WorldWideScience

Sample records for advanced anodic materials

  1. Advances in aluminum anodizing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, K. H.

    1969-01-01

    White anodize is applied to aluminum alloy surfaces by specific surface preparation, anodizing, pigmentation, and sealing techniques. The development techniques resulted in alloys, which are used in space vehicles, with good reflectance values and excellent corrosive resistance.

  2. Sodium titanate cuboid as advanced anode material for sodium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Hou, Hongshuai; Yang, Xuming; Chen, Jun; Jing, Mingjun; Wu, Zhibin; Jia, Xinnan; Ji, Xiaobo

    2016-02-01

    Sodium titanate (Na2Ti6O13) cuboid is successfully prepared and employed for anode electrode materials in sodium-ion batteries (SIBs). Their sodium storage properties are presented by undertaking polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF), carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) as different binders. At a current density of 0.1 C, the sodium titanate cuboid with CMC and PVDF exhibits discharge capacity of 269.5 mAh g-1 and 251.0 mAh g-1, respectively. At the 200th charge/discharge cycle, the reserved discharge capacity for Sodium titanate cuboid electrode with CMC binder is 173.6 mAh g-1, amounting to a capacity retention of 94.4%, much higher than that employing PVDF as binder (the discharge capacity of 69.3 mAh g-1 and the capacity retention of 54.1%). The rate capability test and the Coulombic efficiency data also manifest that the Sodium titanate cuboid utilizing CMC as binder is superior to the ones with PVDF. These enhanced electrochemical performance mainly derive from the strong cohesive strength of CMC binder and the swellability of PVDF binder, verifying the importance of a binder to the optimization of sodium storage behavior.

  3. Preparation of Advanced Carbon Anode Materials from Mesocarbon Microbeads for Use in High C-Rate Lithium Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Dar Fang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Mesophase soft carbon (MSC and mesophase graphite (SMG, for use in comparative studies of high C-rate Lithium Ion Battery (LIB anodes, were made by heating mesocarbon microbeads (MCMB at 1300 °C and 3000 °C; respectively. The crystalline structures and morphologies of the MSC, SMG, and commercial hard carbon (HC were investigated by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and Raman spectroscopy. Additionally, their electrochemical properties, when used as anode materials in LIBs, were also investigated. The results show that MSC has a superior charging rate capability compared to SMG and HC. This is attributed to MSC having a more extensive interlayer spacing than SMG, and a greater number of favorably-oriented pathways when compared to HC.

  4. High performance anode for advanced Li batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lake, Carla [Applied Sciences, Inc., Cedarville, OH (United States)

    2015-11-02

    The overall objective of this Phase I SBIR effort was to advance the manufacturing technology for ASI’s Si-CNF high-performance anode by creating a framework for large volume production and utilization of low-cost Si-coated carbon nanofibers (Si-CNF) for the battery industry. This project explores the use of nano-structured silicon which is deposited on a nano-scale carbon filament to achieve the benefits of high cycle life and high charge capacity without the consequent fading of, or failure in the capacity resulting from stress-induced fracturing of the Si particles and de-coupling from the electrode. ASI’s patented coating process distinguishes itself from others, in that it is highly reproducible, readily scalable and results in a Si-CNF composite structure containing 25-30% silicon, with a compositionally graded interface at the Si-CNF interface that significantly improve cycling stability and enhances adhesion of silicon to the carbon fiber support. In Phase I, the team demonstrated the production of the Si-CNF anode material can successfully be transitioned from a static bench-scale reactor into a fluidized bed reactor. In addition, ASI made significant progress in the development of low cost, quick testing methods which can be performed on silicon coated CNFs as a means of quality control. To date, weight change, density, and cycling performance were the key metrics used to validate the high performance anode material. Under this effort, ASI made strides to establish a quality control protocol for the large volume production of Si-CNFs and has identified several key technical thrusts for future work. Using the results of this Phase I effort as a foundation, ASI has defined a path forward to commercialize and deliver high volume and low-cost production of SI-CNF material for anodes in Li-ion batteries.

  5. FeS anchored reduced graphene oxide nanosheets as advanced anode material with superior high-rate performance for alkaline secondary batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shangguan, Enbo; Guo, Litan; Li, Fei; Wang, Qin; Li, Jing; Li, Quanmin; Chang, Zhaorong; Yuan, Xiao-Zi

    2016-09-01

    A new nanocomposite formulation of the iron-based anode for alkaline secondary batteries is proposed. For the first time, FeS nanoparticles anchored on reduced graphene oxide (RGO) nanosheets are synthesized via a facile, environmentally friendly direct-precipitation approach. In this nanocomposite, FeS nanoparticles are anchored uniformly and tightly on the surface of RGO nanosheets. As an alkaline battery anode, the FeS@RGO electrode delivers a superior high-rate charge/discharge capability and outstanding cycling stability, even at a condition without any conductive additives and a high electrode loading of ∼40 mg cm-2. At high charge/discharge rates of 5C, 10C and 20C (6000 mA g-1), the FeS@RGO electrode presents a specific capacity of ∼288, 258 and 220 mAh g-1, respectively. Moreover, the FeS@RGO electrode exhibits an admirable long cycling stability with a superior capacity retention of 87.6% for 300 cycles at a charge/discharge rate of 2C. The excellent electrochemical properties of the FeS@RGO electrode can be stemmed from the high specific surface area, peculiar electric conductivity and robust sheet-anchored structure of the FeS@RGO nanocomposite. By virtue of its superior fast charge/discharge properties, the FeS@RGO nanocomposite is suitable as an advanced anode material for high-performance alkaline secondary batteries.

  6. Anodic Materials for Electrocatalytic Ozone Generation

    OpenAIRE

    Yun-Hai Wang; Qing-Yun Chen

    2013-01-01

    Ozone has wide applications in various fields. Electrocatalytic ozone generation technology as an alternative method to produce ozone is attractive. Anodic materials have significant effect on the ozone generation efficiency. The research progress on anodic materials for electrocatalytic ozone generation including the cell configuration and mechanism is addressed in this review. The lead dioxide and nickel-antimony-doped tin dioxide anode materials are introduced in detail, including their st...

  7. Synthesis of amorphous ZnSnO3-C hollow microcubes as advanced anode materials for lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Amorphous ZnSnO3-C hollow microcubes were prepared for the first time. • ZnSnO3-C hollow microcubes exhibit greatly enhanced lithium storage properties. • The reason for the superior electrochemical properties is proposed. - Abstract: Amorphous ZnSnO3-C hollow microcubes have been produced by calcination of the pre-synthesized ZnSn(OH)6 hollow microcubes in argon, followed by the surface decoration of carbon. The calcination temperature plays an important role in the phase and morphology of the obtained products. ZnSnO3-C hollow microcubes have an average edge length of about 1.0 μm with the shell thickness of approximate 145 nm. When adopted as the anode materials for lithium ion batteries, amorphous ZnSnO3-C hollow microcubes manifest greatly enhanced electrochemical properties compared to amorphous ZnSnO3 hollow and solid counterparts. After 50th cycles, a high reversible capacity of 703 mA h g−1 can be obtained for amorphous ZnSnO3-C hollow microcubes at the current density of 100 mA g−1. The superior lithium storage properties of ZnSnO3-C are due to its unique hollow structure with large specific surface area, the modification of carbon and the amorphous characteristic

  8. Hydrogenated TiO2 Branches Coated Mn3O4 Nanorods as an Advanced Anode Material for Lithium Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Nana; Yue, Jie; Chen, Liang; Qian, Yitai; Yang, Jian

    2015-05-20

    Rational design and delicate control on the component, structure, and surface of electrodes in lithium ion batteries are highly important to their performances in practical applications. Compared with various components and structures for electrodes, the choices for their surface are quite limited. The most widespread surface for numerous electrodes, a carbon shell, has its own issues, which stimulates the desire to find another alternative surface. Here, hydrogenated TiO2 is exemplified as an appealing surface for advanced anodes by the growth of ultrathin hydrogenated TiO2 branches on Mn3O4 nanorods. High theoretical capacity of Mn3O4 is well matched with low volume variation (∼4%), enhanced electrical conductivity, good cycling stability, and rate capability of hydrogenated TiO2, as demonstrated in their electrochemical performances. The proof-of-concept reveals the promising potential of hydrogenated TiO2 as a next-generation material for the surface in high-performance hybrid electrodes. PMID:25928277

  9. New High-Energy Nanofiber Anode Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xiangwu; Fedkiw, Peter; Khan, Saad; Huang, Alex; Fan, Jiang

    2013-11-15

    The overall goal of the proposed work was to use electrospinning technology to integrate dissimilar materials (lithium alloy and carbon) into novel composite nanofiber anodes, which simultaneously had high energy density, reduced cost, and improved abuse tolerance. The nanofiber structure allowed the anodes to withstand repeated cycles of expansion and contraction. These composite nanofibers were electrospun into nonwoven fabrics with thickness of 50 μm or more, and then directly used as anodes in a lithium-ion battery. This eliminated the presence of non-active materials (e.g., conducting carbon black and polymer binder) and resulted in high energy and power densities. The nonwoven anode structure also provided a large electrode-electrolyte interface and, hence, high rate capacity and good lowtemperature performance capability. Following are detailed objectives for three proposed project periods. • During the first six months: Obtain anodes capable of initial specific capacities of 650 mAh/g and achieve ~50 full charge/discharge cycles in small laboratory scale cells (50 to 100 mAh) at the 1C rate with less than 20 percent capacity fade; • In the middle of project period: Assemble, cycle, and evaluate 18650 cells using proposed anode materials, and demonstrate practical and useful cycle life (750 cycles of ~70% state of charge swing with less than 20% capacity fade) in 18650 cells with at least twice improvement in the specific capacity than that of conventional graphite electrodes; • At the end of project period: Deliver 18650 cells containing proposed anode materials, and achieve specific capacities greater than 1200 mAh/g and cycle life longer than 5000 cycles of ~70% state of charge swing with less than 20% capacity fade.

  10. Multiwalled carbon nanotube@a-C@Co9S8 nanocomposites: a high-capacity and long-life anode material for advanced lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yanli; Yan, Dong; Xu, Huayun; Liu, Shuo; Yang, Jian; Qian, Yitai

    2015-02-01

    A one-dimensional MWCNT@a-C@Co9S8 nanocomposite has been prepared via a facile solvothermal reaction followed by a calcination process. The amorphous carbon layer between Co9S8 and MWCNT acts as a linker to increase the loading of sulfides on MWCNT. When evaluated as anode materials for lithium ion batteries, the MWCNT@a-C@Co9S8 nanocomposite shows the advantages of high capacity and long life, superior to Co9S8 nanoparticles and MWCNT@Co9S8 nanocomposites. The reversible capacity could be retained at 662 mA h g-1 after 120 cycles at 1 A g-1. The efficient synthesis and excellent performances of this nanocomposite offer numerous opportunities for other sulfides as a new anode for lithium ion batteries.A one-dimensional MWCNT@a-C@Co9S8 nanocomposite has been prepared via a facile solvothermal reaction followed by a calcination process. The amorphous carbon layer between Co9S8 and MWCNT acts as a linker to increase the loading of sulfides on MWCNT. When evaluated as anode materials for lithium ion batteries, the MWCNT@a-C@Co9S8 nanocomposite shows the advantages of high capacity and long life, superior to Co9S8 nanoparticles and MWCNT@Co9S8 nanocomposites. The reversible capacity could be retained at 662 mA h g-1 after 120 cycles at 1 A g-1. The efficient synthesis and excellent performances of this nanocomposite offer numerous opportunities for other sulfides as a new anode for lithium ion batteries. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Infrared spectrogram (IR) of glucose treated MWCNT; TEM images of MWCNT@a-C treated by different concentrations of glucose; SEM and TEM images of the intermediate product obtained from the solvothermal reaction between thiourea and Co(Ac)2; EDS spectrum of MWCNT@a-C@Co9S8 composites; SEM and TEM images of MWCNT@Co9S8 nanocomposites obtained without the hydrothermal treatment by glucose; SEM and TEM images of Co9S8 nanoparticles; Galvanostatic discharge-charge profiles and cycling performance of MWCNT@a-C; TEM images

  11. Integrating 3D Flower-Like Hierarchical Cu2NiSnS4 with Reduced Graphene Oxide as Advanced Anode Materials for Na-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Shuang; Wang, Sai; Li, Lin; Zhu, Yun-hai; Zhang, Xin-bo; Yan, Jun-min

    2016-04-13

    Development of an anode material with high performance and low cost is crucial for implementation of next-generation Na-ion batteries (NIBs) electrode, which is proposed to meet the challenges of large scale renewable energy storage. Metal chalcogenides are considered as promising anode materials for NIBs due to their high theoretical capacity, low cost, and abundant sources. Unfortunately, their practical application in NIBs is still hindered because of low conductivity and morphological collapse caused by their volume expansion and shrinkage during Na(+) intercalation/deintercalation. To solve the daunting challenges, herein, we fabricated novel three-dimensional (3D) Cu2NiSnS4 nanoflowers (CNTSNs) as a proof-of-concept experiment using a facile and low-cost method. Furthermore, homogeneous integration with reduced graphene oxide nanosheets (RGNs) endows intrinsically insulated CNTSNs with superior electrochemical performances, including high specific capacity (up to 837 mAh g(-1)), good rate capability, and long cycling stability, which could be attributed to the unique 3D hierarchical structure providing fast ion diffusion pathway and high contact area at the electrode/electrolyte interface. PMID:26986821

  12. Anodic titania films as anode materials for lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Titania thin films were prepared through the anodisation of titanium metal in a 1.0 M sulphuric acid solution at 80 oC utilising a series of pulsed dc constant currents of increasing magnitude. Films were then tested as a potential anode material for lithium batteries using a variety of techniques. Electrochemical testing revealed that the films (3.8 cm2) offered good rate capabilities affording a constant capacity of 48 μAh for a constant current of 10 μA which decreased to 25 μAh on increasing the current to 1250 μA. Cyclic voltammetry was conducted over a range of scan rates from which capacitive currents were examined and rate constants, transfer coefficients and diffusion coefficients calculated. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy was conducted over six potentials in the range 0.1-2.7 V with the experimental data successfully modelled using an equivalent circuit with the notation R(Q(RW))C. TEM observation of focussed ion beam milled cross-sections showed significant structural differences between the as-anodised film and those cycled in a lithium battery. Raman spectroscopy showed that the films had an anatase character that transformed into an unidentified lithium-containing, titanate phase on cycling. Based on a film thickness of 100 nm, and assuming density of 4 g cm-3 such films offered a stable capacity of 316 mAh g-1

  13. Facile synthesis of porous NiCo2O4 microflowers as high-performance anode materials for advanced lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: - Abstract: Porous NiCo2O4 microflowers having very high Brunner-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area (∼109.283 m2/g) are fabricated by a facile solvothermal method followed by calcinating the Co-Ni hydroxides precursor in air. The as-prepared porous NiCo2O4 microflowers exhibit excellent cycling stability (952 mA h g−1 at a current density of 100 mA g−1 after 60 cycles and 720 mA h g−1 at a current density of 500 mA g−1 after 100 cycles). This outstanding electrochemical performance is attributed to the unique hierarchical structure and high porosity, which can provide enough space to buffer the volume expansion during the discharge and charge processes, increase the contact area between the electrode and electrolyte, and reduce the transport lengths of both lithium ions and electrons. The porous NiCo2O4 microflowers show great potential in high-capacity anode materials for next-generation lithium-ion batteries

  14. A low-cost and advanced SiOx-C composite with hierarchical structure as an anode material for lithium-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wenjun; Shi, Jing; Liang, Yunhui; Liu, Fang; Peng, Yi; Yang, Huabin

    2015-05-28

    A cost-efficient and scalable method is designed to prepare a SiOx-C composite with superior cyclability and excellent rate performance. The glucose addition in a two-step way induces a hierarchical structure, where individual SiOx nanoparticles are wrapped by a conductive carbon layer and these agglomerated particles are further wrapped by a carbon shell functioning as an electrolyte blocking layer. Instrumental analysis indicates that the SiOx domains are comprised of SiO2 and SiO. The SiOx-C anode exhibits a high reversible specific capacity of 674.8 mA h g(-1) after 100 cycles at 100 mA g(-1) with a capacity retention of about 83.5%. The excellent electrochemical performance is due to the hierarchical structure, the well-dispersed conductive carbon network, and the Li2O and Li4SiO4 generated in the initial discharge process, all of which can immensely relieve the volume expansion induced by the lithiation of silicon. This hierarchical SiOx-C composite has a promising prospect of practical application given its adequate storage capacity, good cycling stability, commercially available materials and simple equipment. PMID:25929515

  15. Recent anode advances in solid oxide fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Chunwen; Stimming, Ulrich

    Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are electrochemical reactors that can directly convert the chemical energy of a fuel gas into electrical energy with high efficiency and in an environment-friendly way. The recent trends in the research of solid oxide fuel cells concern the use of available hydrocarbon fuels, such as natural gas. The most commonly used anode material Ni/YSZ cermet exhibits some disadvantages when hydrocarbons were used as fuels. Thus it is necessary to develop alternative anode materials which display mixed conductivity under fuel conditions. This article reviews the recent developments of anode in SOFCs with principal emphasis on the material aspects. In addition, the mechanism and kinetics of fuel oxidation reactions are also addressed. Various processes used for the cost-effective fabrication of anode have also been summarized. Finally, this review will be concluded with personal perspectives on the future research directions of this area.

  16. Reactivity of Anode Raw  Materials and Anodes for Production of Aluminium

    OpenAIRE

    Engvoll, Marianne Aanvik

    2002-01-01

    In the Hall-Héroult process for primary production of aluminium, a considerable amount of anode carbon is lost through unwanted gasification in air and CO2. The carbon gasification reactions are catalyzed by a number of inorganic impurities normally present in the anodes. Some of these impurities follow the anode raw materials while others are introduced during the anode manufacturing process.The aim of this work is to obtain a fundamental knowledge of how the bath compounds: AlF3, Al2O3, NaF...

  17. Material and Energy Flows in the Production of Cathode and Anode Materials for Lithium Ion Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunn, Jennifer B. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); James, Christine [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States); Gaines, Linda [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Gallagher, Kevin [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Dai, Qiang [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Kelly, Jarod C. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2015-09-01

    The Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions and Energy use in Transportation (GREET) model has been expanded to include four new cathode materials that can be used in the analysis of battery-powered vehicles: lithium nickel cobalt manganese oxide (LiNi0.4Co0.2Mn0.4O2 [NMC]), lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO4 [LFP]), lithium cobalt oxide (LiCoO2 [LCO]), and an advanced lithium cathode (0.5Li2MnO3∙0.5LiNi0.44Co0.25Mn0.31O2 [LMR-NMC]). In GREET, these cathode materials are incorporated into batteries with graphite anodes. In the case of the LMR-NMC cathode, the anode is either graphite or a graphite-silicon blend. Lithium metal is also an emerging anode material. This report documents the material and energy flows of producing each of these cathode and anode materials from raw material extraction through the preparation stage. For some cathode materials, we considered solid state and hydrothermal preparation methods. Further, we used Argonne National Laboratory’s Battery Performance and Cost (BatPaC) model to determine battery composition (e.g., masses of cathode, anode, electrolyte, housing materials) when different cathode materials were used in the battery. Our analysis concluded that cobalt- and nickel-containing compounds are the most energy intensive to produce.

  18. Nanocomposite anode materials for sodium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manthiram, Arumugam; Kim Il, Tae; Allcorn, Eric

    2016-06-14

    The disclosure relates to an anode material for a sodium-ion battery having the general formula AO.sub.x--C or AC.sub.x--C, where A is aluminum (Al), magnesium (Mg), titanium (Ti), vanadium (V), chromium (Cr), manganese (Mn), iron (Fe), cobalt (Co), nickel (Ni), zirconium (Zr), molybdenum (Mo), tungsten (W), niobium (Nb), tantalum (Ta), silicon (Si), or any combinations thereof. The anode material also contains an electrochemically active nanoparticles within the matrix. The nanoparticle may react with sodium ion (Na.sup.+) when placed in the anode of a sodium-ion battery. In more specific embodiments, the anode material may have the general formula M.sub.ySb-M'O.sub.x--C, Sb-MO.sub.x--C, M.sub.ySn-M'C.sub.x--C, or Sn-MC.sub.x--C. The disclosure also relates to rechargeable sodium-ion batteries containing these materials and methods of making these materials.

  19. Advanced functional materials

    CERN Document Server

    2011-01-01

    This book reviews the results of recent research on new materials arising from progress in polymer, ceramic, sensor, and fuel cell technology, including advanced inorganic-organic-hybrid polymeric materials, high functional sensor, and microbial fuel cells.

  20. Advanced materials-2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 10th International Symposium on Advanced Materials (ISAM) was held from 3-7 September, 2007. From this symposium, material scientists and engineers can keep abreast with recent technologies involving advanced structural and functional materials. The proceeding of ISAM includes 94 papers which have been divided into six different sections: i) Development in material processing ii) Surface Engineering iii) phase transformation iv) advances in magnetic materials v) Nanotechnology and vi) reliability and life assessment. ISAM provides the opportunity to exchange technical know-how amongst Scientists, Engineers and researchers. (A.B.)

  1. Joining of advanced materials

    CERN Document Server

    Messler, Robert W

    1993-01-01

    Provides an unusually complete and readable compilation of the primary and secondary options for joining conventional materials in non-conventional ways. Provides unique coverage of adhesive bonding using both organic and inorganic adhesives, cements and mortars. Focuses on materials issues without ignoring issues related to joint design, production processing, quality assurance, process economics, and joining performance in service.Joining of advanced materials is a unique treatment of joining of both conventional and advanced metals andalloys, intermetallics, ceramics, glasses, polymers, a

  2. Facile synthesis of reduced graphene oxide-porous silicon composite as superior anode material for lithium-ion battery anodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Lian-Sheng; Liu, Jin-Yu; Li, Hong-Yan; Wu, Tong-Shun; Li, Fenghua; Wang, Hao-Yu; Niu, Li

    2016-05-01

    We report a new method for synthesizing reduced graphene oxide (rGO)-porous silicon composite for lithium-ion battery anodes. Rice husks were used as a as a raw material source for the synthesis of porous Si through magnesiothermic reduction process. The as-obtained composite exhibits good rate and cycling performance taking advantage of the porous structure of silicon inheriting from rice husks and the outstanding characteristic of graphene. A considerably high delithiation capacity of 907 mA h g-1 can be retained even at a rate of 16 A g-1. A discharge capacity of 830 mA h g-1 at a current density of 1 A g-1 was delivered after 200 cycles. This may contribute to the further advancement of Si-based composite anode design.

  3. Advanced Aircraft Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivek Kumar Prince

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available There has been long debate on “advanced aircraft material” from past decades & researchers too came out with lots of new advanced material like composites and different aluminum alloys. Now days a new advancement that is in great talk is third generation Aluminum-lithium alloy. Newest Aluminum-lithium alloys are found out to have low density, higher elastic modulus, greater stiffness, greater cryogenic toughness, high resistance to fatigue cracking and improved corrosion resistance properties over the earlier used aircraft material as mentioned in Table 3 [1-5]. Comparison had been made with nowadays used composite material and is found out to be more superior then that

  4. Advanced healthcare materials

    CERN Document Server

    Tiwari, Ashutosh

    2014-01-01

    Advanced materials are attracting strong interest in the fundamental as well as applied sciences and are being extensively explored for their potential usage in a range of healthcare technological and biological applications. Advanced Healthcare Nanomaterials summarises the current status of knowledge in the fields of advanced materials for functional therapeutics, point-of-care diagnostics, translational materials, up and coming bio-engineering devices. The book highlights the key features which enable engineers to design stimuli-responsive smart nanoparticles, novel biomaterials, nan

  5. Na-Ion Battery Anodes: Materials and Electrochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Wei; Shen, Fei; Bommier, Clement; Zhu, Hongli; Ji, Xiulei; Hu, Liangbing

    2016-02-16

    The intermittent nature of renewable energy sources, such as solar and wind, calls for sustainable electrical energy storage (EES) technologies for stationary applications. Li will be simply too rare for Li-ion batteries (LIBs) to be used for large-scale storage purposes. In contrast, Na-ion batteries (NIBs) are highly promising to meet the demand of grid-level storage because Na is truly earth abundant and ubiquitous around the globe. Furthermore, NIBs share a similar rocking-chair operation mechanism with LIBs, which potentially provides high reversibility and long cycling life. It would be most efficient to transfer knowledge learned on LIBs during the last three decades to the development of NIBs. Following this logic, rapid progress has been made in NIB cathode materials, where layered metal oxides and polyanionic compounds exhibit encouraging results. On the anode side, pure graphite as the standard anode for LIBs can only form NaC64 in NIBs if solvent co-intercalation does not occur due to the unfavorable thermodynamics. In fact, it was the utilization of a carbon anode in LIBs that enabled the commercial successes. Anodes of metal-ion batteries determine key characteristics, such as safety and cycling life; thus, it is indispensable to identify suitable anode materials for NIBs. In this Account, we review recent development on anode materials for NIBs. Due to the limited space, we will mainly discuss carbon-based and alloy-based anodes and highlight progress made in our groups in this field. We first present what is known about the failure mechanism of graphite anode in NIBs. We then go on to discuss studies on hard carbon anodes, alloy-type anodes, and organic anodes. Especially, the multiple functions of natural cellulose that is used as a low-cost carbon precursor for mass production and as a soft substrate for tin anodes are highlighted. The strategies of minimizing the surface area of carbon anodes for improving the first-cycle Coulombic efficiency are

  6. Machinability of advanced materials

    CERN Document Server

    Davim, J Paulo

    2014-01-01

    Machinability of Advanced Materials addresses the level of difficulty involved in machining a material, or multiple materials, with the appropriate tooling and cutting parameters.  A variety of factors determine a material's machinability, including tool life rate, cutting forces and power consumption, surface integrity, limiting rate of metal removal, and chip shape. These topics, among others, and multiple examples comprise this research resource for engineering students, academics, and practitioners.

  7. Advanced energy materials

    CERN Document Server

    Tiwari, Ashutosh

    2014-01-01

    An essential resource for scientists designing new energy materials for the vast landscape of solar energy conversion as well as materials processing and characterization Based on the new and fundamental research on novel energy materials with tailor-made photonic properties, the role of materials engineering has been to provide much needed support in the development of photovoltaic devices. Advanced Energy Materials offers a unique, state-of-the-art look at the new world of novel energy materials science, shedding light on the subject's vast multi-disciplinary approach The book focuses p

  8. Phase III Advanced Anodes and Cathodes Utilized in Energy Efficient Aluminum Production Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R.A. Christini; R.K. Dawless; S.P. Ray; D.A. Weirauch, Jr.

    2001-11-05

    During Phase I of the present program, Alcoa developed a commercial cell concept that has been estimated to save 30% of the energy required for aluminum smelting. Phase ii involved the construction of a pilot facility and operation of two pilots. Phase iii of the Advanced Anodes and Cathodes Program was aimed at bench experiments to permit the resolution of certain questions to be followed by three pilot cells. All of the milestones related to materials, in particular metal purity, were attained with distinct improvements over work in previous phases of the program. NiO additions to the ceramic phase and Ag additions to the Cu metal phase of the cermet improved corrosion resistance sufficiently that the bench scale pencil anodes met the purity milestones. Some excellent metal purity results have been obtained with anodes of the following composition: Further improvements in anode material composition appear to be dependent on a better understanding of oxide solubilities in molten cryolite. For that reason, work was commissioned with an outside consultant to model the MeO - cryolite systems. That work has led to a better understanding of which oxides can be used to substitute into the NiO-Fe2O3 ceramic phase to stabilize the ferrites and reduce their solubility in molten cryolite. An extensive number of vertical plate bench electrolysis cells were run to try to find conditions where high current efficiencies could be attained. TiB2-G plates were very inconsistent and led to poor wetting and drainage. Pure TiB2 did produce good current efficiencies at small overlaps (shadowing) between the anodes and cathodes. This bench work with vertical plate anodes and cathodes reinforced the importance of good cathode wetting to attain high current efficiencies. Because of those conclusions, new wetting work was commissioned and became a major component of the research during the third year of Phase III. While significant progress was made in several areas, much work needs to be

  9. Carbon Fiber as Anode Material for Cathodic Prevention in Cementitious Materials

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Emma Qingnan; Tang, Luping; Zack, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Cathodic prevention (CPre) technique is a promising method and has been used for the past two decades to prevent steel from corrosion in concrete structures. However, wide application of this technique has been restricted due to high costs of anode materials. In order to lower the cost and further improve this technique, carbon fiber composite anode has been introduced as an alternative anode material with affordable price and other outstanding properties. This paper presents the study of usi...

  10. Carbon Cryogel Silicon Composite Anode Materials for Lithium Ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodworth James; Baldwin, Richard; Bennett, William

    2010-01-01

    A variety of materials are under investigation for use as anode materials in lithium-ion batteries, of which, the most promising are those containing silicon. 10 One such material is a composite formed via the dispersion of silicon in a resorcinol-formaldehyde (RF) gel followed by pyrolysis. Two silicon-carbon composite materials, carbon microspheres and nanofoams produced from nano-phase silicon impregnated RF gel precursors have been synthesized and investigated. Carbon microspheres are produced by forming the silicon-containing RF gel into microspheres whereas carbon nano-foams are produced by impregnating carbon fiber paper with the silicon containing RF gel to create a free standing electrode. 1-4,9 Both materials have demonstrated their ability to function as anodes and utilize the silicon present in the material. Stable reversible capacities above 400 mAh/g for the bulk material and above 1000 mAh/g of Si have been observed.

  11. Advanced materials-2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 9. International Symposium on Advanced Materials (ISAM) was held from 19-22 September, 2005. This popular biennial event is one of the prime international forums in South Asia where material scientists and engineers can keep abreast with recent technologies involving advanced structural and functional materials. The technical committee of ISAM received 213 papers, 49 from abroad 164 from within the country. These papers were submitted in response to five important topics; i) Processing, Production and Developments, ii) Surface Engineering, iii) Phase Transformation and Characterization, iv) Advances in Magnetic Materials and v) Reliability and Life Assessment. The proceedings of the 9. ISAM consists of 108 reviewed papers. This symposium provided an ideal opportunity for exchange of information amongst scientists, engineers, and researchers. (A.B.)

  12. Advances in dental materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaderhobli, Ram M

    2011-07-01

    The use of materials to rehabilitate tooth structures is constantly changing. Over the past decade, newer material processing techniques and technologies have significantly improved the dependability and predictability of dental material for clinicians. The greatest obstacle, however, is in choosing the right combination for continued success. Finding predictable approaches for successful restorative procedures has been the goal of clinical and material scientists. This article provides a broad perspective on the advances made in various classes of dental restorative materials in terms of their functionality with respect to pit and fissure sealants, glass ionomers, and dental composites. PMID:21726695

  13. Advances in electronic materials

    CERN Document Server

    Kasper, Erich; Grimmeiss, Hermann G

    2008-01-01

    This special-topic volume, Advances in Electronic Materials, covers various fields of materials research such as silicon, silicon-germanium hetero-structures, high-k materials, III-V semiconductor alloys and organic materials, as well as nano-structures for spintronics and photovoltaics. It begins with a brief summary of the formative years of microelectronics; now the keystone of information technology. The latter remains one of the most important global technologies, and is an extremely complex subject-area. Although electronic materials are primarily associated with computers, the internet

  14. Organic anodes and sulfur/selenium cathodes for advanced Li and Na batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Chao

    To address energy crisis and environmental pollution induced by fossil fuels, there is an urgent demand to develop sustainable, renewable, environmental benign, low cost and high capacity energy storage devices to power electric vehicles and enhance clean energy approaches such as solar energy, wind energy and hydroenergy. However, the commercial Li-ion batteries cannot satisfy the critical requirements for next generation rechargeable batteries. The commercial electrode materials (graphite anode and LiCoO 2 cathode) are unsustainable, unrenewable and environmental harmful. Organic materials derived from biomasses are promising candidates for next generation rechargeable battery anodes due to their sustainability, renewability, environmental benignity and low cost. Driven by the high potential of organic materials for next generation batteries, I initiated a new research direction on exploring advanced organic compounds for Li-ion and Na-ion battery anodes. In my work, I employed croconic acid disodium salt and 2,5-Dihydroxy-1,4-benzoquinone disodium salt as models to investigate the effects of size and carbon coating on electrochemical performance for Li-ion and Na-ion batteries. The results demonstrate that the minimization of organic particle size into nano-scale and wrapping organic materials with graphene oxide can remarkably enhance the rate capability and cycling stability of organic anodes in both Li-ion and Na-ion batteries. To match with organic anodes, high capacity sulfur and selenium cathodes were also investigated. However, sulfur and selenium cathodes suffer from low electrical conductivity and shuttle reaction, which result in capacity fading and poor lifetime. To circumvent the drawbacks of sulfur and selenium, carbon matrixes such as mesoporous carbon, carbonized polyacrylonitrile and carbonized perylene-3, 4, 9, 10-tetracarboxylic dianhydride are employed to encapsulate sulfur, selenium and selenium sulfide. The resulting composites exhibit

  15. Nanocomposite anode materials for sodium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manthiram, Arumugam; Kim Il, Tae; Allcorn, Eric

    2016-06-14

    The disclosure relates to an anode material for a sodium-ion battery having the general formula AO.sub.x--C or AC.sub.x--C, where A is aluminum (Al), magnesium (Mg), titanium (Ti), vanadium (V), chromium (Cr), manganese (Mn), iron (Fe), cobalt (Co), nickel (Ni), zirconium (Zr), molybdenum (Mo), tungsten (W), niobium (Nb), tantalum (Ta), silicon (Si), or any combinations thereof. The anode material also contains an electrochemically active nanoparticles within the matrix. The nanoparticle may react with sodium ion (Na.sup.+) when placed in the anode of a sodium-ion battery. In more specific embodiments, the anode material may have the general formula M.sub.ySb-M'O.sub.x--C, Sb-MO.sub.x--C, M.sub.ySn-M'C.sub.x--C, or Sn-MC.sub.x--C. The disclosure also relates to rechargeable sodium-ion batteries containing these materials and methods of making these materials.

  16. Materials for advanced packaging

    CERN Document Server

    Lu, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Significant progress has been made in advanced packaging in recent years. Several new packaging techniques have been developed and new packaging materials have been introduced. This book provides a comprehensive overview of the recent developments in this industry, particularly in the areas of microelectronics, optoelectronics, digital health, and bio-medical applications. The book discusses established techniques, as well as emerging technologies, in order to provide readers with the most up-to-date developments in advanced packaging.

  17. Materials for advanced packaging

    CERN Document Server

    Wong, CP

    2008-01-01

    Significant progress has been made in advanced packaging in recent years. Several new packaging techniques have been developed and new packaging materials have been introduced. This book provides a comprehensive overview of the recent developments in this industry, particularly in the areas of microelectronics, optoelectronics, digital health, and bio-medical applications. The book discusses established techniques, as well as emerging technologies, in order to provide readers with the most up-to-date developments in advanced packaging.

  18. Research Advances in Silicon-Based Anode Materials of High Capacity Lithium Ion Battery%高容量型锂离子电池硅基负极材料的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡社军; 张苗; 侯贤华; 王洁; 李敏; 刘祥

    2013-01-01

    Due to its high capacity , silicon based anode materials have been widely studied in recent years .How-ever,the commercialization of silicon-based materials as the anode of lithium-ion batteries( LIBs) has been hindered by the huge volume change , poor cycle life and low initial coulombic efficiency during the charge /discharge process .This article analyses the insertion/interinsertion lithium ion principle of silicon anodes , reviews the change of the crystal structure and the surface/interface of Si-based material during the intercalation/deintercalation of lith-ium, and the methods for improving the electrochemical performance .The prospects of silicon-based materials as the anode of LIBs are also discussed .%硅基负极材料由于具有高容量而被广泛研究,该材料在充/放电过程中巨大的体积变化、低的循环寿命和初始库仑效率阻碍了其商业化应用。在作者多年从事硅基负极材料的研究基础上,分析了硅基负极材料的工作原理,回顾了Si负极在脱/嵌锂过程中的晶体结构、表面/界面的变化以及提高其电化学性能的方法,讨论了锂离子电池硅基负极材料的前景。

  19. Optimization and Domestic Sourcing of Lithium Ion Battery Anode Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, III, D. L.; Yoon, S. [A123 Systems, Inc.

    2012-10-25

    The purpose of this Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) between ORNL and A123Systems, Inc. was to develop a low-temperature heat treatment process for natural graphite based anode materials for high-capacity and long-cycle-life lithium ion batteries. Three major problems currently plague state-of-the-art lithium ion battery anode materials. The first is the cost of the artificial graphite, which is heat-treated well in excess of 2000°C. Because of this high-temperature heat treatment, the anode active material significantly contributes to the cost of a lithium ion battery. The second problem is the limited specific capacity of state-of-the-art anodes based on artificial graphites, which is only about 200-350 mAh/g. This value needs to be increased to achieve high energy density when used with the low cell-voltage nanoparticle LiFePO4 cathode. Thirdly, the rate capability under cycling conditions of natural graphite based materials must be improved to match that of the nanoparticle LiFePO4. Natural graphite materials contain inherent crystallinity and lithium intercalation activity. They hold particular appeal, as they offer huge potential for industrial energy savings with the energy costs essentially subsidized by geological processes. Natural graphites have been heat-treated to a substantially lower temperature (as low as 1000-1500°C) and used as anode active materials to address the problems described above. Finally, corresponding graphitization and post-treatment processes were developed that are amenable to scaling to automotive quantities.

  20. Advanced thermal management materials

    CERN Document Server

    Jiang, Guosheng; Kuang, Ken

    2012-01-01

    ""Advanced Thermal Management Materials"" provides a comprehensive and hands-on treatise on the importance of thermal packaging in high performance systems. These systems, ranging from active electronically-scanned radar arrays to web servers, require components that can dissipate heat efficiently. This requires materials capable of dissipating heat and maintaining compatibility with the packaging and dye. Its coverage includes all aspects of thermal management materials, both traditional and non-traditional, with an emphasis on metal based materials. An in-depth discussion of properties and m

  1. High capacity anode materials for lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Herman A.; Anguchamy, Yogesh Kumar; Deng, Haixia; Han, Yongbon; Masarapu, Charan; Venkatachalam, Subramanian; Kumar, Suject

    2015-11-19

    High capacity silicon based anode active materials are described for lithium ion batteries. These materials are shown to be effective in combination with high capacity lithium rich cathode active materials. Supplemental lithium is shown to improve the cycling performance and reduce irreversible capacity loss for at least certain silicon based active materials. In particular silicon based active materials can be formed in composites with electrically conductive coatings, such as pyrolytic carbon coatings or metal coatings, and composites can also be formed with other electrically conductive carbon components, such as carbon nanofibers and carbon nanoparticles. Additional alloys with silicon are explored.

  2. Development of Nanosized/Nanostructured Silicon as Advanced Anodes for Lithium-Ion Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, James J.

    2015-01-01

    NASA is developing high energy and high capacity Li-ion cell and battery designs for future exploration missions under the NASA Advanced Space Power System (ASPS) Program. The specific energy goal is 265 Wh/kg at 10 C. center dot Part of effort for NASA advanced Li-ion cells ? Anode: Silicon (Si) as an advanced anode. ? Electrolyte: advanced electrolyte with flame-retardant additives for enhanced performance and safety (NASA JPL).

  3. Advanced superconducting materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The superconducting properties of various materials are reviewed in view of their use in high field magnets. The critical current densities above 12 T of conductors based on NbN or PbMo6S8 are compared to those of the most advanced practical conductors based on alloyed by Nb3Sn. Different aspects of the mechanical reinforcement of high field conductors, rendered necessary by the strong Lorentz forces (e.g. in fusion magnets), are discussed. (orig.)

  4. Porous graphene for high capacity lithium ion battery anode material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yusheng; Zhang, Qiaoli; Jia, Min; Yang, Dapeng; Wang, Jianjun; Li, Meng; Zhang, Jing; Sun, Qiang; Jia, Yu

    2016-02-01

    Based on density functional theory calculations, we studied the Li dispersed on porous graphene (PG) for its application as Li ion battery anode material. The hybridization of Li atoms and the carbon atoms enhanced the interaction between Li atoms and the PG. With holes of specific size, the PG can provide excellent mobility with moderate barriers of 0.37-0.39 eV. The highest Li storage composite can be LiC0.75H0.38 which corresponds to a specific capacity of 2857.7 mA h/g. Both specific capacity and binding energy are significantly larger than the corresponding value of graphite, this makes PG a promising candidate for the anode material in battery applications. The interactions between the Li atoms and PG can be easily tuned by an applied strain. Under biaxial strain of 16%, the binding energy of Li to PG is increased by 17% compared to its unstrained state.

  5. Review on recent progress of nanostructured anode materials for Li-ion batteries

    KAUST Repository

    Goriparti, Subrahmanyam

    2014-07-01

    This review highlights the recent research advances in active nanostructured anode materials for the next generation of Li-ion batteries (LIBs). In fact, in order to address both energy and power demands of secondary LIBs for future energy storage applications, it is required the development of innovative kinds of electrodes. Nanostructured materials based on carbon, metal/semiconductor, metal oxides and metal phosphides/nitrides/sulfides show a variety of admirable properties for LIBs applications such as high surface area, low diffusion distance, high electrical and ionic conductivity. Therefore, nanosized active materials are extremely promising for bridging the gap towards the realization of the next generation of LIBs with high reversible capacities, increased power capability, long cycling stability and free from safety concerns. In this review, anode materials are classified, depending on their electrochemical reaction with lithium, into three groups: intercalation/de-intercalation, alloy/de-alloy and conversion materials. Furthermore, the effect of nanoscale size and morphology on the electrochemical performance is presented. Synthesis of the nanostructures, lithium battery performance and electrode reaction mechanisms are also discussed. To conclude, the main aim of this review is to provide an organic outline of the wide range of recent research progresses and perspectives on nanosized active anode materials for future LIBs.

  6. Advanced materials-2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 8th International Symposium on Advanced Materials (ISAM) was held from 8-11 September, 2003. The proceeding of ISAM includes 87 papers which have been divided in to ten different sections. These include production and processing, coating and thin films, characterization, superconductors and semiconductors mechanical modeling, mechanical testing and life prediction composites, corrosion and oxidation, single crystals and related papers. Ten eminent researchers and scholars of international fame presented their keynote/invited lectures of 40 minutes each. This symposium provided an ideal opportunity for exchange of information amongst scientists, engineers, and researchers from all over Pakistan and 30 other countries of the world. (A.B.)

  7. Accelerating advanced-materials commercialization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maine, Elicia; Seegopaul, Purnesh

    2016-05-01

    Long commercialization times, high capital costs and sustained uncertainty deter investment in innovation for advanced materials. With appropriate strategies, technology and market uncertainties can be reduced, and the commercialization of advanced materials accelerated.

  8. Polarons in advanced materials

    CERN Document Server

    Alexandrov, Alexandre Sergeevich

    2008-01-01

    Polarons in Advanced Materials will lead the reader from single-polaron problems to multi-polaron systems and finally to a description of many interesting phenomena in high-temperature superconductors, ferromagnetic oxides, conducting polymers and molecular nanowires. The book divides naturally into four parts. Part I introduces a single polaron and describes recent achievements in analytical and numerical studies of polaron properties in different electron-phonon models. Part II and Part III describe multi-polaron physics, and Part IV describes many key physical properties of high-temperature superconductors, colossal magnetoresistance oxides, conducting polymers and molecular nanowires, which were understood with polarons and bipolarons. The book is written in the form of self-consistent reviews authored by well-established researchers actively working in the field and will benefit scientists and postgraduate students with a background in condensed matter physics and materials sciences.

  9. ANODE CATALYST MATERIALS FOR USE IN FUEL CELLS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2002-01-01

    Catalyst materials having a surface comprising a composition M¿x?/Pt¿3?/Sub; wherein M is selected from the group of elements Fe, Co, Rh and Ir; or wherein M represent two different elements selected from the group comprising Fe, CO, Rh, Ir, Ni, Pd, CU, Ag, Au and Sn; and wherein Sub represents a...... substrate material selected from Ru and Os; the respective components being present within specific ranges, display improved properties for use inanodes for low-temperature fuel cell anodes for PENFC fuel cells and direct methanol fuel cells....

  10. Handbook of Advanced Magnetic Materials

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Yi; Shindo, Daisuke

    2006-01-01

    From high-capacity, inexpensive hard drives to mag-lev trains, recent achievements in magnetic materials research have made the dreams of a few decades ago reality. The objective of Handbook of Advanced Magnetic Materials is to provide a timely, comprehensive review of recent progress in magnetic materials research. This broad yet detailed reference consists of four volumes: 1.) Nanostructured advanced magnetic materials, 2.) Characterization and simulation of advanced magnetic materials, 3.) Processing of advanced magnetic materials, and 4.) Properties and applications of advanced magnetic materials The first volume documents and explains recent development of nanostructured magnetic materials, emphasizing size effects. The second volume provides a comprehensive review of both experimental methods and simulation techniques for the characterization of magnetic materials. The third volume comprehensively reviews recent developments in the processing and manufacturing of advanced magnetic materials. With the co...

  11. Advanced materials processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Advanced materials will require improved processing methods due to high melting points, low toughness or ductility values, high reactivity with air or ceramics and typically complex crystal structures with significant anisotropy in flow and/or fracture stress. Materials for structural applications at elevated temperature in critical systems will require processing with a high degree of control. This requires an improved understanding of the relationship between process variables and microstructure to enable control systems to achieve consistently high quality. One avenue to the required level of understanding is computer simulation. Past attempts to do process modeling have been hampered by incomplete data regarding thermophysical or mechanical material behavior. Some of the required data can be calculated. Due to the advances in software and hardware, accuracy and costs are in the realm of acquiring experimental data. Such calculations can, for example, be done at an atomic level to compute lattice energy, fault energies, density of states and charge densities. These can lead to fundamental information about the competition between slip and fracture, anisotropy of bond strength (and therefore cleavage strength), cohesive strength, adhesive strength, elastic modulus, thermal expansion and possibly other quantities which are difficult (and therefore expensive to measure). Some of these quantities can be fed into a process model. It is probable that temperature dependencies can be derived numerically as well. Examples are given of the beginnings of such an approach for Ni3Al and MoSi2. Solidification problems are examples of the state-of-the-art process modeling and adequately demonstrate the need for extensive input data. Such processes can be monitored in terms of interfacial position vs. time, cooling rate and thermal gradient

  12. Anodic oxidation with doped diamond electrodes: a new advanced oxidation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boron-doped diamond anodes allow to directly produce OH· radicals from water electrolysis with very high current efficiencies. This has been explained by the very high overvoltage for oxygen production and many other anodic electrode processes on diamond anodes. Additionally, the boron-doped diamond electrodes exhibit a high mechanical and chemical stability. Anodic oxidation with diamond anodes is a new advanced oxidation process (AOP) with many advantages compared to other known chemical and photochemical AOPs. The present work reports on the use of diamond anodes for the chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal from several industrial wastewaters and from two synthetic wastewaters with malic acid and ethylenediaminetetraacetic (EDTA) acid. Current efficiencies for the COD removal between 85 and 100% have been found. The formation and subsequent removal of by-products of the COD oxidation has been investigated for the first time. Economical considerations of this new AOP are included

  13. Investigation of Metal Oxide/Carbon Nano Material as Anode for High Capacity Lithium-ion Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, James Jianjun; Hong, Haiping

    2014-01-01

    NASA is developing high specific energy and high specific capacity lithium-ion battery (LIB) technology for future NASA missions. Current state-of-art LIBs have issues in terms of safety and thermal stability, and are reaching limits in specific energy capability based on the electrochemical materials selected. For example, the graphite anode has a limited capability to store Li since the theoretical capacity of graphite is 372 mAh/g. To achieve higher specific capacity and energy density, and to improve safety for current LIBs, alternative advanced anode, cathode, and electrolyte materials are pursued under the NASA Advanced Space Power System Project. In this study, the nanostructed metal oxide, such as Fe2O3 on carbon nanotubes (CNT) composite as an LIB anode has been investigated.

  14. Graphene composites as anode materials in lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazar Atabaki, M.; Kovacevic, R.

    2013-03-01

    Since the world of mobile phones and laptops has significantly altered by a big designer named Steve Jobs, the electronic industries have strived to prepare smaller, thinner and lower weight products. The giant electronic companies, therefore, compete in developing more efficient hardware such as batteries used inside the small metallic or polymeric frame. One of the most important materials in the production lines is the lithium-based batteries which is so famous for its ability in recharging as many times as a user needs. However, this is not an indication of being long lasted, as many of the electronic devices are frequently being used for a long time. The performance, chemistry, safety and above all cost of the lithium ion batteries should be considered when the design of the compounds are at the top concern of the engineers. To increase the efficiency of the batteries a combination of graphene and nanoparticles is recently introduced and it has shown to have enormous technological effect in enhancing the durability of the batteries. However, due to very high electronic conductivity, these materials can be thought of as preparing the anode electrode in the lithiumion battery. In this paper, the various approaches to characterize different types of graphene/nanoparticles and the process of preparing the anode for the lithium-ion batteries as well as their electrical properties are discussed.

  15. Index of competences Advanced Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This index gathers the main french competences in advanced materials field (university laboratories, research and development organisms, technical centers, experts...). The concerned advanced materials are plastics and technical polymers, metals and alloys, composite materials, technical ceramics, glasses, paper, wood and textile. A PC computer version is also available. (A.B.)

  16. Pulsed laser deposited Si on multilayer graphene as anode material for lithium ion batteries

    OpenAIRE

    Gouri Radhakrishnan; Paul M. Adams; Brendan Foran; Michael V. Quinzio; Miles J. Brodie

    2013-01-01

    Pulsed laser deposition and chemical vapor deposition were used to deposit very thin silicon on multilayer graphene (MLG) on a nickel foam substrate for application as an anode material for lithium ion batteries. The as-grown material was directly fabricated into an anode without a binder, and tested in a half-cell configuration. Even under stressful voltage limits that accelerate degradation, the Si-MLG films displayed higher stability than Si-only electrodes. Post-cycling images of the anod...

  17. Laser machining of advanced materials

    CERN Document Server

    Dahotre, Narendra B

    2011-01-01

    Advanced materialsIntroductionApplicationsStructural ceramicsBiomaterials CompositesIntermetallicsMachining of advanced materials IntroductionFabrication techniquesMechanical machiningChemical Machining (CM)Electrical machiningRadiation machining Hybrid machiningLaser machiningIntroductionAbsorption of laser energy and multiple reflectionsThermal effectsLaser machining of structural ceramicsIntrodu

  18. Modified natural graphite as anode material for lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Y. P.; Jiang, C.; Wan, C.; Holze, R.

    A concentrated nitric acid solution was used as an oxidant to modify the electrochemical performance of natural graphite as anode material for lithium ion batteries. Results of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, electron paramagnetic resonance, thermogravimmetry, differential thermal analysis, high resolution electron microscopy, and measurement of the reversible capacity suggest that the surface structure of natural graphite was changed, a fresh dense layer of oxides was formed. Some structural imperfections were removed, and the stability of the graphite structure increased. These changes impede decomposition of electrolyte solvent molecules, co-intercalation of solvated lithium ions and movement of graphene planes along the a-axis direction. Concomitantly, more micropores were introduced, and thus, lithium intercalation and deintercalation were favored and more sites were provided for lithium storage. Consequently, the reversible capacity and the cycling behavior of the modified natural graphite were much improved by the oxidation. Obviously, the liquid-solid oxidation is advantageous in controlling the uniformity of the products.

  19. Optical properties of advanced materials

    CERN Document Server

    Kajikawa, Kotaro

    2013-01-01

    In the last decade, optically functionalized materials have developed rapidly, from bulk matters to structured forms. Now we have a rich variety of attractive advanced materials. They are applied to optical and electrical devices that support the information communication technology in the mid 21-th century. Accordingly, it is quite important to have a broad knowledge of the optical properties of advanced materials for students, scientists and engineers working in optics and related fields. This book is designed to teach fundamental optical properties of such advanced materials effectively. These materials have their own peculiarities which are very interesting in modern optical physics and also for applications because the concepts of optical properties are quite different from those in conventional optical materials. Hence each chapter starts to review the basic concepts of the materials briefly and proceeds to the practical use. The important topics covered in this book include:  quantum structures of sem...

  20. Advanced morphological analysis of patterns of thin anodic porous alumina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Different conditions of fabrication of thin anodic porous alumina on glass substrates have been explored, obtaining two sets of samples with varying pore density and porosity, respectively. The patterns of pores have been imaged by high resolution scanning electron microscopy and analyzed by innovative methods. The regularity ratio has been extracted from radial profiles of the fast Fourier transforms of the images. Additionally, the Minkowski measures have been calculated. It was first observed that the regularity ratio averaged across all directions is properly corrected by the coefficient previously determined in the literature. Furthermore, the angularly averaged regularity ratio for the thin porous alumina made during short single-step anodizations is lower than that of hexagonal patterns of pores as for thick porous alumina from aluminum electropolishing and two-step anodization. Therefore, the regularity ratio represents a reliable measure of pattern order. At the same time, the lower angular spread of the regularity ratio shows that disordered porous alumina is more isotropic. Within each set, when changing either pore density or porosity, both regularity and isotropy remain rather constant, showing consistent fabrication quality of the experimental patterns. Minor deviations are tentatively discussed with the aid of the Minkowski measures, and the slight decrease in both regularity and isotropy for the final data-points of the porosity set is ascribed to excess pore opening and consequent pore merging. - Highlights: • Thin porous alumina is partly self-ordered and pattern analysis is required. • Regularity ratio is often misused: we fix the averaging and consider its spread. • We also apply the mathematical tool of Minkowski measures, new in this field. • Regularity ratio shows pattern isotropy and Minkowski helps in assessment. • General agreement with perfect artificial patterns confirms the good manufacturing

  1. Advanced morphological analysis of patterns of thin anodic porous alumina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toccafondi, C. [Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Department of Nanophysics, Via Morego 30, Genova I 16163 (Italy); Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Department of Nanostructures, Via Morego 30, Genova I 16163 (Italy); Stępniowski, W.J. [Department of Advanced Materials and Technologies, Faculty of Advanced Technologies and Chemistry, Military University of Technology, 2 Kaliskiego Str., 00-908 Warszawa (Poland); Leoncini, M. [Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Department of Nanostructures, Via Morego 30, Genova I 16163 (Italy); Salerno, M., E-mail: marco.salerno@iit.it [Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Department of Nanophysics, Via Morego 30, Genova I 16163 (Italy)

    2014-08-15

    Different conditions of fabrication of thin anodic porous alumina on glass substrates have been explored, obtaining two sets of samples with varying pore density and porosity, respectively. The patterns of pores have been imaged by high resolution scanning electron microscopy and analyzed by innovative methods. The regularity ratio has been extracted from radial profiles of the fast Fourier transforms of the images. Additionally, the Minkowski measures have been calculated. It was first observed that the regularity ratio averaged across all directions is properly corrected by the coefficient previously determined in the literature. Furthermore, the angularly averaged regularity ratio for the thin porous alumina made during short single-step anodizations is lower than that of hexagonal patterns of pores as for thick porous alumina from aluminum electropolishing and two-step anodization. Therefore, the regularity ratio represents a reliable measure of pattern order. At the same time, the lower angular spread of the regularity ratio shows that disordered porous alumina is more isotropic. Within each set, when changing either pore density or porosity, both regularity and isotropy remain rather constant, showing consistent fabrication quality of the experimental patterns. Minor deviations are tentatively discussed with the aid of the Minkowski measures, and the slight decrease in both regularity and isotropy for the final data-points of the porosity set is ascribed to excess pore opening and consequent pore merging. - Highlights: • Thin porous alumina is partly self-ordered and pattern analysis is required. • Regularity ratio is often misused: we fix the averaging and consider its spread. • We also apply the mathematical tool of Minkowski measures, new in this field. • Regularity ratio shows pattern isotropy and Minkowski helps in assessment. • General agreement with perfect artificial patterns confirms the good manufacturing.

  2. Metal carbonates as anode materials for lithium ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shao, Lianyi; Ma, Rui; Wu, Kaiqiang; Shui, Miao; Lao, Mengmeng; Wang, Dongjie; Long, Nengbing; Ren, Yuanlong; Shu, Jie, E-mail: sergio_shu@hotmail.com

    2013-12-25

    Highlights: •Metal carbonates are probable anode materials for lithium ion batteries. •CoCO{sub 3}/C composite can deliver an initial discharge capacity of 2096.6 mAh g{sup −1} . •Co, Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3}, Li{sub 2}O, and low-valence carbon are final lithiated products for CoCO{sub 3}. -- Abstract: Six metal carbonates (Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3}, Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}, SrCO{sub 3}, BaCO{sub 3}, K{sub 2}CO{sub 3}, CoCO{sub 3}) are tested and compared as anode materials for lithium ion batteries. The electrochemical results show that only CoCO{sub 3} is electrochemically active material and can deliver a high initial capacity of 1425.9 mAh g{sup −1}. The lithium storage mechanism in CoCO{sub 3} is studied by ex situ X-ray diffraction technique, ex situ infrared method, ex situ X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and in situ X-ray diffraction technique. It is found that the electrochemical reactions between CoCO{sub 3} and Li firstly result in the formation of metal Co and Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3}, and then partial Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3} is further reduced into carbon (C{sup 0}), low-valence carbon (C{sup 2+}), and Li{sub 2}O. It also demonstrates that the electrochemical reaction between CoCO{sub 3} and Li is a partially reversible process. Based on these electrochemical results, it is obvious that narrow potential range can acquire a better reversibility for CoCO{sub 3}/Li batteries by suppressing particle pulverization. Besides, the comparison of CoCO{sub 3}, ball-milled CoCO{sub 3} and ball-milled CoCO{sub 3}/C composite also indicates that smaller active particle and carbon buffer are beneficial to obtain better cycling performance and higher reversible capacity.

  3. Recent Progress in Advanced Materials for Lithium Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiajun Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The development and commercialization of lithium ion batteries is rooted in material discovery. Promising new materials with high energy density are required for achieving the goal toward alternative forms of transportation. Over the past decade, significant progress and effort has been made in developing the new generation of Li-ion battery materials. In the review, I will focus on the recent advance of tin- and silicon-based anode materials. Additionally, new polyoxyanion cathodes, such as phosphates and silicates as cathode materials, will also be discussed.

  4. Pulsed laser deposited Si on multilayer graphene as anode material for lithium ion batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gouri Radhakrishnan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Pulsed laser deposition and chemical vapor deposition were used to deposit very thin silicon on multilayer graphene (MLG on a nickel foam substrate for application as an anode material for lithium ion batteries. The as-grown material was directly fabricated into an anode without a binder, and tested in a half-cell configuration. Even under stressful voltage limits that accelerate degradation, the Si-MLG films displayed higher stability than Si-only electrodes. Post-cycling images of the anodes reveal the differences between the two material systems and emphasize the role of the graphene layers in improving adhesion and electrochemical stability of the Si.

  5. Cyclic performance of silicon as anode material in lithium ion batteries

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Seongseop; Cho, Maenghyo; Zhou, Min

    2014-01-01

    Silicon is a promising anode material owing to its high energy density which is an important aspect of the -performance metric for lithium ion batteries. In this study, the cyclic behavior of silicon as the anode material in lithium ion batteries is investigated. Chemical–mechanical coupling is considered to analyze the interactions between diffusion and factors influencing the mechanical response of materials. Galvanostatic–potentiostatic -charging/discharging cycles are used to investigate ...

  6. Advanced materials for energy storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chang; Li, Feng; Ma, Lai-Peng; Cheng, Hui-Ming

    2010-02-23

    Popularization of portable electronics and electric vehicles worldwide stimulates the development of energy storage devices, such as batteries and supercapacitors, toward higher power density and energy density, which significantly depends upon the advancement of new materials used in these devices. Moreover, energy storage materials play a key role in efficient, clean, and versatile use of energy, and are crucial for the exploitation of renewable energy. Therefore, energy storage materials cover a wide range of materials and have been receiving intensive attention from research and development to industrialization. In this Review, firstly a general introduction is given to several typical energy storage systems, including thermal, mechanical, electromagnetic, hydrogen, and electrochemical energy storage. Then the current status of high-performance hydrogen storage materials for on-board applications and electrochemical energy storage materials for lithium-ion batteries and supercapacitors is introduced in detail. The strategies for developing these advanced energy storage materials, including nanostructuring, nano-/microcombination, hybridization, pore-structure control, configuration design, surface modification, and composition optimization, are discussed. Finally, the future trends and prospects in the development of advanced energy storage materials are highlighted. PMID:20217798

  7. High capacity tin-iron oxide-carbon nanostructured anode for advanced lithium ion battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verrelli, Roberta; Hassoun, Jusef

    2015-12-01

    A novel nanostructured Sn-Fe2O3-C anode material, prepared by high-energy ball milling, is here originally presented. The anode benefits from a unique morphology consisting in Fe2O3 and Sn active nanoparticles embedded in a conductive buffer carbon matrix of micrometric size. Furthermore, the Sn metal particles, revealed as amorphous according to X-ray diffraction measurement, show a size lower than 10 nm by transmission electron microscopy. The optimal combination of nano-scale active materials and micrometric electrode configuration of the Sn-Fe2O3-C anode reflects into remarkable electrochemical performances in lithium cell, with specific capacity content higher than 900 mAh g-1 at 1C rate (810 mA g-1) and coulombic efficiency approaching 100% for 100 cycles. The anode, based on a combination of lithium conversion, alloying and intercalation reactions, exhibits exceptional rate-capability, stably delivering more than 400 mAh g-1 at the very high current density of 4 A g-1. In order to fully confirm the suitability of the developed Sn-Fe2O3-C material as anode for lithium ion battery, the electrode is preliminarily studied in combination with a high voltage LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 cathode in a full cell stably and efficiently operating with a 3.7 V working voltage and a capacity exceeding 100 mAh g-1.

  8. Advanced materials for clean energy

    CERN Document Server

    Xu (Kyo Jo), Qiang

    2015-01-01

    Arylamine-Based Photosensitizing Metal Complexes for Dye-Sensitized Solar CellsCheuk-Lam Ho and Wai-Yeung Wongp-Type Small Electron-Donating Molecules for Organic Heterojunction Solar CellsZhijun Ning and He TianInorganic Materials for Solar Cell ApplicationsYasutake ToyoshimaDevelopment of Thermoelectric Technology from Materials to GeneratorsRyoji Funahashi, Chunlei Wan, Feng Dang, Hiroaki Anno, Ryosuke O. Suzuki, Takeyuki Fujisaka, and Kunihito KoumotoPiezoelectric Materials for Energy HarvestingDeepam Maurya, Yongke Yan, and Shashank PriyaAdvanced Electrode Materials for Electrochemical Ca

  9. Tin-based anode materials with well-designed architectures for next-generation lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lehao; Xie, Fan; Lyu, Jing; Zhao, Tingkai; Li, Tiehu; Choi, Bong Gill

    2016-07-01

    Tin (Sn) has long been considered to be a promising replacement anode material for graphite in next-generation lithium-ion batteries (LIBs), because of its attractive comprehensive advantages of high gravimetric/volumetric capacities, environmental benignity, low cost, high safety, etc. However, Sn-based anodes suffer from severe capacity fading resulting mainly from their large volume expansions/contractions during lithiation/delithiation and subsequent pulverization, coalescence, delamination from current collectors, and poor Li+/electron transport. To circumvent these issues, a number of extraordinary architectures from nanostructures to anchored, layered/sandwich, core-shell, porous and even integrated structures have been exquisitely constructed to enhance the cycling performance. To cater for the rapid development of Sn-based anodes, we summarize the advances made in structural design principles, fabrication methods, morphological features and battery performance with focus on material structures. In addition, we identify the associated challenges and problems presented by recently-developed anodes and offer suggestions and perspectives for facilitating their practical implementations in next-generation LIBs.

  10. Porous Silicon as Anode Material for Li-ion Batteries : Structure and Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Ulvestad, Asbjørn

    2013-01-01

    Silicon has proven to have a great potential as anode material in lithium-ion batteries due to its high theoretical electrochemical capacity. However, silicon anodes deteriorate quickly during cyclic charging and discharging, rendering them useless in only a few cycles. This has been attributed to the stresses induced by the large volume change of the material during cycling. By using finely structured silicon, these stresses can be effectively reduced, in what is aptly called dimensional sta...

  11. FTIR characterization of advanced materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, P. R.; Chang, A. C.

    1986-01-01

    This paper surveys the application of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy to the characterization of advanced materials. FTIR sampling techniques including internal and external reflectance and photoacoustic spectroscopy are discussed. Representative examples from the literature of the analysis of resins, fibers, prepregs and composites are reviewed. A discussion of several promising specialized FTIR techniques is also presented.

  12. Advanced batteries materials science aspects

    CERN Document Server

    Huggins, Robert A

    2008-01-01

    Storage and conversion are critical components of important energy-related technologies. This title employs materials science concepts and tools to describe the features that control the behavior of advanced electrochemical storage systems. It focuses on the basic phenomena that determine the properties of the components.

  13. Mechanics of advanced functional materials

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Biao

    2013-01-01

    Mechanics of Advanced Functional Materials emphasizes the coupling effect between the electric and mechanical field in the piezoelectric, ferroelectric and other functional materials. It also discusses the size effect on the ferroelectric domain instability and phase transition behaviors using the continuum micro-structural evolution models. Functional materials usually have a very wide application in engineering due to their unique thermal, electric, magnetic, optoelectronic, etc., functions. Almost all the applications demand that the material should have reasonable stiffness, strength, fracture toughness and the other mechanical properties. Furthermore, usually the stress and strain fields on the functional materials and devices have some important coupling effect on the functionality of the materials. Much progress has been made concerning the coupling electric and mechanical behaviors such as the coupled electric and stress field distribution in piezoelectric solids, ferroelectric domain patterns in ferr...

  14. Revisiting Surface Modification of Graphite: Dual-Layer Coating for High-Performance Lithium Battery Anode Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Gyujin; Ryu, Jaegeon; Ko, Seunghee; Bang, Byoung Man; Choi, Sinho; Shin, Myoungsoo; Lee, Sang-Young; Park, Soojin

    2016-06-01

    Surface modification of electrode active materials has garnered considerable attention as a facile way to meet stringent requirements of advanced lithium-ion batteries. Here, we demonstrated a new coating strategy based on dual layers comprising antimony-doped tin oxide (ATO) nanoparticles and carbon. The ATO nanoparticles are synthesized via a hydrothermal method and act as electronically conductive/electrochemically active materials. The as-synthesized ATO nanoparticles are introduced on natural graphite along with citric acid used as a carbon precursor. After carbonization, the carbon/ATO-decorated natural graphite (c/ATO-NG) is produced. In the (carbon/ATO) dual-layer coating, the ATO nanoparticles coupled with the carbon layer exhibit unprecedented synergistic effects. The resultant c/ATO-NG anode materials display significant improvements in capacity (530 mA h g(-1) ), cycling retention (capacity retention of 98.1 % after 50 cycles at a rate of C/5), and low electrode swelling (volume expansion of 38 % after 100 cycles) which outperform that of typical graphite materials. Furthermore, a full-cell consisting of a c/ATO-NG anode and an LiNi0.5 Mn1.5 O4 cathode presents excellent cycle retention (capacity retention of >80 % after 100 cycles). We envision that the dual-layer coating concept proposed herein opens a new route toward high-performance anode materials for lithium-ion batteries. PMID:27027583

  15. Magnesium Sulphide as Anode Material for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A single step preparation method of magnesium sulphide-carbon composite by mechanically milling the elemental mixture is reported. • The as-prepared MgS-carbon composite was investigated as an anode for lithium-ion batteries. • From XRD and electrochemical studies a reversible lithiation/delithiation mechanism of MgS is concluded. • The practicality of MgS-carbon composite anode in full cell using lithium nickel manganese cobalt oxide (LNMC) and lithium iron phosphate (LFP) as cathodes are evaluated. -- Abstract: Herein, we report magnesium sulphide (MgS) as an anode for lithium ion batteries. Magnesium sulphide-carbon composite is directly synthesized by mechanically milling the elemental mixture. A possible lithiation and delithiation mechanism for MgS is proposed based on electrochemical and ex-situ XRD studies. The electrochemical reaction of MgS with lithium results in the formation of Li2S and Mg, the as-formed Mg simultaneously reacts with lithium and forms LixMg alloy further contributing to the capacity. A stable reversible capacity of 530 mAh g−1 was achieved after 100 cycles within the voltage window of 0.001–2.5 V. The compatibility of MgS anode was tested in full cell using lithium nickel manganese cobalt oxide (LNMC) and lithium iron phosphate (LFP) as cathodes

  16. Novel Ceramic Materials for Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Water Electrolysers' Anodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Polonsky, J.; Bouzek, K.; Prag, Carsten Brorson;

    2012-01-01

    Tantalum carbide was evaluated as a possible new support for the IrO2 for use in anodes of polymer electrolyte membrane water electrolysers. A series of supported electrocatalysts varying in mass content of iridium oxide was prepared. XRD, powder conductivity measurements and cyclic and linear...

  17. Investigation of Anode Materials for Lithium Ion Batteries

    OpenAIRE

    Zhong, Lanlan

    2016-01-01

    Lithium ion batteries, Lithium ion batteries (LIBs) have for several years dominated the market for cell phones, laptops, and several other portable electronic devices. In order to match the necessity of increasing need for higher energy density storage devices, for example, hybrid/electric vehicles. Higher energy density lithium ion batteries have to be investigated. Anode as one of the most important components of in LIBs has been intensively studied in recent years. Silicon, tin and metal...

  18. Selected advances in materials research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several findings emanating from materials research that should have a beneficial impact on technological advancement in the future are described. The report deals with the GRAPHNOL, a new class of high-temperature brazing alloy for joining refractory components, gel-sphere-pac process for manufacture of nuclear fuel, and noble-metal fuel cladding for service in radioisotope thermoelectric generators designed to provide auxiliary power aboard spacecraft for planetary exploration

  19. Advanced Material Rendering in Blender

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hatka, Martin; Haindl, Michal

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 2 (2012), s. 15-23. ISSN 1081-1451 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP103/11/0335; GA ČR GA102/08/0593 Grant ostatní: CESNET(CZ) 387/2010; CESNET(CZ) 409/2011 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : realistic material rendering * bidirectional texture function * Blender Subject RIV: BD - Theory of Information http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2013/RO/haindl-advanced material rendering in blender.pdf

  20. Recent advances on thermoelectric materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin-cheng ZHENG

    2008-01-01

    By converting waste heat into electricity through the thermoelectric power of solids without producing greenhouse gas emissions,thermoelectric generators could be an important part of the solution to today's energy challenge.There has been a resurgence in the search for new materials for advanced thermoelectric energy conversion applications. In this paper,we will review recent efforts on improving thermoelectric efficiency. Particularly,several novel proof-of-principle approaches such as phonon disorder in phonon-glasselectron crystals,low dimensionality in nanostructured materials and charge-spin-orbital degeneracy in strongly correlated systems on thermoelectric performance will be discussed.

  1. The developments of SnO2/graphene nanocomposites as anode materials for high performance lithium ion batteries: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yuanfu; Fang, Chengcheng; Chen, Guohua

    2016-02-01

    With the increasing energy demands for electronic devices and electrical vehicles, anode materials for lithium ion batteries (LIBs) with high specific capacity, good cyclic and rate performances become one of the focal areas of research. Among the various anode materials, SnO2/graphene nanocomposites have drawn extensive attentions due to their high theoretical specific capacities, low charge potential vs. Li/Li+ and environmental benignity. In this review, the advances, including the synthetic methods and structural optimizations, of the SnO2/graphene nanocomposites as anode materials for LIBs have been reviewed in detail. By providing an in-depth discussion of SnO2/graphene nanocomposites, we aim to demonstrate that the electrochemical performances of SnO2/graphene nanocomposites could be significantly enhanced by rational modifications of morphology and crystal structures, chemical compositions and surface features. Though only focusing on SnO2/graphene-based composites, the concepts and strategies should be referential to other metal oxide/graphene composites.

  2. Plasma Processing of Advanced Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heberlein, Joachim, V.R.; Pfender, Emil; Kortshagen, Uwe

    2005-02-28

    Plasma Processing of Advanced Materials The project had the overall objective of improving our understanding of the influences of process parameters on the properties of advanced superhard materials. The focus was on high rate deposition processes using thermal plasmas and atmospheric pressure glow discharges, and the emphasis on superhard materials was chosen because of the potential impact of such materials on industrial energy use and on the environment. In addition, the development of suitable diagnostic techniques was pursued. The project was divided into four tasks: (1) Deposition of superhard boron containing films using a supersonic plasma jet reactor (SPJR), and the characterization of the deposition process. (2) Deposition of superhard nanocomposite films in the silicon-nitrogen-carbon system using the triple torch plasma reactor (TTPR), and the characterization of the deposition process. (3) Deposition of films consisting of carbon nanotubes using an atmospheric pressure glow discharge reactor. (4) Adapting the Thomson scattering method for characterization of atmospheric pressure non-uniform plasmas with steep spatial gradients and temporal fluctuations. This report summarizes the results.

  3. Emerging materials by advanced processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This volume contains 36 contributions with following subjects (selection): Densification of highly reactive aluminium titanate powders; influence of precursor history on carbon fiber characteristics; influence of water removal rate during calcination on the crystallization of ZrO2 from amorphous hydrous precipitates; tape casting of AlN; influence of processing on the properties of beta-SiC powders; corrosion of SiSiC by gases and basic slag at high temperature; influence of sintering and thermomechanical treatment on microstructure and properties of W-Ni-Fe alloys; mechanical alloying for development of sintered steels with high hard phase content (NbC); early stages of mechanical alloying in Ni-Ti and Ni-Al powder mixtures; growth and microstructural development of melt-oxidation derived Al2O3/Al-base composites; fabrication of RSBN composites; synthesis of high density coridierite bodies; comparative studies on post-HIP and sinter-HIP treatments on transformation thoughened ceramics; sinter HIP of SiC; precipitation mixing of Si3N4 with bimetallic oxides; temperature dependence of the interfacial energies in Al2O3-liquid metal systems; synthesis and microstructural examination of Synroc B; solid state investigation of ceramic-metal bonding; thermophysical properties of MgAl2O4; preparation, sintering and thermal expansion of MgAl2O4; microstructural studies on alumina-zirconia and metallized alumina ceramics; electrodeposition of metals (e.g. Ti, Mo, In) and metal oxides from molten salts; electrochemical deposition of Ti from nonaqueous media (DMSO, DMF); lithium as anode material in power sources (passivation); reduction of chromium(VI) when solar selective black chromium is deposited; thermodynamic optimization of phase diagrams (computer calculations); optimization of Na-Tl phase diagram; phase relations in the Y-Si-Al-O-N system: Controlled manufacturing of alpha/beta-SIALON composites. (MM)

  4. Nitrogen-Doped Carbon Embedded MoS2 Microspheres as Advanced Anodes for Lithium- and Sodium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Dong; Xia, Xinhui; Wang, Yadong; Wang, Donghuang; Zhong, Yu; Tang, Wangjia; Wang, Xiuli; Tu, Jiangping

    2016-08-01

    Rational design and synthesis of advanced anode materials are extremely important for high-performance lithium-ion and sodium-ion batteries. Herein, a simple one-step hydrothermal method is developed for fabrication of N-C@MoS2 microspheres with the help of polyurethane as carbon and nitrogen sources. The MoS2 microspheres are composed of MoS2 nanoflakes, which are wrapped by an N-doped carbon layer. Owing to its unique structural features, the N-C@MoS2 microspheres exhibit greatly enhanced lithium- and sodium-storage performances including a high specific capacity, high rate capability, and excellent capacity retention. Additionally, the developed polyurethane-assisted hydrothermal method could be useful for the construction of many other high-capacity metal oxide/sulfide composite electrode materials for energy storage. PMID:27355199

  5. Well-constructed silicon-based materials as high-performance lithium-ion battery anodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lehao; Lyu, Jing; Li, Tiehu; Zhao, Tingkai

    2015-12-01

    Silicon has been considered as one of the most promising anode material alternates for next-generation lithium-ion batteries, because of its high theoretical capacity, environmental friendliness, high safety, low cost, etc. Nevertheless, silicon-based anode materials (especially bulk silicon) suffer from severe capacity fading resulting from their low intrinsic electrical conductivity and great volume variation during lithiation/delithiation processes. To address this challenge, a few special constructions from nanostructures to anchored, flexible, sandwich, core-shell, porous and even integrated structures, have been well designed and fabricated to effectively improve the cycling performance of silicon-based anodes. In view of the fast development of silicon-based anode materials, we summarize their recent progress in structural design principles, preparation methods, morphological characteristics and electrochemical performance by highlighting the material structure. We also point out the associated problems and challenges faced by these anodes and introduce some feasible strategies to further boost their electrochemical performance. Furthermore, we give a few suggestions relating to the developing trends to better mature their practical applications in next-generation lithium-ion batteries.

  6. Well-constructed silicon-based materials as high-performance lithium-ion battery anodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lehao; Lyu, Jing; Li, Tiehu; Zhao, Tingkai

    2016-01-14

    Silicon has been considered as one of the most promising anode material alternates for next-generation lithium-ion batteries, because of its high theoretical capacity, environmental friendliness, high safety, low cost, etc. Nevertheless, silicon-based anode materials (especially bulk silicon) suffer from severe capacity fading resulting from their low intrinsic electrical conductivity and great volume variation during lithiation/delithiation processes. To address this challenge, a few special constructions from nanostructures to anchored, flexible, sandwich, core-shell, porous and even integrated structures, have been well designed and fabricated to effectively improve the cycling performance of silicon-based anodes. In view of the fast development of silicon-based anode materials, we summarize their recent progress in structural design principles, preparation methods, morphological characteristics and electrochemical performance by highlighting the material structure. We also point out the associated problems and challenges faced by these anodes and introduce some feasible strategies to further boost their electrochemical performance. Furthermore, we give a few suggestions relating to the developing trends to better mature their practical applications in next-generation lithium-ion batteries. PMID:26666682

  7. Nanotemplated platinum fuel cell catalysts and copper-tin lithium battery anode materials for microenergy devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rohan, J.F., E-mail: james.rohan@tyndall.ie [Tyndall National Institute, University College Cork, Lee Maltings, Cork (Ireland); Hasan, M.; Holubowitch, N. [Tyndall National Institute, University College Cork, Lee Maltings, Cork (Ireland)

    2011-11-01

    Highlights: > Anodic Aluminum oxide formation on Si substrate. > High density nanotemplated Pt catalyst on Si for integrated energy and electronics. > CuSn alloy deposition from a single, high efficiency methanesulfonate plating bath. > Nanotemplated CuSn Li anode electrodes with high capacity retention. - Abstract: Nanotemplated materials have significant potential for applications in energy conversion and storage devices due to their unique physical properties. Nanostructured materials provide additional electrode surface area beneficial for energy conversion or storage applications with short path lengths for electronic and ionic transport and thus the possibility of higher reaction rates. We report on the use of controlled growth of metal and alloy electrodeposited templated nanostructures for energy applications. Anodic aluminium oxide templates fabricated on Si for energy materials integration with electronic devices and their use for fuel cell and battery materials deposition is discussed. Nanostructured Pt anode catalysts for methanol fuel cells are shown. Templated CuSn alloy anodes that possess high capacity retention with cycling for lithium microbattery integration are also presented.

  8. Advances in polypropylene based materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polypropylene is an extremely versatile thermoplastic polymer known for its good performance/price ratio, excellent heat, moisture and chemical resistance, favorable processing characteristics and recyclability. Due to its universal properties, polypropylene is applied in numerous industrial fields such as electronic and electrical, automobile, textile, pipeline, etc. Furthermore, the progress in its synthesis and property modification in the last decade has contributed to the development of new polypropylene based materials with advanced performance. This review aims at reporting on some recent developments in polypropylene based materials, such as nano fibers, natural fiber reinforced composites, self-reinforced polypropylene and polypropylene/clay hybrids, that have replaced many types of engineering thermoplastics in high-performance applications. (Author)

  9. Session: CSP Advanced Systems: Optical Materials (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kennedy, C.

    2008-04-01

    The Optical Materials project description is to characterize advanced reflector, perform accelerated and outdoor testing of commercial and experimental reflector materials, and provide industry support.

  10. Dissolution of Plutonium Scrub Alloy and Anode Heel Materials in H-Canyon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    H-Canyon has a ''gap'' in dissolver operations during the last three months of FY03. One group of material to be processed during the gap is pre-existing scrub alloy material. There are 14 cans of material containing approximately 3.8 kilograms of plutonium. Of the 14 cans, it was anticipated that four cans contain salts, two cans contain anode heel materials, and eight cans contain scrub alloy buttons. H-Canyon desires to process the materials using a flowsheet similar to the SS and C (sand, slag and crucible) dissolution flowsheet used in F-Canyon. The materials will be loaded into carbon steel cans and then placed into aluminum metal charging bundles. Samples were sent to Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) for characterization and flowsheet testing -- four MSE salts, two anode heels, and seven scrub alloy buttons. SRTC dissolved and characterized each of the samples. Two of them, originally thought to be MSE salts, were found to be graphite mold materials and were unsuitable for processing in H-Canyon. Characterization studies confirmed that the identification of the remaining items as MSE salts, scrub alloy buttons, and anode heel materials was correct. The MSE salts and anode heels solids are comprised primarily of plutonium, potassium, sodium and chloride. Both the MSE salts and anode heels left behind small amounts of residual solids. The scrub alloy buttons are comprised primarily of plutonium and aluminum. The solids dissolve readily with light, effervescent gas generation at the material surface and only trace amounts of NOx generation. Of the seven button samples, four dissolved completely. Two button samples contained small amounts of tantalum that did not dissolve. The last of the seven scrub alloy samples left a trace amount of residual plutonium solids. It is anticipated that the presence of undissolved fissile material is a function of where the sample was located relative to the button surface

  11. Hybrid Direct Carbon Fuel Cell Performance with Anode Current Collector Material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deleebeeck, Lisa; Kammer Hansen, Kent

    2015-01-01

    The influence of the current collector on the performance of a hybrid direct carbon fuel cell (HDCFC), consisting of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) with a molten carbonate-carbon slurry in contact with the anode, has been investigated using current-voltage curves. Four different anode current...... collectors were studied: Au, Ni, Ag, and Pt. It was shown that the performance of the direct carbon fuel cell (DCFC) is dependent on the current collector materials, Ni and Pt giving the best performance, due to their catalytic activity. Gold is suggested to be the best material as an inert current collector...

  12. Carbon Cryogel and Carbon Paper-Based Silicon Composite Anode Materials for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodworth, James; Baldwin, Richard; Bennett, William

    2010-01-01

    A variety of materials are under investigation for use as anode materials in lithium-ion batteries, of which, the most promising are those containing silicon. 6 One such material is a composite formed via the dispersion of silicon in a resorcinol-formaldehyde (RF) gel followed by pyrolysis. Two silicon-carbon composite materials, carbon microspheres and nanofoams produced from nano-phase silicon impregnated RF gel precursors have been synthesized and investigated. Carbon microspheres are produced by forming the silicon-containing RF gel into microspheres whereas carbon nano-foams are produced by impregnating carbon fiber paper with the silicon containing RF gel to create a free standing electrode. 1-5 Both materials have demonstrated their ability to function as anodes and utilize the silicon present in the material. Stable reversible capacities above 400 mAh/g for the bulk material and above 1000 mAh/g of Si have been observed.

  13. Silicon Composite Anode Materials for Lithium Ion Batteries Based on Carbon Cryogels and Carbon Paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodworth, James; Baldwin, Richard; Bennett, William

    2010-01-01

    A variety of materials are under investigation for use as anode materials in lithium-ion batteries, of which, the most promising are those containing silicon. One such material is a composite formed via the dispersion of silicon in a resorcinol-formaldehyde (RF) gel followed by pyrolysis. Two silicon-carbon composite materials, carbon microspheres and nanofoams produced from nano-phase silicon impregnated RF gel precursors have been synthesized and investigated. Carbon microspheres are produced by forming the silicon-containing RF gel into microspheres whereas carbon nanofoams are produced by impregnating carbon fiber paper with the silicon containing RF gel to create a free standing electrode. Both materials have demonstrated their ability to function as anodes and utilize the silicon present in the material. Stable reversible capacities above 400 mAh/g for the bulk material and above 1000 mAh/g of Si have been observed.

  14. "Buried-Anode" Technology Leads to Advanced Lithium Batteries (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-02-01

    A technology developed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory has sparked a start-up company that has attracted funding from the Advanced Projects Research Agency-Energy (ARPA-E). Planar Energy, Inc. has licensed NREL's "buried-anode" technology and put it to work in solid-state lithium batteries. The company claims its large-format batteries can achieve triple the performance of today's lithium-ion batteries at half the cost, and if so, they could provide a significant boost to the emerging market for electric and plug-in hybrid vehicles.

  15. Lithium alloys and metal oxides as high-capacity anode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: •Progress in lithium alloys and metal oxides as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries is reviewed. •Electrochemical characteristics and lithium storage mechanisms of lithium alloys and metal oxides are summarized. •Strategies for improving electrochemical lithium storage properties of lithium alloys and metal oxides are discussed. •Challenges in developing lithium alloys and metal oxides as commercial anodes for lithium-ion batteries are pointed out. -- Abstract: Lithium alloys and metal oxides have been widely recognized as the next-generation anode materials for lithium-ion batteries with high energy density and high power density. A variety of lithium alloys and metal oxides have been explored as alternatives to the commercial carbonaceous anodes. The electrochemical characteristics of silicon, tin, tin oxide, iron oxides, cobalt oxides, copper oxides, and so on are systematically summarized. In this review, it is not the scope to retrace the overall studies, but rather to highlight the electrochemical performances, the lithium storage mechanism and the strategies in improving the electrochemical properties of lithium alloys and metal oxides. The challenges and new directions in developing lithium alloys and metal oxides as commercial anodes for the next-generation lithium-ion batteries are also discussed

  16. Study of Silicon Oxycarbide(SiOC) as Anode Materials for Li-ion Batteries

    OpenAIRE

    Vallachira Warriam Sasikumar Pradeep, Pradeep

    2013-01-01

    The principal object of this thesis is the investigation of silicon oxycarbide (SiOC) ceramics as anode material for Li-ion batteries. The investigated materials are prepared by cross linking commercial polymer siloxanes via hydrosylilation reactions or hybrid alkoxide precursors via sol-gel. The cross linked polymer networks are then converted in to ceramic materials by a pyrolysis process in controlled argon atmosphere at 800-1300 °C. In details the influence of carbon content on lithium...

  17. A novel mesoporous carbon-silica-titania nanocomposite as a high performance anode material in lithium ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yuanyuan; Kim, Younghun; Jo, Changshin; Lee, Jinwoo; Lee, Chul Wee; Yoon, Songhun

    2011-05-01

    An ordered mesoporous carbon-silica-titania material was prepared using the tetra-constituents co-assembly method. As regards its anode performance in lithium ion batteries, the composite material anode exhibited a high capacity (875 mAh g(-1)), a higher initial efficiency (56%) and an improved rate. PMID:21424009

  18. Submicron organic nanofiber devices with different anode-cathode materials: A simple approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henrichsen, Henrik Hartmann; Sturm, Heinz; Bøggild, Peter;

    2010-01-01

    The authors present a simple general method for simultaneously producing tens of submicron electrode gaps with different cathode and anode materials on top of nanofibers, nanowires, and nanotubes, with an optional gap size variation. Using this method, an ensemble of para-hexaphenylene (p6P) nano...

  19. Tantalum carbide as a novel support material for anode electrocatalysts in polymer electrolyte membrane water electrolysers

    OpenAIRE

    Polonský, Jakub; Petrushina, Irina; Christensen, Erik; Bouzek, K.; Prag, Carsten Brorson; Andersen, Jens Enevold Thaulov; Bjerrum, Niels

    2012-01-01

    Iridium oxide (IrO2) currently represents a state of the art electrocatalyst for anodic oxygen evolution. Since iridium is both expensive and scarce, the future practical application of this process makes it essential to reduce IrO2 loading on the anodes of PEM water electrolysers. In the present study an approach to utilising a suitable electrocatalyst support was followed. Of the materials selected from a literature review, TaC has proved to be stable under the conditions of the accelerated...

  20. SiCN based Anode Materials for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    OpenAIRE

    Reinold, Lukas Mirko

    2016-01-01

    This thesis deals with the investigation of polymer-derived silicon carbonitride based anode materials for their application in lithium-ion batteries. Carbon-rich silicon carbonitrides are obtained by a pyrolysis of different organosilicon precursors, namely poly(phenylvinylsilylcarbodiimide), poly(phenylvinylsilazane), poly(diphenylsilylcarbodiimide), poly(phenylsilsesquicarbodiimide) and poly(phenylsilsesquiazane). The materials are characterized by means of Raman spectroscopy, elemental an...

  1. 11 International Symposium on Advanced Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 11 International Symposium on Advanced Materials (ISAM) was held from 08-12 August, 2009 at Islamabad, Pakistan. The main theme of the proceedings encompasses technological advances of recent years. The significance of advanced materials and technological advancements made in this respect have been incorporated in this proceeding. The scientists, researchers and engineers doing their research in different areas of material sciences would benefit from this proceedings. The proceeding of ISAM includes 61 papers which reflects on various aspects of materials and alloys and their properties. (A.B.)

  2. Anodized titania: Processing and characterization to improve cell-materials interactions for load bearing implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Kakoli

    The objective of this study is to investigate in vitro cell-materials interactions using human osteoblast cells on anodized titanium. Titanium is a bioinert material and, therefore, gets encapsulated after implantation into the living body by a fibrous tissue that isolates them from the surrounding tissues. In this work, bioactive nonporous and nanoporous TiO2 layers were grown on commercially pure titanium substrate by anodization process using different electrolyte solutions namely (1) H3PO 4, (2) HF and (3) H2SO4, (4) aqueous solution of citric acid, sodium fluoride and sulfuric acid. The first three electrolytes produced bioactive TiO2 films with a nonporous structure showing three distinctive surface morphologies. Nanoporous morphology was obtained on Ti-surfaces from the fourth electrolyte at 20V for 4h. Cross-sectional view of the nanoporous surface reveals titania nanotubes of length 600 nm. It was found that increasing anodization time initially increased the height of the nanotubes while maintaining the tubular array structure, but beyond 4h, growth of nanotubes decreased with a collapsed array structure. Human osteoblast (HOB) cell attachment and growth behavior were studied using an osteoprecursor cell line (OPC 1) for 3, 7 and 11 days. Colonization of the cells was noticed with distinctive cell-to-cell attachment on HF anodized surfaces. TiO2 layer grown in H2SO4 electrolyte did not show significant cell growth on the surface, and some cell death was also noticed. Good cellular adherence with extracellular matrix extensions in between the cells was noticed for samples anodized with H3PO 4 electrolyte and nanotube surface. Cell proliferation was excellent on anodized nanotube surfaces. An abundant amount of extracellular matrix (ECM) between the neighboring cells was also noticed on nanotube surfaces with filopodia extensions coming out from cells to grasp the nanoporous surface for anchorage. To better understand and compare cell-materials interactions

  3. High Temperature Materials Characterization and Advanced Materials Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The project has been carried out for 2 years in stage III in order to achieve the final goals of performance verification of the developed materials, after successful development of the advanced high temperature material technologies for 3 years in Stage II. The mechanical and thermal properties of the advanced materials, which were developed during Stage II, were evaluated at high temperatures, and the modification of the advanced materials were performed. Moreover, a database management system was established using user-friendly knowledge-base scheme to complete the integrated-information material database in KAERI material division

  4. Advanced Materials and Processing 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yunfeng; Su, Chun Wei; Xia, Hui; Xiao, Pengfei

    2011-06-01

    Strain sensors made from MWNT/polymer nanocomposites / Gang Yin, Ning Hu and Yuan Li -- Shear band evolution and nanostructure formation in titanium by cold rolling / Dengke Yang, Peter D. Hodgson and Cuie Wen -- Biodegradable Mg-Zr-Ca alloys for bone implant materials / Yuncang Li ... [et al.] -- Hydroxyapatite synthesized from nanosized calcium carbonate via hydrothermal method / Yu-Shiang Wu, Wen-Ku Chang and Min Jou -- Modeling of the magnetization process and orthogonal fluxgate sensitivity of ferromagnetic micro-wire arrays / Fan Jie ... [et al.] -- Fabrication of silicon oxide nanowires on Ni coated silicon substrate by simple heating process / Bo Peng and Kwon-Koo Cho -- Deposition of TiOxNy thin films with various nitrogen flow rate: growth behavior and structural properties / S.-J. Cho ... [et al.] -- Observation on photoluminescence evolution in 300 KeV self-ion implanted and annealed silicon / Yu Yang ... [et al.] -- Facile synthesis of lithium niobate from a novel precursor H[symbol] / Meinan Liu ... [et al.] -- Effects of the buffer layers on the adhesion and antimicrobial properties of the amorphous ZrAlNiCuSi films / Pai-Tsung Chiang ... [et al.] -- Fabrication of ZnO nanorods by electrochemical deposition process and its photovoltaic properties / Jin-Hwa Kim ... [et al.] -- Cryogenic resistivities of NbTiAlVTaLax, CoCrFeNiCu and CoCrFeNiAl high entropy alloys / Xiao Yang and Yong Zhang -- Modeling of centrifugal force field and the effect on filling and solidification in centrifugal casting / Wenbin Sheng, Chunxue Ma and Wanli Gu -- Electrochemical properties of TiO[symbol] nanotube arrays film prepared by anodic oxidation / Young-Jin Choi ... [et al.] -- Effect of Ce additions on high temperature properties of Mg-5Sn-3Al-1Zn alloy / Byoung Soo Kang ... [et al.] -- Sono-electroless plating of Ni-Mo-P film / Atsushi Chiba, Masato Kanou and Wen-Chang Wu -- Diameter dependence of giant magneto-impedance effect in co-based melt extracted amorphous

  5. Porous silicon based anode material formed using metal reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anguchamy, Yogesh Kumar; Masarapu, Charan; Deng, Haixia; Han, Yongbong; Venkatachalam, Subramanian; Kumar, Sujeet; Lopez, Herman A.

    2015-09-22

    A porous silicon based material comprising porous crystalline elemental silicon formed by reducing silicon dioxide with a reducing metal in a heating process followed by acid etching is used to construct negative electrode used in lithium ion batteries. Gradual temperature heating ramp(s) with optional temperature steps can be used to perform the heating process. The porous silicon formed has a high surface area from about 10 m.sup.2/g to about 200 m.sup.2/g and is substantially free of carbon. The negative electrode formed can have a discharge specific capacity of at least 1800 mAh/g at rate of C/3 discharged from 1.5V to 0.005V against lithium with in some embodiments loading levels ranging from about 1.4 mg/cm.sup.2 to about 3.5 mg/cm.sup.2. In some embodiments, the porous silicon can be coated with a carbon coating or blended with carbon nanofibers or other conductive carbon material.

  6. Manganese pyridinedicarboxylates: New anode materials for lithium-ion batteries with good cycling performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Manganese 2,3-pyridinedicarboxylate and 2,5-pyridinedicarboxylate. • Firstly tested as anode materials. • High capacity and good cycle stability. - Abstract: It is significant to discover new environmental friendly, sustainable and renewable electrode materials for lithium-ion batteries. Manganese dicarboxylate [Mn2(pdc)2(H2O)3]n⋅2nH2O (pdc = pyridine-2,3-dicarboxylate) is firstly found to be a high-energy anode material for lithium-ion batteries. It shows a high discharge capacity of 573.7 mA h g−1 for the second cycle between a 0.05 and 3.0 V voltage limit at a discharge current density of 500 mA g−1. The reversible capacity of 457.2 mA h g−1 is remained after 100 cycles with a capacity retention being 79.6%. In addition, it is found that Mn 2,5-pyridinedicarboxyle was also stable anode materials with high capacity

  7. Phase wettability and microstructural evolution in solid oxide fuel cell anode materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent experimental and theoretical findings suggest that high-temperature solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) often suffer from performance degradation due to coarsening of the metallic-phase particles within the anode. In this study, we explore the feasibility of improving the microstructural stability of SOFC anode materials by tuning the contact angle between the metallic phase and electrolyte particles. To this end, a continuum diffuse-interface model is employed to capture the coarsening behavior of the metallic phase and simulate a range of equilibrium contact angles. The evolution of performance-critical, microstructural features is presented for varying degrees of phase wettability. It is found that both the density of electrochemically active triple- phase regions and contiguity of the electron-conducting phase display undesirable minima near the contact angle of conventional SOFC materials. Our results suggest that tailoring the interfacial properties of the constituent phases could lead to a significant increase in the performance and lifetime of SOFCs

  8. Facile synthesis of one-dimensional zinc vanadate nanofibers for high lithium storage anode material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Lei [Key Laboratory of Eco-textiles, Ministry of Education, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122 (China); International Joint Research Laboratory for Advanced Functional Textile Materials, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122 (China); Fei, Yaqian; Chen, Ke; Li, Dawei; Wang, Xin [Key Laboratory of Eco-textiles, Ministry of Education, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122 (China); Wang, Qingqing [Key Laboratory of Eco-textiles, Ministry of Education, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122 (China); International Joint Research Laboratory for Advanced Functional Textile Materials, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122 (China); Wei, Qufu, E-mail: qfwei@jiangnan.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Eco-textiles, Ministry of Education, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122 (China); International Joint Research Laboratory for Advanced Functional Textile Materials, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122 (China); Qiao, Hui [Key Laboratory of Eco-textiles, Ministry of Education, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122 (China)

    2015-11-15

    One-dimensional (1D) zinc vanadate (α-Zn{sub 2}V{sub 2}O{sub 7}) nanofibers have been synthesized through electrospinning combined with an annealing process. When used as anode material for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs), electrospun 1D α-Zn{sub 2}V{sub 2}O{sub 7} nanofibers exhibit a reversible capacity of ∼708 mAh g{sup −1} after 100 cycles at a current density of 50 mA g{sup −1}. A good rate capability is also achieved even at higher current densities. When cycled at a current density of 2000 mA g{sup −1}, the electrode can still show a reversible capacity of ∼311 mAh g{sup −1}. The excellent cycle performance and rate capability may be due to the 1D nanofiber architectures, mesoporous structures, and relatively large specific surface area, which can provide a short ion diffusion path and continuous electron transportation. Therefore, this work presents a simple and efficient approach for fabrication of 1D α-Zn{sub 2}V{sub 2}O{sub 7} nanofibers, which are promising high-performance anode materials for LIBs. - Highlights: • Electrospun 1D α-Zn{sub 2}V{sub 2}O{sub 7} nanofibers are first synthesized for anode material. • The electrochemical reaction mechanism of this material is discussed. • A reversible capacity of ∼708 mAh g{sup −1} is obtained after 100 cycles at 50 mA g{sup −1}. • 1D α-Zn{sub 2}V{sub 2}O{sub 7} nanofiber anodes show excellent rate capability for LIBs.

  9. Facile synthesis of one-dimensional zinc vanadate nanofibers for high lithium storage anode material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One-dimensional (1D) zinc vanadate (α-Zn2V2O7) nanofibers have been synthesized through electrospinning combined with an annealing process. When used as anode material for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs), electrospun 1D α-Zn2V2O7 nanofibers exhibit a reversible capacity of ∼708 mAh g−1 after 100 cycles at a current density of 50 mA g−1. A good rate capability is also achieved even at higher current densities. When cycled at a current density of 2000 mA g−1, the electrode can still show a reversible capacity of ∼311 mAh g−1. The excellent cycle performance and rate capability may be due to the 1D nanofiber architectures, mesoporous structures, and relatively large specific surface area, which can provide a short ion diffusion path and continuous electron transportation. Therefore, this work presents a simple and efficient approach for fabrication of 1D α-Zn2V2O7 nanofibers, which are promising high-performance anode materials for LIBs. - Highlights: • Electrospun 1D α-Zn2V2O7 nanofibers are first synthesized for anode material. • The electrochemical reaction mechanism of this material is discussed. • A reversible capacity of ∼708 mAh g−1 is obtained after 100 cycles at 50 mA g−1. • 1D α-Zn2V2O7 nanofiber anodes show excellent rate capability for LIBs

  10. Enhancement of Electrochemical Stability about Silicon/Carbon Composite Anode Materials for Lithium Ion Batteries

    OpenAIRE

    Wei Xiao; Chang Miao; Xuemin Yan; Qing Sun; Ping Mei

    2015-01-01

    Silicon/carbon (Si/C) composite anode materials are successfully synthesized by mechanical ball milling followed by pyrolysis method. The structure and morphology of the composite are characterized by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscope, respectively. The results show that the composite is composed of Si, flake graphite, and phenolic resin-pyrolyzed carbon, and Si and flake graphite are enwrapped by phenolic resin-pyrolyzed carbon, which can...

  11. A Chemo-Mechanical model of delithiation in high-capacity anode materials

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Hui; Zhang, Sulin

    2014-01-01

    We present a chemo-mechanical model to investigate the delithiation-induced phase transformation, morphological evolution, stress generation, void nucleation, and growth in high-capacity anode materials such as silicon (Si) and germanium (Ge). The model couples lithium (Li) diffusion with large elasto-plastic deformation by solving a set of coupled phase field and mechanical equilibrium equations using the finite element method, which leads to the coevolution of the Li concentration, stress d...

  12. Enhancement of Electrochemical Stability about Silicon/Carbon Composite Anode Materials for Lithium Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Xiao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Silicon/carbon (Si/C composite anode materials are successfully synthesized by mechanical ball milling followed by pyrolysis method. The structure and morphology of the composite are characterized by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscope, respectively. The results show that the composite is composed of Si, flake graphite, and phenolic resin-pyrolyzed carbon, and Si and flake graphite are enwrapped by phenolic resin-pyrolyzed carbon, which can provide not only a good buffering matrix but also a conductive network. The Si/C composite also shows good electrochemical stability, in which the composite anode material exhibits a high initial charge capacity of 805.3 mAh g−1 at 100 mA g−1 and it can still deliver a high charge capacity of 791.7 mAh g−1 when the current density increases to 500 mA g−1. The results indicate that it could be used as a promising anode material for lithium ion batteries.

  13. Bismuth Nanoparticles Embedded in Carbon Spheres as Anode Materials for Sodium/Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fuhua; Yu, Fan; Zhang, Zhian; Zhang, Kai; Lai, Yanqing; Li, Jie

    2016-02-12

    Sodium-ion batteries (SIBs) are regarded as an attractive alternative to lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) for large-scale commercial applications, because of the abundant terrestrial reserves of sodium. Exporting suitable anode materials is the key to the development of SIBs and LIBs. In this contribution, we report on the fabrication of Bi@C microspheres using aerosol spray pyrolysis technique. When used as SIBs anode materials, the Bi@C microsphere delivered a high capacity of 123.5 mAh g(-1) after 100 cycles at 100 mA g(-1) . The rate performance is also impressive (specific capacities of 299, 252, 192, 141, and 90 mAh g(-1) are obtained under current densities of 0.1, 0.2, 0.5, 1, and 2 A g(-1) , respectively). Furthermore, the Bi@C microsphere also proved to be suitable LIB anode materials. The excellent electrochemical performance for both SIBs and LIBs can attributed to the Bi@C microsphere structure with Bi nanoparticles uniformly dispersed in carbon spheres. PMID:26757402

  14. Materials for advanced power engineering 2010. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 9th Liege Conference on ''Materials for Advanced Power Engineering'' presents the results of the materials related COST Actions 536 ''Alloy Development for Critical Components of Environmentally Friendly Power Plants'' and 538 ''High Temperature Plant Lifetime Extension''. In addition, the broad field of current materials research perspectives for high efficiency, low- and zero- emission power plants and new energy technologies for the next decades are reported. The Conference proceedings are structured as follows: 1. Materials for advanced steam power plants; 2. Gas turbine materials; 3. Materials for nuclear fission and fusion; 4. Solid oxide fuel cells; 5. Corrosion, thermomechanical fatigue and modelling; 6. Zero emission power plants.

  15. Advanced materials for solid oxide fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armstrong, T.R.; Stevenson, J.

    1995-08-01

    The purpose of this research is to improve the properties of the current state-of-the-art materials used for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). The objectives are to: (1) develop materials based on modifications of the state-of-the-art materials; (2) minimize or eliminate stability problems in the cathode, anode, and interconnect; (3) Electrochemically evaluate (in reproducible and controlled laboratory tests) the current state-of-the-art air electrode materials and cathode/electrolyte interfacial properties; (4) Develop accelerated electrochemical test methods to evaluate the performance of SOFCs under controlled and reproducible conditions; and (5) Develop and test materials for use in low-temperature SOFCs. The goal is to modify and improve the current state-of-the-art materials and minimize the total number of cations in each material to avoid negative effects on the materials properties. Materials to reduce potential deleterious interactions, (3) improve thermal, electrical, and electrochemical properties, (4) develop methods to synthesize both state-of-the-art and alternative materials for the simultaneous fabricatoin and consolidation in air of the interconnections and electrodes with the solid electrolyte, and (5) understand electrochemical reactions at materials interfaces and the effects of component composition and processing on those reactions.

  16. Joining and surfacing of advanced materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Andrzej Kolasa; Wladyslaw Wlosinski

    2004-01-01

    The application of advanced materials, i.e. advanced ceramics, glasses, intermetallic phases and various type of composites, not only depends on their manufacture processes including a great input of know-how, but also on their abilities for processing, among which the joining processes play an important role. The uses of advanced materials are changing rapidly, with a major emphasis on technical applications, especially the components of machines, apparatus and technical devices expected to withstand very heavy exploitation conditions. Furthermore,these materials are becoming more complex, in terms of being strengthened and toughened by transformation processes as well as by the addition of other ceramic or metallic materials including nanomaterials. The successful use of advanced materials requires the development of equally advanced joining materials, processes and technology. Some selected examples of results of joining advanced materials with the use of various procedures as well as surface modification of structural components with the use of advanced materials obtained in the Welding Engineering Department of Warsaw University of Technology, Poland, are presented.

  17. Glycopolymeric Materials for Advanced Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Muñoz-Bonilla

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, glycopolymers have particularly revolutionized the world of macromolecular chemistry and materials in general. Nevertheless, it has been in this century when scientists realize that these materials present great versatility in biosensing, biorecognition, and biomedicine among other areas. This article highlights most relevant glycopolymeric materials, considering that they are only a small example of the research done in this emerging field. The examples described here are selected on the base of novelty, innovation and implementation of glycopolymeric materials. In addition, the future perspectives of this topic will be commented on.

  18. Monolithic Graphene Trees as Anode Material for Lithium Ion Batteries with High C-Rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Seung Yol; Yang, Sunhye; Jeong, Sooyeon; Kim, Ick Jun; Jeong, Hee Jin; Han, Joong Tark; Baeg, Kang-Jun; Lee, Geon-Woong

    2015-06-01

    Monolithically structured reduced graphene oxide (rGO), prepared from a highly concentrated and conductive rGO paste, is introduced as an anode material for lithium ion batteries with high rate capacities. This is achieved by a mixture of rGO paste and the water-soluble polymer sodium carboxymethylcellulose (SCMC) with freeze drying. Unlike previous 3D graphene porous structures, the monolithic graphene resembles densely branched pine trees and has high mechanical stability with strong adhesion to the metal electrodes. The structures contain numerous large surface area open pores that facilitate lithium ion diffusion, while the strong hydrogen bonding between the graphene layers and SCMC provides high conductivity and reduces the volume changes that occur during cycling. Ultrafast charge/discharge rates are obtained with outstanding cycling stability and the capacities are higher than those reported for other anode materials. The fabrication process is simple and straightforward to adjust and is therefore suitable for mass production of anode electrodes for commercial applications. PMID:25656352

  19. Carbon matrix/SiNWs heterogeneous block as improved reversible anodes material for lithium ion batteries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yao; Wang; Long; Ren; Yundan; Liu; Xuejun; Liu; Kai; Huang; Xiaolin; Wei; Jun; Li; Xiang; Qi; Jianxin; Zhong

    2014-01-01

    A novel carbon matrix/silicon nanowires(SiNWs) heterogeneous block was successfully produced by dispersing SiNWs into templated carbon matrix via a modified evaporation induced self-assembly method. The heterogeneous block was determined by X-ray diffraction, Raman spectra and scanning electron microscopy. As an anode material for lithium batteries, the block was investigated by cyclic voltammograms(CV), charge/discharge tests, galvanostatic cycling performance and A. C. impedance spectroscopy. We show that the SiNWs disperse into the framework, and are nicely wrapped by the carbon matrix. The heterogeneous block exhibits superior electrochemical reversibility with a high specific capacity of 529.3 mAh/g in comparison with bare SiNWs anode with merely about 52.6 mAh/g capacity retention. The block presents excellent cycle stability and capacity retention which can be attributed to the improvement of conductivity by the existence of carbon matrix and the enhancement of ability to relieve the large volume expansion of SiNWs during the lithium insertion/extraction cycle. The results indicate that the as-prepared carbon matrix/SiNWs heterogeneous block can be an attractive and potential anode material for lithium-ion battery applications.

  20. Advanced materials and technologies. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindroos, V.K.; Alander, T.K.R. [eds.] [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland). Lab. of Physical Metallurgy and Materials Science

    1995-12-31

    The contents of the proceedings consist of three chapters, of which, the first discusses common megatrends, both nationally and globally, in different fields of materials technology. The second chapter is dealing with novel production and processing of base metals and, finally, the third chapter is related with current achievements and future goals of electronic, magnetic, optical and coating materials and their processing

  1. Advanced Materials for Automotive Application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper some recent material developments will be overviewed mainly from the point of view of automotive industry. In car industry, metal forming is one of the most important manufacturing processes imposing severe restrictions on materials; these are often contradictory requirements, e.g. high strength simultaneously with good formability, etc. Due to these challenges and the ever increasing demand new material classes have been developed; however, the more and more wide application of high strength materials meeting the requirements stated by the mass reduction lead to increasing difficulties concerning the formability which requires significant technological developments as well. In this paper, the recent materials developments will be overviewed from the point of view of the automotive industry

  2. Electrolytic deposition of Sn-coated mesocarbon microbeads as anode material for lithium ion battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, Min-Jen [Department of Materials Engineering, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung 40227, Taiwan (China); Jen-Teh Junior College of Medicine, Nursing and Management, Taiwan (China); Tsai, Du-Cheng [Department of Materials Engineering, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung 40227, Taiwan (China); Ho, Wen-Hsien [Taiwan Textile Research Institute, Taipei 23674, Taiwan (China); Li, Ching-Fei, E-mail: chingfei.li@gmail.com [Phoenix Silicon International Corporation, Hsinchu 30094, Taiwan (China); Shieu, Fuh-Sheng, E-mail: fsshieu@dragon.nchu.edu.tw [Department of Materials Engineering, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung 40227, Taiwan (China); Center of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung 40227, Taiwan (China)

    2013-11-15

    Deposited of crystalline tin (Sn) coatings on mesocarbon microbead (MCMB) powder as anodes of lithium ion (Li-ion) battery was conducted in the SnSO{sub 4} solution by a cathodic electrochemical synthesis. The Sn-coated MCMB specimens were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and charge/discharge tests. The synthesis condition of Sn-coated MCMB was optimized by considering the agglomeration, size, and adhesion of the samples to the current collectors in the battery. The Sn-coated MCMB electrodes exhibit increased reversible capacity without sacrificing its cycling behavior, compared with bare MCMB electrodes. It is concluded that electrolysis-deposited Sn-coated MCMB electrodes may emerge as a practical and promising anode material for secondary Li-ion batteries.

  3. Electrolytic deposition of Sn-coated mesocarbon microbeads as anode material for lithium ion battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deposited of crystalline tin (Sn) coatings on mesocarbon microbead (MCMB) powder as anodes of lithium ion (Li-ion) battery was conducted in the SnSO4 solution by a cathodic electrochemical synthesis. The Sn-coated MCMB specimens were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and charge/discharge tests. The synthesis condition of Sn-coated MCMB was optimized by considering the agglomeration, size, and adhesion of the samples to the current collectors in the battery. The Sn-coated MCMB electrodes exhibit increased reversible capacity without sacrificing its cycling behavior, compared with bare MCMB electrodes. It is concluded that electrolysis-deposited Sn-coated MCMB electrodes may emerge as a practical and promising anode material for secondary Li-ion batteries.

  4. Fibres : future materials for advanced emerging applications

    OpenAIRE

    Fangueiro, Raúl; Rana, S

    2012-01-01

    Fibrous materials are finding widespread applications in diversified areas, starting from clothing sector to medical fields, various structural and infrastructural applications of civil engineering, aerospace industries and even for energy harvesting and storage applications. In this paper, the results of various research activities conducted by the Fibrous Materials Research Group (FMRG), University of Minho to explore fibrous materials in several advanced and emerging applicatio...

  5. Polymer microsphere embedded Si/graphite composite anode material for lithium rechargeable battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Si/graphite composite materials embedded with polymer microsphere as an elastic inactive phase were prepared by high-energy mechanical milling and investigated as a high capacity anode material for lithium rechargeable battery. Improved capacity retention was achieved with the composite. In situ measurement of the electrode thickness revealed that the swelling of the electrode became smaller with the increase of polymer microsphere content. It is believed that polymer microsphere played a buffering role of accommodating the mechanical strains induced by silicon expansion during lithiation, resulting in the suppression of the volume expansion of the electrode, which improved the cycle performance of the electrode.

  6. Electrospun carbon-cobalt composite nanofiber as an anode material for lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbon-cobalt (C/Co) composite nanofibers with diameters from 100 to 300 nm were prepared by electrospinning and subsequent heat treatment. They were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, galvanostatic cell cycling and impedance spectroscopy. As a lithium storage material, these fibers exhibit excellent electrochemical properties with high reversible capacity (>750 mA h g-1) and good rate capability (578 mA h g-1 at 1 C rate). These composite fibers are a promising anode material for high-power Li-ion batteries

  7. Blue TiO2 Nanotube Array as an Oxidant Generating Novel Anode Material Fabricated by Simple Cathodic Polarization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: - Abstract: Great interest in anode materials has dramatically emerged with increasing demand for electrochemically generated oxidants in industrial electrochemistry. For the last five decades, these needs have been mostly achieved by the introduction of two well-known anode materials, the dimensional stable anode (DSA®) and boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrodes. Nevertheless, the high cost and complicated process in fabricating these electrodes remains as a big obstacle for further development. Here, we report a novel anode material for the production of oxidants, the dark blue colored TiO2 nanotube array (NTA) (denoted as Blue TiO2 NTA) which has never been successfully achieved with titania-based materials. This titania-based electrocatalyst with irreversible electrochromism and high conductivity was successfully fabricated with simple cathodic polarization of anatase TiO2 NTA and exhibits the excellent electrocatalytic activity in generating chlorine (Cl2) and hydroxyl radical (• OH) which is comparable to the commercial DSA® and BDD electrodes, respectively. Thus, this Blue TiO2 NTA is suggested as a potential cost effective anodic material in industrial electrochemistry. In addition, even in other metal oxides other than titania, the cathodic polarization (accompanied with irreversible electrochromism) method may be applied to explore a new route for low-cost and novel anodic materials

  8. Modified carbons with optimized electrochemical properties as anode material in lithium ion cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lithium ion cells are widely used rechargeable batteries for applications in laptops or mobile phones. Purpose of this work is the optimization of the commonly used graphite intercalation anodes. During the first charge/discharge cycles electrolyte decomposition takes place at the anode followed by formation of a film, which hinders further decomposition of the electrolyte. This reaction can be controlled by the surface composition of the anodes. In this work the surface composition and structure of different graphites were changed by gas treatment. Referring to the 'dangling bonds' model, the activated graphite surface with free bonds and adsorption places was treated with a reactive gas. The applicability of the obtained modified graphites as electrode materials was tested in charge/discharge studies. The results were correlated with surface properties of the graphites. For this purpose the specific surface area of the differently treated graphites was determined by BET measurements. The chemical composition and the distribution of the surface groups was measured by electron scanning chemical analysis (ESCA). Optical pictures of the surfaces were obtained by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). (author)

  9. Periodic porous silicon thin films with interconnected channels as durable anode materials for lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A novel porous Si (PSi) films with interconnected channels and periodic nanostructures are fabricated by a facile electrochemical etching method. The films thus obtained feature highly porous structures with nano-branches connecting pores, possessing periodically varying porosity profiles along the film thickness direction. These periodic porous Si films are found to be promising anode materials for rechargeable lithium ion batteries with a high reversible specific capacity over 2500 mAh g−1 and capacity retention over 83% after 60 cycles, which compares favorably with the conventional Si-based electrodes, including the commercially available Si nanoparticles, sputtered Si thin films, and the normal porous Si films with homogenous porosities. The improved cycling stability achieved on the periodic porous Si film is ascribed to its special nanoporous morphology featuring high surface area, interconnecting nano-branches, and structural periodicity, which helps efficiently accommodate the volume expansion and contraction along both the vertical and the planner directions during lithiation and delithiation. - Highlights: • Free-standing porous Si films with interconnected channels have been fabricated. • These PSi films as anode deliver a high reversible specific capacity over 2500 mAh g−1. • The special porous structure plays an important role in stabilizing the anodes

  10. Interfacial electron transfer and bioelectrocatalysis of carbonized plant material as effective anode of microbial fuel cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ABSTRACT: Effective use of natural materials to fabricate porous carbonaceous structures for anodes of microbial fuel cells (MFCs) has a high potential for substantial cost reduction in MFC. In this study, three kinds of plant materials, i.e. king mushroom, wild mushroom and corn stem, were investigated for fabrication of conductive electrode materials by simple carbonization procedures. Structure–reactivity relationships of these electrodes were systematically studied with electrochemical redox probe ([Fe(CN)6]3−/4−) and biofilm electroactivity. The electrochemical and bioelectrochemical accessibilities of the carbonized electrodes were evaluated by impedance, cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry techniques in order to study the electron transfer rate (Kapp), charge transfer resistances, oxidative current density and bioelectroactive moieties. The results showed that the electron transfer resistance (Rct) was 94 Ω for carbonized corn stem electrode with an electron transfer rate (Kapp) of 3.44 × 10−2 cm s−1 for Fe2+/Fe3+ redox probe. Higher bioelectroactivity (9.29 × 10−8 mol cm−2) was found from biofilm on carbonized corn stem (Rbiofilm, 45 Ω) with an electron transfer rate (bacteria-anode) of 63 × 10−5 cm s−1. The maximum bioelectrocatalytic current (imax) of 3.12 mA cm−2 was obtained on carbon electrode derived from corn stem. That is 8 times higher than plain graphite electrode. The porous architecture, high electron transfer rate and high electroactive biofilm growth are attributes that qualify natural-material carbon anodes as low-cost alternative for MFC

  11. Development of high-energy silicon-based anode materials for lithium-ion storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Ran

    The emerging markets of electric vehicles (EV) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) generate a tremendous demand for low-cost lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) with high energy and power densities, and long cycling life. The development of such LIBs requires development of low cost, high-energy-density cathode and anode materials. Conventional anode materials in commercial LIBs are primarily synthetic graphite-based materials with a capacity of ˜370 mAh/g. Improvements in anode performance, particularly in anode capacity, are essential to achieving high energy densities in LIBs for EV and HEV applications. This dissertation focuses on development of micro-sized silicon-carbon (Si-C) composites as anode materials for high energy and power densities LIBs. First, a new, low-cost, large-scale approach was developed to prepare a micro-sized Si-C composite with excellent performance as an anode material for LIBs. The composite shows a reversible capacity of 1459 mAh/g after 200 cycles at 1 A/g (97.8% capacity retention) and excellent high rate performance of 700 mAh/g at 12.8 A/g, and also has a high tap density of 0.78 g/cm3. The structure of the composite, micro-sized as a whole, features the interconnected nanoscale size of the Si building blocks and the uniform carbon filling, which enables the maximum utilization of silicon even when the micro-sized particles break into small pieces upon cycling. To understand the effects of key parameters in designing the micro-sized Si-C composites on their electrochemical performance and explore how to optimize them, the influence of Si nanoscale building block size and carbon coating on the electrochemical performance of the micro-sized Si-C composites were investigated. It has been found that the critical Si building block size is 15 nm, which enables a high capacity without compromising the cycling stability, and that carbon coating at higher temperature improves the 1st cycle coulombic efficiency (CE) and the rate capability

  12. Ion beam processing of advanced electronic materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheung, N.W.; Marwick, A.D.; Roberto, J.B. (eds.) (California Univ., Berkeley, CA (USA); International Business Machines Corp., Yorktown Heights, NY (USA). Thomas J. Watson Research Center; Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA))

    1989-01-01

    This report contains research programs discussed at the materials research society symposia on ion beam processing of advanced electronic materials. Major topics include: shallow implantation and solid-phase epitaxy; damage effects; focused ion beams; MeV implantation; high-dose implantation; implantation in III-V materials and multilayers; and implantation in electronic materials. Individual projects are processed separately for the data bases. (CBS)

  13. Ion beam processing of advanced electronic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains research programs discussed at the materials research society symposia on ion beam processing of advanced electronic materials. Major topics include: shallow implantation and solid-phase epitaxy; damage effects; focused ion beams; MeV implantation; high-dose implantation; implantation in III-V materials and multilayers; and implantation in electronic materials. Individual projects are processed separately for the data bases

  14. Advanced materials in radiation dosimetry

    CERN Document Server

    Bruzzi, M; Nava, F; Pini, S; Russo, S

    2002-01-01

    High band-gap semiconductor materials can represent good alternatives to silicon in relative dosimetry. Schottky diodes made with epitaxial n-type 4 H SiC and Chemical Vapor Deposited diamond films with ohmic contacts have been exposed to a sup 6 sup 0 Co gamma-source, 20 MeV electrons and 6 MV X photons from a linear accelerator to test the current response in on-line configuration in the dose range 0.1-10 Gy. The released charge as a function of the dose and the radiation-induced current as a function of the dose-rate are found to be linear. No priming effects have been observed using epitaxial SiC, due to the low density of lattice defects present in this material.

  15. Influence of Treatment Temperature on Microstructure and Properties of YSZ-NiO Anode Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podhurska, Viktoriya; Vasyliv, Bogdan; Ostash, Orest; Brodnikovskyi, Yegor; Vasylyev, Oleksandr

    2016-12-01

    The cyclic treatment technique (redox cycling) comprising stages of material exposition in reducing and oxidizing high-temperature environments and intermediate degassing between these stages has been developed to improve the structural integrity of YSZ-NiO ceramic anode substrates for solid oxide fuel cells. A series of specimens were singly reduced in a hydrogenous environment (the Ar-5 vol% Н2 mixture or hydrogen of 99.99 vol% H2 purity) under the pressure of 0.15 MPa or subjected to redox cycling at 600 or 800 °C. The influence of redox cycling at the treatment temperatures of 600 and 800 °C on the structure, strength and electrical conductivity of the material has been analysed. Using the treatment temperature 600 °C, a structure providing improved physical and mechanical properties of the material was formed. However, at the treatment temperature 800 °C, an anode structure with an array of microcracks was formed that significantly reduced the strength and electrical conductivity of the material. PMID:26880730

  16. A new anode material LiMoS2 for use in rechargeable Lithium Ion Batteries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Shui-jin; AI Chang-chun; LIANG Yong-guang; SUN Ju-tang

    2004-01-01

    The novel applications of molybdenum disulfide in recent research were reviewed, such as in lubricant, catalyst and photoelectrochemical solar cells. Recently, we found that LiMoS2 is a good candidate for new anode materials for lithium ion batteries with high lithium storage capacity.Here, the anode material LiMoS2 was synthesized by a hydrothermal method at 150℃ and the electrochemical characterization as an anode material for lithium ion batteries was examined.put in Teflon-lined stainless steel autoclaves of capacity 40 mL. Distilled water was used to fill the autoclaves to 70 % of the total volume. The autoclaves were maintained at 150℃ for 24 h and then cooled naturally. The resulting dark-gray powders were filled and washed with distilled water,diluted hydrochloric acid and ethanol, successively. The final products were dried at 80℃ for 24 h.The powder X-ray diffraction pattern showed the prepared LiMoS2 was amorphous structure. A test cell using LiMoS2 as the active material was discharged and charged between 3 and 0.01 V with respect to Li metal at a constant current density of C/5 (that is, one lithium per formula unit in 5 hours). During the first discharge, the potential rapidly drops to reach a large plateau at 2.2 V, then slowly drops to the other plateau at 0.8 V, and then continuously decreases down to 0.01V. There is only a plateau at 1.35 V in the subsequent discharge curves. The plateaus of charge potential appear at about 1.9 V.The irreversible loss was 41% in the first cycle. The ratio of discharge and charge is more than 99%in the subsequent cycles. Moreover, the ratio of discharge and charge almost reaches 100% after thedemonstrated that LiMoS2 has a very high capacity and a good cycle-ability as an anode material forlithium ion batteries.

  17. New Insights in to the Lithium Storage Mechanism in Polymer Derived SiOC Anode Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Polymer-derived SiOC ceramics are studied as anode in Li-ion batteries. • Li insertion capacity and cycling stability are correlated to the structure of SiOC. • First insertion capacity of SiCxO2(1-x) network goes up to 1300 mAhg−1. • The specific capacity of the C-poor SiOC degrades faster than the C-rich SiOC. - Abstract: Polymer derived silicon oxycarbide (SiOC) materials are prepared by the pyrolysis of preceramic polymers obtained from polyhydridomethylsiloxane using 1,3,5,7-tetramethyl1,3,5,7-tetravinyl cyclotetrasiloxane or divinyl benzene as a cross-linking agent. The pyrolysis is carried out in an inert atmosphere at 1000 and 1300 °C. The carbon content of SiOC is varied by changing the amount of starting precursors maintaining the same O/Si atomic ratio of about 1. Electrochemical measurements are performed in order to evaluate the materials in terms of their application as anodes in Li-ion batteries. Detailed structural characterization study is performed using complementary techniques with the aim of correlating the electrochemical behavior with the structure of the SiOC anodes. Results suggest that SiOC anodes behave as a composite material consisting of a disordered silicon oxycarbide phase having a very high first insertion capacity of ca 1300 mAh g−1 and a free C phase. However, the charge irreversible trapped into the amorphous silicon oxycarbide network is also high and therefore the maximum reversible lithium storage capacity of 650mAh g−1 is measured on high-C content SiOCs for which the balance between the two phases, namely the amorphous silicon oxycarbide and the free C phase, is optimal. The high carbon content SiOC show also an excellent cycling stability and performance at high charging/discharging rate: the reversible capacity at 2 C rate being around 200 mAh g−1. Increasing the pyrolysis temperature has an opposite effect on the low-C and high-C materials: for the latter one the reversible capacity

  18. Co3O4 nanowires as high capacity anode materials for lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► The Co3O4 nanowires are synthesized from decomposition of CoC2O4·2H2O nanowires. ► The synthesis procedure shows us a facile and highly productive strategy. ► The Co3O4 nanowires are suitable as a promising anode material for LIBs. ► High capacity and good cycling stability are achieved for the Co3O4 nanowires. - Abstract: Co3O4 nanowires were synthesized from the decomposition of CoC2O4·2H2O nanowires which were obtained through a polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)-assisted solution-based precipitation process. And the formation mechanism of CoC2O4·2H2O nanowires was discussed. The Co3O4 nanowires had diameters in the range of 30–60 nm and lengths of several micrometers, inheriting the morphology of the CoC2O4·2H2O nanowires. The Co3O4 nanowires as an anode material in lithium-ion batteries exhibited a stable specific discharge/charge capacity of 611 mAh/g and 598 mAh/g after fifty cycles at a current density of 0.11 A/g, which were much higher than that of commercial Co3O4 nanoparticles. In addition, the charge capacity of the as-synthesized Co3O4 nanowires was more than two times higher than that of the commercial Co3O4 nanoparticles at a current density of 1.1 A/g. These results indicate that the as-prepared Co3O4 nanowires have potential to be a promising candidate as high capacity anode material in the next generation lithium-ion batteries.

  19. An Sn-Fe/carbon nanocomposite as an alternative anode material for rechargeable lithium batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sn-Fe/carbon nanocomposites were synthesized by the mechanochemical treatment of Sn with various amounts of an Fe/C composite through the pyrolysis of Fe(III) acetylacetonate. The composites were then evaluated as alternative anode materials for rechargeable lithium batteries. Based on the obtained ex situ X-ray diffraction (XRD) data, X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) results, and differential capacity plots (DCPs), a reaction mechanism was suggested. It was found that increasing the amounts of the SnFe phase and pyrolyzed carbon in the composite improved its electrochemical characteristics in terms of its capacity retention

  20. Carbon-coated mesoporous SnO2 nanospheres as anode material for lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper mesoporous SnO2 nanospheres with an average diameter of about 83 nm, composed of many tiny primary particles (∼10 nm) and holes, are synthesized on a large scale by a simple hydrothermal route. The as-prepared mesoporous SnO2 nanospheres were uniformly coated with carbon by a further hydrothermal treatment in glucose aqueous solution. As anode materials for lithium-ion batteries, the core–shell SnO2/C nanocomposites exhibit a markedly improved cycling performance.

  1. Failure and damage analysis of advanced materials

    CERN Document Server

    Sadowski, Tomasz

    2015-01-01

    The papers in this volume present basic concepts and new developments in failure and damage analysis with focus on advanced materials such as composites, laminates, sandwiches and foams, and also new metallic materials. Starting from some mathematical foundations (limit surfaces, symmetry considerations, invariants) new experimental results and their analysis are shown. Finally, new concepts for failure prediction and analysis will be introduced and discussed as well as new methods of failure and damage prediction for advanced metallic and non-metallic materials. Based on experimental results the traditional methods will be revised.

  2. Orthorhombic Lithium Titanium Phosphate as an Anode Material for Li-ion Rechargeable Battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Li-rich orthorhombic lithium titanium phosphate (OLTP) has been synthesized via a sol-gel route. • OLTP adopts a different space group from the previously reported rhombohedral lithium titanium phosphate (RLTP) and shows solid-solution charge/discharge curves. • OLTP shows higher Li+ diffusivity and electrical conductivity, which makes it an attractive alternative for RLTP. - Abstract: Rhombohedral lithium titanium phosphate, LiTi2(PO4)3, has been considered a suitable anode material for aqueous lithium-ion batteries. However, the electrochemical behaviors of pure lithium-rich polymorphs have not been described yet even Li-rich phase may show better electrochemical properties than conventional LiTi2(PO4)3 at the expense of somewhat lowered capacity. We have synthesized orthorhombic Li1.5Ti2(PO4)3 (OLTP) and rhombohedral LiTi2(PO4)3 (RLTP) via sol-gel reactions and studied their fundamental electrochemical properties using galvanostatic charge/discharge and cyclic voltammetry (CV). Their feasibility as anode materials in LiFePO4//LixTi2(PO4)3 configurations using aqueous electrolytes were also considered. The faster kinetics of the orthorhombic lithium titanium phosphate in this study were attributed to higher Li+ diffusivity and electrical conductivity, making this material an attractive alternative for conventional rhombohedral LiTi2(PO4)3

  3. Methane storage in advanced porous materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makal, Trevor A; Li, Jian-Rong; Lu, Weigang; Zhou, Hong-Cai

    2012-12-01

    The need for alternative fuels is greater now than ever before. With considerable sources available and low pollution factor, methane is a natural choice as petroleum replacement in cars and other mobile applications. However, efficient storage methods are still lacking to implement the application of methane in the automotive industry. Advanced porous materials, metal-organic frameworks and porous organic polymers, have received considerable attention in sorptive storage applications owing to their exceptionally high surface areas and chemically-tunable structures. In this critical review we provide an overview of the current status of the application of these two types of advanced porous materials in the storage of methane. Examples of materials exhibiting high methane storage capacities are analyzed and methods for increasing the applicability of these advanced porous materials in methane storage technologies described. PMID:22990753

  4. Materials for advanced power engineering 2010. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lecomte-Beckers, Jacqueline; Contrepois, Quentin; Beck, Tilmann; Kuhn, Bernd (eds.)

    2010-07-01

    The 9th Liege Conference on ''Materials for Advanced Power Engineering'' presents the results of the materials related COST Actions 536 ''Alloy Development for Critical Components of Environmentally Friendly Power Plants'' and 538 ''High Temperature Plant Lifetime Extension''. In addition, the broad field of current materials research perspectives for high efficiency, low- and zero- emission power plants and new energy technologies for the next decades are reported. The Conference proceedings are structured as follows: 1. Materials for advanced steam power plants; 2. Gas turbine materials; 3. Materials for nuclear fission and fusion; 4. Solid oxide fuel cells; 5. Corrosion, thermomechanical fatigue and modelling; 6. Zero emission power plants.

  5. Materials for Advanced Power Engineering 2014

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The 10th Liege Conference on Materials for Advanced Power Engineering presents theachievements of international materials related research for high eciency, low-emissionpower plants. Furthermore the new demands of the transition of electricity supply towardsmore and more regenerative power sources are reported.Resource preservation and maximization of economic success by improved plant e-ciency were the driving forces in past materials and power plant technology development.Fossil fuels will ...

  6. SYNTHESIS OF NANO-ZnO PARTICLES FOR ALUMINUM METALLURGY AS INERT ANODE MATERIAL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A.A.A. Saleh; Y. Fu; X.J. Zhai; Y.C. Zhai; M.M. Elomella; A.L. Zhang

    2004-01-01

    Nano-ZnO particle was produced by evaporating zinc powders in air at air flow-rate from 0.2 to 0.6m3/h. Nano-ZnO particles was formed by the oxidation of the evaporated zinc vapor. X-ray diffraction shows the powders to be ZnO with lattice parameters of a=0.3249nm and c=0.5205nm. The particle size is dependent upon the transit time from the source to the collection area. The size of particles was ranged between 81 to 103nm. The average density resulted was 4.865g/cm3.Normal ZnO and nano-ZnO were investigated to use them in aluminum metallurgy as an inert anode material. A certain amount of both oxides were molded subsequently inserted to the molten cryolite-aluminum oxide to investigate the corrosive behavior of both oxides. When the sintering temperature increased up to 1300 ℃, the weight loss ratio rose to 5.01%-7.33% and up to 7.67%-10.18% for nano-ZnO and normal ZnO, respectively. However, when the samples in the molten cryolite aluminum oxide were put for long time, the corrosive rate was found to be higher. It was found that the corrosive loss weight ratio of nano-ZnO anode was much lower than the normal one made from ordinary-ZnO providing that the nano-ZnO is more possible to be use inert anode material.

  7. Fabrication of highly ordered porous nickel oxide anode materials and their electrochemical characteristics in lithium storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • NiO/Si-MCP nanocomposites electrocatalysts as anodes in lithium ion batteries. • Si MCP itself is an excellent support for electrocatalyst. • The structure with high surface to volume ratio endows higher mass NiO nanopatricles. • The ordered channel and mesoporous structure permits liquid electrolyte flow easily. • This research may provide a meaning way in integratable lithium-ion batteries. - Abstract: The structure and electrochemical properties of silicon microchannel plates (MCP)-supported NiO nanocomposites (NiO/Si-MCP) synthesized by silicon micromachining, electroless plating, and thermal annealing are investigated as anodes in lithium ion batteries. Galvanostatic charge and discharge results indicate that the NiO/Si-MCP is capable of delivering a higher capacity than the bare nickel-oxide film. At a 1 C current, the NiO/Si-MCP nanocomposite film shows an enormous first discharge capacity of about 3190 mA g−1 and charge capacity of 1977 mA g−1. After 15 cycles, the NiO/Si-MCP nanocomposite retains a reversible capacity of 1531 mA g−1 with 63.7% of the capacity maintained in the 2nd cycle. The lithium storage capacity is maintained at ∼880 mA h g−1 after 50 discharge/charge cycles and it is much larger than that of NiO and its composites. The enhanced electrochemical performance of the highly ordered three-dimensional materials is attributed to the synergistic effects offered by the silicon microchannel plates in the nickel oxide film subsequently facilitating electrolyte penetration, diffusion, and migration. The structure is promising anode materials in lithium-ion batteries

  8. Hematite nanoflakes as anode electrode materials for rechargeable lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hematite (α-Fe2O3) nanoflakes and nanocubes were synthesized by liquid-solid-solution method and their properties as anode electrode materials for rechargeable Li+-ion batteries were measured. When changing the water to ethanol volume ratio in the synthesis system, the nanocrystals can be changed from α-Fe2O3 to α-FeOOH, with shapes being tuned from nanoflakes to nanocubes, non-uniform particles and nanowires. When assembled as the anode electrode materials in rechargeable Li+-ion batteries, the hematite nanoflakes showed one more plateau in the first discharge progress of the voltage-composition curves than hematite nanocrystals with other shapes in the literature. X-ray diffraction, high-resolution transmission electron microscope and electrochemical data showed that this extra plateau came from the formation of Li2Fe3O4 nanoclusters and amorphous Li2O. This experiment showed that like sizes, shapes of nanocrystals may also affect the detailed electrochemical progress.

  9. The electrochemical performance of nickel chromium oxide as a new anode material for lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • NiCr2O4 is fabricated and used as a new anode material for lithium ion batteries. • NiCr2O4 electrode is prepared via a facile and low cost way. • the NiCr2O4 electrode undergoes a novel electrochemical reconstruction in cycling. • the NiCr2O4 electrode exhibits good electrochemical performance. - Abstract: NiCr2O4 is successfully prepared via hydrothermal pretreatment and subsequent sintering, which shows excellent electrochemical performance as a new anode material for lithium ion batteries with natural graphite adding and sodium alginate binder. At a specific current of 70 mA g−1, it delivers charge and discharge capacities of 465.5 and 919.8 mAh g−1 in the initial cycle, which gradually increases along with cycle number owing to an electrochemical reconstruction in cycling. After 100 cycles, the charge and discharge capacities are 582.9 and 592.5 mAh g−1, respectively. Furthermore, it is testified that natural graphite adding can effectively improve the electronic conductivity of the NiCr2O4 electrode, and an appropriate amount of natural graphite is beneficial to improve the specific capacity and cycle stability of the electrode owing to a coordinated electrochemical reconstruction between NiCr2O4 and natural graphite in cycling

  10. Vacuum arc anode phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A brief review of anode phenomena in vacuum arcs is presented. Discussed in succession are: the transition of the arc into the anode spot mode; the temperature of the anode before, during and after the anode spot forms; and anode ions. Characteristically the anode spot has a temperature of the order of the atmospheric boiling point of the anode material and is a copious source of vapor and energetic ions. The dominant mechanism controlling the transition of the vacuum arc into the anode spot mode appears to depend upon the electrode geometry, the electrode material, and the current waveform of the particular vacuum arc being considered. Either magnetic constriction in the gap plasma or gross anode melting can trigger the transition; indeed, a combination of the two is a common cause of anode spot formation

  11. Materials for advanced water cooled reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current IAEA programme in advanced nuclear power technology promotes technical information exchange between Member States with major development programmes. The International Working Group on Advanced Technologies for Water Cooled Reactors recommended to organize a Technical Committee Meeting for the purpose of providing an international forum for technical specialists to review and discuss aspects regarding development trends in material application for advanced water cooled reactors. The experience gained from the operation of current water cooled reactors, and results from related research and development programmes, should be the basis for future improvements of material properties and applications. This meeting enabled specialists to exchange knowledge about structural materials application in the nuclear island for the next generation of nuclear power plants. Refs, figs, tabs

  12. Annual report 90. Institute for advanced materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Annual Report 1990 of the Institute for Advanced Materials of the JRC highlights the Scientific Technical Achievements and presents in the Annex the Institute's Competence and Facilities available to industry for services and research under contract. The Institute executed in 1990 the R and D programme on advanced materials of the JRC and contributed to the programmes: reactor safety, radio-active waste management, fusion technology and safety, nuclear fuel and actinide research. The supplementary programme: Operation of the High Flux Reactor is presented in condensed form. A full report is published separately

  13. Anode material selection criteria for selective oxidation of inorganic compounds in nitric acid media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Significant progress has been made since the 19606 in developing highly effective anode materials for electrochemical processes, The problem areas currently facing electrochemistry researchers include investigating new composite materials obtained by grafting or doping, improving fabrication techniques to extend the lifetime of the materials while maintaining their selectivity, studying their electrochemical properties and relating them to the material structure. Research on materials with high oxygen over-potentials-materials on which water oxidation is kinetically affected, and which open an electro-activity window on high potentials (2.0 VESH or greater) - has opened new avenues such as the use of various metallic oxide deposits. Two oxide classes were identified from a structural standpoint on the basis of their water oxidation properties: chemisorbed active oxygen anodes (e.g. PtOx, IrO2 or RuO2) and physi-sorbed active oxygen anodes (e.g. SnO2 or PbO2). Selective electrochemical generation of powerful oxidants between 1.4 and 2.0 VESH in concentrated nitric acid media is used in the context of the nuclear fuel cycle, and the potential advantages of new materials with a high oxygen over-potential-other than widely used platinum-have attracted attention. The relevant physical, chemical and electrochemical properties of such materials were therefore investigated to assess their selective oxidation performance. The study focused in particular on identifying the specific aspects of concentrated nitric acid media in the processes occurring at the electrode/solution interface, using linear and cyclic voltammetry, imposed-potential electrolysis and impedance spectroscopy. This approach allowed characterization of the electron charge transfer kinetics of the medium (nitric acid, compared with other acids such as methane sulfonic acid) and of the selected redox couple (Ag(II)/Ag(I) in this case). The tests covered a wide range of materials, including IrO2, SnO2, PbO2

  14. Structures, phase stabilities, and electrical potentials of Li-Si battery anode materials

    KAUST Repository

    Tipton, William W.

    2013-05-28

    The Li-Si materials system holds promise for use as an anode in Li-ion battery applications. For this system, we determine the charge capacity, voltage profiles, and energy storage density solely by ab initio methods without any experimental input. We determine the energetics of the stable and metastable Li-Si phases likely to form during the charging and discharging of a battery. Ab initio molecular dynamics simulations are used to model the structure of amorphous Li-Si as a function of composition, and a genetic algorithm coupled to density-functional theory searches the Li-Si binary phase diagram for small-cell, metastable crystal structures. Calculations of the phonon densities of states using density-functional perturbation theory for selected structures determine the importance of vibrational, including zero-point, contributions to the free energies. The energetics and local structural motifs of these metastable Li-Si phases closely resemble those of the amorphous phases, making these small unit cell crystal phases good approximants of the amorphous phase for use in further studies. The charge capacity is estimated, and the electrical potential profiles and the energy density of Li-Si anodes are predicted. We find, in good agreement with experimental measurements, that the formation of amorphous Li-Si only slightly increases the anode potential. Additionally, the genetic algorithm identifies a previously unreported member of the Li-Si binary phase diagram with composition Li5Si2 which is stable at 0 K with respect to previously known phases. We discuss its relationship to the partially occupied Li7Si3 phase. © 2013 American Physical Society.

  15. Li4Ti5O12-coated graphite anode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Nano-sized Li4Ti5O12 (LTO)-coated graphite core–shell prepared by sol–gel process. • LTO-coated graphite is used in Li-ion battery to improve the cycle life under 55 °C. • Graphite coated with LTO shows smaller resistance than graphite after cell cycling. • The LTO coating suppress the disorder of SP2 structure in graphite during cycling. • Resistance and structure stabilization results in good cycle life of the Li-ion cell. - Abstract: In this study, we synthesized and characterized Li4Ti5O12 (LTO)-coated graphite as an anode material for Li-batteries. The surface of graphite powders was uniformly coated by the LTO nanoparticles to form a core–shelled structure via a sol–gel process, followed by calcination. The average size of graphite core was 20 μm while the thickness of LTO shell was 60 nm to 100 nm. We found that LTO-coated graphite has better rate-capability and cycle life at RT and 55 °C, compared with the pristine graphite. The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) results of the cell with LTO-coated graphite anode showed a significant suppression of the impedance rise after 60 cycles. In addition, the Raman spectrum showed that after 60 charge–discharge cycles at 55 °C, the ID/IG ratio of the LTO-coated graphite electrode increased slightly, while that of the pristine graphite electrode increased significantly. The batteries with LTO-coated graphite anode exhibited excellent cyclic ability and high temperature performance

  16. Microscopic properties of lithium, sodium, and magnesium battery anode materials related to possible dendrite growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lithium and magnesium exhibit rather different properties as battery anode materials with respect to the phenomenon of dendrite formation which can lead to short-circuits in batteries. Diffusion processes are the key to understanding structure forming processes on surfaces. Therefore, we have determined adsorption energies and barriers for the self-diffusion on Li and Mg using periodic density functional theory calculations and contrasted the results to Na which is also regarded as a promising electrode material in batteries. According to our calculations, magnesium exhibits a tendency towards the growth of smooth surfaces as it exhibits lower diffusion barriers than lithium and sodium, and as an hcp metal it favors higher-coordinated configurations in contrast to the bcc metals Li and Na. These characteristic differences are expected to contribute to the unequal tendencies of these metals with respect to dendrite growth

  17. Preparation and Characterization of Carbon Coated Silicon Nanoparticle as Anode Material for Li-ion Batteries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    T. Zhancg; L.J. Fu; J. Gao; Y. P. Wu; H.Q. Wu

    2005-01-01

    @@ 1Introduction Silicon has been regarded as one of the most promising anode materials for Li-ion batteries. Its theoretical capacity (4 000 mAh/g) is much higher than that of the commercialized graphite (372 mAh/g)[1]. However,the cycle performance of silicon is poor due to the severe volume expansion and shrinkage during Li+ insertion/extraction which results in pulverization of Si particles, eventually losing its Li+ storage ability[2]. To solve this problem, nanosized Si particles were utilized and achieved a partial improvement by reducing the absolute volume change. Nevertheless, a new problem was encountered with nanosized material that small Si particles were aggregated to be larger one during Li+ insertion/extraction, and then pulverized again[3]. In this work, we have succeeded to improve the cycle performance of nanosized Si particles by synthesis of carbon coated silicon nanoparticle.

  18. Advanced Materials for Redox Flow Batteries

    OpenAIRE

    Friedl, Jochen

    2015-01-01

    We investigate two advanced materials electrochemically in order to see if they can be applied to improve energy- and power-density of Redox Flow Batteries (RFBs). First, multi-walled carbon nanotubes are analyzed as electrode material for the All-Vanadium RFB. We discovered that an enhanced activity assigned by previous studies was a misinterpretation caused by an apparent catalytic effect. Second, large inorganic molecules, polyoxometalates (POMs), were investigated as nano-sized el...

  19. NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Molecular Engineering for Advanced Materials

    CERN Document Server

    Schaumburg, Kjeld

    1995-01-01

    An important aspect of molecular engineering is the `property directed' synthesis of large molecules and molecular assemblies. Synthetic expertise has advanced to a state which allows the assembly of supramolecules containing thousands of atoms using a `construction kit' of molecular building blocks. Expansion in the field is driven by the appearance of new building blocks and by an improved understanding of the rules for joining them in the design of nanometer-sized devices. Another aspect is the transition from supramolecules to materials. At present no single molecule (however large) has been demonstrated to function as a device, but this appears to be only a matter of time. In all of this research, which has a strongly multidisciplinary character, both existing and yet to be developed analytical techniques are and will remain indispensable. All this and more is discussed in Molecular Engineering for Advanced Materials, which provides a masterly and up to date summary of one of the most challenging researc...

  20. Electron beam modification of anode materials for high-rate lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yiseul; Park, Jung Soo; Baek, Seong-Ho; Kim, Jae Hyun

    2015-11-01

    The rate capability of a Li4Ti5O12 (LTO)-based anode in a lithium ion battery can be easily improved by electron beam (EB) irradiation without the need for complicated synthetic procedures. The electrode prepared with EB-irradiated LTO at a 50 kGy dose has an enhanced rate capability while retaining a discharge capacity of 100 mAh g-1, even at the 20 C-rate. The effect of EB irradiation on the properties of the anode materials (i.e., LTO, poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF), super P carbon) is examined in detail through systematic experiments. Both LTO and PVDF are affected by EB irradiation and dependent on the exposed electron dose, but super P is affected negligibly. EB irradiation partially reduces LTO with forming Tix+ (2 < x < 4) which is attributed to the enhanced electrical conductivity. EB irradiation causes dehydrofluorination and cross-linking in PVDF, resulting in the formation of carbon-carbon double bonds. The conjugated structure of PVDF is formed by the further dehydrofluorination during mixing with LTO via ball-milling, and this is accelerated in the presence of EB-PVDF. This conjugated structure enhances the electrical conductivity and is responsible for the improved rate capability.

  1. Hollow Fe3O4 microspheres as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, we proposed a unique method for hollow Fe3O4 microspheres and confirmed their electrochemical properties as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries. Poly(MAA/EGDMA)/Fe3O4 core–shell microspheres were prepared by simple ionic attraction between hydrogel microspheres with negative charge and magnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles under alkaline conditions. The poly(MAA/EGDMA) core spheres were removed by heat treatment in order to form the hollow structure of Fe3O4 microspheres. Their hollow structure prevents cracking of the electrode during the volume change of repetitive Li-ion insertion and extraction reactions and improves the Li-ion transfer during cycling. The morphologies and structure of the hollow Fe3O4 microspheres were confirmed by scanning electron microscopy, focused ion beam-scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, optical microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The electrochemical performance of the composite electrode was evaluated by constant current charging and discharging, cyclic voltammetry and cycling performance at various cycling rates. The results showed excellent cycle stability compared with a composite electrode containing bare Fe3O4 nanoparticles. These results indicate that the unique structures of Fe3O4 microspheres contribute to the excellent life and high reversible capacity of the battery when they are used as an anode of a lithium-ion battery.

  2. Advanced quantum mechanics materials and photons

    CERN Document Server

    Dick, Rainer

    2016-01-01

    In this updated and expanded second edition of a well-received and invaluable textbook, Prof. Dick emphasizes the importance of advanced quantum mechanics for materials science and all experimental techniques which employ photon absorption, emission, or scattering. Important aspects of introductory quantum mechanics are covered in the first seven chapters to make the subject self-contained and accessible for a wide audience. Advanced Quantum Mechanics, Materials and Photons can therefore be used for advanced undergraduate courses and introductory graduate courses which are targeted towards students with diverse academic backgrounds from the Natural Sciences or Engineering. To enhance this inclusive aspect of making the subject as accessible as possible Appendices A and B also provide introductions to Lagrangian mechanics and the covariant formulation of electrodynamics. This second edition includes an additional 62 new problems as well as expanded sections on relativistic quantum fields and applications of�...

  3. Advanced quantum mechanics materials and photons

    CERN Document Server

    Dick, Rainer

    2012-01-01

    Advanced Quantum Mechanics: Materials and Photons is a textbook which emphasizes the importance of advanced quantum mechanics for materials science and all experimental techniques which employ photon absorption, emission, or scattering. Important aspects of introductory quantum mechanics are covered in the first seven chapters to make the subject self-contained and accessible for a wide audience. The textbook can therefore be used for advanced undergraduate courses and introductory graduate courses which are targeted towards students with diverse academic backgrounds from the Natural Sciences or Engineering. To enhance this inclusive aspect of making the subject as accessible as possible, Appendices A and B also provide introductions to Lagrangian mechanics and the covariant formulation of electrodynamics. Other special features include an introduction to Lagrangian field theory and an integrated discussion of transition amplitudes with discrete or continuous initial or final states. Once students have acquir...

  4. Annual report 1991. Institute for Advanced Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Institute executed in 1991 the R and D programme on advanced materials of the Joint Research Centre and contributed to the programmes: reactor safety, radio-active waste management, fusion technology and safety, nuclear fuel and actinide research. The supplementary programme: Operation of the High Flux Reactor is presented in condensed form. A full report is published separately. (Author). refs., figs., tabs

  5. Composit, Nanoparticle-Based Anode material for Li-ion Batteries Applied in Hybrid Electric (HEV's)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Malgorzata Gulbinska

    2009-08-24

    Lithium-ion batteries are promising energy storage devices in hybrid and electric vehicles with high specific energy values ({approx}150 Wh/kg), energy density ({approx}400 Wh/L), and long cycle life (>15 years). However, applications in hybrid and electric vehicles require increased energy density and improved low-temperature (<-10 C) performance. Silicon-based anodes are inexpensive, environmentally benign, and offer excellent theoretical capacity values ({approx}4000 mAh/g), leading to significantly less anode material and thus increasing the overall energy density value for the complete battery (>500 Wh/L). However, tremendous volume changes occur during cycling of pure silicon-based anodes. The expansion and contraction of these silicon particles causes them to fracture and lose electrical contact to the current collector ultimately severely limiting their cycle life. In Phase I of this project Yardney Technical Products, Inc. proposed development of a carbon/nano-silicon composite anode material with improved energy density and silicon's cycleability. In the carbon/nano-Si composite, silicon nanoparticles were embedded in a partially-graphitized carbonaceous matrix. The cycle life of anode material would be extended by decreasing the average particle size of active material (silicon) and by encapsulation of silicon nanoparticles in a ductile carbonaceous matrix. Decreasing the average particle size to a nano-region would also shorten Li-ion diffusion path and thus improve rate capability of the silicon-based anodes. Improved chemical inertness towards PC-based, low-temperature electrolytes was expected as an additional benefit of a thin, partially graphitized coating around the active electrode material.

  6. Advanced Industrial Materials (AIM) fellowship program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCleary, D.D. [Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education, TN (United States)

    1997-04-01

    The Advanced Industrial Materials (AIM) Program administers a Graduate Fellowship Program focused toward helping students who are currently under represented in the nation`s pool of scientists and engineers, enter and complete advanced degree programs. The objectives of the program are to: (1) establish and maintain cooperative linkages between DOE and professors at universities with graduate programs leading toward degrees or with degree options in Materials Science, Materials Engineering, Metallurgical Engineering, and Ceramic Engineering, the disciplines most closely related to the AIM Program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); (2) strengthen the capabilities and increase the level of participation of currently under represented groups in master`s degree programs, and (3) offer graduate students an opportunity for practical research experience related to their thesis topic through the three-month research assignment or practicum at ORNL. The program is administered by the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE).

  7. Efficient Natural Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Based on Spin-Coated TiO2 Anode Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiao-Hong; Sun, Zhao-Zong; Lian, Jie; Li, Yi-Tan; Chen, Yan-Xue; Gao, Shang; Wang, Xiao; Wang, Ying-Shun; Zhao, Ming-Lin

    2013-11-01

    TiO2 anode materials are prepared on ITO glass by spin-coated method. Dye-sensitized solar cells are assembled with these anodes and natural dyes extracted from radix ophiopogonis by different solvents. The formation and characterization of anode materials are confirmed by field-emission scanning electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, UV-visible absorption spectroscopy. Photovoltaic testing results show that energy conversion efficiency could reach 1.67% with fill factor of 0.51, open-circuit voltage of 457 mV, and short-circuit photocurrent density of 7.2 mA/cm2. The short-circuit photocurrent density can reach 7.6 mA/cm2 with efficiency of 1.33.

  8. Electrodeposited gold nanoparticles on carbon nanotube-textile: Anode material for glucose alkaline fuel cells

    KAUST Repository

    Pasta, Mauro

    2012-06-01

    In the present paper we propose a new anode material for glucose-gluconate direct oxidation fuel cells prepared by electrodepositing gold nanoparticles onto a conductive textile made by conformally coating single walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT) on a polyester textile substrate. The electrodeposition conditions were optimized in order to achieve a uniform distribution of gold nanoparticles in the 3D porous structure of the textile. On the basis of previously reported studies, the reaction conditions (pH, electrolyte composition and glucose concentration) were tuned in order to achieve the highest oxidation rate, selectively oxidizing glucose to gluconate. The electrochemical characterization was carried out by means of cyclic voltammetry. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Properties and microstructure of NiO/SDC materials for SOFC anode applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Jigui; DENG Liping; ZHANG Benrui; SHI Ping; MENG Guangyao

    2007-01-01

    NiO/SDC composites and Ni/SDC cermets for solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) anode applications were prepared from nickel oxide (NiO) and samaria doped ceria (SDC) powders by the powder metallurgy process. The physical and mechanical properties, as well as the microstructure of the NiO/SDC composites and the Ni/SDC cermets were investigated. It is shown that the sintering temperature of the NiO/SDC composites and NiO content plays an important role in determining the microstructure and properties of the NiO/SDC composites, which, in turn, influences the microstructure, electrical conductivity, and mechanical properties of the Ni/SDC cermets. The present study demonstrated that composition and tprocess parameters must be appropriately selected to optimize the microstructure and the properties of NiO/SDC materials for solid oxide fuel cell applications.

  10. Dead lithium phase investigation of Sn-Zn alloy as anode materials for lithium ion battery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG ZhaoWen; HU SheJun; HOU XianHua; RU Qiang; YU HongWen; ZHAO LingZhi; LI WeiShan

    2009-01-01

    In this work, based on First-principle plane wave pseudo-potential method, we have carried out an in-depth study on the possible dead lithium phase of Sn-Zn alloy as anode materials for lithium ion batteries. Through investigation, we found that the phases LixSn4Zn4(x = 2, 4, 6, 8) contributed to reversible capacity, while the phases LixSn4Zns-(x-4)(x = 4.74, 7.72) led to capacity loss due to high formation energy, namely, they were the dead lithium phases during the charge/discharge process. And we come up with a new idea that stable lithium alloy phase with high lithiation formation energy (dead lithium phase) can also result in high loss of active lithium ion, besides the traditional expression that the formation of solid electrolyte interface film leads to high capacity loss.

  11. Mechanism of lithium insertion into NiSi2 anode material for lithium ion batteries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEN Zhongsheng; JI Shijun; SUN Juncai; TIAN Feng; TIAN Rujin; XIE Jingying

    2006-01-01

    As a promising high capacity anode material for lithium ion batteries, the lithium insertion performance and possible insertion mechanism of binary alloy of NiSi2 were discussed. The initial lithium insertion of crystal NiSi2 can reach up to 600 mAh·g-1 , but large irreversible capacity occurrs simultaneously for serious structure transformation and the irreversible phase forms. XRD and XPS were employed to detect the crystal structure and composition changes produced by lithium insertion. The lithium insertion-extraction behavior of NiSi2 electrode is similar to that of silicon after the first discharge. The structure stability seems related to the non-stoichimometric Ni-Si compound formed by lithium insertion into NiSi2.

  12. Effect of the synthesis method of SnSb anode materials on their electrochemical properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chaoli Yin; Hailei Zhao; Hong Guo; Xianliang Huang; Weihua Qiu

    2007-01-01

    SnSb alloy powders for the anode of Li-ion batteries were synthesized by two kinds of reduction precipitation methods:solution titration and rapid mixing. Two kinds of SnSb alloy powders showed different phase compositions and particle morphologies although the same starting materials were used. The SnSb alloy electrode synthesized by titration exhibits high reversible specific capacity and good cycling stability, whereas the rapid-mixing sample shows high irreversible capacity and fast capacity fade. The broad particle size distribution of SnSb powders synthesized by titration is considered to be responsible for the improvement of cycling stability. The initial charge-discharge efficiency exceeding 80% has been obtained for the titration sample. The electrochemical reaction process of two kinds of synthesized SnSb composite electrodes was characterized by cyclic voltammetry and AC impedance techniques.

  13. Corrosion rate of construction materials in hot phosphoric acid with the contribution of anodic polarization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kouril, M.; Christensen, Erik; Eriksen, S.;

    2011-01-01

    The paper is focused on selection of a proper material for construction elements of water electrolysers, which make use of a 85% phosphoric acid as an electrolyte at temperature of 150 8C and which might be loaded with anodic polarization up to 2.5 V versus a saturated Ag/AgCl electrode (SSCE......% phosphoric acid at 150 8C and at polarization of 2.5 V/SSCE is tantalum. In that case, even a gentle cathodic polarization is harmful in such an acidic environment. Hydrogen reduction leads to tantalum hydride formation, to loss of mechanical properties and to complete disintegration of the metal. Contrary...... to tantalum, titanium is free of any corrosion resistance in hot phosphoric acid. Its corrosion rate ranges from tens of millimetres to metres per year depending on temperature of the acid. Alloy bonded tantalum coating was recognized as an effective corrosion protection for both titanium and stainless steel...

  14. Structural materials challenges for advanced reactor systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yvon, P.; Carré, F.

    2009-03-01

    Key technologies for advanced nuclear systems encompass high temperature structural materials, fast neutron resistant core materials, and specific reactor and power conversion technologies (intermediate heat exchanger, turbo-machinery, high temperature electrolytic or thermo-chemical water splitting processes, etc.). The main requirements for the materials to be used in these reactor systems are dimensional stability under irradiation, whether under stress (irradiation creep or relaxation) or without stress (swelling, growth), an acceptable evolution under ageing of the mechanical properties (tensile strength, ductility, creep resistance, fracture toughness, resilience) and a good behavior in corrosive environments (reactor coolant or process fluid). Other criteria for the materials are their cost to fabricate and to assemble, and their composition could be optimized in order for instance to present low-activation (or rapid desactivation) features which facilitate maintenance and disposal. These requirements have to be met under normal operating conditions, as well as in incidental and accidental conditions. These challenging requirements imply that in most cases, the use of conventional nuclear materials is excluded, even after optimization and a new range of materials has to be developed and qualified for nuclear use. This paper gives a brief overview of various materials that are essential to establish advanced systems feasibility and performance for in pile and out of pile applications, such as ferritic/martensitic steels (9-12% Cr), nickel based alloys (Haynes 230, Inconel 617, etc.), oxide dispersion strengthened ferritic/martensitic steels, and ceramics (SiC, TiC, etc.). This article gives also an insight into the various natures of R&D needed on advanced materials, including fundamental research to investigate basic physical and chemical phenomena occurring in normal and accidental operating conditions, lab-scale tests to characterize candidate materials

  15. Nb2O5 hollow nanospheres as anode material for enhanced performance in lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: Nb2O5 hollow nanosphere constructed electrode delivers high capacity of 172 mAh g−1 after 250 cycles and maintains structural integrity and excellent cycling stability. Highlights: ► Nb2O5 hollow nanospheres synthesis was synthesized by soft-template. ► Nb2O5 hollow nanospheres were investigated as anode material in Li-ion battery. ► Nanostructured electrode delivers high capacity of 172 mAh g−1 after 250 cycles. ► The electrode maintains the structural integrity and excellent cycling stability. ► Nanosized shell domain facilitates fast lithium intercalation/deintercalation. -- Abstract: Nb2O5 hollow nanospheres of average diameter ca. ∼29 nm and hollow cavity size ca. 17 nm were synthesized using polymeric micelles with core–shell–corona architecture under mild conditions. The hollow particles were thoroughly characterized by transmission electron microscope (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermal (TG/DTA) and nitrogen adsorption analyses. Thus obtained Nb2O5 hollow nanospheres were investigated as anode materials for lithium ion rechargeable batteries for the first time. The nanostructured electrode delivers high capacity of 172 mAh g−1 after 250 cycles of charge/discharge at a rate of 0.5 C. More importantly, the hollow particles based electrodes maintains the structural integrity and excellent cycling stability even after exposing to high current density 6.25 A g−1. The enhanced electrochemical behavior is ascribed to hollow cavity coupled with nanosized Nb2O5 shell domain that facilitates fast lithium intercalation/deintercalation kinetics.

  16. Onion-like carbon coated CuO nanocapsules: A highly reversible anode material for lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Onion-like carbon–coated CuO nanocapsules have been synthesized. • Onion-like carbon leads to the improved stability and electric conductivity. • CuO/C nanocapsules maintain a reversible capacity of 628.7 mA h g−1 after 50 cycles. -- Abstract: The synthesis and characterization of CuO/C nanocapsules for application as anode material in lithium ion batteries are reported. Introduction of onion-like carbon shell on the CuO nanoparticles leads to the improved stability, electric conductivity and electrochemical performance. When evaluated as potential anode materials for lithium-ion batteries, the novel CuO/C nanocapsules deliver an initial discharge capacity of 1043.9 mA h g−1 at 100 mA g−1 and maintain a high reversible capacity of 628.7 mA h g−1 after 50 charge–discharge cycles, much higher than those of the CuO nanoparticles. A postmortem analysis of the CuO and CuO/C anodes subjected to prolonged cycling reveals the existence of a lower degree of surface cracking and particle breakage in the CuO/C anode than the CuO anode

  17. Onion-like carbon coated CuO nanocapsules: A highly reversible anode material for lithium ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xianguo, E-mail: liuxianguohugh@gmail.com [Anhui Key Laboratory of Metal Materials and Processing, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Anhui University of Technology, Maanshan 243002 (China); Bi, Nannan; Feng, Chao [Anhui Key Laboratory of Metal Materials and Processing, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Anhui University of Technology, Maanshan 243002 (China); Or, Siu Wing [Department of Electrical Engineering, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Sun, Yuping [Center for Engineering practice and Innovation Education, Anhui University of Technology, Maanshan 243002 (China); Jin, Chuangui; Li, Weihuo; Xiao, Feng [Anhui Key Laboratory of Metal Materials and Processing, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Anhui University of Technology, Maanshan 243002 (China)

    2014-02-25

    Highlights: • Onion-like carbon–coated CuO nanocapsules have been synthesized. • Onion-like carbon leads to the improved stability and electric conductivity. • CuO/C nanocapsules maintain a reversible capacity of 628.7 mA h g{sup −1} after 50 cycles. -- Abstract: The synthesis and characterization of CuO/C nanocapsules for application as anode material in lithium ion batteries are reported. Introduction of onion-like carbon shell on the CuO nanoparticles leads to the improved stability, electric conductivity and electrochemical performance. When evaluated as potential anode materials for lithium-ion batteries, the novel CuO/C nanocapsules deliver an initial discharge capacity of 1043.9 mA h g{sup −1} at 100 mA g{sup −1} and maintain a high reversible capacity of 628.7 mA h g{sup −1} after 50 charge–discharge cycles, much higher than those of the CuO nanoparticles. A postmortem analysis of the CuO and CuO/C anodes subjected to prolonged cycling reveals the existence of a lower degree of surface cracking and particle breakage in the CuO/C anode than the CuO anode.

  18. Columbia/Willamette Skill Builders Consortium. Final Performance Report. Appendix 5B Anodizing Inc. (Aluminum Extrusion Manufacturing). Basic Measurement Math. Instructors' Reports and Sample Curriculum Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Marjorie; And Others

    Anodizing, Inc., Teamsters Local 162, and Mt. Hood Community College (Oregon) developed a workplace literacy program for workers at Anodizing. These workers did not have the basic skill competencies to benefit from company training efforts in statistical process control and quality assurance and were not able to advance to lead and supervisory…

  19. Photon CT scanning of advanced ceramic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Advanced ceramic materials are being developed for high temperature applications in advanced heat engines and high temperature heat recovery systems. Small size flaws (10 - 200 μm) and small nonuniformities in density distributions (0.1 -2%) present as long-range density gradients, are critical in most ceramics and their detection is of crucial importance. Computed tomographic (CT) imaging provides a means of obtaining a precise two-dimensional density map of a cross section through an object from which accurate information about small flaws and small density gradients can be obtained. With the use of high energy photon sources high contrast CT images can be obtained for both low and high density ceramics. In the present paper we illustrate the applicability of the photon CT technique to the examination of advanced ceramics. CT images of sintered alumina tiles are presented from which data on high-density inclusions, cracks and density gradients have been extracted

  20. Synthesis of nickel oxide nanospheres by a facile spray drying method and their application as anode materials for lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: NiO nanospheres prepared by a facile spray drying method show high lithium ion storage performance as anode of lithium ion battery. - Highlights: • NiO nanospheres are prepared by a spray drying method. • NiO nanospheres are composed of interconnected nanoparticles. • NiO nanospheres show good lithium ion storage properties. - Abstract: Fabrication of advanced anode materials is indispensable for construction of high-performance lithium ion batteries. In this work, nickel oxide (NiO) nanospheres are fabricated by a facial one-step spray drying method. The as-prepared NiO nanospheres show diameters ranging from 100 to 600 nm and are composed of nanoparticles of 30–50 nm. As an anode for lithium ion batteries, the electrochemical properties of the NiO nanospheres are investigated by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and galvanostatic charge/discharge tests. The specific reversible capacity of NiO nanospheres is 656 mA h g−1 at 0.1 C, and 476 mA h g−1 at 1 C. The improvement of electrochemical properties is attributed to nanosphere structure with large surface area and short ion/electron transfer path

  1. Synthesis of nickel oxide nanospheres by a facile spray drying method and their application as anode materials for lithium ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao, Anguo, E-mail: hixiaoanguo@126.com; Zhou, Shibiao; Zuo, Chenggang; Zhuan, Yongbing; Ding, Xiang

    2015-10-15

    Graphical abstract: NiO nanospheres prepared by a facile spray drying method show high lithium ion storage performance as anode of lithium ion battery. - Highlights: • NiO nanospheres are prepared by a spray drying method. • NiO nanospheres are composed of interconnected nanoparticles. • NiO nanospheres show good lithium ion storage properties. - Abstract: Fabrication of advanced anode materials is indispensable for construction of high-performance lithium ion batteries. In this work, nickel oxide (NiO) nanospheres are fabricated by a facial one-step spray drying method. The as-prepared NiO nanospheres show diameters ranging from 100 to 600 nm and are composed of nanoparticles of 30–50 nm. As an anode for lithium ion batteries, the electrochemical properties of the NiO nanospheres are investigated by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and galvanostatic charge/discharge tests. The specific reversible capacity of NiO nanospheres is 656 mA h g{sup −1} at 0.1 C, and 476 mA h g{sup −1} at 1 C. The improvement of electrochemical properties is attributed to nanosphere structure with large surface area and short ion/electron transfer path.

  2. Sodium Titanium Phosphate as Anode Materials for Aqueous Sodium-ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wei

    Renewable energy technology has become one of the promising energy solutions in the future. However, limited by their cyclic behavior, large scale energy storage devices are needed to boost their adoptions in the market. The existing energy storage technologies have limitations that inhibit their adoptions for large scale applications. Our group suggests that one reasonable technology that might overcome these issues is the neutral pH aqueous electrolyte sodium-ion battery. One potential anode material is NaTi2(PO4)3, which has a relatively flexible NASICON skeleton structure and is known in general to have stable performance characteristics in extreme environments. In this work, there are four objectives to study this potential anode material: 1) Develop a rapid method to synthesize electrochemically functional NaTi2(PO4)3. In this case "Electrochemically functional" means the material can store usable capacity for practical application in a composite electrode. 2) Quantify the effect of intimate carbon on NaTi2(PO4)3 electrochemical functionality. (Electrochemical functionality regards the capacity and rate capability of electrode materials) 3) Investigate the stability of NaTi2(PO 4)3 in pH and thermal extremes and the mechanism of capacity fading under different cycling conditions. 4) Examine the performance of NaTi 2(PO4)3 in high salt concentration electrolyte and Li+ electrolyte. NaTi2(PO4)3 has been successfully synthesized via a rapid microwave method. The highest specific capacity is around 85mAh/g has been demonstrated. The effect of different carbon materials (namely graphite and carbon nanotubes) and different processes of adding them (pre and post- synthesis) on the electrochemical performance for sodium titanium phosphate has been extensively studied. Graphite coated NaTi2(PO4) 3 with carbon nanotubes composite electrode has demonstrated a specific capacity of 130mAh/g around theoretical value at 0.1C rate. The effect of the electrolyte (with

  3. 13th International Symposium on Advanced Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 13th international symposium on advanced materials (ISAM) was held from september 23-27, 2013, at islamabad, Pakistan. The main theme of this conference was to discuss the ever increasing changes and intricacies that characterize modern industry necessitate a growing demand for technical information on advanced materials. In five day of the symposium, nearly Two hundred and twenty seven contributory and invited papers, comprising of Nineteen technical sessions and two poster sessions were presented. Renowned scientists and researchers from foreign and local institutes have shared their counter parts on the topics of common interest. This symposium provided an ideal opportunity for exchange of information amongst scientists, engineers and researchers from all over pakistan and other countries of the world. (A.B.)

  4. Nondestructive characterization of advanced composite materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A comprehensive review of nondestructive characterization (NDC) techniques and their application to metal-matrix, polymer-matrix and ceramic-matrix composites is presented. Particular attention is given to the identification of critical materials properties and defects in these advanced composites. NDC is required: (i) to detect discrete defects, such as delaminations and cracking, and (ii) to measure distributed material properties, such as density, resistivity and elastic constants. Ultrasonic and eddy-current characterization are described in detail, along with new NDC results obtained at the Aeronautical and Maritime Research Laboratory. These include a method for the determination of fibre volume fraction in continuous fibre reinforced metal-matrix composites using eddy-current NDC, and the use of eddy-current methods to complement ultrasonic testing for characterization of impact damage in graphite-epoxy laminates. Future problem areas and possible solutions in NDC of advanced composites are also discussed. 90 refs., 1 tab., 6 figs

  5. Advanced Ceramic Materials for Future Aerospace Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Ajay

    2015-01-01

    With growing trend toward higher temperature capabilities, lightweight, and multifunctionality, significant advances in ceramic matrix composites (CMCs) will be required for future aerospace applications. The presentation will provide an overview of material requirements for future aerospace missions, and the role of ceramics and CMCs in meeting those requirements. Aerospace applications will include gas turbine engines, aircraft structure, hypersonic and access to space vehicles, space power and propulsion, and space communication.

  6. Cellulose nanocrystals : surface modification and advanced materials

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Ning

    2014-01-01

    The present work focuses on the properties of cellulose nanocrystals, their surface modification and development of advanced materials. Diverse approaches are employed on these nanoscaled substrates aiming to modify their surface properties and extend their use in highly sophisticated applications, such as postsulfation and desulfation, polymer grafting and adsorption, selective oxidation, molecular grafting, and ‘host-guest' inclusion. On the basis of surface modifications, properties analys...

  7. Advances in materials for fossil power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The external constraints on the electric power industry over the past 10-15 years have resulted in increased demands on the performance and reliability of materials used in fossil power plants. At the same time, the construction of new plants has been at a low ebb, because of reduced capacity growth and surplus capacity. This led to creation of new institutions to support materials research and development during a period of malaise in industrial support. A remarkable surge of new materials and components for turbines, boilers, and auxiliaries have emerged. Some of the materials advances developed during this period are described. These include improved 1 CrMoV and 12 Cr rotors, temper resistant low Mn 3.5 NiCrMoV, super 9 Cr for heavy section piping and castings, super 12 Cr tubing for superheaters, Nimonic 80A high temperature bolting, titanium alloy blading for L.P. turbines, and many others covered by the present conference

  8. Advanced materials for space nuclear power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research on monolithic refractory metal alloys and on metal matrix composites is being conducted at the NASA Lewis Research Center, Cleveland, Ohio, in support of advanced space power systems. The overall philosophy of the research is to develop and characterize new high-temperature power conversion and radiator materials and to provide spacecraft designers with material selection options and design information. Research on three candidate materials (carbide strengthened niobium alloy PWC-11 for fuel cladding, graphite fiber reinforced copper matrix composites (Gr/Cu) for heat rejection fins, and tungsten fiber reinforced niobium matrix composites (W/NB) for fuel containment and structural supports) considered for space power system applications is discussed. Each of these types of materials offers unique advantages for space power applications

  9. Advanced textural representation of materials appearance

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Haindl, Michal; Filip, Jiří

    New York: ACM, 2011 - (Sander, P.), s. 1-84 ISBN 978-1-4503-1135-9. [SIGGRAPH Asia 2011. Hong Kong (CN), 12.12.2011-15.12.2011] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA102/08/0593; GA ČR GAP103/11/0335 Grant ostatní: CESNET(CZ) 387/2010 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : visual texture * Bidirectional Texture Function * materials appearance Subject RIV: BD - Theory of Information http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2012/RO/haindl-advanced textural representation of materials appearance.pdf

  10. Green synthesis of boron doped graphene and its application as high performance anode material in Li ion battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahoo, Madhumita; Sreena, K.P.; Vinayan, B.P.; Ramaprabhu, S., E-mail: ramp@iitm.ac.in

    2015-01-15

    Graphical abstract: Boron doped graphene (B-G), synthesized by simple hydrogen induced reduction technique using boric acid as boron precursor, have more uneven surface as a result of smaller bonding distance of boron compared to carbon, showed high capacity and high rate capability compared to pristine graphene as an anode material for Li ion battery application. - Abstract: The present work demonstrates a facile route for the large-scale, catalyst free, and green synthesis approach of boron doped graphene (B-G) and its use as high performance anode material for Li ion battery (LIB) application. Boron atoms were doped into graphene framework with an atomic percentage of 5.93% via hydrogen induced thermal reduction technique using graphite oxide and boric acid as precursors. Various characterization techniques were used to confirm the boron doping in graphene sheets. B-G as anode material shows a discharge capacity of 548 mAh g{sup −1} at 100 mA g{sup −1} after 30th cycles. At high current density value of 1 A g{sup −1}, B-G as anode material enhances the specific capacity by about 1.7 times compared to pristine graphene. The present study shows a simplistic way of boron doping in graphene leading to an enhanced Li ion adsorption due to the change in electronic states.

  11. Dual-carbon enhanced silicon-based composite as superior anode material for lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jie; Liu, Dai-Huo; Wang, Ying-Ying; Hou, Bao-Hua; Zhang, Jing-Ping; Wang, Rong-Shun; Wu, Xing-Long

    2016-03-01

    Dual-carbon enhanced Si-based composite (Si/C/G) has been prepared via employing the widely distributed, low-cost and environmentally friendly Diatomite mineral as silicon raw material. The preparation processes are very simple, non-toxic and easy to scale up. Electrochemical tests as anode material for lithium ion batteries (LIBs) demonstrate that this Si/C/G composite exhibits much improved Li-storage properties in terms of superior high-rate capabilities and excellent cycle stability compared to the pristine Si material as well as both single-carbon modified composites. Specifically for the Si/C/G composite, it can still deliver a high specific capacity of about 470 mAh g-1 at an ultrahigh current density of 5 A g-1, and exhibit a high capacity of 938 mAh g-1 at 0.1 A g-1 with excellent capacity retention in the following 300 cycles. The significantly enhanced Li-storage properties should be attributed to the co-existence of both highly conductive graphite and amorphous carbon in the Si/C/G composite. While the former can enhance the electrical conductivity of the obtained composite, the latter acts as the adhesives to connect the porous Si particulates and conductive graphite flakes to form robust and stable conductive network.

  12. Electrical and Mechanical Performance of Carbon Fiber-Reinforced Polymer Used as the Impressed Current Anode Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Hua Zhu

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available An investigation was performed by using carbon fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP as the anode material in the impressed current cathodic protection (ICCP system of steel reinforced concrete structures. The service life and performance of CFRP were investigated in simulated ICCP systems with various configurations. Constant current densities were maintained during the tests. No significant degradation in electrical and mechanical properties was found for CFRP subjected to anodic polarization with the selected applied current densities. The service life of the CFRP-based ICCP system was discussed based on the practical reinforced concrete structure layout.

  13. Synthesis and characterization of SnO-carbon nanotube composite as anode material for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SnO-carbon nanotube composite was synthesized by a sol-gel method. The electrochemical behavior of the composite using an anode active material in lithium-ion batteries was investigated. It was found that the composite showed enhanced anode performance compared with the unsupported SnO or carbon nanotube (CNT). The capacity fade of the composite electrode was reduced over unsupported SnO or CNT. We attribute the results to the conductivity and ductility of the CNT matrix, and the high dispersion of SnO

  14. Advanced research workshop: nuclear materials safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jardine, L J; Moshkov, M M

    1999-01-28

    The Advanced Research Workshop (ARW) on Nuclear Materials Safety held June 8-10, 1998, in St. Petersburg, Russia, was attended by 27 Russian experts from 14 different Russian organizations, seven European experts from six different organizations, and 14 U.S. experts from seven different organizations. The ARW was conducted at the State Education Center (SEC), a former Minatom nuclear training center in St. Petersburg. Thirty-three technical presentations were made using simultaneous translations. These presentations are reprinted in this volume as a formal ARW Proceedings in the NATO Science Series. The representative technical papers contained here cover nuclear material safety topics on the storage and disposition of excess plutonium and high enriched uranium (HEU) fissile materials, including vitrification, mixed oxide (MOX) fuel fabrication, plutonium ceramics, reprocessing, geologic disposal, transportation, and Russian regulatory processes. This ARW completed discussions by experts of the nuclear materials safety topics that were not covered in the previous, companion ARW on Nuclear Materials Safety held in Amarillo, Texas, in March 1997. These two workshops, when viewed together as a set, have addressed most nuclear material aspects of the storage and disposition operations required for excess HEU and plutonium. As a result, specific experts in nuclear materials safety have been identified, know each other from their participation in t he two ARW interactions, and have developed a partial consensus and dialogue on the most urgent nuclear materials safety topics to be addressed in a formal bilateral program on t he subject. A strong basis now exists for maintaining and developing a continuing dialogue between Russian, European, and U.S. experts in nuclear materials safety that will improve the safety of future nuclear materials operations in all the countries involved because of t he positive synergistic effects of focusing these diverse backgrounds of

  15. Micro-sized cadmium tungstate as a high-performance anode material for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • CdWO4 was obtained by a facile and effective precipitation reaction route. • The application of CdWO4 to a lithium-ion battery anode was firstly reported. • The CdWO4 anode delivered a high initial discharge capacity of 2304.1 mA h g−1. • Electrochemical reaction mechanism of CdWO4 with Li was studied by cyclic voltammetry. - Abstract: The application of cadmium tungstate (CdWO4) to a lithium-ion battery anode was firstly reported in this paper. It was prepared by a facile precipitation reaction process. The CdWO4 sample was characterized using X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The electrochemical properties of CdWO4 anode were investigated. The CdWO4 delivered a high initial discharge capacity of 2042.4 mA h g−1. The CdWO4/C composite showed an improved electrochemical performance with an initial discharge capacity of 2304.1 mA h g−1 and achieved a discharge capacity of 305.1 mA h g−1 after 19 cycles. Electrochemical reaction mechanism of CdWO4 with Li was also studied by cyclic voltammetry. It is suggested that CdWO4 can be a promising high-capacity anode material for lithium-ion batteries

  16. Effects of phosphorous incorporation on the microstructure of Si nanoparticles as an anode material for lithium-ion battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Chun-young; Koo, Jeong-boon [Korea Institute of Energy Research, 152 Gajeong-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 304-343 (Korea, Republic of); Graduate School of Energy Science and Technology, Chungnam National University, 99 Deahak-ro Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Jang, Bo-yun, E-mail: byjang@kier.re.kr [Korea Institute of Energy Research, 152 Gajeong-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 304-343 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Joon-soo; Lee, Jin-seok [Korea Institute of Energy Research, 152 Gajeong-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 304-343 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sung-soo; Han, Moon-hee [Graduate School of Energy Science and Technology, Chungnam National University, 99 Deahak-ro Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-07-31

    Si nanoparticles were synthesized by inductively coupled plasma and a specially designed double tube reactor. By injection of large amount of PH{sub 3} during the synthesis, the effects of phosphorous incorporation on their microstructures and chemical binding environments were investigated. Injection of PH{sub 3} gas during the synthesis resulted in a change from crystalline to amorphous phase, a reduction of particle size as well as a process yield. All of the above results were attributed to a lower plasma density when higher amount of PH{sub 3} was injected. From energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, secondary ion mass spectrometry, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis, it was revealed that P was doped in Si nanoparticles. However, secondary phases such as P{sub 4} and P{sub 2}O{sub 5} were formed as amorphous ones in nano-scale when a relatively large amount of PH{sub 3} was injected. In addition, those nanoparticles were applied as an active material in the lithium-ion battery's anode. Unexpectedly, amorphous Si nanoparticles with secondary phases showed improved electrochemical properties. P-doping in Si nanoparticles could not directly advance cycling performance by improvement of electrical conductivity of Si nanoparticles. It was rather assumed that a secondary phase influenced and enhanced electrochemical properties by additional capacity due to a formation of Li{sub 3}P and forming an effective buffer against large volumetric change of Si nanoparticles during the charge/discharge. The initial reversible capacity of amorphous Si nanoparticles synthesized with 100 sccm of PH{sub 3} flow rate was 2113 mAh g{sup −1}, and that at the 100th cycle was still about 1000 mAh g{sup −1}, which was twice as high as that of Si nanoparticles synthesized without PH{sub 3} injection. - Highlights: • Silicon nanoparticles with phosphorous were synthesized by inductively coupled plasma. • Effects of phosphorous incorporation on the microstructure

  17. Effects of phosphorous incorporation on the microstructure of Si nanoparticles as an anode material for lithium-ion battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Si nanoparticles were synthesized by inductively coupled plasma and a specially designed double tube reactor. By injection of large amount of PH3 during the synthesis, the effects of phosphorous incorporation on their microstructures and chemical binding environments were investigated. Injection of PH3 gas during the synthesis resulted in a change from crystalline to amorphous phase, a reduction of particle size as well as a process yield. All of the above results were attributed to a lower plasma density when higher amount of PH3 was injected. From energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, secondary ion mass spectrometry, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis, it was revealed that P was doped in Si nanoparticles. However, secondary phases such as P4 and P2O5 were formed as amorphous ones in nano-scale when a relatively large amount of PH3 was injected. In addition, those nanoparticles were applied as an active material in the lithium-ion battery's anode. Unexpectedly, amorphous Si nanoparticles with secondary phases showed improved electrochemical properties. P-doping in Si nanoparticles could not directly advance cycling performance by improvement of electrical conductivity of Si nanoparticles. It was rather assumed that a secondary phase influenced and enhanced electrochemical properties by additional capacity due to a formation of Li3P and forming an effective buffer against large volumetric change of Si nanoparticles during the charge/discharge. The initial reversible capacity of amorphous Si nanoparticles synthesized with 100 sccm of PH3 flow rate was 2113 mAh g−1, and that at the 100th cycle was still about 1000 mAh g−1, which was twice as high as that of Si nanoparticles synthesized without PH3 injection. - Highlights: • Silicon nanoparticles with phosphorous were synthesized by inductively coupled plasma. • Effects of phosphorous incorporation on the microstructure were studied. • Silicon nanoparticles were applied as an anode material

  18. Development for advanced materials and testing techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hishinuma, Akimichi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1998-03-01

    Recent studies using a JMTR and research reactors of JRR-2 and JRR-3 are briefly summarized. Small specimen testing techniques (SSTT) required for an effective use of irradiation volume and also irradiated specimens have been developed focussing on tensile test, fatigue test, Charpy test and small punch test. By using the small specimens of 0.1 - several mm in size, similar values of tensile and fatigue properties to those by standard size specimens can be taken, although the ductile-brittle transition temperature (DBTT) depends strongly on Charpy specimen size. As for advanced material development, R and D about low activation ferritic steels have been done to investigate irradiation response. The low activation ferritic steel, so-called F82H jointly-developed by JAERI and NKK for fusion, has been confirmed to have good irradiation resistance within a limited dose and now selected as a standard material in the fusion material community. It is also found that TiAi intermetallic compounds, which never been considered for nuclear application in the past, have an excellent irradiation resistance under an irradiation condition. Such knowledge can bring about a large expectation for developing advanced nuclear materials. (author)

  19. Caramel popcorn shaped silicon particle with carbon coating as a high performance anode material for Li-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Meinan; Sa, Qina; Liu, Gao; Wang, Yan

    2013-11-13

    Silicon is a very promising anode material for lithium ion batteries. It has a 4200 mAh/g theoretical capacity, which is ten times higher than that of commercial graphite anodes. However, when lithium ions diffuse to Si anodes, the volume of Si will expand to almost 400% of its initial size and lead to the crack of Si. Such a huge volume change and crack cause significant capacity loss. Meanwhile, with the crack of Si particles, the conductivity between the electrode and the current collector drops. Moreover, the solid electrolyte interphase (SEI), which is generated during the cycling, reduces the discharge capacity. These issues must be addressed for widespread application of this material. In this work, caramel popcorn shaped porous silicon particles with carbon coating are fabricated by a set of simple chemical methods as active anode material. Si particles are etched to form a porous structure. The pores in Si provide space for the volume expansion and liquid electrolyte diffusion. A layer of amorphous carbon is formed inside the pores, which gives an excellent isolation between the Si particle and electrolyte, so that the formation of the SEI layer is stabilized. Meanwhile, this novel structure enhances the mechanical properties of the Si particles, and the crack phenomenon caused by the volume change is significantly restrained. Therefore, an excellent cycle life under a high rate for the novel Si electrode is achieved. PMID:24111737

  20. Machining, joining and modifications of advanced materials

    CERN Document Server

    Altenbach, Holm

    2016-01-01

    This book presents the latest advances in mechanical and materials engineering applied to the machining, joining and modification of modern engineering materials. The contributions cover the classical fields of casting, forming and injection moulding as representative manufacturing methods, whereas additive manufacturing methods (rapid prototyping and laser sintering) are treated as more innovative and recent technologies that are paving the way for the manufacturing of shapes and features that traditional methods are unable to deliver. The book also explores water jet cutting as an innovative cutting technology that avoids the heat build-up typical of classical mechanical cutting. It introduces readers to laser cutting as an alternative technology for the separation of materials, and to classical bonding and friction stir welding approaches in the context of joining technologies. In many cases, forming and machining technologies require additional post-treatment to achieve the required level of surface quali...

  1. International Symposium on Advanced Materials (ISAM 2013)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    This proceeding is a compilation of peer reviewed papers presented at the 13th International Symposium on Advanced Materials (ISAM 2013) held from September 23-27, 2013, at Islamabad, Pakistan. In my capacity as ISAM-2013 Secretary, I feel honoured that the symposium has ended on a positive note. The ever increasing changes and intricacies that characterize modern industry necessitate a growing demand for technical information on advanced materials. ISAM and other similar forums serve to fulfill this need. The five day deliberations of ISAM 2013, consisted of 19 technical sessions and 2 poster sessions. In all, 277 papers were presented, inclusive of 80 contributory, invited and oral presentations. The symposium also hosted panel discussions led by renowned scientists and eminent researchers from foreign as well as local institutes. The ultimate aim of this proceeding is to record in writing the new findings in the field of advanced materials. I hope that the technical data available in this publication proves valuable to young scientists and researchers working in this area of science. At the same time, I wish to acknowledge Institute of Physics (IOP) Publishing UK, for accepting the research papers from ISAM-2013 for publication in the IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering. The proceeding will be available on the IOP website as an online open access document. I am profoundly thankful to the Symposium Chairman for his steadfast support and valuable guidance without which ISAM 2013 could not have been the mega event that it turned out to be. My gratitude to all our distinguished participants, session chairs/co-chairs, and reviewers for their active role in the symposium. I appreciate the entire organizing committee for the zest and ardor with which each committee fulfilled its obligations to ISAM. Last yet not the least, my thankfulness goes to all our sponsors for wilfully financing the event. Dr. Sara Qaisar Symposium Secretary Further

  2. Electrically exploded silicon/carbon nanocomposite as anode material for lithium-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farooq, Umer; Choi, Jeong-Hee; Kim, Doohun; Pervez, Syed Atif; Yaqub, Adnan; Hwang, Min-Ji; Lee, You-Jin; Lee, Won-Jae; Choi, Hae-Young; Lee, Sang-Hoon; You, Ji-Hyun; Ha, Chung-Wan; Doh, Chil-Hoon

    2014-12-01

    In this work, silicon (Si) containing carbon coated core-shell nanostructures were synthesized by electrical explosion of Si wires in ethanol solution followed by high energy mechanical milling (HEMM) process. Material characterization was carried-out using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. HEMM led to very fine and amorphous Si particles in the presence of carbon and inactive Silicon-Carbide (SiC) matrix. These Si based nanocomposites, obtained through electrical explosion followed by HEMM (milled sample), exhibited enhanced electrochemical performance than unmilled nanocomposites, when evaluated as anode material for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). On completion of (the) 1st cycle, milled and unmilled sample(s) showed specific discharge capacities around 825 mAh/g and 717 mAh/g, respectively. Interestingly, the coulombic efficiencies of milled and unmilled samples were 98.5% and 97% after 60th cycle respectively. The enhanced electrochemical performance is attributed to fine and amorphous Si based nanocomposite obtained through HEMM process. PMID:25971062

  3. ASME Material Challenges for Advanced Reactor Concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piyush Sabharwall; Ali Siahpush

    2013-07-01

    This study presents the material Challenges associated with Advanced Reactor Concept (ARC) such as the Advanced High Temperature Reactor (AHTR). ACR are the next generation concepts focusing on power production and providing thermal energy for industrial applications. The efficient transfer of energy for industrial applications depends on the ability to incorporate cost-effective heat exchangers between the nuclear heat transport system and industrial process heat transport system. The heat exchanger required for AHTR is subjected to a unique set of conditions that bring with them several design challenges not encountered in standard heat exchangers. The corrosive molten salts, especially at higher temperatures, require materials throughout the system to avoid corrosion, and adverse high-temperature effects such as creep. Given the very high steam generator pressure of the supercritical steam cycle, it is anticipated that water tube and molten salt shell steam generators heat exchanger will be used. In this paper, the ASME Section III and the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Section VIII requirements (acceptance criteria) are discussed. Also, the ASME material acceptance criteria (ASME Section II, Part D) for high temperature environment are presented. Finally, lack of ASME acceptance criteria for thermal design and analysis are discussed.

  4. Anode-supported ScSZ-electrolyte SOFC with whole cell materials from combined EDTA-citrate complexing synthesis process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gu, Hongxia; Ran, Ran; Zhou, Wei; Shao, Zongping [State Key Laboratory of Materials-Oriented Chemical Engineering, Nanjing University of Technology, No. 5 Xing Mofan Road, Nanjing, JiangSu 210009 (China)

    2007-10-25

    The potential application of combined EDTA-citrate complexing process (ECCP) in intermediate-temperature solid-oxide fuel cells (IT-SOFCs) processing was investigated. ECCP-derived scandia-stabilized-zirconia (ScSZ) powder displayed low packing density, high surface area and nano-crystalline, which was ideal material for thin-film electrolyte fabrication based on dual dry pressing. A co-synthesis of NiO + ScSZ anode based on ECCP was developed, which showed reduced NiO(Ni) and ScSZ grain sizes and improved homogeneity of the particle size distribution, as compared with the mechanically mixed NiO + ScSZ anode. Anode-supported ScSZ electrolyte fuel cell with the whole cell materials synthesized from ECCP was successfully prepared. The porous anode and cathode exhibited excellent adhesion to the electrolyte layer. Fuel cell with 30 {mu}m thick ScSZ electrolyte and La{sub 0.8}Sr{sub 0.2}MnO{sub 3} cathode showed a promising maximum peak power density of 350 mW cm{sup -2} at 800 C. (author)

  5. Facile synthesis of multilayer-like Si thin film as high-performance anode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mingxu; Geng, Zhongrong

    2016-05-01

    For the silicon anodes in lithium-ion batteries, it is well known that the enormous volumetric expansion/contraction is also the mainly reason for the capacity fading. In this manuscript, a new kind of Si thin films was prepared with a radio frequency magnetron sputtering method. By using a periodic modulation negative bias on the substrate, a density-modulated multilayer-like silicon thin films with different layer densities were used as anode materials of lithium-ion batteries, and which displayed a high capacity and stable cycling performances. The reason for the charming electrochemical performances may be owned to the particular density modulated microstructure of the Si thin films. It is conjectured that the lower density can as compliant layers and which provided the volume for the higher-density layer expansion in the process of the lithiation/delithiation. In contrast to the conventional silicon anodes, the density modulated microstructure in this work could exploit a new approach to silicon thin-film anode materials with outstanding electrochemical properties and mechanical stability. And these reports may be provide a new way to prepare the Si thin films for the high-energy, safe, and low-cost batteries.

  6. Encapsulating micro-nano Si/SiO(x) into conjugated nitrogen-doped carbon as binder-free monolithic anodes for advanced lithium ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Zhou, Meijuan; Tan, Guoqiang; Chen, Shi; Wu, Feng; Lu, Jun; Amine, Khalil

    2015-05-01

    Silicon monoxide, a promising silicon-based anode candidate for lithium-ion batteries, has recently attracted much attention for its high theoretical capacity, good cycle stability, low cost, and environmental benignity. Currently, the most critical challenge is to improve its low initial coulombic efficiency and significant volume changes during the charge-discharge processes. Herein, we report a binder-free monolithic electrode structure based on directly encapsulating micro-nano Si/SiOx particles into conjugated nitrogen-doped carbon frameworks to form monolithic, multi-core, cross-linking composite matrices. We utilize micro-nano Si/SiOx reduced by high-energy ball-milling SiO as active materials, and conjugated nitrogen-doped carbon formed by the pyrolysis of polyacrylonitrile both as binders and conductive agents. Owing to the high electrochemical activity of Si/SiOx and the good mechanical resiliency of conjugated nitrogen-doped carbon backbones, this specific composite structure enhances the utilization efficiency of SiO and accommodates its large volume expansion, as well as its good ionic and electronic conductivity. The annealed Si/SiOx/polyacrylonitrile composite electrode exhibits excellent electrochemical properties, including a high initial reversible capacity (2734 mA h g(-1) with 75% coulombic efficiency), stable cycle performance (988 mA h g(-1) after 100 cycles), and good rate capability (800 mA h g(-1) at 1 A g(-1) rate). Because the composite is naturally abundant and shows such excellent electrochemical performance, it is a promising anode candidate material for lithium-ion batteries. The binder-free monolithic architectural design also provides an effective way to prepare other monolithic electrode materials for advanced lithium-ion batteries. PMID:25865463

  7. Encapsulating micro-nano Si/SiOx into conjugated nitrogen-doped carbon as binder-free monolithic anodes for advanced lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Zhou, Meijuan; Tan, Guoqiang; Chen, Shi; Wu, Feng; Lu, Jun; Amine, Khalil

    2015-04-01

    Silicon monoxide, a promising silicon-based anode candidate for lithium-ion batteries, has recently attracted much attention for its high theoretical capacity, good cycle stability, low cost, and environmental benignity. Currently, the most critical challenge is to improve its low initial coulombic efficiency and significant volume changes during the charge-discharge processes. Herein, we report a binder-free monolithic electrode structure based on directly encapsulating micro-nano Si/SiOx particles into conjugated nitrogen-doped carbon frameworks to form monolithic, multi-core, cross-linking composite matrices. We utilize micro-nano Si/SiOx reduced by high-energy ball-milling SiO as active materials, and conjugated nitrogen-doped carbon formed by the pyrolysis of polyacrylonitrile both as binders and conductive agents. Owing to the high electrochemical activity of Si/SiOx and the good mechanical resiliency of conjugated nitrogen-doped carbon backbones, this specific composite structure enhances the utilization efficiency of SiO and accommodates its large volume expansion, as well as its good ionic and electronic conductivity. The annealed Si/SiOx/polyacrylonitrile composite electrode exhibits excellent electrochemical properties, including a high initial reversible capacity (2734 mA h g-1 with 75% coulombic efficiency), stable cycle performance (988 mA h g-1 after 100 cycles), and good rate capability (800 mA h g-1 at 1 A g-1 rate). Because the composite is naturally abundant and shows such excellent electrochemical performance, it is a promising anode candidate material for lithium-ion batteries. The binder-free monolithic architectural design also provides an effective way to prepare other monolithic electrode materials for advanced lithium-ion batteries.

  8. Advances in radiation processing of polymeric materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper we review recent advances in industrial applications of electron-beam irradiation in the field of polymer processing at the Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment (TRCRE) of JAERI (Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute), and the Whiteshell Laboratories of AECL Research, Canada. Irradiation of a substrate with ionizing radiation produces free radicals through ionization and excitation events. The subsequent chemistry of these radicals is used in radiation processing as a substitute for conventional processing techniques based on heating and/or the addition of chemicals. The advantages of radiation processing include the formation of novel products with desirable material properties, favourable overall process economics and, often, environmental benefits

  9. Advances in High Energy Materials (Review Paper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. R. Nair

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Research and development efforts for realizing higher performance levels of high energy materials (HEMs are continued unabated all over the globe. Of late, it is becoming increasingly necessary to ensure that such materials are also eco-friendly. This has provided thrust to research in the area of force multiplying HEMs and compounds free from pollution causing components. Enhancement of the performance necessitates introduction of strained structure or increase in oxygen balance to achieve near stoichiometry. The search for environment friendly molecules is focused on chlorine free propellant compositions and lead free primary explosives. Energetic polymers offer added advantage of partitioning of energy and thus not necessitating the concentration of only solid components (HEMs and metal fuels in the formulations, to achieve higher performance, thereby leading to improvement in energetics without adversely affecting the processability and mechanical properties. During recent times, research in the area of insensitive explosives has received impetus particularly with the signature of STANAG. This paper gives a review of the all-round advances in the areas of HEMs encompassing oxidizers, high-energy dense materials, insensitive high-energy materials, polymers and plasticizers. Selected formulations based on these materials are also included.Defence Science Journal, 2010, 60(2, pp.137-151, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.60.327

  10. High lithium electroactivity of electrospun CuFe2O4 nanofibers as anode material for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: Electrospun CuFe2O4 nanofibers were used as anode material for lithium-ion batteries for the first time. - Highlights: • We successfully synthesized electrospun CuFe2O4 nanofibers anode material for lithium-ion batteries for the first time. • The as-prepared CuFe2O4 nanofibers calcined at 800 °C exhibited a high initial discharge capacity of 1226.0 mAh g−1, and maintained a stable capacity of 572.4 mAh g−1 after 50 cycles. • The as-prepared CuFe2O4 nanofibers calcined at 800 °C also showed high capacity at higher discharge and charge rate. - Abstract: In this study, copper ferrite (CuFe2O4) nanofibers were successfully fabricated by a combination of electrospinning and calcination process. The crystal structure was investigated by X-ray diffractomentry, and the results show only peaks of CuFe2O4 could be observed from the product obtained at 800 °C, indicating the formation of pure compound. SEM and TEM images showed the as-spun CuFe2O4 nanofibers possessed good continuous fiber morphology with an average diameter of about 66 nm. The electrochemical properties of electrospun CuFe2O4 nanofibers as anode material for lithium-ion batteries were discussed for the first time. The results demonstrated that the electrospun CuFe2O4 nanofibers anode exhibited a high initial discharge capacity of 1226.0 mAh g−1, and maintained a stable capacity of 572.4 mAh g−1 after 50 cycles. Meanwhile, the electrodes showed high capacity at higher discharge and charge rate. The excellent electrochemical properties of electrospun CuFe2O4 nanofibers anode were attributed to the high crystallinity, as well as the unique mesoporous and fibrous structures

  11. Evaluation and performance improvement of Si/SiOx/C based composite as anode material for lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The structure and electrochemical performances of Si/SiOx/C (SSC) and graphite-SSC composite (G-SSC) are evaluated in half cells and full cells as anode materials for lithium ion batteries. It is found that the SSC material shows a lithium storage capacity of 3 to 5 times higher than that of pure graphite while the G-SSC composite exhibits a desirable cycling stability (+80%@400cycles). Structural characterization reveals no particle cracks in the G-SSC composite. The Si particle is surrounded with lithium silicates, which provide protection against the electrolyte invasion and electrolyte decomposition but permits the Li+ ions to pass through. The graphite coating layer, on the other hand, acts as an electric conductive connector and volume buffer. These structural features make the SSC and G-SSC attractive as anode materials for high-performance commercial lithium ion batteries

  12. Advanced Materials Laboratory User Test Planning Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orndoff, Evelyne

    2012-01-01

    Test process, milestones and inputs are unknowns to first-time users of the Advanced Materials Laboratory. The User Test Planning Guide aids in establishing expectations for both NASA and non-NASA facility customers. The potential audience for this guide includes both internal and commercial spaceflight hardware/software developers. It is intended to assist their test engineering personnel in test planning and execution. Material covered includes a roadmap of the test process, roles and responsibilities of facility and user, major milestones, facility capabilities, and inputs required by the facility. Samples of deliverables, test article interfaces, and inputs necessary to define test scope, cost, and schedule are included as an appendix to the guide.

  13. Gallium phosphide as a new material for anodically bonded atomic sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nezih Dural

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Miniaturized atomic sensors are often fabricated using anodic bonding of silicon and borosilicate glass. Here we describe a technique for fabricating anodically bonded alkali-metal cells using GaP and Pyrex. GaP is a non-birefringent semiconductor that is transparent at alkali-metal resonance wavelengths, allowing new sensor geometries. GaP also has a higher thermal conductivity and lower He permeability than borosilicate glass and can be anodically bonded below 200 °C, which can also be advantageous in other vacuum sealing applications.

  14. On the fracture toughness of advanced materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Launey, Maximilien E.; Ritchie, Robert O.

    2008-11-24

    Few engineering materials are limited by their strength; rather they are limited by their resistance to fracture or fracture toughness. It is not by accident that most critical structures, such as bridges, ships, nuclear pressure vessels and so forth, are manufactured from materials that are comparatively low in strength but high in toughness. Indeed, in many classes of materials, strength and toughness are almost mutually exclusive. In the first instance, such resistance to fracture is a function of bonding and crystal structure (or lack thereof), but can be developed through the design of appropriate nano/microstructures. However, the creation of tough microstructures in structural materials, i.e., metals, polymers, ceramics and their composites, is invariably a compromise between resistance to intrinsic damage mechanisms ahead of the tip of a crack (intrinsic toughening) and the formation of crack-tip shielding mechanisms which principally act behind the tip to reduce the effective 'crack-driving force' (extrinsic toughening). Intrinsic toughening is essentially an inherent property of a specific microstructure; it is the dominant form of toughening in ductile (e.g., metallic) materials. However, for most brittle (e.g., ceramic) solids, and this includes many biological materials, it is largely ineffective and toughening conversely must be developed extrinsically, by such shielding mechanisms as crack bridging. From a fracture mechanics perspective, this results in toughening in the form of rising resistance-curve behavior where the fracture resistance actually increases with crack extension. The implication of this is that in many biological and high-strength advanced materials, toughness is developed primarily during crack growth and not for crack initiation. This is an important realization yet is still rarely reflected in the way that toughness is measured, which is invariably involves the use of single-value (crack-initiation) parameters such as

  15. Nano-sized Fe3O4/carbon as anode material for lithium ion battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nano-sized Fe3O4/carbon material is prepared via a simple citric-nitrate combustion method combining with a hydrothermal carbon coating technique. The synthesized Fe3O4/carbon composite shows a high reversible specific capacity (ca. 850 mAh g−1 at 100 mA g−1; ca. 600 mAh g−1 at 500 mA g−1), good rate-capability as well as superior cycling stability as anode for lithium-ion batteries. The ameliorated electrochemical performance of Fe3O4/carbon electrode is associated to the nano-sized particle feature and the continuous carbon coating layer. The former provides short lithium-ion/electron diffusion distance, while the latter enables the fast electron transport pathways. Besides, the carbon layer can act as a protective component to prevent the active particle Fe3O4 from aggregation and pulverization during the charge/discharge processes. - Highlights: • Nano-sized Fe3O4/C was prepared by a simple citric-nitrate combustion process. • Fe3O4/C particles show core–shell structure. • Fe3O4/C powder displays high specific capacity and good cycling stability. • Fe3O4/C composite exhibits a superior rate-capability

  16. Improvement of thermal stability and safety of lithium ion battery using SiO anode material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yi-Hung; Okano, Miki; Mukai, Takashi; Inoue, Kenshi; Yanagida, Masahiro; Sakai, Tetsuo

    2016-02-01

    The thermal stability, in terms of cycle and rate performances at 80 °C, and its safety related to lithium ion batteries composed of a LiFePO4 cathode and SiO anode are investigated. Based on an STEM-EELS analysis, the SiO powder is found to have an amorphous structure, in which nanosized Si particles (Si-rich phase) are uniformly dispersed in the SiO2 matrix (SiO2-rich phase). During the charge/discharge cycling, the cell exhibits a satisfactory cycle performance with a discharge capacity retention of 93.6% and a voltage retention of 93.9% at the 1500th cycle. Also, the charge and discharge capacity retentions at 10 C are 97.5% and 94.7%, respectively, together with a limited polarization, demonstrating its high rate performance. Furthermore, a 1.16 Ah LiFePO4/SiO laminated cell shows negligible voltage and temperature changes during the nail penetration test. The Li concentration in the active material (Si-rich phase) is found to be almost the same as that in the SiO2-rich phase after the test. This high thermal stability and safety may be due to the formed layer from the SiO2 matrix, preventing any side reaction from occurring on the Si surface and isolating the internal current path during the nail penetration.

  17. Novel synthesis of tin oxide/graphene aerogel nanocomposites as anode materials for lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A novel method of mechanical exfoliation followed by hydrothermal approach was proposed to synthesize the tin oxide/graphene aerogels (SnO2/GAs) nanocomposites. Homogeneous distribution of SnO2 nanocrystals on GAs was confirmed by SEM, XRD and TEM characterization. It was found that optimized exfoliation of the SnS2 is the key factor to obtain high electrochemical lithiation/delithiation performance of the anodes. The as-prepared SnO2/GA nanocomposites exhibited high reversible capacity (up to 1086.7 mAh g−1 after 100 cycles) and excellent cycling stability. The improved rate capability was also obtained, for instance, the reversible capacity at a current density of 800 mA g−1 is over 447.9 mAh g−1, and then recovered to as high as 784.4 mAh g−1 at a current density of 100 mA g−1. - Highlights: • A novel approach was employed to synthesize the SnO2/GA nanocomposites. • The designed SnO2/GAs exhibited high reversible capacity and excellent cycling stability. • The volume change challenge of SnO2 was markedly alleviated by the GA matrix. • The novel synthesis method can be extended for other materials in lithium ion batteries

  18. Novel synthesis of tin oxide/graphene aerogel nanocomposites as anode materials for lithium ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Zheyu [College of Material Science and Engineering, Liaoning Technical University, Fuxin 123000 (China); Energy & Materials Engineering Centre, College of Physics and Materials Science, Tianjin Normal University, Tianjin 300387 (China); Li, Xifei, E-mail: xfli2011@hotmail.com [Energy & Materials Engineering Centre, College of Physics and Materials Science, Tianjin Normal University, Tianjin 300387 (China); Tai, Limin, E-mail: tailimin@163.com [College of Material Science and Engineering, Liaoning Technical University, Fuxin 123000 (China); Song, Haoze; Zhang, Yiyan; Yan, Bo; Fan, Linlin; Shan, Hui [Energy & Materials Engineering Centre, College of Physics and Materials Science, Tianjin Normal University, Tianjin 300387 (China); Li, Dejun, E-mail: dli1961@126.com [Energy & Materials Engineering Centre, College of Physics and Materials Science, Tianjin Normal University, Tianjin 300387 (China)

    2015-10-15

    A novel method of mechanical exfoliation followed by hydrothermal approach was proposed to synthesize the tin oxide/graphene aerogels (SnO{sub 2}/GAs) nanocomposites. Homogeneous distribution of SnO{sub 2} nanocrystals on GAs was confirmed by SEM, XRD and TEM characterization. It was found that optimized exfoliation of the SnS{sub 2} is the key factor to obtain high electrochemical lithiation/delithiation performance of the anodes. The as-prepared SnO{sub 2}/GA nanocomposites exhibited high reversible capacity (up to 1086.7 mAh g{sup −1} after 100 cycles) and excellent cycling stability. The improved rate capability was also obtained, for instance, the reversible capacity at a current density of 800 mA g{sup −1} is over 447.9 mAh g{sup −1}, and then recovered to as high as 784.4 mAh g{sup −1} at a current density of 100 mA g{sup −1}. - Highlights: • A novel approach was employed to synthesize the SnO{sub 2}/GA nanocomposites. • The designed SnO{sub 2}/GAs exhibited high reversible capacity and excellent cycling stability. • The volume change challenge of SnO{sub 2} was markedly alleviated by the GA matrix. • The novel synthesis method can be extended for other materials in lithium ion batteries.

  19. Metal dicarboxylates: new anode materials for lithium-ion batteries with good cycling performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fei, Hailong; Liu, Xin; Li, Zhiwei; Feng, Wenjing

    2015-06-01

    A simple and versatile method for the preparation of manganese coordination polymers [Mn(3,5-PDC)·2H2O] (3,5-H2PDC = 3,5-pyridinedicarboxylic acid) and Mn 2,5-furandicarboxylate which goes via a simple hydrothermal route is developed and the coordination polymers are tested as novel high-energy anode materials for lithium-ion batteries for the first time. [Mn(3,5-PDC)·2H2O] shows a high discharge capacity of 583.9 mA h g(-1) for the fourth cycle between a 0.05-3.0 V voltage limit at a discharge current density of 100 mA g(-1). A reversible capacity of 554.0 mA h g(-1) is retained after 240 cycles with a capacity retention of 94.8% while Mn 2,5-furandicarboxylate shows a high discharge capacity of 467.3 mA h g(-1) for the second cycle and a reversible capacity of 436.6 mA h g(-1) is retained after 206 cycles with a capacity retention of 93.4%. PMID:25940917

  20. Protein-releasing conductive anodized alumina membranes for nerve-interface materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altuntas, Sevde; Buyukserin, Fatih; Haider, Ali; Altinok, Buket; Biyikli, Necmi; Aslim, Belma

    2016-10-01

    Nanoporous anodized alumina membranes (AAMs) have numerous biomedical applications spanning from biosensors to controlled drug delivery and implant coatings. Although the use of AAM as an alternative bone implant surface has been successful, its potential as a neural implant coating remains unclear. Here, we introduce conductive and nerve growth factor-releasing AAM substrates that not only provide the native nanoporous morphology for cell adhesion, but also induce neural differentiation. We recently reported the fabrication of such conductive membranes by coating AAMs with a thin C layer. In this study, we investigated the influence of electrical stimulus, surface topography, and chemistry on cell adhesion, neurite extension, and density by using PC 12 pheochromocytoma cells in a custom-made glass microwell setup. The conductive AAMs showed enhanced neurite extension and generation with the electrical stimulus, but cell adhesion on these substrates was poorer compared to the naked AAMs. The latter nanoporous material presents chemical and topographical features for superior neuronal cell adhesion, but, more importantly, when loaded with nerve growth factor, it can provide neurite extension similar to an electrically stimulated CAAM counterpart. PMID:27287158

  1. Hollow Cobalt Selenide Microspheres: Synthesis and Application as Anode Materials for Na-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, You Na; Choi, Seung Ho; Kang, Yun Chan

    2016-03-16

    The electrochemical properties of hollow cobalt oxide and cobalt selenide microspheres are studied for the first time as anode materials for Na-ion batteries. Hollow cobalt oxide microspheres prepared by one-pot spray pyrolysis are transformed into hollow cobalt selenide microspheres by a simple selenization process using hydrogen selenide gas. Ultrafine nanocrystals of Co3O4 microspheres are preserved in the cobalt selenide microspheres selenized at 300 °C. The initial discharge capacities for the Co3O4 and cobalt selenide microspheres selenized at 300 and 400 °C are 727, 595, and 586 mA h g(-1), respectively, at a current density of 500 mA g(-1). The discharge capacities after 40 cycles for the same samples are 348, 467, and 251 mA h g(-1), respectively, and their capacity retentions measured from the second cycle onward are 66, 91, and 50%, respectively. The hollow cobalt selenide microspheres have better rate performances than the hollow cobalt oxide microspheres. PMID:26918934

  2. Synthesis and characterization of inorganic nanostructured materials for advanced energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Jin

    The performance of advanced energy storage devices is intimately connected to the designs of electrodes. To enable significant developments in this research field, we need detailed information and knowledge about how the functions and performances of the electrodes depend on their chemical compositions, dimensions, morphologies, and surface properties. This thesis presents my successes in synthesizing and characterizing electrode materials for advanced electrochemical energy storage devices, with much attention given to understanding the operation and fading mechanism of battery electrodes, as well as methods to improve their performances and stabilities. This dissertation is presented within the framework of two energy storage technologies: lithium ion batteries and lithium oxygen batteries. The energy density of lithium ion batteries is determined by the density of electrode materials and their lithium storage capabilities. To improve the overall energy densities of lithium ion batteries, silicon has been proposed to replace lithium intercalation compounds in the battery anodes. However, with a ~400% volume expansion upon fully lithiation, silicon-based anodes face serious capacity degradation in battery operation. To overcome this challenge, heteronanostructure-based Si/TiSi2 were designed and synthesized as anode materials for lithium ion batteries with long cycling life. The performance and morphology relationship was also carefully studied through comparing one-dimensional and two-dimensional heteronanostructure-based silicon anodes. Lithium oxygen batteries, on the other hand, are devices based on lithium conversion chemistries and they offer higher energy densities compared to lithium ion batteries. However, existing carbon based electrodes in lithium oxygen batteries only allow for battery operation with limited capacity, poor stability and low round-trip efficiency. The degradation of electrolytes and carbon electrodes have been found to both contribute

  3. Advances in material capsule technology in HANARO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A material capsule system has been developed for irradiation tests of non-fissile materials in HANARO. This capsule system has been actively utilized for various material irradiation tests requested by users from research institutes, universities, and the industries. Based on the accumulated experience and the user's sophisticated requirements, several advances in material capsule technologies were obtained recently for a more precise control and analysis of the neutron irradiation effect in HANARO. New instrumented capsule technologies for a more precise control of the irradiation temperature and fluence of a specimen, irrespective of the reactor operation, have been developed and out-pile tested. The OR/IP capsule technologies for an irradiation test in the HANARO OR and IP test holes with a relatively lower neutron flux than the CT and IR test holes have also been developed and in-pile tested, successfully. A high temperature irradiation technology up to 1000degC is under development. An evaluation of the DPA (Displacement Per Atom) and activation of irradiated specimens was attempted by using the SPECTOR and ORIGEN2 codes, respectively. A new fluence monitor with a decreased activity was designed to measure the thermal and fast neutron fluences of the irradiated specimens. A friction welded tube using STS304 and Al1050 alloys was introduced to prevent a coolant leakage into a capsule during a capsule cutting process after an irradiation. (author)

  4. Advances in material capsule technology in HANARO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A material capsule system has been developed for irradiation tests of non fissile materials in HANARO. This capsule system has been actively utilized for various material irradiation tests requested by users from research institutes, universities, and the industries. Based on the accumulated experience and the user's sophisticated requirements, several advances in material capsule technologies were obtained recently for a more precise control and analysis of the neutron irradiation effect in HANARO. New instrumented capsule technologies for a more precise control of the irradiation temperature and fluence of a specimen, irrespective of the reactor operation, have been developed and out pile tested. The OR/IP capsule technologies for an irradiation test in the HANARO OR and IP test holes with a relatively lower neutron flux than the CT and IR test holes have also been developed and in pile tested, successfully. A high temperature irradiation technology up to 1000 .deg. C is under development. An evaluation of the DPA (Displacement Per Atom) and activation of irradiated specimens was attempted by using the SPECTOR and ORIGEN2 codes, respectively. A new fluence monitor with a decreased activity was designed to measure the thermal and fast neutron fluences of the irradiated specimens. A friction welded tube using STS304 and Al1050 alloys was introduced to prevent a coolant leakage into a capsule during a capsule cutting process after an irradiation

  5. Hierarchical silicon nanowires-carbon textiles matrix as a binder-free anode for high-performance advanced lithium-ion batteries

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Bin; Wang, Xianfu; Chen, Haitian; Wang, Zhuoran; Chen, Di; Cheng, Yi-Bing; Zhou, Chongwu; Shen, Guozhen

    2013-01-01

    Toward the increasing demands of portable energy storage and electric vehicle applications, the widely used graphite anodes with significant drawbacks become more and more unsuitable. Herein, we report a novel scaffold of hierarchical silicon nanowires-carbon textiles anodes fabricated via a facile method. Further, complete lithium-ion batteries based on Si and commercial LiCoO2 materials were assembled to investigate their corresponding across-the-aboard performances, demonstrating their enh...

  6. Potential threshold of anode materials for foldable lithium-ion batteries featuring carbon nanotube current collectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qing Hui; Zhong, Sheng Wen; Hu, Jing Wei; Liu, Ting; Zhu, Xian Yan; Chen, Jing; Hong, Yin Yan; Wu, Zi Ping

    2016-04-01

    Flexible carbon nanotube macro-films (CMFs) are perfect current collectors for preparing foldable lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). However, selecting appropriate anodes for electrode is difficult because of the different potentials (vs. Li/Li+) of carbon nanotubes and traditional metallic current collector. This study demonstrated an additional reaction at potential below 0.9 V (vs. Li/Li+) caused by CMF, And Li+ will be constrained, which decreased capacity of anode/CMF electrode. Conversely, results changed when the anode potential exceeded 0.9 V (vs. Li/Li+) because Li+ passed the potential threshold, and the CMF retained its electrochemical inactivity. Consequently, the CMF-based foldable LIBs performed well. The potential threshold mechanism of anode is expected to provide new impetus to both academia and industry for exploring flexible or foldable LIBs.

  7. TiO2 anode materials for lithium-ion batteries with different morphology and additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiang; Ng, Yip Hang; Leung, Yu Hang; Liu, Fangzhou; Djurišic, Aleksandra B.; Xie, Mao Hai; Chan, Wai Kin

    2014-03-01

    Electrochemical performances of different TiO2 nanostructures, TiO2/CNT composite and TiO2 with titanium isopropoxide (TTIP) treatment anode were investigated. For different TiO2 nanostructures, we investigated vertically aligned TiO2 nanotubes on Ti foil and TiO2 nanotube-powders fabricated by rapid breakdown anodization technique. The morphology of the prepared samples was characterized by scanning probe microscopy (SEM). The electrochemical lithium storage abilities were studied by galvanostatic method. In addition, carbon nanotubes (CNT) additives and solution treatment process of TiO2 anode were investigated, and the results show that the additives and treatment could enhance the cycling performance of the TiO2 anode on lithium ion batteries.

  8. The electrochemical performance and mechanism of cobalt (II) fluoride as anode material for lithium and sodium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: •The as-prepared CoF2 shows excellent electrochemical performance as anode material for lithium ion batteries. •The Li insertion/extraction mechanism of CoF2 below 1.2 V was firstly proposed. •The electrochemical performance of CoF2 as anode material in sodium ion batteries was firstly studied. -- Abstract: Cobalt (II) fluoride begins to enter into the horizons of people along with the research upsurge of metal fluorides. It is very significative and theoretically influential to make certain its electrochemical reaction mechanism. In this work, we discover a new and unrevealed reversible interfacial intercalation mechanism reacting below 1.2 V for cobalt (II) fluoride electrode material, which contributes a combined discharge capacity of about 400 mA h g−1 with the formation of SEI film at the initial discharge process. A highly reversible storage capacity of 120 mA h g−1 is observed when the cell is cycled over the voltage of 0.01-1.2 V at 0.2 C, and the low-potential voltage reaction process has a significant impact for the whole electrochemical process. Electrochemical analyses suggest that pure cobalt (II) fluoride shows better electrochemical performance when it is cycled at 3.2-0.01 V compared to the high range (1.0-4.5 V). So, we hold that cobalt (II) fluoride is more suitable to serve as anode material for lithium ion batteries. In addition, we also try to reveal the relevant performance and reaction mechanism, and realize the possibility of cobalt (II) fluoride as anode material for sodium ion batteries

  9. A study about γ-MnOOH nanowires as anode materials for rechargeable Li-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Manganite nanowires were tested as the anode materials for Li-ion batteries. ► The OH– ions present in γ-MnOOH do not interfere with the lithium uptake and extraction. ► The capacity of this material stabilizes at about 400 mA h g−1 after 20 cycles. ► The working mechanism for the first discharge may be: γ-MnOOH+3Li++3e-→Mn+Li2O+LiOH. ► The working mechanism for the following cycles may be: Li2O+3/4Mn↔2Li++1/4Mn3O4+2e-. - Abstract: Manganite (γ-MnOOH) nanowires have been synthesized using a hydrothermal method and their electrochemical properties as the anode materials for rechargeable Li-ion batteries have been measured. The results show that the hydroxide ions present in γ-MnOOH do not interfere with the lithium uptake and extraction, making the manganite nanowires able to reversibly react with large amount of Li. The working mechanism of γ-MnOOH as the anode active material for rechargeable Li-ion batteries is examined by TEM and the corresponding SAEDs, and is confirmed to be conversion reactions: during the first discharge, the γ-MnOOH nanowires are reduced into clusters of metallic Mn embedded in an amorphous matrix of Li2O and LiOH; the subsequent cycles are reversible redox reactions between metallic Mn and Mn3O4 nanoparticles. The discharge capacity is 1660 mA h g−1 for the first cycle and can stabilize at about 400 mA h g−1 after 20 cycles, which implies that this material can also be a candidate for the anode electrodes for Li-ion batteries.

  10. High temperature material characterization and advanced materials development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study is to characterize the structural materials under the high temperature, one of the most significant environmental factors in nuclear systems. And advanced materials are developed for high temperature and/or low activation in neutron irradiation. Tensile, fatigue and creep properties have been carried out at high temperature to evaluate the mechanical degradation. Irradiation tests were performed using the HANARO. The optimum chemical composition and heat treatment condition were determined for nuclear grade 316NG stainless steel. Nitrogen, aluminum, and tungsten were added for increasing the creep rupture strength of FMS steel. The new heat treatment method was developed to form more stable precipitates. By applying the novel whiskering process, high density SiC/SiC composites with relative density above 90% could be obtained even in a shorter processing time than the conventional CVI process. Material integrated databases are established using data sheets. The databases of 6 kinds of material properties are accessible through the home page of KAERI material division

  11. High temperature material characterization and advanced materials development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryu, Woo Seog; Kim, D. H.; Kim, S. H. and others

    2005-03-15

    The study is to characterize the structural materials under the high temperature, one of the most significant environmental factors in nuclear systems. And advanced materials are developed for high temperature and/or low activation in neutron irradiation. Tensile, fatigue and creep properties have been carried out at high temperature to evaluate the mechanical degradation. Irradiation tests were performed using the HANARO. The optimum chemical composition and heat treatment condition were determined for nuclear grade 316NG stainless steel. Nitrogen, aluminum, and tungsten were added for increasing the creep rupture strength of FMS steel. The new heat treatment method was developed to form more stable precipitates. By applying the novel whiskering process, high density SiC/SiC composites with relative density above 90% could be obtained even in a shorter processing time than the conventional CVI process. Material integrated databases are established using data sheets. The databases of 6 kinds of material properties are accessible through the home page of KAERI material division.

  12. Spongelike Nanosized Mn 3 O 4 as a High-Capacity Anode Material for Rechargeable Lithium Batteries

    KAUST Repository

    Gao, Jie

    2011-07-12

    Mn3O4 has been investigated as a high-capacity anode material for rechargeable lithium ion batteries. Spongelike nanosized Mn 3O4 was synthesized by a simple precipitation method and characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, Raman scattering and scanning electron microscopy. Its electrochemical performance, as an anode material, was evaluated by galvanostatic discharge-charge tests. The results indicate that this novel type of nanosized Mn3O4 exhibits a high initial reversible capacity (869 mA h/g) and significantly enhanced first Coulomb efficiency with a stabilized reversible capacity of around 800 mA h/g after over 40 charge/discharge cycles. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  13. Purification and carbon-film-coating of natural graphite as anode materials for Li-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A process of modification of natural graphite materials as anode for lithium ion batteries was attempted. The process started with the treatment of natural graphite with concentrated hydrochloric acid and concentrated sulfuric acid in a thermal autoclave, followed by the in situ polymerization of resorcinol-formaldehyde resin to coat the graphite, then heat-treatment. SEM, XRD, Raman and electrochemical charge-discharge analysis showed that the surface defects and impurities on natural graphite were eliminated by purification of the concentrated acids, and carbon-film encapsulation modified the surface structure of the graphite and reduced its BET surface area. The as-obtained natural graphite sample presented an initial charge-discharge coulombic efficiency of 88.4% and a reversible capacity of 355.8 mAh g-1. The proposed process paves a way to prepare a promising anode material with excellent performance with low cost of natural graphite for rechargeable lithium ion batteries

  14. Materials for advanced ultrasupercritical steam turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Purgert, Robert [Energy Industries Of Ohio Inc., Independence, OH (United States); Shingledecker, John [Energy Industries Of Ohio Inc., Independence, OH (United States); Saha, Deepak [Energy Industries Of Ohio Inc., Independence, OH (United States); Thangirala, Mani [Energy Industries Of Ohio Inc., Independence, OH (United States); Booras, George [Energy Industries Of Ohio Inc., Independence, OH (United States); Powers, John [Energy Industries Of Ohio Inc., Independence, OH (United States); Riley, Colin [Energy Industries Of Ohio Inc., Independence, OH (United States); Hendrix, Howard [Energy Industries Of Ohio Inc., Independence, OH (United States)

    2015-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO) have sponsored a project aimed at identifying, evaluating, and qualifying the materials needed for the construction of the critical components of coal-fired power plants capable of operating at much higher efficiencies than the current generation of supercritical plants. This increased efficiency is expected to be achieved principally through the use of advanced ultrasupercritical (A-USC) steam conditions. A limiting factor in this can be the materials of construction for boilers and for steam turbines. The overall project goal is to assess/develop materials technology that will enable achieving turbine throttle steam conditions of 760°C (1400°F)/35MPa (5000 psi). This final technical report covers the research completed by the General Electric Company (GE) and Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), with support from Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) – Albany Research Center, to develop the A-USC steam turbine materials technology to meet the overall project goals. Specifically, this report summarizes the industrial scale-up and materials property database development for non-welded rotors (disc forgings), buckets (blades), bolting, castings (needed for casing and valve bodies), casting weld repair, and casting to pipe welding. Additionally, the report provides an engineering and economic assessment of an A-USC power plant without and with partial carbon capture and storage. This research project successfully demonstrated the materials technology at a sufficient scale and with corresponding materials property data to enable the design of an A-USC steam turbine. The key accomplishments included the development of a triple-melt and forged Haynes 282 disc for bolted rotor construction, long-term property development for Nimonic 105 for blading and bolting, successful scale-up of Haynes 282 and Nimonic 263 castings using

  15. Synthesis and Characterization of Silicon Nanoparticles Inserted into Graphene Sheets as High Performance Anode Material for Lithium Ion Batteries

    OpenAIRE

    Yong Chen; Xuejun Zhang; Yanhong Tian; Xi Zhao

    2014-01-01

    Silicon nanoparticles have been successfully inserted into graphene sheets via a novel method combining freeze-drying and thermal reduction. The structure, electrochemical performance, and cycling stability of this anode material were characterized by SEM, X-ray diffraction (XRD), charge/discharge cycling, and cyclic voltammetry (CV). CV showed that the Si/graphene nanocomposite exhibits remarkably enhanced cycling performance and rate performance compared with bare Si nanoparticles for lithi...

  16. Electrochemical properties of SnO2/carbon composite materials as anode material for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: → SnO2/carbon powders with a cauliflower-like particle structure were synthesized. → Post-annealing can improve the electrochemical properties of SnO2/C composite. → The 500 deg. C-annealed SnO2/C shows the best electrochemical performance. → The lithium ion diffusion coefficients of the SnO2/C electrodes were calculated. - Abstract: SnO2/carbon composite anode materials were synthesized from SnCl4.5H2O and sucrose via a hydrothermal route and a post heat-treatment. The synthesized spherical SnO2/carbon powders show a cauliflower-like micro-sized structure. High annealing temperature results in partial reduction of SnO2. Metallic Sn starts to emerge at 500 deg. C. High Sn content in SnO2/carbon composite is favorable for the increase of initial coulombic efficiency but not for the cycling stability. The SnO2/carbon annealed at 500 deg. C exhibits high specific capacity (∼400 mAh g-1), stable cycling performance and good rate capability. The generation of Li2O in the first lithiation process can prevent the aggregation of active Sn, while the carbon component can buffer the big volume change caused by lithiation/delithiation of active Sn. Both of them make contribution to the better cycle stability.

  17. Nano Structure Plays an Important Role in the Present and Future Anode Materials of Li-ion Batteries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tsutomu; Takamura

    2007-01-01

    1 ResultsLi-ion batteries are the most promising secondary batteries for IT and EV applications, where it is required to increase the capacity and power capability to a great extent. In responding to the demand we have been studied on the anode materials especially paying attention on the improved graphite active materials and modified silicon. In both cases we realized that the nano-structured design plays an important role. In this paper the examples of nano-size structure working in the actual materi...

  18. Kinetics of the electrolytic Fe+2/Fe+3 oxidation on various anode materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cifuentes, L.

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available The kinetics of the electrolytic Fe+2/Fe+3 oxidation, relevant to hydro-electrometallurgical processing, have been studied on lead, platinum, ruthenium oxide, iridium oxide and graphite anodes in ferrous sulfate-sulfuric acid solutions. The oxidation rate depends on ferrous sulfate concentration, solution temperature and degree of agitation. Potentiodynamic studies show that: a the highest oxidation rate is obtained on platinum; b lead is unsuitable as anodic material for the said reaction; c the remaining anode materials show a similar and satisfactory performance.

    Se ha estudiado la cinética de la oxidación electrolítica Fe+2/Fe+3 -relevante para el procesamiento hidroelectrometalúrgico- sobre plomo, platino, óxido de rutenio, óxido de iridio y grafito en soluciones de sulfato ferroso en ácido sulfúrico. La velocidad de oxidación depende de la concentración de sulfato ferroso, la temperatura de la solución y el grado de agitación. Estudios potenciodinámicos demuestran que: a las mayores velocidades de oxidación se obtienen sobre platino; b el plomo es inadecuado como material anódico para la reacción mencionada; c los materiales anódicos restantes exhiben un desempeño similar y satisfactorio.

  19. Advanced neutron source materials surveillance program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) will be composed of several different materials, one of which is 6061-T6 aluminum. Among other components, the reflector vessel and the core pressure boundary tube (CPBT), are to be made of 6061-T6 aluminum. These components will be subjected to high thermal neutron fluences and will require a surveillance program to monitor the strength and fracture toughness of the 6061-T6 aluminum over their lifetimes. The purpose of this paper is to explain the steps that were taken in the summer of 1994 toward developing the surveillance program. The first goal was to decide upon standard specimens to use in the fracture toughness and tensile testing. Second, facilities had to be chosen for specimens representing the CPBT and the reflector vessel base, weld, and heat-affected-zone (HAZ) metals. Third, a timetable had to be defined to determine when to remove the specimens for testing

  20. Thermal fatigue durability for advanced propulsion materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halford, Gary R.

    1989-01-01

    A review is presented of thermal and thermomechanical fatigue (TMF) crack initiation life prediction and cyclic constitutive modeling efforts sponsored recently by the NASA Lewis Research Center in support of advanced aeronautical propulsion research. A brief description is provided of the more significant material durability models that were created to describe TMF fatigue resistance of both isotropic and anisotropic superalloys, with and without oxidation resistant coatings. The two most significant crack initiation models are the cyclic damage accumulation model and the total strain version of strainrange partitioning. Unified viscoplastic cyclic constitutive models are also described. A troika of industry, university, and government research organizations contributed to the generation of these analytic models. Based upon current capabilities and established requirements, an attempt is made to project which TMF research activities most likely will impact future generation propulsion systems.

  1. Advanced materials for integrated optical waveguides

    CERN Document Server

    Tong Ph D, Xingcun Colin

    2014-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive introduction to integrated optical waveguides for information technology and data communications. Integrated coverage ranges from advanced materials, fabrication, and characterization techniques to guidelines for design and simulation. A concluding chapter offers perspectives on likely future trends and challenges. The dramatic scaling down of feature sizes has driven exponential improvements in semiconductor productivity and performance in the past several decades. However, with the potential of gigascale integration, size reduction is approaching a physical limitation due to the negative impact on resistance and inductance of metal interconnects with current copper-trace based technology. Integrated optics provides a potentially lower-cost, higher performance alternative to electronics in optical communication systems. Optical interconnects, in which light can be generated, guided, modulated, amplified, and detected, can provide greater bandwidth, lower power consumption, ...

  2. NATO Conference on Materials for Advanced Batteries

    CERN Document Server

    Broadhead, J; Steele, B

    1980-01-01

    The idea of a NATO Science Committee Institute on "Materials for Advanced Batteries" was suggested to JB and DWM by Dr. A. G. Chynoweth. His idea was to bring together experts in the field over the entire spectrum of pure research to applied research in order to familiarize everyone with potentially interesting new systems and the problems involved in their development. Dr. M. C. B. Hotz and Professor M. N. Ozdas were instrumental in helping organize this meeting as a NATO Advanced Science Institute. An organlzlng committee consisting of the three of us along with W. A. Adams, U. v Alpen, J. Casey and J. Rouxel organized the program. The program consisted of plenary talks and poster papers which are included in this volume. Nearly half the time of the conference was spent in study groups. The aim of these groups was to assess the status of several key aspects of batteries and prospects for research opportunities in each. The study groups and their chairmen were: Current status and new systems J. Broadhead Hig...

  3. Micro-sized cadmium tungstate as a high-performance anode material for lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Jingfu; Pan, Jingen; Shao, Lianyi; Shu, Jie; Zhou, Mingjiong; Pan, Jianguo, E-mail: panjianguo@nbu.edu.cn

    2014-11-25

    Highlights: • CdWO{sub 4} was obtained by a facile and effective precipitation reaction route. • The application of CdWO{sub 4} to a lithium-ion battery anode was firstly reported. • The CdWO{sub 4} anode delivered a high initial discharge capacity of 2304.1 mA h g{sup −1}. • Electrochemical reaction mechanism of CdWO{sub 4} with Li was studied by cyclic voltammetry. - Abstract: The application of cadmium tungstate (CdWO{sub 4}) to a lithium-ion battery anode was firstly reported in this paper. It was prepared by a facile precipitation reaction process. The CdWO{sub 4} sample was characterized using X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The electrochemical properties of CdWO{sub 4} anode were investigated. The CdWO{sub 4} delivered a high initial discharge capacity of 2042.4 mA h g{sup −1}. The CdWO{sub 4}/C composite showed an improved electrochemical performance with an initial discharge capacity of 2304.1 mA h g{sup −1} and achieved a discharge capacity of 305.1 mA h g{sup −1} after 19 cycles. Electrochemical reaction mechanism of CdWO{sub 4} with Li was also studied by cyclic voltammetry. It is suggested that CdWO{sub 4} can be a promising high-capacity anode material for lithium-ion batteries.

  4. Facile synthesis and stable cycling ability of hollow submicron silicon oxide–carbon composite anode material for Li-ion battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Hollow submicron SiO2–carbon composite material was synthesized using Si4+-citrate chelation. • Composite material possessed a homogeneous distribution of SiO2 and carbon. • Composite electrode delivered ⩾600 mAh/g with a stable cycling stability. • This materials design and synthesis provides a useful platform for scalable production. - Abstract: Advanced SiO2–carbon composite anode active material for lithium-ion battery has been synthesized through a simple chelation of silicon cation with citrate in a glyme-based solvent. The resultant composite material demonstrates a homogeneous distribution of constituents over the submicron particles and a unique hollow spherical microstructure, which provides an enhanced electrical conductivity and better accommodation of volume change of silicon during electrochemical charge–discharge cycling, respectively. As a result, the composite electrode exhibits a high cycling stability delivering the capacity retention of 91% at the 100th cycle and discharge capacities of 662–602 mAh/g and coulombic efficiencies of 99.8%. This material synthesis is scalable and cost-effective in preparing various submicron or micron composite electrode materials

  5. Facile synthesis and stable cycling ability of hollow submicron silicon oxide–carbon composite anode material for Li-ion battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Joong-Yeon; Nguyen, Dan Thien [Department of Fine Chemical Engineering & Applied Chemistry, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Joon-Sup [Department of Energy Science and Technology, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Song, Seung-Wan, E-mail: swsong@cnu.ac.kr [Department of Fine Chemical Engineering & Applied Chemistry, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Energy Science and Technology, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-06-05

    Highlights: • Hollow submicron SiO{sub 2}–carbon composite material was synthesized using Si{sup 4+}-citrate chelation. • Composite material possessed a homogeneous distribution of SiO{sub 2} and carbon. • Composite electrode delivered ⩾600 mAh/g with a stable cycling stability. • This materials design and synthesis provides a useful platform for scalable production. - Abstract: Advanced SiO{sub 2}–carbon composite anode active material for lithium-ion battery has been synthesized through a simple chelation of silicon cation with citrate in a glyme-based solvent. The resultant composite material demonstrates a homogeneous distribution of constituents over the submicron particles and a unique hollow spherical microstructure, which provides an enhanced electrical conductivity and better accommodation of volume change of silicon during electrochemical charge–discharge cycling, respectively. As a result, the composite electrode exhibits a high cycling stability delivering the capacity retention of 91% at the 100th cycle and discharge capacities of 662–602 mAh/g and coulombic efficiencies of 99.8%. This material synthesis is scalable and cost-effective in preparing various submicron or micron composite electrode materials.

  6. Advanced materials for thermal protection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heng, Sangvavann; Sherman, Andrew J.

    1996-03-01

    Reticulated open-cell ceramic foams (both vitreous carbon and silicon carbide) and ceramic composites (SiC-based, both monolithic and fiber-reinforced) were evaluated as candidate materials for use in a heat shield sandwich panel design as an advanced thermal protection system (TPS) for unmanned single-use hypersonic reentry vehicles. These materials were fabricated by chemical vapor deposition/infiltration (CVD/CVI) and evaluated extensively for their mechanical, thermal, and erosion/ablation performance. In the TPS, the ceramic foams were used as a structural core providing thermal insulation and mechanical load distribution, while the ceramic composites were used as facesheets providing resistance to aerodynamic, shear, and erosive forces. Tensile, compressive, and shear strength, elastic and shear modulus, fracture toughness, Poisson's ratio, and thermal conductivity were measured for the ceramic foams, while arcjet testing was conducted on the ceramic composites at heat flux levels up to 5.90 MW/m2 (520 Btu/ft2ṡsec). Two prototype test articles were fabricated and subjected to arcjet testing at heat flux levels of 1.70-3.40 MW/m2 (150-300 Btu/ft2ṡsec) under simulated reentry trajectories.

  7. Advanced Materials in Support of EERE Needs to Advance Clean Energy Technologies Program Implementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liby, Alan L [ORNL; Rogers, Hiram [ORNL

    2013-10-01

    The goal of this activity was to carry out program implementation and technical projects in support of the ARRA-funded Advanced Materials in Support of EERE Needs to Advance Clean Energy Technologies Program of the DOE Advanced Manufacturing Office (AMO) (formerly the Industrial Technologies Program (ITP)). The work was organized into eight projects in four materials areas: strategic materials, structural materials, energy storage and production materials, and advanced/field/transient processing. Strategic materials included work on titanium, magnesium and carbon fiber. Structural materials included work on alumina forming austentic (AFA) and CF8C-Plus steels. The advanced batteries and production materials projects included work on advanced batteries and photovoltaic devices. Advanced/field/transient processing included work on magnetic field processing. Details of the work in the eight projects are available in the project final reports which have been previously submitted.

  8. Facile fabrication of CuO nanosheets on Cu substrate as anode materials for electrochemical energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • In situ synthesis of sheet-like CuO on Cu substrate via a facile one-step route. • CuO nanosheets serve as anode materials for both sodium and lithium ion batteries. • The effects of preparation conditions on electrochemical performance are investigated. • The mechanisms of electrochemical processes are explored. -- Abstract: CuO nanosheets are synthesized on Cu substrate via a one-step corrosion process, which can be formed at room temperature. The reaction time and solution concentration show great effects on the microstructure of products. The obtained CuO nanosheets are systematically evaluated as anode materials for both lithium-ion battery (LIB) and sodium-ion battery (NIB). The CuO electrode undergoes multi-step conversion processes in both LIB and NIB, but their charge/discharge plateaus are quite different. In LIB, the CuO electrode exhibits a remarkable electrochemical performance. However, the CuO anode in NIB shows poor cyclability and rate capability, which is mainly due to the high interface impedance, large volume expansion and slow ion diffusion caused by the larger size of Na+ ion

  9. Nanostructured Black Phosphorus/Ketjenblack-Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes Composite as High Performance Anode Material for Sodium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Gui-Liang; Chen, Zonghai; Zhong, Gui-Ming; Liu, Yuzi; Yang, Yong; Ma, Tianyuan; Ren, Yang; Zuo, Xiaobing; Wu, Xue-Hang; Zhang, Xiaoyi; Amine, Khalil

    2016-06-01

    Sodium-ion batteries are promising alternatives to lithium-ion batteries for large-scale applications. However, the low capacity and poor rate capability of existing anodes for sodium-ion batteries are bottlenecks for future developments. Here, we report a high performance nanostructured anode material for sodium-ion batteries that is fabricated by high energy ball milling to form black phosphorus/Ketjenblack-multiwalled carbon nanotubes (BPC) composite. With this strategy, the BPC composite with a high phosphorus content (70 wt %) could deliver a very high initial Coulombic efficiency (>90%) and high specific capacity with excellent cyclability at high rate of charge/discharge (∼1700 mAh g(-1) after 100 cycles at 1.3 A g(-1) based on the mass of P). In situ electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, synchrotron high energy X-ray diffraction, ex situ small/wide-angle X-ray scattering, high resolution transmission electronic microscopy, and nuclear magnetic resonance were further used to unravel its superior sodium storage performance. The scientific findings gained in this work are expected to serve as a guide for future design on high performance anode material for sodium-ion batteries. PMID:27222911

  10. Novel Mg-Doped SrMoO3 Perovskites Designed as Anode Materials for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Cascos

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available SrMo1−xMxO3−δ (M = Fe and Cr, x = 0.1 and 0.2 oxides have been recently described as excellent anode materials for solid oxide fuel cells at intermediate temperatures (IT-SOFC with LSGM as the electrolyte. In this work, we have improved their properties by doping with aliovalent Mg ions at the B-site of the parent SrMoO3 perovskite. SrMo1−xMgxO3−δ (x = 0.1, 0.2 oxides have been prepared, characterized and tested as anode materials in single solid-oxide fuel cells, yielding output powers near 900 mW/cm−2 at 850 °C using pure H2 as fuel. We have studied its crystal structure with an “in situ” neutron power diffraction (NPD experiment at temperatures as high as 800 °C, emulating the working conditions of an SOFC. Adequately high oxygen deficiencies, observed by NPD, together with elevated disk-shaped anisotropic displacement factors suggest a high ionic conductivity at the working temperatures. Furthermore, thermal expansion measurements, chemical compatibility with the LSGM electrolyte, electronic conductivity and reversibility upon cycling in oxidizing-reducing atmospheres have been carried out to find out the correlation between the excellent performance as an anode and the structural features.

  11. Synthesis of Li2Ti3O7 Anode Materials by Ultrasonic Spray Pyrolysis and Their Electrochemical Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takayuki Kodera

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Ramsdellite-type lithium titanate (Li2Ti3O7 powders were synthesized by performing ultrasonic spray pyrolysis, and their chemical and physical properties were characterized by performing Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM, powder X-ray Diffraction (XRD, and Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP analyses. The as-prepared Li2Ti3O7 precursor powders had spherical morphologies with hollow microstructures, but an irregularly shaped morphology was obtained after calcination above 900 °C. The ramsdellite Li2Ti3O7 crystal phase was obtained after the calcination at 1100 °C under an argon/hydrogen atmosphere. The first rechargeable capacity of the Li2Ti3O7 anode material was 168 mAh/g at 0.1 C and 82 mAh/g at 20 C, and the discharge capacity retention ratio was 99% at 1 C after the 500th cycle. The cycle performance of the Li2Ti3O7 anode was also highly stable at 50 °C, demonstrating the superiority of Li2Ti3O7 anode materials reported previously.

  12. Nanoparticle Cookies Derived from Metal-Organic Frameworks: Controlled Synthesis and Application in Anode Materials for Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuhai; Chen, Minqi; Xie, Yanyu; Fan, Yanan; Wang, Dawei; Jiang, Ji-Jun; Li, Yongguang; Grützmacher, Hansjörg; Su, Cheng-Yong

    2016-05-01

    The capacity of anode materials plays a critical role in the performance of lithium-ion batteries. Using the nanocrystals of oxygen-free metal-organic framework ZIF-67 as precursor, a one-step calcination approach toward the controlled synthesis of CoO nanoparticle cookies with excellent anodic performances is developed in this work. The CoO nanoparticle cookies feature highly porous structure composed of small CoO nanoparticles (≈12 nm in diameter) and nitrogen-rich graphitic carbon matrix (≈18 at% in nitrogen content). Benefiting from such unique structure, the CoO nanoparticle cookies are capable of delivering superior specific capacity and cycling stability (1383 mA h g(-1) after 200 runs at 100 mA g(-1) ) over those of CoO and graphite. PMID:26948965

  13. Nano-crystalline FeOOH mixed with SWNT matrix as a superior anode material for lithium batteries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mingzhong Zou; Weiwei Wen; Jiaxin Li; Yingbin Lin; Heng Lai; Zhigao Huang

    2014-01-01

    Nano-crystalline FeOOH particles (5∼10 nm) have been uniformly mixed with electric matrix of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) for forming FeOOH/SWNT composite via a facile ultrasonication method. Directly using the FeOOH/SWNT composite (containing 15 wt%SWNTs) as anode material for lithium battery enhances kinetics of the Li+ insertion/extraction processes, thereby effectively improving re-versible capacity and cycle performance, which delivers a high reversible capacity of 758 mAh·g-1 under a current density of 400 mA·g-1 even after 180 cycles, being comparable with previous reports in terms of electrochemical performance for FeOOH anode. The good electrochemical performance should be ascribed to the small particle size and nano-crystalline of FeOOH, as well as the good electronic conductivity of SWNT matrix.

  14. Dispersing SnO2 nanocrystals in amorphous carbon as a cyclic durable anode material for lithium ion batteries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Renzong Hu; Wei Sun; Meiqin Zeng; Min Zhu

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate a facile route for the massive production of SnO2/carbon nanocomposite used as high-capacity anode materials of next-generation lithium-ion batteries. The nanocomposite had a unique structure of ultrafine SnO2 nanocrystals (∼5 nm, 80 wt%) homogeneously dispersed in amorphous carbon matrix. This structure design can well accommodate the volume change of Li+insertion/desertion in SnO2, and prevent the aggregation of the nanosized active materials during cycling, leading to superior cycle performance with stable reversible capacity of 400 mAh/g at a high current rate of 3.3 A/g.

  15. Pulsed laser deposited Cr2O3 nanostructured thin film on graphene as anode material for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: A different approach for the fabrication of an anode material system that comprises pulsed laser-deposited (PLD) Cr2O3 grown on few layer graphene (FLG) by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) was used. The electrochemical performance of Cr2O3 nanostructured thin film was improved by FLG, which make it a promising candidate for future lithium-ion batteries application. - Highlights: • Pulsed laser deposition technique was used to deposit Cr2O3 on few-layer graphene (FLG). • FLG improved the electrochemical performance of Cr2O3 nanostructured thin film. • Good stable cycle of Cr2O3/FLG/Ni electrode make it one of the promise anode materials for future lithium-ion batteries. - Abstract: Pulsed laser deposition technique was used to deposit Cr2O3 nanostructured thin film on a chemical vapor deposited few-layer graphene (FLG) on nickel (Ni) substrate for application as anode material for lithium-ion batteries. The experimental results show that graphene can effectively enhance the electrochemical property of Cr2O3. For Cr2O3 thin film deposited on Ni (Cr2O3/Ni), a discharge capacity of 747.8 mA h g−1 can be delivered during the first lithiation process. After growing Cr2O3 thin film on FLG/Ni, the initial discharge capacity of Cr2O3/FLG/Ni was improved to 1234.5 mA h g−1. The reversible lithium storage capacity of the as-grown material is 692.2 mA h g−1 after 100 cycles, which is much higher than that of Cr2O3/Ni (111.3 mA h g−1). This study reveals the differences between the two material systems and emphasizes the role of the graphene layers in improving the electrochemical stability of the Cr2O3 nanostructured thin film

  16. Nb-doped rutile TiO₂: a potential anode material for Na-ion battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usui, Hiroyuki; Yoshioka, Sho; Wasada, Kuniaki; Shimizu, Masahiro; Sakaguchi, Hiroki

    2015-04-01

    The electrochemical properties of the rutile-type TiO2 and Nb-doped TiO2 were investigated for the first time as Na-ion battery anodes. Ti(1-x)Nb(x)O2 thick-film electrodes without a binder and a conductive additive were prepared using a sol-gel method followed by a gas-deposition method. The TiO2 electrode showed reversible reactions of Na insertion/extraction accompanied by expansion/contraction of the TiO2 lattice. Among the Ti(1-x)Nb(x)O2 electrodes with x = 0-0.18, the Ti(0.94)Nb(0.06)O2 electrode exhibited the best cycling performance, with a reversible capacity of 160 mA h g(-1) at the 50th cycle. As the Li-ion battery anode, this electrode also attained an excellent rate capability, with a capacity of 120 mA h g(-1) even at the high current density of 16.75 A g(-1) (50C). The improvements in the performances are attributed to a 3 orders of magnitude higher electronic conductivity of Ti(0.94)Nb(0.06)O2 compared to that of TiO2. This offers the possibility of Nb-doped rutile TiO2 as a Na-ion battery anode as well as a Li-ion battery anode. PMID:25757057

  17. Morphology-controlled graphene nanosheets as anode material for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Graphene nanosheets was manufactured using a simple modified version of a previously improved Hummers method. • The wrinkle-free graphene was easily manufactured from prepared graphene by post-process treatment. • Morphology-controlled graphene nanosheets showed excellent discharge performance. • Morphology-controlled graphene has the potential to be easily applied to graphene-wrapped composite. - Abstract: Morphology-controlled graphene nanosheets can be easily synthesized as anode material for application in high-capacity lithium-ion batteries. A modified version of an improved method for higher degree of oxidation of graphite oxide (GO) has been developed and characterized. X-ray diffraction analysis shows that GO prepared using this method has a higher degree of oxidation than that of using the improved method. The interlayer d-spacing increases from 0.87 nm (using the improved method) to 0.92 nm (using the modified-improved method). Also, it is confirmed by XPS analysis that the O/C ratio in GO increases from 2.51 (improved method) to 8.27 (modified-improved method). It is hypothesized that GO, which has a higher degree of oxidation, is more reducible to graphene. The more reduced graphene has a larger amount of free π-bonds and fewer layers, and it can be easily altered to morphology-controlled graphene. Graphene nanosheets prepared using the modified-improved method exhibits discharge capacities of 1079 mAh g−1 (at a constant current of 40 mA g−1) and 1002 mAh g−1 after 50 cycles. The capacity retention of the synthesized graphene nanosheets is 1070 mAh g−1 at a current of 40 mA g−1 after the rate capability test, and their rate capability is 463 mAh g−1 at a current of 400 mA g−1. The morphology-controlled graphene nanosheets prepared by the modified-improved method shows better discharge performance compared to graphene prepared by the improved method

  18. Advanced High-Temperature Engine Materials Technology Progresses

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    The objective of the Advanced High Temperature Engine Materials Technology Program (HITEMP) at the NASA Lewis Research Center is to generate technology for advanced materials and structural analysis that will increase fuel economy, improve reliability, extend life, and reduce operating costs for 21st century civil propulsion systems. The primary focus is on fan and compressor materials (polymer-matrix composites - PMC's), compressor and turbine materials (superalloys, and metal-matrix and intermetallic-matrix composites - MMC's and IMC's), and turbine materials (ceramic-matrix composites - CMC's). These advanced materials are being developed in-house by Lewis researchers and on grants and contracts.

  19. Fabrication of electrospun ZnMn2O4 nanofibers as anode material for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • ZnMn2O4 nanofibers were successfully synthesized by a facile electrospinning and calcination method for lithium-ion batteries. • The as-prepared ZnMn2O4 nanofibers, containing PVP and PAN with ratio of 1:9, exhibited a high initial discharge capacity of 1274 mAh g−1, and the stabilized capacity was as high as 603 mAh g−1 after 60 cycles at a current density of 50 mA g−1. • The as-prepared ZnMn2O4 anode material showed good lithium storage performances and excellent rate capability and can be a promising electrode material for lithium-ion batteries in the future. - Abstract: In this paper, ZnMn2O4 nanofibers were synthesized by a facile electrospinning and calcination method. Electrochemical properties of the nanofiber anode material for lithium-ion batteries were investigated. The as-prepared ZnMn2O4 nanofibers, containing PVP and PAN with ratio of 1:9, exhibited a high initial discharge capacity of 1274 mAh g−1, and the stabilized capacity was as high as 603 mAh g−1 after 60 cycles at a current density of 50 mA g−1. Besides the high specific capacity and good cyclability, the electrode also showed good rate capability. Even at 2000 mA g−1, the electrode could deliver a capacity of as high as 352 mAh g−1. The results suggest a promising application of the electrospun ZnMn2O4 nanofibers as anode material for lithium-ion batteries

  20. Synthetic, structural, and electrochemical study of monoclinic Na4Ti5O12 as sodium-ion battery anode material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since lithium-ion batteries were commercialized in 1991, they have dominated the portable electronics market. In 2014, over one-fourth of the world’s mined lithium was devoted to lithiumion battery applications. Increased future demand will be driven by the electric/hybrid vehicle market and load leveling solutions for renewable energy sources. Therefore, the development of new, low-cost alternatives to lithium-ion batteries with comparable electrochemical properties is highly desirable. Sodium is the most obvious choice, as an inexpensive, abundant, and easily extractable element. As well as the decreased cost in starting material, sodium-ion batteries can use aluminum as the current collector for the anode because, unlike lithium, sodium does not alloy with aluminum metal. Aluminum offers both a less-expensive and lighter alternative to the copper usually used in lithium-ion batteries. However, challenges still remain in developing sodium intercalation materials capable of achieving a high reversible capacity and energy density. In particular, because of the inability of Na ions to intercalate with graphite, anode materials must be significantly improved. We have investigated the monoclinic phase of Na4Ti5O12 (M-Na4Ti5O12) as a potential sodium-ion battery anode material. In contrast to the previously investigated trigonal phase (T-Na4Ti5O12), MNa4Ti5O12 has continuous two-dimensional (2D) channels with partially occupied Na sites, providing broader pathways and more space for the intercalation of excess sodium. Neutron powder diffraction reveals the preferred sites and occupancies of the excess sodium as well as the sodium ion conduction pathway. Electrochemical measurements show that it exhibits a comparable or higher reversible capacity than T-Na4Ti5O12. In situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction under electrochemical cycling shows that the crystal lattice undergoes strongly anisotropic volume changes during cycling.

  1. CoNiO nanowire arrays as a high-performance anode material for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • CoNiO/TiO2NTs was synthesized by a facile hydrothermal method. • The addition of Ni to CoO could improve its conductivity. • CoNiO/TiO2NTs nanocomposite material is a 3D structure. • It delivers a high areal capacity when used as lithium-ion battery anode material. -- Abstract: CoNiO nanowire arrays loaded on TiO2 nanotubes (CoNiO/TiO2NTs) are synthesized by a hydrothermal method and used firstly as an anode material for lithium-ion batteries. The morphology, structure and composition of the composite are characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). The EDS patterns display the atomic ratio of Co to Ni is 0.41:0.59 with accuracy of more than 99%. SEM images show that the diameters of these nanowires range from 10 to 40 nm and the average length approximately 1 μm. Electrochemical characterizations are performed in a three-electrode system to determine the capacity, cyclic stability and to investigate the reaction mechanism. As an anode material for lithium-ion batteries, the CoNiO/TiO2NTs nanocomposite delivers a high areal capacity of 362 μAh cm−2 (1097 mAh g−1, 0.33 mg cm−2) after 40 discharge/charge cycles at a current density of 0.2 mA cm−2 (about 606 mA g−1). EIS results show that addition of Ni to the CoO could increase the conductivity of the composite significantly and improve the kinetic behavior during discharge–charge process. The present finding provides a kind of nanostructure fabrication that might be applied in supercapacitor and solar cells, etc

  2. Employment of Chitosan–linked Iron Oxides as Mesoporous Anode Materials for Improved Lithium–ion Batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study investigates the concentration effect of chitosan on the formation of iron oxide composites and their electrochemical performance as anode materials in Li–ion batteries. The molecular bridging effect of chitosan chains induces the clustered aggregation of citrate–capped Fe3O4 (C–Fe3O4) through the electrostatic interactions between carboxylate groups of C–Fe3O4 and amine groups of chitosan. The thermal calcination of chitosan–linked Fe3O4 leads to carbon–coated Fe2O3 (Fe2O3@carbon) with the mesopore range of porosity (20–30 nm). The mesoporous Fe2O3@carbon exhibits an improved electrochemical performance as anode materials in Li–ion batteries. The capacity retention of Fe2O3@carbon is twice that of bare Fe2O3 after the 50th cycle at 0.1 C. During the charge–discharge process, the Fe2O3@carbon (3 ml of chitosan) exhibits the highest retention capacity among as–prepared samples, whereas Fe2O3@carbon (1 ml of chitosan) exhibits the lowest retention capacity owing to the weakly cross–linked iron oxides. The improved performance of Fe2O3@carbon as anode materials is mainly attributed to the optimal cross–linking effect and structural integrity of mesoporous composite which is beneficial for the effective transport of electrolytes and/or Li–ons, suggesting a useful guideline for preparing porous electrode materials using metal oxide particles

  3. Effect of anodization and alkali-heat treatment on the bioactivity of titanium implant material (an in vitro study)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelrahim, Ramy A.; Badr, Nadia A.; Baroudi, Kusai

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This study was aimed to assess the effect of anodized and alkali-heat surface treatment on the bioactivity of titanium alloy (Ti-6Al-4V) after immersion in Hank's solution for 7 days. Materials and Methods: Fifteen titanium alloy samples were used in this study. The samples were divided into three groups (five for each), five samples were anodized in 1M H3PO4 at constant voltage value of 20 v and another five samples were alkali-treated in 5 M NaOH solution for 25 min at temperature 60°C followed by heat treatment at 600°C for 1 h. All samples were then immersed in Hank's solution for 7 days to assess the effect of surface modifications on the bioactivity of titanium alloy. The different treated surfaces and control one were characterized by X-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and Fourier transformation infra-red spectroscopy. Statistical analysis was performed with PASW Statistics 18.0® (Predictive Analytics Software). Results: Anodization of Ti-alloy samples (Group B) led to the formation of bioactive titanium oxide anatase phase and PO43− group on the surface. The alkali-heat treatment of titanium alloy samples (Group C) leads to the formation of bioactive titania hydrogel and supplied sodium ions. The reaction between the Ti sample and NaOH alkaline solution resulted in the formation of a layer of amorphous sodium titania on the Ti surface, and this layer can induce apatite deposition. Conclusions: The surface roughness and surface chemistry had an excellent ability to induce bioactivity of titanium alloy. The anodization in H3PO4 produced anatase titanium oxide on the surface with phosphate originated from electrolytes changed the surface topography and allowed formation of calcium-phosphate. PMID:27382532

  4. Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy Illuminating Performance Evolution of Porous Core–Shell Structured Nickel/Nickel Oxide Anode Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The electrochemical reaction kinetics of the Ni/NiO anode was studied for the first time. • Charge transfer resistance is main contribution to total resistance during discharge process. • The slow growth of the SEI film is responsible for the capacity fading upon cycling. • Some promising strategies to optimize NiO anode performance were summarized. - Abstract: The electrochemical reaction kinetics of the porous core–shell structured Ni/NiO anode for Li ion battery application is systematically investigated by monitoring the electrochemical impedance evolution for the first time. The electrochemical impedance under prescribed condition is measured by using impedance spectroscopy in equilibrium conditions at various depths of discharge (DOD) during charge–discharge cycles. The Nyquist plots of the binder-free porous Ni/NiO electrode are interpreted with a selective equivalent circuit composed of solution resistance, solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) film, charge transfer and solid state diffusion. The impedance analysis shows that the change of charge transfer resistance is the main contribution to the total resistance change during discharge, and the surface configuration of the obtained electrode may experience significant change during the first two cycles. Meanwhile, the increase of internal resistance reduced the utilization efficiency of the active material may be another convincing factor to increase the irreversible capacity. In addition, the impedance evolution of the as-prepared electrode during charge–discharge cycles reveals that the slow growth of the SEI film is responsible for the capacity fading after long term cycling. As a result, several strategies are summarized to optimize the electrochemical performances of transition metal oxide anodes for lithium ion batteries

  5. Engineered Materials for Advanced Gas Turbine Engine Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This project will develop innovative composite powders and composites that will surpass the properties of currently identified materials for advanced gas turbine...

  6. LiVP2O7/C: A New Insertion Anode Material for High-Rate Lithium-Ion Battery Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mani, Vellaisamy; Kalaiselvi, Nallathamby

    2016-04-18

    LiVP2O7/C, popularly known so far as an environmentally compatible and economically viable lithium battery cathode material, was exploited for the first time as an anode through the current study. LiVP2O7/C was synthesized by adopting oxalyl dihydrazide assisted solution combustion method and explored as an anode material in rechargeable lithium cell assembly. Notably, an initial capacity of 600 mAh g(-1) was exhibited by LiVP2O7/C anode, at the rate of 0.5 C along with an excellent Coulombic efficiency of 99% up to 150 cycles. The title anode demonstrates its suitability for high capacity and high rate applications by way of exhibiting appreciable capacity values of 200, 150, 120, and 110 mAh g(-1), under the influence of 2, 4, 6, and 8 C rates, respectively. Further, LiVP2O7/C anode, when subjected to a high current 10 C rate, exhibits an acceptable capacity of 107 mAh g(-1) up to 500 cycles, which is closer to its theoretical capacity value of 117 mAh g(-1). The study demonstrates the possibility of exploiting LiVP2O7/C as yet another potential anode and thereby opens a newer avenue to explore wide variety of LiMP2O7/C composites for their probable anode behavior in rechargeable lithium batteries. PMID:27065103

  7. A phosphorene-graphene hybrid material as a high-capacity anode for sodium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jie; Lee, Hyun-Wook; Pasta, Mauro; Yuan, Hongtao; Zheng, Guangyuan; Sun, Yongming; Li, Yuzhang; Cui, Yi

    2015-11-01

    Sodium-ion batteries have recently attracted significant attention as an alternative to lithium-ion batteries because sodium sources do not present the geopolitical issues that lithium sources might. Although recent reports on cathode materials for sodium-ion batteries have demonstrated performances comparable to their lithium-ion counterparts, the major scientific challenge for a competitive sodium-ion battery technology is to develop viable anode materials. Here we show that a hybrid material made out of a few phosphorene layers sandwiched between graphene layers shows a specific capacity of 2,440 mA h g-1 (calculated using the mass of phosphorus only) at a current density of 0.05 A g-1 and an 83% capacity retention after 100 cycles while operating between 0 and 1.5 V. Using in situ transmission electron microscopy and ex situ X-ray diffraction techniques, we explain the large capacity of our anode through a dual mechanism of intercalation of sodium ions along the x axis of the phosphorene layers followed by the formation of a Na3P alloy. The presence of graphene layers in the hybrid material works as a mechanical backbone and an electrical highway, ensuring that a suitable elastic buffer space accommodates the anisotropic expansion of phosphorene layers along the y and z axial directions for stable cycling operation.

  8. Synthesis of nano structured particles for Li-ion cathodic and anodic materials obtained by spray pyrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of the nano technology has contributed to improve the electrochemical properties in rechargeable batteries. The Spray Pyrolysis method allows to obtain nano structured materials with spherical morphology, narrow particle size distribution and compositional homogeneity. Nano structured particles have been prepared in this work to be used as anodic and cathodic materials in lithium-ion batteries. Among the cathodic materials, the Na-Si-Con (Li3Fe2(PO4)3) structure and the olivine (LiFePO4) phases have been synthesised. The Na-Si-Con iron phosphate favours the accommodation of the ion host, the diffusion and thermal stability. The olivine structure has an open three-dimensional network, favourable for hosting Lithium ions. The characterization by X ray diffraction, electron microscopy (scanning and transmission) and electron diffraction have allowed to identify a mix of crystalline phases of LiFePO4 (Olivine) and Li3Fe2(PO4)3 (Na-Si-Con). Thermal treatments produce porous particles. The tryphilite phase (olivine) appears after a thermal treatment at 800 degree centigrade/12h. Electrochemical results confirm the presence of the Na-Si-Con and olivine phases. Among the materials for being used as anode, the titanium oxides have been classified as good candidates as lithium ion host. The synthesis results in different experimental conditions for obtaining spherical and nano structured titanium oxide particles are presented. (Author)

  9. Co3O4/C nanocapsules with onion-like carbon shells as anode material for lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: Co3O4 nanocapsules with the onion-like carbon shells were synthesized. As anode materials for lithium ion battery, the Co3O4 nanocapsules deliver an initial discharge capacity of 1467.6 mAh g−1 at 0.5 C and maintain a high reversible capacity of 1026.9 mAh g−1 after 50 cycles. -- Highlights: • Co3O4 nanocapsules with onion-like carbon shell have been synthesized. • Co3O4 nanocapsules deliver an initial discharge capacity of 1467.6 mAh g−1 at 0.5 C. • Co3O4 nanocapsules maintain a reversible capacity of 1026.9 mAh g−1 after 50 cycles. • Onion-like carbon shells can improve the electrochemical performance of Co3O4. -- Abstract: The synthesis and characterization of core/shell-type Co3O4/C nanocapsules for application as anode material in lithium ion batteries are reported in this paper. The synthesis process involves the preparation of Co/C nanocapsules using a modified arc-discharge method and the annealing of the Co/C nanocapsules at 300 °C for 2 h in air. The as-synthesized products show a spherical shape and a core/shell-type structure in which a Co3O4 nanoparticle core of diameter 10–30 nm is encapsulated by an onion-like carbon shell of thickness approximately 1 nm. The Co/C nanocapsules can be stable below 130 °C, and be oxidized above 205 °C in air. The Co3O4/C nanocapsules deliver an initial discharge capacity of 1467.6 mAh g−1 at 0.5 C and maintain a high reversible capacity of 1026.9 mAh g−1 after 50 charge–discharge cycles, much higher than the Co3O4 nanoparticles (471.5 mAh g−1). A postmortem analysis of the Co3O4 and Co3O4/C anodes subjected to prolonged cycling reveals the existence of a lower degree of surface cracking and particle breakage in the Co3O4/C anode than the Co3O4 anode. The improved electrochemical performance and structural stability in the Co3O4/C nanocapsules are attributed to the enhanced electrical conductivity and structural buffering provided by the onion-like carbon shell

  10. Electrical Conductivity and Corrosion Resistance of ZnFe2O4-Based Materials Used as Inert Anode for Aluminum Electrolysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    ZnFe2O4 and ZnFe2O4-based materials were tested to obtain the electrical conductivity and corrosion resistance in melting bath for aluminum electrolysis. The results proved that adequate additives, such as Ni2O3 CuO,Cu, ZnO and CeO2 would increase the electrical conductivity, and the ZnFe2O4-based anodes with these additives were of good corrosion resistance. The current density on anode, the mole ratio of NaF/AlF3 (MR) and the content of alumina in the bath effect the anode corrosion rate in different way.

  11. Lignin-based active anode materials synthesized from low-cost renewable resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rios, Orlando; Tenhaeff, Wyatt Evan; Daniel, Claus; Dudney, Nancy Johnston; Johs, Alexander; Nunnery, Grady Alexander; Baker, Frederick Stanley

    2016-06-07

    A method of making an anode includes the steps of providing fibers from a carbonaceous precursor, the carbon fibers having a glass transition temperature T.sub.g. In one aspect the carbonaceous precursor is lignin. The carbonaceous fibers are placed into a layered fiber mat. The fiber mat is fused by heating the fiber mat in the presence of oxygen to above the T.sub.g but no more than 20% above the T.sub.g to fuse fibers together at fiber to fiber contact points and without melting the bulk fiber mat to create a fused fiber mat through oxidative stabilization. The fused fiber mat is carbonized by heating the fused fiber mat to at least 650.degree. C. under an inert atmosphere to create a carbonized fused fiber mat. A battery anode formed from carbonaceous precursor fibers is also disclosed.

  12. MnO-carbon hybrid nanofiber composites as superior anode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MnO-carbon hybrid nanofiber composites are fabricated by electrospinning polyimide/manganese acetylacetonate precursor and a subsequent carbonization process. The composition, phase structure and morphology of the composites are characterized by scanning and transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and thermogravimetric analysis. The results indicate that the composites exhibit good nanofibrous morphology with MnO nanoparticles uniformly encapsulated by carbon nanofibers. The hybrid nanofiber composites are used directly as freestanding anodes for lithium-ion batteries to evaluate their electrochemical properties. It is found that the optimized MnO-carbon nanofiber composite can deliver a high reversible capacity of 663 mAh g−1, along with excellent cycling stability and good rate capability. The superior performance enables the composites to be promising candidates as an anode alternative for high-performance lithium-ion batteries

  13. Tracing locations of new coating material during spark anodizing of titanium

    OpenAIRE

    Matykina, Endzhe; Monfort, Frederic Louis; Berkani, Ahmed; Skeldon, Peter; Thompson, George; Chapon, Patrick

    2005-01-01

    Abstract The growth of anodic coatings on titanium, under sparking conditions, is investigated in tracer experiments, using alkaline silicate and phosphate electrolytes. Coatings are formed sequentially in each electrolyte, with phosphorus and silicon located by energy-dispersive X-ray analysis and glow discharge optical emission spectroscopy. The coatings, containing anatase, rutile and amorphous oxide, with incorporated phosphorus and silicon species, are shown to grow by discret...

  14. Marine microbial fuel cell : use of stainless steel electrodes as anode and cathode materials

    OpenAIRE

    Dumas, Claire; Mollica, Alfonso; Féron, Damien; Basséguy, Régine; Etcheverry, Luc; Bergel, Alain

    2007-01-01

    Numerous biocorrosion studies have stated that biofilms formed in aerobic seawater induce an efficient catalysis of the oxygen reduction on stainless steels. This property was implemented here for the first time in a marine microbial fuel cell (MFC). A prototype was designed with a stainless steel anode embedded in marine sediments coupled to a stainless steel cathode in the overlying seawater. Recording current/potential curves during the progress of the experiment confirmed that the cath...

  15. Graphdiyne as a high-capacity lithium ion battery anode material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Byungryul; Koo, Jahyun; Park, Minwoo; Kwon, Yongkyung; Lee, Hoonkyung, E-mail: hkiee3@konkuk.ac.kr [School of Physics, Konkuk University, Seoul 143-701 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Hosik [School of Mechanical and Advanced Materials Engineering, Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology (UNIST), Ulsan 689-798 (Korea, Republic of); Nam, Jaewook [School of Chemical Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 300 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-12-23

    Using the first-principles calculations, we explored the feasibility of using graphdiyne, a 2D layer of sp and sp{sup 2} hybrid carbon networks, as lithium ion battery anodes. We found that the composite of the Li-intercalated multilayer α-graphdiyne was C{sub 6}Li{sub 7.31} and that the calculated voltage was suitable for the anode. The practical specific/volumetric capacities can reach up to 2719 mAh g{sup −1}/2032 mAh cm{sup −3}, much greater than the values of ∼372 mAh g{sup −1}/∼818 mAh cm{sup −3}, ∼1117 mAh g{sup −1}/∼1589 mAh cm{sup −3}, and ∼744 mAh g{sup −1} for graphite, graphynes, and γ-graphdiyne, respectively. Our calculations suggest that multilayer α-graphdiyne can serve as a promising high-capacity lithium ion battery anode.

  16. Structural and electrochemical properties of SnO nanoflowers as an anode material for lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: -- Novel self-assembled highly hierarchical SnO nanoflowers with acute edge petals have been successfully synthesized by a template-free hydrothermal growth method using SnCl2·2H2O and KOH as precursors. Field emission scanning electron microscopy results show that the flower-like SnO architectureis in the range 4–7 μm. Furthermore, Raman modes at A1g = 212 and B1g = 114 cm−1 further testify to the existence of nanotetragonal phase SnO. The electrochemical results suggest that synthesized SnO nanoflowers are a promising anode material for lithium ion batteries.

  17. Electrochemical characteristics of ternary and quadruple lithium silicon nitrides as anode material for lithium ion batteries: the influence of precursors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEN Zhongsheng; TIAN Feng; SUN Juncai; JI Shijun; XIE Jingying

    2008-01-01

    Ternary and quadruple lithium silicon nitride anode materials for lithium ion batteries with different precursors were prepared by the simple process of high-energy ball milling.High capacity and excellent cyclability were obtained.The influence of precursor introduction on the electrochemical performance of products was investigated.This research reveals that the electrochemical performance of lithium silicon hiaide can be enhanced significantly by doping O.The cyclability of quadruple lithium silicon nitride can be optimized remarkably by controlling the introduction quantity of the precursors.It is possible for the composite to be used as a capacity compensator within a wide voltage cut-off window.

  18. Prepartion and electrochemical performance of a cerium oxide-graphene nanocomposite as the anode material of a lithium ion battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A nanocomposite of CeO2-graphene was prepared by a simple hydrothermal method and its electrochemical properties were investigated as a possible anode material for lithium ion batteries. Morphological characterization revealed that quasi-spherical CeO2 particles with a size of ∼100 nm were dispersed randomly on the graphene matrix. The nanocomposite shows a greater capacity for reversal and a better performance rate than a bare CeO2 electrode. The better electrochemical performance could be attributed to the unique structure of the nanocomposite, which combines the conductive graphene network with dispersed CeO2 particles.

  19. Structure and electrochemical performance of Fe3O4/graphene nanocomposite as anode material for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: → Fe3O4 nanoparticles dispersed homogeneously on graphene nanosheets were synthesized by hydrothermal route. → The Fe3O4/graphene nanocomposite as the anode material for lithium ion batteries showed a high reversible specific capacity of 771 mAh g-1 during up to 50 cycles and good rate capability. → The simple and low-cost method provides a potential approach for fabricating other graphene based materials. - Abstract: Using hydrothermal method, Fe3O4/graphene nanocomposite is prepared by synthesizing Fe3O4 particles in graphene. The synthesized Fe3O4 is nano-sized sphere particles (100-200 nm) and uniformly distributed on the planes of graphene. Fe3O4/graphene nanocomposite as anode material for lithium ion batteries shows high reversible specific capacity of 771 mAh g-1 at 50th cycle and good rate capability. The excellent electrochemical performance of the nanocomposite can be attributed to the high surface area and good electronic conductivity of graphene. Due to the high surface area, graphene can prevent Fe3O4 nanoparticles from aggregating and provide enough space to buffer the volume change during the Li insertion/extraction processes in Fe3O4 nanoparticles.

  20. A novel Si/Sn composite with entangled ribbon structure as anode materials for lithium ion battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jinbo; Zhu, Zhengwang; Zhang, Hongwei; Fu, Huameng; Li, Hong; Wang, Aimin; Zhang, Haifeng

    2016-07-01

    A novel Si/Sn composite anode material with unique ribbon structure was synthesized by Mechanical Milling (MM) and the structural transformation was studied in the present work. The microstructure characterization shows that Si/Sn composite with idealized entangled ribbon structured can be obtained by milling the mixture of the starting materials, Si and Sn for 20 h. According to the calculated results based on the XRD data, the as-milled 20 h sample has the smallest avergae crystalline size. It is supposed that the flexible ribbon structure allows for accommodation of intrinsic damage, which significantly improves the fracture toughness of the composite. The charge and discharge tests of the as-milled 20 h sample have been performed with reference to Li+/Li at a current density of 400 mA g‑1 in the voltage from 1.5 to 0.03 V (vs Li/Li+) and the result shows that the initial capacity is ∼1400 mA h g‑1, with a retention of ∼1100 mA h g‑1 reversible capacity after 50 cycles, which is possible serving as the promising anode material for the lithium ion battery application.

  1. Silicon as a potential anode material for Li-ion batteries: where size, geometry and structure matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashuri, Maziar; He, Qianran; Shaw, Leon L

    2016-01-01

    Silicon has attracted huge attention in the last decade because it has a theoretical capacity ∼10 times that of graphite. However, the practical application of Si is hindered by three major challenges: large volume expansion during cycling (∼300%), low electrical conductivity, and instability of the SEI layer caused by repeated volume changes of the Si material. Significant research efforts have been devoted to addressing these challenges, and significant breakthroughs have been made particularly in the last two years (2014 and 2015). In this review, we have focused on the principles of Si material design, novel synthesis methods to achieve such structural designs, and the synthesis-structure-performance relationships to enhance the properties of Si anodes. To provide a systematic overview of the Si material design strategies, we have grouped the design strategies into several categories: (i) particle-based structures (containing nanoparticles, solid core-shell structures, hollow core-shell structures, and yolk-shell structures), (ii) porous Si designs, (iii) nanowires, nanotubes and nanofibers, (iv) Si-based composites, and (v) unusual designs. Finally, our personal perspectives on outlook are offered with an aim to stimulate further discussion and ideas on the rational design of durable and high performance Si anodes for the next generation Li-ion batteries in the near future. PMID:26612324

  2. Highly Flexible Graphene/Mn3O4 Nanocomposite Membrane as Advanced Anodes for Li-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian-Gan; Jin, Dandan; Zhou, Rui; Li, Xu; Liu, Xing-Rui; Shen, Chao; Xie, Keyu; Li, Baohua; Kang, Feiyu; Wei, Bingqing

    2016-06-28

    Advanced electrode design is crucial in the rapid development of flexible energy storage devices for emerging flexible electronics. Herein, we report a rational synthesis of graphene/Mn3O4 nanocomposite membranes with excellent mechanical flexibility and Li-ion storage properties. The strong interaction between the large-area graphene nanosheets and long Mn3O4 nanowires not only enables the membrane to endure various mechanical deformations but also produces a strong synergistic effect of enhanced reaction kinetics by providing enlarged electrode/electrolyte contact area and reduced electron/ion transport resistance. The mechanically robust membrane is explored as a freestanding anode for Li-ion batteries, which delivers a high specific capacity of ∼800 mAh g(-1) based on the total electrode mass, along with superior high-rate capability and excellent cycling stability. A flexible full Li-ion battery is fabricated with excellent electrochemical properties and high flexibility, demonstrating its great potential for high-performance flexible energy storage devices. PMID:27172485

  3. High-Performance Si/SiOx Nanosphere Anode Material by Multipurpose Interfacial Engineering with Black TiO2-x.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Juhye; Kim, Dae Sik; Yoo, Hyundong; Park, Eunjun; Lim, Young-Geun; Park, Min-Sik; Kim, Young-Jun; Kim, Hansu

    2016-02-24

    Silicon oxides (SiOx) have attracted recent attention for their great potential as promising anode materials for lithium ion batteries as a result of their high energy density and excellent cycle performance. Despite these advantages, the commercial use of these materials is still impeded by low initial Coulombic efficiency and high production cost associated with a complicated synthesis process. Here, we demonstrate that Si/SiOx nanosphere anode materials show much improved performance enabled by electroconductive black TiO2-x coating in terms of reversible capacity, Coulombic efficiency, and thermal reliability. The resulting anode material exhibits a high reversible capacity of 1200 mAh g(-1) with an excellent cycle performance of up to 100 cycles. The introduction of a TiO2-x layer induces further reduction of the Si species in the SiOx matrix phase, thereby increasing the reversible capacity and initial Coulombic efficiency. Besides the improved electrochemical performance, the TiO2-x coating layer plays a key role in improving the thermal reliability of the Si/SiOx nanosphere anode material at the same time. We believe that this multipurpose interfacial engineering approach provides another route toward high-performance Si-based anode materials on a commercial scale. PMID:26820496

  4. Hierarchical silicon nanowires-carbon textiles matrix as a binder-free anode for high-performance advanced lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bin; Wang, Xianfu; Chen, Haitian; Wang, Zhuoran; Chen, Di; Cheng, Yi-Bing; Zhou, Chongwu; Shen, Guozhen

    2013-04-01

    Toward the increasing demands of portable energy storage and electric vehicle applications, the widely used graphite anodes with significant drawbacks become more and more unsuitable. Herein, we report a novel scaffold of hierarchical silicon nanowires-carbon textiles anodes fabricated via a facile method. Further, complete lithium-ion batteries based on Si and commercial LiCoO2 materials were assembled to investigate their corresponding across-the-aboard performances, demonstrating their enhanced specific capacity (2950 mAh g-1 at 0.2 C), good repeatability/rate capability (even >900 mAh g-1 at high rate of 5 C), long cycling life, and excellent stability in various external conditions (curvature, temperature, and humidity). Above results light the way to principally replacing graphite anodes with silicon-based electrodes which was confirmed to have better comprehensive performances.

  5. Catalytic Methods in Asymmetric Synthesis Advanced Materials, Techniques, and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Gruttadauria, Michelangelo

    2011-01-01

    This book covers advances in the methods of catalytic asymmetric synthesis and their applications. Coverage moves from new materials and technologies to homogeneous metal-free catalysts and homogeneous metal catalysts. The applications of several methodologies for the synthesis of biologically active molecules are discussed. Part I addresses recent advances in new materials and technologies such as supported catalysts, supports, self-supported catalysts, chiral ionic liquids, supercritical fluids, flow reactors and microwaves related to asymmetric catalysis. Part II covers advances and milesto

  6. Engineering with advanced materials for tailing dam designing

    OpenAIRE

    Kostadinov, Ljubisa; Krstev, Boris; Golomeov, Blagoj; Golomeova, Mirjana; Ilievski, Darko

    2012-01-01

    Tailing dam accidents hapened in the past serve as "alarm" for application of advanced methods and techniques at designing of tailing dams. The designing of advanced tailing dam nowdays is very current topic, due to the fact that designing would resolve very important issues for environmental protection. Advanced materials (geosyntetics) are used at process of construction in order the tailing dam to be constructed and to perform according to the advanced world standards. By applying the geos...

  7. Multiscale damage modeling of advanced composite materials

    OpenAIRE

    Menna, Costantino

    2013-01-01

    The use of composite materials has spread over the years throughout the engineering areas of structures. The technological progress in this field has recently expanded, resulting in the design of new composite configurations, including multilayered composite materials and multifunctional nanostructured materials. Even though traditional and emerging composite materials offer wide potentialities for engineering, a significant challenge is still open with respect to damage phenomena. Driven by ...

  8. Insulation materials for advanced water storages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Jørgen Munthe

    2005-01-01

    sections different insulation materials are described with respect to material characteristics and some comments on the easiness of application for tank insulation. The material properties listed in this paper are typical values, which gives an idea of the possibilities but in case of a specific design a...

  9. Ultrahigh capacity anode material for lithium ion battery based on rod gold nanoparticles decorated reduced graphene oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atar, Necip, E-mail: necipatar@gmail.com [Department of Chemical Engineering, Pamukkale University, Denizli (Turkey); Eren, Tanju [Department of Chemical Engineering, Pamukkale University, Denizli (Turkey); Yola, Mehmet Lütfi [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Sinop University, Sinop (Turkey)

    2015-09-01

    In this study, we report the synthesis of rod shaped gold nanoparticles/2-aminoethanethiol functionalized reduced graphene oxide composite (rdAuNPs/AETrGO) and its application as an anode material for lithium-ion batteries. The structure of the rdAuNPs/AETrGO composite was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. The electrochemical performance was investigated at different current rates by using a coin-type cell. It was found that the rod shaped gold nanoparticles were highly dispersed on the reduced graphene oxide sheets. Moreover, the rdAuNPs/AETrGO composite showed a high specific gravimetric capacity of about 1320 mAh g{sup −1} and a long-term cycle stability. - Highlights: • We prepared rod shaped gold nanoparticles functionalized reduced graphene oxide. • The nanocomposite was used as an anode material for lithium-ion batteries. • The nanocomposite showed a high specific gravimetric capacity of about 1320 mAh g{sup −1}. • The nanocomposite exhibited a long-term cycle stability.

  10. Synthesis And Electrochemical Characteristics Of Mechanically Alloyed Anode Materials SnS2 For Li/SnS2 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong J.H.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available With the increasing demand for efficient and economic energy storage, tin disulfide (SnS2, as one of the most attractive anode candidates for the next generation high-energy rechargeable Li-ion battery, have been paid more and more attention because of its high theoretical energy density and cost effectiveness. In this study, a new, simple and effective process, mechanical alloying (MA, has been developed for preparing fine anode material tin disulfides, in which ammonium chloride (AC, referred to as process control agents (PCAs, were used to prevent excessive cold-welding and accelerate the synthesis rates to some extent. Meanwhile, in order to decrease the mean size of SnS2 powder particles and improve the contact areas between the active materials, wet milling process was also conducted with normal hexane (NH as a solvent PCA. The prepared powders were both characterized by X-ray diffraction, Field emission-scanning electron microscopeand particle size analyzer. Finally, electrochemical measurements for Li/SnS2 cells were takenat room temperature, using a two-electrode cell assembled in an argon-filled glove box and the electrolyte of 1M LiPF6 in a mixture of ethylene carbonate(EC/dimethylcarbonate (DMC/ethylene methyl carbonate (EMC (volume ratio of 1:1:1.

  11. Fe1.5Ti0.5O3 nanoparticles as an anode material for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iron titanium oxide (Fe1.5Ti0.5O3) nanoparticles with the diameter of about 150 nm were prepared by hydrothermal process and further heat treatment at 300 °C for 2 h. The morphology, structure and electrochemical performance of Fe1.5Ti0.5O3 nanoparticles as anode material for lithium-ion batteries were investigated by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and a variety of electrochemical testing techniques. It was found that, compared with TiO2 and Fe2O3, the iron titanium oxide electrode exhibited higher specific capacity of 734.9 mAh g−1 after 50 cycles at the current density of 50 mA g−1, good cycle stability and high-rate performance, suggesting that the Fe1.5Ti0.5O3 nanoparticle synthesized by this method is a promising anode material for lithium-ion batteries.

  12. Yolk-shell ZnO-C microspheres with enhanced electrochemical performance as anode material for lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • ZnO-C yolk-shell microspheres, hollow microspheres and solid microspheres are prepared. • Yolk-shell ZnO-C microspheres possess the best electrochemical properties when used as the anode materials for lithium-ion batteries. • The special yolk-shell structures and extra carbon support account for the enhanced electrochemical properties. - Abstract: Three ZnO-C samples with distinct structures including yolk-shell microspheres, hollow microspheres and solid microspheres are fabricated through a facile chemical solution reaction followed by calcination in argon. When employed as the anode materials for lithium ion batteries, yolk-shell ZnO-C microspheres exhibit the best electrochemical properties than the hollow and solid microspheres. After 150 cycles, yolk-shell ZnO-C microspheres demonstrate a relative high capacity of 520 mA h g−1 at a current density of 100 mA g−1 with a Coulombic efficiency of about 99.3%. The excellent cycling stability and good rate capability of yolk-shell ZnO-C microspheres stem from the synergistic effect of the unique yolk-shell structures and extra carbon support

  13. Ultrahigh capacity anode material for lithium ion battery based on rod gold nanoparticles decorated reduced graphene oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, we report the synthesis of rod shaped gold nanoparticles/2-aminoethanethiol functionalized reduced graphene oxide composite (rdAuNPs/AETrGO) and its application as an anode material for lithium-ion batteries. The structure of the rdAuNPs/AETrGO composite was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. The electrochemical performance was investigated at different current rates by using a coin-type cell. It was found that the rod shaped gold nanoparticles were highly dispersed on the reduced graphene oxide sheets. Moreover, the rdAuNPs/AETrGO composite showed a high specific gravimetric capacity of about 1320 mAh g−1 and a long-term cycle stability. - Highlights: • We prepared rod shaped gold nanoparticles functionalized reduced graphene oxide. • The nanocomposite was used as an anode material for lithium-ion batteries. • The nanocomposite showed a high specific gravimetric capacity of about 1320 mAh g−1. • The nanocomposite exhibited a long-term cycle stability

  14. Trace analysis of Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn in various materials using differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sampling and sample preparation methods have been described. Digestion methods for different types of materials and acid purification systems have been developed. For trace analysis purposes cleaning methods for glassware etc. have been described. Differential pulse anodic stripping voltametric (DPASV) method has been worked out for the trace analysis of zn, cd, pb and Cu in different types of materials. Linearity of the method has been checked by drawing concentration versus currents (peak height) curves. Precision of the method has been checked by analysing a number of actual samples. of the method has been verified by analysing standards of U.S.A. Comparative studies have been done between Differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetric method and Atomic Absorption spectroscopic method. Problems of contamination and systematic errors during trace and ultra-trace analysis have been discussed. A variety of samples including soil, spinach, wheat flour, rice flour, dry milk, coriander, kidney stones, bladder stones etc. have been analysed and preliminary results have been reported. (author)

  15. Poly L-lysine (PLL)-mediated porous hematite clusters as anode materials for improved Li-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kun-Woo; Lee, Sang-Wha

    2015-09-01

    Porous hematite clusters were prepared as anode materials for improved Li-ion batteries. First, poly-L-lysine (PLL)-linked Fe3O4 was facilely prepared via cross-linking between the positive amine groups of PLL and carboxylate-bound Fe3O4. The subsequent calcination transformed the PLL-linked Fe3O4 into porous hematite clusters (Fe2O3@PLL) consisting of spherical α-Fe2O3 particles. Compared with standard Fe2O3, Fe3O4@PLL exhibited improved electrochemical performance as anode materials. The discharge capacity of Fe2O3@PLL was retained at 814.7 mAh g-1 after 30 cycles, which is equivalent to 80.4% of the second discharge capacity, whereas standard Fe2O3 exhibited a retention capacity of 352.3 mAh g-1. The improved electrochemical performance of Fe2O3@PLL was mainly attributed to the porous hematite clusters with mesoporosity (20-40 nm), which was beneficial for facilitating ion transport, suggesting a useful guideline for the design of porous architectures with higher retention capacity. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  16. Stainless steel is a promising electrode material for anodes of microbial fuel cells

    OpenAIRE

    Pocaznoi, Diana; Calmet, Amandine; Etcheverry, Luc; Erable, Benjamin; Bergel, Alain

    2012-01-01

    The abilities of carbon cloth, graphite plate and stainless steel to form microbial anodes were compared under identical conditions. Each electrode was polarised at −0.2 V vs. SCE in soil leachate and fed by successive additions of 20 mM acetate. Under these conditions, the maximum current densities provided were on average 33.7 A m−2 for carbon cloth, 20.6 A m−2 for stainless steel, and 9.5 A m−2 for flat graphite. The high current density obtained with carbon cloth was obviously influenced ...

  17. Electrocatalytic Materials and Techniques for the Anodic Oxidation of Various Organic Compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephen Everett Treimer

    2002-06-27

    The focus of this thesis was first to characterize and improve the applicability of Fe(III) and Bi(V) doped PbO{sub 2} film electrodes for use in anodic O-transfer reactions of toxic and waste organic compounds, e.g. phenol, aniline, benzene, and naphthalene. Further, they investigated the use of alternative solution/electrode interfacial excitation techniques to enhance the performance of these electrodes for remediation and electrosynthetic applications. Finally, they have attempted to identify a less toxic metal oxide film that may hold promise for future studies in the electrocatalysis and photoelectrocatalysis of O-transfer reactions using metal oxide film electrodes.

  18. Binder Free SnO2-CNT Composite as Anode Material for Li-Ion Battery

    OpenAIRE

    Dionne Hernandez; Frank Mendoza; Emmanuel Febus; Weiner, Brad R.; Gerardo Morell

    2014-01-01

    Tin dioxide-carbon nanotube (SnO2-CNT) composite films were synthesized on copper substrates by a one-step process using hot filament chemical vapor deposition (HFCVD) with methane gas (CH4) as the carbon source. The composite structural properties enhance the surface-to-volume ratio of SnO2 demonstrating a desirable electrochemical performance for a lithium-ion battery anode. The SnO2 and CNT interactions were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), tran...

  19. Anodic performance in lithium-ion batteries of graphite-like materials prepared from anthracites and unburned carbon concentrates from coal combustion fly ashes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Cameán

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The electrochemical performance as anodes for lithium-ion batteries of graphite-like materials that were prepared from anthracites and unburned carbon concentrates from coal combustion fly ashes by high temperature treatment was investigated by galvanostatic cycling of lithium test cells. Some of the materials prepared have provided reversible capacities up to ~ 310 mA h g-1 after 50 discharge/ charge cycles. These values are similar to those of oil-derived graphite (petroleum coke being the main precursor which is currently used as anodic material in commercial lithium-ion batteries.

  20. Materials Challenges for Advanced Combustion and Gasification Fossil Energy Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridhar, S.; Rozzelle, P.; Morreale, B.; Alman, D.

    2011-04-01

    This special section of Metallurgical and Materials Transactions is devoted to materials challenges associated with coal based energy conversion systems. The purpose of this introductory article is to provide a brief outline to the challenges associated with advanced combustion and advanced gasification, which has the potential of providing clean, affordable electricity by improving process efficiency and implementing carbon capture and sequestration. Affordable materials that can meet the demanding performance requirements will be a key enabling technology for these systems.

  1. Electrospun fibers for high performance anodes in microbial fuel cells. Optimizing materials and architecture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Shuiliang

    2010-04-15

    A novel porous conducting nanofiber mat (PCNM) with nanostructured polyaniline (nanoPANi) on the fiber surface was successfully prepared by simple oxidative polymerization. The composite PCNM displayed a core/shell structure with highly rough surface. The thickness and the morphology of PANi layer on the electrospun polyamide (PA) fiber surface could be controlled by varying aniline concentration and temperature. The combination of the advantages of electrospinning technique and nanostructured PANi, let the PA/PANi composite PCNM possess more than five good properties, i.e. high conductivity of 6.759 S.m{sup -1}, high specific surface area of 160 m2.g{sup -1}, good strength of 82.88 MPa for mat and 161.75 MPa for highly aligned belts, good thermal properties with 5% weight loss temperature up to 415 C and excellent biocompatibility. In the PA/PANi composite PCNM, PANi is the only conducting component, its conductivity of 6.759 S.m{sup -1} which is measured in dry-state, is not enough for electrode. Moreover, the conductivity decreases in neutral pH environment due to the de-doping of proton. However, the method of spontaneous growth of nanostructured PANi on electrospun fiber mats provides an effective method to produce porous electrically conducting electrospun fiber mats. The combination advantages of nanostructured PANi with the electrospun fiber mats, extends the applications of PANi and electrospun nanofibers, such as chemical- and bio-sensors, actuators, catalysis, electromagnetic shielding, corrosion protection, separation membranes, electro-optic devices, electrochromic devices, tissue engineering and many others. The electrical conductivity of electrospun PCNM with PANi as the only conducting component is too low for application of as anode in microbial fuel cells (MFCs). So, we turn to electrospun carbon fiber due to its high electrical conductivity and environmental stability. The current density is greatly dependent on the microorganism density of anode

  2. New trends in advanced high energy materials

    OpenAIRE

    Adam S. Cumming

    2009-01-01

    In the last twenty years military explosives and energetic materials in general have changed significantly. This has been due to several factors which include new operational requirements such as Insensitive Munitions (IM), but is also due to the availability of new materials and to new assessment and modelling techniques. These permit more effective use of materials and a more detailed understanding of the processes involved in applying the technology. This article will outline some of the e...

  3. Advanced Magnetostrictive Materials for Sonar Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajapan Rajapan

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Piezoelectric or magnetostrictive materials can be utilised as active materials for electroacoustic underwater transducers. Piezoceramic materials gained edge over the conventional magnetostrictive materials during 1940s due to their unique electro-acoustic properties. At present, inspite of passive sonars there is a need of low-frequency high-power active sonars for the Navy. This led toresearch for new activematerials with competing characteristics to that of the existing piezo transducers. The discovery of a giant magnetostrictive material, commercially known as Terfenol-D, led to a breakthrough in the development of a new generation of sonar transducers. Now, the materials (including composites as well as sensors are commercially available. A new generation of transducers have emerged in ocean-related areas like acoustic tomography, longrange underwater communication, geophysical exploration, oil well exploration, etc.Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai, has also developed the basic material technology a few years back. At present, in India, National Institute of Ocean Technology, Chennai, is developing underwater transducers utilising giant magnetostrictive materials as well as piezoelectric materials for marine applications like sub-bottom profiling (seafloor mapping and long-range underwater communications. A prototype of a portable, low-frequency medium power transmitter operating over a wide-frequency range has been developed. The main advantage of this transducer is its simplicity in design. In this paper, (he recent developments in material processes, importance of device-oriented material characterisation, and transducer design aspects have been emphasised. Some results on the underwater performance of a wide-band transducer have also been presented. These materials also have ultrasonic applications, capable of revolutionising the processing industry.

  4. Advanced Mechanical Testing of Sandwich Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hayman, Brian; Berggreen, Christian; Jenstrup, Claus;

    2008-01-01

    An advanced digital optical system has been used to measure surface strains on sandwich face and core specimens tested in a project concerned with improved criteria for designing sandwich X-joints. The face sheet specimens were of glass reinforced polyester and were tested in tension. The core sp...

  5. Advanced materials for space nuclear power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titran, Robert H.; Grobstein, Toni L.; Ellis, David L.

    1991-01-01

    The overall philosophy of the research was to develop and characterize new high temperature power conversion and radiator materials and to provide spacecraft designers with material selection options and design information. Research on three candidate materials (carbide strengthened niobium alloy PWC-11 for fuel cladding, graphite fiber reinforced copper matrix composites for heat rejection fins, and tungsten fiber reinforced niobium matrix composites for fuel containment and structural supports) considered for space power system applications is discussed. Each of these types of materials offers unique advantages for space power applications.

  6. Zinc pyridinedicarboxylate micro-nanostructures: Promising anode materials for lithium-ion batteries with excellent cycling performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fei, Hailong; Lin, Yaqin

    2016-11-01

    It is important to discover new, cheap and environmental friendly coordination polymer electrode materials for lithium-ion batteries. Zinc 2,6-pyridilinedicarboxylate particles show better cycling stability and higher discharge capacity than 2,5-pyridilinedicarboxylate micro-platelets when they are firstly tested as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries. The former can steadily cycle at current densities of 750, 1000 and 2000mAg(-1). It is also stable in multiple insertion/extraction processes at current densities of 750, 1500, 2000, 2500, 3000, and 750mAg(-1), and the capacity retention is 77.9% after 60cycles. While the latter is apt to show good cycling performance at smaller discharge current density. PMID:27490195

  7. Electrospinning synthesis of 3D porous NiO nanorods as anode material for lithium-ion batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Kong Xiang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Three-dimensional NiO nanorods were synthesized as anode material by electrospinning method. X-ray diffraction results revealed that the product sintered at 400 °C had impure metallic nickel phase which, however, became pure NiO phase as the sintering temperature rose. Nevertheless, the nanorods sintered at 400, 500 and 600 °C had similar diameters (∼200 nm.The NiO nanorod material sintered at 500 °C was chip-shaped with a diameter of 200 nm and it exhibited a porous 3D structure. The nanorod sintered at 500 °C had the optimal electrochemical performance. Its discharge specific capacity was 1127 mAh·g−1 initially and remained as high as 400 mAh·g−1 at a current density of 55 mA·g−1 after 50 cycles.

  8. Nanoscale MnO and natural graphite hybrid materials as high-performance anode for lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, MnO and natural graphite (NG) hybrid composite was synthesized via a hydrothermal reaction and a subsequent self-reduction process. As an anode material for lithium ion batteries, MnO/NG composite displays excellent cycling stability and good rate capability. The charge–discharge test showed the highest initial lithiation/delithiation specific capacities of 552.8 and 511.7 mAh · g−1, which were maintained at 494.9 and 497 mAh · g−1 even after 120 cycles, at 0.2 C with a voltage range from 0.01 V to 2.0 V. The lithiation specific capacity was retained 280 mAh · g−1 at 10 C, which extremely precedes the bare NG materials

  9. Development of Low Cost Carbonaceous Materials for Anodes in Lithium-Ion Batteries for Electric and Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barsukov, Igor V.

    2002-12-10

    Final report on the US DOE CARAT program describes innovative R & D conducted by Superior Graphite Co., Chicago, IL, USA in cooperation with researchers from the Illinois Institute of Technology, and defines the proper type of carbon and a cost effective method for its production, as well as establishes a US based manufacturer for the application of anodes of the Lithium-Ion, Lithium polymer batteries of the Hybrid Electric and Pure Electric Vehicles. The three materials each representing a separate class of graphitic carbon, have been developed and released for field trials. They include natural purified flake graphite, purified vein graphite and a graphitized synthetic carbon. Screening of the available on the market materials, which will help fully utilize the graphite, has been carried out.

  10. Research progress in anode materials for Li-ion battery%锂离子电池负极材料的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武明昊; 陈剑; 王崇; 衣宝廉

    2011-01-01

    综述了近年来锂离子电池负极材料的研究进展,包括碳材料、过渡金属氧化物,锡基和硅基材料等,重点评述了锡基和硅基材料的研究进展,并对锂离子电池负极材料的发展趋势进行了展望.%Research progress in anode materials for Li-ion battery in recent years, including carbon, transition metal oxides, tin based composites and silicon based composites was reviewed. The research progress in tin based and silicon based anode materials was commented emphatically,the development tendency of Li-ion battery anode materials was prospected.

  11. Advanced lubrication systems and materials. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, S.

    1998-05-07

    This report described the work conducted at the National Institute of Standards and Technology under an interagency agreement signed in September 1992 between DOE and NIST for 5 years. The interagency agreement envisions continual funding from DOE to support the development of fuel efficient, low emission engine technologies in terms of lubrication, friction, and wear control encountered in the development of advanced transportation technologies. However, in 1994, the DOE office of transportation technologies was reorganized and the tribology program was dissolved. The work at NIST therefore continued at a low level without further funding from DOE. The work continued to support transportation technologies in the development of fuel efficient, low emission engine development. Under this program, significant progress has been made in advancing the state of the art of lubrication technology for advanced engine research and development. Some of the highlights are: (1) developed an advanced high temperature liquid lubricant capable of sustaining high temperatures in a prototype heat engine; (2) developed a novel liquid lubricant which potentially could lower the emission of heavy duty diesel engines; (3) developed lubricant chemistries for ceramics used in the heat engines; (4) developed application maps for ceramic lubricant chemistry combinations for design purpose; and (5) developed novel test methods to screen lubricant chemistries for automotive air-conditioning compressors lubricated by R-134a (Freon substitute). Most of these findings have been reported to the DOE program office through Argonne National Laboratory who manages the overall program. A list of those reports and a copy of the report submitted to the Argonne National Laboratory is attached in Appendix A. Additional reports have also been submitted separately to DOE program managers. These are attached in Appendix B.

  12. Advanced materials for radiation-cooled rockets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Brian; Biaglow, James; Schneider, Steven

    1993-01-01

    The most common material system currently used for low thrust, radiation-cooled rockets is a niobium alloy (C-103) with a fused silica coating (R-512A or R-512E) for oxidation protection. However, significant amounts of fuel film cooling are usually required to keep the material below its maximum operating temperature of 1370 C, degrading engine performance. Also the R-512 coating is subject to cracking and eventual spalling after repeated thermal cycling. A new class of high-temperature, oxidation-resistant materials are being developed for radiation-cooled rockets, with the thermal margin to reduce or eliminate fuel film cooling, while still exceeding the life of silicide-coated niobium. Rhenium coated with iridium is the most developed of these high-temperature materials. Efforts are on-going to develop 22 N, 62 N, and 440 N engines composed of these materials for apogee insertion, attitude control, and other functions. There is also a complimentary NASA and industry effort to determine the life limiting mechanisms and characterize the thermomechanical properties of these materials. Other material systems are also being studied which may offer more thermal margin and/or oxidation resistance, such as hafnium carbide/tantalum carbide matrix composites and ceramic oxide-coated iridium/rhenium chambers.

  13. Advanced materials for radiation-cooled rockets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Brian; Biaglow, James; Schneider, Steven

    1993-11-01

    The most common material system currently used for low thrust, radiation-cooled rockets is a niobium alloy (C-103) with a fused silica coating (R-512A or R-512E) for oxidation protection. However, significant amounts of fuel film cooling are usually required to keep the material below its maximum operating temperature of 1370 C, degrading engine performance. Also the R-512 coating is subject to cracking and eventual spalling after repeated thermal cycling. A new class of high-temperature, oxidation-resistant materials are being developed for radiation-cooled rockets, with the thermal margin to reduce or eliminate fuel film cooling, while still exceeding the life of silicide-coated niobium. Rhenium coated with iridium is the most developed of these high-temperature materials. Efforts are on-going to develop 22 N, 62 N, and 440 N engines composed of these materials for apogee insertion, attitude control, and other functions. There is also a complimentary NASA and industry effort to determine the life limiting mechanisms and characterize the thermomechanical properties of these materials. Other material systems are also being studied which may offer more thermal margin and/or oxidation resistance, such as hafnium carbide/tantalum carbide matrix composites and ceramic oxide-coated iridium/rhenium chambers.

  14. Production of Construction Materials Using Advanced Recycling Technologies

    OpenAIRE

    ECT Team, Purdue

    2007-01-01

    Waste reduction, material reuse, and use of recycle-content products can be focused on the management system somewhat. In contrast, material recycling is the technical issue how to create new materials using wastes. Thus, three advanced recycling technologies; 1) Synthetic Lightweight Aggregate technology (SLA), 2) Clean Coal Technology (CCT), and 3) RP-1 Polymer Identification System are introduced.

  15. New trends in advanced high energy materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam S. Cumming

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In the last twenty years military explosives and energetic materials in general have changed significantly. This has been due to several factors which include new operational requirements such as Insensitive Munitions (IM, but is also due to the availability of new materials and to new assessment and modelling techniques. These permit more effective use of materials and a more detailed understanding of the processes involved in applying the technology. This article will outline some of the effects in addition to taking a glance at what the future might hold.

  16. Lignin-Derived Advanced Carbon Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Sabornie; Saito, Tomonori

    2015-12-01

    Lignin is a highly abundant source of renewable carbon that can be considered as a valuable sustainable source of biobased materials. By applying specific pretreatments and manufacturing methods, lignin can be converted into a variety of value-added carbon materials. However, the physical and chemical heterogeneities of lignin complicate its use as a feedstock. Herein lignin manufacturing process, the effects of pretreatments and manufacturing methods on the properties of product lignin, and structure-property relationships in various applications of lignin-derived carbon materials, such as carbon fibers, carbon mats, activated carbons, carbon films, and templated carbon, are discussed. PMID:26568373

  17. Hydrothermal growth of Cobalt germanate/reduced graphene oxide nanocomposite as superior anode materials for Lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The nanosized Co2GeO4 and Co2GeO4/RGO nanocomposites were prepared by a facile one pot hydrothermal route. • The Co2GeO4 and Co2GeO4/RGO nanocomposites could be used as novel high capacity anodes with both alloying and conversion reactions. • The RGO incorporation can improve the electrochemical performance of Co2GeO4 by buffering the volume changes and enhancing the conductivity of the electrodes. • The CGO/RGO nanocomposites exhibit a large reversible capacity of 1250 mAh g−1 for the first cycle and a capacity retention of 1085 mAh g−1 after 100 cycles. Remarkable rate performance was also recorded. - Abstract: Well dispersed Co2GeO4 (CGO) nanoplates and CGO/reduced graphene oxide (RGO) nanocomposites are prepared via hydrothermal method and characterized as novel lithium anode materials for the first time. Electrochemical measurements demonstrate that the CGO/RGO nanocomposites exhibit a large reversible capacity of 1250 mAh g−1 for the first cycle and a capacity retention of 1085 mAh g−1 after 100 cycles. Remarkable rate performance was also recorded. The superior electrochemical performance of the CGO/RGO nanocomposites electrode compared to the pure CGO electrode can be attributed to the well dispersed RGO which enhances the electronic conductivity and accommodate the volume change during the conversion reactions

  18. Lithiation Behavior of High Capacity SiCO Anode Material for Lithium-ion Battery: A First Principle Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polymer-derived silicon oxycarbide (SiCO) has a reversible capacity of ∼800 mA h g−1 and is considered as a promising anode material for Li-ion battery. Further study needs to be conducted in terms of energy and structure in atomic scale, which could be very challenging for current experimental technologies. To better understand the mechanism of lithium insertion in SiCO, first principle calculations are performed to study the atomic structures, bonding mechanism, mechanical properties and lithiation voltage of lithiated SiC1/4O7/4. The predominate feature of the lithiated configuration is the presence of several Li involved tetrahedrons with the formation of Li−C/Li−O bonds. By the calculations of relative volume and bulk modulus, SiC1/4O7/4 presents a considerably better performance in expansion and mechanical property than Si and SiO1/3. The formation energy and voltage curve also show that the lithium is more preferable in incorporation with SiC1/4O7/4 than Si and SiO1/3, which is attributed to the formation of Li−O, Li−C bonds and corresponding Li involved tetrahedrons. Our calculations are in agreement with the available experiments, and provide a deeper insight into the lithiation mechanism of SiCO anode for Li-ion batteries

  19. Corrosion and Discharge Behaviors of Mg-Al-Zn and Mg-Al-Zn-In Alloys as Anode Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiarun Li

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The Mg-6%Al-3%Zn and Mg-6%Al-3%Zn-(1%, 1.5%, 2%In alloys were prepared by melting and casting. Their microstructures were investigated via metallographic and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS analysis. Moreover, hydrogen evolution and electrochemical tests were carried out in 3.5 wt% NaCl solution aiming at identifying their corrosion mechanisms and discharge behaviors. The results suggested that indium exerts an improvement on both the corrosion rate and the discharge activity of Mg-Al-Zn alloy via the effects of grain refining, β-Mg17Al12 precipitation, dissolving-reprecipitation, and self-peeling. The Mg-6%Al-3%Zn-1.5%In alloy with the highest corrosion rate at free corrosion potential did not perform desirable discharge activity indicating that the barrier effect caused by the β-Mg17Al12 phase would have been enhanced under the conditions of anodic polarization. The Mg-6%Al-3%Zn-1.0%In alloy with a relative low corrosion rate and a high discharge activity is a promising anode material for both cathodic protection and chemical power source applications.

  20. Micro-nanostructured CuO/C spheres as high-performance anode materials for Na-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yanying; Zhang, Ning; Zhao, Qing; Liang, Jing; Chen, Jun

    2015-02-14

    In this paper, we report on the synthesis of micro-nanostructured CuO/C spheres by aerosol spray pyrolysis and their application as high-performance anodes in sodium-ion batteries. Micro-nanostructured CuO/C spheres with different CuO contents were synthesized through aerosol spray pyrolysis by adjusting the ratio of reactants and heat-treated by an oxidation process. The as-prepared CuO/C spheres show uniformly spherical morphology, in which CuO nanoparticles (∼10 nm) are homogeneously embedded in the carbon matrix (denoted as 10-CuO/C). The electrochemical performance of 10-CuO/C with a carbon weight of 44% was evaluated as the anode material for Na-ion batteries. It can deliver a capacity of 402 mA h g(-1) after 600 cycles at a current density of 200 mA g(-1). Furthermore, a capacity of 304 mA h g(-1) was obtained at a high current density of 2000 mA g(-1). The superior electrochemical performance of the micro-nanostructured CuO/C spheres leads to the enhancement of the electronic conductivity of the nanocomposite and the accommodation of the volume variation of CuO/C during charge/discharge cycling. PMID:25584745

  1. Advances in ultrafine-grained materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Huang

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This review addresses new developments in the processing and properties of ultrafine-grained (UFG materials. These materials are produced through the application of severe plastic deformation to conventional coarse-grained metals and typically they have grain sizes within the submicrometer or even the nanometer range. Although several techniques are now available for achieving excellent homogeneity and high fractions of high-angle grain boundaries, this review concentrates on the major procedures of equal-channel angular pressing and high-pressure torsion. It is shown that UFG materials exhibit both excellent strength at ambient temperature and, if the grains are reasonably stable, outstanding superplastic properties at elevated temperatures. These materials also have a high innovation potential for use in commercial applications.

  2. Advanced Materials Growth and Processing Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This most extensive of U.S. Army materials growth and processing facilities houses seven dedicated, state-of-the-art, molecular beam epitaxy and three metal organic...

  3. Facile hybridization of Ni@Fe2O3 superparticles with functionalized reduced graphene oxide and its application as anode material in lithium-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backert, Gregor; Oschmann, Bernd; Tahir, Muhammad Nawaz; Mueller, Franziska; Lieberwirth, Ingo; Balke, Benjamin; Tremel, Wolfgang; Passerini, Stefano; Zentel, Rudolf

    2016-09-15

    In our present work we developed a novel graphene wrapping approach of Ni@Fe2O3 superparticles, which can be extended as a concept approach for other nanomaterials as well. It uses sulfonated reduced graphene oxide, but avoids thermal treatments and use of toxic agents like hydrazine for its reduction. The modification of graphene oxide is achieved by the introduction of sulfate groups accompanied with reduction and elimination reactions, due to the treatment with oleum. The successful wrapping of nanoparticles is proven by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. The developed composite material shows strongly improved performance as anode material in lithium-ion batteries (compared to unwrapped Ni@Fe2O3) as it offers a reversible capacity of 1051mAhg(-1) after 40 cycles at C/20, compared with 460mAhg(-1) for unwrapped Ni@Fe2O3. The C rate capability is also improved by the wrapping approach, as specific capacities for wrapped particles are about twice of those offered by unwrapped particles. Additionally, the benefit for the use of the advanced superparticle morphology is demonstrated by comparing wrapped Ni@Fe2O3 particles with wrapped Fe2O3 nanorice. PMID:27295319

  4. Mineralization of salicylic acid in acidic aqueous medium by electrochemical advanced oxidation processes using platinum and boron-doped diamond as anode and cathodically generated hydrogen peroxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guinea, Elena; Arias, Conchita; Cabot, Pere Lluís; Garrido, José Antonio; Rodríguez, Rosa María; Centellas, Francesc; Brillas, Enric

    2008-01-01

    Solutions containing 164 mg L(-1) salicylic acid of pH 3.0 have been degraded by electrochemical advanced oxidation processes such as anodic oxidation, anodic oxidation with electrogenerated H(2)O(2), electro-Fenton, photoelectro-Fenton and solar photoelectro-Fenton at constant current density. Their oxidation power has been comparatively studied in a one-compartment cell with a Pt or boron-doped diamond (BDD) anode and a graphite or O(2)-diffusion cathode. In the three latter procedures, 0.5mM Fe(2+) is added to the solution to form hydroxyl radical (()OH) from Fenton's reaction between Fe(2+) and H(2)O(2) generated at the O(2)-diffusion cathode. Total mineralization is attained for all methods with BDD and for photoelectro-Fenton and solar photoelectro-Fenton with Pt. The poor decontamination achieved in anodic oxidation and electro-Fenton with Pt is explained by the slow removal of most pollutants by ()OH formed from water oxidation at the Pt anode in comparison to their quick destruction with ()OH produced at BDD. ()OH generated from Fenton's reaction oxidizes rapidly all aromatic pollutants, but it cannot destroy final Fe(III)-oxalate complexes. Solar photoelectro-Fenton treatments always yield quicker degradation rate due to the very fast photodecarboxylation of these complexes by UVA irradiation supplied by solar light. The effect of current density on the degradation rate, efficiency and energy cost of all methods is examined. The salicylic acid decay always follows a pseudo-first-order kinetics. 2,3-Dihydroxybenzoic, 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic, 2,6-dihydroxybenzoic, alpha-ketoglutaric, glycolic, glyoxylic, maleic, fumaric, malic, tartronic and oxalic acids are detected as oxidation products. A general reaction sequence for salicylic acid mineralization considering all these intermediates is proposed. PMID:17692891

  5. Recent advances in mass transport in materials

    CERN Document Server

    Ochsner, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    The present topical volume presents a representative cross-section of some recent advances made in the area of diffusion. The range of topics covered is very large, and, this reflects the enormous breadth of the topic of diffusion. The areas covered include diffusion in intermetallics, phenomenological diffusion theory, diffusional creep, kinetics of steel-making, diffusion in thin films, precipitation, diffusional phase transformations, atomistic diffusion simulations, epitaxial growth and diffusion in porous media. Review from Book News Inc.: In 13 invited and peer-reviewed papers, scientist

  6. Advanced Polymeric Materials for High-tech Innovations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG BenZhong

    2001-01-01

    @@ High technology is advancing our society and modernizing our life and advanced materials play an important role in the technological innovations. My research group has been working on the development of advanced polymeric materials and in this talk I will report our recent work on the creation of new conjugated polymers with novel molecular structures and unique materials properties.1-18 Our work include the design of molecular structures of monomeric building blocks, development of stable, effective and environmentally benign "green” polymerization catalysts, discovery of new polymerization reactions, synthesis of functional macromolecules, fabrication of nanodimensional composites, assembly and control of hierarchical structures, and construction of electrooptical devices. We have revealed the liquid crystallinity, light emission, photoconductivity, optical limiting, nano-hybridization, solvatochromism, optical activity, self-organization, and biological activity of the linear polyacetylenes and hyperbranched polyarylenes. The utilization of the advanced polymers and their interesting materials properties for high-tech innovations will be discussed.

  7. Advanced Polymeric Materials for High-tech Innovations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG; BenZhong

    2001-01-01

    High technology is advancing our society and modernizing our life and advanced materials play an important role in the technological innovations. My research group has been working on the development of advanced polymeric materials and in this talk I will report our recent work on the creation of new conjugated polymers with novel molecular structures and unique materials properties.1-18 Our work include the design of molecular structures of monomeric building blocks, development of stable, effective and environmentally benign "green” polymerization catalysts, discovery of new polymerization reactions, synthesis of functional macromolecules, fabrication of nanodimensional composites, assembly and control of hierarchical structures, and construction of electrooptical devices. We have revealed the liquid crystallinity, light emission, photoconductivity, optical limiting, nano-hybridization, solvatochromism, optical activity, self-organization, and biological activity of the linear polyacetylenes and hyperbranched polyarylenes. The utilization of the advanced polymers and their interesting materials properties for high-tech innovations will be discussed.  ……

  8. Advanced Insulation Materials for Cryogenic Propellant Storage Applications Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Advanced Materials Technology, Inc (AMTI) responds to the Topic X9 entitled [HTML_REMOVED]Propulsion and Propellant Storage[HTML_REMOVED] under subtopic X9.01,...

  9. Research and development of advanced materials using ion beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Namba, Susumu [Nagasaki Inst. of Applied Science, Nagasaki (Japan)

    1997-03-01

    A wide range of research and development activities of advanced material synthesis using ion beams will be discussed, including ion beam applications to the state-of-the-art electronics from giant to nano electronics. (author)

  10. Evolutionary developments of advanced PWR nuclear fuels and cladding materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • PWR fuel and cladding materials development processes are provided. • Evolution of PWR advanced fuel in U.S.A. and in Korea is described. • Cutting-edge design features against grid-to-rod fretting and debris are explained. • High performance data of advanced grids, debris filters and claddings are given. -- Abstract: The evolutionary developments of advanced PWR fuels and cladding materials are explained with outstanding design features of nuclear fuel assembly components and zirconium-base cladding materials. The advanced PWR fuel and cladding materials development processes are also provided along with verification tests, which can be used as guidelines for newcomers planning to develop an advanced fuel for the first time. The up-to-date advanced fuels with the advanced cladding materials may provide a high level of economic utilization and reliable performance even under current and upcoming aggressive operating conditions. To be specific, nuclear fuel vendors may achieve high fuel burnup capability of between 45,000 and 65,000 MWD/MTU batch average, overpower thermal margin of as much as 15% and longer cycle length up to 24 months on the one hand and fuel failure rates of around 10−6 on the other hand. However, there is still a need for better understanding of grid-to-rod fretting wear mechanisms leading to major PWR fuel defects in the world and subsequently a driving force for developing innovative spacer grid designs with zero fretting wear-induced fuel failure

  11. Evolutionary developments of advanced PWR nuclear fuels and cladding materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kyu-Tae, E-mail: ktkim@dongguk.ac.kr

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: • PWR fuel and cladding materials development processes are provided. • Evolution of PWR advanced fuel in U.S.A. and in Korea is described. • Cutting-edge design features against grid-to-rod fretting and debris are explained. • High performance data of advanced grids, debris filters and claddings are given. -- Abstract: The evolutionary developments of advanced PWR fuels and cladding materials are explained with outstanding design features of nuclear fuel assembly components and zirconium-base cladding materials. The advanced PWR fuel and cladding materials development processes are also provided along with verification tests, which can be used as guidelines for newcomers planning to develop an advanced fuel for the first time. The up-to-date advanced fuels with the advanced cladding materials may provide a high level of economic utilization and reliable performance even under current and upcoming aggressive operating conditions. To be specific, nuclear fuel vendors may achieve high fuel burnup capability of between 45,000 and 65,000 MWD/MTU batch average, overpower thermal margin of as much as 15% and longer cycle length up to 24 months on the one hand and fuel failure rates of around 10{sup −6} on the other hand. However, there is still a need for better understanding of grid-to-rod fretting wear mechanisms leading to major PWR fuel defects in the world and subsequently a driving force for developing innovative spacer grid designs with zero fretting wear-induced fuel failure.

  12. NATO Advanced Study Institute and International School of Materials Science and Technology

    CERN Document Server

    Balkanski, Minko; 15th Course on Solid State Microbatteries

    1990-01-01

    This Advanced Study Institute on the topic of SOLID STATE MICROBATTERIES is the third and final institute on the general theme of a field of study now termed "SOLID STATE IONICS". The institute was held in Erice, Sicily, Italy, 3 - 15 July 1988. The objective was to assemble in one location individuals from industry and academia expert in the fields of microelectronics and solid state ionics to determine the feasibility of merging a solid state microbattery with microelectronic memory. Solid electrolytes are in principle amenable to vapor deposition, RF or DC sputtering, and other techniques used to fabricate microelectronic components. A solid state microbattery 1 1 mated on the same chip carrier as the chip can provide on board memory backup power. A solid state microbattery assembled from properly selected anode/solid electrolyte/cathode materials could have environmental endurance properties equal or superior to semiconductor memory chips. Lectures covering microelectronics, present state-of-art solid sta...

  13. Proceedings of the two day national workshop on advanced materials for engineering applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The subjects like material preparation, material forming, material properties, materials testing, material mechanics, material structure, metal materials, non-metallic materials, composite materials, medical materials, chemical materials, food materials, electrician/electrical materials, building materials, biological materials, electronic/magnetic/optical materials, advanced materials applications in engineering are included in the workshop. Processing of advanced materials, studies on novel ceramic coatings, high strength, light weight and nanostructured materials are discussed in this proceedings. Papers relevant to INIS are indexed separately

  14. Advanced materials: processing, characterisation and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The topics discussed in this symposium are: polymer nanocomposites, Li-ion batteries, materials for electrochemical systems, photoelectrochemical and photovoltaic solar cells, crystal growth, thin films, reaction dynamics and kinetics, catalysis, coordination compounds and irradiation studies. Papers relevant to INIS are indexed separately

  15. Applied solid state science advances in materials and device research

    CERN Document Server

    Wolfe, Raymond

    2013-01-01

    Applied Solid State Science: Advances in Materials and Device Research, Volume 4 covers articles on single crystal compound semiconductors and complex polycrystalline materials. The book discusses narrow gap semiconductors and solid state batteries. The text then describes the advantages of hot-pressed microcrystalline compacts of oxygen-octahedra ferroelectrics over single crystal materials, as well as heterostructure junction lasers. Solid state physicists, materials scientists, electrical engineers, and graduate students studying the subjects being discussed will find the book invaluable.

  16. Interconnected MoO2 nanocrystals with carbon nanocoating as high-capacity anode materials for lithium-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Liang; Wu, Hao Bin; Wang, Zhiyu; Lou, Xiong Wen David

    2011-12-01

    A facile one-pot hydrothermal method has been developed for the preparation of carbon-coated MoO(2) nanocrystals. The annealed MoO(2)-C nanocomposite consists of interconnected MoO(2)@C nanocrystals. When evaluated for lithium storage capabilities, these MoO(2)@C nanocrystals exhibit high specific capacities (~640 mA h g(-1) at 200 mA g(-1) and ~575 mA h g(-1) at 400 mA g(-1)) and excellent cycling stability. In view of the excellent lithium storage properties and the ease in large-scale preparation, the as-synthesized MoO(2)-C nanocomposite might be used as promising anode materials for high-performance lithium-ion batteries. PMID:22077330

  17. A novel ZnO@Ag@Polypyrrole hybrid composite evaluated as anode material for zinc-based secondary cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jianhang; Yang, Zhanhong; Feng, Zhaobin; Xie, Xiaoe; Wen, Xing

    2016-04-01

    A novel ZnO@Ag@Polypyrrole nano-hybrid composite has been synthesized with a one-step approach, in which silver-ammonia complex ion serves as oxidant to polymerize the pyrrole monomer. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and infrared spectroscopy (IR) show the existence of metallic silver and polypyrrole. The structure of nano-hybrid composites are characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM), which demonstrates that the surface of ZnO is decorated with nano silver grain coated with polypyrrole. When evaluated as anode material, the silver grain and polypyrrole layer not only suppress the dissolution of discharge product, but also helps to uniform electrodeposition due to substrate effect and its good conductivity, thus shows better cycling performance than bare ZnO electrode does.

  18. Sandwich-like SnS/Polypyrrole Ultrathin Nanosheets as High-Performance Anode Materials for Li-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jun; Gu, Mingzhe; Ouyang, Liuzhang; Wang, Hui; Yang, Lichun; Zhu, Min

    2016-04-01

    Sandwich-like SnS/polypyrrole ultrathin nanosheets were synthesized via a pyrrole reduction and in situ polymerization route, in which room-temperature synthesized ZnSn(OH)6 microcubes were used as the tin source. As anode materials for Li-ion batteries, they exhibit an extremely high reversible capacity (about 1000 mA h g(-1) at 0.1C), outstanding rate capability (with reversible capabilities of 878, 805, 747, 652, and 576 mA h g(-1) at 0.2C, 0.5C, 1C, 2C, and 5C, respectively), stable cycling performance, and high capacity retention (a high capacity of 703 mA h g(-1) at 1C after long 500 cycles). PMID:26984512

  19. Nanoparticle Decorated Ultrathin Porous Nanosheets as Hierarchical Co3O4 Nanostructures for Lithium Ion Battery Anode Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mujtaba, Jawayria; Sun, Hongyu; Huang, Guoyong; Mølhave, Kristian; Liu, Yanguo; Zhao, Yanyan; Wang, Xun; Xu, Shengming; Zhu, Jing

    2016-02-01

    We report a facile synthesis of a novel cobalt oxide (Co3O4) hierarchical nanostructure, in which crystalline core-amorphous shell Co3O4 nanoparticles with a bimodal size distribution are uniformly dispersed on ultrathin Co3O4 nanosheets. When tested as anode materials for lithium ion batteries, the as-prepared Co3O4 hierarchical electrodes delivered high lithium storage properties comparing to the other Co3O4 nanostructures, including a high reversible capacity of 1053.1 mAhg-1 after 50 cycles at a current density of 0.2 C (1 C = 890 mAg-1), good cycling stability and rate capability.

  20. Graphene-encapsulated porous carbon-ZnO composites as high-performance anode materials for Li-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As novel anode materials for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs), ZnO-loaded porous carbons (CMK-3 or CMK-8) are prepared by a two-step method and exhibit better electrochemical properties than pure ZnO particles. ZnO nanoparticles are separated inside the pores of porous carbons, which limit the growth of ZnO crystals and accommodate their volume variation during cycles. Moreover, to further improve their electrochemical performances, these composites are further wrapped by graphene nanosheets through a stepwise heterocoagulation method. Compared to uncoated porous carbon-ZnO, graphene-encapsulated porous carbon-ZnO composites exhibit higher reversible capacities, better cycle performances and rate capabilities. The superior performances of graphene-encapsulated composites may be attributed to graphene encapsulation, which enhances the electrical conductivity of the overall electrode, avoids the aggregation of porous carbon-ZnO particles and even stabilizes the mesostructure of porous carbon during cycles

  1. Nanoparticle Decorated Ultrathin Porous Nanosheets as Hierarchical Co3O4 Nanostructures for Lithium Ion Battery Anode Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mujtaba, Jawayria; Sun, Hongyu; Huang, Guoyong; Mølhave, Kristian; Liu, Yanguo; Zhao, Yanyan; Wang, Xun; Xu, Shengming; Zhu, Jing

    2016-01-01

    We report a facile synthesis of a novel cobalt oxide (Co3O4) hierarchical nanostructure, in which crystalline core-amorphous shell Co3O4 nanoparticles with a bimodal size distribution are uniformly dispersed on ultrathin Co3O4 nanosheets. When tested as anode materials for lithium ion batteries, the as-prepared Co3O4 hierarchical electrodes delivered high lithium storage properties comparing to the other Co3O4 nanostructures, including a high reversible capacity of 1053.1 mAhg(-1) after 50 cycles at a current density of 0.2 C (1 C = 890 mAg(-1)), good cycling stability and rate capability. PMID:26846434

  2. Radiation Processing of Advanced Composite Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Advanced composites, such as carbon-fiber-reinforced plastics, are being used widely for many applications. Carbon fiber/epoxies composites have attracted special attention from the aircraft, aerospace, marine engineering, sporting goods and transportation industries, because they have useful mechanical properties including high strength-to-weight and stiffness-to-weight ratios, a corrosion resistant, impact and damage tolerance characteristics and wear properties. Thermal curing has been the dominant industrial process for advanced composites until now, however, a radiation curing process using UV, microwave x-ray, electron-beam(E-beam) and γ-ray has emerged as a better alternative in recent years. These processes are compatible with the manufacturing of composites using traditional fabrication methods including a filament/tape winding, pultrusion, resin transfer moulding and hand lay-up. In this study, E-beam curable carbon fiber/epoxy composites were manufactured, and their mechanical properties were investigated. Two epoxy resins (bisphenol-A, bisphenol-F) containing photo-initiators (tri aryl sulfonium hexafluorophosphate, tri aryl sulfonium hexafluoroantimonate) were used as a matrix and a 4H-satin carbon woven fabric was used as a reinforcement. And then an electron beam irradiated the composites up to 200 kGy in a vacuum and an inert atmosphere. The cure cycle was optimized and the properties of composites were evaluated and analyzed via a differential scanning calorimetry, scanning electron microscopy, sol-gel extractions, FT-NIR, universal test machine, and an impact tester. The gel content, glass transition temperature and mechanical strength of the irradiated composites were increased with an increasing radiation dose

  3. Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} hollow nanospheres as anode material for enhanced performance in lithium ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasidharan, Manickam [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Saga University, 1 Honjo-machi, Saga 840-8502 (Japan); Gunawardhana, Nanda [Advanced Research Center, Saga University, 1341 Yoga-machi, Saga 840-0047 (Japan); Yoshio, Masaki, E-mail: yoshio@cc.saga-u.ac.jp [Advanced Research Center, Saga University, 1341 Yoga-machi, Saga 840-0047 (Japan); Nakashima, Kenichi, E-mail: nakashik@cc.saga-u.ac.jp [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Saga University, 1 Honjo-machi, Saga 840-8502 (Japan)

    2012-09-15

    Graphical abstract: Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} hollow nanosphere constructed electrode delivers high capacity of 172 mAh g{sup −1} after 250 cycles and maintains structural integrity and excellent cycling stability. Highlights: ► Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} hollow nanospheres synthesis was synthesized by soft-template. ► Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} hollow nanospheres were investigated as anode material in Li-ion battery. ► Nanostructured electrode delivers high capacity of 172 mAh g{sup −1} after 250 cycles. ► The electrode maintains the structural integrity and excellent cycling stability. ► Nanosized shell domain facilitates fast lithium intercalation/deintercalation. -- Abstract: Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} hollow nanospheres of average diameter ca. ∼29 nm and hollow cavity size ca. 17 nm were synthesized using polymeric micelles with core–shell–corona architecture under mild conditions. The hollow particles were thoroughly characterized by transmission electron microscope (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermal (TG/DTA) and nitrogen adsorption analyses. Thus obtained Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} hollow nanospheres were investigated as anode materials for lithium ion rechargeable batteries for the first time. The nanostructured electrode delivers high capacity of 172 mAh g{sup −1} after 250 cycles of charge/discharge at a rate of 0.5 C. More importantly, the hollow particles based electrodes maintains the structural integrity and excellent cycling stability even after exposing to high current density 6.25 A g{sup −1}. The enhanced electrochemical behavior is ascribed to hollow cavity coupled with nanosized Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} shell domain that facilitates fast lithium intercalation/deintercalation kinetics.

  4. Facile Fabrication of 3D SiO2@Graphene Aerogel Composites as Anode Material for Lithium Ion Batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Three-dimensional amorphous SiO2@GA ultralight composite was prepared via a one-pot route. • SiO2@GA exhibited high surface area, large pore volume, and narrow meso-macoporous size distribution. • SiO2@GA electrode exhibited high specific capacity and stable cycling performance. • SiO2@GA electrode displayed excellent rate-capability. - Abstract: A three-dimensional amorphous SiO2@graphene aerogel (SiO2@GA) composites as anode material for lithium ion batteries was successfully synthesized via a one-pot process. The materials were characterized by nitrogen adsorption-desorption, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Raman spectra and Fourier-Transform infrared spectra. The results demonstrate that the SiO2@GA composites are in meso-macoporous structures and present large surface area (SBET = 396.9 m2 g−1) and high pore volume (Vp = 0.67 cm3 g−1). Meanwhile, the incorporation of SiO2 does not make obvious effect at the reduction degree of GO to assemble GA. The results of their electrochemical performance reveal that in contrast with bare SiO2, the SiO2@GA anode exhibit higher reversible capacity (∼300 mAh g−1 at a current density of 500 mA g−1), more stable cycling performance, and excellent rate-capability. The significantly improves electrochemical performance may be ascribed to the 3D aerogel structure and the doping of GA

  5. PREFACE: Advanced Materials for Demanding Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillan, Alison; Schofield, Stephen; Kelly, Michael

    2015-02-01

    This was a special conference. It was small enough (60+ delegates) but covering a wide range of topics, under a broad end-use focussed heading. Most conferences today either have hundreds or thousands of delegates or are small and very focussed. The topics ranged over composite materials, the testing of durability aspects of materials, and an eclectic set of papers on radar screening using weak ionized plasmas, composites for microvascular applications, composites in space rockets, and materials for spallation neutron sources etc. There were several papers of new characterisation techniques and, very importantly, several papers that started with the end-user requirements leading back into materials selection. In my own area, there were three talks about the technology for the ultra-precise positioning of individual atoms, donors, and complete monolayers to take modern electronics and optoelectronics ideas closer to the market place. The President of the Institute opened with an experience-based talk on translating innovative technology into business. Everyone gave a generous introduction to bring all-comers up to speed with the burning contemporary issues. Indeed, I wish that a larger cohort of first-year engineering PhD students were present to see the full gamut of what takes a physics idea to a success in the market place. I would urge groups to learn from Prof Alison McMillan (a Vice President of the Institute of Physics) and Steven Schofield, to set up conferences of similar scale and breadth. I took in more than I do from mega-meetings, and in greater depth. Professor Michael Kelly Department of Engineering University of Cambridge

  6. Polymers Advance Heat Management Materials for Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    For 6 years prior to the retirement of the Space Shuttle Program, the shuttles carried an onboard repair kit with a tool for emergency use: two tubes of NOAX, or "good goo," as some people called it. NOAX flew on all 22 flights following the Columbia accident, and was designed to repair damage that occurred on the exterior of the shuttle. Bill McMahon, a structural materials engineer at Marshall Space Flight Center says NASA needed a solution for the widest range of possible damage to the shuttle s exterior thermal protection system. "NASA looked at several options in early 2004 and decided on a sealant. Ultimately, NOAX performed the best and was selected," he says. To prove NOAX would work effectively required hundreds of samples manufactured at Marshall and Johnson, and a concerted effort from various NASA field centers. Johnson Space Center provided programmatic leadership, testing, tools, and crew training; Glenn Research Center provided materials analysis; Langley Research Center provided test support and led an effort to perform large patch repairs; Ames Research Center provided additional testing; and Marshall provided further testing and the site of NOAX manufacturing. Although the sealant never had to be used in an emergency situation, it was tested by astronauts on samples of reinforced carbon-carbon (RCC) during two shuttle missions. (RCC is the thermal material on areas of the shuttle that experience the most heat, such as the nose cone and wing leading edges.) The material handled well on orbit, and tests showed the NOAX patch held up well on RCC.

  7. Advanced Functional Materials for Energy Related Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasan, Koroush

    The current global heavy dependency on fossil fuels gives rise to two critical problems: I) fossil fuels will be depleted in the near future; II) the release of green house gas CO2 generated by the combustion of fossil fuels contributes to global warming. To potentially address both problems, this dissertation documents three primary areas of investigation related to the development of alternative energy sources: electrocatalysts for fuel cells, photocatalysts for hydrogen generation, and photoreduction catalysts for converting CO2 to CH4. Fuel cells could be a promising source of alternative energy. Decreasing the cost and improving the durability and power density of Pt/C as a catalyst for reducing oxygen are major challenges for developing fuel cells. To address these concerns, we have synthesized a Nitrogen-Sulfur-Iron-doped porous carbon material. Our results indicate that the synthesized catalyst exhibits not only higher current density and stability but also higher tolerance to crossover chemicals than the commercial Pt/C catalyst. More importantly, the synthetic method is simple and inexpensive. Using photocatalysts and solar energy is another potential alternative solution for energy demand. We have synthesized a new biomimetic heterogeneous photocatalyst through the incorporation of homogeneous complex 1 [(i-SCH 2)2NC(O)C5H4N]-Fe2(CO) 6] into the highly robust zirconium-porphyrin based metal-organic framework (ZrPF). As photosensitizer ZrPF absorbs the visible light and produces photoexcited electrons that can be transferred through axial covalent bond to di-nuclear complex 1 for hydrogen generation. Additionally, we have studied the photoreduction of CO2 to CH4 using self-doped TiO2 (Ti+3@TiO 2) as photocatalytic materials. The incorporation of Ti3+ into TiO2 structures narrows the band gap, leading to significantly increased photocatalytic activity for the reduction of CO2 into renewable hydrocarbon fuel in the presence of water vapor under visible

  8. Rapid Prototyping: Technologies, Materials and Advances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dudek P.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the context of product development, the term rapid prototyping (RP is widely used to describe technologies which create physical prototypes directly from digital data. Recently, this technology has become one of the fastest-growing methods of manufacturing parts. The paper provides brief notes on the creation of composites using RP methods, such as stereolithography, selective laser sintering or melting, laminated object modelling, fused deposition modelling or three-dimensional printing. The emphasis of this work is on the methodology of composite fabrication and the variety of materials used in these technologies.

  9. Anodes for alkaline electrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soloveichik, Grigorii Lev

    2011-02-01

    A method of making an anode for alkaline electrolysis cells includes adsorption of precursor material on a carbonaceous material, conversion of the precursor material to hydroxide form and conversion of precursor material from hydroxide form to oxy-hydroxide form within the alkaline electrolysis cell.

  10. Achievements and prospects of advanced materials processed by powder technology

    OpenAIRE

    Kaysser, W.

    1993-01-01

    In this paper examples from intermetallics, composites with ductile and high strength reinforcements, nanocrystalline and superplastic materials are used to illustrate generic and special achievements and prospects of advanced materials processed by powder technology. Processing technologies include reactive powder metallurgy, nanocrystalline processing, rapid solidification and mechanical alloying.

  11. Advanced materials and design for electromagnetic interference shielding

    CERN Document Server

    Tong, Xingcun Colin

    2008-01-01

    Exploring the role of EMI shielding in EMC design, this book introduces the design guidelines, materials selection, characterization methodology, manufacturing technology, and future potential of EMI shielding. It covers an array of issues in advanced shielding materials and design solutions, including enclosures and composites.

  12. Facile complex-coprecipitation synthesis of mesoporous Fe3O4 nanocages and their high lithium storage capacity as anode material for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A facile complex-coprecipitation synthesis of mesoporous Fe3O4 nanocages and their high capacities and excellent cycling performance as anode material for LIBs are reported. - Highlights: • MFONs are synthesized by a facile complex-coprecipitation method. • MFONs with high surface area lead to excellent electrochemical performance. • MFONs anode retains a capacity of 573 mAh g−1 at 1 A g−1 after 300 cycles. - Abstract: In this study, high-quality mesoporous Fe3O4 nanocages (MFONs) have been synthesized by a facile complex-coprecipitation method at 100 °C with addition of triethanolamine and ethylene glycol. The as-prepared Fe3O4 nanocages possess a mesoporous structure and highly uniform dispersion. When used as an anode material for rechargeable lithium-ion batteries, MFONs anode shows high specific capacities and excellent cycling performance at high and low current rates. At a current density of 200 mA g−1, the discharge specific capacities are 876 mAh g−1 at the 2nd cycle and 830 mAh g−1 at the 100th cycle. Even at the high current density of 1000 mA g−1, MFONs anode still retains a stable capacity of 573 mAh g−1 after 300 cycles. This superior electrochemical performance is attributed to the unique mesoporous cage-like structure and high specific surface area (133 m2 g−1) of MFONs, which may offer large electrode/electrolyte contact area for the electron conduction and Li+ storage. Furthermore, the good mechanical flexibility of the mesoporous nanocages can readily buffer the massive volume expansion/shrinkage associated with the reversible electrode reaction. These results indicate that MFONs can be used as a promising high-performance anode material for lithium-ion batteries

  13. Characterization of advanced preprocessed materials (Hydrothermal)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rachel Emerson; Garold Gresham

    2012-09-01

    The initial hydrothermal treatment parameters did not achieve the proposed objective of this effort; the reduction of intrinsic ash in the corn stover. However, liquid fractions from the 170°C treatments was indicative that some of the elements routinely found in the ash that negatively impact the biochemical conversion processes had been removed. After reviewing other options for facilitating ash removal, sodium-citrate (chelating agent) was included in the hydrothermal treatment process, resulting in a 69% reduction in the physiological ash. These results indicated that chelation –hydrothermal treatment is one possible approach that can be utilized to reduce the overall ash content of feedstock materials and having a positive impact on conversion performance.

  14. International workshop on advanced materials for high precision detectors. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    These proceedings gather together the contributions to the Workshop on Advanced Materials for High Precision Detectors, which was held from 28-30 September 1994 in Archamps, Haute-Savoie, France. This meeting brought together international experts (researchers, physicists and engineers) in the field of advanced materials and their use in high energy physics detectors or spacecraft applications. Its purpose was to discuss the status of the different materials currently in use in the structures of detectors and spacecraft, together with their actual performances, technological implications and future prospects. Environmental effects, such as those of moisture and radiation, were discussed, as were design and manufacturing technologies. Some case studies were presented. (orig.)

  15. Electrochemical performance and lithium-ion insertion/extraction mechanism studies of the novel Li2ZrO3 anode materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li2ZrO3 anode materials were prepared by the conventional solid-state reaction. The crystal structure has been determined by X-ray diffraction. Electrochemical tests show that Li2ZrO3 anode materials process a excellent cycle performance and rate capability due to the good structural stability and high lithium diffusion coefficients. For the Li2ZrO3 anode material, the change of the unit cell volume is only ∼0.3% at discharge or charge process. Except for the first several cycles, the coulombic efficiency of the Li2ZrO3 electrode was nearly 100% at a discharge/charge rate of 0.3 C. The lithium diffusion coefficients of Li2ZrO3 for the reduction and oxidation process are calculated to be 3.165 × 10−6 and 1.919 × 10−6 cm2 s−1 respectively which is much higher than that of the Li4Ti5O12 anode material (about 10−9 to 10−13 cm2 s−1). In situ XRD results, combined the sloping character of the charge/discharge voltage profiles and the lithium ion diffusion controlled mechanism in the charge and discharge process, show that the insertion/extraction mechanism of Li+ for Li2ZrO3 can be interpreted as a solid-solution behavior

  16. Nanoparticle Decorated Ultrathin Porous Nanosheets as Hierarchical Co3O4 Nanostructures for Lithium Ion Battery Anode Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mujtaba, Jawayria; Sun, Hongyu; Huang, Guoyong;

    2016-01-01

    We report a facile synthesis of a novel cobalt oxide (Co3O4) hierarchical nanostructure, in which crystalline core-amorphous shell Co3O4 nanoparticles with a bimodal size distribution are uniformly dispersed on ultrathin Co3O4 nanosheets. When tested as anode materials for lithium ion batteries...

  17. Ionic liquid-assisted solvothermal synthesis of hollow Mn2O3 anode and LiMn2O4 cathode materials for Li-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xin; Wang, Jun; Jia, Haiping; Kloepsch, Richard; Liu, Haidong; Beltrop, Kolja; Li, Jie

    2015-10-01

    Mn-based Mn2O3 anode and LiMn2O4 cathode materials are prepared by a solvothermal method combined with post annealing process. Environmentally friendly ionic liquid 1-Butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate as both structure-directing agent and fluorine source is used to prepare hollow polyhedron MnF2 precursor. Both target materials Mn2O3 anode and LiMn2O4 cathode have the morphology of the MnF2 precursor. The Mn2O3 anode using carboxymethyl cellulose as binder could deliver slight better electrochemical performance than the one using poly (vinyldifluoride) as binder. The former has an initial charge capacity of 800 mAh g-1 at a current density of 101.8 mA g-1, and exhibits no obvious capacity decay for 150 cycles at 101.8 mA g-1. The LiMn2O4 cathode material prepared with molten salt assistant could display much better electrochemical performance than the one prepared without molten salt assistance. In particular, it has an initial discharge capacity of 117.5 mAh g-1 at a current density of 0.5C and good rate capability. In the field of lithium ion batteries, both the Mn2O3 anode and LiMn2O4 cathode materials could exhibit enhanced electrochemical performance due to the well formed morphology based on the ionic liquid-assisted solvothermal method.

  18. Template-free electrodeposition of AlFe alloy nanowires from a room-temperature ionic liquid as an anode material for Li-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Gang; Chen, Yuqi; Guo, Qingjun; Wang, Heng; Li, Bing

    2016-08-15

    AlFe alloy nanowires were directly electrodeposited on copper substrates from trimethylamine hydrochloride (TMHC)-AlCl3 ionic liquids with small amounts of FeCl3 at room temperature without templates. Coin cells composed of AlFe alloy nanowire electrodes and lithium foils were assembled to characterize the alloy electrochemical properties by galvanostatic charge/discharge tests. Effects of FeCl3 concentration, potential and temperature on the alloy morphology, composition and cyclic performance were examined. Addition of Fe into the alloy changed the nanowires from a 'hill-like' bulk morphology to a free-standing morphology, and increased the coverage area of the alloy on Cu substrates. As an inactive element, Fe could also buffer the alloys' large volume changes during Li intercalation and deintercalation. AlFe alloy nanowires composed of a small amount of Fe with an average diameter of 140 nm exhibited an outstanding cyclic performance and delivered a specific capacity of about 570 mA h g(-1) after 50 cycles. This advanced template-free method for the direct preparation of high performance nanostructure AlFe alloy anode materials is quite simple and inexpensive, which presents a promising prospect for practical application in Li-ion batteries. PMID:27200436

  19. Micro-nanostructured CuO/C spheres as high-performance anode materials for Na-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yanying; Zhang, Ning; Zhao, Qing; Liang, Jing; Chen, Jun

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we report on the synthesis of micro-nanostructured CuO/C spheres by aerosol spray pyrolysis and their application as high-performance anodes in sodium-ion batteries. Micro-nanostructured CuO/C spheres with different CuO contents were synthesized through aerosol spray pyrolysis by adjusting the ratio of reactants and heat-treated by an oxidation process. The as-prepared CuO/C spheres show uniformly spherical morphology, in which CuO nanoparticles (~10 nm) are homogeneously embedded in the carbon matrix (denoted as 10-CuO/C). The electrochemical performance of 10-CuO/C with a carbon weight of 44% was evaluated as the anode material for Na-ion batteries. It can deliver a capacity of 402 mA h g-1 after 600 cycles at a current density of 200 mA g-1. Furthermore, a capacity of 304 mA h g-1 was obtained at a high current density of 2000 mA g-1. The superior electrochemical performance of the micro-nanostructured CuO/C spheres leads to the enhancement of the electronic conductivity of the nanocomposite and the accommodation of the volume variation of CuO/C during charge/discharge cycling.In this paper, we report on the synthesis of micro-nanostructured CuO/C spheres by aerosol spray pyrolysis and their application as high-performance anodes in sodium-ion batteries. Micro-nanostructured CuO/C spheres with different CuO contents were synthesized through aerosol spray pyrolysis by adjusting the ratio of reactants and heat-treated by an oxidation process. The as-prepared CuO/C spheres show uniformly spherical morphology, in which CuO nanoparticles (~10 nm) are homogeneously embedded in the carbon matrix (denoted as 10-CuO/C). The electrochemical performance of 10-CuO/C with a carbon weight of 44% was evaluated as the anode material for Na-ion batteries. It can deliver a capacity of 402 mA h g-1 after 600 cycles at a current density of 200 mA g-1. Furthermore, a capacity of 304 mA h g-1 was obtained at a high current density of 2000 mA g-1. The superior

  20. Status Report on Structural Materials for Advanced Nuclear Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Materials performance is critical to the safe and economic operation of any nuclear system. As the international community pursues the development of Generation IV reactor concepts and accelerator-driven transmutation systems, it will be increasingly necessary to develop advanced materials capable of tolerating the more challenging environments of these new systems. The international community supports numerous materials research programmes, with each country determining its individual focus on a case-by-case basis. In many instances, similar alloys of materials systems are being studied in several countries, providing the opportunity for collaborative and cross-cutting research that benefits different systems. This report is a snapshot of the current materials programmes supporting the development of advanced concepts. The descriptions of the research are grouped by concept, and national programmes are described within each concept. The report provides an overall sense of the importance of materials research worldwide and the opportunities for synergy among the countries represented in this overview. (authors)

  1. Preparation and electrochemical performance of bramble-like ZnO array as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A bramble-like ZnO array with a special three-dimensional (3D) nanostructure was successfully fabricated on Zn foil through a facile two-step hydrothermal process. A possible growth mechanism of the bramble-like ZnO array was proposed. In the first step of hydrothermal process, the crystal nucleus of Zn(OH)42− generated by the zinc atoms and OH− ions fold together preferentially along the positive polar (0001) to form the needle-like ZnO array. In the second step of hydrothermal process, the crystal nuclei of Zn(OH)42− adjust their posture to keep their c-axes vertical to the perching sites due to the sufficient environmental force and further grow preferentially along the (0001) direction so as to form bramble-like ZnO array. The electrochemical properties of the needle- and bramble-like ZnO arrays as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries were investigated and compared. The results show that the bramble-like ZnO material exhibits much better lithium storage properties than the needle-like ZnO sample. Reasons for the enhanced electrochemical performance of the bramble-like ZnO material were investigated

  2. Mn 3 O 4 −Graphene Hybrid as a High-Capacity Anode Material for Lithium Ion Batteries

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Hailiang

    2010-10-13

    We developed two-step solution-phase reactions to form hybrid materials of Mn3O4 nanoparticles on reduced graphene oxide (RGO) sheets for lithium ion battery applications. Selective growth of Mn3O 4 nanoparticles on RGO sheets, in contrast to free particle growth in solution, allowed for the electrically insulating Mn3O4 nanoparticles to be wired up to a current collector through the underlying conducting graphene network. The Mn3O4 nanoparticles formed on RGO show a high specific capacity up to ∼900 mAh/g, near their theoretical capacity, with good rate capability and cycling stability, owing to the intimate interactions between the graphene substrates and the Mn 3O4 nanoparticles grown atop. The Mn3O 4/RGO hybrid could be a promising candidate material for a high-capacity, low-cost, and environmentally friendly anode for lithium ion batteries. Our growth-on-graphene approach should offer a new technique for the design and synthesis of battery electrodes based on highly insulating materials. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  3. Nanoporous anodic aluminum oxide as a promising material for the electrostatically-controlled thin film interference filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study presents the approach to implement the electrostatically-controlled thin film optical filter by using a nanoporous anodic aluminum oxide (np-AAO) layer as the key suspended micro structure. The bi-stable optical filter operates in the visible spectral range. In this work, the presented bi-stable optical filter has averaged reflectivity of 60%, and the central wavelengths are 580 and 690 nm respectively for on and off states. The presented np-AAO layer offers the following merits for the thin film optical filter: (1) material properties of np-AAO film, such as refractive index, elastic modulus and dielectric constant, can be easily changed by a low temperature pore-widening process, (2) in-use stiction of the suspended np-AAO structure can be reduced by the small contact area of nanoporous textures, (3) driving (pull-in) voltage can be reduced due to a large dielectric constant (εAAO is 7.05) and small stiffness of np-AAO film and (4) dielectric charging can be reduced by the np-AAO material; thus the offset voltage is small. The study reports the design, fabrication and experimental results of the bi-stable optical filter to demonstrate the advantages of the presented device. The np-AAO material also has the potential for applications of other electrostatic drive micro devices. (paper)

  4. Preparation of graphene/TiO2 anode materials for lithium-ion batteries by a novel precipitation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: Large-scale preparation of graphene/TiO2 composites was carried out by precipitation method using graphene oxide nanosheet, Ti(SO4)2 and NH3H2O as starting materials. Highlights: ► We use cheap graphene oxides, Ti(SO4)2 and NH3H2O as starting materials for preparation of graphene/TiO2 composites. ► The reversible capacity and the cycling stability of the TiO2 are improved by graphene additive. ► Shorter diffusion length and a larger contact area of graphene/TiO2 result in excellent electrochemical performance. -- Abstract: This paper reports a large-scale production route for graphene/TiO2 nanocomposites using water-based in situ precipitation method. In this method, freshly prepared graphene oxides/TiO2 obtained by precipitating Ti(SO4)2 with NH3H2O was subjected to heat treatment in the presence of N2, which resulted in the formation of graphene/TiO2 nanocomposites. Graphene/TiO2 composites prepared by our method were found to be suitable as anode materials for lithium ion batteries because of its stable cycling performance and high capacity.

  5. Preparation and electrochemical performance of bramble-like ZnO array as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Junfeng [Northwest University, School of Information Science and Technology (China); Wang, Gang [Northwest University, Institute of Photonics & Photon-Technology (China); Wang, Hui, E-mail: huiwang@nwu.edu.cn [Northwest University, College of Chemistry and Materials Science (China); Zhang, Zhiyong; Ruan, Xiongfei; Zhao, Wu; Yun, Jiangni; Xu, Manzhang [Northwest University, School of Information Science and Technology (China)

    2015-01-15

    A bramble-like ZnO array with a special three-dimensional (3D) nanostructure was successfully fabricated on Zn foil through a facile two-step hydrothermal process. A possible growth mechanism of the bramble-like ZnO array was proposed. In the first step of hydrothermal process, the crystal nucleus of Zn(OH){sub 4}{sup 2−} generated by the zinc atoms and OH{sup −} ions fold together preferentially along the positive polar (0001) to form the needle-like ZnO array. In the second step of hydrothermal process, the crystal nuclei of Zn(OH){sub 4}{sup 2−} adjust their posture to keep their c-axes vertical to the perching sites due to the sufficient environmental force and further grow preferentially along the (0001) direction so as to form bramble-like ZnO array. The electrochemical properties of the needle- and bramble-like ZnO arrays as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries were investigated and compared. The results show that the bramble-like ZnO material exhibits much better lithium storage properties than the needle-like ZnO sample. Reasons for the enhanced electrochemical performance of the bramble-like ZnO material were investigated.

  6. Interconnected sandwich structure carbon/Si-SiO2/carbon nanospheres composite as high performance anode material for lithium-ion batteries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuanjin Du; Mengyan Hou; Dandan Zhou; Yonggang Wang; Congxiao Wang; Yongyao Xia

    2014-01-01

    In the present work, an interconnected sandwich carbon/Si-SiO2/carbon nanospheres composite was prepared by template method and carbon thermal vapor deposition (TVD). The carbon conductive layer can not only efficiently improve the electronic conductivity of Si-based anode, but also play a key role in alleviating the negative effect from huge volume expansion over discharge/charge of Si-based anode. The resulting material delivered a reversible capacity of 1094 mAh/g, and exhibited excellent cycling stability. It kept a reversible capacity of 1050 mAh/g over 200 cycles with a capacity retention of 96%.

  7. SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF ADVANCED MAGNETIC MATERIALS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monica Sorescu

    2004-09-22

    The work described in this grant report was focused mainly on the properties of novel magnetic intermetallics. In the first project, we synthesized several 2:17 intermetallic compounds, namely Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 15}Si{sub 2}, Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 15}Al{sub 2}, Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 15}SiAl and Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 15}SiMn, as well as several 1:12 intermetallic compounds, such as NdFe{sub 10}Si{sub 2}, NdFe{sub 10}Al{sub 2}, NdFe{sub 10}SiAl and NdFe{sub 10}MnAl. In the second project, seven compositions of Nd{sub x}Fe{sub 100-x-y}B{sub y} ribbons were prepared by a melt spinning method with Nd and B content increasing from 7.3 and 3.6 to 11 and 6, respectively. The alloys were annealed under optimized conditions to obtain a composite material consisting of the hard magnetic Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B and soft magnetic {alpha}-Fe phases, typical of a spring magnet structure. In the third project, intermetallic compounds of the type Zr{sub 1}Cr{sub 1}Fe{sub 1}T{sub 0.8} with T = Al, Co and Fe were subjected to hydrogenation. In the fourth project, we performed three crucial experiments. In the first experiment, we subjected a mixture of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} and Fe (80-20 wt %) to mechanochemical activation by high-energy ball milling, for time periods ranging from 0.5 to 14 hours. In the second experiment, we ball-milled Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}:Co{sup 2+} (x = 0.1) for time intervals between 2.5 and 17.5 hours. Finally, we exposed a mixture of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} and Co (80-20 wt %) to mechanochemical activation for time periods ranging from 0.5 to 10 hours. In all cases, the structural and magnetic properties of the systems involved were elucidated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Moessbauer spectroscopy and hysteresis loop measurements. The four projects resulted in four papers, which were published in Intermetallics, IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, Journal of Materials Science Letters and Materials Chemistry and Physics. The contributions reveal for the first time in literature the effect of

  8. Preparation and electrochemical evaluation of manganese ferrite spheres as anode materials for half and full lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • MnFe2O4 spheres are prepared by a facile two-step route. • The MnFe2O4 spheres show excellent electrochemical properties in half cell system. • The integrity of MnFe2O4 electrode could be maintained after the rate test. • The MnFe2O4 anode works well in full cell system with LiCoO2 as cathode. - Abstract: A simple hydrothermal method combined with a post annealing treatment is developed to produce high crystallinity manganese ferrite (MnFe2O4) spheres. The lithium storage properties of the material as an anode in both half and full lithium-ion batteries are investigated. And the electrochemical behaviors of the electrode during lithiation and delithiation process are clarified. Benefited from its sphere-like morphology, the MnFe2O4 electrode exhibits better lithium storage exhibitions than commercial MnFe2O4 particles in half cell system. When assembled with LiCoO2 to construct a full lithium-ion battery (LiCoO2//MnFe2O4), the spheres could deliver a reversible capacity of higher than 600 mA h g−1 at a current density of 0.1 A g−1 in the potential range of 1.2–3.8 V. This work clearly demonstrates the possibility of using LiCoO2//MnFe2O4 configuration for practical high-performance lithium-ion batteries in the near future

  9. Evaluation and development of advanced nuclear materials: IAEA activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Economical, environmental and non-proliferation issues associated with sustainable development of nuclear power bring about a need for optimization of fuel cycles and implementation of advanced nuclear systems. While a number of physical and design concepts are available for innovative reactors, the absence of reliable materials able to sustain new challenging irradiation conditions represents the real bottle-neck for practical implementation of these promising ideas. Materials performance and integrity are key issues for the safety and competitiveness of future nuclear installations being developed for sustainable nuclear energy production incorporating fuel recycling and waste transmutation systems. These systems will feature high thermal operational efficiency, improved utilization of resources (both fissile and fertile materials) and reduced production of nuclear waste. They will require development, qualification and deployment of new and advanced fuel and structural materials with improved mechanical and chemical properties combined with high radiation and corrosion resistance. The extensive, diverse, and expensive efforts toward the development of these materials can be more effectively organized within international collaborative programmes with wide participation of research, design and engineering communities. IAEA carries out a number of international projects supporting interested Member States with the use of available IAEA program implementation tools (Coordinated Research Projects, Technical Meetings, Expert Reviews, etc). The presentation summarizes the activities targeting material developments for advanced nuclear systems, with particular emphasis on fast reactors, which are the focal topics of IAEA Coordinated Research Projects 'Accelerator Simulation and Theoretical Modelling of Radiation Effects' (on-going), 'Benchmarking of Structural Materials Pre-Selected for Advanced Nuclear Reactors', 'Examination of advanced fast reactor fuel and core

  10. Novel Nanocomposite Materials for Advanced Li-Ion Rechargeable Batteries

    OpenAIRE

    Chuan Cai; Ying Wang

    2009-01-01

    Nanostructured materials lie at the heart of fundamental advances in efficient energy storage and/or conversion, in which surface processes and transport kinetics play determining roles. Nanocomposite materials will have a further enhancement in properties compared to their constituent phases. This Review describes some recent developments of nanocomposite materials for high-performance Li-ion rechargeable batteries, including carbon-oxide nanocomposites, polymer-oxide nanocomposites, metal-o...

  11. Fossil Energy Advanced Research and Technology Development Materials Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, N.C.; Judkins, R.R. (comps.)

    1992-12-01

    Objective of this materials program is to conduct R and D on materials for fossil energy applications with focus on longer-term and generic needs of the various fossil fuel technologies. The projects are organized according to materials research areas: (1) ceramics, (2) new alloys: iron aluminides, advanced austenitics and chromium niobium alloys, and (3) technology development and transfer. Separate abstracts have been prepared.

  12. Numerical Simulations and Optimisation in Forming of Advanced Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huétink, J.

    2007-04-01

    With the introduction of new materials as high strength steels, metastable steels and fiber reinforce composites, the need for advanced physically valid constitutive models arises. A biaxial test equipment is developed and applied for the determination of material data as well as for validation of material models. An adaptive through- thickness integration scheme for plate elements is developed, which improves the accuracy of spring back prediction at minimal costs. An optimization strategy is proposed that assists an engineer to model an optimization problem.

  13. Advanced Industrial Materials (AIM) Program: Annual progress report FY 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-04-01

    In many ways, the Advanced Industrial Materials (AIM) Program underwent a major transformation in Fiscal Year 1995 and these changes have continued to the present. When the Program was established in 1990 as the Advanced Industrial Concepts (AIC) Materials Program, the mission was to conduct applied research and development to bring materials and processing technologies from the knowledge derived from basic research to the maturity required for the end use sectors for commercialization. In 1995, the Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) made radical changes in structure and procedures. All technology development was directed toward the seven ``Vision Industries`` that use about 80% of industrial energy and generated about 90% of industrial wastes. The mission of AIM has, therefore, changed to ``Support development and commercialization of new or improved materials to improve productivity, product quality, and energy efficiency in the major process industries.`` Though AIM remains essentially a National Laboratory Program, it is essential that each project have industrial partners, including suppliers to, and customers of, the seven industries. Now, well into FY 1996, the transition is nearly complete and the AIM Program remains reasonably healthy and productive, thanks to the superb investigators and Laboratory Program Managers. This Annual Report for FY 1995 contains the technical details of some very remarkable work by the best materials scientists and engineers in the world. Areas covered here are: advanced metals and composites; advanced ceramics and composites; polymers and biobased materials; and new materials and processes.

  14. Composite anodes for lithium-ion batteries: status and trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alain Mauger

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Presently, the negative electrodes of lithium-ion batteries (LIBs is constituted by carbon-based materials that exhibit a limited specific capacity 372 mAh g−1 associated with the cycle between C and LiC6. Therefore, many efforts are currently made towards the technological development nanostructured materials in which the electrochemical processes occurs as intercalation, alloying or conversion reactions with a good accommodation of dilatation/contraction during cycling. In this review, attention is focused on advanced anode composite materials based on carbon, silicon, germanium, tin, titanium and conversion anode composite based on transition-metal oxides.

  15. Generalized continua as models for classical and advanced materials

    CERN Document Server

    Forest, Samuel

    2016-01-01

    This volume is devoted to an actual topic which is the focus world-wide of various research groups. It contains contributions describing the material behavior on different scales, new existence and uniqueness theorems, the formulation of constitutive equations for advanced materials. The main emphasis of the contributions is directed on the following items - Modelling and simulation of natural and artificial materials with significant microstructure, - Generalized continua as a result of multi-scale models, - Multi-field actions on materials resulting in generalized material models, - Theories including higher gradients, and - Comparison with discrete modelling approaches.

  16. Code qualification of structural materials for AFCI advanced recycling reactors.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Natesan, K.; Li, M.; Majumdar, S.; Nanstad, R.K.; Sham, T.-L. (Nuclear Engineering Division); (ORNL)

    2012-05-31

    This report summarizes the further findings from the assessments of current status and future needs in code qualification and licensing of reference structural materials and new advanced alloys for advanced recycling reactors (ARRs) in support of Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI). The work is a combined effort between Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) with ANL as the technical lead, as part of Advanced Structural Materials Program for AFCI Reactor Campaign. The report is the second deliverable in FY08 (M505011401) under the work package 'Advanced Materials Code Qualification'. The overall objective of the Advanced Materials Code Qualification project is to evaluate key requirements for the ASME Code qualification and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) approval of structural materials in support of the design and licensing of the ARR. Advanced materials are a critical element in the development of sodium reactor technologies. Enhanced materials performance not only improves safety margins and provides design flexibility, but also is essential for the economics of future advanced sodium reactors. Code qualification and licensing of advanced materials are prominent needs for developing and implementing advanced sodium reactor technologies. Nuclear structural component design in the U.S. must comply with the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code Section III (Rules for Construction of Nuclear Facility Components) and the NRC grants the operational license. As the ARR will operate at higher temperatures than the current light water reactors (LWRs), the design of elevated-temperature components must comply with ASME Subsection NH (Class 1 Components in Elevated Temperature Service). However, the NRC has not approved the use of Subsection NH for reactor components, and this puts additional burdens on materials qualification of the ARR. In the past licensing review for the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Project (CRBRP

  17. Interconnected hollow carbon nanospheres for stable lithium metal anodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Guangyuan; Lee, Seok Woo; Liang, Zheng; Lee, Hyun-Wook; Yan, Kai; Yao, Hongbin; Wang, Haotian; Li, Weiyang; Chu, Steven; Cui, Yi

    2014-08-01

    For future applications in portable electronics, electric vehicles and grid storage, batteries with higher energy storage density than existing lithium ion batteries need to be developed. Recent efforts in this direction have focused on high-capacity electrode materials such as lithium metal, silicon and tin as anodes, and sulphur and oxygen as cathodes. Lithium metal would be the optimal choice as an anode material, because it has the highest specific capacity (3,860 mAh g(-1)) and the lowest anode potential of all. However, the lithium anode forms dendritic and mossy metal deposits, leading to serious safety concerns and low Coulombic efficiency during charge/discharge cycles. Although advanced characterization techniques have helped shed light on the lithium growth process, effective strategies to improve lithium metal anode cycling remain elusive. Here, we show that coating the lithium metal anode with a monolayer of interconnected amorphous hollow carbon nanospheres helps isolate the lithium metal depositions and facilitates the formation of a stable solid electrolyte interphase. We show that lithium dendrites do not form up to a practical current density of 1 mA cm(-2). The Coulombic efficiency improves to ∼ 99% for more than 150 cycles. This is significantly better than the bare unmodified samples, which usually show rapid Coulombic efficiency decay in fewer than 100 cycles. Our results indicate that nanoscale interfacial engineering could be a promising strategy to tackle the intrinsic problems of lithium metal anodes. PMID:25064396

  18. High capacity disordered carbons obtained from coconut shells as anode materials for lithium batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbonaceous materials have been obtained by the pyrolysis of coconut shells at 800 and 900 deg. C with pore forming substances such as KOH and ZnCl2. The prepared carbons were subjected to XRD, SEM, BET-surface area and charge-discharge studies. The structure and morphology were greatly changed by porogens, which in turn influence the electrochemical properties of the carbonaceous materials. Nanocrystalline tin (Sn) particles were prepared by chemical reduction method. The cycling tests showed that the addition of nanotin with the active material offers a stable cycling behavior. The electrochemical impedance spectra for the Li/C cells have been made and the results are discussed

  19. Three-dimensional tungsten nitride nanowires as high performance anode material for lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Min; Qiu, Yongfu; Han, Yi; Guo, Yan; Cheng, Faliang

    2016-08-01

    Nanostructure materials often achieve low capacity when the active material mass loading is high. In this communication, high mass-loading tungsten nitride nanowires (WNNWs) were fabricated on a flexible carbon cloth by hydrothermal method and post annealing. The prepared electrode exhibited remarkable cyclic stability and attractive rate capability for lithium storage. It delivers at a current density of 200 mA g-1, a high capacity of 418 mAh g-1, which is higher than that of conventional graphite. This research opens more opportunity for the fabrication of three-dimensional metal nitrides as negative electrode material for flexible lithium ion batteries.

  20. Advanced methods of continuum mechanics for materials and structures

    CERN Document Server

    Aßmus, Marcus

    2016-01-01

    This volume presents a collection of contributions on advanced approaches of continuum mechanics, which were written to celebrate the 60th birthday of Prof. Holm Altenbach. The contributions are on topics related to the theoretical foundations for the analysis of rods, shells and three-dimensional solids, formulation of constitutive models for advanced materials, as well as development of new approaches to the modeling of damage and fractures.

  1. Preparation and prop erties of Ce0.8Ca0.2O1.8 anode material by glycine-nitrate process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Ce0.8Ca0.2O1.8 (CDC82) anode material was prepared by glycine-nitrate process(GNP). Thermogravimetric(TG) analysis and differential scanning calorimetric(DSC) methods were adopted to characterize the reaction process of CDC82 material. X-ray diffractometry(XRD), scanning electron microcopy(SEM), direct current four probe (four-probe DC) and temperature process reduce(TPR) techniques were adopted to characterize the properties of CDC82 material. After the precursor was sintered at 750 ℃for 4 h, CDC82 material with pure-fluorite structure and nanometer size was obtained. The total conductivity of CDC82 changes little with temperature in air at 50-850 ℃, and the maximum value is 0.04 S/cm at 750 ℃. The total conductivity wholly becomes larger when the atmosphere changes from air to hydrogen, which greatly increases with increasing temperature and reaches the maximum value of 1.09 S/cm at 850 ℃. Some impurities such as CeMg and La2O3 exist after the mixture of CDC82 anode and La1-xSrxGa1-yMgyO3-δ (LSGM) electrolyte material is sintered at 1 200 ℃ for 15 h. The CDC82 material as anode material has excellent catalytic property for hydrogen and methane.

  2. Advanced materials for alternative fuel capable directly fired heat engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fairbanks, J.W.; Stringer, J. (eds.)

    1979-12-01

    The first conference on advanced materials for alternative fuel capable directly fired heat engines was held at the Maine Maritime Academy, Castine, Maine. It was sponsored by the US Department of Energy, (Assistant Secretary for Fossil Energy) and the Electric Power Research Institute, (Division of Fossil Fuel and Advanced Systems). Forty-four papers from the proceedings have been entered into EDB and ERA and one also into EAPA; three had been entered previously from other sources. The papers are concerned with US DOE research programs in this area, coal gasification, coal liquefaction, gas turbines, fluidized-bed combustion and the materials used in these processes or equipments. The materials papers involve alloys, ceramics, coatings, cladding, etc., and the fabrication and materials listing of such materials and studies involving corrosion, erosion, deposition, etc. (LTN)

  3. Resistance Welding of Advanced Materials and Micro Components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Kasper Storgaard

    , thermal, electrical and metallurgical effects all signifcantly in uencing the process. Modelling is further complicated when down-scaling the process for welding micro components or when welding new advanced high strength steels in the automotive industry. The current project deals with three main themes...... resistance is addressed both theoretically and experimentally. Secondly the consequences of downscaling the process is investigated experimentally and discussed in relation to simulation of the process. Finally resistance welding of advanced high strength steels is addressed aimed at improving the simulation...... of the final weld properties. The temperature dependent material rheology of dierent advanced high strength steels and other materials, often resistance welded, were measured using hot tensile testing and hot compression testing. It is found that the Hollomon equation is capable of modelling material...

  4. Electrochemical Properties of Chemically Processed SiOx as Coating Material in Lithium-Ion Batteries with Si Anode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hee-June Jeong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A SiOx coating material for Si anode in lithium-ion battery was processed by using SiCl4 and ethylene glycol. The produced SiOx particles after heat treatment at 725°C for 1 h were porous and irregularly shaped with amorphous structure. Pitch carbon added to SiOx was found to strongly affect solid electrolyte interphase stabilization and cyclic stability. When mixed with an optimal amount of 30 wt% pitch carbon, the SiOx showed a high charge/discharge cyclic stability of about 97% for the 2nd to the 50th cycle. The initial specific capacity of the SiOx was measured to be 1401 mAh/g. On the basis of the evaluation of the SiOx coating material, the process utilized in this study is considered an efficient method to produce SiOx with high performance in an economical way.

  5. Double carbon decorated lithium titanate as anode material with high rate performance for lithium-ion batteries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Haifang Ni; Weili Song; Lizhen Fan n

    2016-01-01

    Spinel lithium titanate (Li4Ti5O12) has the advantages of structural stability, however it suffers the dis-advantages of low lithium-ion diffusion coefficient as well as low conductivity. In order to solve issues, we reported a simple method to prepare carbon-coated Li4Ti5O12/CNTs (C@Li4Ti5O12/CNTs) using stearic acid as surfactant and carbon source to prepare carbon coated nanosized particles. The obtained Li4Ti5O12 particles of 100 nm in size are coated with the carbon layers pyrolyzed from stearic acid and dispersed in CNTs matrix homogeneously. These results show that the synthesized C@Li4Ti5O12/CNTs material used as anode materials for lithium ion batteries, presenting a better high-rate performance (147 mA h g ? 1 at 20 C). The key factors affecting the high-rate properties of the C@Li4Ti5O12/CNTs composite may be re-lated to the synergistic effects of the CNTs matrix and the carbon-coating layers with conductivity en-hancement. Additionally, the amorphous carbon coating is an effective route to ameliorate the rate capability of Li4Ti5O12/CNTs.

  6. Unique Urchin-like Ca2Ge7O16 Hierarchical Hollow Microspheres as Anode Material for the Lithium Ion Battery

    OpenAIRE

    Dan Li; Chuanqi Feng; Hua Kun Liu; Zaiping Guo

    2015-01-01

    Germanium is an outstanding anode material in terms of electrochemical performance, especially rate capability, but its developments are hindered by its high price because it is rare in the crust of earth, and its huge volume variation during the lithium insertion and extraction. Introducing other cheaper elements into the germanium-based material is an efficient way to dilute the high price, but normally sacrifice its electrochemical performance. By the combination of nanostructure design an...

  7. Material performance evaluation -Development of the advanced nuclear materials-

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A multifrequency ACPD system was assembled. A SSRT equipment for stress corrosion cracking test was installed. A 25-ton capacity fatigue test machine was purchased as a first step to assemble a corrosion fatigue test facility. A test loop was designed to simulate the primary water chemistry condition. An Ag/AgCl external reference electrode which can be used at a temperature as high as 280 deg C was fabricated. A high temperature pH electrode was designed for fabrication. A creep test machine was designed conceptually for testing creep behaviors of Zr alloys. Preliminary design requirements were made for the instrumented capsule and a plan was made for using the uninstrumented capsule, as parts of activities to complete an integrated plan of in-reactor materials irradiation test. CHEC computer code which helped improving maintenance program against erosion/corrosion of secondary pipings of nuclear power plants was purchased. Erosion/corrosion of feedwater heater drain line of Kori Unit One was analyzed using the CHEC code as a sample calculation. (Author)

  8. Methodology of predicting materials failures in advanced nuclear systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experiences in the nuclear power plant operation and the fixing of unexpected component failures, originated mainly from corrosion damages, have led to a base methodology of predicting, correcting and preventing failures. Some analogies of the algorithm developed have been extended to the evolution of reliable materials, their testing and database construction in the development of advanced systems for next generation. An illustrative topic was chosen from the materials development and reliability testing carried out in the development of an advanced HTGR for process heat applications. Possibility and issues in making the similar approach in the case of nuclear fusion is also discussed

  9. Electrochemical characterization of carbon coated bundle-type silicon nanorod for anode material in lithium ion secondary batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halim, Martin [Center for Energy Convergence, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Hwarangno 14-gil 5, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of); Energy and Environmental Engineering, Korea University of Science and Technology, Gwahangno, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jung Sub [Center for Energy Convergence, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Hwarangno 14-gil 5, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Material Science & Engineering, Korea University, Seoul 136-713 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Jeong-Gil [Department of Chemical Engineering, Hannam University, 461-1 Junmin-dong, Yusung-gu, Taejon 305-811 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Joong Kee, E-mail: leejk@kist.re.kr [Center for Energy Convergence, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Hwarangno 14-gil 5, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of); Energy and Environmental Engineering, Korea University of Science and Technology, Gwahangno, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 305-333 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • Bundle-type silicon nanorods (BSNR) were synthesized by metal assisted chemical etching. • Novel bundle-type nanorods electrode showed self-relaxant characteristics. • The self-relaxant property was enhanced by increasing the silver concentration. • PAA binder enhanced the self-relaxant property of the silicon material. • Carbon coated BSNR (BSNR@C) has evidently provided better cycle performance. - Abstract: Nanostructured silicon synthesis by surface modification of commercial micro-powder silicon was investigated in order to reduce the maximum volume change over cycle. The surface of micro-powder silicon was modified using an Ag metal-assisted chemical etching technique to produce nanostructured material in the form of bundle-type silicon nanorods. The volume change of the electrode using the nanostructured silicon during cycle was investigated using an in-situ dilatometer. Our result shows that nanostructured silicon synthesized using this method showed a self-relaxant characteristic as an anode material for lithium ion battery application. Moreover, binder selection plays a role in enhancing self-relaxant properties during delithiation via strong hydrogen interaction on the surface of the silicon material. The nanostructured silicon was then coated with carbon from propylene gas and showed higher capacity retention with the use of polyacrylic acid (PAA) binder. While the nano-size of the pore diameter control may significantly affect the capacity fading of nanostructured silicon, it can be mitigated via carbon coating, probably due to the prevention of Li ion penetration into 10 nano-meter sized pores.

  10. Electrochemical characterization of carbon coated bundle-type silicon nanorod for anode material in lithium ion secondary batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Bundle-type silicon nanorods (BSNR) were synthesized by metal assisted chemical etching. • Novel bundle-type nanorods electrode showed self-relaxant characteristics. • The self-relaxant property was enhanced by increasing the silver concentration. • PAA binder enhanced the self-relaxant property of the silicon material. • Carbon coated BSNR (BSNR@C) has evidently provided better cycle performance. - Abstract: Nanostructured silicon synthesis by surface modification of commercial micro-powder silicon was investigated in order to reduce the maximum volume change over cycle. The surface of micro-powder silicon was modified using an Ag metal-assisted chemical etching technique to produce nanostructured material in the form of bundle-type silicon nanorods. The volume change of the electrode using the nanostructured silicon during cycle was investigated using an in-situ dilatometer. Our result shows that nanostructured silicon synthesized using this method showed a self-relaxant characteristic as an anode material for lithium ion battery application. Moreover, binder selection plays a role in enhancing self-relaxant properties during delithiation via strong hydrogen interaction on the surface of the silicon material. The nanostructured silicon was then coated with carbon from propylene gas and showed higher capacity retention with the use of polyacrylic acid (PAA) binder. While the nano-size of the pore diameter control may significantly affect the capacity fading of nanostructured silicon, it can be mitigated via carbon coating, probably due to the prevention of Li ion penetration into 10 nano-meter sized pores

  11. Advanced hybrid battery with a magnesium metal anode and a spinel LiMn2O4 cathode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Baofei; Feng, Zhenxing; Sa, Niya; Han, Sang-Don; Ma, Qing; Fenter, Paul; Vaughey, John T; Zhang, Zhengcheng; Liao, Chen

    2016-08-01

    Two Mg-Li dual salt hybrid electrolytes are developed, which exhibit excellent oxidative stability up to around 3.8 V (vs. Mg/Mg(2+)) on an aluminum current collector, enabling the successful coupling of several state-of-the-art lithium-ion intercalation cathodes (LiMn2O4, LiCoO2 and LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2) with magnesium metal anodes. The Mg-LiMn2O4 battery delivers an initial discharge capacity of about 106 mA h g(-1) with a working voltage of around 2.8 V (vs. Mg/Mg(2+)), highlighting the highest working voltage of rechargeable batteries with magnesium metal anodes to date. PMID:27439946

  12. In Situ Hydrothermal Synthesis of Mn3O4 Nanoparticles on Nitrogen-doped Graphene as High-Performance Anode materials for Lithium Ion Batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • We present a facile process to synthesize Mn3O4/N-doped graphene hybrid materials by hydrothermal route. • Mn3O4/N-doped graphene hybrid materials exhibit a large reversible capacity of about 828 mA h g−1 after 40 cycles. • Mn3O4/graphene hybrid materials demonstrate great potential for lithium ion battery anodes. - Abstract: Developing new electrode materials with high specific capacity for excellent lithium ion storage properties is very desirable. In this paper, we introduce a simple hydrothermal method for the growth of Mn3O4 nanoparticles onto nitrogen-doped graphene (N-doped graphene) for high-performance lithium ion battery (LIB) anodes. Hydrazine plays a fundamental role in the formation of such nanostructures as it can act both as a reducing agent and as a nitrogen source. In the synthesized composite, highly crystalline Mn3O4 nanoparticles with average sizes of 20–50 nm are homogeneously dispersed on both sides of the N-doped graphene. The nitrogen content in the doped graphene is confirmed by elemental analyzer, and 2 wt% of the sample is found to be composed of nitrogen element. The as-prepared Mn3O4/N-doped graphene composites exhibit remarkable electrochemical performance, including high reversible specific capacity, outstanding cycling stability, and excellent rate capability (approximately 400 mA h g−1 at 2.0 A g−1) when used as the anode material for LIBs. The improvement in the electrochemical properties of the material can be attributed to graphene, which acts as both an electron conductor and a volume buffer layer, and nitrogen doping allows for fast electron and ion transfer by decreasing the energy barrier. This type of metal oxide/N-doped graphene composites can be promising candidates for high-performance anode materials for LIBs

  13. Soft computing in design and manufacturing of advanced materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cios, Krzysztof J.; Baaklini, George Y; Vary, Alex

    1993-01-01

    The potential of fuzzy sets and neural networks, often referred to as soft computing, for aiding in all aspects of manufacturing of advanced materials like ceramics is addressed. In design and manufacturing of advanced materials, it is desirable to find which of the many processing variables contribute most to the desired properties of the material. There is also interest in real time quality control of parameters that govern material properties during processing stages. The concepts of fuzzy sets and neural networks are briefly introduced and it is shown how they can be used in the design and manufacturing processes. These two computational methods are alternatives to other methods such as the Taguchi method. The two methods are demonstrated by using data collected at NASA Lewis Research Center. Future research directions are also discussed.

  14. Complex spinel titanate as an advanced anode material for rechargeable lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Li2Zn0.5Cu0.5Ti3O8 was prepared by a simple solid state reaction. • Li2Zn0.5Cu0.5Ti3O8 shows better electrochemical property than Li2CuTi3O8 and Li2ZnTi3O8. • Li2Zn0.5Cu0.5Ti3O8 can deliver a reversible capacity of 162 mA h g−1 after 50 cycles. - Abstract: In this work, complex spinel titanates Li2MTi3O8 (M = Zn, Cu, Zn0.5Cu0.5) have been synthesized by a simple solid state reaction route. Their crystal structures are described and verified by Rietveld refinement. Electrochemical results exhibit that Li2CuTi3O8 has a highest lithium storage capacity of 242 mA h g−1 and Li2ZnTi3O8 displays the lowest initial charge capacity of 190 mA h g−1 among all the three samples. However, both Li2CuTi3O8 and Li2ZnTi3O8 show poor capacity retention and low reversible capacity after 50 cycles. Li2Zn0.5Cu0.5Ti3O8 shows higher structural and cycling stability than that of Li2ZnTi3O8 and Li2CuTi3O8. As a result, Li2Zn0.5Cu0.5Ti3O8 can deliver a reversible capacity of 162 mA h g−1 after 50 cycles with capacity retention of 74%

  15. Advanced nanostructured materials for energy storage and conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchings, Gregory S.

    Due to a global effort to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and to utilize renewable sources of energy, much effort has been directed towards creating new alternatives to fossil fuels. Identifying novel materials for energy storage and conversion can enable radical changes to the current fuel production infrastructure and energy utilization. The use of engineered nanostructured materials in these systems unlocks unique catalytic activity in practical configurations. In this work, research efforts have been focused on the development of nanostructured materials to address the need for both better energy conversion and storage, with applications toward Li-O2 battery electrocatalysts, electrocatalytic generation of H2, conversion of furfural to useful chemicals and fuels, and Li battery anode materials. Highly-active alpha-MnO2 materials were synthesized for use as bifunctional oxygen reduction (ORR) and evolution (OER) catalysts in Li-O2 batteries, and were evaluated under operating conditions with a novel in situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy configuration. Through detailed analysis of local coordination and oxidation states of Mn atoms at key points in the electrochemical cycle, a self-switching behavior affecting the bifunctional activity was identified and found to be critical. In an additional study of materials for lithium batteries, nanostructured TiO2 anode materials doped with first-row transition metals were synthesized and evaluated for improving battery discharge capacity and rate performance, with Ni and Co doping at low levels found to cause the greatest enhancement. In addition to battery technology research, I have also sought to find inexpensive and earth-abundant electrocatalysts to replace state-of-the-art Pt/C in the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER), a systematic computational study of Cu-based bimetallic electrocatalysts was performed. During the screening of dilute surface alloys of Cu mixed with other first-row transition metals, materials with

  16. Advanced materials for thermal management of electronic packaging

    CERN Document Server

    Tong, Xingcun Colin

    2011-01-01

    The need for advanced thermal management materials in electronic packaging has been widely recognized as thermal challenges become barriers to the electronic industry's ability to provide continued improvements in device and system performance. With increased performance requirements for smaller, more capable, and more efficient electronic power devices, systems ranging from active electronically scanned radar arrays to web servers all require components that can dissipate heat efficiently. This requires that the materials have high capability of dissipating heat and maintaining compatibility

  17. Tantalum carbide as a novel support material for anode electrocatalysts in polymer electrolyte membrane water electrolysers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Polonský, Jakub; Petrushina, Irina; Christensen, Erik;

    2012-01-01

    study an approach to utilising a suitable electrocatalyst support was followed. Of the materials selected from a literature review, TaC has proved to be stable under the conditions of the accelerated stability test proposed in this study. The test involved dispersing each potential support material in a...... thermogravimmetric and differential thermal analysis to prove its thermal stability. A modified version of the Adams fusion method was used to deposit IrO2 on the support surface. A series of electrocatalysts was prepared with a composition of (IrO2)x(TaC)1−x, where x represents the mass fraction of IrO2 and was...... the electrocatalysts prepared. The electrocatalysts with x ≥ 0.5 showed stable specific activity. This result is consistent with the conductivity measurements....

  18. A Core-Shell Fe/Fe2 O3 Nanowire as a High-Performance Anode Material for Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Zhaolin; Huang, Gang; Liang, Fei; Yin, Dongming; Wang, Limin

    2016-08-16

    The preparation of novel one-dimensional core-shell Fe/Fe2 O3 nanowires as anodes for high-performance lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) is reported. The nanowires are prepared in a facile synthetic process in aqueous solution under ambient conditions with subsequent annealing treatment that could tune the capacity for lithium storage. When this hybrid is used as an anode material for LIBs, the outer Fe2 O3 shell can act as an electrochemically active material to store and release lithium ions, whereas the highly conductive and inactive Fe core functions as nothing more than an efficient electrical conducting pathway and a remarkable buffer to tolerate volume changes of the electrode materials during the insertion and extraction of lithium ions. The core-shell Fe/Fe2 O3 nanowire maintains an excellent reversible capacity of over 767 mA h g(-1) at 500 mA g(-1) after 200 cycles with a high average Coulombic efficiency of 98.6 %. Even at 2000 mA g(-1) , a stable capacity as high as 538 mA h g(-1) could be obtained. The unique composition and nanostructure of this electrode material contribute to this enhanced electrochemical performance. Due to the ease of large-scale fabrication and superior electrochemical performance, these hybrid nanowires are promising anode materials for the next generation of high-performance LIBs. PMID:27406922

  19. Research Progress in Anode Materials for Lithium Ion Batteries%锂离子电池新型负极材料的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘浪浪; 问娟娟

    2014-01-01

    锂离子电池作为一种电源应用很广泛,但是在应用中存在一些不足,选取电化学性能良好的正负极材料是提高和改善锂离子电池电化学性能最重要的因素。从新型碳材料、硅基负极材料、锡基负极材料三方面介绍了目前锂离子电池的研究状况,并展望了锂离子电池负极材料的发展趋势。%Lithium ion battery as a power is widely used, but there are some deficiencies in the application. Selection of electrode materials with excellent electrochemical performances is the key factor to enhance and improve the electrochemical performance of the lithium ion battery. In this paper, the current research situation of lithium ion batteries were introduced from the aspects of new carbon materials, silicon-based anode materials and tin-based anode materials, and the development trend of the anode materials for lithium ion battery was prospected.

  20. Si-Based Materials as the Anode of Lithium-Ion Batteries%锂离子电池负极硅基材料

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶占良; 王洪波; 陈军

    2011-01-01

    硅基材料由于其高电化学容量是一种非常有发展前途的锂离子电池负极材料,但其在充放电过程中体积变化大、循环寿命差、首次库仑效率低等是阻碍其商业化的主要问题.本文综述了硅在脱嵌锂时晶体结构及表/界面的变化,以及改善其电化学性能方面的研究进展,并阐述其作为锂离子电池负极材料的研究前景.%Silicon-based materials are promising anode materials for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) due to their high-energy capacity. However, the commercialization of silicon-based materials as the anode of LIBs has been hindered by the huge volume change, poor cycle life and low initial coulombic efficiency during the charge/discharge process. This article reviews the change of both the crystal structure and the surface/interface of Si-based material during the interealation/deintercalation of lithium, and the methods improving the electrochemical performance. In addition, the prospects of silicon-based materials as the anode of LIBs are also discussed.

  1. MoO2-loaded porous carbon hollow spheres as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, novel MoO2-loaded porous carbon hollow sphere composite materials were synthesized. The composites consisted of homogeneous hollow microspheres with a size of ∼0.7 ± 0.1 μm and a shell thickness of ∼70 nm; MoO2 nanoparticles with an average size of ∼12 nm were uniformly dispersed in the shells of the porous carbon hollow spheres (PCHS). The MoO2/PCHS composites showed high capacity and excellent capacity retention when they were applied as an anode material for Li ion batteries. The composite containing 44.2% of MoO2 revealed a reversible capacity of 574 mAh g−1 at a current density of 50 mA g−1, and a first coulombic efficiency of 61%. After 80 cycles, this composite still retained a capacity of 640 mAh g−1. The good electrochemical performance could be due to the fact that the MoO2 nanoparticles were homogeneously embedded in the shells of the porous carbon hollow spheres in the composites, which effectively prevented volume change or aggregation of the MoO2 nanoparticles during the lithium ion insertion/extraction process. The porous carbon hollow spheres with good electronic conductivity and high surface area offered a large electrode/electrolyte contact area, and a short path length for the Li+ transport. - Highlights: • MoO2-loaded porous carbon hollow sphere composite materials were synthesized. • MoO2 particles are homogeneously embedded in the shells of hollow carbon spheres. • The composite with 44.2% of MoO2 exhibits a capacity of 574 mAh g−1 at 50 mA g−1. • After 80 cycles it has a reversible capacity of 640 mAh g−1

  2. Interregional technology transfer on advanced materials and renewable energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Advanced materials are used in most industrial sectors and human activities and all developing and developed countries as well as international organizations eg. United Nations have established work groups, which survey the national and global state and developments in the area of advanced materials trying to establish strategies on that crucial technology sector. These strategies are focused on research and technology activities including education and vocation training, as well as stimulus for the starting up of new industrial applications. To introduce such a concept in Greece and especially in Northern Greece, the Technological Education Institute of Serres has initiated an Interregional technology transfer project in this scientific field. This project includes mod topics of advanced materials technology with emphasison specific industrial applications (renewable energy systems). The project demonstrates the development of a prototype photovoltaic thermal system in terms of a new industrial product. The product development procedure consists of steps such as initial product design, materials selection and processing, prototype design and manufacturing, quality control, performance optimization, but also control of materials ecocompatibility according to the national trends of life cycle design and recycling techniques. Keywords: Interregional technology transfer, materials, renewable energy systems

  3. Smart electrochemical biosensors: From advanced materials to ultrasensitive devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadik, Omowunmi A., E-mail: osadik@binghamton.ed [Department of Chemistry, Center for Advanced Sensors and Environmental Monitoring (CASE), State University of New York-Binghamton, P.O. Box 6000, Binghamton, NY 13902 (United States); Mwilu, Samuel K.; Aluoch, Austin [Department of Chemistry, Center for Advanced Sensors and Environmental Monitoring (CASE), State University of New York-Binghamton, P.O. Box 6000, Binghamton, NY 13902 (United States)

    2010-05-30

    The specificity, simplicity, and inherent miniaturization afforded by advances in modern electronics have allowed electrochemical sensors to rival the most advanced optical protocols. One major obstacle in implementing electrochemistry for studying biomolecular reaction is its inadequate sensitivity. Recent reports however showed unprecedented sensitivities for biomolecular recognition using enhanced electronic amplification provided by new classes of electrode materials (e.g. carbon nanotubes, metal nanoparticles, and quantum dots). Biosensor technology is one area where recent advances in nanomaterials are pushing the technological limits of electrochemical sensitivities, thus allowing for the development of new sensor chemistries and devices. This work focuses on our recent work, based on metal-enhanced electrochemical detection, and those of others in combining advanced nanomaterials with electrochemistry for the development of smart sensors for proteins, nucleic acids, drugs and cancer cells.

  4. Synthesis of Nanocobalt Powders for an Anode Material of Lithium-Ion Batteries by Chemical Reduction and Carbon Coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seong-Hyeon Hong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanosized Co powders were prepared by a chemical reduction method with and without CTAB (cetyltrimethylammonium bromide, C19H42BrN and carbon-coating heat treatment at 700°C for 1 h, and the electrochemical properties of the prepared nanosized Co powders were examined to evaluate their suitability as an anode material of Li-ion batteries. Nanosized amorphous Co-based powders could be synthesized by a chemical reduction method in which a reducing agent is added to a Co ion-dissolved aqueous solution. When the prepared nanosized Co-based powders were subjected to carbon-coating heat treatment at 700°C for 1 h, the amorphous phase was crystallized, and a Co single phase could be obtained. The Co-based powder prepared by chemical reduction with CTAB and carbon-coating heat treatment had a smaller first discharge capacity (about 557 mAh/g than the Co-based powder prepared by chemical reduction without CTAB and carbon-coating heat treatment (about 628 mAh/g. However, the former had a better cycling performance than the latter from the third cycle. The carbon-coated layers are believed to have led to quite good cycling performances of the prepared Co-based powders from the third cycle.

  5. Enhancement of electrochemical performance with Zn-Al-Bi layered hydrotalcites as anode material for Zn/Ni secondary battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bi-doped Zn-Al layered double hydroxides (Zn-Al-Bi LDH) are prepared by the constant pH hydrothermal method and proposed as a novel anodic material in Zn/Ni secondary cells. The Fourier transform infrared spectra (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images reveal that the as-prepared samples are well-crystallized and hexagon layer structure. The electrochemical performances of the Zn-Al-Bi LDH were analyzed by cyclic voltammetry, tafel plot, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and galvanostatic charge-discharge tests. Compared with Zn-Al LDH, Zn-Al-Bi LDH with different Zn/Al/Bi molar rations, especially the sample of Zn/Al/Bi = 3:0.8:0.2 (molar ration) have higher discharge capacity and more stable cycling performances. Cyclic voltammograms clearly illuminated that the Zn-Al-Bi LDHs could decrease polarization, maintain the electrochemical activity, and enhance the discharge capacity of Zn-Al LDH. This battery can undergo at least 800 charge-discharge cycles at constant current of 1C without dendrite and short circuits. The discharge capacity of Zn-Al-Bi LDH after the 800th cycle remains about 380 mAh g−1 and the hexagonal crystal structure have no much changed after cycles

  6. AB5-type Hydrogen Storage Alloy Modified with Ti/Zr Used as Anodic Materials in Borohydride Fuel Cell

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lianbang WANG; Chunan MA; Xinbiao MAO; Yuanming SUN; Seijiro SUDA

    2005-01-01

    Fuel cell using borohydride as the fuel has received much attention. AB5-type hydrogen storage alloy used as the anodic material instead of noble metals has been investigated. In order to restrain the generation of hydrogen and enhance the utilization of borohydride, Ti/Zr metal powders has been added into the parent LmNi4.78Mn0.22 (where Lm is La-richened mischmetal) alloy (LNM) by ball milling and heat treatment methods. It is found that the addition of Ti/Zr metal powders lowers the electrochemical catalytic activity of the electrodes, at the same time, restrains the generation of hydrogen and enhances the utilization of the fuel. All the results show that the hydrogen generation rate or the utilization of the fuel is directly relative to the electrochemical catalytic activity or the discharge capability of the electrodes. The utilization of the fuel increases with discharge current density. It is very important to find a balance between the discharge capability and the utilization of the fuel.

  7. Micro-sized and Nano-sized Fe3O4 Particles as Anode Materials for Lithium-ion Batteries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Y.X.Chen; L.H.He; P.J.Shang; Q.L.Tang; Z.Q.Liu; H.B.Liu; L.P.Zhou

    2011-01-01

    Micro-sized (1030.3±178.4 nm) and nano-sized (50.4±8.0 nm) Fe3O4 particles have been fabricated through hydrogen thermal reduction of α-Fe2O3 particles synthesized by means of a hydrothermal process. The morphology and microstructure of the micro-sized and the nano-sized Fe3O4 particles were characterized by X-ray diffraction, field-emission gun scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and highresolution electron microscopy. The micro-sized Fe3O4 particles exhibit porous structure, while the nano-sized Fe3O4 particles are solid structure. Their electrochemical performance was also evaluated. The nano-sized solid Fe3O4 particles exhibit gradual capacity fading with initial discharge capacity of 1083.1 mAhg-1 and reversible capacity retention of 32.6% over 50 cycles. Interestingly, the micro-sized porous Fe3O4 particles display very stable capacity-cycling behavior, with initial discharge capacity of 887.5 mAhg-1 and charge capacity of 684.4 mAhg-1 at the 50th cycle. Therefore, 77.1% of the reversible capacity can be maintained over 50 cycles. The micro-sized porous Fe3O4 particles with facile synthesis, good cycling performance and high capacity retention are promising candidate as anode materials for high energy-density lithium-ion batteries.

  8. Hollow reduced graphene oxide microspheres as a high-performance anode material for Li-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollow reduced graphene oxide (RGO) microspheres are successfully synthesized in large quantities through spray-drying suspension of graphene oxide (GO) nanosheets and subsequent carbothermal reduction. With this new procedure, blighted-microspherical GO precursor is synthesized through the process of spray drying, afterwards the GO precursor is subsequently calcined at 800 °C for 5 h to obtain hollow RGO microspheres. A series of analyses, such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) are performed to characterize the structure and morphology of intermediates and as-obtained product. The as-obtained hollow RGO microspheres provide a high specific surface area (175.5 m2 g−1) and excellent electronic conductivity (6.3 S cm−1), and facilitated high electrochemical performance as anode material for Li-ion batteries (LIBs). Compared with the RGO nanosheets, the as-obtained hollow RGO microspheres exhibit superior specific capacity and outstanding cyclability. In addition, this spray drying and carbothermal reduction (SDCTR) method provided a facile route to prepare hollow RGO microspheres in large quantities

  9. Nano-structured composite of Si/(S-doped-carbon nanowire network) as anode material for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Dan; Tang, Daoping; Yang, Jianwen; Li, Yanwei; Zhang, Lingzhi

    2015-11-01

    Novel nanostructured silicon composites, Si/Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) nanowire network (Si/PNW) and Si/(S-doped-carbon nanowire network) (Si/S-CNW), are prepared by a soft-template polymerization of 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene (EDOT) using sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) as surfactant with the presence of Si nanoparticles and a subsequent carbonization of Si/PNW, respectively. The presence of Si nanoparticles in the soft-template polymerization of EDOT plays a critical role in the formation of PEDOT nanowire network instead of 1D nanowire. After the carbonization of PEDOT, the S-doped-carbon nanowire network matrix shows higher electrical conductivity than PNW counterpart, which facilitates to construct robust conductive bridges between Si nanoparticles and provide large electrode/electrolyte interfaces for rapid charge transfer reactions. Thus, Si/S-CNW composite exhibits excellent cycling stability and rate capability as anode material, retaining a specific capacity of 820 mAh g-1 after 400 cycles with a very small capacity fade of 0.09% per cycle.

  10. Aerosol assisted synthesis of hierarchical tin–carbon composites and their application as lithium battery anode materials

    KAUST Repository

    Guo, Juchen

    2013-01-01

    We report a method for synthesizing hierarchically structured tin-carbon (Sn-C) composites via aerosol spray pyrolysis. In this method, an aqueous precursor solution containing tin(ii) chloride and sucrose is atomized, and the resultant aerosol droplets carried by an inert gas are pyrolyzed in a high-temperature tubular furnace. Owing to the unique combination of high reaction temperature and short reaction time, this method is able to achieve a hetero-structure in which small Sn particles (15 nm) are uniformly embedded in a secondary carbon particle. This procedure allows the size and size distribution of the primary Sn particles to be tuned, as well as control over the size of the secondary carbon particles by addition of polymeric surfactant in the precursor solution. When evaluated as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries, the resultant Sn-C composites demonstrate attractive electrochemical performance in terms of overall capacity, electrochemical stability, and coulombic efficiency. © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  11. Synthesis and Characterization of Silicon Nanoparticles Inserted into Graphene Sheets as High Performance Anode Material for Lithium Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Silicon nanoparticles have been successfully inserted into graphene sheets via a novel method combining freeze-drying and thermal reduction. The structure, electrochemical performance, and cycling stability of this anode material were characterized by SEM, X-ray diffraction (XRD, charge/discharge cycling, and cyclic voltammetry (CV. CV showed that the Si/graphene nanocomposite exhibits remarkably enhanced cycling performance and rate performance compared with bare Si nanoparticles for lithium ion batteries. XRD and SEM showed that silicon nanoparticles inserted into graphene sheets were homogeneous and had better layered structure than the bare silicon nanoparticles. Graphene sheets improved high rate discharge capacity and long cycle-life performance. The initial capacity of the Si nanoparticles/graphene keeps above 850 mAhg−1 after 100 cycles at a rate of 100 mAg−1. The excellent cycle performances are caused by the good structure of the composites, which ensured uniform electronic conducting sheet and intensified the cohesion force of binder and collector, respectively.

  12. Preparation and electrochemical performances of cubic shape Cu2O as anode material for lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cubic and star-shaped crystalline Cu2O particles were synthesized by reducing the copper citrate complex solution with glucose. The microstructure and morphology of the Cu2O were characterized by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The electrochemical properties of the Cu2O as anode materials for lithium ion batteries were measured by galvanostatic charge-discharge tests. The as-synthesized Cu2O particles were 1-2 μm with narrow distribution and the shape of Cu2O particles had an effect on the electrochemical properties. The cubic Cu2O particles delivered a higher reversible discharge capacity (390 mAh g-1) than the star-shaped Cu2O, and also exhibited good cyclability. The star-shaped Cu2O particles presented poor cyclability due to pulverization and deterioration after cycling, but the morphology of the cubic Cu2O particles was stable even after 50 cycles

  13. Ultrafine Nb2O5 Nanocrystal Coating on Reduced Graphene Oxide as Anode Material for High Performance Sodium Ion Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Litao; Chen, Gen; Sarker, Swagotom; Richins, Stephanie; Wang, Huiqiang; Xu, Weichuan; Rui, Xianhong; Luo, Hongmei

    2016-08-31

    Ultrafine niobium oxide nanocrystals/reduced graphene oxide (Nb2O5 NCs/rGO) was demonstrated as a promising anode material for sodium ion battery with high rate performance and high cycle durability. Nb2O5 NCs/rGO was synthesized by controllable hydrolysis of niobium ethoxide and followed by heat treatment at 450 °C in flowing forming gas. Transmission electron microscopy images showed that Nb2O5 NCs with average particle size of 3 nm were uniformly deposited on rGO sheets and voids among Nb2O5 NCs existed. The architecture of ultrafine Nb2O5 NCs anchored on a highly conductive rGO network can not only enhance charge transfer and buffer the volume change during sodiation/desodiation process but also provide more active surface area for sodium ion storage, resulting in superior rate and cycle performance. Ex situ XPS analysis revealed that the sodium ion storage mechanism in Nb2O5 could be accompanied by Nb(5+)/Nb(4+) redox reaction and the ultrafine Nb2O5 NCs provide more surface area to accomplish the redox reaction. PMID:27508452

  14. Modelling of advanced structural materials for GEN IV reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The choice of suitable materials and the assessment of long-term materials damage are key issues that need to be addressed for the safe and reliable performance of nuclear power plants. Operating conditions such as high temperatures, irradiation and a corrosive environment degrade materials properties, posing the risk of very expensive or even catastrophic plant damage. Materials scientists are faced with the scientific challenge to determine the long-term damage evolution of materials under service exposure in advanced plants. A higher confidence in life-time assessments of these materials requires an understanding of the related physical phenomena on a range of scales from the microscopic level of single defect damage effects all the way up to macroscopic effects. To overcome lengthy and expensive trial-and-error experiments, the multiscale modelling of materials behaviour is a promising tool, bringing new insights into the fundamental understanding of basic mechanisms. This paper presents the multiscale modelling methodology which is taking root internationally to address the issues of advanced structural materials for Gen IV reactors

  15. Micro- and nanomorphology coexisting in titanium dioxide coating for application as anode material in secondary lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lo, Wen-Chi, E-mail: wenchilo694@gmail.com; Chu, Hou-Jen; He, Ju-Liang

    2015-03-31

    Titanium dioxide has recently attracted attention as an anode material for use in lithium-ion batteries, owing to its high reversible capacity and durable charge/discharge characteristics. The aim of the study is to combine micro-arc oxidation (MAO) and post-alkali treatment to realize an anatase titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) scaffold layer on titanium plates. Using this combination, coexisting micro- and nanomorphology can be realized in the TiO{sub 2} layer. This increases the specific surface area of the TiO{sub 2} layer and thereby improves the charge capacity and charge/discharge rate of the anode. The effectiveness of MAO to fabricate a micrometer-scale porous TiO{sub 2} structure on titanium plate, and the formation of nano-flakes by alkali treatment on porous anatase TiO{sub 2} layer was demonstrated. Further, numerous 40–80 nm alkali-treatment-induced nano-flakes grew all over the oxide surface, substantially increasing its specific surface area. The measured electrochemical properties demonstrate that at potentials of − 1.98 V and − 0.56 V vs. Ag/AgCl, lithium ions were respectively inserted into and extracted from the TiO{sub 2} layer with nano-flakes. The nano-flakes promote faster lithium-ion insertion and extraction and higher associated number of charge than the MAO TiO{sub 2}. The detailed charging/discharging kinetic processes of the MAO, annealed MAO, alkali-treated MAO, and annealed and alkali-treated MAO specimens were determined using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, thus providing further insight into the performance of the TiO{sub 2} coating. - Highlights: • A micrometer-scale porous crystalline TiO{sub 2} layer was fabricated by MAO. • After alkali treatment, the oxide surface exhibits numerous pores. • The layer was composed of predominantly anatase and minor rutile. • Optimum solution temperature and NaOH concentration yielded nano-flaky morphology. • Such morphology leads to the increase performance of the treated

  16. Micro- and nanomorphology coexisting in titanium dioxide coating for application as anode material in secondary lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Titanium dioxide has recently attracted attention as an anode material for use in lithium-ion batteries, owing to its high reversible capacity and durable charge/discharge characteristics. The aim of the study is to combine micro-arc oxidation (MAO) and post-alkali treatment to realize an anatase titanium dioxide (TiO2) scaffold layer on titanium plates. Using this combination, coexisting micro- and nanomorphology can be realized in the TiO2 layer. This increases the specific surface area of the TiO2 layer and thereby improves the charge capacity and charge/discharge rate of the anode. The effectiveness of MAO to fabricate a micrometer-scale porous TiO2 structure on titanium plate, and the formation of nano-flakes by alkali treatment on porous anatase TiO2 layer was demonstrated. Further, numerous 40–80 nm alkali-treatment-induced nano-flakes grew all over the oxide surface, substantially increasing its specific surface area. The measured electrochemical properties demonstrate that at potentials of − 1.98 V and − 0.56 V vs. Ag/AgCl, lithium ions were respectively inserted into and extracted from the TiO2 layer with nano-flakes. The nano-flakes promote faster lithium-ion insertion and extraction and higher associated number of charge than the MAO TiO2. The detailed charging/discharging kinetic processes of the MAO, annealed MAO, alkali-treated MAO, and annealed and alkali-treated MAO specimens were determined using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, thus providing further insight into the performance of the TiO2 coating. - Highlights: • A micrometer-scale porous crystalline TiO2 layer was fabricated by MAO. • After alkali treatment, the oxide surface exhibits numerous pores. • The layer was composed of predominantly anatase and minor rutile. • Optimum solution temperature and NaOH concentration yielded nano-flaky morphology. • Such morphology leads to the increase performance of the treated Ti plate

  17. Relationship between anode material, supporting electrolyte and current density during electrochemical degradation of organic compounds in water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guzmán-Duque, Fernando L. [Grupo de diagnóstico y control de la contaminación, Facultad de ingeniería, Universidad de Antioquia, A.A. 1226, Medellín (Colombia); Palma-Goyes, Ricardo E. [Grupo de Investigación en Remediación Ambiental y Biocatálisis, Instituto de Química, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Antioquía Udea, A.A. 1226, Medellín (Colombia); González, Ignacio [Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, Departamento de Química, Av. San Rafael Atlixco No 186, C.P 09340, México D.F (Mexico); Peñuela, Gustavo [Grupo de diagnóstico y control de la contaminación, Facultad de ingeniería, Universidad de Antioquia, A.A. 1226, Medellín (Colombia); Torres-Palma, Ricardo A., E-mail: rtorres@matematicas.udea.edu.co [Grupo de Investigación en Remediación Ambiental y Biocatálisis, Instituto de Química, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Antioquía Udea, A.A. 1226, Medellín (Colombia)

    2014-08-15

    Highlights: • Pathway and efficiency are linked to the current-electrode–electrolyte interaction. • Unlike BDD, IrO{sub 2} route was independent of current but dependent on the electrolyte. • IrO{sub 2}/SO{sub 4}{sup 2−} and IrO{sub 2}/Cl{sup −} routes were via IrO{sub 3} and chlorine species, respectively. • BDD/SO{sub 4}{sup 2−} and IrO{sub 2}/Cl{sup −} systems were favored at low and high currents, respectively. - Abstract: Taking crystal violet (CV) dye as pollutant model, the electrode, electrolyte and current density (i) relationship for electro-degrading organic molecules is discussed. Boron-doped diamond (BDD) or Iridium dioxide (IrO{sub 2}) used as anode materials were tested with Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} or NaCl as electrolytes. CV degradation and generated oxidants showed that degradation pathways and efficiency are strongly linked to the current density-electrode–electrolyte interaction. With BDD, the degradation pathway depends on i: If i < the limiting current density (i{sub lim}), CV is mainly degraded by ·OH radicals, whereas if i > i{sub lim}, generated oxidants play a major role in the CV elimination. When IrO{sub 2} was used, CV removal was not dependent on i, but on the electrolyte. Pollutant degradation in Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} on IrO{sub 2} seems to occur via IrO{sub 3}; however, in the presence of NaCl, degradation was dependent on the chlorinated oxidative species generated. In terms of efficiency, the Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} electrolyte showed better results than NaCl when BDD anodes were employed. On the contrary, NaCl was superior when combined with IrO{sub 2}. Thus, the IrO{sub 2}/Cl{sup −} and BDD/SO{sub 4}{sup 2−} systems were better at removing the pollutant, being the former the most effective. On the other hand, pollutant degradation with the BDD/SO{sub 4}{sup 2−} and IrO{sub 2}/Cl{sup −} systems is favored at low and high current densities, respectively.

  18. Relationship between anode material, supporting electrolyte and current density during electrochemical degradation of organic compounds in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Pathway and efficiency are linked to the current-electrode–electrolyte interaction. • Unlike BDD, IrO2 route was independent of current but dependent on the electrolyte. • IrO2/SO42− and IrO2/Cl− routes were via IrO3 and chlorine species, respectively. • BDD/SO42− and IrO2/Cl− systems were favored at low and high currents, respectively. - Abstract: Taking crystal violet (CV) dye as pollutant model, the electrode, electrolyte and current density (i) relationship for electro-degrading organic molecules is discussed. Boron-doped diamond (BDD) or Iridium dioxide (IrO2) used as anode materials were tested with Na2SO4 or NaCl as electrolytes. CV degradation and generated oxidants showed that degradation pathways and efficiency are strongly linked to the current density-electrode–electrolyte interaction. With BDD, the degradation pathway depends on i: If i < the limiting current density (ilim), CV is mainly degraded by ·OH radicals, whereas if i > ilim, generated oxidants play a major role in the CV elimination. When IrO2 was used, CV removal was not dependent on i, but on the electrolyte. Pollutant degradation in Na2SO4 on IrO2 seems to occur via IrO3; however, in the presence of NaCl, degradation was dependent on the chlorinated oxidative species generated. In terms of efficiency, the Na2SO4 electrolyte showed better results than NaCl when BDD anodes were employed. On the contrary, NaCl was superior when combined with IrO2. Thus, the IrO2/Cl− and BDD/SO42− systems were better at removing the pollutant, being the former the most effective. On the other hand, pollutant degradation with the BDD/SO42− and IrO2/Cl− systems is favored at low and high current densities, respectively

  19. Electrochemical properties of Si/(FeSiB) anode materials prepared by high-energy mechanical milling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Si-embedded in less-active FeSiB nano-composite structures synthesized. • Capacity of Si anode is 540 mAh g−1 and 533 mAh g−1 after the 3rd and 50th cycle. • The nano-composite exhibited 99% efficiency until the 50th cycle. • Cracks or voids in coin cells are rarely observed during cycling. • Elastic recoverable energy range of FeSiB is 2.96 times higher than Si. -- Abstract: Nano-structured composite with overall atomic composition Si60/(FeSiB)40 has been synthesized by high-energy mechanical milling (HEMM) for Lithium-ion rechargeable batteries as anode material. Crystal structure, microstructure, electrochemical properties, elastic modulus and Vickers hardness (HV) have been observed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM), electrochemical test and nano-indentation test. With increasing milling time from 6 to 10 h, we observed a relatively homogeneous structure comprised of nano-crystalline active silicon (Si) embedded in less active FeSiB matrix phase. Electrochemical properties of 10 h milled nano-composite powder offers low capacity fade, high coulombic efficiency from 3rd cycle (540 mAh g−1) to until 102nd cycle (495 mAh g−1). The coulombic efficiencies of both 6 and 10 h milled powders are 98% and 99%, respectively. Coin cell cross sections of 6 and 10 h milled powders showed evidence for the void formation during lithiation and delithiation. Nano-indentation results exhibited that the amorphous FeSiB flakes have 2.96 times higher recoverable energy than Si. Resultant composite powders showed high irreversible capacity and stable lithiation and delithiation due to the reduced particle size, increased surface area and the highly elastic FeSiB matrix phase. Research reveals that the obtained nano-composite can be a promising candidate for lithium-ion rechargeable batteries

  20. CoSb3-graphite composite anode material for lithium ion batteries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Jian; CAO Gaoshao; ZHAO Xinbing

    2005-01-01

    The CoSb3-graphite composite was prepared by ball-milling. The electrochemical performance of the composite material was evaluated using the lithium ion model cell Li / LiPF6 (EC + DMC) / CoSb3C4. It was found that the CoSb3C4 composite shows higher reversible capacity than the pure CoSb3 alloy, and its first reversible (Li-ions removal) capacity reaches 721 Ma·h·g-1, which exceeds the theoretical capacity (550 Ma.h.g-1) of CoSb3C4.

  1. Carbon The Future Material for Advanced Technology Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Messina, Giacomo

    2006-01-01

    Carbon-based materials and their applications constitute a burgeoning topic of scientific research among scientists and engineers attracted from diverse areas such as applied physics, materials science, biology, mechanics, electronics and engineering. Further development of current materials, advances in their applications, and discovery of new forms of carbon are the themes addressed by the frontier research in these fields. This book covers all the fundamental topics concerned with amorphous and crystalline C-based materials, such as diamond, diamond-like carbon, carbon alloys, carbon nanotubes. The goal is, by coherently progressing from growth - and characterisation techniques to technological applications for each class of material, to fashion the first comprehensive state-of-the-art review of this fast evolving field of research in carbon materials.

  2. Materials/manufacturing element of the Advanced Turbine Systems Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karnitz, M.A.; Holcomb, R.S.; Wright, I.G. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)] [and others

    1995-10-01

    The technology based portion of the Advanced Turbine Systems Program (ATS) contains several subelements which address generic technology issues for land-based gas-turbine systems. One subelement is the Materials/Manufacturing Technology Program which is coordinated by DOE-Oak Ridge Operations and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The work in this subelement is being performed predominantly by industry with assistance from universities and the national laboratories. Projects in this subelement are aimed toward hastening the incorporation of new materials and components in gas turbines. A materials/manufacturing plan was developed in FY 1994 with input from gas turbine manufacturers, materials suppliers, universities, and government laboratories. The plan outlines seven major subelements which focus on materials issues and manufacturing processes. Work is currently under way in four of the seven major subelements. There are now major projects on coatings and process development, scale-up of single crystal airfoil manufacturing technology, materials characterization, and technology information exchange.

  3. Process and electrolyte for applying barrier layer anodic coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Various metals may be anodized, and preferably barrier anodized, by anodizing the metal in an electrolyte comprising quaternary ammonium compound having a complex metal anion in a solvent containing water and a polar, water soluble organic material. (U.S.)

  4. Inert Anode Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    1999-07-01

    This ASME report provides a broad assessment of open literature and patents that exist in the area of inert anodes and their related cathode systems and cell designs, technologies that are relevant for the advanced smelting of aluminum. The report also discusses the opportunities, barriers, and issues associated with these technologies from a technical, environmental, and economic viewpoint.

  5. Sn-Co-artificial graphite composite as anode material for rechargeable lithium batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanosized Sn-Co prepared by ultrasonic-assisted chemical reduction is milled with artificial graphite (AG) to form Sn-Co-AG composite. The as-prepared materials are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectrometry and Brunauer-Emmett-Telle (BET) surface area measurement. XRD patterns show that Sn-Co particles are poorly crystallized and artificial graphite has a typical hexagonal graphite structure phase. The diffraction peaks of Sn-Co particles remain the same but some of AG obviously change after milling Sn-Co with AG. BET areas of AG, Sn-Co and Sn-Co-AG are 1.569, 13.187 and 6.754 m2 g-1, respectively. SEM images display the as-prepared Sn-Co particles have a size distribution ranging from 20 to 70 nm in diameter. After milling Sn-Co with AG, Sn-Co particles keep similar morphology but there is a perceptible change in AG. Electrochemical tests show that Sn-Co-AG composite possesses much improved electrochemical performance than the state-of-the-art graphite. This composite has great potential as an alternative material for improving the energy density of a lithium ion secondary battery.

  6. SnSe/carbon nanocomposite synthesized by high energy ball milling as an anode material for sodium-ion and lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: A homogeneous nanocomposite of SnSe and carbon black was synthesised by high energy ball milling and empolyed as an anode material for sodium-ion batteries (SIBs) and lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). The nanocomposite anode exhibits excellent electrochemical performances in both SIBs and LIBs. - Highlights: • A homogeneous nanocomposite of SnSe and carbon black was fabricated by high energy ball milling. • SnSe and carbon black are homogeneously mixed at the nanoscale level. • The SnSe/C anode exhibits excellent electrochemical performances in both SIBs and LIBs. - Abstract: A homogeneous nanocomposite of SnSe and carbon black, denoted as SnSe/C nanocomposite, was fabricated by high energy ball milling and empolyed as a high performance anode material for both sodium-ion batteries and lithium-ion batteries. The X-ray diffraction patterns, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy observations confirmed that SnSe in SnSe/C nanocomposite was homogeneously distributed within carbon black. The nanocomposite anode exhibited enhanced electrochemical performances including a high capacity, long cycling behavior and good rate performance in both sodium-ion batteries (SIBs) and lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). In SIBs, an initial capacitiy of 748.5 mAh g−1 was obtained and was maintained well on cycling (324.9 mAh g−1 at a high current density of 500 mA g−1 in the 200 th cycle) with 72.5% retention of second cycle capacity (447.7 mAh g−1). In LIBs, high initial capacities of approximately 1097.6 mAh g−1 was obtained, and this reduced to 633.1 mAh g−1 after 100 cycles at 500 mA g−1

  7. 3D Fe{sub 2}(MoO{sub 4}){sub 3} microspheres with nanosheet constituents as high-capacity anode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Hao; Wang, Shiqiang [Hubei University, Key Laboratory for Synthesis and Applications of Organic Functional Molecules (China); Wang, Jiazhao; Wang, Jun [University of Wollongong, Institute for Superconducting and Electronic Materials (Australia); Li, Lin; Yang, Yun; Feng, Chuanqi, E-mail: cfeng@hubu.edu.cn [Hubei University, Key Laboratory for Synthesis and Applications of Organic Functional Molecules (China); Sun, Ziqi, E-mail: ziqi.sun@qut.edu.au [Queensland University of Technology, School of Chemistry, Physics and Mechanical Engineering, Science and Engineering Faculty (Australia)

    2015-11-15

    Three-dimensional (3D) Fe{sub 2}(MoO{sub 4}){sub 3} microspheres with ultrathin nanosheet constituents are first synthesized as anode materials for the lithium-ion battery. It is interesting that the single-crystalline nanosheets allow rapid electron/ion transport on the inside, and the high porosity ensures fast diffusion of liquid electrolyte in energy storage applications. The electrochemical properties of Fe{sub 2}(MoO{sub 4}){sub 3} as anode demonstrates that 3D Fe{sub 2}(MoO{sub 4}){sub 3} microspheres deliver an initial capacity of 1855 mAh/g at a current density of 100 mA/g. Particularly, when the current density is increased to 800 mA/g, the reversible capacity of Fe{sub 2}(MoO{sub 4}){sub 3} anode still arrived at 456 mAh/g over 50 cycles. The large and reversible capacities and stable charge–discharge cycling performance indicate that Fe{sub 2}(MoO{sub 4}){sub 3} is a promising anode material for lithium battery applications.Graphical abstractThe electrochemical properties of Fe{sub 2}(MoO{sub 4}){sub 3} as anode demonstrates that 3D Fe{sub 2}(MoO{sub 4}){sub 3} microspheres delivered an initial capacity of 1855 mAh/g at a current density of 100 mA/g. When the current density was increased to 800 mA/g, the Fe{sub 2}(MoO{sub 4}){sub 3} still behaved high reversible capacity and good cycle performance.

  8. Mesoporous silicon/carbon hybrids with ordered pore channel retention and tunable carbon incorporated content as high performance anode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In-situ magnesiothermic reduction reaction route was developed to synthesize mesoporous Si/C (silicon/carbon) hybrids with ordered pore channel retention and tunable carbon incorporated content as high performance anode materials for LIBs (lithium ion batteries). The effect of carbon incorporation on the microstructures and electrochemical performance of the Si/C hybrid LIBs anodes is investigated. The incorporation of carbon in the Si/C hybrids not only prevents the ordered structure of mesoporous silicon from collapsing, but also increases the electrical conductivity of the synthesized Si/C hybrids. The as-prepared Si/C hybrid LIBs anode with an optimal carbon content of 7.05 wt%, displays improved electrochemical performance with a high reversible specific capacity, rate capability and excellent cyclic performance, showing a higher specific capacity of up to 1452 mAh g−1 at a current density of 200 mA g−1 after 100 cycles and a high coulombic efficiency of up to 99.2%. The great improvement of the electrochemical performance of the ordered mesoporous Si/C hybrid LIBs anodes can be attributed to the unique ordered structure, large surface area, the homogeneously incorporated carbon in the Si/C hybrids. The synthesized ordered mesoporous Si/C hybrids are promising for potential applications as LIB anode materials with enhanced electrochemical performance. - Highlights: • Ordered mesoporous Si/C hybrids are synthesized by chemically reducing silica. • The pre-impregnated carbon source prevents the ordered structure from collapsing. • Mesoporous Si/C hybrids exhibit excellent Li+ storage capacity and cyclic stability

  9. Advances in wind turbine blade design and materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    well as the requirements and challenges for composite materials used in both current and future designs of wind turbine blades. Part one outlines the challenges and developments in wind turbine blade design, including aerodynamic and aeroelastic design features, fatigue loads on wind turbine blades...... fatigue resistance of wind turbine blades. The final part of the book describes advances in wind turbine blade materials, development and testing, including biobased composites, surface protection and coatings, structural performance testing and the design, manufacture and testing of small wind turbine...... materials scientists and engineers, wind turbine blade manufacturers and maintenance technicians, scientists, researchers and academics....

  10. Ceramic matrix composites -- Advanced high-temperature structural materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This symposium on Ceramic Matrix Composites: Advanced High-Temperature Structural Materials was held at the 1994 MRS Fall Meeting in Boston, Massachusetts on November 28--December 2. The symposium was sponsored by the Department of Energy's Office of Industrial Technology's Continuous Fiber Ceramic Composites Program, the Air Force Office of Scientific Research, and NASA Lewis Research Center. Among the competing materials for advanced, high-temperature applications, ceramic matrix composites are leading candidates. The symposium was organized such that papers concerning constituents--fibers and matrices--were presented first, followed by composite processing, modeling of mechanical behavior, and thermomechanical testing. More stable reinforcements are necessary to enhance the performance and life of fiber-reinforced ceramic composites, and to ensure final acceptance of these materials for high-temperature applications. Encouraging results in the areas of polymer-derived SiC fibers and single crystal oxide filaments were given, suggesting composites with improved thermomechanical properties and stability will be realized in the near future. The significance of the fiber-matrix interface in the design and performance of these materials is evident. Numerous mechanical models to relate interface properties to composite behavior, and interpret test methods and data, were enthusiastically discussed. One issue of great concern for any advanced material for use in extreme environments is stability. This theme arose frequently throughout the symposium and was the topic of focus on the final day. Fifty nine papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base

  11. One-pot synthesis of nitrogen and sulfur co-doped graphene supported MoS2 as high performance anode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Nitrogen and sulfur co-doped graphene supported MoS2 nanosheets were successfully prepared and used as anode materials for Li-ion batteries. • The as-prepared anode materials show excellent stability in Li-ion batteries. • The materials show high reversible capacity for lithium ion batteries. - Abstract: Nitrogen and sulfur co-doped graphene supported MoS2 (MoS2/NS-G) nanosheets were prepared through a one-pot thermal annealing method. The as prepared samples were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Raman spectra and electrochemical techniques. The MoS2/NS-G shows high reversible capacity about 1200 mAh/g at current density of 150 mA/g and excellent stability in Li-ion batteries. It was demonstrated the co-doping of graphene by N and S could significantly enhance the durability of MoS2 as anode materials for Li-ion batteries

  12. Facile synthesis of a MoO2-Mo2C-C composite and its application as favorable anode material for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yanping; Wang, Shaofeng; Zhong, Yijun; Cai, Rui; Li, Li; Shao, Zongping

    2016-03-01

    A composite of MoO2-Mo2C-C is fabricated through a facile ion-exchange route for the first time as an alternative anode material for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). A macroporous cinnamic anion-exchange resin interacts with ammonium molybdate tetrahydrate in aqueous solution, and the product is then calcined under an inert gas atmosphere. The interaction between the resin and ammonium molybdate tetrahydrate results in an atomic level dispersion of the molybdenum over the organic carbon precursor (resin), while the calcination process allows the formation of MoO2 and Mo2C as well as the pyrolysis of resin to solid carbon. According to field-emission scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) measurements, ultrafine MoO2 and Mo2C nanoparticles are uniformly dispersed but firmly attached within an amorphous carbon framework. When evaluated as an anode material, the as-synthesized sample exhibits superior electrochemical performance. The specific discharge capacity is as high as 1491 mA h g-1 in the first cycle and 724 mA h g-1 over 50 cycles at a current density of 0.2 A g-1. This simple, environmentally friendly, low-cost and easily scaled up method, has significant potential for mass industrial production of MoO2-based material as next-generation anode material of LIBs with wide application capability.

  13. Advanced ceramic materials for next-generation nuclear applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marra, John

    2011-10-01

    The nuclear industry is at the eye of a 'perfect storm' with fuel oil and natural gas prices near record highs, worldwide energy demands increasing at an alarming rate, and increased concerns about greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions that have caused many to look negatively at long-term use of fossil fuels. This convergence of factors has led to a growing interest in revitalization of the nuclear power industry within the United States and across the globe. Many are surprised to learn that nuclear power provides approximately 20% of the electrical power in the US and approximately 16% of the world-wide electric power. With the above factors in mind, world-wide over 130 new reactor projects are being considered with approximately 25 new permit applications in the US. Materials have long played a very important role in the nuclear industry with applications throughout the entire fuel cycle; from fuel fabrication to waste stabilization. As the international community begins to look at advanced reactor systems and fuel cycles that minimize waste and increase proliferation resistance, materials will play an even larger role. Many of the advanced reactor concepts being evaluated operate at high-temperature requiring the use of durable, heat-resistant materials. Advanced metallic and ceramic fuels are being investigated for a variety of Generation IV reactor concepts. These include the traditional TRISO-coated particles, advanced alloy fuels for 'deep-burn' applications, as well as advanced inert-matrix fuels. In order to minimize wastes and legacy materials, a number of fuel reprocessing operations are being investigated. Advanced materials continue to provide a vital contribution in 'closing the fuel cycle' by stabilization of associated low-level and high-level wastes in highly durable cements, ceramics, and glasses. Beyond this fission energy application, fusion energy will demand advanced materials capable of withstanding the extreme environments of high

  14. Advanced ceramic materials for next-generation nuclear applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nuclear industry is at the eye of a 'perfect storm' with fuel oil and natural gas prices near record highs, worldwide energy demands increasing at an alarming rate, and increased concerns about greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions that have caused many to look negatively at long-term use of fossil fuels. This convergence of factors has led to a growing interest in revitalization of the nuclear power industry within the United States and across the globe. Many are surprised to learn that nuclear power provides approximately 20% of the electrical power in the US and approximately 16% of the world-wide electric power. With the above factors in mind, world-wide over 130 new reactor projects are being considered with approximately 25 new permit applications in the US. Materials have long played a very important role in the nuclear industry with applications throughout the entire fuel cycle; from fuel fabrication to waste stabilization. As the international community begins to look at advanced reactor systems and fuel cycles that minimize waste and increase proliferation resistance, materials will play an even larger role. Many of the advanced reactor concepts being evaluated operate at high-temperature requiring the use of durable, heat-resistant materials. Advanced metallic and ceramic fuels are being investigated for a variety of Generation IV reactor concepts. These include the traditional TRISO-coated particles, advanced alloy fuels for 'deep-burn' applications, as well as advanced inert-matrix fuels. In order to minimize wastes and legacy materials, a number of fuel reprocessing operations are being investigated. Advanced materials continue to provide a vital contribution in 'closing the fuel cycle' by stabilization of associated low-level and high-level wastes in highly durable cements, ceramics, and glasses. Beyond this fission energy application, fusion energy will demand advanced materials capable of withstanding the extreme environments of high

  15. Vanadium nitride as a novel thin film anode material for rechargeable lithium batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanadium mononitride (VN) thin films have been successfully fabricated by magnetron sputtering. Its electrochemical behaviour with lithium was examined by galvanostatic cell cycling and cyclic voltammetry. The capacity of VN was found to be stable above 800 mAh g-1 after 50 cycles. By using ex situ X-ray diffraction, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and selected area electron diffraction as well as in situ spectroelectrochemical measurements, the electrochemical reaction mechanism of VN with lithium was investigated. The reversible conversion reaction of VN into metal V and Li3N was revealed. The high reversible capacity and good stable cycle of VN thin film electrode made it a new promising lithium-ion storage material for future rechargeable lithium batteries

  16. Nanostructured WO3 thin film as a new anode material for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanostructured WO3 thin film has been successfully fabricated by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering method and its electrochemistry with lithium was investigated for the first time. The reversible discharge capacity of WO3/Li cells cycled between 0.01 V and 4.0 V was found above 626 mAh/g during the first 60 cycles at the current density 0.02 mA/cm2. By using X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy and selected-area electron diffraction measurements, the reversible conversion of WO3 into nanosized metal W and Li2O was revealed. The high reversible capacity and good recyclability of WO3 electrode made it become a promising cathode material for future rechargeable lithium batteries.

  17. Low voltage cathodic protection for high strength steels. Part 1: Definition of a new aluminum galvanic anode material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pautasso, J.P. [Ministry of Defense, Paris (France); Le Guyader, H.; Debout, V. [Direction des Constructions Navales Cherbourg (France)

    1998-12-31

    Zn or Al-Zn-In sacrificial anodes are commonly used to protect submerged marine structures from general corrosion and galvanic corrosion. However, such electronegative alloys can also induce stress corrosion cracking or hydrogen embrittlement on high strength steels. Decreasing the electronegative potential applied to the structure, in the suitable range (around {minus}0.80 V vs Ag/AgCl) can significantly reduce the amount of hydrogen produced by the cathodic reaction and thus limit the risk of hydrogen embrittlement. The present work has consisted in determining the criteria for a new cathodic protection system with low voltage anodes and selecting one anode that matches the determined requirements, on the basis of laboratory tests. Among the various alloys tested the Al-O.1% Ga anode provided the most promising results and therefore was selected. The first full scale marine tests performed on an industrial casting of this anode have shown the effectiveness of the Al-O.1% Ga anode in the chosen potential range, with a satisfactory galvanic efficiency in real environments.

  18. A new strategy for synthesis of lithium zinc titanate as an anode material for lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Li2ZnTi3O8 has been firstly synthesized via a molten-salt method. • Li2ZnTi3O8 can be synthesized by sintering for only 1 h via molten-salt method. • Li2ZnTi3O8 delivers large specific capacities. - Abstract: Lithium zinc titanate (Li2ZnTi3O8) anode materials have been firstly synthesized via a molten-salt method using 0.38LiOH·H2O–0.62LiNO3 as eutectic molten salts. The effects of sintering temperature and sintering time on the structures and physicochemical properties of the Li2ZnTi3O8 materials are also studied in detail. It is found that Li2ZnTi3O8 obtained by sintering at 700 °C for 3 h exhibits a typical cubic spinel structure with P4332 space group. Nano-sized particles are presented and the particles are homogeneous for the Li2ZnTi3O8 prepared by sintering at 700 °C for 3 h. Electrochemical tests demonstrate that the sample possesses large capacities. The largest capacities of 167.8 and 142.4 mAh g−1 are delivered at 2 and 3 A g−1, respectively. 137.8 and 113.3 mAh g−1 are kept for the sample at the 100th cycle at the two current densities, respectively. The large discharge specific capacities may be attributed to the good crystallinity, small particle size and low charge-transfer resistance of Li2ZnTi3O8

  19. Preparation and characterization of spinel Li4Ti5O12 anode material from industrial titanyl sulfate solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research highlights: → Spine Li4Ti5O12 can be synthesized from the low cost industrial titanyl sulfate solution and shows excellent electrochemical performance. → In this study, we introduce the adverse impact of sulphur on the electrochemical performance of Li4Ti5O12. → This method is a short, simple, efficient, useful, economical and environment-friendly way for both industrial titanyl sulfate utilization and materials preparation. - Abstract: Spinel Li4Ti5O12 anode material is successfully synthesized by a solid-state method using lithium carbonate and titanium precursors which are prepared by the low cost industrial titanyl sulfate solution. The characters of H2TiO3 and TiO2 precursors are determined by TG/DTA and SEM methods. TG-DAT and EDS methods show that H2TiO3 can absorb sulphate ions which can be present as impurities. XRD method shows that the impure phases of Li2SO4 and rutile TiO2 appear in Li4Ti5O12 synthesized by H2TiO3. The formation of Li2SO4 is identified in thermodynamics during the process of calcination. Owing to the formation of Li2SO4 impurity, the capacity of the Li4Ti5O12 synthesized by H2TiO3 is low. One effective way that can tackle this problem is to remove the sulphur by calcining H2TiO3, after calcinations, the production will have a thermal treatment with Li2CO3. The obtained Li4Ti5O12 shows better electrochemical performance. The specific capacities can be increased by 20 mAh g-1 at 0.1, 0.5 and 1C rates.

  20. Multi-walled carbon nanotube-reinforced porous iron oxide as a superior anode material for lithium ion battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Electrochemical performance of Fe3O4 is improved by combining different approaches. • Porous Cu substrate is used to enlarge surface area and improve conductivity. • MWCNT is used to reinforce the electrode structure and change morphology of Fe3O4. • Reversible capacity, capacity retention and high-rate performance are improved. - Abstract: Multi-walled carbon nanotube-reinforced porous iron oxide (Fe3O4/MWCNT) is synthesized by a two-step approach with porous Cu substrate serving as current collector. Porous Cu substrate is prepared through electroless deposition with hydrogen bubble serving as template. Fe3O4/MWCNT composites are prepared by the electrodeposition of Fe3O4 in the presence of dispersed MWCNTs from a Fe2(SO4)3 solution with MWCNT suspension. Results showed that Fe3O4 forms granular nanoparticles on the porous Cu substrate with several MWCNTs embedded in it. Adding MWCNTs changes the morphology of Fe3O4. Smooth Fe3O4, smooth Fe3O4/MWCNT, and porous Fe3O4 composites are also prepared for comparison. When used as anode materials, porous Fe3O4/MWCNT composites have a reversible capacity of approximately 601 mA h g−1 at the 60th cycle at a cycling rate of 100 mA g−1. This value is higher than that of the other materials. The reversible capacity at a cycling rate of 10,000 mA g−1 is approximately 50% of that at 100 mA g−1. Therefore, the MWCNT-reinforced porous Fe3O4 composite exhibits much better reversible capacity, capacity retention, and high-rate performance than the other samples. This finding can be ascribed to the porous structure of Fe3O4, better conductivity of porous Cu substrate and MWCNTs, and the morphology change of Fe3O4 nanoparticles upon the addition of MWCNTs

  1. A nanocomposite of MoO3 coated with PPy as an anode material for aqueous sodium rechargeable batteries with excellent electrochemical performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A nanocomposite of molybdenum trioxide (MoO3) nanobelts coated with polypyrrole was prepared as an anode material for aqueous rechargeable sodium batteries (ARSBs). When nanowire Na0.35MnO2 is used as the cathode, the ARSB can deliver an energy density of 20 Wh kg−1 at 80 W kg−1 and even maintain 18 Wh kg−1 at 2.6 kW kg−1 in 0.5 mol L−1 Na2SO4 aqueous electrolyte, suggesting a good rate capability that can be comparable with supercapacitors. In addition, its cycling behavior is greatly improved compared with the virginal MoO3. This will provide a new direction to explore non-carbon anode materials for ARSBs with excellent electrochemical performance. This good performance exhibits that this battery will be a promising candidate for the storage of solar and wind energies

  2. Hybrid CuO/SnO2 nanocomposites: Towards cost-effective and high performance binder free lithium ion batteries anode materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hybrid CuO/SnO2 nanocomposites are synthesized by a facile thermal annealing method on Cu foils. Compared to pristine CuO and SnO2 nanostructures, hybrid CuO/SnO2 nanocomposites exhibit the enhanced electrochemical performances as the anode material of lithium ion batteries (LIBs) with high specific capacity and excellent rate capability. The binder free CuO/SnO2 nanocomposites deliver a specific capacity of 718 mA h g−1 at a current density of 500 mA g−1 even after 200 cycles. The enhanced electrochemical performances are attributed to the synergistic effect between SnO2 nanoparticles and CuO nanoarchitectures. Such hybrid CuO/SnO2 nanocomposites could open up a new route for the development of next-generation high-performance and cost-effective binder free anode material of LIBs for mass production.

  3. Physical modeling studies of electrolyte flow due to gas evolution and some aspects of bubble behavior in advanced hall cells: Part I. Flow in cells with a flat anode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shekhar, R.; Evans, J. W.

    1994-06-01

    The need for energy reduction in the electrolytic production of aluminum led to the concept of advanced Hall cells that can be operated at lower interelectrode gaps compared to existing cells. However, gas bubbles generated by the anodic reaction increase the resistivity of electrolyte and cancel out part of the reduction in interelectrode resistance expected from bringing the electrodes closer together. Therefore, the primary objective of this work was to determine a cell design in which flow can be managed to promote the removal of anode gas bubbles from the interelectrode gap. In particular, this article focuses on advanced Hall cells equipped with “flat” anodes, similar to those used in existing cells. The principal experimental tool has been a “water” model consisting of a large tank in which simulated anodes can be suspended in either the horizontal or near-horizontal configurations. Gas was generated by forcing compressed air through porous graphite, and the fine bubbles characteristic of inert anodes used in advanced Hall cells were produced by adding butanol to water. Velocities were measured using a laser-Doppler velocimeter (LDV). This study indicates that the existing cell configuration might not be the optimum configuration for advanced Hall cells. The results also show that operation of an advanced Hall cell with a fully submerged anode should give rise to higher electrolyte velocities and thus rapid removal of bubbles. The bubble effect should be further lowered in a near-horizontal configuration; however, the flow pattern could have an adverse effect on current efficiency and alumina distribution in the cell. It has also been shown that the bubble size, and, therefore, the physical properties of the electrolyte, can have a significant effect on the electrolyte flow pattern in the interelectrode gap.

  4. Effects of TiO2 crystal structure on the performance of Li4Ti5O12 anode material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► The reactivity of TiO2 with Li2CO3 gradually decreases as the TiO2 crystal structure changes. ► The specific capacity of Li4Ti5O12 decreases obviously with the TiO2 crystal structure changing. ► The TiO2 crystal structure has not large effects on the cycling performance of Li4Ti5O12 material. ► The reaction of TiO2 with Li2CO3 is an exothermic behavior. - Abstract: Li4Ti5O12 anode material is synthesized using TiO2 with different crystal structure as titanium source by solid-state method. X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and electrochemical test methods are applied to characterize the effects of TiO2 crystal structure on the structure, morphology and electrochemical performance of Li4Ti5O12. Results show that the reaction of TiO2 with Li2CO3 is an exothermic behavior. The reactivity of TiO2 with Li2CO3 gradually decreases and the particles size of Li4Ti5O12 increases with the TiO2 crystal structure changing from amorphous to rutile. The TiO2 crystal structure has a slight influence on the reversibility of Li4Ti5O12, while the specific capacities of Li4Ti5O12 at different current densities decreases obviously with the TiO2 crystal structure changing from amorphous to rutile and the sample using amorphous TiO2 as titanium sources shows highest specific capacity. The capacity retentions of all Li4Ti5O12 samples are above 97% after 50 cycles and these materials show good cycle performance. The TiO2 crystal structure has not large effects on the cycling performance of Li4Ti5O12 material.

  5. Anodic oxidation

    CERN Document Server

    Ross, Sidney D; Rudd, Eric J; Blomquist, Alfred T; Wasserman, Harry H

    2013-01-01

    Anodic Oxidation covers the application of the concept, principles, and methods of electrochemistry to organic reactions. This book is composed of two parts encompassing 12 chapters that consider the mechanism of anodic oxidation. Part I surveys the theory and methods of electrochemistry as applied to organic reactions. These parts also present the mathematical equations to describe the kinetics of electrode reactions using both polarographic and steady-state conditions. Part II examines the anodic oxidation of organic substrates by the functional group initially attacked. This part particular

  6. An in situ method of creating metal oxide–carbon composites and their application as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Zichao

    2011-01-01

    Transition metal oxides are actively investigated as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs), and their nanocomposites with carbon frequently show better performance in galvanostatic cycling studies, compared to the pristine metal oxide. An in situ, scalable method for creating a variety of transition metal oxide-carbon nanocomposites has been developed based on free-radical polymerization and cross-linking of poly(acrylonitrile) in the presence of the metal oxide precursor containing vinyl groups. The approach yields a cross-linked polymer network, which uniformly incorporates nanometre-sized transition metal oxide particles. Thermal treatment of the organic-inorganic hybrid material produces nearly monodisperse metal oxide nanoparticles uniformly embedded in a porous carbon matrix. Cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic cycling electrochemical measurements in a lithium half-cell are used to evaluate the electrochemical properties of a Fe3O 4-carbon composite created using this approach. These measurements reveal that when used as the anode in a lithium battery, the material exhibits stable cycling performance at both low and high current densities. We further show that the polymer/nanoparticle copolymerization approach can be readily adapted to synthesize metal oxide/carbon nanocomposites based on different particle chemistries for applications in both the anode and cathode of LIBs. © 2011 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  7. Advanced materials for sodium-beta alumina batteries: Status, challenges and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The increasing penetration of renewable energy and the trend toward clean, efficient transportation have spurred growing interests in sodium-beta alumina batteries that store electrical energy via sodium ion transport across a β''-Al2O3 solid electrolyte at elevated temperatures (typically 300-350 C). Currently, the negative electrode or anode is metallic sodium in molten state during battery operation; the positive electrode or cathode can be molten sulfur (Na-S battery) or solid transition metal halides plus a liquid phase secondary electrolyte (e.g., ZEBRA battery). Since the groundbreaking works in the sodium-beta alumina batteries a few decades ago, encouraging progress has been achieved in improving battery performance, along with cost reduction. However, there remain issues that hinder broad applications and market penetration of the technologies. To better the Na-beta alumina technologies require further advancement in materials along with component and system design and engineering. This paper offers a comprehensive review on materials of electrodes and electrolytes for the Na-beta alumina batteries and discusses the challenges ahead for further technology improvement. (author)

  8. Report on sodium compatibility of advanced structural materials.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, M.; Natesan, K.; Momozaki, Y.; Rink, D.L.; Soppet, W.K.; Listwan, J.T. (Nuclear Engineering Division)

    2012-07-09

    This report provides an update on the evaluation of sodium compatibility of advanced structural materials. The report is a deliverable (level 3) in FY11 (M3A11AN04030403), under the Work Package A-11AN040304, 'Sodium Compatibility of Advanced Structural Materials' performed by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), as part of Advanced Structural Materials Program for the Advanced Reactor Concepts. This work package supports the advanced structural materials development by providing corrosion and tensile data from the standpoint of sodium compatibility of advanced structural alloys. The scope of work involves exposure of advanced structural alloys such as G92, mod.9Cr-1Mo (G91) ferritic-martensitic steels and HT-UPS austenitic stainless steels to a flowing sodium environment with controlled impurity concentrations. The exposed specimens are analyzed for their corrosion performance, microstructural changes, and tensile behavior. Previous reports examined the thermodynamic and kinetic factors involved in the purity of liquid sodium coolant for sodium reactor applications as well as the design, fabrication, and construction of a forced convection sodium loop for sodium compatibility studies of advanced materials. This report presents the results on corrosion performance, microstructure, and tensile properties of advanced ferritic-martensitic and austenitic alloys exposed to liquid sodium at 550 C for up to 2700 h and at 650 C for up to 5064 h in the forced convection sodium loop. The oxygen content of sodium was controlled by the cold-trapping method to achieve {approx}1 wppm oxygen level. Four alloys were examined, G92 in the normalized and tempered condition (H1 G92), G92 in the cold-rolled condition (H2 G92), G91 in the normalized and tempered condition, and hot-rolled HT-UPS. G91 was included as a reference to compare with advanced alloy, G92. It was found that all four alloys showed weight loss after sodium exposures at 550 and 650 C. The weight loss of the

  9. Technology Readiness Levels for Advanced Nuclear Fuels and Materials Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jon Carmack

    2014-01-01

    The Technology Readiness Level (TRL) process is used to quantitatively assess the maturity of a given technology. The TRL process has been developed and successfully used by the Department of Defense (DOD) for development and deployment of new technology and systems for defense applications. In addition, NASA has also successfully used the TRL process to develop and deploy new systems for space applications. Advanced nuclear fuels and materials development is a critical technology needed for closing the nuclear fuel cycle. Because the deployment of a new nuclear fuel forms requires a lengthy and expensive research, development, and demonstration program, applying the TRL concept to the advanced fuel development program is very useful as a management and tracking tool. This report provides definition of the technology readiness level assessment process as defined for use in assessing nuclear fuel technology development for the Advanced Fuel Campaign (AFC).

  10. Advanced Bioinks for 3D Printing: A Materials Science Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chimene, David; Lennox, Kimberly K; Kaunas, Roland R; Gaharwar, Akhilesh K

    2016-06-01

    Advanced bioinks for 3D printing are rationally designed materials intended to improve the functionality of printed scaffolds outside the traditional paradigm of the "biofabrication window". While the biofabrication window paradigm necessitates compromise between suitability for fabrication and ability to accommodate encapsulated cells, recent developments in advanced bioinks have resulted in improved designs for a range of biofabrication platforms without this tradeoff. This has resulted in a new generation of bioinks with high print fidelity, shear-thinning characteristics, and crosslinked scaffolds with high mechanical strength, high cytocompatibility, and the ability to modulate cellular functions. In this review, we describe some of the promising strategies being pursued to achieve these goals, including multimaterial, interpenetrating network, nanocomposite, and supramolecular bioinks. We also provide an overview of current and emerging trends in advanced bioink synthesis and biofabrication, and evaluate the potential applications of these novel biomaterials to clinical use. PMID:27184494

  11. Code qualification of structural materials for AFCI advanced recycling reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarizes the further findings from the assessments of current status and future needs in code qualification and licensing of reference structural materials and new advanced alloys for advanced recycling reactors (ARRs) in support of Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI). The work is a combined effort between Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) with ANL as the technical lead, as part of Advanced Structural Materials Program for AFCI Reactor Campaign. The report is the second deliverable in FY08 (M505011401) under the work package 'Advanced Materials Code Qualification'. The overall objective of the Advanced Materials Code Qualification project is to evaluate key requirements for the ASME Code qualification and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) approval of structural materials in support of the design and licensing of the ARR. Advanced materials are a critical element in the development of sodium reactor technologies. Enhanced materials performance not only improves safety margins and provides design flexibility, but also is essential for the economics of future advanced sodium reactors. Code qualification and licensing of advanced materials are prominent needs for developing and implementing advanced sodium reactor technologies. Nuclear structural component design in the U.S. must comply with the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code Section III (Rules for Construction of Nuclear Facility Components) and the NRC grants the operational license. As the ARR will operate at higher temperatures than the current light water reactors (LWRs), the design of elevated-temperature components must comply with ASME Subsection NH (Class 1 Components in Elevated Temperature Service). However, the NRC has not approved the use of Subsection NH for reactor components, and this puts additional burdens on materials qualification of the ARR. In the past licensing review for the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Project (CRBRP) and the

  12. Discussion on Anode Material for Lithium Ion Battery%对锂离子电池正极材料的探讨与研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗雨晗

    2015-01-01

    Lithium ion battery is currently widely used ,which has the advantage of long life cycle ,no memory effect , high energy density , large specific capacity , high voltage and smaller volume , etc . Lithium ion battery mainly consists of four parts ,including electrolyte ,membrane ,cathode materials and anode materials .Among them ,the cost of anode material occupies a higher proportion in the total cost ,which is about 40% .Each performance index of the lithium ions are related to the quality of anode materials , so anode material is the core part for lithium ion battery ,which is very crucial .At the same time ,the performance of the battery's anode material can also reduce the manufacturing cost of the lithium battery ,which has a great significance for the industrialization of electric vehicles .%锂离子电池目前应用广泛,有循环寿命长、无记忆效应、能量密度大、比容量大、电池电压高、体积较小等优点。锂离子电池主要由电解液、隔膜、负极材料和正极材料四大部分构成,其中,正极材料的成本在总成本中所占有的比例较高,大约为40%,锂离子的各项性能指标均与正极材料的好坏有密切关系,所以,锂离子正极材料是组成锂离子电池的核心部分,是非常关键的材料,同时,电池正极材料的性能也可以使锂电池的制作成本降低,对于电动汽车的产业化也有较大的意义。

  13. Mishap risk control for advanced aerospace/composite materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, John M.

    1994-01-01

    Although advanced aerospace materials and advanced composites provide outstanding performance, they also present several unique post-mishap environmental, safety, and health concerns. The purpose of this paper is to provide information on some of the unique hazards and concerns associated with these materials when damaged by fire, explosion, or high-energy impact. Additionally, recommended procedures and precautions are addressed as they pertain to all phases of a composite aircraft mishap response, including fire-fighting, investigation, recovery, clean-up, and guidelines are general in nature and not application-specific. The goal of this project is to provide factual and realistic information which can be used to develop consistent and effective procedures and policies to minimize the potential environmental, safety, and health impacts of a composite aircraft mishap response effort.

  14. Nano-sized Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/carbon as anode material for lithium ion battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jie [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Zhao, Hailei, E-mail: hlzhao@ustb.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Beijing Key Lab of New Energy Materials and Technologies, Beijing 100083 (China); Zeng, Zhipeng; Lv, Pengpeng; Li, Zhaolin; Zhang, Tianhou; Yang, Tianrang [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China)

    2014-12-15

    Nano-sized Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/carbon material is prepared via a simple citric-nitrate combustion method combining with a hydrothermal carbon coating technique. The synthesized Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/carbon composite shows a high reversible specific capacity (ca. 850 mAh g{sup −1} at 100 mA g{sup −1}; ca. 600 mAh g{sup −1} at 500 mA g{sup −1}), good rate-capability as well as superior cycling stability as anode for lithium-ion batteries. The ameliorated electrochemical performance of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/carbon electrode is associated to the nano-sized particle feature and the continuous carbon coating layer. The former provides short lithium-ion/electron diffusion distance, while the latter enables the fast electron transport pathways. Besides, the carbon layer can act as a protective component to prevent the active particle Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} from aggregation and pulverization during the charge/discharge processes. - Highlights: • Nano-sized Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/C was prepared by a simple citric-nitrate combustion process. • Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/C particles show core–shell structure. • Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/C powder displays high specific capacity and good cycling stability. • Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/C composite exhibits a superior rate-capability.

  15. Synthesis and electrochemical performance of bud-like FeS2 microspheres as anode materials for rechargeable lithium batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Bud-like FeS2 microshperes was synthesized through solvothermal reaction with polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP). ► Bud-like microshperes in the range of 2.0–3.0 μm are built by nanoflakes with the size of 0.5–1 μm in width and length. ► The bud-like FeS2 is investigated by many tests such as CV, GITT and EIS. ► The bud-like powder shows the highest initial specific capacity, coulombic efficiency and lowest polarization. -- Abstract: Bud-like FeS2 powder was synthesized by a solvothermal method with the help of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP). The bud-like FeS2 microshperes with the diameters of 2.0–3.0 μm were consisted of the submicro-flakes with 0.5–1μm in width and length, and about 60 nm in thickness. As an anode material for Li-ion batteries, the bud-like FeS2 delivered initial specific discharge capacity of 773 and 749 mAh g−1, and could sustain 387 and 368 mAh g−1 after 30 cycles at current densities of 45 and 89 mA g−1, respectively, much higher than the solid one obtained without PVP. The bud-like FeS2 microshperes also showed large diffusion coefficient of Li-ions (DLi+) calculated by Galvanostatic intermittent titration (GITT). The improved electrochemical performance of bud-like FeS2 was due to the unique structure which provides large contact area between the FeS2 microspheres and electrolyte, decreased polarization and large DLi+, leading to enhanced electrode reaction kinetics

  16. α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}@C nanorings as anode materials for high performance lithium ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Le; Li, Zhenzhen; Fu, Wenming; Li, Fagen [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Ningbo University, Ningbo (China); Wang, Jun, E-mail: wjnaf@ustc.edu [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Ningbo University, Ningbo (China); Wang, Wenzhong [School of Science, Minzu University of China, Beijing 100081 (China)

    2015-10-25

    α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}@C core–shell nanorings are prepared by a facile large-scale two-step route incorporating a hydrothermal method and a carbon coated progress. Its structure and morphology are characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscope, and thermogravimetry. It is found that the as-prepared composite is composed of α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}@C nanorings of about 148 nm in outer diameter, 50 nm in thickness, and 115 nm in length. These α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}@C nanorings are enwrapped with ∼3 nm thick carbon shell. And the electrodes exhibit longer cycle life (815 mAhg{sup −1} after cycling 160 times) at high current rate (1000 mAg{sup −1}) compared with that of bare α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanorings (810 mAhg{sup −1} after cycling 30 times). The improved performance of the composite is attributed to the bondage from carbon shell, which can enhance the electronic conductivity and structural stability of α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanorings. - Highlights: • α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}@C core–shell nanorings are prepared by a facile two-step route. • The α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}@C nanorings are firstly reported as anode materials for LIBs. • The nanorings show a high capacity of 815 mAhg{sup −1} at 1 Ag{sup -1} after 160 cycles.

  17. Hydrothermally enhanced MnO/reduced graphite oxide composite anode materials for high performance lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: •MnO/RGO with a uniform RGO coating and high specific surface area is synthesized. •The uses of RGO and N2H4 are critical for the electrochemical properties. •The MnO/RGO composite shows a high rate capability and reversible cycling performance. -- Abstract: Nanoplate-assembled MnO2 spheres with a high surface area are synthesized and act as a manganese precursor for the hydrothermal process to synthesize MnO/reduced graphite oxide (MnO/RGO) composite powders. The structures and electrochemical properties of the obtained samples are studied by X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, thermal gravimetry, N2 adsorption/desorption measurement and galvanostatic cell cycling. The content of the reduced graphite oxide and the use of the reducing agent (N2H4) are found to play important roles to determine the structures and properties of the MnO/RGO products. The MnO/RGO composites contain a uniform RGO coating and possess a high specific surface area of up to 42.4 m2 g−1. As an anode material for rechargeable lithium batteries, such a MnO/RGO composite can achieve excellent high rate capability and cycling stability. The composite with 13.19 wt% RGO shows the optimal electrochemical performance and can deliver reversible capacities of 855, 842, 821, 737 and 630 mAh g−1 at the current densities of 0.16, 0.4, 0.8, 1.6 and 3.2 A g−1, respectively

  18. A combinatorial approach to the discovery of advanced materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiao-Dong

    This thesis discusses the application of combinatorial methods to the search of advanced materials. The goal of this research is to develop a "parallel" or "fast sequential" methodology for both the synthesis and characterization of materials with novel electronic, magnetic and optical properties. Our hope is to dramatically accelerate the rate at which materials are generated and studied. We have developed two major combinatorial methodologies to this end. One involves generating thin film materials libraries using a combination of various thin film deposition and masking strategies with multi-layer thin film precursors. The second approach is to generate powder materials libraries with solution precursors delivered with a multi-nozzle inkjet system. The first step in this multistep combinatorial process involves the design and synthesis of high density libraries of diverse materials aimed at exploring a large segment of the compositional space of interest based on our understanding of the physical and structural properties of a particular class of materials. Rapid, sensitive measurements of one or more relevant physical properties of each library member result in the identification of a family of "lead" compositions with a desired property. These compositions are then optimized by continuously varying the stoichiometries of a more focused set of precursors. Materials with the optimal composition are then synthesized in quantities sufficient for detailed characterization of their structural and physical properties. Finally, the information obtained from this process should enhance our predictive ability in subsequent experiments. Combinatorial methods have been successfully used in the synthesis and discovery of materials with novel properties. For example, a class of cobaltite based giant magnetoresistance (GMR) ceramics was discovered; Application of this method to luminescence materials has resulted in the discovery of a few highly efficient tricolor

  19. Advanced transmission electron microscopy on nanostructured magnetic materials

    OpenAIRE

    Campanini, Marco

    2015-01-01

    This doctoral work is focused on the study of nanostructured magnetic materials by advanced transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques, with emphasis on Ni2MnGa shape memory alloy thin films and magnetite nanoparticles for biomedical applications. The combination of high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and electron diffraction to characterize morphology and crystalline structure, with Lorentz microscopy and Electron Holography, permits to achieve a deep insight in the s...

  20. Applied solid state science advances in materials and device research

    CERN Document Server

    Wolfe, Raymond

    2013-01-01

    Applied Solid State Science: Advances in Materials and Device Research, Volume 1 presents articles about junction electroluminescence; metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) physics; ion implantation in semiconductors; and electron transport through insulating thin films. The book describes the basic physics of carrier injection; energy transfer and recombination mechanisms; state of the art efficiencies; and future prospects for light emitting diodes. The text then discusses solid state spectroscopy, which is the pair spectra observed in gallium phosphide photoluminescence. The extensive studies

  1. Novel Nanocomposite Materials for Advanced Li-Ion Rechargeable Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuan Cai

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Nanostructured materials lie at the heart of fundamental advances in efficient energy storage and/or conversion, in which surface processes and transport kinetics play determining roles. Nanocomposite materials will have a further enhancement in properties compared to their constituent phases. This Review describes some recent developments of nanocomposite materials for high-performance Li-ion rechargeable batteries, including carbon-oxide nanocomposites, polymer-oxide nanocomposites, metal-oxide nanocomposites, and silicon-based nanocomposites, etc. The major goal of this Review is to highlight some new progress in using these nanocomposite materials as electrodes to develop Li-ion rechargeable batteries with high energy density, high rate capability, and excellent cycling stability.

  2. Dancing with light advances in photofunctional liquid-crystalline materials

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Haifeng

    2015-01-01

    Recent progress in this field indicates that integrating photochromic molecules into LC materials enables one to photo-manipulate unique features such as photoinduced phase transition, photocontrolled alignment and phototriggered molecular cooperative motion, leading to their novel applications beyond displays. This book introduces readers to this field, from the primary- to the advanced level in photoresponsive LC materials. The subject is introduced step-by-step, including the basic knowledge of LCs, photoresponsive properties of LCs, and their detailed performances in the form of low-molecu

  3. Design of advanced photocatalytic materials for energy and environmental applications

    CERN Document Server

    Coronado, Juan M; Hernández-Alonso, María D; Portela, Raquel

    2013-01-01

    Research for the development of more efficient photocatalysts has experienced an almost exponential growth since its popularization in early 1970's. Despite the advantages of the widely used TiO2, the yield of the conversion of sun power into chemical energy that can be achieved with this material is limited prompting the research and development of  a number of structural, morphological and chemical modifications of TiO2 , as well as a number of novel photocatalysts with very different composition. Design of Advanced Photocatalytic Materials for Energy and Environmental Applications provides

  4. Novel Engineered Refractory Materials for Advanced Reactor Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shannon, Steven [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States); Eapen, Jacob [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States); Maria, Jon-Paul [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States); Weber, William [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    2015-05-01

    This report summarizes the results of DOE-NEUP grant 10-853 titled “Novel engineered refractory materials for advanced reactor applications”. The project spanned 48 months (36 months under the original grant plus a 12 month no cost extension). The overarching goal of this work was to fabricate and characterize refractory materials engineered at the atomic scale with emphasis on their tolerance to accumulated radiation damage. With an emphasis on nano-scale structure, this work included atomic scale simulation to study the underlying mechanisms for modified radiation tolerance at these atomic scales.

  5. Advanced materials and biochemical processes for geothermal applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kukacka, L.E.; van Rooyen, D.; Premuzic, E.T.

    1987-04-01

    Two Geothermal Technology Division (GTD)-sponsored programs: (1) Geothermal Materials Development, and (2) Advanced Biochemical Processes for Geothermal Brines, are described. In the former, work in the following tasks is in progress: (1) high temperature elastomeric materials for dynamic sealing applications, (2) advanced high temperature (300/sup 0/C) lightweight (1.1 g/cc) well cementing materials, (3) thermally conductive composites for heat exchanger tubing, (4) corrosion rates for metals in brine-contaminated binary plant working fluids, and (5) elastomeric liners for well casing. Methods for the utilization and/or the low cost environmentally acceptable disposal of toxic geothermal residues are being developed in the second program. This work is performed in two tasks. In one, microorganisms that can interact with toxic metals found in geothermal residues to convert them into soluble species for subsequent reinjection back into the reservoir or to concentrate them for removal by conventional processes are being identified. In the second task, process conditions are being defined for the encapsulation of untreated or partially biochemically treated residues in Portland cement-based formulations and the subsequent utilization of the waste fractions in building materials. Both processing methods yield materials which appear to meet disposal criteria for non-toxic solid waste, and their technical and economic feasibilities have been established.

  6. Processed data from neutron scattering experiments described in PhD thesis "NMR and neutron total scattering studies of silicon-based anode materials for lithium-ion batteries"

    OpenAIRE

    Kerr, Christopher J

    2015-01-01

    The results of processing the data in the dataset "Raw data for neutron scattering experiments described in PhD thesis "NMR and neutron total scattering studies of silicon-based anode materials for lithium-ion batteries""

  7. Advanced Materials for Mercury 50 Gas Turbine Combustion System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, Jeffrey

    2008-09-30

    Solar Turbines Incorporated (Solar), under cooperative agreement number DE-FC26-0CH11049, has conducted development activities to improve the durability of the Mercury 50 combustion system to 30,000 hours life and reduced life cycle costs. This project is part of Advanced Materials in the Advanced Industrial Gas Turbines program in DOE's Office of Distributed Energy. The targeted development engine was the Mercury{trademark} 50 gas turbine, which was developed by Solar under the DOE Advanced Turbine Systems program (DOE contract number DE-FC21-95MC31173). As a generator set, the Mercury 50 is used for distributed power and combined heat and power generation and is designed to achieve 38.5% electrical efficiency, reduced cost of electricity, and single digit emissions. The original program goal was 20,000 hours life, however, this goal was increased to be consistent with Solar's standard 30,000 hour time before overhaul for production engines. Through changes to the combustor design to incorporate effusion cooling in the Generation 3 Mercury 50 engine, which resulted in a drop in the combustor wall temperature, the current standard thermal barrier coated liner was predicted to have 18,000 hours life. With the addition of the advanced materials technology being evaluated under this program, the combustor life is predicted to be over 30,000 hours. The ultimate goal of the program was to demonstrate a fully integrated Mercury 50 combustion system, modified with advanced materials technologies, at a host site for a minimum of 4,000 hours. Solar was the Prime Contractor on the program team, which includes participation of other gas turbine manufacturers, various advanced material and coating suppliers, nationally recognized test laboratories, and multiple industrial end-user field demonstration sites. The program focused on a dual path development route to define an optimum mix of technologies for the Mercury 50 and future gas turbine products. For liner and

  8. Electrodeposition of iron oxide nanorods on carbon nanofiber scaffolds as an anode material for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iron oxide film with spaced radial nanorods is formed on the VGCF (vapor-grown carbon nanofiber) scaffolds by means of anodic electrodeposition. X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy show that the iron oxide film deposited on the VGCF surface is α-Fe2O3 and consists of spaced radial nanorods having 16-21 nm in diameter after annealing at 400 deg. C. Galvanostatic charge/discharge results indicate that the α-Fe2O3/VGCF anode (970 mAh g-1) has higher capacity than bare α-Fe2O3 anode (680 mAh g-1) at 10 C current discharge. VGCF scaffolds fabricated by electrophoretic deposition favor the electron conduction, and the spaced radial nanorods on VGCFs facilitate the migration of lithium ion from the electrolyte. Electrochemical reactions between α-Fe2O3 and lithium ion are therefore improved significantly by this tailored architecture.

  9. Mesoporous Silicon-Based Anodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peramunage, Dharmasena

    2015-01-01

    For high-capacity, high-performance lithium-ion batteries. A new high-capacity anode composite based on mesoporous silicon is being developed. With a structure that resembles a pseudo one-dimensional phase, the active anode material will accommodate significant volume changes expected upon alloying and dealloying with lithium (Li).

  10. Carbon-Confined SnO2-Electrodeposited Porous Carbon Nanofiber Composite as High-Capacity Sodium-Ion Battery Anode Material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirican, Mahmut; Lu, Yao; Ge, Yeqian; Yildiz, Ozkan; Zhang, Xiangwu

    2015-08-26

    Sodium resources are inexpensive and abundant, and hence, sodium-ion batteries are promising alternative to lithium-ion batteries. However, lower energy density and poor cycling stability of current sodium-ion batteries prevent their practical implementation for future smart power grid and stationary storage applications. Tin oxides (SnO2) can be potentially used as a high-capacity anode material for future sodium-ion batteries, and they have the advantages of high sodium storage capacity, high abundance, and low toxicity. However, SnO2-based anodes still cannot be used in practical sodium-ion batteries because they experience large volume changes during repetitive charge and discharge cycles. Such large volume changes lead to severe pulverization of the active material and loss of electrical contact between the SnO2 and carbon conductor, which in turn result in rapid capacity loss during cycling. Here, we introduce a new amorphous carbon-coated SnO2-electrodeposited porous carbon nanofiber (PCNF@SnO2@C) composite that not only has high sodium storage capability, but also maintains its structural integrity while ongoing repetitive cycles. Electrochemical results revealed that this SnO2-containing nanofiber composite anode had excellent electrochemical performance including high-capacity (374 mAh g(-1)), good capacity retention (82.7%), and large Coulombic efficiency (98.9% after 100th cycle). PMID:26252051

  11. A first-principles study on the effect of oxygen content on the structural and electronic properties of silicon suboxide as anode material for lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahaman, Obaidur; Mortazavi, Bohayra; Rabczuk, Timon

    2016-03-01

    Silicon suboxide is currently considered as a unique candidate for lithium ion batteries anode materials due to its considerable capacity. However, no adequate information exists about the role of oxygen content on its performance. To this aim, we used density functional theory to create silicon suboxide matrices of various Si:O ratios and investigated the role of oxygen content on the structural, dynamic, electronic properties and lithiation behavior of the matrices. Our study demonstrates that the O atoms interact strongly with the inserted Li atoms resulting in a disintegration of the host matrix. We found that higher concentration of oxygen atoms in the mixture reduces its relative expansion upon lithiation, which is a desirable quality for anode materials. It helps in preventing crack formation and pulverization due to large fluctuations in volume. Our study also demonstrates that a higher oxygen content increases the lithium storage capacity of the anode. However, it can also cause the formation of stable complexes like lithium silicates that might result into reversible capacity loss as indicated by the voltage-composition curves. The study provides valuable insights into the role of oxygen in moderating the interaction of lithium in silicon suboxide mixture in microscopic details.

  12. Facile Sol-Gel/Spray-Drying Synthesis of Interweaved Si@TiO2&CNTs Hybrid Microsphere as Superior Anode Materials for Li-Ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiyun; Hou, Xianhua; Li, Yana; Ru, Qiang; Qin, Haiqing; Hu, Shejun

    2016-07-01

    A unique intertwined structure of silicon-based composite (Si@TiO2&CNTs) has been synthesized by sol-gel and spray drying methods. The Si@TiO2&CNTs is mainly composed of three kinds of materials:the prepared nanosilicon particles, TiO2, and carbon nanotubes (CNTs). A layer of TiO2 particles is found effective for enhancing the electrical conductivity and structure stability of the silicon particles. Additionally, the twisted CNTs are beneficial to build a better conductive network, consequently improving the anode working conditions when the cell is charged or discharged. As a lithium ion battery anode, a specific capacity of approximately 1521 mAh g-1 after 100 cycles is obtained.

  13. The Progress of Sodium-Ion Battery Anode Material%钠离子电池负极材料的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张洁; 杨占旭

    2016-01-01

    Sodium ion batteries have attracted tremendous attentions due to its rich resources,low cost,high efficiency and good chemical stability,and can satisfy people's demand for energy in the new era,which are considered a top alternative to lithium-ion batteries.The research progress on sodium ion battery anode materials are reviewed in details in this paper, including carbon-based materials,low voltage metal phosphates,the sodium storage alloys,metal oxides,titanium-based materials,and other negative electrode materials.Then the characteristics of anode materials are discussed.Finally,some future directions for sodium-ion battery anode materials are pointed out.%钠离子电池具有资源丰富、成本低、效率高、化学性能稳定等优点,成为锂离子电池 的理想替代品.主要阐述了钠离子电池负极材料的研究进展,包括碳基负极材料、低电压金属磷酸盐负极材料、合金类储钠负极材料、金属氧化物负极材料、钛酸盐类负极材料及其他负极材料,并对各类负极材料的性能进行了评价,最后对钠离子电池负极材料的发展方向做出了展望.

  14. Multi-walled carbon nanotube-reinforced porous iron oxide as a superior anode material for lithium ion battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pang, Xin-Jing; Zhang, Juan; Qi, Gong-Wei; Dai, Xiao-Hui; Zhou, Jun-Ping [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shandong University, No. 27, Shanda Nan Rd., Jinan 250100 (China); Zhang, Shu-Yong, E-mail: syzhang@sdu.edu.cn [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shandong University, No. 27, Shanda Nan Rd., Jinan 250100 (China); National Key Lab of Crystal, Shandong University, No. 27, Shanda Nan Rd., Jinan 250100 (China)

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • Electrochemical performance of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} is improved by combining different approaches. • Porous Cu substrate is used to enlarge surface area and improve conductivity. • MWCNT is used to reinforce the electrode structure and change morphology of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}. • Reversible capacity, capacity retention and high-rate performance are improved. - Abstract: Multi-walled carbon nanotube-reinforced porous iron oxide (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/MWCNT) is synthesized by a two-step approach with porous Cu substrate serving as current collector. Porous Cu substrate is prepared through electroless deposition with hydrogen bubble serving as template. Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/MWCNT composites are prepared by the electrodeposition of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} in the presence of dispersed MWCNTs from a Fe{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 3} solution with MWCNT suspension. Results showed that Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} forms granular nanoparticles on the porous Cu substrate with several MWCNTs embedded in it. Adding MWCNTs changes the morphology of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}. Smooth Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}, smooth Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/MWCNT, and porous Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} composites are also prepared for comparison. When used as anode materials, porous Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/MWCNT composites have a reversible capacity of approximately 601 mA h g{sup −1} at the 60th cycle at a cycling rate of 100 mA g{sup −1}. This value is higher than that of the other materials. The reversible capacity at a cycling rate of 10,000 mA g{sup −1} is approximately 50% of that at 100 mA g{sup −1}. Therefore, the MWCNT-reinforced porous Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} composite exhibits much better reversible capacity, capacity retention, and high-rate performance than the other samples. This finding can be ascribed to the porous structure of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}, better conductivity of porous Cu substrate and MWCNTs, and the morphology change of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles upon the addition of MWCNTs.

  15. Direct Utilization of Liquid Fuels in SOFC for Portable Applications: Challenges for the Selection of Alternative Anodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimiliano Cimenti

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC have the advantage of being able to operate with fuels other than hydrogen. In particular, liquid fuels are especially attractive for powering portable applications such as small power generators or auxiliary power units, in which case the direct utilization of the fuel would be convenient. Although liquid fuels are easier to handle and transport than hydrogen, their direct use in SOFC can lead to anode deactivation due to carbon formation, especially on traditional nickel/yttria stabilized zirconia (Ni/YSZ anodes. Significant advances have been made in anodic materials that are resistant to carbon formation but often these materials are less electrochemically active than Ni/YSZ. In this review the challenges of using liquid fuels directly in SOFC, in terms of gas-phase and catalytic reactions within the anode chamber, will be discussed and the alternative anode materials so far investigated will be compared.

  16. Ultrafast synthesis of MoS2 or WS2-reduced graphene oxide composites via hybrid microwave annealing for anode materials of lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youn, Duck Hyun; Jo, Changshin; Kim, Jae Young; Lee, Jinwoo; Lee, Jae Sung

    2015-11-01

    An ultrafast and simple strategy to synthesize metal sulfides (MoS2 and WS2) anchored on reduced graphene oxide (RGO) composites is reported as anode materials for lithium ion batteries (LIBs). Metal sulfide nanocrystals with homogeneous dispersion onto conducting RGO sheets are obtained in only 45 s by hybrid microwave annealing (HMA) method. The synthesized materials, especially MoS2/RGO composite, exhibit a high Li capacity, an excellent rate capability, and a stable cycling performance, comparable to the reported best MS2/carbon composite electrodes. The results highlight the effectiveness of HMA method to fabricate the metal sulfide/RGO composites with excellent electric properties.

  17. SnO2 nanocrystals deposited on multiwalled carbon nanotubes with superior stability as anode material for Li-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Jianguo; Yang, Junbing; Abouimrane, Ali; Wang, Dapeng; Amine, Khalil

    2011-10-01

    We report a novel ethylene glycol-mediated solvothermal-polyol route for synthesis of SnO2-CNT nanocomposites, which consist of highly dispersed 3-5 nm SnO2 nanocrystals on the surface of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (CNTs). As anode materials for Li-ion batteries, the nanocomposites showed high rate capability and superior cycling stability with specific capacity of 500 mAh g-1 for up to 300 cycles. The CNTs served as electron conductors and volume buffers in the nanocomposites. This strategy could be extended to synthesize other metal oxides composites with other carbon materials.

  18. Preparation and electrochemical properties of core-shell carbon coated Mn–Sn complex metal oxide as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, we synthesized a carbon coated Mn–Sn metal oxide composite with core-shell structure (MTO@C) via a simple glucose hydrothermal reaction and subsequent carbonization approach. When the MTO@C composite was applied as an anode material for lithium-ion batteries, it maintained a reversible capacity of 409 mA h g−1 after 200 cycles at a current density of 100 mA g−1. The uniformed and continuous carbon layer formed on the MTO nanoparticles, effectively buffered the volumetric change of the active material and increased electronic conductivity, which thus prolonged the cycling performance of the MTO@C electrode.

  19. Thermal Characterization of Nanostructures and Advanced Engineered Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Vivek Kumar

    to heat-sinking units. This dissertation presents results of the experimental investigation and theoretical interpretation of thermal transport in the advanced engineered materials, which include thin films for thermal management of nanoscale devices, nanostructured superlattices as promising candidates for high-efficiency thermoelectric materials, and improved TIMs with graphene and metal particles as fillers providing enhanced thermal conductivity. The advanced engineered materials studied include chemical vapor deposition (CVD) grown ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD) and microcrystalline diamond (MCD) films on Si substrates, directly integrated nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) films on GaN, free-standing polycrystalline graphene (PCG) films, graphene oxide (GOx) films, and "pseudo-superlattices" of the mechanically exfoliated Bi2Te3 topological insulator films, and thermal interface materials (TIMs) with graphene fillers.

  20. Collimation Cleaning at the LHC with Advanced Secondary Collimator Materials

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2085459; Bruce, Roderik; Mereghetti, Alessio; Redaelli, Stefano; Rossi, A

    2015-01-01

    The LHC collimation system must ensure efficient beam halo cleaning in all machine conditions. The first run in 2010-2013 showed that the LHC performance may be limited by collimator material-related concerns, such as the contribution from the present carbon-based secondary collimators to the machine impedance and, consequently, to the beam instability. Novel materials based on composites are currently under development for the next generation of LHC collimators to address these limitations. Particle tracking simulations of collimation efficiency were performed using the Sixtrack code and a material database updated to model these composites. In this paper, the simulation results will be presented with the aim of studying the effect of the advanced collimators on the LHC beam cleaning.

  1. Computational modeling, optimization and manufacturing simulation of advanced engineering materials

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    This volume presents recent research work focused in the development of adequate theoretical and numerical formulations to describe the behavior of advanced engineering materials.  Particular emphasis is devoted to applications in the fields of biological tissues, phase changing and porous materials, polymers and to micro/nano scale modeling. Sensitivity analysis, gradient and non-gradient based optimization procedures are involved in many of the chapters, aiming at the solution of constitutive inverse problems and parameter identification. All these relevant topics are exposed by experienced international and inter institutional research teams resulting in a high level compilation. The book is a valuable research reference for scientists, senior undergraduate and graduate students, as well as for engineers acting in the area of computational material modeling.

  2. A literature survey on gas turbines materials - recent advances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 9001F gas turbine (rating of about 200 MW) is one of the most recent versions of the 9000 series, benefitting from the developments and technological advances, notably in regard to structural materials. In the framework of the EDF gas turbine engineering and construction program, evaluating the nature of these developments can provide guidance in appraising the construction materials proposed by other manufacturers. After a brief comparison between the Gennevilliers 9001F engine and the 85 MW 9000B gas turbine at Bouchain, ordered by EDF in 1971, various research aspects for optimizing gas turbine refractory material mechanical properties and corrosion resistance (superalloys, monolithic ceramics and composite ceramics) are presented; present current and future trends for high power equipment of this type are also discussed

  3. Nano-sized Li4Ti5O12 anode material with excellent performance prepared by solid state reaction: The effect of precursor size and morphology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Nano-sized Li4Ti5O12 has been prepared through solid state reaction by using axiolitic TiO2 as precursor. • The prepared nano-sized Li4Ti5O12 anode material shows excellent electrochemical performance. • The utilization of precursor with special morphology and size is one of the useful ways to prepare more active electrode materials. - Abstract: Spinel nano-sized Li4Ti5O12 anode material of secondary lithium-ion battery has been successfully prepared by solid state reaction using axiolitic TiO2 assembled by 10–20 nm nanoparticles and Li2CO3 as precursors. The synthesis condition, grain size effect and corresponding electrochemical performance of the special Li4Ti5O12 have been studied in comparison with those of the normal Li4Ti5O12 originated from commercial TiO2. We also propose the mechanism that using the nano-scaled TiO2 with special structure and unexcess Li2CO3 as precursors can synthesize pure phase nano-sized Li4Ti5O12 at 800 °C through solid state reaction. The prepared nano-sized Li4Ti5O12 anode material for Li-ion batteries shows excellent capacity performance with rate capacity of 174.2, 164.0, 157.4, 146.4 and 129.6 mA h g−1 at 0.5, 1, 2, 5 and 10 C, respectively, and capacity retention of 95.1% after 100 cycles at 1 C. In addition, the specific capacity fade for the cell with the different Li4Ti5O12 active materials resulted from the increase of internal resistance after 100 cycles is compared

  4. TiNb2O7/Graphene hybrid material as high performance anode for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report the synthesis of TiNb2O7/Graphene (TNO-TG) hybrid nanomaterial by simple solvothermal process, with TiNb2O7 nanoparticles anchored on the reduced graphene oxide (rGO) sheets. TNO-TG hybrid nanomaterial showed excellent electrochemical performance when studied as anode for Lithium-ion battery, with an exceptionally high rate capability (capacity retention of 80% at 16 C rate) along with high discharge capacity (∼230 mAhg−1 after 50 cycles at 0.1 C). A full cell Li-ion battery has been fabricated with TNO-TG as anode and LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2:LiNi0.5Mn0.5O2 (wt% of 75:25) as cathode, which delivered an average cell voltage of ∼2.5 V with an initial anode-specific discharge capacity of 211 mAhg−1, when cycled in the voltage range of 1.5–3.5 V at 0.1 C. The obtained results are very promising and we believe the current findings will lead to new directions in the on-going search for safe and high performance anodes for rechargeable lithium-ion batteries

  5. A manufacturing database of advanced materials used in spacecraft structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Han P.

    1994-01-01

    Cost savings opportunities over the life cycle of a product are highest in the early exploratory phase when different design alternatives are evaluated not only for their performance characteristics but also their methods of fabrication which really control the ultimate manufacturing costs of the product. In the past, Design-To-Cost methodologies for spacecraft design concentrated on the sizing and weight issues more than anything else at the early so-called 'Vehicle Level' (Ref: DOD/NASA Advanced Composites Design Guide). Given the impact of manufacturing cost, the objective of this study is to identify the principal cost drivers for each materials technology and propose a quantitative approach to incorporating these cost drivers into the family of optimization tools used by the Vehicle Analysis Branch of NASA LaRC to assess various conceptual vehicle designs. The advanced materials being considered include aluminum-lithium alloys, thermoplastic graphite-polyether etherketone composites, graphite-bismaleimide composites, graphite- polyimide composites, and carbon-carbon composites. Two conventional materials are added to the study to serve as baseline materials against which the other materials are compared. These two conventional materials are aircraft aluminum alloys series 2000 and series 7000, and graphite-epoxy composites T-300/934. The following information is available in the database. For each material type, the mechanical, physical, thermal, and environmental properties are first listed. Next the principal manufacturing processes are described. Whenever possible, guidelines for optimum processing conditions for specific applications are provided. Finally, six categories of cost drivers are discussed. They include, design features affecting processing, tooling, materials, fabrication, joining/assembly, and quality assurance issues. It should be emphasized that this database is not an exhaustive database. Its primary use is to make the vehicle designer

  6. Advanced Materials Development Program: Ceramic Technology for Advanced Heat Engines program plan, 1983--1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-07-01

    The purpose of the Ceramic Technology for Advanced Heat Engines (CTAHE) Project is the development of an industrial technology base capable of providing reliable and cost-effective high temperature ceramic components for application in advanced heat engines. There is a deliberate emphasis on industrial'' in the purpose statement. The project is intended to support the US ceramic and engine industries by providing the needed ceramic materials technology. The heat engine programs have goals of component development and proof-of-concept. The CTAHE Project is aimed at developing generic basic ceramic technology and does not involve specific engine designs and components. The materials research and development efforts in the CTAHE Project are focused on the needs and general requirements of the advanced gas turbine and low heat rejection diesel engines. The CTAHE Project supports the DOE Office of Transportation Systems' heat engine programs, Advanced Turbine Technology Applications (ATTAP) and Heavy Duty Transport (HDT) by providing the basic technology required for development of reliable and cost-effective ceramic components. The heat engine programs provide the iterative component design, fabrication, and test development logic. 103 refs., 18 figs., 11 tabs.

  7. Status and Trends in Advanced SOI Devices and Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    A review of recently explored effects in advanced SOI devices and materials is given. The effects of key device parameters on the electrical and thermal floating body effects are shown for various device architectures.Recent advances in the understanding of the sensitivity of electron and hole transport to the tensile or compressive uniaxial and biaxial strains in thin film SOI are presented. The performance and physical mechanisms are also addressed in multi-gate Si, SiGe and Ge MOSFETs. New hot carrier phenomena are discussed. The effects of gate misalignment or underlap,as well as the use of the back gate for charge storage in double-gate nanodevices and of capacitorless DRAM are also outlined.

  8. Layer-by-layer assembled graphene-coated mesoporous SnO2 spheres as anodes for advanced Li-ion batteries

    KAUST Repository

    Shahid, Muhammad

    2014-10-01

    We report layer-by-layer (LBL) assembly of graphene/carbon-coated mesoporous SnO2 spheres (Gr/C-SnO2 spheres), without binder and conducting additives, as anode materials with excellent Li-ion insertion-extraction properties. Our results indicate that these novel LBL assembled electrodes have high reversible Li storage capacity, improved cycling, and especially good rate performance, even at high specific currents. The superior electrochemical performance offered by these LBL assembled Gr/C-SnO2 spheres is attributed to the enhanced electronic conductivity and effective diffusion of Li ions in the interconnected network of nanoparticles forming the mesoporous SnO2 spheres. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Fusion reactor design towards radwaste minimum with advanced shield material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new concept of fusion reactor design is proposed to minimize the radioactive waste of the reactor. The main point of the concept is to clear massive structural components located outside the neutron shield from regulatory control. The concept requires some reinforcement of shielding with an advanced shield material such as a metal hydride, detriation, and tailoring of a detrimental element from the superconductor. Our assessment confirmed a large impact of the concept on radwaste reduction, in that it reduces the radwaste fraction of a fusion reactor A-SSTR2 from 92 wt.% to 17 wt.%. (author)

  10. Weldability and weld properties for advanced power plant materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cerjak, H.; Letofsky, E. [Graz Univ. of Technology, Graz (Austria); Jochum, C. [Thyssen Schweisstechnik, Hamm (Germany); Nies, H. [Oerlikon Schweisstechnik, Eisenberg (Germany)

    2002-07-01

    This paper shows the contributions of the suppliers of consumables, foundries and research institutes to the European COST program 522 for the development of new Co modified 9-12% Cr-steels. The characterisation of welded joints in advanced high creep resistant steels is of decisive importance in the design of modern power stations. The key to solve these takes in the understanding of the metallurgical behaviour of the different microstructures appearing in the welded joint - base material, heat affected zone and weld deposit under creep exposure conditions. (orig.)

  11. Advanced numerical models - influence of partial material factors

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Koudelka, Petr; Koudelka, T.

    London/Leiden/New York : Taylor and Francis Group, 2007 - (Kanda, J.; Furuta, H.), s. 597-598 ISBN 978-0-415-45134-5. [IC on Applications of statistics and probability in civilengineering. Tokyo (JP), 31.07.2007-03.08.2007] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA103/05/2130; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA2071302 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20710524 Keywords : advanced numerical models * stability * rock cliff * reliability * Limit State Design * partial material factors Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism

  12. Review of the Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) materials irradiation facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the workshop was to document as accurately as possible the present and future needs for neutron irradiation capacity and facilities as related to the design of the Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) which will be the next generation steady-state research reactor. The report provides the findings and recommendations of the working group. After introductory and background information is presented, the discussion includes the status of the ANS design, in particular in-core materials irradiation facilities design and important experimental parameters. The summary of workshop discussions describes a survey of irradiation-effects research community and opportunities for ex-core irradiation facilities. 20 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs

  13. Microstructural and mechanical characterization of laser deposited advanced materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sistla, Harihar Rakshit

    Additive manufacturing in the form of laser deposition is a unique way to manufacture near net shape metallic components from advanced materials. Rapid solidification facilitates the extension of solid solubility, compositional flexibility and decrease in micro-segregation in the melt among other advantages. The current work investigates the employment of laser deposition to fabricate the following: 1. Functionally gradient materials: This allows grading dissimilar materials compositionally to tailor specific properties of both these materials into a single component. Specific compositions of the candidate materials (SS 316, Inconel 625 and Ti64) were blended and deposited to study the brittle intermetallics reported in these systems. 2. High entropy alloys: These are multi- component alloys with equiatomic compositions of 5 or more elements. The ratio of Al to Ni was decreased to observe the transition of solid solution from a BCC to an FCC crystal structure in the AlFeCoCrNi system. 3. Structurally amorphous alloys: Zr-based metallic glasses have been reported to have high glass forming ability. These alloys have been laser deposited so as to rapidly cool them from the melt into an amorphous state. Microstructural analysis and X-ray diffraction were used to study the phase formation, and hardness was measured to estimate the mechanical properties.

  14. Advanced Test Reactor National Scientific User Facility: Addressing advanced nuclear materials research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Jackson; Todd Allen; Frances Marshall; Jim Cole

    2013-03-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor National Scientific User Facility (ATR NSUF), based at the Idaho National Laboratory in the United States, is supporting Department of Energy and industry research efforts to ensure the properties of materials in light water reactors are well understood. The ATR NSUF is providing this support through three main efforts: establishing unique infrastructure necessary to conduct research on highly radioactive materials, conducting research in conjunction with industry partners on life extension relevant topics, and providing training courses to encourage more U.S. researchers to understand and address LWR materials issues. In 2010 and 2011, several advanced instruments with capability focused on resolving nuclear material performance issues through analysis on the micro (10-6 m) to atomic (10-10 m) scales were installed primarily at the Center for Advanced Energy Studies (CAES) in Idaho Falls, Idaho. These instruments included a local electrode atom probe (LEAP), a field-emission gun scanning transmission electron microscope (FEG-STEM), a focused ion beam (FIB) system, a Raman spectrometer, and an nanoindentor/atomic force microscope. Ongoing capability enhancements intended to support industry efforts include completion of two shielded, irradiation assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC) test loops, the first of which will come online in early calendar year 2013, a pressurized and controlled chemistry water loop for the ATR center flux trap, and a dedicated facility intended to house post irradiation examination equipment. In addition to capability enhancements at the main site in Idaho, the ATR NSUF also welcomed two new partner facilities in 2011 and two new partner facilities in 2012; the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) and associated hot cells and the University California Berkeley capabilities in irradiated materials analysis were added in 2011. In 2012, Purdue University’s Interaction of Materials

  15. Metal coordination polymer derived mesoporous Co3O4 nanorods with uniform TiO2 coating as advanced anodes for lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Hongbo; Ang, Huixiang; Ding, Xianguang; Tan, Huiteng; Guo, Guile; Qu, Genlong; Yang, Yonggang; Zheng, Junwei; Yan, Qingyu; Gu, Hongwei

    2016-01-01

    In this work, a one-dimensional Co3O4@TiO2 core-shell electrode material with superior electrochemical performance is fabricated by a convenient and controllable route. The approach involves two main steps: the homogeneous deposition of polydopamine and TiO2 layers in sequence on the cobalt coordination polymer and the thermal decomposition of the polymer matrix. The as-prepared electrode material can achieve excellent electrochemical properties and stability as an anode material for lithium ion batteries, such as a high specific capacity of 1279 mA h g-1, good cycling stability (around 803 mA h g-1 at a current density of 200 mA g-1 after 100 cycles), and stable rate performance (around 520 mA h g-1 at a current density of 1000 mA g-1). This dramatic electrochemical performance is mainly attributed to the excellent structural characteristics, which could improve the electrical conductivity and lithium ion mobility, as well as electrolyte permeability and architectural stability during cycling.In this work, a one-dimensional Co3O4@TiO2 core-shell electrode material with superior electrochemical performance is fabricated by a convenient and controllable route. The approach involves two main steps: the homogeneous deposition of polydopamine and TiO2 layers in sequence on the cobalt coordination polymer and the thermal decomposition of the polymer matrix. The as-prepared electrode material can achieve excellent electrochemical properties and stability as an anode material for lithium ion batteries, such as a high specific capacity of 1279 mA h g-1, good cycling stability (around 803 mA h g-1 at a current density of 200 mA g-1 after 100 cycles), and stable rate performance (around 520 mA h g-1 at a current density of 1000 mA g-1). This dramatic electrochemical performance is mainly attributed to the excellent structural characteristics, which could improve the electrical conductivity and lithium ion mobility, as well as electrolyte permeability and architectural

  16. 锂离子电池硅基负极材料研究进展%Research Progress of Silicon Based Anode Materials for Lithium-ion Batteries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨绍斌; 刘远鹏

    2011-01-01

    Silicon based materials are candidate anode materials for lithium-ion battery because of its large spe cific capacity. But the decay of capacity during cycling restrains the practicability of silicon-based material. Two im portant research aspects of silicon-based materials are reviewed, including the silicon compounds powder and silicon thin film, and a single modification approach cannot satisfy the practical application is pointed out So, the comprehen sive use of nanocrystallization, amorphization and alloying becomes the main approach in silicon, based anode mate rials.%硅基负极材料具有比容量大的优点,是高容量锂离子电池理想的负极材料.然而硅基材料在循环过程中容量衰减快,影响了其实用性.从硅复合物粉末和硅薄膜两个重要研究方面对硅基负极材料进行了综述,指出在Si基复合负极材料的研究中,单一途径改性提升循环性能的幅度有限,很难达到实用化阶段.硅的纳米化、无定形化、合金化及复合化等方法的综合运用成为硅基材料研究的主导方向.

  17. Realisation and advanced engineering of true optical rugate filters based on nanoporous anodic alumina by sinusoidal pulse anodisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Abel; Yoo, Jeong Ha; Rohatgi, Charu Vashisth; Kumeria, Tushar; Wang, Ye; Losic, Dusan

    2016-01-01

    This study is the first realisation of true optical rugate filters (RFs) based on nanoporous anodic alumina (NAA) by sinusoidal waves. An innovative and rationally designed sinusoidal pulse anodisation (SPA) approach in galvanostatic mode is used with the aim of engineering the effective medium of NAA in a sinusoidal fashion. A precise control over the different anodisation parameters (i.e. anodisation period, anodisation amplitude, anodisation offset, number of pulses, anodisation temperature and pore widening time) makes it possible to engineer the characteristic reflection peaks and interferometric colours of NAA-RFs, which can be finely tuned across the UV-visible-NIR spectrum. The effect of the aforementioned anodisation parameters on the photonic properties of NAA-RFs (i.e. characteristic reflection peaks and interferometric colours) is systematically assessed in order to establish for the first time a comprehensive rationale towards NAA-RFs with fully controllable photonic properties. The experimental results are correlated with a theoretical model (Looyenga-Landau-Lifshitz - LLL), demonstrating that the effective medium of these photonic nanostructures can be precisely described by the effective medium approximation. NAA-RFs are also demonstrated as chemically selective photonic platforms combined with reflectometric interference spectroscopy (RIfS). The resulting optical sensing system is used to assess the reversible binding affinity between a model drug (i.e. indomethacin) and human serum albumin (HSA) in real-time. Our results demonstrate that this system can be used to determine the overall pharmacokinetic profile of drugs, which is a critical aspect to be considered for the implementation of efficient medical therapies.This study is the first realisation of true optical rugate filters (RFs) based on nanoporous anodic alumina (NAA) by sinusoidal waves. An innovative and rationally designed sinusoidal pulse anodisation (SPA) approach in galvanostatic

  18. Second World Materials Summit——Advanced Energy Materials and Sustainable Society Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIAO Lijing

    2009-01-01

    @@ In the current term,new energy will lead the fourth industrial revolution,and development of new energy is conducive to the worlds sustainable economic development.The Second World Materials Summit was held in Suzhou on October 12-15,2009 in such a background.It achieved a successful outcome and made an important declaration:Suzhou Declaration.The theme for the summit was"advanced energy materials and sustainable development of the society".The summit was organized by the Chinese Materials Research Society,and co sponsored by the International Union of Materials Research Society,the European Materials Research Society,as well as the Materials Research Society.

  19. Cost/benefit studies of advanced materials technologies for future aircraft turbine engines: Materials for advanced turbine engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stearns, M.; Wilbers, L.

    1982-01-01

    Cost benefit studies were conducted on six advanced materials and processes technologies applicable to commercial engines planned for production in the 1985 to 1990 time frame. These technologies consisted of thermal barrier coatings for combustor and high pressure turbine airfoils, directionally solidified eutectic high pressure turbine blades, (both cast and fabricated), and mixers, tail cones, and piping made of titanium-aluminum alloys. A fabricated titanium fan blisk, an advanced turbine disk alloy with improved low cycle fatigue life, and a long-life high pressure turbine blade abrasive tip and ceramic shroud system were also analyzed. Technologies showing considerable promise as to benefits, low development costs, and high probability of success were thermal barrier coating, directionally solidified eutectic turbine blades, and abrasive-tip blades/ceramic-shroud turbine systems.

  20. Advanced gas cooled nuclear reactor materials evaluation and development program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-01-01

    Results of work performed from January 1, 1977 through March 31, 1977 on the Advanced Gas Cooled Nuclear Reactor Materials Evaluation and Development Program are presented. The objectives of this program are to evaluate candidate alloys for Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) Process Heat and Direct Cycle Helium Turbine (DCHT) applications, in terms of the effect of simulated reactor primary coolant (impure Helium), high temperatures, and long time exposures, on the mechanical properties and structural and surface stability of selected candidate alloys. A second objective is to select and recommend materials for future test facilities and more extensive qualification programs. Work covered in this report includes progress to date on alloy selection for VHTR Nuclear Process Heat (NPH) applications and for DCHT applications. The present status on the simulated reactor helium loop design and on designs for the testing and analysis facilities and equipment is discussed.