures of detectors and spacecraft, together with their actual performances, technological implications and future prospects. Environmental effects, such as those of moisture and radiation, were discussed, as were design and manufacturing technologies. Some case studies were presented. (orig.)

  8. Characterization of advanced preprocessed materials (Hydrothermal)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rachel Emerson; Garold Gresham

    2012-09-01

    The initial hydrothermal treatment parameters did not achieve the proposed objective of this effort; the reduction of intrinsic ash in the corn stover. However, liquid fractions from the 170°C treatments was indicative that some of the elements routinely found in the ash that negatively impact the biochemical conversion processes had been removed. After reviewing other options for facilitating ash removal, sodium-citrate (chelating agent) was included in the hydrothermal treatment process, resulting in a 69% reduction in the physiological ash. These results indicated that chelation –hydrothermal treatment is one possible approach that can be utilized to reduce the overall ash content of feedstock materials and having a positive impact on conversion performance.

  9. Advances in computational studies of energy materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catlow, C R A; Guo, Z X; Miskufova, M; Shevlin, S A; Smith, A G H; Sokol, A A; Walsh, A; Wilson, D J; Woodley, S M

    2010-07-28

    We review recent developments and applications of computational modelling techniques in the field of materials for energy technologies including hydrogen production and storage, energy storage and conversion, and light absorption and emission. In addition, we present new work on an Sn2TiO4 photocatalyst containing an Sn(II) lone pair, new interatomic potential models for SrTiO3 and GaN, an exploration of defects in the kesterite/stannite-structured solar cell absorber Cu2ZnSnS4, and report details of the incorporation of hydrogen into Ag2O and Cu2O. Special attention is paid to the modelling of nanostructured systems, including ceria (CeO2, mixed Ce(x)O(y) and Ce2O3) and group 13 sesquioxides. We consider applications based on both interatomic potential and electronic structure methodologies; and we illustrate the increasingly quantitative and predictive nature of modelling in this field. PMID:20566517

  10. Combustion synthesis of advanced composite materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, John J.

    1993-01-01

    Self-propagating high temperature (combustion) synthesis (SHS), has been investigated as a means of producing both dense and expanded (foamed) ceramic and ceramic-metal composites, ceramic powders and whiskers. Several model exothermic combustion synthesis reactions were used to establish the importance of certain reaction parameters, e.g., stoichiometry, green density, combustion mode, particle size, etc. on the control of the synthesis reaction, product morphology and properties. The use of an in situ liquid infiltration technique and the effect of varying the reactants and their stoichiometry to provide a range of reactant and product species i.e., solids, liquids and gases, with varying physical properties e.g., volatility and thermal conductivity, on the microstructure and morphology of synthesized composite materials is discussed. Conducting the combustion synthesis reaction in a reactive gas environment to take advantage of the synergistic effects of combustion synthesis and vapor phase transport is also examined.

  11. Preparation and prop erties of Ce0.8Ca0.2O1.8 anode material by glycine-nitrate process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Ce0.8Ca0.2O1.8 (CDC82) anode material was prepared by glycine-nitrate process(GNP). Thermogravimetric(TG) analysis and differential scanning calorimetric(DSC) methods were adopted to characterize the reaction process of CDC82 material. X-ray diffractometry(XRD), scanning electron microcopy(SEM), direct current four probe (four-probe DC) and temperature process reduce(TPR) techniques were adopted to characterize the properties of CDC82 material. After the precursor was sintered at 750 ℃for 4 h, CDC82 material with pure-fluorite structure and nanometer size was obtained. The total conductivity of CDC82 changes little with temperature in air at 50-850 ℃, and the maximum value is 0.04 S/cm at 750 ℃. The total conductivity wholly becomes larger when the atmosphere changes from air to hydrogen, which greatly increases with increasing temperature and reaches the maximum value of 1.09 S/cm at 850 ℃. Some impurities such as CeMg and La2O3 exist after the mixture of CDC82 anode and La1-xSrxGa1-yMgyO3-δ (LSGM) electrolyte material is sintered at 1 200 ℃ for 15 h. The CDC82 material as anode material has excellent catalytic property for hydrogen and methane.

  12. Three-dimensional tungsten nitride nanowires as high performance anode material for lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Min; Qiu, Yongfu; Han, Yi; Guo, Yan; Cheng, Faliang

    2016-08-01

    Nanostructure materials often achieve low capacity when the active material mass loading is high. In this communication, high mass-loading tungsten nitride nanowires (WNNWs) were fabricated on a flexible carbon cloth by hydrothermal method and post annealing. The prepared electrode exhibited remarkable cyclic stability and attractive rate capability for lithium storage. It delivers at a current density of 200 mA g-1, a high capacity of 418 mAh g-1, which is higher than that of conventional graphite. This research opens more opportunity for the fabrication of three-dimensional metal nitrides as negative electrode material for flexible lithium ion batteries.

  13. High capacity disordered carbons obtained from coconut shells as anode materials for lithium batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbonaceous materials have been obtained by the pyrolysis of coconut shells at 800 and 900 deg. C with pore forming substances such as KOH and ZnCl2. The prepared carbons were subjected to XRD, SEM, BET-surface area and charge-discharge studies. The structure and morphology were greatly changed by porogens, which in turn influence the electrochemical properties of the carbonaceous materials. Nanocrystalline tin (Sn) particles were prepared by chemical reduction method. The cycling tests showed that the addition of nanotin with the active material offers a stable cycling behavior. The electrochemical impedance spectra for the Li/C cells have been made and the results are discussed

  14. Evaluation and development of advanced nuclear materials: IAEA activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Economical, environmental and non-proliferation issues associated with sustainable development of nuclear power bring about a need for optimization of fuel cycles and implementation of advanced nuclear systems. While a number of physical and design concepts are available for innovative reactors, the absence of reliable materials able to sustain new challenging irradiation conditions represents the real bottle-neck for practical implementation of these promising ideas. Materials performance and integrity are key issues for the safety and competitiveness of future nuclear installations being developed for sustainable nuclear energy production incorporating fuel recycling and waste transmutation systems. These systems will feature high thermal operational efficiency, improved utilization of resources (both fissile and fertile materials) and reduced production of nuclear waste. They will require development, qualification and deployment of new and advanced fuel and structural materials with improved mechanical and chemical properties combined with high radiation and corrosion resistance. The extensive, diverse, and expensive efforts toward the development of these materials can be more effectively organized within international collaborative programmes with wide participation of research, design and engineering communities. IAEA carries out a number of international projects supporting interested Member States with the use of available IAEA program implementation tools (Coordinated Research Projects, Technical Meetings, Expert Reviews, etc). The presentation summarizes the activities targeting material developments for advanced nuclear systems, with particular emphasis on fast reactors, which are the focal topics of IAEA Coordinated Research Projects 'Accelerator Simulation and Theoretical Modelling of Radiation Effects' (on-going), 'Benchmarking of Structural Materials Pre-Selected for Advanced Nuclear Reactors', 'Examination of advanced fast reactor fuel and core

  15. Numerical Simulations and Optimisation in Forming of Advanced Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huétink, J.

    2007-04-01

    With the introduction of new materials as high strength steels, metastable steels and fiber reinforce composites, the need for advanced physically valid constitutive models arises. A biaxial test equipment is developed and applied for the determination of material data as well as for validation of material models. An adaptive through- thickness integration scheme for plate elements is developed, which improves the accuracy of spring back prediction at minimal costs. An optimization strategy is proposed that assists an engineer to model an optimization problem.

  16. Fossil Energy Advanced Research and Technology Development Materials Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, N.C.; Judkins, R.R. (comps.)

    1992-12-01

    Objective of this materials program is to conduct R and D on materials for fossil energy applications with focus on longer-term and generic needs of the various fossil fuel technologies. The projects are organized according to materials research areas: (1) ceramics, (2) new alloys: iron aluminides, advanced austenitics and chromium niobium alloys, and (3) technology development and transfer. Separate abstracts have been prepared.

  17. Advanced Industrial Materials (AIM) Program: Annual progress report FY 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-04-01

    In many ways, the Advanced Industrial Materials (AIM) Program underwent a major transformation in Fiscal Year 1995 and these changes have continued to the present. When the Program was established in 1990 as the Advanced Industrial Concepts (AIC) Materials Program, the mission was to conduct applied research and development to bring materials and processing technologies from the knowledge derived from basic research to the maturity required for the end use sectors for commercialization. In 1995, the Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) made radical changes in structure and procedures. All technology development was directed toward the seven ``Vision Industries`` that use about 80% of industrial energy and generated about 90% of industrial wastes. The mission of AIM has, therefore, changed to ``Support development and commercialization of new or improved materials to improve productivity, product quality, and energy efficiency in the major process industries.`` Though AIM remains essentially a National Laboratory Program, it is essential that each project have industrial partners, including suppliers to, and customers of, the seven industries. Now, well into FY 1996, the transition is nearly complete and the AIM Program remains reasonably healthy and productive, thanks to the superb investigators and Laboratory Program Managers. This Annual Report for FY 1995 contains the technical details of some very remarkable work by the best materials scientists and engineers in the world. Areas covered here are: advanced metals and composites; advanced ceramics and composites; polymers and biobased materials; and new materials and processes.

  18. Electrochemical Properties of Chemically Processed SiOx as Coating Material in Lithium-Ion Batteries with Si Anode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hee-June Jeong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A SiOx coating material for Si anode in lithium-ion battery was processed by using SiCl4 and ethylene glycol. The produced SiOx particles after heat treatment at 725°C for 1 h were porous and irregularly shaped with amorphous structure. Pitch carbon added to SiOx was found to strongly affect solid electrolyte interphase stabilization and cyclic stability. When mixed with an optimal amount of 30 wt% pitch carbon, the SiOx showed a high charge/discharge cyclic stability of about 97% for the 2nd to the 50th cycle. The initial specific capacity of the SiOx was measured to be 1401 mAh/g. On the basis of the evaluation of the SiOx coating material, the process utilized in this study is considered an efficient method to produce SiOx with high performance in an economical way.

  19. Double carbon decorated lithium titanate as anode material with high rate performance for lithium-ion batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haifang Ni

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Spinel lithium titanate (Li4Ti5O12 has the advantages of structural stability, however it suffers the disadvantages of low lithium-ion diffusion coefficient as well as low conductivity. In order to solve issues, we reported a simple method to prepare carbon-coated Li4Ti5O12/CNTs (C@Li4Ti5O12/CNTs using stearic acid as surfactant and carbon source to prepare carbon coated nanosized particles. The obtained Li4Ti5O12 particles of 100 nm in size are coated with the carbon layers pyrolyzed from stearic acid and dispersed in CNTs matrix homogeneously. These results show that the synthesized C@Li4Ti5O12/CNTs material used as anode materials for lithium ion batteries, presenting a better high-rate performance (147 mA h g−1 at 20 C. The key factors affecting the high-rate properties of the C@Li4Ti5O12/CNTs composite may be related to the synergistic effects of the CNTs matrix and the carbon- coating layers with conductivity enhancement. Additionally, the amorphous carbon coating is an effective route to ameliorate the rate capability of Li4Ti5O12/CNTs.

  20. Double carbon decorated lithium titanate as anode material with high rate performance for lithium-ion batteries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Haifang Ni; Weili Song; Lizhen Fan n

    2016-01-01

    Spinel lithium titanate (Li4Ti5O12) has the advantages of structural stability, however it suffers the dis-advantages of low lithium-ion diffusion coefficient as well as low conductivity. In order to solve issues, we reported a simple method to prepare carbon-coated Li4Ti5O12/CNTs (C@Li4Ti5O12/CNTs) using stearic acid as surfactant and carbon source to prepare carbon coated nanosized particles. The obtained Li4Ti5O12 particles of 100 nm in size are coated with the carbon layers pyrolyzed from stearic acid and dispersed in CNTs matrix homogeneously. These results show that the synthesized C@Li4Ti5O12/CNTs material used as anode materials for lithium ion batteries, presenting a better high-rate performance (147 mA h g ? 1 at 20 C). The key factors affecting the high-rate properties of the C@Li4Ti5O12/CNTs composite may be re-lated to the synergistic effects of the CNTs matrix and the carbon-coating layers with conductivity en-hancement. Additionally, the amorphous carbon coating is an effective route to ameliorate the rate capability of Li4Ti5O12/CNTs.

  1. Unique Urchin-like Ca2Ge7O16 Hierarchical Hollow Microspheres as Anode Material for the Lithium Ion Battery

    OpenAIRE

    Dan Li; Chuanqi Feng; Hua Kun Liu; Zaiping Guo

    2015-01-01

    Germanium is an outstanding anode material in terms of electrochemical performance, especially rate capability, but its developments are hindered by its high price because it is rare in the crust of earth, and its huge volume variation during the lithium insertion and extraction. Introducing other cheaper elements into the germanium-based material is an efficient way to dilute the high price, but normally sacrifice its electrochemical performance. By the combination of nanostructure design an...

  2. Generalized continua as models for classical and advanced materials

    CERN Document Server

    Forest, Samuel

    2016-01-01

    This volume is devoted to an actual topic which is the focus world-wide of various research groups. It contains contributions describing the material behavior on different scales, new existence and uniqueness theorems, the formulation of constitutive equations for advanced materials. The main emphasis of the contributions is directed on the following items - Modelling and simulation of natural and artificial materials with significant microstructure, - Generalized continua as a result of multi-scale models, - Multi-field actions on materials resulting in generalized material models, - Theories including higher gradients, and - Comparison with discrete modelling approaches.

  3. Code qualification of structural materials for AFCI advanced recycling reactors.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Natesan, K.; Li, M.; Majumdar, S.; Nanstad, R.K.; Sham, T.-L. (Nuclear Engineering Division); (ORNL)

    2012-05-31

    This report summarizes the further findings from the assessments of current status and future needs in code qualification and licensing of reference structural materials and new advanced alloys for advanced recycling reactors (ARRs) in support of Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI). The work is a combined effort between Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) with ANL as the technical lead, as part of Advanced Structural Materials Program for AFCI Reactor Campaign. The report is the second deliverable in FY08 (M505011401) under the work package 'Advanced Materials Code Qualification'. The overall objective of the Advanced Materials Code Qualification project is to evaluate key requirements for the ASME Code qualification and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) approval of structural materials in support of the design and licensing of the ARR. Advanced materials are a critical element in the development of sodium reactor technologies. Enhanced materials performance not only improves safety margins and provides design flexibility, but also is essential for the economics of future advanced sodium reactors. Code qualification and licensing of advanced materials are prominent needs for developing and implementing advanced sodium reactor technologies. Nuclear structural component design in the U.S. must comply with the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code Section III (Rules for Construction of Nuclear Facility Components) and the NRC grants the operational license. As the ARR will operate at higher temperatures than the current light water reactors (LWRs), the design of elevated-temperature components must comply with ASME Subsection NH (Class 1 Components in Elevated Temperature Service). However, the NRC has not approved the use of Subsection NH for reactor components, and this puts additional burdens on materials qualification of the ARR. In the past licensing review for the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Project (CRBRP

  4. Electrochemical characterization of carbon coated bundle-type silicon nanorod for anode material in lithium ion secondary batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halim, Martin [Center for Energy Convergence, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Hwarangno 14-gil 5, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of); Energy and Environmental Engineering, Korea University of Science and Technology, Gwahangno, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jung Sub [Center for Energy Convergence, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Hwarangno 14-gil 5, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Material Science & Engineering, Korea University, Seoul 136-713 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Jeong-Gil [Department of Chemical Engineering, Hannam University, 461-1 Junmin-dong, Yusung-gu, Taejon 305-811 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Joong Kee, E-mail: leejk@kist.re.kr [Center for Energy Convergence, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Hwarangno 14-gil 5, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of); Energy and Environmental Engineering, Korea University of Science and Technology, Gwahangno, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 305-333 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • Bundle-type silicon nanorods (BSNR) were synthesized by metal assisted chemical etching. • Novel bundle-type nanorods electrode showed self-relaxant characteristics. • The self-relaxant property was enhanced by increasing the silver concentration. • PAA binder enhanced the self-relaxant property of the silicon material. • Carbon coated BSNR (BSNR@C) has evidently provided better cycle performance. - Abstract: Nanostructured silicon synthesis by surface modification of commercial micro-powder silicon was investigated in order to reduce the maximum volume change over cycle. The surface of micro-powder silicon was modified using an Ag metal-assisted chemical etching technique to produce nanostructured material in the form of bundle-type silicon nanorods. The volume change of the electrode using the nanostructured silicon during cycle was investigated using an in-situ dilatometer. Our result shows that nanostructured silicon synthesized using this method showed a self-relaxant characteristic as an anode material for lithium ion battery application. Moreover, binder selection plays a role in enhancing self-relaxant properties during delithiation via strong hydrogen interaction on the surface of the silicon material. The nanostructured silicon was then coated with carbon from propylene gas and showed higher capacity retention with the use of polyacrylic acid (PAA) binder. While the nano-size of the pore diameter control may significantly affect the capacity fading of nanostructured silicon, it can be mitigated via carbon coating, probably due to the prevention of Li ion penetration into 10 nano-meter sized pores.

  5. In Situ Hydrothermal Synthesis of Mn3O4 Nanoparticles on Nitrogen-doped Graphene as High-Performance Anode materials for Lithium Ion Batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • We present a facile process to synthesize Mn3O4/N-doped graphene hybrid materials by hydrothermal route. • Mn3O4/N-doped graphene hybrid materials exhibit a large reversible capacity of about 828 mA h g−1 after 40 cycles. • Mn3O4/graphene hybrid materials demonstrate great potential for lithium ion battery anodes. - Abstract: Developing new electrode materials with high specific capacity for excellent lithium ion storage properties is very desirable. In this paper, we introduce a simple hydrothermal method for the growth of Mn3O4 nanoparticles onto nitrogen-doped graphene (N-doped graphene) for high-performance lithium ion battery (LIB) anodes. Hydrazine plays a fundamental role in the formation of such nanostructures as it can act both as a reducing agent and as a nitrogen source. In the synthesized composite, highly crystalline Mn3O4 nanoparticles with average sizes of 20–50 nm are homogeneously dispersed on both sides of the N-doped graphene. The nitrogen content in the doped graphene is confirmed by elemental analyzer, and 2 wt% of the sample is found to be composed of nitrogen element. The as-prepared Mn3O4/N-doped graphene composites exhibit remarkable electrochemical performance, including high reversible specific capacity, outstanding cycling stability, and excellent rate capability (approximately 400 mA h g−1 at 2.0 A g−1) when used as the anode material for LIBs. The improvement in the electrochemical properties of the material can be attributed to graphene, which acts as both an electron conductor and a volume buffer layer, and nitrogen doping allows for fast electron and ion transfer by decreasing the energy barrier. This type of metal oxide/N-doped graphene composites can be promising candidates for high-performance anode materials for LIBs

  6. Advanced methods of continuum mechanics for materials and structures

    CERN Document Server

    Aßmus, Marcus

    2016-01-01

    This volume presents a collection of contributions on advanced approaches of continuum mechanics, which were written to celebrate the 60th birthday of Prof. Holm Altenbach. The contributions are on topics related to the theoretical foundations for the analysis of rods, shells and three-dimensional solids, formulation of constitutive models for advanced materials, as well as development of new approaches to the modeling of damage and fractures.

  7. Advanced materials for alternative fuel capable directly fired heat engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fairbanks, J.W.; Stringer, J. (eds.)

    1979-12-01

    The first conference on advanced materials for alternative fuel capable directly fired heat engines was held at the Maine Maritime Academy, Castine, Maine. It was sponsored by the US Department of Energy, (Assistant Secretary for Fossil Energy) and the Electric Power Research Institute, (Division of Fossil Fuel and Advanced Systems). Forty-four papers from the proceedings have been entered into EDB and ERA and one also into EAPA; three had been entered previously from other sources. The papers are concerned with US DOE research programs in this area, coal gasification, coal liquefaction, gas turbines, fluidized-bed combustion and the materials used in these processes or equipments. The materials papers involve alloys, ceramics, coatings, cladding, etc., and the fabrication and materials listing of such materials and studies involving corrosion, erosion, deposition, etc. (LTN)

  8. Advances in wind turbine blade design and materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    of wind turbine blades. The final part of the book describes advances in wind turbine blade materials, development and testing, including biobased composites, surface protection and coatings, structural performance testing and the design, manufacture and testing of small wind turbine blades. Advances......Wind energy is gaining critical ground in the area of renewable energy, with wind energy being predicted to provide up to 8% of the world’s consumption of electricity by 2021. Advances in wind turbine blade design and materials reviews the design and functionality of wind turbine rotor blades...... as well as the requirements and challenges for composite materials used in both current and future designs of wind turbine blades. Part one outlines the challenges and developments in wind turbine blade design, including aerodynamic and aeroelastic design features, fatigue loads on wind turbine blades...

  9. Corrosion rate of construction materials in hot phosphoric acid with the contribution of anodic polarization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kouril, M.; Christensen, Erik; Eriksen, S.;

    2011-01-01

    ). Several grades of stainless steels were tested as well as tantalum, niobium, titanium, nickel alloys and silicon carbide. The corrosion rate was evaluated by means of mass loss at free corrosion potential as well as under various levels of polarization. The only corrosion resistant material in 85...

  10. Material performance evaluation -Development of the advanced nuclear materials-

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A multifrequency ACPD system was assembled. A SSRT equipment for stress corrosion cracking test was installed. A 25-ton capacity fatigue test machine was purchased as a first step to assemble a corrosion fatigue test facility. A test loop was designed to simulate the primary water chemistry condition. An Ag/AgCl external reference electrode which can be used at a temperature as high as 280 deg C was fabricated. A high temperature pH electrode was designed for fabrication. A creep test machine was designed conceptually for testing creep behaviors of Zr alloys. Preliminary design requirements were made for the instrumented capsule and a plan was made for using the uninstrumented capsule, as parts of activities to complete an integrated plan of in-reactor materials irradiation test. CHEC computer code which helped improving maintenance program against erosion/corrosion of secondary pipings of nuclear power plants was purchased. Erosion/corrosion of feedwater heater drain line of Kori Unit One was analyzed using the CHEC code as a sample calculation. (Author)

  11. A Core-Shell Fe/Fe2 O3 Nanowire as a High-Performance Anode Material for Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Zhaolin; Huang, Gang; Liang, Fei; Yin, Dongming; Wang, Limin

    2016-08-16

    The preparation of novel one-dimensional core-shell Fe/Fe2 O3 nanowires as anodes for high-performance lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) is reported. The nanowires are prepared in a facile synthetic process in aqueous solution under ambient conditions with subsequent annealing treatment that could tune the capacity for lithium storage. When this hybrid is used as an anode material for LIBs, the outer Fe2 O3 shell can act as an electrochemically active material to store and release lithium ions, whereas the highly conductive and inactive Fe core functions as nothing more than an efficient electrical conducting pathway and a remarkable buffer to tolerate volume changes of the electrode materials during the insertion and extraction of lithium ions. The core-shell Fe/Fe2 O3 nanowire maintains an excellent reversible capacity of over 767 mA h g(-1) at 500 mA g(-1) after 200 cycles with a high average Coulombic efficiency of 98.6 %. Even at 2000 mA g(-1) , a stable capacity as high as 538 mA h g(-1) could be obtained. The unique composition and nanostructure of this electrode material contribute to this enhanced electrochemical performance. Due to the ease of large-scale fabrication and superior electrochemical performance, these hybrid nanowires are promising anode materials for the next generation of high-performance LIBs. PMID:27406922

  12. Research Progress in Anode Materials for Lithium Ion Batteries%锂离子电池新型负极材料的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘浪浪; 问娟娟

    2014-01-01

    锂离子电池作为一种电源应用很广泛,但是在应用中存在一些不足,选取电化学性能良好的正负极材料是提高和改善锂离子电池电化学性能最重要的因素。从新型碳材料、硅基负极材料、锡基负极材料三方面介绍了目前锂离子电池的研究状况,并展望了锂离子电池负极材料的发展趋势。%Lithium ion battery as a power is widely used, but there are some deficiencies in the application. Selection of electrode materials with excellent electrochemical performances is the key factor to enhance and improve the electrochemical performance of the lithium ion battery. In this paper, the current research situation of lithium ion batteries were introduced from the aspects of new carbon materials, silicon-based anode materials and tin-based anode materials, and the development trend of the anode materials for lithium ion battery was prospected.

  13. Si-Based Materials as the Anode of Lithium-Ion Batteries%锂离子电池负极硅基材料

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶占良; 王洪波; 陈军

    2011-01-01

    硅基材料由于其高电化学容量是一种非常有发展前途的锂离子电池负极材料,但其在充放电过程中体积变化大、循环寿命差、首次库仑效率低等是阻碍其商业化的主要问题.本文综述了硅在脱嵌锂时晶体结构及表/界面的变化,以及改善其电化学性能方面的研究进展,并阐述其作为锂离子电池负极材料的研究前景.%Silicon-based materials are promising anode materials for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) due to their high-energy capacity. However, the commercialization of silicon-based materials as the anode of LIBs has been hindered by the huge volume change, poor cycle life and low initial coulombic efficiency during the charge/discharge process. This article reviews the change of both the crystal structure and the surface/interface of Si-based material during the interealation/deintercalation of lithium, and the methods improving the electrochemical performance. In addition, the prospects of silicon-based materials as the anode of LIBs are also discussed.

  14. Advanced hybrid battery with a magnesium metal anode and a spinel LiMn2O4 cathode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Baofei; Feng, Zhenxing; Sa, Niya; Han, Sang-Don; Ma, Qing; Fenter, Paul; Vaughey, John T; Zhang, Zhengcheng; Liao, Chen

    2016-08-01

    Two Mg-Li dual salt hybrid electrolytes are developed, which exhibit excellent oxidative stability up to around 3.8 V (vs. Mg/Mg(2+)) on an aluminum current collector, enabling the successful coupling of several state-of-the-art lithium-ion intercalation cathodes (LiMn2O4, LiCoO2 and LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2) with magnesium metal anodes. The Mg-LiMn2O4 battery delivers an initial discharge capacity of about 106 mA h g(-1) with a working voltage of around 2.8 V (vs. Mg/Mg(2+)), highlighting the highest working voltage of rechargeable batteries with magnesium metal anodes to date. PMID:27439946

  15. Pyrolyzed bacterial cellulose: a versatile support for lithium ion battery anode materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bin; Li, Xianglong; Luo, Bin; Yang, Jingxuan; Wang, Xiangjun; Song, Qi; Chen, Shiyan; Zhi, Linjie

    2013-07-22

    A scalable, low-cost and environmentally benign strategy is developed for the facile construction of a unique kind of three-dimensional porous electrode architecture for high-performance lithium ion batteries. The methodology is based on the employment of pyrolyzed bacterial cellulose as a new three-dimensional porous scaffold to support various nanostructured active electrode materials, such as SnO2 and Ge.

  16. Application of high magnetic fields in advanced materials processing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Yanwei; XIAO Liye; YAN Luguang

    2006-01-01

    Recently, steady magnetic fields available from cryogen-free superconducting magnets open up new ways to process materials. In this paper,the main results obtained by using a high magnetic field to process several advanced materials are reviewed. These processed objects primarily include superconducting, magnetic, metallic and nanometer-scaled materials. It has been found that a high magnetic field can effectively align grains when fabricating the magnetic and non-magnetic materials and make inclusions migrate in a molten metal. The mechanism is discussed from the theoretical viewpoint of magnetization energy.

  17. Resistance Welding of Advanced Materials and Micro Components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Kasper Storgaard

    of the final weld properties. The temperature dependent material rheology of dierent advanced high strength steels and other materials, often resistance welded, were measured using hot tensile testing and hot compression testing. It is found that the Hollomon equation is capable of modelling material rheology...... at discrete temperatures with suffcient accuracy. Investigation of theoretical contact resistance models revealed that most models build on the classic theory by Greenwood and Holm. However, extensive simplifications and assumptions raise questions regarding the theoretical foundation of the models...... by Blondeau et al. predicting martensite hardness, and a proposed average volume weighted material composition function, the predicted post weld hardness corresponded well with experimental observations....

  18. Synthesis of Nanocobalt Powders for an Anode Material of Lithium-Ion Batteries by Chemical Reduction and Carbon Coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seong-Hyeon Hong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanosized Co powders were prepared by a chemical reduction method with and without CTAB (cetyltrimethylammonium bromide, C19H42BrN and carbon-coating heat treatment at 700°C for 1 h, and the electrochemical properties of the prepared nanosized Co powders were examined to evaluate their suitability as an anode material of Li-ion batteries. Nanosized amorphous Co-based powders could be synthesized by a chemical reduction method in which a reducing agent is added to a Co ion-dissolved aqueous solution. When the prepared nanosized Co-based powders were subjected to carbon-coating heat treatment at 700°C for 1 h, the amorphous phase was crystallized, and a Co single phase could be obtained. The Co-based powder prepared by chemical reduction with CTAB and carbon-coating heat treatment had a smaller first discharge capacity (about 557 mAh/g than the Co-based powder prepared by chemical reduction without CTAB and carbon-coating heat treatment (about 628 mAh/g. However, the former had a better cycling performance than the latter from the third cycle. The carbon-coated layers are believed to have led to quite good cycling performances of the prepared Co-based powders from the third cycle.

  19. Preparation and electrochemical performances of cubic shape Cu2O as anode material for lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cubic and star-shaped crystalline Cu2O particles were synthesized by reducing the copper citrate complex solution with glucose. The microstructure and morphology of the Cu2O were characterized by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The electrochemical properties of the Cu2O as anode materials for lithium ion batteries were measured by galvanostatic charge-discharge tests. The as-synthesized Cu2O particles were 1-2 μm with narrow distribution and the shape of Cu2O particles had an effect on the electrochemical properties. The cubic Cu2O particles delivered a higher reversible discharge capacity (390 mAh g-1) than the star-shaped Cu2O, and also exhibited good cyclability. The star-shaped Cu2O particles presented poor cyclability due to pulverization and deterioration after cycling, but the morphology of the cubic Cu2O particles was stable even after 50 cycles

  20. AB5-type Hydrogen Storage Alloy Modified with Ti/Zr Used as Anodic Materials in Borohydride Fuel Cell

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lianbang WANG; Chunan MA; Xinbiao MAO; Yuanming SUN; Seijiro SUDA

    2005-01-01

    Fuel cell using borohydride as the fuel has received much attention. AB5-type hydrogen storage alloy used as the anodic material instead of noble metals has been investigated. In order to restrain the generation of hydrogen and enhance the utilization of borohydride, Ti/Zr metal powders has been added into the parent LmNi4.78Mn0.22 (where Lm is La-richened mischmetal) alloy (LNM) by ball milling and heat treatment methods. It is found that the addition of Ti/Zr metal powders lowers the electrochemical catalytic activity of the electrodes, at the same time, restrains the generation of hydrogen and enhances the utilization of the fuel. All the results show that the hydrogen generation rate or the utilization of the fuel is directly relative to the electrochemical catalytic activity or the discharge capability of the electrodes. The utilization of the fuel increases with discharge current density. It is very important to find a balance between the discharge capability and the utilization of the fuel.

  1. A comparative study of electrochemical properties of two kinds of carbon nanotubes as anode materials for lithium ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Shubin; Huo, Junping; Song, Huaihe; Chen, Xiaohong [State Key Laboratory of Chemical Resource Engineering, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, 100029 Beijing (China)

    2008-01-01

    Two kinds of carbon nanotubes (CNTs), i.e., short carbon nanotubes (CNTs-1) synthesized by co-pyrolysis method and long carbon nanotubes (CNTs-2) produced using common CVD technique were comparatively investigated as anode materials for lithium ion batteries via transmission electron microscope (TEM), high-resolution TEM and a variety of electrochemical testing techniques. The test results showed that the reversible capacities of CNTs-1 electrode were 266 and 170 mAh g{sup -1} at the current densities of 0.2 and 0.8 mA cm{sup -2}, respectively, which were almost twice those of CNTs-2 electrode. The larger voltage hysteresis in CNTs-2 electrode was not only related to the surface functional groups on CNTs, but also to the surface resistance of CNTs, which results in greater hindrance and higher overvoltage during lithium extraction from electrode. The kinetics properties of these two CNTs electrodes were compared by AC impedance measurements. It was found that, both the surface film and charge-transfer resistances of CNTs-1 were significantly lower than those of CNTs-2; the lithium diffusion coefficient (D{sub Li}) of both CNTs electrodes decreased as the drop of voltage, but the magnitude of the D{sub Li} variation of CNTs-1 electrode was smaller than that of CNTs-2 electrode, indicating CNTs-1 exhibited higher electrochemical activity and more favorable kinetic properties during charge and discharge process. (author)

  2. A comparative study of electrochemical properties of two kinds of carbon nanotubes as anode materials for lithium ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang Shubin; Huo Junping [State Key Laboratory of Chemical Resource Engineering, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, 100029 Beijing (China); Song Huaihe [State Key Laboratory of Chemical Resource Engineering, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, 100029 Beijing (China)], E-mail: songhh@mail.buct.edu.cn; Chen Xiaohong [State Key Laboratory of Chemical Resource Engineering, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, 100029 Beijing (China)

    2008-01-01

    Two kinds of carbon nanotubes (CNTs), i.e., short carbon nanotubes (CNTs-1) synthesized by co-pyrolysis method and long carbon nanotubes (CNTs-2) produced using common CVD technique were comparatively investigated as anode materials for lithium ion batteries via transmission electron microscope (TEM), high-resolution TEM and a variety of electrochemical testing techniques. The test results showed that the reversible capacities of CNTs-1 electrode were 266 and 170 mAh g{sup -1} at the current densities of 0.2 and 0.8 mA cm{sup -2}, respectively, which were almost twice those of CNTs-2 electrode. The larger voltage hysteresis in CNTs-2 electrode was not only related to the surface functional groups on CNTs, but also to the surface resistance of CNTs, which results in greater hindrance and higher overvoltage during lithium extraction from electrode. The kinetics properties of these two CNTs electrodes were compared by AC impedance measurements. It was found that, both the surface film and charge-transfer resistances of CNTs-1 were significantly lower than those of CNTs-2; the lithium diffusion coefficient (D{sub Li}) of both CNTs electrodes decreased as the drop of voltage, but the magnitude of the D{sub Li} variation of CNTs-1 electrode was smaller than that of CNTs-2 electrode, indicating CNTs-1 exhibited higher electrochemical activity and more favorable kinetic properties during charge and discharge process.

  3. Micro-sized and Nano-sized Fe3O4 Particles as Anode Materials for Lithium-ion Batteries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Y.X.Chen; L.H.He; P.J.Shang; Q.L.Tang; Z.Q.Liu; H.B.Liu; L.P.Zhou

    2011-01-01

    Micro-sized (1030.3±178.4 nm) and nano-sized (50.4±8.0 nm) Fe3O4 particles have been fabricated through hydrogen thermal reduction of α-Fe2O3 particles synthesized by means of a hydrothermal process. The morphology and microstructure of the micro-sized and the nano-sized Fe3O4 particles were characterized by X-ray diffraction, field-emission gun scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and highresolution electron microscopy. The micro-sized Fe3O4 particles exhibit porous structure, while the nano-sized Fe3O4 particles are solid structure. Their electrochemical performance was also evaluated. The nano-sized solid Fe3O4 particles exhibit gradual capacity fading with initial discharge capacity of 1083.1 mAhg-1 and reversible capacity retention of 32.6% over 50 cycles. Interestingly, the micro-sized porous Fe3O4 particles display very stable capacity-cycling behavior, with initial discharge capacity of 887.5 mAhg-1 and charge capacity of 684.4 mAhg-1 at the 50th cycle. Therefore, 77.1% of the reversible capacity can be maintained over 50 cycles. The micro-sized porous Fe3O4 particles with facile synthesis, good cycling performance and high capacity retention are promising candidate as anode materials for high energy-density lithium-ion batteries.

  4. Enhancement of electrochemical performance with Zn-Al-Bi layered hydrotalcites as anode material for Zn/Ni secondary battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bi-doped Zn-Al layered double hydroxides (Zn-Al-Bi LDH) are prepared by the constant pH hydrothermal method and proposed as a novel anodic material in Zn/Ni secondary cells. The Fourier transform infrared spectra (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images reveal that the as-prepared samples are well-crystallized and hexagon layer structure. The electrochemical performances of the Zn-Al-Bi LDH were analyzed by cyclic voltammetry, tafel plot, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and galvanostatic charge-discharge tests. Compared with Zn-Al LDH, Zn-Al-Bi LDH with different Zn/Al/Bi molar rations, especially the sample of Zn/Al/Bi = 3:0.8:0.2 (molar ration) have higher discharge capacity and more stable cycling performances. Cyclic voltammograms clearly illuminated that the Zn-Al-Bi LDHs could decrease polarization, maintain the electrochemical activity, and enhance the discharge capacity of Zn-Al LDH. This battery can undergo at least 800 charge-discharge cycles at constant current of 1C without dendrite and short circuits. The discharge capacity of Zn-Al-Bi LDH after the 800th cycle remains about 380 mAh g−1 and the hexagonal crystal structure have no much changed after cycles

  5. One-Pot Synthesis of SnO2/C Nanocapsules Composites as Anode Materials for Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lina; Chen, Kexun; Dong, Tao; Wang, Zhao; Li, Guomin; Zhang, Yanling; Zhang, Lipeng

    2016-02-01

    In this work, we demonstrate a facile route for the synthesis of nanostructured SnO2/C composites for lithium-ion batteries. The anode materials were prepared via a one-pot solvothermal approach and then calcination in a highly pure nitrogen atmosphere. The composited was composed of amor- phous carbon and nanocrystalline SnO2 by the X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, and the content of carbon was calculated according to the thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images revealed that the diameter of these as-prepared spheres varied from 50 to 60 nm. A systematic study has been carried out to examine the effect of carbon content upon lithium-ion battery performance. The electrochemical results showed that SnO2/C nanocomposite could achieve 1197.5 mAh/g reversible capacity and 55.11% initial coulombic efficiency, and 190% capacity retention after 50 cycles compared to the SnO2 nanoparticles of 940.6 mAh/g at a current density 0.2 C in the voltage range of 0.01-3.0 V. These improvements can be ascribed to the carbon, which can enhance the conductivity of SnO2, suppress the aggregation of active particles, and increase their structural stability during cycling. PMID:27433668

  6. Ultrafine Nb2O5 Nanocrystal Coating on Reduced Graphene Oxide as Anode Material for High Performance Sodium Ion Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Litao; Chen, Gen; Sarker, Swagotom; Richins, Stephanie; Wang, Huiqiang; Xu, Weichuan; Rui, Xianhong; Luo, Hongmei

    2016-08-31

    Ultrafine niobium oxide nanocrystals/reduced graphene oxide (Nb2O5 NCs/rGO) was demonstrated as a promising anode material for sodium ion battery with high rate performance and high cycle durability. Nb2O5 NCs/rGO was synthesized by controllable hydrolysis of niobium ethoxide and followed by heat treatment at 450 °C in flowing forming gas. Transmission electron microscopy images showed that Nb2O5 NCs with average particle size of 3 nm were uniformly deposited on rGO sheets and voids among Nb2O5 NCs existed. The architecture of ultrafine Nb2O5 NCs anchored on a highly conductive rGO network can not only enhance charge transfer and buffer the volume change during sodiation/desodiation process but also provide more active surface area for sodium ion storage, resulting in superior rate and cycle performance. Ex situ XPS analysis revealed that the sodium ion storage mechanism in Nb2O5 could be accompanied by Nb(5+)/Nb(4+) redox reaction and the ultrafine Nb2O5 NCs provide more surface area to accomplish the redox reaction.

  7. Aerosol assisted synthesis of hierarchical tin–carbon composites and their application as lithium battery anode materials

    KAUST Repository

    Guo, Juchen

    2013-01-01

    We report a method for synthesizing hierarchically structured tin-carbon (Sn-C) composites via aerosol spray pyrolysis. In this method, an aqueous precursor solution containing tin(ii) chloride and sucrose is atomized, and the resultant aerosol droplets carried by an inert gas are pyrolyzed in a high-temperature tubular furnace. Owing to the unique combination of high reaction temperature and short reaction time, this method is able to achieve a hetero-structure in which small Sn particles (15 nm) are uniformly embedded in a secondary carbon particle. This procedure allows the size and size distribution of the primary Sn particles to be tuned, as well as control over the size of the secondary carbon particles by addition of polymeric surfactant in the precursor solution. When evaluated as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries, the resultant Sn-C composites demonstrate attractive electrochemical performance in terms of overall capacity, electrochemical stability, and coulombic efficiency. © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  8. Ultrafine Nb2O5 Nanocrystal Coating on Reduced Graphene Oxide as Anode Material for High Performance Sodium Ion Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Litao; Chen, Gen; Sarker, Swagotom; Richins, Stephanie; Wang, Huiqiang; Xu, Weichuan; Rui, Xianhong; Luo, Hongmei

    2016-08-31

    Ultrafine niobium oxide nanocrystals/reduced graphene oxide (Nb2O5 NCs/rGO) was demonstrated as a promising anode material for sodium ion battery with high rate performance and high cycle durability. Nb2O5 NCs/rGO was synthesized by controllable hydrolysis of niobium ethoxide and followed by heat treatment at 450 °C in flowing forming gas. Transmission electron microscopy images showed that Nb2O5 NCs with average particle size of 3 nm were uniformly deposited on rGO sheets and voids among Nb2O5 NCs existed. The architecture of ultrafine Nb2O5 NCs anchored on a highly conductive rGO network can not only enhance charge transfer and buffer the volume change during sodiation/desodiation process but also provide more active surface area for sodium ion storage, resulting in superior rate and cycle performance. Ex situ XPS analysis revealed that the sodium ion storage mechanism in Nb2O5 could be accompanied by Nb(5+)/Nb(4+) redox reaction and the ultrafine Nb2O5 NCs provide more surface area to accomplish the redox reaction. PMID:27508452

  9. Synthesis and Characterization of Silicon Nanoparticles Inserted into Graphene Sheets as High Performance Anode Material for Lithium Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Silicon nanoparticles have been successfully inserted into graphene sheets via a novel method combining freeze-drying and thermal reduction. The structure, electrochemical performance, and cycling stability of this anode material were characterized by SEM, X-ray diffraction (XRD, charge/discharge cycling, and cyclic voltammetry (CV. CV showed that the Si/graphene nanocomposite exhibits remarkably enhanced cycling performance and rate performance compared with bare Si nanoparticles for lithium ion batteries. XRD and SEM showed that silicon nanoparticles inserted into graphene sheets were homogeneous and had better layered structure than the bare silicon nanoparticles. Graphene sheets improved high rate discharge capacity and long cycle-life performance. The initial capacity of the Si nanoparticles/graphene keeps above 850 mAhg−1 after 100 cycles at a rate of 100 mAg−1. The excellent cycle performances are caused by the good structure of the composites, which ensured uniform electronic conducting sheet and intensified the cohesion force of binder and collector, respectively.

  10. Micro- and nanomorphology coexisting in titanium dioxide coating for application as anode material in secondary lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lo, Wen-Chi, E-mail: wenchilo694@gmail.com; Chu, Hou-Jen; He, Ju-Liang

    2015-03-31

    Titanium dioxide has recently attracted attention as an anode material for use in lithium-ion batteries, owing to its high reversible capacity and durable charge/discharge characteristics. The aim of the study is to combine micro-arc oxidation (MAO) and post-alkali treatment to realize an anatase titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) scaffold layer on titanium plates. Using this combination, coexisting micro- and nanomorphology can be realized in the TiO{sub 2} layer. This increases the specific surface area of the TiO{sub 2} layer and thereby improves the charge capacity and charge/discharge rate of the anode. The effectiveness of MAO to fabricate a micrometer-scale porous TiO{sub 2} structure on titanium plate, and the formation of nano-flakes by alkali treatment on porous anatase TiO{sub 2} layer was demonstrated. Further, numerous 40–80 nm alkali-treatment-induced nano-flakes grew all over the oxide surface, substantially increasing its specific surface area. The measured electrochemical properties demonstrate that at potentials of − 1.98 V and − 0.56 V vs. Ag/AgCl, lithium ions were respectively inserted into and extracted from the TiO{sub 2} layer with nano-flakes. The nano-flakes promote faster lithium-ion insertion and extraction and higher associated number of charge than the MAO TiO{sub 2}. The detailed charging/discharging kinetic processes of the MAO, annealed MAO, alkali-treated MAO, and annealed and alkali-treated MAO specimens were determined using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, thus providing further insight into the performance of the TiO{sub 2} coating. - Highlights: • A micrometer-scale porous crystalline TiO{sub 2} layer was fabricated by MAO. • After alkali treatment, the oxide surface exhibits numerous pores. • The layer was composed of predominantly anatase and minor rutile. • Optimum solution temperature and NaOH concentration yielded nano-flaky morphology. • Such morphology leads to the increase performance of the treated

  11. Micro- and nanomorphology coexisting in titanium dioxide coating for application as anode material in secondary lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Titanium dioxide has recently attracted attention as an anode material for use in lithium-ion batteries, owing to its high reversible capacity and durable charge/discharge characteristics. The aim of the study is to combine micro-arc oxidation (MAO) and post-alkali treatment to realize an anatase titanium dioxide (TiO2) scaffold layer on titanium plates. Using this combination, coexisting micro- and nanomorphology can be realized in the TiO2 layer. This increases the specific surface area of the TiO2 layer and thereby improves the charge capacity and charge/discharge rate of the anode. The effectiveness of MAO to fabricate a micrometer-scale porous TiO2 structure on titanium plate, and the formation of nano-flakes by alkali treatment on porous anatase TiO2 layer was demonstrated. Further, numerous 40–80 nm alkali-treatment-induced nano-flakes grew all over the oxide surface, substantially increasing its specific surface area. The measured electrochemical properties demonstrate that at potentials of − 1.98 V and − 0.56 V vs. Ag/AgCl, lithium ions were respectively inserted into and extracted from the TiO2 layer with nano-flakes. The nano-flakes promote faster lithium-ion insertion and extraction and higher associated number of charge than the MAO TiO2. The detailed charging/discharging kinetic processes of the MAO, annealed MAO, alkali-treated MAO, and annealed and alkali-treated MAO specimens were determined using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, thus providing further insight into the performance of the TiO2 coating. - Highlights: • A micrometer-scale porous crystalline TiO2 layer was fabricated by MAO. • After alkali treatment, the oxide surface exhibits numerous pores. • The layer was composed of predominantly anatase and minor rutile. • Optimum solution temperature and NaOH concentration yielded nano-flaky morphology. • Such morphology leads to the increase performance of the treated Ti plate

  12. Relationship between anode material, supporting electrolyte and current density during electrochemical degradation of organic compounds in water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guzmán-Duque, Fernando L. [Grupo de diagnóstico y control de la contaminación, Facultad de ingeniería, Universidad de Antioquia, A.A. 1226, Medellín (Colombia); Palma-Goyes, Ricardo E. [Grupo de Investigación en Remediación Ambiental y Biocatálisis, Instituto de Química, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Antioquía Udea, A.A. 1226, Medellín (Colombia); González, Ignacio [Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, Departamento de Química, Av. San Rafael Atlixco No 186, C.P 09340, México D.F (Mexico); Peñuela, Gustavo [Grupo de diagnóstico y control de la contaminación, Facultad de ingeniería, Universidad de Antioquia, A.A. 1226, Medellín (Colombia); Torres-Palma, Ricardo A., E-mail: rtorres@matematicas.udea.edu.co [Grupo de Investigación en Remediación Ambiental y Biocatálisis, Instituto de Química, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Antioquía Udea, A.A. 1226, Medellín (Colombia)

    2014-08-15

    Highlights: • Pathway and efficiency are linked to the current-electrode–electrolyte interaction. • Unlike BDD, IrO{sub 2} route was independent of current but dependent on the electrolyte. • IrO{sub 2}/SO{sub 4}{sup 2−} and IrO{sub 2}/Cl{sup −} routes were via IrO{sub 3} and chlorine species, respectively. • BDD/SO{sub 4}{sup 2−} and IrO{sub 2}/Cl{sup −} systems were favored at low and high currents, respectively. - Abstract: Taking crystal violet (CV) dye as pollutant model, the electrode, electrolyte and current density (i) relationship for electro-degrading organic molecules is discussed. Boron-doped diamond (BDD) or Iridium dioxide (IrO{sub 2}) used as anode materials were tested with Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} or NaCl as electrolytes. CV degradation and generated oxidants showed that degradation pathways and efficiency are strongly linked to the current density-electrode–electrolyte interaction. With BDD, the degradation pathway depends on i: If i < the limiting current density (i{sub lim}), CV is mainly degraded by ·OH radicals, whereas if i > i{sub lim}, generated oxidants play a major role in the CV elimination. When IrO{sub 2} was used, CV removal was not dependent on i, but on the electrolyte. Pollutant degradation in Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} on IrO{sub 2} seems to occur via IrO{sub 3}; however, in the presence of NaCl, degradation was dependent on the chlorinated oxidative species generated. In terms of efficiency, the Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} electrolyte showed better results than NaCl when BDD anodes were employed. On the contrary, NaCl was superior when combined with IrO{sub 2}. Thus, the IrO{sub 2}/Cl{sup −} and BDD/SO{sub 4}{sup 2−} systems were better at removing the pollutant, being the former the most effective. On the other hand, pollutant degradation with the BDD/SO{sub 4}{sup 2−} and IrO{sub 2}/Cl{sup −} systems is favored at low and high current densities, respectively.

  13. Advanced nanostructured materials for energy storage and conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchings, Gregory S.

    Due to a global effort to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and to utilize renewable sources of energy, much effort has been directed towards creating new alternatives to fossil fuels. Identifying novel materials for energy storage and conversion can enable radical changes to the current fuel production infrastructure and energy utilization. The use of engineered nanostructured materials in these systems unlocks unique catalytic activity in practical configurations. In this work, research efforts have been focused on the development of nanostructured materials to address the need for both better energy conversion and storage, with applications toward Li-O2 battery electrocatalysts, electrocatalytic generation of H2, conversion of furfural to useful chemicals and fuels, and Li battery anode materials. Highly-active alpha-MnO2 materials were synthesized for use as bifunctional oxygen reduction (ORR) and evolution (OER) catalysts in Li-O2 batteries, and were evaluated under operating conditions with a novel in situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy configuration. Through detailed analysis of local coordination and oxidation states of Mn atoms at key points in the electrochemical cycle, a self-switching behavior affecting the bifunctional activity was identified and found to be critical. In an additional study of materials for lithium batteries, nanostructured TiO2 anode materials doped with first-row transition metals were synthesized and evaluated for improving battery discharge capacity and rate performance, with Ni and Co doping at low levels found to cause the greatest enhancement. In addition to battery technology research, I have also sought to find inexpensive and earth-abundant electrocatalysts to replace state-of-the-art Pt/C in the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER), a systematic computational study of Cu-based bimetallic electrocatalysts was performed. During the screening of dilute surface alloys of Cu mixed with other first-row transition metals, materials with

  14. CoSb3-graphite composite anode material for lithium ion batteries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Jian; CAO Gaoshao; ZHAO Xinbing

    2005-01-01

    The CoSb3-graphite composite was prepared by ball-milling. The electrochemical performance of the composite material was evaluated using the lithium ion model cell Li / LiPF6 (EC + DMC) / CoSb3C4. It was found that the CoSb3C4 composite shows higher reversible capacity than the pure CoSb3 alloy, and its first reversible (Li-ions removal) capacity reaches 721 Ma·h·g-1, which exceeds the theoretical capacity (550 Ma.h.g-1) of CoSb3C4.

  15. Hard carbon as anode material in lithium batteries: Synthesis and characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baertsch, M.C.; Schmid, L.; Baiker, A.; Novak, P.

    2003-03-01

    Hard carbon is a possible alternative as negative electrode material for rechargeable lithium-ion batteries. A fast production of hard carbon can be reached if the curing time of the precursor is short. Due to the promising results from literature regarding epoxy resin as precursor we produced hard carbon from a commercially available fast-setting epoxy resin. The surface area and pore structure properties of the carbon powder were investigated with gas adsorption methods. The carbon particle size distribution was ana-lysed with a laser diffraction instrument. (author)

  16. Tantalum carbide as a novel support material for anode electrocatalysts in polymer electrolyte membrane water electrolysers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Polonský, Jakub; Petrushina, Irina; Christensen, Erik;

    2012-01-01

    in a mixture of trifluoromethanesulfonic acid (TFMSA) and hydrogen peroxide at 130 °C. The liquid phase was subsequently analysed using ICP-MS with respect to the occurrence of ions potentially originating from the support material tested. The TaC support selected was additionally characterised...... and was equal to 0.1, 0.3, 0.5, 0.7, 0.9 and 1. The thin-film method was used for electrochemical characterisation of the electrocatalysts prepared. SEM–EDX analysis, X-ray diffraction, N2 adsorption (BET) and powder conductivity measurements were used as complementary techniques to complete characterisation...

  17. SnSe/carbon nanocomposite synthesized by high energy ball milling as an anode material for sodium-ion and lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: A homogeneous nanocomposite of SnSe and carbon black was synthesised by high energy ball milling and empolyed as an anode material for sodium-ion batteries (SIBs) and lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). The nanocomposite anode exhibits excellent electrochemical performances in both SIBs and LIBs. - Highlights: • A homogeneous nanocomposite of SnSe and carbon black was fabricated by high energy ball milling. • SnSe and carbon black are homogeneously mixed at the nanoscale level. • The SnSe/C anode exhibits excellent electrochemical performances in both SIBs and LIBs. - Abstract: A homogeneous nanocomposite of SnSe and carbon black, denoted as SnSe/C nanocomposite, was fabricated by high energy ball milling and empolyed as a high performance anode material for both sodium-ion batteries and lithium-ion batteries. The X-ray diffraction patterns, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy observations confirmed that SnSe in SnSe/C nanocomposite was homogeneously distributed within carbon black. The nanocomposite anode exhibited enhanced electrochemical performances including a high capacity, long cycling behavior and good rate performance in both sodium-ion batteries (SIBs) and lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). In SIBs, an initial capacitiy of 748.5 mAh g−1 was obtained and was maintained well on cycling (324.9 mAh g−1 at a high current density of 500 mA g−1 in the 200 th cycle) with 72.5% retention of second cycle capacity (447.7 mAh g−1). In LIBs, high initial capacities of approximately 1097.6 mAh g−1 was obtained, and this reduced to 633.1 mAh g−1 after 100 cycles at 500 mA g−1

  18. 3D Fe{sub 2}(MoO{sub 4}){sub 3} microspheres with nanosheet constituents as high-capacity anode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Hao; Wang, Shiqiang [Hubei University, Key Laboratory for Synthesis and Applications of Organic Functional Molecules (China); Wang, Jiazhao; Wang, Jun [University of Wollongong, Institute for Superconducting and Electronic Materials (Australia); Li, Lin; Yang, Yun; Feng, Chuanqi, E-mail: cfeng@hubu.edu.cn [Hubei University, Key Laboratory for Synthesis and Applications of Organic Functional Molecules (China); Sun, Ziqi, E-mail: ziqi.sun@qut.edu.au [Queensland University of Technology, School of Chemistry, Physics and Mechanical Engineering, Science and Engineering Faculty (Australia)

    2015-11-15

    Three-dimensional (3D) Fe{sub 2}(MoO{sub 4}){sub 3} microspheres with ultrathin nanosheet constituents are first synthesized as anode materials for the lithium-ion battery. It is interesting that the single-crystalline nanosheets allow rapid electron/ion transport on the inside, and the high porosity ensures fast diffusion of liquid electrolyte in energy storage applications. The electrochemical properties of Fe{sub 2}(MoO{sub 4}){sub 3} as anode demonstrates that 3D Fe{sub 2}(MoO{sub 4}){sub 3} microspheres deliver an initial capacity of 1855 mAh/g at a current density of 100 mA/g. Particularly, when the current density is increased to 800 mA/g, the reversible capacity of Fe{sub 2}(MoO{sub 4}){sub 3} anode still arrived at 456 mAh/g over 50 cycles. The large and reversible capacities and stable charge–discharge cycling performance indicate that Fe{sub 2}(MoO{sub 4}){sub 3} is a promising anode material for lithium battery applications.Graphical abstractThe electrochemical properties of Fe{sub 2}(MoO{sub 4}){sub 3} as anode demonstrates that 3D Fe{sub 2}(MoO{sub 4}){sub 3} microspheres delivered an initial capacity of 1855 mAh/g at a current density of 100 mA/g. When the current density was increased to 800 mA/g, the Fe{sub 2}(MoO{sub 4}){sub 3} still behaved high reversible capacity and good cycle performance.

  19. Mesoporous silicon/carbon hybrids with ordered pore channel retention and tunable carbon incorporated content as high performance anode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In-situ magnesiothermic reduction reaction route was developed to synthesize mesoporous Si/C (silicon/carbon) hybrids with ordered pore channel retention and tunable carbon incorporated content as high performance anode materials for LIBs (lithium ion batteries). The effect of carbon incorporation on the microstructures and electrochemical performance of the Si/C hybrid LIBs anodes is investigated. The incorporation of carbon in the Si/C hybrids not only prevents the ordered structure of mesoporous silicon from collapsing, but also increases the electrical conductivity of the synthesized Si/C hybrids. The as-prepared Si/C hybrid LIBs anode with an optimal carbon content of 7.05 wt%, displays improved electrochemical performance with a high reversible specific capacity, rate capability and excellent cyclic performance, showing a higher specific capacity of up to 1452 mAh g−1 at a current density of 200 mA g−1 after 100 cycles and a high coulombic efficiency of up to 99.2%. The great improvement of the electrochemical performance of the ordered mesoporous Si/C hybrid LIBs anodes can be attributed to the unique ordered structure, large surface area, the homogeneously incorporated carbon in the Si/C hybrids. The synthesized ordered mesoporous Si/C hybrids are promising for potential applications as LIB anode materials with enhanced electrochemical performance. - Highlights: • Ordered mesoporous Si/C hybrids are synthesized by chemically reducing silica. • The pre-impregnated carbon source prevents the ordered structure from collapsing. • Mesoporous Si/C hybrids exhibit excellent Li+ storage capacity and cyclic stability

  20. Inert Anode Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    1999-07-01

    This ASME report provides a broad assessment of open literature and patents that exist in the area of inert anodes and their related cathode systems and cell designs, technologies that are relevant for the advanced smelting of aluminum. The report also discusses the opportunities, barriers, and issues associated with these technologies from a technical, environmental, and economic viewpoint.

  1. Advanced materials for thermal management of electronic packaging

    CERN Document Server

    Tong, Xingcun Colin

    2011-01-01

    The need for advanced thermal management materials in electronic packaging has been widely recognized as thermal challenges become barriers to the electronic industry's ability to provide continued improvements in device and system performance. With increased performance requirements for smaller, more capable, and more efficient electronic power devices, systems ranging from active electronically scanned radar arrays to web servers all require components that can dissipate heat efficiently. This requires that the materials have high capability of dissipating heat and maintaining compatibility

  2. One-pot synthesis of nitrogen and sulfur co-doped graphene supported MoS2 as high performance anode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Nitrogen and sulfur co-doped graphene supported MoS2 nanosheets were successfully prepared and used as anode materials for Li-ion batteries. • The as-prepared anode materials show excellent stability in Li-ion batteries. • The materials show high reversible capacity for lithium ion batteries. - Abstract: Nitrogen and sulfur co-doped graphene supported MoS2 (MoS2/NS-G) nanosheets were prepared through a one-pot thermal annealing method. The as prepared samples were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Raman spectra and electrochemical techniques. The MoS2/NS-G shows high reversible capacity about 1200 mAh/g at current density of 150 mA/g and excellent stability in Li-ion batteries. It was demonstrated the co-doping of graphene by N and S could significantly enhance the durability of MoS2 as anode materials for Li-ion batteries

  3. Facile synthesis of a MoO2-Mo2C-C composite and its application as favorable anode material for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yanping; Wang, Shaofeng; Zhong, Yijun; Cai, Rui; Li, Li; Shao, Zongping

    2016-03-01

    A composite of MoO2-Mo2C-C is fabricated through a facile ion-exchange route for the first time as an alternative anode material for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). A macroporous cinnamic anion-exchange resin interacts with ammonium molybdate tetrahydrate in aqueous solution, and the product is then calcined under an inert gas atmosphere. The interaction between the resin and ammonium molybdate tetrahydrate results in an atomic level dispersion of the molybdenum over the organic carbon precursor (resin), while the calcination process allows the formation of MoO2 and Mo2C as well as the pyrolysis of resin to solid carbon. According to field-emission scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) measurements, ultrafine MoO2 and Mo2C nanoparticles are uniformly dispersed but firmly attached within an amorphous carbon framework. When evaluated as an anode material, the as-synthesized sample exhibits superior electrochemical performance. The specific discharge capacity is as high as 1491 mA h g-1 in the first cycle and 724 mA h g-1 over 50 cycles at a current density of 0.2 A g-1. This simple, environmentally friendly, low-cost and easily scaled up method, has significant potential for mass industrial production of MoO2-based material as next-generation anode material of LIBs with wide application capability.

  4. Pyrolitic carbon from biomass precursors as anode materials for lithium batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephan, A. Manuel [School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Chonbuk National University, Chonju 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Central Electrochemical Research Institute, Karaikudi 630006 (India); Kumar, T. Prem [Central Electrochemical Research Institute, Karaikudi 630006 (India); Ramesh, R. [Central Electrochemical Research Institute, Karaikudi 630006 (India); Thomas, Sabu [School of Chemical Sciences, Mahatma Gandhi University, Kottayam 686560 (India); Jeong, Soo Kyung [School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Chonbuk National University, Chonju 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Nahm, Kee Suk [School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Chonbuk National University, Chonju 561-756 (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail: nahmks@chonbuk.ac.kr

    2006-08-25

    Disordered carbonaceous materials were synthesized by the pyrolysis of banana fibers treated with pore-forming substances such as ZnCl{sub 2} and KOH. X-ray diffraction studies indicated a carbon structure with a large number of disorganized single layer carbon sheets. Addition of porogenic agent led to remarkable changes in the structure and morphology of the carbonaceous products. The product obtained with ZnCl{sub 2} treatment gave first-cycle lithium insertion and de-insertion capacities of 3325 and 400 mAh g{sup -1}, respectively. Lower capacities only could be realized in the subsequent cycles, although the coulombic efficiency increased upon cycling, which in the 10th cycle was 95%.

  5. Smart electrochemical biosensors: From advanced materials to ultrasensitive devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadik, Omowunmi A., E-mail: osadik@binghamton.ed [Department of Chemistry, Center for Advanced Sensors and Environmental Monitoring (CASE), State University of New York-Binghamton, P.O. Box 6000, Binghamton, NY 13902 (United States); Mwilu, Samuel K.; Aluoch, Austin [Department of Chemistry, Center for Advanced Sensors and Environmental Monitoring (CASE), State University of New York-Binghamton, P.O. Box 6000, Binghamton, NY 13902 (United States)

    2010-05-30

    The specificity, simplicity, and inherent miniaturization afforded by advances in modern electronics have allowed electrochemical sensors to rival the most advanced optical protocols. One major obstacle in implementing electrochemistry for studying biomolecular reaction is its inadequate sensitivity. Recent reports however showed unprecedented sensitivities for biomolecular recognition using enhanced electronic amplification provided by new classes of electrode materials (e.g. carbon nanotubes, metal nanoparticles, and quantum dots). Biosensor technology is one area where recent advances in nanomaterials are pushing the technological limits of electrochemical sensitivities, thus allowing for the development of new sensor chemistries and devices. This work focuses on our recent work, based on metal-enhanced electrochemical detection, and those of others in combining advanced nanomaterials with electrochemistry for the development of smart sensors for proteins, nucleic acids, drugs and cancer cells.

  6. Modelling of advanced structural materials for GEN IV reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samaras, M.; Hoffelner, W.; Victoria, M.

    2007-09-01

    The choice of suitable materials and the assessment of long-term materials damage are key issues that need to be addressed for the safe and reliable performance of nuclear power plants. Operating conditions such as high temperatures, irradiation and a corrosive environment degrade materials properties, posing the risk of very expensive or even catastrophic plant damage. Materials scientists are faced with the scientific challenge to determine the long-term damage evolution of materials under service exposure in advanced plants. A higher confidence in life-time assessments of these materials requires an understanding of the related physical phenomena on a range of scales from the microscopic level of single defect damage effects all the way up to macroscopic effects. To overcome lengthy and expensive trial-and-error experiments, the multiscale modelling of materials behaviour is a promising tool, bringing new insights into the fundamental understanding of basic mechanisms. This paper presents the multiscale modelling methodology which is taking root internationally to address the issues of advanced structural materials for Gen IV reactors.

  7. Modelling of advanced structural materials for GEN IV reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The choice of suitable materials and the assessment of long-term materials damage are key issues that need to be addressed for the safe and reliable performance of nuclear power plants. Operating conditions such as high temperatures, irradiation and a corrosive environment degrade materials properties, posing the risk of very expensive or even catastrophic plant damage. Materials scientists are faced with the scientific challenge to determine the long-term damage evolution of materials under service exposure in advanced plants. A higher confidence in life-time assessments of these materials requires an understanding of the related physical phenomena on a range of scales from the microscopic level of single defect damage effects all the way up to macroscopic effects. To overcome lengthy and expensive trial-and-error experiments, the multiscale modelling of materials behaviour is a promising tool, bringing new insights into the fundamental understanding of basic mechanisms. This paper presents the multiscale modelling methodology which is taking root internationally to address the issues of advanced structural materials for Gen IV reactors

  8. Design of advanced materials for linear and nonlinear dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Niels Morten Marslev

    but general model of inhomogeneous structural materials with nonlinear material characteristics. The second material system is an “engineered” material in the sense that a classical structural element, a linear elastic and homogeneous rod, is “enhanced” by applying a mechanism on its surface, amplifying....... This is demonstrated both analytically, numerically and experimentally. This makes the material a strong candidate for mechanical filtering for sound and vibration isolation purposes, not least for systems with varying natural frequencies such as nonlinear structures or structures with variable mass due to, e......The primary catalyst of this PhD project has been an ambition to design advanced materials and structural systems including, and possibly even exploiting, nonlinear phenomena such as nonlinear modal interaction leading to energy conversion between modes. An important prerequisite for efficient...

  9. Carbon The Future Material for Advanced Technology Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Messina, Giacomo

    2006-01-01

    Carbon-based materials and their applications constitute a burgeoning topic of scientific research among scientists and engineers attracted from diverse areas such as applied physics, materials science, biology, mechanics, electronics and engineering. Further development of current materials, advances in their applications, and discovery of new forms of carbon are the themes addressed by the frontier research in these fields. This book covers all the fundamental topics concerned with amorphous and crystalline C-based materials, such as diamond, diamond-like carbon, carbon alloys, carbon nanotubes. The goal is, by coherently progressing from growth - and characterisation techniques to technological applications for each class of material, to fashion the first comprehensive state-of-the-art review of this fast evolving field of research in carbon materials.

  10. Materials/manufacturing element of the Advanced Turbine Systems Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karnitz, M.A.; Holcomb, R.S.; Wright, I.G. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)] [and others

    1995-10-01

    The technology based portion of the Advanced Turbine Systems Program (ATS) contains several subelements which address generic technology issues for land-based gas-turbine systems. One subelement is the Materials/Manufacturing Technology Program which is coordinated by DOE-Oak Ridge Operations and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The work in this subelement is being performed predominantly by industry with assistance from universities and the national laboratories. Projects in this subelement are aimed toward hastening the incorporation of new materials and components in gas turbines. A materials/manufacturing plan was developed in FY 1994 with input from gas turbine manufacturers, materials suppliers, universities, and government laboratories. The plan outlines seven major subelements which focus on materials issues and manufacturing processes. Work is currently under way in four of the seven major subelements. There are now major projects on coatings and process development, scale-up of single crystal airfoil manufacturing technology, materials characterization, and technology information exchange.

  11. Advanced Packaging Materials and Techniques for High Power TR Module: Standard Flight vs. Advanced Packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, James Patrick; Del Castillo, Linda; Miller, Jennifer; Jenabi, Masud; Hunter, Donald; Birur, Gajanana

    2011-01-01

    The higher output power densities required of modern radar architectures, such as the proposed DESDynI [Deformation, Ecosystem Structure, and Dynamics of Ice] SAR [Synthetic Aperture Radar] Instrument (or DSI) require increasingly dense high power electronics. To enable these higher power densities, while maintaining or even improving hardware reliability, requires advances in integrating advanced thermal packaging technologies into radar transmit/receive (TR) modules. New materials and techniques have been studied and compared to standard technologies.

  12. The capacity fading mechanism and improvement of cycling stability in MoS2-based anode materials for lithium-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Haibo; Li, Feng; Hu, Chenli; Liang, Pei; Cao, Dan; Chen, Xiaoshuang

    2016-02-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) layered MoS2 nanosheets possess great potential as anode materials for lithium ion batteries (LIBs), but they still suffer from poor cycling performance. Improving the cycling stability of electrode materials depends on a deep understanding of their dynamic structural evolution and reaction kinetics in the lithiation process. Herein, thermodynamic phase diagrams and the lithiation dynamics of MoS2-based nanostructures with the intercalation of lithium ions are studied by using first-principles calculations and ab initio molecular dynamics simulations. Our results demonstrate that the continuous intercalation of Li ions induces structural destruction of 2H phase MoS2 nanosheets in the discharge process that follows a layer-by-layer dissociation mechanism. Meanwhile, the intercalation of Li ions leads to a structural transition of MoS2 nanosheets from the 2H to the 1T phase due to the ultralow transition barriers (∼0.1 eV). We find that the phase transition can slow down the dissociation of MoS2 nanosheets during lithiation. The result can be applied to explain extensive experimental observation of the fast capacity fading of MoS2-based anode materials between the first and the subsequent discharges. To suppress the dissociation of MoS2 nanosheets in the lithiation process, we propose a strategy by constructing a sandwich-like graphene/MoS2/graphene structure that indicates high chemical stability, superior conductivity, and high Li-ion mobility in the charge/discharge process, implying the possibility to induce an improvement in the anode cycling performance. This work opens a new route to rational design layered transition-metal disulfide (TMD) anode materials for LIBs with superior cycling stability and electrochemical performance.

  13. Structural and electrochemical studies of a hexaphenylbenzene pyrolysed soft carbon as anode material in lithium batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonino, Franco; Brutti, Sergio; Piana, Michele; Natale, Sergio; Scrosati, Bruno [Chemistry Department, University ' La Sapienza' , P. le A. Moro 5, 00185 Roma (Italy); Gherghel, Lileta; Muellen, Klaus [Max-Planck Institute for Polymer Research, Ackermannweg 10, 55124 Mainz (Germany)

    2006-04-25

    XRD, SEM micrographs, BET analyses and typical electrochemical experiments (cyclic voltammetry, step voltammetry and Li insertion/deinsertion at constant current) have been carried out to characterize a new type of soft carbons obtained by pyrolysis of hexaphenylbenzene (HPB). By means of XRD and cyclic voltammetry at least three different type of sites for lithium storage were found. The first is graphite like type with d{sub 002} graphene layer distance greater than pure graphite; the second is associated to disordered volumes among crystallites and the third is represented by Li sites at the hydrogen-terminated edges of hexagonal carbon fragments, characterized by higher energy in comparison with simple insertion sites. These last two types of sites are able to store some extra lithium, compared to pure graphite. BET analyses and cyclic voltammetries demonstrate the key role of the milling time on the characteristics and properties of this HPB pyrolysed carbon. Specific capacities shown by this pyrolysed material in Li coin-type cell have been also reported. (author)

  14. In situ X-ray diffraction characterization of NbS2 nanosheets as the anode material for sodium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Xing; Xiong, Xunhui; Zheng, Fenghua; Yang, Chenghao; Lin, Zhihua; Hu, Renzong; Jin, Chao; Chen, Yu; Liu, Meilin

    2016-09-01

    Low cost sodium ion batteries (SIBs) have attracted considerable attentions for large scale electric energy storage (EES), owing to the nature abundance of sodium sources in the earth crust. Searching for appropriate anode materials is a hot topic and vital for developing high performance SIBs. Recently, transition metal dichalcogenides have attracted many interests, as their sandwiched framework stacked up together by van der Waals force can facilitate the electrons transportation and reversible Na+ ions intercalation. Here, NbS2 nanosheets with two-dimensional (2D) layered structure have been fabricated by a facile chemical exfoliation method and been utilized as the anode material for SIBs. The chemically exfoliated NbS2 (ce-NbS2) nanosheets deliver a high reversible specific capacity of 205 mAh g-1 at 100 mA g-1, exhibit high rate performance and excellent cycling stability. In situ X-ray diffraction test demonstrates that ce-NbS2 nanosheets will not suffer any unwanted phase transformation upon soidation/desodiation, which make them promising to construct high capacity and long cycle life anode materials for SIBs.

  15. An in situ method of creating metal oxide–carbon composites and their application as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Zichao

    2011-01-01

    Transition metal oxides are actively investigated as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs), and their nanocomposites with carbon frequently show better performance in galvanostatic cycling studies, compared to the pristine metal oxide. An in situ, scalable method for creating a variety of transition metal oxide-carbon nanocomposites has been developed based on free-radical polymerization and cross-linking of poly(acrylonitrile) in the presence of the metal oxide precursor containing vinyl groups. The approach yields a cross-linked polymer network, which uniformly incorporates nanometre-sized transition metal oxide particles. Thermal treatment of the organic-inorganic hybrid material produces nearly monodisperse metal oxide nanoparticles uniformly embedded in a porous carbon matrix. Cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic cycling electrochemical measurements in a lithium half-cell are used to evaluate the electrochemical properties of a Fe3O 4-carbon composite created using this approach. These measurements reveal that when used as the anode in a lithium battery, the material exhibits stable cycling performance at both low and high current densities. We further show that the polymer/nanoparticle copolymerization approach can be readily adapted to synthesize metal oxide/carbon nanocomposites based on different particle chemistries for applications in both the anode and cathode of LIBs. © 2011 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  16. Fluorine-Doped Tin Oxide Nanocrystal/Reduced Graphene Oxide Composites as Lithium Ion Battery Anode Material with High Capacity and Cycling Stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Haiping; Shi, Liyi; Wang, Zhuyi; Liu, Jia; Zhu, Jiefang; Zhao, Yin; Zhang, Meihong; Yuan, Shuai

    2015-12-16

    Tin oxide (SnO2) is a kind of anode material with high theoretical capacity. However, the volume expansion and fast capability fading during cycling have prevented its practical application in lithium ion batteries. Herein, we report that the nanocomposite of fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) and reduced graphene oxide (RGO) is an ideal anode material with high capacity, high rate capability, and high stability. The FTO conductive nanocrystals were successfully anchored on RGO nanosheets from an FTO nanocrystals colloid and RGO suspension by hydrothermal treatment. As the anode material, the FTO/RGO composite showed high structural stability during the lithiation and delithiation processes. The conductive FTO nanocrystals favor the formation of stable and thin solid electrolyte interface films. Significantly, the FTO/RGO composite retains a discharge capacity as high as 1439 mAhg(-1) after 200 cycles at a current density of 100 mAg(-1). Moreover, its rate capacity displays 1148 mAhg(-1) at a current density of 1000 mAg(-1).

  17. Advanced ceramic materials for next-generation nuclear applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marra, John

    2011-10-01

    The nuclear industry is at the eye of a 'perfect storm' with fuel oil and natural gas prices near record highs, worldwide energy demands increasing at an alarming rate, and increased concerns about greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions that have caused many to look negatively at long-term use of fossil fuels. This convergence of factors has led to a growing interest in revitalization of the nuclear power industry within the United States and across the globe. Many are surprised to learn that nuclear power provides approximately 20% of the electrical power in the US and approximately 16% of the world-wide electric power. With the above factors in mind, world-wide over 130 new reactor projects are being considered with approximately 25 new permit applications in the US. Materials have long played a very important role in the nuclear industry with applications throughout the entire fuel cycle; from fuel fabrication to waste stabilization. As the international community begins to look at advanced reactor systems and fuel cycles that minimize waste and increase proliferation resistance, materials will play an even larger role. Many of the advanced reactor concepts being evaluated operate at high-temperature requiring the use of durable, heat-resistant materials. Advanced metallic and ceramic fuels are being investigated for a variety of Generation IV reactor concepts. These include the traditional TRISO-coated particles, advanced alloy fuels for 'deep-burn' applications, as well as advanced inert-matrix fuels. In order to minimize wastes and legacy materials, a number of fuel reprocessing operations are being investigated. Advanced materials continue to provide a vital contribution in 'closing the fuel cycle' by stabilization of associated low-level and high-level wastes in highly durable cements, ceramics, and glasses. Beyond this fission energy application, fusion energy will demand advanced materials capable of withstanding the extreme environments of high

  18. Anodic oxidation

    CERN Document Server

    Ross, Sidney D; Rudd, Eric J; Blomquist, Alfred T; Wasserman, Harry H

    2013-01-01

    Anodic Oxidation covers the application of the concept, principles, and methods of electrochemistry to organic reactions. This book is composed of two parts encompassing 12 chapters that consider the mechanism of anodic oxidation. Part I surveys the theory and methods of electrochemistry as applied to organic reactions. These parts also present the mathematical equations to describe the kinetics of electrode reactions using both polarographic and steady-state conditions. Part II examines the anodic oxidation of organic substrates by the functional group initially attacked. This part particular

  19. Institute for Advanced Materials at University of Louisville

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sunkara, Mahendra; Sumaneskara, Gamini; Starr, Thomas L; Willing, G A; Robert W, Cohn

    2009-10-29

    In this project, a university-wide, academic center has been established entitled Institute for Advanced Materials and Renewable Energy. In this institute, a comprehensive materials characterization facility has been established by co-locating several existing characterization equipment and acquiring several state of the art instrumentation such as field emission transmission electron microscope, scanning electron microscope, high resolution X-ray diffractometer, Particle Size Distribution/Zeta Potential measurement system, and Ultra-microtome for TEM specimen. In addition, a renewable energy conversion and storage research facility was also established by acquiring instrumentation such as UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy, Atomic Layer Deposition reactor, Solar light simulator, oxygen-free glove box, potentiostat/galvanostats and other miscellaneous items. The institute is staffed with three full-time staff members (one senior research technologist, a senior PhD level research scientist and a junior research scientist) to enable proper use of the techniques. About thirty faculty, fifty graduate students and several researchers access the facilities on a routine basis. Several industry R&D organizations (SudChemie, Optical Dynamics and Hexion) utilize the facility. The established Institute for Advanced Materials at UofL has three main objectives: (a) enable a focused research effort leading to the rapid discovery of new materials and processes for advancing alternate energy conversion and storage technologies; (b) enable offering of several laboratory courses on advanced materials science and engineering; and (c) develop university-industry partnerships based on the advanced materials research. The Institute's efforts were guided by an advisory board comprising eminent researchers from outside KY. Initial research efforts were focused on the discovery of new materials and processes for solar cells and Li ion battery electrodes. Initial sets of results helped PIs

  20. Discussion on Anode Material for Lithium Ion Battery%对锂离子电池正极材料的探讨与研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗雨晗

    2015-01-01

    Lithium ion battery is currently widely used ,which has the advantage of long life cycle ,no memory effect , high energy density , large specific capacity , high voltage and smaller volume , etc . Lithium ion battery mainly consists of four parts ,including electrolyte ,membrane ,cathode materials and anode materials .Among them ,the cost of anode material occupies a higher proportion in the total cost ,which is about 40% .Each performance index of the lithium ions are related to the quality of anode materials , so anode material is the core part for lithium ion battery ,which is very crucial .At the same time ,the performance of the battery's anode material can also reduce the manufacturing cost of the lithium battery ,which has a great significance for the industrialization of electric vehicles .%锂离子电池目前应用广泛,有循环寿命长、无记忆效应、能量密度大、比容量大、电池电压高、体积较小等优点。锂离子电池主要由电解液、隔膜、负极材料和正极材料四大部分构成,其中,正极材料的成本在总成本中所占有的比例较高,大约为40%,锂离子的各项性能指标均与正极材料的好坏有密切关系,所以,锂离子正极材料是组成锂离子电池的核心部分,是非常关键的材料,同时,电池正极材料的性能也可以使锂电池的制作成本降低,对于电动汽车的产业化也有较大的意义。

  1. Materials and Component Development for Advanced Turbine Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvin, M.A.; Pettit, F.; Meier, G.; Yanar, N.; Chyu, M.; Mazzotta, D.; Slaughter, W.; Karaivanov, V.; Kang, B.; Feng, C.; Chen, R.; Fu, T-C.

    2008-10-01

    In order to meet the 2010-2020 DOE Fossil Energy goals for Advanced Power Systems, future oxy-fuel and hydrogen-fired turbines will need to be operated at higher temperatures for extended periods of time, in environments that contain substantially higher moisture concentrations in comparison to current commercial natural gas-fired turbines. Development of modified or advanced material systems, combined with aerothermal concepts are currently being addressed in order to achieve successful operation of these land-based engines. To support the advanced turbine technology development, the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) has initiated a research program effort in collaboration with the University of Pittsburgh (UPitt), and West Virginia University (WVU), working in conjunction with commercial material and coating suppliers as Howmet International and Coatings for Industry (CFI), and test facilities as Westinghouse Plasma Corporation (WPC) and Praxair, to develop advanced material and aerothermal technologies for use in future oxy-fuel and hydrogen-fired turbine applications. Our program efforts and recent results are presented.

  2. Nano-sized Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/carbon as anode material for lithium ion battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jie [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Zhao, Hailei, E-mail: hlzhao@ustb.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Beijing Key Lab of New Energy Materials and Technologies, Beijing 100083 (China); Zeng, Zhipeng; Lv, Pengpeng; Li, Zhaolin; Zhang, Tianhou; Yang, Tianrang [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China)

    2014-12-15

    Nano-sized Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/carbon material is prepared via a simple citric-nitrate combustion method combining with a hydrothermal carbon coating technique. The synthesized Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/carbon composite shows a high reversible specific capacity (ca. 850 mAh g{sup −1} at 100 mA g{sup −1}; ca. 600 mAh g{sup −1} at 500 mA g{sup −1}), good rate-capability as well as superior cycling stability as anode for lithium-ion batteries. The ameliorated electrochemical performance of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/carbon electrode is associated to the nano-sized particle feature and the continuous carbon coating layer. The former provides short lithium-ion/electron diffusion distance, while the latter enables the fast electron transport pathways. Besides, the carbon layer can act as a protective component to prevent the active particle Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} from aggregation and pulverization during the charge/discharge processes. - Highlights: • Nano-sized Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/C was prepared by a simple citric-nitrate combustion process. • Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/C particles show core–shell structure. • Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/C powder displays high specific capacity and good cycling stability. • Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/C composite exhibits a superior rate-capability.

  3. α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}@C nanorings as anode materials for high performance lithium ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Le; Li, Zhenzhen; Fu, Wenming; Li, Fagen [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Ningbo University, Ningbo (China); Wang, Jun, E-mail: wjnaf@ustc.edu [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Ningbo University, Ningbo (China); Wang, Wenzhong [School of Science, Minzu University of China, Beijing 100081 (China)

    2015-10-25

    α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}@C core–shell nanorings are prepared by a facile large-scale two-step route incorporating a hydrothermal method and a carbon coated progress. Its structure and morphology are characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscope, and thermogravimetry. It is found that the as-prepared composite is composed of α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}@C nanorings of about 148 nm in outer diameter, 50 nm in thickness, and 115 nm in length. These α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}@C nanorings are enwrapped with ∼3 nm thick carbon shell. And the electrodes exhibit longer cycle life (815 mAhg{sup −1} after cycling 160 times) at high current rate (1000 mAg{sup −1}) compared with that of bare α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanorings (810 mAhg{sup −1} after cycling 30 times). The improved performance of the composite is attributed to the bondage from carbon shell, which can enhance the electronic conductivity and structural stability of α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanorings. - Highlights: • α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}@C core–shell nanorings are prepared by a facile two-step route. • The α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}@C nanorings are firstly reported as anode materials for LIBs. • The nanorings show a high capacity of 815 mAhg{sup −1} at 1 Ag{sup -1} after 160 cycles.

  4. PREFACE: 6th EEIGM International Conference on Advanced Materials Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horwat, David; Ayadi, Zoubir; Jamart, Brigitte

    2012-02-01

    The 6th EEIGM Conference on Advanced Materials Research (AMR 2011) was held at the European School of Materials Engineering (EEIGM) on the 7-8 November 2011 in Nancy, France. This biennial conference organized by the EEIGM is a wonderful opportunity for all scientists involved in the EEIGM programme, in the 'Erasmus Mundus' Advanced Materials Science and Engineering Master programme (AMASE) and the 'Erasmus Mundus' Doctoral Programme in Materials Science and Engineering (DocMASE), to present their research in the various fields of Materials Science and Engineering. This conference is also open to other universities who have strong links with the EEIGM and provides a forum for the exchange of ideas, co-operation and future orientations by means of regular presentations, posters and a round-table discussion. This edition of the conference included a round-table discussion on composite materials within the Interreg IVA project '+Composite'. Following the publication of the proceedings of AMR 2009 in Volume 5 of this journal, it is with great pleasure that we present this selection of articles to the readers of IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering. Once again it represents the interdisciplinary nature of Materials Science and Engineering, covering basic and applicative research on organic and composite materials, metallic materials and ceramics, and characterization methods. The editors are indebted to all the reviewers for reviewing the papers at very short notice. Special thanks are offered to the sponsors of the conference including EEIGM-Université de Lorraine, AMASE, DocMASE, Grand Nancy, Ville de Nancy, Region Lorraine, Fédération Jacques Villermaux, Conseil Général de Meurthe et Moselle, Casden and '+Composite'. Zoubir Ayadi, David Horwat and Brigitte Jamart

  5. Advanced materials for sodium-beta alumina batteries: Status, challenges and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The increasing penetration of renewable energy and the trend toward clean, efficient transportation have spurred growing interests in sodium-beta alumina batteries that store electrical energy via sodium ion transport across a β''-Al2O3 solid electrolyte at elevated temperatures (typically 300-350 C). Currently, the negative electrode or anode is metallic sodium in molten state during battery operation; the positive electrode or cathode can be molten sulfur (Na-S battery) or solid transition metal halides plus a liquid phase secondary electrolyte (e.g., ZEBRA battery). Since the groundbreaking works in the sodium-beta alumina batteries a few decades ago, encouraging progress has been achieved in improving battery performance, along with cost reduction. However, there remain issues that hinder broad applications and market penetration of the technologies. To better the Na-beta alumina technologies require further advancement in materials along with component and system design and engineering. This paper offers a comprehensive review on materials of electrodes and electrolytes for the Na-beta alumina batteries and discusses the challenges ahead for further technology improvement. (author)

  6. Processed data from neutron scattering experiments described in PhD thesis "NMR and neutron total scattering studies of silicon-based anode materials for lithium-ion batteries"

    OpenAIRE

    Kerr, Christopher J

    2015-01-01

    The results of processing the data in the dataset "Raw data for neutron scattering experiments described in PhD thesis "NMR and neutron total scattering studies of silicon-based anode materials for lithium-ion batteries""

  7. Mesoporous Silicon-Based Anodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peramunage, Dharmasena

    2015-01-01

    For high-capacity, high-performance lithium-ion batteries. A new high-capacity anode composite based on mesoporous silicon is being developed. With a structure that resembles a pseudo one-dimensional phase, the active anode material will accommodate significant volume changes expected upon alloying and dealloying with lithium (Li).

  8. Carbon-Confined SnO2-Electrodeposited Porous Carbon Nanofiber Composite as High-Capacity Sodium-Ion Battery Anode Material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirican, Mahmut; Lu, Yao; Ge, Yeqian; Yildiz, Ozkan; Zhang, Xiangwu

    2015-08-26

    Sodium resources are inexpensive and abundant, and hence, sodium-ion batteries are promising alternative to lithium-ion batteries. However, lower energy density and poor cycling stability of current sodium-ion batteries prevent their practical implementation for future smart power grid and stationary storage applications. Tin oxides (SnO2) can be potentially used as a high-capacity anode material for future sodium-ion batteries, and they have the advantages of high sodium storage capacity, high abundance, and low toxicity. However, SnO2-based anodes still cannot be used in practical sodium-ion batteries because they experience large volume changes during repetitive charge and discharge cycles. Such large volume changes lead to severe pulverization of the active material and loss of electrical contact between the SnO2 and carbon conductor, which in turn result in rapid capacity loss during cycling. Here, we introduce a new amorphous carbon-coated SnO2-electrodeposited porous carbon nanofiber (PCNF@SnO2@C) composite that not only has high sodium storage capability, but also maintains its structural integrity while ongoing repetitive cycles. Electrochemical results revealed that this SnO2-containing nanofiber composite anode had excellent electrochemical performance including high-capacity (374 mAh g(-1)), good capacity retention (82.7%), and large Coulombic efficiency (98.9% after 100th cycle). PMID:26252051

  9. A first-principles study on the effect of oxygen content on the structural and electronic properties of silicon suboxide as anode material for lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahaman, Obaidur; Mortazavi, Bohayra; Rabczuk, Timon

    2016-03-01

    Silicon suboxide is currently considered as a unique candidate for lithium ion batteries anode materials due to its considerable capacity. However, no adequate information exists about the role of oxygen content on its performance. To this aim, we used density functional theory to create silicon suboxide matrices of various Si:O ratios and investigated the role of oxygen content on the structural, dynamic, electronic properties and lithiation behavior of the matrices. Our study demonstrates that the O atoms interact strongly with the inserted Li atoms resulting in a disintegration of the host matrix. We found that higher concentration of oxygen atoms in the mixture reduces its relative expansion upon lithiation, which is a desirable quality for anode materials. It helps in preventing crack formation and pulverization due to large fluctuations in volume. Our study also demonstrates that a higher oxygen content increases the lithium storage capacity of the anode. However, it can also cause the formation of stable complexes like lithium silicates that might result into reversible capacity loss as indicated by the voltage-composition curves. The study provides valuable insights into the role of oxygen in moderating the interaction of lithium in silicon suboxide mixture in microscopic details.

  10. Report on sodium compatibility of advanced structural materials.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, M.; Natesan, K.; Momozaki, Y.; Rink, D.L.; Soppet, W.K.; Listwan, J.T. (Nuclear Engineering Division)

    2012-07-09

    This report provides an update on the evaluation of sodium compatibility of advanced structural materials. The report is a deliverable (level 3) in FY11 (M3A11AN04030403), under the Work Package A-11AN040304, 'Sodium Compatibility of Advanced Structural Materials' performed by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), as part of Advanced Structural Materials Program for the Advanced Reactor Concepts. This work package supports the advanced structural materials development by providing corrosion and tensile data from the standpoint of sodium compatibility of advanced structural alloys. The scope of work involves exposure of advanced structural alloys such as G92, mod.9Cr-1Mo (G91) ferritic-martensitic steels and HT-UPS austenitic stainless steels to a flowing sodium environment with controlled impurity concentrations. The exposed specimens are analyzed for their corrosion performance, microstructural changes, and tensile behavior. Previous reports examined the thermodynamic and kinetic factors involved in the purity of liquid sodium coolant for sodium reactor applications as well as the design, fabrication, and construction of a forced convection sodium loop for sodium compatibility studies of advanced materials. This report presents the results on corrosion performance, microstructure, and tensile properties of advanced ferritic-martensitic and austenitic alloys exposed to liquid sodium at 550 C for up to 2700 h and at 650 C for up to 5064 h in the forced convection sodium loop. The oxygen content of sodium was controlled by the cold-trapping method to achieve {approx}1 wppm oxygen level. Four alloys were examined, G92 in the normalized and tempered condition (H1 G92), G92 in the cold-rolled condition (H2 G92), G91 in the normalized and tempered condition, and hot-rolled HT-UPS. G91 was included as a reference to compare with advanced alloy, G92. It was found that all four alloys showed weight loss after sodium exposures at 550 and 650 C. The weight loss of the

  11. Advanced Bioinks for 3D Printing: A Materials Science Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chimene, David; Lennox, Kimberly K; Kaunas, Roland R; Gaharwar, Akhilesh K

    2016-06-01

    Advanced bioinks for 3D printing are rationally designed materials intended to improve the functionality of printed scaffolds outside the traditional paradigm of the "biofabrication window". While the biofabrication window paradigm necessitates compromise between suitability for fabrication and ability to accommodate encapsulated cells, recent developments in advanced bioinks have resulted in improved designs for a range of biofabrication platforms without this tradeoff. This has resulted in a new generation of bioinks with high print fidelity, shear-thinning characteristics, and crosslinked scaffolds with high mechanical strength, high cytocompatibility, and the ability to modulate cellular functions. In this review, we describe some of the promising strategies being pursued to achieve these goals, including multimaterial, interpenetrating network, nanocomposite, and supramolecular bioinks. We also provide an overview of current and emerging trends in advanced bioink synthesis and biofabrication, and evaluate the potential applications of these novel biomaterials to clinical use. PMID:27184494

  12. Technology Readiness Levels for Advanced Nuclear Fuels and Materials Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jon Carmack

    2014-01-01

    The Technology Readiness Level (TRL) process is used to quantitatively assess the maturity of a given technology. The TRL process has been developed and successfully used by the Department of Defense (DOD) for development and deployment of new technology and systems for defense applications. In addition, NASA has also successfully used the TRL process to develop and deploy new systems for space applications. Advanced nuclear fuels and materials development is a critical technology needed for closing the nuclear fuel cycle. Because the deployment of a new nuclear fuel forms requires a lengthy and expensive research, development, and demonstration program, applying the TRL concept to the advanced fuel development program is very useful as a management and tracking tool. This report provides definition of the technology readiness level assessment process as defined for use in assessing nuclear fuel technology development for the Advanced Fuel Campaign (AFC).

  13. Material Protection, Accounting, and Control Technologies (MPACT) Advanced Integration Roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durkee, Joe W. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Cipiti, Ben [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Demuth, Scott Francis [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Fallgren, Andrew James [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Jarman, Ken [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Li, Shelly [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Meier, Dave [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Miller, Mike [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Osburn, Laura Ann [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Pereira, Candido [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Dasari, Venkateswara Rao [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Ticknor, Lawrence O. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Yoo, Tae-Sic [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-09-30

    The development of sustainable advanced nuclear fuel cycles is a long-term goal of the Office of Nuclear Energy’s (DOE-NE) Fuel Cycle Technologies program. The Material Protection, Accounting, and Control Technologies (MPACT) campaign is supporting research and development (R&D) of advanced instrumentation, analysis tools, and integration methodologies to meet this goal (Miller, 2015). This advanced R&D is intended to facilitate safeguards and security by design of fuel cycle facilities. The lab-scale demonstration of a virtual facility, distributed test bed, that connects the individual tools being developed at National Laboratories and university research establishments, is a key program milestone for 2020. These tools will consist of instrumentation and devices as well as computer software for modeling, simulation and integration.

  14. Advanced Bioinks for 3D Printing: A Materials Science Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chimene, David; Lennox, Kimberly K; Kaunas, Roland R; Gaharwar, Akhilesh K

    2016-06-01

    Advanced bioinks for 3D printing are rationally designed materials intended to improve the functionality of printed scaffolds outside the traditional paradigm of the "biofabrication window". While the biofabrication window paradigm necessitates compromise between suitability for fabrication and ability to accommodate encapsulated cells, recent developments in advanced bioinks have resulted in improved designs for a range of biofabrication platforms without this tradeoff. This has resulted in a new generation of bioinks with high print fidelity, shear-thinning characteristics, and crosslinked scaffolds with high mechanical strength, high cytocompatibility, and the ability to modulate cellular functions. In this review, we describe some of the promising strategies being pursued to achieve these goals, including multimaterial, interpenetrating network, nanocomposite, and supramolecular bioinks. We also provide an overview of current and emerging trends in advanced bioink synthesis and biofabrication, and evaluate the potential applications of these novel biomaterials to clinical use.

  15. Facile Sol-Gel/Spray-Drying Synthesis of Interweaved Si@TiO2&CNTs Hybrid Microsphere as Superior Anode Materials for Li-Ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiyun; Hou, Xianhua; Li, Yana; Ru, Qiang; Qin, Haiqing; Hu, Shejun

    2016-07-01

    A unique intertwined structure of silicon-based composite (Si@TiO2&CNTs) has been synthesized by sol-gel and spray drying methods. The Si@TiO2&CNTs is mainly composed of three kinds of materials:the prepared nanosilicon particles, TiO2, and carbon nanotubes (CNTs). A layer of TiO2 particles is found effective for enhancing the electrical conductivity and structure stability of the silicon particles. Additionally, the twisted CNTs are beneficial to build a better conductive network, consequently improving the anode working conditions when the cell is charged or discharged. As a lithium ion battery anode, a specific capacity of approximately 1521 mAh g-1 after 100 cycles is obtained.

  16. Code qualification of structural materials for AFCI advanced recycling reactors.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Natesan, K.; Li, M.; Majumdar, S.; Nanstad, R.K.; Sham, T.-L. (Nuclear Engineering Division); (ORNL)

    2012-05-31

    This report summarizes the further findings from the assessments of current status and future needs in code qualification and licensing of reference structural materials and new advanced alloys for advanced recycling reactors (ARRs) in support of Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI). The work is a combined effort between Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) with ANL as the technical lead, as part of Advanced Structural Materials Program for AFCI Reactor Campaign. The report is the second deliverable in FY08 (M505011401) under the work package 'Advanced Materials Code Qualification'. The overall objective of the Advanced Materials Code Qualification project is to evaluate key requirements for the ASME Code qualification and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) approval of structural materials in support of the design and licensing of the ARR. Advanced materials are a critical element in the development of sodium reactor technologies. Enhanced materials performance not only improves safety margins and provides design flexibility, but also is essential for the economics of future advanced sodium reactors. Code qualification and licensing of advanced materials are prominent needs for developing and implementing advanced sodium reactor technologies. Nuclear structural component design in the U.S. must comply with the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code Section III (Rules for Construction of Nuclear Facility Components) and the NRC grants the operational license. As the ARR will operate at higher temperatures than the current light water reactors (LWRs), the design of elevated-temperature components must comply with ASME Subsection NH (Class 1 Components in Elevated Temperature Service). However, the NRC has not approved the use of Subsection NH for reactor components, and this puts additional burdens on materials qualification of the ARR. In the past licensing review for the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Project (CRBRP

  17. Surface morphology and surface energy of anode materials influence power outputs in a multi-channel mediatorless bio-photovoltaic (BPV) system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bombelli, Paolo; Zarrouati, Marie; Thorne, Rebecca J; Schneider, Kenneth; Rowden, Stephen J L; Ali, Akin; Yunus, Kamran; Cameron, Petra J; Fisher, Adrian C; Ian Wilson, D; Howe, Christopher J; McCormick, Alistair J

    2012-09-21

    Bio-photovoltaic cells (BPVs) are a new photo-bio-electrochemical technology for harnessing solar energy using the photosynthetic activity of autotrophic organisms. Currently power outputs from BPVs are generally low and suffer from low efficiencies. However, a better understanding of the electrochemical interactions between the microbes and conductive materials will be likely to lead to increased power yields. In the current study, the fresh-water, filamentous cyanobacterium Pseudanabaena limnetica (also known as Oscillatoria limnetica) was investigated for exoelectrogenic activity. Biofilms of P. limnetica showed a significant photo response during light-dark cycling in BPVs under mediatorless conditions. A multi-channel BPV device was developed to compare quantitatively the performance of photosynthetic biofilms of this species using a variety of different anodic conductive materials: indium tin oxide-coated polyethylene terephthalate (ITO), stainless steel (SS), glass coated with a conductive polymer (PANI), and carbon paper (CP). Although biofilm growth rates were generally comparable on all materials tested, the amplitude of the photo response and achievable maximum power outputs were significantly different. ITO and SS demonstrated the largest photo responses, whereas CP showed the lowest power outputs under both light and dark conditions. Furthermore, differences in the ratios of light : dark power outputs indicated that the electrochemical interactions between photosynthetic microbes and the anode may differ under light and dark conditions depending on the anodic material used. Comparisons between BPV performances and material characteristics revealed that surface roughness and surface energy, particularly the ratio of non-polar to polar interactions (the CQ ratio), may be more important than available surface area in determining biocompatibility and maximum power outputs in microbial electrochemical systems. Notably, CP was readily outperformed by all

  18. The Progress of Sodium-Ion Battery Anode Material%钠离子电池负极材料的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张洁; 杨占旭

    2016-01-01

    Sodium ion batteries have attracted tremendous attentions due to its rich resources,low cost,high efficiency and good chemical stability,and can satisfy people's demand for energy in the new era,which are considered a top alternative to lithium-ion batteries.The research progress on sodium ion battery anode materials are reviewed in details in this paper, including carbon-based materials,low voltage metal phosphates,the sodium storage alloys,metal oxides,titanium-based materials,and other negative electrode materials.Then the characteristics of anode materials are discussed.Finally,some future directions for sodium-ion battery anode materials are pointed out.%钠离子电池具有资源丰富、成本低、效率高、化学性能稳定等优点,成为锂离子电池 的理想替代品.主要阐述了钠离子电池负极材料的研究进展,包括碳基负极材料、低电压金属磷酸盐负极材料、合金类储钠负极材料、金属氧化物负极材料、钛酸盐类负极材料及其他负极材料,并对各类负极材料的性能进行了评价,最后对钠离子电池负极材料的发展方向做出了展望.

  19. Direct Utilization of Liquid Fuels in SOFC for Portable Applications: Challenges for the Selection of Alternative Anodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimiliano Cimenti

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC have the advantage of being able to operate with fuels other than hydrogen. In particular, liquid fuels are especially attractive for powering portable applications such as small power generators or auxiliary power units, in which case the direct utilization of the fuel would be convenient. Although liquid fuels are easier to handle and transport than hydrogen, their direct use in SOFC can lead to anode deactivation due to carbon formation, especially on traditional nickel/yttria stabilized zirconia (Ni/YSZ anodes. Significant advances have been made in anodic materials that are resistant to carbon formation but often these materials are less electrochemically active than Ni/YSZ. In this review the challenges of using liquid fuels directly in SOFC, in terms of gas-phase and catalytic reactions within the anode chamber, will be discussed and the alternative anode materials so far investigated will be compared.

  20. Novel silicon and tin alloy nano-particulate materials via spark erosion for high performance and high capacity anodes in lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Emma Marie Hamilton

    The advent and popularity of portable electronics, as well as the need to reduce carbon-based fuel dependence for environmental and economic reasons, has led to the search for higher energy density portable power storage methods. Lithium ion batteries offer the highest energy density of any portable energy storage technology, but their potential is limited by the currently used materials. Theoretical capacities of silicon (3580 mAh/g) and tin (990 mAh/g) are significantly higher than existing graphitic anodes (372 mAh/g). However, silicon and tin must be scaled down to the nano-level to mitigate the pulverization from drastic volume changes in the anode structure during lithium ion insertion/extraction. The available synthesis techniques for silicon and tin nano-particles are complicated and scale-up is costly. A unique one-step process for synthesizing Si-Sn alloy and Sn nano-particles via spark plasma erosion has been developed to achieve the ideal nano-particulate size and carbon coating architecture. Spark erosion produces crystalline and amorphous spherical nano-particles, averaging 5-500nm in diameter. Several tin and silicon alloys have been spark eroded and thoroughly characterized using SEM, TEM, EDS, XPS, Auger spectroscopy, NMR spectroscopy and TGA. The resulting nano-particles show improved performance as anodes over commercialized materials. In particular, pure sparked Sn particles show stable reversible capacity at ˜460 mAh/g with >99.5% coulombic efficiency for over 100 cycles. These particles are drop-in ready for existing commercial anode processing techniques and by only adding 10% of the sparked Sn particles the total current cell capacity will increase by ˜13%.

  1. Multi-walled carbon nanotube-reinforced porous iron oxide as a superior anode material for lithium ion battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pang, Xin-Jing; Zhang, Juan; Qi, Gong-Wei; Dai, Xiao-Hui; Zhou, Jun-Ping [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shandong University, No. 27, Shanda Nan Rd., Jinan 250100 (China); Zhang, Shu-Yong, E-mail: syzhang@sdu.edu.cn [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shandong University, No. 27, Shanda Nan Rd., Jinan 250100 (China); National Key Lab of Crystal, Shandong University, No. 27, Shanda Nan Rd., Jinan 250100 (China)

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • Electrochemical performance of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} is improved by combining different approaches. • Porous Cu substrate is used to enlarge surface area and improve conductivity. • MWCNT is used to reinforce the electrode structure and change morphology of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}. • Reversible capacity, capacity retention and high-rate performance are improved. - Abstract: Multi-walled carbon nanotube-reinforced porous iron oxide (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/MWCNT) is synthesized by a two-step approach with porous Cu substrate serving as current collector. Porous Cu substrate is prepared through electroless deposition with hydrogen bubble serving as template. Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/MWCNT composites are prepared by the electrodeposition of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} in the presence of dispersed MWCNTs from a Fe{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 3} solution with MWCNT suspension. Results showed that Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} forms granular nanoparticles on the porous Cu substrate with several MWCNTs embedded in it. Adding MWCNTs changes the morphology of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}. Smooth Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}, smooth Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/MWCNT, and porous Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} composites are also prepared for comparison. When used as anode materials, porous Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/MWCNT composites have a reversible capacity of approximately 601 mA h g{sup −1} at the 60th cycle at a cycling rate of 100 mA g{sup −1}. This value is higher than that of the other materials. The reversible capacity at a cycling rate of 10,000 mA g{sup −1} is approximately 50% of that at 100 mA g{sup −1}. Therefore, the MWCNT-reinforced porous Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} composite exhibits much better reversible capacity, capacity retention, and high-rate performance than the other samples. This finding can be ascribed to the porous structure of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}, better conductivity of porous Cu substrate and MWCNTs, and the morphology change of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles upon the addition of MWCNTs.

  2. SnO2 nanocrystals deposited on multiwalled carbon nanotubes with superior stability as anode material for Li-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Jianguo; Yang, Junbing; Abouimrane, Ali; Wang, Dapeng; Amine, Khalil

    2011-10-01

    We report a novel ethylene glycol-mediated solvothermal-polyol route for synthesis of SnO2-CNT nanocomposites, which consist of highly dispersed 3-5 nm SnO2 nanocrystals on the surface of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (CNTs). As anode materials for Li-ion batteries, the nanocomposites showed high rate capability and superior cycling stability with specific capacity of 500 mAh g-1 for up to 300 cycles. The CNTs served as electron conductors and volume buffers in the nanocomposites. This strategy could be extended to synthesize other metal oxides composites with other carbon materials.

  3. Preparation and electrochemical properties of core-shell carbon coated Mn–Sn complex metal oxide as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, we synthesized a carbon coated Mn–Sn metal oxide composite with core-shell structure (MTO@C) via a simple glucose hydrothermal reaction and subsequent carbonization approach. When the MTO@C composite was applied as an anode material for lithium-ion batteries, it maintained a reversible capacity of 409 mA h g−1 after 200 cycles at a current density of 100 mA g−1. The uniformed and continuous carbon layer formed on the MTO nanoparticles, effectively buffered the volumetric change of the active material and increased electronic conductivity, which thus prolonged the cycling performance of the MTO@C electrode.

  4. Ultrafast synthesis of MoS2 or WS2-reduced graphene oxide composites via hybrid microwave annealing for anode materials of lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youn, Duck Hyun; Jo, Changshin; Kim, Jae Young; Lee, Jinwoo; Lee, Jae Sung

    2015-11-01

    An ultrafast and simple strategy to synthesize metal sulfides (MoS2 and WS2) anchored on reduced graphene oxide (RGO) composites is reported as anode materials for lithium ion batteries (LIBs). Metal sulfide nanocrystals with homogeneous dispersion onto conducting RGO sheets are obtained in only 45 s by hybrid microwave annealing (HMA) method. The synthesized materials, especially MoS2/RGO composite, exhibit a high Li capacity, an excellent rate capability, and a stable cycling performance, comparable to the reported best MS2/carbon composite electrodes. The results highlight the effectiveness of HMA method to fabricate the metal sulfide/RGO composites with excellent electric properties.

  5. Novel Nanocomposite Materials for Advanced Li-Ion Rechargeable Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuan Cai

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Nanostructured materials lie at the heart of fundamental advances in efficient energy storage and/or conversion, in which surface processes and transport kinetics play determining roles. Nanocomposite materials will have a further enhancement in properties compared to their constituent phases. This Review describes some recent developments of nanocomposite materials for high-performance Li-ion rechargeable batteries, including carbon-oxide nanocomposites, polymer-oxide nanocomposites, metal-oxide nanocomposites, and silicon-based nanocomposites, etc. The major goal of this Review is to highlight some new progress in using these nanocomposite materials as electrodes to develop Li-ion rechargeable batteries with high energy density, high rate capability, and excellent cycling stability.

  6. [Advances of poly (ionic liquid) materials in separation science].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Cuicui; Guo, Ting; Su, Rina; Gu, Yuchen; Deng, Qiliang

    2015-11-01

    Ionic liquids, as novel ionization reagents, possess beneficial characteristics including good solubility, conductivity, thermal stability, biocompatibility, low volatility and non-flammability. Ionic liquids are attracting a mass of attention of analytical chemists. Poly (ionic liquid) materials have common performances of ionic liquids and polymers, and have been successfully applied in separation science area. In this paper, we discuss the interaction mechanisms between the poly(ionic liquid) materials and analytes including hydrophobic/hydrophilic interactions, hydrogen bond, ion exchange, π-π stacking and electrostatic interactions, and summarize the application advances of the poly(ionic liquid) materials in solid phase extraction, chromatographic separation and capillary electrophoresis. At last, we describe the future prospect of poly(ionic liquid) materials. PMID:26939357

  7. Application of mesoscale modeling optimization to development of advanced materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Xiaoyan

    2004-01-01

    The rapid development of computer modeling in recent years offers opportunities for materials preparation in a more economic and efficient way. In the present paper, a practicable route for research and development of advanced materials by applying the visual and quantitative modeling technique on the mesoscale is introduced. A 3D simulation model is developed to describe the microstructure evolution during the whole process of deformation, recrystallization and grain growth in a material containing particles. In the light of simulation optimization, the long-term stabilized fine grain structures ideal for high-temperature applications are designed and produced. In addition, the feasibility, reliability and prospects of material development based on mesoscale modeling are discussed.

  8. [Advances of poly (ionic liquid) materials in separation science].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Cuicui; Guo, Ting; Su, Rina; Gu, Yuchen; Deng, Qiliang

    2015-11-01

    Ionic liquids, as novel ionization reagents, possess beneficial characteristics including good solubility, conductivity, thermal stability, biocompatibility, low volatility and non-flammability. Ionic liquids are attracting a mass of attention of analytical chemists. Poly (ionic liquid) materials have common performances of ionic liquids and polymers, and have been successfully applied in separation science area. In this paper, we discuss the interaction mechanisms between the poly(ionic liquid) materials and analytes including hydrophobic/hydrophilic interactions, hydrogen bond, ion exchange, π-π stacking and electrostatic interactions, and summarize the application advances of the poly(ionic liquid) materials in solid phase extraction, chromatographic separation and capillary electrophoresis. At last, we describe the future prospect of poly(ionic liquid) materials.

  9. Advanced materials and processes for polymer solar cell devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Martin Helgesen; Søndergaard, Roar; Krebs, Frederik C

    2010-01-01

    The rapidly expanding field of polymer and organic solar cells is reviewed in the context of materials, processes and devices that significantly deviate from the standard approach which involves rigid glass substrates, indium-tin-oxide electrodes, spincoated layers of conjugated polymer....../fullerene mixtures and evaporated metal electrodes in a flat multilayer geometry. It is likely that significant advances can be found by pursuing many of these novel ideas further and the purpose of this review is to highlight these reports and hopefully spark new interest in materials and methods that may...

  10. Design of advanced photocatalytic materials for energy and environmental applications

    CERN Document Server

    Coronado, Juan M; Hernández-Alonso, María D; Portela, Raquel

    2013-01-01

    Research for the development of more efficient photocatalysts has experienced an almost exponential growth since its popularization in early 1970's. Despite the advantages of the widely used TiO2, the yield of the conversion of sun power into chemical energy that can be achieved with this material is limited prompting the research and development of  a number of structural, morphological and chemical modifications of TiO2 , as well as a number of novel photocatalysts with very different composition. Design of Advanced Photocatalytic Materials for Energy and Environmental Applications provides

  11. Dancing with light advances in photofunctional liquid-crystalline materials

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Haifeng

    2015-01-01

    Recent progress in this field indicates that integrating photochromic molecules into LC materials enables one to photo-manipulate unique features such as photoinduced phase transition, photocontrolled alignment and phototriggered molecular cooperative motion, leading to their novel applications beyond displays. This book introduces readers to this field, from the primary- to the advanced level in photoresponsive LC materials. The subject is introduced step-by-step, including the basic knowledge of LCs, photoresponsive properties of LCs, and their detailed performances in the form of low-molecu

  12. Applied solid state science advances in materials and device research

    CERN Document Server

    Wolfe, Raymond

    2013-01-01

    Applied Solid State Science: Advances in Materials and Device Research, Volume 1 presents articles about junction electroluminescence; metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) physics; ion implantation in semiconductors; and electron transport through insulating thin films. The book describes the basic physics of carrier injection; energy transfer and recombination mechanisms; state of the art efficiencies; and future prospects for light emitting diodes. The text then discusses solid state spectroscopy, which is the pair spectra observed in gallium phosphide photoluminescence. The extensive studies

  13. Advanced thermal management materials for concentrator photovoltaic arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zweben, Carl

    2010-08-01

    Thermal management is a critical issue for photovoltaics (PVs), especially concentrator photovoltaic systems. Thermal management problems are similar for all semiconductors, including those used in microelectronics and other optoelectronic applications, such as lasers, light-emitting diodes (LEDs), detectors and displays. We divide the thermal management problem into two parts: heat dissipation and thermal stresses. Heat dissipation affects efficiency and lifetime. Thermal stresses affect manufacturing yield and lifetime. Traditional thermal management materials all have serious deficiencies. Copper and aluminum have high coefficients of thermal expansion (CTEs), which can cause severe thermal stresses during manufacturing and in service. Compliant attach materials, used to minimize thermal stresses, all have major drawbacks. Traditional low-CTE thermal management materials have relatively low thermal conductivities and are hard to machine. In response to these deficiencies, new thermal management materials have been, and are continuing to be developed, which have low CTEs and thermal conductivities up to four times that of copper. Some are reportedly are cheaper than copper. In this paper, we survey the six categories of advanced thermal materials, including properties, state of maturity and cost. We also review a CPV application in which an advanced metal matrix composite with a tailored CTE eliminated solder joint failure and provided other benefits.

  14. Advanced Materials for Mercury 50 Gas Turbine Combustion System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, Jeffrey

    2008-09-30

    Solar Turbines Incorporated (Solar), under cooperative agreement number DE-FC26-0CH11049, has conducted development activities to improve the durability of the Mercury 50 combustion system to 30,000 hours life and reduced life cycle costs. This project is part of Advanced Materials in the Advanced Industrial Gas Turbines program in DOE's Office of Distributed Energy. The targeted development engine was the Mercury{trademark} 50 gas turbine, which was developed by Solar under the DOE Advanced Turbine Systems program (DOE contract number DE-FC21-95MC31173). As a generator set, the Mercury 50 is used for distributed power and combined heat and power generation and is designed to achieve 38.5% electrical efficiency, reduced cost of electricity, and single digit emissions. The original program goal was 20,000 hours life, however, this goal was increased to be consistent with Solar's standard 30,000 hour time before overhaul for production engines. Through changes to the combustor design to incorporate effusion cooling in the Generation 3 Mercury 50 engine, which resulted in a drop in the combustor wall temperature, the current standard thermal barrier coated liner was predicted to have 18,000 hours life. With the addition of the advanced materials technology being evaluated under this program, the combustor life is predicted to be over 30,000 hours. The ultimate goal of the program was to demonstrate a fully integrated Mercury 50 combustion system, modified with advanced materials technologies, at a host site for a minimum of 4,000 hours. Solar was the Prime Contractor on the program team, which includes participation of other gas turbine manufacturers, various advanced material and coating suppliers, nationally recognized test laboratories, and multiple industrial end-user field demonstration sites. The program focused on a dual path development route to define an optimum mix of technologies for the Mercury 50 and future gas turbine products. For liner and

  15. Nano-sized Li4Ti5O12 anode material with excellent performance prepared by solid state reaction: The effect of precursor size and morphology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Nano-sized Li4Ti5O12 has been prepared through solid state reaction by using axiolitic TiO2 as precursor. • The prepared nano-sized Li4Ti5O12 anode material shows excellent electrochemical performance. • The utilization of precursor with special morphology and size is one of the useful ways to prepare more active electrode materials. - Abstract: Spinel nano-sized Li4Ti5O12 anode material of secondary lithium-ion battery has been successfully prepared by solid state reaction using axiolitic TiO2 assembled by 10–20 nm nanoparticles and Li2CO3 as precursors. The synthesis condition, grain size effect and corresponding electrochemical performance of the special Li4Ti5O12 have been studied in comparison with those of the normal Li4Ti5O12 originated from commercial TiO2. We also propose the mechanism that using the nano-scaled TiO2 with special structure and unexcess Li2CO3 as precursors can synthesize pure phase nano-sized Li4Ti5O12 at 800 °C through solid state reaction. The prepared nano-sized Li4Ti5O12 anode material for Li-ion batteries shows excellent capacity performance with rate capacity of 174.2, 164.0, 157.4, 146.4 and 129.6 mA h g−1 at 0.5, 1, 2, 5 and 10 C, respectively, and capacity retention of 95.1% after 100 cycles at 1 C. In addition, the specific capacity fade for the cell with the different Li4Ti5O12 active materials resulted from the increase of internal resistance after 100 cycles is compared

  16. TiNb2O7/Graphene hybrid material as high performance anode for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report the synthesis of TiNb2O7/Graphene (TNO-TG) hybrid nanomaterial by simple solvothermal process, with TiNb2O7 nanoparticles anchored on the reduced graphene oxide (rGO) sheets. TNO-TG hybrid nanomaterial showed excellent electrochemical performance when studied as anode for Lithium-ion battery, with an exceptionally high rate capability (capacity retention of 80% at 16 C rate) along with high discharge capacity (∼230 mAhg−1 after 50 cycles at 0.1 C). A full cell Li-ion battery has been fabricated with TNO-TG as anode and LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2:LiNi0.5Mn0.5O2 (wt% of 75:25) as cathode, which delivered an average cell voltage of ∼2.5 V with an initial anode-specific discharge capacity of 211 mAhg−1, when cycled in the voltage range of 1.5–3.5 V at 0.1 C. The obtained results are very promising and we believe the current findings will lead to new directions in the on-going search for safe and high performance anodes for rechargeable lithium-ion batteries

  17. Green synthesis of mesoporous ZnFe2O4/C composite microspheres as superior anode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Lingmin; Hou, Xianhua; Hu, Shejun; Wang, Jie; Li, Min; Su, Chao; Tade, Moses O.; Shao, Zongping; Liu, Xiang

    2014-07-01

    The commercialized LIBs employing graphite as anodes currently suffer a series of problems from the safety, theoretical capacity (372 mAh g-1) and rate capability. Herein, self-assembly mesoporous Zn ferrite (ZnFe2O4) microsphere embedded into carbon network has been synthesized by a facile method in the presence of citric acid. The Zn ferrites as an anode material with novel structure demonstrate superior electrochemical performance, with enhanced specific reversible capacity (∼1100 mAh g-1 at the specific current of 0.05 A g-1 after 100 cycles), excellent rate capability (more than 500 mAh g-1 even at the specific current of 1.1 A g-1) and good cycleability with little fading (∼97.6% after 100 cycles). The excellent cycling performance is associated with the loose Zn ferrite microsphere with numerous mesopores embedded into the carbon network, which can accommodate the severe mechanism strains and provides good electrical contact and conductivity. The superior electrochemical performance may facilitate ZnFe2O4 to be a promising alternative anode in lithium ion battery.

  18. Thermal Characterization of Nanostructures and Advanced Engineered Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Vivek Kumar

    to heat-sinking units. This dissertation presents results of the experimental investigation and theoretical interpretation of thermal transport in the advanced engineered materials, which include thin films for thermal management of nanoscale devices, nanostructured superlattices as promising candidates for high-efficiency thermoelectric materials, and improved TIMs with graphene and metal particles as fillers providing enhanced thermal conductivity. The advanced engineered materials studied include chemical vapor deposition (CVD) grown ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD) and microcrystalline diamond (MCD) films on Si substrates, directly integrated nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) films on GaN, free-standing polycrystalline graphene (PCG) films, graphene oxide (GOx) films, and "pseudo-superlattices" of the mechanically exfoliated Bi2Te3 topological insulator films, and thermal interface materials (TIMs) with graphene fillers.

  19. Computational modeling, optimization and manufacturing simulation of advanced engineering materials

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    This volume presents recent research work focused in the development of adequate theoretical and numerical formulations to describe the behavior of advanced engineering materials.  Particular emphasis is devoted to applications in the fields of biological tissues, phase changing and porous materials, polymers and to micro/nano scale modeling. Sensitivity analysis, gradient and non-gradient based optimization procedures are involved in many of the chapters, aiming at the solution of constitutive inverse problems and parameter identification. All these relevant topics are exposed by experienced international and inter institutional research teams resulting in a high level compilation. The book is a valuable research reference for scientists, senior undergraduate and graduate students, as well as for engineers acting in the area of computational material modeling.

  20. Collimation Cleaning at the LHC with Advanced Secondary Collimator Materials

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2085459; Bruce, Roderik; Mereghetti, Alessio; Redaelli, Stefano; Rossi, A

    2015-01-01

    The LHC collimation system must ensure efficient beam halo cleaning in all machine conditions. The first run in 2010-2013 showed that the LHC performance may be limited by collimator material-related concerns, such as the contribution from the present carbon-based secondary collimators to the machine impedance and, consequently, to the beam instability. Novel materials based on composites are currently under development for the next generation of LHC collimators to address these limitations. Particle tracking simulations of collimation efficiency were performed using the Sixtrack code and a material database updated to model these composites. In this paper, the simulation results will be presented with the aim of studying the effect of the advanced collimators on the LHC beam cleaning.

  1. Materials Advances for Next-Generation Ingestible Electronic Medical Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettinger, Christopher J

    2015-10-01

    Electronic medical implants have collectively transformed the diagnosis and treatment of many diseases, but have many inherent limitations. Electronic implants require invasive surgeries, operate in challenging microenvironments, and are susceptible to bacterial infection and persistent inflammation. Novel materials and nonconventional device fabrication strategies may revolutionize the way electronic devices are integrated with the body. Ingestible electronic devices offer many advantages compared with implantable counterparts that may improve the diagnosis and treatment of pathologies ranging from gastrointestinal infections to diabetes. This review summarizes current technologies and highlights recent materials advances. Specific focus is dedicated to next-generation materials for packaging, circuit design, and on-board power supplies that are benign, nontoxic, and even biodegradable. Future challenges and opportunities are also highlighted.

  2. 锂离子电池硅基负极材料研究进展%Research Progress of Silicon Based Anode Materials for Lithium-ion Batteries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨绍斌; 刘远鹏

    2011-01-01

    Silicon based materials are candidate anode materials for lithium-ion battery because of its large spe cific capacity. But the decay of capacity during cycling restrains the practicability of silicon-based material. Two im portant research aspects of silicon-based materials are reviewed, including the silicon compounds powder and silicon thin film, and a single modification approach cannot satisfy the practical application is pointed out So, the comprehen sive use of nanocrystallization, amorphization and alloying becomes the main approach in silicon, based anode mate rials.%硅基负极材料具有比容量大的优点,是高容量锂离子电池理想的负极材料.然而硅基材料在循环过程中容量衰减快,影响了其实用性.从硅复合物粉末和硅薄膜两个重要研究方面对硅基负极材料进行了综述,指出在Si基复合负极材料的研究中,单一途径改性提升循环性能的幅度有限,很难达到实用化阶段.硅的纳米化、无定形化、合金化及复合化等方法的综合运用成为硅基材料研究的主导方向.

  3. Status and Trends in Advanced SOI Devices and Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    A review of recently explored effects in advanced SOI devices and materials is given. The effects of key device parameters on the electrical and thermal floating body effects are shown for various device architectures.Recent advances in the understanding of the sensitivity of electron and hole transport to the tensile or compressive uniaxial and biaxial strains in thin film SOI are presented. The performance and physical mechanisms are also addressed in multi-gate Si, SiGe and Ge MOSFETs. New hot carrier phenomena are discussed. The effects of gate misalignment or underlap,as well as the use of the back gate for charge storage in double-gate nanodevices and of capacitorless DRAM are also outlined.

  4. Advanced Tomography Techniques For Inorganic, Organic, and Biological Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, James E.; Friedrich, Heiner

    2016-07-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) tomography using electrons and x-rays has pushed our understanding of the micro- and nanoscale spatial organization for biological, organic and inorganic materials. While significant impact has already been realized from tomography applications, new advanced methods are quickly expanding the versatility of this approach to better link structure, composition and function of complex 3D assemblies across multiple scales. In this article we highlight several frontiers where new developments in tomography are empowering all new science across biology, chemistry and physics. The 5 articles that appear in this MRS Bulletin Issue describe in detail these latest developments in analytical electron tomography, atomic resolution electron tomography, advanced recording schemes in scanning transmission electron (STEM) tomography, cryo-STEM tomography of whole cells, and multiscale correlative tomography.

  5. Layer-by-layer assembled graphene-coated mesoporous SnO2 spheres as anodes for advanced Li-ion batteries

    KAUST Repository

    Shahid, Muhammad

    2014-10-01

    We report layer-by-layer (LBL) assembly of graphene/carbon-coated mesoporous SnO2 spheres (Gr/C-SnO2 spheres), without binder and conducting additives, as anode materials with excellent Li-ion insertion-extraction properties. Our results indicate that these novel LBL assembled electrodes have high reversible Li storage capacity, improved cycling, and especially good rate performance, even at high specific currents. The superior electrochemical performance offered by these LBL assembled Gr/C-SnO2 spheres is attributed to the enhanced electronic conductivity and effective diffusion of Li ions in the interconnected network of nanoparticles forming the mesoporous SnO2 spheres. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Advanced Materials Development Program: Ceramic Technology for Advanced Heat Engines program plan, 1983--1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-07-01

    The purpose of the Ceramic Technology for Advanced Heat Engines (CTAHE) Project is the development of an industrial technology base capable of providing reliable and cost-effective high temperature ceramic components for application in advanced heat engines. There is a deliberate emphasis on industrial'' in the purpose statement. The project is intended to support the US ceramic and engine industries by providing the needed ceramic materials technology. The heat engine programs have goals of component development and proof-of-concept. The CTAHE Project is aimed at developing generic basic ceramic technology and does not involve specific engine designs and components. The materials research and development efforts in the CTAHE Project are focused on the needs and general requirements of the advanced gas turbine and low heat rejection diesel engines. The CTAHE Project supports the DOE Office of Transportation Systems' heat engine programs, Advanced Turbine Technology Applications (ATTAP) and Heavy Duty Transport (HDT) by providing the basic technology required for development of reliable and cost-effective ceramic components. The heat engine programs provide the iterative component design, fabrication, and test development logic. 103 refs., 18 figs., 11 tabs.

  7. Four advances in carbon-carbon materials technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maahs, Howard G.; Vaughn, Wallace L.; Kowbel, Witold

    1994-01-01

    Carbon-carbon composites are a specialty class of materials having many unique properties making these composites attractive for a variety of demanding engineering applications. Chief among these properties are exceptional retention of mechanical properties at temperatures as high as 4000 F, excellent creep resistance, and low density (1.6 to 1.8 g/cu cm). Although carbon-carbon composites are currently in service in a variety of applications, much development work remains to be accomplished before these materials can be considered to be fully mature, realizing their full potential. Four recent technology advances holding particular promise for overcoming current barriers to the wide-spread commercialization of carbon-carbon composites are described. These advances are: markedly improved interlaminar strengths (more than doubled) of two dimensional composites achieved by whiskerization of the fabric reinforcing plies, simultaneously improved oxidation resistance and mechanical properties achieved by the incorporation of matrix-phase oxidation inhibitors based on carborane chemistry, improved oxidation resistance achieved by compositionally graded oxidation protective coatings, and markedly reduced processing times (hours as opposed to weeks or months) accomplished through a novel process of carbon infiltration and coatings deposition based on the use of liquid-phase precursor materials.

  8. Enhanced cycle stability of micro-sized Si/C anode material with low carbon content fabricated via spray drying and in situ carbonization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Dingsheng; Gao, Mingxia, E-mail: gaomx@zju.edu.cn; Pan, Hongge; Liu, Yongfeng; Wang, Junhua; Li, Shouquan; Ge, Hongwei

    2014-08-01

    Highlights: • Micro-sized Si/C composites were fabricated via. spray drying and carbonization. • Multi-morphology carbon was formed in the Si/C composites. • Si/C composite with 5.6 wt.% C provides significant improved cycling stability. • Multi-morphology carbon plays effective role in improving the electrochemical property. • The method provides potential for mass production of superior Si-based anode materials. - Abstract: Micro-sized Si/C composites with in situ introduced carbon of multi-morphology were fabricated via spray drying a suspension of commercial micro-sized Si and citric acid followed by a carbonization. Different ratios of Si to citric acid were used to optimize the composition and structure of the composites and thus the electrochemical performance. Carbon flakes including crooked and flat ones were well dispersed in between the Si particles, forming Si/C composites. Floc-like carbon layers and carbon fragments were also found to cover partially the Si particles. The Si/C composite with a low carbon content of 5.6 wt.% provides an initial reversible capacity of 2700 mA h/g and a capacity of 1860 mA h/g after 60 cycles at a current density of 100 mA/g as anode material for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs), which are much higher than those of pristine Si and the Si/C composites with higher carbon content. The mechanism of the enhancement of electrochemical performance of the micro-sized Si/C composite is discussed. The fabrication method and the structure design of the composites offer valuable potential in developing adaptable Si-based anode materials for industrial applications.

  9. Anode sheath transition in an anodic arc for synthesis of nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemchinsky, V. A.; Raitses, Y.

    2016-06-01

    The arc discharge with ablating anode or so-called anodic arc is widely used for synthesis of nanomaterials, including carbon nanotubes and fullerens, metal nanoparticles etc. We present the model of this arc, which confirms the existence of the two different modes of the arc operation with two different anode sheath regimes, namely, with negative anode sheath and with positive anode sheath. It was previously suggested that these regimes are associated with two different anode ablating modes—low ablation mode with constant ablation rate and the enhanced ablation mode (Fetterman et al 2008 Carbon 46 1322). The transition of the arc operation from low ablation mode to high ablation mode is determined by the current density at the anode. The model can be used to self-consistently determine the distribution of the electric field, electron density and electron temperature in the near-anode region of the arc discharge. Simulations of the carbon arc predict that for low arc ablating modes, the current is driven mainly by the electron diffusion to the anode. For positive anode sheath, the anode voltage is close to the ionization potential of anode material, while for negative anode sheath, the anode voltage is an order of magnitude smaller. It is also shown that the near-anode plasma, is far from the ionization equilibrium.

  10. Metal coordination polymer derived mesoporous Co3O4 nanorods with uniform TiO2 coating as advanced anodes for lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Hongbo; Ang, Huixiang; Ding, Xianguang; Tan, Huiteng; Guo, Guile; Qu, Genlong; Yang, Yonggang; Zheng, Junwei; Yan, Qingyu; Gu, Hongwei

    2016-01-01

    In this work, a one-dimensional Co3O4@TiO2 core-shell electrode material with superior electrochemical performance is fabricated by a convenient and controllable route. The approach involves two main steps: the homogeneous deposition of polydopamine and TiO2 layers in sequence on the cobalt coordination polymer and the thermal decomposition of the polymer matrix. The as-prepared electrode material can achieve excellent electrochemical properties and stability as an anode material for lithium ion batteries, such as a high specific capacity of 1279 mA h g-1, good cycling stability (around 803 mA h g-1 at a current density of 200 mA g-1 after 100 cycles), and stable rate performance (around 520 mA h g-1 at a current density of 1000 mA g-1). This dramatic electrochemical performance is mainly attributed to the excellent structural characteristics, which could improve the electrical conductivity and lithium ion mobility, as well as electrolyte permeability and architectural stability during cycling.In this work, a one-dimensional Co3O4@TiO2 core-shell electrode material with superior electrochemical performance is fabricated by a convenient and controllable route. The approach involves two main steps: the homogeneous deposition of polydopamine and TiO2 layers in sequence on the cobalt coordination polymer and the thermal decomposition of the polymer matrix. The as-prepared electrode material can achieve excellent electrochemical properties and stability as an anode material for lithium ion batteries, such as a high specific capacity of 1279 mA h g-1, good cycling stability (around 803 mA h g-1 at a current density of 200 mA g-1 after 100 cycles), and stable rate performance (around 520 mA h g-1 at a current density of 1000 mA g-1). This dramatic electrochemical performance is mainly attributed to the excellent structural characteristics, which could improve the electrical conductivity and lithium ion mobility, as well as electrolyte permeability and architectural

  11. N-doped graphene/graphite composite as a conductive agent-free anode material for lithium ion batteries with greatly enhanced electrochemical performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: The study reported a novel N-doped graphene/graphite anode material for lithium ion batteries. The composite exhibits a largely enhanced electrochemical performance. The study also provides an attractive approach for the fabrication of various graphite-based materials for high power batteries. Display Omitted -- Highlights: • The paper developed a new N-doped graphene/graphite composite for lithium ion battery • The composite contains a three-dimensional graphene framework with rich of open pores • The hybrid offers a higher electrical conductivity when compared with pristine graphite • The hybrid electrode provides a greatly enhanced electrochemical performance • The study provides a prominent approach for fabrication of graphite-based materials -- ABSTRACT: Present graphite anode cannot meet the increasing requirement of electronic devices and electric vehicles due to its low specific capacity, poor cycle stability and low rate capability. The study reported a promising N-doped graphene/graphite composite as a conductive agent-free anode material for lithium ion batteries. Herein, graphite oxide and urea were dispersed in ultrapure water and partly reduced by ascorbic acid. Followed by mixing with graphite and hydrothermal treatment to produce graphene oxide/graphite hydrogel. The hydrogel was dried and finally annealed in Ar/H2 to obtain N-doped graphene/graphite composite. The result shows that all of graphite particles was dispersed in three-dimensional graphene framework with a rich of open pores. The open pore accelerates the electrolyte transport. The graphene framework works as a conductive agent and graphite particle connector and improves the electron transfer. Electrical conductivity of the composite reaches 5912 S m−1, which is much better than that of the pristine graphite (4018 S m−1). The graphene framework also acts as an expansion absorber in the anodes of lithium ion battery to relieve the large strains developed

  12. Application of advanced polymeric materials for controlled release pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahim, M.; Hakim, M. R.; Haris, H. M.

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this work was to study the capability of advanced polymeric material constituted by chitosan and natural rubber matrices for controlled release of pesticides (1-hydroxynaphthalene and 2-hydroxynaphthalene) in aqueous solution. The released amount of pesticides was measured spectrophotometrically from the absorbance spectra applying a standardized curve. The release of the pesticides was studied into refreshing and non-refreshing neutral aqueous media. Interestingly, formulation successfully indicated a consistent, controlled and prolonged release of pesticides over a period of 35 days.

  13. Fusion reactor design towards radwaste minimum with advanced shield material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new concept of fusion reactor design is proposed to minimize the radioactive waste of the reactor. The main point of the concept is to clear massive structural components located outside the neutron shield from regulatory control. The concept requires some reinforcement of shielding with an advanced shield material such as a metal hydride, detriation, and tailoring of a detrimental element from the superconductor. Our assessment confirmed a large impact of the concept on radwaste reduction, in that it reduces the radwaste fraction of a fusion reactor A-SSTR2 from 92 wt.% to 17 wt.%. (author)

  14. Materials and Component Development for Advanced Turbine Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvin, M A; Pettit, F; Meier, G H; Yanar, M; Helminiak, M; Chyu, M; Siw, S; Slaughter, W S; Karaivanov, V; Kang, B S; Feng, C; Tannebaum, J M; Chen, R; Zhang, B; Fu, T; Richards, G A; Sidwell, T G; Straub, D; Casleton, K H; Dogan, O M

    2008-07-01

    Hydrogen-fired and oxy-fueled land-based gas turbines currently target inlet operating temperatures of ~1425-1760°C (~2600-3200°F). In view of natural gas or syngas-fired engines, advancements in both materials, as well as aerothermal cooling configurations are anticipated prior to commercial operation. This paper reviews recent technical accomplishments resulting from NETL’s collaborative research efforts with the University of Pittsburgh and West Virginia University for future land-based gas turbine applications.

  15. Review of the Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) materials irradiation facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the workshop was to document as accurately as possible the present and future needs for neutron irradiation capacity and facilities as related to the design of the Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) which will be the next generation steady-state research reactor. The report provides the findings and recommendations of the working group. After introductory and background information is presented, the discussion includes the status of the ANS design, in particular in-core materials irradiation facilities design and important experimental parameters. The summary of workshop discussions describes a survey of irradiation-effects research community and opportunities for ex-core irradiation facilities. 20 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs

  16. Microstructural and mechanical characterization of laser deposited advanced materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sistla, Harihar Rakshit

    Additive manufacturing in the form of laser deposition is a unique way to manufacture near net shape metallic components from advanced materials. Rapid solidification facilitates the extension of solid solubility, compositional flexibility and decrease in micro-segregation in the melt among other advantages. The current work investigates the employment of laser deposition to fabricate the following: 1. Functionally gradient materials: This allows grading dissimilar materials compositionally to tailor specific properties of both these materials into a single component. Specific compositions of the candidate materials (SS 316, Inconel 625 and Ti64) were blended and deposited to study the brittle intermetallics reported in these systems. 2. High entropy alloys: These are multi- component alloys with equiatomic compositions of 5 or more elements. The ratio of Al to Ni was decreased to observe the transition of solid solution from a BCC to an FCC crystal structure in the AlFeCoCrNi system. 3. Structurally amorphous alloys: Zr-based metallic glasses have been reported to have high glass forming ability. These alloys have been laser deposited so as to rapidly cool them from the melt into an amorphous state. Microstructural analysis and X-ray diffraction were used to study the phase formation, and hardness was measured to estimate the mechanical properties.

  17. Leaching lithium from the anode electrode materials of spent lithium-ion batteries by hydrochloric acid (HCl).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yang; Li, Feng; Zhu, Haochen; Li, Guangming; Huang, Juwen; He, Wenzhi

    2016-05-01

    Spent lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) are considered as an important secondary resource for its high contents of valuable components, such as lithium and cobalt. Currently, studies mainly focus on the recycling of cathode electrodes. There are few studies concentrating on the recovery of anode electrodes. In this work, based on the analysis result of high amount of lithium contained in the anode electrode, the acid leaching process was applied to recycle lithium from anode electrodes of spent LIBs. Hydrochloric acid was introduced as leaching reagent, and hydrogen peroxide as reducing agent. Within the range of experiment performed, hydrogen peroxide was found to have little effect on lithium leaching process. The highest leaching recovery of 99.4wt% Li was obtained at leaching temperature of 80°C, 3M hydrochloric acid and S/L ratio of 1:50g/ml for 90min. The graphite configuration with a better crystal structure obtained after the leaching process can also be recycled.

  18. Second World Materials Summit——Advanced Energy Materials and Sustainable Society Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIAO Lijing

    2009-01-01

    @@ In the current term,new energy will lead the fourth industrial revolution,and development of new energy is conducive to the worlds sustainable economic development.The Second World Materials Summit was held in Suzhou on October 12-15,2009 in such a background.It achieved a successful outcome and made an important declaration:Suzhou Declaration.The theme for the summit was"advanced energy materials and sustainable development of the society".The summit was organized by the Chinese Materials Research Society,and co sponsored by the International Union of Materials Research Society,the European Materials Research Society,as well as the Materials Research Society.

  19. Realisation and advanced engineering of true optical rugate filters based on nanoporous anodic alumina by sinusoidal pulse anodisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Abel; Yoo, Jeong Ha; Rohatgi, Charu Vashisth; Kumeria, Tushar; Wang, Ye; Losic, Dusan

    2016-01-01

    This study is the first realisation of true optical rugate filters (RFs) based on nanoporous anodic alumina (NAA) by sinusoidal waves. An innovative and rationally designed sinusoidal pulse anodisation (SPA) approach in galvanostatic mode is used with the aim of engineering the effective medium of NAA in a sinusoidal fashion. A precise control over the different anodisation parameters (i.e. anodisation period, anodisation amplitude, anodisation offset, number of pulses, anodisation temperature and pore widening time) makes it possible to engineer the characteristic reflection peaks and interferometric colours of NAA-RFs, which can be finely tuned across the UV-visible-NIR spectrum. The effect of the aforementioned anodisation parameters on the photonic properties of NAA-RFs (i.e. characteristic reflection peaks and interferometric colours) is systematically assessed in order to establish for the first time a comprehensive rationale towards NAA-RFs with fully controllable photonic properties. The experimental results are correlated with a theoretical model (Looyenga-Landau-Lifshitz - LLL), demonstrating that the effective medium of these photonic nanostructures can be precisely described by the effective medium approximation. NAA-RFs are also demonstrated as chemically selective photonic platforms combined with reflectometric interference spectroscopy (RIfS). The resulting optical sensing system is used to assess the reversible binding affinity between a model drug (i.e. indomethacin) and human serum albumin (HSA) in real-time. Our results demonstrate that this system can be used to determine the overall pharmacokinetic profile of drugs, which is a critical aspect to be considered for the implementation of efficient medical therapies.This study is the first realisation of true optical rugate filters (RFs) based on nanoporous anodic alumina (NAA) by sinusoidal waves. An innovative and rationally designed sinusoidal pulse anodisation (SPA) approach in galvanostatic

  20. Advanced Test Reactor National Scientific User Facility: Addressing advanced nuclear materials research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Jackson; Todd Allen; Frances Marshall; Jim Cole

    2013-03-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor National Scientific User Facility (ATR NSUF), based at the Idaho National Laboratory in the United States, is supporting Department of Energy and industry research efforts to ensure the properties of materials in light water reactors are well understood. The ATR NSUF is providing this support through three main efforts: establishing unique infrastructure necessary to conduct research on highly radioactive materials, conducting research in conjunction with industry partners on life extension relevant topics, and providing training courses to encourage more U.S. researchers to understand and address LWR materials issues. In 2010 and 2011, several advanced instruments with capability focused on resolving nuclear material performance issues through analysis on the micro (10-6 m) to atomic (10-10 m) scales were installed primarily at the Center for Advanced Energy Studies (CAES) in Idaho Falls, Idaho. These instruments included a local electrode atom probe (LEAP), a field-emission gun scanning transmission electron microscope (FEG-STEM), a focused ion beam (FIB) system, a Raman spectrometer, and an nanoindentor/atomic force microscope. Ongoing capability enhancements intended to support industry efforts include completion of two shielded, irradiation assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC) test loops, the first of which will come online in early calendar year 2013, a pressurized and controlled chemistry water loop for the ATR center flux trap, and a dedicated facility intended to house post irradiation examination equipment. In addition to capability enhancements at the main site in Idaho, the ATR NSUF also welcomed two new partner facilities in 2011 and two new partner facilities in 2012; the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) and associated hot cells and the University California Berkeley capabilities in irradiated materials analysis were added in 2011. In 2012, Purdue University’s Interaction of Materials

  1. Cost/benefit studies of advanced materials technologies for future aircraft turbine engines: Materials for advanced turbine engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stearns, M.; Wilbers, L.

    1982-01-01

    Cost benefit studies were conducted on six advanced materials and processes technologies applicable to commercial engines planned for production in the 1985 to 1990 time frame. These technologies consisted of thermal barrier coatings for combustor and high pressure turbine airfoils, directionally solidified eutectic high pressure turbine blades, (both cast and fabricated), and mixers, tail cones, and piping made of titanium-aluminum alloys. A fabricated titanium fan blisk, an advanced turbine disk alloy with improved low cycle fatigue life, and a long-life high pressure turbine blade abrasive tip and ceramic shroud system were also analyzed. Technologies showing considerable promise as to benefits, low development costs, and high probability of success were thermal barrier coating, directionally solidified eutectic turbine blades, and abrasive-tip blades/ceramic-shroud turbine systems.

  2. Investigation of advanced materials for fusion alpha particle diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonheure, G., E-mail: g.bonheure@fz-juelich.de [Laboratory for Plasma Physics, Association “Euratom-Belgian State”, Royal Military Academy, Avenue de la Renaissance, 30 Kunstherlevinglaan, B-1000 Brussels (Belgium); Van Wassenhove, G. [Laboratory for Plasma Physics, Association “Euratom-Belgian State”, Royal Military Academy, Avenue de la Renaissance, 30 Kunstherlevinglaan, B-1000 Brussels (Belgium); Hult, M.; González de Orduña, R. [Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements (IRMM), Retieseweg 111, B-2440 Geel (Belgium); Strivay, D. [Centre Européen d’Archéométrie, Institut de Physique Nucléaire, Atomique et de Spectroscopie, Université de Liège (Belgium); Vermaercke, P. [SCK-CEN, Boeretang, B-2400 Mol (Belgium); Delvigne, T. [DSI SPRL, 3 rue Mont d’Orcq, Froyennes B-7503 (Belgium); Chene, G.; Delhalle, R. [Centre Européen d’Archéométrie, Institut de Physique Nucléaire, Atomique et de Spectroscopie, Université de Liège (Belgium); Huber, A.; Schweer, B.; Esser, G.; Biel, W.; Neubauer, O. [Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Institut für Plasmaphysik, EURATOM-Assoziation, Trilateral Euregio Cluster, D-52425 Jülich (Germany)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: ► We examine the feasibility of alpha particle measurements in ITER. ► We test advanced material detectors borrowed from the GERDA neutrino experiment. ► We compare experimental results on TEXTOR tokamak with our detector response model. ► We investigate the detector response in ITER full power D–T plasmas. ► Advanced materials show good signal to noise ratio and alpha particle selectivity. -- Abstract: Fusion alpha particle diagnostics for ITER remain a challenging task. Standard escaping alpha particle detectors in present tokamaks are not applicable to ITER and techniques suitable for fusion reactor conditions need further research and development [1,2]. The activation technique is widely used for the characterization of high fluence rates inside neutron reactors. Tokamak applications of the neutron activation technique are already well developed [3] whereas measuring escaping ions using this technique is a novel fusion plasma diagnostic development. Despite low alpha particle fluence levels in present tokamaks, promising results using activation technique combined with ultra-low level gamma-ray spectrometry [4] were achieved before in JET [5,6]. In this research work, we use new advanced detector materials. The material properties beneficial for alpha induced activation are (i) moderate neutron cross-sections (ii) ultra-high purity which reduces neutron-induced background activation and (iii) isotopic tailoring which increases the activation yield of the measured activation product. Two samples were obtained from GERDA[7], an experiment aimed at measuring the neutrinoless double beta decay in {sup 76}Ge. These samples, made of highly pure (9 N) germanium highly enriched to 87% in isotope Ge-76, were irradiated in real D–D fusion plasma conditions inside the TEXTOR tokamak. Comparison of the calculated and the experimentally measured activity shows good agreement. Compared to previously investigated high temperature ceramic material [8

  3. One-pot hydrothermal synthesis of Nitrogen-doped graphene as high-performance anode materials for lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Zheng; Ju, Zhicheng; Zhao, Yulong; Wan, Jialu; Zhu, Yabo; Qiang, Yinghuai; Qian, Yitai

    2016-05-01

    Nitrogen-doped (N-doped) graphene has been prepared by a simple one-step hydrothermal approach using hexamethylenetetramine (HMTA) as single carbon and nitrogen source. In this hydrothermal process, HMTA pyrolyzes at high temperature and the N-doped graphene subsequently self-assembles on the surface of MgO particles (formed by the Mg powder reacting with H2O) during which graphene synthesis and nitrogen doping are simultaneously achieved. The as-synthesized graphene with incorporation of nitrogen groups possesses unique structure including thin layer thickness, high surface area, mesopores and vacancies. These structural features and their synergistic effects could not only improve ions and electrons transportation with nanometer-scale diffusion distances but also promote the penetration of electrolyte. The N-doped graphene exhibits high reversible capacity, superior rate capability as well as long-term cycling stability, which demonstrate that the N-doped graphene with great potential to be an efficient electrode material. The experimental results provide a new hydrothermal route to synthesize N-doped graphene with potential application for advanced energy storage, as well as useful information to design new graphene materials.

  4. Cladding and Structural Materials for Advanced Nuclear Energy Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Was, G S; Allen, T R; Ila, D; C,; Levi,; Morgan, D; Motta, A; Wang, L; Wirth, B

    2011-06-30

    The goal of this consortium is to address key materials issues in the most promising advanced reactor concepts that have yet to be resolved or that are beyond the existing experience base of dose or burnup. The research program consists of three major thrusts: 1) high-dose radiation stability of advanced fast reactor fuel cladding alloys, 2) irradiation creep at high temperature, and 3) innovative cladding concepts embodying functionally-graded barrier materials. This NERI-Consortium final report represents the collective efforts of a large number of individuals over a period of three and a half years and included 9 PIs, 4 scientists, 3 post-docs and 12 students from the seven participating institutions and 8 partners from 5 national laboratories and 3 industrial institutions (see table). University participants met semi-annually and participants and partners met annually for meetings lasting 2-3 days and designed to disseminate and discuss results, update partners, address outstanding issues and maintain focus and direction toward achieving the objectives of the program. The participants felt that this was a highly successful program to address broader issues that can only be done by the assembly of a range of talent and capabilities at a more substantial funding level than the traditional NERI or NEUP grant. As evidence of the success, this group, collectively, has published 20 articles in archival journals and made 57 presentations at international conferences on the results of this consortium.

  5. Advanced Industrial Materials (AIM) Program annual progress report, FY 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-05-01

    The Advanced Industrial Materials (AIM) Program is a part of the Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT), Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, US Department of Energy (DOE). The mission of AIM is to support development and commercialization of new or improved materials to improve energy efficiency, productivity, product quality, and reduced waste in the major process industries. OIT has embarked on a fundamentally new way of working with industries--the Industries of the Future (IOF) strategy--concentrating on the major process industries that consume about 90% of the energy and generate about 90% of the waste in the industrial sector. These are the aluminum, chemical, forest products, glass, metalcasting, and steel industries. OIT has encouraged and assisted these industries in developing visions of what they will be like 20 or 30 years into the future, defining the drivers, technology needs, and barriers to realization of their visions. These visions provide a framework for development of technology roadmaps and implementation plans, some of which have been completed. The AIM Program supports IOF by conducting research and development on materials to solve problems identified in the roadmaps. This is done by National Laboratory/industry/university teams with the facilities and expertise needed to develop new and improved materials. Each project in the AIM Program has active industrial participation and support.

  6. Combustion Synthesis of Advanced Porous Materials in Microgravity Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X.; Moore, J. J.; Schowengerdt, F. D.; Johnson, D. P.

    1999-01-01

    Combustion synthesis, otherwise known as self-propagating high temperature synthesis (SHS), can be used to produce engineered advanced porous material implants which offer the possibility for bone ingrowth as well as a permanent structure framework for the long-term replacement of bone defects. The primary advantage of SHS is based on its rapid kinetics and favorable energetics. The structure and properties of materials produced by SHS are strongly dependent on the combustion reaction conditions. Combustion reaction conditions such as reaction stoichiometry, particle size, green density, the presence and use of diluents or inert reactants, and pre-heating of the reactants, will affect the exothermicity of the reaction. A number of conditions must be satisfied in order to obtain high porosity materials: an optimal amount of liquid, gas and solid phases must be present in the combustion front. Therefore, a balance among these phases at the combustion front must be created by the SHS reaction to successfully engineer a bone replacement material system. Microgravity testing has extended the ability to form porous products. The convective heat transfer mechanisms which operate in normal gravity, 1 g, constrain the combustion synthesis reactions. Gravity also acts to limit the porosity which may be formed as the force of gravity serves to restrict the gas expansion and the liquid movement during reaction. Infiltration of the porous product with other phases can modify both the extent of porosity and the mechanical properties.

  7. Metal coordination polymer derived mesoporous Co3O4 nanorods with uniform TiO2 coating as advanced anodes for lithium ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Hongbo; Ang, Huixiang; Ding, Xianguang; Tan, Huiteng; Guo, Guile; Qu, Genlong; Yang, Yonggang; Zheng, Junwei; Yan, Qingyu; Gu, Hongwei

    2016-02-01

    In this work, a one-dimensional Co3O4@TiO2 core-shell electrode material with superior electrochemical performance is fabricated by a convenient and controllable route. The approach involves two main steps: the homogeneous deposition of polydopamine and TiO2 layers in sequence on the cobalt coordination polymer and the thermal decomposition of the polymer matrix. The as-prepared electrode material can achieve excellent electrochemical properties and stability as an anode material for lithium ion batteries, such as a high specific capacity of 1279 mA h g(-1), good cycling stability (around 803 mA h g(-1) at a current density of 200 mA g(-1) after 100 cycles), and stable rate performance (around 520 mA h g(-1) at a current density of 1000 mA g(-1)). This dramatic electrochemical performance is mainly attributed to the excellent structural characteristics, which could improve the electrical conductivity and lithium ion mobility, as well as electrolyte permeability and architectural stability during cycling. PMID:26781747

  8. Enhanced rate performance of nanosized Li4Ti5O12/graphene composites as anode material by a solid state-assembly method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Nanosized Li4Ti5O12/graphene material synthesized by a solid state-assembly method is first reported. • Li4Ti5O12/graphene materials exhibit high specific capacity and cycle stability. • Li4Ti5O12/graphene anodes remarkably exhibit high rate performance. • Li4Ti5O12/graphene improves the conductivity. -- Abstract: Nanosized Li4Ti5O12/graphene materials have been successfully synthesized by a solid state-assembly method. As the anode materials for lithium ion batteries, nanosized Li4Ti5O12/graphene exhibits higher specific capacity, much improved rate capability, and better cycle stability than the pure Li4Ti5O12. In the potential range of 1.0-2.0 V at room temperature, Li4Ti5O12/graphene with weight ratio of LTO:GO to 1000:5 shows discharge capacities of more than 144 and 96.2 mAh g−1 after 100 cycles at 1C and 3C charge-discharge rates, while the correspond discharge capacities of pure Li4Ti5O12 are only 108 and 75.4 mAh g−1, respectively. The resulting Li4Ti5O15/graphene (1000:5) sample demonstrates remarkable rate capability in that it delivers a reversible capacity of 53.4 mAh g−1 in the 1000th cycle at 10C charge-discharge rate, about 240% that of pristine Li4Ti5O12 particles (22.2 mAh g−1). The low charge-transfer resistance and large lithium ion diffusion coefficients confirmed that Li4Ti5O12/graphene materials possessed better electronic conductivity and lithium ion mobility. The present work demonstrates that Li4Ti5O12/graphene composite is a promising anode material for high-rate and long life lithium ion batteries and this simple preparation method makes its production on a large scale

  9. Fabrication and application of advanced functional materials from lignincellulosic biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Sixiao

    This dissertation explored the conversion of lignocellulosic biomass into advanced functional materials and their potential applications. Lignocellulosic biomass represents an as-of-yet underutilized renewable source for not only biofuel production but also functional materials fabrication. This renewable source is a great alternative for fossil fuel based chemicals, which could be one of the solutions to energy crisis. In this work, it was demonstrated a variety of advanced materials including functional carbons, metal and silica nanoparticles could be derived from lignocellulosic biomass. Chapter 1 provided overall reviewed of the lignin structures, productions and its utilizations as plastics, absorbents and carbons, as well as the preparation of nano-structured silver, silica and silicon carbide/nitride from biomass. Chapter 2, 3 and 4 discussed the fabrication of highly porous carbons from isolated lignin, and their applications as electric supercapacitors for energy storage. In chapter 2, ultrafine porous carbon fibers were prepared via electrospinning followed by simultaneous carbonization and activation. Chapter 3 covered the fabrication of supercapacitor based on the porous carbon fibers and the investigation of their electrochemical performances. In chapter 4, porous carbon particulates with layered carbon nano plates structures were produced by simple oven-drying followed by simultaneous carbonization and activation. The effects of heat processing parameters on the resulting carbon structures and their electrochemical properties were discussed in details. Chapter 5 and 6 addressed the preparation of silver nanoparticles using lignin. Chapter 5 reported the synthesis, underlying kinetics and mechanism of monodispersed silver nanospheres with diameter less than 25 nm in aqueous solutions using lignin as dual reducing and capping agents. Chapter 6 covered the preparation of silver nanoparticles on electrospun celluloses ultrafine fibers using lignin as both

  10. A novel nano-structured interpenetrating phase composite of silicon/graphite–tin for lithium-ion rechargeable batteries anode materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • An interpenetrating phase composite is synthesized by high energy mechanical milling. • Silicon and tin interpenetrate into each other in the composite. • The SGM composite shows good electrochemical properties. • The lithiation and delithiation reaction mechanism are investigated. - Abstract: A novel nano-structured interpenetrating phase composite (NSIPC) of silicon/graphite–tin (SGM) anode material for lithium-ion rechargeable batteries is synthesized by high energy mechanical milling (HEMM). The structural and morphological characterizations have been carried out through X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The electrochemical performances have been analyzed with reference to Li+/Li and the results are compared with silicon/graphite composites. The SGM NSIPC electrode exhibits the better cyclability than the SG composite electrodes. The initial discharge specific capacity of the as-prepared SGM NSIPC is relatively high around 1790 mA h g−1 with 1592 mA h g−1 reversible capacity retention in the following cycle at a current density of 237 mA g−1 in the voltage from 0.03 V to 1.5 V. In addition, the SGM NSIPC electrode shows the good rate capability and possesses the stable cycling performance even charging and discharging at the large current density. Consequently, SGM NSIPC can be the promising anode material for the next generation lithium ion rechargeable batteries

  11. PbLi2Ti6O14: A novel high-rate long-life anode material for rechargeable lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Peng; Qian, Shangshu; Yu, Haoxiang; Yan, Lei; Lin, Xiaoting; Yang, Ke; Long, Nengbing; Shui, Miao; Shu, Jie

    2016-10-01

    As a novel anode material, PbLi2Ti6O14 is prepared by a traditional solid state method at a calcination temperature of 900 °C. Structural analysis and electrochemical tests prove that PbLi2Ti6O14 possesses a good crystallinity and superior performance. PbLi2Ti6O14, composed of particles with 400 nm in length and 300 nm in width, exhibits an initial charge capacity of 155.1 mAh g-1 at 100 mA g-1 and maintains at 147.9 mAh g-1 after 100 cycles, with capacity retention as high as 95.4%. Especially, the reversible capacity of PbLi2Ti6O14 can stabilize at 101.6 mAh g-1 after 1000 cycles at a high current density of 1000 mA g-1, with capacity retention of 87.5%. Besides, the lithium storage behavior in PbLi2Ti6O14 is also studied by various in-situ and ex-situ methods. It is found that the lithiation/delithiation process in PbLi2Ti6O14 is a highly reversible reaction. All these results demonstrate that PbLi2Ti6O14 may be an impressive anode material in the near future.

  12. Flake-by-flake ZnCo2O4 as a high capacity anode material for lithium-ion battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The ZnCo2O4 with porous structure was prepared by co-precipitation method. • Flake-by-flake used in ZnCo2O4 was studied for the first time. • The as-prepared ZCO shows excellent electrochemical performances. • The preparation method has mild experiment conditions and high production rate. -- Abstract: A novel flake-by-flake ZnCo2O4 (ZCO) with porous nanostructure is prepared by a typical and facile co-precipitation method using oxalic acid as complex agent. XRD, SEM, and TEM analyses show the as-prepared ZCO nanoparticles have a high purity and a good crystallinity, and the ZCO nanoflakes with a thickness of 30–80 nm are composed of uniform ZCO nanocrystals with a diameter of 20–40 nm. The novel structure with enough free space is beneficial to improving the electrochemical performance. The as-prepared ZCO used as an anode material for lithium-ion batteries exhibits a high specific capacity of 1275 mA h/g at a current rate of 100 mA/g after 50 cycles, as well as a high power capability at elevated current rates, i.e., 1130 and 730 mA h/g at current rates of 500 and 3000 mA/g, respectively. It has a great prospect for the application of anode materials for lithium-ion batteries

  13. Interfacial effect on the electrochemical properties of the layered graphene/metal sulfide composites as anode materials for Li-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Yagang; Chen, Biao; Zhao, Naiqin; Shi, Chunsheng; He, Chunnian; Li, Jiajun; Liu, Enzuo

    2016-09-01

    The layered graphene/metal sulfide composites exhibit excellent electrochemical properties as anode materials for lithium ion battery, due to the synergistic effect between metal sulfide and graphene which still needs to be further understood. In this study, Li adsorption and diffusion on MoS2 and SnS2 monolayers and Li2S surface, as well as at their interfaces with graphene, are systematically investigated through first-principles calculations. The analysis of charge density difference, Bader charge, and density of states indicates that the adsorbed Li atoms interact with both the S atoms at metal sulfide surfaces and C atoms in graphene, resulting in larger Li adsorption energies at the interfaces compared with that on the corresponding surfaces, but with almost no enhancement of the energy barriers for Li atom diffusion. The enhanced Li adsorption capability at Li2S/G interface contributes to the extra storage capacity of graphene/metal sulfide composites. Furthermore, the synergistic mechanism between metal sulfide and graphene is revealed. Moreover, band structure analysis shows the electronic conductivity is enhanced with the incorporation of graphene. The results corroborate the interfacial pseudocapacity-like Li atom storage mechanism, and are helpful for the design of layered graphene/metal sulfide composites as anode materials for lithium ion batteries.

  14. Flake-by-flake ZnCo{sub 2}O{sub 4} as a high capacity anode material for lithium-ion battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Xiong [School of Physics and Telecommunication Engineering, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Engineering Research Center of Materials and Technology for Electrochemical Energy Storage (Ministry of Education), Guangzhou 510006 (China); Ru, Qiang, E-mail: rq7702@yeah.net [School of Physics and Telecommunication Engineering, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Engineering Research Center of Materials and Technology for Electrochemical Energy Storage (Ministry of Education), Guangzhou 510006 (China); Laboratory of Quantum Information Technology, School of Physics and Telecommunication Engineering, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Zhang, Beibei; Hu, Shejun; An, Bonan [School of Physics and Telecommunication Engineering, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Engineering Research Center of Materials and Technology for Electrochemical Energy Storage (Ministry of Education), Guangzhou 510006 (China)

    2014-02-05

    Highlights: • The ZnCo{sub 2}O{sub 4} with porous structure was prepared by co-precipitation method. • Flake-by-flake used in ZnCo{sub 2}O{sub 4} was studied for the first time. • The as-prepared ZCO shows excellent electrochemical performances. • The preparation method has mild experiment conditions and high production rate. -- Abstract: A novel flake-by-flake ZnCo{sub 2}O{sub 4} (ZCO) with porous nanostructure is prepared by a typical and facile co-precipitation method using oxalic acid as complex agent. XRD, SEM, and TEM analyses show the as-prepared ZCO nanoparticles have a high purity and a good crystallinity, and the ZCO nanoflakes with a thickness of 30–80 nm are composed of uniform ZCO nanocrystals with a diameter of 20–40 nm. The novel structure with enough free space is beneficial to improving the electrochemical performance. The as-prepared ZCO used as an anode material for lithium-ion batteries exhibits a high specific capacity of 1275 mA h/g at a current rate of 100 mA/g after 50 cycles, as well as a high power capability at elevated current rates, i.e., 1130 and 730 mA h/g at current rates of 500 and 3000 mA/g, respectively. It has a great prospect for the application of anode materials for lithium-ion batteries.

  15. Hierarchical MoS2 tubular structures internally wired by carbon nanotubes as a highly stable anode material for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu Ming; Yu, Xin Yao; Li, Zhen; Paik, Ungyu; Lou, Xiong Wen (David)

    2016-01-01

    Molybdenum disulfide (MoS2), a typical two-dimensional material, is a promising anode material for lithium-ion batteries because it has three times the theoretical capacity of graphite. The main challenges associated with MoS2 anodes are the structural degradation and the low rate capability caused by the low intrinsic electric conductivity and large strain upon cycling. Here, we design hierarchical MoS2 tubular structures internally wired by carbon nanotubes (CNTs) to tackle these problems. These porous MoS2 tubular structures are constructed from building blocks of ultrathin nanosheets, which are believed to benefit the electrochemical reactions. Benefiting from the unique structural and compositional characteristics, these CNT-wired MoS2 tubular structures deliver a very high specific capacity of ~1320 mAh g−1 at a current density of 0.1 A g−1, exceptional rate capability, and an ultralong cycle life of up to 1000 cycles. This work may inspire new ideas for constructing high-performance electrodes for electrochemical energy storage. PMID:27453938

  16. The capacity fading mechanism and improvement of cycling stability in MoS2-based anode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Haibo; Li, Feng; Hu, Chenli; Liang, Pei; Cao, Dan; Chen, Xiaoshuang

    2016-01-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) layered MoS2 nanosheets possess great potential as anode materials for lithium ion batteries (LIBs), but they still suffer from poor cycling performance. Improving the cycling stability of electrode materials depends on a deep understanding of their dynamic structural evolution and reaction kinetics in the lithiation process. Herein, thermodynamic phase diagrams and the lithiation dynamics of MoS2-based nanostructures with the intercalation of lithium ions are studied by using first-principles calculations and ab initio molecular dynamics simulations. Our results demonstrate that the continuous intercalation of Li ions induces structural destruction of 2H phase MoS2 nanosheets in the discharge process that follows a layer-by-layer dissociation mechanism. Meanwhile, the intercalation of Li ions leads to a structural transition of MoS2 nanosheets from the 2H to the 1T phase due to the ultralow transition barriers (~0.1 eV). We find that the phase transition can slow down the dissociation of MoS2 nanosheets during lithiation. The result can be applied to explain extensive experimental observation of the fast capacity fading of MoS2-based anode materials between the first and the subsequent discharges. To suppress the dissociation of MoS2 nanosheets in the lithiation process, we propose a strategy by constructing a sandwich-like graphene/MoS2/graphene structure that indicates high chemical stability, superior conductivity, and high Li-ion mobility in the charge/discharge process, implying the possibility to induce an improvement in the anode cycling performance. This work opens a new route to rational design layered transition-metal disulfide (TMD) anode materials for LIBs with superior cycling stability and electrochemical performance.Two-dimensional (2D) layered MoS2 nanosheets possess great potential as anode materials for lithium ion batteries (LIBs), but they still suffer from poor cycling performance. Improving the cycling stability of

  17. Preparation of Gold Nanoparticles Deposited Silicon Thin Film Electrode by Self-Assembly Method for the Employment of an Anode Material for Lithium Secondary Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halim, Martin; Kim, Jung Sub; Nguyen, Si Hieu; Jeon, Bup Ju; Lee, Joong Kee

    2015-10-01

    This work describes a self-assembly method of gold nanoparticles coating on the surface of silicon thin films for the anode material of lithium secondary batteries. The preparation of the silicon thin films was carried out by electron cyclotron resonance metal organic chemical vapor deposition (ECR-MOCVD) process. The obtained films were further coated with (3-aminopropyl)-trimethoxysilane (APTMS) which has a role to bind the oxygen functional groups on Si surface and the gold nanoparticles. The dispersed gold nanoparticles on the surface of silicon thin films could be prepared due to self-assembly phenomena which interact between attraction and repulsion in gold nanoparticles colloidal solution (GNCS). The use of reducing agent of sodium citrate and tannic acid in GNCS significantly affected the size of gold nanoparticle in our experimental range. Based on our experimental results, the higher reversible capacity was exhibited for the silicon that was immersed in the GNCS consisted of only sodium citrate. The GNCS consisted of both sodium citrate and tannic acid produced severe coagulated nanoparticles when deposited on the silicon surface and thus inhibited the lithium movement from electrolyte to silicon surface. Consequently, the reversible capacity of silicon anode material with coagulated gold nanoparticles coating showed the reduced performance. PMID:26726492

  18. A novel Co-Li2O@Si core-shell nanowire array composite as a high-performance lithium-ion battery anode material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wenjia; Du, Ning; Zhang, Hui; Yang, Deren

    2016-02-01

    We report a novel material of Co-Li2O@Si core-shell nanowire array synthesized via the lithiation of pre-synthesized CoO@Si core-shell nanowire arrays during the first cycle. When the potential window versus lithium was controlled between 0.01-1.2 V, the coated Si shell could be electrochemically active, while the Co-Li2O nanowire core could function as a stable mechanical support and an efficient electron conducting pathway during the charge-discharge process. The Co-Li2O@Si core-shell nanowire array anodes exhibit good cyclic stability and high power capability compared to planar Si film electrodes.We report a novel material of Co-Li2O@Si core-shell nanowire array synthesized via the lithiation of pre-synthesized CoO@Si core-shell nanowire arrays during the first cycle. When the potential window versus lithium was controlled between 0.01-1.2 V, the coated Si shell could be electrochemically active, while the Co-Li2O nanowire core could function as a stable mechanical support and an efficient electron conducting pathway during the charge-discharge process. The Co-Li2O@Si core-shell nanowire array anodes exhibit good cyclic stability and high power capability compared to planar Si film electrodes. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr06120b

  19. Synthesis and Application of Si/Carbon Nanofiber Composites Based on Ni and Mo Catalysts for Anode Material of Lithium Secondary Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Eunyi; Park, Heal-Ku; Lee, Chang-Seop

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, carbon nanofibers (CNFs) and Si/carbon nanofiber composites were synthesized for use as the anode material of lithium secondary batteries. Catalysts were prepared based on Ni and Mo metals and CNFs were grown through chemical vapor deposition (CVD). In addition, the grown CNFs were mixed with silicon particles to synthesize Si/carbon nanofibers composites. The physiochemical characteristics of the synthesized CNFs and Si/carbon nanofiber composites were analyzed by SEM, EDS, XRD, Raman, BET and XPS. The electrochemical characteristics were investigated by using cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic charge-discharge. Using CNFs and Si/carbon nanofiber composites as the anode material, three electrode cells were assembled and the electrochemical characteristics were measured using LiPF6 and LiClO4 as electrolytes. As a result of the galvanostatic charge-discharge of CNFs that were grown through catalysts with Ni and Mo concentration ratio of 6:4, the initial discharge capacity when using LiPF6 as the electrolyte was 570 mAh/g and the retention rate was 15.05%. In the case of using LiClO4 as the electrolyte, the initial discharge capacity was 263 mAh/g and the retention rate was 67.23%. PMID:27483824

  20. Hierarchical MoS2 tubular structures internally wired by carbon nanotubes as a highly stable anode material for lithium-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu Ming; Yu, Xin Yao; Li, Zhen; Paik, Ungyu; Lou, Xiong Wen David

    2016-07-01

    Molybdenum disulfide (MoS2), a typical two-dimensional material, is a promising anode material for lithium-ion batteries because it has three times the theoretical capacity of graphite. The main challenges associated with MoS2 anodes are the structural degradation and the low rate capability caused by the low intrinsic electric conductivity and large strain upon cycling. Here, we design hierarchical MoS2 tubular structures internally wired by carbon nanotubes (CNTs) to tackle these problems. These porous MoS2 tubular structures are constructed from building blocks of ultrathin nanosheets, which are believed to benefit the electrochemical reactions. Benefiting from the unique structural and compositional characteristics, these CNT-wired MoS2 tubular structures deliver a very high specific capacity of ~1320 mAh g(-1) at a current density of 0.1 A g(-1), exceptional rate capability, and an ultralong cycle life of up to 1000 cycles. This work may inspire new ideas for constructing high-performance electrodes for electrochemical energy storage. PMID:27453938