WorldWideScience

Sample records for advanced air bag

  1. 75 FR 57549 - Fisker Automotive; Grant of Application for Temporary Exemption From Advanced Air Bag...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-21

    ... Manufacturers In 2000, NHTSA upgraded the requirements for air bags in passenger cars and light trucks... Exemption From Advanced Air Bag Requirements of FMVSS No. 208 AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety... advanced air bag requirements of FMVSS No. 208, for the Karma model. The basis for the application is that...

  2. 76 FR 33406 - Lotus Cars Ltd. Receipt of Petition for Renewal of Temporary Exemption From the Advanced Air Bag...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-08

    ... Cars Ltd. has petitioned the agency for renewal of a temporary exemption from certain advanced air bag... cars and light trucks, requiring what are commonly known as ``advanced air bags.'' \\2\\ The upgrade was... Exemption From the Advanced Air Bag Requirements of FMVSS No. 208 AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety...

  3. 76 FR 47641 - Pagani Automobili SpA; Denial of Application for Temporary Exemption From Advanced Air Bag...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-05

    ..., NHTSA published a final rule that upgraded the requirements for air bags in passenger cars and light... working with a supplier to develop advanced air bag system); Notice of Receipt of Petition of Lotus Cars... indicated that all exempted cars will have standard air bags which comply with the pre-S14 provisions of...

  4. Air bags and ocular injuries.

    OpenAIRE

    Stein, J.D.; Jaeger, E A; Jeffers, J B

    1999-01-01

    PURPOSE: This investigation retrospectively examined ocular injuries associated with air bag deployment to gain a better appreciation of potential risk factors in motor vehicle accidents. National statistics regarding the efficacy of air bags were reviewed. METHODS: Review of the literature from 1991 to 1998 identified 44 articles describing 97 patients with air-bag-induced ocular injuries. Variables extracted from each case were age, sex, height, position in the car, eye wear, vehicle impact...

  5. Noise trauma from air bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-04-01

    Air bags have contributed substantially to the safety of car occupants in road accidents, but concern exists that they may inflate unnecessarily in low speed crashes. Previous articles have reported eye, face, upper limb, and chest injuries caused by air bag inflation. In this report, researchers describe two cases of hearing loss and persistent tinnitus that may have resulted from air bag inflation in low speed collisions. Neither subject sustained other injuries.

  6. 49 CFR 173.166 - Air bag inflators, air bag modules and seat-belt pretensioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Air bag inflators, air bag modules and seat-belt... Than Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.166 Air bag inflators, air bag modules and seat-belt pretensioners. (a... an inflatable bag assembly. A seat-belt pre-tensioner contains similar hazardous materials and...

  7. Air bags and ocular injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, J D; Jaeger, E A; Jeffers, J B

    1999-01-01

    This investigation retrospectively examined ocular injuries associated with air bag deployment to gain a better appreciation of potential risk factors in motor vehicle accidents. National statistics regarding the efficacy of air bags were reviewed. Review of the literature from 1991 to 1998 identified 44 articles describing 97 patients with air-bag-induced ocular injuries. Variables extracted from each case were age, sex, height, position in the car, eye wear, vehicle impact speed, visual acuity, and specific ocular injuries. Corneal abrasions occurred in 49% of occupants, hyphemas in 43%, vitreous or retinal hemorrhages in 25%, and retinal tears or detachments in 15%. The globe was ruptured in 10 patients. Patients involved in higher-speed accidents (over 30 mph) sustained a greater percentage of vitreous or retinal hemorrhages and traumatic cataracts, while those at slower speeds were more prone to retinal tears or detachments. In a subset of 14 patients with serious ocular injuries, the impact speed of 11 patients was recorded at 30 mph or less. Slower speed may be a risk factor for some ocular injuries. Occupant height was not a significant factor. National statistics confirm that air bags reduce fatalities in motor vehicle accidents. However, children sitting in the front seat without a seat belt and infants in passenger-side rear-facing car seats are at risk for fatal injury. Air bags combined with seat belts are an effective means of reducing injury and death in adults during motor vehicle accidents. However, this study has documented a wide variety of ocular injuries associated with air bag deployment. It is hoped that researchers can develop modifications that continue to save lives while minimizing additional harm.

  8. Air bag injury and the dermatologist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, E; Helm, T N

    2000-10-01

    Most new car models have driver-side air bags and many also have passenger-side and side-impact air bags. Air bags are known to be dangerous to small children and may cause death, fractures, and cerebral spinal injury. However, the cutaneous manifestations of air bag injury are less well known. Additional potential air bag injuries include retinal damage and high-frequency hearing loss. The following case report illustrates significant burns from a low-impact air bag injury and reviews the pertinent literature.

  9. Seat belt use in cars with air bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, A F; Wells, J K; Lund, A K

    1990-12-01

    Seat belt use was observed in 1,628 cars with air bags and manual belts and 34,223 cars with manual seat belts only. Sixty-six percent of drivers in cars with air bags wore seat belts compared to 63 percent of drivers in cars with manual belts only. The study found no evidence for the speculation that drivers with air bags will reduce their seat belt use because they believe an air bag alone provides sufficient protection.

  10. Air Bag Momentum Force Including Aspiration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy Nusholtz

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available A gas-jet momentum force drives the air bag into position during a crash. The magnitude of this force can change as a result of aspiration. To determine the potential magnitude of the effect on the momentum force and mass flow rate in an aspirated system, a series of experiments and simulations of those experiments was conducted. The simulation consists of a two-dimensional unsteady isentropic CFD model with special “infinite boundaries”. One of the difficulties in simulating the gas-jet behavior is determining the mass flow rate. To improve the reliability of the mass flow rate input to the simulation, a sampling procedure involving multiple tests was used, and an average of the tests was adopted.

  11. Air bag-mediated fatal craniocervical trauma: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büyük, Yalçin; Uzün, Ibrahim; Erkol, Zerrin; Ağritmiş, Hasan; Ustündağ, Kasim T

    2010-07-01

    This case report describes a four-year-old girl (102 cm, 17 kg) who sustained fatal craniocerebral injuries as a result of an inflating automobile air bag. The car struck the lid of the sewer system, which was 15 cm above the ground level, at a low speed, and both the driver and passenger air bags inflated. Despite the fact that air bag usage has lessened both the possibility and severity of occupant injuries in frontal collisions, case reports of serious injuries and even deaths especially in children due to air bag deployment, particularly during low speed impacts, highlight the need for changes in both system design and possibly the threshold speed of air bag deployment.

  12. Wave energy absorption by a floating air bag

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kurniawan, Adi; Chaplin, John; Greaves, Deborah

    2017-01-01

    A floating air bag, ballasted in water, expands and contracts as it heaves under wave action. Connecting the bag to a secondary volume via a turbine transforms the bag into a device capable of generating useful energy from the waves. Small-scale measurements of the device reveal some interesting...... properties, which are successfully predicted numerically. Owing to its compressibility, the device can have a heave resonance period longer than that of a rigid device of the same shape and size, without any phase control. Furthermore, varying the amount of air in the bag is found to change its shape...

  13. Ocular alkali burn associated with automobile air-bag activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, J E; McClafferty, K; Orton, R B; Tokarewicz, A C; Nowak, E S

    1995-01-01

    Alkali burns of the eye can result in permanent visual impairment and are therefore potentially devastating. Immedicate diagnosis and treatment are essential to a good prognosis. The authors report the case of a 52-year-old woman who suffered alkali keratitis as the result of the activation of an automobile air bag. This type of injury will be seen more frequently as more cars are equipped with air bags and should be suspected in drivers and passengers involved in accidents in which air bags have been activated. PMID:7553495

  14. Air bags: reducing the toll of brain trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagger, J; Vernberg, K; Jane, J A

    1987-05-01

    Motor vehicle crashes account for approximately one-half of all hospitalized patients with brain injury. Therefore, measures to reduce the frequency and severity of injuries from motor vehicle crashes have the potential for making a substantial impact on the incidence and severity of brain trauma. Occupant restraints, including seat belts and air bags, have been proven highly effective in preventing injuries, yet the specific benefits for the brain, the face, and the cervical spine provided by air bags have not been widely publicized. Air bags prevent the violent whiplash motion of the head in a frontal crash, resulting in a more controlled deceleration of the brain. Wrenching forces exerted on the cervical spine are attenuated, and the face is protected from contact with hard or lacerating surfaces. Furthermore, compliance is not a problem with air bags. When a car is equipped with air bags, they are in effect 100% of the time, which is important for the protection of high risk groups, such a teenage boys, who tend to wear seat belts less often than other groups. It is estimated from national data and from epidemiological studies that air bags could have prevented or reduced brain injury for 25% of the hospitalized, brain-injured population. If provided as standard equipment on both the driver and the passenger side, air bags could do more to reduce the toll of brain trauma than any other available intervention. Air bags were ready for introduction into the marketplace 15 years ago. Since then, approximately 150,000 preventable deaths and more than 1,500,000 preventable brain injuries have occurred.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  15. Wave energy absorption by a floating air bag

    CERN Document Server

    Kurniawan, A; Greaves, D M; Hann, M; Farley, F J M

    2016-01-01

    A floating air bag, ballasted in water, expands and contracts as it heaves under wave action. Connecting the bag to a secondary volume via a turbine transforms the bag into a device capable of generating useful energy from the waves. Small-scale measurements of the device reveal some interesting properties, which are successfully predicted numerically. Owing to its compressibility, the device can have a resonance period longer than that of a rigid device of the same shape and size, without any phase control. Furthermore, varying the amount of air in the bag is found to change its shape and hence its dynamic response, while varying the turbine damping or the air volume ratio changes the dynamic response without changing the shape.

  16. [Injuries to car passengers protected by air bags].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sefrin, P; Kuhnigk, H; Koburg, R

    2004-11-01

    The air bag, like the seatbelt, is a further development of the inside protection of motorcar passengers. However, the airbag has also been made responsible for severe internal injuries. In a retrospective case control study, 394 accidents in which the air bag was released were analysed. At least medium severe injuries (Maximum Abbreviated Injury Scale: MAIS > or = 2) occurred in 69 cases. Three different patterns of injury were distinguished depending on the level of difficulty of diagnosis by the emergency physician. Damage to the vehicles was scored in five intensities or damage grades. Thoracic injury was most frequently diagnosed in the patients (in 61.5 % of cases), followed by injuries to the lower (50.8 %) and upper extremities (47.7 %). Single injuries with a grade of severity of 2 (MAIS) predominated (59.7 %). In most of the cases the injury was easy to diagnose (64.6 %) because of external signs, in 24.6 % internal injuries were assumed and in only 10.8 % were there no sings of damage to body cavities. Most frequent were occult injuries in the thoracic region (100 %) and in the abdomen (74.4 %). However, occult injuries did not always conform to the grade of deformation to the vehicle, since in 66.7 % the grade of damage was 3. This was not true for the remaining types of injury because external injuries increased with the grade of damage to the vehicle. After the release of the air bag, occult injuries of the body cavities have to be expected, even if there are no signs of external injury. Women under 35 years of age are particularly endangered. There exists no minimum velocity for the occurrence of injuries to the body cavities because harm can simply be a result of the release of the air bag.

  17. Efficacy of side air bags in reducing driver deaths in driver-side collisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braver, Elisa R; Kyrychenko, Sergey Y

    2004-03-15

    Side air bags, a relatively new technology designed to protect the head and/or torso in side-impact collisions, are becoming increasingly common in automobiles. Their efficacy in preventing US driver deaths among cars struck on the near (driver's) side was examined using data from the Fatality Analysis Reporting System and the General Estimates System. Risk ratios for driver death per nearside collision during 1999-2001 were computed for head/torso and torso-only side air bags in cars from model years 1997-2002, relative to cars without side air bags. Confounding was addressed by adjusting nearside risk ratios for front- and rear-impact mortality, which is unaffected by side air bags. Risk ratios were 0.55 (95% confidence interval: 0.43, 0.71) for head/torso air bags and 0.89 (95% confidence interval: 0.79, 1.01) for torso-only air bags. Risk was reduced when cars with head/torso air bags were struck by cars/minivans (significant) or pickup trucks/sport utility vehicles (nonsignificant). Risk was reduced in two-vehicle collisions and among male drivers and drivers aged 16-64 years. Protective effects associated with torso-only air bags were observed in single-vehicle crashes and among male and 16- to 64-year-old drivers. Head/torso side air bags appear to be very effective in reducing nearside driver deaths, whereas torso-only air bags appear less protective.

  18. Effect of vehicle type on the performance of second generation air bags for child occupants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbogast, Kristy B; Durbin, Dennis R; Kallan, Michael J; Winston, Flaura K

    2003-01-01

    Passenger air bags experienced considerable design modification in the late 1990s, principally to mitigate risks to child passengers. This study utilized Data from the Partners for Child Passenger Safety study, a large-scale child-focused crash surveillance system, to examine the effect of vehicle type on the differential performance of first and second generation air bags on injuries to restrained children in frontal impact crashes. Our results show that the benefit of second-generation air bags was seen in passenger cars - those children exposed to second-generation air bags were half as likely to sustain a serious injury - and minivans. However, in SUVs the data suggest no reduction in injury risk with the new designs. This field data provides crucial real-world experience to the automotive industry as they work towards the next generation of air bag designs.

  19. The hydrodynamics of air-filled bags for wave energy conversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greaves, Deborah; Hann, Martyn; Kurniawan, Adi

    The search for an economic means to harness energy from ocean waves continues. This paper aims to summarise the findings from our recent studies of novel wave energy devices in which flexible, deformable structures are used in place of conventional rigid structures. The devices utilise a flexible...... air-filled bag to capture energy from the waves and three different configurations are compared. In each of the three device configurations, expansion and contraction of the bag in waves create a reciprocating air flow via a turbine between the bag and another volume. The bags are all in the form...... of a fabric encased within an array of longitudinal tendons. In the first configuration, the bag is floating and ballasted such that it pierces the free surface. In the second configuration, the bag is completely submerged and connected at its top to a rigid float and at its bottom to a weight. In the third...

  20. Automobile driver fatalities in frontal impacts: air bags compared with manual belts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zador, P L; Ciccone, M A

    1993-05-01

    The effectiveness of air bags was estimated in this study by comparing driver fatalities in frontal crashes with driver fatalities in nonfrontal crashes, for cars with air bags and manual belts and cars with manual belts only. Fatal Accident Reporting System data for drivers fatally injured during 1985 to 1991 in 1985 to 1991 model year cars that were equipped with air bags in or before model year 1991 were analyzed. Driver fatalities in frontal crashes in air bag cars were 28% lower than those in comparable cars with manual belts only. This percentage was used for estimating the overall fatality reduction in air bag cars. The reduction was greater in large cars (50%) than in midsize cars (19%) or in small cars (14%). Air bags reduced driver fatalities in frontal crashes involving ejection by about 9%. Fatalities in frontal crashes among drivers who were reportedly using manual belts at the time of the crash were reduced by about 15%. The comparable reduction among drivers who were reportedly not using manual belts was 31%. It was estimated that air bags reduced the total number of all driver fatalities by about 19%.

  1. Update: fatal air bag-related injuries to children--United States, 1993-1996.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-12-13

    Dual air bags will be required standard equipment in all new passenger cars sold in the United States beginning in 1997 and all light trucks sold in the United States in 1998 but are available now in many earlier-model vehicles. Air bags are designed to supplement the protection provided by safety belts in frontal crashes; when combined with lap and shoulder safety belts, air bags assist in preventing fatal and nonfatal injuries in motor-vehicle crashes. However, passenger-side air bags have been associated with injuries to children who, in almost all cases, were unrestrained or incorrectly restrained in the front seat. In 1993, approximately 1.4 million (0.8% of all vehicles registered) were equipped with passenger-side air bags, compared with an estimated 21.6 million vehicles (11.4% of all vehicles registered) in 1996 (National Highway Traffic Safety Administration [NHTSA], unpublished data, 1996). NHTSA, the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB), and CDC collaborated with the American Academy of Pediatrics, the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, The Air Bag Safety Campaign, the National Safety Council, the Brain Injury Association, the National Association of Governors Highway Safety Representatives, the National Association of Children's Hospitals and Related Institutions, and the Health Resources and Services Administration to examine crashes from the Special Crash Investigation Data File maintained by NHTSA, in which fatal injuries in children (aged air bags. This report presents the findings of this review, which indicate that during January 1993-November 1996, annual increases occurred for both the number of fatal injuries to children resulting from air-bag deployments and the proportion of dual air bag-equipped vehicles (Table 1).

  2. Deaths among drivers and right-front passengers in frontal collisions: redesigned air bags relative to first-generation air bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braver, Elisa R; Scerbo, Marge; Kufera, Joseph A; Alexander, Melvin T; Volpini, Karen; Lloyd, Joseph P

    2008-03-01

    After automakers were allowed the option of using sled tests for unbelted male dummies to certify the frontal crash performance of vehicles, most frontal air bags were depowered, starting in model year 1998, to reduce deaths and serious injuries arising from air bag deployments. Concern has been expressed that depowering air bags could compromise the protection of adult occupants. This study aimed to determine the effects of changes in air bag designs on risk of death among front-seat occupants. Deaths among drivers and right-front passengers per involvement in frontal police-reported crashes during calendar years 1998-2004 were compared among vehicles with sled-certified air bags (model years 1998-2004) and first-generation air bags (model years 1994-97). Frontal crash deaths were identified from the Fatality Analysis Reporting System. National estimates of police-reported crashes were derived from the National Automotive Sampling System/General Estimates System. Sled certification status for model years 1998-2004 was ascertained from published federal data and a survey of automobile manufacturers. Passenger cars, pickup trucks, sport utility vehicles, and minivans were studied. Stratified analyses were done to compute risk ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for driver and right-front passenger deaths by air bag generation and crash, vehicle, and driver characteristics. In frontal crashes, overall RRs were 0.89 for driver deaths (95% CI = 0.74-1.08) and 0.89 for right-front passenger deaths (95% CI = 0.74-1.07) in sled-certified vehicles compared with first-generation air bag-equipped vehicles. Child right-front passengers (ages 0-4, 5-9) in vehicles with sled-certified air bags had statistically significant reductions in risk of dying in frontal collisions, including a 65% reduced risk among ages 0-4 (RR = 0.35; 95% CI = 0.21-0.60). No differences in effects of sled-certified air bags were observed between drivers ages 15-59 and 60-74 in sled

  3. Air-bag-associated fatal injuries to infants and children riding in front passenger seats--United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-11-17

    Air bags, when used as a supplement to safety belts, effectively prevent deaths and serious injuries in frontal motor-vehicle crashes. Air bags are standard equipment in most new cars; federal safety standards require that all new passenger cars and light trucks be equipped with both driver- and passenger-side air bags by 1999. The safety of air bags is well documented, and air bags have saved an estimated 900 lives since the late 1980s (1); however, special precautions are needed to safely transport children in vehicles equipped with air bags. Reports of eight deaths of child passengers in crashes involving air-bag deployment are of special concern because they involved low-speed crashes that the children otherwise might have survived. This report summarizes three of these eight cases (2).

  4. Mortality reduction with air bag and seat belt use in head-on passenger car collisions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Crandall, C S; Olson, L M; Sklar, D P

    2001-01-01

    To assess the efficacy of occupant protection systems, the authors measured the mortality reduction associated with air bag deployment and seat belt use for drivers involved in head-on passenger car...

  5. A rare case of blunt thoracoabdominal trauma with small bowel perforation from air bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liverani, A; Pezzatini, M; Conte, S; Mari, F; Milillo, A; Gasparrini, M; Marino, G; Catracchia, V; -Favi, F

    2009-05-01

    Vehicle collisions represent more than 75% of mechanism of blunt abdominal trauma. In spite of the incomparable improvement of car safety devices, recent studies pointed out that the air bags might cause injuries, specially when it is not associated with seatbelt. In fact, some studies pointed out that crash victims using air bags alone have increased injury severity, hospitalisations, thoracoabdominal procedure, and rehabilitation. Some of the most frequently injured organs reported from air bag deployment are the liver (38%), the spleen (23%) and digestive system (17%). Injury of the hollow viscera are far less common. In particular, blunt abdominal trauma resulting in small bowel perforation is an infrequent lesion. These injuries are difficult to diagnose because specific signs are poor and a delay in treatment increases mortality and morbidity of the patients. We describe a case of thoracoabdominal trauma that occurred during a head-on collision after an air bag deployment without seatbelt use.

  6. Do seat belts and air bags reduce mortality and injury severity after car accidents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummins, Justin S; Koval, Kenneth J; Cantu, Robert V; Spratt, Kevin F

    2011-03-01

    We studied National Trauma Data Bank data to determine the effectiveness of car safety devices in reducing mortality and injury severity in 184,992 patients between 1988 and 2004. Safety device variables were seat belt used plus air bag deployed; only seat belt used; only air bag deployed; and, as explicitly coded, no device used. Overall mortality was 4.17%. Compared with the no-device group, the seat-belt-plus-air-bag group had a 67% reduction in mortality (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 0.33; 99% confidence interval [CI], 0.28-0.39), the seatbelt- only group had a 51% mortality reduction (AOR, 0.49; 99% CI, 0.45-0.52), and the air-bag-only group had a 32% mortality reduction (AOR, 0.68, 99% CI, 0.57-0.80). Injury Severity Scores showed a similar pattern.

  7. Wave energy absorption by a submerged air bag connected to a rigid float

    CERN Document Server

    Kurniawan, A; Hann, M R; Greaves, D M; Farley, F J M

    2016-01-01

    A new wave energy device features a submerged ballasted air bag connected at the top to a rigid float. Under wave action, the bag expands and contracts, creating a reciprocating air flow through a turbine between the bag and another volume housed within the float. Laboratory measurements are generally in good agreement with numerical predictions. Both show that the trajectory of possible combinations of pressure and elevation at which the device is in static equilibrium takes the shape of an S. This implies that statically the device can have three different draughts, and correspondingly three different bag shapes, for the same pressure. The behaviour in waves depends on where the mean pressure-elevation condition is on the static trajectory. The captured power is highest for a mean condition on the middle section.

  8. Advanced air distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melikov, Arsen Krikor

    2011-01-01

    The aim of total volume air distribution (TVAD) involves achieving uniform temperature and velocity in the occupied zone and environment designed for an average occupant. The supply of large amounts of clean and cool air are needed to maintain temperature and pollution concentration at acceptable....... Ventilation in hospitals is essential to decrease the risk of airborne cross-infection. At present, mixing air distribution at a minimum of 12 ach is used in infection wards. Advanced air distribution has the potential to aid in achieving healthy, comfortable and productive indoor environments at levels...... higher than what can be achieved today with the commonly used total volume air distribution principles....

  9. [Awareness of the risk of air bag-associated injuries essential].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björnstig, Ulf; Haraldsson, Per-Olle; Polland, Werner; Sandström, Thomas

    2002-07-11

    Restraint systems, such as air bags and seat belts with pretensioners, reduce effectively the risk of serious injuries of car occupants. However, this equipment may have some adverse effects. In a frontal air bag deployment the cushion expands with a speed of about 200 km/h towards the driver. A person within the expansion zone, i.e. within 20 centimetres from the steering wheel hub, may experience a considerable injury risk. Short people, pregnant women and people "out of normal position" are especially at risk, as well as paramedics exposed for accidentally deployed air bags during rescue work. The gas generator in the air bag produces nitrogen in a chemical process. However, small amounts of NaOH (caustic soda) may leak out of the gas generator and may contaminate eyes and wounds and cause injuries and delay healing. The air bag gases may provoke an asthmatic attack in sensible individuals and a few will experience a hearing loss, often in the range of 4,000-6,000 Hz, from the sound impulse that may reach a level of 170 dB. Correct handling, based on a familiarity of the effects and side effects of modern restraint systems, would minimise the risk of adverse effects of this safety equipment.

  10. Mortality reduction with air bag and seat belt use in head-on passenger car collisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crandall, C S; Olson, L M; Sklar, D P

    2001-02-01

    To assess the efficacy of occupant protection systems, the authors measured the mortality reduction associated with air bag deployment and seat belt use for drivers involved in head-on passenger car collisions in the United States. They used a matched case-control design of all head-on collisions involving two passenger cars reported to the Fatality Analysis Reporting System in 1992-1997, and driver mortality differences between the paired crash vehicles for air bag deployment and seat belt use were measured with matched-pair odds ratios. Conditional logistic regression was used to adjust for multiple effects. There were 9,859 head-on collisions involving 19,718 passenger cars and drivers. Air bag deployment reduced mortality 63% (crude odds ratio (OR) = 0.37, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.32, 0.42), while lap-shoulder belt use reduced mortality 72% (OR = 0.28, 95% CI: 0.25, 0.31). In a conditional logistic model that adjusted for vehicle (rollover, weight, age) and driver (age, sex) factors, air bags (OR = 0.71, 95% CI: 0.58, 0.87) and any combination of seat belts (OR = 0.25, 95% CI: 0.22, 0.29) were both associated with reduced mortality. Combined air bag and seat belt use reduced mortality by more than 80% (OR = 0.18, 95% CI: 0.13, 0.25). Thus, this study confirms the independent effect of air bags and seat belts in reducing mortality.

  11. A fatal case of air-bag-mediated liver injury in an unrestrained driver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uemura, Koichi; Uchida, Kyoko; Nara, Akina; Ochiai, Eriko

    2009-04-01

    A middle-aged man, who drove a small vehicle while drunken and not wearing a seat belt, crashed head on into a pier wall at a high speed. The rapid air-bag deployment caused abdominal compression of the driver, who was found dead 2 m away from the car. There were facial front-glass injuries and multiple rib fractures, but no head injury. Autopsy disclosed liver laceration with intra-abdominal hemorrhage (2,000 mL), resulting in hemorrhagic shock. This is the first autopsy report of liver laceration caused by the rapid expansion of an air-bag during an automobile crash.

  12. 77 FR 33998 - Make Inoperative Exemptions; Retrofit On-Off Switches for Air Bags

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-08

    ... agency. This regulation is only available for motor vehicles manufactured before September 1, 2012. In..., osteoporosis/arthritis; driver because of achondroplasia; or passenger because of Down syndrome and... vehicles. There have been two confirmed air-bag- related adult fatalities in model year 2004 or...

  13. 77 FR 69927 - Safety Advisory Notice: Safety Advisory for Shippers and Carriers of Air Bags

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-21

    ... face a potential safety risk involving the sale of counterfeit air bags for use as replacement parts... percent of vehicles in the U.S. vehicle fleet. NHTSA described the risk in a press release as ``only... Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration Safety Advisory Notice: Safety Advisory for Shippers...

  14. Association of first- and second-generation air bags with front occupant death in car crashes: a matched cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Carin M; Cummings, Peter; Rivara, Frederick P

    2006-07-15

    First-generation air bags entail a decreased risk of death for most front seat occupants in car crashes but an increased risk for children. Second-generation air bags were developed to reduce the risks for children, despite the possibility of decreasing protection for others. Using a matched cohort design, the authors estimated risk ratios for death for use of each generation of air bag versus no air bag, adjusted for seat position, restraint use, sex, age, and all vehicle and crash characteristics, among 128,208 automobile occupants involved in fatal crashes on US roadways during 1990-2002. The authors then compared adjusted risk ratios (aRRs) between the two generations of air bags. Among front seat occupants, the aRR for death with a first-generation air bag was 0.90 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.86, 0.94); the aRR with a second-generation air bag was 0.89 (95% CI: 0.79, 1.00) (p = 0.83 for comparison of aRRs). Among children under age 6 years, the aRR with a first-generation air bag was 1.66 (95% CI: 1.20, 2.30), while the aRR with a second-generation air bag was 1.10 (95% CI: 0.63, 1.93) (p = 0.20 for comparison of aRRs). The differences in aRRs between first- and second-generation air bags among other subgroups were small and not statistically significant.

  15. Classification Studies in an Advanced Air Classifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Routray, Sunita; Bhima Rao, R.

    2016-10-01

    In the present paper, experiments are carried out using VSK separator which is an advanced air classifier to recover heavy minerals from beach sand. In classification experiments the cage wheel speed and the feed rate are set and the material is fed to the air cyclone and split into fine and coarse particles which are collected in separate bags. The size distribution of each fraction was measured by sieve analysis. A model is developed to predict the performance of the air classifier. The objective of the present model is to predict the grade efficiency curve for a given set of operating parameters such as cage wheel speed and feed rate. The overall experimental data with all variables studied in this investigation is fitted to several models. It is found that the present model is fitting good to the logistic model.

  16. Hybrid Modeling of Flotation Height in Air Flotation Oven Based on Selective Bagging Ensemble Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuai Hou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The accurate prediction of the flotation height is very necessary for the precise control of the air flotation oven process, therefore, avoiding the scratch and improving production quality. In this paper, a hybrid flotation height prediction model is developed. Firstly, a simplified mechanism model is introduced for capturing the main dynamic behavior of the process. Thereafter, for compensation of the modeling errors existing between actual system and mechanism model, an error compensation model which is established based on the proposed selective bagging ensemble method is proposed for boosting prediction accuracy. In the framework of the selective bagging ensemble method, negative correlation learning and genetic algorithm are imposed on bagging ensemble method for promoting cooperation property between based learners. As a result, a subset of base learners can be selected from the original bagging ensemble for composing a selective bagging ensemble which can outperform the original one in prediction accuracy with a compact ensemble size. Simulation results indicate that the proposed hybrid model has a better prediction performance in flotation height than other algorithms’ performance.

  17. Control Systems for Platform Landings Cushioned by Air Bags

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-07-01

    feedback control system (39) displayed behavior quite different from the other two controls. Many different pairs of values for Pi and P2 were found that...those of the paramameters. The control instructions, starting at line 23, are for the particular feedback control * " system studied in the report... feedback control system , see Equation (39) Pa Standard atmospheric pressure PC Critical (sonic) pressure in vent Q Dimensionless air-speed in vent q Air

  18. [Air bags influence the pattern of injury in severe thoracic trauma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillgram-Larsen, J; Geiran, O

    1997-06-30

    Severe intrathoracic cardiovascular injuries were found in three patients who were drivers of cars involved in head on collisions causing air bags to be released. A 32 year old male had not worn a seat belt, while a 39 year old female was restrained by a seat belt. The male patient suffered an intimal lesion of the brachiocephalic artery. Extensive soft tissue haematomas were seen subcutaneously and retrosternally. The female suffered a rupture of the aortic isthmus and a dislocated pelvic fracture. Vascular repair was performed in both patients. The female died after two months without having regained consciousness. The third patient, a 47 year old male, had not worn a seat belt. He lost his pulse within minutes. Midline emergency thoracotomy showed a complete rupture of the right atrium. An air bag protects against injuries caused by hitting internal parts of the vehicle. It does not necessarily protect against deceleration trauma in high speed collisions.

  19. Theoretical investigation of heave dynamics of an air cushion vehicle bag and finger skirt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Joon

    This thesis describes a theoretical investigation of the nonlinear and linear heave dynamics of an air cushion vehicle (ACV) equipped with a bag and finger skirt system with the purpose of understanding the skirt's effect on the vehicle heave dynamics. Throughout the course of this work, the pure heave motion of a two dimensional section of the skirt is investigated using several mathematical models. Both the nonlinear and linearized analyses include a detailed model of the skirt geometry, which is modelled as a combination of inelastic membranes and links. Air flow processes from the bag to the cushion and from the cushion to the atmosphere are assumed to be quasisteady, and the bag and cushion volumes are modelled as lumped pneumatic capacitances. The modulation of the escaping cushion air by skirt-ground contact is also included. The nonlinear simulations reveal that characteristically nonlinear dynamical phenomena such as period doubling and chaos can be expected to occur during the normal operation of ACVs. Furthermore, a configuration representative of a 37 tonne vehicle shows a resonance at frequencies in the range for which humans are most sensitive. Although these results thus show that some aspects of the bag and finger skirt heave dynamics can be highly nonlinear, they indicate that under certain circumstances, standard linear techniques can yield useful insights. Results from the linear analysis suggest that changes in skirt geometry cannot be used to radically modify the undesirable heave response of the bag and finger skirt, but reducing the skirt mass is quite effective. The pneumatic capacitance of the bag and cushion volume proves to be an important factor in the heave response. In particular, it contributes to heave instability. The air compressibility also affects heave response at high frequencies, with the effect becoming more prominent as the flow rate is reduced. The importance of unsteady fan effects on ACV dynamics is investigated by the

  20. Monitoring of heavy metal concentrations in home outdoor air using moss bags

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivera, Marcela, E-mail: arivera@creal.ca [Centre for Research in Environmental Epidemiology CREAL, Barcelona (Spain); Municipal Institute of Medical Research (IMIM-Hospital del Mar), Barcelona (Spain); Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona (Spain); CIBER Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP) (Spain); Zechmeister, Harald [University of Vienna, Faculty of Life Sciences, Vienna (Austria); Medina-Ramon, Mercedes; Basagana, Xavier [Centre for Research in Environmental Epidemiology CREAL, Barcelona (Spain); Municipal Institute of Medical Research (IMIM-Hospital del Mar), Barcelona (Spain); CIBER Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP) (Spain); Foraster, Maria [Centre for Research in Environmental Epidemiology CREAL, Barcelona (Spain); Municipal Institute of Medical Research (IMIM-Hospital del Mar), Barcelona (Spain); Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona (Spain); CIBER Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP) (Spain); Bouso, Laura [Centre for Research in Environmental Epidemiology CREAL, Barcelona (Spain); Municipal Institute of Medical Research (IMIM-Hospital del Mar), Barcelona (Spain); CIBER Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP) (Spain); Moreno, Teresa [Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research (IDAEA-CSIC), Barcelona (Spain); Solanas, Pascual; Ramos, Rafael [Research Unit, Family Medicine, Girona, Jordi Gol Institute for Primary Care Research (IDIAP Jordi Gol), Catalan Institute of Health, Catalunya (Spain); Department of Medical Sciences, School of Medicine, University of Girona (Spain); Koellensperger, Gunda [University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences, Vienna (Austria); Deltell, Alexandre [Polytechnic School, GREFEMA, University of Girona (Spain); Vizcaya, David [Centre for Research in Environmental Epidemiology CREAL, Barcelona (Spain); Municipal Institute of Medical Research (IMIM-Hospital del Mar), Barcelona (Spain); Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona (Spain); CIBER Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP) (Spain)

    2011-04-15

    One monitoring station is insufficient to characterize the high spatial variation of traffic-related heavy metals within cities. We tested moss bags (Hylocomium splendens), deployed in a dense network, for the monitoring of metals in outdoor air and characterized metals' long-term spatial distribution and its determinants in Girona, Spain. Mosses were exposed outside 23 homes for two months; NO{sub 2} was monitored for comparison. Metals were not highly correlated with NO{sub 2} and showed higher spatial variation than NO{sub 2}. Regression models explained 61-85% of Cu, Cr, Mo, Pb, Sb, Sn, and Zn and 72% of NO{sub 2} variability. Metals were strongly associated with the number of bus lines in the nearest street. Heavy metals are an alternative traffic-marker to NO{sub 2} given their toxicological relevance, stronger association with local traffic and higher spatial variability. Monitoring heavy metals with mosses is appealing, particularly for long-term exposure assessment, as mosses can remain on site many months without maintenance. - Research highlights: > Moss bags can be used to measure the metal's long-term spatial distribution within cities. > Heavy metals in mosses are not highly correlated with ambient NO{sub 2} concentrations. > Heavy metals show higher spatial variation and association with traffic than NO{sub 2}. > Bus lines in the nearest street explain 75-85% of Mo, Cr, Sb, Sn and Cu variability. > Moss bags are useful for long-term at home exposure assessment in epidemiological studies. - The long-term spatial distribution of heavy metals, measured with moss bags, is mainly determined by proximity to bus lines.

  1. Optimizing the passenger air bag of an adaptive restraint system for multiple size occupants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Zhonghao; Jiang, Binhui; Zhu, Feng; Cao, Libo

    2014-01-01

    The development of the adaptive occupant restraint system (AORS) has led to an innovative way to optimize such systems for multiple size occupants. An AORS consists of multiple units such as adaptive air bags, seat belts, etc. During a collision, as a supplemental protective device, air bags can provide constraint force and play a role in dissipating the crash energy of the occupants' head and thorax. This article presents an investigation into an adaptive passenger air bag (PAB). The purpose of this study is to develop a base shape of a PAB for different size occupants using an optimization method. Four typical base shapes of a PAB were designed based on geometric data on the passenger side. Then 4 PAB finite element (FE) models and a validated sled with different size dummy models were developed in MADYMO (TNO, Rijswijk, The Netherlands) to conduct the optimization to obtain the best baseline PAB that would be used in the AORS. The objective functions-that is, the minimum total probability of injuries (∑Pcomb) of the 5th percentile female and 50th and 95th percentile male dummies-were adopted to evaluate the optimal configurations. The injury probability (Pcomb) for each dummy was adopted from the U.S. New Car Assessment Program (US-NCAP). The parameters of the AORS were first optimized for different types of PAB base shapes in a frontal impact. Then, contact time duration and force between the PAB and dummy head/chest were optimized by adjusting the parameters of the PAB, such as the number and position of tethers, lower the Pcomb of the 95th percentile male dummy. According to the optimization results, 4 typical PABs could provide effective protection to 5th and 50th percentile dummies. However, due to the heavy and large torsos of the 95th percentile occupants, the current occupant restraint system does not demonstrate satisfactory protective function, particularly for the thorax.

  2. Bag breakup of low viscosity drops in the presence of a continuous air jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, V.; Sojka, P. E.

    2014-07-01

    This work examines the breakup of a single drop of various low viscosity fluids as it deforms in the presence of continuous horizontal air jet. Such a fragmentation typically occurs after the bulk liquid has disintegrated upon exiting the atomizer and is in the form of an ensemble of drops which undergo further breakup. The drop deformation and its eventual disintegration is important in evaluating the efficacy of a particular industrial process, be it combustion in automobile engines or pesticide spraying in agricultural applications. The interplay between competing influences of surface tension and aerodynamic disruptive forces is represented by the Weber number, We, and Ohnesorge number, Oh, and used to describe the breakup morphology. The breakup pattern considered in our study corresponds to that of a bag attached to a toroidal ring which occurs from ˜12 Addison-Wesley, Reading, 1967)]}. An exponential growth in the radial extent of the deformed drop and the streamline dimension of the bag is predicted by a theoretical model and confirmed by experimental findings. These quantities are observed to strongly depend on We. However, their dependence on Oh is weak.

  3. The exposure of children to deploying side air bags: an initial field assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbogast, Kristy B; Kallan, Michael J

    2007-01-01

    Tremendous effort has been invested in the laboratory to ensure side air bag (SAB) deployments minimize injury metrics in pediatric anthropometric test devices (ATDs). Little is known, however, about the experience of children exposed to this technology in real world crashes. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of SAB exposure in children and provide estimates of injury risk among those exposed. This study utilized data from the Partners for Child Passenger Safety study, a large-scale child-focused crash surveillance system, to identify a probability sample of 348 child occupants, age 0-15 years, weighted to represent 6,600 children, in vehicles of model year 1998 and newer, equipped with SABs, in side impact crashes from three large U.S. regions between 1/1/05 and 12/31/06. In the study sample, 27 children per 1000 children in crashes were exposed to a deployed side air bag. Over 75% of these children were seated in the rear seat and 83% were exposed to a head curtain SAB. 65% of those exposed were less than 9 years of age. Of those exposed, 10.6% sustained an AIS2+ injury; all injuries were of the AIS 2 level and limited to the head or upper extremity. This paper provides the first population-based estimates of the exposure of children to SABs. Initial experience suggests that the risk of injury is fairly low with only one in ten sustaining injury - none of which were serious or life threatening. These findings offer assurance that efforts by regulators and the automotive industry to minimize negative consequences from SABs to vulnerable occupants appear to be effective and cause no change in the current recommendation of safe seating for children next to SABs.

  4. STS 31 PAYLOAD HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE ENCLOSED IN AN AIR-TIGHT PLASTIC BAG FOR PROTECTION IN VERTICA

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    Preparations are made to enclose the Hubble Space Telescope [HST] inside an air-tight plastic bag in the VPF. Processing of the 94- inch primary mirror telescope for launch on the Discovery in March 1990, involves working within strict controls to prevent contamination.

  5. Using head-on collisions to compare risk of driver death by frontal air bag generation: a matched-pair cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braver, Elisa R; Kufera, Joseph A; Alexander, Melvin T; Scerbo, Marge; Volpini, Karen; Lloyd, Joseph P

    2008-03-01

    US air bag regulations were changed in 1997 to allow tests of unbelted male dummies in vehicles mounted and accelerated on sleds, resulting in longer crash pulses than rigid-barrier crashes. This change facilitated depowering of frontal air bags and was intended to reduce air bag-induced deaths. Controversy ensued as to whether sled-certified air bags could increase adult fatality risk. A matched-pair cohort study of two-vehicle, head-on, fatal collisions between drivers involving first-generation versus sled-certified air bags during 1998-2005 was conducted by using Fatality Analysis Reporting System data. Sled certification was ascertained from public information and a survey of automakers. Conditional Poisson regression for matched-pair cohorts was used to estimate risk ratios adjusted for age, seat belt status, vehicle type, passenger car size, and model year for driver deaths in vehicles with sled-certified air bags versus first-generation air bags. For all passenger-vehicle pairs, the adjusted risk ratio was 0.87 (95% confidence interval: 0.77, 0.98). In head-on collisions involving only passenger cars, the adjusted risk ratio was 1.04 (95% confidence interval: 0.85, 1.29). Increased fatality risk for drivers with sled-certified air bags was not observed. A borderline significant interaction between vehicle type and air bag generation suggested that sled-certified air bags may have reduced the risk of dying in head-on collisions among drivers of pickup trucks.

  6. Bag breakup of low viscosity drops in the presence of a continuous air jet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kulkarni, V., E-mail: vkulkarn@purdue.edu; Sojka, P. E. [Maurice J. Zucrow Laboratories, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47906 (United States)

    2014-07-15

    This work examines the breakup of a single drop of various low viscosity fluids as it deforms in the presence of continuous horizontal air jet. Such a fragmentation typically occurs after the bulk liquid has disintegrated upon exiting the atomizer and is in the form of an ensemble of drops which undergo further breakup. The drop deformation and its eventual disintegration is important in evaluating the efficacy of a particular industrial process, be it combustion in automobile engines or pesticide spraying in agricultural applications. The interplay between competing influences of surface tension and aerodynamic disruptive forces is represented by the Weber number, We, and Ohnesorge number, Oh, and used to describe the breakup morphology. The breakup pattern considered in our study corresponds to that of a bag attached to a toroidal ring which occurs from ∼12 < We < ∼16. We aim to address several issues connected with this breakup process and their dependence on We and Oh which have been hitherto unexplored. The We boundary at which breakup begins is theoretically determined and the expression obtained, We=12(1+2/3Oh{sup 2}), is found to match well with experimental data ([L.-P. Hsiang and G. M. Faeth, Int. J. Multiphase Flow 21(4), 545–560 (1995)] and [R. S. Brodkey, “Formation of drops and bubbles,” in The Phenomena of Fluid Motions (Addison-Wesley, Reading, 1967)]). An exponential growth in the radial extent of the deformed drop and the streamline dimension of the bag is predicted by a theoretical model and confirmed by experimental findings. These quantities are observed to strongly depend on We. However, their dependence on Oh is weak.

  7. 76 FR 60118 - Tesla Motors, Inc. Grant of Petition for Renewal of a Temporary Exemption From the Advanced Air...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-28

    ... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Tesla Motors, Inc. Grant of Petition for Renewal of a... (FMVSS) No. 208, Occupant Crash Protection. SUMMARY: This notice grants the petition of Tesla Motors, Inc. (Tesla) for the renewal of a temporary exemption of its Roadster model from the advanced air bag...

  8. It's in the Bag!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renfro, Nancy

    1983-01-01

    Thirteen ideas for using paper bags for class art activities are given. Directions for making bag barracudas, bionic bags, bigfoot bags, bag sculptures, bag beads, and body bag superstars are included. (PP)

  9. LTE-advanced air interface technology

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Xincheng

    2012-01-01

    Opportunities are at hand for professionals eager to learn and apply the latest theories and practices in air interface technologies. Written by experienced researchers and professionals, LTE-Advanced Air Interface Technology thoroughly covers the performance targets and technology components studied by 3GPP for LTE-Advanced. Besides being an explanatory text about LTE-Advanced air interface technology, this book exploits the technical details in the 3GPP specification, and explains the motivation and implication behind the specifications.After a general description of wireless cellular techno

  10. Multipurpose Cargo Transfer Bag

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broyan, James; Baccus, Shelley

    2014-01-01

    The Logistics Reduction (LR) project within the Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) program is tasked with reducing logistical mass and repurposing logistical items. Multipurpose Cargo Transfer Bags (MCTB) have been designed such that they can serve the same purpose as a Cargo Transfer Bag, the suitcase-shaped common logistics carrying bag for Shuttle and the International Space Station. After use as a cargo carrier, a regular CTB becomes trash, whereas the MCTB can be unzipped, unsnapped, and unfolded to be reused. Reuse ideas that have been investigated include partitions, crew quarters, solar radiation storm shelters, acoustic blankets, and forward osmosis water processing.

  11. The influence of typical ways of operating and air-handling unit on the sensory pollution load from used bag filters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mysen, M.; Clausen, Geo; Bekö, Gabriel;

    2003-01-01

    An experiment was performed to determine whether the sensory pollution emitted from a bag filter that had been used for 3 months in a suburban area in Denmark was influenced by different ways of operating the air-handling unit (AHU). Samples of the used filter were pre-conditioned to simulate thr...... the airflow outside working hours would significantly increase the sensory pollution emitted by a used bag filter immediately after the AHU is turned on, in comparison with continuous airflow through the AHU (P...

  12. Filling a Plastic Bag with Carbon Dioxide: A Student-Designed Guided-Inquiry Lab for Advanced Placement and College Chemistry Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanni, Laura M.

    2014-01-01

    A guided-inquiry lab, suitable for first-year general chemistry or high school advanced placement chemistry, is presented that uses only inexpensive, store-bought materials. The reaction of sodium bicarbonate (baking soda) with aqueous acetic acid (vinegar), under the constraint of the challenge to completely fill a sealable plastic bag with the…

  13. Filling a Plastic Bag with Carbon Dioxide: A Student-Designed Guided-Inquiry Lab for Advanced Placement and College Chemistry Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanni, Laura M.

    2014-01-01

    A guided-inquiry lab, suitable for first-year general chemistry or high school advanced placement chemistry, is presented that uses only inexpensive, store-bought materials. The reaction of sodium bicarbonate (baking soda) with aqueous acetic acid (vinegar), under the constraint of the challenge to completely fill a sealable plastic bag with the…

  14. Recent advances in zinc-air batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanguang; Dai, Hongjie

    2014-08-07

    Zinc-air is a century-old battery technology but has attracted revived interest recently. With larger storage capacity at a fraction of the cost compared to lithium-ion, zinc-air batteries clearly represent one of the most viable future options to powering electric vehicles. However, some technical problems associated with them have yet to be resolved. In this review, we present the fundamentals, challenges and latest exciting advances related to zinc-air research. Detailed discussion will be organized around the individual components of the system - from zinc electrodes, electrolytes, and separators to air electrodes and oxygen electrocatalysts in sequential order for both primary and electrically/mechanically rechargeable types. The detrimental effect of CO2 on battery performance is also emphasized, and possible solutions summarized. Finally, other metal-air batteries are briefly overviewed and compared in favor of zinc-air.

  15. Acoustic Multipurpose Cargo Transfer Bag

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baccus, Shelley

    2015-01-01

    The Logistics Reduction (LR) project within the Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) program is tasked with reducing logistical mass and repurposing logistical items. Multipurpose Cargo Transfer Bags (MCTB) are designed to be the same external volume as a regular cargo transfer bag, the common logistics carrier for the International Space Station. After use as a cargo bag, the MCTB can be unzipped and unfolded to be reused. This Acoustic MCTBs transform into acoustic blankets after the initial logistics carrying objective is complete.

  16. Advancing bag-of-visual-words representations for lesion classification in retinal images.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramon Pires

    Full Text Available Diabetic Retinopathy (DR is a complication of diabetes that can lead to blindness if not readily discovered. Automated screening algorithms have the potential to improve identification of patients who need further medical attention. However, the identification of lesions must be accurate to be useful for clinical application. The bag-of-visual-words (BoVW algorithm employs a maximum-margin classifier in a flexible framework that is able to detect the most common DR-related lesions such as microaneurysms, cotton-wool spots and hard exudates. BoVW allows to bypass the need for pre- and post-processing of the retinographic images, as well as the need of specific ad hoc techniques for identification of each type of lesion. An extensive evaluation of the BoVW model, using three large retinograph datasets (DR1, DR2 and Messidor with different resolution and collected by different healthcare personnel, was performed. The results demonstrate that the BoVW classification approach can identify different lesions within an image without having to utilize different algorithms for each lesion reducing processing time and providing a more flexible diagnostic system. Our BoVW scheme is based on sparse low-level feature detection with a Speeded-Up Robust Features (SURF local descriptor, and mid-level features based on semi-soft coding with max pooling. The best BoVW representation for retinal image classification was an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC-ROC of 97.8% (exudates and 93.5% (red lesions, applying a cross-dataset validation protocol. To assess the accuracy for detecting cases that require referral within one year, the sparse extraction technique associated with semi-soft coding and max pooling obtained an AUC of 94.2 ± 2.0%, outperforming current methods. Those results indicate that, for retinal image classification tasks in clinical practice, BoVW is equal and, in some instances, surpasses results obtained using dense

  17. Controlling air toxics through advanced coal preparation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Straszheim, W.E.; Buttermore, W.H.; Pollard, J.L. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    1995-11-01

    This project involves the assessment of advanced coal preparation methods for removing trace elements from coal to reduce the potential for air toxic emissions upon combustion. Scanning electron microscopy-based automated image analysis (SEM-AIA) and advanced washability analyses are being applied with state-of-the-art analytical procedures to predict the removal of elements of concern by advanced column flotation and to confirm the effectiveness of preparation on the quality of quantity of clean coal produced. Specific objectives are to maintain an acceptable recovery of combustible product, while improving the rejection of mineral-associated trace elements. Current work has focused on determining conditions for controlling column flotation system across its operating range and on selection and analysis of samples for determining trace element cleanability.

  18. Green Propulsion Technologies for Advanced Air Transports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Rosario, Ruben

    2015-01-01

    Air transportation is critical to U.S. and Global economic vitality. However, energy and climate issues challenge aviations ability to be sustainable in the long term. Aviation must dramatically reduce fuel use and related emissions. Energy costs to U.S. airlines nearly tripled between 1995 and 2011, and continue to be the highest percentage of operating costs. The NASA Advanced Air Transports Technology Project addresses the comprehensive challenge of enabling revolutionary energy efficiency improvements in subsonic transport aircraft combined with dramatic reductions in harmful emissions and perceived noise to facilitate sustained growth of the air transportation system. Advanced technologies and the development of unconventional aircraft systems offer the potential to achieve these improvements. The presentation will highlight the NASA vision of revolutionary systems and propulsion technologies needed to achieve these challenging goals. Specifically, the primary focus is on the N+3 generation; that is, vehicles that are three generations beyond the current state of the art, requiring mature technology solutions in the 2025-30 timeframe, which are envisioned as being powered by Hybrid Electric Propulsion Systems.

  19. AIM-120 Advanced Medium Range Air-to-Air Missile (AMRAAM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Selected Acquisition Report (SAR) RCS: DD-A&T(Q&A)823-185 AIM-120 Advanced Medium Range Air-to-Air Missile (AMRAAM) As of FY 2017 President’s...17, 2013 Program Information Program Name AIM-120 Advanced Medium Range Air-to-Air Missile (AMRAAM) DoD Component Air Force Joint Participants...December 2015 SAR March 23, 2016 16:04:24 UNCLASSIFIED 5 Mission and Description The Advanced Medium Range Air-to-Air Missile (AMRAAM) AIM-120

  20. 75 FR 30900 - Fisker Automotive; Receipt of Application for Temporary Exemption From Advanced Air Bag...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-02

    ... that the Fisker Karma is a completely new passenger car model. Design and development of the Karma began in late 2007. The Karma is being designed and developed to meet all applicable FMVSS and EEC... markets.'' Fisker stated that the Karma will be the first plug-in hybrid passenger car available for...

  1. 42 CFR 84.88 - Breathing bag test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Breathing bag test. 84.88 Section 84.88 Public... RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.88 Breathing bag test. (a) Breathing bags will be tested in an air atmosphere saturated...

  2. Out of the Bag

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Restricting the use of plastic shopping bags is China’s latest step to curb pollution While environment-conscious people identify themselves as non-users of plastic bags, Guo Geng,working at a nature reserve of deers in Beijing’s suburbs,stands out as a fighter against plastic bags. Since he started to work in 1998,Guo has seen David’s deer in his care dying from devouring waste plastic bags blown over

  3. 致电伸缩材料驱动智能气囊排气装置特征%Characteristic of Intelligent Air Bag Venting Structure Actuating by Electrostrictive Stack Actuator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戈嗣诚

    2002-01-01

    本文利用层叠电致伸缩驱动器设计了智能气囊排气装置,分析了其动态响应特性与缓冲驱动特性,并结合应用的需要进行了控制特性仿真.研究结果表明,该排气装置具有良好的驱动性能,可以满足智能气囊的排气控制要求.%In this paper the conception of smart materials and structures is firstly combined with research of air bag,and the main theory of self-adapting cushioning of intelligent air bag is expatiated.The intelligent venting structure is the main part affecting the cushioning result.Electrostrictive material was found having big force,high response speed and wide linearity,and it is fit to utilize in intelligent venting structure. The characteristic of the dynamic response and cushioning actuating of an electrostrictive stack actuator is analyzed,and the result of the computer simulation of the fuzzy control to intelligent venting structure is given.It is concluded that intelligent venting structure has good actuating characteristic and can satisfy the need of intelligent air bag.

  4. Ruptura de sacos aéreos en aves ornamentales - Rupture of air bags in ornamental birds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soto Piñeiro, Carlos J.

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Resumen En el siguiente trabajo se aborda la incidencia de rupturas de sacos aéreos en aves ornamentales así como el proceder mediante método quirúrgico y medicamentoso. Este trabajo fue realizado en la consulta Veterinaria de la Asociación Nacional Ornitológica de Cuba situada en Ciudad Habana durante los meses de Enero a Diciembre del año 2005. Abstract This study analyses the incidence of breakage of air sacks and its surgical and medical treatment in ornamental birds brought to the veterinary surgery of the Asociacion Nacional de Ornitologia de Cuba, at Havana city between January and December 2005.

  5. 77 FR 65395 - Air Cargo Advance Screening (ACAS) Pilot Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Air Cargo Advance Screening (ACAS) Pilot Program Correction In notice document 2012-26031 appearing on pages 65006-65009 in the issue of October 24, 2012 make...

  6. 77 FR 65006 - Air Cargo Advance Screening (ACAS) Pilot Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-24

    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Air Cargo Advance Screening (ACAS) Pilot Program AGENCY: U.S...) pilot program which revises the time frame for transmission by pilot participants of a subset of... States for all other locations. The ACAS pilot is a voluntary test in which participants agree to submit...

  7. Pure Air`s advanced flue gas desulfurization clean coal project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, J.R. [Pure Air Bailly Station, Chesterton, IN (United States)

    1998-12-31

    Pure Air`s Advanced Flue Gas Desulfurization (AFGD) Clean Coal Project successfully completed four and a half years of operation in December 1996 at Northern Indiana Public Service Company`s (NIPSCO) Bailly Generating Station. This project received a $60 million grant from the DOE Clean Coal II program. Included in this was a three year DOE demonstration period. The facility was designed, built and is owned and operated by Pure Air of Allentown, Pennsylvania, through its project company, Pure Air on the Lake, Limited Partnership. The project met or exceeded all performance criteria. It has averaged 95.3% SO{sub 2} removal, 99.9% availability and produced high quality commercial gypsum during this four and a half year period. It demonstrated many advanced technology features including a single, large absorber module serving two boilers, a wastewater evaporation system, an air rotary sparger for oxidation, and a new technology for agglomerating gypsum.

  8. Long-term (1992-2004) record of lead, cadmium, and zinc air contamination in Warsaw, Poland: Determination by chemical analysis of moss bags and leaves of Crimean linden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dmuchowski, Wojciech, E-mail: dmuchowski@ob.neostrada.p [Botanical Garden-Center for Conservation of Biological Diversity, Polish Academy of Sciences, 2 Prawdziwka St., 02-973 Warszawa (Poland); Warsaw University of Life Sciences-SGGW, Faculty of Agriculture and Biology, 159 Nowoursynowska St., 02-776 Warszawa (Poland); Bytnerowicz, Andrzej [US Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Research Station, 4955 Canyon Crest Drive, Riverside, CA 92507 (United States)

    2009-12-15

    Between 1992 and 2004, air contamination with lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), and zinc (Zn) in Warsaw, Poland, was monitored annually with moss (Sphagnum fallax) bags on a network of 230 sites covering the entire city. During the study the highest contamination was near the Warszawa Steel Mill, northwestern Warsaw. Lead concentrations in moss bags decreased in time, while those of Cd and Zn did not show clear trends. Between 1994 and 2004, Pb, Cd, and Zn were also monitored in the Crimean linden (Tilia Euchlora) foliage along the main city avenue and in a northwestern warsaw park. Lead concentrations decreased more near the avenue than in the park, indicating that the phasing-out of leaded gasoline had a major effect on reduced Pb contamination in Warsaw. At the same time, foliar concentrations of Cd and Zn in both areas decreased much less. - Between 1992 and 2004, concentrations of Pb decreased, while those of Cd and Zn remained little changed in moss bags and linden foliage exposed to ambient air in Warsaw, Poland.

  9. Advances in understanding mechanisms underpinning lithium-air batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aurbach, Doron; McCloskey, Bryan D.; Nazar, Linda F.; Bruce, Peter G.

    2016-09-01

    The rechargeable lithium-air battery has the highest theoretical specific energy of any rechargeable battery and could transform energy storage if a practical device could be realized. At the fundamental level, little was known about the reactions and processes that take place in the battery, representing a significant barrier to progress. Here, we review recent advances in understanding the chemistry and electrochemistry that govern the operation of the lithium-air battery, especially the reactions at the cathode. The mechanisms of O2 reduction to Li2O2 on discharge and the reverse process on charge are discussed in detail, as are their consequences for the rate and capacity of the battery. The various parasitic reactions involving the cathode and electrolyte during discharge and charge are also considered. We also provide views on understanding the stability of the cathode and electrolyte and examine design principles for better lithium-air batteries.

  10. The main function of bionic air-bag midwifery skill reducing cesarean section rate%气囊仿生助产对降低剖宫产率的主要作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄崇梅; 王英; 何林清; 张琦

    2014-01-01

    目的:分析我国剖宫产率居高不下的原因,探讨应用气囊仿生助产技术对降低剖宫产率的可行性。方法:对我院未应用气囊仿生助产术前和已使用气囊仿生助产术后在我院分娩的孕产妇,从剖宫产指征、剖产率两方面进行回顾性对照研究。结果:未应用气囊仿生助产术前剖宫产指征中社会因素占56%,医学指征占44%,剖宫产率50%。应用气囊仿生助产术后社会因素占36%,医学指征占64%,剖宫产率下降至35%。讨论:运用气囊助产在分娩过程中缩短产程,减少会阴裂伤等优势。明显减少了剖宫产的社会因素指征,使剖宫产率明显下降。所以气囊仿生助产术是降低剖宫产率的有效措施,值得推广。%Objective: To analyze the reason of high cesarean section rate in our country, to investigate the feasibility of applying bionic air-bag midwifery skil to reduce cesarean section rate.Methods: We use the indication of cesarean section and cesarean section rate to undertake retrospective study about the differences of puerperal women in our hospital who apply bionic air-bag midwifery skil or not.Results: In the indication of cesarean section that puerperal women did not apply bionic air-bag midwifery skil, social factors account for 56% and medical indication accounts for 44%.The cesarean section rate is 50%.However, In the indication of cesarean section that puerperal women apply bionic air-bag midwifery skil, social factors account for 36% and medical indication accounts for 64%.The cesarean section rate drop to 35%.Discussion:Applying bionic air-bag midwifery skil have many advantages such as shortening the stage of labor during delivery and reducing perineal laceration. It makes the social factors of cesarean section and cesarean section rate decline obviously. In summary, bionic air-bag midwifery skil is an effective measure to reduce cesarean section rate and deserves popularity.

  11. Charges for plastic bags : Motivational and behavioral effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jakovcevic, Adriana; Steg, Linda; Mazzeo, Nadia; Caballero, Romina; Franco, Paul; Putrino, Natalia; Favara, Jesica

    2014-01-01

    Two field studies tested the effects of a charge for single-use plastic bags recently implemented in Buenos Aires City, Argentina. Study 1 showed a greater increase in consumers' own bag use after the charge was introduced in supermarkets where the policy was introduced, in comparison to control sup

  12. Gravitating lepton bag model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burinskii, A.

    2015-08-01

    The Kerr-Newman (KN) black hole (BH) solution exhibits the external gravitational and electromagnetic field corresponding to that of the Dirac electron. For the large spin/mass ratio, a ≫ m, the BH loses horizons and acquires a naked singular ring creating two-sheeted topology. This space is regularized by the Higgs mechanism of symmetry breaking, leading to an extended particle that has a regular spinning core compatible with the external KN solution. We show that this core has much in common with the known MIT and SLAC bag models, but has the important advantage of being in accordance with the external gravitational and electromagnetic fields of the KN solution. A peculiar two-sheeted structure of Kerr's gravity provides a framework for the implementation of the Higgs mechanism of symmetry breaking in configuration space in accordance with the concept of the electroweak sector of the Standard Model. Similar to other bag models, the KN bag is flexible and pliant to deformations. For parameters of a spinning electron, the bag takes the shape of a thin rotating disk of the Compton radius, with a ring-string structure and a quark-like singular pole formed at the sharp edge of this disk, indicating that the considered lepton bag forms a single bag-string-quark system.

  13. 78 FR 39062 - Group Lotus plc; Modification of a Temporary Exemption From an Advanced Air Bag Requirement of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-28

    ... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Group Lotus plc; Modification of a Temporary Exemption From... Protection. SUMMARY: This notice modifies the temporary exemption granted to Group Lotus plc (Lotus) on March... in the Federal Register a notice granting Group Lotus Plc (Lotus) a temporary exemption from...

  14. 78 FR 15114 - Group Lotus plc; Grant of Petition for a Temporary Exemption From an Advanced Air Bag Requirement...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-08

    ... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Group Lotus plc; Grant of Petition for a Temporary Exemption... Protection. SUMMARY: This notice grants the petition of Group Lotus plc (Lotus) for a temporary exemption of... accordance with 49 U.S.C. 30113 and the procedures in 49 CFR Part 555, Group Lotus Plc (Lotus) has submitted...

  15. 77 FR 39564 - Group Lotus Plc, Receipt of Petition for Temporary Exemption From an Advanced Air Bag Requirement...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-03

    ... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Group Lotus Plc, Receipt of Petition for Temporary Exemption... Crash Protection. SUMMARY: In accordance with the procedures in 49 CFR part 555, Group Lotus Plc has... accordance with 49 U.S.C. 30113 and the procedures in 49 CFR part 555, Group Lotus Plc (Lotus) has submitted...

  16. 75 FR 51870 - Wheego Electric Cars, Inc.; Receipt of Application for Temporary Exemption From Advanced Air Bag...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-23

    ... [Docket No. NHTSA-2010-0118] Wheego Electric Cars, Inc.; Receipt of Application for Temporary Exemption... Protection. SUMMARY: In accordance with the procedures in 49 CFR part 555, Wheego Electric Cars, Inc., has... requirements submitted by a manufacturer of a small electric car. II. Overview of Wheego's Petition...

  17. 76 FR 7898 - Wheego Electric Cars, Inc.; Grant of Application for Temporary Exemption From Advanced Air Bag...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-11

    ... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Wheego Electric Cars, Inc.; Grant of Application for.... 208, Occupant Crash Protection. SUMMARY: This notice grants the petition of Wheego Electric Cars, Inc... the first affordable electric cars available in the United States.'' Wheego states that...

  18. BAG4/SODD Protein Contains a Short BAG Domain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Briknarova, Klara; Takayama, Shinichi; Homma, Sachiko; Baker, Kelly; Cabezas, Edelmira; Hoyt, David W.; Li, Zhen; Satterthwait, Arnold C.; Ely, Kathryn R.

    2002-08-23

    BAG proteins are molecular chaperone regulators that affect diverse cellular pathways. All members share a conserved motif, called the ''BAG domain'' (BD), which binds to Hsp70/Hsc70 family proteins and modulates their activity. We have determined the solution structure of BD from BAG4/SODD (Bcl-2 ? Associated Athanogene / Silencer of Death Domains) by multidimensional nuclear magnetic resonance methods and compared it to the corresponding domain in BAG1 (Briknarova et al., Nature Struct. Biol. 8:349-352). The difference between BDs from these two BAG proteins is striking and the structural comparison defines two subfamilies of mammalian BD-containing proteins. One subfamily includes the closely related BAG3, BAG4 and BAG5 proteins, and the other is represented by BAG1 which contains a structurally and evolutionarily distinct BD. BDs from both BAG1 and BAG4 are three-helix bundles; however, in BAG4, each helix in this bundle is three to four turns shorter than its counterpart in BAG1, which reduces the length of the domain by one-third. BAG4 BD thus represents a prototype of the minimal functional fragment that is capable of binding to Hsc70 and modulating its chaperone activity.

  19. Pure Air`s Advanced Flue Gas Desulfurization Clean Coal Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, J.R. [Pure Air Bailly Station, Chesterton, IN (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Pure Air`s Advanced Flue Gas Desulfurization (AFGD) Clean Coal Project successfully completed four and a half years of operation in December 1996 at Northern Indiana Public Service Company`s (NIPSCO) Bailly Generation Station. Included in this was a three year DOE demonstration period. The project was built by a joint venture company of Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. and Mitsubishi Heavy Industries America, Inc., utilizing Mitsubishi`s wet limestone flue gas desulfurization technology. The project met or exceeded all performance criteria. It has averaged 95.3% SO{sub 2} removal, 99.9% availability and produced 936,000 metric tons of high quality commercial gypsum during this four and a half year period. It demonstrated many advanced technology features including a single, large absorber module serving two boilers, a wastewater evaporation system, an air rotary sparger for oxidation, and a new technology for agglomerating gypsum. The AFGD system was designed, built, owned and operated by Pure Air and will continue to serve NIPSCO`s Bailly Station for at least another 15{1/2} years under an Own and Operate contract. The project enabled NIPSCO to cost effectively achieve full system wide compliance with the Phase 2 emission requirements for SO{sub 2} of the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) of 1990 almost eight years before the target date. The project was the recipient of the Outstanding Engineering Achievement Award from the National Society of Professional Engineers in 1993 and the 1993 Powerplant Award from Power magazine. The data presented in this paper are based on performance during the first three years of operation.

  20. Gravitating lepton bag model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burinskii, A., E-mail: burinskii@mail.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Nuclear Safety Institute (Russian Federation)

    2015-08-15

    The Kerr–Newman (KN) black hole (BH) solution exhibits the external gravitational and electromagnetic field corresponding to that of the Dirac electron. For the large spin/mass ratio, a ≫ m, the BH loses horizons and acquires a naked singular ring creating two-sheeted topology. This space is regularized by the Higgs mechanism of symmetry breaking, leading to an extended particle that has a regular spinning core compatible with the external KN solution. We show that this core has much in common with the known MIT and SLAC bag models, but has the important advantage of being in accordance with the external gravitational and electromagnetic fields of the KN solution. A peculiar two-sheeted structure of Kerr’s gravity provides a framework for the implementation of the Higgs mechanism of symmetry breaking in configuration space in accordance with the concept of the electroweak sector of the Standard Model. Similar to other bag models, the KN bag is flexible and pliant to deformations. For parameters of a spinning electron, the bag takes the shape of a thin rotating disk of the Compton radius, with a ring–string structure and a quark-like singular pole formed at the sharp edge of this disk, indicating that the considered lepton bag forms a single bag–string–quark system.

  1. Gravitating lepton bag model

    CERN Document Server

    Burinskii, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    As is known, the gravitational and electromagnetic (EM) field of the Dirac electron is described by an over-extremal Kerr-Newman (KN) black hole (BH) solution which has the naked singular ring and two-sheeted topology. This space is regulated by the formation of a regular source based on the Higgs mechanism of broken symmetry. This source shares much in common with the known MIT- and SLAC-bag models, but has the important advantage, of being in accordance with gravitational and electromagnetic field of the external KN solution. The KN bag model is flexible. At rotations, it takes the shape of a thin disk, and similar to other bag models, under deformations it creates a string-like structure which is positioned along the sharp border of the disk.

  2. [Effects of fruit bag color on the microenvironment, yield and quality of tomato fruits].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Gao, Fang-sheng; Xu, Kun; Xu, Ning

    2013-08-01

    In order to clarify the ecological and biological effects of fruit bagging, tomato variety JYK was taken as the test material to study the changes of the microenvironment in different color fruit bags and the effects of these changes on the fruit development, yield and quality, with the treatment without fruit bagging as the control (CK). The results showed that bagging with different color fruit bags had positive effects in decreasing the light intensity of the microenvironment and increasing its temperature and humidity, and thus, increased the single fruit mass and promoted the harvest stage advanced. Black bag had the best effects in increasing microenvironment temperature and fruit mass, with the single fruit mass increased by 27.2% and the harvest period shortened by 10 days, compared with CK. The fruit maturation period in colorless bag, blue bag and red bag was shortened by 8, 3 and 2 days, and the single mass was increased by 11.8%, 6.4% and 4.8%, respectively. Moreover, the coloring and lycopene content of the fruits with different color bags bagging were improved, but the fruit rigidity and fruit soluble solid, soluble protein, and soluble sugar contents were decreased. Therefore, bagging with different color bags could improve the yield of tomato fruits, but decrease the fruit nutritional quality.

  3. Advanced air distribution: Improving health and comfort while reducing energy use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melikov, Arsen Krikor

    2015-01-01

    -quality indoor environments at the same time as low-energy consumption. Advanced air distribution, designed to supply clean air where, when, and as much as needed, makes it possible to efficiently achieve thermal comfort, control exposure to contaminants, provide high-quality air for breathing and minimizing...

  4. Forensic engineering of advanced polymeric materials Part IV: Case study of oxo-biodegradable polyethylene commercial bag - Aging in biotic and abiotic environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musioł, Marta; Rydz, Joanna; Janeczek, Henryk; Radecka, Iza; Jiang, Guozhan; Kowalczuk, Marek

    2017-06-01

    The public awareness of the quality of environment stimulates the endeavor to safe polymeric materials and their degradation products. The aim of the forensic engineering case study presented in this paper is to evaluate the aging process of commercial oxo-degradable polyethylene bag under real industrial composting conditions and in distilled water at 70°C, for comparison. Partial degradation of the investigated material was monitored by changes in molecular weight, thermal properties and Keto Carbonyl Bond Index and Vinyl Bond Index, which were calculated from the FTIR spectra. The results indicate that such an oxo-degradable product offered in markets degrades slowly under industrial composting conditions. Even fragmentation is slow, and it is dubious that biological mineralization of this material would occur within a year under industrial composting conditions. The slow degradation and fragmentation is most likely due to partially crosslinking after long time of degradation, which results in the limitation of low molecular weight residues for assimilation. The work suggests that these materials should not be labeled as biodegradable, and should be further analyzed in order to avoid the spread of persistent artificial materials in nature. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Comparison of storage stability of odorous VOCs in polyester aluminum and polyvinyl fluoride tedlar bags

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whole air sampling using containers such as flexible bags or rigid canisters is commonly used to collect samples of volatile organic compounds (VOC) in air. The objective of this study was to compare the stability of polyester aluminum (PEA) and polyvinyl fluoride (PVF, brand name Tedlar®) bags for ...

  6. Advanced Strategy Guideline: Air Distribution Basics and Duct Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burdick, A.

    2011-12-01

    This report discusses considerations for designing an air distribution system for an energy efficient house that requires less air volume to condition the space. Considering the HVAC system early in the design process will allow adequate space for equipment and ductwork and can result in cost savings. Principles discussed that will maximize occupant comfort include delivery of the proper amount of conditioned air for appropriate temperature mixing and uniformity without drafts, minimization of system noise, the impacts of pressure loss, efficient return air duct design, and supply air outlet placement, as well as duct layout, materials, and sizing.

  7. Detachment of deposited colloids by advancing and receding air-water interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aramrak, Surachet; Flury, Markus; Harsh, James B

    2011-08-16

    Moving air-water interfaces can detach colloidal particles from stationary surfaces. The objective of this study was to quantify the effects of advancing and receding air-water interfaces on colloid detachment as a function of interface velocity. We deposited fluorescent, negatively charged, carboxylate-modified polystyrene colloids (diameter of 1 μm) into a cylindrical glass channel. The colloids were hydrophilic with an advancing air-water contact angle of 60° and a receding contact angle of 40°. After colloid deposition, two air bubbles were sequentially introduced into the glass channel and passed through the channel at different velocities (0.5, 7.7, 72, 982, and 10,800 cm/h). The passage of the bubbles represented a sequence of receding and advancing air-water interfaces. Colloids remaining in the glass channel after each interface passage were visualized with confocal microscopy and quantified by image analysis. The advancing air-water interface was significantly more effective in detaching colloids from the glass surface than the receding interface. Most of the colloids were detached during the first passage of the advancing air-water interface, while the subsequent interface passages did not remove significant amounts of colloids. Forces acting on the colloids calculated from theory corroborate our experimental results, and confirm that the detachment forces (surface tension forces) during the advancing air-water interface movement were stronger than during the receding movement. Theory indicates that, for hydrophilic colloids, the advancing interface movement generally exerts a stronger detachment force than the receding, except when the hysteresis of the colloid-air-water contact angle is small and that of the channel-air-water contact angle is large.

  8. Advanced Strategy Guideline. Air Distribution Basics and Duct Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arlan Burdick

    2011-12-01

    This report discusses considerations for designing an air distribution system for an energy efficient house that requires less air volume to condition the space. Considering the HVAC system early in the design process will allow adequate space for equipment and ductwork and can result in cost savings.

  9. Advances in design of air-heating collectors

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Johannsen, A

    1982-11-01

    Full Text Available Principles of the operation of air-heating collectors are discussed. The fundamental differences between the design principles of air-heating as opposed to water-heating collectors are highlighted. The main requirement is the transfer of heat from...

  10. Tight reservoir bag: the bag itself may be the culprit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umesh, Goneppanavar; Jasvinder, Kaur

    2010-06-01

    Numerous possibilities exist which may cause obstruction to ventilation under anesthesia resulting in a tight reservoir bag with low compliance. We report an interesting case where a reservoir bag twisted around its own neck and resulted in a tight bag situation. The neck portion of the reservoir bag would be hidden from the view of anesthesiologists in head and neck surgery and hence it is easier to miss early recognition of the twist. We caution all anesthesiologists using the disposable modified Jackson-Rees breathing system to be aware of such an eventuality. We also urge the manufacturer to consider strengthening the neck of the reservoir bag by improving the quality of the material used for its construction.

  11. Advanced air distribution: improving health and comfort while reducing energy use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melikov, A K

    2016-02-01

    Indoor environment affects the health, comfort, and performance of building occupants. The energy used for heating, cooling, ventilating, and air conditioning of buildings is substantial. Ventilation based on total volume air distribution in spaces is not always an efficient way to provide high-quality indoor environments at the same time as low-energy consumption. Advanced air distribution, designed to supply clean air where, when, and as much as needed, makes it possible to efficiently achieve thermal comfort, control exposure to contaminants, provide high-quality air for breathing and minimizing the risk of airborne cross-infection while reducing energy use. This study justifies the need for improving the present air distribution design in occupied spaces, and in general the need for a paradigm shift from the design of collective environments to the design of individually controlled environments. The focus is on advanced air distribution in spaces, its guiding principles and its advantages and disadvantages. Examples of advanced air distribution solutions in spaces for different use, such as offices, hospital rooms, vehicle compartments, are presented. The potential of advanced air distribution, and individually controlled macro-environment in general, for achieving shared values, that is, improved health, comfort, and performance, energy saving, reduction of healthcare costs and improved well-being is demonstrated. Performance criteria are defined and further research in the field is outlined. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Urine bag as a modern day matula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanathan, Stalin

    2013-01-01

    Since time immemorial uroscopic analysis has been a staple of diagnostic medicine. It received prominence during the middle ages with the introduction of the matula. Urinary discoloration is generally due to changes in urochrome concentration associated with the presence of other endogenous or exogenous pigments. Observation of urine colors has received less attention due to the advances made in urinalysis. A gamut of urine colors can be seen in urine bags of hospitalized patients that may give clue to presence of infections, medications, poisons, and hemolysis. Although worrisome to the patient, urine discoloration is mostly benign and resolves with removal of the offending agent. Twelve urine bags with discolored urine (and their predisposing causes) have been shown as examples. Urine colors (blue-green, yellow, orange, pink, red, brown, black, white, and purple) and their etiologies have been reviewed following a literature search in these databases: Pubmed, EBSCO, Science Direct, Proquest, Google Scholar, Springer, and Ovid.

  13. Urine Bag as a Modern Day Matula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanathan, Stalin

    2013-01-01

    Since time immemorial uroscopic analysis has been a staple of diagnostic medicine. It received prominence during the middle ages with the introduction of the matula. Urinary discoloration is generally due to changes in urochrome concentration associated with the presence of other endogenous or exogenous pigments. Observation of urine colors has received less attention due to the advances made in urinalysis. A gamut of urine colors can be seen in urine bags of hospitalized patients that may give clue to presence of infections, medications, poisons, and hemolysis. Although worrisome to the patient, urine discoloration is mostly benign and resolves with removal of the offending agent. Twelve urine bags with discolored urine (and their predisposing causes) have been shown as examples. Urine colors (blue-green, yellow, orange, pink, red, brown, black, white, and purple) and their etiologies have been reviewed following a literature search in these databases: Pubmed, EBSCO, Science Direct, Proquest, Google Scholar, Springer, and Ovid. PMID:24959539

  14. Advanced Air Evaporation System with Reusable Wicks for Water Recovery Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A microgravity-compatible Advanced Air Evaporation System (AAES) is proposed for recovering nearly 100% of water from highly contaminated wastewater without concern...

  15. Vapor pressure measured with inflatable plastic bag

    Science.gov (United States)

    1965-01-01

    Deflated plastic bag in a vacuum chamber measures initial low vapor pressures of materials. The bag captures the test sample vapors and visual observation of the vapor-inflated bag under increasing external pressures yields pertinent data.

  16. Acquisition: Air Force Transition of Advanced Technology Programs to Military Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-05-31

    Requirements Review and Assessment process examines capabilities in Global Strike, Homeland Security, Global Response, Global Mobility , Air and Space...Sum m ary of A dvanced T echnology D evelopm ent Projects R eview ed 23 Note: See footnotes at the end of the appendix. Advanced Technology...Armaments Center (AAC) Yes Yes No Yes Yes n/a10 (Cat 2B) Yes Yes Global Air Mobility Advanced Technologies

  17. Technology & Mechanics Overview of Air-Inflated Fabric Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-12-04

    bridging, and energy absorbers such as automotive air bags and landing cushions for space vehicles. Recent advances in high performance fibers and...inflated fabric structures were constructed using adhesively bonded, piece-cut manufacturing methods. These methods were limited to relatively low...moisture, fire, chemicals, etc. Coating materials such as urethane , PVC (poly vinyl chloride), neoprene, EPDM (ethylene propylene diene monomer) are

  18. Peepoo bag: self-sanitising single use biodegradable toilet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinnerås, Björn; Hedenkvist, Mikael; Nordin, Annika; Wilhelmson, Anders

    2009-01-01

    Unsafe water, sanitation and hygiene together with deficient nutritional status are major contributors to the global burden of disease. Safe collection, disposal and reuse of human excreta would enable the risk of transmission of diseases to be decreased and household food security to be increased in many regions. However, the majority of the 2.5 billion people lacking improved sanitation comprise poor people in societies with weak infrastructure. This study developed a low cost sanitation option requiring little investment and maintenance--a single use, self-sanitising, biodegradable toilet (Peepoo bag) and tested it for smell, degradability and hygiene aspects. It was found that no smell was detectable from a 25 microm thick bag filled with faeces during 24 h in a 10 m2 room at 30 degrees C. Bags that had been in contact with urea-treated faeces or urine for 2 months in air, compost or water at 24 or 37 degrees C showed little signs of degradation. Furthermore, pathogen inactivation modelling of the 4 g of urea present in the bag indicated that appropriate sanitation of faecal material collected is achieved in the bag within 2-4 weeks, after which the bag can be degraded and reused as fertiliser.

  19. Bagged material palletizing robot system; Fukuromono paretaizu robot system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-10

    This paper introduces a case of delivery of an industrial automation machinery fabricated by Meidensha, Inc. A robot was delivered as a robot system to automate the work of palletizing craft paper bags containing cement. While bags filled with cement and sewn on the openings with a sewing machine in the previous process are transported to the robot, a shaping machine makes the bag height aligned, and a bleeder machine pushes out unnecessary air in the bags. The robot stacks the bags on a pallet sequentially one by one. A pallet magazine supplies automatically a next pallet when stacking by the robot has been completed. Introduction of this system has achieved such effects as elimination of labor shortage, release from simple muscle work, and stabilization of palletizing accuracy. Major constituting devices include: a palletizing robot (VTR-1000Y), a bag transporting equipment (comprising a conveyer, a shaping machine, and a bleeding device), and a pallet transporting equipment (comprising a conveyer and an empty pallet magazine). (NEDO)

  20. Identification of control parameters for the sulfur gas storability with bag sampling methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Air samples containing sulfur compounds are often collected and stored in sample bags prior to analyses. The storage stability of six gaseous sulfur compounds (H2S, CH3SH, DMS, CS2, DMDS and SO2) was compared between two different bag materials (polyvinyl fluoride (PVF) and polyester aluminum (PEA))...

  1. Advances in Fast Response Acoustically Derived Air Temperature Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogoev, Ivan; Jacobsen, Larry; Horst, Thomas; Conrad, Benjamin

    2016-04-01

    Fast-response accurate air-temperature measurements are required when estimating turbulent fluxes of heat, water and carbon dioxide by open-path eddy-covariance technique. In comparison with contact thermometers like thermocouples, ultra-sonic thermometers do not suffer from solar radiation loading, water vapor condensation and evaporative cooling effects. Consequently they have the potential to provide more accurate true air temperature measurements. The absolute accuracy of the ultrasonic thermometer is limited by the following parameters: the distance between the transducer pairs, transducer delays associated with the electrical-acoustic signal conversion that vary with temperature, components of the wind vector that are normal to the ultrasonic paths, and humidity. The distance between the transducer pairs is commonly obtained by coordinate measuring machine. Improved accuracy demonstrated in this study results from increased stiffness in the anemometer head to better maintain the ultrasonic path-length distances. To further improve accuracy and account for changes in transducer delays and distance as a function of temperature, these parameters are characterized in a zero-wind chamber over the entire operating temperature range. When the sonic anemometer is combined with a co-located fast-response water vapor analyzer, like in the IRGASON instrument, speed of sound can be compensated for humidity effects on a point-by-point basis resulting in a true fast-response air temperature measurement. Laboratory test results show that when the above steps are implemented in the calibration of the ultrasonic thermometer air-temperature accuracy better than ±0.5 degrees Celsius can be achieved over the entire operating range. The approach is also validated in a field inter-comparison with an aspirated thermistor probe mounted in a radiation shield.

  2. Bagging constrained equity premium predictors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hillebrand, Eric; Lee, Tae-Hwy; Medeiros, Marcelo

    2014-01-01

    The literature on excess return prediction has considered a wide array of estimation schemes, among them unrestricted and restricted regression coefficients. We consider bootstrap aggregation (bagging) to smooth parameter restrictions. Two types of restrictions are considered: positivity of the r......The literature on excess return prediction has considered a wide array of estimation schemes, among them unrestricted and restricted regression coefficients. We consider bootstrap aggregation (bagging) to smooth parameter restrictions. Two types of restrictions are considered: positivity...... of the regression coefficient and positivity of the forecast. Bagging constrained estimators can have smaller asymptotic mean-squared prediction errors than forecasts from a restricted model without bagging. Monte Carlo simulations show that forecast gains can be achieved in realistic sample sizes for the stock...

  3. ARE PLASTIC GROCERY BAGS SACKING THE ENVIRONMENT?

    OpenAIRE

    Mangal Gogte

    2009-01-01

    This paper is oriented on analysis impacts of plastic bags on environment. In this paper is analyzed did plastic bags are so harmful, and what are the main ingredients of it. One part of this paper is oriented on effects of plastic bags and management of their usage. There is also made comparative analysis between impacts of plastic and paper bags on environment.

  4. Assessment of the impact of advanced air-transport technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, R. L.; Dickinson, L. V., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    The long term prospects for commercial supersonic transportation appear attractive enough to keep supersonic research active and reasonably healthy. On the other hand, the uncertainties surrounding an advanced supersonic transport, (AST) specifically fuel price, fuel availability and noise, are too significant to warrant an accelerated research and development program until they are better resolved. It is estimated that an AST could capture about $50 billion (1979 dollars) of the potential $150 billion in sales up to the year 2010.

  5. SBIR Advanced Technologies in Aviation and Air Transportation System 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Hung D.; Steele, Gynelle C.; Kaszeta, Richard W.; Gold, Calman; Corke, Thomas C.; McGowan, Ryan; Matlis, Eric; Eichenlaub, Jesse; Davis, Joshua T.; Shah, Parthiv N.

    2017-01-01

    This report is intended to provide a broad knowledge of various topics associated with NASA's Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate (ARMD), with particular interest on the NASA SBIR contracts awarded from 2011-2012 executed by small companies. The content of this report focuses on the high-quality, cutting-edge research that will lead to revolutionary concepts, technologies, and capabilities that enable radical change to both the airspace system and the aircraft that fly within it, facilitating a safer, more environmentally friendly, and more efficient air transportation system.

  6. Advanced combustor design concept to control NOx and air toxics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eddings, E.G.; Pershing, D.W.; Molina, A.; Sarofim, A.F.; Spinti, J.P.; Veranth, J.

    1999-03-29

    Direct coal combustion needs to be a primary energy source for the electric utility industry and for heavy manufacturing during the next several decades because of the availability and economic advantage of coal relative to other fuels and because of the time required to produce major market penetration in the energy field. However, the major obstacle to coal utilization is a set of ever-tightening environmental regulations at both the federal and local level. It is, therefore, critical that fundamental research be conducted to support the development of low-emission, high-efficiency pulverized coal power systems. The objective of this program was to develop fundamental understanding regarding the impact of fuel and combustion changes on NOx formation, carbon burnout and air toxic emissions from pulverized coal (pc) combustion. During pc combustion, nitrogen in the coal can be oxidized to form nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}). The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments established much stricter NO{sub x} emissions limits for new and existing coal-fired plants, so there has been renewed interest in the processes by which NO{sub x} forms in pc flames. One of the least understood aspects of NO{sub x} formation from pc combustion is the process by which char-N (nitrogen remaining in the char after devolatilization) forms either NO{sub x} or N{sub 2}, and the development of a fundamental understanding of this process was a major focus of this research. The overall objective of this program was to improve the ability of combustion system designers and boiler manufacturers to build high efficiency, low emission pulverized coal systems by improving the design tools available to the industry. The specific program goals were to: Use laboratory experiments and modeling to develop fundamental understanding for a new submodel for char nitrogen oxidation (a critical piece usually neglected in most NOx models.); Use existing bench scale facilities to investigate alternative schemes to

  7. Comparison between the Chinese EIA Guidelines for Air Dispersion Modelling and the Advanced Air Dispersion Model ADMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    David Carruthers; Sheng Xiangyu; Christine McHugh

    2005-01-01

    This paper makes comparisons between Chinese Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA)Guidelines for Air dispersion modelling and the advanced air dispersion model ADMS. Since 2001 the ADMS model has been the first and only foreign model that has been approved by the Appraisal Center for Environment and Engineering (ACEE) to be used in EIA projects in China (http://www. china-eia.com/inden_content/rjrz/rjrz_ADMS/htm). In the paper the following sections provide brief descriptions of the main features of the Chinese Guidelines for Air Dispersion (Section 2) and ADMS (Section 3);Section 4 provides a comparison of the two modelling methods for some simple cases and conclusions and discussion are given in Section 5.

  8. Leveraging Advanced Technology in Army and Air Force Readiness and Sustainment Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    USAWC STRATEGY RESEARCH PROJECT LEVERAGING ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY IN ARMY AND AIR FORCE READINESS AND SUSTAINMENT TRAINING by Kathy Lindsey Department...of Air Force Colonel Richard M. Meinhart Project Advisor The views expressed in this academic research paper are those of the author and do not...necessarily reflect the official policy or position of the U.S. Government, the Department of Defense, or any of its agencies. U.S. Army War College CARLISLE

  9. Rechargeable Zn-air batteries: Progress in electrolyte development and cell configuration advancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, M.; Ivey, D. G.; Xie, Z.; Qu, W.

    2015-06-01

    Zn-air batteries, which are cost-effective and have high energy density, are promising energy storage devices for renewable energy and power sources for electric transportation. Nevertheless, limited charge and discharge cycles and low round-trip efficiency have long been barriers preventing the large-scale deployment of Zn-air batteries in the marketplace. Technology advancements for each battery component and the whole battery/cell assembly are being pursued, with some key milestones reached during the past 20 years. As an example, commercial Zn-air battery products with long lifetimes and high energy efficiencies are being considered for grid-scale energy storage and for automotive markets. In this review, we present our perspectives on improvements in Zn-air battery technology through the exploration and utilization of different electrolyte systems. Recent studies ranging from aqueous electrolytes to nonaqueous electrolytes, including solid polymer electrolytes and ionic liquids, as well as hybrid electrolyte systems adopted in Zn-air batteries have been evaluated. Understanding the benefits and drawbacks of each electrolyte, as well as the fundamental electrochemistry of Zn and air electrodes in different electrolytes, are the focus of this paper. Further consideration is given to detailed Zn-air battery configurations that have been studied and applied in commercial or nearing commercial products, with the purpose of exposing state-of-the-art technology innovations and providing insights into future advancements.

  10. [Pastel in the urine bag].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantaloube, Lucie; Lebaudy, Cécile; Hermabessière, Sophie; Rolland, Yves

    2012-03-01

    Purple urine bag syndrome is a relatively unknown phenomenon in which the urine bag and the collector of chronically catheterized patients turn purple or blue. It affects predominantly women, and is mainly reported in elderly patients. The mechanism seems to be related to the appearance in the urine of two compounds that have been identified as indigo (blue) and indirubin (red) which bind to the urine bag and the collector. Several associated factors are usually mentioned such as constipation, alkaline urine, bed rest, institutionalization or cognitive impairment. They are risk factor of this phenomenon. On the other hand, an infection or a urinary bacterial colonization is necessary and high bacterial counts seem to be the critical step in the development of the purple urine bag syndrome. We report on two cases of purple urine bag syndrome observed in two patients being treated in a long-term care unit. Both of whom were diagnosed with indwelling urinary bacterial colonization, with Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa respectively.

  11. A gravitating electroweak bag model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burinskii, Alexander

    2016-02-01

    Gravitational and electromagnetic (EM) field of electron is described by the Kerr-Newman (KN) black hole solution with a topological defect. Regularization of this defect by the Higgs field leads to the smooth source which shares much in common with the known MIT- and SLAC- bag models, but has the advantage, of matching gravitational and electromagnetic fields of the electron. This model is flexible, and the rotating KN bag takes the shape of a thin disk with a circular string positioned on the sharp border of the disk. We consider the lowest excitations of the KN solution and the corresponding deformations of the bag surface, setting a preliminary correspondence with electroweak sector of the SM.

  12. Reducing Mission Logistics with Multipurpose Cargo Transfer Bags

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baccus, Shelley; Broyan, James Lee, Jr.; Borrego, Melissa

    2016-01-01

    The Logistics Reduction (LR) project within Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) is tasked with reducing logistical mass and repurposing logistical items. Multipurpose Cargo Transfer Bags (MCTB) have been designed such that they can serve the same purpose as a Cargo Transfer Bag (CTB), the common logistics carrying bag for the International Space Station (ISS). After use as a cargo carrier, a regular CTB becomes trash, whereas the MCTB can be unfolded into a flat panel for reuse. Concepts and potential benefits for various MCTB applications will be discussed including partitions, crew quarters, solar radiation storm shelters, acoustic blankets, and forward osmosis water processing. Acoustic MCTBs are currently in use on ISS to reduce the noise generated by the T2 treadmill, which reaches the hazard limit at high speeds. The development of the AMCTB included identification of keep-out zones, acoustic properties, deployment considerations, and structural testing. Features developed for these considerations are applicable to MCTBs for all crew outfitting applications.

  13. Multipurpose Cargo Transfer Bags fro Reducing Exploration Mission Logistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baccus, Shelley; Broyan, James Lee, Jr.; Borrego, Melissa

    2016-01-01

    The Logistics Reduction (LR) project within the Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) division is tasked with reducing logistical mass and repurposing logistical items. Multipurpose Cargo Transfer Bags (MCTB) have been designed such that they can serve the same purpose as a Cargo Transfer Bag (CTB), the common logistics carrying bag for the International Space Station (ISS). After use as a cargo carrier, a regular CTB becomes trash, whereas the MCTB can be unfolded into a flat panel for reuse. Concepts and potential benefits for various MCTB applications will be discussed including partitions, crew quarters, solar radiation storm shelters, acoustic blankets, and forward osmosis water processing. Acoustic MCTBs are currently in use on ISS to reduce the noise generated by the T2 treadmill, which reaches the hazard limit at high speeds. The development of the AMCTB included identification of keep out zones, acoustic properties, deployment considerations, and structural testing. Features developed for these considerations are applicable to MCTBs for all crew outfitting applications.

  14. The Enhanced Speed Bag System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-18

    system for helicopter resupply is a crucial development in aerial sustainment .  By Capt. Jude G.B. Coe Three enhanced speed bag systems are rigged on...NI NG & ED UC AT IO N 47 Army Sustainment July–August 2015 multipurpose cargo bag with pad- ding, one speed line assembly with a cable grip that...understand- ing of how to set up and rig the ESBS inside a Black Hawk. Validation Exercise After two joint in-progress reviews , Task Force Talon and the Iron

  15. AIM-120 Advanced Medium Range Air-to-Air Missile (AMRAAM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    Cost BA - Budget Authority/Budget Activity BY - Base Year DAMIR - Defense Acquisition Management Information Retrieval Dev Est - Development Estimate...lilA (DAB) DAE Program Review Start Production Deliveries Complete DAOT&E (Air Force) Complete IOT &E!Captive Ca ... Initial EQuipage Milestone... IOT &E OCT 1983 N/A N/A OCT 1983 Certification FEB 1986 FEB 1986 AUG 1986 FEB 1986 Milestone IIIA (DAB) JUN 1987 JUN 1987 DEC 1987 JUN 1987 DAE

  16. ARE PLASTIC GROCERY BAGS SACKING THE ENVIRONMENT?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mangal Gogte

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is oriented on analysis impacts of plastic bags on environment. In this paper is analyzed did plastic bags are so harmful, and what are the main ingredients of it. One part of this paper is oriented on effects of plastic bags and management of their usage. There is also made comparative analysis between impacts of plastic and paper bags on environment.

  17. Will Banning Free Plastic Bags Reduce Pollution?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    No more free plastic bags from June 1,2008.That’s the message to Chinese shoppers after a government ban on all production,sales or use of plastic bags less than 0.025 mm thick comes into force from this date.Nowadays,supermarkets give out 1 billion plastic bags every day while other shops collectively use double that amount. Consumers will have to pay for plastic bags exceeding this thickness,if they want this option.

  18. Ergonomics and safety of manual bag sealing.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, M.D. de; Bosch, T.; Eikhout, S.M.; Vink, P.

    2005-01-01

    A variety of seals is used to close bags. Each seal has advantages and disadvantages. For shop assistants sealing bags could be a repetitive physically demanding action. Opening and closing the bags again can cause some discomfort or annoyance for consumers. Besides, it is an activity which can enda

  19. Advanced Methods for Air Distribution in Occupied Spaces for Reduced Risk from Air-Borne Diseases and Improved Air Quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolashikov, Zhecho Dimitrov

    rates to reduce the concentration of pollutants/pathogens to levels that would not deteriorate the air quality or be harmful for the occupants. It is also connected to certain energy limitation issues. Filtration and UVGI are efficient in protecting occupants provided the sources are located outdoors......, airplanes, etc. The second part of the thesis focuses on a novel ventilation strategy for reduction the risk of cross-infection for medical staff, visitors, and patients in hospital wards. The novel ventilation strategy is implemented by a specially developed device, named Hospital Bed Integrated...

  20. Bag-breakup control of surface drag in hurricanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troitskaya, Yuliya; Zilitinkevich, Sergej; Kandaurov, Alexander; Ermakova, Olga; Kozlov, Dmitry; Sergeev, Daniil

    2016-04-01

    Air-sea interaction at extreme winds is of special interest now in connection with the problem of the sea surface drag reduction at the wind speed exceeding 30-35 m/s. This phenomenon predicted by Emanuel (1995) and confirmed by a number of field (e.g., Powell, et al, 2003) and laboratory (Donelan et al, 2004) experiments still waits its physical explanation. Several papers attributed the drag reduction to spume droplets - spray turning off the crests of breaking waves (e.g., Kudryavtsev, Makin, 2011, Bao, et al, 2011). The fluxes associated with the spray are determined by the rate of droplet production at the surface quantified by the sea spray generation function (SSGF), defined as the number of spray particles of radius r produced from the unit area of water surface in unit time. However, the mechanism of spume droplets' formation is unknown and empirical estimates of SSGF varied over six orders of magnitude; therefore, the production rate of large sea spray droplets is not adequately described and there are significant uncertainties in estimations of exchange processes in hurricanes. Herewith, it is unknown what is air-sea interface and how water is fragmented to spray at hurricane wind. Using high-speed video, we observed mechanisms of production of spume droplets at strong winds by high-speed video filming, investigated statistics and compared their efficiency. Experiments showed, that the generation of the spume droplets near the wave crest is caused by the following events: bursting of submerged bubbles, generation and breakup of "projections" and "bag breakup". Statistical analysis of results of these experiments showed that the main mechanism of spray-generation is attributed to "bag-breakup mechanism", namely, inflating and consequent blowing of short-lived, sail-like pieces of the water-surface film. Using high-speed video, we show that at hurricane winds the main mechanism of spray production is attributed to "bag-breakup", namely, inflating and

  1. Linkage between an advanced air quality model and a mechanistic watershed model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Vijayaraghavan

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available An offline linkage between two advanced multi-pollutant air quality and watershed models is presented. The models linked are (1 the Advanced Modeling System for Transport, Emissions, Reactions and Deposition of Atmospheric Matter (AMSTERDAM (a three-dimensional Eulerian plume-in-grid model derived from the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ model and (2 the Watershed Analysis Risk Management Framework (WARMF. The pollutants linked include gaseous and particulate nitrogen, sulfur and mercury compounds. The linkage may also be used to obtain meteorological fields such as precipitation and air temperature required by WARMF from the outputs of the meteorology chemistry interface processor (MCIP that processes meteorology simulated by the fifth generation Mesoscale Model (MM5 or the Weather Research and Forecast (WRF model for input to AMSTERDAM. The linkage is tested in the Catawba River basin of North and South Carolina for ammonium, nitrate and sulfate. Modeled air quality and meteorological fields transferred by the linkage can supplement the conventional measurements used to drive WARMF and may be used to help predict the impact of changes in atmospheric emissions on water quality.

  2. Linkage between an advanced air quality model and a mechanistic watershed model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayaraghavan, K.; Herr, J.; Chen, S.-Y.; Knipping, E.

    2010-09-01

    An offline linkage between two advanced multi-pollutant air quality and watershed models is presented. The models linked are (1) the Advanced Modeling System for Transport, Emissions, Reactions and Deposition of Atmospheric Matter (AMSTERDAM) (a three-dimensional Eulerian plume-in-grid model derived from the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model) and (2) the Watershed Analysis Risk Management Framework (WARMF). The pollutants linked include gaseous and particulate nitrogen, sulfur and mercury compounds. The linkage may also be used to obtain meteorological fields such as precipitation and air temperature required by WARMF from the outputs of the meteorology chemistry interface processor (MCIP) that processes meteorology simulated by the fifth generation Mesoscale Model (MM5) or the Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) model for input to AMSTERDAM. The linkage is tested in the Catawba River basin of North and South Carolina for ammonium, nitrate and sulfate. Modeled air quality and meteorological fields transferred by the linkage can supplement the conventional measurements used to drive WARMF and may be used to help predict the impact of changes in atmospheric emissions on water quality.

  3. Development of Micro Air Reconnaissance Vehicle as a Test Bed for Advanced Sensors and Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shams, Qamar A.; Vranas, Thomas L.; Fox, Robert L.; Kuhn, Theodore R.; Ingham, John; Logan, Michael J.; Barnes, Kevin N.; Guenther, Benjamin F.

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a Micro/Mini Air Reconnaissance Vehicle for advanced sensors and electronics at NASA Langley Research Center over the last year. This vehicle is expected to have a total weight of less than four pounds, a design velocity of 40 mph, an endurance of 15-20 minutes, and a maximum range of 5km. The vehicle has wings that are simple to detach yet retain the correct alignment. The upper fuselage surface has a quick release hatch used to access the interior and also to mount the varying propulsion systems. The sensor suite developed for this vehicle consists of a Pitot-static measurement system for determining air speed, an absolute pressure measurement for determining altitude, magnetic direction measurement, and three orthogonal gyros to determine body angular rates. Swarming GPS-guidance and in-flight maneuvering is discussed, as well as design and installation of some other advance sensors like MEMS microphones, infrared cameras, GPS, humidity sensors, and an ultrasonic sonar sensor. Also low cost, small size, high performance control and navigation system for the Micro Air Vehicle is discussed. At the end, laboratory characterization of different sensors, motors, propellers, and batteries will be discussed.

  4. Field evaluation of advanced controls for the retrofit of packaged air conditioners and heat pumps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Weimin; Katipamula, Srinivas; Ngo, Hung; Underhill, Ronald M.; Taasevigen, Danny J.; Lutes, Robert G.

    2015-09-01

    This paper documents the magnitude of energy savings achievable in the field by retrofitting existing packaged rooftop units (RTUs) with advanced control strategies not ordinarily used for RTUs. A total of 66 RTUs on 8 different buildings were retrofitted with a commercially available advanced controller for improving RTU operational efficiency. The controller features enhanced air-side economizer control, multi-speed fan control, and demand controlled ventilation. Of the 66 RTUs, 18 are packaged heat pumps and the rest are packaged air conditioners with gas heat. The eight buildings cover four building types and four climate conditions. Based on the data collected for about a whole year, the advanced controller reduced the normalized annual RTU energy consumption between 22% and 90%, with an average of 57% for all RTUs. The average fractional savings uncertainty was 12% at 95% confidence level. Normalized annual electricity savings were in the range between 0.47 kWh/h (kWh per hour of RTU operation) and 7.21 kWh/h, with an average of 2.39 kWh/h. RTUs greater than 53 kW and runtime greater than 14 hours per day had payback periods less than 3 years even at $0.05/kWh.

  5. Effect evaluation of psychological intervention in relieving anxiety and depression of patients with ocular injuries caused by automotive air bag%心理干预对减轻汽车安全气囊致眼外伤患者焦虑抑郁的效果评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李文辉

    2011-01-01

    Objective To discuss the effect of psychological intervention in relieving anxiety and depression of patients with ocular injuries caused by automotive air bag.Methods.34 patients with ocular injuries caused by automotive air bag were selected and divided into the intervention group and the control group with 17 patients in each group.The control group adopted routine intervention,while the intervention group was given psychological intervention,including music therapy,Beck's cognitive therapy and before-discharge education.Self-rating anxiety and self-rating depression scale were used to evaluated the psychological status of patients at admission and one day before discharge.Results Incidence of anxiety and depression significantly decreased in the intervention group after intervention.Score of anxiety and depression reduced after intervention in the intervention group,also evidently lower than that of the control group.Conclusions Psychological intervention can relieve anxiety and depression of patients with ocular injuries caused by automotive air bag.%目的 探讨心理干预对汽车安全气囊致眼外伤患者焦虑抑郁的作用.方法 选择34例汽车安全气囊所致眼外伤患者,随机分为干预组和对照组各17例.对照组采用常规干预,干预组采用心理干预,包括音乐疗法、贝克认知疗法和出院前教育.在人院当天和出院前1 d进行心理状态调查,应用抑郁自评量表与焦虑自评量表综合评分.结果 干预组心理干预后患者焦虑与抑郁发生率明显下降.心理干预后,干预组患者的焦虑和抑郁总评分比干预前总评分减少显著,心理干预后干预组的焦虑抑郁评分显著低于对照组.结论 心理干预可明显减轻汽车安全气囊致眼外伤患者的焦虑抑郁状态.

  6. Advanced zinc-air batteries based on high-performance hybrid electrocatalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanguang; Gong, Ming; Liang, Yongye; Feng, Ju; Kim, Ji-Eun; Wang, Hailiang; Hong, Guosong; Zhang, Bo; Dai, Hongjie

    2013-01-01

    Primary and rechargeable Zn-air batteries could be ideal energy storage devices with high energy and power density, high safety and economic viability. Active and durable electrocatalysts on the cathode side are required to catalyse oxygen reduction reaction during discharge and oxygen evolution reaction during charge for rechargeable batteries. Here we developed advanced primary and rechargeable Zn-air batteries with novel CoO/carbon nanotube hybrid oxygen reduction catalyst and Ni-Fe-layered double hydroxide oxygen evolution catalyst for the cathode. These catalysts exhibited higher catalytic activity and durability in concentrated alkaline electrolytes than precious metal Pt and Ir catalysts. The resulting primary Zn-air battery showed high discharge peak power density ~265 mW cm(-2), current density ~200 mA cm(-2) at 1 V and energy density >700 Wh kg(-1). Rechargeable Zn-air batteries in a tri-electrode configuration exhibited an unprecedented small charge-discharge voltage polarization of ~0.70 V at 20 mA cm(-2), high reversibility and stability over long charge and discharge cycles.

  7. Air Force Policy for Advanced Education: Production of Human Capital or Cheap Signals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    many reasons to be discouraged or dissatis­ fied with our current system —limited PME in-residence slots, limited advanced degree opportunities, or...improve their ability to serve the Air Force—or both. To help dissect and answer this question about the role of AADs in our promotion systems , the...analyzed promotion data, a perusal of the list of off-duty education programs mar­ keted to military personnel, such as those offered by American

  8. Towards energy efficient operation of Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning systems via advanced supervisory control design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oswiecinska, A.; Hibbs, J.; Zajic, I.; Burnham, K. J.

    2015-11-01

    This paper presents conceptual control solution for reliable and energy efficient operation of heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) systems used in large volume building applications, e.g. warehouse facilities or exhibition centres. Advanced two-level scalable control solution, designed to extend capabilities of the existing low-level control strategies via remote internet connection, is presented. The high-level, supervisory controller is based on Model Predictive Control (MPC) architecture, which is the state-of-the-art for indoor climate control systems. The innovative approach benefits from using passive heating and cooling control strategies for reducing the HVAC system operational costs, while ensuring that required environmental conditions are met.

  9. PURPLE URINE BAG SYNDROME: AN ALARMING HUE?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumbha Thulasi Ram

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Purple urine bag syndrome is a rare phenomenon reported mostly in females on an indwelling catheter in chronically constipated with alkaline urine. It is secondary to recurrent urinary tract infections with indigo and indirubicin producing bacteria. Here we present this interesting case of an elderly woman who had purple colored urine bag

  10. Cold temperature disinfestation of bagged flour

    Science.gov (United States)

    We conducted studies using a commercial freezer maintained at -17.8°C to determine the time needed to kill Tribolium castaneum eggs in a pallet of flour. Each bag weighed 22.7 kg, and there were 5 bags in each of 10 layers. The dimensions of the pallet were 109-cm wide by 132-cm long by 123-cm tall,...

  11. Strategy for selecting disposable bags for cell culture media applications based on a root-cause investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Joseph; Mahajan, Ekta; Shiratori, Masaru

    2013-01-01

    The use of disposable bags for cell culture media storage has grown significantly in the past decade. Some of the key advantages of using disposable bags relative to non-disposable containers include increased product throughput, decreased cleaning validation costs, reduced risk of cross contamination and lower facility costs. As the scope of use of disposable bags for cell culture applications increases, problematic bags and scenarios should be identified and addressed to continue improving disposables technologies and meet the biotech industry's needs. In this article, we examine a cell culture application wherein media stored in disposable bags is warmed at 37°C before use for cell culture operations. A problematic bag film was identified through a prospective and retrospective cell culture investigation. The investigation provided information on the scope and variation of the issue with respect to different Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell lines, cell culture media, and application-specific parameters. It also led to the development of application-specific test methods and enabled a strategy for disposable bag film testing. The strategy was implemented for qualifying an alternative bag film for use in our processes. In this test strategy, multiple lots of 13 bag film types, encompassing eight vendors were evaluated using a three round, cell culture-based test strategy. The test strategy resulted in the determination of four viable bag film options based on the technical data. The results of this evaluation were used to conclude that a volatile or air-quenched compound, likely generated by gamma irradiation of the problematic bag film, negatively impacted cell culture performance.

  12. Test bases for shutoff bags and pipe bagging systems; Pruefgrundlagen fuer Absperrblasen und Blasensetzgeraete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busch, H. [Stadtwerke Duesseldorf AG (Germany); Halter, O. [Technische Werke Schussental GmbH and Co. KG, Ravensburg (Germany); Seemann, A. [Berufsgenossenschaft der Gas-, Fernwaerme- und Wasserwirtschaft, Duesseldorf (Germany)

    2001-12-01

    Today for shut off gas pipelines in the field of gas distribution during repair gas bags and pipe bagging systems are widely in use. The occurence of explosive atmospheres at the place of employment can be eleminated when pipe bagging systems are applied. Until now three test basis' are issued: VP 620-1 ''Pipe bagging systems in the field of gas distribution - Type A'', VP 621-1 ''Gas bags for bagging systems - Type A'' and VP 621-2 ''Gas bags for bagging systems - Type B''. The standards are valid for gas pipes within a diameter-range from 80 to 400 millimetre and a operating pressure up to 1 bar. They comprise requirements for design and a safe operation and were created by a BGFW/DVGW-team. The standards are addressed to the manufacturer of gas bags and bagging systems. (orig.)

  13. Advances in the Lightweight Air-Liquid Composite Heat Exchanger Development for Space Exploration Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, E. Eugene; Johnston, J. Chris; Haas, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    An advanced, lightweight composite modular Air/Liquid (A/L) Heat Exchanger (HX) Prototype for potential space exploration thermal management applications was successfully designed, manufactured, and tested. This full-scale Prototype consisting of 19 modules, based on recommendations from its predecessor Engineering Development unit (EDU) but with improved thermal characteristics and manufacturability, was 11.2 % lighter than the EDU and achieves potentially a 42.7% weight reduction from the existing state-of-the-art metallic HX demonstrator. However, its higher pressure drop (0.58 psid vs. 0.16 psid of the metal HX) has to be mitigated by foam material optimizations and design modifications including a more systematic air channel design. Scalability of the Prototype design was validated experimentally by comparing manufacturability and performance between the 2-module coupon and the 19-module Prototype. The Prototype utilized the thermally conductive open-cell carbon foam material but with lower density and adopted a novel high-efficiency cooling system with significantly increased heat transfer contact surface areas, improved fabricability and manufacturability compared to the EDU. Even though the Prototype was required to meet both the thermal and the structural specifications, accomplishing the thermal requirement was a higher priority goal for this first version. Overall, the Prototype outperformed both the EDU and the corresponding metal HX, particularly in terms of specific heat transfer, but achieved 93.4% of the target. The next generation Prototype to achieve the specification target, 3,450W would need 24 core modules based on the simple scaling factor. The scale-up Prototype will weigh about 14.7 Kg vs. 21.6 Kg for the metal counterpart. The advancement of this lightweight composite HX development from the original feasibility test coupons to EDU to Prototype is discussed in this paper.

  14. Gas-phase advanced oxidation as an integrated air pollution control technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Getachew A. Adnew

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Gas-phase advanced oxidation (GPAO is an emerging air cleaning technology based on the natural self-cleaning processes that occur in the Earth’s atmosphere. The technology uses ozone, UV-C lamps and water vapor to generate gas-phase hydroxyl radicals that initiate oxidation of a wide range of pollutants. In this study four types of GPAO systems are presented: a laboratory scale prototype, a shipping container prototype, a modular prototype, and commercial scale GPAO installations. The GPAO systems treat volatile organic compounds, reduced sulfur compounds, amines, ozone, nitrogen oxides, particles and odor. While the method covers a wide range of pollutants, effective treatment becomes difficult when temperature is outside the range of 0 to 80 °C, for anoxic gas streams and for pollution loads exceeding ca. 1000 ppm. Air residence time in the system and the rate of reaction of a given pollutant with hydroxyl radicals determine the removal efficiency of GPAO. For gas phase compounds and odors including VOCs (e.g. C6H6 and C3H8 and reduced sulfur compounds (e.g. H2S and CH3SH, removal efficiencies exceed 80%. The method is energy efficient relative to many established technologies and is applicable to pollutants emitted from diverse sources including food processing, foundries, water treatment, biofuel generation, and petrochemical industries.

  15. PROFILE: Potential for Advanced Technology to Improve Air Quality and Human Health in Shanghai.

    Science.gov (United States)

    STREETS; HEDAYAT; CARMICHAEL; ARNDT; CARTER

    1999-04-01

    / Air quality in most Asian cities is poor and getting worse. It will soon become impossible to sustain population, economic, and industrial growth without severe deterioration of the atmospheric environment. This paper addresses the city of Shanghai, the air-quality problems it faces over the next 30 years, and the potential of advanced technology to alleviate these problems. Population, energy consumption, and emission profiles are developed for the city at 0.1 degrees x 0.1 degrees resolution and extrapolated from 1990 to 2020 using sector-specific economic growth factors. Within the context of the RAINS-Asia model, eight technology scenarios are examined for their effects on ambient concentrations of sulfur dioxide and sulfate and their emission control costs. Without new control measures, it is projected that the number of people exposed to sulfur dioxide concentrations in excess of guidelines established by the World Health Organization will rise from 650,000 in 1990 to more than 14 million in 2020. It is apparent that efforts to reduce emissions are likely to have significant health benefits, measured in terms of the cost of reducing the number of people exposed to concentrations in excess of the guidelines ($10-50 annually per person protected). Focusing efforts on the control of new coal-fired power plants and industrial facilities has the greatest benefit. However, none of the scenarios examined is alone capable of arresting the increases in emissions, concentrations, and population exposure. It is concluded that combinations of stringent scenarios in several sectors will be necessary to stabilize the situation, at a potential cost of $500 million annually by the year 2020. KEY WORDS: Coal; China; Shanghai; Sulfur dioxide; Air quality; Health effects

  16. Comparison of glass vessels and plastic bags for enclosing living plant parts for headspace analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart-Jones, Alex; Poppy, Guy M

    2006-04-01

    Plants release volatile chemicals into their surrounding air space that can affect the physiology of neighboring plants and influence the behavior of insects. In studying these interactions, it is desirable to collect volatiles from plants that have not been excised and are growing under as natural conditions as possible. We compared a vessel of borosilicate glass and Nylon-6 or polyester [poly(ethyleneterephthalate) or PET] cooking bags for enclosing plants during collection of volatiles. A push-pull airflow system was used, and volatiles were trapped on Tenax TA and analyzed by gas chromatography after thermal desorption. Low levels of impurities were found for the glass vessel and polyester bags. Nylon bags contained higher levels and more impurities. Recoveries of standards of 10 plant volatiles were measured in static and dynamic systems. In a static air system, there was good recovery only from the glass vessel. In a dynamic system, there was generally good recovery from both the glass vessel and polyester bags. Recoveries of alpha-pinene and (Z)-jasmone were poor throughout. The former was shown to have a very low breakthrough volume on the Tenax TA adsorbent, and the latter may be strongly adsorbed on glass. All three materials were essentially transparent in the IR and visible (photosynthetic) range but with significantly different absorptions in the UV range. In a simulated dynamic entrainment in full sunlight, internal vessel temperatures were higher than ambient by up to 9.5 degrees C in the glass vessel and 7.5 degrees C in the polyester bag. Lower increases in temperature relative to ambient (bag were similar. Polyester bags are recommended as more convenient than glass vessels for the enclosure of plants during the collection of volatiles.

  17. Smaller self-inflating bags produce greater guideline consistent ventilation in simulated cardiopulmonary resuscitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boyle Malcolm J

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Suboptimal bag ventilation in cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR has demonstrated detrimental physiological outcomes for cardiac arrest patients. In light of recent guideline changes for resuscitation, there is a need to identify the efficacy of bag ventilation by prehospital care providers. The objective of this study was to evaluate bag ventilation in relation to operator ability to achieve guideline consistent ventilation rate, tidal volume and minute volume when using two different capacity self-inflating bags in an undergraduate paramedic cohort. Methods An experimental study using a mechanical lung model and a simulated adult cardiac arrest to assess the ventilation ability of third year Monash University undergraduate paramedic students. Participants were instructed to ventilate using 1600 ml and 1000 ml bags for a length of two minutes at the correct rate and tidal volume for a patient undergoing CPR with an advanced airway. Ventilation rate and tidal volume were recorded using an analogue scale with mean values calculated. Ethics approval was granted. Results Suboptimal ventilation with the use of conventional 1600 ml bag was common, with 77% and 97% of participants unable to achieve guideline consistent ventilation rates and tidal volumes respectively. Reduced levels of suboptimal ventilation arouse from the use of the smaller bag with a 27% reduction in suboptimal tidal volumes (p = 0.015 and 23% reduction in suboptimal minute volumes (p = 0.045. Conclusion Smaller self-inflating bags reduce the incidence of suboptimal tidal volumes and minute volumes and produce greater guideline consistent results for cardiac arrest patients.

  18. Assessment of airborne bacteria and noroviruses in air emission from a new highly-advanced hospital wastewater treatment plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uhrbrand, Katrine; Schultz, Anna Charlotte; Koivisto, A. J.

    2017-01-01

    Exposure to bioaerosols can pose a health risk to workers at wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and to habitants of their surroundings. The main objective of this study was to examine the presence of harmful microorganisms in the air emission from a new type of hospital WWTP employing advanced...... wastewater treatment technologies. Air particle measurements and sampling of inhalable bacteria, endotoxin and noroviruses (NoVs) were performed indoor at the WWTP and outside at the WWTP ventilation air exhaust, downwind of the air exhaust, and upwind of the WWTP. No significant differences were seen...... in particle and endotoxin concentrations between locations. Bacterial concentrations were comparable or significantly lower in the exhaust air than inside the WWTP and in the upwind reference. Bacterial isolates were identified using matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry...

  19. Design-A-Bag Competition 2012

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2012-01-01

    Eesti Kunstiakadeemia nahakunsti osakonna tudengid Kadri Paloveer, Inga Radikainen ja Mari Maripuu pälvisid Hong-Kongis korraldataval "DESIGN-A-BAG 2012" konkursil tihedas rahvusvahelises konkurentsis mitmeid preemiaid

  20. Cooling Properties of Cloudy Bag Strange Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Ng Cheuk Liu; Chu, M C

    2003-01-01

    As the chiral symmetry is widely recognized as an important driver of the strong interaction dynamics, current strange stars models based on MIT bag models do not obey such symmetry. We investigate properties of bare strange stars using the Cloudy Bag Model, in which a pion cloud coupled to the quark-confining bag is introduced such that chiral symmetry is conserved. We find that in this model the decay of pions is a very efficient cooling way. In fact it can carry out most the thermal energy in a few milliseconds and directly convert them into 100MeV photons via pion decay. This may be a very efficient $\\gamma$-ray burst mechanism. Furthermore, the cooling behavior may provide a possible way to distinguish a compact object between a neutron star, MIT strange star and Cloudy Bag strange star in observations.

  1. Design-A-Bag Competition 2012

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2012-01-01

    Eesti Kunstiakadeemia nahakunsti osakonna tudengid Kadri Paloveer, Inga Radikainen ja Mari Maripuu pälvisid Hong-Kongis korraldataval "DESIGN-A-BAG 2012" konkursil tihedas rahvusvahelises konkurentsis mitmeid preemiaid

  2. Bags in relativistic quantum field theory with spontaneously broken symmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wadati, M.; Matsumoto, H.; Umezawa, H.

    1978-08-15

    Presented is a microscopic derivation of bags from a relativistic quantum theory with spontaneously broken symmetry. The static energy of a bag whose singularity is the surface of a sphere coincides with the volume tension in the MIT bag theory. A similarity between the bags and the point defects in crystals is pointed out.

  3. 42 CFR 84.85 - Breathing bags; minimum requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Breathing bags; minimum requirements. 84.85 Section...-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.85 Breathing bags; minimum requirements. (a) Breathing bags shall have.... (b) Breathing bags shall be constructed of materials which are flexible and resistant to...

  4. 19 CFR 103.31a - Advance electronic information for air, truck, and rail cargo; Importer Security Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Advance electronic information for air, truck, and rail cargo; Importer Security Filing information for vessel cargo. 103.31a Section 103.31a Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE...

  5. Comparison of the clinical effect between bionic air-bag midwifery by single expansion method and natural delivery%“单扩法”气囊仿生助产与自然分娩临床效果比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚娟娟; 董林红; 邓月桂; 蒙朝霞; 覃莹莹

    2016-01-01

    Objective To explore the clinical effect of a bionic air-bag midwifery skill by single expansion method in delivery.Methods Eighty puerperae in accordance with the inclusion criteria were randomly divided into the observation group(n=40) and the control group(n=40).The bionic air-bag midwifery skill by single expansion method was used in the observation group when the cervix was dilated≥5 cm.The duration of labor,delivery modes, perineum conditions, amount of postpartum hemorrhage and the rate of neonatal asphyxia were compared between the two groups.Results The time of the first, second stage and the total labor duration in the observation group were sig-nificantly shorter than those in the control group(P0.05).Con-clusion The bionic air-bag midwifery by single expansion method can shorten the laboring time and reduce the relat-ed complications during parturition.%目的:探讨在自然分娩过程中使用“单扩法”气囊仿生助产术的临床疗效。方法将符合纳入标准的80例产妇随机分为观察组和对照组各40例,观察组在宫口开大≥5 cm时采用“单扩法”气囊仿生助产术助产,对照组采取自然分娩。记录比较两组产妇的产程时间、分娩方式、会阴情况、产后出血情况及新生儿窒息率。结果观察组第一产程、第二产程及总产程时间均短于对照组,差异均有统计学意义( P<0.05)。观察组产妇产后2 h内平均出血量少于对照组,差异有统计学意义( P<0.05)。两组分娩方式、会阴情况及新生儿窒息率比较差异均无统计学意义(P>0.05)。结论“单扩法”气囊仿生助产术可以明显缩短产程时间,降低并发症发生率,对母婴无不良影响,值得临床应用推广。

  6. Behavioral Response to Plastic Bag Legislation in Botswana

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the use of charges and standards in dealing with a common externality, plastic litter from shopping bags in Botswana. The country passed a plastic bag tax (effective 2007) to curb the plastic bag demand. Interestingly, the legislation did not force retailers to charge for plastic bags, which they did voluntarily at different prices. We assessed the environmental effectiveness and efficiency of the plastic bag legislation by analyzing consumers’ sensitivity to the impro...

  7. Transient Load Following and Control Analysis of Advanced S-CO2 Power Conversion with Dry Air Cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moisseytsev, Anton; Sienicki, James J.

    2016-01-01

    Supercritical carbon dioxide (S-CO2) Brayton cycles are under development as advanced energy converters for advanced nuclear reactors, especially the Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactor (SFR). The use of dry air cooling for direct heat rejection to the atmosphere ultimate heat sink is increasingly becoming a requirement in many regions due to restrictions on water use. The transient load following and control behavior of an SFR with an S-CO2 cycle power converter utilizing dry air cooling have been investigated. With extension and adjustment of the previously existing control strategy for direct water cooling, S-CO2 cycle power converters can also be used for load following operation in regions where dry air cooling is a requirement

  8. Advanced air quality modeling system for the simulation of photochemical ozone formation over North Carolina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, C.; Wheeler, N.; Dolwick, P.; Olerud, D.; Houyoux, M. [MCNC-North Carolina Supercomputing Center, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Timin, B.; Lawrimore, J.; Holman, S. [North Carolina Dept. of Environment and Natural Resources, Raleigh, NC (United States). Div. of Air Quality; Jeffries, H. [Univ. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States). Dept. of Environmental Sciences and Engineering

    1998-12-31

    An advanced air quality modeling system is used to simulate the formation of photochemical oxidants, mainly ozone, over North Carolina. The objective of this modeling study is to successfully model the formation processes of ozone in North Carolina to lead to effective ozone control strategy developments for both 1-hour and 8-hour standards and eventually to address the particulate matter issue. The modeling system selected for this ongoing project is the North Carolina Supercomputing Center`s Environmental Decision Support System (EDSS), which evolved from a working prototype of EPA`s Third Generation Modeling System, or Models-3. The EDSS consists of three major modeling components : the Multiscale Air Quality SImulation Platform (MAQSIP) for chemistry/transport modeling, Mesoscale Model Version 5 (MM5) for meteorological modeling, and Sparse Matrix Operator Kernel Emissions (SMOKE) system for emission modeling. Two inner subdomains at 12-km and 4-km grid resolutions centered over Charlotte are nested inside a coarse domain at a 36-km resolution. Sixteen vertical layers with a denser grid at lower altitude are used to better resolve the mixing layer. The CB-IV chemistry mechanism with updated isoprene chemistry and radical-radical reactions is used to simulate the chemical transformations of reacting species. Preliminary results show that the MAQSIP has reasonably simulated the temporal and spatial distribution of ozone as compared to observations in the first 6-day episode during July 10--15, 1995. Improved ozone predictions are shown in the model using finer grid resolution. Various ozone sensitivity studies on the model inputs such as initial and boundary conditions and the existence of clouds are under testing. An innovative analysis tool for model evaluation and error detection, the Process Analysis method, is also applied to help understand the regulating processes that lead to formation of ozone.

  9. Understanding the impact of recent advances in isoprene photooxidation on simulations of regional air quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Xie

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The CMAQ (Community Multiscale Air Quality us model in combination with observations for INTEX-NA/ICARTT (Intercontinental Chemical Transport Experiment–North America/International Consortium for Atmospheric Research on Transport and Transformation 2004 are used to evaluate recent advances in isoprene oxidation chemistry and provide constraints on isoprene nitrate yields, isoprene nitrate lifetimes, and NOx recycling rates. We incorporate recent advances in isoprene oxidation chemistry into the SAPRC-07 chemical mechanism within the US EPA (United States Environmental Protection Agency CMAQ model. The results show improved model performance for a range of species compared against aircraft observations from the INTEX-NA/ICARTT 2004 field campaign. We further investigate the key processes in isoprene nitrate chemistry and evaluate the impact of uncertainties in the isoprene nitrate yield, NOx (NOx = NO + NO2 recycling efficiency, dry deposition velocity, and RO2 + HO2 reaction rates. We focus our examination on the southeastern United States, which is impacted by both abundant isoprene emissions and high levels of anthropogenic pollutants. We find that NOx concentrations increase by 4–9% as a result of reduced removal by isoprene nitrate chemistry. O3 increases by 2 ppbv as a result of changes in NOx. OH concentrations increase by 30%, which can be primarily attributed to greater HOx production. We find that the model can capture observed total alkyl and multifunctional nitrates (∑ANs and their relationship with O3 by assuming either an isoprene nitrate yield of 6% and daytime lifetime of 6 hours or a yield of 12% and lifetime of 4 h. Uncertainties in the isoprene nitrates can impact ozone production by 10% and OH concentrations by 6%. The uncertainties in NOx recycling efficiency appear to have larger effects than uncertainties in isoprene nitrate yield and dry deposition velocity. Further progress depends on improved understanding of

  10. Household Air Pollution Exposures of Pregnant Women Receiving Advanced Combustion Cookstoves in India: Implications for Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balakrishnan, Kalpana; Sambandam, Sankar; Ghosh, Santu; Mukhopadhyay, Krishnendu; Vaswani, Mayur; Arora, Narendra K; Jack, Darby; Pillariseti, Ajay; Bates, Michael N; Smith, Kirk R

    2015-01-01

    Household air pollution (HAP) resulting from the use of solid cooking fuels is a leading contributor to the burden of disease in India. Advanced combustion cookstoves that reduce emissions from biomass fuels have been considered potential interventions to reduce this burden. Relatively little effort has been directed, however, to assessing the concentration and exposure changes associated with the introduction of such devices in households. The aim of this study was to describe HAP exposure patterns in pregnant women receiving a forced-draft advanced combustion cookstove (Philips model HD 4012) in the SOMAARTH Demographic Development & Environmental Surveillance Site (DDESS) Palwal District, Haryana, India. The monitoring was performed as part of a feasibility study to inform a potential large-scale HAP intervention (Newborn Stove trial) directed at pregnant women and newborns. This was a paired comparison exercise study with measurements of 24-hour personal exposures and kitchen area concentrations of carbon monoxide (CO) and particulate matter less than 2.5 μm in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5), before and after the cookstove intervention. Women (N = 65) were recruited from 4 villages of SOMAARTH DDESS. Measurements were performed between December 2011 and March 2013. Ambient measurements of PM2.5 were also performed throughout the study period. Measurements showed modest improvements in 24-hour average concentrations and exposures for PM2.5 and CO (ranging from 16% to 57%) with the use of the new stoves. Only those for CO showed statistically significant reductions. Results from the present study did not support the widespread use of this type of stove in this population as a means to reliably provide health-relevant reductions in HAP exposures for pregnant women compared with open biomass cookstoves. The feasibility assessment identified multiple factors related to user requirements and scale of adoption within communities that affect the field efficacy of

  11. Air stable magnetic bimetallic Fe-Ag nanoparticles for advanced antimicrobial treatment and phosphorus removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marková, Zdenka; Šišková, Karolína Machalová; Filip, Jan; Čuda, Jan; Kolář, Milan; Šafářová, Klára; Medřík, Ivo; Zbořil, Radek

    2013-05-21

    We report on new magnetic bimetallic Fe-Ag nanoparticles (NPs) which exhibit significant antibacterial and antifungal activities against a variety of microorganisms including disease causing pathogens, as well as prolonged action and high efficiency of phosphorus removal. The preparation of these multifunctional hybrids, based on direct reduction of silver ions by commercially available zerovalent iron nanoparticles (nZVI) is fast, simple, feasible in a large scale with a controllable silver NP content and size. The microscopic observations (transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy/electron diffraction spectroscopy) and phase analyses (X-ray diffraction, Mössbauer spectroscopy) reveal the formation of Fe₃O₄/γ-FeOOH double shell on a "redox" active nZVI surface. This shell is probably responsible for high stability of magnetic bimetallic Fe-Ag NPs during storage in air. Silver NPs, ranging between 10 and 30 nm depending on the initial concentration of AgNO₃, are firmly bound to Fe NPs, which prevents their release even during a long-term sonication. Taking into account the possibility of easy magnetic separation of the novel bimetallic Fe-Ag NPs, they represent a highly promising material for advanced antimicrobial and reductive water treatment technologies.

  12. RADEM: An Air Launched, Rocket Demonstrator for Future Advanced Launch Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkinson, R. C.; Skorodelov, V. A.; Serdijk, I. I.; Neiland, V. Ya.

    1995-10-01

    Critical features associated with future reusable launch vehicles include reduction of turn around effort, use of integral liquid hydrogen tanks, advanced structures and thermal protection, and re-usable LOx-hydrogen propulsion with low maintenance overheads. Many doubts associated with such designs could be removed by a sub-orbital demonstrator. An air launched vehicle would fulfil many of the objectives for such demonstration. British Aerospace, NPO Molnija, TsAGI and DB Antonov have made an initial study for ESA for such a demonstrator (RADEM), using earlier studies of operational launch systems with the An-225 /Hotol and MAKS proposals. The paper describes the results of this study, including the selection of two potential vehicle designs, and an approach to sub-system design and vehicle development to minimize the costs. It appears that such a vheicle, capable of flying to Mach 12 or beyond using currently available technology, could have a cost an order of magnitude less than that required for development of an operational vehicle.

  13. Safety and durability of low-density polyethylene bags in solar water disinfection applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danwittayakul, Supamas; Songngam, Supachai; Fhulua, Tipawan; Muangkasem, Panida; Sukkasi, Sittha

    2017-08-01

    Solar water disinfection (SODIS) is a simple point-of-use process that uses sunlight to disinfect water for drinking. Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles are typically used as water containers for SODIS, but a new SODIS container design has recently been developed with low-density polyethylene (LDPE) bags and can overcome the drawbacks of PET bottles. Two nesting layers of LDPE bags are used in the new design: the inner layer containing the water to be disinfected and the outer one creating air insulation to minimize heat loss from the water to the surroundings. This work investigated the degradation of LDPE bags used in the new design in actual SODIS conditions over a period of 12 weeks. The degradation of the LDPE bags was investigated weekly using a scanning electron microscope, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometer, and tensile strength tester. It was found that the LDPE bags gradually degraded under the sunlight due to photo-oxidation reactions, especially in the outer bags, which were directly exposed to the sun and surroundings, leading to the reduction of light transmittance (by 11% at 300 nm) and tensile strength (by 33%). In addition, possible leaching of organic compounds into the water contained in the inner bags was examined using gas chromatography-mass spectrometer. 2,4-Di-tert-butylphenol was found in some SODIS water samples as well as the as-received water samples, in the concentration range of 1-4 μg/L, which passes the Environmental Protection Agency Drinking Water Guidance on Disinfection By-Products.

  14. The generalized fermion-bag approach

    CERN Document Server

    Chandrasekharan, Shailesh

    2011-01-01

    We present a new approach to some four-fermion lattice field theories which we call the generalized fermion bag approach. The basic idea is to identify unpaired fermionic degrees of freedom that cause sign problems and collect them in a bag. Paired fermions usually act like bosons and do not lead to sign problems. A resummation of all unpaired fermion degrees of freedom inside the bag is sufficient to solve the fermion sign problem in a variety of interesting cases. Using a concept of duality we then argue that the size of the fermion bags is small both at strong and weak couplings. This allows us to construct efficient algorithms in both these limits. Using the fermion bag approach, we study the quantum phase transition of the 3D massless lattice Thirrring model which is of interest in the context of Graphene. Using our method we are able to solve the model on lattices as large as $40^3$ with moderate computational resources. We obtain the precise location of the quantum critical point and the values of the ...

  15. Object shape extraction from cluttered bags

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirakov, Nikolay Metodiev

    2017-05-01

    The passengers flow at the US airports increased in the recent years. The larger number of passengers demands for lower number of false alarms and higher accuracy of threat detection at the time of baggage screening. This paper presents an algorithm to detect and extract possible explosive containers in X-Ray- CT bags images. The algorithm is composed by three main stages. The 1st one makes the threat container excels among the other objects in the bag image. The 2nd approach: Extracts the SURF features from the query and the bag images; Matches the SURF feature vectors from the two images. The bag image points (pixels), at which the best match is found, define regions of interest (RoI). Different RoI in a bag are identified by separate clusters of points. At the 3rd stage of the algorithm an enlarging active contour (AC) extracts the boundary of every RoI. The starting point of every AC is the mass center of the corresponding cluster of SURF points. The theory is validated on a number of X-ray/CT images. A qualitative comparison with contemporary methods outlines the advantages and the contribution of the present algorithm.

  16. The first survey of airborne trace elements at airport using moss bag technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuković, Gordana; Urošević, Mira Aničić; Škrivanj, Sandra; Vergel, Konstantin; Tomašević, Milica; Popović, Aleksandar

    2017-06-01

    Air traffic represents an important way of social mobility in the world, and many ongoing discussions are related to the impacts that air transportation has on local air quality. In this study, moss Sphagnum girgensohnii was used for the first time in the assessment of trace element content at the international airport. The moss bags were exposed during the summer of 2013 at four sampling sites at the airport 'Nikola Tesla' (Belgrade, Serbia): runway (two), auxiliary runway and parking lot. According to the relative accumulation factor (RAF) and the limit of quantification of the moss bag technique (LOQT), the most abundant elements in the samples were Zn, Na, Cr, V, Cu and Fe. A comparison between the element concentrations at the airport and the corresponding values in different land use classes (urban central, suburban, industrial and green zones) across the city of Belgrade did not point out that the air traffic and associated activities significantly contribute to the trace element air pollution. This study emphasised an easy operational and robust (bio)monitoring, using moss bags as a suitable method for assessment of air quality within various microenvironments with restriction in positioning referent instrumental devices.

  17. Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning: Recent Advances in Diagnostics and Controls to Improve Air-Handling System Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wray, Craig; Wray, Craig P.; Sherman, Max H.; Walker, I.S.; Dickerhoff, D.J.; Federspiel, C.C.

    2008-02-01

    The performance of air-handling systems in buildings needs to be improved. Many of the deficiencies result from myths and lore and a lack of understanding about the non-linear physical principles embedded in the associated technologies. By incorporating these principles, a few important efforts related to diagnostics and controls have already begun to solve some of the problems. This paper illustrates three novel solutions: one rapidly assesses duct leakage, the second configures ad hoc duct-static-pressure reset strategies, and the third identifies useful intermittent ventilation strategies. By highlighting these efforts, this paper seeks to stimulate new research and technology developments that could further improve air-handling systems.

  18. Energy Savings and Economics of Advanced Control Strategies for Packaged Air-Conditioning Units with Gas Heat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Weimin; Katipamula, Srinivas; Huang, Yunzhi; Brambley, Michael R.

    2011-12-31

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) with funding from the U.S. Department of Energy's Building Technologies Program (BTP) evaluated a number of control strategies that can be implemented in a controller, to improve the operational efficiency of the packaged air conditioning units. The two primary objectives of this research project are: (1) determine the magnitude of energy savings achievable by retrofitting existing packaged air conditioning units with advanced control strategies not ordinarily used for packaged units and (2) estimating what the installed cost of a replacement control with the desired features should be in various regions of the U.S. This document reports results of the study.

  19. Saving energy and improving IAQ through application of advanced air cleaning technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisk, W.J; Destaillats, H.; Sidheswaran, M.A.

    2011-03-01

    In the future, we may be able use air cleaning systems and reduce rates of ventilation (i.e., reduce rates of outdoor air supply) to save energy, with indoor air quality (IAQ) remaining constant or even improved. The opportunity is greatest for commercial buildings because they usually have a narrower range of indoor pollutant sources than homes. This article describes the types of air cleaning systems that will be needed in commercial buildings.

  20. Solid and Liquid Waste Drying Bag

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litwiller, Eric (Inventor); Hogan, John A. (Inventor); Fisher, John W. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    Method and system for processing waste from human activities, including solids, liquids and vapors. A fluid-impermeable bag, lined with a liquid-impermeable but vapor-permeable membrane, defining an inner bag, is provided. A vacuum force is provided to extract vapors so that the waste is moved toward a selected region in the inner bag, extracted vapors, including the waste vapors and vaporized portions of the waste liquids are transported across the membrane, and most or all of the solids remain within the liner. Extracted vapors are filtered, and sanitized components thereof are isolated and optionally stored. The solids remaining within the liner are optionally dried and isolated for ultimate disposal.

  1. Hypoxic hazards of traditional paper bag rebreathing in hyperventilating patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callaham, M

    1989-06-01

    It is traditional practice to treat acute hyperventilation (thought to be due to anxiety) by having patients rebreathe into a brown paper bag. The author reports three cases in which this treatment, erroneously applied to patients who were hypoxemic or had myocardial ischemia, resulted in death. This clinical experience motivated a study of the effects of paper bag rebreathing in normal volunteers. Subjects deliberately hyperventilated to an average end-tidal CO2 concentration of 21.6 (SD, 3.2) mm Hg and then continued to hyperventilate into a no. 4 Kraft brown paper bag containing the calibrated sensors for a Hewlett-Packard 47210A capnograph and a Teledyne TED 60J digital oxygen monitor. Fourteen men and six women with an average age of 36 years (SD, 6.1) were tested. Results are reported as mm Hg. After 30 seconds of rebreathing, mean change in O2 from room air was -15.9 (SD, 4.6) and mean CO2 was 38.7 (SD, 6.2); at 60 seconds, -20.5 (6.0) and 40.2 (6.4); at 90 seconds -22 (6.8) and 40.5 (6.4); at 120 seconds -23.6 (6.8) and 40.7 (6.5); at 150 seconds -25.1 (1.2) and 41 (7.3); and at 180 seconds -26.6 (8.4) and 41.3 (7.5). A few subjects achieved CO2 levels as high as 50, but many never reached 40. The mean maximal drop in O2 was 26 (8.8); seven subjects had drops in oxygen of 26 mm Hg at three minutes, four had drops of 34 mm Hg, and one had a drop of 42 mm Hg.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  2. Labor development strategy in the bag industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dyah Maya Nihayah

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The research aims to formulate strategies for improving the labor competencies in the bag industry in Kudus Regency. The data comprise business players, which will be analyzed using the Strength, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats (SWOT analysis. The results reveal that the proper strategy for improving employment in the bag industry is growth and build strategy. Growth and development strategy are intensive actions undertaken through the development of labor competencies to improve the quality of output. It can be made with creating learning resources by designing methods and trainings refer to the Competency Based Training (CBT.

  3. Crossover transition in bag-like models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferroni, Lorenzo; Koch, Volker

    2009-03-13

    We formulate a simple model for a gas of extended hadrons at zero chemical potential by taking inspiration from the compressible bag model. We show that a crossover transition qualitatively similar to lattice QCD can be reproduced by such a system by including some appropriate additional dynamics. Under certain conditions, at high temperature, the system consist of a finite number of infinitely extended bags,which occupy the entire space. In this situation the system behaves as an ideal gas of quarks and gluons.

  4. BAG Family Gene and Its Relationship with Lung Adenocarcinoma Susceptibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying LI

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective BAG genes (Bcl-2-associated athanogene belong to a recently discovered multifunctional anti-apoptosis gene family that regulate various physiological processes which include apoptosis, tumorigenesis, neural differentiation, stress response and cell cycle and so on. The expression status of BAG family genes are related to certain tumor incidence and prognosis. The aim of this study is to explore the association of the BAG family gene expression status with the susceptibility of lung adenocarcinoma. Methods The gene expression data of BAG family genes from 29 cases of lung adenocarcinoma tissues and matched pericancerous lung tissess were generated by microarray chips. Cox regression was used to analyze the association between the expression of BAG family genes and the susceptibility of lung adenocarcinoma and the results were verified by GEO database. Results The expression levels of BAG-1, BAG-2, BAG-5 in cancer tissues were significantly downregulated compared with matched pericancerous lung tissues and were protective factors of lung adenocarcinoma (P < 0.05, OR < 1; while the expression level of BAG-4 in cancer tissues were remankably upregulated compared with the matched pericancerous lung tissues and was risk factor of lung adenocarcinoma (P < 0.05, OR > 1. Conclusion BAG-1, BAG-2, BAG-5 might be the potential protective factors while BAG-4 is possible risk factor of lung adenocarcinoma.

  5. Potential impacts of advanced aerodynamic technology on air transportation system productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushnell, Dennis M. (Editor)

    1994-01-01

    Summaries of a workshop held at NASA Langley Research Center in 1993 to explore the application of advanced aerodynamics to airport productivity improvement are discussed. Sessions included discussions of terminal area productivity problems and advanced aerodynamic technologies for enhanced high lift and reduced noise, emissions, and wake vortex hazard with emphasis upon advanced aircraft configurations and multidisciplinary solution options.

  6. Compact assembly generates plastic foam, inflates flotation bag

    Science.gov (United States)

    1965-01-01

    Device for generating plastic foam consists of an elastomeric bag and two containers with liquid resin and a liquid catalyst. When the walls of the containers are ruptured the liquids come into contact producing foam which inflates the elastomeric bag.

  7. Application Evaluation of Air-Sparging and Aerobic Bioremediation in PAM(Physical Aquifer Model) with Advanced and Integrated Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, U.; Ko, J.; Park, S.; Kim, Y.; Kwon, S.; Ha, J.; Lim, J.; Han, K.

    2010-12-01

    It is generally difficult for a single process to remediate contaminated soil and groundwater contaminated with various organic compounds such as total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH), benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene (BTEX), chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons (CAHs) because those contaminants show different chemical properties in two phases (e.g. soil and groundwater). Therefore, it is necessary to design an in-situ remediation system which can remove various contaminants simultaneously. For the purpose, we constructed integrated well module which can apply several remediation process such as air sparging, soil vapor extraction, and bioventing. The advanced integrated module consisted of three main parts such as head, body, and end cap. First of all, head part has three 3.6-cm-diameter stainless lines and can simultaneously inject air or extract NAPL, respectively. Secondly, body part has two 10-cm-height screen intervals with 100-mesh stainless inserts for unsaturated and smear zone. Lastly, we constructed three different sizes of end caps for injection and extraction from a saturated zone. We assumed that the integrated module can play bioremediation, air sparging, cometabolic sparging, chemical oxidation. In this study, we examined application of air sparing and aerobic bioremediation of toluene in Physical Aquifer Model (PAM) with an integrated well module. During air sparging experiments, toluene concentration decreased by injection of air. In addition, we accomplished bioremediation experiment to evaluate removal of toluene by indigenous microbes in PAM with continuous air injection. From the two experiments result, we confirmed that air sparging and aerobic bioremediation processes can be simultaneously carried out by an intergrated well module.

  8. Real-time bag of words, approximately

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uijlings, J.R.R.; Smeulders, A.W.M.; Scha, R.J.H.; Marchand-Maillet, S.; Kompatsiaris, I.

    2009-01-01

    We start from the state-of-the-art Bag of Words pipeline that in the 2008 benchmarks of TRECvid and PASCAL yielded the best performance scores. We have contributed to that pipeline, which now forms the basis to compare various fast alternatives for all of its components: (i) For descriptor extractio

  9. Plant Tissue Culture in a Bag.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Mike

    2000-01-01

    Describes the use of an oven bag as a sterile chamber for culture initiation and tissue transfer. Plant tissue culture is an ideal tool for introducing students to plants, cloning, and experimental design. Includes materials, methods, discussion, and conclusion sections. (SAH)

  10. The Kindness in a Bag of Chips

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩小庆

    2011-01-01

    Last Sunday, my son and I were in line at the Dollar store buying an assortment of products. In a line next to ours, a woman was waiting to make her 1 . She had a few necessities and one bag of chips.

  11. The Kindness in a Bag of Chips

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩小庆

    2011-01-01

    难度:★★★☆☆词数:406建议阅读时间:10分钟Last Sunday, my son and I were in line at the Dollar store buying an assortment of products. In a line next to ours, a woman was waiting to make her 1 . She had a few necessities and one bag of chips.

  12. An update on purple urine bag syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadano Y

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Yoshiro Hadano,1 Taro Shimizu,2 Shimon Takada,3 Toshiya Inoue,4 Sumire Sorano51Department of General Internal Medicine and Infectious Diseases, Rakuwakai Otowa Hospital, Yamashina-ku, Kyoto, Japan; 2Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, USA; 3Department of General Internal Medicine, Osaka City General Hospital, Miyakojima-ku, Osaka, Japan; 4Department of Emergency Medicine, Urasoe General Hospital, Urasoe-city, Okinawa, Japan; 5Kobe University School of Medicine, Kusunokicho, Chuoku, Kobe, JapanAbstract: Purple urine bag syndrome is characterized by the urinary drainage bag turning purple in patients on prolonged urinary catheterization, especially those in the bedridden state. It is associated with bacterial urinary tract infections caused by indigo-producing and indirubin-producing bacteria, usually affects women, and is associated with alkaline urine, constipation, and a high bacterial load in the urine. Almost all patients with purple urine bag syndrome are catheterized due to significant disability, and the urinary pH is 7.0 or more. In general, intensive treatment with antibiotics is not recommended. Purple urine bag syndrome per se almost always appears to be asymptomatic and harmless. However, caution is needed, because some cases have been reported to show progression to severe disease states, so further research into the morbidity and mortality of this infection is warranted.Keywords: purple urine, urinary catheterization, geriatrics, urinary tract infection

  13. Jute:Change From Bags to Fashion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ Many people may be unfamiliar with jute,but everyone knows jute bag and hemp rope.For a long time,jute fiber only could be made into rough packing materials;it is difficult to be used widely for its characteristics.

  14. Recent advances in improvement of forecast skill and understanding climate processes using AIRS Version-5 products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susskind, Joel; Molnar, Gyula; Iredell, Lena; Rosenberg, Robert

    2012-10-01

    The NASA Goddard Earth Sciences (GES) Data and Information Services Center (DISC) generates products derived from AIRS/AMSU-A observations, starting from September 2002 when the AIRS instrument became stable, using the AIRS Science Team Version-5 retrieval algorithm. This paper shows results of some of our research using Version-5 products from the points of view of improving forecast skill as well as aiding in the understanding of climate processes.

  15. 49 CFR 178.520 - Standards for textile bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., plastic film bonded to the inner surface of the bag, or one or more inner liners made of paper or plastic... bag, or one or more inner liners made of plastic material or metalized film or foil. (4) Maximum net... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standards for textile bags. 178.520 Section...

  16. 49 CFR 178.518 - Standards for woven plastic bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standards for woven plastic bags. 178.518 Section... PACKAGINGS Non-bulk Performance-Oriented Packaging Standards § 178.518 Standards for woven plastic bags. (a) The following are identification codes for woven plastic bags: (1) 5H1 for an unlined or...

  17. 49 CFR 178.519 - Standards for plastic film bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standards for plastic film bags. 178.519 Section... PACKAGINGS Non-bulk Performance-Oriented Packaging Standards § 178.519 Standards for plastic film bags. (a) The identification code for a plastic film bag is 5H4. (b) Construction requirements for plastic...

  18. 21 CFR 870.3650 - Pacemaker polymeric mesh bag.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pacemaker polymeric mesh bag. 870.3650 Section 870...) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Prosthetic Devices § 870.3650 Pacemaker polymeric mesh bag. (a) Identification. A pacemaker polymeric mesh bag is an implanted device used to hold a...

  19. System and Propagation Availability Analysis for NASA's Advanced Air Transportation Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugweje, Okechukwu C.

    2000-01-01

    This report summarizes the research on the System and Propagation Availability Analysis for NASA's project on Advanced Air Transportation Technologies (AATT). The objectives of the project were to determine the communication systems requirements and architecture, and to investigate the effect of propagation on the transmission of space information. In this report, results from the first year investigation are presented and limitations are highlighted. To study the propagation links, an understanding of the total system architecture is necessary since the links form the major component of the overall architecture. This study was conducted by way of analysis, modeling and simulation on the system communication links. The overall goals was to develop an understanding of the space communication requirements relevant to the AATT project, and then analyze the links taking into consideration system availability under adverse atmospheric weather conditions. This project began with a preliminary study of the end-to-end system architecture by modeling a representative communication system in MATLAB SIMULINK. Based on the defining concepts, the possibility of computer modeling was determined. The investigations continue with the parametric studies of the communication system architecture. These studies were also carried out with SIMULINK modeling and simulation. After a series of modifications, two end-to-end communication links were identified as the most probable models for the communication architecture. Link budget calculations were then performed in MATHCAD and MATLAB for the identified communication scenarios. A remarkable outcome of this project is the development of a graphic user interface (GUI) program for the computation of the link budget parameters in real time. Using this program, one can interactively compute the link budget requirements after supplying a few necessary parameters. It provides a framework for the eventual automation of several computations

  20. Antennas Designed for Advanced Communications for Air Traffic Management (AC/ATM) Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakrajsek, Robert J.

    2000-01-01

    The goal of the Advanced Communications for Air Traffic Management (AC/ATM) Project at the NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field is to enable a communications infrastructure that provides the capacity, efficiency, and flexibility necessary to realize a mature free-flight environment. The technical thrust of the AC/ATM Project is targeted at the design, development, integration, test, and demonstration of enabling technologies for global broadband aeronautical communications. Since Ku-band facilities and equipment are readily available, one of the near-term demonstrations involves a link through a Kuband communications satellite. Two conformally mounted antennas will support the initial AC/ATM communications links. Both of these are steered electronically through monolithic microwave integrated circuit (MMIC) amplifiers and phase shifters. This link will be asymmetrical with the downlink to the aircraft (mobile vehicle) at a throughput rate of greater than 1.5 megabits per second (Mbps), whereas the throughput rate of the uplink from the aircraft will be greater than 100 kilobits per second (kbps). The data on the downlink can be narrow-band, wide-band, or a combination of both, depending on the requirements of the experiment. The AC/ATM project is purchasing a phased-array Ku-band transmitting antenna for the uplink from the test vehicle. Many Ku-band receiving antennas have been built, and one will be borrowed for a short time to perform the initial experiments at the NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field. The Ku-band transmitting antenna is a 254-element MMIC phased-array antenna being built by Boeing Phantom Works. Each element can radiate 100 mW. The antenna is approximately 43-cm high by 24-cm wide by 3.3-cm thick. It can be steered beyond 60 from broadside. The beamwidth varies from 6 at broadside to 12 degrees at 60 degrees, which is typical of phased-array antennas. When the antenna is steered to 60 degrees, the beamwidth will illuminate

  1. [Research on advance of health effects of nanoparticles on air pollution in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Lilin; Wu, Tianshu; Tang, Meng

    2015-09-01

    The adverse health effects of fine particles in the air pollution has been confirmed, and health consequences induced by ultrafine particles (mass media aerodynamic diameter biological effects and potential toxicity mechanisms of some common nanoparticles in the atmosphere on the major tissues and organs. Finally, the research focus of the nano particles in air pollutants was also presented.

  2. Automotive Air Conditioning and Heating; Automotive Mechanics (Advanced): 9047.04.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    This document presents an outline for a 135-hour course designed to provide the student with all the foundations necessary to become employable in the automotive air conditioning and heating trade. The course of study includes an orientation to the world of work, the elementary physics of air conditioning and heating, and laboratory experiments…

  3. 19 CFR 122.48a - Electronic information for air cargo required in advance of arrival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Electronic information for air cargo required in... OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Aircraft Entry and Entry Documents; Electronic Manifest Requirements for Passengers, Crew Members, and Non-Crew Members...

  4. ADVANCED HYBRID PARTICULATE COLLECTOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ye Zhuang; Stanley J. Miller; Michelle R. Olderbak; Rich Gebert

    2001-12-01

    A new concept in particulate control, called an advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC), is being developed under funding from the U.S. Department of Energy. The AHPC combines the best features of electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and baghouses in an entirely novel manner. The AHPC concept combines fabric filtration and electrostatic precipitation in the same housing, providing major synergism between the two methods, both in the particulate collection step and in transfer of dust to the hopper. The AHPC provides ultrahigh collection efficiency, overcoming the problem of excessive fine-particle emissions with conventional ESPs, and solves the problem of reentrainment and re-collection of dust in conventional baghouses. Phase I of the development effort consisted of design, construction, and testing of a 5.7-m{sup 3}/min (200-acfm) working AHPC model. Results from both 8-hr parametric tests and 100-hr proof-of-concept tests with two different coals demonstrated excellent operability and greater than 99.99% fine-particle collection efficiency. Since all of the developmental goals of Phase I were met, the approach was scaled up in Phase II to a size of 255 m{sup 3}/min (9000 acfm) (equivalent in size to 2.5 MW) and was installed on a slipstream at the Big Stone Power Plant. For Phase II, the AHPC at Big Stone Power Plant was operated continuously from late July 1999 until mid-December 1999. The Phase II results were highly successful in that ultrahigh particle collection efficiency was achieved, pressure drop was well controlled, and system operability was excellent. For Phase III, the AHPC was modified into a more compact configuration, and components were installed that were closer to what would be used in a full-scale commercial design. The modified AHPC was operated from April to July 2000. While operational results were acceptable during this time, inspection of bags in the summer of 2000 revealed some membrane damage to the fabric that appeared to be

  5. Air Evaporation closed cycle water recovery technology - Advanced energy saving designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morasko, Gwyndolyn; Putnam, David F.; Bagdigian, Robert

    1986-01-01

    The Air Evaporation water recovery system is a visible candidate for Space Station application. A four-man Air Evaporation open cycle system has been successfully demonstrated for waste water recovery in manned chamber tests. The design improvements described in this paper greatly enhance the system operation and energy efficiency of the air evaporation process. A state-of-the-art wick feed design which results in reduced logistics requirements is presented. In addition, several design concepts that incorporate regenerative features to minimize the energy input to the system are discussed. These include a recuperative heat exchanger, a heat pump for energy transfer to the air heater, and solar collectors for evaporative heat. The addition of the energy recovery devices will result in an energy reduction of more than 80 percent over the systems used in earlier manned chamber tests.

  6. Variable-Fidelity Conceptual Design System for Advanced Unconventional Air Vehicles Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Ongoing work in unconventional air-vehicles, i.e. deformable mold-lines and bio-mimetics, is beginning to provide the insight necessary to exploit performance...

  7. SIMULATION OF A MATHEMATICAL MODEL FOR THE TEMPERATURE PROFILE IN A SILO BAG FOR BEAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. Hauth

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The problems encountered with storage of agricultural products has warranted studies related to finding alternative methods of grain storage, thereby avoiding unnecessary losses. Stored grain deteriorates quickly at high temperatures. The moisture content of the grain influences the respiratory process; therefore, when at the recommended humidity of between 11 and 13%, this rate remains low, it prolongs maintenance of the product quality. The silo bag being airtight enables the grain mass to consume the entire internal O2 purse within it, and in that low or absent oxygen environment the grain mass saturates the CO2 atmosphere, inhibiting the multiplication of insects and fungi, thus providing a controlled environment. This study aims at simulating, using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD, the time it would take for the entire grain mass contained in a silo bag to reach thermal equilibrium with the environment and analyzes the feasibility of the technique employed here. The simulations were performed based on the data of the average air temperature in the region at each harvest time and the average storage temperature of the bean mass (60°C. The results obtained from the simulations reveal that after one month of silo storage the entire bag remains in thermal stabilization, and four months later when it hits the entire mass, all the beans are in thermal equilibrium. Therefore, maintaining stable temperature and humidity within the recommended silo bag preserves the grain quality well.

  8. Energy savings in dust collector plants of bag house filter type. Phase 1 - Literature study; Energieffektivisering av anlaeggningar foer stoftrening med slangfilter. Etapp 1-Litteraturstudie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eriksson, Lars; Wikman, Karin; Berg, Magnus [AaF-Energi and Miljoe AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2004-01-01

    The largest energy demands in connection with the operation of bag house filters are the electric energy consumption for the fans, securing the flow of flue gas through the filter, and the electric energy consumption when producing the pressurized air (compressors or high pressure fans). Considering the significantly increased fan work when having a non-optimised cleaning of the filters, it seems justified to investigate the possibilities to minimise the unnecessary pressure drop. There is also a saving potential in the filter cleaning process, which otherwise may cost an unacceptable amount of pressurized air or other energy. The main purpose of this work is to develop methods to optimize the operation of bag house filters, which is started up with this report containing a follow-up of what has been done in Denmark and a confirmation of the technology status. In the next step, a case study where two-three plants are examined more in detail is suggested followed by a potential study to estimate the total energy saving potential in Sweden. Dust precipitation with bag house filters is basically a rather simple technique, which has existed in flue gas cleaning for about 50 years. From the literature study it can be established that there has been no revolutionary development in the field, but there are some work being done mainly to introduce new filter material but also to optimise the use of bag house filters with new computer based control systems. The largest potential of energy saving prevails if the filter from the beginning is overloaded, which usually is the case. The reason for overload may be a too large volume flow in relation to the filter area, that the dust has penetrated and blocked the filter, a defective filter cleaning process or that wrong filter material has been chosen. In Denmark a study has been made with the purpose to investigate the possibilities to optimise the energy consumption for bag house filters. For the three plants studied, an

  9. QUALITY OF PITAIA FRUITS SUBMITTED TO FIELD BAGGING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANA CLAUDIA COSTA

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In recent years, with the change in consumer profile, the demand for foods with low levels or even without pesticides has increased. Bagging fruits in the field is considered one of the oldest and effective phytosanitary practices, being an alternative to chemical control. The aim of the present work was to test some types of packaging in the bagging of pitaia fruits during their development in the plant in order to maintain quality. Red pitaia plant fruits [Hylocereus undatus (Haw. Britton & Rose] five years post-planting were used. The experimental design used was random blocks, with 5 treatments, 4 repetitions and 10 fruits per plot. Treatments consisted of control (without bagging, newspaper bag, Kraft paper bag, waxed paper bag and Non-woven bag (NW. The following characteristics were evaluated: percentage of remaining fruits up to harvest; percentage of damaged fruits; fruit mass; longitudinal and transverse diameter; pulp yield; peel thickness; soluble solids content (SS; pH; titratable acidity (TA and SS/TA ratio. There was no difference among treatments for most of the characteristics analyzed, except for percentage of remaining fruits on the plant and percentage of damaged fruits. Bagging does not alter the physical and chemical characteristics of red pitaia fruits. NW and newspaper bags are more effective in bagging pitaia fruits due to greater permanence in the fruit during its development in the plant.

  10. Bagworm bags as portable armour against invertebrate predators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiura, Shinji

    2016-01-01

    Some animals have evolved the use of environmental materials as "portable armour" against natural enemies. Portable bags that bagworm larvae (Lepidoptera: Psychidae) construct using their own silk and plant parts are generally believed to play an important role as a physical barrier against natural enemies. However, no experimental studies have tested the importance of bags as portable armour against predators. To clarify the defensive function, I studied the bagworm Eumeta minuscula and a potential predator Calosoma maximoviczi (Coleoptera: Carabidae). Under laboratory conditions, all bagworm larvae were attacked by carabid adults, but successfully defended themselves against the predators' mandibles using their own bags. The portable bags, which are composed mainly of host plant twigs, may function as a physical barrier against predator mandibles. To test this hypothesis, I removed the twig bags and replaced some with herb leaf bags; all bag-removed larvae were easily caught and predated by carabids, while all bag-replaced larvae could successfully defend themselves against carabid attacks. Therefore, various types of portable bags can protect bagworm larvae from carabid attacks. This is the first study to test the defensive function of bagworm portable bags against invertebrate predators.

  11. Bagworm bags as portable armour against invertebrate predators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinji Sugiura

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Some animals have evolved the use of environmental materials as “portable armour” against natural enemies. Portable bags that bagworm larvae (Lepidoptera: Psychidae construct using their own silk and plant parts are generally believed to play an important role as a physical barrier against natural enemies. However, no experimental studies have tested the importance of bags as portable armour against predators. To clarify the defensive function, I studied the bagworm Eumeta minuscula and a potential predator Calosoma maximoviczi (Coleoptera: Carabidae. Under laboratory conditions, all bagworm larvae were attacked by carabid adults, but successfully defended themselves against the predators’ mandibles using their own bags. The portable bags, which are composed mainly of host plant twigs, may function as a physical barrier against predator mandibles. To test this hypothesis, I removed the twig bags and replaced some with herb leaf bags; all bag-removed larvae were easily caught and predated by carabids, while all bag-replaced larvae could successfully defend themselves against carabid attacks. Therefore, various types of portable bags can protect bagworm larvae from carabid attacks. This is the first study to test the defensive function of bagworm portable bags against invertebrate predators.

  12. Behaviour and Environment - A Behavioral Study of no Use of Plastic Bags' Intention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Bragança de Matos

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The perception of the environmental impact of current consumption patterns and the increasing centrality of this discourse in international environmentalism’s mainstream bring new perspectives and arguments concerning the consumerism of contemporary Western societies. From this perspective, the central question of this project was: “What is the intention of not using plastic bags?” Using as a theoretical reference the Planned Behavior Theory, which seeks to understand and predict human behavior in a general way from a reduced set of antecedent variables, we developed an intersectional survey consisting of 226 interviews. Data were processed by equations modeling and treated in Amos 16.0 software. The measurement model considered the mental constructions forming TCP. It was possible to identify as a major contribution of this study that the perceived behavioral control is the most influential factor on the intended not use of plastic bags, hindering the adoption of the behavior of not using plastic bags. Perhaps the fact that it is a settled habit, which involves several routine actions, such as the habit of going to the grocery store and have to plan in advance to take the alternative shopping bag or cart for packaging purchased products, or to count on ecological alternatives offered by commercial establishments, is a major and determining impediment for behavioral change.

  13. Multidimensional counting grids: Inferring word order from disordered bags of words

    CERN Document Server

    Jojic, Nebojsa

    2012-01-01

    Models of bags of words typically assume topic mixing so that the words in a single bag come from a limited number of topics. We show here that many sets of bag of words exhibit a very different pattern of variation than the patterns that are efficiently captured by topic mixing. In many cases, from one bag of words to the next, the words disappear and new ones appear as if the theme slowly and smoothly shifted across documents (providing that the documents are somehow ordered). Examples of latent structure that describe such ordering are easily imagined. For example, the advancement of the date of the news stories is reflected in a smooth change over the theme of the day as certain evolving news stories fall out of favor and new events create new stories. Overlaps among the stories of consecutive days can be modeled by using windows over linearly arranged tight distributions over words. We show here that such strategy can be extended to multiple dimensions and cases where the ordering of data is not readily ...

  14. BAG-1 haplo-insufficiency impairs lung tumorigenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camarero Guadalupe

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background BAG-1 is a multifunctional co-chaperone of heat shock proteins (Hsc70/Hsp70 that is expressed in most cells. It interacts with Bcl-2 and Raf indicating that it might connect protein folding with other signaling pathways. Evidence that BAG-1 expression is frequently altered in human cancers, in particular in breast cancer, relative to normal cells has been put forward but the notion that overexpression of BAG-1 contributes to poor prognosis in tumorigenesis remains controversial. Methods We have evaluated the effect of BAG-1 heterozygosity in mice in a model of non-small-cell lung tumorigenesis with histological and molecular methods. We have generated mice heterozygous for BAG-1, carrying a BAG-1 null allele, that in addition express oncogenic, constitutively active C-Raf kinase (SP-C C-Raf BxB in type II pneumocytes. SP-C C-Raf BxB mice develop multifocal adenomas early in adulthood. Results We show that BAG-1 heterozygosity in mice impairs C-Raf oncogene-induced lung adenoma growth. Lung tumor initiation was reduced by half in BAG-1 heterozygous SP-C C-Raf BxB mice compared to their littermates. Tumor area was reduced by 75% in 4 month lungs of BAG-1 haploinsufficient mice compared to mice with two BAG-1 copies. Whereas BAG-1 heterozygosity did not affect the rate of cell proliferation or signaling through the mitogenic cascade in adenoma cells, it increased the rate of apoptosis. Conclusion Reduced BAG-1 expression specifically targets tumor cells to apoptosis and impairs tumorigenesis. Our data implicate BAG-1 as a key player in oncogenic transformation by Raf and identify it as a potential molecular target for cancer treatment.

  15. Advanced Crash Survivable Flight Data Recorder And Accident Information Retrieval System (AIRS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-08-01

    95 31 NARROW-BAND CONDUCTED EMISSIONS ON THE AIRS 24 VDC POWER RETURN (CE04 TESI ) ......................... 96 32 BROAD-BAND...three layers of vulcanized synthetic rubber containing an intumescent ceramic material and includes a wire mesh reinforcement between the outermost

  16. Advanced methods for the treatment of organic aqueous wastes: wet air oxidation and wet peroxide oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Debellefontaine, Hubert; Chakchouk, Mehrez; Foussard, Jean Noel [Institut National des Sciences Appliquees (INSA), 31 - Toulouse (France). Dept. de Genie des Procedes Industriels; Tissot, Daniel; Striolo, Phillipe [IDE Environnement S.A., Toulouse (France)

    1993-12-31

    There is a growing concern about the problems of wastes elimination. Various oxidation techniques are suited for elimination of organic aqueous wastes, however, because of the environmental drawbacks of incineration, liquid phase oxidation should be preferred. `Wet Air Oxidation` and `Wet Peroxide Oxidation`are alternative processes which are discussed in this paper. 17 refs., 13 figs., 4 tabs.

  17. Navy Should Join the Air Force and Army Program to Develop an Advanced Integrated Avionics System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-06-17

    1990s. Advanced development is expected to cost about $131 million. Full-scale engineering and production costs have not yet been estimated. INTEGRATED...effectiveness, .i tle !CNIA system could be a viable candidate for retrofitting cider aircraft. Finally, the ICNIA program is a laboratory and fliqnt

  18. An Evaluation of the Air Force Logistics Career Area Advanced Academic Degree Position Validation Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biehl, Aleck L.; Sonnier, Ronald J.

    Reduced funding for educational programs indicated that a thorough review should be made of the Advanced Academic Degree (AAD) validation process. This reduction in funding necessitates more effective management of the AAD program in the logistics career areas to insure that officers in these career areas require those skills learned through these…

  19. Advances in Fast-response Acoustically Derived Air-temperature Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogoev, I.; Jacobsen, L.; Horst, T. W.; Conrad, B.

    2015-12-01

    Fast-response accurate air-temperature measurements are required when estimating turbulent fluxes of heat, water and carbon dioxide by open-path eddy-covariance technique. In comparison with contact thermometers like thermocouples, ultra-sonic thermometers do not suffer from solar radiation loading, water vapor condensation and evaporative cooling effects. Consequently they have the potential to provide more accurate true air temperature measurements. The absolute accuracy of the ultrasonic thermometer is limited by the following parameters: the distance between the transducer pairs, transducer delays associated with the electrical-acoustic signal conversion that vary with temperature, components of the wind vector that are normal to the ultrasonic paths, and humidity.The distance between the transducer pairs is commonly obtained by coordinate measuring machine. Improved accuracy demonstrated in this study results from increased stiffness in the anemometer head to better maintain the ultrasonic path-length distances. To further improve accuracy and account for changes in transducer delays and distance as a function of temperature, these parameters are characterized in a zero-wind chamber over the entire operating temperature range. When the sonic anemometer is combined with a co-located fast-response water vapor analyzer, like in the IRGASON instrument, speed of sound can be compensated for humidity effects on a point-by-point basis resulting in a true fast-response air temperature measurement. Laboratory test results show that when the above steps are implemented in the calibration of the ultrasonic thermometer air-temperature accuracy better than ±0.5 degrees Celsius can be achieved over the entire operating range. The approach is also validated in a field inter-comparison with an aspirated thermistor probe mounted in a radiation shield.

  20. Consumption of Plastic bags and its Impact on Environment

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    The research was done on the consumption of plastic bags and its possible impact on environment. We considered the consumption of plastic bags as recycling, alternatives and disposal, and to be specific we defined environment impact on drainage and street waste. The respondents’ were the 20 years of age and older without any gender discrimination, and assumed to be users of plastic bags. The data was collected from the crowded shopping centers of city. Correlation and regression techniques we...

  1. ASSESSMENT OF BAGGING OPERATORS EXPOSURE TO WITH PVC AIRBORNE PARTICULATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Asilian, M. Nasseri Nejad, S. B. Mortazavi, M. J. Jafari, A. Khavanin, A. R. Dehdashti

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Dust consists of tiny solid particles carried by air currents. These particles are formed by many different processes. One of these processes is polymerization of inert plastic such as Polyvinyl Chloride production plant. According to the Occupational Health and Safety Assessment Series requirements, section 4.4.6, occupational health and safety risks must be defined and controlled where needed. This field study was conducted to evaluate the occupational exposure of packaging operators to airborne polyvinyl chloride dust in order to health risk assessment and recommend feasible controlling methods. The mass concentration of polyvinyl chloride particulate was measured in two fractions according to the particle size that expressed as total and respirable particulates. The Air Sampling Methods, Methods for the Determination of Hazardous Substances 14/3, of Health and Safety Executive were used as a standard sampling protocol. The average mass concentrations for respirable and total particulates were measured 3.54±0.3 mg/m3 and 11.89±0.8 mg/m3 respectively. Also health risks of studied condition were estimated as significant level, category one, therefore the risk must be reduced below the standard level. According to the work requirements to reduce the emission rate and mitigate the health risk exposure, a local exhaust ventilation system design was recommended for bag-filters of hopper tank.

  2. Purple urine bag syndrome- changing hue!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadhna Sharma

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Purple Urine Bag Syndrome (PUBS is a unique disease entity characterised by purple discoloration of urine secondary to recurrent urinary tract infections with indigo and indirubin producing bacteria and is predominantly seen in constipated, chronically debilitated and catheterised women with alkaline urine. This syndrome indicates underlying recurrent urinary tract infections (UTIs associated with higher incidence of mortality and morbidity than urinary tract infection alone without this occurrence. This article is about an elderly hypothyroid woman with PUBS and reviews the need to be aware of this entity. [Int J Res Med Sci 2013; 1(1.000: 31-32

  3. Computer Forensic Using Lazy Local Bagging Predictors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIU Wei-dong; BAO Cheng-yi; ZHU Xing-quan

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we study the problem of employ ensemble learning for computer forensic. We propose a Lazy Local Learning based bagging (L3B) approach, where base learners are trained from a small instance subset surrounding each test instance. More specifically, given a test instance x, L3B first discovers x's k nearest neighbours, and then applies progressive sampling to the selected neighbours to train a set of base classifiers, by using a given very weak (VW) learner. At the last stage, x is labeled as the most frequently voted class of all base classifiers. Finally, we apply the proposed L3B to computer forensic.

  4. The Kaon Bag Parameter at Physical Mass

    CERN Document Server

    Frison, Julien; Christ, Norman H; Garron, Nicolas; Mawhinney, Robert; Sachrajda, Chris T; Yin, Hantao

    2013-01-01

    We present preliminary results for the calculation of the Kaon Bag parameter $B_K$ in $N_f=2+1$ lattice QCD, using M\\"obius Domain Wall Fermion ensembles generated by the RBC-UKQCD collaboration. This computation is done directly at physical meson masses, so that we do not have to rely on chiral perturbation theory or any other mass extrapolation. In parallel, the four-quark operator is renormalised through the Rome-Southampton technique. Finally, we compare our value with previous results and draw some conclusions about the remaining dominant contributions in our error budget.

  5. Structure functions in the chiral bag model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanjose, V.; Vento, V.

    1989-07-13

    We calculate the structure functions of an isoscalar nuclear target for the deep inelastic scattering by leptons in an extended version of the chiral bag model which incorporates the qanti q structure of the pions in the cloud. Bjorken scaling and Regge behavior are satisfied. The model calculation reproduces the low-x behavior of the data but fails to explain the medium- to large-x behavior. Evolution of the quark structure functions seem inevitable to attempt a connection between the low-energy models and the high-energy behavior of quantum chromodynamics. (orig.).

  6. Two cases of death due to plastic bag suffocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadesan, K; Beng, O B

    2001-01-01

    Deaths due to plastic bag suffocation or plastic bag asphyxia are not reported in Malaysia. In the West many suicides by plastic bag asphyxia, particularly in the elderly and those who are chronically and terminally ill, have been reported. Accidental deaths too are not uncommon in the West, both among small children who play with shopping bags and adolescents who are solvent abusers. Another well-known but not so common form of accidental death from plastic bag asphyxia is sexual asphyxia, which is mostly seen among adult males. Homicide by plastic bag asphyxia too is reported in the West and the victims are invariably infants or adults who are frail or terminally ill and who cannot struggle. Two deaths due to plastic bag asphyxia are presented. Both the autopsies were performed at the University Hospital Mortuary, Kuala Lumpur. Both victims were 50-year old married Chinese males. One death was diagnosed as suicide and the other as sexual asphyxia. Sexual asphyxia is generally believed to be a problem associated exclusively with the West. Specific autopsy findings are often absent in deaths due to plastic bag asphyxia and therefore such deaths could be missed when some interested parties have altered the scene and most importantly have removed the plastic bag. A visit to the scene of death is invariably useful.

  7. The Effective Design of Bean Bag as a Vibroimpact Damper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.Q. Liu

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The technique of a bean bag damper has been effectively applied in many engineering fields to control the vibroimpact of a structural system. In this study, the basic parameters responsible for the design of an effective bean bag: the size of beans, the mass ratio of the bean bag to the structure to which it is attached, the clearance distance and the position of the bag, are studied by both theoretical and experimental analyses. These will provide a better understanding of the performance of the bean bag for optimisation of damper design. It was found that reducing the size of beans would increase the exchange of momentum in the system due to the increase in the effective contact areas. Within the range of mass ratios studied, the damping performance of the damper was found to improve with higher mass ratios. There was an optimum clearance for any specific damper whereby the maximum attenuation could be achieved. The position of the bag with respect to nodes and antipodes of the primary structure determined the magnitude of attenuation attainable. Furthermore, the limitations of bean bags have been identified and a general criteria for the design of a bean bag damper has been formulated based on the study undertaken. It was shown that an appropriately configured bean bag damper was capable of reducing the amplitude of vibration by 80% to 90%.

  8. Using Advanced Tabu Search Approaches to Perform Enhanced Air Mobility Command Operational Airlift Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-28

    Ramirez, 2008, "A Study of Current & Future Methodologies Of The Pallet Loading Problem in U.S. Military Logistics " 15. Yogesh Dashora, 2008, "A...Mechanical Engineering Academy of Distinguished Alumni. In addition to the continuing work on the end-to-end United States Military Logistics problem...methods of stochastic optimization using classical and advanced tabu search methods [4]. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Military logistics , landscape theory

  9. Advanced Flight Simulator: Utilization in A-10 Conversion and Air-to-Surface Attack Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    CLASSIFIC.TION OF THIS PAGE(1Whl Data Emiterd) Item 20 (Continued) -" blocks of instruction on the Advanced Simulator for Pilot Training ( ASPT ). The first...training, the transfer of training from the ASPT to the A-10 is nearly 100 percent. therefore, in the early phases of AiS training, one simulator... ASPT ) could be suitably modified, an alternative to initially dangerous and expensive aircraft training would exist which also offered considerable

  10. Drugs for the doctor's bag: 2--children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-11-01

    In September 2005, we published Drugs for the doctor's bag: 1--Adults, recognising the fact that there is still a need for most GPs to carry well-equipped bags, even though many have given up responsibility for out-of-hours services. Here we suggest medicines that a GP might want to have available for use in an emergency or for the acute treatment of children and adolescents, updatingour previous advice. As with adults, it is not our intention to imply that every GP must carry every drug mentioned. Some of the drugs will probably only be used by rural GPs who do not have access to immediate emergency care. Whenever a medicine is first mentioned, our suggested formulation is included in brackets. Unless otherwise stated, the doses given are all from the BNF for Children. We enclose with this issue a card summarising parenteral doses (for adults and children) of drugs for medical emergencies; this card includes the BNF table of ideal weight for age.

  11. Analysis of physical demands during bulk bag closing and sealing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasarwanji, Mahiyar F; Reardon, Leanna M; Heberger, John R; Dempsey, Patrick G

    2016-05-01

    Several tools are sold and recommended for closing and sealing flexible intermediate bulk containers (bulk bags) which are used to transport product that has been mined and processed. However, there is limited information on the risks, physical demands, or the benefits of using one tool over another. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the physical demands involved with two closing methods and several sealing tools in order to provide recommendations for selecting tools to reduce exposure to risk factors for work-related musculoskeletal disorders. In this study, twelve participants completed bag closing and sealing tasks using two different closing methods and eight sealing tools on two types of bulk bags. Physical demands and performance were evaluated using muscle activity, perceived exertion, subjective ratings of use, and time. Results indicate that using the "flowering" method to close bags required on average 32% less muscle activity, 30% less perceived exertion, 42% less time, and was preferred by participants compared to using the "snaking" method. For sealing, there was no single method significantly better across all measures; however, using a pneumatic cable tie gun consistently had the lowest muscle activity and perceived exertion ratings. The pneumatic cable tie gun did require approximately 33% more time to seal the bag compared to methods without a tool, but the amount of time to seal the bag was comparable to using other tools. Further, sealing a spout bulk bag required on average 13% less muscle activity, 18% less perceived exertion, 35% less time, and was preferred by participants compared to sealing a duffle bulk bag. The current results suggest that closing the spout bag using the flowering method and sealing the bag using the pneumatic cable tie gun that is installed with a tool balancer is ergonomically advantageous. Our findings can help organizations select methods and tools that pose the lowest physical demands when closing and

  12. Retrieval of specimens in laparoscopy using reclosable zipper-type plastic bags: a simple, cheap, and useful method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, A; Vázquez, J A; Valencia, S; Cueto, J

    1998-12-01

    Surgical specimens must often be extracted during laparoscopic surgery. Although the technologic advances in this field are amazing, simple measures may sometimes work even better than very sophisticated instruments. This is true of the reclosable plastic bags with zipper-type closure that we use for retrieving surgical specimens from the abdominal cavity in order to protect it as well as the abdominal wall. The bags are cheap, offer no problems for sterilization, are easy to obtain, and are available in many sizes. They are very simple to handle, making it easy to slip in the specimen and then extract it from the abdominal cavity. We describe our experience with these bags and a technique for manipulating them.

  13. Hospital discharge bags and breastfeeding at 6 months: data from the infant feeding practices study II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadacharan, Radha; Grossman, Xena; Matlak, Stephanie; Merewood, Anne

    2014-02-01

    Distribution of industry-sponsored formula sample packs to new mothers undermines breastfeeding. Using data from the Infant Feeding Practices Study II (IFPS II), we aimed to determine whether receipt of 4 different types of bags was associated with exclusive breastfeeding during the first 6 months of life. We extracted data from IFPS II questionnaires. Type of discharge bag received was categorized as "formula bag," "coupon bag," "breastfeeding supplies bag," or "no bag". We examined exclusive breastfeeding status at 10 weeks (post hoc) and at 6 months using univariate descriptive analyses and multivariate logistic regression models, controlling for sociodemographic and attitudinal variables. Overall, 1868 (81.4%) of women received formula bags, 96 (4.2%) received coupon bags, 46 (2.0%) received breastfeeding supplies bags, and 284 (12.4%) received no bag. By 10 weeks, recipients of breastfeeding supplies bags or no bag were significantly more likely to be exclusively breastfeeding than formula bag recipients. In the adjusted model, compared to formula bag/coupon bag recipients, recipients of breastfeeding supplies bag/no bag were significantly more likely to breastfeed exclusively for 6 months (odds ratio = 1.58; 95% confidence interval, 1.06-2.36). The vast majority of new mothers received formula sample packs at discharge, and this was associated with reduced exclusive breastfeeding at 10 weeks and 6 months. Bags containing breastfeeding supplies or no bag at all were positively associated with exclusive breastfeeding at 10 weeks and 6 months.

  14. FAA Air Traffic Control Operations Concepts. Volume 4. TAAS (Terminal Advanced Automation System) Terminal Controllers

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-07-29

    entry message* Al 1.6.11 ENTER FDE NOTATIONS TASK TYPE: E COORD MEDIA: FREQUENCY: HI CRITICALITY! 1.24 A1.1.6.11.1 INITIATE EnterEFDE- Natation message...Stat-bsilndicotor. Aircraft Type. Assigned Altitude or Interim ... ( Sea SLS). 48.3.7.1.2.1.1.I-8 SI7UATIUN DISPLAY 779 󈧯.3.7.1.2.1.1.1-01 The...Ind:mctor’, Air’crc’ft Type, Assigned Altitude or, nteriri ... ( Sea 2S5). 40.3.7.1.2.1.1.1-00 SITUATION DISPLAY 7T9 40.3.7.1.2.1.1.1-01 The r’ouir .mtotý .,f

  15. Advanced air distribution method combined with deodorant material for exposure reduction to bioeffluents contaminants in hospitals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bivolarova, Mariya Petrova; Mizutani, Chiyomi; Melikov, Arsen Krikor

    2015-01-01

    -bed hospital patient room at reduced background ventilation rare of 1.6 air changes per hour. The bed of the patient was equipped with the ventilated mattress (VM) having an exhaust opening from which bioeffluents generated from human body were sucked and discharged from the room. To enhance the pollutant......The separate and combined effect of a ventilated mattress and acid-treated activated carbon fibre (ACF) fabric on reducing the exposure to body generated gaseous pollutants in hospital environment was studied. Full-scale experiments were performed in a climate chamber furnished as a single...... removal, acid-treated activated carbon fibre material was used in some of the experiments in the form of patient’s cover. The simulated pollution source was ammonia gas released from the patient’s groins. The results show that when using the ventilated mattress the ammonia gas concentration in the room...

  16. Advanced combustor design concepts to control NO{sub x} and air toxics. Quarterly report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pershing, D.W.; Lighty, J.; Veranth, J. [Utah Univ., Salt Lake City, UT (United States). Coll. of Engineering; Sarofim, A.; Goel, S. [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1995-04-28

    The University of Utah, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Reaction Engineering International (REI) and ABB/Combustion Engineering have joined together in this research proposal to develop fundamental understanding regarding the impact of fuel and combustion changes on ignition stability and flame characteristics because these critically affect: NO{sub x} emissions, carbon burnout, and emissions of air toxics; existing laboratory and bench scale facilities are being used to generate critical missing data which will be used to improve the NO{sub x} and carbon burnout submodels in comprehensive combustion simulation tools currently being used by industrial boiler manufacturers. To ensure effective and timely transfer of This technology, a major manufacturer (ABB) and a combustion model supplier (REI) have been included as part of the team from the early conception of the proposal. ABB/Combustion Engineering is providing needed fundamental data on the extent of volatile evolution from commercial coals as well as background information on current design needs in industrial practice. MIT is responsible for the development of an improved char nitrogen oxidation model which will ultimately be incorporated into an enhanced NO{sup x} submodel. Reaction Engineering International is providing the lead engineering staff for the experimental studies and an overall industrial focus for the work based on their use of the combustion simulation tools for a wide variety of industries. The University of Utah is conducting bench scale experimentation to (1) investigate alternative methods for enhancing flame stability to reduce NO{sub x} emissions and (2) characterize air toxic emissions under ultralow NO{sub x} conditions. Accomplishments for this quarter are presented to the solid sampling system and char nitrogen modeling.

  17. The Study of LeachateTreatment by Using Three Advanced Oxidation Process Based Wet air Oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behroz Karimi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Wet air oxidation is regarded as appropriate options for wastewater treatment with average organic compounds. The general purpose of this research is to determine the efficiency of three wet air oxidation methods, wet oxidation with hydrogen peroxide and absorption with activated carbon in removing organic matter and nitrogenous compounds from Isfahan's urban leachate. A leachate sample with the volume of 1.5 liters entered into a steel reactor with the volume of three liters and was put under a 10-bar pressure, at temperatures of 100, 200, and 300[degree sign] as well as three retention times of 30, 60, and 90 minutes. The sample was placed at 18 stages of leachate storage ponds in Isfahan Compost Plant with the volume of 20 liters, using three WPO, WAO methods and a combination of WAO/GAC for leachate pre-treatment. Thirty percent of pure oxygen and hydrogen peroxide were applied as oxidation agents. The COD removal efficiency in WAO method is 7.8-33.3%, in BOD is 14.7-50.6%, the maximum removal percentage (efficiency for NH4-N is 53.3% and for NO3-N is 56.4-73.9%. The removal efficiency of COD and BOD5 is 4.6%-34 and 24%-50 respectively in WPO method. Adding GAC to the reactor, the removal efficiency of all parameters was improved. The maximum removal efficiency was increased 48% for COD, 31%-43.6 for BOD5 by a combinational method, and the ratio of BOD5/COD was also increased to 90%. In this paper, WAO and WPO process was used for Leachate pre-treatment and WAO/GAC combinational process was applied for improving the organic matter removal and leachate treatment; it was also determined that the recent process is much more efficient in removing resistant organic matter.

  18. The study of leachate treatment by using three advanced oxidation process based wet air oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Behroz; Ehrampoush, Mohammad Hassan; Ebrahimi, Asghar; Mokhtari, Mehdi

    2013-01-02

    Wet air oxidation is regarded as appropriate options for wastewater treatment with average organic compounds. The general purpose of this research is to determine the efficiency of three wet air oxidation methods, wet oxidation with hydrogen peroxide and absorption with activated carbon in removing organic matter and nitrogenous compounds from Isfahan's urban leachate. A leachate sample with the volume of 1.5 liters entered into a steel reactor with the volume of three liters and was put under a 10-bar pressure, at temperatures of 100, 200, and 300° as well as three retention times of 30, 60, and 90 minutes. The sample was placed at 18 stages of leachate storage ponds in Isfahan Compost Plant with the volume of 20 liters, using three WPO, WAO methods and a combination of WAO/GAC for leachate pre-treatment. Thirty percent of pure oxygen and hydrogen peroxide were applied as oxidation agents. The COD removal efficiency in WAO method is 7.8-33.3%, in BOD is 14.7-50.6%, the maximum removal percentage (efficiency) for NH4-N is 53.3% and for NO3-N is 56.4-73.9%. The removal efficiency of COD and BOD5 is 4.6%-34 and 24%-50 respectively in WPO method. Adding GAC to the reactor, the removal efficiency of all parameters was improved. The maximum removal efficiency was increased 48% for COD, 31%-43.6 for BOD5 by a combinational method, and the ratio of BOD5/COD was also increased to 90%. In this paper, WAO and WPO process was used for Leachate pre-treatment and WAO/GAC combinational process was applied for improving the organic matter removal and leachate treatment; it was also determined that the recent process is much more efficient in removing resistant organic matter.

  19. 49 CFR 178.521 - Standards for paper bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... identification codes for paper bags: (1) 5M1 for a multi-wall paper bag; and (2) 5M2 for a multi-wall water... more must be made waterproof by the use of either a water-resistant ply as one of the two outermost plies or a water-resistant barrier made of a suitable protective material between the two...

  20. Effect of a Small Current Quark Mass on Bag Constant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZONG Hong-Shi; FENG Hong-Tao; SUN Wei-Min; DING Xiao-Ping; PING Jia-Lun

    2004-01-01

    A method for obtaining the small current quark mass effect on the dressed quark propagator within the Dyson-Schwinger approach is developed. From this the small current quark mass dependence of the bag constant is evaluated. It is found that the bag constant decreases with the increasing current quark mass and the contribution of the current quark mass cannot be dropped.

  1. Effect of a Small Current Quark Mass on Bag Constant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZONGHong-Shi; FENGHong-Tao; SUNWei-Min; DINGXiao-Ping; PINGJia-Lun

    2004-01-01

    A method for obtaining the small current quark mass effect on the dressed quark propagator within the Dyson Schwinger approach is developed. From this the small current quark mass dependence of the bag constant is evaluated. It is found that the bag constant decreases with the increasing current quark mass and the contribution of the current quark mass cannot be dropped.

  2. Temperature dependence of bag pressure from quasiparticle model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, N.; Singh, C. P.

    2001-03-01

    A quasiparticle model with effective thermal gluon and quark masses is used to derive a temperature /T- and baryon chemical potential /μ-dependent bag constant /B(μ,T). Consequences of such a bag constant are obtained on the equation of state (EOS) for a deconfined quark-gluon plasma (QGP).

  3. Small-Sample Error Estimation for Bagged Classification Rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, T. T.; Braga-Neto, U. M.

    2010-12-01

    Application of ensemble classification rules in genomics and proteomics has become increasingly common. However, the problem of error estimation for these classification rules, particularly for bagging under the small-sample settings prevalent in genomics and proteomics, is not well understood. Breiman proposed the "out-of-bag" method for estimating statistics of bagged classifiers, which was subsequently applied by other authors to estimate the classification error. In this paper, we give an explicit definition of the out-of-bag estimator that is intended to remove estimator bias, by formulating carefully how the error count is normalized. We also report the results of an extensive simulation study of bagging of common classification rules, including LDA, 3NN, and CART, applied on both synthetic and real patient data, corresponding to the use of common error estimators such as resubstitution, leave-one-out, cross-validation, basic bootstrap, bootstrap 632, bootstrap 632 plus, bolstering, semi-bolstering, in addition to the out-of-bag estimator. The results from the numerical experiments indicated that the performance of the out-of-bag estimator is very similar to that of leave-one-out; in particular, the out-of-bag estimator is slightly pessimistically biased. The performance of the other estimators is consistent with their performance with the corresponding single classifiers, as reported in other studies.

  4. Small-Sample Error Estimation for Bagged Classification Rules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vu TT

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Application of ensemble classification rules in genomics and proteomics has become increasingly common. However, the problem of error estimation for these classification rules, particularly for bagging under the small-sample settings prevalent in genomics and proteomics, is not well understood. Breiman proposed the "out-of-bag" method for estimating statistics of bagged classifiers, which was subsequently applied by other authors to estimate the classification error. In this paper, we give an explicit definition of the out-of-bag estimator that is intended to remove estimator bias, by formulating carefully how the error count is normalized. We also report the results of an extensive simulation study of bagging of common classification rules, including LDA, 3NN, and CART, applied on both synthetic and real patient data, corresponding to the use of common error estimators such as resubstitution, leave-one-out, cross-validation, basic bootstrap, bootstrap 632, bootstrap 632 plus, bolstering, semi-bolstering, in addition to the out-of-bag estimator. The results from the numerical experiments indicated that the performance of the out-of-bag estimator is very similar to that of leave-one-out; in particular, the out-of-bag estimator is slightly pessimistically biased. The performance of the other estimators is consistent with their performance with the corresponding single classifiers, as reported in other studies.

  5. Cloudy bag model IV. Pionic corrections to the nucleon properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Theberge, S. (British Columbia Univ., Vancouver (Canada). Dept. of Physics); Miller, G.A. (Washington Univ., Seattle (USA). Dept. of Physics); Thomas, A.W. (British Columbia Univ., Vancouver (Canada). TRIUMF Facility)

    1982-01-01

    A detailed formulation of the Hamiltonian formalism, together with a consistent renormalization procedure, is described for the cloudy bag model. The electromagnetic properties of the nucleon are calculated with center-of-mass corrections included. Good agreement with the experimental results is obtained for bag radii ranging from 0.8 to 1.0 fm.

  6. Advanced variable speed air source integrated heat pump (AS-IHP) development - CRADA final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baxter, Van D. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Rice, C. Keith [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Munk, Jeffrey D. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Ally, Moonis Raza [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Shen, Bo [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-09-30

    Between August 2011 and September 2015, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Nordyne, LLC (now Nortek Global HVAC LLC, NGHVAC) engaged in a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) to develop an air-source integrated heat pump (AS-IHP) system for the US residential market. Two generations of laboratory prototype systems were designed, fabricated, and lab-tested during 2011-2013. Performance maps for the system were developed using the latest research version of the DOE/ORNL Heat Pump Design Model, or HPDM, (Rice 1991; Rice and Jackson 2005; Shen et al 2012) as calibrated against the lab test data. These maps were the input to the TRNSYS (SOLAR Energy Laboratory, et al, 2010) system to predict annual performance relative to a baseline suite of equipment meeting minimum efficiency standards in effect in 2006 (combination of 13 SEER air-source heat pump (ASHP) and resistance water heater with Energy Factor (EF) of 0.9). Predicted total annual energy savings, while providing space conditioning and water heating for a tight, well insulated 2600 ft2 (242 m2) house at 5 U.S. locations, ranged from 46 to 61%, averaging 52%, relative to the baseline system (lowest savings at the cold-climate Chicago location). Predicted energy use for water heating was reduced 62 to 76% relative to resistance WH. Based on these lab prototype test and analyses results a field test prototype was designed and fabricated by NGHVAC. The unit was installed in a 2400 ft2 (223 m2) research house in Knoxville, TN and field tested from May 2014 to April 2015. Based on the demonstrated field performance of the AS-IHP prototype and estimated performance of a baseline system operating under the same loads and weather conditions, it was estimated that the prototype would achieve ~40% energy savings relative to the minimum efficiency suite. The estimated WH savings were >60% and SC mode savings were >50%. But estimated SH savings were only about 20%. It is believed that had the test

  7. Experimental development of advanced air filtration media based on electrospun polymer fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghochaghi, Negar

    Electrospinning is a process by which polymer fibers can be produced using an electrostatically driven fluid jet. Electrospun fibers can be produced at the micro- or nano-scale and are, therefore, very promising for air filtration applications. However, because electrospun fibers are electrically charged, it is difficult to control the morphology of filtration media. Fiber size, alignment and uniformity are very important factors that affect filter performance. The focus of this project is to understand the relationship between filter morphology and performance and to develop new methods to create filtration media with optimum morphology. This study is divided into three focus areas: unimodal and bimodal microscale fibrous media with aligned, orthogonal and random fiber orientations; unimodal and bimodal nanoscale fibers in random orientations; bimodal micrometer and nanometer fiber media with orthogonally aligned orientations. The results indicate that the most efficient filters, which are those with the highest ratio of particle collection efficiency divided by pressure drop, can be obtained through fabricating filters in orthogonal layers of aligned fibers with two different fiber diameters. Moreover, our results show that increasing the number of layers increases the performance of orthogonally layered fibers. Also, controlling fiber spacing in orthogonally layered micrometer fiber media can be an alternative way to study the filtration performance. Finally, such coatings presented throughout this research study can be designed and placed up-stream, down-stream, and/or in between conventional filters.

  8. Drugs for the doctor's bag revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-09-01

    The choice of drugs to include in the GP's bag depends on the medical conditions likely to be met, the shelf-life of the products and their costs, the availability of ambulance paramedic cover and the proximity of the nearest hospital. Here, we update previous advice and suggest a list of medicines that GPs may wish to take with them on home visits for use in an emergency or other acute treatment. We include paediatric doses where appropriate and, whenever a medicine is first mentioned, our suggested formulation is given italicised and in brackets. We also enclose with this issue a card summarising parenteral doses of drugs for medical emergencies, which includes a table of mean weight for age.

  9. Testing an advanced satellite technique for dust detection as a decision support system for the air quality assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falconieri, Alfredo; Filizzola, Carolina; Femiano, Rossella; Marchese, Francesco; Sannazzaro, Filomena; Pergola, Nicola; Tramutoli, Valerio; Di Muro, Ersilia; Divietri, Mariella; Crisci, Anna Maria; Lovallo, Michele; Mangiamele, Lucia; Vaccaro, Maria Pia; Palma, Achille

    2014-05-01

    In order to correctly apply the European directive for air quality (2008/50/CE), local Authorities are often requested to discriminate the possible origin (natural/anthropic) of anomalous concentration of pollutants in the air (art.20 Directive 2008/50/CE). In this framework, it's been focused on PM10 and PM2,5 concentrations and sources. In fact, depending on their origin, appropriate counter-measures can be taken devoted to prevent their production (e.g. by traffic restriction) or simply to reduce their impact on citizen health (e.g. information campaigns). In this context suitable satellite techniques can be used in order to identify natural sources (particularly Saharan dust, but also volcanic ash or forest fire smoke) that can be responsible of over-threshold concentration of PM10/2,5 in populated areas. In the framework of the NIBS (Networking and Internationalization of Basilicata Space Technologies) project, funded by the Basilicata Region within the ERDF 2007-2013 program, the School of Engineering of University of Basilicata, the Institute of Methodologies for Environmental Analysis of National Research Council (IMAA-CNR) and the Regional Agency for the Protection of the Environment of Basilicata Region (ARPAB) have started a collaboration devoted to assess the potential of the use of advanced satellite techniques for Saharan dust events identification to support ARPAB activities related to the application of the European directive for air quality (2008/50/CE) in Basilicata region. In such a joint activity, the Robust Satellite Technique (RST) approach has been assessed and tested as a decision support system for monitoring and evaluating air quality at local and regional level. In particular, RST-DUST products, derived by processing high temporal resolution data provided by SEVIRI (Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager) sensor on board Meteosat Second Generation platforms, have been analysed together with PM10 measurements performed by the ground

  10. Addressing Houston's Bad Air Days: Advancing Environmental Justice Advocacy with Geospatial Analysis and Science Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, C.; White, R.; Phartiyal, P.

    2016-12-01

    Evidence indicates that chronic exposure to chemical pollutants contributes to and exacerbates negative health impacts, and that the burden of exposure falls disproportionately upon low-income, Black, and Latino communities. These data, however, are often inaccessible or too technical for the community groups who need it to raise public awareness and to inform decision makers. Recognizing the many challenges of communicating science to a non-technical audience, the Center for Science and Democracy at the Union of Concerned Scientists, a science-based policy and advocacy organization, partnered with Texas Environmental Justice Advocacy Services (TEJAS), an environmental justice organization based in Manchester in Houston, to develop products that would visualize the technical information needed to strengthen TEJAS' advocacy work. The products were created with the intention of educating and engaging community members and to raise the profile of these issues with community residents, local government and regional EPA officials. Together, we were able to map the geographic distribution of contaminants, health risks, and demographic information to tell the story of inequity in Houston. Our spatial analysis accounts for multiple sources of air pollution exposure and associated health risks, overlaid with demographic information in Manchester. The talk will discuss the various ways we used maps to display high level data to be accessible for community members. The analysis will ultimately be used by TEJAS to strengthen its advocacy around chemical safety by: 1) educating community members on the hazards and health risks of local pollutants, 2) increasing community awareness of local emergency planning and response procedures, and 3) providing scientific evidence to decision makers to demand prevention and reduction in chemical exposure for their community.

  11. The Role of Bag Surface Tension in Color Confinement

    CERN Document Server

    Bugaev, K A

    2011-01-01

    We discuss here the novel view at the color confinement which, on the one hand, allows us to find out the surface tension coefficient of quark gluon bags and, under a plausible assumption, to determine the endpoint temperature of the QCD phase diagram, on the other hand. The present model considers the confining color tube as the cylindrical quark gluon bag with non-zero surface tension. A close inspection of the free energies of elongated cylindrical bag and the confining color tube that connects the static quark-antiquark pair allows us to find out the string tension in terms of the surface tension, thermal pressure and the bag radius. Using the derived relation it is possible to estimate the bag surface tension at zero temperature directly from the lattice QCD data and to estimate the (tri)critical endpoint temperature. In the present analysis the topological free energy of the cylindrical bag is accounted for the first time. The requirement of positive entropy density of such bags leads to negative values...

  12. Biochemical lesions of platelets stored as concentrates in PVC bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, L K; Mathai, J; Sulochana, P V; Jacob, J; Sivakumar, R

    1997-02-01

    Acid-base status of platelet suspension during storage is a measure of the gas permeability of the bag material. To assess the efficacy of the bags available in our market to store platelets, we compared biochemical lesions of platelets stored in an Indian polyvinyl chloride (PVC) triple bag against a Japanese PVC bag standardized for 5 days platelet storage. Platelet concentrates prepared in both control and test PVC bags were stored for 72 h. Two ml samples were drawn 1 h after preparation, and then at 24 h intervals, for analysis. Our data show that the mean pH value in the test bags was maintained above 6.5. However, the CO2 tension was high and O2 tension was low. We also analyzed malondialdehyde (MDA) formation which is a measure of arachidonic acid metabolism, and seemed to be unaffected in stored platelets. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) was not released into the plasma excessively and hence significant platelet lysis was absent during storage. Hypotonic shock response (HSR) of platelets stored in both test and control bags was comparable, indicating the possibility of satisfactory post-transfusion recovery.

  13. Development of Biodegradable Plastic as Mango Fruit Bag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andres M Tuates jr

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Plastics have achieved a dominant position in agriculture because of their transparency, lightness in weight, impermeability to water and their resistance to microbial attack. It is use as food and fruits packaging, fruit bag, food container, seedling bag, mulching film, protective for greenhouse, dryer shed and among others. However, this generates higher quantity of wastes that are difficult to dispose by farmers. The plastic residues remain on the soil for some years as large pieces and they are impediment to plant growth and also a potential hazard to animals if the land is subsequently put down to grass. To address these problems, the project aim to develop and evaluate the biodegradable film for mango fruit bag during development. Cassava starch and polybutylene succinate (PBS was used in the development biodegradable film. The PBS and starch was melt-blended in a twin-screw extruder and then blown into film extrusion machine. The physic-chemical-mechanical properties of biodegradable fruit bag were done following standard methods of test. Field testing of fruit bag was also conducted to evaluate its durability and efficiency field condition.  The PHilMech-FiC fruit bag is made of biodegradable material measuring 6 x 8 inches with a thickness of 150 microns. The tensile strength is within the range of LDPE while the elongation is within the range of HDPE. However, it has higher density, thickness swelling and absorbed more water. It is projected that after thirty six (36 weeks, the film will be totally degraded. Results of field testing shows that the quality of harvested fruits using PHilMech-FiC biodegradable fruit bag in terms of percent marketable, non-marketable and export, peel color at ripe stage, flesh color, TSS, oBrix, percent edible portion is comparable with the existing bagging materials such as Chinese brown paper bag  and old newspaper.  

  14. Biomaterials Out of Thin Air: in Situ, On-Demand Printing of Advanced Biocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothschild, Lynn J.; Gentry, Diana M.; Micks, Ashley

    2015-01-01

    Upmass is the single most significant limitation of our current space mission capability. Although biomaterials and biocomposites have mass, strength, flexibility, and self-healing properties that could significantly reduce upmass, their use is limited by the following drawbacks: Expensive, specific production. Many biomaterials can only be produced as part of significant support ecosystem; Inaccessible functional customization. The grain of wood, the porosity of bone, and so on are an integral part of the materials' desired mechanical properties, but are not deterministic when the material is naturally grown; Limited compositions. Most biomaterials (unlike metal, plastic, etc.) cannot be easily combined or modified to produce new materials. This project builds on recent advances in: Synthetic biology. Libraries of standardized genetic parts which can be used for controlled cellular material production, delivery, and binding; 3D printing. Commercial off-the-shelf components which can be used to make of a pico- to nanoliter cell deposition system; Tissue engineering. Proven cell-compatible support hydrogels and scaffolds can be modified to bind the deposited biomaterials of interest. Objectives: Feasibility and benefit analysis. Two mission contexts span the concept's scope (see below); Proof-of-concept demonstration. A simple grid of two proteins, fluorescent for easy detection, to validate the core technology concept; Proposed implementations for follow-on work. Avenues for future work on each core component (host cell, production control, material delivery, material binding, etc.); Complementary studies exploration. A survey of other emerging areas (in situ resource utilization, protein engineering, etc.) with the potential to multiply our technology's impact. Potential Impacts: This application could dramatically expand manufacturing capabilities on Earth and in space: In situ resource utilization. A far greater range of materials and products will be available

  15. C-Bag Consolidation: An Inventory and Safety Stock Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-13

    i.e. pilots, firefighters) was excluded from this research. Any items found in both the A-bag and C-bag (helmet, web belt, canteen , etc.) were also...M8 detector paper booklet, M9 detector paper roll, M258A1 or M291 decontamination kit, M295 decontamination kit, a web belt, canteen , M1 canteen ... canteen and M1 canteen cap are found in the A-1 ditty bag as they have a use in both standard combat as well as a chemical, biological, nuclear

  16. Self-Driven Desalination and Advanced Treatment of Wastewater in a Modularized Filtration Air Cathode Microbial Desalination Cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Kuichang; Wang, Zhen; Chen, Xi; Zhang, Xiaoyuan; Zuo, Jiaolan; Liang, Peng; Huang, Xia

    2016-07-05

    Microbial desalination cells (MDCs) extract organic energy from wastewater for in situ desalination of saline water. However, to desalinate salt water, traditional MDCs often require an anolyte (wastewater) and a catholyte (other synthetic water) to produce electricity. Correspondingly, the traditional MDCs also produced anode effluent and cathode effluent, and may produce a concentrate solution, resulting in a low production of diluate. In this study, nitrogen-doped carbon nanotube membranes and Pt carbon cloths were utilized as filtration material and cathode to fabricate a modularized filtration air cathode MDC (F-MDC). With real wastewater flowing from anode to cathode, and finally to the middle membrane stack, the diluate volume production reached 82.4%, with the removal efficiency of salinity and chemical oxygen demand (COD) reached 93.6% and 97.3% respectively. The final diluate conductivity was 68 ± 12 μS/cm, and the turbidity was 0.41 NTU, which were sufficient for boiler supplementary or industrial cooling. The concentrate production was only 17.6%, and almost all the phosphorus and salt, and most of the nitrogen were recovered, potentially allowing the recovery of nutrients and other chemicals. These results show the potential utility of the modularized F-MDC in the application of municipal wastewater advanced treatment and self-driven desalination.

  17. Color Based Bags-of-Emotions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solli, Martin; Lenz, Reiner

    In this paper we describe how to include high level semantic information, such as aesthetics and emotions, into Content Based Image Retrieval. We present a color-based emotion-related image descriptor that can be used for describing the emotional content of images. The color emotion metric used is derived from psychophysical experiments and based on three variables: activity, weight and heat. It was originally designed for single-colors, but recent research has shown that the same emotion estimates can be applied in the retrieval of multi-colored images. Here we describe a new approach, based on the assumption that perceived color emotions in images are mainly affected by homogenous regions, defined by the emotion metric, and transitions between regions. RGB coordinates are converted to emotion coordinates, and for each emotion channel, statistical measurements of gradient magnitudes within a stack of low-pass filtered images are used for finding interest points corresponding to homogeneous regions and transitions between regions. Emotion characteristics are derived for patches surrounding each interest point, and saved in a bag-of-emotions, that, for instance, can be used for retrieving images based on emotional content.

  18. Bagged Salads May Be Fertile Ground for Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... html Bagged Salads May Be Fertile Ground for Bacteria Study found juices released from damaged leaves encouraged ... Prepackaged salads may promote the growth of salmonella bacteria, researchers report. They found that even slight damage ...

  19. In vitro digestibility of lucerne hay using bag method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    constantin gavan

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available A filter bag method was used for estimating apparent dry matter (DM digestibility, apparent digestible organic matter in DM, true DM digestibility, true digestible organic matter in DM and Digestibility of neutral detergent fibre. The forage sample analysed comprised tree plant parts (whole, leaf and stem of alfalfa (Medicago sativa, one degree of particle breakdown (1 mm sieve size at miliing and two field replicates at Agricultural Research and Developement Station (ARDS Șimnic-Craiova. Rumen fluid was used from two cannulated dairy cows.The use of filter bags can give acceptable results for the in vitro digestibility of forages. The escape of soluble matter from bags with samples high in solubles could influence the microbial population and hence increase cell wall degradation in bags with samples low in soluble matter, if  all are in the same incubation vessel.

  20. Deformation of the Bag Skirt of ACV in Heave Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senba, Hiromitsu; Matsuo, Hideo; Ishikawa, Hiroyuki; Yoshimoto, Shintarou; Hiroe, Tetsuyuki; Fujiwara, Kazuhito

    A method to predict the change of the cushion pressure and the bag skirt configuration of ACV in heave is proposed. It is a quasistatic analysis based on the analysis of the skirt configuration in static operation that was proposed by the present authors. The cushion pressure depends on the velocity of motion as well as the hoverheight. It is higher in the downward motion than in the upward motion with the same hoverheight. As the model approaches the ground surface, the bag skirt is pushed outwards and also upwards but the hoverheight still decreases. This produces the increase of the cushion pressure that also flattened the configuration of the bag. The outward displacement of the bag produces the additional increase of the cushion base area and increases the restoring force. The stability is then increased.

  1. Double Bag VARTM for High Temperature Composites Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The process known as double bag vacuum assisted resin transfer molding (DBVARTM) was developed by NASA to help deplete by products. To date, the NASA DBVARTM process...

  2. Comparison of three methods in improving bag mask ventilation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samad EJ Golzari

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: Leaving dentures in place in edentulous patients after inducing anesthesia improves bag-mask ventilation. However, placing folded compressed gauze in buccal space leads to more significant improvement in BMV compared to leaving dentures in place.

  3. Iron Sharpens Iron: A Comparative Study of the Advanced Military Studies Program and the School of Advanced Air and Space Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-17

    Mintzberg , The Rise and Fall of Strategic Planning: Reconceiving Roles for Planning, Plans, Planners (New York: Free...69-80. Meilinger, Philip. “10 Propositions Regarding Air Power.” Washington DC: Air Force Historical Studies Office, 1995. Mintzberg , Henry. The

  4. Encouraging creative reuse of shopping carrier bags in kindergarten

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    This dissertation shows how to encourage reuse of different types of shopping carrier bags in kindergarten. In the theoretical part I have introduced the concepts of creativity, divergent thinking and the meaning of reuse. I have outlined the problems concerning shopping bags and named the most common types, from which we made creative products. I outlined the motoric development in a child wherein I focused on eye-hand coordination, which is very important for a child's complete development....

  5. Bagworm bags as portable armour against invertebrate predators

    OpenAIRE

    Shinji Sugiura

    2016-01-01

    Some animals have evolved the use of environmental materials as “portable armour” against natural enemies. Portable bags that bagworm larvae (Lepidoptera: Psychidae) construct using their own silk and plant parts are generally believed to play an important role as a physical barrier against natural enemies. However, no experimental studies have tested the importance of bags as portable armour against predators. To clarify the defensive function, I studied the bagworm Eumeta minuscula and a po...

  6. Study of the suitability of DUO plastic bags for the storage of dynamites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sáiz, Jorge; Ferrando, José-Luis; Atoche, Juan-Carlos; García-Ruiz, Carmen

    2013-10-10

    A comparative study on the retentiveness of two plastic bags (DUO and Royal Pack) has been carried out by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry detection. Two types of dynamites were packed in both plastic bags. The bags were placed into glass jars and headspace analyses were performed over 11 weeks to detect whether the volatile constituents of the dynamites were released from the bags. DUO plastic bags showed much better retentiveness than Royal Pack plastic bags. Ethylene glycol dinitrate (EGDN) was quickly detected in the headspace of the glass jars containing Royal Pack plastic bags after 1 week of storage. On the contrary, only a weak signal of EGDN, which was not detectable in the total ion chromatogram, was detected after 11 weeks of storage. Moreover, DUO plastic bags have shown less background signals than the Royal Pack bags, being the former bags much more suitable for the storage of dynamites.

  7. Flow visualization around an apple with and without bagging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, H.; Kubota, Y.; Ohishi, M.; Mochizuki, O.

    2017-04-01

    The typhoon often causes the vast damage to drop the apple before harvest. Many apples fall from trees by the strong wind. These apples are usually bagged to protect them from insects and control sun light for the apples colouring while they are ripening on the tree. We directly measured the drag force acting on an apple with and without bagging experimentally to bare the influence of the bagging on the dropping mechanism. There are two interesting results through the experiment: the drag coefficient of a naked apple is smaller than a sphere, and the bagging is a cause of increasing drag coefficient. To know the reason of these results, we visualized flow around the apple with and without bagging by using the hydrogen bubbles method in an open water channel in this study. We found two facts as follows: the hollow on the top of an apple plays reduction of width of the wake of an apple and reason of increasing the wake width is the flow separation from peripheral edge of the bagging.

  8. The fermion bag approach to lattice field theories

    CERN Document Server

    Chandrasekharan, Shailesh

    2009-01-01

    We propose a new approach to the fermion sign problem in systems where there is a coupling $U$ such that when it is infinite the fermions are paired into bosons and there is no fermion permutation sign to worry about. We argue that as $U$ becomes finite fermions are liberated but are naturally confined to regions which we refer to as {\\em fermion bags}. The fermion sign problem is then confined to these bags and may be solved using the determinantal trick. In the parameter regime where the fermion bags are small and their typical size does not grow with the system size, construction of Monte Carlo methods that are far more efficient than conventional algorithms should be possible. In the region where the fermion bags grow with system size, the fermion bag approach continues to provide an alternative approach to the problem but may lose its main advantage in terms of efficiency. The fermion bag approach also provides new insights and solutions to sign problems. A natural solution to the "silver blaze problem" ...

  9. Cancellous bone homograft storage with aluminium-polyethylene bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meana, A; Martinez, R; Cañal, P; Arriaga, M J; Román, F San; Llames, S; Orós, C; Moreno, A; Fernandez, C

    2006-01-01

    In order to transport and cryopreserve human tissues, it is essential to have an easy-to-use recipient where tissues can be kept in sterile conditions. Here we show the results obtained by using Macopharma's tissue freezing bags, an aluminium-polyethylene multilayer bag, in our tissue bank of the Centro Comunitario de Sangre y Tejidos de Asturias. Five hundred and twenty-seven cancellous bone homografts were obtained from hospitals located 120 km around our Bank. The homografts were submitted to bacteriological controls and sent to our bank in these bags. They were stored at -70 degrees C and sent in dry ice to about 50 hospitals, where the tissue was bacteriologically controlled and grafted. Furthermore, the behaviour of these bags at -140 degrees C (vapour nitrogen) or -196 degrees C (liquid nitrogen) was tested. Our results indicate that Macopharma aluminium-polyethylene bags are suitable for the transporting and cryopreserving of cancellous bone homografts. These bags could also be used for keeping tissues in nitrogen containers.

  10. Application of Geotextile Bag Dehydrated Soil to Dike Construction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱平; 闫澍旺; 刘润

    2004-01-01

    Using geotextile bag dehydrated soil to construct dikes for land reclamation to substitute conventional straw bags is an urgent need in Tianjin New Harbor, China. This paper introduces the method to build a dike for hydraulic filling. The soil for filling the geotextile bags was tested in wave trench; the stress developed during construction was calculated by establishing a numerical model and compared with the tensile strength of the geotextile; the stability and settlement of the dike were estimated by performing centrifuge tests. Through this study, the following information was obtained: 1) The cohesionless silt with plasticity index less than 10 is suitable for filling the geotextile bags. The geotextile bag dehydrated soil consolidated very quickly even under the action of wave force. 2) A numerical model was devised to find the limit injection height and to calculate the tensile stress developed in the geotextile bags when they were piled up to form the dike. The calculated stress was compared with the strength of the geotextile, showing that the design is reasonably safe. 3) Centrifuge test results show that the designed dike will be stable and the settlement of dike will be less than the design requirement.

  11. "Advances in Linked Air Quality, Farm Management and Biogeochemistry Models to Address Bidrectional Ammonia Flux in CMAQ"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent increases in anthropogenic inputs of nitrogen to air, land and water media pose a growing threat to human health and ecosystems. Modeling of air-surface N flux is one area in need of improvement. Implementation of a linked air quality and cropland management system is de...

  12. Advances in Linked Air Quality, Farm Management and Biogeochemistry Models to Address Bidirectional Ammonia Flux in CMAQ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent increases in anthropogenic inputs of nitrogen to air, land and water media pose a growing threat to human health and ecosystems. Modeling of air-surface N flux is one area in need of improvement. Implementation of a linked air quality and cropland management system is de...

  13. Manufacturing of Protected Lithium Electrodes for Advanced Lithium-Air, Lithium-Water & Lithium-Sulfur Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Visco, Steven J

    2015-11-30

    The global demand for rechargeable batteries is large and growing rapidly. Assuming the adoption of electric vehicles continues to increase, the need for smaller, lighter, and less expensive batteries will become even more pressing. In this vein, PolyPlus Battery Company has developed ultra-light high performance batteries based on its proprietary protected lithium electrode (PLE) technology. The Company’s Lithium-Air and Lithium-Seawater batteries have already demonstrated world record performance (verified by third party testing), and we are developing advanced lithium-sulfur batteries which have the potential deliver high performance at low cost. In this program PolyPlus Battery Company teamed with Corning Incorporated to transition the PLE technology from bench top fabrication using manual tooling to a pre- commercial semi-automated pilot line. At the inception of this program PolyPlus worked with a Tier 1 battery manufacturing engineering firm to design and build the first-of-its-kind pilot line for PLE production. The pilot line was shipped and installed in Berkeley, California several months after the start of the program. PolyPlus spent the next two years working with and optimizing the pilot line and now produces all of its PLEs on this line. The optimization process successfully increased the yield, throughput, and quality of PLEs produced on the pilot line. The Corning team focused on fabrication and scale-up of the ceramic membranes that are key to the PLE technology. PolyPlus next demonstrated that it could take Corning membranes through the pilot line process to produce state-of-the-art protected lithium electrodes. In the latter part of the program the Corning team developed alternative membranes targeted for the large rechargeable battery market. PolyPlus is now in discussions with several potential customers for its advanced PLE-enabled batteries, and is building relationships and infrastructure for the transition into manufacturing. It is likely

  14. Review of Various Air Sampling Methods for Solvent Vapors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vapors of trichloroethylene, toluene, methyl ethyl ketone, and butyl cellosolve in air were collected using Scotchpac and Tedlar bags, glass ...prescription bottles , and charcoal adsorption tubes. Efficiencies of collection are reported. (Author)

  15. AdBagging:自适应抽样参数在线装袋算法%AdBagging: adaptive sampling parameters online bagging algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李小斌; 李世银

    2011-01-01

    By analyzing the concept drift problem in data stream classification, a new algorithm based on online bagging algorithm named adaptive lambda bagging algorithm (AdBagging) is introduced. The new algorithm dynamically adjusts the sampling parameters of Poisson distribution in online bagging algorithm based on the number of misclassified samples in data stream classification. Through this procedure the new algorithm could give more attention to the misclassified samples and give little attention to the right classified samples. At the same time the learning weight of samples for algorithm can be adjusted according to the temporal order. So the algorithm could solve the concept drift problem in data stream classification. Experiments on synthesize and real data sets prove that the algorithm is effective.%通过对数据流分类中的概念漂移问题的研究,提出了一种在线装袋(Online Bagging)算法的改进算法——自适应抽样参数的在线装袋算法AdBagging(adaptive lambda bagging).利用在分类过程中出现的误分样本数量来调整Online Bagging算法中的泊松(Poisson)分布的抽样参数,从而可以动态调整新样本在学习器中的权重,即对于数据流中的误分类样本给予较高的学习权重因子,而对于正确分类的样本给予较低的学习权重因子,同时结合样本出现的时间顺序调整权重因子,使得集成分类器可以动态调整其多样性(adversity).该算法具有Online Bagging算法的高效简洁优点,并能解决数据流中具有概念漂移的问题,人工数据集和实际数据集上的实验结果表明了该算法的有效性.

  16. Air-Inflated Fabric Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-11-05

    inflatable boats, temporary bridging, and energy absorbers such as automotive air bags. However, the advent of today’s high performance fibers...were constructed using adhesively bonded, piece-cut manufacturing methods. These methods were limited to relatively low pressures because of fabric...environmental exposure to ultraviolet rays, moisture, fire, chemicals, etc. Coating such as urethane , PVC (polyvinyl chloride), neoprene, EPDM (ethylene

  17. An Advanced Open-Source Aircraft Design Platform for Personal Air Vehicle Geometry, Aerodynamics, and Structures Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Innovators working to revolutionize air travel through personal aviation pioneers need innovative aircraft design tools. Vehicle Sketch Pad (VSP) is an aircraft...

  18. Vector interaction enhanced bag model for astrophysical applications

    CERN Document Server

    Klahn, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    For quark matter studies in astrophysics the thermodynamic bag model (tdBAG) has been widely used. Despite its success it fails to account for various phenomena expected from Quantum-Chromo-Dynamics (QCD). We suggest a straightforward extension of tdBAG in order to take the dynamical breaking of chiral symmetry and the influence of vector interactions explicitly into account. As for tdBAG the model mimics confinement in a phenomenological approach. It is based on an analysis of the Nambu--Jona-Lasinio (NJL) model at finite density. Furthermore, we demonstrate how NJL and bag models in this regime follow from the more general and QCD based framework of Dyson-Schwinger (DS) equations in medium by assuming a simple gluon contact interaction. Based on our simple and novel model, we construct quark hadron hybrid equations of state (EoS) and study systematically chiral and deconfinement phase transitions, the appearance of $s$-quarks and the role of vector interaction. We further study these aspects for matter in b...

  19. Technological advances in avalanche survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radwin, Martin I; Grissom, Colin K

    2002-01-01

    Over the last decade, a proliferation of interest has emerged in the area of avalanche survival, yielding both an improved understanding of the pathophysiology of death after avalanche burial and technological advances in the development of survival equipment. The dismal survival statistics born out of the modern era of winter recreation unmistakably reveal that elapsed time and depth of burial are the most critical variables of survival and the focus of newer survival devices on the market. Although blunt trauma may kill up to one third of avalanche victims, early asphyxiation is the predominant mechanism of death, and hypothermia is rare. A survival plateau or delay in asphyxiation may be seen in those buried in respiratory communication with an air pocket until a critical accumulation of CO2 or an ice lens develops. The newest survival devices available for adjunctive protection, along with a transceiver and shovel, are the artificial air pocket device (AvaLung), the avalanche air bag system (ABS), and the Avalanche Ball. The artificial air pocket prolongs adequate respiration during snow burial and may improve survival by delaying asphyxiation. The ABS, which forces the wearer to the surface of the avalanche debris by inverse segregation to help prevent burial, has been in use in Europe for the last 10 years with an impressive track record. Finally, the Avalanche Ball is a visual locator device in the form of a spring-loaded ball attached to a tether, which is released from a fanny pack by a rip cord. Despite the excitement surrounding these novel technologies, avalanche avoidance through knowledge and conservative judgment will always be the mainstay of avalanche survival, never to be replaced by any device.

  20. Performance of triple bagging hermetic technology for postharvest storage of cowpea grain in Niger

    KAUST Repository

    Baoua, Ibrahim B.

    2012-10-01

    Triple bagging technology for protecting postharvest cowpea grain from losses to the bruchid, Callosobruchus maculatus Fabricius (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Bruchinae) is currently being adopted on a fairly large scale in ten West and Central African countries, including Niger. The triple bag consists of two inner high-density polyethylene bags acting as oxygen barriers, which in turn are encased in an outer woven polypropylene bag that serves primarily for mechanical strength. These hermetic bags, available in either 50 or 100 kg capacity, are called Purdue Improved Cowpea Storage (PICS) bags. Adoption of PICS technology in West and Central Africa has been driven by its effectiveness, simplicity, low cost, durability, and manufacture within the region. From surveys on adoption we discovered that farmers have begun to re-use bags they had used the previous year or even the previous two years. In the present study, we compared the performance of three different types of PICS bags: (1) new 50 kg (2) new 100 kg bags and (3) once-used 50 kg bags, all filled with naturally infested untreated cowpeas. In these PICS bags the O 2 levels within the bags initially fell to about 3 percent (v/v) while the CO 2 rose to nearly 5 percent (v/v). After five months of storage, new and used 50 kg bags and new 100 kg bags preserved the grain equally well. There were greatly reduced numbers of adults and larvae in the PICS bags versus the controls, which consisted of grain stored in single layer woven bags. The proportion of grain having C. maculatus emergence holes after five months of storage in PICS bags was little changed from that found when the grain was first put into the bags. The PICS technology is practical and useful in Sahelian conditions and can contribute to improved farmers\\' incomes as well as increase availability of high quality, insecticide-free cowpea grain as food. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Asphyxial suicide by inhalation of chloroform inside a plastic bag.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorro, Andres Rodriguez

    2014-01-01

    Asphyxia suicide by placing a plastic bag over the head in addition with inhalation of gases or use of sedative substances is an unusual method of committing suicide, but frequently referenced by right to die groups in the Internet. This article reports 2 suicides in which chloroform was used to induce unconsciousness and subsequent asphyxia by placing the head in a plastic bag. Case histories of 2 males, ages 23 and 28, are described with special emphasis on characteristics death related to suffocation using plastic bags and chloroform. The final remarkable point in both cases is that the victims previously searched the WEB for instructions of suicide methods. The importance of the phenomenon of misuse of Internet by young people who commit suicide is stressed.

  2. Performance Evaluation of Bagged RBF Classifier for Data Mining Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Govindarajan

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Data mining is the use of algorithms to extract the information and patterns derived by the knowledge discovery in databases process. Classification maps data into predefined groups or classes. It is often referred to as supervised learning because the classes are determined before examining the data. The feasibility and the benefits of the proposed approaches are demonstrated by the means of data mining applications like intrusion detection, direct marketing, and signature verification. A variety of techniques have been employed for analysis ranging from traditional statistical methods to data mining approaches. Bagging and boosting are two relatively new but popular methods for producing ensembles. In this work, bagging is evaluated on real and benchmark data sets of intrusion detection, direct marketing, and signature verification in conjunction with radial basis function classifier as the base learner. The proposed bagged radial basis function is superior to individual approach for data mining applications in terms of classification accuracy.

  3. The transverse momentum dependent distribution functions in the bag model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avakian, Harut; Efremov, Anatoly; Schweitzer, Peter; Yuan, Feng

    2010-01-29

    Leading and subleading twist transverse momentum dependent parton distribution functions (TMDs) are studied in a quark model framework provided by the bag model. A complete set of relations among different TMDs is derived, and the question is discussed how model-(in)dependent such relations are. A connection of the pretzelosity distribution and quark orbital angular momentum is derived. Numerical results are presented, and applications for phenomenology discussed. In particular, it is shown that in the valence-x region the bag model supports a Gaussian Ansatz for the transverse momentum dependence of TMDs.

  4. Transverse momentum dependent distribution functions in the bag model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avakian, Harut A. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Efremov, A. V. [Joint Inst. for Nuclear Research (JINR), Dubna (Russian Federation); Schweitzer, P. [Univ. of Connecticut, Storrs, CT (United States); Yuan, F. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). RIKEN Research Center; Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2010-04-01

    Leading and subleading twist transverse momentum dependent parton distribution functions (TMDs) are studied in a quark model framework provided by the bag model. A complete set of relations among different TMDs is derived, and the question is discussed how model-(in)dependent such relations are. A connection of the pretzelosity distribution and quark orbital angular momentum is derived. Numerical results are presented, and applications for phenomenology discussed. In particular, it is shown that in the valence-x region the bag model supports a Gaussian Ansatz for the transverse momentum dependence of TMDs.

  5. A PRIMARY SCHOOL PUPIL’S SCHOOL BAG

    OpenAIRE

    Živorad Marković; Dragoljub Višnjić; Milovan Stamatović; Goran Šekeljić

    2012-01-01

    There are more researches which deal with the ratio between body weight and school bag which in most cases on all continents overpasses the weight of 10% of pupils’ total weight, which indicates that recommendations of World Health Organization are not followed. World Health Organization proposed that maximal weight which could be carried by children should not be higher than 10% of their body weight. The weight of a school bag that children carry to school every day is from 4.0 to 7.7 kilos ...

  6. Let's Do It Again: Bagging Equity Premium Predictors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hillebrand, Eric Tobias; Lee, Tae-Hwy; Medeiros, Marcelo C.

    of the regression coefficient and positivity of the forecast. Bagging constrained estimators can have smaller asymptotic mean-squared prediction errors than forecasts from a restricted model without bagging. Monte Carlo simulations show that forecast gains can be achieved in realistic sample sizes for the stock...... return problem. In an empirical application using the data set of Campbell, J., and S. Thompson (2008): “Predicting the Equity Premium Out of Sample: Can Anything Beat the Historical Average?”, Review of Financial Studies 21, 1511-1531, we show that we can improve the forecast performance further...

  7. Advancing a smart air cushion system for preventing pressure ulcers using projection Moiré for large deformation measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Sheng-Lin; Tsai, Tsung-Heng; Lee, Carina Jean-Tien; Hsu, Yu-Hsiang; Lee, Chih-Kung

    2016-03-01

    A pressure ulcer is one of the most important concerns for wheelchair bound patients with spinal cord injuries. A pressure ulcer is a localized injury near the buttocks that bear ischial tuberosity oppression over a long period of time. Due to elevated compression to blood vessels, the surrounding tissues suffer from a lack of oxygen and nutrition. The ulcers eventually lead to skin damage followed by tissue necrosis. The current medical strategy is to minimize the occurrence of pressure ulcers by regularly helping patients change their posture. However, these methods do not always work effectively or well. As a solution to fundamentally prevent pressure ulcers, a smart air cushion system was developed to detect and control pressure actively. The air cushion works by automatically adjusting a patient's sitting posture to effectively relieve the buttock pressure. To analyze the correlation between the dynamic pressure profiles of an air cell with a patient's weight, a projection Moiré system was adopted to measure the deformation of an air cell and its associated stress distribution. Combining a full-field deformation imaging with air pressure measured within an air cell, the patient's weight and the stress distribution can be simultaneously obtained. By integrating a full-field optical metrology with a time varying pressure sensor output coupled with different active air control algorithms for various designs, we can tailor the ratio of the air cells. Our preliminary data suggests that this newly developed smart air cushion has the potential to selectively reduce localized compression on the tissues at the buttocks. Furthermore, it can take a patient's weight which is an additional benefit so that medical personnel can reference it to prescribe the correct drug dosages.

  8. Fatigue Behavior of an Advanced SiC/SiC Composite at Elevated Temperature in Air and in Steam

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    dispersion and failure modes in the final composite [3:460; 4:1]. The use of composite materials dates to ancient Egypt where straw reinforced the clay ...are divisible into two classes: traditional and advanced. Traditional ceramics are items such as bricks, pottery , or tiles. Advanced ceramics are

  9. Advance of air cathode catalysts for zinc-air batteries%锌空电池空气电极催化剂的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李山梅; 刘丹宪

    2011-01-01

    论述了目前碱性锌空气电池空气电极用催化剂的种类组成,结构特征,制备方法以及催化剂特点,分析了各种催化剂的优劣和目前存在的问题.对于一次电池空气电极而言,锰氧化物系列催化剂性能较佳,而钙钛矿系列催化剂更适用于二次空气电极.载体的选择和物质的导电性也关系到空气电极整体的阻抗的大小,也是影响空气电极性能的重要因素.%The species composition, structural characteristics, synthesis method, and catalytic property of air cathodes for alkali zinc-air batteries were reviewed in this paper. The advantages and disadvantages and the problem of catalysts was analyzed. For the primary battery, the catalytic property of manganite oxides performed best, while perovskite-type oxides were even more suitable for secondary battery air electrodes. However, due to the resistance reduction, carrier selection and conductivity of materials played an important role in its electrode performance too.

  10. Advanced system demonstration for utilization of biomass as an energy source. Technical Appendix B: air quality studies. Environmental report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-01-01

    The plant site studies include: climate, present ambient air quality, construction impacts, and operation impacts. The fuelwood harvest region studies include: present environment and harvesting impacts. The use of the Valley Model for alternative sites analysis is discussed. (MHR)

  11. Air Vehicle Technology Integration Program (AVTIP). Delivery Order 0033: Advanced Sol-Gel Adhesion Processes - Transition Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-07-01

    or without an additional acid desmut. The use of an open air plasma process may improve the surface cleanliness, but the results were not conclusive...from PlasmaTreat -North America was used to clean and activate the surface of the aluminum alloy. This process blasts the surface of an object on the...conditioner with or without an additional acid desmut. The use of an open air plasma process may improve the surface cleanliness, but the results

  12. United States Air Force Personalized Medicine and Advanced Diagnostics Program Panel: Representative Research at the San Antonio Military Medical Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-20

    DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE 59TH MEDICAL WING (AETC) LACKLAND AIR FORCE BASE TEXAS MEMORANDUMFORSGVT ATTN: DEBRA M NIEMEYER FROM: 59 MDW/SGVU... Dato of Mooting) 181 PLATFORM PRESENTATION (At c ivilian lnstitulionsfNamo of Meeting, State, Dato of Mooting) University of Texas at San Antonio...SAMHS & Universities Research Forum {SURF2016). TX, 05-20-2016 D OTHER (Describe: Name of Mooting, City, State, and Dato of Meeting) 6. WHAT IS THE

  13. Influence of operating parameters on cake formation in pilot scale pulse-jet bag filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleem, Mahmood; Krammer, Gernot; Khan, Rafi Ullah; Tahir, M Suleman

    2012-07-01

    Bag filters are commonly used for fine particles removal in off-gas purification. There dust laden gas pervades through permeable filter media starting at a lower pressure drop limit leaving dust (called filter cake) on the filter media. The filter cakeformation is influenced by many factors including filtration velocity, dust concentration, pressure drop limits, and filter media resistance. Effect of the stated parameters is investigated experimentally in a pilot scale pulse-jet bag filter test facility where lime stone dust is separated from air at ambient conditions. Results reveal that filtration velocity significantly affects filter pressure drop as well as cake properties; cake density and specific cake resistance. Cake density is slightly affected by dust concentration. Specific resistance of filter cake increases with velocity, slightly affected by dust concentration, changes inversely with the upper pressure drop limit and decreases over a prolonged use (aging). Specific resistance of filter media is independent of upper pressure drop limit and increases linearly over a prolonged use.

  14. 78 FR 28192 - Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Thailand: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-14

    ... International Trade Administration Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Thailand: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review; 2011-2012 AGENCY: Import Administration, International Trade... administrative review of the antidumping duty order on polyethylene retail carrier bags (PRCBs) from...

  15. Legitimization of regulatory norms: Waterfowl hunter acceptance of changing duck bag limits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Susan A.; Fulton, David C.; Lawrence, Jeffrey S.; Cordts, Steven D.

    2014-01-01

    Few studies have examined response to regulatory change over time, or addressed hunter attitudes about changes in hunting bag limits. This article explores Minnesota waterfowl hunters’ attitudes about duck bag limits, examining attitudes about two state duck bag limits that were initially more restrictive than the maximum set by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS), but then increased to match federal limits. Results are from four mail surveys that examined attitudes about bag limits over time. Following two bag limit increases, a greater proportion of hunters rated the new bag limit “too high” and a smaller proportion rated it “too low.” Several years following the first bag limit increase, the proportion of hunters who indicated that the limit was “too high” had declined, suggesting hunter acceptance of the new regulation. Results suggest that waterfowl bag limits may represent legal norms that influence hunter attitudes and gain legitimacy over time.

  16. Entropy-Based Bagging for Fault Prediction of Transformers Using Oil-Dissolved Gas Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weigen Chen

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The development of the smart grid has resulted in new requirements for fault prediction of power transformers. This paper presents an entropy-based Bagging (E-Bagging method for prediction of characteristic parameters related to power transformers faults. A parameter of comprehensive information entropy of sample data is brought forward to improve the resampling process of the E-Bagging method. The generalization ability of the E-Bagging is enhanced significantly by the comprehensive information entropy. A total of sets of 1200 oil-dissolved gas data of transformers are used as examples of fault prediction. The comparisons between the E-Bagging and the traditional Bagging and individual prediction approaches are presented. The results show that the E-Bagging possesses higher accuracy and greater stability of prediction than the traditional Bagging and individual prediction approaches.

  17. Spontaneous low-pressure headache complicating bag-piping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Alasdair; McAuley, David; Roxburgh, Richard

    2007-04-01

    We describe an interesting case of a 40-year-old lady who developed a spontaneous low-pressure headache whilst playing the bag-pipes. Playing wind instruments requires the generation of significant intra-thoracic pressure, which may have contributed to this musician's condition.

  18. Developing Baby Bag Design by Using Kansei Engineering Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janari, D.; Rakhmawati, A.

    2016-01-01

    Consumer's preferences and market demand are essential factors for product's success. Thus, in achieving its success, a product should have design that could fulfill consumer's expectation. Purpose of this research is accomplishing baby bag product as stipulated by Kansei. The results that represent Kanseiwords are; neat, unique, comfortable, safe, modern, gentle, elegant, antique, attractive, simple, spacious, creative, colorful, durable, stylish, smooth and strong. Identification value on significance of correlation for durable attribute is 0,000 < 0,005, which means significant to baby's bag. While the value of coefficient regression is 0,812 < 0,005, which means that durable attribute insignificant to baby's bag.The result of the baby's bag final design selectionbased on the questionnaire 3 is resulting the combination of all design. Space for clothes, diaper's space, shoulder grip, side grip, bottle's heater pocket and bottle's pocket are derived from design 1. Top grip, space for clothes, shoulder grip, and side grip are derived from design 2.Others design that were taken are, spaces for clothes from design 3, diaper's space and clothes’ space from design 4.

  19. Kiondo Bag Boutique: A Serial Case for Introductory Financial Accounting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siriwardane, Harshini P.

    2014-01-01

    Kiondo Bag Boutique is a hypothetical serial case involving a start-up retail business. The case evolves from an ambitious business idea to a successful business. Through the evolving business, the importance of accounting information is highlighted. Different iterations are used to illustrate the role of accounting in serving and managing…

  20. Micro-mesh fabric pollination bags for switchgrass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollination bags for making controlled crosses between switchgrass plants were made from a polyester micro-mesh fabric with a mesh size of 41 µm which is smaller than the mean reported 43 µm diameter of switchgrass pollen. When used in paired plant crosses between switchgrass plants, the mean amoun...

  1. Instant Bag-of-Words served on a laptop

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uijlings, J.; de Rooij, O.; Odijk, D.; Smeulders, A.; Worring, M.; De Natale, F.G.B.; Del Bimbo, A.

    2011-01-01

    This demo showcases our realtime implementation of concept classification using the Bag-of-Words method embedded within MediaTable, our interactive categorization tool for large multimedia collections. MediaTable allows the users to open images from disk or download these directly from the internet.

  2. Recombinant erythropoietin found in seized blood bags from sportsmen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallorquí, Joaquim; Segura, Jordi; de Bolòs, Carme; Gutiérrez-Gallego, Ricardo; Pascual, Jose A

    2008-02-01

    During an anti-doping investigation, the Spanish Guardia Civil confiscated blood bags from elite sportsmen. A novel immuno-purification method demonstrated that plasma samples with elevated erythropoietin (EPO) contained recombinant material (rEPO). This shows that rEPO is used before autologous blood transfusions and that rEPO analysis in plasma can be reliably addressed.

  3. Kiondo Bag Boutique: A Serial Case for Introductory Financial Accounting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siriwardane, Harshini P.

    2014-01-01

    Kiondo Bag Boutique is a hypothetical serial case involving a start-up retail business. The case evolves from an ambitious business idea to a successful business. Through the evolving business, the importance of accounting information is highlighted. Different iterations are used to illustrate the role of accounting in serving and managing…

  4. Emulsification in novel ultrasonic cavitation intensifying bag reactors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwieten, van Ralph; Verhaagen, Bram; Schroën, Karin; Fernández Rivas, David

    2017-01-01

    Cavitation Intensifying Bags (CIBs), a novel reactor type for use with ultrasound, have been recently proposed as a scaled-up microreactor with increased energy efficiencies. We now report on the use of the CIBs for the preparation of emulsions out of hexadecane and an SDS aqueous solution. The C

  5. BAG3 affects the nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of HSF1 upon heat stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Young-Hee [Department of Biochemistry, Dongguk University College of Oriental Medicine, Gyeongju 780-714 (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Sang-Gun [Department of Pathology, Chosun University College of Dentistry, Gwangju 501-759 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Soo-A., E-mail: ksooa@dongguk.ac.kr [Department of Biochemistry, Dongguk University College of Oriental Medicine, Gyeongju 780-714 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-08-21

    Bcl2-associated athoanogene (BAG) 3 is a member of the co-chaperone BAG family. It is induced by stressful stimuli such as heat shock and heavy metals, and it regulates cellular adaptive responses against stressful conditions. In this study, we identified a novel role for BAG3 in regulating the nuclear shuttling of HSF1 during heat stress. The expression level of BAG3 was induced by heat stress in HeLa cells. Interestingly, BAG3 rapidly translocalized to the nucleus upon heat stress. Immunoprecipitation assay showed that BAG3 interacts with HSF1 under normal and stressed conditions and co-translocalizes to the nucleus upon heat stress. We also demonstrated that BAG3 interacts with HSF1 via its BAG domain. Over-expression of BAG3 down-regulates the level of nuclear HSF1 by exporting it to the cytoplasm during the recovery period. Depletion of BAG3 using siRNA results in reduced nuclear HSF1 and decreased Hsp70 promoter activity. BAG3 in MEF(hsf1{sup −/−}) cells actively translocalizes to the nucleus upon heat stress suggesting that BAG3 plays a key role in the processing of the nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of HSF1 upon heat stress. - Highlights: • The expression level of BAG3 is induced by heat stress. • BAG3 translocates to the nucleus upon heat stress. • BAG3 interacts with HSF1 and co-localizes to the nucleus. • BAG3 is a key regulator for HSF1 nuclear shuttling.

  6. [Recycle of jute bags; asbestos in agriculture, exposure and pathology ].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbieri, P G; Somigliana, A; Lombardi, S; Girelli, R; Rocco, A; Pezzotti, C; Silvestri, S

    2008-01-01

    During the last four years, a deeper examination of malignant mesothelioma (MM) cases occurred within non asbestos textile industry highlighted asbestos past exposure in several textile industrial divisions. In spite of that, poor information about recycled textile bags previously containing asbestos fibres is available to the National Mesothelioma Registry, although holding a remarkable data bank on more than 3500 work histories and sources of asbestos exposures. Besides the analysis of the exposure circumstances and the registered health effects of the past exposure within the recycling activity, the aim of this research was to relate the possible involvement of the agricultural sector, where the use of recycled jute bags was very diffused. The MM cases were collected from the Mesothelioma Registry of Brescia, asbestosis, pleural plaques and lung cancer cases were collected from the Occupational Diseases Archive of the Local Public Occupational Health Service of the Province of Brescia. During the 1977-2006 period, 8 cases of MM, 4 cases of pulmonary asbestosis, 4 of isolated bilateral pleural plaques and I of lung cancer in pulmonary asbestosis, were observed among workers employed in bags recycling activity in 4 small companies, one of them still operating, employing about 50 workers. Even more, among the 65 MM cases classified by the Registry with "unknown asbestos exposure" (UAE), the most relevant frequency of working histories concerned the agriculture sector. Confirming a past signalling, the investigations underlined the cross linkage between this working activity and the diffusion of recycled bags in the agriculture sector. In the Province of Brescia, the activities of these small jute bags recycling plants were linked, even geographically, to the asbestos cement manufacture plant using a huge number of bags, roughly until mid seventies. Therefore, a large number of these recycled bags, previously containing asbestos, were generally used for harvesting

  7. 75 FR 36359 - Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Thailand: Extension of Time Limit for Preliminary Results...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-25

    ... Plastics Ind. Co., Ltd., Thai Plastic Bags Industries Co., Ltd., and Thantawan Industry Public Co., Ltd. Id. The Department has determined previously that Thai Plastic Bags Industries Co., Ltd., APEC Film Ltd., and Winner's Pack Co., Ltd., comprise the Thai Plastic Bags Group. See Notice of Final...

  8. 75 FR 23673 - Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags from Thailand: Extension of Time Limit for Preliminary Results...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-04

    ... Watana Plastics Ind. Co., Ltd., Thai Plastic Bags Industries Co., Ltd., and Thantawan Industry Public Co., Ltd. Id. The Department has determined previously that Thai Plastic Bags Industries Co., Ltd., APEC Film Ltd., and Winner's Pack Co., Ltd., comprise the Thai Plastic Bags Group (TPBG). See Notice...

  9. Trust Creation in the Informal Economy: The Case of Plastic Bag ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Trust Creation in the Informal Economy: The Case of Plastic Bag Sellers of Mwanza, ... Amongst plastic bag sellers, the dire need for short change in order to make a ... who in turn come to distinguish between good and bad plastic bag sellers.

  10. 76 FR 11203 - Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From the People's Republic of China: Rescission of Antidumping...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    ... International Trade Administration Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From the People's Republic of China... polyethylene retail carrier bags (PRCBs) from the People's Republic of China (PRC) with respect to Dongguan... Order: Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From the People's Republic of China, 69 FR 48201 (August 9,...

  11. 77 FR 2959 - Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From the People's Republic of China: Rescission of Antidumping...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-20

    ... International Trade Administration Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From the People's Republic of China... polyethylene retail carrier bags (PRCBs) from the People's Republic of China (PRC) with respect to Dongguan... PRCBs from the PRC. See Antidumping Duty Order: Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From the...

  12. 77 FR 25684 - Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Thailand: Rescission of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    ... International Trade Administration Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Thailand: Rescission of Antidumping... retail carrier bags from Thailand. The period of review is August 1, 2010, through July 31, 2011. As a... retail carrier bags from Thailand. See Initiation of Antidumping and Countervailing Duty...

  13. Advances of air pollution science: from forest decline to multiple-stress effects on forest ecosystem services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paoletti, E; Schaub, M; Matyssek, R; Wieser, G; Augustaitis, A; Bastrup-Birk, A M; Bytnerowicz, A; Günthardt-Goerg, M S; Müller-Starck, G; Serengil, Y

    2010-06-01

    Over the past 20 years, the focus of forest science on air pollution has moved from forest decline to a holistic framework of forest health, and from the effects on forest production to the ecosystem services provided by forest ecosystems. Hence, future research should focus on the interacting factorial impacts and resulting antagonistic and synergistic responses of forest trees and ecosystems. The synergistic effects of air pollution and climatic changes, in particular elevated ozone, altered nitrogen, carbon and water availability, must be key issues for research. Present evidence suggests air pollution will become increasingly harmful to forests under climate change, which requires integration amongst various stressors (abiotic and biotic factors, including competition, parasites and fire), effects on forest services (production, biodiversity protection, soil protection, sustained water balance, socio-economical relevance) and assessment approaches (research, monitoring, modeling) to be fostered.

  14. Estimating Willingness to Pay for Continued Use of Plastic Grocery Bags and Willingness to Accept for Switching Completely to Reusable Bags

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    In this thesis we provide a theoretical framework for a dichotomous-choice contingent valuation survey for plastic and reusable shopping bags and consequential analysis of that data. By using interval regression analysis, a mean willingness to pay for continued use of plastic grocery bags and a mean willingness to accept to use reusable bags for all grocery shopping trips are estimated. The subsidy level was statistically robust while the tax level was not; this led us to the conclusion as ci...

  15. Advances of Air Pollution Science: From Forest Decline to Multiple-Stress Effects on Forest Ecosystem Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    E. Paoletti; M. Schaub; R. Matyssek; G. Wieser; A. Augustaitis; A. M. Bastrup-Birk; A. Bytnerowicz; M. S. Gunthardt-Goerg; G. Muller-Starck; Y. Serengil

    2010-01-01

    Over the past 20 years, the focus of forest science on air pollution has moved from forest decline to a holistic framework of forest health, and from the effects on forest production to the ecosystem services provided by forest ecosystems. Hence, future research should focus on the interacting factorial impacts and resulting antagonistic and synergistic responses of...

  16. Understanding interdisciplinary health care teams: using simulation design processes from the Air Carrier Advanced Qualification Program to identify and train critical teamwork skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamman, William R; Beaudin-Seiler, Beth M; Beaubien, Jeffrey M

    2010-09-01

    In the report "Five Years After 'To Err is Human' ", it was noted that "the combination of complexity, professional fragmentation, and a tradition of individualism, enhanced by a well-entrenched hierarchical authority structure and diffuse accountability, forms a daunting barrier to creating the habits and beliefs of common purpose, teamwork, and individual accountability for successful interdependence that a safe culture requires". Training physicians, nurses, and other professionals to work in teams is a concept that has been promoted by many patient safety experts. However the model of teamwork in healthcare is diffusely defined, no clear performance metrics have been established, and the use of simulation to train teams has been suboptimal. This paper reports on the first three years of work performed in the Michigan Economic Development Corporation (MEDC) Tri-Corridor life science grant to apply concepts and processes of simulation design that were developed in the air carrier industry to understand and train healthcare teams. This work has been monitored by the American Academy for the Advancement of Science (AAA) and is based on concepts designed in the Advanced Qualification Program (AQP) from the air carrier industry, which trains and assesses teamwork skills in the same manner as technical skills. This grant has formed the foundation for the Center of Excellence for Simulation Education and Research (CESR).

  17. Advanced air staging techniques to improve fuel flexibility, reliability and emissions in fluidized bed co-combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aamand, Lars-Erik; Leckner, Bo [Chalmers Technical Univ., Goeteborg (Sweden); Luecke, Karsten; Werther, Joachim [Technical Univ. of Hamburg-Harburg (Germany)

    2001-12-01

    A joint research project between the Technical University of Hamburg-Harburg and Chalmers Technical University. For operation under co-combustion the following results should be considered: The high ash content of the sewage sludge results in significantly increased ash flows. Although high alkali metal concentrations are found in the sewage sludge ash, no critical concentrations were reached and tendencies to fouling were not observed. The trace metal input rises with increased sludge fraction. However, emissions of metal compounds were well below legal limits. The trace metals tend to accumulate on the fly ash. In general, very low fuel nitrogen conversions to NO and N{sub 2}O of 2 - 4 % are achievable. With coal as a base fuel alternative air staging with secondary air supply after solids separation attains even lower NO emissions than normal staging without strongly affecting CO and SO{sub 2} emissions. Alternative staging also reduces N{sub 2}O emissions. An optimum for the excess air ratio in the riser of 1.05 was found for a total excess air ratio of 1.2. The higher the volatile content of the fuel is, the less effective the NO reduction due to air staging becomes. The measurements suggest that the optimum gas residence time regarding the emissions in CFB combustors is around 6 to 7 s. These times are achieved in commercial scale plants due to their large cyclones that perhaps partly can replace a large afterburner chamber. The circulating fluidized bed boiler can be operated in a very flexible way with various fuel mixtures up to an energy fraction of sludge of 25% without exceeding legal emission limits.

  18. The Danish game bag record and its role in wildlife management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asferg, Tommy

    2015-01-01

    The Danish Game Bag Record and its role in wildlife management The Danish Game Bag Record, i.e. the national hunting statistics database, was initiated in 1941. It is a compilation of annual, mandatory reports on bagged game (shot or trapped) from all hunting licence holders. Today, this database...... is mandatory – about every third hunter neglected the bag report, but there were no sanctions. Connecting the game bag report to renewal of the hunting licence lead to a sharp increase in the reporting rate, i.e. from ca. 60 % to ca. 90 %. The feature of hunting statistics most often used in wildlife...

  19. Team activity recognition in Association Football using a Bag-of-Words-based method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoliu, Raúl; Martín-Félez, Raúl; Torres-Sospedra, Joaquín; Martínez-Usó, Adolfo

    2015-06-01

    In this paper, a new methodology is used to perform team activity recognition and analysis in Association Football. It is based on pattern recognition and machine learning techniques. In particular, a strategy based on the Bag-of-Words (BoW) technique is used to characterize short Football video clips that are used to explain the team's performance and to train advanced classifiers in automatic recognition of team activities. In addition to the neural network-based classifier, three more classifier families are tested: the k-Nearest Neighbor, the Support Vector Machine and the Random Forest. The results obtained show that the proposed methodology is able to explain the most common movements of a team and to perform the team activity recognition task with high accuracy when classifying three Football actions: Ball Possession, Quick Attack and Set Piece. Random Forest is the classifier obtaining the best classification results. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Sensory pollution from bag-type fiberglass ventilation filters: Conventional filter compared with filters containing various amounts of activated carbon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekö, Gabriel; Fadeyi, M.O.; Clausen, Geo

    2009-01-01

    (100 g/m(2)). Each filter was weighed at the beginning of the soiling period and after 3 and 6 months of service. Additionally, up- and down-stream ozone concentrations and filter pressure drops were measured monthly. Following 6 months of service, the air downstream of each of the combination filters......As ventilation filters accumulate particles removed from the airstream, they become emitters of sensory pollutants that degrade indoor air quality. Previously we demonstrated that an F7 bag-type filter that incorporates activated carbon (a "combination filter") reduces this adverse effect compared...... to an equivalent filter without carbon. The aim of the present study was to examine how the amount of activated carbon (AC) used in combination filters affects their ability to remove both sensory offending pollutants and ozone. A panel evaluated the air downstream of four different filters after each had...

  1. The Portuguese plastic carrier bag tax: The effects on consumers' behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinho, Graça; Balaia, Natacha; Pires, Ana

    2017-03-01

    Marine litter from lightweight plastic bags is a global problem that must be solved. A plastic bag tax was implemented in February 2015 to reduce the consumption of plastic grocery bags in Portugal and in turn reduce the potential contribution to marine litter. This study analyzes the effect of the plastic bag tax on consumer behavior to learn how it was received and determine the perceived effectiveness of the tax 4months after its implementation. In addition, the study assessed how proximity to coastal areas could influence behaviors and opinions. The results showed a 74% reduction of plastic bag consumption with a simultaneously 61% increase of reusable plastic bags after the tax was implemented. Because plastic bags were then reused for shopping instead of garbage bags, however, the consumption of garbage bags increased by 12%. Although reduction was achieved, the tax had no effect on the perception of marine litter or the impact of plastic bags on environment and health. The majority of respondents agree with the tax but view it as an extra revenue to the State. The distance to the coast had no meaningful influence on consumer behavior or on the perception of the tax. Although the tax was able to promote the reduction of plastics, the role of hypermarkets and supermarkets in providing alternatives through the distribution of reusable plastic bags was determinant to ensuring the reduction.

  2. FUNGAL POPULATION, AFLATOXIN AND FREE FATTY ACID CONTENTS OF PEANUTS PACKED IN DIFFERENT BAG TYPES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SONIA S.P. BULAONG

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Shelled peanuts of Gajah var. with initial moisture content of 7% were stored at 11 kg/bag in four bag types namely: jute bag, polypropylene bag, jute bag doubled with thin polyethylene (PE, and jute bag doubled with thick PE. Storage was done for six months under warehouse conditions with monitoring of relative humidity and temperature. Samples taken at the be ginning of storage and every month thereafter were analyzed for moisture content, fungal population, aflatoxin and free fatty acid contents. Statistical analyses showed that moisture content, fungal population, and free fatty acid contents were signifi cantly higher in jute and polypropylene bags than in PE-dou,bled jute bags. No significant differences were obtained in aflatoxin contents among bag types but at the end of six months storage, toxin level in jute bag exceeded the 30 ppb limit. Polypropylene had second highest toxin level at 23 ppb. The PE-doubled bags ha d 17 and 19 ppb total aflatoxins for thin and thick films, respectively. The results indicated that the immediate packag ing of dried shelled peanuts at safe moisture level in plastic films with water vapor transmission rated of 1 g/m2/24 hr or lower is recommended. This p ackaging will delay critical increases in moisture content, fungal population, aflatoxin and free fatty acid contents of peanut kernels at ambient storage conditions.

  3. Reduction of plastic carrier bag use: An analysis of alternatives in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayalon, Ofira; Goldrath, Tal; Rosenthal, Gad; Grossman, Michal

    2009-07-01

    Plastic carrier bags have been drawing the attention of the public and politicians. Different policy measures to reduce the environmental burden of these bags have been implemented and more are planned. The research analyzed the actual environmental aspects of consumption and use of plastic carrier bags and assessed the effectiveness of the proposed regulation in Israel. Since plastic bags are provided free of charge, people have a tendency to use these bags excessively, therefore a rigorous educational program should address this trend. However, the environmental load imposed by the bags is more a politically correct issue than an actual environmental hazard, and therefore the means for reducing their use should not include a high levy or total elimination of these bags.

  4. Design of Control System for Flexible Packaging Bags Palletizing Production Line Based on PLC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Huiping; Chen, Lin; Zhao, Xiaoming; Liu, Zhanyang

    Flexible packaging bags palletizing production line is to put the bags in the required area according to particular order and size, in order to finish handling, storage, loading and unloading, transportation and other logistics work of goods. Flexible packaging bags palletizing line is composed of turning bags mechanism, shaping mechanism, indexing mechanism, marshalling mechanism, pushing bags mechanism, pressing bags mechanism, laminating mechanism, elevator, tray warehouse, tray conveyor and loaded tray conveyor. Whether the whole production line can smoothly run depends on each of the above equipment and precision control among them. In this paper the technological process and the control logic of flexible packaging bags palletizing production line is introduced. Palletizing process of the production line realized automation by means of a control system based on programmable logic controller (PLC). It has the advantages of simple structure, reliable and easy maintenance etc.

  5. An Empirical Comparison of Boosting and Bagging Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Kalaichelvi Chandrahasan

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Classification is one of the data mining techniques that analyses a given data set and induces a model for each class based on their features present in the data. Bagging and boosting are heuristic approaches to develop classification models. These techniques generate a diverse ensemble of classifiers by manipulating the training data given to a base learning algorithm. They are very successful in improving the accuracy of some algorithms in artificial and real world datasets. We review the algorithms such as AdaBoost, Bagging, ADTree, and Random Forest in conjunction with the Meta classifier and the Decision Tree classifier. Also we describe a large empirical study by comparing several variants. The algorithms are analyzed on Accuracy, Precision, Error Rate and Execution Time.

  6. Catheter valves: a welcome alternative to leg bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, Sue

    Catheterisation is commonly used to manage long-term bladder drainage. If intermittent catheterisation is not possible an indwelling urethral or suprapubic catheter will be used. There are a choice of drainage systems for use with indwelling urinary catheters including bed bags, link systems and catheter valves. Catheter valves are not suitable for everybody and patient assessment is vital: only patients with the cognitive ability and manual dexterity to operate a valve should be offered this option for bladder drainage. Catheter valves offer a number of advantages over drainage bags including improved privacy and dignity, prevention of bladder-neck trauma, reduced catheter encrustation and maintenance of normal detrusor muscle function. A number of catheter valves are available, including the EZ-Flow valve, and patient choice is important when selecting an appropriate product.

  7. Empirical Analysis of Bagged SVM Classifier for Data Mining Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Govindarajan

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Data mining is the use of algorithms to extract the information and patterns derived by the knowledge discovery in databases process. Classification maps data into predefined groups or classes. It is often referred to as supervised learning because the classes are determined before examining the data. The feasibility and the benefits of the proposed approaches are demonstrated by the means of data mining applications like intrusion detection, direct marketing, and signature verification. A variety of techniques have been employed for analysis ranging from traditional statistical methods to data mining approaches. Bagging and boosting are two relatively new but popular methods for producing ensembles. In this work, bagging is evaluated on real and benchmark data sets of intrusion detection, direct marketing, and signature verification in conjunction with as the base learner. The proposed is superior to individual approach for data mining applications in terms of classification accuracy.

  8. Study of cultured bovine capsular bag in pure ocular tissue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yan-qing; LI Qiu-ming

    2006-01-01

    @@ The proliferation, differentiation and fibrosis of lens epithelia cells (LECs) is mainly responsible for posterior capsular opacification (PCO). From the primary culture of LECs to the culture of lens capsular bag, the models of posterior capsular opacification have been developed. At present, the most commonly used model is cell culture in medium with serum. But the culture in pure ocular tissue has not been reported. Therefore, we established a new model of posterior capsular opacification-culturing bovine lens capsular bag in pure ocular tissue to exclude the role of serum. Our study established a new culture method to investigate the proliferation,differentiation and apoptosis of lens epithelia cells in the aqueous humor with or without lens cortex and vitreous humor. The purpose of the study is to model posterior capsular opacification in vivo as closely as possible and to discuss the influence of ocular tissue on posterior capsular opacification.

  9. Digital Artery Occlusion Secondary to Plastic Shopping Bag Trauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joy, R; Isaacs, JL; McCarthy, RJ

    2007-01-01

    Upper limb digital arterial occlusion is uncommon. We present the case of a 47-year-old man with an ischaemic right middle finger (dominant hand) due to trauma from carrying a heavy plastic shopping bag. Duplex scanning revealed no proximal source of emboli. An angiogram demonstrated occlusions in the medial and lateral digital arteries of the middle digit at the level of the proximal phalanx. Treatment with heparin and warfarin resulted in complete resolution of symptoms. PMID:18201465

  10. Bag model for DNA migration during pulsed-field electrophoresis.

    OpenAIRE

    Chu, G

    1991-01-01

    A model for pulsed-field electrophoresis was developed by picturing large DNA as a deformable "bag" that (i) moves with limiting mobility in a continuous electric field, (ii) adopts an orientation aligned with the field direction, and (iii) reorients after a change in field direction in a size-dependent manner. The model correctly predicted the resolution of large DNA in a pulsed field including the surprising phenomena of mobility inversion, lateral band spreading, and improved resolution fo...

  11. Capsular bag opacification with a new accommodating intraocular lens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floyd, Anne M; Werner, Liliana; Liu, Erica; Stallings, Shannon; Ollerton, Andrew; Leishman, Lisa; Bodnar, Zachary; Morris, Caleb; Mamalis, Nick

    2013-09-01

    To evaluate the biocompatibility and capsular bag opacification of an accommodating intraocular lens (IOL) containing large haptic elements that separate the anterior and posterior capsules. John A. Moran Eye Center, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA. Experimental study. Bilateral phacoemulsification with IOL implantation was performed in 6 New Zealand rabbits. Each animal received a study (accommodating) IOL and a control (1-piece hydrophobic acrylic) IOL. Eyes were examined at the slitlamp from 1 day through 6 weeks postoperatively. The globes were then enucleated and evaluated grossly. Capsular bag opacification was scored from the posterior aspect (Miyake-Apple view). The eyes were then processed for complete histopathologic evaluation. At 6 weeks, the mean posterior capsule opacification (PCO) clinical score was 0.5 ± 0.3 (SD) in the study group and 3.0 ± 0.9 in the control group (P=.001, 2-tail paired t test). Anterior capsule opacification was practically absent in the study group and mild in the control group. Miyake-Apple posterior view showed a mean central PCO score of 0 ± 0 in the study group and 3.0 ± 1.1 in the control group (P=.001), peripheral PCO score of 0.7 ± 0.4 and 3.5 ± 0.8 (P=.0006), respectively, and Soemmerring ring score of 2.3 ± 0.8 and 7.0 ± 2.8 (P=.01), respectively. Histopathology showed no signs of toxicity in any eye. The study IOL maintained an expanded capsular bag secondary to the large size of the haptic elements, which appears to prevent capsular bag opacification. Copyright © 2013 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Digital artery occlusion secondary to plastic shopping bag trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joy, R; Isaacs, J L; McCarthy, R J

    2007-09-01

    Upper limb digital arterial occlusion is uncommon. We present the case of a 47-year-old man with an ischaemic right middle finger (dominant hand) due to trauma from carrying a heavy plastic shopping bag. Duplex scanning revealed no proximal source of emboli. An angiogram demonstrated occlusions in the medial and lateral digital arteries of the middle digit at the level of the proximal phalanx. Treatment with heparin and warfarin resulted in complete resolution of symptoms.

  13. A Control System Retrofit for a Plastic Bag Making Machine

    OpenAIRE

    DR S S ADAMU

    2011-01-01

    This work presents the development of a microcontroller system to replace a problematic mechanical system of a plastic bag making machine. After detailed study of the existing system the theory of finite state machines is used to model the proposed retrofit, using simulink and stateflow toolboxes of MATLAB. Using the model, theretrofit system is partitioned into hardware and software components. The retrofit is implemented using Microchip’s PIC16F84A 8-bit microcontroller. The developed retro...

  14. 75 FR 75454 - Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Thailand: Extension of Time Limit for the Final Results of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-03

    ... International Trade Administration Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Thailand: Extension of Time Limit for... polyethylene retail carrier bags from Thailand. See Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Thailand: Preliminary... antidumping duty order on polyethylene retail carrier bags from Thailand within the 120- day time limit due...

  15. Significant air embolism: A possibility even with collapsible intravenous fluid containers when used with rapid infuser system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pant, Deepanjali; Narani, Krishan Kumar; Sood, Jayashree

    2010-01-01

    Significant venous air embolism may develop acutely during the perioperative period due to a number of causes such as during head and neck surgery, spinal surgery, improper central venous and haemodialysis catheter handling, etc. The current trend of using self collapsible intravenous (IV) infusion bags instead of the conventional glass or plastic bottles has several advantages, one of thaem being protection against air embolism. We present a 56-year-old man undergoing kidney transplantation, who developed a near fatal venous air embolism during volume resuscitation with normal saline in collapsible IV bags used with rapid infuser system. To our knowledge, this problem with collapsible infusion bags has not been reported earlier.

  16. Advanced physical coal cleaning to comply with potential air toxic regulations. [Quarterly] technical report, September 1--November 30, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honaker, R.Q.; Paul, B.C.; Wang, D. [Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (United States). Dept. of Mining Engineering

    1994-12-31

    This research project will investigate the use of advanced fine coal cleaning technologies for cleaning PCB feed as a compliance strategy. Trace elements considered in this project will include mercury, selenium, cadmium, and chlorine. Work in the first quarter has focused on trace element analysis procedures and sample acquisition. Several experts in the field of trace element analysis of coal have been consulted and these procedures are presently being evaluated.

  17. Design of Conventional Submarines with Advanced Air Independent Propulsion Systems and Determination of Corresponding Theater-Level Impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Response surface method SOA: Speeds of advance TNSW: Thyssen Nordseewerke GmbH tsnorkeling: Time submarine spends snorkeling tquiet: Time submarine spends on...during snorkeling operations. The limiting factor for the power of the diesel engines is the maximum current limitation on charging the batteries...for the AIP endurance of some of the modern submarines are 12–14. Extended AIP endurance reduces the time that the submarine needs to spend snorkeling

  18. Quark Orbital Angular Momentum in the MIT Bag Model

    CERN Document Server

    Courtoy, A

    2016-01-01

    We present the results for the Generalized Transverse Momentum Distribution related to quark Orbital Angular Momentum, {\\it i.e.} $F_{14}$, in the MIT bag model. This model has been modified to include the Peierls--Yoccoz projection to restore translational invariance. Such a modification allows to fulfill more satisfactorily basic sum rules, that would otherwise be less elegantly carried out with the original version. Using the same model, we have calculated the twist-$3$ GPD that corresponds to Orbital Angular Momentum \\`a la Ji, through the Penttinen--Polyakov--Shuvaev--Strikman sum rule. Recently, a new relation between the two definitions of the quark Orbital Angular Momentum at the density level has been proposed, which we illustrate here within the model. The sum rule is fulfilled. Still within the framework of the MIT bag model, we analyze the Wandzura--Wilczek expression for the GPD of interest. The genuine quark-gluon contribution is evaluated directly thanks to the equation of motion of the bag, wh...

  19. A PRIMARY SCHOOL PUPIL’S SCHOOL BAG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živorad Marković

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available There are more researches which deal with the ratio between body weight and school bag which in most cases on all continents overpasses the weight of 10% of pupils’ total weight, which indicates that recommendations of World Health Organization are not followed. World Health Organization proposed that maximal weight which could be carried by children should not be higher than 10% of their body weight. The weight of a school bag that children carry to school every day is from 4.0 to 7.7 kilos in different researches (Casey & Dockrell, 1996; Pascoe et al.; Grimmer et al., 1999. Represented by percentage of children’s body weight these values vary from 10% to 20%. The goal of this research was to study the relations between pupils’ body weight and school bag weight and on the basis of the results to give recommendation for praxis. The results for younger and older pupils are similar to the results of other researches in the world. The concern is about the great gap which goes even further in higher classes, which indicates the relation to school of some pupils.

  20. Characterization of ecofriendly polyethylene fiber from plastic bag waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soekoco, Asril S.; Noerati, Komalasari, Maya; Kurniawan, Hananto, Agus

    2017-08-01

    This paper presents the characterization of fiber morphology, fiber count and tenacity of polyethylene fiber which is made from plastic bag waste. Recycling plastic bag waste into textile fiber has not developed yet. Plastic bag waste was recycled into fiber by melt spinning using laboratory scale melt spinning equipment with single orifice nozzle and plunger system. The basic principle of melt spinning is by melting materials and then extruding it through small orifice of a spinning nozzle to form fibers. Diameter and cross section shape of Recycled polyethylene fiber were obtained by using scanning electron microscope (SEM) instrumentation. Linear density of the recycled fiber were analyzed by calculation using denier and dTex formulation and The mechanical strength of the fibers was measured in accordance with the ASTM D 3379-75 standard. The cross section of recycled fiber is circular taking the shape of orifice. Fiber count of 303.75 denier has 1.84 g/denier tenacity and fiber count of 32.52 has 3.44 g/denier tenacity. This conditions is affected by the growth of polymer chain alignment when take-up axial velocity become faster. Recycled polyethylene fiber has a great potential application in non-apparel textile.

  1. Assessment of intermittent trace element pollution by moss bags

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cesa, M. [Dipartimento di Biologia, Universita di Trieste, Via Giorgieri 10, I-34127 Trieste (Italy)]. E-mail: mcesa@units.it; Bizzotto, A. [ARPAV Dipartimento di Vicenza, Servizio Territoriale di Bassano del Grappa, Via Cereria 15, I-36061 Bassano del Grappa (VI) (Italy); Ferraro, C. [ARPAV Dipartimento di Vicenza, Servizio Territoriale di Bassano del Grappa, Via Cereria 15, I-36061 Bassano del Grappa (VI) (Italy); Fumagalli, F. [Dipartimento di Biologia, Universita di Trieste, Via Giorgieri 10, I-34127 Trieste (Italy); Nimis, P.L. [Dipartimento di Biologia, Universita di Trieste, Via Giorgieri 10, I-34127 Trieste (Italy)

    2006-12-15

    Moss bags of the aquatic bryophyte Rhynchostegium riparioides (Hedw.) C. Jens. were transplanted into an irrigation ditch in the Province of Vicenza (NE Italy), affected by intermittent trace element contamination due to galvanics. The study aimed at: (a) testing the ability of mosses to detect different patterns of pollution (b) providing information about intensity and temporal extension of pollution events, and (c) localising the main sources. Moss bags were collected after 20, 34, 48 and 62 days of exposure. The concentrations of As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn in the desiccated apical shoots of mosses were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The mean concentrations measured in non-contaminated stations of a previous work were adopted as background values, to calculate the contamination factor (CF). Transplants were able to: (a) detect spatial patterns of bioaccumulation (b) reveal chronic contamination by Pb and Cu, intermittent contamination by Cr, Zn, and Ni, and a release of Cd by moss bags, and (c) localise the main emission sources. - Transplanted bryophytes are able to detect accidental trace element pollution in freshwaters of industrial areas.

  2. Co3O4/Co-N-C modified ketjenblack carbon as an advanced electrocatalyst for Al-air batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jingsha; Zhou, Zhi; Liu, Kun; Li, Fuzhi; Peng, Zhiguang; Tang, Yougen; Wang, Haiyan

    2017-03-01

    Nitrogen-doped carbon materials containing non-precious metal (TM-N-C) and Co-based oxides have been extensively investigated as promising catalysts for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). Herein, we report a novel Co3O4/Co-N-C modified ketjenblack carbon (KB) catalyst via a one-pot and scalable pyrolysis process using cheap melamine, cobalt acetate tetrahydrate and KB as raw materials. Owing to the high specific surface area and good electrical conductivity, this KB-based catalyst exhibits remarkable catalytic activity with a half-wave potential of 0.798 V (vs RHE) and a limiting current density of 5.10 mA cm-2 in alkaline solution, which are comparable with those of the commercial 20 wt% Pt/C. More importantly, it displays superior stability to Pt/C, which makes it one of the most promising non-noble-metal catalysts. Al-air batteries with this catalyst are also tested and generate a maximum power density of 161.1 mW cm-2, which is close to that with 20 wt% Pt/C catalyst (161.9 mW cm-2). After the discharge for 18 h at 50 mA cm-2, the voltage degradation of Al-air battery with Co3O4/Co-N-C modified KB is 7%, while that using Pt/C is increased to 12%. By virtues of its remarkable performance, low cost and simple fabrication method, Co3O4/Co-N-C modified KB here can be used as an efficient ORR cathode catalyst instead of the commercial Pt/C for practical Al-air batteries.

  3. Enhanced air dispersion modelling at a typical Chinese nuclear power plant site: Coupling RIMPUFF with two advanced diagnostic wind models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yun; Li, Hong; Sun, Sida; Fang, Sheng

    2017-09-01

    An enhanced air dispersion modelling scheme is proposed to cope with the building layout and complex terrain of a typical Chinese nuclear power plant (NPP) site. In this modelling, the California Meteorological Model (CALMET) and the Stationary Wind Fit and Turbulence (SWIFT) are coupled with the Risø Mesoscale PUFF model (RIMPUFF) for refined wind field calculation. The near-field diffusion coefficient correction scheme of the Atmospheric Relative Concentrations in the Building Wakes Computer Code (ARCON96) is adopted to characterize dispersion in building arrays. The proposed method is evaluated by a wind tunnel experiment that replicates the typical Chinese NPP site. For both wind speed/direction and air concentration, the enhanced modelling predictions agree well with the observations. The fraction of the predictions within a factor of 2 and 5 of observations exceeds 55% and 82% respectively in the building area and the complex terrain area. This demonstrates the feasibility of the new enhanced modelling for typical Chinese NPP sites. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Advances in understanding ozone impact on forest trees: Messages from novel phytotron and free-air fumigation studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matyssek, R., E-mail: matyssek@wzw.tum.d [Ecophysiology of Plants, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Am Hochanger 13, D-85354 Freising-Weihenstephan (Germany); Karnosky, D.F. [Michigan Technological University, School of Forest Resources and Environmental Sciences, Houghton, MI 49931-129 (United States); Wieser, G. [Federal Research and Trainings Centre for Forests, Natural Hazards and Landscape, Dept. of Alpine Timberline Ecophysiology, Rennweg 1, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Percy, K. [K.E. Percy Air Quality Effects Consulting Ltd., 207-230 Wilson Drive, Fort McMurray, Alberta T9H 0A4 (Canada); Oksanen, E. [Faculty of Biosciences, University of Joensuu, P.O. Box 111, FIN 80101 Joensuu (Finland); Grams, T.E.E. [Ecophysiology of Plants, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Am Hochanger 13, D-85354 Freising-Weihenstephan (Germany); Kubiske, M. [Institute for Applied Ecosystem Studies, US Forest Service, Northern Research Station, 5985 Hwy K, Rhinelander, WI 54501 (United States); Hanke, D. [Department of Plant Sciences, University of Cambridge, CB2 3EA (United Kingdom); Pretzsch, H. [Forest Yield Science, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Am Hochanger 13, D-85354 Freising-Weihenstephan (Germany)

    2010-06-15

    Recent evidence from novel phytotron and free-air ozone (O{sub 3}) fumigation experiments in Europe and America on forest tree species is highlighted in relation to previous chamber studies. Differences in O{sub 3} sensitivity between pioneer and climax species are examined and viewed for trees growing at the harsh alpine timberline ecotone. As O{sub 3} apparently counteracts positive effects of elevated CO{sub 2} and mitigates productivity increases, response is governed by genotype, competitors, and ontogeny rather than species per se. Complexity in O{sub 3} responsiveness increased under the influence of pathogens and herbivores. The new evidence does not conflict in principle with previous findings that, however, pointed to a low ecological significance. This new knowledge on trees' O{sub 3} responsiveness beyond the juvenile stage in plantations and forests nevertheless implies limited predictability due to complexity in biotic and abiotic interactions. Unravelling underlying mechanisms is mandatory for assessing O{sub 3} risks as an important component of climate change scenarios. - Novel phytotron and free-air O{sub 3} exposure studies on forest trees communicate sensitivity to be governed by genotype, ontogeny and biotic agents rather than species per se.

  5. BAG1: the guardian of anti-apoptotic proteins in acute myeloid leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aveic, Sanja; Pigazzi, Martina; Basso, Giuseppe

    2011-01-01

    BCL2 associated Athano-Gene 1 (BAG1) is a multifunctional protein that has been described to be involved in different cell processes linked to cell survival. It has been reported as deregulated in diverse cancer types. Here, BAG1 protein was found highly expressed in children with acute myeloid leukemia at diagnosis, and in a cohort of leukemic cell lines. A silencing approach was used for determining BAG1's role in AML, finding that its down-regulation decreased expression of BCL2, BCL-XL, MCL1, and phospho-ERK1/2, all proteins able to sustain leukemia, without affecting the pro-apoptotic protein BAX. BAG1 down-regulation was also found to increase expression of BAG3, whose similar activity was able to compensate the loss of function of BAG1. BAG1/BAG3 co-silencing caused an enhanced cell predisposition to death in cell lines and also in primary AML cultures, affecting the same proteins. Cell death was CASPASE-3 dependent, was accompanied by PARP cleavage and documented by an increased release of pro-apoptotic molecules Smac/DIABLO and Cytochrome c. BAG1 was found to directly maintain BCL2 and to protect MCL1 from proteasomal degradation by controlling USP9X expression, which appeared to be its novel target. Finally, BAG1 was found able to affect leukemia cell fate by influencing the expression of anti-apoptotic proteins crucial for AML maintenance.

  6. BAG1: the guardian of anti-apoptotic proteins in acute myeloid leukemia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanja Aveic

    Full Text Available BCL2 associated Athano-Gene 1 (BAG1 is a multifunctional protein that has been described to be involved in different cell processes linked to cell survival. It has been reported as deregulated in diverse cancer types. Here, BAG1 protein was found highly expressed in children with acute myeloid leukemia at diagnosis, and in a cohort of leukemic cell lines. A silencing approach was used for determining BAG1's role in AML, finding that its down-regulation decreased expression of BCL2, BCL-XL, MCL1, and phospho-ERK1/2, all proteins able to sustain leukemia, without affecting the pro-apoptotic protein BAX. BAG1 down-regulation was also found to increase expression of BAG3, whose similar activity was able to compensate the loss of function of BAG1. BAG1/BAG3 co-silencing caused an enhanced cell predisposition to death in cell lines and also in primary AML cultures, affecting the same proteins. Cell death was CASPASE-3 dependent, was accompanied by PARP cleavage and documented by an increased release of pro-apoptotic molecules Smac/DIABLO and Cytochrome c. BAG1 was found to directly maintain BCL2 and to protect MCL1 from proteasomal degradation by controlling USP9X expression, which appeared to be its novel target. Finally, BAG1 was found able to affect leukemia cell fate by influencing the expression of anti-apoptotic proteins crucial for AML maintenance.

  7. Performance comparison of plastic shopping bags in modern and traditional retail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radini, F. A.; Wulandari, R.; Nasiri, S. J. A.; Winarto, D. A.

    2017-07-01

    Followed by implementation of paid plastic bag policy in Indonesia’s modern and traditional retail, community question related to plastic shopping bag performance arise. But, there is limited information about it. Therefore, the assessment of the performance to compare between plastic shopping bags in modern retail and traditional retail should be interesting. The observation performance of plastic shopping bag were weight holding capacity, tear resistant and elongation. This performance were tested using Universal Testing Machine. Physical and physico-chemical properties also identified to determine factor affecting the performance of plastic shopping bag. The physical properties were analysed using visual and thickness gauge to see the colour and measure the thickness. The analysis of physico-chemical properties were carried out using DSC (Differential Scanning Calorimetry), TGA (Thermal Gravimetry Analysis), Furnace and FTIR (Fourier Transform Infra Red Spectroscopy) to identify the materials, also its melting and decomposition temperature. The result showed that the performance difference between modern retail plastic bag with traditional retail plastic bag appears only in the performance of elongation. The elongation of modern retail plastic bag is 121 - 413%, while traditional has 170 - 609%. According to physico-chemical test result, modern retail and traditional retail plastic bag contain polyethylene as main material and has melting temperature in the range of High Density Polyethylene (HDPE) melting temperature. However, modern retail plastic bag has 18.31 - 33.87% of inorganic filler percentage, whereas the traditional retail plastic bag has 0.35 - 9.85%. This inorganic filler percentage probably a contributing factor in the elongation performance difference between modern retail plastic bag with traditional retail plastic bag.

  8. A combination of trastuzumab and BAG-1 inhibition synergistically targets HER2 positive breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadakis, Emmanouil; Robson, Natalia; Yeomans, Alison; Bailey, Sarah; Laversin, Stephanie; Beers, Stephen; Sayan, A Emre; Ashton-Key, Margaret; Schwaiger, Stefan; Stuppner, Hermann; Troppmair, Jakob; Packham, Graham; Cutress, Ramsey

    2016-04-05

    Treatment of HER2+ breast cancer with trastuzumab is effective and combination anti-HER2 therapies have demonstrated benefit over monotherapy in the neoadjuvant and metastatic settings. This study investigated the therapeutic potential of targeting the BAG-1 protein co-chaperone in trastuzumab-responsive or -resistant cells. In the METABRIC dataset, BAG-1 mRNA was significantly elevated in HER2+ breast tumors and predicted overall survival in a multivariate analysis (HR = 0.81; p = 0.022). In a breast cell line panel, BAG-1 protein was increased in HER2+ cells and was required for optimal growth as shown by siRNA knockdown. Overexpression of BAG-1S in HER2+ SKBR3 cells blocked growth inhibition by trastuzumab, whereas overexpression of a mutant BAG-1S protein (BAG-1S H3AB), defective in binding HSC70, potentiated the effect of trastuzumab. Injection of a Tet-On SKBR3 clone, induced to overexpress myc-BAG-1S into the mammary fat pads of immunocompromised mice, resulted in 2-fold larger tumors compared to uninduced controls. Induction of myc-BAG-1S expression in two Tet-On SKBR3 clones attenuated growth inhibition by trastuzumab in vitro. Targeting endogenous BAG-1 by siRNA enhanced growth inhibition of SKBR3 and BT474 cells by trastuzumab, while BAG-1 protein-protein interaction inhibitor (Thio-S or Thio-2) plus trastuzumab combination treatment synergistically attenuated growth. In BT474 cells this reduced protein synthesis, caused G1/S cell cycle arrest and targeted the ERK and AKT signaling pathways. In a SKBR3 subpopulation with acquired resistance to trastuzumab BAG-1 targeting remained effective and either Thio-2 or BAG-1 siRNA reduced growth more compared to trastuzumab-responsive parental cells. In summary, targeting BAG-1 function in combination with anti-HER2 therapy might prove beneficial.

  9. First Commuter Air Carrier Safety Symposium, January 16 - 17, 1980.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    the paper bag contained was mangoes . So, this whole thing seems very silly. Now, I have a question. If you say you have the mandated statutory...NELSON, L. C. PEEL , David Air Virginia NELSON, Richard A. Official Airline Guides, Inc. PENNINGTON, John S. St. Petersburg Times NICHOLS, George Air

  10. Feeling the Pulse of the Stratosphere: An Emerging Opportunity for Predicting Continental-Scale Cold Air Outbreaks One Month in Advance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Ming

    2016-04-01

    Extreme weather events such as cold air outbreaks (CAOs) pose great threats to human life and socioeconomic well-being of the modern society. In the past, our capability to predict their occurrences is constrained by the 2-week predictability limit for weather. We demonstrate here for the first time that a rapid increase of air mass transported into the polar stratosphere, referred to as "the pulse of the stratosphere (PULSE)", can often be predicted with a useful skill 4-6 weeks in advance by operational forecast models. We further show that the probability of the occurrence of continental-scale CAOs in mid-latitudes increases substantially above the normal condition within a short time period from one week before to 1-2 weeks after the peak day of a PULSE event. In particular, we reveal that the three massive CAOs over North America in January and February of 2014 were preceded by three episodes of extreme mass transport into the polar stratosphere with peak intensities reaching a trillion tons per day, twice of that on an average winter day. Therefore, our capability to predict the PULSEs with operational forecast models, in conjunction with its linkage to continental-scale CAOs, opens up a new opportunity for 30-day forecasts of continental-scale CAOs, such as those occurring over North America in the 2013-14 winter. A real time forecast experiment inaugurated in the winter of 2014-15 has given support to the idea that it is feasible to forecast CAOs one month in advance.

  11. Feeling the pulse of the stratosphere: An emerging opportunity for predicting continental-scale cold air outbreaks one month in advance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, M.; Yu, Y.

    2016-12-01

    Extreme weather events such as cold air outbreaks (CAOs) pose great threats to human life and socioeconomic well-being of the modern society. In the past, our capability to predict their occurrences is constrained by the 2-week predictability limit for weather. We demonstrate here for the first time that a rapid increase of air mass transported into the polar stratosphere, referred to as "the pulse of the stratosphere (PULSE)", can often be predicted with a useful skill 4-6 weeks in advance by operational forecast models. We further show that the probability of the occurrence of continental-scale CAOs in mid-latitudes increases substantially above the normal condition within a short time period from one week before to 1-2 weeks after the peak day of a PULSE event. In particular, we reveal that the three massive CAOs over North America in January and February of 2014 were preceded by three episodes of extreme mass transport into the polar stratosphere with peak intensities reaching a trillion tons per day, twice of that on an average winter day. Therefore, our capability to predict the PULSEs with operational forecast models, in conjunction with its linkage to continental-scale CAOs, opens up a new opportunity for 30-day forecasts of continental-scale CAOs, such as those occurring over North America in the 2013-14 winter. A real time forecast experiment inaugurated in the winter of 2014-15 has given support to the idea that it is feasible to forecast CAOs one month in advance.

  12. Little ice age advance and retreat of Glaciar Jorge Montt, Chilean Patagonia, recorded in maps, air photographs and dendrochronology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Rivera

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Glaciar Jorge Montt (48°20' S/73°30' W, one of the main tidewater glaciers of the Southern Patagonian Icefield (SPI, has experienced the fastest frontal retreat observed in Patagonia during the past century, with a recession of 19.5 km between 1898 and 2011. This record retreat uncovered trees overridden during the Little Ice Age (LIA advance of the glacier. Samples of these trees were dated using radiocarbon methods, yielding burial ages between 460 and 250 cal yr BP. The dendrochronology and maps indicate that Glaciar Jorge Montt was at its present position before the beginning of the LIA, in concert with several other glaciers in Southern Patagonia, and reached its maximum advance position between 1650 and 1750 AD. The post-LIA retreat is most likely triggered by climatically induced changes during the 20th century, however, Glaciar Jorge Montt has responded more dramatically than its neighbours. The retreat of Jorge Montt opened a new fjord 19.5 km long, and up to 391 m deep, with a varied bathymetry well correlated with glacier retreat rates, suggesting that dynamic responses of the glacier are at least partially connected to near buoyancy conditions at the ice front, resulting in high calving fluxes, accelerating thinning rates and rapid ice velocities.

  13. Advances in understanding ozone impact on forest trees: messages from novel phytotron and free-air fumigation studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matyssek, R; Karnosky, D F; Wieser, G; Percy, K; Oksanen, E; Grams, T E E; Kubiske, M; Hanke, D; Pretzsch, H

    2010-06-01

    Recent evidence from novel phytotron and free-air ozone (O3) fumigation experiments in Europe and America on forest tree species is highlighted in relation to previous chamber studies. Differences in O3 sensitivity between pioneer and climax species are examined and viewed for trees growing at the harsh alpine timberline ecotone. As O3 apparently counteracts positive effects of elevated CO2 and mitigates productivity increases, response is governed by genotype, competitors, and ontogeny rather than species per se. Complexity in O3 responsiveness increased under the influence of pathogens and herbivores. The new evidence does not conflict in principle with previous findings that, however, pointed to a low ecological significance. This new knowledge on trees' O3 responsiveness beyond the juvenile stage in plantations and forests nevertheless implies limited predictability due to complexity in biotic and abiotic interactions. Unravelling underlying mechanisms is mandatory for assessing O3 risks as an important component of climate change scenarios.

  14. Advanced Air Traffic Management Research (Human Factors and Automation): NASA Research Initiatives in Human-Centered Automation Design in Airspace Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corker, Kevin M.; Condon, Gregory W. (Technical Monitor)

    1996-01-01

    NASA has initiated a significant thrust of research and development focused on providing the flight crew and air traffic managers automation aids to increase capacity in en route and terminal area operations through the use of flexible, more fuel-efficient routing, while improving the level of safety in commercial carrier operations. In that system development, definition of cognitive requirements for integrated multi-operator dynamic aiding systems is fundamental. The core processes of control and the distribution of decision making in that control are undergoing extensive analysis. From our perspective, the human operators and the procedures by which they interact are the fundamental determinants of the safe, efficient, and flexible operation of the system. In that perspective, we have begun to explore what our experience has taught will be the most challenging aspects of designing and integrating human-centered automation in the advanced system. We have performed a full mission simulation looking at the role shift to self-separation on board the aircraft with the rules of the air guiding behavior and the provision of a cockpit display of traffic information and an on-board traffic alert system that seamlessly integrates into the TCAS operations. We have performed and initial investigation of the operational impact of "Dynamic Density" metrics on controller relinquishing and reestablishing full separation authority. (We follow the assumption that responsibility at all times resides with the controller.) This presentation will describe those efforts as well as describe the process by which we will guide the development of error tolerant systems that are sensitive to shifts in operator work load levels and dynamic shifts in the operating point of air traffic management.

  15. BAG3 protein regulates caspase-3 activation in HIV-1-infected human primary microglial cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosati, Alessandra; Khalili, Kamel; Deshmane, Satish L.; Radhakrishnan, Sujatha; Pascale, Maria; Turco, M. Caterina; Marzullo, Liberato

    2015-01-01

    BAG3, a member of the BAG co-chaperones family, is expressed in several cell types subjected to stressful conditions, such as exposure to high temperature, heavy metals, drugs. Furthermore, it is constitutively expressed in some tumors. Among the biological activities of the protein, there is apoptosis downmodulation; this appears to be exerted through BAG3 interaction with the heat shock protein (Hsp) 70, that influences cell apoptosis at several levels. We recently reported that BAG3 protein was detectable in the cytoplasm of reactive astrocytes in HIV-1-associated encephalopathy biopsies. Here we report that downmodulation of BAG3 protein levels allows caspase-3 activation by HIV-1 infection in human primary microglial cells. This is the first reported evidence of a role for BAG3 in the balance of death versus survival during viral infection. PMID:18821563

  16. Development of Bag-1L as a therapeutic target in androgen receptor-dependent prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cato, Laura; Neeb, Antje; Sharp, Adam; Buzón, Victor; Ficarro, Scott B; Yang, Linxiao; Muhle-Goll, Claudia; Kuznik, Nane C; Riisnaes, Ruth; Nava Rodrigues, Daniel; Armant, Olivier; Gourain, Victor; Adelmant, Guillaume; Ntim, Emmanuel A; Westerling, Thomas; Dolling, David; Rescigno, Pasquale; Figueiredo, Ines; Fauser, Friedrich; Wu, Jennifer; Rottenberg, Jaice T; Shatkina, Liubov; Ester, Claudia; Luy, Burkhard; Puchta, Holger; Troppmair, Jakob; Jung, Nicole; Bräse, Stefan; Strähle, Uwe; Marto, Jarrod A; Nienhaus, Gerd Ulrich; Al-Lazikani, Bissan; Salvatella, Xavier; de Bono, Johann S; Cato, Andrew Cb; Brown, Myles

    2017-08-10

    Targeting the activation function-1 (AF-1) domain located in the N-terminus of the androgen receptor (AR) is an attractive therapeutic alternative to the current approaches to inhibit AR action in prostate cancer (PCa). Here we show that the AR AF-1 is bound by the cochaperone Bag-1L. Mutations in the AR interaction domain or loss of Bag-1L abrogate AR signaling and reduce PCa growth. Clinically, Bag-1L protein levels increase with progression to castration-resistant PCa (CRPC) and high levels of Bag-1L in primary PCa associate with a reduced clinical benefit from abiraterone when these tumors progress. Intriguingly, residues in Bag-1L important for its interaction with the AR AF-1 are within a potentially druggable pocket, implicating Bag-1L as a potential therapeutic target in PCa.

  17. Performance evaluation of an advanced air-fuel ratio controller on a stationary, rich-burn natural gas engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochuparampil, Roshan Joseph

    The advent of an era of abundant natural gas is making it an increasingly economical fuel source against incumbents such as crude oil and coal, in end-use sectors such as power generation, transportation and industrial chemical production, while also offering significant environmental benefits over these incumbents. Equipment manufacturers, in turn, are responding to widespread demand for power plants optimized for operation with natural gas. In several applications such as distributed power generation, gas transmission, and water pumping, stationary, spark-ignited, natural gas fueled internal combustion engines (ICEs) are the power plant of choice (over turbines) owing to their lower equipment and operational costs, higher thermal efficiencies across a wide load range, and the flexibility afforded to end-users when building fine-resolution horsepower topologies: modular size increments ranging from 100 kW -- 2 MW per ICE power plant compared to 2 -- 5 MW per turbine power plant. Under the U.S. Environment Protection Agency's (EPA) New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) and Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engine National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (RICE NESHAP) air quality regulations, these natural gas power plants are required to comply with stringent emission limits, with several states mandating even stricter emissions norms. In the case of rich-burn or stoichiometric natural gas ICEs, very high levels of sustained emissions reduction can be achieved through exhaust after-treatment that utilizes Non Selective Catalyst Reduction (NSCR) systems. The primary operational constraint with these systems is the tight air-fuel ratio (AFR) window of operation that needs to be maintained if the NSCR system is to achieve simultaneous reduction of carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOx), total hydrocarbons (THC), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and formaldehyde (CH 2O). Most commercially available AFR controllers utilizing lambda (oxygen

  18. A bag of cells approach for antinuclear antibodies HEp-2 image classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiliem, Arnold; Hobson, Peter; Minchin, Rodney F; Lovell, Brian C

    2015-06-01

    The antinuclear antibody (ANA) test via indirect immunofluorescence applied on Human Epithelial type 2 (HEp-2) cells is a pathology test commonly used to identify connective tissue diseases (CTDs). Despite its effectiveness, the test is still considered labor intensive and time consuming. Applying image-based computer aided diagnosis (CAD) systems is one of the possible ways to address these issues. Ideally, a CAD system should be able to classify ANA HEp-2 images taken by a camera fitted to a fluorescence microscope. Unfortunately, most prior works have primarily focused on the HEp-2 cell image classification problem which is one of the early essential steps in the system pipeline. In this work we directly tackle the specimen image classification problem. We aim to develop a system that can be easily scaled and has competitive accuracy. ANA HEp-2 images or ANA images are generally comprised of a number of cells. Patterns exhibiting in the cells are then used to make inference on the ANA image pattern. To that end, we adapted a popular approach for general image classification problems, namely a bag of visual words approach. Each specimen is considered as a visual document containing visual vocabularies represented by its cells. A specimen image is then represented by a histogram of visual vocabulary occurrences. We name this approach as the Bag of Cells approach. We studied the performance of the proposed approach on a set of images taken from 262 ANA positive patient sera. The results show the proposed approach has competitive performance compared to the recent state-of-the-art approaches. Our proposal can also be expanded to other tests involving examining patterns of human cells to make inferences. © 2014 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry.

  19. Persuasive Normative Messages: The Influence of Injunctive and Personal Norms on Using Free Plastic Bags

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    In this exploratory field-study, we examined how normative messages ( i.e. , activating an injunctive norm, personal norm, or both) could encourage shoppers to use fewer free plastic bags for their shopping in addition to the supermarket’s standard environmental message aimed at reducing plastic bags. In a one-way subjects-design ( N = 200) at a local supermarket, we showed that shoppers used significantly fewer free plastic bags in the injunctive, personal and combined normative message cond...

  20. The result of bagged Pyrinuron baits for control rodent pest of forests

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马力; 邓刚; 张蕊

    2000-01-01

    Bagged and dispersed Pyrinuron (a self-formulated rodenticide) were tested for control of Clethrionomus rutilus and Clethrionomus rufocanus in larch plantation, Pingshan area, Heilongjiang Province from Oct. 1998 to Apr. 1999. The results showed that the bagged Pyrinuron has good result for control of the two rodent pests. The density of rodents was reduced by 90.5% after application of bagged Pyrinuron. This application method has characteristics of long residual period, bait not going mould and saving labour force.

  1. The Verification and Validation of the Ray-tracing of Bag of Triangles (BoTs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-01

    The Verification and Validation of the Ray-tracing of Bag of Triangles ( BoTs ) by Charith Ranawake ARL-CR-0761 February 2015...Ground, MD 22105 ARL-CR-0761 February 2015 The Verification and Validation of the Ray-tracing of Bag of Triangles ( BoTs ) Charith...and Validation of the Ray-tracing of Bag of Triangles ( BoTs ) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S

  2. An instructional video enhanced bag-mask ventilation quality during simulated newborn resuscitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deindl, Philipp; Schwindt, Jens; Berger, Angelika; Schmölzer, Georg M

    2015-01-01

    Approximately 20% of newborns infants need respiratory support at birth. This study evaluated whether video-based education could improve quality of positive pressure ventilation (PPV) performed by inexperienced staff during neonatal resuscitation. Fourth-year medical students were randomly paired and instructed to give PPV to a modified manikin as single-person resuscitators and as two-person-paired resuscitators using either an air cushion rim mask or a round mask before and after watching a self-instructional video. Airway pressure, gas flow, tidal volume and mask leak were recorded. PPV performance quality was analysed using video recording. Mask leak was lower during one-person ventilation when using the air cushion rim mask (56 ± 16%) compared to the round mask (71 ± 19%). Round mask leak during one-person ventilation was significantly lower when using the two point top hold in contrast to the 'o.k.' rim hold (before training: 63 ± 22% vs. 72 ± 18%, after training: 57 ± 17% vs. 77 ± 12%). Watching a self-instructional video improved performance quality scores of both correct head positioning, and the quality of airway manoeuvres compared to baseline, however mask leak was not significantly reduced. A self-instructional video significantly improved bag mask PPV performance in inexperienced providers but did not improve mask leak in a model of neonatal resuscitation. ©2014 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Surface modification of closed plastic bags for adherent cell cultivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachmann, K.; Dohse, A.; Thomas, M.; Pohl, S.; Meyring, W.; Dittmar, K. E. J.; Lindenmeier, W.; Klages, C.-P.

    2011-07-01

    In modern medicine human mesenchymal stem cells are becoming increasingly important. However, a successful cultivation of this type of cells is only possible under very specific conditions. Of great importance, for instance, are the absence of contaminants such as foreign microbiological organisms, i.e., sterility, and the chemical functionalization of the ground on which the cells are grown. As cultivation of these cells makes high demands, a new procedure for cell cultivation has been developed in which closed plastic bags are used. For adherent cell growth chemical functional groups have to be introduced on the inner surface of the plastic bag. This can be achieved by a new, atmospheric-pressure plasma-based method presented in this paper. The method which was developed jointly by the Fraunhofer IST and the Helmholtz HZI can be implemented in automated equipment as is also shown in this contribution. Plasma process gases used include helium or helium-based gas mixtures (He + N2 + H2) and vapors of suitable film-forming agents or precursors such as APTMS, DACH, and TMOS in helium. The effect of plasma treatment is investigated by FTIR-ATR spectroscopy as well as surface tension determination based on contact angle measurements and XPS. Plasma treatment in nominally pure helium increases the surface tension of the polymer foil due to the presence of oxygen traces in the gas and oxygen diffusing through the gas-permeable foil, respectively, reacting with surface radical centers formed during contact with the discharge. Primary amino groups are obtained on the inner surface by treatment in mixtures with nitrogen and hydrogen albeit their amount is comparably small due to diffusion of oxygen through the gas-permeable bag, interfering with the plasma-amination process. Surface modifications introducing amino groups on the inner surface turned out to be most efficient in the promotion of cell growth.

  4. Nicotine inhibits potassium currents in Aplysia bag cell neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Sean H; Sturgeon, Raymond M; Magoski, Neil S

    2016-06-01

    Acetylcholine and the archetypal cholinergic agonist, nicotine, are typically associated with the opening of ionotropic receptors. In the bag cell neurons, which govern the reproductive behavior of the marine snail, Aplysia californica, there are two cholinergic responses: a relatively large acetylcholine-induced current and a relatively small nicotine-induced current. Both currents are readily apparent at resting membrane potential and result from the opening of distinct ionotropic receptors. We now report a separate current response elicited by applying nicotine to cultured bag cell neurons under whole cell voltage-clamp. This current was ostensibly inward, best resolved at depolarized voltages, presented a noncooperative dose-response with a half-maximal concentration near 1.5 mM, and associated with a decrease in membrane conductance. The unique nicotine-evoked response was not altered by intracellular perfusion with the G protein blocker GDPβS or exposure to classical nicotinic antagonists but was occluded by replacing intracellular K(+) with Cs(+) Consistent with an underlying mechanism of direct inhibition of one or more K(+) channels, nicotine was found to rapidly reduce the fast-inactivating A-type K(+) current as well as both components of the delayed-rectifier K(+) current. Finally, nicotine increased bag cell neuron excitability, which manifested as reduction in spike threshold, greater action potential height and width, and markedly more spiking to continuous depolarizing current injection. In contrast to conventional transient activation of nicotinic ionotropic receptors, block of K(+) channels could represent a nonstandard means for nicotine to profoundly alter the electrical properties of neurons over prolonged periods of time.

  5. Gaseous distension of the urinary bag during CO2 laparoscopy in the usual operative settings:Does the CO2 diffuse into the urinary bladder or is it a sign of urinary tract injury?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kahramanlker; Tuncay Ok; smail Temur; rfettin Hseyinolu; Kemal Kl; Barlas Sl

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To compare the amounts of any clinically detectable gas passage into the urinary bag in laparoscopic and open surgeries.Methods:Seventy-nine women were allocated into two surgical groups;Group1: carbon dioxide(CO2) laparoscopy(n=37) andGroup2: gasless laparoscopy or laparotomy(n=42).All patients had urinary catheter during the surgeries.After checking the tightness of the connection of the urinary catheter and bag operations were performed.At the end of each surgery the urine volumes were recorded.The bags were immersed into a water containing container with a volume scale.The volume rise of the container was recorded.The valve of the outlet of the bag was turned on under the water and any leakage of air bubbles was observed.The final volume of the container was recorded once again while the bag was still in the water.The two groups were compared by using theStudent’storMannWhitney U tests.Results:We did not observe and hence measure any gas accumulation in the urine bags of both groups.The women’s ages, total intraoperative urine volume, urine production rate and total operative times of the groups were not significantly different.The mean operative time was (82.98±62.14) min in open surgeries and(73.46±52.74) minutes inCO2 laparoscopic surgeries.The difference between the groups was not significant(P=0.468).Conclusions:Any gas accumulation in the urine bag duringCO2 laparoscopic surgery should raise the suspicion of urinary tract injury.Urinary catheterization helps to diagnose the unnoticed bladder injuries.

  6. Long-term Stability of Vancomycin Hydrochloride in Glucose 5% Polyolefin Bags: The Brand Name Versus a Generic Product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huvelle, Sophie; Godet, Marie; Hecq, Jean-Daniel; Gillet, Patricia; Jamart, Jacques; Galanti, Laurence M

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine if the preparation of vancomycin hydrochloride in advance of infusion could improve the quality of the drug, time management of drug delivery, cost savings of drug delivery, and to investigate the long-term stability of vancomycin hydrochloride (brand name Vancocin®) infusion in glucose 5% polyolefin bags versus the generic (Vancomycine®) at 5°C ± 3°C. Five bags of each infusion 1 g/100 mL vancomycin hydrochloride in 5% glucose (Vancocin ® and Vancomycine®) were stored up to 57 days at 5°C ± 3°C. A visual inspection and pH measurement were performed periodically during the storage, and the concentrations were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection. No color change or precipitation in the solution was observed throughout the study period. As recommended by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, the lower confidence limit at 95% of the concentration for the solutions remained superior to 90% of the initial concentration up to 43 days for the brand vancomycin (Vancocin®) infusion (96% ± 2%) and up to 57 days for the generic (Vancomycine®) (95% ± 4%). The solutions prepared either from brand or generic vancomycin hydrochloride were chemically stable more than one month (43 days for the brand and 57 days for the generic solution) and could be prepared in advance in a centralized intravenous additive service facility.

  7. Deep inelastic structure functions in the chiral bag model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanjose, V. (Valencia Univ. (Spain). Dept. de Didactica de las Ciencias Experimentales); Vento, V. (Valencia Univ. (Spain). Dept. de Fisica Teorica; Centro Mixto CSIC/Valencia Univ., Valencia (Spain). Inst. de Fisica Corpuscular)

    1989-10-02

    We calculate the structure functions for deep inelastic scattering on baryons in the cavity approximation to the chiral bag model. The behavior of these structure functions is analyzed in the Bjorken limit. We conclude that scaling is satisfied, but not Regge behavior. A trivial extension as a parton model can be achieved by introducing the structure function for the pion in a convolution picture. In this extended version of the model not only scaling but also Regge behavior is satisfied. Conclusions are drawn from the comparison of our results with experimental data. (orig.).

  8. [Rhabdomyolysis after lifting IKEA bags in a man using sertraline].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kummen, Ingvild; Jensen, Thomas Giver

    2016-12-12

    We present a case of a 28-year-old male, using sertraline, who experienced progressive oedema in both upper extremities after having lifted two IKEA bags weighing 20 kg each from his car up to the third floor. Blood creatine kinase (CK) level was measured 5,260 U/l, and the patient was admitted for oral rehydration with the diagnosis rhabdomyolysis. The MRI showed swelling in the triceps muscles and latissimus dorsi muscles resulting in compression of the brachial vein. We discuss the pathomechanism behind the increased CK level and the swelling, and the possible effect sertraline may have had on the development of rhabdomyolysis.

  9. A Control System Retrofit for a Plastic Bag Making Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DR S S ADAMU

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the development of a microcontroller system to replace a problematic mechanical system of a plastic bag making machine. After detailed study of the existing system the theory of finite state machines is used to model the proposed retrofit, using simulink and stateflow toolboxes of MATLAB. Using the model, theretrofit system is partitioned into hardware and software components. The retrofit is implemented using Microchip’s PIC16F84A 8-bit microcontroller. The developed retrofit performance is the same as the original machine. Due to the flexibility of microcontrollers, other operation and diagnostic features can easily be added.

  10. A Corrective Training Algorithm for Adaptive Learning in Bag Generation

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, H H; Chen, Hsin-Hsi; Lee, Yue-Shi

    1994-01-01

    The sampling problem in training corpus is one of the major sources of errors in corpus-based applications. This paper proposes a corrective training algorithm to best-fit the run-time context domain in the application of bag generation. It shows which objects to be adjusted and how to adjust their probabilities. The resulting techniques are greatly simplified and the experimental results demonstrate the promising effects of the training algorithm from generic domain to specific domain. In general, these techniques can be easily extended to various language models and corpus-based applications.

  11. Multielectrode machine for making the cages of bag filters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordeev, F.I.; Arkov, V.G.; Boldyrev, A.F.; Sharenko, D.G.; Zhidkov, V.A.

    1986-01-01

    This paper describes an automatic multielectrode machine for making wire cages with an internal spiral. The machine automatically produces an endless cage from wire, joins the wires by multiple spot contact welding, and cuts it into pieces of desired length. The machine is illustrated and the method of making wire cages is demonstrated. The cages are used in bag filters of gas-cleaning systems. The machine can be used to form cages of 130-mm diameter from wires of 3-mm diameter. It is easy to operate and has a high output rate of 90m/h.

  12. Forex Market Prediction Using NARX Neural Network with Bagging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahbazi Nima

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a new methodfor predicting movements in Forex market based on NARX neural network withtime shifting bagging techniqueand financial indicators, such as relative strength index and stochastic indicators. Neural networks have prominent learning ability but they often exhibit bad and unpredictable performance for noisy data. When compared with the static neural networks, our method significantly reducesthe error rate of the responseandimproves the performance of the prediction. We tested three different types ofarchitecture for predicting the response and determined the best network approach. We applied our method to prediction the hourly foreign exchange rates and found remarkable predictability in comprehensive experiments with 2 different foreign exchange rates (GBPUSD and EURUSD.

  13. Use of Vacuum Bagging for Fabricating Thermoplastic Microfluidic Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassano, Christopher L.; Simon, Andrew J.; Liu, Wei; Fredrickson, Carl; Fan, Z. Hugh

    2014-01-01

    In this work we present a novel thermal bonding method for thermoplastic microfluidic devices. This simple method employs a modified vacuum bagging technique, a concept borrowed from the aerospace industry, to produce conventional thick substrate microfluidic devices, as well as multi-layer film devices. The bonds produced using this method are superior to those obtained using conventional thermal bonding methods, including thermal lamination, and are capable of sustaining burst pressures in excess of 550 kPa. To illustrate the utility of this method, thick substrate devices were produced, as well as a six-layer film device that incorporated several complex features. PMID:25329244

  14. Carrying shopping bags does not alter static postural stability and gait parameters in healthy older females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bampouras, Theodoros M; Dewhurst, Susan

    2016-05-01

    Food shopping is an important aspect of maintaining independence and social interaction in older age. Carriage of shopping bags alters the body's weight distribution which, depending on load distribution, could potentially increase instability during standing and walking. The study examined the effect of carrying UK style shopping bags on static postural stability and gait in healthy older and young females. Nine older (71.0±6.0 years) and 10 young (26.7±5.2 years) females were assessed in five conditions carrying no bags, one 1.5kg bag in each hand, one 3kg bag in each hand, one 1.5kg bag in preferred hand, one 3kg bag in preferred hand. Antero-posterior and medio-lateral displacement, and 95% ellipse area from a 30s quiet standing were used for postural stability assessment. Stride length and its coefficient of variation, total double support time, step asymmetry and gait stability ratio were calculated from 1min treadmill walking at self-selected speed for gait assessment. Carrying shopping bags did not negatively affect postural stability or gait variables, in either group. Further, in older individuals, a decrease in sway velocity was found when holding bags during the postural stability assessment (psocial and as a physical activity.

  15. Disruption of the Toxoplasma gondii bradyzoite-specific gene BAG1 decreases in vivo cyst formation

    OpenAIRE

    1999-01-01

    The bradyzoite stage of the Apicomplexan protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii plays a critical role in maintenance of latent infection. We reported previously the cloning of a bradyzoite-specific gene BAG1/hsp30 (previously referred to as BAG5) encoding a cytoplasmic antigen related to small heat shock proteins. We have now disrupted BAG1 in the T. gondii PLK strain by homologous recombination. H7, a cloned null mutant, and Y8, a control positive for both cat and BAG1, were chosen for further...

  16. Degradation of the insecticide propoxur by electrochemical advanced oxidation processes using a boron-doped diamond/air-diffusion cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guelfi, Diego Roberto Vieira; Gozzi, Fábio; Sirés, Ignasi; Brillas, Enric; Machulek, Amílcar; de Oliveira, Silvio César

    2017-03-01

    A solution with 0.38 mM of the pesticide propoxur (PX) at pH 3.0 has been comparatively treated by electrochemical oxidation with electrogenerated H2O2 (EO-H2O2), electro-Fenton (EF), and photoelectro-Fenton (PEF). The trials were carried out with a 100-mL boron-doped diamond (BDD)/air-diffusion cell. The EO-H2O2 process had the lowest oxidation ability due to the slow reaction of intermediates with (•)OH produced from water discharge at the BDD anode. The EF treatment yielded quicker mineralization due to the additional (•)OH formed between added Fe(2+) and electrogenerated H2O2. The PEF process was the most powerful since it led to total mineralization by the combined oxidative action of hydroxyl radicals and UVA irradiation. The PX decay agreed with a pseudo-first-order kinetics in EO-H2O2, whereas in EF and PEF, it obeyed a much faster pseudo-first-order kinetics followed by a much slower one, which are related to the oxidation of its Fe(II) and Fe(III) complexes, respectively. EO-H2O2 showed similar oxidation ability within the pH range 3.0-9.0. The effect of current density and Fe(2+) and substrate contents on the performance of the EF process was examined. Two primary aromatic products were identified by LC-MS during PX degradation.

  17. Surface pre-conditioning with bioactive glass air-abrasion can enhance enamel white spot lesion remineralization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milly, Hussam; Festy, Frederic; Andiappan, Manoharan; Watson, Timothy F; Thompson, Ian; Banerjee, Avijit

    2015-05-01

    To evaluate the effect of pre-conditioning enamel white spot lesion (WSL) surfaces using bioactive glass (BAG) air-abrasion prior to remineralization therapy. Ninety human enamel samples with artificial WSLs were assigned to three WSL surface pre-conditioning groups (n=30): (a) air-abrasion with BAG-polyacrylic acid (PAA-BAG) powder, (b) acid-etching using 37% phosphoric acid gel (positive control) and (c) unconditioned (negative control). Each group was further divided into three subgroups according to the following remineralization therapy (n=10): (I) BAG paste (36 wt.% BAG), (II) BAG slurry (100 wt.% BAG) and (III) de-ionized water (negative control). The average surface roughness and the lesion step height compared to intra-specimen sound enamel reference points were analyzed using non-contact profilometry. Optical changes within the lesion subsurface compared to baseline scans were assessed using optical coherence tomography (OCT). Knoop microhardness evaluated the WSLs' mechanical properties. Raman micro-spectroscopy measured the v-(CO3)(2-)/v1-(PO4)(3-) ratio. Structural changes in the lesion were observed using confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (SEM-EDX). All comparisons were considered statistically significant if pair-abrasion removed 5.1 ± 0.6 μm from the lesion surface, increasing the WSL surface roughness. Pre-conditioning WSL surfaces with PAA-BAG air-abrasion reduced subsurface light scattering, increased the Knoop microhardness and the mineral content of the remineralized lesions (pconditioning WSL surfaces with PAA-BAG air-abrasion modified the lesion surface physically and enhanced remineralization using BAG 45S5 therapy. Copyright © 2015 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Advanced physical coal cleaning to comply with potential air toxic regulations. Quarterly report, 1 March 1995--31 May 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honaker, R.Q.; Paul, B.C.; Mohanty, M.K.; Wang, D.

    1995-12-31

    Studies have indicated that the potentially hazardous trace elements found in coal have a strong affinity for coal pyrite. Thus, by maximizing the rejection of pyrite, one can minimize the trace element content of a given coal while also reducing sulfur emissions. The pyrite in most Illinois Basin coals, however, is finely disseminated within the coal matrix. Therefore, to remove the pyrite using physical coal cleaning techniques, the pyrite must be liberated by grinding the coal to ultrafine particle sizes. Fortunately, the coals being fed to pulverized coal boilers (PCB) are already ground to a very fine size, i.e., 70% passing 200 mesh. Therefore, this research project will investigate the use of advanced fine coal cleaning technologies for cleaning PCB feed as a compliance strategy. Work in this quarter has focused on the processing of a run-of-mine coal sample collected from Amax Coal Company`s Delta Coal mine using column flotation and an enhanced gravity separator as separate units and in circuitry arrangements. The {minus}60 mesh run-of-mine sample having an ash content of about 22% was cleaned to 6% while achieving a very high energy recovery of about 87% and a sulfur rejection value of 53% in a single stage column flotation operation. Enhanced gravity treatment is believed to be providing excellent total sulfur rejection values, although with inferior ash rejection for the {minus}400 mesh size fraction. The circuitry arrangement with the Falcon concentrator as the primary cleaner followed by the Packed-Column resulted in an excellent ash rejection performance, which out performed the release analysis. Trace element analyses of the samples collected from these tests will be conducted during the next report period.

  19. Advanced physical coal cleaning to comply with potential air toxic regulations. Quarterly report, 1 December 1994--28 February 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honaker, R.Q.; Paul, B.C.; Wang, D.

    1995-12-31

    Studies have indicated that the potentially hazardous trace elements found in coal have a strong affinity for coal pyrite. Thus, by maximizing the rejection of pyrite, one can minimize the trace element content of a given coal while also reducing sulfur emissions. The pyrite in most Illinois Basin coals, however, is finely disseminated within the coal matrix. Therefore, to remove the pyrite using physical coal cleaning techniques, the pyrite must be liberated by grinding the coal to ultrafine particle sizes. Fortunately, the coals being fed to pulverized coal boilers (PCB) are already ground to a very fine size, i.e., 70% passing 200 mesh. Therefore, this research project will investigate the use of advanced fine coal cleaning technologies for cleaning PCB feed as a compliance strategy. Work in this quarter has focused on the processing of a PCB feed sample collected from Central Illinois Power`s Newton Power Station using column flotation and an enhanced gravity separator as separate units and in a circuitry arrangement. The PCB feed sample having a low ash content of about 12% was further cleaned to 6% while achieving a very high energy recovery of about 90% in a single stage column flotation operation. Enhanced gravity treatment is believed to be providing excellent total sulfur rejection values, although with inferior ash rejection for the {minus}400 mesh size fraction. The circuitry arrangement with the Falcon concentrator as the primary cleaner followed by the Microcel column resulted in an excellent ash rejection performance, which out performed the release analysis. Trace element analyses of the samples collected from these tests will be conducted during the next report period.

  20. Weight-Selected Attribute Bagging for Credit Scoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianwu Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Assessment of credit risk is of great importance in financial risk management. In this paper, we propose an improved attribute bagging method, weight-selected attribute bagging (WSAB, to evaluate credit risk. Weights of attributes are first computed using attribute evaluation method such as linear support vector machine (LSVM and principal component analysis (PCA. Subsets of attributes are then constructed according to weights of attributes. For each of attribute subsets, the larger the weights of the attributes the larger the probabilities by which they are selected into the attribute subset. Next, training samples and test samples are projected onto each attribute subset, respectively. A scoring model is then constructed based on each set of newly produced training samples. Finally, all scoring models are used to vote for test instances. An individual model that only uses selected attributes will be more accurate because of elimination of some of redundant and uninformative attributes. Besides, the way of selecting attributes by probability can also guarantee the diversity of scoring models. Experimental results based on two credit benchmark databases show that the proposed method, WSAB, is outstanding in both prediction accuracy and stability, as compared to analogous methods.

  1. A One-Piece Lunar Regolith Bag Garage Prototype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smithers, G. A.; Nehls, M. K.; Hovater, M. A.; Evans, S. W.; Miller, J. S.; Broughton, R. M., Jr.; Beale, D.; Kilinc-Balci, F.

    2007-01-01

    Shelter structures on the moon, even in early phases of exploration, should incorporate lunar materials as much as possible. This Technical Memorandum details the design and construction of a prototype for a one-piece regolith bag unpressurized garage concept and a materials testing program to investigate six candidate fabrics to learn how they might perform in the lunar environment. The conceptualization was that a lightweight fabric form be launched from Earth and landed on the lunar surface to be robotically filled with raw lunar regolith. Regolith bag fabric candidates included: Vectran(TM), Nextel(TM), Gore PTFE Fabric(TM), Zylon(TM), Twaron(TM), and Nomex(TM). Tensile (including post radiation exposure), fold, abrasion, and hypervelocity impact testing were performed under ambient conditions, and also performed under cold and elevated temperatures. In some cases, Johnson Space Center lunar simulant (JSC-1) was used in conjunction with testing. A series of preliminary structures was constructed during final prototype design based on the principles of the classic masonry arch. The prototype was constructed of Kevlar(TM) and filled with vermiculite. The structure is free-standing, but has not yet been load tested. Future plans would be to construct higher fidelity prototypes and to conduct appropriate tests of the structure.

  2. Laplacian forests: semantic image segmentation by guided bagging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombaert, Herve; Zikic, Darko; Criminisi, Antonio; Ayache, Nicholas

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a new, efficient and accurate technique for the semantic segmentation of medical images. The paper builds upon the successful random decision forests model and improves on it by modifying the way in which randomness is injected into the tree training process. The contribution of this paper is two-fold. First, we replace the conventional bagging procedure (the uniform sampling of training images) with a guided bagging approach, which exploits the inherent structure and organization of the training image set. This allows the creation of decision trees that are specialized to a specific sub-type of images in the training set. Second, the segmentation of a previously unseen image happens via selection and application of only the trees that are relevant to the given test image. Tree selection is done automatically, via the learned image embedding, with more precisely a Laplacian eigenmap. We, therefore, call the proposed approach Laplacian Forests. We validate Laplacian Forests on a dataset of 256, manually segmented 3D CT scans of patients showing high variability in scanning protocols, resolution, body shape and anomalies. Compared with conventional decision forests, Laplacian Forests yield both higher training efficiency, due to the local analysis of the training image space, as well as higher segmentation accuracy, due to the specialization of the forest to image sub-types.

  3. NN-πNN equations and the chiral bag model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afnan, I. R.; Blankleider, B.

    1985-12-01

    The NN-πNN equations that describe, in a unified framework, pion production in nucleon-nucleon scattering, and pion-deuteron and nucleon-nucleon elastic scattering, have been extended to include the N(939) and Δ(1232) on an equal footing. This extension, motivated by the quark models of hadrons, has the bare N and Δ as three quark states with the same spacial wave function, but different spin isospin states. The final equations, referred to as the BB-πBB equations, are consistent with the chiral bag models to the extent that the πNN, πNΔ, and πΔΔ coupling constants and form factors are related, and can be taken from bag models. The resultant equations satisfy two- and three-body unitarity, and are derived by exposing the lowest unitarity cuts in the n-body Green's function. These equations retain important contributions missing from the NN-πNN equations. For pion production and N-N scattering they include the contribution of backward pions in the NN-->NΔ transition potential, which may overcome the problem of small pp-->πd cross section as predicted by the NN-πNN equations. For π-d elastic scattering they include an additional NΔ-->NΔ tensor force that can influence the tensor polarization.

  4. NN-. pi. NN equations and the chiral bag model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Afnan, I.R.; Blankleider, B.

    1985-12-01

    The NN-..pi..NN equations that describe, in a unified framework, pion production in nucleon-nucleon scattering, and pion-deuteron and nucleon-nucleon elastic scattering, have been extended to include the N(939) and ..delta..(1232) on an equal footing. This extension, motivated by the quark models of hadrons, has the bare N and ..delta.. as three quark states with the same spacial wave function, but different spin isospin states. The final equations, referred to as the BB-..pi..BB equations, are consistent with the chiral bag models to the extent that the ..pi..NN, ..pi..N..delta.., and ..pi delta delta.. coupling constants and form factors are related, and can be taken from bag models. The resultant equations satisfy two- and three-body unitarity, and are derived by exposing the lowest unitarity cuts in the n-body Green's function. These equations retain important contributions missing from the NN-..pi..NN equations. For pion production and N-N scattering they include the contribution of backward pions in the NN..-->..N..delta.. transition potential, which may overcome the problem of small pp..--> pi..d cross section as predicted by the NN-..pi..NN equations. For ..pi..-d elastic scattering they include an additional N..delta -->..N..delta.. tensor force that can influence the tensor polarization.

  5. Gene cloning and characterization of the protein encoded by the Neospora caninum bradyzoite-specific antigen gene BAG1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, T; Narabu, S; Yanai, Y; Hatano, Y; Ito, A; Imai, S; Ike, K

    2013-06-01

    Neospora caninum is an Apicomplexan parasite that causes repeated abortion and stillbirth in cattle. The aim of this study was to clone the gene encoding the N. caninum orthologue (NcBAG1) of the Toxoplasma gondii bradyzoite-specific protein TgBAG1 and characterize its expression pattern in the parasite. Isolation of the full-length 684-bp gene revealed that it shared 78.3% sequence similarity with TgBAG1. NcBAG1 encodes a predicted protein of 227 amino acids with 80.3% similarity to TgBAG1. A putative signal peptide sequence and an invariant GVL motif characteristic of small heat-shock proteins were identified in the predicted N. caninum amino acid sequence. We expressed the NcBAG1 gene as a recombinant glutathione S-transferase fusion protein (rNcBAG1) in Escherichia coli and used the purified 60 kDa protein to obtain a monoclonal antibody (Mab). rNcBAG1 reacted to Mabs specific for NcBAG1 and TgBAG1. No reaction between the NcBAG1 Mab and N. caninum tachyzoites was observed. Although the predicted molecular mass of NcBAG1 is 25 kDa, Western blot analysis of parasite lysates using the NcBAG1 Mab revealed a cross-reactive protein of approximately 30 kDa. Additionally, immunofluorescence assays using the tachyzoite-specific Mab for NcSAG1 and the bradyzoite-specific Mab for TgBAG1 or NcSAG4 revealed NcBAG1-specific expression in bradyzoites in cultures exposed to sodium nitroprusside, a reagent that increases the frequency of bradyzoites. Interestingly, the NcBAG1 protein was identified in the cytoplasm of the bradyzoite-stage parasites. This preliminary analysis of the NcBAG1 gene will assist investigations into the role of this protein in N. caninum .

  6. 46 CFR 59.15-10 - Bagged or blistered shell plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bagged or blistered shell plates. 59.15-10 Section 59.15... shell plates. (a) When the shell plates of cylindrical boilers which are exposed to the radiant heat of... boiler. (b) Where the shell plate is bagged due to overheating, the Officer in Charge, Marine...

  7. Increase the use of the stone dust bagged barrier enhancing its application for differing conditions.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Du Plessis, JJL

    1999-02-01

    Full Text Available for the Compilation of a Mandatory Code of Practice for the Prevention of coal Dust Explosions in Underground Coal Mines (1997) on the constrLiction of a bagged stone dust barrier apply: The horizontal distance between the hooks of the bags on a plane must...

  8. Effect of Nylon Bag and Protozoa on In Vitro Corn Starch Disappearance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwieten, van J.T.; Vuuren, van A.M.; Dijkstra, J.

    2008-01-01

    An in vitro experiment was carried out to study whether the presence of protozoa in nylon bags can explain the underestimation of the in situ degradation of slowly degradable starch. Corn of a high (flint) and a low (dent) vitreousness variety was ground over a 3-mm screen, weighed in nylon bags

  9. Effects of Density-Dependent Bag Constant and Strange Star Rotation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Qiao-Er; GUO Hua

    2003-01-01

    With the emphasis on the effects of the density-dependent bag constant and the rotation of strange star the limiting mass of strange star is calculated. The obtained results show that the limiting mass and the corresponding radius of strange star increase as the rotation frequency increases, and tend to be lowered when the density-dependent bag constant is considered.

  10. Cordyceps sinensis attenuates renal fibrosis and suppresses BAG3 induction in obstructed rat kidney

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Feng; Li, Si; Wang, Tian; Zhang, Hai-Yan; Zong, Zhi-Hong; Du, Zhen-Xian; Li, De-Tian; Wang, Hua-Qin; Liu, Bo; Miao, Jia-Ning; Bian, Xiao-Hui

    2015-01-01

    BAG3 regulates a number of cellular processes, including cell proliferation, apoptosis, adhesion and migration, and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). However, the role of BAG3 in renal tubular EMT and renal interstitial fibrosis remains elusive. This study aimed to examine the dynamic expression of BAG3 during renal fibrosis, and to investigate the efficacy of Cordyceps sinensis (C. sinensis) on renal fibrosis. A rat model of unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) was established, and the expression of BAG3 and α-SMA, and the efficacy of C. sinensis on renal fibrosis induced by UUO were examined. The results showed that UUO led to collagen accumulation, which was significantly suppressed by C. sinensis. UUO increased the expression of BAG3 and α-SMA, a mesenchymal marker, while UUO induced BAG3 and α-SMA expression was significantly inhibited by C. sinensis. In addition, immunohistochemical staining demonstrated that BAG3 immunoreactivity was restricted to tubular epithelium. In conclusion, BAG3 is a potential target for the prevention and/or treatment of renal fibrosis, and C. Sinensis is a promising agent for renal fibrosis. PMID:26175854

  11. Aqueous solubility of Cr(VI) compounds in ferrochrome bag filter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aqueous solubility of Cr(VI) compounds in ferrochrome bag filter dust and the implications thereof. ... off-gas of the high-temperature processes, which are cleaned by means of venturi scrubbers or bag filter dust (BFD) systems. ... Article Metrics.

  12. Effectiveness of insecticide-incorporated bags to control stored-product beetles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adults of seven stored-product beetle species were exposed on the inside and outside surfaces of polypropylene polymer bags incorporated with the insecticide deltamethrin (approx. concentration of 3,000 ppm; ZeroFly® Storage Bags (3g/kg). Beetles were exposed for 60, 120, and 180 min, and 1, 3 and 5...

  13. Clinicopathologic significance of BAG1 and TIMP3 expression in colon carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To explore the expression of BAG1 and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 3 (TIMP3) in colon carcinoma and their correlation and clinicopathologic significance.METHODS: SABC immunohistochemistry was used to detect the expression of BAG1 and TIMP3 in 80 colon carcinoma tissues and 20 normal colonic mucosa.RESULTS: Positive rate of BAG1 in colon carcinoma tissue (80%) was notably higher compared to normal colonic mucosa (10%) (P < 0.05). However, no significant difference was observed in positive rate of TIMP3 in colon carcinoma tissue (43.75%) as compared with normal colonic mucosa (60%) (P > 0.05).Expression of BAG1 and TIMP3 was strongly associated with colon carcinoma differentiation, Duke's staging,lymph node metastasis and survival rate (P < 0.05), but not associated with gender and age. Moreover, BAG1 expression was not correlated with TIMP3.CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that over-expression of BAG1 or attenuated expression of TIMP3 may play an important role in genesis and development of colon carcinoma. The protein expression levels of BAG1 and TIMP3 are related to the malignant degree, infiltration and metastasis of colon carcinoma. BAG1 and TIMP3 might be new biological parameters in predicting invasion and metastasis of colon carcinoma.

  14. The Dual Codebook : Combining Bags of Visual Words in Image Classification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas, Jonathan L.; Okafor, Emmanuel; Wiering, Marco

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we evaluate the performance of two conventional bag of words approaches, using two basic local feature descriptors, to perform image classification. These approaches are compared to a novel design which combines two bags of visual words, using two different feature descriptors. The sy

  15. Effect of Nylon Bag and Protozoa on In Vitro Corn Starch Disappearance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwieten, van J.T.; Vuuren, van A.M.; Dijkstra, J.

    2008-01-01

    An in vitro experiment was carried out to study whether the presence of protozoa in nylon bags can explain the underestimation of the in situ degradation of slowly degradable starch. Corn of a high (flint) and a low (dent) vitreousness variety was ground over a 3-mm screen, weighed in nylon bags wit

  16. 75 FR 22842 - Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Indonesia, Taiwan, and Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-30

    ... COMMISSION Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Indonesia, Taiwan, and Vietnam Determinations On the basis... imports from Vietnam of polyethylene retail carrier bags (PRCBs), provided for in subheading 3923.21.00 of... Commerce (Commerce) to be subsidized by the Government of Vietnam.\\2\\ The Commission further...

  17. Bag-of-steps : Predicting lower-limb fracture rehabilitation length

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pla, Albert; López, Beatriz; Nogueira, Cristofor; Mordvaniuk, Natalia; Blokhuis, Taco J.; Holtslag, Herman R.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents bag-of-steps, a new methodology to predict the rehabilitation length of a patient by monitoring the weight he is bearing in his injured leg and using a predictive model based on the bag-of-words technique. A force sensor is used to monitor and characterize the patient's gait, obt

  18. 78 FR 88 - Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From the People's Republic of China: Rescission of Antidumping...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-02

    ... International Trade Administration Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From the People's Republic of China... rescinding its administrative review of the antidumping duty order on polyethylene retail carrier bags (PRCBs..., through July 31, 2012.\\1\\ On August 31, 2012, the petitioners, the Polyethylene Retail Carrier...

  19. 76 FR 26241 - Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Thailand: Extension of Time Limit for Preliminary Results...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Thailand: Extension of Time Limit for... polyethylene retail carrier bags from Thailand for the period August 1, 2009, through July 31, 2010....

  20. 75 FR 25207 - Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Malaysia: Extension of Time Limit for Preliminary Results...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration A-557-813 Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Malaysia: Extension of Time... administrative review of the antidumping duty order on polyethylene retail carrier bags from Malaysia for...

  1. Dynamic vs. fixed bag filling: impact on cardiac output rebreathing protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavorsky, Gerald S; Beck, Kenneth C; Cass, Lauren M; Artal, Raul; Wagner, Peter D

    2010-04-15

    The purpose of this study was to compare the repeatability (2.77 multiplied by the within-subject SD)between two different rebreathing protocols on cardiac output ( ˙Q ), pulmonary diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO) and nitric oxide (DLNO), and pulmonary capillary blood volume (Vc). This study compared two bag volume protocols [Fixed Bag Volume (FBV) = bag volume fixed at 60% of forced vital capacity; Dynamic Bag Volume (DBV) = bag volume matched to tidal volume at each stage of exercise].Ten females (age = 27±8 yrs; ˙VO2, (peak)=2.5±0.6 L/min had measurements at rest (12%), 52%, 88%, and 100% of ˙VO2, (peak) on two study days. Neither the slope nor intercept of ˙Q vs. ˙VO2 were different between either bag volume protocols. The slope of DLCO vs. ˙Q was the same but the intercept was higher for the FBV protocol. The bag volume affected the slope and the intercept between DLNO vs. ˙Q (p DLNO (p ≤ 0.06). Measurement error was lower for Vc when using the FBV protocol (p = 0.02). Also, the pattern of bag volume used during rebreathing maneuvers affected the relation between DLNO vs. ˙Q more than it affected DLCO vs. ˙Q , or Vc vs. ˙Q. Additionally, the FBV protocol provided less measurement error for Vc compared to the DBV protocol [corrected].

  2. The microenvironment within and pollen transmission through paper and polyethylene sorghum pollination bags

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird damage is a problem in sorghum breeding and germplasm maintenance operations. Paper pollination bags are damaged by rain and provide minimal deterrent to birds. Earlier we reported upon bird resistance of spun polyethylene pollination bags. Herein, we report the potential for pollen transmissio...

  3. Cooking practices, air quality, and the acceptability of advanced cookstoves in Haryana, India: an exploratory study to inform large-scale interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rupak Mukhopadhyay

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: In India, approximately 66% of households rely on dung or woody biomass as fuels for cooking. These fuels are burned under inefficient conditions, leading to household air pollution (HAP and exposure to smoke containing toxic substances. Large-scale intervention efforts need to be informed by careful piloting to address multiple methodological and sociocultural issues. This exploratory study provides preliminary data for such an exercise from Palwal District, Haryana, India. Methods: Traditional cooking practices were assessed through semi-structured interviews in participating households. Philips and Oorja, two brands of commercially available advanced cookstoves with small blowers to improve combustion, were deployed in these households. Concentrations of particulate matter (PM with a diameter <2.5 μm (PM2.5 and carbon monoxide (CO related to traditional stove use were measured using real-time and integrated personal, microenvironmental samplers for optimizing protocols to evaluate exposure reduction. Qualitative data on acceptability of advanced stoves and objective measures of stove usage were also collected. Results: Twenty-eight of the thirty-two participating households had outdoor primary cooking spaces. Twenty households had liquefied petroleum gas (LPG but preferred traditional stoves as the cost of LPG was higher and because meals cooked on traditional stoves were perceived to taste better. Kitchen area concentrations and kitchen personal concentrations assessed during cooking events were very high, with respective mean PM2.5 concentrations of 468 and 718 µg/m3. Twenty-four hour outdoor concentrations averaged 400 µg/m3. Twenty-four hour personal CO concentrations ranged between 0.82 and 5.27 ppm. The Philips stove was used more often and for more hours than the Oorja. Conclusions: The high PM and CO concentrations reinforce the need for interventions that reduce HAP exposure in the aforementioned community. Of the two

  4. Development of the high-order decoupled direct method in three dimensions for particulate matter: enabling advanced sensitivity analysis in air quality models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Zhang

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The high-order decoupled direct method in three dimensions for particulate matter (HDDM-3D/PM has been implemented in the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ model to enable advanced sensitivity analysis. The major effort of this work is to develop high-order DDM sensitivity analysis of ISORROPIA, the inorganic aerosol module of CMAQ. A case-specific approach has been applied, and the sensitivities of activity coefficients and water content are explicitly computed. Stand-alone tests are performed for ISORROPIA by comparing the sensitivities (first- and second-order computed by HDDM and the brute force (BF approximations. Similar comparison has also been carried out for CMAQ sensitivities simulated using a week-long winter episode for a continental US domain. Second-order sensitivities of aerosol species (e.g., sulfate, nitrate, and ammonium with respect to domain-wide SO2, NOx, and NH3 emissions show agreement with BF results, yet exhibit less noise in locations where BF results are demonstrably inaccurate. Second-order sensitivity analysis elucidates poorly understood nonlinear responses of secondary inorganic aerosols to their precursors and competing species. Adding second-order sensitivity terms to the Taylor series projection of the nitrate concentrations with a 50% reduction in domain-wide NOx or SO2 emissions rates improves the prediction with statistical significance.

  5. Development of the high-order decoupled direct method in three dimensions for particulate matter: enabling advanced sensitivity analysis in air quality models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Zhang

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The high-order decoupled direct method in three dimensions for particular matter (HDDM-3D/PM has been implemented in the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ model to enable advanced sensitivity analysis. The major effort of this work is to develop high-order DDM sensitivity analysis of ISORROPIA, the inorganic aerosol module of CMAQ. A case-specific approach has been applied, and the sensitivities of activity coefficients and water content are explicitly computed. Stand-alone tests are performed for ISORROPIA by comparing the sensitivities (first- and second-order computed by HDDM and the brute force (BF approximations. Similar comparison has also been carried out for CMAQ results simulated using a week-long winter episode for a continental US domain. Second-order sensitivities of aerosol species (e.g., sulfate, nitrate, and ammonium with respect to domain-wide SO2, NOx, and NH3 emissions show agreement with BF results, yet exhibit less noise in locations where BF results are demonstrably inaccurate. Second-order sensitivity analysis elucidates nonlinear responses of secondary inorganic aerosols to their precursors and competing species that have not yet been well-understood with other approaches. Including second-order sensitivity coefficients in the Taylor series projection of the nitrate concentrations with a 50% reduction in domain-wide NOx emission shows a statistically significant improvement compared to the first-order Taylor series projection.

  6. The association of BAG6 with SGTA and tail-anchored proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawel Leznicki

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The BAG6 protein is a subunit of a heterotrimeric complex that binds a range of membrane and secretory protein precursors localized to the cytosol, enforcing quality control and influencing their subsequent fate. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: BAG6 has an N-terminal ubiquitin-like domain, and a C-terminal Bcl-2-associated athanogene domain, separated by a large central proline-rich region. We have used in vitro binding approaches to identify regions of BAG6 important for its interactions with: i the small-glutamine rich tetratricopeptide repeat-containing protein alpha (SGTA and ii two model tail-anchored membrane proteins as a paradigm for its hydrophobic substrates. We show that the BAG6-UBL is essential for binding to SGTA, and find that the UBL of a second subunit of the BAG6-complex, ubiquitin-like protein 4A (UBL4A, competes for SGTA binding. Our data show that this binding is selective, and suggest that SGTA can bind either BAG6, or UBL4A, but not both at the same time. We adapted our in vitro binding assay to study the association of BAG6 with an immobilized tail-anchored protein, Sec61β, and find both the UBL and BAG domains are dispensable for binding this substrate. This conclusion was further supported using a heterologous subcellular localization assay in yeast, where the BAG6-dependent nuclear relocalization of a second tail-anchored protein, GFP-Sed5, also required neither the UBL, nor the BAG domain of BAG6. SIGNIFICANCE: On the basis of these findings, we propose a working model where the large central region of the BAG6 protein provides a binding site for a diverse group of substrates, many of which expose a hydrophobic stretch of polypeptide. This arrangement would enable the BAG6 complex to bring together its substrates with potential effectors including those recruited via its N-terminal UBL. Such effectors may include SGTA, and the resulting assemblies influence the subsequent fate of the hydrophobic BAG6

  7. Active joint mechanism driven by multiple actuators made of flexible bags: a proposal of dual structural actuator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Hitoshi; Matsuzaki, Takuya; Kataoka, Mokutaro; Inou, Norio

    2013-01-01

    An actuator is required to change its speed and force depending on the situation. Using multiple actuators for one driving axis is one of the possible solutions; however, there is an associated problem of output power matching. This study proposes a new active joint mechanism using multiple actuators. Because the actuator is made of a flexible bag, it does not interfere with other actuators when it is depressurized. The proposed joint achieved coordinated motion of multiple actuators. This report also discusses a new actuator which has dual cylindrical structure. The cylinders are composed of flexible bags with different diameters. The joint torque is estimated based on the following factors: empirical formula for the flexible actuator torque, geometric relationship between the joint and the actuator, and the principle of virtual work. The prototype joint mechanism achieves coordinated motion of multiple actuators for one axis. With this motion, small inner actuator contributes high speed motion, whereas large outer actuator generates high torque. The performance of the prototype joint is examined by speed and torque measurements. The joint showed about 30% efficiency at 2.0 Nm load torque under 0.15 MPa air input.

  8. Anoxic incubation of sediment in gas-tight plastic bags: a method for biogeochemical process studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, JW; Thamdrup, B.; Jørgensen, BB

    2000-01-01

    Incubation of sediment in gas-tight plastic bags is described as a method for experimental studies of biogeochemical processes. Sediment incubation in these bags allows time-course experiments to be conducted on homogenised sediment without dilution, continuous stirring, or gaseous head......-space. Consequently, bag incubations of sediment combine the advantage of low heterogeneity in slurry incubations with the more natural conditions in jar and whole-core incubations. The bag material is a transparent laminated plastic comprised of Nylon, ethylenevinyl alcohol, and polyethylene with a low permeability...... for the studied gases: O-2, CO2, H2S, CH4, N-2, H-2, and He. Estimated fluxes of biologically active gases through the plastic bag during sediment incubation were insignificant compared to rates of microbial processes and to gas concentrations in coastal sediments. An exception was CH4, for which process...

  9. Persuasive Normative Messages: The Influence of Injunctive and Personal Norms on Using Free Plastic Bags

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kayleigh Jones

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In this exploratory field-study, we examined how normative messages (i.e., activating an injunctive norm, personal norm, or both could encourage shoppers to use fewer free plastic bags for their shopping in addition to the supermarket’s standard environmental message aimed at reducing plastic bags. In a one-way subjects-design (N = 200 at a local supermarket, we showed that shoppers used significantly fewer free plastic bags in the injunctive, personal and combined normative message condition than in the condition where only an environmental message was present. The combined normative message did result in the smallest uptake of free plastic bags compared to the injunctive and personal normative-only message, although these differences were not significant. Our findings imply that re-wording the supermarket’s environmental message by including normative information could be a promising way to reduce the use of free plastic bags, which will ultimately benefit the environment.

  10. The existing situation and challenges regarding the use of plastic carrier bags in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasidoni, Maria; Moustakas, Konstantinos; Malamis, Dimitris

    2015-05-01

    Since day one, retailers and consumers have favoured plastic carrier bags. However, owing to the numerous environmental disadvantages, lightweight plastic carrier bags have been drawing the attention of the European Union competent authorities. Therefore, many European Union member states have taken action so as to reduce the use of plastic carrier bags. Based on the existing legislation and voluntary initiatives for the reduction of lightweight plastic carrier bags, the challenges and achieved outcomes from the implemented policy options in the various European Union member states are discussed and commented regarding the forthcoming transposition of the 'Directive 94/62/EC on packaging and packaging waste to reduce the consumption of lightweight plastic carrier bags' into the European Union member states' national law.

  11. The fuzzy bag and baryonic properties with center of mass and recoil corrections

    CERN Document Server

    Pilotto, F

    2003-01-01

    The fuzzy bag is a hadronic model which has features both of the bag model (energy-momentum conservation, QCD vacuum energy) and of relativistic potential models (confinement achieved through a potential). It is also a chiral model, with the unique property that the pion field is suppressed in the interior of the bag by means of a scalar potential, and yet chiral symmetry is preserved. This scalar potential allows one to control how far the pion field can penetrate in the interior of the bag. We calculate the masses of the fundamental baryon octet taking into account the center of mass, one-gluon exchange and one-pion exchange corrections. We also calculate the nucleon axial charge, charge radii and magnetic moments including center of mass and recoil corrections. The agreement with experiment is excellent, and the results indicate that the pion field is suppressed only very close to the center of the bag. (orig.)

  12. Effect of cooking bag and netting packaging on the quality of pork ham during water cooking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Qiaofen; Sun, Da-Wen

    2007-02-01

    As a preliminary test for combining water cooking with vacuum cooling in soup of pork ham, three package treatments were designed to study the effect of cooking bag and netting on the quality of water cooked ham, i.e. ham cooked with a cooking bag and without a cooking bag (single netting and double netting). For treatments without a cooking bag, the results indicated that there was no significant superiority of ham cooked with double netting compared with ham cooked with single netting on the processing efficiency and quality characteristics. Although the hams cooked with a bag performed better in some chemical retentions and pigment, the water contents were significantly lower than those hams cooked in single netting (P0.05). By considering the safety, convenience, cost, and the recovery effect on the quality changes of ham during vacuum cooling in soup, cooking with single netting is a better choice for future research.

  13. 76 FR 20082 - Koenigsegg Automotive AB; Morgan Motor Company Limited; Receipt of Applications for Renewals of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-11

    ... requirements for air bags in passenger cars and light trucks, requiring what are commonly known as ``advanced...; Receipt of Applications for Renewals of Temporary Exemptions From the Advanced Air Bag Requirements of... temporary exemption from advanced air bag requirements of FMVSS No. 208, ``Occupant crash protection.''The...

  14. Multiple, but Concerted Cellular Activities of the Human Protein Hap46/BAG-1M and Isoforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrich Gehring

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The closely related human and murine proteins Hap46/BAG-1M and BAG-1, respectively, were discovered more than a decade ago by molecular cloning techniques. These and the larger isoform Hap50/BAG-1L, as well as shorter isoforms, have the ability to interact with a seemingly unlimited array of proteins of completely unrelated structures. This problem was partially resolved when it was realized that molecular chaperones of the hsp70 heat shock protein family are major primary association partners, binding being mediated by the carboxy terminal BAG-domain and the ATP-binding domain of hsp70 chaperones. The latter, in turn, can associate with an almost unlimited variety of proteins through their substrate-binding domains, so that ternary complexes may result. The protein folding activity of hsp70 chaperones is affected by interactions with Hap46/BAG-1M or isoforms. However, there also exist several proteins which bind to Hap46/BAG-1M and isoforms independent of hsp70 mediation. Moreover, Hap46/BAG-1M and Hap50/BAG-1L, but not the shorter isoforms, can bind to DNA in a sequence-independent manner by making use of positively charged regions close to their amino terminal ends. This is the molecular basis for their effects on transcription which are of major physiological relevance, as discussed here in terms of a model. The related proteins Hap50/BAG-1L and Hap46/BAG-1M may thus serve as molecular links between such diverse bioactivities as regulation of gene expression and protein quality control. These activities are coordinated and synergize in helping cells to cope with conditions of external stress. Moreover, they recently became markers for the aggressiveness of several cancer types.

  15. Promoting fertilizer use via controlled release of a bacteria-encapsulated film bag.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chin-San

    2010-05-26

    A phosphate-solubilizing bacterium ( Burkholderia cepacia isolate) encapsulated in maleic anhydride (MA) grafted onto poly(butylene succinate adipate) (PBSA) and then combined with starch as film bag material (PBSA-g-MA/starch) incubated in a saline solution required approximately 20 days to deplete the starch in the film bags. Thereafter, the cell concentration in the saline solution increased significantly because of the release of cells from the severely destroyed film bags and also their growth by use of depolymerized PBSA-g-MA fragments as a substrate. The incubation proceeded for 60 days, by which time the PBSA-g-MA/starch composite had suffered a >80% weight loss. For practical application, effectiveness of the above-mentioned film bags was demonstrated because it could improve the absorbability of a fertilizer for plants and promote the growth of plants. As a result, it can avoid the accumulation of the phosphate in excess fertilizer that lead to the phenomenon of poor soils. These results demonstrate that PBSA-g-MA/starch can be used to encapsulate cells of an indigenous phosphate-solubilizing bacterium ( B. cepacia isolate) to form a controlled release of bacteria-encapsulated film bag (BEFB). The B. cepacia isolate was able to degrade the film bags material, causing cell release. Biodegradability of the film bags depended upon the type of material used, because the PBSA film bags were also degraded but to a lesser degree. The addition of starch made the film bags more biodegradable. The decrease in intrinsic viscosity was also higher for the starch composite, suggesting a strong connection between the biodegradability and these characteristics. The results suggest that the release of fertilizer-promoted bacteria might be controllable via a suitable film bag material formulation. In addition, this work adopted live bacteria to promote the absorption of phosphate, which is superior to the phosphate used in the traditional way.

  16. Addressing challenges in bar-code scanning of large-volume infusion bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raman, Kirthana; Heelon, Mark; Kerr, Gary; Higgins, Thomas L

    2011-08-01

    A hospital pharmacy's efforts to identify and address challenges with bedside scanning of bar codes on large-volume parenteral (LVP) infusion bags are described. Bar-code-assisted medication administration (BCMA) has been shown to reduce medication errors and improve patient safety. After the pilot implementation of a BCMA system and point-of-care scanning procedures at a medical center's intensive care unit, it was noted that nurses' attempted bedside scans of certain LVP bags for product identification purposes often were not successful. An investigation and root-cause analysis, including observation of nurses' scanning technique by a multidisciplinary team, determined that the scanning failures stemmed from the placement of two bar-code imprints-one with the product identification code and another, larger imprint with the expiration date and lot number-adjacently on the LVP bags. The nursing staff was educated on a modified scanning technique, which resulted in significantly improved success rates in the scanning of the most commonly used LVP bags. Representatives of the LVP bag manufacturer met with hospital staff to discuss the problem and corrective measures. As part of a subsequent infusion bag redesign, the manufacturer discontinued the use of the bar-code imprint implicated in the scanning failures. Failures in scanning LVP bags were traced to problematic placement of bar-code imprints on the bags. Interdisciplinary collaboration, consultation with the bag manufacturer, and education of the nursing and pharmacy staff resulted in a reduction in scanning failures and the manufacturer's removal of one of the bar codes from its LVP bags.

  17. Design and Testing of CPAS Main Deployment Bag Energy Modulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollmann, Catherine

    2017-01-01

    During the developmental testing program for CPAS (Capsule Parachute Assembly System), the parachute system for the NASA Orion Crew Module, simulation revealed that high loads may be experienced by the pilot risers during the most devere deployment conditions. As the role of the pilot parachutes is to deploy the main parachutes, these high loads introduced the possibility of main deployment failure. In order to mitigate these high loads, a set of energy modulators was incorporated between the pilot riser and the main deployment bag. An extensive developmental program was implemented to ensure the adequacy of these energy modulators. After initial design comparisons, the energy modulator design was validated through slow-speed joint tests as well as through high-speed bungee tests. This paper documents the design, development, and results of multiple tests completed on the final design.

  18. Unitary theory of pion photoproduction in the chiral bag model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araki, M.; Afnan, I.R.

    1987-07-01

    We present a multichannel unitary theory of single pion photoproduction from a baryon B. Here, B is the nucleon or ..delta..(1232), with possible extension to include the Roper resonance and strange baryons. We treat the baryon as a three-quark state within the framework of the gauge and chiral Lagrangian, derived from the Lagrangian for the chiral bag model. By first exposing two-body, and then three-body unitarity, taking into consideration the ..pi pi..B and ..gamma pi..B intermediate states, we derive a set of equations for the amplitudes both on and off the energy shell. The Born term in the expansion of the amplitude has the new feature that the vertices in the pole diagram are undressed, while those in the crossed, contact, and pion pole diagrams are dressed.

  19. Unitary theory of pion photoproduction in the chiral bag model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araki, M.; Afnan, I. R.

    1987-07-01

    We present a multichannel unitary theory of single pion photoproduction from a baryon B. Here, B is the nucleon or Δ(1232), with possible extension to include the Roper resonance and strange baryons. We treat the baryon as a three-quark state within the framework of the gauge and chiral Lagrangian, derived from the Lagrangian for the chiral bag model. By first exposing two-body, and then three-body unitarity, taking into consideration the ππB and γπB intermediate states, we derive a set of equations for the amplitudes both on and off the energy shell. The Born term in the expansion of the amplitude has the new feature that the vertices in the pole diagram are undressed, while those in the crossed, contact, and pion pole diagrams are dressed.

  20. Development of high efficiency ventilation bag actuated dry powder inhalers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behara, Srinivas R B; Longest, P Worth; Farkas, Dale R; Hindle, Michael

    2014-04-25

    New active dry powder inhaler systems were developed and tested to efficiently aerosolize a carrier-free formulation. To assess inhaler performance, a challenging case study of aerosol lung delivery during high-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) therapy was selected. The active delivery system consisted of a ventilation bag for actuating the device, the DPI containing a flow control orifice and 3D rod array, and streamlined nasal cannula with separate inlets for the aerosol and HFNC therapy gas. In vitro experiments were conducted to assess deposition in the device, emitted dose (ED) from the nasal cannula, and powder deaggregation. The best performing systems achieved EDs of 70-80% with fine particle fractions ventilation, nose-to-lung aerosol administration, and to assist patients that cannot reproducibly use passive DPIs.

  1. Different Ways of Carrying Bags in Mental Retarded Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saideh-Sadat Mortazavi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available School as an educational and social center is linked with various aspects of child’s growth. The impact of objects, tools, and lifestyle on the development of human performance is not hidden from anyone [1].Tasell Lauri, the head of Cairo Praktive in Australia, in a paper warned parents about bags as a tool that students carry every day, and he is believes that many spinal disorders in adults is caused by childhood trauma. Studies on children and patients with special needs and such as myelomenangocele, cerebral palsy, and neurofibromatosis precisely show abnormal growth of spinal disorders, muscle imbalance, wrong posture [2]. Carrying stationery in an inappropriate tool can cause irreversible effects.

  2. Tea-bag-like polymer nanoreactors filled with gold nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitschang, Fabian; Schmalz, Holger; Agarwal, Seema; Greiner, Andreas

    2014-05-05

    Gold-containing polymer nanotubes, which showed both catalytic activity and resistance to leaching, were prepared by the "tubes by fiber templates" (TUFT) process. For this purpose, electrospun polymer nonwovens with incorporated poly(L-lactide)-stabilized gold nanoparticles were coated with poly(p-xylylene) by the chemical vapor deposition process, and then the inner fiber templates were removed. The resulting polymer tubes carried encapsulated gold nanoparticles which were shown to be immobilized and featured pronounced catalytic activity towards the hydrolytic oxidation of dimethylphenylsilane and the alcoholysis of dimethylphenylsilane with n-butanol. The macroscopic nonwovens could be used as tea-bag-like catalyst systems and showed excellent reusability. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Results for the Brine Evaporation Bag (BEB) Brine Processing Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delzeit, Lance; Flynn, Michael; Fisher, John; Shaw, Hali; Kawashima, Brian; Beeler, David; Howard, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    The recent Brine Processing Test compared the NASA Forward Osmosis Brine Dewatering (FOBD), Paragon Ionomer Water Processor (IWP), UMPQUA Ultrasonic Brine Dewatering System (UBDS), and the NASA Brine Evaporation Bag (BEB). This paper reports the results of the BEB. The BEB was operated at 70 deg C and a base pressure of 12 torr. The BEB was operated in a batch mode, and processed 0.4L of brine per batch. Two different brine feeds were tested, a chromic acid-urine brine and a chromic acid-urine-hygiene mix brine. The chromic acid-urine brine, known as the ISS Alternate Pretreatment Brine, had an average processing rate of 95 mL/hr with a specific power of 5kWhr/L. The complete results of these tests will be reported within this paper.

  4. Effects of fruit pre-harvest bagging on fruit quality of peach (Prunus persica Batsch cv. Hujingmilu).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bin; Jia, Hui-Juan; Zhang, Xiao-Meng

    2006-06-01

    Experiments were conducted to test the effects of pre-harvest bagging on fruit ripening and quality of peach (Prunus persica Batsch cv. Hujingmilu). Young fruits, at 50 days after full bloom (DAFB), were covered with bags made of single-, double-, and triple-layers of orange paper bag with 27.0%, 13.9% and 8.2% sunlight transmission, respectively. Ethylene production and respiration rate were measured, and fruit quality was analyzed at 111, 114, 117, 120 (firm-ripe stage) and 124 DAFB (full-ripe stage). Single- and triple-layer bagged fruits had higher ethylene production rates than double-layer bagged and un-bagged fruits. The skin of un-bagged fruit had higher brightness (L-value) but smaller hue angle (h degrees) at the full-ripe stage compared with that of bagged fruit. Flesh firmness of un-bagged fruit was higher than that of bagged fruit until the firm-ripe stage, although triple-layer bagged fruit had higher firmness than un-bagged fruit at the full-ripe stage. Total soluble solids in juice of single-layer bagged fruit were a little higher than those of other treated fruits at the full-ripe stage. Single-layer bagged fruit showed the highest level of gamma-decalactone, a main characteristic aroma of peach and total lactones at the firm-ripe and full-ripe stages. It was concluded that 'Hujingmilu' peach had high quality with abundant aromas when the fruits were bagged with single-layer orange paper bags at 50 DAFB. The biosynthesis of gamma-decalactone and other aromas may be affected by light to some extent.

  5. Integration of Advanced Concepts and Vehicles Into the Next Generation Air Transportation System. Volume 1; Introduction, Key Messages, and Vehicle Attributes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zellweger, Andres; Resnick, Herbert; Stevens, Edward; Arkind, Kenneth; Cotton William B.

    2010-01-01

    Raytheon, in partnership with NASA, is leading the way in ensuring that the future air transportation continues to be a key driver of economic growth and stability and that this system provides an environmentally friendly, safe, and effective means of moving people and goods. A Raytheon-led team of industry and academic experts, under NASA contract NNA08BA47C, looked at the potential issues and impact of introducing four new classes of advanced aircraft into the next generation air transportation system -- known as NextGen. The study will help determine where NASA should further invest in research to support the safe introduction of these new air vehicles. Small uncrewed or unmanned aerial systems (SUAS), super heavy transports (SHT) including hybrid wing body versions (HWB), very light jets (VLJ), and supersonic business jets (SSBJ) are the four classes of aircraft that we studied. Understanding each vehicle's business purpose and strategy is critical to assessing the feasibility of new aircraft operations and their impact on NextGen's architecture. The Raytheon team used scenarios created by aviation experts that depict vehicles in year 2025 operations along with scripts or use cases to understand the issues presented by these new types of vehicles. The information was then mapped into the Joint Planning and Development Office's (JPDO s) Enterprise Architecture to show how the vehicles will fit into NextGen's Concept of Operations. The team also identified significant changes to the JPDO's Integrated Work Plan (IWP) to optimize the NextGen vision for these vehicles. Using a proven enterprise architecture approach and the JPDO s Joint Planning Environment (JPE) web site helped make the leap from architecture to planning efficient, manageable and achievable. Very Light Jets flying into busy hub airports -- Supersonic Business Jets needing to climb and descend rapidly to achieve the necessary altitude Super-heavy cargo planes requiring the shortest common flight

  6. A One-Piece Lunar Regolith-Bag Garage Prototype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smithers, Gweneth A.; Nehls, Mary K.; Hovater, Mary A.; Evans, Steven W.; Miller, J. Scott; Broughton, Roy M.; Beale, David; Killing-Balci, Fatma

    2007-01-01

    Shelter structures on the moon, even in early phases of exploration, should incorporate lunar materials as much as possible. We designed and constructed a prototype for a one-piece regolith-bag unpressurized garage concept, and, in parallel, we conducted a materials testing program to investigate six candidate fabrics to learn how they might perform in the lunar environment. In our concept, a lightweight fabric form is launched from Earth to be landed on the lunar surface and robotically filled with raw lunar regolith. In the materials testing program, regolith-bag fabric candidates included: Vectran(TM), Nextel(TM), Gore PTFE Fabric(TM), Zylon(TM), Twaron(TM), and Nomex(TM). Tensile (including post radiation exposure), fold, abrasion, and hypervelocity impact testing were performed under ambient conditions, and, within our current means, we also performed these tests under cold and elevated temperatures. In some cases, lunar simulant (JSC-1) was used in conjunction with testing. Our ambition is to continuously refine our testing to reach lunar environmental conditions to the extent possible. A series of preliminary structures were constructed during design of the final prototype. Design is based on the principles of the classic masonry arch. The prototype was constructed of Kevlar(TM) and filled with vermiculite (fairly close to the weight of lunar regolith on the moon). The structure is free-standing, but has not yet been load tested. Our plan for the future would be to construct higher fidelity mockups with each iteration, and to conduct appropriate tests of the structure.

  7. Semantics-preserving bag-of-words models and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lei; Hoi, Steven C H; Yu, Nenghai

    2010-07-01

    The Bag-of-Words (BoW) model is a promising image representation technique for image categorization and annotation tasks. One critical limitation of existing BoW models is that much semantic information is lost during the codebook generation process, an important step of BoW. This is because the codebook generated by BoW is often obtained via building the codebook simply by clustering visual features in Euclidian space. However, visual features related to the same semantics may not distribute in clusters in the Euclidian space, which is primarily due to the semantic gap between low-level features and high-level semantics. In this paper, we propose a novel scheme to learn optimized BoW models, which aims to map semantically related features to the same visual words. In particular, we consider the distance between semantically identical features as a measurement of the semantic gap, and attempt to learn an optimized codebook by minimizing this gap, aiming to achieve the minimal loss of the semantics. We refer to such kind of novel codebook as semantics-preserving codebook (SPC) and the corresponding model as the Semantics-Preserving Bag-of-Words (SPBoW) model. Extensive experiments on image annotation and object detection tasks with public testbeds from MIT's Labelme and PASCAL VOC challenge databases show that the proposed SPC learning scheme is effective for optimizing the codebook generation process, and the SPBoW model is able to greatly enhance the performance of the existing BoW model.

  8. Cryopreservation in Closed Bag Systems as an Alternative to Clean Rooms for Preparations of Peripheral Blood Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spoerl, Silvia; Peter, Robert; Krackhardt, Angela M

    2016-01-01

    Autologous and allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT) represents a therapeutic option widely used for hematopoietic malignancies. One important milestone in the development of this treatment strategy was the development of effective cryopreservation technologies resulting in a high quality with respect to cell viability as well as lack of contamination of the graft.Stem cell preparations have been initially performed within standard laboratories as it is routinely still the case in many countries. With the emergence of cleanrooms, manufacturing of stem cell preparations within these facilities has become a new standard mandatory in Europe. However, due to high costs and laborious procedures, novel developments recently emerged using closed bag systems as reliable alternatives to conventional cleanrooms. Several hurdles needed to be overcome including the addition of the cryoprotectant dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) as a relevant manipulation. As a result of the development, closed bag systems proved to be comparable in terms of product quality and patient outcome to cleanroom products. They also comply with the strict regulations of good manufacturing practice.With closed systems being available, costs and efforts of a cleanroom facility may be substantially reduced in the future. The process can be easily extended for other cell preparations requiring minor modifications as donor lymphocyte preparations. Moreover, novel developments may provide solutions for the production of advanced-therapy medicinal products in closed systems.

  9. The sand bag model of the dispersion of the cosmic body in the atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teterev, A. V.; Nemchinov, I. V.

    1993-01-01

    The strength of the extraterrestrial bodies depends on their structure, composition, dimensions, and the history of this body. The fragmentation of the body due to aerodynamic stresses begins at sufficiently large heights above the surface of the Earth. The process of fragmentation and dispersion of the fragments usually is studied by the hydrodynamic or even gasdynamic models. If the fragmentation process begins due to the initial cracks and faults of the body, or this body consists of large boulders glued by ice, the strength of these boulders after fragmentation remains higher than the aerodynamic stresses exerted at the remaining part of the body. It is supposed that fragmentation occurs at initial moment t = 0 at some height z(sub o) above the surface of the air, these fragments remain solid. The possibility of further fragmentation during the remaining part of the trajectory is not taken into account. If the number of these parts is large enough and their size is small in comparison to the initial radius of the body than we can use the sand bag model proposed in qualitative form.

  10. 78 FR 72628 - Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Thailand: Notice of Court Decision Not in Harmony With...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-03

    ... Thai Plastic Bags Industries Company (TPBI) and Landblue (Thailand) Co., Ltd. (Landblue). \\1\\ See Results of Redetermination Pursuant to Court Remand Thai Plastic Bags Industries Co., Ltd., v. United.... Court No. 11-00408, dated July 10, 2013 (Remand Results). \\2\\ See Thai Plastic Bags Industries Co.,...

  11. Cost analysis of adult parenteral nutrition systems: three-compartment bag versus customized

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Berlana

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Parenteral nutrition (PN is a costly technology used widely to provide nutrition to patients who have an inaccessible or non-functioning intestine. Two all-in-one systems currently being used are customized formulations and three-compartment bags. Objective: To provide a systematic cost comparison of the two all-in-one PN systems: individualized (made from nutrient solutions versus commercialized (made from three-compartment bag, both prepared in hospital pharmacies. Setting: This study was conducted in three public Spanish hospitals. Method: We conducted a cost-minimization study to analyze prospectively the total cost of PN bags, accounting for all of the processes involved in preparing and delivering PN bags (cost of manpower, nutrition solutions, medical supplies and quality controls in three different healthcare settings. To compare therapeutic alternatives of equivalent nutritional value, the study was performed for the most frequently employed formulation and similar to commercial preparations. A univariate sensitivity analysis was performed to evaluate the impact of different rates of use of three-compartment PN bag. Results: 157 routine acts of PN bag preparation (65 customized and 92 three-compartment were observed and timed over 9 days. Total costs of the 157 PN bags were included in the study. Mean costs of customized bags were higher than three-compartment bags, 51.16 ± 5.63 € versus 39.69 ± 3.00 € respectively (p < 0.01. Manpower costs were responsible for the majority of the differences found (70%. The time to complete an adult bag for the hospital compounded system was a mean of 25.9 minutes longer than the three-compartment system. In scenarios using a three-compartment system for 30%, 70% and 90% of PN provision, a cost savings of 4.3%, 10.1% and 12.9% respectively could be achieved. Greatest rates of changing from customized bags (70% and 90%, in a hospital with 1,800 PN bags/year, might reduce the annual

  12. The effect of frontpacks, shoulder bags and handheld bags on 3D back shape and posture in young university students: an ISIS2 study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettany-Saltikov, J; Cole, L

    2012-01-01

    Students at school and university settings have been shown to carry heavy loads in a variety of pack systems. Both type and mode of load carriage have been shown to cause significant postural adaptations that can lead to injuries in the shoulder, arms, hands and back. Whilst backpacks have been well researched, there is a paucity of literature on the effects of frontpacks, shoulder bags and hand-held bags on 3D posture and back shape. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of carrying three different types of bag (shoulder, front and handheld), each containing a load of 15% body weight. The Integrated Shape Imaging System 2 (ISIS 2) was used to evaluate 3 D back shape and posture. The study involved twenty-five university students. A repeated measures design was used to record the effects of four conditions using no load (reference), a frontpack, a shoulder bag and a handheld bag. Measurements with ISIS 2 were taken 5 minutes post loading. All of the conditions were randomised in an attempt to offset any order effects. Results showed an increase in extension and lumber lordosis angles for the front bag (Ppostural deviations and adaptations. Frontbags may be more suitable for load carriage within the young adult student population as they produce a symmetrical postural deviation in one plane in response to load. The shoulder and handheld bags produce postural deviations in all planes which may cause adverse stress and strain on spinal structures and ultimately lead to pain and progressive postural scoliosis.

  13. 果袋颜色对番茄果实微环境及产量和品质的影响%Effects of fruit bag color on the microenvironment, yield and quality of tomato fruits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王磊; 高方胜; 徐坤; 徐宁

    2013-01-01

    In order to clarify the ecological and biological effects of fruit bagging,tomato variety JYK was taken as the test material to study the changes of the microenvironment in different color fruit bags and the effects of these changes on the fruit development,yield and quality,with the treatment without fruit bagging as the control (CK).The results showed that bagging with different color fruit bags had positive effects in decreasing the light intensity of the microenvironment and increasing its temperature and humidity,and thus,increased the single fruit mass and promoted the harvest stage advanced.Black bag had the best effects in increasing microenvironment temperature and fruit mass,with the single fruit mass increased by 27.2% and the harvest period shortened by 10 days,compared with CK.The fruit maturation period in colorless bag,blue bag and red bag was shortened by 8,3 and 2 days,and the single mass was increased by 11.8%,6.4% and 4.8%,respectively.Moreover,the coloring and lycopene content of the fruits with different color bags bagging were improved,but the fruit rigidity and fruit soluble solid,soluble protein,and soluble sugar contents were decreased.Therefore,bagging with different color bags could improve the yield of tomato fruits,but decrease the fruit nutritional quality.%为确定果袋颜色的生态学和生物学效应,以JYK番茄为试材,采用不同颜色果袋进行套袋处理,以不套袋为对照,研究了不同颜色果袋内微环境的变化及其对果实生长发育、产量和品质的影响.结果表明:不同颜色果袋均具有降低光强、提高温度、增加湿度的作用,并均可促进番茄果实膨大,增加单果质量,促进果实提早成熟.其中,以黑色果袋增温促长效果最好,其果实成熟期较对照提早10 d,单果质量增加27.2%;无色、蓝色及红色果袋处理的果实成熟期分别较对照提早8、3和2d,单果质量分别增加11.8%、6.4%和4.8%.此外,套袋还可

  14. Twin Support Vector Machine for Multiple Instance Learning Based on Bag Dissimilarities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divya Tomar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In multiple instance learning (MIL framework, an object is represented by a set of instances referred to as bag. A positive class label is assigned to a bag if it contains at least one positive instance; otherwise a bag is labeled with negative class label. Therefore, the task of MIL is to learn a classifier at bag level rather than at instance level. Traditional supervised learning approaches cannot be applied directly in such kind of situation. In this study, we represent each bag by a vector of its dissimilarities to the other existing bags in the training dataset and propose a multiple instance learning based Twin Support Vector Machine (MIL-TWSVM classifier. We have used different ways to represent the dissimilarity between two bags and performed a comparative analysis of them. The experimental results on ten benchmark MIL datasets demonstrate that the proposed MIL-TWSVM classifier is computationally inexpensive and competitive with state-of-the-art approaches. The significance of the experimental results has been tested by using Friedman statistic and Nemenyi post hoc tests.

  15. Simple systems for treating pumped, turbid water with flocculants and a geotextile dewatering bag.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jihoon; McLaughlin, Richard A

    2016-11-01

    Pumping sediment-laden water from excavations is often necessary on construction sites. This water is often treated by pumping it through geotextile dewatering bags. The bags are not designed to filter the fine sediments that create high turbidity, but dosing with a flocculant prior to the bag could result in greater turbidity control. This study compared two systems for introducing flocculant: passive dosing of commercial solid biopolymer (chitosan) and injection of dissolved polyacrylamide (PAM) in a length of corrugated pipe connected to the bag. The biopolymer system consisted of sequential porous socks containing a "charging agent" followed by chitosan in the corrugated pipe with two levels of dosing. The dissolved PAM was injected into turbid water at a flow-weighted concentration at 1 mg L(-1). For each treatment, sediment-laden turbid water in the range of 2000 to 3500 nephelometric turbidity units (NTU) was pumped into the upstream of corrugated pipe and samples were taken from pipe entrance, pipe exit, and dewatering bag exit. Without flocculant treatment, the dewatering bag reduced turbidity by 70% but the addition of flocculant increased the turbidity reduction up to 97% relative to influent. At the pipe exit, the low-dose biopolymer was less effective in reducing turbidity (37%) but it was equally effective as the high-dose biopolymer or PAM injection after the bag. Our results suggest that a relatively simple treatment with flocculants, either passively or actively, can be very effective in reducing turbidity for pumped water on construction sites.

  16. Evaluation of the environmental impact of portion bag for food packaging: a case study of Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruangrit, Chaniporn; Usapein, Parnuwat; Limphitakphong, Nantamol; Chavalparit, Orathai

    2017-05-01

    This study applied life cycle assessment methodology in evaluating environmental impact of portion bag. The objective of this study was to identify the hotspot of environmental impact through life cycle of portion bag. The options were proposed for improving environmental performance of the product. The system boundary was defined as cradle-to-grave which included the ethylene production, LDPE and LLDPE resins production, portion bag production, disposal, and transportation. All materials and emissions were calculated based on 1 piece of portion bag which weighed 2.49 g. IMPACT 2002+ was used for assessing environmental impact on SimaPro V8.2 software. The result found that the most of environmental impact was generated from LDPE and LLDPE resins which was used as raw material for producing portion bag. After normalization, non-renewable energy showed the highest potential to concern. This impact related directly to the natural gas drilling, ethane production, ethylene production, resin productions, and energy in all process. In conclusion, it should be suggested that the selection of bio-material for producing portion bag can play an important role to reduce the environmental impact. The research demonstrates the possible way and benefits in improving cleaner raw material and suitable way of product's end-of-life for producing green portion bag in the future.

  17. Health-hazard evaluation report HETA 87-080-1856, Duro Bag Manufacturing Company, Richwood, Kentucky

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laubli, T.; Mathias, C.G.T.; Almaguer, D.

    1988-01-01

    In response to a request from the Duro Bag manufacturing Company, Richwood, Kentucky, an investigation was made of the occurrence of skin rashes and hair loss at the facility. Products included shopping bags, grocery bags, millinery and notion bags, and wrapping paper in the Paper Division. A questionnaire was completed by 215 of 245 hourly production workers. Sixty one of those responding indicated a skin rash in the period since January 1, 1986. Hair loss had been noticed by 12 employees. Significantly elevated relative risks were noted among bag catchers of the plastic division for skin rashes on arms and hands. Increases in skin rashes of the head and neck area occurred among bag catchers, collator tenders, and adjuster supervisors in grocery-bag production areas. Dust levels were below current standards. The authors conclude that the cause of the skin rashes probably is exposure to chemicals used to clean machine parts. The authors recommend specific changes to reduce the occurrence of contact dermatitis, including use of personal protective equipment, good personal hygiene, ventilation systems, dust control, proper humidity for work areas, regular use of skin moisturizers, and proper use of respirators.

  18. Gravitating bag as a coherent system of the point-like and dressed electron

    CERN Document Server

    Burinskii, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Gravitational and electromagnetic fields of an electron correspond to over-rotating Kerr-Newman (KN) solution, which has a naked singular ring and two-sheeted topology. This solution is regularized by a solitonic source, in which singular interior is replaced by a vacuum bubble filled by the Higgs field in a false-vacuum state. Field model of this KN bubble has much in common with the famous MIT and SLAC bag models, but the geometry is "dual" (turned inside out), leading to consistency of the KN bag model with gravity. Similar to other bag models, the KN bag is compliant to deformations, and under rotations it takes an oblate ellipsoidal form, creating a circular string along the border. Electromagnetic excitations of the KN bag generate stringy traveling waves which deform the bag, creating a traveling singular pole, included in a general bag-string-quark complex. The dressed electron may be considered in this model as a coherent excitation of this system, confining the point-like electron (as a quark) in st...

  19. Automatic Bagging Machine for Cigarette%自动重袋包装机设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程亮; 郭爱华; 孔晨曲; 李怀刚; 丁科; 李全华

    2011-01-01

    自动重袋包装机具有自动取袋、自动开袋、自动夹袋、自动充填等主要功能以及其他辅助功能,整个工序模仿人工套袋过程制定,并配套整形袋口装置使其在装袋完毕后能无缝对接折边机进入缝包机缝包.其中取袋及开袋等关键动作均由吸盘完成.%Automatic bagging machine has main function of fetching, opening, clipping and filling bag automatically and other functions, and the process of putting bag manually is imitated. E-quipped with flattening device for the mouth of bag, automatic bagging machine can make the filled bag going smoothly to folding machine and sewing machine. Actions of fetching, opening bags etc. are all finished by suckers.

  20. Cardiac Dysfunction in HIV-1 Transgenic Mouse: Role of Stress and BAG3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Joseph Y; Gordon, Jennifer; Wang, JuFang; Song, Jianliang; Zhang, Xue-Qian; Tilley, Douglas G; Gao, Erhe; Koch, Walter J; Rabinowitz, Joseph; Klotman, Paul E; Khalili, Kamel; Feldman, Arthur M

    2015-08-01

    Since highly active antiretroviral therapy improved long-term survival of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients, AIDS cardiomyopathy has become an increasingly relevant clinical problem. We used human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 transgenic (Tg26) mouse to explore molecular mechanisms of AIDS cardiomyopathy. Tg26 mice had significantly lower left ventricular (LV) mass and smaller end-diastolic and end-systolic LV volumes. Under basal conditions, cardiac contractility and relaxation and single myocyte contraction dynamics were not different between wild-type (WT) and Tg26 mice. Ten days after open heart surgery, contractility and relaxation remained significantly depressed in Tg26 hearts, suggesting that Tg26 mice did not tolerate surgical stress well. To simulate heart failure in which expression of Bcl2-associated athanogene 3 (BAG3) is reduced, we down-regulated BAG3 by small hairpin ribonucleic acid in WT and Tg26 hearts. BAG3 down-regulation significantly reduced contractility in Tg26 hearts. BAG3 overexpression rescued contractile abnormalities in myocytes expressing the HIV-1 protein Tat. We conclude: (i) Tg26 mice exhibit normal contractile function at baseline; (ii) Tg26 mice do not tolerate surgical stress well; (iii) BAG3 down-regulation exacerbated cardiac dysfunction in Tg26 mice; (iv) BAG3 overexpression rescued contractile abnormalities in myocytes expressing HIV-1 protein Tat; and (v) BAG3 may occupy a role in pathogenesis of AIDS cardiomyopathy. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Thioflavin S (NSC71948) interferes with Bcl-2-associated athanogene (BAG-1)-mediated protein-protein interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Adam; Crabb, Simon J; Johnson, Peter W M; Hague, Angela; Cutress, Ramsey; Townsend, Paul A; Ganesan, A; Packham, Graham

    2009-11-01

    The C-terminal BAG domain is thought to play a key role in BAG-1-induced survival and proliferation by mediating protein-protein interactions, for example, with heat shock proteins HSC70 and HSP70, and with RAF-1 kinase. Here, we have identified thioflavin S (NSC71948) as a potential small-molecule chemical inhibitor of these interactions. NSC71948 inhibited the interaction of BAG-1 and HSC70 in vitro and decreased BAG-1:HSC70 and BAG-1:HSP70 binding in intact cells. NSC71948 also reduced binding between BAG-1 and RAF-1, but had no effect on the interaction between two unrelated proteins, BIM and MCL-1. NSC71948 functionally reversed the ability of BAG-1 to promote vitamin D3 receptor-mediated transactivation, an activity of BAG-1 that depends on HSC70/HSP70 binding, and reduced phosphorylation of p44/42 mitogen-activate protein kinase. NSC71948 can be used to stain amyloid fibrils; however, structurally related compounds, thioflavin T and BTA-1, had no effect on BAG-1:HSC70 binding, suggesting that structural features important for amyloid fibril binding and inhibition of BAG-1:HSC70 binding may be separable. We demonstrated that NSC71948 inhibited the growth of BAG-1 expressing human ZR-75-1 breast cancer cells and wild-type, but not BAG-1-deficient, mouse embryo fibroblasts. Taken together, these data suggest that NSC71948 may be a useful molecule to investigate the functional significance of BAG-1 C-terminal protein interactions. However, it is important to recognize that NSC71948 may exert additional "off-target" effects. Inhibition of BAG-1 function may be an attractive strategy to inhibit the growth of BAG-1-overexpressing cancers, and further screens of additional compound collections may be warranted.

  2. Comparative study of cost-benefit integrated system of water spary with industrial ventilation and bag filters in a minerals processing company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Babaei

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Control of fugitative dust from mining process and application of an appropriate and economical system for dust collecting is essential. The goal of this study was cost-benefit analysis of an integrated systems and compare to bag filter in a crushing plant of a mining company. Methods: A local exhaust ventilation system for capture of emitted particlees, a water spray for dust suppresion at sources and parallel Stairmand model cyclones as dust colletor were designed and installed based on the standards and guidelines. Then, efficiency of wetting and industrial ventilation system for control of ambient dust personal exposure and environmental emission have evaluated as integrated and alone. Finally, cost-benefit analysis of this system was compared to bag filter. Results: The efficiency of this system for control personal exposure repairable particles and emitted dust to ambient air was 87% and 95% for plant 1 and 88% and 95% for plant 2, respectively. The concentration of emitted emitted dust from stack to environment were 121.28 mg/m3 and 112/68 mg/m3 for plant 1 and 2, respectively. The capital, operational and maintence costs of this option was 217 and 0.992 billion rials lower than bag filter. Also, annuall collected dust by cyclones was worth 518 million rial. Conclusion: According to results, integrated system had a significant impact on emitted dust in workplace and environment. The economical analysis domonstrated 73% and 80% savings in capital and operational costs compared to bag filter. Total costs of implented project will be compensated at 220 day with recovered dusts, therefore, in the same condition, it can be suggested as the favourable and economical solution.

  3. Using small meshed collecting bags on trawls to quantify trawls seabed disturbance of aquatic organisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krag, Ludvig Ahm

    activities has been documented by collecting samples before and after the fishing process or by comparing areas of different fishing intensity. These investigations are expensive and labor demanding and are inappropriate for documenting effects of smaller technological changes aimed at reducing trawling...... impact on commercial fishing grounds. In this study we develop and test small-meshed collecting bags designed to retain juvenile fish and benthic megafauna. The collecting bags are mounted in the wings and body of the trawl. The catches in the collection bags provide information of the species and size...

  4. BAG1: The Guardian of Anti-Apoptotic Proteins in Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    OpenAIRE

    Sanja Aveic; Martina Pigazzi; Giuseppe Basso

    2011-01-01

    BCL2 associated Athano-Gene 1 (BAG1) is a multifunctional protein that has been described to be involved in different cell processes linked to cell survival. It has been reported as deregulated in diverse cancer types. Here, BAG1 protein was found highly expressed in children with acute myeloid leukemia at diagnosis, and in a cohort of leukemic cell lines. A silencing approach was used for determining BAG1's role in AML, finding that its down-regulation decreased expression of BCL2, BCL-XL, M...

  5. Constraining the MIT Bag Model of Quark Matter with Gravitational Wave Observations

    CERN Document Server

    Benhar, O; Gualtieri, L; Marassi, S; Benhar, Omar; Ferrari, Valeria; Gualtieri, Leonardo; Marassi, Stefania

    2006-01-01

    Most theoretical studies of strange stars are based on the MIT bag model of quark matter, whose main parameter, the bag constant B, is only loosely constrained by phenomenology. We discuss the possibility that detection of gravitational waves emitted by a compact star may provide information on both the nature of the source and the value of B. Our results show that the combined knowledge of the frequency of the emitted gravitational wave and of the mass or the radiation radius of the source allows one to discriminate between strange stars and neutron stars and set stringent bounds on the bag constants.

  6. Odor Control Test Report of the Urine Containment Bag (UCB) for Orion Utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casper, Stephanie; Williams, Nichole M. M.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to summarize the conclusions for the odor control test of the Urine Containment Bag (UCB), P/N SDD46107234-306 in an environment simulating a space craft capsule. JSC 65891, Odor Control Test Plan of the Urine Containment Bag (UCB) for Orion Utilization, documents the test plan. The details of the test set-up and data reduction are detailed in the WSTF test report for this test WSTF #10-44500, Odor Control Test Plan of the Urine Containment Bag (UCB) for Orion Utilization,. This document outlines the project conclusions and forward plans with regard to trash containment for Constellation.

  7. Monolateral purple urine bag syndrome in a patient with bilateral nephrostomy tubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehan, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Purple urine bag syndrome (PUBS) is a constellation of findings resulting in purple discoloration of the urine and/or urine drainage bag(s) occurring in patients with long-term urinary indwelling catheters. Other causative factors may include constipation, female gender, the presence of bacteria containing sulphatase and phosphatase enzymes, and alkaline urine. While the contributing factors for PUBS are linked with high morbidity, PUBS itself is a benign condition. A case study of monolateral PUBS in a patient with bilateral nephrostomy tubes (NTs) is presented.

  8. Flowrate testing of the bag filter LANCS-BOP 6CPVC-1.5-2SPVC (LANCS Industries) at 1 psig

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, Murray E. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Currie, Karissa Lyn [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Berg, Charlotte Katherine [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-09-13

    The air flowrate through a flexible HEPA grade filter (Part LANCS-BOP 6CPVC-1.5-2SPVC www.lancsindustries.com) was measured at 48 ALPM for a differential pressure drop of 1.0 psig (28 inWC, 7.0 kPa). These filters are rated by the manufacturer to have a flowrate of 3 ALPM at a differential pressure drop of 1 inWC (0.25 kPa). The Los Alamos National Laboratory Aerosol Engineering Facility used one of their test rigs (originally developed to measure the pressure drop in capsule HEPA filters) to measure the airflow through the LANCS bag filter.

  9. Effect of drug precursors and chemicals relevant to clandestine laboratory investigation on plastic bags used for collection and storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelot, Harmonie; Fu, Shanlin; Stuart, Barbara; Shimmon, Ronald; Raymond, Tony; Crandell, Tony; Roux, Claude

    2017-04-01

    In the area of clandestine laboratory investigations, plastic bags are used to collect and store evidence, such as solvents, precursors, and other compounds usually employed for the manufacturing of drugs (although liquids may be stored in glass containers within the bags first). In this study, three different types of plastic bags were provided by the NSW Police Force and investigated for their suitability for evidence collection: two different types of low-density polyethylene (LDPE) bags and one type of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) bag. Three different experiments were carried out: (1) storing relevant chemicals in the bags for up to three months; (2) exposing the bags including their content to accelerated conditions using a weatherometer, and (3) simulating an expected real case scenario. This study indicates that drugs and related chemicals stored in plastic bags may lead to a change in the composition of the chemical and an alteration or degradation of the plastic bag. All experiments led to the same conclusion: the polyvinyl chloride bags appeared to be the most affected. LDPE bags seem to be more appropriate for routine use, although it has been established they are not suitable for the collection of liquids (unless pre-packaged in, for instance, a glass container).

  10. Research on characteristics of water motion and influencing factors for the flexible air chamber jig body

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Yinghua; Kuang Yali; Li Haisheng

    2015-01-01

    The air bag deformation data were obtained by high-speed dynamic videos experiments. Based on gas–liquid flow VOF model, dynamic mesh technique and deformation data, numerical simulations for differ-ent structure models were achieved, and the law of water motion and influencing factors were analyzed. The results show that the flow in the length direction of the jig is smooth, and second pulsation appears in the separation time and forms the secondary separation. The installation position of screen and the num-ber of air bags have a great influence on the uniformity of flow and velocity. The screen height cannot be too low to avoid forming the unstable flow. At the same time, the screen height cannot be too high, other-wise water velocity will be too small and was unable to provide enough power. At the height of 1.4 m, velocity unevenness is minimum and the best uniform flow can be obtained. Compared with double air bags, there are the following features of single air bag:water flow is not smooth, the time achieving the maximum velocity is too long, maximum velocity is smaller, and overall effect is worse than double air bags.

  11. Online object tracking via bag-of-local-patches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhihui; Bo, Chunjuan; Wang, Dong

    2017-01-01

    As one of the most important tasks in computer vision, online object tracking plays a critical role in numerous lines of research, which has drawn a lot of researchers' attention and be of many realistic applications. This paper develops a novel tracking algorithm based on the bag-of-local-patches representation with the discriminative learning scheme. In the first frame, a codebook is learned by applying the Kmeans algorithm to a set of densely sampled local patches of the tracked object, and then used to represent the template and candidate samples. During the tracking process, the similarities between the coding coefficients of the candidates and template are chosen as the likelihood values of these candidates. In addition, we propose effective model updating and discriminative learning schemes to capture the appearance change of the tracked object and incorporate the discriminative information to achieve a robust matching. Both qualitative and quantitative evaluations on some challenging image sequences demonstrate that the proposed tracker performs better than other state-of-the-art tracking methods.

  12. BAG3 promotes pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma growth by activating stromal macrophages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosati, Alessandra; Basile, Anna; D'Auria, Raffaella; d'Avenia, Morena; De Marco, Margot; Falco, Antonia; Festa, Michelina; Guerriero, Luana; Iorio, Vittoria; Parente, Roberto; Pascale, Maria; Marzullo, Liberato; Franco, Renato; Arra, Claudio; Barbieri, Antonio; Rea, Domenica; Menichini, Giulio; Hahne, Michael; Bijlsma, Maarten; Barcaroli, Daniela; Sala, Gianluca; di Mola, Fabio Francesco; di Sebastiano, Pierluigi; Todoric, Jelena; Antonucci, Laura; Corvest, Vincent; Jawhari, Anass; Firpo, Matthew A; Tuveson, David A; Capunzo, Mario; Karin, Michael; De Laurenzi, Vincenzo; Turco, Maria Caterina

    2015-01-01

    The incidence and death rate of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) have increased in recent years, therefore the identification of novel targets for treatment is extremely important. Interactions between cancer and stromal cells are critically involved in tumour formation and development of metastasis. Here we report that PDAC cells secrete BAG3, which binds and activates macrophages, inducing their activation and the secretion of PDAC supporting factors. We also identify IFITM-2 as a BAG3 receptor and show that it signals through PI3K and the p38 MAPK pathways. Finally, we show that the use of an anti-BAG3 antibody results in reduced tumour growth and prevents metastasis formation in three different mouse models. In conclusion, we identify a paracrine loop involved in PDAC growth and metastatic spreading, and show that an anti-BAG3 antibody has therapeutic potential. PMID:26522614

  13. [Self-image of clients with colostomy related to the collecting bag].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batista, Maria do Rosário de Fátima Franco; Rocha, Francisca Cecília Viana; da Silva, Danillo Maia Guedes; Júnior, Fernando José Guedes da Silva

    2011-01-01

    The study aimed to analyze the perception of patients with colostomy in the use of the collection bag. It was conducted a descriptive qualitative approach, on the Center for Integrated Health Lineu Araujo, Teresina-PI, Brazil. Ten clients with colostomy bag participated in the survey. Data were generated through semi-structured interviews. Content analysis has revealed the feelings, the changes and how the process of adaptation of the person with the colostomy bag occurs. It was found that the relationship between the collection bag and the person with a colostomy is filled with negative feelings, significant changes in physical, psychological and sexual order, and in the web of his/her social relationships.

  14. Dry aging of beef in a bag highly permeable to water vapour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahnström, Maria Lundesjö; Seyfert, Mark; Hunt, Melvin C; Johnson, Dallas E

    2006-08-01

    The objective of this experiment was to compare traditional dry aging of beef with a novel technique of dry aging in a highly moisture-permeable bag. Four equal-sized sections from paired beef strip loins were dry aged traditionally, unpackaged, or packaged in the experimental bag for 14 or 21d at 3°C. No differences (P>0.05) were noted for pH, moisture, fat, total plate counts, cook loss, shear force, or any measured sensory attribute between the two aging treatments after either aging period. After 21d, however, dry aging in the bag (versus traditional dry aging) decreased (PDry aging in a highly moisture-permeable bag is feasible, will positively impact yields and reduce microbial spoilage, and will have no negative impact on product quality.

  15. Three-body unitarity, the cloudy bag model, and the Roper resonance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearce, B. C.; Afnan, I. R.

    1989-07-01

    We present the details and results of a Faddeev calculation of ..pi../ital N/scattering in the /ital P//sub 11/ channel in the region of the Roperresonance. Our equations respect two- and three-body unitarity, treat thenucleon and delta on an equal footing, and have a pole with correct residue atthe nucleon mass. The input is from the cloudy bag model. Resonance behavior isexhibited without the inclusion of a bare Roper bag, although not in detailedagreement with experiment. If a bare Roper bag is included, the phase shiftsvary far too rapidly in the resonance region, implying that identifying thelowest radial bag excitations with the Roper leads to a physical Roper that ismuch too narrow.

  16. Three-body unitarity, the cloudy bag model, and the Roper resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, B. C.; Afnan, I. R.

    1989-07-01

    We present the details and results of a Faddeev calculation of πN scattering in the P11 channel in the region of the Roper resonance. Our equations respect two- and three-body unitarity, treat the nucleon and delta on an equal footing, and have a pole with correct residue at the nucleon mass. The input is from the cloudy bag model. Resonance behavior is exhibited without the inclusion of a bare Roper bag, although not in detailed agreement with experiment. If a bare Roper bag is included, the phase shifts vary far too rapidly in the resonance region, implying that identifying the lowest radial bag excitations with the Roper leads to a physical Roper that is much too narrow.

  17. Valorisation of waste plastic bags in cement-mortar composites as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-01-07

    Jan 7, 2015 ... problems in Benin due both to the non-biodegradability of such by-products .... waste plastic bags inclusion process into the construction of buildings, .... (mass MD)and heated to fuse in an appropriate metallic container.

  18. Vandalism Detection in Wikipedia: a Bag-of-Words Classifier Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Belani, Amit

    2010-01-01

    A bag-of-words based probabilistic classifier is trained using regularized logistic regression to detect vandalism in the English Wikipedia. Isotonic regression is used to calibrate the class membership probabilities. Learning curve, reliability, ROC, and cost analysis are performed.

  19. Effect of cardboard under a sleeping bag on sleep stages during daytime nap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto-Mizuno, Kazue; Mizuno, Koh; Tanabe, Motoko; Niwano, Katsuko

    2016-05-01

    Fourteen healthy male subjects slept from 13:30 to 15:30 under ambient temperature and relative humidity maintained at 15 °C and 60%, respectively. They slept under two conditions: in a sleeping bag on wooden flooring (Wood) and in a sleeping bag with corrugated cardboard between the bag and the flooring (CC). Polysomnography, skin temperature (Tsk), microclimate, bed climate, and subjective sensations were obtained. The number of awakenings in the CC had significantly decreased compared to that in the Wood. The mean, back, and thigh Tsk, and bed climate temperature were significantly higher in the CC than that in the Wood. Subjective thermal sensations were warmer in the CC than in the Wood. These results suggest that using corrugated cardboard under a sleeping bag may reduce cold stress, thereby decreasing the number of awakenings and increasing subjective warmth; the mean, back, and thigh Tsk; and bed climate temperature.

  20. From macro- to microplastics - Analysis of EU regulation along the life cycle of plastic bags

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steensgaard, Ida M; Syberg, Kristian; Rist, Sinja

    2017-01-01

    exposure and hazards of macro- and microplastics. In this paper, we map European regulation taking outset in the life cycle perspective of plastic carrier bags: from plastic bag production to when it enters the environment. Relevant regulatory frameworks, directives and authorities along the life cycle...... are identified and their role in regulation of plastics is discussed. Most important regulations were identified as: the EU chemical Regulation, the Packaging and Packaging Waste Directive including the amending Directive regarding regulation of the consumption of lightweight plastic carrier bags, the Waste...... requirements as hazardous waste involving stricter requirements to labelling, recordkeeping, monitoring and control over the whole lifecycle. Finally, we recommend that more ambitious recycle and recovery targets are set across the EU. Regulation of the consumption of lightweight plastic carrier bags should...

  1. 77 FR 52619 - Make Inoperative Exemptions; Retrofit On-Off Switches for Air Bags

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-30

    ... crashes, they were found to cause a small number of fatalities, especially to unrestrained, out-of-position children, in relatively low speed crashes.\\2\\ To address this problem, NHTSA developed a plan that... passenger because of scoliosis, osteoporosis/arthritis; driver because of achondroplasia; or passenger...

  2. Corneal abrasion and alkali burn secondary to automobile air bag inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarlett, Angela; Gee, Paul

    2007-01-01

    A 59‐year‐old woman self presented to the emergency department with a painful right eye following a motor vehicle accident. She had reduced visual acuity and the eye had an alkaline pH with complete corneal uptake of fluorescein. Diagnosis of corneal abrasion and alkali burn to her right eye secondary to inflation of a driver's automobile airbag was made. The eye was irrigated with normal saline. Such injuries, although rare, can easily be identified within the emergency department by the history of exposure, evidence of facial injuries or burns, and an alkaline pH in the inferior cul‐de‐sac of the eye. Early detection and management with ophthalmology review is therefore imperative to prevent irreversible visual impairment. PMID:17901284

  3. [Injuries in the throat-nose-ear area by automobile air bags].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klask, J

    2001-03-01

    Airbags are successful in avoiding or in reducing serious injuries caused by motor vehicle accidents. On the other hand airbag deployment has led to a new kind of injuries. Only a few publications about that item exist. The experiences made with two patients after airbag deployment are described. The relevant literature is discussed. Two patients after airbag injuries were examined. The face of the first patient hit a regularly expanding airbag. Afterwards his nose was obviously deformed. In the other case both front airbags of a car burst triggered by a frontal crash. The symptoms of this patient were painful itching skinlesions in his face, unilateral hearing loss and tinnitus. The first described patient had a clinical and radiological provable fracture of his nasal bone with a frontal impression. The facial skin of the other patient was etched by the filling gas of the airbags. He was also suffering from an acoustic trauma. These cases are compared to other cases found in the literature. Oto-rhino-laryngological injuries can be caused by airbag deployment, especially by bursting airbags. Beside of outward injuries like dermatological hurts and fractures of the facial skeleton also more serious and life-threatening traumata can occur with damage of the cervical spine and upper airway. Moreover otologic handicaps like temporary or permanent hearing loss, tinnitus, vertigo, otalgia and tympanic membrane perforations are possible consequences.

  4. Stand Alone Sensor for Air Bag and Restraint System Activation in an Underbody Blast Event

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-07

    Figure 5-1 – Varying B field with Velocity held constant Theory, not developed until the 60’s, holds that a phase reversal occurs at MACH1. That is...below: A ballistic pendulum model was used where the center of pressure of the event is defined as a longitudinal radius arm of 8’ from the rotation...point. This rotation point was defined as the front axial Figures 2-3 Ballistic Pendulum with Center of Pressure at 8’Longitudinally from the

  5. Anterior dislocation of an empty capsular bag in a pseudophakic eye: A rare case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyung Bin Hwang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous intraocular lens (IOL dislocation is uncommon in the absence of any ocular areas with zonular weakness or trauma. There have been no reports of spontaneous capsular bag dislocation into the anterior chamber without an IOL. We report a rare, interesting case of spontaneous capsular bag anterior dislocation, without an IOL, into the anterior chamber with no history of genetic disease, ocular trauma, or pseudoexfoliation that might predispose to a zonular abnormality.

  6. Structural Analysis of BAG1 Cochaperone and Its Interactions With Hsc70 Heat Shock Protein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Briknarova, Klara; Takayama, Shinichi; Brive, Lars; Havert, Marnie L.; Knee, Deborah A.; Velasco, Jesus; Homma, Sachiko; Cabezas, Edelmira; Stuart, Joan; Hoyt, David W.; Satterthwait, Arnold C.; Llinas, Miguel; Reed , John C.; Ely, Kathryn R.

    2001-04-01

    BAG-family proteins share an evolutionary conserved protein interaction domain, called the''BAG domain''1, which binds and regulates the ATPase domain of Hsp70/Hsc70 molecular chaperones2-5. This family of co-chaperones functionally regulate several signal transducing proteins and transcription factors important for cell stress responses, apoptosis, proliferation, cell migration and hormone regulation.

  7. Effect of nylon bag and protozoa on in vitro corn starch disappearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Zwieten, J T; van Vuuren, A M; Dijkstra, J

    2008-03-01

    An in vitro experiment was carried out to study whether the presence of protozoa in nylon bags can explain the underestimation of the in situ degradation of slowly degradable starch. Corn of a high (flint) and a low (dent) vitreousness variety was ground over a 3-mm screen, weighed in nylon bags with a pore size of 37 microm, and washed in cold water. Samples of washed cornstarch were incubated in 40-mL tubes with faunated and defaunated ruminal fluid. An additional amount of washed corn, in nylon bags, was inserted in each incubation tube. Incubations were carried out for 0, 2, 4, 6, 12, and 24 h, and starch residue in tube and nylon bag was determined. In general, starch disappearance from the nylon bag was less than from the tube, and was less with faunated than defaunated rumen fluid, but corn variety did not affect starch disappearance. When no protozoa were present, the disappearance of starch from the bags was higher after 6 and 12 h incubation compared with presence of protozoa. However, in the tubes, there was no difference in starch disappearance due to presence or absence of protozoa. Estimated lag time was higher in presence (4.6 h) then absence (3.6 h) of protozoa. It was concluded that the effect of presence or absence of protozoa on starch disappearance differs within or outside nylon bags. The reduced disappearance rate of starch inside the nylon bags in the presence of protozoa helps to explain the underestimation of starch degradation based on the in sacco procedure when compared with in vivo data upon incubation of slowly degradable starch sources.

  8. Abiotic and Biotic Degradation of Oxo-Biodegradable Plastic Bags by Pleurotus ostreatus

    OpenAIRE

    José Maria Rodrigues da Luz; Sirlaine Albino Paes; Denise Mara Soares Bazzolli; Marcos Rogério Tótola; Antônio Jacinto Demuner; Maria Catarina Megumi Kasuya

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we evaluated the growth of Pleurotus ostreatus PLO6 using oxo-biodegradable plastics as a carbon and energy source. Oxo-biodegradable polymers contain pro-oxidants that accelerate their physical and biological degradation. These polymers were developed to decrease the accumulation of plastic waste in landfills. To study the degradation of the plastic polymers, oxo-biodegradable plastic bags were exposed to sunlight for up to 120 days, and fragments of these bags were used as su...

  9. Direct interaction between BAG5 protein and Parkin protein%BAG5蛋白与帕金森病相关蛋白Parkin的相互作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王雪晶; 郭纪锋; 江泓; 沈璐; 唐北沙

    2010-01-01

    目的:探讨BAG5(BCL2-associated athanogene 5)蛋白与帕金森病相关蛋白Parkin之间是否存在相互作用,以及BAG5对Parkin蛋白水平的调控机制.方法:本研究首先运用GST pull-down技术及免疫共沉淀技术验证BAG5蛋白与Parkin蛋白在体内及体外是否存在相互作用;进一步构建BAG5的不同截短型,运用GST pull-down技术验证BAG5与Parkin的相互结合结构域;进而运用chase time技术验证BAG5对Parkin蛋白降解水平的调控;最后运用免疫共沉淀技术验证BAG5对Parkin降解水平的调控是通过何种机制进行的.结果:BAG5蛋白与Parkin蛋白体内及体外均可以相互结合,且BAG5与Parkin的相互结合结构域存在于全长的4段BAG区域内;BAG5可以通过减少Parkin的降解而稳定细胞内Parkin蛋白的水平,且BAG5是通过减少Parkin通过泛素蛋白酶体降解系统(ubiquitin proteasome system,UPS)的降解从而增加Parkin蛋白的稳定性.结论:BAG5蛋白与Parkin蛋白可以相互结合,且BAG5蛋白可以通过UPS对Parkin的水平进行调节.

  10. Advanced three-dimensional imaging reveals the arterial vasculature in the head region of the air-breathing swamp eel, Monopterus albus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Henrik; Pedersen, Michael; Huong, Do T

    Air-breathing fish exhibit many anatomical modifications that allow for oxygen uptake directly from air. This is certainly the case for the tropical swamp eels, Synbranchidae, where various structural adaptations of the vasculature within the buccopharyngeal region mediate an amphibious lifestyle...

  11. BAG2 Interferes with CHIP-Mediated Ubiquitination of HSP72.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schönbühler, Bianca; Schmitt, Verena; Huesmann, Heike; Kern, Andreas; Gamerdinger, Martin; Behl, Christian

    2016-12-30

    The maintenance of cellular proteostasis is dependent on molecular chaperones and protein degradation pathways. Chaperones facilitate protein folding, maturation, and degradation, and the particular fate of a misfolded protein is determined by the interaction of chaperones with co-chaperones. The co-factor CHIP (C-terminus of HSP70-inteacting protein, STUB1) ubiquitinates chaperone substrates and directs proteins to the cellular degradation systems. The activity of CHIP is regulated by two co-chaperones, BAG2 and HSPBP1, which are potent inhibitors of the E3 ubiquitin ligase activity. Here, we examined the functional correlation of HSP72, CHIP, and BAG2, employing human primary fibroblasts. We showed that HSP72 is a substrate of CHIP and that BAG2 efficiently prevented the ubiquitination of HSP72 in young cells as well as aged cells. Aging is associated with a decline in proteostasis and we observed increased protein levels of CHIP as well as BAG2 in senescent cells. Interestingly, the ubiquitination of HSP72 was strongly reduced during aging, which revealed that BAG2 functionally counteracted the increased levels of CHIP. Interestingly, HSPBP1 protein levels were down-regulated during aging. The data presented here demonstrates that the co-chaperone BAG2 influences HSP72 protein levels and is an important modulator of the ubiquitination activity of CHIP in young as well as aged cells.

  12. Deterioration of bioplastic carrier bags in the environment and assessment of a new recycling alternative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Accinelli, Cesare; Saccà, Maria Ludovica; Mencarelli, Mariangela; Vicari, Alberto

    2012-09-01

    Increasing environmental concerns and the introduction of technologies based on renewable resources have stimulated the replacement of persistent petroleum-derived plastics with biodegradable plastics from biopolymers. As a consequence, a variety of products are currently manufactured from bioplastic, including carrier bags. This series of studies investigated the deterioration of carrier bags made with Mater-Bi (MB), a starch-based bioplastic, in soil, compost and two aquatic ecosystems, a littoral marsh and seawater. Results from the laboratory study indicated that bioplastic carrier bags were rapidly deteriorated in soil and compost. After three months of incubation, weight loss of specimens was of 37% and 43% in soil and compost, respectively. Conversely, little deterioration was observed in specimens buried in soil under field conditions or exposed to water of a littoral marsh and of the Adriatic Sea. These findings were consistent with the greater number of bacteria and especially fungi capable of degrading MB that were recovered from soil and compost with respect to the two aquatic ecosystems. Considering that a variety of microbial isolates are capable of using MB as a source of carbon, a new alternative to recycle these MB-based carrier bags was explored. More specifically, starchy residues from bags were fermented by the fungus Rhizopus oryzae to produce up to 35 mg of lactic acid per g of bag residues.

  13. The effect of school bag design and load on spinal posture during stair use by children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Youlian; Fong, Daniel Tik-Pui; Li, Jing Xian

    2011-12-01

    Thirteen male children ascending and descending stairs with loads that equalled 0%, 10%, 15% and 20% of their body weight were the subject of our research: the boys were wearing an asymmetrical single-strap athletic bag or a symmetrical double-strap backpack during our experiments with them. The maximum spinal tilt to the loading side and to the support side, and the range of spinal motions, were obtained by using a motion analysis system. Our results showed that symmetry of spinal posture was observed both when they ascended staircase with all loads and descended in a backpack. When carrying an athletic bag with 15% and 20% of their body weight while ascending the staircase, the lateral spinal tilt to the supporting side was significantly increased. We concluded that a symmetrical backpack with a load not exceeding 20% or an asymmetrical single-strap athletic bag with a load not exceeding 10% should be recommended for school children in order to promote safer staircase use. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: Children carrying heavy school bags may develop spinal problems. This study suggested that when they are using stairs, a symmetrical backpack with a load within 20% body weight is acceptable for them. When they are carrying an asymmetrical single-strap athletic bag, the bag's weight should not exceed 10% of the body weight in order to avoid excessive spinal tilt.

  14. Source of Kerr-Newman solution as supersymmetric bag model: 50 years of the problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burinskii, A.

    The ultra extreme Kerr-Newman (KN) solution(a = J/m >> m) produces the gravitational and EM fields of the electron. It has a naked singular ring - a topological defect which may be regularized by a solitonic source forming the pseudo-vacuum bubble filled by Higgs condensate in a supersymmetric superconducting state. Structure and stability of this source is determined by Bogomolnyi equations as a BPS-saturated soliton. The Principal Null Congruences of the KN solution determine consistent embedding of the Dirac equation, which acquires the mass from the Higgs condensate inside the soliton, indicating that this soliton forms a bag model. Shape of this bag is unambiguously determined by BPS-bound. The bag turns out to be flexible and takes the form of a very thin disk, which is completed by a ring-string along its sharp boundary. The ring-string traveling waves generate extra deformations of the bag creating a circulating singular pole. Bag model of the KN source integrates the dressed and pointlike electron in a bag-string-quark system, which removes the conflict between gravity and the point-like electron of the Dirac theory.

  15. Sensory Pollution from Bag Filters, Carbon Filters and Combinations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekö, Gabriel; Clausen, Geo; Weschler, Charles J.

    2008-01-01

    Used ventilation filters are a major source of sensory pollutants in air handling systems. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the net effect that different combinations of filters had on perceived air quality after 5 months of continuous filtration of outdoor suburban air. A panel....... Furthermore, its pressure drop changed very little during the 5 months of service, and it had the added benefit of removing a large fraction of ozone from the airstream. If similar results are obtained over a wider variety of soiling conditions, such filters may be a viable solution to a long recognized...

  16. Adaptation of business activities to the requirements of climate change mitigation - Case carrier bags; Liiketoiminnan sopeuttaminen ilmastonmuutoksen hillinnaen vaatimuksiin (OPTIKASSI)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahlbo, H.; Mattila, T.; Korhonen, M.-R.; Myllymaa, T. (Finnish Environment Institute SYKE, Helsinki (Finland)); Soukka, R. (Lappeenranta Univ. of Technology, Department of Energy and Environmental Technology (Finland)); Kujanpaeae, M. (KCL Science and Consulting, Espoo (Finland))

    2009-07-01

    Shopping bags have been a prominent topic of debate lately. Many countries have banned disposable bags or imposed a tax on them. The motives have been to avoid littering, reduce reliance on oil, and curb climate change. Restrictions are also justified by the accumulation of plastic garbage in the oceans, and by the damage to marine organisms. The environmental effects of production, use, and disposal of shopping bags are small compared with other consumption. However, the choice of a shopping bag is repeated every week, and the consumer is not sure about the consequences of each alternative. To reduce this uncertainty the OPTIKASSI study was made. The study called 'Adaptation of business activities to the requirements of climate change mitigation . case shopping bags, OPTIKASSI project' was implemented to study shopping bag alternatives in Finnish grocery stores, and the effects of the bags on climate change and the possibilities to mitigate them. Finnish Environment Institute and Lappeenranta University of Technology were responsible for the study, funded by Tekes ClimBus Programme, and the bag producers Suominen Flexible Packaging Ltd, Plastiroll Oy (Ltd), UPM-Kymmene LtdWisapaper and CabassiOy. The goal of the OPTIKASSI project was to compile lifecycle based information about the climate effects of the most typical shopping bags. It was also desirable to find the best consumption and waste management solutions for bags made of various materials. Products compared were plastic bags of virgin material, and of recycled material, paper bags, canvas bags, and shopping bags of biodegradable plastic. According to the results the shopping bags are an insignificant part of the climate effects of a Finnish household, but negligent use of bags may multiply the effects. Based on scenario, sensitivity, and ambiguity studies: garbage bags should be replaced by plastic bags, and the bins packed full and tight, incineration is not sensible; paper bags should be

  17. ADHD classification using bag of words approach on network features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solmaz, Berkan; Dey, Soumyabrata; Rao, A. Ravishankar; Shah, Mubarak

    2012-02-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is receiving lots of attention nowadays mainly because it is one of the common brain disorders among children and not much information is known about the cause of this disorder. In this study, we propose to use a novel approach for automatic classification of ADHD conditioned subjects and control subjects using functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) data of resting state brains. For this purpose, we compute the correlation between every possible voxel pairs within a subject and over the time frame of the experimental protocol. A network of voxels is constructed by representing a high correlation value between any two voxels as an edge. A Bag-of-Words (BoW) approach is used to represent each subject as a histogram of network features; such as the number of degrees per voxel. The classification is done using a Support Vector Machine (SVM). We also investigate the use of raw intensity values in the time series for each voxel. Here, every subject is represented as a combined histogram of network and raw intensity features. Experimental results verified that the classification accuracy improves when the combined histogram is used. We tested our approach on a highly challenging dataset released by NITRC for ADHD-200 competition and obtained promising results. The dataset not only has a large size but also includes subjects from different demography and edge groups. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first paper to propose BoW approach in any functional brain disorder classification and we believe that this approach will be useful in analysis of many brain related conditions.

  18. 袋型与套袋时间对日面红梨果实及贮藏品质的影响%Effects of Bags Types and Bagging Time on the Mantianhong Pears Fruit Quality and Storage Quality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭俊炜; 阮班录; 刘建海; 冯月秀; 君广仁; 程琪; 刘海龙

    2009-01-01

    [目的]为提高红皮梨的品质提供理论依据,以促进红皮梨推广工作健康发展.[方法]以红皮梨品种日面红为试验树,以5种育果袋分3个不同时期对日面红进行套袋试验.[结果]套袋可减少果锈,其中以双黑袋和条黑袋效果最好,套袋晚者好;套袋后绿色减退、表色鲜艳.套袋过早日烧增加,以膜+纸袋最严重.套袋后裂果增加,以塑膜袋最重,套袋晚的三色袋和膜+纸袋较轻.套袋后果实黑点病增加,塑膜袋最严重,套袋越晚越严重.除双黑袋和三色袋外,套袋后着色下降.套袋早的,采收后失水严重,以三色袋、膜+纸袋最严重.[结论]综合比较,以5月下旬(盛花后40~45 d)套双黑袋和条黑袋的日面红果实贮藏品质最优.%[Objective]This research aimed to provide theoretical basis for the improvement of Mantianhong pears fruit quality,and to promote the extension service of red skin pear development in a healthy way.[Method]Taken red skin pear Mantianhong for materials to carry out bagging experiment in three stages with five kinds of fruits cultivating bags.[Result]Bagging could reduce the arising of fruit rust, therein the best measure were dual-black bagging and the strip-black bagging.When bagging time was later,the arising of fruit rust was least. Meanwhile the green color of the fruit faded away after bagging and the surface color turned bright. The sunburn turned seriously when the bagging time was too early, especially the membrane-paper bagging.The number of cracking fruits increased after bagging, the plastic bag treatment was worst and the three-color bagging,the membrane-paper bagging were lighter.The black-dot disease turned seriously after bagging, therein the plastic bagging was seriously.The later the bagging, the serious the disease.The fruit staining decreased after bagging expect the dual-black bagging and the three color bagging treatments. For the early bagging treatments,the lost of water was serious

  19. High-temperature high-pressure gas cleanup with ceramic bag filters. Draft final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shackleton, M.; Chang, R.; Sawyer, J.; Kuby, W.; Turner-Tamiyasu, E.

    1982-12-06

    Advanced processes designed for the efficient use of coal in the production of energy will benefit from, or even depend upon, highly efficient, economical, high-temperature removal systems for fine particulates. In the case of pressurized fluidized-bed combustion (PFBC), the hot gas cleanup device must operate at approximately 1600/sup 0/F. Existing commercial filter systems are temperature limited due to the filter material, but ceramic fibers intended for refractory insulation offer the promise of a practical high-temperature filter media if they can be incorporated into a design which combines filter performance with acceptable durability. The current work was initiated to further develop and demonstrate on a larger-scale basis, a ceramic fiber filtration system for application to coal-fired PFBC's. The development effort centered around the need to replace the knit metal wire scrim, used in earlier designs as support for the fine fiber ceramic mat filtration medium, with a corrosion-resistant material. This led to the selection of woven ceramic cloth for support of the mat layer. Because of the substantial difference in strength and other material properties between the metal and ceramic cloth, tests were necessary to optimize the filter; pulse parameters such as pulse duration, pulse pressure, and pulse injection orifice size; woven cloth mesh configuration; the technique for clamping the bag to the support; and similar structural, fluid, and control parameters. The demonstration effort included both tests to prove this concept in a real application and a systems analysis to show commercial feasibility of the ceramic filtration approach for hot gas cleanup in PFBC's. 12 references, 57 figures, 23 tables.

  20. Using nudges to reduce waste? The case of Toronto's plastic bag levy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivers, Nicholas; Shenstone-Harris, Sarah; Young, Nathan

    2017-03-01

    The overuse of disposable plastic bags is a major environmental problem across the globe. In recent years, numerous jurisdictions have sought to curb disposable bag use by implementing a levy or fee at the point of purchase. These levies are typically small and symbolic (around $0.05 per bag), but serve as a highly-visible and continuous reminder to consumers. As such, they are consistent with nudging policies that seek to encourage broad changes in behaviour through small, non-coercive measures that influence people's thinking about an issue. While existing empirical evidence suggests that nudges are highly effective in reducing disposable bag use, we argue that many of these studies are flawed because they lack adequate temporal and geographic controls. We use longitudinal data from four waves of a major Canadian survey to analyze the effect of a disposable bag levy in the City of Toronto. Controlling for demographics and changes in social norms over time, we find that the levy increased the use of reusable shopping bags by 3.4 percentage points. Moreover, we find that the impact of the policy was highly variable across behavioural and demographic groups. The levy was highly effective in encouraging people who already used reusable bags to use them more frequently, while having no effect on infrequent users. We also find that the effects are limited to households with high socio-economic status (as measured by income, educational attainment, and housing situation). This suggests important limitations for nudging policy more generally, as people with lower socio-economic status appear to have been unaffected by this behavioural prompt.

  1. Evaluation of BAG3 levels in healthy subjects, hypertensive patients, and hypertensive diabetic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derosa, Giuseppe; Maffioli, Pamela; Rosati, Alessandra; M, De Marco; Basile, Anna; D'Angelo, Angela; Romano, Davide; Sahebkar, Amirhossein; Falco, Antonia; Turco, Maria C

    2017-07-11

    BAG3 is a member of human BAG (Bcl-2-associated athanogene) proteins and plays a role in apoptosis, cell adhesion, cytoskeleton remodeling, and autophagy. The aim of this study was to evaluate BAG3 levels in healthy subjects, hypertensive patients, and hypertensive diabetic patients. We enrolled 209 Caucasian adults, of both sex, 18-75 years of age, 77 were healthy controls, 62 were affected by hypertension, and 70 were affected by hypertension and type 2 diabetes. All patients underwent an assessment that included medical history, physical examination, vital signs, a 12-lead electrocardiogram, measurements of systolic (SBP), and diastolic blood pressure (DBP), heart rate (HR), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c ), triglycerides (TG), transaminases, high sensitivity C-reactive protein (Hs-CRP), and BAG3. We observed higher blood pressure values in hypertensive, and hypertensive diabetic patients compared to controls. As expected, FPG and HbA1c were higher in diabetic hypertensive patients, compared to the other two groups. No Tg levels differences were recorded among the three groups. Hs-CRP was higher in diabetic hypertensive patients compared to healthy subjects. Finally, BAG3 levels were higher in hypertensives, and hypertensive diabetic patients compared to controls. We observed higher levels of BAG3 in hypertensive patients compared to healthy controls, and even higher levels in hypertensive diabetic patients compared to healthy subjects. This paper could be the first of a long way to identify potential involvement of deregulated BAG3 levels in cardiometabolic diseases. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. BAG3-related myopathy, polyneuropathy and cardiomyopathy with long QT syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostera-Pruszczyk, Anna; Suszek, Małgorzata; Płoski, Rafał; Franaszczyk, Maria; Potulska-Chromik, Anna; Pruszczyk, Piotr; Sadurska, Elżbieta; Karolczak, Justyna; Kamińska, Anna M; Rędowicz, Maria Jolanta

    2015-12-01

    BAG3 belongs to BAG family of molecular chaperone regulators interacting with HSP70 and anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2. It is ubiquitously expressed with strong expression in skeletal and cardiac muscle, and is involved in a panoply of cellular processes. Mutations in BAG3 and aberrations in its expression cause fulminant myopathies, presenting with progressive limb and axial muscle weakness, and respiratory insufficiency and neuropathy. Herein, we report a sporadic case of a 15-years old girl with symptoms of myopathy, demyelinating polyneuropathy and asymptomatic long QT syndrome. Genetic testing demonstrated heterozygous mutation Pro209Leu (c.626C > T) in exon 3 of BAG3 gene causing severe myopathy and neuropathy, often associated with restrictive cardiomyopathy. We did not find a mutation in any known LQT syndrome genes. Analysis of muscle biopsy revealed profound disintegration of Z-discs with extensive accumulation of granular debris and large inclusions within fibers. We demonstrated profound alterations in BAG3 distribution as the protein localized to long filamentous structures present across the fibers that were positively stained not only for α-actinin but also for desmin and filamin indicating that those disintegrated Z-disc regions contained also other sarcomeric proteins. The mutation caused a decrease in the content of BAG3 and HSP70, and also of α-actinin desmin, filamin and fast myosin heavy chain, confirming its severe effect on the muscle fiber morphology and thus function. We provide further evidence that BAG3 is associated with Z-disc maintenance, and the Pro209Leu mutation may occur worldwide. We also provide a summary of cases associated with this mutation reported so far.

  3. Chaperone-Mediated Autophagy Protein BAG3 Negatively Regulates Ebola and Marburg VP40-Mediated Egress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Jingjing; Sagum, Cari A.; Bedford, Mark T.; Sudol, Marius; Han, Ziying

    2017-01-01

    Ebola (EBOV) and Marburg (MARV) viruses are members of the Filoviridae family which cause outbreaks of hemorrhagic fever. The filovirus VP40 matrix protein is essential for virus assembly and budding, and its PPxY L-domain motif interacts with WW-domains of specific host proteins, such as Nedd4 and ITCH, to facilitate the late stage of virus-cell separation. To identify additional WW-domain-bearing host proteins that interact with VP40, we used an EBOV PPxY-containing peptide to screen an array of 115 mammalian WW-domain-bearing proteins. Using this unbiased approach, we identified BCL2 Associated Athanogene 3 (BAG3), a member of the BAG family of molecular chaperone proteins, as a specific VP40 PPxY interactor. Here, we demonstrate that the WW-domain of BAG3 interacts with the PPxY motif of both EBOV and MARV VP40 and, unexpectedly, inhibits budding of both eVP40 and mVP40 virus-like particles (VLPs), as well as infectious VSV-EBOV recombinants. BAG3 is a stress induced protein that regulates cellular protein homeostasis and cell survival through chaperone-mediated autophagy (CMA). Interestingly, our results show that BAG3 alters the intracellular localization of VP40 by sequestering VP40 away from the plasma membrane. As BAG3 is the first WW-domain interactor identified that negatively regulates budding of VP40 VLPs and infectious virus, we propose that the chaperone-mediated autophagy function of BAG3 represents a specific host defense strategy to counteract the function of VP40 in promoting efficient egress and spread of virus particles. PMID:28076420

  4. Preharvest bagging with wavelength-selective materials enhances development and quality of mango (Mangifera indica L.) cv. Nam Dok Mai #4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chonhenchob, Vanee; Kamhangwong, Damrongpol; Kruenate, Jittiporn; Khongrat, Krittaphat; Tangchantra, Nantavat; Wichai, Uthai; Singh, S Paul

    2011-03-15

    Preharvest bagging has been shown to improve development and quality of fruits. Different light transmittance bags showed different effects on fruit quality. This study presents the benefits of using newly developed plastic bagging materials with different wavelength-selective characteristics for mangoes (cv. Nam Dok Mai #4). Mangoes were bagged at 45 days after full bloom (DAFB) and randomly harvested at 65, 75, 85, 95, and 105 DAFB. The bags were removed on the harvest days. The wavelength-selective bags (no pigment, yellow, red, blue/violet, blue) were compared with the Kraft paper bag with black paper liner, which is currently used commercially for several fruits, and with non-bagging as a control. Bagging significantly (p⩽0.05) reduced diseases and blemishes. Mango weight at 95 DAFB was increased approximately 15% by VM and V plastic bagging, as compared to paper bagging and control. Plastic bagging accelerated mango ripening as well as growth. Plastic-bagged mangoes reached maturity stage at 95 DAFB, while non-bagged mangoes reached maturity stage at 105 DAFB. Paper bagging resulted in a pale-yellow peel beginning at 65 DAFB, while plastic bagging improved peel glossiness. Preharvest bagging with different wavelength-selective materials affected mango development and quality. Bagging mangoes with VM and V materials could reduce peel defects and diseases, increase weight, size, and sphericity, improve peel appearance, and shorten the development periods of mangoes. The results suggest a favorable practice using the newly developed VM and V plastic bags in the production of mangoes, and possibly other fruits as well. Copyright © 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Microbial colonization and degradation of polyethylene and biodegradable plastic bags in temperate fine-grained organic-rich marine sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nauendorf, Alice; Krause, Stefan; Bigalke, Nikolaus K; Gorb, Elena V; Gorb, Stanislav N; Haeckel, Matthias; Wahl, Martin; Treude, Tina

    2016-02-15

    To date, the longevity of plastic litter at the sea floor is poorly constrained. The present study compares colonization and biodegradation of plastic bags by aerobic and anaerobic benthic microbes in temperate fine-grained organic-rich marine sediments. Samples of polyethylene and biodegradable plastic carrier bags were incubated in natural oxic and anoxic sediments from Eckernförde Bay (Western Baltic Sea) for 98 days. Analyses included (1) microbial colonization rates on the bags, (2) examination of the surface structure, wettability, and chemistry, and (3) mass loss of the samples during incubation. On average, biodegradable plastic bags were colonized five times higher by aerobic and eight times higher by anaerobic microbes than polyethylene bags. Both types of bags showed no sign of biodegradation during this study. Therefore, marine sediment in temperate coastal zones may represent a long-term sink for plastic litter and also supposedly compostable material.

  6. Connectable solar air collectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oestergaard Jensen, S.; Bosanac, M.

    2002-02-01

    The project has proved that it is possible to manufacture solar air collector panels, which in an easy way can be connected into large collector arrays with integrated ducting without loss of efficiency. The developed connectable solar air collectors are based on the use of matrix absorbers in the form of perforated metal sheets. Three interconnected solar air collectors of the above type - each with an transparent area of approx. 3 m{sup 2} - was tested and compared with parallel tests on two single solar air collectors also with a transparent area of approx. 3 m{sup 2} One of the single solar air collectors has an identical absorber as the connectable solar air collectors while the absorber of the other single solar air collector was a fibre cloth. The efficiency of the three solar air collectors proved to be almost identical in the investigated range of mass flow rates and temperature differences. The solar air collectors further proved to be very efficient - as efficient as the second most efficient solar air collectors tested in the IEA task 19 project Solar Air Systems. Some problems remain although to be solved: the pressure drop across especially the connectable solar air collectors is too high - mainly across the inlets of the solar air collectors. It should, however, be possible to considerably reduce the pressure losses with a more aerodynamic design of the inlet and outlet of the solar air collectors; The connectable solar air collectors are easy connectable but the air tightness of the connections in the present form is not good enough. As leakage leads to lower efficiencies focus should be put on making the connections more air tight without loosing the easiness in connecting the solar air collectors. As a spin off of the project a simple and easy way to determine the efficiency of solar, air collectors for pre-heating of fresh air has been validated. The simple method of determining the efficiency has with success been compared with an advance method

  7. Olefin metathesis in air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piola, Lorenzo; Nahra, Fady; Nolan, Steven P

    2015-01-01

    Since the discovery and now widespread use of olefin metathesis, the evolution of metathesis catalysts towards air stability has become an area of significant interest. In this fascinating area of study, beginning with early systems making use of high oxidation state early transition metal centers that required strict exclusion of water and air, advances have been made to render catalysts more stable and yet more functional group tolerant. This review summarizes the major developments concerning catalytic systems directed towards water and air tolerance.

  8. Bag filters at biofuelled plants, reliability and economy of operation; Slangfilter vid bioeldade anlaeggningar, tillfoerlitlighet och driftsekonomi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindau, Leif [SYCON Energikonsult, Malmoe (Sweden)

    2002-04-01

    The background to this work is the increased requirements on dust emission control for smaller (2-50 MW) biofuel plants in Sweden, where established technology consisting of multi cyclones cannot meet the emission demands, and where the specific cost of the large scale established technology (electrostatic precipitators) quickly increases with decreased plant size. Operational experience of bag filters on Swedish biofuel plants down to a size of 2 MW has been collected. The operational experience is remarkably uniform and positive and availability is high. Bag life, being the most important operational cost factor, is between two and eleven years. Most frequent material used is aramide, but also PPS is employed and the experience of both materials is good. The cost relation between bag filter (including an upstream skimmer) and electrostatic precipitator has been studied based on supplier quotations. Bag filter always has the lowest first cost. At one year bag life, the total cost of a bag filter is less than that for an electrostatic precipitator for plants smaller than 15 MW, and at more than one year's bag life, the bag filter has the lowest total cost for plants up to 50 MW. For plants smaller than 5-10 MW, the difference in total cost is very high. With some simple means for quality assurance of new bags, premature failure rate can be reduced. Following up cleaning interval and/or emission during operation time, gives information about the development of bag condition and necessary bag change can be foreseen. Since bag filters are more prone to damage by fire than electrostatic precipitators, the process of damage due to entrained sparks has been analysed based on practical observations and a thermal calculation. This consideration shows that this damage mode can be eliminated by an upstream skimmer having moderate but reliable performance. The result is well in coherence with the practical operational experience found that with an adequate skimmer

  9. Cloning and functional analysis of FLJ20420: a novel transcription factor for the BAG-1 promoter.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyu Liu

    Full Text Available BAG-1 is an anti-apoptotic protein that interacts with a variety of cellular molecules to inhibit apoptosis. The mechanisms by which BAG-1 interacts with other proteins to inhibit apoptosis have been extensively explored. However, it is currently unknown how BAG-1 expression is regulated at the molecular level, especially in cancer cells. Here we reported to clone a novel down-regulated BAG-1 expression gene named FLJ20420 using hBAG-1 promoter as a probe to screen Human Hela 5' cDNA library by Southernwestern blot. The FLJ20420 gene encodes a ∼26-kDa protein that is localized in both the cytoplasm and nucleus. We proved that FLJ20420 protein can specially bind hBAG-1 promoter region by EMSA in vivo and ChIP assay in vivo. Northern blot analysis revealed a low level of FLJ20420 transcriptional expression in normal human tissues (i.e., brain, placenta, lung, liver, kidney, pancreas and cervix, except for heart and skeletal muscles, which showed higher levels. Furthermore, enhanced FLJ20420 expression was observed in tumor cell lines (i.e., MDA468, BT-20, MCF-7, C33A, HeLa and Caski. Knockdown of endogenous FLJ20420 expression significantly increased BAG-1 expression in A549 and L9981 cells, and also significantly enhanced their sensitivity to cisplatin-induced apoptosis. A microarray assay of the FLJ20420 siRNA -transfectants showed altered expression of 505 known genes, including 272 upregulated and 233 downregulated genes. Finally, our gene array studies in lung cancer tissue samples revealed a significant increase in FLJ20420 expression in primary lung cancer relative to the paired normal lung tissue controls (p = 0.0006. The increased expression of FLJ20420 corresponded to a significant decrease in BAG-1 protein expression in the primary lung cancers, relative to the paired normal lung tissue controls (p = 0.0001. Taken together, our experiments suggest that FLJ20420 functions as a down-regulator of BAG-1 expression. Its abnormal

  10. Stable isotope ratio mass spectrometry and physical comparison for the forensic examination of grip-seal plastic bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Erica; Carter, James F; Hill, Jenny C; Morton, Carolyn; Daeid, Niamh Nic; Sleeman, Richard

    2008-05-20

    Plastic bags are frequently used to package drugs, explosives and other contraband. There exists, therefore, a requirement in forensic casework to compare bags found at different locations. This is currently achieved almost exclusively by the use of physical comparisons such as birefringence patterns. This paper discusses some of the advantages and shortcomings of this approach, and presents stable isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) as a supplementary tool for effecting comparisons of this nature. Carbon and hydrogen isotopic data are presented for sixteen grip-seal plastic bags from a wide range of sources, in order to demonstrate the range of values which is likely to be encountered. Both isotopic and physical comparison (specifically birefringence) techniques are then applied to the analysis of rolls of bags from different manufacturing lots from a leading manufacturer. Both approaches are able to associate bags from a common production batch. IRMS can be applied to small fragments which are not amenable to physical comparisons, and is able to discriminate bags which could be confused using birefringence patterns alone. Similarly, in certain cases birefringence patterns discriminate bags with similar isotopic compositions. The two approaches are therefore complementary. When more than one isotopically distinct region exists within a bag (e.g. the grip-seal is distinct from the body) the ability to discriminate and associate bags is greatly increased.

  11. Can laptops be left inside passenger bags if motion imaging is used in X-ray security screening?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia eMendes

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a study where a new X-ray machine for security screening featuring motion imaging (i.e. 5 views of a bag are shown as an image sequence was evaluated and compared to single view imaging available on conventional X-ray screening systems. More specifically, it was investigated whether with this new technology X-ray screening of passenger bags could be enhanced to such an extent that laptops could be left inside passenger bags, without causing a significant impairment in threat detection performance. An X-ray image interpretation test was created in four different versions, manipulating the factors packing condition (laptop and bag separate vs. laptop in bag and display condition (single vs. motion imaging. There was a highly significant and large main effect of packing condition. When laptops and bags were screened separately, threat item detection was substantially higher. For display condition, a medium effect was observed. Detection could be slightly enhanced through the application of motion imaging. There was no interaction between display and packing condition, implying that the high negative effect of leaving laptops in passenger bags could not be fully compensated by motion imaging. Additional analyses were carried out to examine effects depending on different threat categories (guns, improvised explosive devices, knives, others, the placement of the threat items (in bag vs. in laptop and viewpoint (easy vs. difficult view. In summary, although motion imaging provides an enhancement, it is not strong enough to allow leaving laptops in bags for security screening.

  12. The storage stability of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) in polyester aluminum bags

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Jeong-Hyeon; Deep, Akash; Kim, Ki-Hyun

    2016-09-01

    In this study, the sorptive loss properties of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) in polyester aluminum bags were investigated as a function of storage duration. To this end, the relative recovery of gas phase standards of BVOCs, obtained via vaporization of liquid phase standards, was computed by calibrating their standards (response factors: RF) represnting each phase. Accordingly, the results indicated either slight loss (-5.59% (isoprene), -2.39% (camphene), -1.69% ((R)-(+)-limonene), -0.88% (p-cymene)) or gain (1.47% (γ-terpinene), 2.27% (α-terpinene), 2.63% (α-phellandrene), 2.73% ((+)-3-carene), 3.93% ((+)-β-pinene), and 5.98% ((+)-α-pinene)). Through comparison of the calibration results across storage time, the temporal stability of BVOCs was assessed. Longer BVOC storage time in polyester aluminum (PEA) bags lowered the relative recovery of BVOCs. The relative loss of BVOCs, if calculated in terms of mean bag standard RF ratios (relative to liquid standard) across elapsed time, decreased systematically: 0.99 ± 0.05 (0 h), 0.88 ± 0.06 (24 h), 0.66 ± 0.11 (72 h), and 0.62 ± 0.14 (120 h). It is thus recommended to complete the analysis of BVOC in PEA bags within 24 h of sample acquisition. As such, it is important to apply appropriate sampling approaches with a proper storage plan when measuring ambient BVOCs collected by bag sampling methods.

  13. Compounds from multilayer plastic bags cause reproductive failures in artificial insemination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nerin, C.; Ubeda, J. L.; Alfaro, P.; Dahmani, Y.; Aznar, M.; Canellas, E.; Ausejo, R.

    2014-05-01

    High levels of reproductive failure were detected in some Spanish sow farms in the Spring of 2010. Regular returns to estrus and variable reductions in litter size were observed. The problem started suddenly and did not appear to be related to the quality of the ejaculates, disease, alterations of body condition or any other apparent reasons. Subsequent studies determined that the problem was the origin of the plastic bags used for semen storage. Chemical analysis of the suspicious bags identified unexpected compounds such as BADGE, a cyclic lactone and an unknown phthalate that leached into the semen at concentrations of 0.2 to 2.5 mg/L. Spermatozoa preserved in these bags passed all of the routine quality control tests, and no differences were observed between storage in the control and suspicious bags (p > 0.05). In vitro fecundation tests and endocrine profiler panel analysis (EPP) did not show any alterations, whereas the in vivo tests confirmed the described failure. This is the first described relationship between reproductive failure and toxic compounds released from plastic bags.

  14. Contributions from Goldstone-boson-exchange to baryon spectra in the MIT Bag Model

    CERN Document Server

    He, D H; Li, X Q; Shen, P N; He, Da-Heng; Ding, Yi-Bing; Li, Xue-Qian; Shen, Peng-Nian

    2005-01-01

    We discuss contributions of chiral bosons to baryon spectra in the MIT bag model. It is believed that within hadrons, chiral bosons are degrees of freedom which are independent of gluons to provide strong interactions between quarks. In the original MIT bag model, only interaction mediated by gluon exchanges was considered, by contrast, in this work we take into account the interaction mediated by the exchanges of chiral bosons $\\sigma$ and $\\pi^{(\\pm,0)}$. Then following the standard approach, we minimize the effective hamiltonian which includes both the contributions from gluon and chiral-boson exchanges with respect to the bag radius to obtain the effective radius. By re-fitting the spectra of baryons, we find that the contributions from the boson-exchange may be 40% of that from gluon-exchanges and meanwhile the bag constant $B$, the zero-point energy $z_0$ almost do not change. It indicates that in the original version of the MIT bag model, the intermediate-distance interaction due to the chiral-boson ex...

  15. The Practicalities of Crowdsourcing: Lessons from the Tea Bag Index - UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duddigan, Sarah; Alexander, Paul; Shaw, Liz; Collins, Chris

    2017-04-01

    The Tea Bag Index -UK is a collaborative project between the University of Reading and the Royal Horticultural Society (RHS), working with members of the gardening community as citizen scientists. This project aims to quantify how decomposition varies across the country, and whether decomposition is influenced by how gardeners manage their soil, particularly with respect to the application of compost. Launched in 2015 as part of a PhD project, the Tea Bag Index- UK project asks willing volunteers to bury tea bags in their gardens, as part of a large scale, litter bag style decomposition rate study. Over 450 sets of tea bags have been dispatched to participants, across the length and breadth of the UK. The group was largely recruited via social media, magazine articles and public engagement events and active discourse was undertaken with these citizen scientists using Facebook, Twitter and regular email communication. In order to run a successful crowdsourcing citizen science project there are number of stages that need to be considered including (but not limited to): planning; launch and recruitment; communications; and feedback. Throughout a project of this nature an understanding of the motivations of your volunteers is vital. Reflecting on these motivations while publicising the project, and communicating regularly with its participants is incredibly important for a successful project.

  16. Concentrations and solubility of selected trace metals in leaf and bagged black teas commercialized in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Polechońska

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the concentrations of heavy metals in bagged and leaf black teas of the same brand and evaluate the percentage transfer of metals to tea infusion to assess the consumer exposure. Ten leaf black teas and 10 bagged black teas of the same brand available in Poland were analyzed for Zn, Mn, Cd, Pb, Ni, Co, Cr, Al, and Fe concentrations both in dry material and their infusion. The bagged teas contained higher amounts of Pb, Mn, Fe, Ni, Al, and Cr compared with leaf teas of the same brand, whereas the infusions of bagged tea contained higher levels of Mn, Ni, Al, and Cr compared with leaf tea infusions. Generally, the most abundant trace metals in both types of tea were Al and Mn. There was a wide variation in percentage transfer of elements from the dry tea materials to the infusions. The solubility of Ni and Mn was the highest, whereas Fe was insoluble and only a small portion of this metal content may leach into infusion. With respect to the acceptable daily intake of metals, the infusions of both bagged and leaf teas analyzed were found to be safe for human consumption.

  17. Airborne pollutants along a roadside: assessment using snow analyses and moss bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viskari, E L; Rekilä, R; Roy, S; Lehto, O; Ruuskanen, J; Kärenlampi, L

    1997-01-01

    Vertical snow sampling and moss bag transplants were used to estimate the local inorganic and organic pollutant load deposited from traffic along a major highway in Finland. The pH and concentrations of Cl(-), NO(3)(-), SO(4)(2-), Ca(2+), Na(+) and polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were determined from snow samples collected in winter at different sites along the highway. In summer, moss bags containing 20 g of fresh red-stemmed feather moss (Pleurozium schreberi) were transplanted at the same sites. The moss bag transplants remained exposed to roadside traffic for a period of one month following which the samples were collected and the PAH profiles and concentrations were analysed. The deposition of inorganic and organic pollutants from road traffic was observed up to 60 m from the road. The prevailing winds had a significant effect on the dispersion of pollutants. Snow appears to be a good collector of inorganic pollutants from the atmosphere and can be used to monitor local airborne pollution from road traffic. Snow packs can also be used as passive collectors of organic pollutant loads from road traffic on a local scale. To monitor organic PAH deposition from the road traffic, moss bags appeared to be better indicators compared to snow sampling. The efficiency of moss bags in accumulating PAH compounds indicate that vegetation may be an important sink for traffic pollution.

  18. Air System Information Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filman, Robert E.

    2004-01-01

    I flew to Washington last week, a trip rich in distributed information management. Buying tickets, at the gate, in flight, landing and at the baggage claim, myriad messages about my reservation, the weather, our flight plans, gates, bags and so forth flew among a variety of travel agency, airline and Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) computers and personnel. By and large, each kind of information ran on a particular application, often specialized to own data formats and communications network. I went to Washington to attend an FAA meeting on System-Wide Information Management (SWIM) for the National Airspace System (NAS) (http://www.nasarchitecture.faa.gov/Tutorials/NAS101.cfm). NAS (and its information infrastructure, SWIM) is an attempt to bring greater regularity, efficiency and uniformity to the collection of stovepipe applications now used to manage air traffic. Current systems hold information about flight plans, flight trajectories, weather, air turbulence, current and forecast weather, radar summaries, hazardous condition warnings, airport and airspace capacity constraints, temporary flight restrictions, and so forth. Information moving among these stovepipe systems is usually mediated by people (for example, air traffic controllers) or single-purpose applications. People, whose intelligence is critical for difficult tasks and unusual circumstances, are not as efficient as computers for tasks that can be automated. Better information sharing can lead to higher system capacity, more efficient utilization and safer operations. Better information sharing through greater automation is possible though not necessarily easy.

  19. Dermal uptake directly from air under transient conditions: advances in modeling and comparisons with experimental results for human subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morrison, G C; Weschler, Charles J.; Bekö, Gabriel

    2016-01-01

    To better understand the dermal exposure pathway, we enhance an existing mechanistic model of transdermal uptake by including skin surface lipids (SSL) and consider the impact of clothing. Addition of SSL increases the overall resistance to uptake of SVOCs from air but also allows for rapid...... transfer of SVOCs to sinks like clothing or clean air. We test the model by simulating di-ethyl phthalate (DEP) and di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP) exposures of six bare-skinned (Weschler et al. 2015, Environ. Health Perspect., 123, 928) and one clothed participant (Morrison et al. 2016, J. Expo. Sci. Environ...

  20. Calculation of the static forces acting on ACV bag-finger skirts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Y. N.; Hua, Y.

    A mathematical model of the geometry formation of an ACV bag-finger skirt is developed to determine skirt shape and its deflection for varying cushion pressures, and calculations for the reactions of supports of the rigid structure on the skirt at the inner and outer attachment points are obtained. The model assumption that the finger triangle of the two-dimensional bag-finger skirt turns around the inner attachment point with changing ratio of cushion pressure to bag pressure is confirmed by experiments using skirt rigs. Good agreement is found between theoretical and experimental results, and it is shown that when the cushion pressure is changing, the pressure ratio is the essential dimensionless parameter for the skirt geometry formation and its deflection, and for the forces acting on it.

  1. Modeling multiple visual words assignment for bag-of-features based medical image retrieval

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Jim Jing-Yan

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the bag-of-features based medical image retrieval methods, which represent an image as a collection of local features, such as image patch and key points with SIFT descriptor. To improve the bag-of-features method, we first model the assignment of local descriptor as contribution functions, and then propose a new multiple assignment strategy. By assuming the local feature can be reconstructed by its neighboring visual words in vocabulary, we solve the reconstruction weights as a QP problem and then use the solved weights as contribution functions, which results in a new assignment method called the QP assignment. We carry our experiments on ImageCLEFmed datasets. Experiments\\' results show that our proposed method exceeds the performances of traditional solutions and works well for the bag-of-features based medical image retrieval tasks.

  2. A Numerical Estimation of a RFID Reader Field and SAR inside a Blood Bag at UHF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Fanti

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the effects of UHF electromagnetic fields produced by a RFID reader on a blood bag are evaluated numerically in several configurations. The results of the simulation, field level and distribution, specific absorption rate (SAR, and heating time show that an exposure to a typical reader field leads to a temperature increase smaller than 0.1 C and to a SAR smaller than 1 W/kg. As a consequence, no adverse biological effects occur during a typical UHF RFID reading cycle on a blood bag. Therefore, the blood contained in a bag traced using UHF-RFID is as safe as those traced using barcodes. The proposed analysis supports the use of UHF RFID in the blood transfusion supply chain.

  3. Influence of Post-treatment Methods on Pressure Change of Filter Bag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yihua Yin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The PPS needle-punched non-woven filters with different post-treatments were studied by filter testing system. The pressure drop was measured at various filtration velocity, dust deposition time and the temperature during the experiment; and the effect of dust-cleaning as the consequence of pressure of filter bag was measured. The results showed that post-treatments transformed the surfaces of filters, and the dust formation differed greatly. Excessively high filtration velocity decreased the peak pressure in the process of dust-cleaning. The pressure of filter bag was increased as the dust layers were thickened. The higher temperature in filtration rose the peak pressure of filter bag, but decreased the rate of rising.

  4. [In vitro study of platelet preservation during 5 days in reduced-thickness bags].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domenech, J; Babault, C; Desbois, I; Degenne, M; Binet, C; Garnier, C; Chassaigne, M

    1989-02-01

    An in vitro study of platelet concentrates storage for 5 days was performed in PVC bags. Modification of the original three-day containers were introduced by thickness reduction. The results at fifth day were comparable to those at third day in standard plastic bags. During storage, variations of platelet counts were very slight with a low LDH release. PH was stable with a good maintenance of phase microscope platelet morphology. PCO2 and PO2 measurements showed a satisfactory gas permeability which could explain a limited lactate production. If in vivo studies of transfusion recovery confirm these data, platelet concentrates storage could be extended up to 5 days by such modifications of standard three-day PVC bags.

  5. CAT bags orders worth Rs 90 Crore from EU

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    "Orders to the tune of Rs 90 crore have been received by Indore-based Centre for Advanced Technology (CAT) from laboratories in the European Union (EU) and more orders are likely to follow in the near future, according to Pune-based Patel Analog and Digital Measurement Company (PADMCO) director Madhu Patel" (1/2 page).

  6. Different BAG-1 isoforms have distinct functions in modulating chemotherapeutic-induced apoptosis in breast cancer cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hongyu LIU; Zhuomin WANG; Yun BAI; Min WANG; Ying LI; Sen WEI; Qinghua ZHOU; Jun CHEN

    2009-01-01

    Aim:BAG-1 is a multifunctional anti-apoptotic gene with four isoforms,and different BAG-1 isoforms have different anti-apoptotic functions.In this study,we transfected BAG-1 isoforms into the human breast cancer cell lines Hs578T (ER nega-tive) and MCF-7 (ER positive) to study their effect on apoptosis with or without estrogens.Methods: The constructed recombinant expression vectors carrying individual BAG-1 isoforms was used to transfect human breast cancer cell lines Hs578T (ER negative) and MCF-7 (ER positive).After stable cell lines were made,a variety of apoptosis-inducing agents,including doxorubicin,docetaxel,and 5-FU,was used to treat these cell lines with or without estrogen to test the role of BAG-1.The mechanism by which BAG-1 affected the function of Bcl-2 was exploredby using the cycloheximide chase assay.Results: The BAG-1 p50 and p46 isoforms significantly enhanced the resistance to apoptosis in both cell lines according to flow cytometry analysis.BAG-1 p33 and p29 failed to protect the transfected cells from apoptosis.The cell viability assay showed that only BAG-1 p50,but not p46,p33,or p29,increased estrogen-dependent function in ER-positive cell line MCF-7.Only BAG-1 p50 dramatically increased its anti-apoptotic ability in the presence of estrogen,while estrogen has very little effect on the anti-apoptotic ability of other BAG-1 isoforms.In the detection of the expression of K-ras,Hsp70,cytochrome c,Raf-1,ER-α,and Bcl-2 in MCF-7 cells by Western blot,only Bcl-2 protein expression was significantly increased in MCF-7 cells transfected with BAG-1 p50 and p46,respectively.Furthermore,the cycloheximide chase assay indicated that the degradation of Bcl-2 protein was extended in the BAG-1 p50 and p46 transfected MCF-7 cells.Conclusion: Distinct isoforrns of BAG-1 have different anti-apoptotic functions in breast cancer cells,and that the BAG-1 p50 isoform can potentiate the role of estrogen in ER-positive breast cancer.

  7. Urinary di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate metabolites for detecting transfusion of autologous blood stored in plasticizer-free bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leuenberger, Nicolas; Barras, Laura; Nicoli, Raul; Robinson, Neil; Baume, Norbert; Lion, Niels; Barelli, Stefano; Tissot, Jean-Daniel; Saugy, Martial

    2016-03-01

    Autologous blood transfusion (ABT) efficiently increases sport performance and is the most challenging doping method to detect. Current methods for detecting this practice center on the plasticizer di(2-ethlyhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), which enters the stored blood from blood bags. Quantification of this plasticizer and its metabolites in urine can detect the transfusion of autologous blood stored in these bags. However, DEHP-free blood bags are available on the market, including n-butyryl-tri-(n-hexyl)-citrate (BTHC) blood bags. Athletes may shift to using such bags to avoid the detection of urinary DEHP metabolites. A clinical randomized double-blinded two-phase study was conducted of healthy male volunteers who underwent ABT using DEHP-containing or BTHC blood bags. All subjects received a saline injection for the control phase and a blood donation followed by ABT 36 days later. Kinetic excretion of five urinary DEHP metabolites was quantified with liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. Surprisingly, considerable levels of urinary DEHP metabolites were observed up to 1 day after blood transfusion with BTHC blood bags. The long-term metabolites mono-(2-ethyl-5-carboxypentyl) phthalate and mono-(2-carboxymethylhexyl) phthalate were the most sensitive biomarkers to detect ABT with BTHC blood bags. Levels of DEHP were high in BTHC bags (6.6%), the tubing in the transfusion kit (25.2%), and the white blood cell filter (22.3%). The BTHC bag contained DEHP, despite being labeled DEHP-free. Urinary DEHP metabolite measurement is a cost-effective way to detect ABT in the antidoping field even when BTHC bags are used for blood storage. © 2015 AABB.

  8. Identifying the Drivers and Occurrence of Historical and Future Extreme Air-quality Events in the United States Using Advanced Statistical Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, W. C.; Heald, C. L.; Cooley, D. S.; Russell, B. T.

    2013-12-01

    Episodes of air-quality extremes are known to be heavily influenced by meteorological conditions, but traditional statistical analysis techniques focused on means and standard deviations may not capture important relationships at the tails of these two respective distributions. Using quantile regression (QR) and extreme value theory (EVT), methodologies specifically developed to examine the behavior of heavy-tailed phenomena, we analyze extremes in the multi-decadal record of ozone (O3) and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in the United States. We investigate observations from the Air Quality System (AQS) and Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments (IMPROVE) networks for connections to meteorological drivers, as provided by the National Center for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) North American Regional Reanalysis (NARR) product. Through regional characterization by quantile behavior and EVT modeling of the meteorological covariates most responsible for extreme levels of O3 and PM2.5, we estimate pollutant exceedance frequencies and uncertainties in the United States under current and projected future climates, highlighting those meteorological covariates and interactions whose influence on air-quality extremes differs most significantly from the behavior of the bulk of the distribution. As current policy may be influenced by air-quality projections, we then compare these estimated frequencies to those produced by NCAR's Community Earth System Model (CESM) identifying regions, covariates, and species whose extreme behavior may not be adequately captured by current models.

  9. A Comparison of Energy Expenditure During "Wii Boxing" Versus Heavy Bag Boxing in Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perusek, Kristen; Sparks, Kenneth; Little, Kathleen; Motley, Mary; Patterson, Sheila; Wieand, Jennifer

    2014-02-01

    Traditional computer videogames are sedentary, whereas new computer videogames, such as the Nintendo(®) (Redmond, WA) "Wii™ Sports" games, allow users to physically interact while playing the sport. Energy expenditure (EE), heart rate (HR), and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) during heavy bag boxing versus the Nintendo "Wii Boxing" game were compared. Fifteen males and 14 females (mean age, 25.6 years; height, 171.3 cm; weight, 71.8 kg) randomly selected (by a coin toss) heavy bag boxing or "Wii Boxing" for their first test session and completed the other protocol at their second session at least 2 days later. Each session lasted for a total duration of 30 minutes and consisted of 10 3-minute exercise bouts with measurements of HR, RPE, and EE obtained from indirect calorimetry. A paired-samples t test was used to analyze the results. Significant differences were found for HR (bag, 156 beats per minute; Wii, 138 beats per minute; P=0.001) and RPE (bag, 13.8; Wii, 11.4; P=0.0001) but not for EE (bag, 8.0 kcal/minute; Wii, 7.1 kcal/minute; bag, 241 total kcal; Wii, 213 total kcal; P=0.078). The results suggest that computer active videogames, such as the Nintendo Wii, have the potential to provide similar EE as their traditional forms of exercise and may be a sufficient replacement for traditional target HR zone activities, especially in less fit individuals. Further research is needed to compare EE for different "Wii Sports" games with those for their traditional forms of exercise.

  10. Sulfur Dust Bag: A Novel Technique for Ectoparasite Control in Poultry Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murillo, Amy C; Mullens, Bradley A

    2016-07-18

    Animal welfare-driven legislation and consumer demand are changing how laying chickens are housed, thus creating challenges for ectoparasite control. Hens housed in suspended wire cages (battery cages) are usually treated with high-pressure pesticides. This application type is difficult in enriched-cage or cage-free production. Alternatives to pesticide sprays are needed in enriched-cage or cage-free systems. In this study, we tested the efficacy of sulfur dust deployed in "dust bags" for control against the northern fowl mite (Ornithonyssus sylviarum), which causes host stress, decreased egg production, and reduced feed conversion efficiency. Dust bags were hung from the tops of cages or were clipped to the inside front of cages. We also tested permethrin-impregnated plastic strips, marketed for ectoparasite control in caged or cage-free commercial and backyard flocks. Previous work has shown sulfur to be very active against poultry ectoparasites; however, we found that the placement of bags was important for mite control. Sulfur in hanging bags reduced mites on treatment birds by 95 or 97% (depending on trial) within one week of being deployed, and mite counts on these birds were zero after 2 wk. Clipped sulfur bags acted more slowly and did not significantly reduce mites in one trial, but reduced mite counts to zero after 4 wk in trial 2. Permethrin strips had no effect on mite populations. This may have been due to mite resistance, even though this mite population had not been exposed to pyrethroids for several years. Sulfur bags should be effective in caged or cage-free systems. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Facile Route to Generate Fuel Oil via Catalytic Pyrolysis of Waste Polypropylene Bags: Towards Waste Management of >20 μm Plastic Bags

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neeraj Mishra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel strategy of waste recycling of polypropylene plastics (PP bags for generation of commercially viable byproducts using nanoforms of nickel as catalyst is presented in this work. After pyrolysis of waste PP bags (>20 μm under continuous argon flow, 90% conversion efficiency to high petroleum oil was observed at 550°C. To assess the physicochemical attributes of formed oil, flash point, pour point, viscosity, specific gravity, heating value, and density were also measured and found to be very close to ideal values of commercial fuel oil. Moreover, GC-MS was used to resolve the range of trace mass hydrocarbon present in the liquefied hydrocarbon. Our robust recycling system can be exploited as economical technique to solve the nuisance of waste plastic hazardous to ecosystem.

  12. Aircrew Training Devices: Utility and Utilization of Advanced Instructional Features (Phase II-Air Training Command, Military Airlift Command, and Strategic Air Command [and] Phase III-Electronic Warfare Trainers).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polzella, Donald J.; Hubbard, David C.

    This document consists of an interim report and a final report which describe the second and third phases of a project designed to determine the utility and utilization of sophisticated hardware and software capabilities known as advanced instructional features (AIFs). Used with an aircrew training device (ATD), AIFs permit a simulator instructor…

  13. A disinfectant delivery system for control of micro-organisms in urine collection bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yum, S; Amkraut, A; Dunn, T; Chin, I; Killian, D; Willis, E

    1988-02-01

    We developed a formaldehyde delivery system for urine collection bags and evaluated its effectiveness in suppressing the growth of bacteria in simulated human urine. The system was composed of paraformaldehyde in a polymeric carrier. We determined that inoculation of small numbers of Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa in urinary bags with a continuous flow of synthetic urine (40-80 ml h-1) quickly gives rise to high levels of contamination. This single tablet delivery system, however, proved bacteriostatic or bactericidal for both organisms over the 10-day lifespan. The formaldehyde concentration in the synthetic urine was c. 90 micrograms ml-1 or more during tests.

  14. Bagging system, soil stabilization mat, and tent frame for a lunar base

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    Georgia Tech's School of Textile and Fiber Engineering and School of Mechanical Engineering participated in four cooperative design efforts this year. Each of two interdisciplinary teams designed a system consisting of a lunar regolith bag and an apparatus for filling this bag. The third group designed a mat for stabilization of lunar soil during takeoff and landing, and a method for packaging and deploying this mat. Finally, the fourth group designed a sunlight diffusing tent to be used as a lunar worksite. Summaries of these projects are given.

  15. Bagged stone dust barrier evaluations in a bord and pillar mine

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Du Plessis, JJL

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available be summarised as follows: • That a bag can operate at dynamic pressure as low as 4 kPa. • The static pressure is reduced and almost reaches equilibrium in the three entries at distances far (>100 m) from the ignition position in B-drift. • Stone dust bags... Appendices Appendix 1a&b: Summary of explosions . . . . . 81 Appendix 2: Test #367 . . . . . . . 84 Appendix 3: Test #368 . . . . . . . 87 Appendix 4: Test #369 . . . . . . . 90 Appendix 5: Test #370 . . . . . . . 93 Appendix 6: Test #371...

  16. Carbon footprint of shopping (grocery) bags in China, Hong Kong and India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthu, Subramanian Senthilkannan; Li, Y.; Hu, J. Y.; Mok, P. Y.

    2011-01-01

    Carbon footprint has become a term often used by the media in recent days. The human carbon footprint is professed to be a very serious global threat and every nation is looking at the possible options to reduce it since its consequences are alarming. A carbon footprint is a measure of the impact of human activities on earth and in particular on the environment; more specifically it relates to climate change and to the total amount of greenhouse gases produced, measured in units of carbon dioxide emitted. Effort of individuals in minimizing the carbon footprint is vital to save our planet. This article reports a study of the carbon footprint of various types of shopping bags (plastic, paper, non-woven and woven) using life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) technique in two stages. The first stage (baseline study), comprised the study of the impact of different types of shopping bags in the manufacturing phase, without considering their usage and disposal phases (cradle to gate stage). The LCIA was accomplished by the IPCC 2007 method, developed by the Inter Panel on Climate Change in SIMAPRO 7.2. The GWP (Global Warming Potential) values calculated by the IPCC 2007 method for 100 years were considered as a directive to compare the carbon footprint made by the different types of shopping bags under consideration. The next stage was the study of the carbon footprint of these bags including their usage and disposal phases (cradle to grave stage) and the results derived were compared with the results derived from the baseline study, which is the major focus of this research work. The values for usage and end-of-life phases were obtained from the survey questionnaire performed amongst different user groups of shopping bags in China, Hong Kong and India. The results show that the impact of different types of shopping bags in terms of their carbon footprint potential is very high if no usage and disposal options were provided. When the carbon footprint values from different

  17. Production of Soy Sauce Koji Mold Spore Inoculum in Plastic Bags

    OpenAIRE

    Lotong, N.; Suwanarit, P.

    1983-01-01

    An innovation is described for producing soy sauce koji mold spore inoculum by using inexpensive autoclavable plastic bags and reuseable plastic enclosures to make culture vessels. After growth, the spore mass could be dried and packaged in the same bag after removing the enclosure. Broken rice was used as the substrate for mold cultivation. Viable spore counts of 109 spores per g were obtained under optimal conditions. After drying at 50°C for 6 h, the moisture content of the spore mass decr...

  18. Effects of fruit bags on microenvironment and non-astringent persimmon pigmentation%甜柿套袋微域生境与果实着色效应研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭创业; 苏彩虹; 张丽萍; 董少鹏

    2012-01-01

    Effects of fruit bags on microenvironment and non-astringent persimmon pigmentation were studied with four kinds of bags. It was found that temperature difference between day and night inside dou- ble-layer bag with red interior layer was greatest among five treatments.Under the condition of sunny days, the temperature increased by 5.8 ℃ and 4.8℃ on September 18 to 21 and October 3 to 8 respectively, compared with that of the control. The effect of plastic film bag and double-layer bag on the moisture re- tention was better, which alleviated the relative humidity stress when air humidity was too low under fine, hot and dry weather. The light in double-layer bags was poor, there were only 0.8% and 0.4% PAR inside double-layer bag with red interior layer and double-layer bag with black interior layer rspectively at 14:00 pm on sunny days compared with the control. Different bagging materials formed different micro-environ- ment, which resulted in different effects on fruit coloring. The peel pigmentation was better in the treat- ment of double-layer bag with red interior layer, followed by double-layer bag with black interior layer. There was less difference between other treatments and control. On September 25, the peel pigmentation was N25B for double-layer bag with red interior layer, and 163B for control . On October 15, the peel pigmentation was 33A for double-layer bag with red interior layer, and N25B for control . It was found that at persimmon late growth stage, carotenoid content increased in all treatments, and paper bags re- duced carotenoids in peel In the late growth phase, the treatments reduced the flavonoid content except double-layer paper bags. Double-layer bag with red interior layer reduced Carotenoids and Flavonoids by 0.0178 mg. g-1 and 0.0706 mg g-1 at maturity compared with control.%对4种不同材质的果袋,进行套袋微域生境及果实着色试验,结果表明,双层内红袋处理昼夜温差较大,9月18—21日和10

  19. 消化道肿瘤组织芯片中BAG-1的表达及意义分析%Expression and Significance of Apoptosis Related Gene BAG-1 in Digestive Tract Cancer by Tissue Microarray

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林雨冬; 师建国; 闫庆国; 王明元; 王星

    2006-01-01

    目的检测抗凋亡基因BAG-1在多种消化道肿瘤中的表达,并讨论其意义.方法利用组织芯片,采用免疫组化DA-KO Envision法检测食道癌、胃癌、直肠癌及正常组织中BAG-1的表达.结果食道癌、胃癌及直肠癌组织中BAG-1的表达比其对应的正常组织为高(P<0.01).结论BAG-1在消化道肿瘤组织中表达高于正常组织,提示BAG1表达可能与消化道恶性肿瘤的发生有关.

  20. 77 FR 58627 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Late Seasons and Bag and Possession Limits for Certain Migratory Game Birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-21

    ... Bird Hunting; Late Seasons and Bag and Possession Limits for Certain Migratory Game Birds; Final Rule...; ] DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 20 RIN 1018-AX97 Migratory Bird Hunting; Late Seasons and Bag and Possession Limits for Certain Migratory Game Birds AGENCY: Fish and...