WorldWideScience

Sample records for advanced accelerator concepts

  1. 2nd European Advanced Accelerator Concepts Workshop

    CERN Document Server

    Assmann, Ralph; Grebenyuk, Julia

    2016-01-01

    The European Advanced Accelerator Concepts Workshop has the mission to discuss and foster methods of beam acceleration with gradients beyond state of the art in operational facilities. The most cost effective and compact methods for generating high energy particle beams shall be reviewed and assessed. This includes diagnostics methods, timing technology, special need for injectors, beam matching, beam dynamics with advanced accelerators and development of adequate simulations. This workshop is organized in the context of the EU-funded European Network for Novel Accelerators (EuroNNAc2), that includes 52 Research Institutes and universities.

  2. Technology and applications of advanced accelerator concepts

    CERN Document Server

    Chou, Weiren

    2016-01-01

    Since its invention in the 1920s, particle accelerators have made tremendous progress in accelerator science, technology and applications. However, the fundamental acceleration principle, namely, to apply an external radiofrequency (RF) electric field to accelerate charged particles, remains unchanged. As this method (either room temperature RF or superconducting RF) is approaching its intrinsic limitation in acceleration gradient (measured in MeV/m), it becomes apparent that new methods with much higher acceleration gradient (measured in GeV/m) must be found for future very high energy accelerators as well as future compact (table-top or room-size) accelerators. This volume introduces a number of advanced accelerator concepts (AAC) — their principles, technologies and potential applications. For the time being, none of them stands out as a definitive direction in which to go. But these novel ideas are in hot pursuit and look promising. Furthermore, some AAC requires a high power laser system. This has the ...

  3. Advanced Accelerator Concepts Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wurtele, Jonathan S.

    2014-05-13

    A major focus of research supported by this Grant has been on the ALPHA antihydrogen trap. We first trapped antihydrogen in 2010 and soon thereafter demonstrated trapping for 1000s. We now have observed resonant quantum interactions with antihydrogen. These papers in Nature and Nature Physics report the major milestones in anti-atom trapping. The success was only achieved through careful work that advanced our understanding of collective dynamics in charged particle systems, the development of new cooling and diagnostics, and in- novation in understanding how to make physics measurements with small numbers of anti-atoms. This research included evaporative cooling, autoresonant excitation of longitudinal motion, and centrifugal separation. Antihydrogen trapping by ALPHA is progressing towards the point when a important theories believed by most to hold for all physical systems, such as CPT (Charge-Parity-Time) invariance and the Weak Equivalence Principle (matter and antimatter behaving the same way under the influence of gravity) can be directly tested in a new regime. One motivation for this test is that most accepted theories of the Big Bang predict that we should observe equal amounts of matter and antimatter. However astrophysicists have found very little antimatter in the universe. Our experiment will, if successful over the next seven years, provide a new test of these ideas. Many earlier detailed and beautiful tests have been made, but the trapping of neutral antimatter allows us to explore the possibility of direct, model-independent tests. Successful cooling of the anti atoms, careful limits on systematics and increased trapping rates, all planned for our follow-up experiment (ALPHA-II) will reach unrivaled precision. CPT invariance implies that the spectra of hydrogen and antihydrogen should be identical. Spectra can be measured in principle with great precision, and any di erences we might observe would revolutionize fundamental physics. This is the

  4. AREAL test facility for advanced accelerator and radiation source concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsakanov, V.M., E-mail: tsakanov@asls.candle.am [CANDLE Synchrotron Research Institute, 0040 Yerevan (Armenia); Amatuni, G.A.; Amirkhanyan, Z.G.; Aslyan, L.V.; Avagyan, V.Sh.; Danielyan, V.A.; Davtyan, H.D.; Dekhtiarov, V.S.; Gevorgyan, K.L.; Ghazaryan, N.G.; Grigoryan, B.A.; Grigoryan, A.H.; Hakobyan, L.S. [CANDLE Synchrotron Research Institute, 0040 Yerevan (Armenia); Haroutiunian, S.G. [Yerevan State University, 0025 Yerevan (Armenia); Ivanyan, M.I.; Khachatryan, V.G.; Laziev, E.M. [CANDLE Synchrotron Research Institute, 0040 Yerevan (Armenia); Manukyan, P.S. [State Engineering University of Armenia, 0009 Yerevan (Armenia); Margaryan, I.N.; Markosyan, T.M. [CANDLE Synchrotron Research Institute, 0040 Yerevan (Armenia); and others

    2016-09-01

    Advanced Research Electron Accelerator Laboratory (AREAL) is a 50 MeV electron linear accelerator project with a laser driven RF gun being constructed at the CANDLE Synchrotron Research Institute. In addition to applications in life and materials sciences, the project aims as a test facility for advanced accelerator and radiation source concepts. In this paper, the AREAL RF photoinjector performance, the facility design considerations and its highlights in the fields of free electron laser, the study of new high frequency accelerating structures, the beam microbunching and wakefield acceleration concepts are presented.

  5. Report on the Lake Arrowhead workshop on advanced acceleration concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pellegrini, C.

    1989-03-01

    We review the present status of the field of New Acceleration Concepts, as presented at the Lake Arrowhead workshop, held at the beginning of 1989. Many new and promising results have been obtained recently, and the field is actively developing. We discuss briefly some of the main results presented at the workshop. 43 refs., 2 tabs.

  6. THE 13TH ADVANCED ACCELERATOR CONCEPTS WORKSHOP (AAC'8)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leemans, Wim [UC Berkeley; Schroder, Carl B.; Esarey, Eric

    2008-07-15

    The Thirteenth Workshop on Advanced Accelerator Concepts (AAC) was held from July 27 to August 2, 2008 at the Chaminade Conference Center in Santa Cruz, California, USA, organized by the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and the University of California at Berkeley. There were unprecedented levels of interest in the 2008 AAC Workshop, and participation was by invitation, with 215 workshop attendees, including 58 students. Reflecting the world-wide growth of the advanced accelerator community, there was significant international participation, with participants from twelve countries attending.

  7. Organization of the 16th Advanced Accelerator Concepts (AAC) Workshop by Stanford University

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Zhirong [Stanford Univ., CA (United States); Hogan, Mark [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

    2015-09-30

    Essentially all we know today and will learn in the future about the fundamental nature of matter is derived from probing it with directed beams of particles such as electrons, protons, neutrons, heavy ions, and photons. The resulting ability to “see” the building blocks of matter has had an immense impact on society and our standard of living. Over the last century, particle accelerators have changed the way we look at nature and the universe we live in and have become an integral part of the Nation’s technical infrastructure. Today, particle accelerators are essential tools of modern science and technology. The cost and capabilities of accelerators would be greatly enhanced by breakthroughs in acceleration methods and technology. For the last 32 years, the Advanced Accelerator Concepts (AAC) Workshop has acted as the focal point for discussion and development of the most promising acceleration physics and technology. It is a particularly effective forum where the discussion is leveraged and promoted by the unique and demanding feature of the AAC Workshop: the working group structure, in which participants are asked to consider their contributions in terms of even larger problems to be solved. The 16th Advanced Accelerator Concepts (AAC2014) Workshop was organized by Stanford University from July 13 - 18, 2014 at the Dolce Hays Mansion in San Jose, California. The conference had a record 282 attendees including 62 students. Attendees came from 11 countries representing 66 different institutions. The workshop format consisted of plenary sessions in the morning with topical leaders from around the world presenting the latest breakthroughs to the entire workshop. In the late morning and afternoons attendees broke out into eight different working groups for more detailed presentations and discussions that were summarized on the final day of the workshop. In addition, there were student tutorial presentations on two afternoons to provide in depth education and

  8. Accelerating advanced-materials commercialization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maine, Elicia; Seegopaul, Purnesh

    2016-05-01

    Long commercialization times, high capital costs and sustained uncertainty deter investment in innovation for advanced materials. With appropriate strategies, technology and market uncertainties can be reduced, and the commercialization of advanced materials accelerated.

  9. Advanced Superconducting Test Accelerator (ASTA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Advanced Superconducting Test Accelerator (ASTA) facility will be based on upgrades to the existing NML pulsed SRF facility. ASTA is envisioned to contain 3 to...

  10. Advanced Superconducting Test Accelerator (ASTA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Advanced Superconducting Test Accelerator (ASTA) facility will be based on upgrades to the existing NML pulsed SRF facility. ASTA is envisioned to contain 3 to 6...

  11. Design Concepts for Muon-Based Accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryne, R. D. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Berg, J. S. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Kirk, H. G. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Palmer, R. B. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Stratkis, D. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Alexahin, Y. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Bross, A. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Gollwitzer, K. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Mokhov, N. V. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Neuffer, D. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Palmer, M. A. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Yonehara, K. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Snopok, P. [IIT, Chicago, IL (United States); Bogacz, A. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Roberts, T. J. [Muons Inc., Batavia, IL (United States); Delahaye, J. -P. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    2015-05-01

    Muon-based accelerators have the potential to enable facilities at both the Intensity and the Energy Frontiers. Muon storage rings can serve as high precision neutrino sources, and a muon collider is an ideal technology for a TeV or multi-TeV collider. Progress in muon accelerator designs has advanced steadily in recent years. In regard to 6D muon cooling, detailed and realistic designs now exist that provide more than 5 order-of-magnitude emittance reduction. Furthermore, detector performance studies indicate that with suitable pixelation and timing resolution, backgrounds in the collider detectors can be significantly reduced, thus enabling high-quality physics results. Thanks to these and other advances in design & simulation of muon systems, technology development, and systems demonstrations, muon storage-ring-based neutrino sources and a muon collider appear more feasible than ever before. A muon collider is now arguably among the most compelling approaches to a multi-TeV lepton collider. This paper summarizes the current status of design concepts for muon-based accelerators for neutrino factories and a muon collider.

  12. Aacsfi-PSC. Advanced accelerator concepts for strong field interaction simulated with the Plasma-Simulation-Code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruhl, Hartmut [Munich Univ. (Germany). Chair for Computational and Plasma Physics

    2016-11-01

    Since the installation of SuperMUC phase 2 the 9216 nodes of phase 1 are more easily available for large scale runs allowing for the thin foil and AWAKE simulations. Besides phase 2 could be used in parallel for high throughput of the ion acceleration simulations. Challenging to our project were the full-volume checkpoints required by PIC that strained the I/O-subsystem of SuperMUC to its limits. New approaches considered for the next generation system, like burst buffers could overcome this bottleneck. Additionally, as the FDTD solver in PIC is strongly bandwidth bound, PSC will benefit profoundly from high-bandwidth memory (HBM) that most likely will be available in future HPC machines. This will be of great advantage as in 2018 phase II of AWAKE should begin, with a longer plasma channel further increasing the need for additional computing resources. Last but not least, it is expected that our methods used in plasma physics (many body interaction with radiation) will be more and more adapted for medical diagnostics and treatments. For this research field we expect centimeter sized volumes with necessary resolutions of tens of micro meters resulting in boxes of >10{sup 12} voxels (100-200 TB) on a regular basis. In consequence the demand for computing time and especially for data storage and data handling capacities will also increase significantly.

  13. Advanced microwave processing concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauf, R.J.; McMillan, A.D.; Paulauskas, F.L. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, TN (United States)

    1995-05-01

    The purpose of this work is to explore the feasibility of several advanced microwave processing concepts to develop new energy-efficient materials and processes. The project includes two tasks: (1) commercialization of the variable-frequency microwave furnace; and (2) microwave curing of polymer composites. The variable frequency microwave furnace, whose initial conception and design was funded by the AIC Materials Program, will allow us, for the first time, to conduct microwave processing studies over a wide frequency range. This novel design uses a high-power traveling wave tube (TWT) originally developed for electronic warfare. By using this microwave source, one can not only select individual microwave frequencies for particular experiments, but also achieve uniform power densities over a large area by the superposition of many different frequencies. Microwave curing of thermoset resins will be studied because it hold the potential of in-situ curing of continuous-fiber composites for strong, lightweight components. Microwave heating can shorten curing times, provided issues of scaleup, uniformity, and thermal management can be adequately addressed.

  14. Advanced microwave processing concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauf, R.J.; McMillan, A.D.; Paulauskas, F.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1997-04-01

    The purpose of this work is to explore the feasibility of several advanced microwave processing concepts to develop new energy-efficient materials and processes. The project includes two tasks: (1) commercialization of the variable-frequency microwave furnace; and (2) microwave curing of polymeric materials. The variable frequency microwave furnace, whose initial conception and design was funded by the AIM Materials Program, allows the authors, for the first time, to conduct microwave processing studies over a wide frequency range. This novel design uses a high-power traveling wave tube (TWT) originally developed for electronic warfare. By using this microwave source, one can not only select individual microwave frequencies for particular experiments, but also achieve uniform power densities over a large area by the superposition of many different frequencies. Microwave curing of various thermoset resins will be studied because it holds the potential of in-situ curing of continuous-fiber composites for strong, lightweight components or in-situ curing of adhesives, including metal-to-metal. Microwave heating can shorten curing times, provided issues of scaleup, uniformity, and thermal management can be adequately addressed.

  15. ADVANCED SULFUR CONTROL CONCEPTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apostolos A. Nikolopoulos; Santosh K. Gangwal; William J. McMichael; Jeffrey W. Portzer

    2003-01-01

    Conventional sulfur removal in integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants involves numerous steps: COS (carbonyl sulfide) hydrolysis, amine scrubbing/regeneration, Claus process, and tail-gas treatment. Advanced sulfur removal in IGCC systems involves typically the use of zinc oxide-based sorbents. The sulfides sorbent is regenerated using dilute air to produce a dilute SO{sub 2} (sulfur dioxide) tail gas. Under previous contracts the highly effective first generation Direct Sulfur Recovery Process (DSRP) for catalytic reduction of this SO{sub 2} tail gas to elemental sulfur was developed. This process is currently undergoing field-testing. In this project, advanced concepts were evaluated to reduce the number of unit operations in sulfur removal and recovery. Substantial effort was directed towards developing sorbents that could be directly regenerated to elemental sulfur in an Advanced Hot Gas Process (AHGP). Development of this process has been described in detail in Appendices A-F. RTI began the development of the Single-step Sulfur Recovery Process (SSRP) to eliminate the use of sorbents and multiple reactors in sulfur removal and recovery. This process showed promising preliminary results and thus further process development of AHGP was abandoned in favor of SSRP. The SSRP is a direct Claus process that consists of injecting SO{sub 2} directly into the quenched coal gas from a coal gasifier, and reacting the H{sub 2}S-SO{sub 2} mixture over a selective catalyst to both remove and recover sulfur in a single step. The process is conducted at gasifier pressure and 125 to 160 C. The proposed commercial embodiment of the SSRP involves a liquid phase of molten sulfur with dispersed catalyst in a slurry bubble-column reactor (SBCR).

  16. The Pulse Line Ion Accelerator Concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Briggs, Richard J.

    2006-02-15

    The Pulse Line Ion Accelerator concept was motivated by the desire for an inexpensive way to accelerate intense short pulse heavy ion beams to regimes of interest for studies of High Energy Density Physics and Warm Dense Matter. A pulse power driver applied at one end of a helical pulse line creates a traveling wave pulse that accelerates and axially confines the heavy ion beam pulse. Acceleration scenarios with constant parameter helical lines are described which result in output energies of a single stage much larger than the several hundred kilovolt peak voltages on the line, with a goal of 3-5 MeV/meter acceleration gradients. The concept might be described crudely as an ''air core'' induction linac where the PFN is integrated into the beam line so the accelerating voltage pulse can move along with the ions to get voltage multiplication.

  17. Advanced Welding Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    Four advanced welding techniques and their use in NASA are briefly reviewed in this poster presentation. The welding techniques reviewed are: Solid State Welding, Friction Stir Welding (FSW), Thermal Stir Welding (TSW) and Ultrasonic Stir Welding.

  18. Advanced tokamak concepts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oomens, A. A. M.

    1998-01-01

    From a discussion of fusion reactor designs based on today's well-established experience gained in the operation of large tokamaks, it is concluded that such reactors are economically not attractive. The physics involved in the various options for concept improvement is described and the main e

  19. Advanced tokamak concepts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oomens, A. A. M.

    1996-01-01

    From a discussion of fusion reactor designs based on today's well-established experience gained in the operation of large tokamaks, it is concluded that such reactors are economically not attractive. The physics involved in the various options for concept improvement is described and the main e

  20. Muon Acceleration Concepts for Future Neutrino Factory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogacz, Slawomir Alex [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States)

    2016-05-01

    Here, we summarize current state of concept for muon acceleration aimed at future Neutrino Factory. The main thrust of these studies was to reduce the overall cost while maintaining performance through exploring interplay between complexity of the cooling systems and the acceptance of the accelerator complex. To ensure adequate survival of the short-lived muons, acceleration must occur at high average gradient. The need for large transverse and longitudinal acceptances drives the design of the acceleration system to initially low RF frequency, e.g. 325 MHz, and then increased to 650 MHz, as the transverse size shrinks with increasing energy. High-gradient normal conducting RF cavities at these frequencies require extremely high peak-power RF sources. Hence superconducting RF (SRF) cavities are chosen. Here, we considered two cost effective schemes for accelerating muon beams for a stagable Neutrino Factory: Exploration of the so-called 'dual-use' linac concept, where the same linac structure is used for acceleration of both H- and muons and alternatively, the SRF efficient design based on multi-pass (4.5) 'dogbone' RLA, extendable to multi-pass FFAG-like arcs.

  1. CERN Accelerator School: Registration open for Advanced Accelerator Physics course

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    Registration is now open for the CERN Accelerator School’s Advanced Accelerator Physics course to be held in Warsaw, Poland from 27 September to 9 October 2015.   The course will be of interest to physicists and engineers who wish to extend their knowledge of Accelerator Physics. The programme offers core lectures on accelerator physics in the mornings and a practical course with hands-on tuition in the afternoons.  Further information can be found at: http://cas.web.cern.ch/cas/Poland2015/Warsaw-advert.html http://indico.cern.ch/event/361988/

  2. CERN Accelerator School: Registration open for Advanced Accelerator Physics course

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    Registration is now open for the CERN Accelerator School’s Advanced Accelerator Physics course to be held in Warsaw, Poland from 27 September to 9 October 2015.   The course will be of interest to physicists and engineers who wish to extend their knowledge of accelerator physics. The programme offers core lectures on accelerator physics in the mornings and a practical course with hands-on tuition in the afternoons.  Further information can be found at: http://cas.web.cern.ch/cas/Poland2015/Warsaw-advert.html http://indico.cern.ch/event/361988/

  3. The financial accelerator effect: concept and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Ćorić

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This review concentrates on the role of information asymmetry in financial markets in the amplification and propagation of short-run output fluctuations. We find that the financial accelerator effect, as it is known, provides a consistent, first principle based, theoretical framework for the analysis of the relationship between financial markets and short-run output fluctuations. It also provides a plausible explanation of the proximate causes of the recent crisis, and first principle-based theoretical background for the credit policy measures taken during this crisis by many central banks and fiscal authorities. Despite the theoretical plausibility, the empirical evidence about the economic importance of the financial accelerator effect is still relatively weak. We also suggest two new aspects to expand existing concept of the financial accelerator effect, which call for further research.

  4. Accelerating development of advanced inverters :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neely, Jason C.; Gonzalez, Sigifredo; Ropp, Michael; Schutz, Dustin

    2013-11-01

    The high penetration of utility interconnected photovoltaic (PV) systems is causing heightened concern over the effect that variable renewable generation will have on the electrical power system (EPS). These concerns have initiated the need to amend the utility interconnection standard to allow advanced inverter control functionalities that provide: (1) reactive power control for voltage support, (2) real power control for frequency support and (3) better tolerance of grid disturbances. These capabilities are aimed at minimizing the negative impact distributed PV systems may have on EPS voltage and frequency. Unfortunately, these advanced control functions may interfere with island detection schemes, and further development of advanced inverter functions requires a study of the effect of advanced functions on the efficacy of antiislanding schemes employed in industry. This report summarizes the analytical, simulation and experimental work to study interactions between advanced inverter functions and anti-islanding schemes being employed in distributed PV systems.

  5. Accelerator design concept for future neutrino facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apollonio, M [Imperial College London, London (United Kingdom); Berg, J S; Fernow, R; Gallardo, J [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, Long Island, NY (United States); Blondel, A [University of Geneva, Geneva (Switzerland); Bogacz, A [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Brooks, S; Edgecock, R [Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, Didcot Oxon (United Kingdom); Campagne, J-E [LAL, University Paris-Sud, IN2P3/CNRS, Orsay (France); Caspar, D [University of California-Irvine, Irvine, CA (United States); Cavata, C [CEA, CEN Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Chimenti, P [University of Trieste and INFN, Trieste (Italy); Cobb, J [University of Oxford, Oxford (United Kingdom); Dracos, M [Institut de Recherches Subatomiques, Universite Louis Pasteur, Strasbourg (France); Efthymiopoulos, I; Fabich, A; Garoby, R [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Filthaut, F [NIKHEF, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Geer, S [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, IL (United States)], E-mail: mszisman@lbl.gov (and others)

    2009-07-15

    This document summarizes the work of the Accelerator Working Group (AWG) of the International Scoping Study (ISS) of a Future Neutrino Factory and Superbeam Facility. The main goal of the activity was to reach consensus on a baseline design for a Neutrino Factory complex, including proton driver parameters, choice of target, front-end design, acceleration system design, and decay ring geometry. Another goal was to explore the commonality, if any, between the proton driver for a Neutrino Factory and those for a Superbeam or Beta Beam facility. In general, the requirements for either of the latter facilities are less stringent than those for a Neutrino Factory. Here, we discuss concepts, parameters, and expected performance of the required subsystems for our chosen baseline design of a Neutrino Factory. We also give an indication of the main R and D tasks - many of which are already under way - that must be carried out to finalize facility design approaches.

  6. Injector Design for Advanced Accelerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henestroza, Enrique; Faltens, A.

    1996-11-01

    Accelerator designs intended to provide acceleration at a much lower cost per Joule than the ILSE or ELISE designs are under study. For these designs, which typically have many beams, an injector of significantly lower cost is needed. A goal, which from our design appears to be achievable, is to reduce the transverse dimension to half that of the 2 MeV, 800 mA ILSE injector(E. Henestroza, ``Injectors for Heavy Ion Fusion", Proc. of the 11th International Wkshp. on Laser Interaction and Related Plasma Phenomena, 1993.) while generating about the same current. A single channel of a lower cost injector includes an 800 kV column, accelerating a 700 mA beam extracted from a potassium source of 4 cm radius by a 120 kV electrode. The beam passes into a superconducting 7 T solenoid of 15 cm aperture and 15 cm length. This high-field solenoid provides the focusing needed for a small beam without increasing the electric field gradient. The injector and its matching section, also designed, fit within a 12 cm radius, which is small enough to allow construction of attractive multi-beam injectors. We will present solutions for the generation and transport of 700 mA potassium beams of up to 1.6 MeV within the same transverse constraint.

  7. Advanced nuclear thermal propulsion concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Steven D.

    1993-11-01

    In 1989, a Presidential directive created the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) which had a goal of placing mankind on Mars in the early 21st century. The SEI was effectively terminated in 1992 with the election of a new administration. Although the initiative did not exist long enough to allow substantial technology development, it did provide a venue, for the first time in 20 years, to comprehensively evaluate advanced propulsion concepts which could enable fast, manned transits to Mars. As part of the SEI based investigations, scientists from NASA, DoE National Laboratories, universities, and industry met regularly and proceeded to examine a variety of innovative ideas. Most of the effort was directed toward developing a solid-core, nuclear thermal rocket and examining a high-power nuclear electric propulsion system. In addition, however, an Innovative Concepts committee was formed and charged with evaluating concepts that offered a much higher performance but were less technologically mature. The committee considered several concepts and eventually recommended that further work be performed in the areas of gas core fission rockets, inertial confinement fusion systems, antimatter based rockets, and gas core fission electric systems. Following the committee's recommendations, some computational modeling work has been performed at Los Alamos in certain of these areas and critical issues have been identified.

  8. Advanced nuclear thermal propulsion concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Steven D.

    1993-01-01

    In 1989, a Presidential directive created the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) which had a goal of placing mankind on Mars in the early 21st century. The SEI was effectively terminated in 1992 with the election of a new administration. Although the initiative did not exist long enough to allow substantial technology development, it did provide a venue, for the first time in 20 years, to comprehensively evaluate advanced propulsion concepts which could enable fast, manned transits to Mars. As part of the SEI based investigations, scientists from NASA, DoE National Laboratories, universities, and industry met regularly and proceeded to examine a variety of innovative ideas. Most of the effort was directed toward developing a solid-core, nuclear thermal rocket and examining a high-power nuclear electric propulsion system. In addition, however, an Innovative Concepts committee was formed and charged with evaluating concepts that offered a much higher performance but were less technologically mature. The committee considered several concepts and eventually recommended that further work be performed in the areas of gas core fission rockets, inertial confinement fusion systems, antimatter based rockets, and gas core fission electric systems. Following the committee's recommendations, some computational modeling work has been performed at Los Alamos in certain of these areas and critical issues have been identified.

  9. Advanced fusion concepts: project summaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-12-01

    This report contains descriptions of the activities of all the projects supported by the Advanced Fusion Concepts Branch of the Office of Fusion Energy, US Department of Energy. These descriptions are project summaries of each of the individual projects, and contain the following: title, principle investigators, funding levels, purpose, approach, progress, plans, milestones, graduate students, graduates, other professional staff, and recent publications. Information is given for each of the following programs: (1) reverse-field pinch, (2) compact toroid, (3) alternate fuel/multipoles, (4) stellarator/torsatron, (5) linear magnetic fusion, (6) liners, and (7) Tormac. (MOW)

  10. CAS - CERN Accelerator School: Advanced Accelerator Physics Course

    CERN Document Server

    Herr, W

    2014-01-01

    This report presents the proceedings of the Course on Advanced Accelerator Physics organized by the CERN Accelerator School. The course was held in Trondheim, Norway from 18 to 29 August 2013, in collaboration with the Norwegian University of Science and Technology. Its syllabus was based on previous courses and in particular on the course held in Berlin 2003 whose proceedings were published as CERN Yellow Report CERN- 2006-002. The field has seen significant advances in recent years and some topics were presented in a new way and other topics were added. The lectures were supplemented with tutorials on key topics and 14 hours of hands on courses on Optics Design and Corrections, RF Measurement Techniques and Beam Instrumentation and Diagnostics. These courses are a key element of the Advanced Level Course.

  11. Clinical Requirements and Accelerator Concepts for BNCT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludewigt, Bernhard A.

    1997-05-01

    Accelerator-driven epithermal neutron sources are an attractive alternative to nuclear reactors for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT). In BNCT the goal of delivering a sufficient dose to the tumor without exceeding the dose limits of the surrounding normal tissues is achieved by administering a ^10B-containing compound which is selectively taken up in the tumor cells. Subsequent irradiation with epithermal neutrons leads to the release of short ranged (neutron-capture reaction. By carefully shaping the neutron spectrum the background dose, partially due to recoil protons and external gamma radiation, can be minimized and the depth dose distribution optimized. Excellent epithermal neutron beams for BNCT can be produced by bombarding a Li-target with a high current proton beam at energies ranging from the (p,n) reaction threshold to 2.5 MeV and subsequent moderation and filtering of the primary neutrons. In comparison the use of Be-targets and higher proton or deuteron energies, up to 20 MeV, leads to higher neutron yields but also to higher primary neutron energies requiring more moderation and resulting in less desirable neutron spectra. Accelerator options for possible neutron sources include dc-accelerators, RFQs, LINACs and cyclotrons. An electrostatic quadrupole (ESQ) accelerator has been chosen to provide a 2.5 MeV proton beam for the BNCT facility currently being designed at LBNL. An ESQ-accelerator is ideally suited to provide the high beam currents which are desired for producing high quality neutron beams for BNCT treatments. A novel power supply based on the air-coupled transformer concept is under development. It will enable the accelerator to deliver proton beam currents up to about 50 mA. A Li-target has been designed which can handle beam power in excess of 50 kW establishing the practicability of this approach. Monte Carlo simulation studies have shown that at a proton beam current of 20 mA high quality treatments for brain tumors can be delivered

  12. Advancing Uncertainty: Untangling and Discerning Related Concepts

    OpenAIRE

    Janice Penrod

    2002-01-01

    Methods of advancing concepts within the qualitative paradigm have been developed and articulated. In this section, I describe methodological perspectives of a project designed to advance the concept of uncertainty using multiple qualitative methods. Through a series of earlier studies, the concept of uncertainty arose repeatedly in varied contexts, working its way into prominence, and warranting further investigation. Processes of advanced concept analysis were used to initiate the formal in...

  13. Recent Advances in Understanding Particle Acceleration Processes in Solar Flares

    CERN Document Server

    Zharkova, Valentina V; Benz, Arnold O; Browning, Phillippa; Dauphin, Cyril; Emslie, A Gordon; Fletcher, Lyndsay; Kontar, Eduard P; Mann, Gottfried; Onofri, Marco; Petrosian, Vahe; Turkmani, Rim; Vilmer, Nicole; Vlahos, Loukas

    2011-01-01

    We review basic theoretical concepts in particle acceleration, with particular emphasis on processes likely to occur in regions of magnetic reconnection. Several new developments are discussed, including detailed studies of reconnection in three-dimensional magnetic field configurations (e.g., current sheets, collapsing traps, separatrix regions) and stochastic acceleration in a turbulent environment. Fluid, test-particle, and particle-in-cell approaches are used and results compared. While these studies show considerable promise in accounting for the various observational manifestations of solar flares, they are limited by a number of factors, mostly relating to available computational power. Not the least of these issues is the need to explicitly incorporate the electrodynamic feedback of the accelerated particles themselves on the environment in which they are accelerated. A brief prognosis for future advancement is offered.

  14. Diagnostics for advanced laser acceleration experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Misuri, Alessio [Univ. of Pisa (Italy)

    2002-01-01

    The first proposal for plasma based accelerators was suggested by 1979 by Tajima and Dawson. Since then there has been a tremendous progress both theoretically and experimentally. The theoretical progress is particularly due to the growing interest in the subject and to the development of more accurate numerical codes for the plasma simulations (especially particle-in-cell codes). The experimental progress follows from the development of multi-terawatt laser systems based on the chirped-pulse amplification technique. These efforts have produced results in several experiments world-wide, with the detection of accelerated electrons of tens of MeV. The peculiarity of these advanced accelerators is their ability to sustain extremely large acceleration gradients. In the conventional radio frequency linear accelerators (RF linacs) the acceleration gradients are limited roughly to 100 MV/m; this is partially due to breakdown which occurs on the walls of the structure. The electrical breakdown is originated by the emission of the electrons from the walls of the cavity. The electrons cause an avalanche breakdown when they reach other metal parts of the RF linacs structure.

  15. Diagnostics for advanced laser acceleration experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Misuri, Alessio

    2002-06-01

    The first proposal for plasma based accelerators was suggested by 1979 by Tajima and Dawson. Since then there has been a tremendous progress both theoretically and experimentally. The theoretical progress is particularly due to the growing interest in the subject and to the development of more accurate numerical codes for the plasma simulations (especially particle-in-cell codes). The experimental progress follows from the development of multi-terawatt laser systems based on the chirped-pulse amplification technique. These efforts have produced results in several experiments world-wide, with the detection of accelerated electrons of tens of MeV. The peculiarity of these advanced accelerators is their ability to sustain extremely large acceleration gradients. In the conventional radio frequency linear accelerators (RF linacs) the acceleration gradients are limited roughly to 100 MV/m; this is partially due to breakdown which occurs on the walls of the structure. The electrical breakdown is originated by the emission of the electrons from the walls of the cavity. The electrons cause an avalanche breakdown when they reach other metal parts of the RF linacs structure.

  16. Advanced Accelerator Magnets for Upgrading the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Rossi, L; de Rijk, G; Todesco, E

    2012-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider is working at about half its design value, limited by the defective splices of the magnet interconnections. While the full energy will be attained after the splice consolidation in 2014, CERN is preparing a plan for a Luminosity upgrade (High Luminosity LHC) around 2020 and has launched a pre-study for exploring an Energy upgrade (High Energy LHC) around 2030. Both upgrades strongly rely on advanced accelerator magnet technology, requiring dipoles and quadrupoles of accelerator quality and operating fields in the 11-13 T range for the luminosity upgrade and 16-20 T range for the energy upgrade. The paper will review the last ten year of Nb3Sn accelerator magnet R&D and compare it to the needs of the upgrades and will critically assess the results of the Nb3Sn and HTS technology and the planned R&D programs also based on the inputs of first year of LHC operation.

  17. Vacuum system for Advanced Test Accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denhoy, B.S.

    1981-09-03

    The Advanced Test Accelerator (ATA) is a pulsed linear electron beam accelerator designed to study charged particle beam propagation. ATA is designed to produce a 10,000 amp 50 MeV, 70 ns electron beam. The electron beam acceleration is accomplished in ferrite loaded cells. Each cell is capable of maintaining a 70 ns 250 kV voltage pulse across a 1 inch gap. The electron beam is contained in a 5 inch diameter, 300 foot long tube. Cryopumps turbomolecular pumps, and mechanical pumps are used to maintain a base pressure of 2 x 10/sup -6/ torr in the beam tube. The accelerator will be installed in an underground tunnel. Due to the radiation environment in the tunnel, the controlling and monitoring of the vacuum equipment, pressures and temperatures will be done from the control room through a computer interface. This paper describes the vacuum system design, the type of vacuum pumps specified, the reasons behind the selection of the pumps and the techniques used for computer interfacing.

  18. Towards Advanced Interaction Design Concepts

    OpenAIRE

    Dijkman, Remco; Dirgahayu, Teduh; Quartel, Dick

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we analyse the interaction mechanisms provided by Web Services technology and by CORBA. Specifically we analyse the request/response, callback, polling and (multicasr) message passing mechanisms. As a result we present Coloured Petri Nets that capture the behaviour of these mechanisms precisely. Based on our analysis we define concepts for representing the Web Services and CORBA interactions in a suitable and platform independent manner. These concepts can be used for platfonn i...

  19. Laser technology inspires new accelerator concepts

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2012-01-01

    A new EU-funded research network, LA³NET, is bringing together universities, research centres and industry partners worldwide to explore the use of laser technology in particle beam generation, acceleration and diagnostics. As one of the network partners, CERN will be hosting three early stage researchers in the BE and EN Departments.   One of the laser systems now in use in the ISOLDE experiment. If you take a closer look at recent experimental developments, you’ll notice a new topic trending: laser technology. It’s being used to study the characteristics of particles, as incorporated into the new ALPHA-2 set-up; to conduct diagnostics of particle beams, as used in a laser wire scanner at Petra III; to “breed” unusual ion beams, as carried out by ISOLDE’s Resonance Ionization Laser Ion Source (RILIS); and even to accelerate particles to high energies, as explored at Berkeley’s BELLA facility. These projects notwithstanding...

  20. A Los Alamos concept for accelerator transmutation of waste and energy production (ATW)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-12-31

    This document contains the diagrams presented at the ATW (Accelerator Transmutation of Waste and Energy Production) External Review, December 10-12, 1990, held at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Included are the charge to the committee and the presentations for the committee`s review. Topics of the presentations included an overview of the concept, LINAC technology, near-term application -- high-level defense wastes (intense thermal neutron source, chemistry and materials), advanced application of the ATW concept -- fission energy without a high-level waste stream (overview, advanced technology, and advanced chemistry), and a summary of the research issues.

  1. Accelerator Design Concept for Future Neutrino Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ISS Accelerator Working Group; Zisman, Michael S; Berg, J. S.; Blondel, A.; Brooks, S.; Campagne, J.-E.; Caspar, D.; Cevata, C.; Chimenti, P.; Cobb, J.; Dracos, M.; Edgecock, R.; Efthymiopoulos, I.; Fabich, A.; Fernow, R.; Filthaut, F.; Gallardo, J.; Garoby, R.; Geer, S.; Gerigk, F.; Hanson, G.; Johnson, R.; Johnstone, C.; Kaplan, D.; Keil, E.; Kirk, H.; Klier, A.; Kurup, A.; Lettry, J.; Long, K.; Machida, S.; McDonald, K.; Meot, F.; Mori, Y.; Neuffer, D.; Palladino, V.; Palmer, R.; Paul, K.; Poklonskiy, A.; Popovic, M.; Prior, C.; Rees, G.; Rossi, C.; Rovelli, T.; Sandstrom, R.; Sevior, R.; Sievers, P.; Simos, N.; Torun, Y.; Vretenar, M.; Yoshimura, K.; Zisman, Michael S

    2008-02-03

    This document summarizes the findings of the Accelerator Working Group (AWG) of the International Scoping Study (ISS) of a Future Neutrino Factory and Superbeam Facility. The work of the group took place at three plenary meetings along with three workshops, and an oral summary report was presented at the NuFact06 workshop held at UC-Irvine in August, 2006. The goal was to reach consensus on a baseline design for a Neutrino Factory complex. One aspect of this endeavor was to examine critically the advantages and disadvantages of the various Neutrino Factory schemes that have been proposed in recent years.

  2. Conception design of helium ion FFAG accelerator with induction accelerating cavity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Huan-Li; XU Yu-Cun; WANG Xiang-Qi; XU Hong-Liang

    2013-01-01

    In the recent decades of particle accelerator R&D area,the fixed field alternating gradient (FFAG) accelerator has become a highlight for some advantages of its higher beam intensity and lower cost,although there are still some technical challenges.In this paper,the FFAG accelerator is adopted to accelerate a helium ion beam on the one hand for the study of helium embrittlement on fusion reactor envelope material and on the other hand for promoting the conception research and design of the FFAG accelerator and exploring the possibility of developing high power FFAG accelerators.The conventional period focusing unit of the helium ion FFAG accelerator and threedimensional model of the large aperture combinatorial magnet by OPERA-TOSCA are given.For low energy and low revolution frequency,induction acceleration is proposed to replace conventional radio frequency (RF) acceleration for the helium ion FFAG accelerator,which avoids the potential breakdown of the acceleration field caused by the wake field and improves the acceleration repetition frequency to gain higher beam intensity.The main parameters and three-dimensional model of induction cavity are given.Two special constraint waveforms are proposed to refrain from particle accelerating time slip (AT) caused by accelerating voltage drop of flat top and energy deviation.The particle longitudinal motion in two waveforms is simulated.

  3. Investigations of the concept of a multibunch dielectric wakefield accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onishchenko, I.N., E-mail: onish@kipt.kharkov.ua; Kiselev, V.A.; Linnik, A.F.; Pristupa, V.I.; Sotnikov, G.V.

    2016-09-01

    Theoretical and experimental investigations of the physical principles of multibunch dielectric wakefield accelerator concept based on the wakefield excitation in the dielectric structure by a sequence of relativistic electron bunches are presented. The purpose of the concept is to enhance the wakefield intensity by means of the multibunch coherent excitation and wakefield accumulation in a resonator. The acceleration of bunches is achieved at detuning of bunch repetition frequency relative to the frequency of the excited wakefield. In such a way the sequence of bunches is divided into exciting and accelerated parts due to displacing bunches into accelerating phases of wakefield excited by a previous part of bunches of the same sequence. Besides the change of the permittivity and loss tangent of dielectrics under the irradiation by 100 MeV electron beam is studied.

  4. A new accelerator alignment concept using laser trackers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedsam, H.

    1994-07-01

    This paper outlines the basic principle of the laser tracker and the new and simplified alignment concept for the APS based on the use of these laser trackers. These instruments not only provide the necessary accuracy for positioning of beam components but are also reducing the time and manpower requirements for the alignment of beam elements. The presented alignment concept will be especially valuable when considering the alignment of small scale accelerators.

  5. Advanced accelerator and mm-wave structure research at LANL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simakov, Evgenya Ivanovna [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-06-22

    This document outlines acceleration projects and mm-wave structure research performed at LANL. The motivation for PBG research is described first, with reference to couplers for superconducting accelerators and structures for room-temperature accelerators and W-band TWTs. These topics are then taken up in greater detail: PBG structures and the MIT PBG accelerator; SRF PBG cavities at LANL; X-band PBG cavities at LANL; and W-band PBG TWT at LANL. The presentation concludes by describing other advanced accelerator projects: beam shaping with an Emittance Exchanger, diamond field emitter array cathodes, and additive manufacturing of novel accelerator structures.

  6. Advanced Beamline Design for Fermilab's Advanced Superconducting Test Accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prokop, Christopher [Northern Illinois Univ., DeKalb, IL (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The Advanced Superconducting Test Accelerator (ASTA) at Fermilab is a new electron accelerator currently in the commissioning stage. In addition to testing superconducting accelerating cavities for future accelerators, it is foreseen to support a variety of Advanced Accelerator R&D (AARD) experiments. Producing the required electron bunches with the expected flexibility is challenging. The goal of this dissertation is to explore via numerical simulations new accelerator beamlines that can enable the advanced manipulation of electron bunches. The work especially includes the design of a low-energy bunch compressor and a study of transverse-to-longitudinal phase space exchangers.

  7. Advances of Accelerator Physics and Technologies

    CERN Document Server

    1993-01-01

    This volume, consisting of articles written by experts with international repute and long experience, reviews the state of the art of accelerator physics and technologies and the use of accelerators in research, industry and medicine. It covers a wide range of topics, from basic problems concerning the performance of circular and linear accelerators to technical issues and related fields. Also discussed are recent achievements that are of particular interest (such as RF quadrupole acceleration, ion sources and storage rings) and new technologies (such as superconductivity for magnets and RF ca

  8. Economics of electron beam accelerator facilities: Concept vs actual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minbiole, Paul R.

    1995-02-01

    Electron beam accelerator facilities continue to demonstrate their ability to "add value" to a wide range of industrial products. The power, energy, and reliability of commercially available accelerators have increased steadily over the past several decades. The high throughput potential of modern electron beam facilities, together with the broad spectrum of commercial applications, result in the concept that an electron beam facility is an effective tool for adding economic value to industrial products. However, the high capital costs of such a facility (including hidden costs), together with practical limitations to high throughput (including several layers of inefficiencies), result in profit-and-loss economics which are more tenuous than expected after first analysis.

  9. CONCEPT OF ADVANCED FLEXIBLE USE OF AIRSPACE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleksandr Luppo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Concept of Flexible Use of Airspace (FUA allows to eliminate many problems on the basis of civil-military coordination, but there are still a lot of areas for improvement. These improvements will be implemented in the Advanced Flexible Use of Airspace (AFUA concept. Methods: We examine the airspace structure in the frames of AFUA concept, which includes variable profile areas, temporary reserved and temporary segregated areas, danger or restricted areas. Mission Trajectory in AFUA which allows designing ad-hoc structures delineation at short notice is also examined. Regarding the performance enhancements of AFUA we compare these with FUA concept. Examination of AFUA structure gives us better view of the functions and opportunities of this concept. Result: AFUA concept provides many advantages for the civil aviation stakeholders and includes many other positive sides. Variable Profile Areas provide more flexibility, particularly in a high density traffic area and any combination of basic volume possible. Collaborative decision-making will increase the situational awareness of both parties and help to decrease the transit between airbases and training areas, allows military to use larger airspaces for missions on an absolute time-limited basis. As a result of mission trajectory implementation in AFUA concept general air traffic crossing are possible in all type of airspace structures, after coordination or under specific permanent agreements. The use of Centralized AFUA Services will allow the central collection, integration and provision of ASM data in support of continuous collaborative network processes, in such a way improving operational performance during the planning and execution phases (predictability, flexibility, better use of capacity, enhanced flight efficiency, real time sharing of information, better management of available airspace. Discussion: Given the important contribution that AFUA brings into air traffic management

  10. Advanced Computing Tools and Models for Accelerator Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryne, Robert; Ryne, Robert D.

    2008-06-11

    This paper is based on a transcript of my EPAC'08 presentation on advanced computing tools for accelerator physics. Following an introduction I present several examples, provide a history of the development of beam dynamics capabilities, and conclude with thoughts on the future of large scale computing in accelerator physics.

  11. Radar foundations for imaging and advanced concepts

    CERN Document Server

    Sullivan, Roger

    2004-01-01

    Through courses internally taught at IDA, Dr. Roger Sullivan has devised a book that brings readers fully up to speed on the most essential quantitave aspects of general radar in order to introduce study of the most exciting and relevant applications to radar imaging and advanced concepts: Synthetic Aperture Radar (4 chapters), Space-time Adaptive Processing, moving target indication (MTI), bistatic radar, low probability of intercept (LPI) radar, weather radar, and ground-penetrating radar. Whether you're a radar novice or experienced professional, this is an essential refer

  12. Experimental, Theoretical and Computational Studies of Plasma-Based Concepts for Future High Energy Accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joshi, Chan [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Mori, W. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2013-10-21

    This is the final report on the DOE grant number DE-FG02-92ER40727 titled, “Experimental, Theoretical and Computational Studies of Plasma-Based Concepts for Future High Energy Accelerators.” During this grant period the UCLA program on Advanced Plasma Based Accelerators, headed by Professor C. Joshi has made many key scientific advances and trained a generation of students, many of whom have stayed in this research field and even started research programs of their own. In this final report however, we will focus on the last three years of the grant and report on the scientific progress made in each of the four tasks listed under this grant. Four tasks are focused on: Plasma Wakefield Accelerator Research at FACET, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, In House Research at UCLA’s Neptune and 20 TW Laser Laboratories, Laser-Wakefield Acceleration (LWFA) in Self Guided Regime: Experiments at the Callisto Laser at LLNL, and Theory and Simulations. Major scientific results have been obtained in each of the four tasks described in this report. These have led to publications in the prestigious scientific journals, graduation and continued training of high quality Ph.D. level students and have kept the U.S. at the forefront of plasma-based accelerators research field.

  13. Advanced Accelerator Applications University Participation Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Y. Chen; A. Hechanova

    2007-07-25

    Our research tasks span the range of technology areas for transmutation, gas-cooled reactor technology, and high temperature heat exchangers, including separation of actinides from spent nuclear fuel, methods of fuel fabrication, reactor-accelerator coupled experiments, corrosion of materials exposed to lead-bismuth eutectic, and special nuclear materials protection and accountability.

  14. Advanced Gasifier Pilot Plant Concept Definition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steve Fusselman; Alan Darby; Fred Widman

    2005-08-31

    This report presents results from definition of a preferred commercial-scale advanced gasifier configuration and concept definition for a gasification pilot plant incorporating those preferred technologies. The preferred commercial gasifier configuration was established based on Cost Of Electricity estimates for an IGCC. Based on the gasifier configuration trade study results, a compact plug flow gasifier, with a dry solids pump, rapid-mix injector, CMC liner insert and partial quench system was selected as the preferred configuration. Preliminary systems analysis results indicate that this configuration could provide cost of product savings for electricity and hydrogen ranging from 15%-20% relative to existing gasifier technologies. This cost of product improvement draws upon the efficiency of the dry feed, rapid mix injector technology, low capital cost compact gasifier, and >99% gasifier availability due to long life injector and gasifier liner, with short replacement time. A pilot plant concept incorporating the technologies associated with the preferred configuration was defined, along with cost and schedule estimates for design, installation, and test operations. It was estimated that a 16,300 kg/day (18 TPD) pilot plant gasifier incorporating the advanced gasification technology and demonstrating 1,000 hours of hot-fire operation could be accomplished over a period of 33 months with a budget of $25.6 M.

  15. Advanced High Voltage Power Device Concepts

    CERN Document Server

    Baliga, B Jayant

    2012-01-01

    Advanced High Voltage Power Device Concepts describes devices utilized in power transmission and distribution equipment, and for very high power motor control in electric trains and steel-mills. Since these devices must be capable of supporting more than 5000-volts in the blocking mode, this books covers operation of devices rated at 5,000-V, 10,000-V and 20,000-V. Advanced concepts (the MCT, the BRT, and the EST) that enable MOS-gated control of power thyristor structures are described and analyzed in detail. In addition, detailed analyses of the silicon IGBT, as well as the silicon carbide MOSFET and IGBT, are provided for comparison purposes. Throughout the book, analytical models are generated to give a better understanding of the physics of operation for all the structures. This book provides readers with: The first comprehensive treatment of high voltage (over 5000-volts) power devices suitable for the power distribution, traction, and motor-control markets;  Analytical formulations for all the device ...

  16. Concepts for the magnetic design of the MITICA neutral beam test facility ion accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chitarin, G. [Consorzio RFX, Corso Stati Uniti 4, 35127 Padova (Italy); Department of Engineering and Management, University of Padova, Vicenza (Italy); Agostinetti, P.; Marconato, N.; Marcuzzi, D.; Sartori, E.; Serianni, G.; Sonato, P. [Consorzio RFX, Corso Stati Uniti 4, 35127 Padova (Italy)

    2012-02-15

    The megavolt ITER injector concept advancement neutral injector test facility will be constituted by a RF-driven negative ion source and by an electrostatic Accelerator, designed to produce a negative Ion with a specific energy up to 1 MeV. The beam is then neutralized in order to obtain a focused 17 MW neutral beam. The magnetic configuration inside the accelerator is of crucial importance for the achievement of a good beam efficiency, with the early deflection of the co-extracted and stripped electrons, and also of the required beam optic quality, with the correction of undesired ion beamlet deflections. Several alternative magnetic design concepts have been considered, comparing in detail the magnetic and beam optics simulation results, evidencing the advantages and drawbacks of each solution both from the physics and engineering point of view.

  17. Concepts for the magnetic design of the MITICA neutral beam test facility ion accelerator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitarin, G; Agostinetti, P; Marconato, N; Marcuzzi, D; Sartori, E; Serianni, G; Sonato, P

    2012-02-01

    The megavolt ITER injector concept advancement neutral injector test facility will be constituted by a RF-driven negative ion source and by an electrostatic Accelerator, designed to produce a negative Ion with a specific energy up to 1 MeV. The beam is then neutralized in order to obtain a focused 17 MW neutral beam. The magnetic configuration inside the accelerator is of crucial importance for the achievement of a good beam efficiency, with the early deflection of the co-extracted and stripped electrons, and also of the required beam optic quality, with the correction of undesired ion beamlet deflections. Several alternative magnetic design concepts have been considered, comparing in detail the magnetic and beam optics simulation results, evidencing the advantages and drawbacks of each solution both from the physics and engineering point of view.

  18. The Advanced Superconducting Test Accelerator at Fermilab: Science Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piot, Philippe [Fermilab; Harms, Elvin [Fermilab; Henderson, Stuart [Fermilab; Leibfritz, Jerry [Fermilab; Nagaitsev, Sergei [Fermilab; Shiltsev, Vladimir [Fermilab; Valishev, Alexander [Fermilab

    2014-07-01

    The Advanced Superconducting Test Accelerator (ASTA) currently in commissioning phase at Fermilab is foreseen to support a broad range of beam-based experiments to study fundamental limitations to beam intensity and to develop novel approaches to particle-beam generation, acceleration and manipulation. ASTA incorporates a superconducting radiofrequency (SCRF) linac coupled to a flexible high-brightness photoinjector. The facility also includes a small-circumference storage ring capable of storing electrons or protons. This report summarizes the facility capabilities, and provide an overview of the accelerator-science researches to be enabled.

  19. Community Petascale Project for Accelerator Science and Simulation: Advancing Computational Science for Future Accelerators and Accelerator Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spentzouris, P.; /Fermilab; Cary, J.; /Tech-X, Boulder; McInnes, L.C.; /Argonne; Mori, W.; /UCLA; Ng, C.; /SLAC; Ng, E.; Ryne, R.; /LBL, Berkeley

    2011-11-14

    for software development and applications accounts for the natural domain areas (beam dynamics, electromagnetics, and advanced acceleration), and all areas depend on the enabling technologies activities, such as solvers and component technology, to deliver the desired performance and integrated simulation environment. The ComPASS applications focus on computationally challenging problems important for design or performance optimization to all major HEP, NP, and BES accelerator facilities. With the cost and complexity of particle accelerators rising, the use of computation to optimize their designs and find improved operating regimes becomes essential, potentially leading to significant cost savings with modest investment.

  20. Advanced Accelerated Power Cycling Test for Reliability Investigation of Power Device Modules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choi, Uimin; Jørgensen, Søren; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2016-01-01

    of tested power IGBT module. The various realistic electrical operating conditions close to real three-phase converter applications can be achieved by the simple control method. Further, by the proposed concept of applying the temperature stress, it is possible to apply various magnitudes of temperature......This paper presents an apparatus and methodology for an advanced accelerated power cycling test of insulated-gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) modules. In this test, the accelerated power cycling test can be performed under more realistic electrical operating conditions with online wear-out monitoring...... power cycling test setup is given. Then, an improved in situ junction temperature estimation method using on-state collector–emitter voltage VCE ON and load current is proposed. In addition, a procedure of advanced accelerated power cycling test and test results with 600 V, 30 A transfer molded IGBT...

  1. Details and justifications for the MAP concept specification for acceleration above 63 GeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berg, J. Scott [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.

    2014-02-28

    The Muon Accelerator Program (MAP) requires a concept specification for each of the accelerator systems. The Muon accelerators will bring the beam energy from a total energy of 63 GeV to the maximum energy that will fit on the Fermilab site. Justifications and supporting references are included, providing more detail than will appear in the concept specification itself.

  2. Advanced Test Accelerator (ATA) pulse power technology development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reginato, L.L.; Branum, D.; Cook, E.

    1981-03-09

    The Advanced Test Accelerator (ATA) is a pulsed linear induction accelerator with the following design parameters: 50 MeV, 10 kA, 70 ns, and 1 kHz in a ten-pulse burst. Acceleration is accomplished by means of 190 ferrite-loaded cells, each capable of maintaining a 250 kV voltage pulse for 70 ns across a 1-inch gap. The unique characteristic of this machine is its 1 kHz burst mode capability at very high currents. This paper dscribes the pulse power development program which used the Experimental Test Accelerator (ETA) technology as a starting base. Considerable changes have been made both electrically and mechanically in the pulse power components with special consideration being given to the design to achieve higher reliability. A prototype module which incorporates all the pulse power components has been built and tested for millions of shots. Prototype components and test results are described.

  3. A Concept for Directly Coupled Pulsed Electromagnetic Acceleration of Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thio, Y.C. Francis; Cassibry, Jason T.; Eskridge, Richard; Smith, James; Wu, S. T.; Rodgers, Stephen L. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Plasma jets with high momentum flux density are required for a variety of applications in propulsion research. Methods of producing these plasma jets are being investigated at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. The experimental goal in the immediate future is to develop plasma accelerators which are capable of producing plasma jets with momentum flux density represented by velocities up to 200 km/s and ion density up to 10(exp 24) per cu m, with sufficient precision and reproducibility in their properties, and with sufficiently high efficiency. The jets must be sufficiently focused to allow them to be transported over several meters. A plasma accelerator concept is presented that might be able to meet these requirements. It is a self-switching, shaped coaxial pulsed plasma thruster, with focusing of the plasma flow by shaping muzzle current distribution as in plasma focus devices, and by mechanical tapering of the gun walls. Some 2-D MHD modeling in support of the conceptual design will be presented.

  4. Target conception for the Munich fission fragment accelerator

    CERN Document Server

    Maier, H J; Gross, M L; Grossmann, R; Kester, O; Thirolf, P

    1999-01-01

    For the new high-flux reactor FRM II, the fission fragment accelerator MAFF is under design. MAFF will supply intense mass-separated radioactive ion beams of very neutron-rich nuclei with energies around the Coulomb barrier. A central part of this accelerator is the ion source with the fission target, which is operated at a neutron flux of 1.5x10 sup 1 sup 4 cm sup - sup 2 s sup - sup 1. The target consists of typically 1 g of sup 2 sup 3 sup 5 U dispersed in a cylindrical graphite matrix, which is encapsulated in a Re container. To enable diffusion and extraction of the fission products, the target has to be maintained at a temperature of up to 2400 deg. C during operation. It has to stand this temperature for at least one reactor cycle of 1250 h. Comprehensive tests are required to study the long-term behaviour of the involved materials at these conditions prior to operation in the reactor. The present paper gives details of the target conception and the projected tests.

  5. Advanced visualization technology for terascale particle accelerator simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, K-L; Schussman, G.; Wilson, B.; Ko, K.; Qiang, J.; Ryne, R.

    2002-11-16

    This paper presents two new hardware-assisted rendering techniques developed for interactive visualization of the terascale data generated from numerical modeling of next generation accelerator designs. The first technique, based on a hybrid rendering approach, makes possible interactive exploration of large-scale particle data from particle beam dynamics modeling. The second technique, based on a compact texture-enhanced representation, exploits the advanced features of commodity graphics cards to achieve perceptually effective visualization of the very dense and complex electromagnetic fields produced from the modeling of reflection and transmission properties of open structures in an accelerator design. Because of the collaborative nature of the overall accelerator modeling project, the visualization technology developed is for both desktop and remote visualization settings. We have tested the techniques using both time varying particle data sets containing up to one billion particle s per time step and electromagnetic field data sets with millions of mesh elements.

  6. AWAKE: Advanced Proton Driven Plasma Wakefield Acceleration Experiment at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Gschwendtner, E

    2014-01-01

    Plasma wakefield acceleration is a promising alternative reaching accelerating fields a magnitude of up to 3 higher (GV/m) when compared to conventional RF acceleration. AWAKE, world’s first proton-driven plasma wakefield experiment, was launched at CERN to verify this concept. In this experiment proton bunches at 400 GeV/c will be extracted from the CERN SPS and sent to the plasma cell, where the proton beam drives the plasma wakefields and creates a large accelerating field. This large gradient of ~GV/m can be achieved by relying on the self-modulation instability (SMI) of the proton beam; when seeded by ionization through a short laser pulse, a train of micro-bunches with a period on the order of the plasma wavelength (~mm) develops, which can drive such a large amplitude wake from a long proton bunch (~12 cm). An electron beam will be injected into the plasma to probe the accelerating wakefield. The AWAKE experiment is being installed at CERN in the former CNGS facility, which must be modified to mat...

  7. Advanced Wind Turbine Drivetrain Concepts. Workshop Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2010-12-01

    This report presents key findings from the Department of Energy’s Advanced Drivetrain Workshop, held on June 29-30, 2010, to assess different advanced drivetrain technologies, their relative potential to improve the state-of-the-art in wind turbine drivetrains, and the scope of research and development needed for their commercialization in wind turbine applications.

  8. Particle Accelerators in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chuang; Fang, Shouxian

    As the special machines that can accelerate charged particle beams to high energy by using electromagnetic fields, particle accelerators have been widely applied in scientific research and various areas of society. The development of particle accelerators in China started in the early 1950s. After a brief review of the history of accelerators, this article describes in the following sections: particle colliders, heavy-ion accelerators, high-intensity proton accelerators, accelerator-based light sources, pulsed power accelerators, small scale accelerators, accelerators for applications, accelerator technology development and advanced accelerator concepts. The prospects of particle accelerators in China are also presented.

  9. Advanced tokamak concepts and reactor designs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oomens, A. A. M.

    2000-01-01

    From a discussion of fusion reactor designs based on today's well-established experience gained in the operation of large tokamaks, it is concluded that such reactors are economically not attractive. The physics involved in the various options for concept improvement is described, some examples

  10. An Overview of Advanced Concepts for Launch

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-09

    Physics No known feasible concepts. --- •Save $ “Now”. Solar Thermal Upper Stage. •Build “Now”. NTP Upper Stage, Gun Launch. •Research Now. BEP ...Save $ “Now”. NONE. •Build “Now”. Gun Launch. •Research Now. BEP (Laser, Microwave), Launch Assist, Adv. Propellants. •Alternative Missions

  11. CAS course on Advanced Accelerator Physics in Warsaw

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Accelerator School

    2015-01-01

    The CERN Accelerator School (CAS) and the National Centre for Nuclear Research (NCBJ) recently organised a course on Advanced Accelerator Physics. The course was held in Warsaw, Poland from 27 September to 9 October 2015.    The course followed an established format with lectures in the mornings and practical courses in the afternoons. The lecture programme consisted of 34 lectures, supplemented by private study, tutorials and seminars. The practical courses provided ‘hands-on’ experience of three topics: ‘Beam Instrumentation and Diagnostics’, ‘RF Measurement Techniques’ and ‘Optics Design and Corrections’. Participants selected one of the three courses and followed their chosen topic throughout the duration of the school. Sixty-six students representing 18 nationalities attended this course, with most participants coming from European counties, but also from South Korea, Taiwan and Russia. Feedback from th...

  12. CAS course on advanced accelerator physics in Trondheim, Norway

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Accelerator School

    2013-01-01

    The CERN Accelerator School (CAS) and the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) recently organised a course on advanced accelerator physics. The course was held in Trondheim, Norway, from 18 to 29 August 2013. Accommodation and lectures were at the Hotel Britannia and practical courses were held at the university.   The course's format included lectures in the mornings and practical courses in the afternoons. The lecture programme consisted of 32 lectures supplemented by discussion sessions, private study and tutorials. The practical courses provided "hands-on" experience in three topics: RF measurement techniques, beam instrumentation and diagnostics, and optics design and corrections. Participants selected one of the three courses and followed the chosen topic throughout the course. The programme concluded with seminars and a poster session.  70 students representing 21 nationalities were selected from over 90 applicants, with most participa...

  13. Advanced Interval Management (IM) Concepts of Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barmore, Bryan E.; Ahmad, Nash'at N.; Underwood, Matthew C.

    2014-01-01

    This document provides a high-level description of several advanced IM operations that NASA is considering for future research and development. It covers two versions of IM-CSPO and IM with Wake Mitigation. These are preliminary descriptions to support an initial benefits analysis

  14. Advanced approaches to high intensity laser-driven ion acceleration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henig, Andreas

    2010-04-26

    Since the pioneering work that was carried out 10 years ago, the generation of highly energetic ion beams from laser-plasma interactions has been investigated in much detail in the regime of target normal sheath acceleration (TNSA). Creation of ion beams with small longitudinal and transverse emittance and energies extending up to tens of MeV fueled visions of compact, laser-driven ion sources for applications such as ion beam therapy of tumors or fast ignition inertial con finement fusion. However, new pathways are of crucial importance to push the current limits of laser-generated ion beams further towards parameters necessary for those applications. The presented PhD work was intended to develop and explore advanced approaches to high intensity laser-driven ion acceleration that reach beyond TNSA. In this spirit, ion acceleration from two novel target systems was investigated, namely mass-limited microspheres and nm-thin, free-standing diamond-like carbon (DLC) foils. Using such ultrathin foils, a new regime of ion acceleration was found where the laser transfers energy to all electrons located within the focal volume. While for TNSA the accelerating electric field is stationary and ion acceleration is spatially separated from laser absorption into electrons, now a localized longitudinal field enhancement is present that co-propagates with the ions as the accompanying laser pulse pushes the electrons forward. Unprecedented maximum ion energies were obtained, reaching beyond 0.5 GeV for carbon C{sup 6+} and thus exceeding previous TNSA results by about one order of magnitude. When changing the laser polarization to circular, electron heating and expansion were shown to be efficiently suppressed, resulting for the first time in a phase-stable acceleration that is dominated by the laser radiation pressure which led to the observation of a peaked C{sup 6+} spectrum. Compared to quasi-monoenergetic ion beam generation within the TNSA regime, a more than 40 times

  15. A beam-matching concept for medical linear accelerators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjöström, David; Bjelkengren, Ulf; Ottosson, Wiviann

    2009-01-01

    The flexibility in radiotherapy can be improved if a patient can be moved between any one of the department's medical linear accelerators without the need to change anything in the patient's treatment plan. For this to be possible, the dosimetric characteristics of the various accelerators must b...

  16. Workshop II: Nanotechnology and Advanced Cell Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Workshop focused on few emerging concepts(beyond tandem cells): 1. Engineering incident sun spectrum and transparency losses a) Nano emitters (dot concentrator); b) Surface plasmonics; c) Up converters; d) Down converter. 2. Intermediate band solar cells a) Efficiency projections (detail energy balance projections); b) Inserting 0,1 and 2D semiconductor structures in solar cells 3. Polymer and hybrid cells a) Nanotubes/dot polymers; b) Exciton dissociation.

  17. Advanced turbine/CO{sub 2} pellet accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foster, C.A.; Fisher, P.W.

    1994-09-01

    An advanced turbine/CO{sub 2} pellet accelerator is being evaluated as a depaint technology at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The program, sponsored by Warner Robins Air Logistics Center, Robins Air Force Base, Georgia, has developed a robot-compatible apparatus that efficiently accelerates pellets of dry ice with a high-speed rotating wheel. In comparison to the more conventional compressed air sandblast pellet accelerators, the turbine system can achieve higher pellet speeds, has precise speed control, and is more than ten times as efficient. A preliminary study of the apparatus as a depaint technology has been undertaken. Depaint rates of military epoxy/urethane paint systems on 2024 and 7075 aluminum panels as a function of pellet speed and throughput have been measured. In addition, methods of enhancing the strip rate by combining infra-red heat lamps with pellet blasting have also been studied. The design and operation of the apparatus will be discussed along with data obtained from the depaint studies. Applications include removal of epoxy-based points from aircraft and the cleaning of surfaces contaminated with toxic, hazardous, or radioactive substances. The lack of a secondary contaminated waste stream is of great benefit.

  18. Advanced concepts in particle and field theory

    CERN Document Server

    Hübsch, Tristan

    2015-01-01

    Uniting the usually distinct areas of particle physics and quantum field theory, gravity and general relativity, this expansive and comprehensive textbook of fundamental and theoretical physics describes the quest to consolidate the basic building blocks of nature, by journeying through contemporary discoveries in the field, and analysing elementary particles and their interactions. Designed for advanced undergraduates and graduate students and abounding in worked examples and detailed derivations, as well as including historical anecdotes and philosophical and methodological perspectives, this textbook provides students with a unified understanding of all matter at the fundamental level. Topics range from gauge principles, particle decay and scattering cross-sections, the Higgs mechanism and mass generation, to spacetime geometries and supersymmetry. By combining historically separate areas of study and presenting them in a logically consistent manner, students will appreciate the underlying similarities and...

  19. Advanced Concepts for Underwater Acoustic Channel Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etter, P. C.; Haas, C. H.; Ramani, D. V.

    2014-12-01

    This paper examines nearshore underwater-acoustic channel modeling concepts and compares channel-state information requirements against existing modeling capabilities. This process defines a subset of candidate acoustic models suitable for simulating signal propagation in underwater communications. Underwater-acoustic communications find many practical applications in coastal oceanography, and networking is the enabling technology for these applications. Such networks can be formed by establishing two-way acoustic links between autonomous underwater vehicles and moored oceanographic sensors. These networks can be connected to a surface unit for further data transfer to ships, satellites, or shore stations via a radio-frequency link. This configuration establishes an interactive environment in which researchers can extract real-time data from multiple, but distant, underwater instruments. After evaluating the obtained data, control messages can be sent back to individual instruments to adapt the networks to changing situations. Underwater networks can also be used to increase the operating ranges of autonomous underwater vehicles by hopping the control and data messages through networks that cover large areas. A model of the ocean medium between acoustic sources and receivers is called a channel model. In an oceanic channel, characteristics of the acoustic signals change as they travel from transmitters to receivers. These characteristics depend upon the acoustic frequency, the distances between sources and receivers, the paths followed by the signals, and the prevailing ocean environment in the vicinity of the paths. Properties of the received signals can be derived from those of the transmitted signals using these channel models. This study concludes that ray-theory models are best suited to the simulation of acoustic signal propagation in oceanic channels and identifies 33 such models that are eligible candidates.

  20. The DPC-2000 advanced control system for the Dynamitron accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kestler, Bernard A.; Lisanti, Thomas F.

    1993-07-01

    The DPC-2000 is an advanced control system utilizing the latest technology in computer control circuitry and components. Its overall design is modular and technologically advanced to keep up with customer and engineering demands. The full control system is presented as four units. They are the Remote I/O (Input / Output), Local Analog and Digital I/O, Operator Interface and the Main Computer. The central processing unit, the heart of the system, executes a high level language program that communicates to the different sub-assemblies through advanced serial and parallel communication lines. All operational parameters of the accelerator are monitored, controlled and corrected at close to 20 times per second. The operator is provided with a selection of many informative screen displays. The control program handles all graphic screen displays and the updating of these screens directly; it does not have to communicate to a display terminal. This adds to the quick response and excellent operator feedback received while operating the machine. The CPU also has the ability to store and record all process variable setpoints for each product that will be treated. This allows the operator to set up the process parameters by selecting the product identification code from a menu presented on the display screen. All process parameters are printed to report at regular intervals during a process run for later analysis and record keeping.

  1. Advanced Optical Burst Switched Network Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nejabati, Reza; Aracil, Javier; Castoldi, Piero; de Leenheer, Marc; Simeonidou, Dimitra; Valcarenghi, Luca; Zervas, Georgios; Wu, Jian

    In recent years, as the bandwidth and the speed of networks have increased significantly, a new generation of network-based applications using the concept of distributed computing and collaborative services is emerging (e.g., Grid computing applications). The use of the available fiber and DWDM infrastructure for these applications is a logical choice offering huge amounts of cheap bandwidth and ensuring global reach of computing resources [230]. Currently, there is a great deal of interest in deploying optical circuit (wavelength) switched network infrastructure for distributed computing applications that require long-lived wavelength paths and address the specific needs of a small number of well-known users. Typical users are particle physicists who, due to their international collaborations and experiments, generate enormous amounts of data (Petabytes per year). These users require a network infrastructures that can support processing and analysis of large datasets through globally distributed computing resources [230]. However, providing wavelength granularity bandwidth services is not an efficient and scalable solution for applications and services that address a wider base of user communities with different traffic profiles and connectivity requirements. Examples of such applications may be: scientific collaboration in smaller scale (e.g., bioinformatics, environmental research), distributed virtual laboratories (e.g., remote instrumentation), e-health, national security and defense, personalized learning environments and digital libraries, evolving broadband user services (i.e., high resolution home video editing, real-time rendering, high definition interactive TV). As a specific example, in e-health services and in particular mammography applications due to the size and quantity of images produced by remote mammography, stringent network requirements are necessary. Initial calculations have shown that for 100 patients to be screened remotely, the network

  2. Design concept of radiation control system for the high intensity proton accelerator facility

    CERN Document Server

    Miyamoto, Y; Harada, Y; Ikeno, K

    2002-01-01

    Description is given for the characteristic radiation environment for the High Intensity Proton Accelerator Facility and the design concept of the radiation control system of it. The facility is a large scale accelerator complex consisting of high energy proton accelerators carrying the highest beam intensity in the world and the related experimental facilities and therefore provides various issues relevant to the radiation environment. The present report describes the specifications for the radiation control system for the facility, determined in consideration of these characteristics.

  3. Proof-of-concept development of PXAMS (projectile x-ray accelerator mass spectrometry)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Proctor, I.D.; Roberts, M.L.; McAninch, J.E.; Bench, G.S.

    1996-03-01

    Prior to the current work, accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) was limited to a set of {approximately}8--10 isotopes. This limitation is caused primarily by the inability to discriminate against stable atomic isobars. An analysis scheme that combines the isotopic sensitivity of AMS with similar isobar selectivity would open a large new class of isotope applications. This project was undertaken to explore the use of characteristic x rays as a method for the detection and identification of ions,and to allow the post-spectrometer rejection of isobaric interferences for isotopes previously inaccessible to AMS. During the second half of FY94 (with Advanced Concepts funding from the Office of Non-Proliferation and National Security), we examined the feasability of this technique, which we are referring to as PXAMS (Projectile X ray AMS), to the detection of several isotopes at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). In our first exploratory work, we measured the x ray yield vs energy for {sup 80}Se ions stopped in a thick Y target. These results, demonstrated that useful detection efficiencies could be obtained for Se ions at energies accessible with our accelerator, and that the count rate from target x rays is small compared to the Se K{alpha} rate. We followed these measurements with a survey of x ray yields for Z = 14-46.

  4. Overview of an Advanced Hypersonic Structural Concept Test Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Craig A.; Hudson, Larry D.; Piazza, Anthony

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation provides an overview of hypersonics M&S advanced structural concepts development and experimental methods. The discussion on concepts development includes the background, task objectives, test plan, and current status of the C/SiC Ruddervator Subcomponent Test Article (RSTA). The discussion of experimental methods examines instrumentation needs, sensors of interest, and examples of ongoing efforts in the development of extreme environment sensors.

  5. [Advanced accelerator R and D program]. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    This proposal requests funding for a 3-year renewal of the DOE advanced accelerator R and D (AARD) program at Texas A and M University. The program to date has focused on the development of the gigatron, a compact high-efficiency microwave driver for future linear colliders. The author reports results and progress in that project, and plans to bring it to a milestone and conclusion by mid-1995. He proposes to initiate a second project, the development of a new technology for ultra-high field superconducting magnets for future hadron colliders. This project builds upon two magnet designs which he has introduced during the past year, which have the potential for a dramatic extension of the achievable field strength for both dipoles and quadrupoles.

  6. Advanced laser sensing receiver concepts based on FPA technology.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobson, P. L. (Phillip L.); Petrin, R. R. (Roger R.); Jolin, J. L. (John L.); Foy, B. R. (Bernard R.); Lowrance, J. L.; Renda, G. (George)

    2002-01-01

    The ultimate performance of any remote sensor is ideally governed by the hardware signal-to-noise capability and allowed signal-averaging time. In real-world scenarios, this may not be realizable and the limiting factors may suggest the need for more advanced capabilities. Moving from passive to active remote sensors offers the advantage of control over the illumination source, the laser. Added capabilities may include polarization discrimination, instantaneous imaging, range resolution, simultaneous multi-spectral measurement, or coherent detection. However, most advanced detection technology has been engineered heavily towards the straightforward passive sensor requirements, measuring an integrated photon flux. The need for focal plane array technology designed specifically for laser sensing has been recognized for some time, but advances have only recently made the engineering possible. This paper will present a few concepts for laser sensing receiver architectures, the driving specifications behind those concepts, and test/modeling results of such designs.

  7. A Concept of An Accelerator Closed Nuclear Fuel Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eremeev, I. P.

    1997-05-01

    The physical approach (I.P.Eremeev. Proc. of the PAC-95. Vol.1, p.98.) is applied for technology of nuclear fuel cycle. It is proposed the cycle to be closed by such an accelerator based process link, which would allow, on the one hand, the most hazardous of "equilibrium" radionuclides to be transmuted to stable isotopes or incinerated and, on the other hand, additional fissile fuel to be produced to compensate the energy consumption. Parameters of the technology, such as an intensity and energy "cost" of a transmutation event, a flux of photoneutrons produced have been determined for model targets. It is shown that the approach allows the above fission/transuranium radionuclides to be transmuted/ incinerated at a much greater rate than that of their build-up in operating NPP reactors at a much less energy consumption than an energy produced under their formation and at considerable compensation of the consumed energy through breeding fissile isotopes. A possibility of going to a closed Th-U fuel cycle is discussed. To realize the technology proposed requirements to a system of electron accelerators are formulated.

  8. Systems analysis and futuristic designs of advanced biofuel factory concepts.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chianelli, Russ; Leathers, James; Thoma, Steven George; Celina, Mathias Christopher; Gupta, Vipin P.

    2007-10-01

    The U.S. is addicted to petroleum--a dependency that periodically shocks the economy, compromises national security, and adversely affects the environment. If liquid fuels remain the main energy source for U.S. transportation for the foreseeable future, the system solution is the production of new liquid fuels that can directly displace diesel and gasoline. This study focuses on advanced concepts for biofuel factory production, describing three design concepts: biopetroleum, biodiesel, and higher alcohols. A general schematic is illustrated for each concept with technical description and analysis for each factory design. Looking beyond current biofuel pursuits by industry, this study explores unconventional feedstocks (e.g., extremophiles), out-of-favor reaction processes (e.g., radiation-induced catalytic cracking), and production of new fuel sources traditionally deemed undesirable (e.g., fusel oils). These concepts lay the foundation and path for future basic science and applied engineering to displace petroleum as a transportation energy source for good.

  9. Recent advances in biomedical applications of accelerator mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hah, Sang Soo; Henderson, Paul T; Turteltaub, Kenneth W

    2009-06-17

    The use of radioisotopes has a long history in biomedical science, and the technique of accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS), an extremely sensitive nuclear physics technique for detection of very low-abundant, stable and long-lived isotopes, has now revolutionized high-sensitivity isotope detection in biomedical research, because it allows the direct determination of the amount of isotope in a sample rather than measuring its decay, and thus the quantitative analysis of the fate of the radiolabeled probes under the given conditions. Since AMS was first used in the early 90's for the analysis of biological samples containing enriched 14C for toxicology and cancer research, the biomedical applications of AMS to date range from in vitro to in vivo studies, including the studies of 1) toxicant and drug metabolism, 2) neuroscience, 3) pharmacokinetics, and 4) nutrition and metabolism of endogenous molecules such as vitamins. In addition, a new drug development concept that relies on the ultrasensitivity of AMS, known as human microdosing, is being used to obtain early human metabolism information of candidate drugs. These various aspects of AMS are reviewed and a perspective on future applications of AMS to biomedical research is provided.

  10. Recent advances in biomedical applications of accelerator mass spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hah Sang

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The use of radioisotopes has a long history in biomedical science, and the technique of accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS, an extremely sensitive nuclear physics technique for detection of very low-abundant, stable and long-lived isotopes, has now revolutionized high-sensitivity isotope detection in biomedical research, because it allows the direct determination of the amount of isotope in a sample rather than measuring its decay, and thus the quantitative analysis of the fate of the radiolabeled probes under the given conditions. Since AMS was first used in the early 90's for the analysis of biological samples containing enriched 14C for toxicology and cancer research, the biomedical applications of AMS to date range from in vitro to in vivo studies, including the studies of 1 toxicant and drug metabolism, 2 neuroscience, 3 pharmacokinetics, and 4 nutrition and metabolism of endogenous molecules such as vitamins. In addition, a new drug development concept that relies on the ultrasensitivity of AMS, known as human microdosing, is being used to obtain early human metabolism information of candidate drugs. These various aspects of AMS are reviewed and a perspective on future applications of AMS to biomedical research is provided.

  11. Advanced fuel developments for an industrial accelerator driven system prototype

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delage, Fabienne; Ottaviani, Jean Pierre [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique CEA (France); Fernandez-Carretero, Asuncion; Staicu, Dragos [JRC-ITU (Germany); Boccaccini, Claudia-Matzerath; Chen, Xue-Nong; Mascheck, Werner; Rineiski, Andrei [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe - FZK (Germany); D' Agata, Elio [JRC-IE (Netherlands); Klaassen, Frodo [NRG, PO Box 25, NL-1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands); Sobolev, Vitaly [SCK-CEN (Belgium); Wallenius, Janne [KTH Royal Institute of Technology (Sweden); Abram, T. [National Nuclear Laboratory - NNL (United Kingdom)

    2009-06-15

    Fuel to be used in an Accelerator Driven System (ADS) for transmutation in a fast spectrum, can be described as a highly innovative concept in comparison with fuels used in critical cores. ADS fuel is not fertile, so as to improve the transmutation performance. It necessarily contains a high concentration ({approx}50%) of minor actinides and plutonium. This unusual fuel composition results in high gamma and neutron emissions during its fabrication, as well as degraded core performance. So, an optimal ADS fuel is based on finding the best compromise between thermal, mechanical, chemical, neutronic and technological constraints. CERCER and CERMET composite fuels consisting of particles of (Pu,MA)O{sub 2} phases dispersed in a magnesia or molybdenum matrix are under investigation within the frame of the ongoing European Integrated Project EUROTRANS (European Research programme for Transmutation) which aims at performing a conceptual design of a 400 MWth transmuter: the European Facility for Industrial Transmutation (EFIT). Performances and safety of EFIT cores loaded with CERCER and CERMET fuels have been evaluated. Out-of-pile and in-pile experiments are carried out to gain knowledge on the properties and the behaviour of these fuels. The current paper gives an overview of the work progress. (authors)

  12. Validation Database Based Thermal Analysis of an Advanced RPS Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balint, Tibor S.; Emis, Nickolas D.

    2006-01-01

    Advanced RPS concepts can be conceived, designed and assessed using high-end computational analysis tools. These predictions may provide an initial insight into the potential performance of these models, but verification and validation are necessary and required steps to gain confidence in the numerical analysis results. This paper discusses the findings from a numerical validation exercise for a small advanced RPS concept, based on a thermal analysis methodology developed at JPL and on a validation database obtained from experiments performed at Oregon State University. Both the numerical and experimental configurations utilized a single GPHS module enabled design, resembling a Mod-RTG concept. The analysis focused on operating and environmental conditions during the storage phase only. This validation exercise helped to refine key thermal analysis and modeling parameters, such as heat transfer coefficients, and conductivity and radiation heat transfer values. Improved understanding of the Mod-RTG concept through validation of the thermal model allows for future improvements to this power system concept.

  13. Flow-accelerated corrosion monitoring through advanced sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jung T.; Seong, Seung H.; Lee, Cheol K.; Hur, Sub; Lee, Na Y.; Lee, Sang J.

    2005-02-01

    In order to successfully implement the extended-life operation plan of the nuclear power plant (NPP), predictive maintenance based on on-line monitoring of deteriorated components becomes highly important. Pipe wall-thinning is usually caused by Flow-Accelerated Corrosion (FAC) under the undesirable combination of water chemistry, flow velocity and material composition. In order to increase the confidence of understanding on underlying process, a multi-disciplinary approach has been adopted in this work. Here, we apply a combination of several advanced sensors, ranging from chemical electrodes to mechanical vibration sensors to monitor the thickness change of the elbow, which can be still economical option. Electrochemical Corrosion Potential (ECP) and pH are chosen as electrochemical parameters, the change of vibration mode, displacement, and etc. are chosen as mechanical parameters to monitor the wall thinning phenomena. Electrodes are developed for the on-line monitoring of pH and ECP. Vibration is considered as a promising candidate as a mechanical parameter. Various sensors are surveyed and some are chosen based on FEM analysis result, which shows the approximate vibration range according to the thickness change. Mechanical sensors need to be sensitive enough to detect small thickness change with adequate safety margin to a pipe rupture. A few sensors are suggested to detect vibration or displacement quantitatively. Fiber optic sensors are chosen for their non-contacting property, which is appropriate for the high temperature application. Accelerometer and capacitance gage are suggested for their applicability fit to the test purpose.

  14. Virtual accelerator concept, implementation and preliminary test; Accelerateur virtuel Concept, implementation et premier test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uriot, D.; Duperrier, R

    2006-05-15

    A virtual accelerator is the coupling of a simulation code with the control system of a real machine. 3 operating modes are considered. First, the monitoring mode in which any action on the control system has an impact on both real and virtual machines. This mode allows a direct comparison between simulation results and the real behaviour of the accelerator. Secondly, the flight simulation mode, this mode allows the accelerator operators to simulate the effect of any change in the parameters of the control system before transferring them to the real machine. The main advantage of this mode is to allow the assessment of operating procedures before implementing them on the real machine. The third mode is the automatic steering mode in which the simulation code assumes the reins of the control system of the real machine. This mode allows the making of complex and time-consuming adjustment procedures in an automatic way. TraceWin is a simulation code dedicated to the behaviour of charged-particle beams in a linear accelerator. TraceWin is consistent with the EPICS technology on which the control system of most accelerators is based. A virtual accelerator composed of the SILHI injector combined to the TraceWin code via the EPICS environment has showed its efficiency in the automatic steering mode. (A.C.)

  15. Development of environmentally advanced hydropower turbine system design concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franke, G.F.; Webb, D.R.; Fisher, R.K. Jr. [Voith Hydro, Inc. (United States)] [and others

    1997-08-01

    A team worked together on the development of environmentally advanced hydro turbine design concepts to reduce hydropower`s impact on the environment, and to improve the understanding of the technical and environmental issues involved, in particular, with fish survival as a result of their passage through hydro power sites. This approach brought together a turbine design and manufacturing company, biologists, a utility, a consulting engineering firm and a university research facility, in order to benefit from the synergy of diverse disciplines. Through a combination of advanced technology and engineering analyses, innovative design concepts adaptable to both new and existing hydro facilities were developed and are presented. The project was divided into 4 tasks. Task 1 investigated a broad range of environmental issues and how the issues differed throughout the country. Task 2 addressed fish physiology and turbine physics. Task 3 investigated individual design elements needed for the refinement of the three concept families defined in Task 1. Advanced numerical tools for flow simulation in turbines are used to quantify characteristics of flow and pressure fields within turbine water passageways. The issues associated with dissolved oxygen enhancement using turbine aeration are presented. The state of the art and recent advancements of this technology are reviewed. Key elements for applying turbine aeration to improve aquatic habitat are discussed and a review of the procedures for testing of aerating turbines is presented. In Task 4, the results of the Tasks were assembled into three families of design concepts to address the most significant issues defined in Task 1. The results of the work conclude that significant improvements in fish passage survival are achievable.

  16. Design and analysis of advanced flight planning concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorensen, John A.

    1987-01-01

    The objectives of this continuing effort are to develop and evaluate new algorithms and advanced concepts for flight management and flight planning. This includes the minimization of fuel or direct operating costs, the integration of the airborne flight management and ground-based flight planning processes, and the enhancement of future traffic management systems design. Flight management (FMS) concepts are for on-board profile computation and steering of transport aircraft in the vertical plane between a city pair and along a given horizontal path. Flight planning (FPS) concepts are for the pre-flight ground based computation of the three-dimensional reference trajectory that connects the city pair and specifies the horizontal path, fuel load, and weather profiles for initializing the FMS. As part of these objectives, a new computer program called EFPLAN has been developed and utilized to study advanced flight planning concepts. EFPLAN represents an experimental version of an FPS. It has been developed to generate reference flight plans compatible as input to an FMS and to provide various options for flight planning research. This report describes EFPLAN and the associated research conducted in its development.

  17. Design concept of radiation control system for the high intensity proton accelerator facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyamoto, Yukihiro; Ikeno, Koichi; Akiyama, Shigenori; Harada, Yasunori [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2002-11-01

    Description is given for the characteristic radiation environment for the High Intensity Proton Accelerator Facility and the design concept of the radiation control system of it. The facility is a large scale accelerator complex consisting of high energy proton accelerators carrying the highest beam intensity in the world and the related experimental facilities and therefore provides various issues relevant to the radiation environment. The present report describes the specifications for the radiation control system for the facility, determined in consideration of these characteristics. (author)

  18. Commnity Petascale Project for Accelerator Science And Simulation: Advancing Computational Science for Future Accelerators And Accelerator Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spentzouris, Panagiotis; /Fermilab; Cary, John; /Tech-X, Boulder; Mcinnes, Lois Curfman; /Argonne; Mori, Warren; /UCLA; Ng, Cho; /SLAC; Ng, Esmond; Ryne, Robert; /LBL, Berkeley

    2011-10-21

    The design and performance optimization of particle accelerators are essential for the success of the DOE scientific program in the next decade. Particle accelerators are very complex systems whose accurate description involves a large number of degrees of freedom and requires the inclusion of many physics processes. Building on the success of the SciDAC-1 Accelerator Science and Technology project, the SciDAC-2 Community Petascale Project for Accelerator Science and Simulation (ComPASS) is developing a comprehensive set of interoperable components for beam dynamics, electromagnetics, electron cooling, and laser/plasma acceleration modelling. ComPASS is providing accelerator scientists the tools required to enable the necessary accelerator simulation paradigm shift from high-fidelity single physics process modeling (covered under SciDAC1) to high-fidelity multiphysics modeling. Our computational frameworks have been used to model the behavior of a large number of accelerators and accelerator R&D experiments, assisting both their design and performance optimization. As parallel computational applications, the ComPASS codes have been shown to make effective use of thousands of processors.

  19. Recent advances in high-performance modeling of plasma-based acceleration using the full PIC method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vay, J.-L., E-mail: jlvay@lbl.gov [LBNL, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Lehe, R. [LBNL, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Vincenti, H. [CEA, Saclay (France); Godfrey, B.B. [LBNL, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); U. Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Haber, I. [U. Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Lee, P. [LPGP, CNRS, Université Paris-Saclay, 91405 Orsay (France)

    2016-09-01

    Numerical simulations have been critical in the recent rapid developments of plasma-based acceleration concepts. Among the various available numerical techniques, the particle-in-cell (PIC) approach is the method of choice for self-consistent simulations from first principles. The fundamentals of the PIC method were established decades ago, but improvements or variations are continuously being proposed. We report on several recent advances in PIC-related algorithms that are of interest for application to plasma-based accelerators, including (a) detailed analysis of the numerical Cherenkov instability and its remediation for the modeling of plasma accelerators in laboratory and Lorentz boosted frames, (b) analytic pseudo-spectral electromagnetic solvers in Cartesian and cylindrical (with azimuthal modes decomposition) geometries, and (c) novel analysis of Maxwell's solvers' stencil variation and truncation, in application to domain decomposition strategies and implementation of perfectly matched layers in high-order and pseudo-spectral solvers.

  20. Recent advances in high-performance modeling of plasma-based acceleration using the full PIC method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vay, J.-L.; Lehe, R.; Vincenti, H.; Godfrey, B. B.; Haber, I.; Lee, P.

    2016-09-01

    Numerical simulations have been critical in the recent rapid developments of plasma-based acceleration concepts. Among the various available numerical techniques, the particle-in-cell (PIC) approach is the method of choice for self-consistent simulations from first principles. The fundamentals of the PIC method were established decades ago, but improvements or variations are continuously being proposed. We report on several recent advances in PIC-related algorithms that are of interest for application to plasma-based accelerators, including (a) detailed analysis of the numerical Cherenkov instability and its remediation for the modeling of plasma accelerators in laboratory and Lorentz boosted frames, (b) analytic pseudo-spectral electromagnetic solvers in Cartesian and cylindrical (with azimuthal modes decomposition) geometries, and (c) novel analysis of Maxwell's solvers' stencil variation and truncation, in application to domain decomposition strategies and implementation of perfectly matched layers in high-order and pseudo-spectral solvers.

  1. Essay: Robert H. Siemann As Leader of the Advanced Accelerator Research Department

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colby, Eric R.; Hogan, Mark J.; /SLAC

    2011-11-14

    Robert H. Siemann originally conceived of the Advanced Accelerator Research Department (AARD) as an academic, experimental group dedicated to probing the technical limitations of accelerators while providing excellent educational opportunities for young scientists. The early years of the Accelerator Research Department B, as it was then known, were dedicated to a wealth of mostly student-led experiments to examine the promise of advanced accelerator techniques. High-gradient techniques including millimeter-wave rf acceleration, beam-driven plasma acceleration, and direct laser acceleration were pursued, including tests of materials under rf pulsed heating and short-pulse laser radiation, to establish the ultimate limitations on gradient. As the department and program grew, so did the motivation to found an accelerator research center that brought experimentalists together in a test facility environment to conduct a broad range of experiments. The Final Focus Test Beam and later the Next Linear Collider Test Accelerator provided unique experimental facilities for AARD staff and collaborators to carry out advanced accelerator experiments. Throughout the evolution of this dynamic program, Bob maintained a department atmosphere and culture more reminiscent of a university research group than a national laboratory department. His exceptional ability to balance multiple roles as scientist, professor, and administrator enabled the creation and preservation of an environment that fostered technical innovation and scholarship.

  2. Advancements in Catheter-Directed Ultrasound-Accelerated Thrombolysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doomernik, Denise E.; Schrijver, A. Marjolein; Zeebregts, Clark J.; de Vries, Jean-Paul P. M.; Reijnen, Michel M. P. J.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To review all available literature on catheter-directed ultrasound-accelerated thrombolysis for peripheral artery occlusions, stroke, deep venous thrombosis, and pulmonary embolism. Methods: A systematic literature search was performed, using MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane databases. A total

  3. Advancements in catheter-directed ultrasound-accelerated thrombolysis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doomernik, D.E.; Schrijver, A.M.; Zeebregts, C.J.A.; Vries, J.P. de; Reijnen, M.M.P.J.

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE: To review all available literature on catheter-directed ultrasound-accelerated thrombolysis for peripheral artery occlusions, stroke, deep venous thrombosis, and pulmonary embolism. METHODS: A systematic literature search was performed, using MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane databases. A total

  4. Teaching advanced science concepts through Freshman Research Immersion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahila, M. J.; Amey-Proper, J.; Jones, W. E.; Stamp, N.; Piper, L. F. J.

    2017-03-01

    We have developed a new introductory physics/chemistry programme that teaches advanced science topics and practical laboratory skills to freshmen undergraduate students through the use of student-led, bona fide research activities. While many recent attempts to improve college-level physics education have focused on integrating interactive demonstrations and activities into traditional passive lectures, we have taken the idea of active-learning several steps further. Working in conjunction with several research faculty at Binghamton University, we have created a programme that puts undergraduate students on an accelerated path towards working in real research laboratories performing publishable research. Herein, we describe in detail the programme goals, structure, and educational content, and report on our promising initial student outcomes.

  5. Acceleration of Advanced CN Antidote Agents for Mass Exposure Treatments: DMTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    AD_________________ Award Number: W81XWH-12-2-0098 TITLE: Acceleration of Advanced CN Antidote Agents for Mass Exposure Treatments: DMTS...26 Sept 2012 – 25 Sept 2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Acceleration of Advanced CN Antidote Agents for Mass Exposure Treatments: DMTS 5a. CONTRACT...gas values and blood pressure during CN treatment and reversal. In the first year of this work, stability and IM antidote administration studies were

  6. Accelerating the commercialization of university technologies for military healthcare applications: the role of the proof of concept process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa, Rosibel; DeLong, Hal; Kenyon, Jessica; Wilson, Eli

    2011-06-01

    The von Liebig Center for Entrepreneurism and Technology Advancement at UC San Diego (vonliebig.ucsd.edu) is focused on accelerating technology transfer and commercialization through programs and education on entrepreneurism. Technology Acceleration Projects (TAPs) that offer pre-venture grants and extensive mentoring on technology commercialization are a key component of its model which has been developed over the past ten years with the support of a grant from the von Liebig Foundation. In 2010, the von Liebig Entrepreneurism Center partnered with the U.S. Army Telemedicine and Advanced Technology Research Center (TATRC), to develop a regional model of Technology Acceleration Program initially focused on military research to be deployed across the nation to increase awareness of military medical needs and to accelerate the commercialization of novel technologies to treat the patient. Participants to these challenges are multi-disciplinary teams of graduate students and faculty in engineering, medicine and business representing universities and research institutes in a region, selected via a competitive process, who receive commercialization assistance and funding grants to support translation of their research discoveries into products or services. To validate this model, a pilot program focused on commercialization of wireless healthcare technologies targeting campuses in Southern California has been conducted with the additional support of Qualcomm, Inc. Three projects representing three different universities in Southern California were selected out of forty five applications from ten different universities and research institutes. Over the next twelve months, these teams will conduct proof of concept studies, technology development and preliminary market research to determine the commercial feasibility of their technologies. This first regional program will help build the needed tools and processes to adapt and replicate this model across other regions in the

  7. Advanced Gas Storage Concepts: Technologies for the Future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeway, Katy (PB-KBB Inc.); Rogers, R.E. (Mississippi State University); DeVries, Kerry L.; Nieland, Joel D.; Ratigan, Joe L.; Mellegard, Kirby D. (RESPEC)

    2000-02-01

    This full text product includes: 1) A final technical report titled Advanced Underground Gas Storage Concepts, Refrigerated-Mined Cavern Storage and presentations from two technology transfer workshops held in 1998 in Houston, Texas, and Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (both on the topic of Chilled Gas Storage in Mined Caverns); 2) A final technical report titled Natural Gas Hydrates Storage Project, Final Report 1 October 1997 - 31 May 1999; 3) A final technical report titled Natural Gas Hydrates Storage Project Phase II: Conceptual Design and Economic Study, Final Report 9 June - 10 October 1999; 4) A final technical report titled Commerical Potential of Natural Gas Storage in Lined Rock Caverns (LRC) and presentations from a DOE-sponsored workshop on Alternative Gas Storage Technologies, held Feb 17, 2000 in Pittsburgh, PA; and 5) Phase I and Phase II topical reports titled Feasibility Study for Lowering the Minimum Gas Pressure in Solution-Mined Caverns Based on Geomechanical Analyses of Creep-Induced Damage and Healing.

  8. Building the Concept of Acceleration - A Proposal for Promoting the Meaningful Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ricardo Ledur

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This work aims to present a sequence of activities to help the students concept of acceleration. It was developed with a group of eighth grade elementary school sutdents in a state school of Bom Princípio, RS. The physical quantities of kinematics are presents on the day-a-day but in classroom is perceived that students, in general, have difficulties in developing and understanding of concepts related to that topic. Previous experiences that the student experiences in their daily lives led him to build their own conceptions to explain the phenomena observed, and in school, are faced with the scientifically accepted concepts. These preconceptions are strongly rooted in the cognitive structure of the learner, are not easily replaced and added to the lack of contextualization of content taught, unattractive learning resources and teaching that emphasizes rote learning are factors that contribute to failure of learning. The activities are based on the principles of meaningful learning and focused on active student participation. A pre test for identifying knowledge and preconceptions was applied as well as the post-test assessment of knowledge building. Figures with strobe photographs and video were used as prerequisites for the development of the new concept organizers. Later, the students elaborated and executed projects using resources of shooting and sequential shots to apply the concepts involved in this study. The results observed during the didatical sequence indicate that the occurrence of learning of the concepts of kinematics.

  9. Advanced steel body concepts for automotive lightweight design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrmann, H.G. [DaimlerChrysler AG, Stuttgart (Germany). Research Body and Powertrain

    2005-07-01

    Lightweight design is a must for future vehicle concepts due to the self-commitment on the reduction of fleet consumption. Body concepts for mid- and high-volume vehicles demand smart lightweight solutions without increasing costs and without sacrificing the high level of safety (e.g. future passive safety standards). Furthermore, all lightweight activities have to comply with requirements in terms of reliability (no additional efforts for maintenance), NVH (no additional weight for e.g. damping) and future stricter recycling quotas. Successful lightweight design solutions are determined by the best relation between weight-saving and additional costs as a function of the annual production volume. Using advanced high-strength steels (TWIP-steels) seems to be a very promising approach for cost-optimized lightweight design of body structures. In addition, by applying bionic optimization, the weight of body-structures can be significantly reduced. As a consequence, only a holistic approach for lightweight design combining the three areas materials, design and manufacturing is needed in order to use the full potential of cost-optimized weight-reduction. (orig.)

  10. Priorities for Advancing the Concept of New Ruralism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galen Newman

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Civic expansion and land use migrations to urban peripheries can accelerate the conversion of agricultural land uses. Widespread trepidation concerning urban sprawl has led to innovative frameworks for conserving or enhancing farmland. New Ruralism is one such framework, linking farmland preservation with developmental plans to reduce farmland conversion and low density development. Although the concept is still evolving, recent support for New Ruralism has grown. One of the most important factors in creating a New Ruralism-based development is coherent policy for permanent agricultural preserves. These preserves require the simultaneous, careful planning of land preservation balanced with the location of future development. This paper discusses the current condition of farmland loss and reviews issues and challenges associated with farmland preservation with existing New Ruralism developments. The goal is to synthesize this information into recommendations for increasing farmland preservation opportunities in New Ruralism-based developments. A more comprehensive definition for New Ruralism is presented, accompanied by several priorities for maximizing the economic, environmental, and cultural viability of New Ruralism-based farmland preserves.

  11. Advanced Klystrons for High Efficiency Accelerator Systems - Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Read, Michael; Ives, Robert Lawrence

    2014-03-26

    This program explored tailoring of RF pulses used to drive accelerator cavities. Simulations indicated that properly shaping the pulse risetime to match accelerator cavity characteristics reduced reflected power and increased total efficiency. Tailoring the pulse requires a high power, gridded, klystron to shape the risetime while also controlling the beam current. The Phase I program generated a preliminary design of a gridded electron gun for a klystron producing 5-10 MW of RF power. This required design of a segmented cathode using Controlled Porosity Reservoir cathodes to limit power deposition on the grid. The program was successful in computationally designing a gun producing a high quality electron beam with grid control. Additional analysis of pulse tailoring indicated that technique would only be useful for cavity drive pulses that were less than approximately 2-3 times the risetime. Otherwise, the efficiency gained during the risetime of the pulse became insignificant when considering the efficiency over the entire pulse. Consequently, it was determined that a Phase II program would not provide sufficient return to justify the cost. Never the less, other applications for a high power gridded gun are currently being pursued. This klystron, for example, would facilitate development inverse Comptom x-ray sources by providing a high repetition rate (10 -100 kHz) RF source.

  12. Advanced storage concepts for solar and low energy buildings, IEA-SHC Task 32. Slutrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schultz, J.M.; Andersen, Elsa; Furbo, S.

    2008-01-15

    This report reports on the results of the activities carried through in connection with the Danish part of the IEA SHC Task 32 project: Advanced Storage Concepts for Solar and Low Energy Buildings. The Danish involvement has focused on Subtask C: Storage Concepts Based on Phase Change Materials and Subtask D: Storage Concepts Based on Advanced Water Tanks and Special Devices. The report describes activities concerning heat-of-fusion storage and advanced water storage. (BA)

  13. Advanced Concept Exploration for Fast Ignition Science Program, Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephens, Richard Burnite [General Atomics; McLean, Harry M. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory; Theobald, Wolfgang [Laboratory for Laser Energetics; Akli, Kramer U. [The Ohio State University; Beg, Farhat N. [University of California, San Diego; Sentoku, Yasuhiko [University of Nevada, Reno; Schumacher, Douglass W. [The Ohio State University; Wei, Mingsheng [General Atomics

    2013-09-04

    The Fast Ignition (FI) Concept for Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) has the potential to provide a significant advance in the technical attractiveness of Inertial Fusion Energy reactors. FI differs from conventional “central hot spot” (CHS) target ignition by decoupling compression from heating: using a laser (or heavy ion beam or Z pinch) drive pulse (10’s of nanoseconds) to create a dense fuel and a second, much shorter (~10 picoseconds) high intensity pulse to ignite a small volume within the dense fuel. The physics of fast ignition process was the focus of our Advanced Concept Exploration (ACE) program. Ignition depends critically on two major issues involving Relativistic High Energy Density (RHED) physics: The laser-induced creation of fast electrons and their propagation in high-density plasmas. Our program has developed new experimental platforms, diagnostic packages, computer modeling analyses, and taken advantage of the increasing energy available at laser facilities to advance understanding of the fundamental physics underlying these issues. Our program had three thrust areas: • Understand the production and characteristics of fast electrons resulting from FI relevant laser-plasma interactions and their dependence on laser prepulse and laser pulse length. • Investigate the subsequent fast electron transport in solid and through hot (FI-relevant) plasmas. • Conduct and understand integrated core-heating experiments by comparison to simulations. Over the whole period of this project (three years for this contract), we have greatly advanced our fundamental understanding of the underlying properties in all three areas: • Comprehensive studies on fast electron source characteristics have shown that they are controlled by the laser intensity distribution and the topology and plasma density gradient. Laser pre-pulse induced pre-plasma in front of a solid surface results in increased stand-off distances from the electron origin to the high density

  14. A CONCEPT FOR NEXT STEP ADVANCED TOKAMAK FUSION DEVICE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    A concept is introduced for initiating the design study of a special class of tokamak,which has a magnetic confinement configuration intermediate between contemporary advanced tokamak and the recently established spherical torus (ST,also well known by the name "spherical tokamak").The leading design parameter in the present proposal is a dimensionless geometrical parameter, the machine aspect ratio A=R0/a0=2.0,where the parameters a0 and R0 denote,respectively,the plasma (equatorial) minor radius and the plasma major radius.The aim of this choice is to technologically and experimentally go beyond the aspect ratio frontier (R0/a0≈2.5) of present day tokamaks and enter a broad unexplored domain existing on the (a0,R0) parameter space in current international tokamak database,between the data region already moderately well covered by the advanced conventional tokamaks and the data region planned to be covered by STs.Plasma minor radius a0 has been chosen to be the second basic design parameter, and consequently,the plasma major radius R0 is regarded as a dependent design parameter.In the present concept,a nominal plasma minor radius a0=1.2m is adopted to be the principal design value,and smaller values of a0 can be used for auxiliary design purposes,to establish extensive database linkage with existing tokamaks.Plasma minor radius can also be adjusted by mechanical and/or electromagnetic means to smaller values during experiments,for making suitable data linkages to existing machines with higher aspect ratios and smaller plasma minor radii.The basic design parameters proposed enable the adaptation of several confinement techniques recently developed by STs,and thereby a specially arranged central-bore region inside the envisioned tokamak torus,with retrieved space in the direction of plasma minor radius,will be available for technological adjustments and maneuverings to facilitate implementation of engineering instrumentation and real time high

  15. Advanced fusion MHD power conversion using the CFAR (compact fusion advanced Rankine) cycle concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffman, M.A.; Campbell, R.; Logan, B.G. (California Univ., Davis, CA (USA); Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (USA))

    1988-10-01

    The CFAR (compact fusion advanced Rankine) cycle concept for a tokamak reactor involves the use of a high-temperature Rankine cycle in combination with microwave superheaters and nonequilibrium MHD disk generators to obtain a compact, low-capital-cost power conversion system which fits almost entirely within the reactor vault. The significant savings in the balance-of-plant costs are expected to result in much lower costs of electricity than previous concepts. This paper describes the unique features of the CFAR cycle and a high- temperature blanket designed to take advantage of it as well as the predicted performance of the MHD disk generators using mercury seeded with cesium. 40 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  16. AWAKE, The Advanced Proton Driven Plasma Wakefield Acceleration Experiment at CERN

    OpenAIRE

    Gschwendtner, E; Adli, E.; Bingham, R.; Biskup, B.; Bohl, T.; Bracco, C.; Burrows, P.N.; Burt, G.; Buttenschon, B.; Butterworth, A.(CERN, Geneva, Switzerland); Caldwell, A.; Cascella, M.; AMORIM, L.; Chevallay, E.; Cipiccia, S.

    2016-01-01

    The Advanced Proton Driven Plasma Wakefield Acceleration Experiment (AWAKE) aims at studying plasma wakefield generation and electron acceleration driven by proton bunches. It is a proof-of-principle R&D; experiment at CERN and the world׳s first proton driven plasma wakefield acceleration experiment. The AWAKE experiment will be installed in the former CNGS facility and uses the 400 GeV/c proton beam bunches from the SPS. The first experiments will focus on the self-modulation instability of ...

  17. Fiber-Reinforced-Foam (FRF) Core Composite Sandwich Panel Concept for Advanced Composites Technologi

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Fiber-Reinforced-Foam (FRF) Core Composite Sandwich Panel Concept for Advanced Composites Technologies Project - Preliminary Manufacturing Demonstration Articles for Ares V Payload Shroud Barrel Acreage Structure

  18. A New Concept for Advanced Heterogeneous Metal Catalysts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Bo-Qing

    2004-01-01

    Oxide-supported metal catalysts, having always nano-sized structures in which the metal catalysts are prepared as highly dispersed nano-crystals (typically 1-20 nm) on support oxide particles that are often one to several orders of magnitude larger than the metal nano-particles, are an important class of heterogeneous metal catalysts that finds many applications in chemical/petrochemical industries, in environmental protection, in chemical sensors and in the manufacture of fine and special chemicals. It is believed that catalysis by supported metals is the oldest application of nanotechnology. The literature has been rich in nano-size effect of metal nanoparticles in the metal/oxide catalysts. However, it is until recently that the development of size-controlled synthesis of oxide nanoparticles has made it possible to study the nano-size effect of oxide-support particles. When the particle sizes of an oxide support are reduced to become comparable to the sizes of the active metal nanoparticles, the oxide could deviate dramatically from its function as a conventional support. Such metal/oxide catalysts consisting of comparably sized metal and oxide nanocrystals are better called metal/oxide nanocomposite catalysts or catalytic nanoarchitectures.In this presentation, several attempts with reducing the particle size of oxide supports (ZrO2, TiO2,MgO, Al2O3) to approach the metal/oxide nanocomposite concept will be discussed to emphasize the importance of the support size effect. Examples will be given on characteristics of nanocomposite Ni/oxide catalysts for the reforming of natural gas with CO2 and/or steam, and on Au/oxide catalysts for CO oxidation and hydrogenation of unsaturated organic compounds. It will be emphasized that systematic investigations into the size effects of both the metal and oxide nanoparticles approaching the metal/oxide nanocomposite concept can lead to advanced heterogeneous metal catalysts.Moreover, intensive practice of the nanocomposite

  19. LLNL review of the 1994 accelerator production of tritium (APT) concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alesso, H.P.; Barnard, J.J.; Booth, R. [and others

    1995-03-08

    LLNL was asked in September 1994 to review the accelerator production of tritium (APT) concept as it had evolved up to the fall of 1994. The purpose was not to compare it to other sources of tritium, but to identify possible technical flaws in the concept and to assess feasibility. The APT concept reviewed was based on a 1.0 GeV normal conducting proton linac operating CW at currents up to 200 mA with a target of tungsten and blanket of {sup 3}He and lead. The LLNL review group concurs with the conclusions of four previous reviews (1989 to 1994) that this concept can meet the tritium requirements of a reduced stockpile of approximately 3,500 {+-} 1,500 warheads. The authors believe that the predicted tritium production rate is based on sound nuclear and transport models and that the schedules for technology demonstrations, design, and construction are realistic. They conclude that the technical risk of the concept is low and can be managed within the risk reduction program. The risk reduction program should focus on risk to the schedule and on cost reduction.

  20. The Advanced Patricle-astrophysics Telescope (APT) Mission Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, James

    2017-01-01

    The Advanced Pair Telescope (APT) is a concept for a probe-class gamma-ray mission aimed at two primary science objects: (1) providing sensitivity to thermal-WIMP dark matter over the entire natural range of annihilation cross-sections and masses and (2) identifying short GRBs or gravity wave sources by detecting and localizing MeV gamma-ray transients. The instrument combines a pair tracker and Compton telescope in one simple monolithic design. By using scintillating fibers for the tracker and wavelength-shifting fibers to readout CsI detectors, the instrument could achieve an order of magnitude improvement in sensitivity compared with Fermi at GeV energies, and several orders of magnitude improvement in MeV sensitivity compared to Comptel. The instrument would have roughly the same number of electronic channels as Fermi, but would provide an effective area of 12m2, and a geometry factor of 100 m2 str. The same CsI detectors used in the tracker/Compton telescope could be used for detection of high-energy transition radiation for measurements of light cosmic-ray abundances, making this a multi-purpose astro-particle physics observatory. The instantaneous all-sky sensitivity would provide a capability almost unique over the entire electromagnetic spectrum, providing a critical component of multi-messenger studies of the universe. We acknowledge support from the Washington University McDonnell Center for the Space Sciences.

  1. Conceptual design study advanced concepts test (ACT) facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaloudek, F.R.

    1978-09-01

    The Advanced Concepts Test (ACT) Project is part of program for developing improved power plant dry cooling systems in which ammonia is used as a heat transfer fluid between the power plant and the heat rejection tower. The test facility will be designed to condense 60,000 lb/hr of exhaust steam from the No. 1 turbine in the Kern Power Plant at Bakersfield, CA, transport the heat of condensation from the condenser to the cooling tower by an ammonia phase-change heat transport system, and dissipate this heat to the environs by a dry/wet deluge tower. The design and construction of the test facility will be the responsibility of the Electric Power Research Institute. The DOE, UCC/Linde, and the Pacific Northwest Laboratories will be involved in other phases of the project. The planned test facilities, its structures, mechanical and electrical equipment, control systems, codes and standards, decommissioning requirements, safety and environmental aspects, and energy impact are described. Six appendices of related information are included. (LCL)

  2. Investigations and advanced concepts on gyrotron interaction modeling and simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avramidis, K. A.

    2015-12-01

    In gyrotron theory, the interaction between the electron beam and the high frequency electromagnetic field is commonly modeled using the slow variables approach. The slow variables are quantities that vary slowly in time in comparison to the electron cyclotron frequency. They represent the electron momentum and the high frequency field of the resonant TE modes in the gyrotron cavity. For their definition, some reference frequencies need to be introduced. These include the so-called averaging frequency, used to define the slow variable corresponding to the electron momentum, and the carrier frequencies, used to define the slow variables corresponding to the field envelopes of the modes. From the mathematical point of view, the choice of the reference frequencies is, to some extent, arbitrary. However, from the numerical point of view, there are arguments that point toward specific choices, in the sense that these choices are advantageous in terms of simulation speed and accuracy. In this paper, the typical monochromatic gyrotron operation is considered, and the numerical integration of the interaction equations is performed by the trajectory approach, since it is the fastest, and therefore it is the one that is most commonly used. The influence of the choice of the reference frequencies on the interaction simulations is studied using theoretical arguments, as well as numerical simulations. From these investigations, appropriate choices for the values of the reference frequencies are identified. In addition, novel, advanced concepts for the definitions of these frequencies are addressed, and their benefits are demonstrated numerically.

  3. NASA Advanced Explorations Systems: Concepts for Logistics to Living

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shull, Sarah A.; Howe, A. Scott; Flynn, Michael T.; Howard, Robert

    2012-01-01

    , Howard 2010]. Several of the L2L concepts that have shown the most potential in the past are based on NASA cargo transfer bags (CTBs) or their equivalents which are currently used to transfer cargo to and from the ISS. A high percentage of all logistics supplies are packaging mass and for a 6-month mission a crew of four might need over 100 CTBs. These CTBs are used for on-orbit transfer and storage but eventually becomes waste after use since down mass is very limited. The work being done in L2L also considering innovative interior habitat construction that integrate the CTBs into the walls of future habitats. The direct integration could provide multiple functions: launch packaging, stowage, radiation protection, water processing, life support augmentation, as well as structure. Reuse of these CTBs would reduce the amount of waste generated and also significantly reduce future up mass requirements for exploration missions. Also discussed here is the L2L water wall , an innovative reuse of an unfolded CTB as a passive water treatment system utilizing forward osmosis. The bags have been modified to have an inner membrane liner that allows them to purify wastewater. They may also provide a structural water-wall element that can be used to provide radiation protection and as a structural divider. Integration of the components into vehicle/habitat architecture and consideration of operations concepts and human factors will be discussed. In the future these bags could be designed to treat wastewater, concentrated brines, and solid wastes, and to dewater solid wastes and produce a bio-stabilized construction element. This paper will describe the follow-on work done in design, fabrication and demonstrations of various L2L concepts, including advanced CTBs for reuse/repurposing, internal outfitting studies and the CTB-based forward osmosis water wall.

  4. Effects of Early Acceleration of Students in Mathematics on Taking Advanced Mathematics Coursework in High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xin

    2010-01-01

    Based on data from the Longitudinal Study of American Youth (LSAY), students were classified into high-, middle-, and low-ability students. The effects of early acceleration in mathematics on the most advanced mathematics coursework (precalculus and calculus) in high school were examined in each category. Results showed that although early…

  5. Hyperfractionated accelerated radiochemotherapy (HFA-RCT) with mitomycin C for advanced head and neck cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Widder, J; Dobrowsky, W; Schmid, R; Pokrajac, B; Selzer, E; Potter, R

    2004-01-01

    To investigate efficacy and feasibility of hyperfractionated accelerated radiotherapy combined with mitomycin C, patients with locally advanced unresectable squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck region were administered 64-66 Gy in four weeks and mitomycin C (20 mg/m(2)) on day five. Twenty-

  6. BESTIA - The next generation ultra-fast CO2 laser for advanced accelerator research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogorelsky, Igor V.; Babzien, Markus; Ben-Zvi, Ilan; Skaritka, John; Polyanskiy, Mikhail N.

    2016-09-01

    Over the last two decades, BNL's ATF has pioneered the use of high-peak power CO2 lasers for research in advanced accelerators and radiation sources. Our recent developments in ion acceleration, Compton scattering, and IFELs have further underscored the benefits from expanding the landscape of strong-field laser interactions deeper into the mid-infrared (MIR) range of wavelengths. This extension validates our ongoing efforts in advancing CO2 laser technology, which we report here. Our next-generation, multi-terawatt, femtosecond CO2 laser will open new opportunities for studying ultra-relativistic laser interactions with plasma in the MIR spectral domain, including new regimes in the particle acceleration of ions and electrons.

  7. High-pressure propulsion - advanced concepts for cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoerman, Leonard

    The state-of-the-art liquid propellant cooled combustion chambers utilized in the space shuttle are third-generation designs which have evolved from a continuing demand for higher operating pressure and aircraft-type reusability. History has shown that major advances in cooling occur in approximately ten-year cycles, with each cycle providing a nominal 400% increase in operating pressure and/or a higher degree of reusability. The previous technologies include the first-generation double-wall steel jackets used in the 220 psi V-2 and Aerobee, and the second generation wire-wrapped double tapered tubular assemblies typical of the 800 psi Titan I, II, and III, and 1000 psi F-1 engines. The third-generation designs utilize milled slot, high thermal conductivity liners and electrodeposited nickel closures. The space shuttle main engine operating at 3200 psia is adequate for individual flights; however, the desired goal of 55 service-free missions has yet to be realized. Future single-stage-to-orbit propulsion concepts can benefit from a further increase in operating pressures to 6000 to 10,000 psi combined with engine reuse capabilities in excess of the 55 flight goals of the space shuttle. A fourth-generation approach will be required to attain these more ambitious goals. These new designs will require a combination of cooling processes, including regenerative and transpiration, combined with improved high-temperature materials and new fabrication techniques. The limitations of the third-generation designs, the impact of propellant/coolant selection, and the approaches for the coming fourth-generation cooling technologies are discussed.

  8. Recent advances in autoimmune pancreatitis: concept, diagnosis, and pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okazaki, Kazuichi; Uchida, Kazushige; Fukui, Toshiro

    2008-01-01

    Recent advances support the concept of autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) as a unique systemic disease, because it shows occasional extrapancreatic lesions such as sclerosing cholangitis, sclerosing sialoadenitis, and retroperitoneal fibrosis, pathological features similar to those of fibrosis, and abundant infiltration of IgG4-positive plasma cells, and it is steroid responsive. Based on these findings, several diagnostic criteria have been proposed. Although AIP is accepted worldwide as a unique clinical entity, its pathogenetic mechanism remains unclear. To clarify its pathogenesis, its genetic background, humoral immunity, candidate target antigens including self-antigens and molecular mimicry by microbes, and cellular immunity including regulatory T cells, the complement system, and experimental models are reviewed. On the basis of this review, we hypothesize that the pathogenesis of AIP involves a biphasic mechanism consisting of "induction" and "progression." In the early stage, the initial response to self-antigens [lactoferrin, carbonic anhydrase (CA)-II, CA-IV, pancreatic secretory trypsin inhibitor, and alpha-fodrin] and molecular mimicry (Helicobacter pylori) are induced by decreased naïve regulatory T cells (Tregs), and T-helper (Th) 1 cells release proinflammatory cytokines [interferon-gamma, interleukin (IL)-1beta, IL-2, and tumor necrosis factor alpha]. In the chronic stage, progression is supported by increased memory Tregs and Th2 immune responses. The classical complement system pathway may be activated by the IgG1 immune complex. As Tregs seem to play an important role in progression as well as in induction of the disease, further studies are necessary to clarify the pathogenesis of AIP.

  9. Advanced Concept Exploration for Fast Ignition Science Program, Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephens, Richard Burnite [General Atomics; McLean, Harry M. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory; Theobald, Wolfgang [Laboratory for Laser Energetics; Akli, Kramer U. [The Ohio State University; Beg, Farhat N. [University of California, San Diego; Sentoku, Yasuhiko [University of Nevada, Reno; Schumacher, Douglass W. [The Ohio State University; Wei, Mingsheng [General Atomics

    2013-09-04

    The Fast Ignition (FI) Concept for Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) has the potential to provide a significant advance in the technical attractiveness of Inertial Fusion Energy reactors. FI differs from conventional “central hot spot” (CHS) target ignition by decoupling compression from heating: using a laser (or heavy ion beam or Z pinch) drive pulse (10’s of nanoseconds) to create a dense fuel and a second, much shorter (~10 picoseconds) high intensity pulse to ignite a small volume within the dense fuel. The physics of fast ignition process was the focus of our Advanced Concept Exploration (ACE) program. Ignition depends critically on two major issues involving Relativistic High Energy Density (RHED) physics: The laser-induced creation of fast electrons and their propagation in high-density plasmas. Our program has developed new experimental platforms, diagnostic packages, computer modeling analyses, and taken advantage of the increasing energy available at laser facilities to advance understanding of the fundamental physics underlying these issues. Our program had three thrust areas: • Understand the production and characteristics of fast electrons resulting from FI relevant laser-plasma interactions and their dependence on laser prepulse and laser pulse length. • Investigate the subsequent fast electron transport in solid and through hot (FI-relevant) plasmas. • Conduct and understand integrated core-heating experiments by comparison to simulations. Over the whole period of this project (three years for this contract), we have greatly advanced our fundamental understanding of the underlying properties in all three areas: • Comprehensive studies on fast electron source characteristics have shown that they are controlled by the laser intensity distribution and the topology and plasma density gradient. Laser pre-pulse induced pre-plasma in front of a solid surface results in increased stand-off distances from the electron origin to the high density

  10. AWAKE, The Advanced Proton Driven Plasma Wakefield Acceleration Experiment at CERN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gschwendtner, E.; Adli, E.; Amorim, L.; Apsimon, R.; Assmann, R.; Bachmann, A.-M.; Batsch, F.; Bauche, J.; Berglyd Olsen, V. K.; Bernardini, M.; Bingham, R.; Biskup, B.; Bohl, T.; Bracco, C.; Burrows, P. N.; Burt, G.; Buttenschön, B.; Butterworth, A.; Caldwell, A.; Cascella, M.; Chevallay, E.; Cipiccia, S.; Damerau, H.; Deacon, L.; Dirksen, P.; Doebert, S.; Dorda, U.; Farmer, J.; Fedosseev, V.; Feldbaumer, E.; Fiorito, R.; Fonseca, R.; Friebel, F.; Gorn, A. A.; Grulke, O.; Hansen, J.; Hessler, C.; Hofle, W.; Holloway, J.; Hüther, M.; Jaroszynski, D.; Jensen, L.; Jolly, S.; Joulaei, A.; Kasim, M.; Keeble, F.; Li, Y.; Liu, S.; Lopes, N.; Lotov, K. V.; Mandry, S.; Martorelli, R.; Martyanov, M.; Mazzoni, S.; Mete, O.; Minakov, V. A.; Mitchell, J.; Moody, J.; Muggli, P.; Najmudin, Z.; Norreys, P.; Öz, E.; Pardons, A.; Pepitone, K.; Petrenko, A.; Plyushchev, G.; Pukhov, A.; Rieger, K.; Ruhl, H.; Salveter, F.; Savard, N.; Schmidt, J.; Seryi, A.; Shaposhnikova, E.; Sheng, Z. M.; Sherwood, P.; Silva, L.; Soby, L.; Sosedkin, A. P.; Spitsyn, R. I.; Trines, R.; Tuev, P. V.; Turner, M.; Verzilov, V.; Vieira, J.; Vincke, H.; Wei, Y.; Welsch, C. P.; Wing, M.; Xia, G.; Zhang, H.

    2016-09-01

    The Advanced Proton Driven Plasma Wakefield Acceleration Experiment (AWAKE) aims at studying plasma wakefield generation and electron acceleration driven by proton bunches. It is a proof-of-principle R&D experiment at CERN and the world's first proton driven plasma wakefield acceleration experiment. The AWAKE experiment will be installed in the former CNGS facility and uses the 400 GeV/c proton beam bunches from the SPS. The first experiments will focus on the self-modulation instability of the long (rms ~12 cm) proton bunch in the plasma. These experiments are planned for the end of 2016. Later, in 2017/2018, low energy (~15 MeV) electrons will be externally injected into the sample wakefields and be accelerated beyond 1 GeV. The main goals of the experiment will be summarized. A summary of the AWAKE design and construction status will be presented.

  11. AWAKE, The Advanced Proton Driven Plasma Wakefield Acceleration Experiment at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Gschwendtner, E.; Amorim, L.; Apsimon, R.; Assmann, R.; Bachmann, A.M.; Batsch, F.; Bauche, J.; Berglyd Olsen, V.K.; Bernardini, M.; Bingham, R.; Biskup, B.; Bohl, T.; Bracco, C.; Burrows, P.N.; Burt, G.; Buttenschon, B.; Butterworth, A.; Caldwell, A.; Cascella, M.; Chevallay, E.; Cipiccia, S.; Damerau, H.; Deacon, L.; Dirksen, P.; Doebert, S.; Dorda, U.; Farmer, J.; Fedosseev, V.; Feldbaumer, E.; Fiorito, R.; Fonseca, R.; Friebel, F.; Gorn, A.A.; Grulke, O.; Hansen, J.; Hessler, C.; Hofle, W.; Holloway, J.; Huther, M.; Jaroszynski, D.; Jensen, L.; Jolly, S.; Joulaei, A.; Kasim, M.; Keeble, F.; Li, Y.; Liu, S.; Lopes, N.; Lotov, K.V.; Mandry, S.; Martorelli, R.; Martyanov, M.; Mazzoni, S.; Mete, O.; Minakov, V.A.; Mitchell, J.; Moody, J.; Muggli, P.; Najmudin, Z.; Norreys, P.; Oz, E.; Pardons, A.; Pepitone, K.; Petrenko, A.; Plyushchev, G.; Pukhov, A.; Rieger, K.; Ruhl, H.; Salveter, F.; Savard, N.; Schmidt, J.; Seryi, A.; Shaposhnikova, E.; Sheng, Z.M.; Sherwood, P.; Silva, L.; Soby, L.; Sosedkin, A.P.; Spitsyn, R.I.; Trines, R.; Tuev, P.V.; Turner, M.; Verzilov, V.; Vieira, J.; Vincke, H.; Wei, Y.; Welsch, C.P.; Wing, M.; Xia, G.; Zhang, H.

    2016-01-01

    The Advanced Proton Driven Plasma Wakefield Acceleration Experiment (AWAKE) aims at studying plasma wakefield generation and electron acceleration driven by proton bunches. It is a proof-of-principle R&D experiment at CERN and the world's first proton driven plasma wakefield acceleration experiment. The AWAKE experiment will be installed in the former CNGS facility and uses the 400 GeV/c proton beam bunches from the SPS. The first experiments will focus on the self-modulation instability of the long (rms ~12 cm) proton bunch in the plasma. These experiments are planned for the end of 2016. Later, in 2017/2018, low energy (~15 MeV) electrons will be externally injected to sample the wakefields and be accelerated beyond 1 GeV. The main goals of the experiment will be summarized. A summary of the AWAKE design and construction status will be presented.

  12. AWAKE, The Advanced Proton Driven Plasma Wakefield Acceleration Experiment at CERN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gschwendtner, E. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Adli, E. [University of Oslo, Oslo 0316 (Norway); Amorim, L. [GoLP/Instituto de Plasmas e Fusão Nuclear, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Lisbon (Portugal); Apsimon, R. [Cockcroft Institute, Warrington WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Lancaster University, Lancaster LA1 4YR (United Kingdom); Assmann, R. [DESY, Notkestrasse 85, 22607 Hamburg (Germany); Bachmann, A.-M.; Batsch, F. [Max Planck Institute for Physics, Föhringer Ring 6, München 80805 (Germany); Bauche, J. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Berglyd Olsen, V.K. [University of Oslo, Oslo 0316 (Norway); Bernardini, M. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Bingham, R. [STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Didcot OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Biskup, B. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Czech Technical University, Zikova 1903/4, 166 36 Praha 6 (Czech Republic); Bohl, T.; Bracco, C. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Burrows, P.N. [John Adams Institute for Accelerator Science, Oxford (United Kingdom); University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 2JD (United Kingdom); Burt, G. [Cockcroft Institute, Warrington WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Buttenschön, B. [Max Planck Institute for Plasma Physics, Wendelsteinstr. 1, Greifswald 17491 (Germany); Butterworth, A. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Caldwell, A. [Max Planck Institute for Physics, Föhringer Ring 6, München 80805 (Germany); Cascella, M. [UCL, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); and others

    2016-09-01

    The Advanced Proton Driven Plasma Wakefield Acceleration Experiment (AWAKE) aims at studying plasma wakefield generation and electron acceleration driven by proton bunches. It is a proof-of-principle R&D experiment at CERN and the world's first proton driven plasma wakefield acceleration experiment. The AWAKE experiment will be installed in the former CNGS facility and uses the 400 GeV/c proton beam bunches from the SPS. The first experiments will focus on the self-modulation instability of the long (rms ~12 cm) proton bunch in the plasma. These experiments are planned for the end of 2016. Later, in 2017/2018, low energy (~15 MeV) electrons will be externally injected into the sample wakefields and be accelerated beyond 1 GeV. The main goals of the experiment will be summarized. A summary of the AWAKE design and construction status will be presented.

  13. NASA's Advanced Information Systems Technology (AIST) Program: Advanced Concepts and Disruptive Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, M. M.; Moe, K.; Komar, G.

    2014-12-01

    NASA's Earth Science Technology Office (ESTO) manages a wide range of information technology projects under the Advanced Information Systems Technology (AIST) Program. The AIST Program aims to support all phases of NASA's Earth Science program with the goal of enabling new observations and information products, increasing the accessibility and use of Earth observations, and reducing the risk and cost of satellite and ground based information systems. Recent initiatives feature computational technologies to improve information extracted from data streams or model outputs and researchers' tools for Big Data analytics. Data-centric technologies enable research communities to facilitate collaboration and increase the speed with which results are produced and published. In the future NASA anticipates more small satellites (e.g., CubeSats), mobile drones and ground-based in-situ sensors will advance the state-of-the-art regarding how scientific observations are performed, given the flexibility, cost and deployment advantages of new operations technologies. This paper reviews the success of the program and the lessons learned. Infusion of these technologies is challenging and the paper discusses the obstacles and strategies to adoption by the earth science research and application efforts. It also describes alternative perspectives for the future program direction and for realizing the value in the steps to transform observations from sensors to data, to information, and to knowledge, namely: sensor measurement concepts development; data acquisition and management; data product generation; and data exploitation for science and applications.

  14. Generation of electron beams from a laser-based advanced accelerator at Shanghai Jiao Tong University

    CERN Document Server

    Elsied, Ahmed M M; Li, Song; Mirzaie, Mohammad; Sokollik, Thomas; Zhang, Jie

    2014-01-01

    At Shanghai Jiao Tong University, we have established a research laboratory for advanced acceleration research based on high-power lasers and plasma technologies. In a primary experiment based on the laser wakefield acceleration (LWFA) scheme, multi-hundred MeV electron beams having a reasonable quality are generated using 20-40 TW, 30 femtosecond laser pulses interacting independently with helium, neon, nitrogen and argon gas jet targets. The laser-plasma interaction conditions are optimized for stabilizing the electron beam generation from each type of gas. The electron beam pointing angle stability and divergence angle as well as the energy spectra from each gas jet are measured and compared.

  15. Enabling More than Moore: Accelerated Reliability Testing and Risk Analysis for Advanced Electronics Packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaffarian, Reza; Evans, John W.

    2014-01-01

    For five decades, the semiconductor industry has distinguished itself by the rapid pace of improvement in miniaturization of electronics products-Moore's Law. Now, scaling hits a brick wall, a paradigm shift. The industry roadmaps recognized the scaling limitation and project that packaging technologies will meet further miniaturization needs or ak.a "More than Moore". This paper presents packaging technology trends and accelerated reliability testing methods currently being practiced. Then, it presents industry status on key advanced electronic packages, factors affecting accelerated solder joint reliability of area array packages, and IPC/JEDEC/Mil specifications for characterizations of assemblies under accelerated thermal and mechanical loading. Finally, it presents an examples demonstrating how Accelerated Testing and Analysis have been effectively employed in the development of complex spacecraft thereby reducing risk. Quantitative assessments necessarily involve the mathematics of probability and statistics. In addition, accelerated tests need to be designed which consider the desired risk posture and schedule for particular project. Such assessments relieve risks without imposing additional costs. and constraints that are not value added for a particular mission. Furthermore, in the course of development of complex systems, variances and defects will inevitably present themselves and require a decision concerning their disposition, necessitating quantitative assessments. In summary, this paper presents a comprehensive view point, from technology to systems, including the benefits and impact of accelerated testing in offsetting risk.

  16. Concepts and recent advances in generalized information measures and statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Kowalski, Andres M

    2013-01-01

    Since the introduction of the information measure widely known as Shannon entropy, quantifiers based on information theory and concepts such as entropic forms and statistical complexities have proven to be useful in diverse scientific research fields. This book contains introductory tutorials suitable for the general reader, together with chapters dedicated to the basic concepts of the most frequently employed information measures or quantifiers and their recent applications to different areas, including physics, biology, medicine, economics, communication and social sciences. As these quantif

  17. Concept Development for Advanced Spaceborne Synthetic Aperture Radar Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The effort will focus on P-Band and L-band polarimetric radar architectures that employ advanced and innovative techniques to increase the science value of the...

  18. Reference Operational Concepts for Advanced Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hugo, Jacques Victor [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Farris, Ronald Keith [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-09-01

    This report represents the culmination of a four-year research project that was part of the Instrumentation and Control and Human Machine Interface subprogram of the DOE Advanced Reactor Technologies program.

  19. Physics teaching and visual deficiency: learning activities about the concept of acceleration of gravity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eder Pires de Camargo

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present the analysis of two physics teaching activities that were developed for and applied in a group of visually impaired students. The content of the activities was focused on the concept of gravitational acceleration. In the first activity the concept was explored by means of the movement of an object in an inclined plane; in the second, it was explored through the movement of a metallic disk inside a tube. Both experimental setting emitted audible signals. In this sense, all the “observational” practice were based in the audible perception of the gravitational phenomena, which permitted discussion among the students, in small groups, and a debate aiming at a general conclusion. The analysis of the data was based in a category labeled “comprehension”, which illuminated some attitudes of the students throughout the experiments such as: the sharing of ideas, the defense and arguing of meanings, and the reconstruction of meanings. As conclusions we can say that the activities were valuable for motivating the students and for giving to them some background for: (1 performing experiments; (2 observing a phenomena through an audible via; (3 collecting and analyzing data related to the variation of speed; (4 sharing, arguing and reformulating hypothesis during the discussions.

  20. Advanced Turbine Systems Program industrial system concept development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gates, S. [Solar Turbines Inc., San Diego, CA (United States)

    1995-10-01

    The objective of Phase II of the Advanced Turbine Systems Program is to develop conceptual designs of gas fired advanced turbine systems that can be adapted for operation on coal and biomass fuels. The technical, economic, and environmental performance operating on natural gas and in a coal fueled mode is to be assessed. Detailed designs and test work relating to critical components are to be completed and a market study is to be conducted.

  1. Wake potentials and impedances for the ATA (Advanced Test Accelerator) induction cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Craig, G.D.

    1990-09-04

    The AMOS Wakefield Code is used to calculate the impedances of the induction cell used in the Advanced Test Accelerator (ATA) at Livermore. We present the wakefields and impedances for multipoles m = 0, 1 and 2. The ATA cell is calculated to have a maximum transverse impedance of approximately 1000 {Omega}/m at 875 MHz with a quality factor Q = 5. The sensitivity of the impedance spectra to modeling variations is discussed.

  2. Concept for an advanced exotic beam facility based on ATLAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rehm, K.E.; Ahmad, I.; Back, B.B. [and others

    1995-08-01

    The acceleration of beams of unstable nuclei has opened up new research frontiers. Experiments at existing accelerators, and particularly at the first generation of radioactive ion beam facilities, have demonstrated convincingly that unique information becomes accessible. Critical cross sections for astrophysical processes that were impossible to obtain previously, qualitatively new and unexpected nuclear structure effects in nuclei far from stability, completely new approaches to studies of nuclear decays, reactions and structure, all have triggered much excitement for this new dimension in nuclear research. To explore this new dimension, an extension of present technical capabilities and facilities is needed. This need and its scientific basis were discussed in various workshops and symposia and in the Isospin Laboratory (ISL) White Paper. A report by the European community was published recently on prospects of radioactive beam facilities in Europe, and some next-generation projects for such facilities are starting in both Europe and Japan.

  3. [Advance Directives: theoretical concept and practical significance in the USA].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollmann, J; Pfaff, M

    2003-07-01

    The article examines on the basic of empirical data the discrepancy between the theoretical demand and the practical role of advance directives. Often advance directives have no influence on medical decision-making in clinical care of critically ill patients. The vague language of the widely used standard living wills and the lack of physician-patient communication in the process of delivering an advance directives are contributing factors. However, many physicians even disregard patients' preferences in concrete and meaningful living wills at the end of life. Besides the lack of information many even seriously ill patients do not deliver an advance because they misjudge their medical prognosis and life expectancy. Often the communication between patients and doctors are blocked because they expect from the each other the first step to talk about end of life decisions and advance directives. In this context physicians claim lack of time, training in communication skills and their discomfort in talking about death and dying with their patients.

  4. Advanced transportation concept for round-trip space travel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Chen-Wan L.

    1988-01-01

    A departure from the conventional concept of round-trip space travel is introduced. It is shown that a substantial reduction in the initial load required of the Shuttle or other launch vehicle can be achieved by staging the ascent orbit and leaving fuel for the return trip at each stage of the orbit. Examples of round trips from a low-inclination LEO to a high-inclination LEO and from an LEO to a GEO are used to show the merits of the new concept. Potential problem areas and research needed for the development of an efficient space transportation network are discussed.

  5. Advanced radiator concepts utilizing honeycomb panel heat pipes (stainless steel)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleischman, G. L.; Tanzer, H. J.

    1985-08-01

    The feasibility of fabricating and processing moderate temperature range heat pipes in a low mass honeycomb sandwich panel configuration for highly efficient radiator fins for the NASA space station was investigated. A variety of honeycomb panel facesheet and core-ribbon wick concepts were evaluated within constraints dictated by existing manufacturing technology and equipment. Concepts evaluated include: type of material, material and panel thicknesses, wick type and manufacturability, liquid and vapor communication among honeycomb cells, and liquid flow return from condenser to evaporator facesheet areas. In addition, the overall performance of the honeycomb panel heat pipe was evaluated analytically.

  6. The Advanced Composition Explorer Shock Database and Application to Particle Acceleration Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, L. Neergaard; Zank, G. P.

    2015-01-01

    The theory of particle acceleration via diffusive shock acceleration (DSA) has been studied in depth by Gosling et al. (1981), van Nes et al. (1984), Mason (2000), Desai et al. (2003), Zank et al. (2006), among many others. Recently, Parker and Zank (2012, 2014) and Parker et al. (2014) using the Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) shock database at 1 AU explored two questions: does the upstream distribution alone have enough particles to account for the accelerated downstream distribution and can the slope of the downstream accelerated spectrum be explained using DSA? As was shown in this research, diffusive shock acceleration can account for a large population of the shocks. However, Parker and Zank (2012, 2014) and Parker et al. (2014) used a subset of the larger ACE database. Recently, work has successfully been completed that allows for the entire ACE database to be considered in a larger statistical analysis. We explain DSA as it applies to single and multiple shocks and the shock criteria used in this statistical analysis. We calculate the expected injection energy via diffusive shock acceleration given upstream parameters defined from the ACE Solar Wind Electron, Proton, and Alpha Monitor (SWEPAM) data to construct the theoretical upstream distribution. We show the comparison of shock strength derived from diffusive shock acceleration theory to observations in the 50 keV to 5 MeV range from an instrument on ACE. Parameters such as shock velocity, shock obliquity, particle number, and time between shocks are considered. This study is further divided into single and multiple shock categories, with an additional emphasis on forward-forward multiple shock pairs. Finally with regard to forward-forward shock pairs, results comparing injection energies of the first shock, second shock, and second shock with previous energetic population will be given.

  7. Technological advances in perioperative monitoring: Current concepts and clinical perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilkoti, Geetanjali; Wadhwa, Rachna; Saxena, Ashok Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Minimal mandatory monitoring in the perioperative period recommended by Association of Anesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland and American Society of Anesthesiologists are universally acknowledged and has become an integral part of the anesthesia practice. The technologies in perioperative monitoring have advanced, and the availability and clinical applications have multiplied exponentially. Newer monitoring techniques include depth of anesthesia monitoring, goal-directed fluid therapy, transesophageal echocardiography, advanced neurological monitoring, improved alarm system and technological advancement in objective pain assessment. Various factors that need to be considered with the use of improved monitoring techniques are their validation data, patient outcome, safety profile, cost-effectiveness, awareness of the possible adverse events, knowledge of technical principle and ability of the convenient routine handling. In this review, we will discuss the new monitoring techniques in anesthesia, their advantages, deficiencies, limitations, their comparison to the conventional methods and their effect on patient outcome, if any.

  8. Advanced Level Physics Students' Conceptions of Quantum Physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashhadi, Azam

    This study addresses questions about particle physics that focus on the nature of electrons. Speculations as to whether they are more like particles or waves or like neither illustrate the difficulties with which students are confronted when trying to incorporate the concepts of quantum physics into their overall conceptual framework. Such…

  9. CFD evaluation of an advanced thrust vector control concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiarn, Weihnurng; Cavalleri, Robert

    1990-01-01

    A potential concept that can offer an alternate method for thrust vector control of the Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Booster is the use of a cylindrical probe that is inserted (on demand) through the wall of the rocket nozzle. This Probe Thrust Vector Control (PTVC) concept is an alternate to that of a gimbaled nozzle or a Liquid Injection Thrust Vector (LITVC) system. The viability of the PTVC concept can be assessed either experimentally and/or with the use of CFD. A purely experimental assessment can be time consuming and expensive, whereas a CFD assessment can be very time- and cost-effective. Two key requirements of the proposed concept are PTVC vectoring performance and the active cooling requirements for the probe to maintain its thermal and structural integrity. An active thermal cooling method is the injection of coolant around the pheriphery of the probe. How much coolant is required and how this coolant distributes itself in the flow field is of major concern. The objective of the work reported here is the use of CFD to answer these question and in the design of test hardware to substantiate the results of the CFD predictions.

  10. First Beam and High-Gradient Cryomodule Commissioning Results of the Advanced Superconducting Test Accelerator at Fermilab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawford, Darren; et al.

    2015-06-01

    The advanced superconducting test accelerator at Fermilab has accelerated electrons to 20 MeV and, separately, the International Linear Collider (ILC) style 8-cavity cryomodule has achieved the ILC performance milestone of 31.5 MV/m per cavity. When fully completed, the accelerator will consist of a photoinjector, one ILC-type cryomodule, multiple accelerator R&D beamlines, and a downstream beamline to inject 300 MeV electrons into the Integrable Optics Test Accelerator (IOTA). We report on the results of first beam, the achievement of our cryomodule to ILC gradient specifications, and near-term future plans for the facility.

  11. Fostering Visions for the Future: A Review of the NASA Institute for Advanced Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    The NASA Institute for Advanced Concepts (NIAC) was formed in 1998 to provide an independent source of advanced aeronautical and space concepts that could dramatically impact how NASA develops and conducts its missions. Until the program's termination in August 2007, NIAC provided an independent open forum, a high-level point of entry to NASA for an external community of innovators, and an external capability for analysis and definition of advanced aeronautics and space concepts to complement the advanced concept activities conducted within NASA. Throughout its 9-year existence, NIAC inspired an atmosphere for innovation that stretched the imagination and encouraged creativity. As requested by Congress, this volume reviews the effectiveness of NIAC and makes recommendations concerning the importance of such a program to NASA and to the nation as a whole, including the proper role of NASA and the federal government in fostering scientific innovation and creativity and in developing advanced concepts for future systems. Key findings and recommendations include that in order to achieve its mission, NASA must have, and is currently lacking, a mechanism to investigate visionary, far-reaching advanced concepts. Therefore, a NIAC-like entity should be reestablished to fill this gap.

  12. An advanced concept that promises ecological and economic viability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, B. R.; Sedgwick, T. A.; Urie, D. M.

    1976-01-01

    The actuality of supersonic commercial service being provided by Concorde is demonstrating to the world the advantages offered by supersonic travel for both business and recreation. Public acceptance will gradually and persistently stimulate interest to proceed with a second generation design that meets updated economic and ecological standards. It is estimated that this concept could operate profitably on world-wide routes with a revenue structure based upon economy fares. Airplanes will meet all present day ecological requirements regarding noise and emissions.

  13. Quality of experience advanced concepts, applications and methods

    CERN Document Server

    Raake, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    This pioneering book develops definitions and concepts related to Quality of Experience in the context of multimedia- and telecommunications-related applications, systems and services, and applies these to various fields of communication and media technologies. The editors bring together numerous key-protagonists of the new discipline “Quality of Experience” and combine the state-of-the-art knowledge in one single volume. 

  14. A Novel superconducting toroidal field magnet concept using advanced materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, J.

    1992-03-01

    The plasma physics database indicates that two distinct approaches to tokamak design may lead to commercial fusion reactors: low Aspect ratio, high plasma current, relatively low magnetic field devices, and high Aspect ratio, high field devices. The former requires significant enhancements in plasma performance, while the latter depends primarily upon technology development. The key technology for the commercialization of the high-field approach is large, high magnetic field superconducting magnets. In this paper, the physics motivation for the high field approach and key superconducting magnet (SCM) development issues are reviewed. Improved SCM performance may be obtained from improved materials and/or improved engineering. Superconducting materials ranging from NbTi to high- T c oxides are reviewed, demonstrating the broad range of potential superconducting materials. Structural material options are discussed, including cryogenic steel alloys and fiber-reinforced composite materials. Again, the breadth of options is highlighted. The potential for improved magnet engineering is quantified in terms of the Virial Theorem Limit, and two examples of approaches to highly optimized magnet configurations are discussed. The force-reduced concept, which is a finite application of the force-free solutions to Ampere's Law, appear promising for large SCMs but may be limited by the electromagnetics of a fusion plasma. The Solid Superconducting Cylinder (SSC) concept is proposed. This concept combines the unique properties of high- T c superconductors within a low- T c SCM to obtain (1) significant reductions in the structural material volume, (2) a decoupling of the tri-axial (compressive and tensile) stress state, and (3) a demountable TF magnet system. The advantages of this approach are quantified in terms of a 24 T commercial reactor TF magnet system. Significant reductions in the mechanical stress and the TF radial build are demonstrated.

  15. Knowledge based systems advanced concepts, techniques and applications

    CERN Document Server

    1997-01-01

    The field of knowledge-based systems (KBS) has expanded enormously during the last years, and many important techniques and tools are currently available. Applications of KBS range from medicine to engineering and aerospace.This book provides a selected set of state-of-the-art contributions that present advanced techniques, tools and applications. These contributions have been prepared by a group of eminent researchers and professionals in the field.The theoretical topics covered include: knowledge acquisition, machine learning, genetic algorithms, knowledge management and processing under unc

  16. Cogeneration power plant concepts using advanced gas turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huettenhofer, K.; Lezuo, A. [Siemens Power Generation, Erlangen (Germany)

    2001-07-01

    Cogeneration of heat and power (CHP) is undeniably the environmentally most favourable way of making efficient use of energy in the power generation industry. Cogeneration is also particularly appreciated by political decision makers because of its high yield from primary energy sources, and thus its contribution to the protection of the environment and the conservation of resources. Advanced gas turbines, along with an intelligent power plant design consisting of pre-engineered, modular power plant items, will help cogeneration to play an important role in future energy markets also from an economic point of view. (orig.)

  17. Accelerator Technology Division

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-04-01

    In fiscal year (FY) 1991, the Accelerator Technology (AT) division continued fulfilling its mission to pursue accelerator science and technology and to develop new accelerator concepts for application to research, defense, energy, industry, and other areas of national interest. This report discusses the following programs: The Ground Test Accelerator Program; APLE Free-Electron Laser Program; Accelerator Transmutation of Waste; JAERI, OMEGA Project, and Intense Neutron Source for Materials Testing; Advanced Free-Electron Laser Initiative; Superconducting Super Collider; The High-Power Microwave Program; (Phi) Factory Collaboration; Neutral Particle Beam Power System Highlights; Accelerator Physics and Special Projects; Magnetic Optics and Beam Diagnostics; Accelerator Design and Engineering; Radio-Frequency Technology; Free-Electron Laser Technology; Accelerator Controls and Automation; Very High-Power Microwave Sources and Effects; and GTA Installation, Commissioning, and Operations.

  18. Status of the advanced photon source and its accelerator control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowell, W.; Knott, M.; Kraimer, M.

    1994-12-01

    This paper presents the current status of the Advanced Photon Source (APS), its control system and the Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS) tools being used to implement this control system. The status of the physical plant and each of the accelerators as well as detailed descriptions of the software tools used to build the accelerator control system are presented. The control system uses high-performance graphic workstations and the X-Windows graphical user interface (GUI) at the operator interface level. It connects to VME/VXI-based microprocessors at the field level, using TCP/IP protocols over high-performance networks. This strategy assures the flexibility and expansibility of the control system. A defined interface between the system components will allow the system to evolve with the direct addition of future, improved equipment and new capabilities.

  19. Proof-of-concept and advancement of the CellFlux concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odenthal, Christian; Steinmann, Wolf-Dieter

    2016-05-01

    The CellFlux storage system is a new concept for reducing the costs of medium to high temperature thermal energy storage. Initially designed for solar thermal power plants, the concept is suitable for industrial processes and power to heat applications as well. This paper gives first results of a new pilot scale plant set up at DLR in Stuttgart as a proof of concept. Experimental results are used for the validation of a simplified model. The model is apllied to calculate pareto optimal storage configurations in terms of necessary storage mass and exergetic efficiency, suitable for two types of solar thermal power plants. Particularly for applications having larger temperature differences, high exergetic efficiencies at low costs for the storage material can be achieved.

  20. Advances in sliding mode control concept, theory and implementation

    CERN Document Server

    Janardhanan, S; Spurgeon, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    The sliding mode control paradigm has become a mature technique for the design of robust controllers for a wide class of systems including nonlinear, uncertain and time-delayed systems. This book is a collection of plenary and invited talks delivered at the 12th IEEE International Workshop on Variable Structure System held at the Indian Institute of Technology, Mumbai, India in January 2012. After the workshop, these researchers were invited to develop book chapters for this edited collection in order to reflect the latest results and open research questions in the area. The contributed chapters have been organized by the editors to reflect the various themes of sliding mode control which are the current areas of theoretical research and applications focus; namely articulation of the fundamental underpinning theory of the sliding mode design paradigm, sliding modes for decentralized system representations, control of time-delay systems, the higher order sliding mode concept, results applicable to nonlinear an...

  1. Advanced Turbine Systems Program industrial system concept development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gates, S.

    1995-12-31

    Solar approached Phase II of ATS program with the goal of 50% thermal efficiency. An intercolled and recuperated gas turbine was identified as the ultimate system to meet this goal in a commercial gas turbine environment. With commercial input from detailed market studies and DOE`s ATS program, Solar redefined the company`s proposed ATS to fit both market and sponsor (DOE) requirements. Resulting optimized recuperated gas turbine will be developed in two sizes, 5 and 15 MWe. It will show a thermal efficiency of about 43%, a 23% improvement over current industrial gas turbines. Other ATS goals--emissions, RAMD (reliability, availability, maintainability, durability), cost of power--will be met or exceeded. During FY95, advanced development of key materials, combustion and component technologies proceeded to the point of acceptance for inclusion in ATS Phase III.

  2. Wujiang Private Enterprises Accelerated the Introduction of International Advanced Textile Equipment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Wujiang private enterprises have accelerated the introduction of international advanced textile equipment to achieve industrial structure transformation and upgrade from the beginning of this year. According to the statistics from Wujiang Inspection and Quarantine Bureau, during the first nine months, Wujiang textile equipment import value was 340 million USD, growing 8.2% year on year. Imports of textile equipment mainly include high-speed winding machine, elasticizer, air-jet looms, water jet looms, sizing machine, spinning machine, and setting machine, which are mainly from Japan and Germany.

  3. Advanced high brightness ion rf accelerator applications in the nuclear energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jameson, R.A.

    1991-01-01

    The capability of modern rf linear accelerators to provide intense high quality beams of protons, deuterons, or heavier ions is opening new possibilities for transmuting existing nuclear wastes, for generating electricity from readily available fuels with minimal residual wastes, for building intense neutron sources for materials research, for inertial confinement fusion using heavy ions, and for other new applications. These are briefly described, couched in a perspective of the advances in the understanding of the high brightness beams that has enabled these new programs. 32 refs., 2 figs.

  4. Self-Concept and Social Status of Accelerated and Nonaccelerated Students in the First 2 Years of Secondary School in the Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoogeveen, Lianne; van Hell, Janet G.; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the self-concept and social status of accelerated and nonaccelerated students in their first 2 years of secondary school in the Netherlands. In 357 students from 18 secondary schools, we measured self-concept, sociometric status, and behavior reputations at three times. Accelerated students had more positive self-concepts…

  5. ADVANCED SULFUR CONTROL CONCEPTS FOR HOT-GAS DESULFURIZATION TECHNOLOGY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. LOPEZ ORTIZ; D.P. HARRISON; F.R. GROVES; J.D. WHITE; S. ZHANG; W.-N. HUANG; Y. ZENG

    1998-10-31

    This research project examined the feasibility of a second generation high-temperature coal gas desulfurization process in which elemental sulfur is produced directly during the sorbent regeneration phase. Two concepts were evaluated experimentally. In the first, FeS was regenerated in a H2O-O2 mixture. Large fractions of the sulfur were liberated in elemental form when the H2O-O2 ratio was large. However, the mole percent of elemental sulfur in the product was always quite small (<<1%) and a process based on this concept was judged to be impractical because of the low temperature and high energy requirements associated with condensing the sulfur. The second concept involved desulfurization using CeO2 and regeneration of the sulfided sorbent, Ce2O2S, using SO2 to produce elemental sulfur directly. No significant side reactions were observed and the reaction was found to be quite rapid over the temperature range of 500°C to 700°C. Elemental sulfur concentrations (as S2) as large as 20 mol% were produced. Limitations associated with the cerium sorbent process are concentrated in the desulfurization phase. High temperature and highly reducing coal gas such as produced in the Shell gasification process are required if high sulfur removal efficiencies are to be achieved. For example, the equilibrium H2S concentration at 800°C from a Shell gas in contact with CeO2 is about 300 ppmv, well above the allowable IGCC specification. In this case, a two-stage desulfurization process using CeO2 for bulk H2S removal following by a zinc sorbent polishing step would be required. Under appropriate conditions, however, CeO2 can be reduced to non-stoichiometric CeOn (n<2) which has significantly greater affinity for H2S. Pre-breakthrough H2S concentrations in the range of 1 ppmv to 5 ppmv were measured in sulfidation tests using CeOn at 700°C in highly reducing gases, as measured by equilibrium O2 concentration, comparable to the Shell gas. Good sorbent durability was indicated in

  6. MOA—The Magnetic Field Amplified Thruster, a Novel Concept for a Pulsed Plasma Accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frischauf, Norbert; Hettmer, Manfred; Grassauer, Andreas; Bartusch, Tobias; Koudelka, Otto

    2008-01-01

    More than 60 years after the later Nobel laureate Hannes Alfvén had published a letter stating that oscillating magnetic fields can accelerate ionised matter via magneto-hydrodynamic interactions in a wave like fashion, the technical implementation of Alfvén waves for propulsive purposes has been proposed, patented and examined for the first time by a group of inventors. The name of the concept is MOA—Magnetic field Oscillating Amplified thruster. Based on computer simulations, MOA is a highly flexible propulsion system, whose performance parameters might easily be adapted, by changing the mass flow and/or the power level. As such the system is capable to deliver a maximum specific impulse of 13116 s (12.87 mN) at a power level of 11.16 kW, using Xe as propellant, but can also be attuned to provide a thrust of 236.5 mN (2411 s) at 6.15 kW of power. While space propulsion is expected to be the prime application for MOA and is supported by numerous applications such as Solar and/or Nuclear Electric Propulsion or even as an `afterburner system' for Nuclear Thermal Propulsion, other terrestrial applications can be thought of as well, making the system highly suited for a common space-terrestrial application research and utilisation strategy. This paper presents the recent developments of the MOA Thruster R&D activities at QASAR (www.qasar.at), the company in Vienna, which has been set up to further develop and test the Alfvén wave technology and its applications.

  7. Advanced Direct Liquefaction Concepts for PETC Generic Units - Phase II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1997-09-01

    Reported here are the results of Laboratory and Bench- Scale experiments and supporting technical and economic assessments conducted under DOE Contract No. DE- AC22- 91PC91040 during the period April 1, 1997 to June 30, 1997. This contract is with the University of Kentucky Research Foundation which supports work with the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research, CONSOL, Inc., LDP Associates, and Hydrocarbon Technologies, Inc. This work involves the introduction into the basic two stage liquefaction process several novel concepts which includes dispersed lower- cost catalysts, coal cleaning by oil agglomeration, and distillate hydrotreating and dewaxing. This report includes a data analysis of the ALC- 2 run which was the second continuous run in which Wyodak Black Thunder coal was fed to a two kg/ h bench- scale unit. One of the objectives of that run was to determine the relative activity of several Mo- based coal impregnated catalyst precursors. The precursors included ammonium heptamolybdate (100 mg Mo/ kg dry coal), which was used alone as well as in combination with ferrous sulfate (1% Fe/ dry coal) and nickel sulfate (50 mg Ni/ kg dry coal). The fourth precursor that was tested was phosphomolybdic acid which was used at a level of 100 mg Mo/ kg dry coal. Because of difficulties in effectively separating solids from the product stream, considerable variation in the feed stream occurred. Although the coal feed rate was nearly constant, the amount of recycle solvent varied which resulted in wide variations of resid, unconverted coal and mineral matter in the feed stream. Unfortunately, steady state was not achieved in any of the four conditions that were run. Earlier it was reported that Ni- Mo catalyst appeared to give the best results based upon speculative steady- state yields that were developed.

  8. Earth's Critical Zone and hydropedology: concepts, characteristics, and advances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Lin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The Critical Zone (CZ is a holistic framework for integrated studies of water with soil, rock, air, and biotic resources in the near-surface terrestrial environment. This most heterogeneous and complex region of the Earth ranges from the vegetation top to the aquifer bottom, with a highly variable thickness globally and a yet-to-be clearly defined lower boundary of active water cycle. Interfaces among different compartments in the CZ are critical, which provide fertile ground for interdisciplinary research. The reconciliation of coupled geological and biological cycles (vastly different in space and time scales is essential to understanding the complexity and evolution of the CZ. Irreversible evolution, coupled cycling, interactive layers, and hierarchical heterogeneity are the characteristics of the CZ, suggesting that forcing, coupling, interfacing, and scaling are grand challenges for advancing CZ science. Hydropedology – the science of the behaviour and distribution of soil-water interactions in contact with mineral and biological materials in the CZ – is an important contributor to CZ study. The pedosphere is the foundation of the CZ, which represents a geomembrance across which water and solutes, as well as energy, gases, solids, and organisms are actively exchanged with the atmosphere, biosphere, hydrosphere, and lithosphere, thereby creating a life-sustaining environment. Hydropedology emphasizes in situ soils in the landscape setting, where distinct pedogenic features and soil-landscape relationships are essential to understanding interactive pedologic and hydrologic processes. Both CZ science and hydropedology embrace an evolutionary and holistic worldview, which offers stimulating opportunities through steps such as integrated systems approach, evolutionary mapping-monitoring-modeling framework, and fostering a global alliance. Our capability to predict the behaviour and evolution of the CZ in response to changing environment can

  9. Advanced Direct Liquefaction Concepts for PETC Generic Units - Phase II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1997-12-01

    The results of Laboratory and Bench-Scale experiments and supporting technical and economic assessments conducted under DOE Contract No. DE-AC22-91PC91040 are reported for the period July 1, 1997 to September 30, 1997. This contract is with the University of Kentucky Research Foundation which supports work with the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research, CONSOL, Inc., LDP Associates, and Hydrocarbon Technologies, Inc. This work involves the introduction into the basic two stage liquefaction process several novel concepts which include dispersed lower-cost catalysts, coal cleaning by oil agglomeration, and distillate hydrotreating and dewaxing. Results are reported from experiments in which various methods were tested to activate dispersed Mo precursors. Several oxothiomolybdates precursors having S/Mo ratios from two to six were prepared. Another having a S/Mo ratio of eleven was also prepared that contained an excess of sulfur. In the catalyst screening test, none of these precursors exhibited an activity enhancement that might suggest that adding sulfur into the structure of the Mo precursors would be beneficial to the process. In another series of experiments, AHM impregnated coal slurried in the reaction mixture was pretreated withH S/H under pressure and successively heated for 30 min at 120, 250 2 2 and 360 C. THF conversions in the catalyst screening test were not affected while resid conversions o increased such that pretreated coals impregnated with 100 ppm Mo gave conversions equivalent to untreated coals impregnated with 300 ppm fresh Mo. Cobalt, nickel and potassium phosphomolybdates were prepared and tested as bimetallic precursors. The thermal stability of these compounds was evaluated in TG/MS to determine whether the presence of the added metal would stabilize the Keggin structure at reaction temperature. Coals impregnated with these salts showed the Ni and Co salts gave the same THF conversion as PMA while the Ni salt gave higher

  10. ADVANCED UNDERGROUND GAS STORAGE CONCEPTS REFRIGERATED-MINED CAVERN STORAGE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-09-01

    Limited demand and high cost has prevented the construction of hard rock caverns in this country for a number of years. The storage of natural gas in mined caverns may prove technically feasible if the geology of the targeted market area is suitable; and economically feasible if the cost and convenience of service is competitive with alternative available storage methods for peak supply requirements. It is believed that mined cavern storage can provide the advantages of high delivery rates and multiple fill-withdrawal cycles in areas where salt cavern storage is not possible. In this research project, PB-KBB merged advanced mining technologies and gas refrigeration techniques to develop conceptual designs and cost estimates to demonstrate the commercialization potential of the storage of refrigerated natural gas in hard rock caverns. Five regions of the U.S.A. were studied for underground storage development and PB-KBB reviewed the literature to determine if the geology of these regions was suitable for siting hard rock storage caverns. Area gas market conditions in these regions were also studied to determine the need for such storage. Based on an analysis of many factors, a possible site was determined to be in Howard and Montgomery Counties, Maryland. The area has compatible geology and a gas industry infrastructure for the nearby market populous of Baltimore and Washington D.C.. As Gas temperature is lowered, the compressibility of the gas reaches an optimum value. The compressibility of the gas, and the resultant gas density, is a function of temperature and pressure. This relationship can be used to commercial advantage by reducing the size of a storage cavern for a given working volume of natural gas. This study looks at this relationship and and the potential for commercialization of the process in a storage application. A conceptual process design, and cavern design were developed for various operating conditions. Potential site locations were considered

  11. High Gradient Accelerator Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Temkin, Richard [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States). Dept. of Physics. Plasma Science and Fusion Center

    2016-07-12

    The goal of the MIT program of research on high gradient acceleration is the development of advanced acceleration concepts that lead to a practical and affordable next generation linear collider at the TeV energy level. Other applications, which are more near-term, include accelerators for materials processing; medicine; defense; mining; security; and inspection. The specific goals of the MIT program are: • Pioneering theoretical research on advanced structures for high gradient acceleration, including photonic structures and metamaterial structures; evaluation of the wakefields in these advanced structures • Experimental research to demonstrate the properties of advanced structures both in low-power microwave cold test and high-power, high-gradient test at megawatt power levels • Experimental research on microwave breakdown at high gradient including studies of breakdown phenomena induced by RF electric fields and RF magnetic fields; development of new diagnostics of the breakdown process • Theoretical research on the physics and engineering features of RF vacuum breakdown • Maintaining and improving the Haimson / MIT 17 GHz accelerator, the highest frequency operational accelerator in the world, a unique facility for accelerator research • Providing the Haimson / MIT 17 GHz accelerator facility as a facility for outside users • Active participation in the US DOE program of High Gradient Collaboration, including joint work with SLAC and with Los Alamos National Laboratory; participation of MIT students in research at the national laboratories • Training the next generation of Ph. D. students in the field of accelerator physics.

  12. The Tasse concept (thorium based accelerator driven system with simplified fuel cycle for long term energy production)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berthou, V. [CEA Cadarache, 13 - Saint Paul lez Durance (France); Slessarev, I.; Salvatores, M. [IRI, TU Delft (Netherlands)

    2001-07-01

    Within the framework of the nuclear waste management studies, the ''one-component''. concept has to be considered as an attractive option in the long-term perspective. This paper proposes a new system called TASSE (''Thorium based Accelerator driven System with Simplified fuel cycle for long term Energy production''.), destined to the current French park renewal. The main idea of the TASSE concept is to simplify both the front and the back end of the fuel cycle, and his major goals are to provide electricity with low waste production, and with an economical competitiveness. (author)

  13. Proceedings of the Workshop on Advanced Network and Technology Concepts for Mobile, Micro, and Personal Communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Lori (Editor)

    1991-01-01

    The Workshop on Advanced Network and Technology Concepts for Mobile, Micro, and Personal Communications was held at NASA's JPL Laboratory on 30-31 May 1991. It provided a forum for reviewing the development of advanced network and technology concepts for turn-of-the-century telecommunications. The workshop was organized into three main categories: (1) Satellite-Based Networks (L-band, C-band, Ku-band, and Ka-band); (2) Terrestrial-Based Networks (cellular, CT2, PCN, GSM, and other networks); and (3) Hybrid Satellite/Terrestrial Networks. The proceedings contain presentation papers from each of the above categories.

  14. Ultra-high gradient channeling acceleration in nanostructures: Design/progress of proof-of-concept (POC) experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Y. M.; Green, A.; Lumpkin, A. H.; Thurman-Keup, R. M.; Shiltsev, V.; Zhang, X.; Farinella, D. M.-A.; Taborek, P.; Tajima, T.; Wheeler, J. A.; Mourou, G.

    2017-03-01

    A short bunch of relativistic particles, or a short-pulse laser, perturb the density state of conduction electrons in a solid crystal and excite wakefields along atomic lattices in a crystal. Under a coupling condition between a driver and plasma, the wakes, if excited, can accelerate channeling particles with TeV/m acceleration gradients [1], in principle, since the density of charge carriers (conduction electrons) in solids n0 = 1020 - 1023 cm-3 is significantly higher than what was considered above in gaseous plasma. Nanostructures have some advantages over crystals for channeling applications of high power beams. The de-channeling rate can be reduced and the beam acceptance increased by the large size of the channels. For beam-driven acceleration, a bunch length with a sufficient charge density would need to be in the range of the plasma wavelength to properly excite plasma wakefields, and channeled particle acceleration with the wakefields must occur before the ions in the lattices move beyond the restoring threshold. In the case of the excitation by short laser pulses, the dephasing length is appreciably increased with the larger channel, which enables channeled particles to gain sufficient amounts of energy. This paper describes simulation analyses on beam- and laser (X-ray)-driven accelerations in effective nanotube models obtained from the Vsim and EPOCH codes. Experimental setups to detect wakefields are also outlined with accelerator facilities at Fermilab and Northern Illinois University (NIU). In the FAST facility, the electron beamline was successfully commissioned at 50 MeV, and it is being upgraded toward higher energies for electron accelerator R&D. The 50 MeV injector beamline of the facility is used for X-ray crystal-channeling radiation with a diamond target. It has been proposed to utilize the same diamond crystal for a channeling acceleration proof-of-concept (POC). Another POC experiment is also designed for the NIU accelerator lab with time

  15. Development of a metal-clad advanced composite shear web design concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laakso, J. H.

    1974-01-01

    An advanced composite web concept was developed for potential application to the Space Shuttle Orbiter main engine thrust structure. The program consisted of design synthesis, analysis, detail design, element testing, and large scale component testing. A concept was sought that offered significant weight saving by the use of Boron/Epoxy (B/E) reinforced titanium plate structure. The desired concept was one that was practical and that utilized metal to efficiently improve structural reliability. The resulting development of a unique titanium-clad B/E shear web design concept is described. Three large scale components were fabricated and tested to demonstrate the performance of the concept: a titanium-clad plus or minus 45 deg B/E web laminate stiffened with vertical B/E reinforced aluminum stiffeners.

  16. Recognizing and Managing Complexity: Teaching Advanced Programming Concepts and Techniques Using the Zebra Puzzle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crabtree, John; Zhang, Xihui

    2015-01-01

    Teaching advanced programming can be a challenge, especially when the students are pursuing different majors with diverse analytical and problem-solving capabilities. The purpose of this paper is to explore the efficacy of using a particular problem as a vehicle for imparting a broad set of programming concepts and problem-solving techniques. We…

  17. Advanced Planning Concepts in the Closed-Loop Container Network of ARN

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Le Blanc, H.M.; van Krieken, M.G.C.; Krikke, H.R.; Fleuren, H.A.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we discuss a real-life case study in the optimization of the logistics network for the collection of containers from end-of-life vehicle dismantlers in the Netherlands.Advanced planning concepts like dynamic assignment of dismantlers to logistic service providers are analyzed by a simu

  18. An Exploration of Learners' Conceptions of Language, Culture, and Learning in Advanced-Level Spanish Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drewelow, Isabelle; Mitchell, Claire

    2015-01-01

    This article reports on an exploratory study, which examines learners' rating of culture in relation to other concepts in advanced Spanish courses and their justification of the ratings attributed. Open-ended responses, elicited from a questionnaire completed by 179 respondents, were analysed line by line using an interpretive approach. Data…

  19. Advanced Monobore Concept, Development of CFEX Self-Expanding Tubular Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeff Spray

    2007-09-30

    The Advanced Monobore Concept--CFEX{copyright} Self-Expanding Tubular Technology Development was a successfully executed fundamental research through field demonstration project. This final report is presented as a progression, according to basic technology development steps. For this project, the research and development steps used were: concept development, engineering analysis, manufacturing, testing, demonstration, and technology transfer. The CFEX{copyright} Technology Development--Advanced Monobore Concept Project successfully completed all of the steps for technology development, covering fundamental research, conceptual development, engineering design, advanced-level prototype construction, mechanical testing, and downhole demonstration. Within an approximately two year period, a partially defined, broad concept was evolved into a substantial new technological area for drilling and production engineering applicable a variety of extractive industries--which was also successfully demonstrated in a test well. The demonstration achievement included an actual mono-diameter placement of two self-expanding tubulars. The fundamental result is that an economical and technically proficient means of casing any size of drilling or production well or borehole is indicated as feasible based on the results of the project. Highlighted major accomplishments during the project's Concept, Engineering, Manufacturing, Demonstration, and Technology Transfer phases, are given.

  20. Industrialization of Biology. A Roadmap to Accelerate the Advanced Manufacturing of Chemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedman, Douglas C. [National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC (United States)

    2015-09-01

    The report stresses the need for efforts to inform the public of the nature of industrial biotechnology and of its societal benefits, and to make sure that concerns are communicated effectively between the public and other stakeholders. In addition to scientific advances, a number of governance and societal factors will influence the industrialization of biology. Industry norms and standards need to be established in areas such as read/write accuracy for DNA, data and machine technology specifications, and organism performance in terms of production rates and yields. An updated regulatory regime is also needed to accelerate the safe commercialization of new host organisms, metabolic pathways, and chemical products, and regulations should be coordinated across nations to enable rapid, safe, and global access to new technologies and products.

  1. Concept, implementation and commissioning of the automation system for the accelerator module test facility AMTF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Böckmann, Torsten A.; Korth, Olaf; Clausen, Matthias; Schoeneburg, Bernd [MKS, Deutsches Elektronen Synchrotron DESY, 22607 Hamburg (Germany)

    2014-01-29

    The European XFEL project launched on June 5, 2007 will require about 103 accelerator modules as a main part of the XFEL linear accelerator. All superconducting components constituting the accelerator module like cavities and magnets have to be tested before the assembly. For the tests of the individual cavities and the complete modules an XFEL Accelerator Module Test Facility (AMTF) has been erected at DESY. The process control system EPICS (Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System) is used to control and operate the cryogenic plant and all its subcomponents. A complementary component of EPICS is the Open Source software suit CSS (Control System Studio). CSS is an integrated engineering, maintenance and operating tool for EPICS. CSS enables local and remote operating and monitoring of the complete system and thus represents the human machine interface. More than 250 PROFIBUS nodes work at the accelerator module test facility. DESY installed an extensive diagnostic and condition monitoring system. With these diagnostic tools it is possible to examine the correct installation and configuration of all PROFIBUS nodes in real time. The condition monitoring system based on FDT/DTM technology shows the state of the PROFIBUS devices at a glance. This information can be used for preventive maintenance which is mandatory for continuous operation of the AMTF facility. The poster will describe all steps form engineering to implementation and commissioning.

  2. Accelerated development of Zr-containing new generation ferritic steels for advanced nuclear reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, Lizhen [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Yang, Ying [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Sridharan, K. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    2015-12-01

    The mission of the Nuclear Energy Enabling Technologies (NEET) program is to develop crosscutting technologies for nuclear energy applications. Advanced structural materials with superior performance at elevated temperatures are always desired for nuclear reactors, which can improve reactor economics, safety margins, and design flexibility. They benefit not only new reactors, including advanced light water reactors (LWRs) and fast reactors such as the sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR) that is primarily designed for management of high-level wastes, but also life extension of the existing fleet when component exchange is needed. Developing and utilizing the modern materials science tools (experimental, theoretical, and computational tools) is an important path to more efficient alloy development and process optimization. The ultimate goal of this project is, with the aid of computational modeling tools, to accelerate the development of Zr-bearing ferritic alloys that can be fabricated using conventional steelmaking methods. The new alloys are expected to have superior high-temperature creep performance and excellent radiation resistance as compared to Grade 91. The designed alloys were fabricated using arc-melting and drop-casting, followed by hot rolling and conventional heat treatments. Comprehensive experimental studies have been conducted on the developed alloys to evaluate their hardness, tensile properties, creep resistance, Charpy impact toughness, and aging resistance, as well as resistance to proton and heavy ion (Fe2+) irradiation.

  3. A Framework for Human Performance Criteria for Advanced Reactor Operational Concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacques V Hugo; David I Gertman; Jeffrey C Joe

    2014-08-01

    This report supports the determination of new Operational Concept models needed in support of the operational design of new reactors. The objective of this research is to establish the technical bases for human performance and human performance criteria frameworks, models, and guidance for operational concepts for advanced reactor designs. The report includes a discussion of operating principles for advanced reactors, the human performance issues and requirements for human performance based upon work domain analysis and current regulatory requirements, and a description of general human performance criteria. The major findings and key observations to date are that there is some operating experience that informs operational concepts for baseline designs for SFR and HGTRs, with the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II) as a best-case predecessor design. This report summarizes the theoretical and operational foundations for the development of a framework and model for human performance criteria that will influence the development of future Operational Concepts. The report also highlights issues associated with advanced reactor design and clarifies and codifies the identified aspects of technology and operating scenarios.

  4. Advanced EVA Capabilities: A Study for NASA's Revolutionary Aerospace Systems Concept Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Stephen J.

    2004-01-01

    This report documents the results of a study carried out as part of NASA s Revolutionary Aerospace Systems Concepts Program examining the future technology needs of extravehicular activities (EVAs). The intent of this study is to produce a comprehensive report that identifies various design concepts for human-related advanced EVA systems necessary to achieve the goals of supporting future space exploration and development customers in free space and on planetary surfaces for space missions in the post-2020 timeframe. The design concepts studied and evaluated are not limited to anthropomorphic space suits, but include a wide range of human-enhancing EVA technologies as well as consideration of coordination and integration with advanced robotics. The goal of the study effort is to establish a baseline technology "road map" that identifies and describes an investment and technical development strategy, including recommendations that will lead to future enhanced synergistic human/robot EVA operations. The eventual use of this study effort is to focus evolving performance capabilities of various EVA system elements toward the goal of providing high performance human operational capabilities for a multitude of future space applications and destinations. The data collected for this study indicate a rich and diverse history of systems that have been developed to perform a variety of EVA tasks, indicating what is possible. However, the data gathered for this study also indicate a paucity of new concepts and technologies for advanced EVA missions - at least any that researchers are willing to discuss in this type of forum.

  5. Summary Report of Working Group 1: Laser-Plasma Acceleration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geddes, C.G.R.; Clayton, C.; Lu, W.; Thomas, A.G.R.

    2010-06-01

    Advances in and physics of the acceleration of particles using underdense plasma structures driven by lasers were the topics of presentations and discussions in Working Group 1 of the 2010 Advanced Accelerator Concepts Workshop. Such accelerators have demonstrated gradients several orders beyond conventional machines, with quasi-monoenergetic beams at MeV-GeV energies, making them attractive candidates for next generation accelerators. Workshop discussions included advances in control over injection and laser propagation to further improve beam quality and stability, detailed diagnostics and physics models of the acceleration process, radiation generation as a source and diagnostic, and technological tools and upcoming facilities to extend the reach of laser-plasma accelerators.

  6. Advanced Concepts for Ultrahigh Brightness and Low Temperature Beams. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wurtele, Jonathan S. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Fajans, Joel [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-06-01

    This grant supported research on techniques to manipulate and combine positrons and antiprotons to synthesize, and to probe, antihydrogen. The majority of the research was conducted as part of the ALPHA Collaboration at CERN. Using ideas and techniques from accelerator physics, we proposed a new method for measuring the the gravitational attraction of antihydrogen to the Earth's field. ALPHA reported the first precision charge measurement on antihydrogen and a crude bound on its gravitational dynamics in the Earth's field. We proposed using a stochastic acceleration method to measure any putative charge of antihydrogen and built numerical models of the mixing of antiprotons and positrons. Further research included proposing the radiator-first concept for operating an X-ray free electron laser driven by a high repetition rate bunch source and studying scattering in passive foil-based ion focusing systems.

  7. Waste-to-energy advanced cycles and new design concepts for efficient power plants

    CERN Document Server

    Branchini, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    This book provides an overview of state-of-the-art technologies for energy conversion from waste, as well as a much-needed guide to new and advanced strategies to increase Waste-to-Energy (WTE) plant efficiency. Beginning with an overview of municipal solid waste production and disposal, basic concepts related to Waste-To-Energy conversion processes are described, highlighting the most relevant aspects impacting the thermodynamic efficiency of WTE power plants. The pervasive influences of main steam cycle parameters and plant configurations on WTE efficiency are detailed and quantified. Advanc

  8. Advanced transportation system study: Manned launch vehicle concepts for two way transportation system payloads to LEO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, James B.

    1993-12-01

    The purpose of the Advanced Transportation System Study (ATSS) task area 1 study effort is to examine manned launch vehicle booster concepts and two-way cargo transfer and return vehicle concepts to determine which of the many proposed concepts best meets NASA's needs for two-way transportation to low earth orbit. The study identified specific configurations of the normally unmanned, expendable launch vehicles (such as the National Launch System family) necessary to fly manned payloads. These launch vehicle configurations were then analyzed to determine the integrated booster/spacecraft performance, operations, reliability, and cost characteristics for the payload delivery and return mission. Design impacts to the expendable launch vehicles which would be required to perform the manned payload delivery mission were also identified. These impacts included the implications of applying NASA's man-rating requirements, as well as any mission or payload unique impacts. The booster concepts evaluated included the National Launch System (NLS) family of expendable vehicles and several variations of the NLS reference configurations to deliver larger manned payload concepts (such as the crew logistics vehicle (CLV) proposed by NASA JSC). Advanced, clean sheet concepts such as an F-1A engine derived liquid rocket booster (LRB), the single stage to orbit rocket, and a NASP-derived aerospace plane were also included in the study effort. Existing expendable launch vehicles such as the Titan 4, Ariane 5, Energia, and Proton were also examined. Although several manned payload concepts were considered in the analyses, the reference manned payload was the NASA Langley Research Center's HL-20 version of the personnel launch system (PLS). A scaled up version of the PLS for combined crew/cargo delivery capability, the HL-42 configuration, was also included in the analyses of cargo transfer and return vehicle (CTRV) booster concepts. In addition to strictly manned payloads, two-way cargo

  9. Sensitivity Analysis of Core Neutronic Parameters in Electron Accelerator-driven Subcritical Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marziye Ebrahimkhani

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Calculation of the core neutronic parameters is one of the key components in all nuclear reactors. In this research, the energy spectrum and spatial distribution of the neutron flux in a uranium target have been calculated. In addition, sensitivity of the core neutronic parameters in accelerator-driven subcritical advanced liquid metal reactors, such as electron beam energy (Ee and source multiplication coefficient (ks, has been investigated. A Monte Carlo code (MCNPX_2.6 has been used to calculate neutronic parameters such as effective multiplication coefficient (keff, net neutron multiplication (M, neutron yield (Yn/e, energy constant gain (G0, energy gain (G, importance of neutron source (φ∗, axial and radial distributions of neutron flux, and power peaking factor (Pmax/Pave in two axial and radial directions of the reactor core for four fuel loading patterns. According to the results, safety margin and accelerator current (Ie have been decreased in the highest case of ks, but G and φ∗ have increased by 88.9% and 21.6%, respectively. In addition, for LP1 loading pattern, with increasing Ee from 100 MeV up to 1 GeV, Yn/e and G improved by 91.09% and 10.21%, and Ie and Pacc decreased by 91.05% and 10.57%, respectively. The results indicate that placement of the Np–Pu assemblies on the periphery allows for a consistent keff because the Np–Pu assemblies experience less burn-up.

  10. Contributions to the study of students' ideas about the kinematics concepts velocity and acceleration: Implications in the didactic of the kinematic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orbegoso-Sevillano, Victor Alfonso

    The concepts velocity and acceleration are within first whereupon all course of introductory physics begins and, later, they are continually applied in the development of the course when discussing dynamics, energy, electricity and waves, among other subjects. Therefore, this pair of concepts deserves special attention in the process of teaching and learning of physics. In this study, the ideas of the university students related to the velocity and acceleration concepts were identified and analyzed, and was determined the degree or level of understanding of such concepts. The study is of descriptive nature, and the results from this study it is tried to improve an aspect of the teaching and learning process in the course of physics. The guide questions were What are the previous conceptions on velocity and acceleration that university students have from courses of General Physics I (FISI 3001) and University Physics I (FISI 3011)? What is the genesis of those conceptions? How defer the previous ideas between students from different sex? What are the conceptual categories that stand out in the previous ideas of the students on velocity and acceleration? What difficulties find the students in the process of learning the concepts of velocity and acceleration? What degree of understanding have the students about the concepts of velocity and acceleration at the end of the semester compared to the beginning? The previous ideas that had the participants of low, average, and high academic performance about the concepts velocity and acceleration were identified by means of the analysis of the data obtained through questionnaires and interviews. This information allowed to suggest changes in the content, and the methodology, so that it was more relevant and can be more effective in accomplish objectives. The degree of understanding of the concepts velocity and acceleration was determined by means of the criterion of the ability that the student has to apply correctly such

  11. Concepts and techniques: Active electronics and computers in safety-critical accelerator operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frankel, R.S.

    1995-12-31

    The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) under construction at Brookhaven National Laboratory, requires an extensive Access Control System to protect personnel from Radiation, Oxygen Deficiency and Electrical hazards. In addition, the complicated nature of operation of the Collider as part of a complex of other Accelerators necessitates the use of active electronic measurement circuitry to ensure compliance with established Operational Safety Limits. Solutions were devised which permit the use of modern computer and interconnections technology for Safety-Critical applications, while preserving and enhancing, tried and proven protection methods. In addition a set of Guidelines, regarding required performance for Accelerator Safety Systems and a Handbook of design criteria and rules were developed to assist future system designers and to provide a framework for internal review and regulation.

  12. Concept for calculating dose rates from activated groundwater at accelerator sites

    CERN Document Server

    Prolingheuer, N; Vanderborght, J; Schlögl, B; Nabbi, R; Moormann, R

    Licensing of particle accelerators requires the proof that the groundwater outside of the site will not be significantly contaminated by activation products formed below accelerator and target. In order to reduce the effort for this proof, a site independent simplified but conservative method is under development. The conventional approach for calculation of activation of soil and groundwater is shortly described on example of a site close to Forschungszentrum Juelich, Germany. Additionally an updated overview of a data library for partition coefficients for relevant nuclides transported in the aquifer at the site is presented. The approximate model for transport of nuclides with ground water including exemplary results on nuclide concentrations outside of the site boundary and of resulting effective doses is described. Further applications and developments are finally outlined.

  13. Recognizing and Managing Complexity: Teaching Advanced Programming Concepts and Techniques Using the Zebra Puzzle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xihui "Paul" Zhang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Teaching advanced programming can be a challenge, especially when the students are pursuing different majors with diverse analytical and problem-solving capabilities. The purpose of this paper is to explore the efficacy of using a particular problem as a vehicle for imparting a broad set of programming concepts and problem-solving techniques. We present a classic brain teaser that is used to communicate and demonstrate advanced software development concepts and techniques. Our results show that students with varied academic experiences and goals, assuming at least one procedural/structured programming pre-requisite, can benefit from and also be challenged by such an exercise. Although this problem has been used by others in the classroom, we believe that our use of this problem in imparting such a broad range of topics to a diverse student population is unique.

  14. Aeroelastic Modelling and Comparison of Advanced Active Flap Control Concepts for Load Reduction on the Upwind 5MW Wind Turbine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barlas, A.; Van Kuik, G.A.M.

    2009-01-01

    A newly developed comprehensive aeroelastic model is used to investigate active flap concepts on the Upwind 5MW reference wind turbine. The model is specially designed to facilitate distributed control concepts and advanced controller design. Different concepts of centralized and distributed control

  15. Aeroelastic modelling and comparison of advanced active flap control concepts for load reduction on the Upwind 5MW wind turbine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barlas, A.; van Kuik, G.A.M.

    2009-01-01

    A newly developed comprehensive aeroelastic model is used to investigate active flap concepts on the Upwind 5MW reference wind turbine. The model is specially designed to facilitate distributed control concepts and advanced controller design. Different concepts of centralized and distributed control

  16. Yttrium-90 Radioembolization of Hepatocellular Carcinoma-Performance, Technical Advances, and Future Concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molvar, Christopher; Lewandowski, Robert

    2015-12-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a lethal tumor, claiming over half a million lives per year. Treatment of HCC is commonly performed without curative intent, and palliative options dominate, including catheter-based therapies, namely, transarterial chemoembolization and yttrium-90 ((90)Y) radioembolization. This review will showcase the performance of (90)Y radioembolization for the treatment of HCC, focusing on recent seminal data and technical advances. In particular, novel radioembolization treatment concepts are discussed and compared with conventional HCC therapy.

  17. Study of advanced composite structural design concepts for an arrow wing supersonic cruise configuration, task 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    A structural design study was conducted to assess the relative merits of structural concepts using advanced composite materials for an advanced supersonic aircraft cruising at Mach 2.7. The configuration and structural arrangement developed during Task I and II of the study, was used as the baseline configuration. Allowable stresses and strains were established for boron and advanced graphite fibers based on projected fiber properties available in the next decade. Structural concepts were designed and analyzed using graphite polyimide and boron polyimide, applied to stiffened panels and conventional sandwich panels. The conventional sandwich panels were selected as the structural concept to be used on the wing structure. The upper and lower surface panels of the Task I arrow wing were redesigned using high-strength graphite polyimide sandwich panels over the titanium spars and ribs. The ATLAS computer system was used as the basis for stress analysis and resizing the surface panels using the loads from the Task II study, without adjustment for change in aeroelastic deformation. The flutter analysis indicated a decrease in the flutter speed compared to the baseline titanium wing design. The flutter analysis indicated a decrease in the flutter speed compared to the baseline titanium wing design. The flutter speed was increased to that of the titanium wing, with a weight penalty less than that of the metallic airplane.

  18. NASA Advanced Concepts Office, Earth-To-Orbit Team Design Process and Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, Eric D.; Garcia, Jessica; Threet, Grady E., Jr.; Phillips, Alan

    2013-01-01

    The Earth-to-Orbit Team (ETO) of the Advanced Concepts Office (ACO) at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is considered the pre-eminent "go-to" group for pre-phase A and phase A concept definition. Over the past several years the ETO team has evaluated thousands of launch vehicle concept variations for a significant number of studies including agency-wide efforts such as the Exploration Systems Architecture Study (ESAS), Constellation, Heavy Lift Launch Vehicle (HLLV), Augustine Report, Heavy Lift Propulsion Technology (HLPT), Human Exploration Framework Team (HEFT), and Space Launch System (SLS). The ACO ETO Team is called upon to address many needs in NASA's design community; some of these are defining extremely large trade-spaces, evaluating advanced technology concepts which have not been addressed by a large majority of the aerospace community, and the rapid turn-around of highly time critical actions. It is the time critical actions, those often limited by schedule or little advanced warning, that have forced the five member ETO team to develop a design process robust enough to handle their current output level in order to meet their customer's needs. Based on the number of vehicle concepts evaluated over the past year this output level averages to four completed vehicle concepts per day. Each of these completed vehicle concepts includes a full mass breakdown of the vehicle to a tertiary level of subsystem components and a vehicle trajectory analysis to determine optimized payload delivery to specified orbital parameters, flight environments, and delta v capability. A structural analysis of the vehicle to determine flight loads based on the trajectory output, material properties, and geometry of the concept is also performed. Due to working in this fast-paced and sometimes rapidly changing environment, the ETO Team has developed a finely tuned process to maximize their delivery capabilities. The objective of this paper is to describe the interfaces

  19. 76 FR 23543 - The Jobs and Innovation Accelerator Challenge; a Coordinated Initiative To Advance Regional...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-27

    ... Economic Development Administration The Jobs and Innovation Accelerator Challenge; a Coordinated Initiative... Commerce. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Obama Administration announces the Jobs and Innovation Accelerator...-fueled job creation and economic prosperity through public-private partnerships. The...

  20. Design Concept of Advanced Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactor and Related R&D in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeong-il Kim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Korea imports about 97% of its energy resources due to a lack of available energy resources. In this status, the role of nuclear power in electricity generation is expected to become more important in future years. In particular, a fast reactor system is one of the most promising reactor types for electricity generation, because it can utilize efficiently uranium resources and reduce radioactive waste. Acknowledging the importance of a fast reactor in a future energy policy, the long-term advanced SFR development plan was authorized by KAEC in 2008 and updated in 2011 which will be carried out toward the construction of an advanced SFR prototype plant by 2028. Based upon the experiences gained during the development of the conceptual designs for KALIMER, KAERI recently developed advanced sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR design concepts of TRU burner that can better meet the generation IV technology goals. The current status of nuclear power and SFR design technology development program in Korea will be discussed. The developments of design concepts including core, fuel, fluid system, mechanical structure, and safety evaluation have been performed. In addition, the advanced SFR technologies necessary for its commercialization and the basic key technologies have been developed including a large-scale sodium thermal-hydraulic test facility, super-critical Brayton cycle system, under-sodium viewing techniques, metal fuel development, and developments of codes, and validations are described as R&D activities.

  1. Self-Concept and Social Status of Accelerated and Nonaccelerated Students in the First 2 Years of Secondary School in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogeveen, A.J.M.; Hell, J.G. van; Verhoeven, L.T.W.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the self-concept and social status of accelerated and nonaccelerated students in their first 2 years of secondary school in the Netherlands. In 357 students from 18 secondary schools, we measured self-concept, sociometric status, and behavior reputations at three times. Accelerat

  2. CLUSTER: concept study and design of a low-medium {beta} accelerating structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amaldi, U. [TERA Foundation, Via Puccini 11, 28100 (Italy); Citterio, A. [TERA Foundation, Via Puccini 11, 28100 (Italy); University of Milano Bicocca (Italy); Crescenti, M.; Giuliacci, A. [TERA Foundation, Via Puccini 11, 28100 (Italy); Tronci, C. [TERA Foundation, Via Puccini 11, 28100 (Italy); Imperial College, London (United Kingdom); Zennaro, R. [TERA Foundation, Via Puccini 11, 28100 (Italy)

    2007-10-15

    A novel linear accelerating structure is proposed particularly suited for hadrontherapy applications. The main features are compactness, due to the high frequency and consequent large gradients, and good power efficiency, especially at low beam velocities, obtained by using coupled H-mode cavities. The structure is called CLUSTER which stands for 'Coupled cavity Linac USing Transverse Electric Radial field'. In order to compare the performances of this structure with other hadrontherapy linac designs operating at high frequencies, a conceptual study has been performed by choosing the frequency of 3 GHz. Moreover a proof of principle of the radiofrequency behaviour of the cavity has been obtained by RF measurements on a prototype running at 1 GHz.

  3. Design Concepts for RF-DC Conversion in Particle Accelerator Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Caspers, F; Grudiev, A; Sapotta, H

    2010-01-01

    In many particle accelerators considerable amounts of RF power reaching the megawatt level are converted into heat in dummy loads. After an overview of RF power in the range 200 MHz to 1 GHz dissipated at CERN we discuss several developments that have come up in the past using vacuum tube technology for RF-DC conversion. Amongst those the developments of the cyclotron wave converter CWC appears most suitable. With the availability of powerful Schottky diodes the solid state converter aspect has to be addressed as well. One of the biggest problems of Schottky diode based structures is the junction capacity. GaAs and GaN Schottky diodes show a significant reduction of this junction capacity as compared to silicon. Small rectenna type converter units which have been already developed for microwave powered helicopters can be used in waveguides or with coaxial power dividers.

  4. Short-Course Accelerated Radiotherapy in Palliative Treatment of Advanced Pelvic Malignancies: A Phase I Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caravatta, Luciana [Department of Radiation Oncology, Fondazione di Ricercae Cura ' Giovanni Paolo II,' Universita Cattolica del S. Cuore, Campobasso (Italy); Padula, Gilbert D.A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Lacks Cancer Center Saint Mary' s Health Care, Grand Rapids, MI (United States); Macchia, Gabriella, E-mail: gmacchia@rm.unicatt.it [Department of Radiation Oncology, Fondazione di Ricercae Cura ' Giovanni Paolo II,' Universita Cattolica del S. Cuore, Campobasso (Italy); Ferrandina, Gabriella [Department of Gynecologic Oncology, Fondazione di Ricercae Cura ' Giovanni Paolo II,' Universita Cattolica del S. Cuore, Campobasso (Italy); Bonomo, Pierluigi; Deodato, Francesco; Massaccesi, Mariangela [Department of Radiation Oncology, Fondazione di Ricercae Cura ' Giovanni Paolo II,' Universita Cattolica del S. Cuore, Campobasso (Italy); Mignogna, Samantha; Tambaro, Rosa [Department of Palliative Therapies, Fondazione di Ricercae Cura ' Giovanni Paolo II,' Universita Cattolica del S. Cuore, Campobasso (Italy); Rossi, Marco [Department of Anaesthesia, Intensive Care, and Pain Medicine, Fondazione di Ricercae Cura ' Giovanni Paolo II,' Universita Cattolica del S. Cuore, Campobasso (Italy); Flocco, Mariano [' Madre Teresa di Calcutta' Hospice, Larino (Italy); Scapati, Andrea [Department of Radiation Oncology, ' San Francesco' Hospital, Nuoro (Italy); and others

    2012-08-01

    Purpose: To define the maximum tolerated dose of a conformal short-course accelerated radiotherapy in patients with symptomatic advanced pelvic cancer. Methods and Materials: A phase I trial in 3 dose-escalation steps was designed: 14 Gy (3.5-Gy fractions), 16 Gy (4-Gy fractions), and 18 Gy (4.5-Gy fractions). The eligibility criteria included locally advanced and/or metastatic pelvic cancer and Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of {<=}3. Treatment was delivered in 2 days with twice-daily fractionation and at least an 8-hour interval. Patients were treated in cohorts of 6-12 to define the maximum tolerated dose. The dose-limiting toxicity was defined as any acute toxicity of grade 3 or greater, using the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group scale. Pain was recorded using a visual analog scale. The effect on quality of life was evaluated according to Cancer Linear Analog Scale (CLAS). Results: Of the 27 enrolled patients, 11 were male and 16 were female, with a median age of 72 years (range 47-86). The primary tumor sites were gynecologic (48%), colorectal (33.5%), and genitourinary (18.5%). The most frequent baseline symptoms were bleeding (48%) and pain (33%). Only grade 1-2 acute toxicities were recorded. No patients experienced dose-limiting toxicity. With a median follow-up time of 6 months (range 3-28), no late toxicities were observed. The overall (complete plus partial) symptom remission was 88.9% (95% confidence interval 66.0%-97.8%). Five patients (41.7%) had complete pain relief, and six (50%) showed >30% visual analog scale reduction. The overall response rate for pain was 91.67% (95% confidence interval 52.4%-99.9%). Conclusions: Conformal short course radiotherapy in twice-daily fractions for 2 consecutive days was well tolerated up to a total dose of 18 Gy. A phase II study is ongoing to confirm the efficacy on symptom control and quality of life indexes.

  5. Advanced Scintillator Detector Concept (ASDC): A Concept Paper on the Physics Potential of Water-Based Liquid Scintillator

    CERN Document Server

    Alonso, J R; Bergevin, M; Bernstein, A; Bignell, L; Blucher, E; Calaprice, F; Conrad, J M; Descamps, F B; Diwan, M V; Dwyer, D A; Dye, S T; Elagin, A; Feng, P; Grant, C; Grullon, S; Hans, S; Jaffe, D E; Kettell, S H; Klein, J R; Lande, K; Learned, J G; Luk, K B; Maricic, J; Marleau, P; Mastbaum, A; McDonough, W F; Oberauer, L; Gann, G D Orebi; Rosero, R; Rountree, S D; Sanchez, M C; Shaevitz, M H; Shokair, T M; Smy, M B; Strait, M; Svoboda, R; Tolich, N; Vagins, M R; van Bibber, K A; Viren, B; Vogelaar, R B; Wetstein, M J; Winslow, L; Wonsak, B; Worcester, E T; Wurm, M; Yeh, M; Zhang, C

    2014-01-01

    The recent development of Water-based Liquid Scintillator (WbLS), and the concurrent development of high-efficiency and high-precision-timing light sensors, has opened up the possibility for a new kind of large-scale detector capable of a very broad program of physics. The program would include determination of the neutrino mass hierarchy and observation of CP violation with long-baseline neutrinos, searches for proton decay, ultra-precise solar neutrino measurements, geo- and supernova neutrinos including diff?use supernova antineutrinos, and neutrinoless double beta decay. We outline here the basic requirements of the Advanced Scintillation Detector Concept (ASDC), which combines the use of WbLS, doping with a number of potential isotopes for a range of physics goals, high efficiency and ultra-fast timing photosensors, and a deep underground location. We are considering such a detector at the Long Baseline Neutrino Facility (LBNF) far site, where the ASDC could operate in conjunction with the liquid argon t...

  6. Planned High-gradient Flat-beam-driven Dielectric Wakefield Experiments at the Fermilab’s Advanced Superconducting Test Accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemery, Francois [NICADD, DeKalb; Mihalcea, Daniel [NICADD, DeKalb; Piot, Philippe [Fermilab; Zhu, Jun [Mianyang CAEP

    2014-07-01

    In beam driven dielectric wakefield acceleration (DWA), high-gradient short-wavelength accelerating fields are generally achieved by employing dielectric-lined waveguides (DLWs)  with small aperture which constraints the beam sizes. In this paper we investigate the possibility of using a low-energy (50-MeV) flat beams to induce high-gradient wakes in a slab-symmetric DLW. We demonstrate via numerical simulations the possibility to produce axial electric field with peak amplitude close to 0.5 GV/m. Our studies are carried out using the Fermilab's Advanced Superconducting Test Accelerator (ASTA) photoinjector beamline. We finally discuss a possible experiment that could be performed in the ASTA photoinjector and eventually at higher energies.  

  7. Work Domain Analysis Methodology for Development of Operational Concepts for Advanced Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hugo, Jacques [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-05-01

    This report describes a methodology to conduct a Work Domain Analysis in preparation for the development of operational concepts for new plants. This method has been adapted from the classical method described in the literature in order to better deal with the uncertainty and incomplete information typical of first-of-a-kind designs. The report outlines the strategy for undertaking a Work Domain Analysis of a new nuclear power plant and the methods to be used in the development of the various phases of the analysis. Basic principles are described to the extent necessary to explain why and how the classical method was adapted to make it suitable as a tool for the preparation of operational concepts for a new nuclear power plant. Practical examples are provided of the systematic application of the method and the various presentation formats in the operational analysis of advanced reactors.

  8. BALANCED SCORECARD AS AN ADVANCED MANAGEMENT CONCEPT WITHIN THE INTEGRATED QUALITY MANAGEMENT MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevan Zivojinovic

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The significance of >Integratedquality management< (IQM model, originating form St.Gallen-model, is reflected in the need for synergic application of new and advanced concepts of management theory and practise. Balanced score card (BSC within IQM model becomes a catalyst of business success for a modern organization by focusing on organizational variables-business strategy, organization structure and corporate culture. BSC is the leading system of performance tracking and strategy implementation, consistent with other management concepts and methods for managing process improvement. Through BSC, IQM processes' activities correlate with organization business results. BSC management processes enable integration of all decision-making levels, from institutional via strategic to operative, in the process starting from planing, i.e. formulating and implementation of strategy, to feed back by performance measurement and control.

  9. Study of advanced composite structural design concepts for an arrow wing supersonic cruise configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, M. J.; Grande, D. L.

    1978-01-01

    Based on estimated graphite and boron fiber properties, allowable stresses and strains were established for advanced composite materials. Stiffened panel and conventional sandwich panel concepts were designed and analyzed, using graphite/polyimide and boron/polyimide materials. The conventional sandwich panel was elected as the structural concept for the modified wing structure. Upper and lower surface panels of the arrow wing structure were then redesigned, using high strength graphite/polyimide sandwich panels, retaining the titanium spars and ribs from the prior study. The ATLAS integrated analysis and design system was used for stress analysis and automated resizing of surface panels. Flutter analysis of the hybrid structure showed a significant decrease in flutter speed relative to the titanium wing design. The flutter speed was increased to that of the titanium design by selective increase in laminate thickness and by using graphite fibers with properties intermediate between high strength and high modulus values.

  10. Development and proof-testing of advanced absorption refrigeration cycle concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Modahl, R.J.; Hayes, F.C. (Trane Co., La Crosse, WI (United States). Applied Unitary/Refrigeration Systems Div.)

    1992-03-01

    The overall objectives of this project are to evaluate, develop, and proof-test advanced absorption refrigeration cycles that are applicable to residential and commercial heat pumps for space conditioning. The heat pump system is to be direct-fired with natural gas and is to use absorption working fluids whose properties are known. Target coefficients of performance (COPs) are 1.6 at 47{degrees}F and 1.2 at 17{degrees} in the heating mode, and 0.7 at 95{degree}F in the cooling mode, including the effect of flue losses. The project is divided into three phases. Phase I entailed the analytical evaluation of advanced cycles and included the selection of preferred concepts for further development. Phase II involves the development and testing of critical components and of a complete laboratory breadboard version of the selected system. Phase III calls for the development of a prototype unit and is contingent on the successful completion of Phase II. This report covers Phase I work on the project. In Phase 1, 24 advanced absorption cycle/fluid combinations were evaluated, and computer models were developed to predict system performance. COP, theoretical pump power, and internal heat exchange were calculated for each system, and these calculations were used as indicators of operating and installed costs in order to rank the relative promise of each system. The highest ranking systems involve the cycle concept of absorber/generator heat exchange, generator heat exchanger/absorber heat exchange, regeneration, and resorption/desorption, in combination with the NH{sub 3}/H{sub 2}O/LiBr ternary absorption fluid mixture or with the NH{sub 3}/H{sub 2}O binary solution. Based upon these conclusions, the recommendation was made to proceed to Phase II, the laboratory breadboard proof-of- concept.

  11. DEVELOPMENT OF OPERATIONAL CONCEPTS FOR ADVANCED SMRs: THE ROLE OF COGNITIVE SYSTEMS ENGINEERING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacques Hugo; David Gertman

    2014-04-01

    Advanced small modular reactors (AdvSMRs) will use advanced digital instrumentation and control systems, and make greater use of automation. These advances not only pose technical and operational challenges, but will inevitably have an effect on the operating and maintenance (O&M) cost of new plants. However, there is much uncertainty about the impact of AdvSMR designs on operational and human factors considerations, such as workload, situation awareness, human reliability, staffing levels, and the appropriate allocation of functions between the crew and various automated plant systems. Existing human factors and systems engineering design standards and methodologies are not current in terms of human interaction requirements for dynamic automated systems and are no longer suitable for the analysis of evolving operational concepts. New models and guidance for operational concepts for complex socio-technical systems need to adopt a state-of-the-art approach such as Cognitive Systems Engineering (CSE) that gives due consideration to the role of personnel. This approach we report on helps to identify and evaluate human challenges related to non-traditional concepts of operations. A framework - defining operational strategies was developed based on the operational analysis of Argonne National Laboratory’s Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II), a small (20MWe) sodium-cooled reactor that was successfully operated for thirty years. Insights from the application of the systematic application of the methodology and its utility are reviewed and arguments for the formal adoption of CSE as a value-added part of the Systems Engineering process are presented.

  12. Advanced Supersonic Nozzle Concepts: Experimental Flow Visualization Results Paired With LES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Matthew; Magstadt, Andrew; Stack, Cory; Gaitonde, Datta; Glauser, Mark; Syracuse University Team; The Ohio State University Team

    2015-11-01

    Advanced supersonic nozzle concepts are currently under investigation, utilizing multiple bypass streams and airframe integration to bolster performance and efficiency. This work focuses on the parametric study of a supersonic, multi-stream jet with aft deck. The single plane of symmetry, rectangular nozzle, displays very complex and unique flow characteristics. Flow visualization techniques in the form of PIV and schlieren capture flow features at various deck lengths and Mach numbers. LES is compared to the experimental results to both validate the computational model and identify limitations of the simulation. By comparing experimental results to LES, this study will help create a foundation of knowledge for advanced nozzle designs in future aircraft. SBIR Phase II with Spectral Energies, LLC under direction of Barry Kiel.

  13. Draft Function Allocation Framework and Preliminary Technical Basis for Advanced SMR Concepts of Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacques Hugo; John Forester; David Gertman; Jeffrey Joe; Heather Medema; Julius Persensky; April Whaley

    2013-08-01

    This report presents preliminary research results from the investigation into the development of new models and guidance for Concepts of Operations in advanced small modular reactor (AdvSMR) designs. AdvSMRs are nuclear power plants (NPPs), but unlike conventional large NPPs that are constructed on site, AdvSMRs systems and components will be fabricated in a factory and then assembled on site. AdvSMRs will also use advanced digital instrumentation and control systems, and make greater use of automation. Some AdvSMR designs also propose to be operated in a multi-unit configuration with a single central control room as a way to be more cost-competitive with existing NPPs. These differences from conventional NPPs not only pose technical and operational challenges, but they will undoubtedly also have regulatory compliance implications, especially with respect to staffing requirements and safety standards.

  14. Advance directives in english and French law: different concepts, different values, different societies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Ruth Judith

    2014-03-01

    In Western societies advance directives are widely recognised as important means to extend patient self-determination under circumstances of incapacity. Following other countries, England and France have adopted legislation aiming to clarify the legal status of advance directives. In this paper, I will explore similarities and differences in both sets of legislation, the arguments employed in the respective debates and the socio-political structures on which these differences are based. The comparison highlights how different legislations express different concepts emphasising different values accorded to the duty to respect autonomy and to protect life, and how these differences are informed by different socio-political contexts. Furthermore each country associates different ethical concerns with ADs which raise doubts about whether these directives are a theoretical idea which is hardly applicable in practice.

  15. Advanced direct liquefaction concepts for PETC generic units. Final report, Phase I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-03-01

    The Advanced Concepts for Direct Coal Liquefaction program was initiated by the Department of Energy in 1991 to develop technologies that could significantly reduce the cost of producing liquid fuels by the direct liquefaction of coal. The advanced 2-stage liquefaction technology that was developed at Wilsonville over the past 10 years has contributed significantly toward decreasing the cost of producing liquids from coal to about $33/bbl. It remains, however, the objective of DOE to further reduce this cost to a level more competitive with petroleum based products. This project, among others, was initiated to investigate various alternative approaches to develop technologies that might ultimately lead to a 25 % reduction in cost of product. In this project a number of novel concepts were investigated, either individually or in a coupled configuration that had the potential to contribute toward meeting the DOE goal. The concepts included mature technologies or ones closely related to them, such as coal cleaning by oil agglomeration, fluid coking and distillate hydrotreating and dewaxing. Other approaches that were either embryonic or less developed were chemical pretreatment of coal to remove oxygen, and dispersed catalyst development for application in the 2-stage liquefaction process. This report presents the results of this project. It is arranged in four sections which were prepared by participating organizations responsible for that phase of the project. A summary of the overall project and the principal results are given in this section. First, however, an overview of the process economics and the process concepts that were developed during the course of this program is presented.

  16. The Effects of Using Concept Mapping for Improving Advanced Level Biology Students' Lower- and Higher-Order Cognitive Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bramwell-Lalor, Sharon; Rainford, Marcia

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports on teachers' use of concept mapping as an alternative assessment strategy in advanced level biology classes and its effects on students' cognitive skills on selected biology concepts. Using a mixed methods approach, the study employed a pre-test/post-test quasi-experimental design involving 156 students and 8 teachers from…

  17. Safety physics inter-comparison of advanced concepts of critical reactors and ADS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slessarev, I. [CEA Cadarache, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France). Dept. d' Etudes des Reacteurs

    2001-07-01

    Enhanced safety based on the principle of the natural ''self-defence'' is one of the most desirable features of innovative nuclear systems (critical or sub-critical) regarding both TRU transmutation and ''clean'' energy producer concepts. For the evaluation of the ''self-defence'' domain, the method of the asymptotic reactivity balance has been generalised. The promising option of Hybrids systems (that use a symbiosis of fission and spallation in sub-critical cores) which could benefit the advantages of both Accelerated Driven Systems of the traditional type and regular critical systems, has been advocated. General features of Hybrid dynamics have been presented and analysed. It was demonstrated that an external neutron source of Hybrids can expand the inherent safety potential significantly. This analysis has been applied to assess the safety physics potential of innovative concepts for prospective nuclear power both for energy producers and for transmutation. It has been found, that safety enhancement goal defines a choice of sub-criticality of Hybrids. As for energy producers with Th-fuel cycle, a significant sub-criticality level is required due to a necessity of an improvement of neutronics together with safety enhancement task. (author)

  18. Draft Function Allocation Framework and Preliminary Technical Basis for Advanced SMR Concepts of Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacques Hugo; John Forester; David Gertman; Jeffrey Joe; Heather Medema; Julius Persensky; April Whaley

    2013-04-01

    This report presents preliminary research results from the investigation in to the development of new models and guidance for concepts of operations (ConOps) in advanced small modular reactor (aSMR) designs. In support of this objective, three important research areas were included: operating principles of multi-modular plants, functional allocation models and strategies that would affect the development of new, non-traditional concept of operations, and the requiremetns for human performance, based upon work domain analysis and current regulatory requirements. As part of the approach for this report, we outline potential functions, including the theoretical and operational foundations for the development of a new functional allocation model and the identification of specific regulatory requirements that will influence the development of future concept of operations. The report also highlights changes in research strategy prompted by confirmationof the importance of applying the work domain analysis methodology to a reference aSMR design. It is described how this methodology will enrich the findings from this phase of the project in the subsequent phases and help in identification of metrics and focused studies for the determination of human performance criteria that can be used to support the design process.

  19. Advanced payload concepts and system architecture for emerging services in Indian National Satellite Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramanian, E. P.; Rao, N. Prahlad; Sarkar, S.; Singh, D. K.

    2008-07-01

    Over the past two decades Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) has developed and operationalized satellites to generate a large capacity of transponders for telecommunication service use in INSAT system. More powerful on-board transmitters are built to usher-in direct-to-home broadcast services. These have transformed the Satcom application scenario in the country. With the proliferation of satellite technology, a shift in the Indian market is witnessed today in terms of demand for new services like Broadband Internet, Interactive Multimedia, etc. While it is imperative to pay attention to market trends, ISRO is also committed towards taking the benefits of technological advancement to all round growth of our population, 70% of which dwell in rural areas. The initiatives already taken in space application related to telemedicine, tele-education and Village Resource Centres are required to be taken to a greater height of efficiency. These targets pose technological challenges to build a large capacity and cost-effective satellite system. This paper addresses advanced payload concepts and system architecture along with the trade-off analysis on design parameters in proposing a new generation satellite system capable of extending the reach of the Indian broadband structure to individual users, educational and medical institutions and enterprises for interactive services. This will be a strategic step in the evolution of INSAT system to employ advanced technology to touch every human face of our population.

  20. Can pure accelerated radiotherapy given as six fractions weekly be an option in locally advanced carcinoma cervix: Results of a prospective randomized phase III trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukesh Sharma

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: Accelerated radiotherapy given as six fractions per week is an effective alternative to concomitant chemoradiation in locally advanced carcinoma cervix and has shown lesser toxicities in our study.

  1. Advances in X-Band and S-Band Linear Accelerators for Security, NDT, and Other Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Mishin, Andrey V

    2005-01-01

    At AS&E High Energy Systems Division, we designed several new advanced high energy electron beam and X-ray sources. Our primary focus has always been in building the world's most portable commercial X-band accelerators. Today, our X-band systems frequently exceed performance of the similar S-band machines, while they are more portable compared to the latter. The new designs of the X-band accelerators in the most practical energy range from 1 MeV to 6 MeV have been tested delivering outstanding results. Seventy 6 MeV X-band linacs systems have been produced. The most compact linac for security is used by AS&E in a self-shielded, Shaped Energy™ cargo screening system. We pioneered using the X-band linear accelerators for CT, producing high quality images of oil pipes and wood logs. An X-band linear accelerator head on a robotic arm has been used for electron beam radiation curing of an odd-shaped graphite composite part. We developed the broad-range 4 MeV to over 10 MeV energy-regulated X-band ...

  2. Advanced Technology Subsonic Transport Study: N+3 Technologies and Design Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymer, Daniel P.; Wilson, Jack; Perkins, H. Douglas; Rizzi, Arthur; Zhang, Mengmeng; RamirezPuentes, Alfredo

    2011-01-01

    Conceptual Research Corporation, the Science of the Possible, has completed a two-year study of concepts and technologies for future airliners in the 180-passenger class. This NASA-funded contract was primarily focused on the ambitious goal of a 70 percent reduction in fuel consumption versus the market-dominating Boeing 737-800. The study is related to the N+3 contracts awarded in 2008 by NASA s Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate to teams led by Boeing, GE Aviation, MIT, and Northrop Grumman, but with more modest goals and funding. CRC s contract featured a predominant emphasis on propulsion and fuel consumption, but since fuel consumption depends upon air vehicle design as much as on propulsion technology, the study included notional vehicle design, analysis, and parametric studies. Other NASA goals including NOx and noise reduction are of long-standing interest but were not highlighted in this study, other than their inclusion in the propulsion system provided to CRC by NASA. The B-737-800 was used as a benchmark, parametric tool, and design point of departure. It was modeled in the RDS-Professional aircraft design software then subjected to extensive parametric variations of parasitic drag, drag-due-to-lift, specific fuel consumption, and unsized empty weight. These studies indicated that the goal of a 70 percent reduction in fuel consumption could be attained with roughly a 30 percent improvement in all four parameters. The results were then fit to a Response Surface and coded for ease of use in subsequent trade studies. Potential technologies to obtain such savings were identified and discussed. More than 16 advanced concept designs were then prepared, attempting to investigate almost every possible emerging concept for application to this class airliner. A preliminary assessment of these concepts was done based on their total wetted area after design normalization of trimmed maximum lift. This assessment points towards a Tailless Airliner concept which

  3. Mechanical Design of a High Energy Beam Absorber for the Advanced Superconducting Test Accelerator (ASTA) at Fermilab

    CERN Document Server

    Baffes, C; Leibfritz, J; Oplt, S; Rakhno, I

    2013-01-01

    A high energy beam absorber has been built for the Advanced Superconducting Test Accelerator (ASTA) at Fermilab. In the facility's initial configuration, an electron beam will be accelerated through 3 TTF-type or ILC-type RF cryomodules to an energy of 750MeV. The electron beam will be directed to one of multiple downstream experimental and diagnostic beam lines and then deposited in one of two beam absorbers. The facility is designed to accommodate up to 6 cryomodules, which would produce a 75kW beam at 1.5GeV; this is the driving design condition for the beam absorbers. The beam absorbers consist of water-cooled graphite, aluminum and copper layers contained in a Helium-filled enclosure. This paper describes the mechanical implementation of the beam absorbers, with a focus on thermal design and analysis. In addition, the potential for radiation-induced degradation of the graphite is discussed.

  4. Mechanical Design of a High Energy Beam Absorber for the Advanced Superconducting Test Accelerator (ASTA) at Fermilab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baffes, C.; Church, M.; Leibfritz, J.; Oplt, S.; Rakhno, I.; /Fermilab

    2012-05-10

    A high energy beam absorber has been built for the Advanced Superconducting Test Accelerator (ASTA) at Fermilab. In the facility's initial configuration, an electron beam will be accelerated through 3 TTF-type or ILC-type SRF cryomodules to an energy of 750MeV. The electron beam will be directed to one of multiple downstream experimental and diagnostic beam lines and then deposited in one of two beam absorbers. The facility is designed to accommodate up to 6 cryomodules, which would produce a 75kW beam at 1.5GeV; this is the driving design condition for the beam absorbers. The beam absorbers consist of water-cooled graphite, aluminum and copper layers contained in a helium-filled enclosure. This paper describes the mechanical implementation of the beam absorbers, with a focus on thermal design and analysis. The potential for radiation-induced degradation of the graphite is discussed.

  5. Improvement of environmental aspects of thermal power plant operation by advanced control concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikulandrić Robert

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The necessity of the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, as formulated in the Kyoto Protocol, imposes the need for improving environmental aspects of existing thermal power plants operation. Improvements can be reached either by efficiency increment or by implementation of emission reduction measures. Investments in refurbishment of existing plant components or in plant upgrading by flue gas desulphurization, by primary and secondary measures of nitrogen oxides reduction, or by biomass co-firing, are usually accompanied by modernisation of thermal power plant instrumentation and control system including sensors, equipment diagnostics and advanced controls. Impact of advanced control solutions implementation depends on technical characteristics and status of existing instrumentation and control systems as well as on design characteristics and actual conditions of installed plant components. Evaluation of adequacy of implementation of advanced control concepts is especially important in Western Balkan region where thermal power plants portfolio is rather diversified in terms of size, type and commissioning year and where generally poor maintenance and lack of investments in power generation sector resulted in high greenhouse gases emissions and low efficiency of plants in operation. This paper is intended to present possibilities of implementation of advanced control concepts, and particularly those based on artificial intelligence, in selected thermal power plants in order to increase plant efficiency and to lower pollutants emissions and to comply with environmental quality standards prescribed in large combustion plant directive. [Acknowledgements. This paper has been created within WBalkICT - Supporting Common RTD actions in WBCs for developing Low Cost and Low Risk ICT based solutions for TPPs Energy Efficiency increasing, SEE-ERA.NET plus project in cooperation among partners from IPA SA - Romania, University of Zagreb - Croatia and Vinca

  6. Concept of a Staged FEL Enabled by Fast Synchrotron Radiation Cooling of Laser-Plasma Accelerated Beam by Solenoidal Magnetic Fields in Plasma Bubble

    CERN Document Server

    Seryi, Andrei; Andreev, Alexander; Konoplev, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    A novel method for generating GigaGauss solenoidal field in laser-plasma bubble, using screw-shaped laser pulses, has been recently presented in arXiv:1604.01259 [physics.plasm-ph]. Such magnetic fields enable fast synchrotron radiation cooling of the beam emittance of laser-plasma accelerated leptons. This recent finding opens a novel approach for design of laser-plasma FELs or colliders, where the acceleration stages are interleaved with laser-plasma emittance cooling stages. In this concept paper we present an outline of how a staged plasma-acceleration FEL could look like and discuss further studies needed to investigate the feasibility of the concept in detail.

  7. AICD -- Advanced Industrial Concepts Division Biological and Chemical Technologies Research Program. 1993 Annual summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petersen, G.; Bair, K.; Ross, J. [eds.

    1994-03-01

    The annual summary report presents the fiscal year (FY) 1993 research activities and accomplishments for the United States Department of Energy (DOE) Biological and Chemical Technologies Research (BCTR) Program of the Advanced Industrial Concepts Division (AICD). This AICD program resides within the Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) of the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EE). The annual summary report for 1993 (ASR 93) contains the following: A program description (including BCTR program mission statement, historical background, relevance, goals and objectives), program structure and organization, selected technical and programmatic highlights for 1993, detailed descriptions of individual projects, a listing of program output, including a bibliography of published work, patents, and awards arising from work supported by BCTR.

  8. Advanced target concepts for production of radioactive ions and neutrino beams

    CERN Document Server

    Ravn, H L

    2003-01-01

    The 1-20 MW of proton beam power which modern accelerator technology put at our disposal for production of intense secondary beams presents a major technically challenge to the production targets. A conceptual design is presented for a high-power pion production target and collection system, which was originally suggested to be used as the source for the proposed CERN muon-neutrino factory. It will be shown that the major parts of this target could also serve as an efficient spallation neutron source for production of 6He and fission products in the two-step converter-target concept. The heart of the system consists of a free surface Mercury jet with a high axial velocity, which allows the heat to be carried away efficiently from the production region. For the neutrino factory the secondary pions are collected and injected into the pion decay-channel by means of a magnetic horn. For the radioactive ion-beam facility the Hg-jet is surrounded by the high-temperature ISOL production-target. The suggested mechani...

  9. Electron-beam dynamics for an advanced flash-radiography accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekdahl, Carl August Jr. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2015-06-22

    Beam dynamics issues were assessed for a new linear induction electron accelerator. Special attention was paid to equilibrium beam transport, possible emittance growth, and beam stability. Especially problematic would be high-frequency beam instabilities that could blur individual radiographic source spots, low-frequency beam motion that could cause pulse-to-pulse spot displacement, and emittance growth that could enlarge the source spots. Beam physics issues were examined through theoretical analysis and computer simulations, including particle-in cell (PIC) codes. Beam instabilities investigated included beam breakup (BBU), image displacement, diocotron, parametric envelope, ion hose, and the resistive wall instability. Beam corkscrew motion and emittance growth from beam mismatch were also studied. It was concluded that a beam with radiographic quality equivalent to the present accelerators at Los Alamos will result if the same engineering standards and construction details are upheld.

  10. Advanced laser particle accelerator development at LANL: from fast ignition to radiation oncology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flippo, Kirk A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Gaillard, Sandrine A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Offermann, D T [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Cobble, J A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Schmitt, M J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Gautier, D C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kwan, T J T [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Montgomery, D S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kluge, Thomas [FZD-GERMANY; Bussmann, Micheal [FZD-GERMANY; Bartal, T [UCSD; Beg, F N [UCSD; Gall, B [UNIV OF MISSOURI; Geissel, M [SNL; Korgan, G [NANOLABZ; Kovaleski, S [UNIV OF MISSOURI; Lockard, T [UNIV OF NEVADA; Malekos, S [NANOLABZ; Schollmeier, M [SNL; Sentoku, Y [UNIV OF NEVADA; Cowan, T E [FZD-GERMANY

    2010-01-01

    Laser-plasma accelerated ion and electron beam sources are an emerging field with vast prospects, and promise many superior applications in a variety of fields such as hadron cancer therapy, compact radioisotope generation, table-top nuclear physics, laboratory astrophysics, nuclear forensics, waste transmutation, SN M detection, and inertial fusion energy. LANL is engaged in several projects seeking to develop compact high current and high energy ion and electron sources. We are especially interested in two specific applications: ion fast ignition/capsule perturbation and radiation oncology in conjunction with our partners at the ForschungsZentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (FZD). Laser-to-beam conversion efficiencies of over 10% are needed for practical applications, and we have already shown inherent etliciencies of >5% from flat foils, on Trident using only a 5th of the intensity and energy of the Nova Petawatt. With clever target designs, like structured curved cone targets, we have also been able to achieve major ion energy gains, leading to the highest energy laser-accelerated proton beams in the world. These new target designs promise to help usher in the next generation of particle sources realizing the potential of laser-accelerated beams.

  11. Advanced Laser Particle Accelerator Development at LANL: From Fast Ignition to Radiation Oncology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flippo, K. A.; Gaillard, S. A.; Kluge, T.; Bussmann, M.; Offermann, D. T.; Cobble, J. A.; Schmitt, M. J.; Bartal, T.; Beg, F. N.; Cowan, T. E.; Gall, B.; Gautier, D. C.; Geissel, M.; Kwan, T. J.; Korgan, G.; Kovaleski, S.; Lockard, T.; Malekos, S.; Montgomery, D. S.; Schollmeier, M.; Sentoku, Y.

    2010-11-01

    Laser-plasma accelerated ion and electron beam sources are an emerging field with vast prospects, and promise many superior applications in a variety of fields such as hadron cancer therapy, compact radioisotope generation, table-top nuclear physics, laboratory astrophysics, nuclear forensics, waste transmutation, Special Nuclear Material (SNM) detection, and inertial fusion energy. LANL is engaged in several projects seeking to develop compact high-current and high-energy ion and electron sources. We are especially interested in two specific applications: ion fast ignition/capsule perturbation and radiation oncology. Laser-to-beam conversion efficiencies of over 10% are needed for practical applications, and we have already shown inherent efficiencies of >5% from flat foils, on Trident using only a 5th of the intensity [1] and energy of the Nova Petawatt laser [2]. With clever target designs, like structured curved cone targets, we have also been able to achieve major ion energy gains, leading to the highest energy laser-accelerated proton beams in the world [3]. These new target designs promise to help usher in the next generation of particle sources realizing the potential of laser-accelerated beams.

  12. Technology Alignment and Portfolio Prioritization (TAPP): Advanced Methods in Strategic Analysis, Technology Forecasting and Long Term Planning for Human Exploration and Operations, Advanced Exploration Systems and Advanced Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funaro, Gregory V.; Alexander, Reginald A.

    2015-01-01

    The Advanced Concepts Office (ACO) at NASA, Marshall Space Flight Center is expanding its current technology assessment methodologies. ACO is developing a framework called TAPP that uses a variety of methods, such as association mining and rule learning from data mining, structure development using a Technological Innovation System (TIS), and social network modeling to measure structural relationships. The role of ACO is to 1) produce a broad spectrum of ideas and alternatives for a variety of NASA's missions, 2) determine mission architecture feasibility and appropriateness to NASA's strategic plans, and 3) define a project in enough detail to establish an initial baseline capable of meeting mission objectives ACO's role supports the decision­-making process associated with the maturation of concepts for traveling through, living in, and understanding space. ACO performs concept studies and technology assessments to determine the degree of alignment between mission objectives and new technologies. The first step in technology assessment is to identify the current technology maturity in terms of a technology readiness level (TRL). The second step is to determine the difficulty associated with advancing a technology from one state to the next state. NASA has used TRLs since 1970 and ACO formalized them in 1995. The DoD, ESA, Oil & Gas, and DoE have adopted TRLs as a means to assess technology maturity. However, "with the emergence of more complex systems and system of systems, it has been increasingly recognized that TRL assessments have limitations, especially when considering [the] integration of complex systems." When performing the second step in a technology assessment, NASA requires that an Advancement Degree of Difficulty (AD2) method be utilized. NASA has used and developed or used a variety of methods to perform this step: Expert Opinion or Delphi Approach, Value Engineering or Value Stream, Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP), Technique for the Order of

  13. Final Project Report "Advanced Concept Exploration For Fast Ignition Science Program"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    STEPHENS, Richard B.; McLEAN, Harry M.; THEOBALD, Wolfgang; AKLI, Kramer; BEG, Farhat N.; SENTOKU, Yasuiko; SCHUMACHER, Douglas; WEI, Mingsheng S.

    2014-01-31

    The Fast Ignition (FI) Concept for Inertial Confinement Fusion has the potential to provide a significant advance in the technical attractiveness of Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) reactors. FI differs from conventional “central hot spot” (CHS) target ignition by decoupling compression from heating: using the laser (or heavy ion beam or Z pinch) drive pulse (10’s of ns) to create a dense fuel and a second, much shorter (~10 ps) high intensity pulse to ignite a small region of it. There are two major physics issues concerning this concept; controlling the laser-induced generation of large electron currents and their propagation through high density plasmas. This project has addressed these two significant scientific issues in Relativistic High Energy Density (RHED) physics. Learning to control relativistic laser matter interaction (and the limits and potential thereof) will enable a wide range of applications. While these physics issues are of specific interest to inertial fusion energy science, they are also important for a wide range of other HED phenomena, including high energy ion beam generation, isochoric heating of materials, and the development of high brightness x-ray sources. Generating, controlling, and understanding the extreme conditions needed to advance this science has proved to be challenging: Our studies have pushed the boundaries of physics understanding and are at the very limits of experimental, diagnostic, and simulation capabilities in high energy density laboratory physics (HEDLP). Our research strategy has been based on pursuing the fundamental physics underlying the Fast Ignition (FI) concept. We have performed comprehensive study of electron generation and transport in fast-ignition targets with experiments, theory, and numerical modeling. A major issue is that the electrons produced in these experiments cannot be measured directly—only effects due to their transport. We focused mainly on x-ray continuum photons from bremsstrahlung

  14. Proceedings of the International Symposium on Dynamics of Fluids in Fractured Rocks: Concepts and Recent Advances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faybishenko, B. (ed.)

    1999-02-01

    This publication contains extended abstracts of papers presented at the International Symposium ''Dynamics of Fluids in Fractured Rocks: Concepts and Recent Advances'' held at Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory on February 10-12, 1999. This Symposium is organized in Honor of the 80th Birthday of Paul A. Witherspoon, who initiated some of the early investigations on flow and transport in fractured rocks at the University of California, Berkeley, and at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. He is a key figure in the development of basic concepts, modeling, and field measurements of fluid flow and contaminant transport in fractured rock systems. The technical problems of assessing fluid flow, radionuclide transport, site characterization, modeling, and performance assessment in fractured rocks remain the most challenging aspects of subsurface flow and transport investigations. An understanding of these important aspects of hydrogeology is needed to assess disposal of nu clear wastes, development of geothermal resources, production of oil and gas resources, and remediation of contaminated sites. These Proceedings of more than 100 papers from 12 countries discuss recent scientific and practical developments and the status of our understanding of fluid flow and radionuclide transport in fractured rocks. The main topics of the papers are: Theoretical studies of fluid flow in fractured rocks; Multi-phase flow and reactive chemical transport in fractured rocks; Fracture/matrix interactions; Hydrogeological and transport testing; Fracture flow models; Vadose zone studies; Isotopic studies of flow in fractured systems; Fractures in geothermal systems; Remediation and colloid transport in fractured systems; and Nuclear waste disposal in fractured rocks.

  15. Parabolic Flight Investigation for Advanced Exercise Concept Hardware Hybrid Ultimate Lifting Kit (HULK)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, A. S.; Funk, J. H.; Funk, N. W.; Sheehan, C. C.; Humphreys, B. T.; Perusek, G. P.

    2015-01-01

    Long-duration space flight poses many hazards to the health of the crew. Among those hazards is the physiological deconditioning of the musculoskeletal and cardiovascular systems due to prolonged exposure to microgravity. To combat this erosion of physical condition space flight may take on the crew, the Human Research Program (HRP) is charged with developing Advanced Exercise Concepts to maintain astronaut health and fitness during long-term missions, while keeping device mass, power, and volume to a minimum. The goal of this effort is to preserve the physical capability of the crew to perform mission critical tasks in transit and during planetary surface operations. The HULK is a pneumatic-based exercise system, which provides both resistive and aerobic modes to protect against human deconditioning in microgravity. Its design targeted the International Space Station (ISS) Advanced Resistive Exercise Device (ARED) high level performance characteristics and provides up to 600 foot pounds resitive loading with the capability to allow for eccentric to concentric (E:C) ratios of higher than 1:1 through a DC motor assist component. The device's rowing mode allows for high cadence aerobic activity. The HULK parabolic flight campaign, conducted through the NASA Flight Opportunities Program at Ellington Field, resulted in the creation of device specific data sets including low fidelity motion capture, accelerometry and both inline and ground reaction forces. These data provide a critical link in understanding how to vibration isolate the device in both ISS and space transit applications. Secondarily, the study of human exercise and associated body kinematics in microgravity allows for more complete understanding of human to machine interface designs to allow for maximum functionality of the device in microgravity.

  16. Advanced Concepts for Pressure-Channel Reactors: Modularity, Performance and Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffey, Romney B.; Pioro, Igor L.; Kuran, Sermet

    Based on an analysis of the development of advanced concepts for pressure-tube reactor technology, we adapt and adopt the pressure-tube reactor advantage of modularity, so that the subdivided core has the potential for optimization of the core, safety, fuel cycle and thermal performance independently, while retaining passive safety features. In addition, by adopting supercritical water-cooling, the logical developments from existing supercritical turbine technology and “steam” systems can be utilized. Supercritical and ultra-supercritical boilers and turbines have been operating for some time in coal-fired power plants. Using coolant outlet temperatures of about 625°C achieves operating plant thermal efficiencies in the order of 45-48%, using a direct turbine cycle. In addition, by using reheat channels, the plant has the potential to produce low-cost process heat, in amounts that are customer and market dependent. The use of reheat systems further increases the overall thermal efficiency to 55% and beyond. With the flexibility of a range of plant sizes suitable for both small (400 MWe) and large (1400 MWe) electric grids, and the ability for co-generation of electric power, process heat, and hydrogen, the concept is competitive. The choice of core power, reheat channel number and exit temperature are all set by customer and materials requirements. The pressure channel is a key technology that is needed to make use of supercritical water (SCW) in CANDU®1 reactors feasible. By optimizing the fuel bundle and fuel channel, convection and conduction assure heat removal using passive-moderator cooling. Potential for severe core damage can be almost eliminated, even without the necessity of activating the emergency-cooling systems. The small size of containment structure lends itself to a small footprint, impacts economics and building techniques. Design features related to Canadian concepts are discussed in this paper. The main conclusion is that development of

  17. Advanced Concept Studies for Supersonic Commercial Transports Entering Service in the 2018 to 2020 Period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgenstern, John; Norstrud, Nicole; Sokhey, Jack; Martens, Steve; Alonso, Juan J.

    2013-01-01

    Lockheed Martin Aeronautics Company (LM), working in conjunction with General Electric Global Research (GE GR), Rolls-Royce Liberty Works (RRLW), and Stanford University, herein presents results from the "N+2 Supersonic Validations" contract s initial 22 month phase, addressing the NASA solicitation "Advanced Concept Studies for Supersonic Commercial Transports Entering Service in the 2018 to 2020 Period." This report version adds documentation of an additional three month low boom test task. The key technical objective of this effort was to validate integrated airframe and propulsion technologies and design methodologies. These capabilities aspired to produce a viable supersonic vehicle design with environmental and performance characteristics. Supersonic testing of both airframe and propulsion technologies (including LM3: 97-023 low boom testing and April-June nozzle acoustic testing) verified LM s supersonic low-boom design methodologies and both GE and RRLW's nozzle technologies for future implementation. The N+2 program is aligned with NASA s Supersonic Project and is focused on providing system-level solutions capable of overcoming the environmental and performance/efficiency barriers to practical supersonic flight. NASA proposed "Initial Environmental Targets and Performance Goals for Future Supersonic Civil Aircraft". The LM N+2 studies are built upon LM s prior N+3 100 passenger design studies. The LM N+2 program addresses low boom design and methodology validations with wind tunnel testing, performance and efficiency goals with system level analysis, and low noise validations with two nozzle (GE and RRLW) acoustic tests.

  18. Advances and New Concepts in Alcohol-Induced Organelle Stress, Unfolded Protein Responses and Organ Damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Ji

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol is a simple and consumable biomolecule yet its excessive consumption disturbs numerous biological pathways damaging nearly all organs of the human body. One of the essential biological processes affected by the harmful effects of alcohol is proteostasis, which regulates the balance between biogenesis and turnover of proteins within and outside the cell. A significant amount of published evidence indicates that alcohol and its metabolites directly or indirectly interfere with protein homeostasis in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER causing an accumulation of unfolded or misfolded proteins, which triggers the unfolded protein response (UPR leading to either restoration of homeostasis or cell death, inflammation and other pathologies under severe and chronic alcohol conditions. The UPR senses the abnormal protein accumulation and activates transcription factors that regulate nuclear transcription of genes related to ER function. Similarly, this kind of protein stress response can occur in other cellular organelles, which is an evolving field of interest. Here, I review recent advances in the alcohol-induced ER stress response as well as discuss new concepts on alcohol-induced mitochondrial, Golgi and lysosomal stress responses and injuries.

  19. A review of design concepts for the Advanced Fluids Module (AFM) project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Myron E.; Tschen, Peter S.

    1993-01-01

    This paper reviews preliminary fluid module design concepts for the Advanced Fluids Module (AFM) project. The objective of this effort is to provide a facility that can handle a wide variety of fluids experiments. Sample science requirements were written and conceptual designs were subsequently generated during the last year. Experiments from the following fluid physics subject areas were used as conceptual design drivers: static and dynamic interfacial phenomena; bubble/droplet thermocapillary migration; surface tension convection and instabilities; thermal/solutal convection; pool boiling; and multiphase flow. After the conceptual designs were completed, the next phase attempted to combine experiments capabilities into a multipurpose, multiuser apparatus configured for the Space Station Freedom. It was found that all the fluid subject areas considered could be accommodated by three basic types of fluids modules. These modules are the Static Fluid Cell Module, the Dynamic Fluid Cell Module, and the Multiphase Flow Module. Descriptions of these preliminary modules designs and their particular sub-systems (e.g., fluid and thermal systems) are discussed. These designs will be refined as the nature of the flight program becomes clearer over the next six to twelve months.

  20. GTOC8: Results and Methods of ESA Advanced Concepts Team and JAXA-ISAS

    CERN Document Server

    Izzo, Dario; Märtens, Marcus; Getzner, Ingmar; Nowak, Krzysztof; Heffernan, Anna; Campagnola, Stefano; Yam, Chit Hong; Ozaki, Naoya; Sugimoto, Yoshihide

    2016-01-01

    We consider the interplanetary trajectory design problem posed by the 8th edition of the Global Trajectory Optimization Competition and present the end-to-end strategy developed by the team ACT-ISAS (a collaboration between the European Space Agency's Advanced Concepts Team and JAXA's Institute of Space and Astronautical Science). The resulting interplanetary trajectory won 1st place in the competition, achieving a final mission value of $J=146.33$ [Mkm]. Several new algorithms were developed in this context but have an interest that go beyond the particular problem considered, thus, they are discussed in some detail. These include the Moon-targeting technique, allowing one to target a Moon encounter from a low Earth orbit; the 1-$k$ and 2-$k$ fly-by targeting techniques, enabling one to design resonant fly-bys while ensuring a targeted future formation plane% is acquired at some point after the manoeuvre ; the distributed low-thrust targeting technique, admitting one to control the spacecraft formation plane...

  1. Lessons learned from U.S. Department of Defense 911-Bio Advanced Concept Technology Demonstrations.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldwin, T.; Gasper, W.; Lacher, L.; Newsom, D.; Yantosik, G.

    1999-07-06

    The US Department of Defense (DoD), in cooperation with other federal agencies, has taken many initiatives to improve its ability to support civilian response to a domestic biological terrorism incident. This paper discusses one initiative, the 911-Bio Advanced Concept Technology Demonstrations (ACTDs), conducted by the Office of the Secretary of Defense during 1997 to better understand: (1) the capability of newly developed chemical and biological collection and identification technologies in a field environment; (2) the ability of specialized DoD response teams to use these new technologies within the structure of cooperating DoD and civilian consequence management organizations; and (3) the adequacy of current modeling tools for predicting the dispersal of biological hazards. This paper discusses the experience of the ACTDs from the civilian community support perspective. The 911-Bio ACTD project provided a valuable opportunity for DoD and civilian officials to learn how they should use their combined capabilities to manage the aftermath of a domestic biological terrorism incident.

  2. Predicted reliability of aerospace electronics: Application of two advanced probabilistic concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suhir, E.

    Two advanced probabilistic design-for-reliability (PDfR) concepts are addressed and discussed in application to the prediction, quantification and assurance of the aerospace electronics reliability: 1) Boltzmann-Arrhenius-Zhurkov (BAZ) model, which is an extension of the currently widely used Arrhenius model and, in combination with the exponential law of reliability, enables one to obtain a simple, easy-to-use and physically meaningful formula for the evaluation of the probability of failure (PoF) of a material or a device after the given time in operation at the given temperature and under the given stress (not necessarily mechanical), and 2) Extreme Value Distribution (EVD) technique that can be used to assess the number of repetitive loadings that result in the material/device degradation and eventually lead to its failure by closing, in a step-wise fashion, the gap between the bearing capacity (stress-free activation energy) of the material or the device and the demand (loading). It is shown that the material degradation (aging, damage accumulation, flaw propagation, etc.) can be viewed, when BAZ model is considered, as a Markovian process, and that the BAZ model can be obtained as the ultimate steady-state solution to the well-known Fokker-Planck equation in the theory of Markovian processes. It is shown also that the BAZ model addresses the worst, but a reasonably conservative, situation. It is suggested therefore that the transient period preceding the condition addressed by the steady-state BAZ model need not be accounted for in engineering evaluations. However, when there is an interest in understanding the transient degradation process, the obtained solution to the Fokker-Planck equation can be used for this purpose. As to the EVD concept, it attributes the degradation process to the accumulation of damages caused by a train of repetitive high-level loadings, while loadings of levels that are considerably lower than their extreme values do not contribute

  3. Facility for Advanced Accelerator Experimental Tests at SLAC (FACET) Conceptual Design Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amann, J.; Bane, K.; /SLAC

    2009-10-30

    This Conceptual Design Report (CDR) describes the design of FACET. It will be updated to stay current with the developing design of the facility. This CDR begins as the baseline conceptual design and will evolve into an 'as-built' manual for the completed facility. The Executive Summary, Chapter 1, gives an introduction to the FACET project and describes the salient features of its design. Chapter 2 gives an overview of FACET. It describes the general parameters of the machine and the basic approaches to implementation. The FACET project does not include the implementation of specific scientific experiments either for plasma wake-field acceleration for other applications. Nonetheless, enough work has been done to define potential experiments to assure that the facility can meet the requirements of the experimental community. Chapter 3, Scientific Case, describes the planned plasma wakefield and other experiments. Chapter 4, Technical Description of FACET, describes the parameters and design of all technical systems of FACET. FACET uses the first two thirds of the existing SLAC linac to accelerate the beam to about 20GeV, and compress it with the aid of two chicanes, located in Sector 10 and Sector 20. The Sector 20 area will include a focusing system, the generic experimental area and the beam dump. Chapter 5, Management of Scientific Program, describes the management of the scientific program at FACET. Chapter 6, Environment, Safety and Health and Quality Assurance, describes the existing programs at SLAC and their application to the FACET project. It includes a preliminary analysis of safety hazards and the planned mitigation. Chapter 7, Work Breakdown Structure, describes the structure used for developing the cost estimates, which will also be used to manage the project. The chapter defines the scope of work of each element down to level 3.

  4. Advances in oxygen pumping concept with Bimevox; Progres dans le concept de pompe a oxygene utilisant les Bimevox

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mairesse, G. [Universite des Sciences et technologies de Lille, Lab. de Cristallochimie et Physicochimie du Solide, ESA CNRS 8012, 59 - Villeneuve d' Ascq (France)

    1999-11-01

    The BIMEVOX family of materials exhibits specific properties as electrolytes as well as oxygen electrodes. The high oxide anion diffusion observed at moderate temperature results from the synergy between the highly polarizable lone pair of the Bi{sup III} cation in the vicinity of the V-O diffusion slab on the one hand, and the flexibility of this V-O network on the other hand. Moreover, the same material is able, under imposed polarisation, to self convert reversibly and dynamically from electrolyte to electrode. All these specific characteristics lead to a new concept of ceramic oxygen generator based on a unique material. (author)

  5. Advances in boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) at kyoto university - From reactor-based BNCT to accelerator-based BNCT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurai, Yoshinori; Tanaka, Hiroki; Takata, Takushi; Fujimoto, Nozomi; Suzuki, Minoru; Masunaga, Shinichiro; Kinashi, Yuko; Kondo, Natsuko; Narabayashi, Masaru; Nakagawa, Yosuke; Watanabe, Tsubasa; Ono, Koji; Maruhashi, Akira

    2015-07-01

    At the Kyoto University Research Reactor Institute (KURRI), a clinical study of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) using a neutron irradiation facility installed at the research nuclear reactor has been regularly performed since February 1990. As of November 2014, 510 clinical irradiations were carried out using the reactor-based system. The world's first accelerator-based neutron irradiation system for BNCT clinical irradiation was completed at this institute in early 2009, and the clinical trial using this system was started in 2012. A shift of BCNT from special particle therapy to a general one is now in progress. To promote and support this shift, improvements to the irradiation system, as well as its preparation, and improvements in the physical engineering and the medical physics processes, such as dosimetry systems and quality assurance programs, must be considered. The recent advances in BNCT at KURRI are reported here with a focus on physical engineering and medical physics topics.

  6. Numerical Investigation of a Cascaded Longitudinal Space-Charge Amplifier at the Fermilab's Advanced Superconducting Test Accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halavanau, A. [NICADD, DeKalb; Piot, P. [NICADD, DeKalb

    2015-06-01

    In a cascaded longitudinal space-charge amplifier (LSCA), initial density noise in a relativistic e-beam is amplified via the interplay of longitudinal space charge forces and properly located dispersive sections. This type of amplification process was shown to potentially result in large final density modulations [1] compatible with the production of broadband electromagnetic radiation. The technique was recently demonstrated in the optical domain [2]. In this paper we investigate, via numerical simulations, the performances of a cascaded LSCA beamline at the Fermilab’s Advanced Superconducting Test Accelerator (ASTA). We especially explore the properties of the produced broadband radiation. Our studies have been conducted with a grid-less three-dimensional space-charge algorithm.

  7. Advanced modeling to accelerate the scale up of carbon capture technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, David C.; Sun, XIN; Storlie, Curtis B.; Bhattacharyya, Debangsu

    2015-06-01

    In order to help meet the goals of the DOE carbon capture program, the Carbon Capture Simulation Initiative (CCSI) was launched in early 2011 to develop, demonstrate, and deploy advanced computational tools and validated multi-scale models to reduce the time required to develop and scale-up new carbon capture technologies. This article focuses on essential elements related to the development and validation of multi-scale models in order to help minimize risk and maximize learning as new technologies progress from pilot to demonstration scale.

  8. Liminality in cultural transition: applying ID-EA to advance a concept into theory-based practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, Martha B; Reed, Pamela G

    2015-01-01

    As global migration increases worldwide, nursing interventions are needed to address the effects of migration on health. The concept of liminality emerged as a pivotal concept in the situation-specific theory of well-being in refugee women experiencing cultural transition. As a relatively new concept in the discipline of nursing, liminality is explored using a method, called ID-EA, which we developed to advance a theoretical concept for application to nursing practice. Liminality in the context of cultural transition is further developed using the five steps of inquiry of the ID-EA method. The five steps are as follows: (1) inductive inquiry: qualitative research, (2) deductive inquiry: literature review, (3) synthesis of inductive and deductive inquiry, (4) evaluation inquiry, and (5) application-to-practice inquiry. The overall goal of this particular work was to develop situation-specific, theory-based interventions that facilitate cultural transitions for immigrants and refugees.

  9. Ultra-High Gradient Channeling Acceleration in Nanostructures: Design/Progress of Proof-of-Concept (POC) Experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Young Min [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Northern Illinois Univ., DeKalb, IL (United States). Northern Illinois Center for Accelerator & Detector Development; Green, A. [Northern Illinois Univ., DeKalb, IL (United States). Northern Illinois Center for Accelerator & Detector Development; Lumpkin, A. H. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Thurman-Keup, R. M. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Shiltsev, V. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Zhang, X. [Shanhai Inst. of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Shanghai (China); Farinella, D. M. [Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States); Taborek, P. [Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States); Tajima, T. [Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States); Wheeler, J. A. [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States). Center for Ultrafast Optical Science and FOCUS Center; Ecole Polytechnique, CNRS, Palaiseau (France). Lab. d' Optique Appliquee; Mourou, G. [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States). Center for Ultrafast Optical Science and FOCUS Center; Ecole Polytechnique, CNRS, Palaiseau (France). Lab. d' Optique Appliquee

    2016-09-16

    A short bunch of relativistic particles or a short-pulse laser perturbs the density state of conduction electrons in a solid crystal and excites wakefields along atomic lattices in a crystal. Under a coupling condition the wakes, if excited, can accelerate channeling particles with TeV/m acceleration gradients in principle since the density of charge carriers (conduction electrons) in solids n0 = ~ 1020 – 1023 cm-3 is significantly higher than what can be obtained in gaseous plasma. Nanostructures have some advantages over crystals for channeling applications of high power beams. The dechanneling rate can be reduced and the beam acceptance increased by the large size of the channels. For beam-driven acceleration, a bunch length with a sufficient charge density would need to be in the range of the plasma wavelength to properly excite plasma wakefields, and channeled particle acceleration with the wakefields must occur before the ions in the lattices move beyond the restoring threshold. In the case of the excitation by short laser pulses, the dephasing length is appreciably increased with the larger channel, which enables channeled particles to gain sufficient amounts of energy. This paper describes simulation analyses on beam- and laser (X-ray)-driven accelerations in effective nanotube models obtained from Vsim and EPOCH codes. Experimental setups to detect wakefields are also outlined with accelerator facilities at Fermilab and NIU. In the FAST facility, the electron beamline was successfully commissioned at 50 MeV and it is being upgraded toward higher energies for electron accelerator R&D. The 50 MeV injector beamline of the facility is used for X-ray crystal-channeling radiation with a diamond target. It has been proposed to utilize the same diamond crystal for a channeling acceleration POC test. Another POC experiment is also designed for the NIU accelerator lab with time-resolved electron diffraction. Recently, a

  10. Ultra-High Gradient Channeling Acceleration in Nanostructures: Design/Progress of Proof-of-Concept (POC) Experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Young min [Fermilab; Green, A. [NICADD, DeKalb; Lumpkin, A. H. [Fermilab; Thurman-Keup, R. M. [Fermilab; Shiltsev, V. [Fermilab; Zhang, X. [Shanghai, Inst. Optics, Fine Mech.; Farinella, D. M. [UC, Irvine; Taborek, P. [UC, Irvine; Tajima, T. [UC, Irvine; Wheeler, J. A. [U. Michigan, Ann Arbor; Mourou, G. [U. Michigan, Ann Arbor

    2016-09-16

    A short bunch of relativistic particles or a short-pulse laser perturbs the density state of conduction electrons in a solid crystal and excites wakefields along atomic lattices in a crystal. Under a coupling condition the wakes, if excited, can accelerate channeling particles with TeV/m acceleration gradients [1] in principle since the density of charge carriers (conduction electrons) in solids n0 = ~ 10 to the power of 20 – 10 to the power of 23 cm-3 is significantly higher than what was considered above in gaseous plasma. Nanostructures have some advantages over crystals for channeling applications of high power beams. The dechanneling rate can be reduced and the beam acceptance increased by the large size of the channels. For beam driven acceleration, a bunch length with a sufficient charge density would need to be in the range of the plasma wavelength to properly excite plasma wakefields, and channeled particle acceleration with the wakefields must occur before the ions in the lattices move beyond the restoring threshold. In the case of the excitation by short laser pulses, the dephasing length is appreciably increased with the larger channel, which enables channeled particles to gain sufficient amounts of energy. This paper describes simulation analyses on beam- and laser (X-ray)-driven accelerations in effective nanotube models obtained from Vsim and EPOCH codes. Experimental setups to detect wakefields are also outlined with accelerator facilities at Fermilab and NIU. In the FAST facility, the electron beamline was successfully commissioned at 50 MeV and it is being upgraded toward higher energies for electron accelerator R&D. The 50 MeV injector beamline of the facility is used for X-ray crystal-channeling radiation with a diamond target. It has been proposed to utilize the same diamond crystal for a channeling acceleration POC test. Another POC experiment is also designed for the NIU accelerator lab with time-resolved electron diffraction. Recently, a

  11. Vol.27 - MicroTCA based Platform for advanced particle accelerators diagnostics

    CERN Document Server

    Juszczyk, Bartłomiej

    2014-01-01

    All over the world there are many research centers that are conducting researches with use of particle accelerators. Thanks to various experiments we could better understand surrounding world. But, there are still a lot of unknowns to explore which science needs better instruments. One of these tools are measurement systems. Unfortunately currently used solutions do not provide sufficient performance to satisfy growing needs. This implies the search for new solutions. One of such solution is a modern uTCA architecture. In this document an open source project of a base card (AFC -AMC to FMC carrier board) based on this standard has been described. This card is equipped with two FMC connectors, which allow to connect wide variety of extension cards. In combination with a powerful FPGA device this card is an universal base circuit for variety of projects. Among the others it allows to implement algorithms which are collecting data from fast ADCs and to process these data. Moreover the applied uTCA architecture p...

  12. Advances in Climate Informatics: Accelerating Discovery in Climate Science with Machine Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteleoni, C.

    2015-12-01

    Despite the scientific consensus on climate change, drastic uncertainties remain. The climate system is characterized by complex phenomena that are imperfectly observed and even more imperfectly simulated. Climate data is Big Data, yet the magnitude of data and climate model output increasingly overwhelms the tools currently used to analyze them. Computational innovation is therefore needed. Machine learning is a cutting-edge research area at the intersection of computer science and statistics, focused on developing algorithms for big data analytics. Machine learning has revolutionized scientific discovery (e.g. Bioinformatics), and spawned new technologies (e.g. Web search). The impact of machine learning on climate science promises to be similarly profound. The goal of the novel interdisciplinary field of Climate Informatics is to accelerate discovery in climate science with machine learning, in order to shed light on urgent questions about climate change. In this talk, I will survey my research group's progress in the emerging field of climate informatics. Our work includes algorithms to improve the combined predictions of the IPCC multi-model ensemble, applications to seasonal and subseasonal prediction, and a data-driven technique to detect and define extreme events.

  13. Final Project Report "Advanced Concept Exploration For Fast Ignition Science Program"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    STEPHENS, Richard B.; McLEAN, Harry M.; THEOBALD, Wolfgang; AKLI, Kramer; BEG, Farhat N.; SENTOKU, Yasuiko; SCHUMACHER, Douglas; WEI, Mingsheng S.

    2014-01-31

    The Fast Ignition (FI) Concept for Inertial Confinement Fusion has the potential to provide a significant advance in the technical attractiveness of Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) reactors. FI differs from conventional “central hot spot” (CHS) target ignition by decoupling compression from heating: using the laser (or heavy ion beam or Z pinch) drive pulse (10’s of ns) to create a dense fuel and a second, much shorter (~10 ps) high intensity pulse to ignite a small region of it. There are two major physics issues concerning this concept; controlling the laser-induced generation of large electron currents and their propagation through high density plasmas. This project has addressed these two significant scientific issues in Relativistic High Energy Density (RHED) physics. Learning to control relativistic laser matter interaction (and the limits and potential thereof) will enable a wide range of applications. While these physics issues are of specific interest to inertial fusion energy science, they are also important for a wide range of other HED phenomena, including high energy ion beam generation, isochoric heating of materials, and the development of high brightness x-ray sources. Generating, controlling, and understanding the extreme conditions needed to advance this science has proved to be challenging: Our studies have pushed the boundaries of physics understanding and are at the very limits of experimental, diagnostic, and simulation capabilities in high energy density laboratory physics (HEDLP). Our research strategy has been based on pursuing the fundamental physics underlying the Fast Ignition (FI) concept. We have performed comprehensive study of electron generation and transport in fast-ignition targets with experiments, theory, and numerical modeling. A major issue is that the electrons produced in these experiments cannot be measured directly—only effects due to their transport. We focused mainly on x-ray continuum photons from bremsstrahlung

  14. The Effects of Using Concept Mapping for Improving Advanced Level Biology Students' Lower- and Higher-Order Cognitive Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bramwell-Lalor, Sharon; Rainford, Marcia

    2014-03-01

    This paper reports on teachers' use of concept mapping as an alternative assessment strategy in advanced level biology classes and its effects on students' cognitive skills on selected biology concepts. Using a mixed methods approach, the study employed a pre-test/post-test quasi-experimental design involving 156 students and 8 teachers from intact classes. A researcher-constructed Biology Cognitive Skills Test was used to collect the quantitative data. Qualitative data were collected through interviews and students' personal documents. The data showed that the participants utilized concept mapping in various ways and they described positive experiences while being engaged in its use. The main challenge cited by teachers was the limited time available for more consistent use. The results showed that the use of concept mapping in advanced level biology can lead to learning gains that exceed those achieved in classes where mainly traditional methods are used. The students in the concept mapping experimental groups performed significantly better than their peers in the control group on both the lower-order (F(1) = 21.508; p < .001) and higher-order (F(1) = 42.842, p < .001) cognitive items of the biology test. A mean effect size of .56 was calculated representing the contribution of treatment to the students' performance on the test items.

  15. Advanced 3D Poisson solvers and particle-in-cell methods for accelerator modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serafini, David B; McCorquodale, Peter; Colella, Phillip [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab, Applied Numerical Algorithms Group, SciDAC Applied Differential Equations Center (United States)

    2005-01-01

    We seek to improve on the conventional FFT-based algorithms for solving the Poisson equation with infinite-domain (open) boundary conditions for large problems in accelerator modeling and related areas. In particular, improvements in both accuracy and performance are possible by combining several technologies: the method of local corrections (MLC); the James algorithm; and adaptive mesh refinement (AMR). The MLC enables the parallelization (by domain decomposition) of problems with large domains and many grid points. This improves on the FFT-based Poisson solvers typically used as it doesn't require the all-to-all communication pattern that parallel 3d FFT algorithms require, which tends to be a performance bottleneck on current (and foreseeable) parallel computers. In initial tests, good scalability up to 1000 processors has been demonstrated for our new MLC solver. An essential component of our approach is a new version of the James algorithm for infinite-domain boundary conditions for the case of three dimensions. By using a simplified version of the fast multipole method in the boundary-to-boundary potential calculation, we improve on the performance of the Hockney algorithm typically used by reducing the number of grid points by a factor of 8, and the CPU costs by a factor of 3. This is particularly important for large problems where computer memory limits are a consideration. The MLC allows for the use of adaptive mesh refinement, which reduces the number of grid points and increases the accuracy in the Poisson solution. This improves on the uniform grid methods typically used in PIC codes, particularly in beam problems where the halo is large. Also, the number of particles per cell can be controlled more closely with adaptivity than with a uniform grid. To use AMR with particles is more complicated than using uniform grids. It affects depositing particles on the non-uniform grid, reassigning particles when the adaptive grid changes and maintaining the

  16. Technologies of image guidance and the development of advanced linear accelerator systems for radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Vincent W C; Law, Maria Y Y; Star-Lack, Josh; Cheung, Fion W K; Ling, C Clifton

    2011-01-01

    As advanced radiotherapy approaches for targeting the tumor and sparing the normal tissues have been developed, the image guidance of therapy has become essential to directing and confirming treatment accuracy. To approach these goals, image guidance devices now include kV on-board imagers, kV/MV cone-beam CT systems, CT-on-rails, and mobile and in-room radiographic/fluoroscopic systems. Nonionizing sources, such as ultrasound and optical systems, and electromagnetic devices have been introduced to monitor or track the patient and/or tumor positions during treatment. In addition, devices have been designed specifically for monitoring and/or controlling respiratory motion. Optimally, image-guided radiation therapy systems should possess 3 essential elements: (1) 3D imaging of soft tissues and tumors, (2) efficient acquisition and comparison of the 3D images, and (3) an efficacious process for clinically meaningful intervention. Understanding and using these tools effectively is central to current radiotherapy practice. The implementation and integration of these devices continue to carry practical challenges, which emphasize the need for further development of the technologies and their clinical applications.

  17. A hybrid approach for generating ultra-short bunches for advanced accelerator applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stratakis, Diktys [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Generation of electron beams with high phase-space density, short bunch length and high peak current is an essential requirement for future linear colliders and bright electron beam sources. Unfortunately, such bunches cannot be produced directly from the source since forces from the mutual repulsion of electrons would destroy the brilliance of the beam within a short distance. Here, we detail a beam dynamics study of an innovative two-stage compression scheme that can generate ultra-short bunches without degrading the beam quality. In the first stage, the beam is compressed with an advanced velocity bunching technique in which the longitudinal phase space is rotated so that electrons on the bunch tail become faster than electrons in the bunch head. In the second stage, the beam is further compressed with a conventional magnetic chicane. With the aid of numerical simulations we show that our two-staged scheme is capable to increase the current of a 50 pC bunch to a notable factor of 100 while the emittance growth can be suppressed to 1% with appropriate tailoring of the initial beam distribution.

  18. Advanced Electroactive Single Crystal and Polymer Actuator Concepts for Passive Optics Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — TRS Technologies proposes large stroke and high precision piezoelectric single crystal and electroactive polymer actuator concepts?HYBrid Actuation System (HYBAS)...

  19. Advanced Information Processing System (AIPS) proof-of-concept system functional design I/O network system services

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    The function design of the Input/Output (I/O) services for the Advanced Information Processing System (AIPS) proof of concept system is described. The data flow diagrams, which show the functional processes in I/O services and the data that flows among them, are contained. A complete list of the data identified on the data flow diagrams and in the process descriptions are provided.

  20. Improved best estimate plus uncertainty methodology including advanced validation concepts to license evolving nuclear reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unal, Cetin [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Williams, Brian [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mc Clure, Patrick [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Nelson, Ralph A [IDAHO NATIONAL LAB

    2010-01-01

    Many evolving nuclear energy programs plan to use advanced predictive multi-scale multi-physics simulation and modeling capabilities to reduce cost and time from design through licensing. Historically, the role of experiments was primary tool for design and understanding of nuclear system behavior while modeling and simulation played the subordinate role of supporting experiments. In the new era of multi-scale multi-physics computational based technology development, the experiments will still be needed but they will be performed at different scales to calibrate and validate models leading predictive simulations. Cost saving goals of programs will require us to minimize the required number of validation experiments. Utilization of more multi-scale multi-physics models introduces complexities in the validation of predictive tools. Traditional methodologies will have to be modified to address these arising issues. This paper lays out the basic aspects of a methodology that can be potentially used to address these new challenges in design and licensing of evolving nuclear technology programs. The main components of the proposed methodology are verification, validation, calibration, and uncertainty quantification. An enhanced calibration concept is introduced and is accomplished through data assimilation. The goal is to enable best-estimate prediction of system behaviors in both normal and safety related environments. To achieve this goal requires the additional steps of estimating the domain of validation and quantification of uncertainties that allow for extension of results to areas of the validation domain that are not directly tested with experiments, which might include extension of the modeling and simulation (M&S) capabilities for application to full-scale systems. The new methodology suggests a formalism to quantify an adequate level of validation (predictive maturity) with respect to required selective data so that required testing can be minimized for cost

  1. Reactor physics studies for the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) Reactor-Accelerator Coupling Experiments (RACE) Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stankovskiy, Evgeny Yuryevich

    In the recently completed RACE Project of the AFCI, accelerator-driven subcritical systems (ADS) experiments were conducted to develop technology of coupling accelerators to nuclear reactors. In these experiments electron accelerators induced photon-neutron reactions in heavy-metal targets to initiate fission reactions in ADS. Although the Idaho State University (ISU) RACE ADS was constructed only to develop measurement techniques for advanced experiments, many reactor kinetics experiments were conducted there. In the research reported in this dissertation, a method was developed to calculate kinetics parameters for measurement and calculation of the reactivity of ADS, a safety parameter that is necessary for control and monitoring of power production. Reactivity is measured in units of fraction of delayed versus prompt neutron from fission, a quantity that cannot be directly measured in far-subcritical reactors such as the ISU RACE configuration. A new technique is reported herein to calculate it accurately and to predict kinetic behavior of a far-subcritical ADS. Experiments conducted at ISU are first described and experimental data are presented before development of the kinetic theory used in the new computational method. Because of the complexity of the ISU ADS, the Monte-Carlo method as applied in the MCNP code is most suitable for modeling reactor kinetics. However, the standard method of calculating the delayed neutron fraction produces inaccurate values. A new method was developed and used herein to evaluate actual experiments. An advantage of this method is that its efficiency is independent of the fission yield of delayed neutrons, which makes it suitable for fuel with a minor actinide component (e.g. transmutation fuels). The implementation of this method is based on a correlated sampling technique which allows the accurate evaluation of delayed and prompt neutrons. The validity of the obtained results is indicated by good agreement between experimental

  2. Advanced Wind Turbine Drivetrain Concepts: Workshop Report, June 29-30, 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DOE, EERE

    2010-12-01

    This report presents key findings from the Department of Energy's Advanced Drivetrain Workshop, held on June 29-30, 2010 in Broomfield, Colorado, to assess different advanced drivetrain technologies, their relative potential to improve the state-of-the-art in wind turbine drivetrains, and the scope of research and development needed for their commercialization in wind turbine applications.

  3. Advances in conceptual design of a gas-cooled accelerator driven system (ADS) transmutation devices to sustainable nuclear energy development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, Rosales; Fajardo, Garcia; Curbelo, Perez; Oliva, Munoz; Hernandez, Garcia, E-mail: jrosales@instec.cu [Higher Institute of Technologies and Applied Sciences, Habana City (Cuba); Castells, Escriva [Energetic Engeniering Institute, Politechnical University of Valencia, Valencia (Spain); Abanades [Department of Simulation of Termoenergetic Systems, Politechnical University of Madrid, Madrid (Spain)

    2011-07-01

    The possibilities of a nuclear energy development are considerably increasing with the world energetic demand increment. However, the management of nuclear waste from conventional nuclear power plants and its inventory minimization are the most important issues that should be addressed. Fast reactors and Accelerator Driven Systems (ADS) are the main options to reduce the long-lived radioactive waste inventory. Pebble Bed Very High Temperature advanced systems have great perspectives to assume the future nuclear energy development challenges. The conceptual design of a Transmutation Advanced Device for Sustainable Energy Applications (TADSEA) has been made in preliminary studies. The TADSEA is an ADS cooled by helium and moderated by graphite that uses as fuel small amounts of transuranic elements in the form of TRISO particles, confined in 3 cm radius graphite pebbles forming a pebble bed configuration. It would be used for nuclear waste transmutation and energy production. In this paper, the results of a method for calculating the number of whole pebbles fitting in a volume according to its size are showed. From these results, the packing fraction influence on the TADSEAs main work parameters is studied. In addition, a redesign of the previous configuration, according to the established conditions in the preliminary design, i.e. the exit thermal power, is made. On the other hand, the heterogeneity of the TRISO particles inside the pebbles can not be negligible. In this paper, a study of the power density distribution inside the pebbles by means of a detailed simulation of the TRISO fuel particles and using an homogeneous composition of the fuel is addressed. (author)

  4. The downregulation of thioredoxin accelerated Neuro2a cell apoptosis induced by advanced glycation end product via activating several pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Xiang; Ma, Haiying; Qiu, Yuanyuan; Liu, Bo; Qi, Hui; Li, Zeyu; Kong, Hui; Kong, Li

    2015-08-01

    Thioredoxin (Trx), a 12 kDa protein, has different functions in different cellular environments, playing important anti-oxidative and anti-apoptotic roles and regulating the expression of transcription factors. Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are a heterogeneous group of irreversible adducts from glucose-protein condensation reactions and are considered crucial to the development of diabetic nephropathy, retinopathy, neurodegeneration and atherosclerosis. The aim of this study was to use a Trx inhibitor to investigate the effects and mechanism of Trx down-regulation on AGE-induced Neuro2a cell apoptosis. Neuro2a cells were cultured in vitro and treated with different conditions. The apoptosis and proliferation of Neuro2a cells were detected using flow cytometry, DNA-Ladder and CCK8 assays. Rho 123 was used to detect the mitochondrial membrane potential. ROS generation and caspase3 activity were detected using a DCFH-DA probe and micro-plate reader. Western blotting and real-time PCR were used to detect the expression of proteins and genes. We found that the down-regulation of thioredoxin could accelerate AGE-induced apoptosis in Neuro2a cells. A possible underlying mechanism is that the down-regulation of thioredoxin stimulated the up-regulation of ASK1, p-JNK, PTEN, and Txnip, as well as the down-regulation of p-AKT, ultimately increasing ROS levels and caspase3 activity.

  5. Duct wall impedance control as an advanced concept for acoustic suppression enhancement. [engine noise reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, P. D.

    1978-01-01

    A systems concept procedure is described for the optimization of acoustic duct liner design for both uniform and multisegment types. The concept was implemented by the use of a double reverberant chamber flow duct facility coupled with sophisticated computer control and acoustic analysis systems. The optimization procedure for liner insertion loss was based on the concept of variable liner impedance produced by bias air flow through a multilayer, resonant cavity liner. A multiple microphone technique for in situ wall impedance measurements was used and successfully adapted to produce automated measurements for all liner configurations tested. The complete validation of the systems concept was prevented by the inability to optimize the insertion loss using bias flow induced wall impedance changes. This inability appeared to be a direct function of the presence of a higher order energy carrying modes which were not influenced significantly by the wall impedance changes.

  6. Advanced Melting Technologies: Energy Saving Concepts and Opportunities for the Metal Casting Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2005-11-01

    The study examines current and emerging melting technologies and discusses their technical barriers to scale-up issues and research needed to advance these technologies, improving melting efficiency, lowering metal transfer heat loss, and reducing scrap.

  7. The Study of Advanced Accelerator Physics Research at UCLA Using the ATF at BNL: Vacuum Acceleration by Laser of Free Electrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cline, David B. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2016-09-07

    An experiment was designed and data were taken to demonstrate that a tightly focused laser on vacuum can accelerate an electron beam in free space. The experiment was proof-of-principle and showed a clear effect for the laser beam off and on. The size of the effect was about 20% and was consistent over 30 laser and beam shots.

  8. The Study of Advanced Accelerator Physics Research at UCLA Using the ATF at BNL: Vacuum Acceleration by Laser of Free Electrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cline, David B. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2016-09-07

    An experiment was designed and data taken to demonstrate that a tightly focused laser on vacuum can accelerate an electron beam in free space. The experiment was proof-of-principle and showed a clear effect for the laser beam off and on. The size of the effect was about 20% and was consistent over 30 laser and beam shots.

  9. FINAL REPORT DE-FG02-04ER41317 Advanced Computation and Chaotic Dynamics for Beams and Accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cary, John R [U. Colorado

    2014-09-08

    During the year ending in August 2013, we continued to investigate the potential of photonic crystal (PhC) materials for acceleration purposes. We worked to characterize acceleration ability of simple PhC accelerator structures, as well as to characterize PhC materials to determine whether current fabrication techniques can meet the needs of future accelerating structures. We have also continued to design and optimize PhC accelerator structures, with the ultimate goal of finding a new kind of accelerator structure that could offer significant advantages over current RF acceleration technology. This design and optimization of these requires high performance computation, and we continue to work on methods to make such computation faster and more efficient.

  10. Prospective randomized trial to compare accelerated (six fractions a week radiotherapy against concurrent chemoradiotherapy (using conventional fractionation in locally advanced head and neck cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj Gupta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Concurrent chemoradiation (CCRT is currently considered to be the standard of care in locally advanced head and neck cancer. The optimum radiotherapy schedule for best local control and acceptable toxicity is not yet clear. We aimed at shortening of treatment time by using accelerated radiation, thereby comparing the disease response, loco-regional tumor control and tolerability of accelerated radiation (six fractions per week against CCRT in locally advanced head and neck cancer. Materials and Methods: We conducted the prospective randomized study for a period of 2 years from June 2011 to May 2013 in 133 untreated patients of histologically confirmed squamous cell carcinoma of head and neck. Study group (66 patients received accelerated radiotherapy with 6 fractions per week (66Gy/33#/5½ weeks. Control group (67 patients received CCRT with 5 fractions per week radiation (66 Gy/33#/6½ weeks along with intravenous cisplatin 30 mg/m 2 weekly. Tumor control, survival, acute and late toxicities were assessed. Results: Median overall treatment time was 38 days and 45 days in the accelerated radiotherapy and concurrent chemoradiation arm, respectively. At a median follow up of 12 months, 41 patients (62.1% in the accelerated radiotherapy arm and 47 patients (70.1% in the CCRT arm were disease free (P = 0.402. Local disease control was comparable in both the arms. Acute toxicities were significantly higher in the CCRT arm as compared with accelerated radiotherapy arm. There was no difference in late toxicities between the two arms. Conclusion: We can achieve, same or near to the same local control, with lower toxicities with accelerated six fractions per week radiation compared with CCRT especially for Indian population.

  11. A Model of Academic Self-Concept: Perceived Difficulty and Social Comparison among Academically Accelerated Secondary School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Hope E.; Siegle, Del; McCoach, D. Betsy; Little, Catherine A.; Reis, Sally M.

    2014-01-01

    Academic self-concept predicts students' future goals and is affected by a student's relative success compared with his or her peer group. This exploratory study used structural equation modeling to examine the contributions of the perceived level of difficulty of the curriculum, in addition to the contributions of social comparison and…

  12. Development of Proof-of-Concept Units for the Advanced Medium-Sized Mobile Power Sources (AMMPS) Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andriulli, JB

    2002-04-03

    The purpose of this report is to document the development of the proof-of-concept units within the Advanced Medium-sized Mobile Power Sources (AMMPS) program. The design used a small, lightweight diesel engine, a permanent magnet alternator, power electronics and digital controls as outlined in the philosophy detailed previously. One small proof-of-concept unit was completed and delivered to the military. The unit functioned well but was not optimized at the time of delivery to the military. A tremendous amount of experience was gained during this phase that can be used in the development of any follow-on AMMPS production systems. Lessons learned and recommendations for follow-on specifications are provided. The unit demonstrated that significant benefits are possible with the new design philosophy. Trade-offs will have to be made but many of the advantages appear to be within the technical grasp of the market.

  13. Development and proof-testing of advanced absorption refrigeration cycle concepts. Report on Phases 1 and 1A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Modahl, R.J.; Hayes, F.C. [Trane Co., La Crosse, WI (United States). Applied Unitary/Refrigeration Systems Div.

    1992-03-01

    The overall objectives of this project are to evaluate, develop, and proof-test advanced absorption refrigeration cycles that are applicable to residential and commercial heat pumps for space conditioning. The heat pump system is to be direct-fired with natural gas and is to use absorption working fluids whose properties are known. Target coefficients of performance (COPs) are 1.6 at 47{degrees}F and 1.2 at 17{degrees} in the heating mode, and 0.7 at 95{degree}F in the cooling mode, including the effect of flue losses. The project is divided into three phases. Phase I entailed the analytical evaluation of advanced cycles and included the selection of preferred concepts for further development. Phase II involves the development and testing of critical components and of a complete laboratory breadboard version of the selected system. Phase III calls for the development of a prototype unit and is contingent on the successful completion of Phase II. This report covers Phase I work on the project. In Phase 1, 24 advanced absorption cycle/fluid combinations were evaluated, and computer models were developed to predict system performance. COP, theoretical pump power, and internal heat exchange were calculated for each system, and these calculations were used as indicators of operating and installed costs in order to rank the relative promise of each system. The highest ranking systems involve the cycle concept of absorber/generator heat exchange, generator heat exchanger/absorber heat exchange, regeneration, and resorption/desorption, in combination with the NH{sub 3}/H{sub 2}O/LiBr ternary absorption fluid mixture or with the NH{sub 3}/H{sub 2}O binary solution. Based upon these conclusions, the recommendation was made to proceed to Phase II, the laboratory breadboard proof-of- concept.

  14. Conceptual design of advanced central receiver power systems sodium-cooled receiver concept. Volume 1. Executive summary. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-06-01

    The conceptual design of an advanced central receiver power system using liquid sodium as a heat transport medium has been completed by a team consisting of the Energy Systems Group (prime contractor), McDonnell Douglas, Stearns-Roger, The University of Houston, and Salt River Project. The purpose of this study was to determine the technical and economic advantages of this concept for commercial-scale power plants. This final report covers all tasks of the project. These tasks were as follows: (1) review and analysis of preliminary specification; (2) parametric analysis; (3) select commercial configuration; (4) commercial plant conceptual design; (5) assessment of commercial plant; (6) advanced central receiver power system development plan; (7) program plan; (8) reports and data; (9) program management; and (10) safety analysis. A programmatic overview of the accomplishments of this program is given. The 100-MW conceptual commercial plant, the 281-MW optimum plant, and the 10-MW pilot plant are described. (WHK)

  15. A Model for Infusing Energy Concepts into Vocational Education Programs. Advanced Solar Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delta Vocational Technical School, Marked Tree, AR.

    This instructional unit consists of materials designed to help students understand terms associated with solar energy; identify components of advanced solar systems; and identify applications of solar energy in business, industry, agriculture, and photovoltaics. Included in the unit are the following materials: suggested activities, instructional…

  16. Advanced Concepts of the Propulsion System for the Futuristic Gun Ammunition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.S. Darnse

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available This review paper reports various concepts of the gun propulsion system to meet the goal of the futuristic hypervelocity projectiles. The nonconventional concepts, such as liquid gun propellant, rail gun, coil gun, electrothermal gun, electrothermal chemical gun along with conventional energetic solid gun propellant have been discussed. Even though muzzle velocity around 2000 m/s has been claimed to be achieved using such nonconventional propulsion systems, it will take quite some time before such systems are in regular use in the battlefield. Hence, solid gun propellants containing novel energetic ingredients (binders, plasticisers, and oxidisers would continue to be used in the near future and are expected to meet the requirements of the futuristic gun ammunition.

  17. Advanced Concepts: Enabling Future AF Missions Through the Discovery and Demonstration of Emerging Revolutionary Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-03

    Laboratory Ar Argon AU Astronomical Unit BEP Beamed Energy Propulsion CBCF Carbon-Bonded-Carbon-Fiber CFD Computational Fluid Dynamics COTS...were identified including: gun launch, microwave and laser beamed energy propulsion ( BEP ), and high performance upper stages such as solar thermal...propulsion systems. Only one of the BEP concepts, microwave thrust augmentation of solid rocket motors, was pursued due to budgetary and time

  18. Advanced storage concepts for solar thermal systems in low energy buildings. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furbo, S.; Andersen, Elsa; Schultz, Joergen M.

    2006-04-07

    The aim of Task 32 is to develop new and advanced heat storage systems which are economic and technical suitable as long-term heat storage systems for solar heating plants with a high degree of coverage. The project is international and Denmark's participation has focused on Subtask A, C, and D. In Subtask A Denmark has contributed to a status report about heat storage systems. In Subtask C Denmark has focused on liquid thermal storage tanks based on NaCH{sub 3}COO?3H{sub 2}O with a melting point of 58 deg. C. Theoretical and experimental tests have been conducted in order to establish optimum conditions for storage design. In Subtask D theoretical and experimental tests of optimum designs for advanced water tanks for solar heating plants for combined space heating and domestic hot water have been conducted. (BA)

  19. Development of advanced NO sub x control concepts for coal-fired utility boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newhall, J.; England, G.; Seeker, W.R.

    1991-12-23

    Energy and Environmental Research Corporation (EER) is currently conducting a test program to develop an advanced NO{sub x} control method utilizing reburning, promoted selective noncatalytic agent injection. The study will consist of fundamental and process testing over a large enough range of operating parameters to significantly reduce the risk of a full scale demonstration project. The test plan for the fundamental testing phase of the program is presented here.

  20. Final Report on "Development and Testing of Advanced Accelerator Structures and Technologies at 11.424 GHz"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gold, Steven H. [Naval Research Laboratory

    2013-10-13

    This is the final report on the research program ?Development and Testing of Advanced Accelerator Structures and Technologies at 11.424 GHz,? which was carried out by the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) under Interagency Agreement DE?AI02?01ER41170 with the Department of Energy. The period covered by this report is 15 July 2010 ? 14 July 2013. The program included two principal tasks. Task 1 involved a study of the key physics issues related to the use of high gradient dielectric-loaded accelerating (DLA) structures in rf linear accelerators and was carried out in collaboration with Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and Euclid Techlabs LLC. Task 2 involved a study of high power active microwave pulse compressors and was carried out in collaboration with Omega-P, Inc. and the Institute of Applied Physics of the Russian Academy of Sciences in Nizhny Novgorod. The studies under Task 1 were focused on rf-induced multipactor and breakdown in externally driven DLA structures at the 200-ns timescale. Suppression of multipactor and breakdown are essential to the practical application of dielectric structures in rf linear accelerators. The structures that were studied were developed by ANL and Euclid Techlabs and their performance was evaluated at high power in the X-band Magnicon Laboratory at NRL. Three structures were designed, fabricated, and tested, and the results analyzed in the first two years of the program: a clamped quartz traveling-wave (TW) structure, a externally copper-coated TW structure, and an externally copper-coated dielectric standing-wave (SW) structure. These structures showed that rf breakdown could be largely eliminated by eliminating dielectric joints in the structures, but that the multipactor loading was omnipresent. In the third year of the program, the focus of the program was on multipactor suppression using a strong applied axial magnetic field, as proposed by Chang et al. [C. Chang et al., J. Appl. Phys. 110, 063304 (2011).], and a

  1. Advancing Empirical Approaches to the Concept of Resilience: A Critical Examination of Panarchy, Ecological Information, and Statistical Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Kharrazi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Despite its ambiguities, the concept of resilience is of critical importance to researchers, practitioners, and policy-makers in dealing with dynamic socio-ecological systems. In this paper, we critically examine the three empirical approaches of (i panarchy; (ii ecological information-based network analysis; and (iii statistical evidence of resilience to three criteria determined for achieving a comprehensive understanding and application of this concept. These criteria are the ability: (1 to reflect a system’s adaptability to shocks; (2 to integrate social and environmental dimensions; and (3 to evaluate system-level trade-offs. Our findings show that none of the three currently applied approaches are strong in handling all three criteria. Panarchy is strong in the first two criteria but has difficulty with normative trade-offs. The ecological information-based approach is strongest in evaluating trade-offs but relies on common dimensions that lead to over-simplifications in integrating the social and environmental dimensions. Statistical evidence provides suggestions that are simplest and easiest to act upon but are generally weak in all three criteria. This analysis confirms the value of these approaches in specific instances but also the need for further research in advancing empirical approaches to the concept of resilience.

  2. AVID - A design system for technology studies of advanced transportation concepts. [Aerospace Vehicle Interactive Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhite, A. W.; Rehder, J. J.

    1979-01-01

    The basic AVID (Aerospace Vehicle Interactive Design) is a general system for conceptual and preliminary design currently being applied to a broad range of future space transportation and spacecraft vehicle concepts. AVID hardware includes a minicomputer allowing rapid designer interaction. AVID software includes (1) an executive program and communication data base which provide the automated capability to couple individual programs, either individually in an interactive mode or chained together in an automatic sequence mode; and (2) the individual technology and utility programs which provide analysis capability in areas such as graphics, aerodynamics, propulsion, flight performance, weights, sizing, and costs.

  3. Materials technology for an advanced space power nuclear reactor concept: Program summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gluyas, R. E.; Watson, G. K.

    1975-01-01

    The results of a materials technology program for a long-life (50,000 hr), high-temperature (950 C coolant outlet), lithium-cooled, nuclear space power reactor concept are reviewed and discussed. Fabrication methods and compatibility and property data were developed for candidate materials for fuel pins and, to a lesser extent, for potential control systems, reflectors, reactor vessel and piping, and other reactor structural materials. The effects of selected materials variables on fuel pin irradiation performance were determined. The most promising materials for fuel pins were found to be 85 percent dense uranium mononitride (UN) fuel clad with tungsten-lined T-111 (Ta-8W-2Hf).

  4. Advanced Simulation and Optimization Tools for Dynamic Aperture of Non-scaling FFAGs and Accelerators including Modern User Interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mills, F.; Makino, Kyoko; Berz, Martin; Johnstone, C.

    2010-09-01

    With the U.S. experimental effort in HEP largely located at laboratories supporting the operations of large, highly specialized accelerators, colliding beam facilities, and detector facilities, the understanding and prediction of high energy particle accelerators becomes critical to the success, overall, of the DOE HEP program. One area in which small businesses can contribute to the ongoing success of the U.S. program in HEP is through innovations in computer techniques and sophistication in the modeling of high-energy accelerators. Accelerator modeling at these facilities is performed by experts with the product generally highly specific and representative only of in-house accelerators or special-interest accelerator problems. Development of new types of accelerators like FFAGs with their wide choices of parameter modifications, complicated fields, and the simultaneous need to efficiently handle very large emittance beams requires the availability of new simulation environments to assure predictability in operation. In this, ease of use and interfaces are critical to realizing a successful model, or optimization of a new design or working parameters of machines. In Phase I, various core modules for the design and analysis of FFAGs were developed and Graphical User Interfaces (GUI) have been investigated instead of the more general yet less easily manageable console-type output COSY provides.

  5. Summary Report of Working Group 6: Laser-Plasma Acceleration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leemans, Wim P.; Downer, Michael; Siders, Craig

    2006-07-01

    A summary is given of presentations and discussions in theLaser-Plasma Acceleration Working Group at the 2006 Advanced AcceleratorConcepts Workshop. Presentation highlights include: widespreadobservation of quasi-monoenergetic electrons; good agreement betweenmeasured and simulated beam properties; the first demonstration oflaser-plasma acceleration up to 1 GeV; single-shot visualization of laserwakefield structure; new methods for measuring<100 fs electronbunches; and new methods for "machining" laser-plasma acceleratorstructures. Discussion of future direction includes: developing a roadmapfor laser-plasma acceleration beyond 1 GeV; a debate over injection andguiding; benchmarking simulations with improved wake diagnostics;petawatt laser technology for future laser-plasmaaccelerators.

  6. Compensatory extension of gestation length with advance of conception in red deer (Cervus elaphus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Andrés José; Landete-Castillejos, Tomás; Carrión, Débora; Gaspar-López, Enrique; Gallego, Laureano

    2006-01-01

    Calving date in many mammals is matched to the time of greatest food availability. Out of season calving results in heavy penalties in terms of own and offspring survival or body condition. This study examined whether gestation length is affected by advancing fertilisation. Thirty-six red deer hinds (of the Iberian and Scottish subspecies) were subjected to a synchronisation treatment of oestrus, ovulation, and artificial insemination on three dates, with remaining non-pregnant females mated with an intact male in a last group. Gestation was longer the more the fertilisation was advanced; gestation lasted 241.5+/-1.3 days (d) in the first group, 237.4+/-1.2 d in the second, 235.1+/-1.3 d in the third, and 231.2+/-1.6 d in the last. Mean gestation lasted 234.2+/-0.7 d. Hinds gained less weight during gestation the more the fertilisation was advanced. The difference was due at least in part to net body weight of the hind after calving compared to that at mating, and calves did not differ in birth weight. As early born calves suffer greater mortality in the field, this enlargening of gestation might be a compensatory response of the hinds to match calving with food availability. Under natural conditions, similar small modifications of gestation length may help hinds to overcome short-term adverse conditions for calving. Because calf mortality is correlated with birth weight, hinds may have kept calf birth weight constant at the expense of greater body weight loss.

  7. Accuracy Improvement Capability of Advanced Projectile Based on Course Correction Fuze Concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Elsaadany

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Improvement in terminal accuracy is an important objective for future artillery projectiles. Generally it is often associated with range extension. Various concepts and modifications are proposed to correct the range and drift of artillery projectile like course correction fuze. The course correction fuze concepts could provide an attractive and cost-effective solution for munitions accuracy improvement. In this paper, the trajectory correction has been obtained using two kinds of course correction modules, one is devoted to range correction (drag ring brake and the second is devoted to drift correction (canard based-correction fuze. The course correction modules have been characterized by aerodynamic computations and flight dynamic investigations in order to analyze the effects on deflection of the projectile aerodynamic parameters. The simulation results show that the impact accuracy of a conventional projectile using these course correction modules can be improved. The drag ring brake is found to be highly capable for range correction. The deploying of the drag brake in early stage of trajectory results in large range correction. The correction occasion time can be predefined depending on required correction of range. On the other hand, the canard based-correction fuze is found to have a higher effect on the projectile drift by modifying its roll rate. In addition, the canard extension induces a high-frequency incidence angle as canards reciprocate at the roll motion.

  8. Accuracy improvement capability of advanced projectile based on course correction fuze concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsaadany, Ahmed; Wen-jun, Yi

    2014-01-01

    Improvement in terminal accuracy is an important objective for future artillery projectiles. Generally it is often associated with range extension. Various concepts and modifications are proposed to correct the range and drift of artillery projectile like course correction fuze. The course correction fuze concepts could provide an attractive and cost-effective solution for munitions accuracy improvement. In this paper, the trajectory correction has been obtained using two kinds of course correction modules, one is devoted to range correction (drag ring brake) and the second is devoted to drift correction (canard based-correction fuze). The course correction modules have been characterized by aerodynamic computations and flight dynamic investigations in order to analyze the effects on deflection of the projectile aerodynamic parameters. The simulation results show that the impact accuracy of a conventional projectile using these course correction modules can be improved. The drag ring brake is found to be highly capable for range correction. The deploying of the drag brake in early stage of trajectory results in large range correction. The correction occasion time can be predefined depending on required correction of range. On the other hand, the canard based-correction fuze is found to have a higher effect on the projectile drift by modifying its roll rate. In addition, the canard extension induces a high-frequency incidence angle as canards reciprocate at the roll motion.

  9. Clinical evaluation of accelerated hyperfractionated irradiation for locally advanced head and neck cancer with concomitant use of daily low-dose Carboplatin (CBDCA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatano, Kazuo; Sekiya, Yuichi; Araki, Hitoshi [Chiba Cancer Center (Japan)

    1998-02-01

    From May 1994 to May 1996, 39 patients with locally advanced head and neck cancer were treated with accelerated hyperfractionated irradiation (1.6 Gy, twice daily, 10 times a week, with minimum interval of 6 hours between fractions and the total tumor dose to 70.4 Gy) and concomitant use of daily low-dose Carboplatin (30 mg/body). The average age was 64.2 years (38-85). The median follow-up period was 16.4 months with a range of 2-36 months. Complete response rate was 66.7%. The organ preservation rates were almost acceptable in advanced cases. The major acute toxicity was stomatitis, but no therapeutic interruption was observed. Grade 4 laryngeal late sequelae was observed in 2 cases. We think this method is effective for locally advanced head and neck cancer but total dose should be reduced to 67.2 Gy for laryngeal and hypopharyngeal cancer. (author)

  10. Experiments in advanced control concepts for space robotics - An overview of the Stanford Aerospace Robotics Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollars, M. G.; Cannon, R. H., Jr.; Alexander, H. L.; Morse, D. F.

    1987-01-01

    The Stanford University Aerospace Robotics Laboratory is actively developing and experimentally testing advanced robot control strategies for space robotic applications. Early experiments focused on control of very lightweight one-link manipulators and other flexible structures. The results are being extended to position and force control of mini-manipulators attached to flexible manipulators and multilink manipulators with flexible drive trains. Experimental results show that end-point sensing and careful dynamic modeling or adaptive control are key to the success of these control strategies. Free-flying space robot simulators that operate on an air cushion table have been built to test control strategies in which the dynamics of the base of the robot and the payload are important.

  11. Heat-Pipe Development for Advanced Energy Transport Concepts Final Report Covering the Period January 1999 through September 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R.S.Reid; J.F.Sena; A.L.Martinez

    2002-10-01

    This report summarizes work in the Heat-pipe Technology Development for the Advanced Energy Transport Concepts program for the period January 1999 through September 2001. A gas-loaded molybdenum-sodium heat pipe was built to demonstrate the active pressure-control principle applied to a refractory metal heat pipe. Other work during the period included the development of processing procedures for and fabrication and testing of three types of sodium heat pipes using Haynes 230, MA 754, and MA 956 wall materials to assess the compatibility of these materials with sodium. Also during this period, tests were executed to measure the response of a sodium heat pipe to the penetration of water.

  12. Challenging and Future of Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition Engines; an Advanced and Novel Concepts Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkelawy, Medhat; Yu-Sheng, Zhang; Hagar, Alm El-Din; Yu, Jing-Zhou

    The potential of HCCI combustion to reduce the internal combustion engines exhaust emissions, particularly NOX and soot emissions, and to delimit the application range of this technique as well as a detailed analysis of previous and current results of combustion chemistry, emission behaviors, the challenging facing this technique, and all controlling parameters including transient states are introduced. From HCCI combustion chemistry and emissions analysis it was found that, the heavy fuels displays two-stage heat release or two stage combustion process involving low temperature oxidation (LTO) stage followed by high temperature oxidation (HTO) stage separated by a time delay between them is attributed to negative temperature coefficient (NTC), the advantage of NOX emissions reduction from HCCI engine diminishing at high load condition, HC production is reduced with increasing the engine load, and the soot ejection is negligible during all operating conditions. Valve timing, compression ratio, inlet air temperature, and EGR show an advanced control on the HCCI combustion behaviors over a wide range of speed and load. The use of EGR in HCCI operation is limited at EGR-rates about 70% at this point the reaction rates and ignition timing are so much reduced and retarded, respectively, and leads to misfiring and production of HC-emissions. Homogenization of fuel, air, and recycled burnt gases prior to ignition in addition to the control of ignition and combustion timing, and heat release rates are obstructs that must be overcome in order to realize the advantages of HCCI engine in the future.

  13. Feasibility and Safety Assessment for Advanced Reactor Concepts Using Vented Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, Andrew [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States). Nuclear Engineering and Radiation Health Physics; Matthews, Topher [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States); Lenhof, Renae [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States); Deason, Wesley [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States); Harter, Jackson [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States)

    2015-01-16

    Recent interest in fast reactor technology has led to renewed analysis of past reactor concepts such as Gas Fast Reactors and Sodium Fast Reactors. In an effort to make these reactors more economic, the fuel is required to stay in the reactor for extended periods of time; the longer the fuel stays within the core, the more fertile material is converted into usable fissile material. However, as burnup of the fuel-rod increases, so does the internal pressure buildup due to gaseous fission products. In order to reach the 30 year lifetime requirements of some reactor designs, the fuel pins must have a vented-type design to allow the buildup of fission products to escape. The present work aims to progress the understanding of the feasibility and safety issues related to gas reactors that incorporate vented fuel. The work was separated into three different work-scopes: 1. Quantitatively determine fission gas release from uranium carbide in a representative helium cooled fast reactor; 2. Model the fission gas behavior, transport, and collection in a Fission Product Vent System; and, 3. Perform a safety analysis of the Fission Product Vent System. Each task relied on results from the previous task, culminating in a limited scope Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) of the Fission Product Vent System. Within each task, many key parameters lack the fidelity needed for comprehensive or accurate analysis. In the process of completing each task, the data or methods that were lacking were identified and compiled in a Gap Analysis included at the end of the report.

  14. Advanced combustor design concepts to control NO{sub x} and air toxics. Quarterly report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pershing, D.W.; Lighty, J.; Veranth, J. [Utah Univ., Salt Lake City, UT (United States). Coll. of Engineering; Sarofim, A.; Goel, S. [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1995-04-28

    The University of Utah, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Reaction Engineering International (REI) and ABB/Combustion Engineering have joined together in this research proposal to develop fundamental understanding regarding the impact of fuel and combustion changes on ignition stability and flame characteristics because these critically affect: NO{sub x} emissions, carbon burnout, and emissions of air toxics; existing laboratory and bench scale facilities are being used to generate critical missing data which will be used to improve the NO{sub x} and carbon burnout submodels in comprehensive combustion simulation tools currently being used by industrial boiler manufacturers. To ensure effective and timely transfer of This technology, a major manufacturer (ABB) and a combustion model supplier (REI) have been included as part of the team from the early conception of the proposal. ABB/Combustion Engineering is providing needed fundamental data on the extent of volatile evolution from commercial coals as well as background information on current design needs in industrial practice. MIT is responsible for the development of an improved char nitrogen oxidation model which will ultimately be incorporated into an enhanced NO{sup x} submodel. Reaction Engineering International is providing the lead engineering staff for the experimental studies and an overall industrial focus for the work based on their use of the combustion simulation tools for a wide variety of industries. The University of Utah is conducting bench scale experimentation to (1) investigate alternative methods for enhancing flame stability to reduce NO{sub x} emissions and (2) characterize air toxic emissions under ultralow NO{sub x} conditions. Accomplishments for this quarter are presented to the solid sampling system and char nitrogen modeling.

  15. Atmospheric fluidized bed combustion advanced system concepts applicable to small industrial and commercial markets. Topical report, Level 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ake, T.R.; Dixit, V.B.; Mongeon, R.K.

    1992-09-01

    As part of an overall strategy to promote FBC coal combustion and to improve the marketability of the eastern coals, the US Department of Energy`s Morgantown Energy Research Center awarded a three level contract to Riley Stoker Corporation to develop advanced Multi Solids Fluidized Bed (MSFB) boiler designs. The first level of this contract targeted the small package boiler (10,000--50,000 lb/hr steam) and industrial size boiler (75,000--150,000 lb/hr steam) markets. Two representative sizes, 30,000 lb/hr and 110,000 lb/hr of steam, were selected for the two categories for a detailed technical and economic evaluation. Technically, both the designs showed promise, however, the advanced industrial design was favored on economic considerations. It was thus selected for further study in the second level of the contract. Results of this Level-2 effort, presented in this report, consisted of testing the design concept in Riley`s 4.4 MBtu/hr pilot MSFB facility located at Riley Research Center in Worcester, Mass. The design and economics of the proof of concept facility developed in Level-1 of the contract were then revised in accordance with the findings of the pilot test program. A host site for commercial demonstration in Level-3 of the contract was also secured. It was determined that co-firing coal in combination with paper de-inking sludge will broaden the applicability of the design beyond conventional markets. International Paper (IP), the largest paper company in the world, is willing to participate in this part of the program. IP has offered its Hammermill operation at Lockhaven, Pa, site of a future paper de-inking plant, for the proof of concept installation. This plant will go in operation in 1994. It is recommended that METC proceed to the commercial demonstration of the design developed. The approach necessary to satisfy the needs of the customer while meeting the objectives of this program is presented along with a recommended plan of action.

  16. Advanced Offshore Wind Turbine/Foundation Concept for the Great Lakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Afjeh, Abdollah A. [Univ. of Toledo, OH (United States); Windpower, Nautica [Nautica Windpower, Olmsted Falls, OH (United States); Marrone, Joseph [OCC COWI, Vancouver (Canada); Wagner, Thomas [Nautica Windpower, Olmsted Falls, OH (United States)

    2013-08-29

    This project investigated a conceptual 2-bladed rotor wind turbine design and assessed its feasibility for installation in the Great Lakes. The levelized cost of energy was used for this purpose. A location in Lake Erie near the coast of Cleveland, Ohio was selected as the application site. The loading environment was defined using wind and wave data collected at a weather station in Lake Erie near Cleveland. In addition, the probability distributions of the annual significant wave height and wind speed were determined. A model of the dependence of the above two quantities was also developed and used in the study of wind turbine system loads. Loads from ice floes and ridges were also included.The NREL 5 MW 3-bladed rotor wind turbine concept was used as the baseline design. The proposed turbine design employs variable pitch blade control with tip-brakes and a teeter mechanism. The rotor diameter, rated power and the tower dimensions were selected to closely match those of the NREL 5 MW wind turbine.A semi-floating gravity base foundation was designed for this project primarily to adapt to regional logistical constraints to transport and install the gravity base foundation. This foundation consists of, from bottom to top, a base plate, a buoyancy chamber, a taper zone, a column (with ice cone), and a service platform. A compound upward-downward ice cone was selected to secure the foundation from moving because of ice impact.The turbine loads analysis was based on International ElectroTechnical Committee (IEC) Standard 61400-1, Class III winds. The NREL software FAST was the primary computational tool used in this study to determine all design load cases. An initial set of studies of the dynamics of wind turbines using Automatic Dynamic Analysis of Mechanical Systems (ADAMS) demonstrated that FAST and ADAMS load predictions were comparable. Because of its relative simplicity and short run times, FAST was selected for this study. For ice load calculations, a method

  17. Advanced Underground Gas Storage Concepts: Refrigerated-Mined Cavern Storage, Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none

    1998-09-30

    Over the past 40 years, cavern storage of LPG's, petrochemicals, such as ethylene and propylene, and other petroleum products has increased dramatically. In 1991, the Gas Processors Association (GPA) lists the total U.S. underground storage capacity for LPG's and related products of approximately 519 million barrels (82.5 million cubic meters) in 1,122 separate caverns. Of this total, 70 are hard rock caverns and the remaining 1,052 are caverns in salt deposits. However, along the eastern seaboard of the U.S. and the Pacific northwest, salt deposits are not available and therefore, storage in hard rocks is required. Limited demand and high cost has prevented the construction of hard rock caverns in this country for a number of years. The storage of natural gas in mined caverns may prove technically feasible if the geology of the targeted market area is suitable; and economically feasible if the cost and convenience of service is competitive with alternative available storage methods for peak supply requirements. Competing methods include LNG facilities and remote underground storage combined with pipeline transportation to the area. It is believed that mined cavern storage can provide the advantages of high delivery rates and multiple fill withdrawal cycles in areas where salt cavern storage is not possible. In this research project, PB-KBB merged advanced mining technologies and gas refrigeration techniques to develop conceptual designs and cost estimates to demonstrate the commercialization potential of the storage of refrigerated natural gas in hard rock caverns. DOE has identified five regions, that have not had favorable geological conditions for underground storage development: New England, Mid-Atlantic (NY/NJ), South Atlantic (DL/MD/VA), South Atlantic (NC/SC/GA), and the Pacific Northwest (WA/OR). PB-KBB reviewed published literature and in-house databases of the geology of these regions to determine suitability of hard rock formations for siting

  18. TeV/m Nano-Accelerator: Current Status of CNT-Channeling Acceleration Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Young Min [Northern Illinois U.; Lumpkin, Alex H. [Fermilab; Thangaraj, Jayakar Charles [Fermilab; Thurman-Keup, Randy Michael [Fermilab; Shiltsev, Vladimir D. [Fermilab

    2014-09-17

    Crystal channeling technology has offered various opportunities in the accelerator community with a viability of ultrahigh gradient (TV/m) acceleration for future HEP collider. The major challenge of channeling acceleration is that ultimate acceleration gradients might require a high power driver in the hard x-ray regime (~ 40 keV). This x-ray energy exceeds those for x-rays as of today, although x-ray lasers can efficiently excite solid plasma and accelerate particles inside a crystal channel. Moreover, only disposable crystal accelerators are possible at such high externally excited fields which would exceed the ionization thresholds destroying the atomic structure, so acceleration will take place only in a short time before full dissociation of the lattice. Carbon-based nanostructures have great potential with a wide range of flexibility and superior physical strength, which can be applied to channeling acceleration. This paper presents a beam- driven channeling acceleration concept with CNTs and discusses feasible experiments with the Advanced Superconducting Test Accelerator (ASTA) in Fermilab.

  19. ROBOTICALLY ENHANCED ADVANCED MANUFACTURING CONCEPTS TO OPTIMIZE ENERGY, PRODUCTIVITY, AND ENVIRONMENTAL PERFORMANCE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larry L. Keller; Joseph M. Pack; Robert V. Kolarik II

    2007-11-05

    In the first phase of the REML project, major assets were acquired for a manufacturing line for follow-on installation, capability studies and optimization. That activity has been documented in the DE-FC36-99ID13819 final report. In this the second phase of the REML project, most of the major assets have been installed in a manufacturing line arrangement featuring a green cell, a thermal treatment cell and a finishing cell. Most of the secondary and support assets have been acquired and installed. Assets have been integrated with a commercial, machine-tending gantry robot in the thermal treatment cell and with a low-mass, high-speed gantry robot in the finish cell. Capabilities for masterless gauging of product’s dimensional and form characteristics were advanced. Trial production runs across the entire REML line have been undertaken. Discrete event simulation modeling has aided in line balancing and reduction of flow time. Energy, productivity and cost, and environmental comparisons to baselines have been made. Energy The REML line in its current state of development has been measured to be about 22% (338,000 kVA-hrs) less energy intensive than the baseline conventional low volume line assuming equivalent annual production volume of approximately 51,000 races. The reduction in energy consumption is largely attributable to the energy reduction in the REML thermal treatment cell where the heating devices are energized on demand and are appropriately sized to the heating load of a near single piece flow line. If additional steps such as power factor correction and use of high-efficiency motors were implemented to further reduce energy consumption, it is estimated, but not yet demonstrated, that the REML line would be about 30% less energy intensive than the baseline conventional low volume line assuming equivalent annual production volume. Productivity The capital cost of an REML line would be roughly equivalent to the capital cost of a new conventional line. The

  20. Earth's Critical Zone and hydropedology: concepts, characteristics, and advances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. S. Lin

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The Critical Zone (CZ is a holistic framework for integrated studies of water with soil, rock, air, and biotic resources in terrestrial environments. This is consistent with the recognition of water as a unifying theme for research on complex environmental systems. The CZ ranges from the top of the vegetation down to the bottom of the aquifer, with a highly variable thickness (from <0.001 to >10 km. The pedosphere is the foundation of the CZ, which represents a geomembrance across which water and solutes, as well as energy, gases, solids, and organisms are actively exchanged with the atmosphere, biosphere, hydrosphere, and lithosphere to create a life-sustaining environment. Hydropedology – the science of the behaviour and distribution of soil-water interactions in contact with mineral and biological materials in the CZ – is an important contributor to CZ research. This article reviews and discusses the basic ideas and fundamental features of the CZ and hydropedology, and suggests ways for their advances. An "outward" growth model, instead of an "inward" contraction, is suggested for propelling soil science forward. The CZ is the right platform for synergistic collaborations across disciplines. The reconciliation of the geological (or "big" cycle and the biological (or "small" cycle that are orders of magnitude different in space and time is a key to understanding and predicting complex CZ processes. Because of the layered nature of the CZ and the general trend of increasing density with depth, response and feedback to climate change take longer from the above-ground zone down to the soil zone and further to the groundwater zone. Interfaces between layers and cycles are critical controls of the landscape-soil-water-ecosystem dynamics, which present fertile grounds for interdisciplinary research. Ubiquitous heterogeneity in the CZ can be addressed by environmental gradients and landscape patterns, where hierarchical structures control the

  1. Accelerated radiotherapy with concomitant boost technique (69.5 Gy/5 weeks). An alternative in the treatment of locally advanced head and neck cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubes, Jiri; Vondracek, Vladimir; Pala, Miloslav [Prague Univ., Prag (Czech Republic). Inst. of Radiation Oncology; Cvek, Jakub; Feltl, David [Faculty Hospital Ostrava (Czech Republic). Dept. of Oncology

    2011-10-15

    To present the feasibility and results of accelerated radiotherapy with concomitant boost technique (69.5 Gy/5 weeks) in the treatment of locally advanced head and neck cancer. A total of 65 patients were treated between June 2006 and August 2009. The distribution of clinical stages was as follows: II 11%, III 23%, IV 61%, and not defined 5%. The median follow-up was 30.5 months. The treatment plan was completed in 94% of patients. Patients were treated using the conformal or intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) technique. The median overall treatment time was 37 days (13-45 days). The mean radiotherapy dose was 68.4 Gy (16-74 Gy). Overall survival was 69% after 2 years. Disease-free survival was 62% after 2 years. Acute toxicity {>=} grade 3(RTOG scale) included mucositis (grade 3: 42.6%), pharynx (grade 3: 42.3%), skin (grade 3: 9.5%), larynx (grade 3: 4%), while late toxicity affected skin (grade 3: 6.25%) and salivary glands (grade 3: 3.7%). Accelerated radiotherapy with concomitant boost technique is feasible in patients with locally advanced head and neck cancer, has an acceptable toxicity profile, and yields promising treatment results.

  2. Summary report of working group 4: Beam-driven acceleration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litos, M.; Jing, C.

    2017-03-01

    Despite the urgent need for a TeV-class linear collider in High-Energy Physics (HEP), a clear path to buildable and affordable accelerator technologies has yet to be realized. Clearly, the identification and advancement of next generation accelerator technologies for a linear collider have been one of the main charges since the inception of the Advanced Accelerator Concepts (AAC) workshop. The fundamental requirements of linear colliders for accelerator technologies are to demonstrate high wall-plug efficiency, high beam quality preservation, high effective gradient, scalability, etc. Within the AAC community, beam-driven wakefield acceleration schemes (the central subject of Working Group 4) are always promising and attractive approaches. Since the last AAC workshop, a few high profile experiments related to beam-driven plasma wakefield acceleration have been conducted at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory's FACET facility. These experiments have successfully answered questions related to obtaining high beam energy transfer efficiency, demonstrating high gradient positron acceleration, and demonstrating high quality witness beam acceleration. Research on beam-driven structure-based wakefield acceleration has also demonstrated significant results for high gradient acceleration, including longitudinal bunch shaping for high efficiency and beam breakup control. As an important application or a stepping-stone facility, beam-driven plasma or structure-based wakefield accelerators for 5th generation FEL light sources have attracted broad attention. Studies have been undertaken on various aspects, ranging from the overall parameterizations to detailed beam generation and control technologies. Other related applications, such as high power RF and THz generation, beam modulation and energy chirp compensation, are also within the scope of our Working Group. In summary, WG4 examined the advancement of beam-driven wakefield accelerators (plasma and structure-based) in

  3. Equipment concept design and development plans for microgravity science and applications research on space station: Combustion tunnel, laser diagnostic system, advanced modular furnace, integrated electronics laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhran, M. L.; Youngblood, W. W.; Georgekutty, T.; Fiske, M. R.; Wear, W. O.

    1986-01-01

    Taking advantage of the microgravity environment of space NASA has initiated the preliminary design of a permanently manned space station that will support technological advances in process science and stimulate the development of new and improved materials having applications across the commercial spectrum. Previous studies have been performed to define from the researcher's perspective, the requirements for laboratory equipment to accommodate microgravity experiments on the space station. Functional requirements for the identified experimental apparatus and support equipment were determined. From these hardware requirements, several items were selected for concept designs and subsequent formulation of development plans. This report documents the concept designs and development plans for two items of experiment apparatus - the Combustion Tunnel and the Advanced Modular Furnace, and two items of support equipment the Laser Diagnostic System and the Integrated Electronics Laboratory. For each concept design, key technology developments were identified that are required to enable or enhance the development of the respective hardware.

  4. Accelerator and electrodynamics capability review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Kevin W [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) uses capability reviews to assess the science, technology and engineering (STE) quality and institutional integration and to advise Laboratory Management on the current and future health of the STE. Capability reviews address the STE integration that LANL uses to meet mission requirements. The Capability Review Committees serve a dual role of providing assessment of the Laboratory's technical contributions and integration towards its missions and providing advice to Laboratory Management. The assessments and advice are documented in reports prepared by the Capability Review Committees that are delivered to the Director and to the Principal Associate Director for Science, Technology and Engineering (PADSTE). Laboratory Management will use this report for STE assessment and planning. LANL has defined fifteen STE capabilities. Electrodynamics and Accelerators is one of the seven STE capabilities that LANL Management (Director, PADSTE, technical Associate Directors) has identified for review in Fiscal Year (FY) 2010. Accelerators and electrodynamics at LANL comprise a blend of large-scale facilities and innovative small-scale research with a growing focus on national security applications. This review is organized into five topical areas: (1) Free Electron Lasers; (2) Linear Accelerator Science and Technology; (3) Advanced Electromagnetics; (4) Next Generation Accelerator Concepts; and (5) National Security Accelerator Applications. The focus is on innovative technology with an emphasis on applications relevant to Laboratory mission. The role of Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) in support of accelerators/electrodynamics will be discussed. The review provides an opportunity for interaction with early career staff. Program sponsors and customers will provide their input on the value of the accelerator and electrodynamics capability to the Laboratory mission.

  5. Application of Design of Experiments and Surrogate Modeling within the NASA Advanced Concepts Office, Earth-to-Orbit Design Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwack, Mathew R.; Dees, Patrick D.; Holt, James B.

    2016-01-01

    Decisions made during early conceptual design have a large impact upon the expected life-cycle cost (LCC) of a new program. It is widely accepted that up to 80% of such cost is committed during these early design phases. Therefore, to help minimize LCC, decisions made during conceptual design must be based upon as much information as possible. To aid in the decision making for new launch vehicle programs, the Advanced Concepts Office (ACO) at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) provides rapid turnaround pre-phase A and phase A concept definition studies. The ACO team utilizes a proven set of tools to provide customers with a full vehicle mass breakdown to tertiary subsystems, preliminary structural sizing based upon worst-case flight loads, and trajectory optimization to quantify integrated vehicle performance for a given mission. Although the team provides rapid turnaround for single vehicle concepts, the scope of the trade space can be limited due to analyst availability and the manpower requirements for manual execution of the analysis tools. In order to enable exploration of a broader design space, the ACO team has implemented an advanced design methods (ADM) based approach. This approach applies the concepts of design of experiments (DOE) and surrogate modeling to more exhaustively explore the trade space and provide the customer with additional design information to inform decision making. This paper will first discuss the automation of the ACO tool set, which represents a majority of the development effort. In order to fit a surrogate model within tolerable error bounds a number of DOE cases are needed. This number will scale with the number of variable parameters desired and the complexity of the system's response to those variables. For all but the smallest design spaces, the number of cases required cannot be produced within an acceptable timeframe using a manual process. Therefore, automation of the tools was a key enabler for the successful

  6. Advanced platelet-rich fibrin: a new concept for cell-based tissue engineering by means of inflammatory cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanaati, Shahram; Booms, Patrick; Orlowska, Anna; Kubesch, Alica; Lorenz, Jonas; Rutkowski, Jim; Landes, Constantin; Sader, Robert; Kirkpatrick, Cj; Choukroun, Joseph

    2014-12-01

    Choukroun's platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) is obtained from blood without adding anticoagulants. In this study, protocols for standard platelet-rich fibrin (S-PRF) (2700 rpm, 12 minutes) and advanced platelet-rich fibrin (A-PRF) (1500 rpm, 14 minutes) were compared to establish by histological cell detection and histomorphometrical measurement of cell distribution the effects of the centrifugal force (speed and time) on the distribution of cells relevant for wound healing and tissue regeneration. Immunohistochemistry for monocytes, T and B -lymphocytes, neutrophilic granulocytes, CD34-positive stem cells, and platelets was performed on clots produced from four different human donors. Platelets were detected throughout the clot in both groups, although in the A-PRF group, more platelets were found in the distal part, away from the buffy coat (BC). T- and B-lymphocytes, stem cells, and monocytes were detected in the surroundings of the BC in both groups. Decreasing the rpm while increasing the centrifugation time in the A-PRF group gave an enhanced presence of neutrophilic granulocytes in the distal part of the clot. In the S-PRF group, neutrophils were found mostly at the red blood cell (RBC)-BC interface. Neutrophilic granulocytes contribute to monocyte differentiation into macrophages. Accordingly, a higher presence of these cells might be able to influence the differentiation of host macrophages and macrophages within the clot after implantation. Thus, A-PRF might influence bone and soft tissue regeneration, especially through the presence of monocytes/macrophages and their growth factors. The relevance and feasibility of this tissue-engineering concept have to be proven through in vivo studies.

  7. Advanced materials characterization and modeling using synchrotron, neutron, TEM, and novel micro-mechanical techniques - A European effort to accelerate fusion materials development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linsmeier, Ch.; Fu, C.-C.; Kaprolat, A.

    2013-01-01

    For the realization of fusion as an energy source, the development of suitable materials is one of the most critical issues. The required material properties are in many aspects unique compared to the existing solutions, particularly the need for necessary resistance to irradiation with neutrons...... having energies up to 14 MeV. In addition to withstanding the effects of neutrons, the mechanical stability of structural materials has to be maintained up to high temperatures. Plasma-exposed materials must be compatible with the fusion plasma, both with regard to the generation of impurities injected...... as testing under neutron flux-induced conditions. For the realization of a DEMO power plant, the materials solutions must be available in time. The European initiative FEMaS-CA – Fusion Energy Materials Science – Coordination Action – aims at accelerating materials development by integrating advanced...

  8. Advanced glycation end products accelerate ischemia/reperfusion injury through receptor of advanced end product/nitrative thioredoxin inactivation in cardiac microvascular endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yi; Ma, Yanzhuo; Wang, Rutao; Xia, Chenhai; Zhang, Rongqing; Lian, Kun; Luan, Ronghua; Sun, Lu; Yang, Lu; Lau, Wayne B; Wang, Haichang; Tao, Ling

    2011-10-01

    The advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are associated with increased cardiac endothelial injury. However, no causative link has been established between increased AGEs and enhanced endothelial injury after ischemia/reperfusion. More importantly, the molecular mechanisms by which AGEs may increase endothelial injury remain unknown. Adult rat cardiac microvascular endothelial cells (CMECs) were isolated and incubated with AGE-modified bovine serum albumin (BSA) or BSA. After AGE-BSA or BSA preculture, CMECs were subjected to simulated ischemia (SI)/reperfusion (R). AGE-BSA increased SI/R injury as evidenced by enhanced lactate dehydrogenase release and caspase-3 activity. Moreover, AGE-BSA significantly increased SI/R-induced oxidative/nitrative stress in CMECs (as measured by increased inducible nitric oxide synthase expression, total nitric oxide production, superoxide generation, and peroxynitrite formation) and increased SI/R-induced nitrative inactivation of thioredoxin-1 (Trx-1), an essential cytoprotective molecule. Supplementation of EUK134 (peroxynitrite decomposition catalyst), human Trx-1, or soluble receptor of advanced end product (sRAGE) (a RAGE decoy) in AGE-BSA precultured cells attenuated SI/R-induced oxidative/nitrative stress, reduced SI/R-induced Trx-1 nitration, preserved Trx-1 activity, and reduced SI/R injury. Our results demonstrated that AGEs may increase SI/R-induced endothelial injury by increasing oxidative/nitrative injury and subsequent nitrative inactivation of Trx-1. Interventions blocking RAGE signaling or restoring Trx activity may be novel therapies to mitigate endothelial ischemia/reperfusion injury in the diabetic population.

  9. A proof-of-concept implementation of a unit-based advanced practice registered nurse (APRN) role: structural empowerment, role clarity and team effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feistritzer, Nancye R; Jones, Pam O

    2014-03-01

    The quest for decreased cost of care and improved outcomes has created the need for highly effective clinical roles and teams. This article describes the role of a unit-based advanced practice registered nurse (APRN) within a proof-of-concept implementation of a new care delivery model, the Vanderbilt Anticipatory Care Team. Role clarity is central to both structural empowerment of the APRN and team effectiveness. A modified PeaceHealth Team Development Measure tool measured baseline role clarity as a component of overall team effectiveness. A role description for the unit-based APRN based on a comprehensive assessment of the proof-of-concept unit is provided.

  10. Conceptual design of advanced central receiver power systems sodium-cooled receiver concept. Volume 4. Commercial and pilot plant cost data. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-03-01

    This volume of the advanced central receiver final report presents the cost data using the cost breakdown structure identified in the preliminary specification. Cost summaries are presented in the following sections for the 100-MWe and 281-MWe commercial plant and a 10-MWe pilot plant. Cost substantiation data for this volume are presented in the appendices. Other cost summary data include Nth plant data for the 100-MWe and 281-MWe commercial plants, and a summary for the alternative concept air-rock storage system. The main description of the plant costing technique occurs as part of Section II for the 100-MWe baseline concept.

  11. Capture and Transport of Laser Accelerated Protons by Pulsed Magnetic Fields: Advancements Toward Laser-Based Proton Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burris-Mog, Trevor J.

    The interaction of intense laser light (I > 10 18 W/cm2) with a thin target foil leads to the Target Normal Sheath Acceleration mechanism (TNSA). TNSA is responsible for the generation of high current, ultra-low emittance proton beams, which may allow for the development of a compact and cost effective proton therapy system for the treatment of cancer. Before this application can be realized, control is needed over the large divergence and the 100% kinetic energy spread that are characteristic of TNSA proton beams. The work presented here demonstrates control over the divergence and energy spread using strong magnetic fields generated by a pulse power solenoid. The solenoidal field results in a parallel proton beam with a kinetic energy spread DeltaE/E = 10%. Assuming that next generation lasers will be able to operate at 10 Hz, the 10% spread in the kinetic energy along with the 23% capture efficiency of the solenoid yield enough protons per laser pulse to, for the first time, consider applications in Radiation Oncology. Current lasers can generate proton beams with kinetic energies up to 67.5 MeV, but for therapy applications, the proton kinetic energy must reach 250 MeV. Since the maximum kinetic energy Emax of the proton scales with laser light intensity as Emax ∝ I0.5, next generation lasers may very well accelerate 250 MeV protons. As the kinetic energy of the protons is increased, the magnetic field strength of the solenoid will need to increase. The scaling of the magnetic field B with the kinetic energy of the protons follows B ∝ E1/2. Therefor, the field strength of the solenoid presented in this work will need to be increased by a factor of 2.4 in order to accommodate 250 MeV protons. This scaling factor seems reasonable, even with present technology. This work not only demonstrates control over beam divergence and energy spread, it also allows for us to now perform feasibility studies to further research what a laser-based proton therapy system

  12. Advanced Electronic Systems for HEP Experiments, Astroparticle Physics, Accelerator Technology, FELs and Fusion; 2013 WILGA January Symposium (in Polish)

    CERN Document Server

    Romaniuk, R S

    2013-01-01

    The cycle of WILGA conferences [wilga.ise.pw.edu.pl] on Photonics and Web Engineering, Advanced Electronic Systems, under the auspices of IEEE, SPIE, KEiT PAN and WEiTI PW was initiated in 1998 by a Research Team PERG/ELHEP ISE PW. The WILGA conferences take place two times a year and the participants are young scientists from this country and abroad. This paper debates chosen topical tracks and some papers presented during the 31 WILGA Conference, which took place on 8-10 February 2013 at the Faculty of WEiTI PW. The conference was attended by over 60 persons. Here we discuss closer the subjects of biomedical electronics and informatics, as well as chosen aspects of applications of advanced electronic circuits and systems. The next 32 WILGA Conference will take place on 27 May – 02 June 2013 in WUT WILGA resort near Warsaw. Proposed conference papers are submitted via the WILGA Conference web page. Email for the correspondence is: photonics@ise.pw.edu.pl. The papers are published in journals Elektronika, I...

  13. Commissioning and early experience with a new-generation low-energy linear accelerator with advanced delivery and imaging functionalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fogliata Antonella

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A new-generation low-energy linear accelerator (UNIQUE was introduced in the clinical arena during 2009 by Varian Medical Systems. The world's first UNIQUE was installed at Oncology Institute of Southern Switzerland and put into clinical operation in June 2010. The aim of the present contribution was to report experience about its commissioning and first year results from clinical operation. Methods Commissioning data, beam characteristics and the modeling into the treatment planning system were summarized. Imaging system of UNIQUE included a 2D-2D matching capability and tests were performed to identify system repositioning capability. Finally, since the system is capable of delivering volumetric modulated arc therapy with RapidArc, a summary of the tests performed for such modality to assess its performance in preclinical settings and during clinical usage was included. Results Isocenter virtual diameter was measured as less than 0.2 mm. Observed accuracy of isocenter determination and repositioning for 2D-2D matching procedures in image guidance was Conclusions The results of the commissioning tests and of the first period of clinical operation, resulted meeting specifications and having good margins respect to tolerances. UNIQUE was put into operation for all delivery techniques; in particular, as shown by the pre-treatment quality assurance results, it enabled accurate and safe delivery of RapidArc plans.

  14. Advances in conformal radiotherapy using Monte Carlo Code to design new IMRT and IORT accelerators and interpret CT numbers

    CERN Document Server

    Wysocka-Rabin, A

    2013-01-01

    The introductory chapter of this monograph, which follows this Preface, provides an overview of radiotherapy and treatment planning. The main chapters that follow describe in detail three significant aspects of radiotherapy on which the author has focused her research efforts. Chapter 2 presents studies the author worked on at the German National Cancer Institute (DKFZ) in Heidelberg. These studies applied the Monte Carlo technique to investigate the feasibility of performing Intensity Modulated Radiotherapy (IMRT) by scanning with a narrow photon beam. This approach represents an alternative to techniques that generate beam modulation by absorption, such as MLC, individually-manufactured compensators, and special tomotherapy modulators. The technical realization of this concept required investigation of the influence of various design parameters on the final small photon beam. The photon beam to be scanned should have a diameter of approximately 5 mm at Source Surface Distance (SSD) distance, and the penumbr...

  15. Ion acceleration and D-D nuclear fusion in laser-generated plasma from advanced deuterated polyethylene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrisi, Lorenzo

    2014-10-23

    Deuterated polyethylene targets have been irradiated by means of a 1016 W/cm2 laser using 600 J pulse energy, 1315 nm wavelength, 300 ps pulse duration and 70 micron spot diameter. The plasma parameters were measured using on-line diagnostics based on ion collectors, SiC detectors and plastic scintillators, all employed in time-of-flight configuration. In addition, a Thomson parabola spectrometer, an X-ray streak camera, and calibrated neutron dosimeter bubble detectors were employed. Characteristic protons and neutrons at maximum energies of 3.0 MeV and 2.45 MeV, respectively, were detected, confirming that energy spectra of reaction products coming from deuterium-deuterium nuclear fusion occur. In thick advanced targets a fusion rate of the order of 2 × 108 fusions per laser shot was calculated.

  16. Ion Acceleration and D-D Nuclear Fusion in Laser-Generated Plasma from Advanced Deuterated Polyethylene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Torrisi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Deuterated polyethylene targets have been irradiated by means of a 1016 W/cm2 laser using 600 J pulse energy, 1315 nm wavelength, 300 ps pulse duration and 70 micron spot diameter. The plasma parameters were measured using on-line diagnostics based on ion collectors, SiC detectors and plastic scintillators, all employed in time-of-flight configuration. In addition, a Thomson parabola spectrometer, an X-ray streak camera, and calibrated neutron dosimeter bubble detectors were employed. Characteristic protons and neutrons at maximum energies of 3.0 MeV and 2.45 MeV, respectively, were detected, confirming that energy spectra of reaction products coming from deuterium-deuterium nuclear fusion occur. In thick advanced targets a fusion rate of the order of 2 × 108 fusions per laser shot was calculated.

  17. Laser acceleration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajima, T.; Nakajima, K.; Mourou, G.

    2017-02-01

    The fundamental idea of Laser Wakefield Acceleration (LWFA) is reviewed. An ultrafast intense laser pulse drives coherent wakefield with a relativistic amplitude robustly supported by the plasma. While the large amplitude of wakefields involves collective resonant oscillations of the eigenmode of the entire plasma electrons, the wake phase velocity ˜ c and ultrafastness of the laser pulse introduce the wake stability and rigidity. A large number of worldwide experiments show a rapid progress of this concept realization toward both the high-energy accelerator prospect and broad applications. The strong interest in this has been spurring and stimulating novel laser technologies, including the Chirped Pulse Amplification, the Thin Film Compression, the Coherent Amplification Network, and the Relativistic Mirror Compression. These in turn have created a conglomerate of novel science and technology with LWFA to form a new genre of high field science with many parameters of merit in this field increasing exponentially lately. This science has triggered a number of worldwide research centers and initiatives. Associated physics of ion acceleration, X-ray generation, and astrophysical processes of ultrahigh energy cosmic rays are reviewed. Applications such as X-ray free electron laser, cancer therapy, and radioisotope production etc. are considered. A new avenue of LWFA using nanomaterials is also emerging.

  18. Climate Analytics-As-a-Service (CAaas), Advanced Information Systems, and Services to Accelerate the Climate Sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McInerney, M.; Schnase, J. L.; Duffy, D.; Tamkin, G.; Nadeau, D.; Strong, S.; Thompson, J. H.; Sinno, S.; Lazar, D.

    2014-12-01

    The climate sciences represent a big data domain that is experiencing unprecedented growth. In our efforts to address the big data challenges of climate science, we are moving toward a notion of Climate Analytics-as-a-Service (CAaaS). We focus on analytics, because it is the knowledge gained from our interactions with big data that ultimately product societal benefits. We focus on CAaaS because we believe it provides a useful way of thinking about the problem: a specialization of the concept of business process-as-a-service, which is an evolving extension of IaaS, PaaS, and SaaS enabled by cloud computing. Within this framework, cloud computing plays an important role; however, we see it as only one element in a constellation of capabilities that are essential to delivering climate analytics-as-a-service. These elements are essential because in the aggregate they lead to generativity, a capacity for self-assembly that we feel is the key to solving many of the big data challenges in this domain. This poster will highlight specific examples of CAaaS using climate reanalysis data, high-performance cloud computing, map reduce, and the Climate Data Services API.

  19. Advancing Empirical Approaches to the Concept of Resilience: A Critical Examination of Panarchy, Ecological Information, and Statistical Evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Kharrazi; Fath, Brian D.; Harald Katzmair

    2016-01-01

    Despite its ambiguities, the concept of resilience is of critical importance to researchers, practitioners, and policy-makers in dealing with dynamic socio-ecological systems. In this paper, we critically examine the three empirical approaches of (i) panarchy; (ii) ecological information-based network analysis; and (iii) statistical evidence of resilience to three criteria determined for achieving a comprehensive understanding and application of this concept. These criteria are the ability: (...

  20. [Report from the Committee for Advanced Therapies (CAT). Pitfalls on the way from concept to medical treatment with advanced therapy medicinal products].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiss, M; Büttel, I C; Schneider, C K

    2011-07-01

    Advanced therapy medicinal products (ATMP) are highly innovative and complex medicines. They comprise gene therapy medicinal products, somatic cell therapy medicinal products, and tissue-engineered products (TEP). With the European Regulation on ATMP that came into force in 2008, a consolidated regulatory framework was created, where the Committee for Advanced Therapies (CAT) at the European Medicines Agency (EMA) plays a central role. This article discusses pitfalls and challenges that the CAT has experienced in its discussions of various procedures. Often ATMPs are developed by small and medium-sized enterprises (SME) which also face nonscientific challenges. The CAT wishes to meet these challenges on a scientific and regulatory level during its 2010-2015 work program.

  1. Conception, construction, and taking into operation of a pre-accelerator system at ELSA; Konzeption, Aufbau und Inbetriebnahme eines neuen Vorbeschleunigersystems an ELSA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klarner, Fabian

    2011-11-25

    In order to enhance the operating capabilities of the Bonn University Accelerator Facility ELSA by a single pulse mode, a new injector was designed, built up and successfully commissioned. In addition, the new injector was designed to provide an unpolarized electron beam with increased current to the external hadron physics experiments. For this purpose, the injector will produce an 1-3 microseconds long pulse of 900 mA beam current or a single electron bunch with 1.5 A pulse current. For single bunch operation, a 1.5 ns long pulse is produced by a thermal electron source, then compressed and pre-accelerated by a subsequent resonator and a four-cell travelling wave buncher. After acceleration of the electrons in the main linac, the natural broadening of the energy distribution in the particle ensemble due to the acceleration process will be reduced by an energy compressor system. By the succeeding optical elements in the transfer beamline, the beam is guided to the synchrotron, taking into account the requirements for injection into the synchrotron including its acceptance. Finally, the first beam of the new LINAC1 section was successfully used to irradiate ammonia for preparation as polarized target material for the COMPASS experiment and to irradiate detector components of the DEPFET project. (orig.)

  2. Split Course Hyperfractionated Accelerated Radio-Chemotherapy (SCHARC for patients with advanced head and neck cancer: Influence of protocol deviations and hemoglobin on overall survival, a retrospective analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sprague Lisa D

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The advantage of hyperfractionated accelerated radiation therapy for advanced head and neck cancer has been reported. Furthermore, randomized trials and meta-analyses have confirmed the survival benefit of additional chemotherapy to radiotherapy. We retrospectively analyzed the efficiency and toxicity of the Regensburg standard therapy protocol "SCHARC" and the overall survival of our patients. Methods From 1997 to 2004, 64 patients suffering from advanced head and neck cancer (88 % stage IV, 12 % stage III were assigned to receive the SCHARC protocol. Around half of the patients were diagnosed with oro-hypopharynx carcinoma (52 %, one third with tongue and floor of mouth tumors (29 % and one fifth (19 % suffered from H & N cancer at other sites. The schedule consisted of one therapy block with 30 Gy in 20 fractions over a two week period with concomitant chemotherapy (d 1–5: 20 mg/m2/d DDP + 750–1000 mg/m2/d 5FU (cont. infusion. This therapy block was repeated after a fortnight break up to a cumulative dose of 60 Gy and followed by a boost up to 70 Gy (69–70.5 Gy. All patients assigned to this scheme were included in the survival evaluation. Results Forty patients (63 % received both radiation and chemotherapy according to the protocol. The mean follow up was 2.3 years (829 d and the median follow up was 1.9 years (678 d, respectively. The analysis of survival revealed an estimated 3 year overall survival rate of 57 %. No patient died of complications, 52 patients (80 % had acute grade 2–3 mucositis, and 33 patients (58 % suffered from acute grade 3 skin toxicity. Leucopenia was no major problem (mean nadir 3.4 g/nl, no patient 10.5 g/dl and for patients who completed the protocol. Conclusion The SCHARC protocol was effective in patients diagnosed with advanced head and neck cancer. It led to long-term disease control and survival in about 50 % of the patients with significant but acceptable toxicity. Most patients

  3. SciDAC Advances and Applications in Computational Beam Dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryne, R.; Abell, D.; Adelmann, A.; Amundson, J.; Bohn, C.; Cary, J.; Colella, P.; Dechow, D.; Decyk, V.; Dragt, A.; Gerber, R.; Habib, S.; Higdon, D.; Katsouleas, T.; Ma, K.-L.; McCorquodale, P.; Mihalcea, D.; Mitchell, C.; Mori, W.; Mottershead, C.T.; Neri, F.; Pogorelov, I.; Qiang, J.; Samulyak, R.; Serafini, D.; Shalf, J.; Siegerist, C.; Spentzouris, P.; Stoltz, P.; Terzic, B.; Venturini, M.; Walstrom, P.

    2005-06-26

    SciDAC has had a major impact on computational beam dynamics and the design of particle accelerators. Particle accelerators--which account for half of the facilities in the DOE Office of Science Facilities for the Future of Science 20 Year Outlook--are crucial for US scientific, industrial, and economic competitiveness. Thanks to SciDAC, accelerator design calculations that were once thought impossible are now carried routinely, and new challenging and important calculations are within reach. SciDAC accelerator modeling codes are being used to get the most science out of existing facilities, to produce optimal designs for future facilities, and to explore advanced accelerator concepts that may hold the key to qualitatively new ways of accelerating charged particle beams. In this poster we present highlights from the SciDAC Accelerator Science and Technology (AST) project Beam Dynamics focus area in regard to algorithm development, software development, and applications.

  4. SciDAC advances and applications in computational beam dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryne, R [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (United States); Abell, D [Tech-X Corporation (United States); Adelmann, A [Paul Scherrer Institute, (Switzerland); Amundson, J [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (United States); Bohn, C [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (United States); Cary, J [Tech-X Corporation (United States); Colella, P [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (United States); Dechow, D [Tech-X Corporation (United States); Decyk, V [University of California at Los Angeles (United States); Dragt, A [University of Maryland (United States); Gerber, R [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (United States); Habib, S [Los Alamos National Laboratory (United States); Higdon, D [Los Alamos National Laboratory (United States); Katsouleas, T [University of Southern California (United States); Ma, K-L [University of California at Davis (United States); McCorquodale, P [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (United States); Mihalcea, D [Northern Illinois University (United States); Mitchell, C [University of Maryland (United States); Mori, W [University of California at Los Angeles (United States); Mottershead, C T [Los Alamos National Laboratory (United States); Neri, F [Los Alamos National Laboratory (United States); Pogorelov, I [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (United States); Qiang, J [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (United States); Samulyak, R [Brookhaven National Laboratory (United States); Serafini, D [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (United States); Shalf, J [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (United States); Siegerist, C [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (United States); Spentzouris, P [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (United States); Stoltz, P [Tech-X Corporation (United States); Terzic, B [Northern Illinois University (United States); Venturini, M [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (United States); Walstrom, P [Los Alamos National Laboratory (United States)

    2005-01-01

    SciDAC has had a major impact on computational beam dynamics and the design of particle accelerators. Particle accelerators-which account for half of the facilities in the DOE Office of Science Facilities for the Future of Science 20 Year Outlook-are crucial for US scientific, industrial, and economic competitiveness. Thanks to SciDAC, accelerator design calculations that were once thought impossible are now carried routinely, and new challenging and important calculations are within reach. SciDAC accelerator modeling codes are being used to get the most science out of existing facilities, to produce optimal designs for future facilities, and to explore advanced accelerator concepts that may hold the key to qualitatively new ways of accelerating charged particle beams. In this paper we present highlights from the SciDAC Accelerator Science and Technology (AST) project Beam Dynamics focus area in regard to algorithm development, software development, and applications.

  5. Nonlinear dynamics in particle accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Dilão, Rui

    1996-01-01

    This book is an introductory course to accelerator physics at the level of graduate students. It has been written for a large audience which includes users of accelerator facilities, accelerator physicists and engineers, and undergraduates aiming to learn the basic principles of construction, operation and applications of accelerators.The new concepts of dynamical systems developed in the last twenty years give the theoretical setting to analyse the stability of particle beams in accelerator. In this book a common language to both accelerator physics and dynamical systems is integrated and dev

  6. How Do Concept-Maps Function for Reading Comprehension Improvement of Iranian Advanced EFL Learners of Both Genders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaghaninejad, Mohammad Saber; Arefinejad, Mansour

    2015-01-01

    This study was an attempt to examine the effect of concept mapping on reading comprehension of Iranian EFL learners. Pretest-posttest design was employed to scrutinize the possible improvement of the study's participants who were male and female learners whose ages ranged from 19 to 40 and had taken general English courses at Islamic Azad…

  7. Hybridization of natural systems with advanced treatment processes for organic micropollutant removals: new concepts in multi-barrier treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudhakaran, Sairam; Maeng, Sung Kyu; Amy, Gary

    2013-07-01

    Organic micropollutants (OMPs) represent a major constraint in drinking water supply. In the past, emphasis has been on individual treatment processes comprising conventional treatment (coagulation, sedimentation, and filtration) followed by advanced treatment processes (adsorption, ion-exchange, oxidation, and membrane separation). With the depletion of water resources and high demand for power and chemical usage, efforts need to be made to judiciously use advanced treatment processes. There is a new interest in multiple barriers with synergies in which two coupled processes can function as a hybrid process. Within the context of this paper, the hybrid processes include a natural treatment process coupled with an advanced process. Pilot/full-scale studies have shown efficient removal of OMPs by these hybrid processes. With this hybridization, the usage of resources such as power and chemicals can be reduced. In this study, coupling/hybridization of aquifer recharge and recovery (ARR) with oxidation (O3), advanced oxidation process which involves OH radicals (AOP), nanofiltration (NF), reverse osmosis (RO) and granular activated carbon (GAC) adsorption for OMP removal was studied. O3 or AOP as a pre-treatment and GAC, NF, RO, or UV/chlorination as a post-treatment to ARR was studied. NF can be replaced by RO for removal of OMPs since studies have shown similar performance of NF to RO for removal of many OMPs, thereby reducing costs and providing a more sustainable approach.

  8. Hybridization of natural systems with advanced treatment processes for organic micropollutant removals: New concepts in multi-barrier treatment

    KAUST Repository

    Sudhakaran, Sairam

    2013-07-01

    In the past, emphasis has been on individual treatment processes comprising conventional treatment (coagulation, sedimentation, and filtration) followed by advanced treatment processes (adsorption, ion-exchange, oxidation, and membrane separation). With the depletion of water resources and high demand for power and chemical usage, efforts need to be made to judiciously use advanced treatment processes. There is a new interest in multiple barriers with synergies in which two coupled processes can function as a hybrid process. Within the context of this paper, the hybrid processes include a natural treatment process coupled with an advanced process. Pilot/full-scale studies have shown efficient removal of OMPs by these hybrid processes. With this hybridization, the usage of resources such as power and chemicals can be reduced. In this study, coupling/hybridization of aquifer recharge and recovery (ARR) with oxidation (O3), advanced oxidation process which involves OH radicals (AOP), nanofiltration (NF), reverse osmosis (RO) and granular activated carbon (GAC) adsorption for OMP removal was studied. O3 or AOP as a pre-treatment and GAC, NF, RO, or UV/chlorination as a post-treatment to ARR was studied. NF can be replaced by RO for removal of OMPs since studies have shown similar performance of NF to RO for removal of many OMPs, thereby reducing costs and providing a more sustainable approach. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Investigating the Effect of Different Verbal Formats of Advance Organizers on Third Graders' Understanding of Heat Transfer Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Hsueh-Hua; Liu, Han-Chin

    2014-01-01

    The emergence of computer and multimedia technology change the forms of instructional materials and instructional design plays an important role on student learning outcome in multimedia learning. Research has found that using advance organizers has the potential for achieving learning objectives. Thus, this study investigated how using different…

  10. Investigating the Effect of Different Verbal Formats of Advance Organizers on Third Graders' Understanding of Heat Transfer Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Hsueh-Hua; Liu, Han-Chin

    2014-01-01

    The emergence of computer and multimedia technology change the forms of instructional materials and instructional design plays an important role on student learning outcome in multimedia learning. Research has found that using advance organizers has the potential for achieving learning objectives. Thus, this study investigated how using different…

  11. Basic concept for an accelerator-driven subcritical system to be used as a long-pulse neutron source for Condensed Matter research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vivanco, R., E-mail: raul.vivanco.sanchez@gmail.com [ESS-BILBAO, Parque Tecnológico Bizkaia, Laida Bidea, Edificio 207 B Planta Baja, 48160 Derio (Spain); Instituto de Fusión Nuclear - UPM, ETS Ingenieros Industriales, C/ José Gutiérrez Abascal, 2, 28006 Madrid Spain (Spain); Ghiglino, A.; Vicente, J.P. de; Sordo, F.; Terrón, S.; Magán, M. [ESS-BILBAO, Parque Tecnológico Bizkaia, Laida Bidea, Edificio 207 B Planta Baja, 48160 Derio (Spain); Instituto de Fusión Nuclear - UPM, ETS Ingenieros Industriales, C/ José Gutiérrez Abascal, 2, 28006 Madrid Spain (Spain); Perlado, J.M. [Instituto de Fusión Nuclear - UPM, ETS Ingenieros Industriales, C/ José Gutiérrez Abascal, 2, 28006 Madrid Spain (Spain); Bermejo, F.J. [Instituto de Estructura de la Materia, IEM-CSIC, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, Serrano 123, 28006 Madrid (Spain)

    2014-12-11

    A model for an accelerator-driven subcritical system to be operated as a source of cold neutrons for Condensed Matter research is developed at the conceptual level. Its baseline layout relies upon proven accelerator, spalattion target and fuel array technologies, and consists in a proton accelerator able to deliver some 67.5 mA of proton beam with kinetic energy 0.6 GeV, a pulse length of 2.86 ms, and repetition rate of 14 Hz. The particle beam hits a target of conventional design that is surrounded by a multiplicative core made of fissile/fertile material, composed by a subcritical array of fuel bars made of aluminium Cermet cooled by light water poisoned with boric acid. Relatively low enriched uranium is chosen as fissile material. An optimisation of several parameters is carried out, using as components of the objective function several characteristics pertaining the cold neutron pulse. The results show that the optimal device will deliver up to 80% of the cold neutron flux expected for some of the ongoing projects using a significantly lower proton beam power than that managed in such projects. The total power developed within the core rises up to 22.8 MW, and the criticality range shifts to a final k{sub eff} value of around 0.9 after the 50 days cycle.

  12. Technologies for Advanced Induction Accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Hernández, M A; Autrey, D; Duncan, G; Friedman, A; Grote, D P; Halaxa, E; Hanks, R; Kamin, G; Sangster, C; Sharp, W; Williams, C

    2000-01-01

    To harness fusion energy is one of today's greatest technological challenges, and one well worth pursuing. Success in the development of fusion power would result in a virtually inexhaustible source of energy. The fusion reaction, the process that powers the sun and the stars, can be duplicated on Earth. However, to date these fusion processes have been the products of large-scale experimental efforts. They have yet to achieve fusion in a manner that is cost effective and efficient enough to be applied in a commercial reactor. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has been centrally involved in the Nation's inertial confinement fusion (ICF) program for over 25 years. Much of the focus of the LLNL ICF Program has been the well-known effort to develop high power, short wavelength laser drivers to create the conditions necessary for the fusion process. But the ICF Program has also been investigating, in collaboration with Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), the potential of heavy-ion accelerato...

  13. Accelerating Development of Advanced Inverters.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neely, Jason C. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Johnson, Jay [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gonzalez, Sigifredo [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Ropp, Michael [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Increasing the penetration of distributed renewable sources, including photovoltaic (PV) generators, poses technical challenges for grid management. The grid has been optimized over decades to rely on large centralized power plants with well-established feedback controls. Conventional generators provide relatively constant dispatchable power and help to regulate both voltage and frequency. In contrast, photovoltaic (PV) power is variable, is only as predictable as the weather, and provides no control action. Thus, as conventional generation is displaced by PV power, utility operation stake holders are concerned about managing fluctuations in grid voltage and frequency. Furthermore, since the operation of these distributed resources are bound by certain rules that require they stop delivering power when measured voltage or frequency deviate from the nominal operating point, there are also concerns that a single grid event may cause a large fraction of generation to turn off, triggering a black out or break-up of an electric power system.

  14. Advancing the activity cliff concept [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/1wf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye Hu

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The activity cliff concept has experienced increasing interest in medicinal chemistry and chemoinformatics. Activity cliffs have originally been defined as pairs of structurally similar compounds that are active against the same target but have a large difference in potency. Activity cliffs are relevant for structure-activity relationship (SAR analysis and compound optimization because small chemical modifications can be deduced from cliffs that result in large-magnitude changes in potency. In addition to studying activity cliffs on the basis of individual compounds series, they can be systematically identified through mining of compound activity data. This commentary aims to provide a concise yet detailed picture of our current understanding of activity cliffs. It is also meant to introduce the further refined activity cliff concept to a general audience in drug development.

  15. Recent advances in the concept and diagnosis of autoimmune pancreatitis and IgG4-related disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okazaki, Kazuichi; Uchida, Kazushige; Koyabu, Masanori; Miyoshi, Hideaki; Takaoka, Makoto

    2011-03-01

    Recent studies have suggested the existence of two subtypes of autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP): type 1 AIP, related to IgG4 (lymphoplasmacytic sclerosing pancreatitis); and type 2 AIP, related to a granulocytic epithelial lesion (idiopathic duct-centric chronic pancreatitis). Compared with type 2 AIP, the clinicopathological features of type 1 AIP, with increased serum IgG4/IgE levels, abundant infiltration of IgG4 + plasmacytes and lymphocytes, autoantibodies, and steroid responsiveness, are more suggestive of abnormal immunity such as allergy or autoimmunity. Moreover, patients with type 1 AIP often have extrapancreatic lesions, such as sclerosing cholangitis, sclerosing sialadenitis, or retroperitoneal fibrosis, showing pathological features similar to those of the pancreatic lesions. Based on these findings, an international concept of and diagnostic criteria for AIP have been proposed recently. Of interest, many synonyms have been proposed for the conditions of AIP and extrapancreatic lesions associated with IgG4, such as "multifocal idiopathic fibrosclerosis," "IgG4-related autoimmune disease," "IgG4-related sclerosing disease," "systemic IgG4-related plasmacytic syndrome (SIPS)," and "IgG4-related multiorgan lymphoproliferative syndrome," all of which may refer to the same conditions. Therefore, the Japanese Research Committee for "Systemic IgG4-Related Sclerosing Disease" proposed a disease concept and clinical diagnostic criteria based on the concept of multifocal fibrosclerosing disease, in 2009, in which the term "IgG4-related disease" was agreed upon as a minimal consensus to cover these conditions. Although the significance of IgG4 in the development of "IgG4-related disease" remains unclear, we have proposed a hypothesis for the development of type 1 AIP, one of the IgG4-related diseases. The concept and diagnostic criteria of "IgG4-related disease" will be changed in accordance with future studies.

  16. Investigation of Advanced Counterrotation Blade Configuration Concepts for High Speed Turboprop Systems. Task 3: Advanced Fan Section Grid Generator Final Report and Computer Program User's Manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crook, Andrew J.; Delaney, Robert A.

    1991-01-01

    A procedure is studied for generating three-dimensional grids for advanced turbofan engine fan section geometries. The procedure constructs a discrete mesh about engine sections containing the fan stage, an arbitrary number of axisymmetric radial flow splitters, a booster stage, and a bifurcated core/bypass flow duct with guide vanes. The mesh is an h-type grid system, the points being distributed with a transfinite interpolation scheme with axial and radial spacing being user specified. Elliptic smoothing of the grid in the meridional plane is a post-process option. The grid generation scheme is consistent with aerodynamic analyses utilizing the average-passage equation system developed by Dr. John Adamczyk of NASA Lewis. This flow solution scheme requires a series of blade specific grids each having a common axisymmetric mesh, but varying in the circumferential direction according to the geometry of the specific blade row.

  17. Advanced Concept Studies for Supersonic Commercial Transports Entering Service in the 2018-2020 Period Phase 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgenstern, John; Buonanno, Michael; Yao, Jixian; Murugappan, Mugam; Paliath, Umesh; Cheung, Lawrence; Malcevic, Ivan; Ramakrishnan, Kishore; Pastouchenko, Nikolai; Wood, Trevor; Martens, Steve; Viars, Phil; Tersmette, Trevor; Lee, Jason; Simmons, Ron; Plybon, David; Alonso, Juan; Palacios, Francisco; Lukaczyk, Trent; Carrier, Gerald

    2015-01-01

    Lockheed Martin Aeronautics Company (LM), working in conjunction with General Electric Global Research (GE GR) and Stanford University, executed a 19 month program responsive to the NASA sponsored "N+2 Supersonic Validation: Advanced Concept Studies for Supersonic Commercial Transports Entering Service in the 2018-2020 Period" contract. The key technical objective of this effort was to validate integrated airframe and propulsion technologies and design methodologies necessary to realize a supersonic vehicle capable of meeting the N+2 environmental and performance goals. The N+2 program is aligned with NASA's Supersonic Project and is focused on providing system level solutions capable of overcoming the efficiency, environmental, and performance barriers to practical supersonic flight. The N+2 environmental and performance goals are outlined in the technical paper, AIAA-2014-2138 (Ref. 1) along with the validated N+2 Phase 2 results. Our Phase 2 efforts built upon our Phase 1 studies (Ref. 2) and successfully demonstrated the ability to design and test realistic configurations capable of shaped sonic booms over the width of the sonic boom carpet. Developing a shaped boom configuration capable of meeting the N+2 shaped boom targets is a key goal for the N+2 program. During the LM Phase 1 effort, LM successfully designed and tested a shaped boom trijet configuration (1021) capable of achieving 85 PLdB under track (forward and aft shock) and up to 28 deg off-track at Mach 1.6. In Phase 2 we developed a refined configuration (1044-2) that extended the under 85 PLdB sonic boom level over the entire carpet of 52 deg off-track at a cruise Mach number of 1.7. Further, the loudness level of the configuration throughout operational conditions calculates to an average of 79 PLdB. These calculations rely on propagation employing Burger's (sBOOM) rounding methodology, and there are indications that the configuration average loudness would actually be 75 PLdB. We also added

  18. Cross-Cultural Generalizability of Year in School Effects: Negative Effects of Acceleration and Positive Effects of Retention on Academic Self-Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Herbert W.

    2016-01-01

    Given that the Big-Fish-Little-Pond-Effect, the negative effect of school-average achievement on academic self-concept, is one of the most robust findings in educational psychology (Marsh, Seaton et al., 2007), this research extends the theoretical model, based on social comparison theory, to study relative year in school effects (e.g., being 1…

  19. Concept - or no concept

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsteinsson, Uffe

    1999-01-01

    Discussion about concept in industrial companies. A method for mapping of managerial concept in specific area is shown......Discussion about concept in industrial companies. A method for mapping of managerial concept in specific area is shown...

  20. Design concepts and advanced telerobotics development for facilities in the back end of the nuclear fuel cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feldman, M.J.

    1987-01-01

    In the Fuel Recycle Division at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, a comprehensive remote systems development program has existed for the past seven years. The new remote technology under development is expected to significantly improve remote operations by extending the range of tasks accomplished by remote means and increasing the efficiency of remote work undertaken. Five areas of the development effort are primary contributors to the goal of higher operating efficiency for major facilities for the back end of the nuclear fuel cycle. These areas are the single-cell concept, the low-flow ventilation concept, television viewing, equipment-mounting racks, and force-reflecting manipulation. These somewhat innovative directions are products of a design process where the technical scenario to be accomplished, the remote equipment to accomplish the scenario, and the facility design to house the equipment, are considered in an iterative design process to optimize performance, maximize long-term costs effectiveness, and minimize initial capital outlay. 14 refs., 3 figs.

  1. Is cosmic expansion of the universe accelerating?

    CERN Document Server

    Choudhury, D C

    2006-01-01

    Currently available Type Ia distant supernovae observed data seem to support evidence that the cosmic expansion of the universe is accelerating. This unexpected result is beyond any standard model of modern cosmology. The new concept advanced to account for the acceleration is dark energy or quintessence with negative pressure. Most analyses using this new form of energy describe the observed data with great accuracy, although there has been no laboratory confirmation of it. The present work analyzes the consequences of Thomson scattering on Type Ia supernovae data for two significant reasons; (i) recently observed data reveal the existence of sufficient amount of ionized baryonic (hydrogen) dark matter in the intergalactic medium, a necessary ingredient for Thomson scattering, and (ii) its effects have not been considered previously in determining distances to the supernovae from their observed distance moduli. Quantitative results of the present investigation based on observed data and corrected for Thomson...

  2. A Critical Theory Perspective on Accelerated Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookfield, Stephen D.

    2003-01-01

    Critically analyzes accelerated learning using concepts from Herbert Marcuse (rebellious subjectivity) and Erich Fromm (automaton conformity). Concludes that, by providing distance and separation, accelerated learning has more potential to stimulate critical autonomous thought. (SK)

  3. Advances in integrated and sustainable supply chain planning concepts, methods, tools and solution approaches toward a platform for industrial practice

    CERN Document Server

    Laínez-Aguirre, José Miguel

    2015-01-01

    Decision making at the enterprise level often encompass not only production operations and  product R&D, but other strategic functions such as financial planning and marketing. With the aim of maximizing growth and a firm’s value, companies often focus on co-ordinating these functional components as well as traditional hierarchical decision levels. Understanding this interplay can enhance enterprise capabilities of adaptation and response to uncertainties arising from internal processes as well as the external environment. This book presents concepts, methods, tools and solutions based on mathematical programming, which provides the quantitative support needed for integrated decision-making and ultimately for improving the allocation of overall corporate resources (e.g., materials, cash and personnel). Through a systems perspective, the integrated planning of the supply chain also promotes activities of reuse, reduction and recycling for achieving more sustainable environmental impacts of production/di...

  4. Reduction of Thermal Residual Stresses in Advanced Metallic Composites Based upon a Compensating/Compliant Layer Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, S. M.; Arya, V. K.; Melis, M. E.

    1992-01-01

    A detailed parametric study is carried out to investigate the viability of the recently proposed compensating/compliant layer concept (i.e., the insertion of an interface material between SiC fiber and metal matrix to reduce or eliminate the residual stress buildup during cooling of the composite). The study uses a finite-element concentric cylinder model with generalized plane strain end conditions and free boundary conditions, assuming the SiC fiber to be isotropic and linear elastic and the compliant layer cylinder and matrix (Ti3Al + Nb) cylinder to be isotropic and bilinear elastic-plastic. Results show that a compensating/compliant layer acts to reduce in-plane residual stresses within the fiber and the matrix and, therefore, reduces radial cracking. However, this decrease in in-plane stresses is accompanied by an increase of longitudinal stress, which may initiate longitudinal cracking.

  5. Earth Observing System/Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (EOS/AMSU-A): Software concept document

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwantje, Robert

    1994-01-01

    This document presents the concept for two separate but closely related software systems. The first is the special test equipment (STE) software used at Aerojet for AMSU-A instrument testing, and the second is the workstation software used at the spacecraft integration facility to monitor the AMSU-A instrument when installed on the spacecraft. The primary use of the STE software is to monitor the data output from the AMSU-A instruments, to command the instruments, and to perform automated thermal-vacuum calibration testing. The primary use of the workstation software is to monitor the AMSU-A instrument's performance through an Ethernet link during the instrument/spacecraft integration process.

  6. Concurrent hyperfractionated accelerated radiotherapy with 5-FU and once weekly cisplatin in locally advanced head and neck cancer. The 10-year results of a prospective phase II trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Budach, V.; Boehmer, D.; Badakhshi, H.; Jahn, U.; Stromberger, C. [Campus Virchow Klinikum, Charite Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Department for Radiooncology, Clinic for Radiooncology, Berlin (Germany); Becker, E.T. [Charite Universitaetsmedizin, Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Berlin (Germany); Wernecke, K.D. [Sostana Statistics GmbH, Charite Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Berlin (Germany)

    2014-03-15

    In this study, the acute toxicity and long-term outcome of a hyperfractionated accelerated chemoradiation regimen with cisplatin/5-fluorouracil (5-FU) in patients with locally advanced squamous cell carcinomas of head and neck were evaluated. From 2000-2002, 38 patients with stage III (5.3 %) and stage IV (94.7 %) head and neck cancer were enrolled in a phase II study. Patients received hyperfractionated-accelerated radiotherapy with 72 Gy in 15 fractions of 2 Gy followed by 1.4 Gy twice daily with concurrent, continuous infusion 5-FU of 600 mg/m{sup 2} on days 1-5 and 6 cycles of weekly cisplatin (30 mg/m{sup 2}). Acute toxicities (CTCAEv2.0), locoregional control (LRC), metastases-free (MFS), and overall survival (OS) were analyzed and exploratively compared with the ARO 95-06 trial. Median follow-up was 11.4 years (95 % CI 8.6-14.2) and mean dose 71.6 Gy. Of the patients, 82 % had 6 (n = 15) or 5 (n = 16) cycles of cisplatin, 5 and 2 patients received 4 and 3 cycles, respectively. Grade 3 anemia, leukopenia, and thrombocytopenia were observed in 15.8, 15.8, and 2.6 %, respectively. Grade 3 mucositis in 50 %, grade 3 and 4 dysphagia in 55 and 13 %. The 2-, 5-, and 10-year LRC was 65, 53.6, and 48.2 %, the MFS was 77.5, 66.7, and 57.2 % and the OS 59.6, 29.2, and 15 %, respectively. Chemoradiation with 5-FU and cisplatin seems feasible and superior in terms of LRC and OS to the ARO 95-06C-HART arm at 2 years. However, this did not persist at the 5- and 10-year follow-ups. (orig.) [German] Untersuchung der Akuttoxizitaet und des Langzeitueberlebens einer hyperfraktioniert-akzelerierten simultanen Radiochemotherapie mit Cisplatin/5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) bei Patienten mit lokal fortgeschrittenen Kopf-Hals-Tumoren. Von 2000 bis 2002 wurden 38 Patienten mit Plattenepithelkarzinomen der Kopf-Hals-Region im Stadium III (5,3 %) und IV (94,7 %) eingeschlossen. Es erfolgte eine simultane hyperfraktionierte akzelerierte Radiochemotherapie mit 72 Gy in 15 Fraktionen a 2 Gy

  7. Advances in alloimmune thrombocytopenia: perspectives on current concepts of human platelet antigens, antibody detection strategies, and genotyping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Tomoya; Hirayama, Fumiya

    2015-07-01

    Alloimmunisation to platelets leads to the production of antibodies against platelet antigens and consequently to thrombocytopenia. Numerous molecules located on the platelet surface are antigenic and induce immune-mediated platelet destruction with symptoms that can be serious. Human platelet antigens (HPA) cause thrombocytopenias, such as neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia, post-transfusion purpura, and platelet transfusion refractoriness. Thirty-four HPA are classified into 28 systems. Assays to identify HPA and anti-HPA antibodies are critically important for preventing and treating thrombocytopenia caused by anti-HPA antibodies. Significant progress in furthering our understanding of HPA has been made in the last decade: new HPA have been discovered, antibody-detection methods have improved, and new genotyping methods have been developed. We review these advances and discuss issues that remain to be resolved as well as future prospects for preventing and treating immune thrombocytopenia.

  8. Euler Technology Assessment - SPLITFLOW Code Applications for Stability and Control Analysis on an Advanced Fighter Model Employing Innovative Control Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Keith J.

    1998-01-01

    This report documents results from the NASA-Langley sponsored Euler Technology Assessment Study conducted by Lockheed-Martin Tactical Aircraft Systems (LMTAS). The purpose of the study was to evaluate the ability of the SPLITFLOW code using viscous and inviscid flow models to predict aerodynamic stability and control of an advanced fighter model. The inviscid flow model was found to perform well at incidence angles below approximately 15 deg, but not as well at higher angles of attack. The results using a turbulent, viscous flow model matched the trends of the wind tunnel data, but did not show significant improvement over the Euler solutions. Overall, the predictions were found to be useful for stability and control design purposes.

  9. Future accelerators (?)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Womersley

    2003-08-21

    I describe the future accelerator facilities that are currently foreseen for electroweak scale physics, neutrino physics, and nuclear structure. I will explore the physics justification for these machines, and suggest how the case for future accelerators can be made.

  10. Accelerated Cure Project for Multiple Sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... main content Accelerating research toward a cure for multiple sclerosis Home Contact Us Search form Search Connect Volunteer ... is to accelerate efforts toward a cure for multiple sclerosis by rapidly advancing research that determines its causes ...

  11. Berkeley Lab Laser Accelerator (BELLA) facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Berkeley Lab Laser Accelerator (BELLA) facility (formerly LOASIS) develops advanced accelerators and radiation sources. High gradient (1-100 GV/m) laser-plasma...

  12. An advanced thin foil sensor concept for heat flux and heat transfer measurements in fully turbulent flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mocikat, H.; Herwig, H.

    2007-02-01

    A double layer hot film with two 10 μm nickel foils, separated by a 25 μm polyimide foil is used as a multi-purpose sensor. Each foil can be operated as a (calibrated) temperature sensor in its passive mode by imposing an electric current small enough to avoid heating by dissipation of electrical energy. Alternatively, however, each foil can also serve as a heater in an active mode with electric currents high enough to cause Joule heating. This double foil sensor can be used as a conventional heat flux sensor in its passive mode when mounted on an externally heated surface. Together with the wall and free stream temperature this measured heat flux will provide the local heat transfer coefficient h = dot{q}w/left(Tw - T_{infty}right). In fully turbulent flows it alternatively can be operated in an active mode on a cold, i.e. not externally heated surface. Then, by heating the upper foil, a local heat transfer is initiated from which the local heat transfer coefficient h can be determined, once the lower foil is heated to the same temperature as the upper one, thus acting as a counter-heater. The overall concept behind this mode of measurement is based on the local character of heat transfer in fully turbulent flows which turns out to be almost independent of the upstream thermal events.

  13. Large-Scale Liquid Hydrogen Tank Rapid Chill and Fill Testing for the Advanced Shuttle Upper Stage Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flachbart, R. H.; Hedayat, A.; Holt, K. A.; Sims, J.; Johnson, E. F.; Hastings, L. J.; Lak, T.

    2013-01-01

    Cryogenic upper stages in the Space Shuttle program were prohibited primarily due to a safety risk of a 'return to launch site' abort. An upper stage concept addressed this concern by proposing that the stage be launched empty and filled using shuttle external tank residuals after the atmospheric pressure could no longer sustain an explosion. However, only about 5 minutes was allowed for tank fill. Liquid hydrogen testing was conducted within a near-ambient environment using the multipurpose hydrogen test bed 638.5 ft3 (18m3) cylindrical tank with a spray bar mounted longitudinally inside. Although the tank was filled within 5 minutes, chilldown of the tank structure was incomplete, and excessive tank pressures occurred upon vent valve closure. Elevated tank wall temperatures below the liquid level were clearly characteristic of film boiling. The test results have substantial implications for on-orbit cryogen transfer since the formation of a vapor film would be much less inhibited due to the reduced gravity. However, the heavy tank walls could become an asset in normal gravity testing for on-orbit transfer, i.e., if film boiling in a nonflight weight tank can be inhibited in normal gravity, then analytical modeling anchored with the data could be applied to reduced gravity environments with increased confidence.

  14. Design Concepts, Fabrication and Advanced Characterization Methods of Innovative Piezoelectric Sensors Based on ZnO Nanowires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araneo, Rodolfo; Rinaldi, Antonio; Notargiacomo, Andrea; Bini, Fabiano; Pea, Marialilia; Celozzi, Salvatore; Marinozzi, Franco; Lovat, Giampiero

    2014-12-08

    Micro- and nano-scale materials and systems based on zinc oxide are expected to explode in their applications in the electronics and photonics, including nano-arrays of addressable optoelectronic devices and sensors, due to their outstanding properties, including semiconductivity and the presence of a direct bandgap, piezoelectricity, pyroelectricity and biocompatibility. Most applications are based on the cooperative and average response of a large number of ZnO micro/nanostructures. However, in order to assess the quality of the materials and their performance, it is fundamental to characterize and then accurately model the specific electrical and piezoelectric properties of single ZnO structures. In this paper, we report on focused ion beam machined high aspect ratio nanowires and their mechanical and electrical (by means of conductive atomic force microscopy) characterization. Then, we investigate the suitability of new power-law design concepts to accurately model the relevant electrical and mechanical size-effects, whose existence has been emphasized in recent reviews.

  15. Design Concepts, Fabrication and Advanced Characterization Methods of Innovative Piezoelectric Sensors Based on ZnO Nanowires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo Araneo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Micro- and nano-scale materials and systems based on zinc oxide are expected to explode in their applications in the electronics and photonics, including nano-arrays of addressable optoelectronic devices and sensors, due to their outstanding properties, including semiconductivity and the presence of a direct bandgap, piezoelectricity, pyroelectricity and biocompatibility. Most applications are based on the cooperative and average response of a large number of ZnO micro/nanostructures. However, in order to assess the quality of the materials and their performance, it is fundamental to characterize and then accurately model the specific electrical and piezoelectric properties of single ZnO structures. In this paper, we report on focused ion beam machined high aspect ratio nanowires and their mechanical and electrical (by means of conductive atomic force microscopy characterization. Then, we investigate the suitability of new power-law design concepts to accurately model the relevant electrical and mechanical size-effects, whose existence has been emphasized in recent reviews.

  16. Development of advanced material composites for use as internal insulation for LH2 tanks (gas layer concept)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gille, J. P.

    1972-01-01

    A program is described that was conducted to develop an internal insulation system for potential application to the liquid hydrogen tanks of a reusable booster, where the tanks would be subjected to repeated high temperatures. The design of the internal insulation is based on a unique gas layer concept, in which capillary or surface tension effects are used to maintain a stable gas layer, within a cellular core structure, between the tank wall and the contained liquid hydrogen. Specific objectives were to select materials for insulation systems that would be compatible with wall temperatures of 350 F and 650 F during reentry into the earth's atmosphere, and to fabricate and test insulation systems under conditions simulating the operating environment. A materials test program was conducted to evaluate the properties of candidate materials at elevated temperatures and at the temperature of liquid hydrogen, and to determine the compatibility of the materials with a hydrogen atmosphere at the appropriate elevated temperature. The materials that were finally selected included Kapton polyimide films, silicone adhesives, fiber glass batting, and in the case of the 350 F system, Teflon film.

  17. Collective accelerator for electron colliders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Briggs, R.J.

    1985-05-13

    A recent concept for collective acceleration and focusing of a high energy electron bunch is discussed, in the context of its possible applicability to large linear colliders in the TeV range. The scheme can be considered to be a member of the general class of two-beam accelerators, where a high current, low voltage beam produces the acceleration fields for a trailing high energy bunch.

  18. Dry cooling of power generating stations: a summary of the economic evaluation of several advanced concepts via a design optimization study and a conceptual design and cost estimate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, B.M.; Allemann, R.T.; Faletti, D.W.; Fryer, B.C.; Zaloudek, F.R.

    1976-09-01

    Due to enhanced concern about water supplies and water use priorities, dry cooling systems for thermal power plants are receiving increased consideration, even though electric power from dry-cooled power plants currently costs 10 to 15 percent more than power from wet-cooled plants. A two-year study which analyzed the performance of existing dry-cooled systems and which developed economic and performance models for cost optimization of dry-cooled systems is reported. First, a design optimization code was used to compare the cost of a number of advanced all-dry systems. Then, 5 different dry/wet systems were carried through conceptual design and cost estimating. The results showed for either an all dry or a combination wet-and-dry cooling system, cost optimization can be achieved with an advanced system using ammonia as an intermediate heat exchange fluid (between the turbine and the dry tower), and that development of the ammonia concept should procede in order to provide performance and reliability data for the ammonia system. (LCL)

  19. Advanced Electron Beam Ion Sources (EBIS) for 2-nd generation carbon radiotherapy facilities

    CERN Document Server

    Shornikov, A.

    2016-01-01

    In this work we analyze how advanced Electron Beam Ion Sources (EBIS) can facilitate the progress of carbon therapy facilities. We will demonstrate that advanced ion sources enable operation of 2-nd generation ion beam therapy (IBT) accelerators. These new accelerator concepts with designs dedicated to IBT provide beams better suited for therapy and, are more cost efficient than contemporary IBT facilities. We will give a sort overview of the existing new IBT concepts and focus on those where ion source technology is the limiting factor. We will analyse whether this limitation can be overcome in the near future thanks to ongoing EBIS development.

  20. Dielectric assist accelerating structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satoh, D.; Yoshida, M.; Hayashizaki, N.

    2016-01-01

    A higher-order TM02 n mode accelerating structure is proposed based on a novel concept of dielectric loaded rf cavities. This accelerating structure consists of ultralow-loss dielectric cylinders and disks with irises which are periodically arranged in a metallic enclosure. Unlike conventional dielectric loaded accelerating structures, most of the rf power is stored in the vacuum space near the beam axis, leading to a significant reduction of the wall loss, much lower than that of conventional normal-conducting linac structures. This allows us to realize an extremely high quality factor and a very high shunt impedance at room temperature. A simulation of a 5 cell prototype design with an existing alumina ceramic indicates an unloaded quality factor of the accelerating mode over 120 000 and a shunt impedance exceeding 650 M Ω /m at room temperature.

  1. Maxwell-Faraday Stresses in Electromagnetic Fields and the Self-Force on a Uniformly Accelerating Point Charge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, D. R.

    2007-01-01

    The physical analysis of a uniformly accelerating point charge provides a rich problem to explore in advanced courses in electrodynamics and relativity since it brings together fundamental concepts in relation to electromagnetic radiation, Einstein's equivalence principle and the inertial mass of field energy in ways that reveal subtleties in each…

  2. Using tri-axial acceleration data to identify behavioral modes of free-ranging animals: general concepts and tools illustrated for griffon vultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathan, Ran; Spiegel, Orr; Fortmann-Roe, Scott; Harel, Roi; Wikelski, Martin; Getz, Wayne M

    2012-03-15

    Integrating biomechanics, behavior and ecology requires a mechanistic understanding of the processes producing the movement of animals. This calls for contemporaneous biomechanical, behavioral and environmental data along movement pathways. A recently formulated unifying movement ecology paradigm facilitates the integration of existing biomechanics, optimality, cognitive and random paradigms for studying movement. We focus on the use of tri-axial acceleration (ACC) data to identify behavioral modes of GPS-tracked free-ranging wild animals and demonstrate its application to study the movements of griffon vultures (Gyps fulvus, Hablizl 1783). In particular, we explore a selection of nonlinear and decision tree methods that include support vector machines, classification and regression trees, random forest methods and artificial neural networks and compare them with linear discriminant analysis (LDA) as a baseline for classifying behavioral modes. Using a dataset of 1035 ground-truthed ACC segments, we found that all methods can accurately classify behavior (80-90%) and, as expected, all nonlinear methods outperformed LDA. We also illustrate how ACC-identified behavioral modes provide the means to examine how vulture flight is affected by environmental factors, hence facilitating the integration of behavioral, biomechanical and ecological data. Our analysis of just over three-quarters of a million GPS and ACC measurements obtained from 43 free-ranging vultures across 9783 vulture-days suggests that their annual breeding schedule might be selected primarily in response to seasonal conditions favoring rising-air columns (thermals) and that rare long-range forays of up to 1750 km from the home range are performed despite potentially heavy energetic costs and a low rate of food intake, presumably to explore new breeding, social and long-term resource location opportunities.

  3. Investigation of advanced counterrotation blade configuration concepts for high speed turboprop systems. Task 5: Unsteady counterrotation ducted propfan analysis. Computer program user's manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Edward J.; Delaney, Robert A.; Adamczyk, John J.; Miller, Christopher J.; Arnone, Andrea; Swanson, Charles

    1993-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was the development of a time-marching three-dimensional Euler/Navier-Stokes aerodynamic analysis to predict steady and unsteady compressible transonic flows about ducted and unducted propfan propulsion systems employing multiple blade rows. The computer codes resulting from this study are referred to as ADPAC-AOACR (Advanced Ducted Propfan Analysis Codes-Angle of Attack Coupled Row). This report is intended to serve as a computer program user's manual for the ADPAC-AOACR codes developed under Task 5 of NASA Contract NAS3-25270, Unsteady Counterrotating Ducted Propfan Analysis. The ADPAC-AOACR program is based on a flexible multiple blocked grid discretization scheme permitting coupled 2-D/3-D mesh block solutions with application to a wide variety of geometries. For convenience, several standard mesh block structures are described for turbomachinery applications. Aerodynamic calculations are based on a four-stage Runge-Kutta time-marching finite volume solution technique with added numerical dissipation. Steady flow predictions are accelerated by a multigrid procedure. Numerical calculations are compared with experimental data for several test cases to demonstrate the utility of this approach for predicting the aerodynamics of modern turbomachinery configurations employing multiple blade rows.

  4. Thomas Edison Accelerated Elementary School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Henry M.; Chasin, Gene

    This paper describes early outcomes of a Sacramento, California, elementary school that participated in the Accelerated Schools Project. The school, which serves many minority and poor students, began training for the project in 1992. Accelerated Schools were designed to advance the learning rate of students through a gifted and talented approach,…

  5. Accelerating Value Creation with Accelerators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonsson, Eythor Ivar

    2015-01-01

    accelerator programs. Microsoft runs accelerators in seven different countries. Accelerators have grown out of the infancy stage and are now an accepted approach to develop new ventures based on cutting-edge technology like the internet of things, mobile technology, big data and virtual reality. It is also...... with the traditional audit and legal universes and industries are examples of emerging potentials both from a research and business point of view to exploit and explore further. The accelerator approach may therefore be an Idea Watch to consider, no matter which industry you are in, because in essence accelerators...

  6. A Variable Energy CW Compact Accelerator for Ion Cancer Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnstone, Carol J. [Fermilab; Taylor, J. [Huddersfield U.; Edgecock, R. [Huddersfield U.; Schulte, R. [Loma Linda U.

    2016-03-10

    Cancer is the second-largest cause of death in the U.S. and approximately two-thirds of all cancer patients will receive radiation therapy with the majority of the radiation treatments performed using x-rays produced by electron linacs. Charged particle beam radiation therapy, both protons and light ions, however, offers advantageous physical-dose distributions over conventional photon radiotherapy, and, for particles heavier than protons, a significant biological advantage. Despite recognition of potential advantages, there is almost no research activity in this field in the U.S. due to the lack of clinical accelerator facilities offering light ion therapy in the States. In January, 2013, a joint DOE/NCI workshop was convened to address the challenges of light ion therapy [1], inviting more than 60 experts from diverse fields related to radiation therapy. This paper reports on the conclusions of the workshop, then translates the clinical requirements into accelerat or and beam-delivery technical specifications. A comparison of available or feasible accelerator technologies is compared, including a new concept for a compact, CW, and variable energy light ion accelerator currently under development. This new light ion accelerator is based on advances in nonscaling Fixed-Field Alternating gradient (FFAG) accelerator design. The new design concepts combine isochronous orbits with long (up to 4m) straight sections in a compact racetrack format allowing inner circulating orbits to be energy selected for low-loss, CW extraction, effectively eliminating the high-loss energy degrader in conventional CW cyclotron designs.

  7. Centripetal Acceleration: Often Forgotten or Misinterpreted

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Chandralekha

    2016-01-01

    Acceleration is a fundamental concept in physics which is taught in mechanics at all levels. Here, we discuss some challenges in teaching this concept effectively when the path along which the object is moving has a curvature and centripetal acceleration is present. We discuss examples illustrating that both physics teachers and students have difficulty with this concept. We conclude with instructional strategies that may help students with this challenging concept.

  8. Accelerating Value Creation with Accelerators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonsson, Eythor Ivar

    2015-01-01

    Accelerators can help to accelerate value creation. Accelerators are short-term programs that have the objective of creating innovative and fast growing ventures. They have gained attraction as larger corporations like Microsoft, Barclays bank and Nordea bank have initiated and sponsored accelera......Accelerators can help to accelerate value creation. Accelerators are short-term programs that have the objective of creating innovative and fast growing ventures. They have gained attraction as larger corporations like Microsoft, Barclays bank and Nordea bank have initiated and sponsored...... an approach to facilitate implementation and realization of business ideas and is a lucrative approach to transform research into ventures and to revitalize regions and industries in transition. Investors have noticed that the accelerator approach is a way to increase the possibility of success by funnelling...

  9. [Projects to accelerate the practical use of innovative medical devices to collaborate with TWIns, Center for Advanced Biomedical Sciences, Waseda University and School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niimi, Shingo; Umezu, Mitsuo; Iseki, Hiroshi; Harada, Hiroshi Kasanuki Noboru; Mitsuishi, Mamoru; Kitamori, Takehiko; Tei, Yuichi; Nakaoka, Ryusuke; Haishima, Yuji

    2014-01-01

    Division of Medical Devices has been conducting the projects to accelerate the practical use of innovative medical devices to collaborate with TWIns, Center for Advanced Biomedical Sciences, Waseda University and School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo. The TWIns has been studying to aim at establishment of preclinical evaluation methods by "Engineering Based Medicine", and established Regulatory Science Institute for Medical Devices. School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo has been studying to aim at establishment of assessment methodology for innovative minimally invasive therapeutic devices, materials, and nanobio diagnostic devices. This report reviews the exchanges of personnel, the implement systems and the research progress of these projects.

  10. The Application of the NASA Advanced Concepts Office, Launch Vehicle Team Design Process and Tools for Modeling Small Responsive Launch Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Threet, Grady E.; Waters, Eric D.; Creech, Dennis M.

    2012-01-01

    The Advanced Concepts Office (ACO) Launch Vehicle Team at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is recognized throughout NASA for launch vehicle conceptual definition and pre-phase A concept design evaluation. The Launch Vehicle Team has been instrumental in defining the vehicle trade space for many of NASA s high level launch system studies from the Exploration Systems Architecture Study (ESAS) through the Augustine Report, Constellation, and now Space Launch System (SLS). The Launch Vehicle Team s approach to rapid turn-around and comparative analysis of multiple launch vehicle architectures has played a large role in narrowing the design options for future vehicle development. Recently the Launch Vehicle Team has been developing versions of their vetted tools used on large launch vehicles and repackaged the process and capability to apply to smaller more responsive launch vehicles. Along this development path the LV Team has evaluated trajectory tools and assumptions against sounding rocket trajectories and air launch systems, begun altering subsystem mass estimating relationships to handle smaller vehicle components, and as an additional development driver, have begun an in-house small launch vehicle study. With the recent interest in small responsive launch systems and the known capability and response time of the ACO LV Team, ACO s launch vehicle assessment capability can be utilized to rapidly evaluate the vast and opportune trade space that small launch vehicles currently encompass. This would provide a great benefit to the customer in order to reduce that large trade space to a select few alternatives that should best fit the customer s payload needs.

  11. LIBO accelerates

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    The prototype module of LIBO, a linear accelerator project designed for cancer therapy, has passed its first proton-beam acceleration test. In parallel a new version - LIBO-30 - is being developed, which promises to open up even more interesting avenues.

  12. RECIRCULATING ACCELERATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BERG,J.S.; GARREN,A.A.; JOHNSTONE,C.

    2000-04-07

    This paper compares various types of recirculating accelerators, outlining the advantages and disadvantages of various approaches. The accelerators are characterized according to the types of arcs they use: whether there is a single arc for the entire recirculator or there are multiple arcs, and whether the arc(s) are isochronous or non-isochronous.

  13. Centripetal Acceleration: Often Forgotten or Misinterpreted

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Chandralekha

    2009-01-01

    Acceleration is a fundamental concept in physics which is taught in mechanics at all levels. Here, we discuss some challenges in teaching this concept effectively when the path along which the object is moving has a curvature and centripetal acceleration is present. We discuss examples illustrating that both physics teachers and students have…

  14. A new primary cleft lip repair technique tailored for Asian patients that combines three surgical concepts: Comparison with rotation--advancement and straight-line methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funayama, Emi; Yamamoto, Yuhei; Furukawa, Hiroshi; Murao, Naoki; Shichinohe, Ryuji; Hayashi, Toshihiko; Oyama, Akihiko

    2016-01-01

    Various techniques have been described for unilateral cleft lip repair. These may be broadly classified into three types of procedure/concept: the straight-line method (SL; Rose-Thompson effect); rotation-advancement (RA; upper-lip Z-plasty); and the triangular flap method (TA; lower-lip Z-plasty). Based on these procedures, cleft lip repair has evolved in recent decades. The cleft lip repair method in our institution has also undergone several changes. However, we have found that further modifications are needed for Asian patients who have wider philtral dimples and columns than Caucasians, while following the principles of the original techniques mentioned above. Here, we have incorporated the advantages of each procedure and propose a refined hybrid operating technique, seeking a more appropriate procedure for Asian patients. To evaluate our new technique, a comparison study was performed to evaluate RA, SL, and our technique. We have used our new technique to treat 137 consecutive cleft lip cases of all types and degrees of severity, with or without a cleft palate, since 2009. In the time since we adopted the hybrid technique, we have observed improved esthetics of the repaired lip. Our technique demonstrated higher glance impression average scores than RA/SL.

  15. Proceedings of the NATO Advanced Study Institute on High-Brightness Accelerators Held in Pitlochry, Scotland on 13-25 July 1986. Series B. Volume 178

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-07-25

    high, because the linac is engineered as a multigap device with low energy per stage (a few kilojoules) but very high power per stage ( giga - watts...years of research on accelerators for food processing, the Codex Alimentarius Commission of the United Nations has made recommendations on dose and...doses. On the basis of recommendations by the Expert Committees, the United Nations FAO/WHO Codex Alementarius Commission has adopted a general standard

  16. Superconducting Accelerator Magnets

    CERN Document Server

    Mess, K H; Wolff, S

    1996-01-01

    The main topic of the book are the superconducting dipole and quadrupole magnets needed in high-energy accelerators and storage rings for protons, antiprotons or heavy ions. The basic principles of low-temperature superconductivity are outlined with special emphasis on the effects which are relevant for accelerator magnets. Properties and fabrication methods of practical superconductors are described. Analytical methods for field calculation and multipole expansion are presented for coils without and with iron yoke. The effect of yoke saturation and geometric distortions on field quality is studied. Persistent magnetization currents in the superconductor and eddy currents the copper part of the cable are analyzed in detail and their influence on field quality and magnet performance is investigated. Superconductor stability, quench origins and propagation and magnet protection are addressed. Some important concepts of accelerator physics are introduced which are needed to appreciate the demanding requirements ...

  17. Accelerated plate tectonics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, D L

    1975-03-21

    The concept of a stressed elastic lithospheric plate riding on a viscous asthenosphere is used to calculate the recurrence interval of great earthquakes at convergent plate boundaries, the separation of decoupling and lithospheric earthquakes, and the migration pattern of large earthquakes along an arc. It is proposed that plate motions accelerate after great decoupling earthquakes and that most of the observed plate motions occur during short periods of time, separated by periods of relative quiescence.

  18. European Innovation Policy Concepts and the Governance of Innovation: Slovenia and the Struggle for Organizational Readiness at the National Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebhardt, Christiane; Stanovnik, Peter

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines the interdependency of European Policy and governance of innovation. The authors elaborate on the policy implementation context of Slovenia, a small and less advanced European member state in a transition process. The literature on innovation policy, governance and existing innovation concepts aiming to accelerate economic…

  19. DUAL-MODE PROPULSION SYSTEM ENABLING CUBESAT EXPLORATION OF THE SOLAR SYSTEM NASA Innovative Advanced Concepts (NIAC) Phase I Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nathan Jerred; Troy Howe; Adarsh Rajguru; Dr. Steven Howe

    2014-06-01

    -based systems. The second scenario allows for the production of electrical power, which is then available for electric-based propulsion. Additionally, once at location the production of electrical power can be dedicated to the payload’s communication system for data transfer. Ultimately, the proposed dual-mode propulsion platform capitalizes on the benefits of two types of propulsion methods – the thrust of thermal propulsion ideal for quick orbital maneuvers and the specific impulse of electric propulsion ideal for efficient inter-planetary travel. Previous versions of this RTR-based concept have been studied for various applications [NETS 1-3]. The current version of this concept is being matured through a NASA Innovative Advanced Concepts (NIAC) Phase I grant, awarded for FY 2014. In this study the RTR concept is being developed to deliver a 6U CubeSat payload to the orbit of the Saturnian moon - Enceladus. Additionally, this study will develop an entire mission architecture for Enceladus targeting a total allowable launch mass of 1,000 kg.

  20. Particle accelerator physics

    CERN Document Server

    Wiedemann, Helmut

    2007-01-01

    Particle Accelerator Physics is an in-depth and comprehensive introduction to the field of high-energy particle acceleration and beam dynamics. Part I gathers the basic tools, recalling the essentials of electrostatics and electrodynamics as well as of particle dynamics in electromagnetic fields. Part II is an extensive primer in beam dynamics, followed in Part III by the introduction and description of the main beam parameters. Part IV is devoted to the treatment of perturbations in beam dynamics. Part V discusses the details of charged particle accleration. Part VI and Part VII introduce the more advanced topics of coupled beam dynamics and the description of very intense beams. Part VIII is an exhaustive treatment of radiation from accelerated charges and introduces important sources of coherent radiation such as synchrotrons and free-electron lasers. Part IX collects the appendices gathering useful mathematical and physical formulae, parameters and units. Solutions to many end-of-chapter problems are give...

  1. SLIM, Short-pulse Technology for High Gradient Induction Accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arntz, Floyd; /Diversified Tech., Bedford; Kardo-Sysoev, A.; /Ioffe Phys. Tech. Inst.; Krasnykh, A.; /SLAC

    2008-12-16

    A novel short-pulse concept (SLIM) suited to a new generation of a high gradient induction particle accelerators is described herein. It applies advanced solid state semiconductor technology and modern microfabrication techniques to a coreless induction method of charged particle acceleration first proven on a macro scale in the 1960's. Because this approach avoids use of magnetic materials there is the prospect of such an accelerator working efficiently with accelerating pulses in the nanosecond range and, potentially, at megahertz pulse rates. The principal accelerator section is envisioned as a stack of coreless induction cells, the only active element within each being a single, extremely fast (subnanosecond) solid state opening switch: a Drift Step Recovery Diode (DSRD). Each coreless induction cell incorporates an electromagnetic pulse compressor in which inductive energy developed within a transmission-line feed structure over a period of tens of nanoseconds is diverted to the acceleration of the passing charge packet for a few nanoseconds by the abrupt opening of the DSRD switch. The duration of this accelerating output pulse--typically two-to-four nanoseconds--is precisely determined by a microfabricated pulse forming line connected to the cell. Because the accelerating pulse is only nanoseconds in duration, longitudinal accelerating gradients approaching 100 MeV per meter are believed to be achievable without inciting breakdown. Further benefits of this approach are that, (1) only a low voltage power supply is required to produce the high accelerating gradient, and, (2) since the DSRD switch is normally closed, voltage stress is limited to a few nanoseconds per period, hence the susceptibility to hostile environment conditions such as ionizing radiation, mismatch (e.g. in medical applications the peak beam current may be low), strong electromagnetic noise levels, etc is expected to be minimal. Finally, we observe the SLIM concept is not limited to

  2. Particle accelerator physics

    CERN Document Server

    Wiedemann, Helmut

    2015-01-01

    This book by Helmut Wiedemann is a well-established, classic text, providing an in-depth and comprehensive introduction to the field of high-energy particle acceleration and beam dynamics. The present 4th edition has been significantly revised, updated and expanded. The newly conceived Part I is an elementary introduction to the subject matter for undergraduate students. Part II gathers the basic tools in preparation of a more advanced treatment, summarizing the essentials of electrostatics and electrodynamics as well as of particle dynamics in electromagnetic fields. Part III is an extensive primer in beam dynamics, followed, in Part IV, by an introduction and description of the main beam parameters and including a new chapter on beam emittance and lattice design. Part V is devoted to the treatment of perturbations in beam dynamics. Part VI then discusses the details of charged particle acceleration. Parts VII and VIII introduce the more advanced topics of coupled beam dynamics and describe very intense bea...

  3. Horizontal Accelerator

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Horizontal Accelerator (HA) Facility is a versatile research tool available for use on projects requiring simulation of the crash environment. The HA Facility is...

  4. Accelerators 2010. Highlights and annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-11-10

    The following topics are dealt with: DESY II beam operation, DORIS III, PETRA III, FLASH, FLASH II, the European XFEL, a relativistic electron gun for atomic explorations, beam quality improvement, the international linear collider, new power supplies for DESY II, PETRA III power supplies, PETRA III beam position monitoring system, personnel safety, the FLASH refrigerator, the European XFEL-type RF waveguide distribution for FLASH, the FLASH injector low-level RF (LLRF) system upgrade, the precision RF field regulation at FLASH, ultrashort bunches at FLASH, the improved optical link design at FLASH, the accelerator module test facility, LLRF development for the European XFEL, the European XFEL cavities, niobium material for European-XFEL cavities, surface investigation on prototype cavities for the European XFEL, advances in large-grain resonators for superconducting RF technology, cavities for electron accelerator diagnostics in the European XFEL, temperature calculations for the European XFEL, electron interactions in free-electron lasers, achromatic and apochromatic beam transport, the DESY accelerator-idea market, new concepts for free-electron lasers. (HSI)

  5. Fruit ecology: Its concepts, research advances, and research perspectives%果实生态学的概念、研究现状及研究方向

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方伟伟; 于顺利

    2013-01-01

    总结了果实生态学的概念及主要研究内容,对国内外的果实生态学研究领域的进展进行了综述,分析了这些研究尚存在的不足之处,并指出了未来研究的科学问题.迄今为止,果实生态学在果实与种子的关系、果实颜色与环境、果实化学成分与环境、群落果实构成式样的地理分布特征、果实及食果动物的协同进化等方面已经取得了若干进展.果实重量谱等物理性状的空间分异格局及机理、果实化学成分的时空变异格局、果实类型的组成式样及大尺度地理分布格局及其机制的探讨、果实传播与食果动物的协同进化等是未来亟待开展的工作.%This paper introduced the concepts and main research contents of fruit ecology,summarized the related research advances,analyzed the shortcomings and gaps of the extant researches,and pointed out the future research perspectives.So far,some advances have been made in the correlativity between seed and fruit,fruit color and environment,fruit chemical components and environment,and fruit physical properties and geographic distribution pattern,and the coevolution between fruits and frugivores.However,following scientific issues need a further focus in the future:1) the spatial differentiation patterns and their mechanisms of fruit physical traits such as mass spectrum and seed number per fruit,2) the spatial variations and their mechanisms of fruit chemical components,and 3) the large scale geographical distribution patterns of fruit type composition modes and fruit type diversity and their environmental adaptation explanation,and the coevolution between fruit spread and frugivores.

  6. Do technological advances in linear accelerators improve dosimetric outcomes in stereotaxy? A head-on comparison of seven linear accelerators using volumetric modulated arc therapy-based stereotactic planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Sarkar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Linear accelerator (Linac based stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS and stereotactic radiotherapy (SRT using volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT has been used for treating small intracranial lesions. Recent development in the Linacs such as inbuilt micro multileaf collimator (MLC and flattening filter free (FFF beam are intended to provide a better dose conformity and faster delivery when using VMAT technique. This study was aimed to compare the dosimetric outcomes and monitor units (MUs of the stereotactic treatment plans for different commercially available MLC models and beam profiles. Materials and Methods: Ten patients having 12 planning target volume (PTV/gross target volume's (GTVs who received the SRS/SRT treatment in our clinic using Axesse Linac (considered reference arm gold standard were considered for this study. The test arms comprised of plans using Elekta Agility with FFF, Elekta Agility with the plane beam, Elekta APEX, Varian Millennium 120, Varian Millennium 120HD, and Elekta Synergy in Monaco treatment planning system. Planning constraints and calculation grid spacing were not altered in the test plans. To objectively evaluate the efficacy of MLC-beam model, the resultant dosimetric outcomes were subtracted from the reference arm parameters. Results: V95%, V100%, V105%, D1%, maximum dose, and mean dose of PTV/GTV showed a maximum inter MLC - beam model variation of 1.5% and 2% for PTV and GTV, respectively. Average PTV conformity index and heterogeneity index shows a variation in the range 0.56–0.63 and 1.08–1.11, respectively. Mean dose difference (excluding Axesse for all organs varied between 1.1 cGy and 74.8 cGy (mean dose = 6.1 cGy standard deviation [SD] = 26.9 cGy and 1.7 cGy–194.5 cGy (mean dose 16.1 cGy SD = 57.2 cGy for single and multiple fraction, respectively. Conclusion: The dosimetry of VMAT-based SRS/SRT treatment plan had minimal dependence on MLC and beam model variations. All tested MLC

  7. Contribution to a proposition for a long term development of nuclear energy: the TASSE concept (Thorium based Accelerator driven System with Simplified fuel cycle for long term Energy Production); Contribution a une proposition d'un developpement a long terme de l'energie nucleaire: le concept TASSE (Thorium based Accelerator driven System with Simplified fuel cycle for long term Energy Production)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berthou, V

    2000-10-30

    Nuclear industry creates waste which are in the middle of the discussion concerning the Nuclear Energy future. At this time, important decisions for the Energy production must be taken, so numerous researches are conducted within the framework of the Bataille law. The goal of these studies is to find a range of solutions concerning the waste management. An innovative system, called TASSE (Thorium based Accelerator driven System with Simplified fuel cycle for long term Energy production), is studied in this thesis. This reactor is included in a long term strategy, and is destined for the renewal of the reactor park. In the first part of this work, the main characteristics of TASSE have been defined. They are commensurate with some specific requirements such as: to insure a large time to the Nuclear Energy, to reduce the waste production in an important way, to eliminate waste already stocked in the present park, to insure the non proliferation, and to be economically competitive. Neutronics studies of TASSE have been done. A calculation procedure has been developed to reach the system equilibrium state. Several types of molten salts as well as a pebble-bed fuel have been studied. Thus, an optimal fuel has been brought out in regard to some parameters such as the burn up level, the spectrum, the waste toxicity, the cycle type. Eventually, various TASSE core layout have been envisaged. (author)

  8. Advanced metal artifact reduction MRI of metal-on-metal hip resurfacing arthroplasty implants: compressed sensing acceleration enables the time-neutral use of SEMAC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fritz, Jan; Thawait, Gaurav K. [Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Section of Musculoskeletal Radiology, Baltimore, MD (United States); Fritz, Benjamin [University of Freiburg, Department of Radiology, Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany); Raithel, Esther; Nittka, Mathias [Siemens Healthcare GmbH, Erlangen (Germany); Gilson, Wesley D. [Siemens Healthcare USA, Inc., Baltimore, MD (United States); Mont, Michael A. [Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Cleveland, OH (United States)

    2016-10-15

    Compressed sensing (CS) acceleration has been theorized for slice encoding for metal artifact correction (SEMAC), but has not been shown to be feasible. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that CS-SEMAC is feasible for MRI of metal-on-metal hip resurfacing implants. Following prospective institutional review board approval, 22 subjects with metal-on-metal hip resurfacing implants underwent 1.5 T MRI. We compared CS-SEMAC prototype, high-bandwidth TSE, and SEMAC sequences with acquisition times of 4-5, 4-5 and 10-12 min, respectively. Outcome measures included bone-implant interfaces, image quality, periprosthetic structures, artifact size, and signal- and contrast-to-noise ratios (SNR and CNR). Using Friedman, repeated measures analysis of variances, and Cohen's weighted kappa tests, Bonferroni-corrected p-values of 0.005 and less were considered statistically significant. There was no statistical difference of outcomes measures of SEMAC and CS-SEMAC images. Visibility of implant-bone interfaces and pseudocapsule as well as fat suppression and metal reduction were ''adequate'' to ''good'' on CS-SEMAC and ''non-diagnostic'' to ''adequate'' on high-BW TSE (p < 0.001, respectively). SEMAC and CS-SEMAC showed mild blur and ripple artifacts. The metal artifact size was 63 % larger for high-BW TSE as compared to SEMAC and CS-SEMAC (p < 0.0001, respectively). CNRs were sufficiently high and statistically similar, with the exception of CNR of fluid and muscle and CNR of fluid and tendon, which were higher on intermediate-weighted high-BW TSE (p < 0.005, respectively). Compressed sensing acceleration enables the time-neutral use of SEMAC for MRI of metal-on-metal hip resurfacing implants when compared to high-BW TSE and image quality similar to conventional SEMAC. (orig.)

  9. Tevatron accelerator physics and operation highlights

    CERN Document Server

    Valishev, A

    2011-01-01

    The performance of the Tevatron collider demonstrated continuous growth over the course of Run II, with the peak luminosity reaching 4\\times1032 cm-2 s-1, and the weekly integration rate exceeding 70 pb-1. This report presents a review of the most important advances that contributed to this performance improvement, including beam dynamics modeling, precision optics measurements and stability control, implementation of collimation during low-beta squeeze. Algorithms employed for optimization of the luminosity integration are presented and the lessons learned from high-luminosity operation are discussed. Studies of novel accelerator physics concepts at the Tevatron are described, such as the collimation techniques using crystal collimator and hollow electron beam, and compensation of beam-beam effects.

  10. Accelerated Unification

    OpenAIRE

    Arkani-Hamed, Nima; Cohen, Andrew; Georgi, Howard

    2001-01-01

    We construct four dimensional gauge theories in which the successful supersymmetric unification of gauge couplings is preserved but accelerated by N-fold replication of the MSSM gauge and Higgs structure. This results in a low unification scale of $10^{13/N}$ TeV.

  11. Integration of Advanced Concepts and Vehicles Into the Next Generation Air Transportation System. Volume 1; Introduction, Key Messages, and Vehicle Attributes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zellweger, Andres; Resnick, Herbert; Stevens, Edward; Arkind, Kenneth; Cotton William B.

    2010-01-01

    Raytheon, in partnership with NASA, is leading the way in ensuring that the future air transportation continues to be a key driver of economic growth and stability and that this system provides an environmentally friendly, safe, and effective means of moving people and goods. A Raytheon-led team of industry and academic experts, under NASA contract NNA08BA47C, looked at the potential issues and impact of introducing four new classes of advanced aircraft into the next generation air transportation system -- known as NextGen. The study will help determine where NASA should further invest in research to support the safe introduction of these new air vehicles. Small uncrewed or unmanned aerial systems (SUAS), super heavy transports (SHT) including hybrid wing body versions (HWB), very light jets (VLJ), and supersonic business jets (SSBJ) are the four classes of aircraft that we studied. Understanding each vehicle's business purpose and strategy is critical to assessing the feasibility of new aircraft operations and their impact on NextGen's architecture. The Raytheon team used scenarios created by aviation experts that depict vehicles in year 2025 operations along with scripts or use cases to understand the issues presented by these new types of vehicles. The information was then mapped into the Joint Planning and Development Office's (JPDO s) Enterprise Architecture to show how the vehicles will fit into NextGen's Concept of Operations. The team also identified significant changes to the JPDO's Integrated Work Plan (IWP) to optimize the NextGen vision for these vehicles. Using a proven enterprise architecture approach and the JPDO s Joint Planning Environment (JPE) web site helped make the leap from architecture to planning efficient, manageable and achievable. Very Light Jets flying into busy hub airports -- Supersonic Business Jets needing to climb and descend rapidly to achieve the necessary altitude Super-heavy cargo planes requiring the shortest common flight

  12. Predicting drowsy driving in real-time situations: Using an advanced driving simulator, accelerated failure time model, and virtual location-based services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Junhua; Sun, Shuaiyi; Fang, Shouen; Fu, Ting; Stipancic, Joshua

    2017-02-01

    This paper aims to both identify the factors affecting driver drowsiness and to develop a real-time drowsy driving probability model based on virtual Location-Based Services (LBS) data obtained using a driving simulator. A driving simulation experiment was designed and conducted using 32 participant drivers. Collected data included the continuous driving time before detection of drowsiness and virtual LBS data related to temperature, time of day, lane width, average travel speed, driving time in heavy traffic, and driving time on different roadway types. Demographic information, such as nap habit, age, gender, and driving experience was also collected through questionnaires distributed to the participants. An Accelerated Failure Time (AFT) model was developed to estimate the driving time before detection of drowsiness. The results of the AFT model showed driving time before drowsiness was longer during the day than at night, and was longer at lower temperatures. Additionally, drivers who identified as having a nap habit were more vulnerable to drowsiness. Generally, higher average travel speeds were correlated to a higher risk of drowsy driving, as were longer periods of low-speed driving in traffic jam conditions. Considering different road types, drivers felt drowsy more quickly on freeways compared to other facilities. The proposed model provides a better understanding of how driver drowsiness is influenced by different environmental and demographic factors. The model can be used to provide real-time data for the LBS-based drowsy driving warning system, improving past methods based only on a fixed driving.

  13. An Advanced Neutron Spectrometer for Future Manned Exploration Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christl, Mark; Apple, Jeffrey A.; Cox, Mark D.; Dietz, Kurtis L.; Dobson, Christopher C.; Gibson, Brian F.; Howard, David E.; Jackson, Amanda C.; Kayatin, Mathew J.; Kuznetsov, Evgeny N.; Norwood, Joseph K.; Merril, Garrick W.; Watts, John W.; Sabra, Mohammad S.; Smith, Dennis A.; Rodriquez-Otero, Miguel A.

    2014-01-01

    An Advanced Neutron Spectrometer (ANS) is being developed to support future manned exploration missions. This new instrument uses a refined gate and capture technique that significantly improves the identification of neutrons in mixed radiation fields found in spacecraft, habitats and on planetary surfaces. The new instrument is a composite scintillator comprised of PVT loaded with litium-6 glass scintillators. We will describe the detection concept and show preliminary results from laboratory tests and exposures at particle accelerators

  14. Advanced nanoelectronics

    CERN Document Server

    Ismail, Razali

    2012-01-01

    While theories based on classical physics have been very successful in helping experimentalists design microelectronic devices, new approaches based on quantum mechanics are required to accurately model nanoscale transistors and to predict their characteristics even before they are fabricated. Advanced Nanoelectronics provides research information on advanced nanoelectronics concepts, with a focus on modeling and simulation. Featuring contributions by researchers actively engaged in nanoelectronics research, it develops and applies analytical formulations to investigate nanoscale devices. The

  15. Surface modification of nano-silica on the ligament advanced reinforcement system for accelerated bone formation: primary human osteoblasts testing in vitro and animal testing in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mengmeng; Wang, Shiwen; Jiang, Jia; Sun, Jiashu; Li, Yuzhuo; Huang, Deyong; Long, Yun-Ze; Zheng, Wenfu; Chen, Shiyi; Jiang, Xingyu

    2015-05-07

    The Ligament Advanced Reinforcement System (LARS) has been considered as a promising graft for ligament reconstruction. To improve its biocompatibility and effectiveness on new bone formation, we modified the surface of a polyethylene terephthalate (PET) ligament with nanoscale silica using atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) and silica polymerization. The modified ligament is tested by both in vitro and in vivo experiments. Human osteoblast testing in vitro exhibits an ∼21% higher value in cell viability for silica-modified grafts compared with original grafts. Animal testing in vivo shows that there is new formed bone in the case of a nanoscale silica-coated ligament. These results demonstrate that our approach for nanoscale silica surface modification on LARS could be potentially applied for ligament reconstruction.

  16. Health physics practices at research accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, R.H.

    1976-02-01

    A review is given of the uses of particle accelerators in health physics, the text being a short course given at the Health Physics Society Ninth Midyear Topical Symposium in February, 1976. Topics discussed include: (1) the radiation environment of high energy accelerators; (2) dosimetry at research accelerators; (3) shielding; (4) induced activity; (5) environmental impact of high energy accelerators; (6) population dose equivalent calculation; and (7) the application of the ''as low as practicable concept'' at accelerators. (PMA)

  17. MUON ACCELERATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BERG,S.J.

    2003-11-18

    One of the major motivations driving recent interest in FFAGs is their use for the cost-effective acceleration of muons. This paper summarizes the progress in this area that was achieved leading up to and at the FFAG workshop at KEK from July 7-12, 2003. Much of the relevant background and references are also given here, to give a context to the progress we have made.

  18. Accelerator Technology Division progress report, FY 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schriber, S.O.; Hardekopf, R.A.; Heighway, E.A.

    1993-07-01

    This report briefly discusses the following topics: The Ground Test Accelerator Program; Defense Free-Electron Lasers; AXY Programs; A Next Generation High-Power Neutron-Scattering Facility; JAERI OMEGA Project and Intense Neutron Sources for Materials Testing; Advanced Free-Electron Laser Initiative; Superconducting Supercollider; The High-Power Microwave (HPM) Program; Neutral Particle Beam (NPB) Power Systems Highlights; Industrial Partnering; Accelerator Physics and Special Projects; Magnetic Optics and Beam Diagnostics; Accelerator Design and Engineering; Radio-Frequency Technology; Accelerator Theory and Free-Electron Laser Technology; Accelerator Controls and Automation; Very High-Power Microwave Sources and Effects; and GTA Installation, Commissioning, and Operations.

  19. Observations of Collective Ion Acceleration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    possible benefit can be listed. In cancer therapy, radiation produced by ion beams may be more selectively directed into tumors. Ion beams in spallation...34Autoresonant Accelerator Concept," Phys. Rev. Lett. 31, 1234 (1973). 50. S. Humphries, J. J. Lee, and R. N. Sudan, "Generation of Incense Pulsed Ion Beams

  20. Accelerators and the Accelerator Community

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malamud, Ernest; Sessler, Andrew

    2008-06-01

    In this paper, standing back--looking from afar--and adopting a historical perspective, the field of accelerator science is examined. How it grew, what are the forces that made it what it is, where it is now, and what it is likely to be in the future are the subjects explored. Clearly, a great deal of personal opinion is invoked in this process.

  1. Aggressive simultaneous radiochemotherapy with cisplatin and paclitaxel in combination with accelerated hyperfractionated radiotherapy in locally advanced head and neck tumors. Results of a phase I-II trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuhnt, T.; Pigorsch, S.; Pelz, T.; Haensgen, G.; Dunst, J. [Dept. of Radiotherapy, Martin Luther Univ., Halle (Germany); Becker, A. [Dept. of Radiotherapy, Martin Luther Univ., Halle (Germany); Dept. of Radiotherapy, Municipial Hospital, Dessau (Germany); Bloching, M.; Passmann, M. [Dept. of Head and Neck Surgery, Martin Luther Univ., Halle (Germany); Lotterer, E. [Dept. of Internal Medicine I, Martin Luther Univ., Halle (Germany)

    2003-10-01

    We have tested a very aggressive combination protocol with cisplatin and escalated paclitaxel in combination with accelerated hyperfractionated radiotherapy to assess the maximum tolerated dose (MTD), dose-limiting toxicity (DLT), overall toxicity, and response rate. Patients and Methods: The trial recruited 24 patients (21 males, three females, mean age 57 years) treated at our department from 1998 through 2001. Irradiation was administered in daily doses of 2 Gy up to 30 Gy followed by 1.4 Gy twice daily up to 70.6 Gy to the primary tumor and involved nodes and 51 Gy to the clinically negative regional nodes. The chemotherapy schedule included cisplatin in a fixed dose of 20 mg/m{sup 2} on days 1-5 and 29-33 and paclitaxel at increasing dose levels of 20, 25, 30 mg/m{sup 2} twice weekly over the whole treatment time. Patients were recruited in cohorts of three to six, and the MTD was reached if two out of six patients in one cohort developed DLT. DLT was defined as any grade 4 toxicity or any grade 3 toxicity requiring treatment interruption or unplanned hospitalization or any grade 3 neurotoxicity. We recruited mainly patients with large tumors for this protocol; all patients were stage IV, and the mean tumor volume (primary + metastases) amounted to 72 {+-} 61 cm{sup 3}. The mean follow-up was 30 months (range 4-39 months). Results: One early death (peritonitis and sepsis a t day 10) occurred, and 23 patients were evaluable for acute toxicity and response. The MTD of paclitaxel was reached at the third dose level (30 mg/m{sup 2} paclitaxel twice weekly). The DLT was severe mucositis grade 3 (n = 1) and skin erythema grade 4 (n = 2). After determining the MTD, another 14 patients were treated at the recommended dose level of paclitaxel with 25 mg/m{sup 2} twice weekly. In summary, 13/23 patients (57%) developed grade 3 and 10/23 (43%) grade 2 mucositis. Two patients (9%) had grade 4, five (22%) grade 3, and 16 (69%) grade 2 dermatitis. One patient died at day 30

  2. AdvancED Flex 4

    CERN Document Server

    Tiwari, Shashank; Schulze, Charlie

    2010-01-01

    AdvancED Flex 4 makes advanced Flex 4 concepts and techniques easy. Ajax, RIA, Web 2.0, mashups, mobile applications, the most sophisticated web tools, and the coolest interactive web applications are all covered with practical, visually oriented recipes. * Completely updated for the new tools in Flex 4* Demonstrates how to use Flex 4 to create robust and scalable enterprise-grade Rich Internet Applications.* Teaches you to build high-performance web applications with interactivity that really engages your users.* What you'll learn Practiced beginners and intermediate users of Flex, especially

  3. Concept Maps

    OpenAIRE

    Schwendimann, Beat Adrian

    2014-01-01

    A concept map is a node-link diagram showing the semantic relationships among concepts. The technique for constructing concept maps is called "concept mapping". A concept map consists of nodes, arrows as linking lines, and linking phrases that describe the relationship between nodes. Two nodes connected with a labeled arrow are called a proposition. Concept maps are versatile graphic organizers that can represent many different forms of relationships between concepts. The relationship between...

  4. accelerating cavity

    CERN Multimedia

    On the inside of the cavitytThere is a layer of niobium. Operating at 4.2 degrees above absolute zero, the niobium is superconducting and carries an accelerating field of 6 million volts per metre with negligible losses. Each cavity has a surface of 6 m2. The niobium layer is only 1.2 microns thick, ten times thinner than a hair. Such a large area had never been coated to such a high accuracy. A speck of dust could ruin the performance of the whole cavity so the work had to be done in an extremely clean environment.

  5. Impact accelerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vongierke, H. E.; Brinkley, J. W.

    1975-01-01

    The degree to which impact acceleration is an important factor in space flight environments depends primarily upon the technology of capsule landing deceleration and the weight permissible for the associated hardware: parachutes or deceleration rockets, inflatable air bags, or other impact attenuation systems. The problem most specific to space medicine is the potential change of impact tolerance due to reduced bone mass and muscle strength caused by prolonged weightlessness and physical inactivity. Impact hazards, tolerance limits, and human impact tolerance related to space missions are described.

  6. Multiple time step molecular dynamics in the optimized isokinetic ensemble steered with the molecular theory of solvation: Accelerating with advanced extrapolation of effective solvation forces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Omelyan, Igor, E-mail: omelyan@ualberta.ca, E-mail: omelyan@icmp.lviv.ua [National Institute for Nanotechnology, 11421 Saskatchewan Drive, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2M9 (Canada); Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2G8 (Canada); Institute for Condensed Matter Physics, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 1 Svientsitskii Street, Lviv 79011 (Ukraine); Kovalenko, Andriy, E-mail: andriy.kovalenko@nrc-cnrc.gc.ca [National Institute for Nanotechnology, 11421 Saskatchewan Drive, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2M9 (Canada); Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2G8 (Canada)

    2013-12-28

    We develop efficient handling of solvation forces in the multiscale method of multiple time step molecular dynamics (MTS-MD) of a biomolecule steered by the solvation free energy (effective solvation forces) obtained from the 3D-RISM-KH molecular theory of solvation (three-dimensional reference interaction site model complemented with the Kovalenko-Hirata closure approximation). To reduce the computational expenses, we calculate the effective solvation forces acting on the biomolecule by using advanced solvation force extrapolation (ASFE) at inner time steps while converging the 3D-RISM-KH integral equations only at large outer time steps. The idea of ASFE consists in developing a discrete non-Eckart rotational transformation of atomic coordinates that minimizes the distances between the atomic positions of the biomolecule at different time moments. The effective solvation forces for the biomolecule in a current conformation at an inner time step are then extrapolated in the transformed subspace of those at outer time steps by using a modified least square fit approach applied to a relatively small number of the best force-coordinate pairs. The latter are selected from an extended set collecting the effective solvation forces obtained from 3D-RISM-KH at outer time steps over a broad time interval. The MTS-MD integration with effective solvation forces obtained by converging 3D-RISM-KH at outer time steps and applying ASFE at inner time steps is stabilized by employing the optimized isokinetic Nosé-Hoover chain (OIN) ensemble. Compared to the previous extrapolation schemes used in combination with the Langevin thermostat, the ASFE approach substantially improves the accuracy of evaluation of effective solvation forces and in combination with the OIN thermostat enables a dramatic increase of outer time steps. We demonstrate on a fully flexible model of alanine dipeptide in aqueous solution that the MTS-MD/OIN/ASFE/3D-RISM-KH multiscale method of molecular dynamics

  7. The intense neutron generator and future factory type ion accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, W.B

    1968-07-01

    A neutron factory is likely to sell its product in the form of isotopes. To ay neutron factories are nuclear reactors. Ion accelerators may also produce isotopes by direct interaction and, at high enough energies, mesons and hyperons. The challenge of the electrical production of neutrons goes far beyond the isotope market. It challenges the two popular concepts for long term large scale energy, the fast breeder reactor and controlled thermonuclear fusion. For this use about 4% of nuclear generated power would be applied in a feedback loop generating extra neutrons. Competition rests on operating and processing costs. The Intense Neutron Generator proposal now cancelled would have been full scale for such a use, but much further advance in accelerator engineering is required and anticipated. Perhaps most promising is the application of the ion drag principle in which rings of fast electrons are accelerated along their axis dragging ions with them by electrostatic attraction. Due to the much larger mass of the ions they can acquire much higher energy than the electrons and the process could be efficient. Such accelerators have not yet been made but experimental and theoretical studies are promising. (author)

  8. Report on Workshop on Future Directions for Accelerator R&D at Fermilab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiltsev, V.; Church, M.; Spentzouris, P.; Chou, W.; /Fermilab

    2009-09-01

    Accelerator R&D has played a crucial role in enabling scientific discovery in the past century and will continue to play this role in the years to come. In the U.S., the Office of High Energy Physics of DOE's Office of Science is developing a plan for national accelerator R&D stewardship. Fermilab undertakes accelerator research, design, and development focused on superconducting radio-frequency (RF), superconducting magnet, beam cooling, and high intensity proton technologies. In addition, the Lab pursues comprehensive integrated theoretical concepts and simulations of complete future facilities on both the energy and intensity frontiers. At present, Fermilab (1) supplies integrated design concept and technology development for a multi-MW proton source (Project X) to support world-leading programs in long baseline neutrino and rare processes experiments; (2) plays a leading role in the development of ionization cooling technologies required for muon storage ring facilities at the energy (multi-TeV Muon Collider) and intensity (Neutrino Factory) frontiers, and supplies integrated design concepts for these facilities; and (3) carries out a program of advanced accelerator R&D (AARD) in the field of high quality beam sources, and novel beam manipulation techniques.

  9. The Practice of Inclusive Development Concepts in the Advanced Mathematics Teaching%包容性发展理念在高等数学教学中的实践

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董卫; 张清年

    2012-01-01

    The concepts of inclusive development are characterized by object universality and target diversification. This paper deals with the practice of inclusive development concepts in the advanced mathematics teaching from four aspects: how to improve students'social practice ability, capability of innovation and lifelong learning, and how to ameliorate the examination appraisals system.%包容性发展理念的对象具有普遍性和目标多样化的特征。在教学过程中,要从社会实践能力培养、创新能力培养、改进考试考查评价体系和终身学习能力培养等四个方面入手,将包容性发展理念真正应用于高等数学的教学实践中。

  10. NEW ACCELERATION METHODS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sessler, A.M.

    1984-07-01

    But a glance at the Livingston chart, Fig. 1, of accelerator particle energy as a function of time shows that the energy has steadily, exponentially, increased. Equally significant is the fact that this increase is the envelope of diverse technologies. If one is to stay on, or even near, the Livingston curve in future years then new acceleration techniques need to be developed. What are the new acceleration methods? In these two lectures I would like to sketch some of these new ideas. I am well aware that they will probably not result in high energy accelerators within this or the next decade, but conversely, it is likely that these ideas will form the basis for the accelerators of the next century. Anyway, the ideas are stimulating and suffice to show that accelerator physicists are not just 'engineers', but genuine scientists deserving to be welcomed into the company of high energy physicists. I believe that outsiders will find this field surprisingly fertile and, certainly fun. To put it more personally, I very much enjoy working in this field and lecturing on it. There are a number of review articles which should be consulted for references to the original literature. In addition there are three books on the subject. Given this material, I feel free to not completely reference the material in the remainder of this article; consultation of the review articles and books will be adequate as an introduction to the literature for references abound (hundreds are given). At last, by way of introduction, I should like to quote from the end of Ref. 2 for I think the remarks made there are most germane. Remember that the talk was addressed to accelerator physicists: 'Finally, it is often said, I think by physicists who are not well-informed, that accelerator builders have used up their capital and now are bereft of ideas, and as a result, high energy physics will eventually--rather soon, in fact--come to a halt. After all, one can't build too many

  11. Framework Programmable Platform for the Advanced Software Development Workstation (FPP/ASDW). Demonstration framework document. Volume 1: Concepts and activity descriptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Richard J.; Blinn, Thomas M.; Dewitte, Paul S.; Crump, John W.; Ackley, Keith A.

    1992-01-01

    The Framework Programmable Software Development Platform (FPP) is a project aimed at effectively combining tool and data integration mechanisms with a model of the software development process to provide an intelligent integrated software development environment. Guided by the model, this system development framework will take advantage of an integrated operating environment to automate effectively the management of the software development process so that costly mistakes during the development phase can be eliminated. The Advanced Software Development Workstation (ASDW) program is conducting research into development of advanced technologies for Computer Aided Software Engineering (CASE).

  12. Future HEP Accelerators: The US Perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Bhat, Pushpalatha

    2015-01-01

    Accelerator technology has advanced tremendously since the introduction of accelerators in the 1930s, and particle accelerators have become indispensable instruments in high energy physics (HEP) research to probe Nature at smaller and smaller distances. At present, accelerator facilities can be classified into Energy Frontier colliders that enable direct discoveries and studies of high mass scale particles and Intensity Frontier accelerators for exploration of extremely rare processes, usually at relatively low energies. The near term strategies of the global energy frontier particle physics community are centered on fully exploiting the physics potential of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN through its high-luminosity upgrade (HL-LHC), while the intensity frontier HEP research is focused on studies of neutrinos at the MW-scale beam power accelerator facilities, such as Fermilab Main Injector with the planned PIP-II SRF linac project. A number of next generation accelerator facilities have been proposed...

  13. Detection of laser-accelerated protons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reinhardt, Sabine

    2012-08-08

    Real-time (Online) detection of laser-accelerated protons is a challenge for any electronic detector system due to the peculiar time structure ({<=} ns) and high intensity ({>=}10{sup 7} p/cm{sup 2}) of the generated ion pulses. Besides considerable saturation effects, problems are expected by an electromagnetic interference pulse (EMP), generated during laser-plasma interaction. In the scope of this work, different detection systems were built-up with regard to specific demands of laser-ion-acceleration at the MPQ ATLAS laser, which allow the quantitative analysis of the generated proton beam. A cell irradiation experiment at the ATLAS laser was accomplished to demonstrate the usability of laser-accelerated protons for radiation therapy. Cells were irradiated with a single shot dose of few Gy for a proton energy of 5 MeV. The following cell analysis required the spatially resolved measurement of the dose distribution. Only radiation-sensitive films were applicable because of the small proton range, although they show significant quenching effects for the used proton energy. This was extensively studied in the 3-200 MeV energy range. A film-based dosimetry protocol for low-energy proton irradiations was developed, making the absolute dose determination in the cell experiment possible. The non-electronic detectors (nuclear track detectors, radiation-sensitive films) are still state of the art in laser-accelerated ion diagnostics, although these detectors only allow a delayed in time (offline) detection. A non-electronic system, based on image plates, was thoroughly characterized and calibrated for ongoing experiments at the ATLAS laser, for the first time. Main objective of this work, though, was the set-up of a real-time detection system, which is urgently required, owing to increasing repetition rate of the laser accelerator (>Hz), to advance the parameter optimisation of the laser-acceleration in an efficient way. Systems based on silicon pixel detectors are

  14. Advanced Jet Noise Exhaust Concepts in NASA's N+2 Supersonics Validation Study and the Environmentally Responsible Aviation Project's Upcoming Hybrid Wing Body Acoustics Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Brenda S.; Doty, Mike

    2012-01-01

    Acoustic and flow-field experiments were conducted on exhaust concepts for the next generation supersonic, commercial aircraft. The concepts were developed by Lockheed Martin (LM), Rolls-Royce Liberty Works (RRLW), and General Electric Global Research (GEGR) as part of an N+2 (next generation forward) aircraft system study initiated by the Supersonics Project in NASA s Fundamental Aeronautics Program. The experiments were conducted in the Aero-Acoustic Propulsion Laboratory at the NASA Glenn Research Center. The exhaust concepts presented here utilized lobed-mixers and ejectors. A powered third-stream was implemented to improve ejector acoustic performance. One concept was found to produce stagnant flow within the ejector and the other produced discrete-frequency tones (due to flow separations within the model) that degraded the acoustic performance of the exhaust concept. NASA's Environmentally Responsible Aviation (ERA) Project has been investigating a Hybrid Wing Body (HWB) aircraft as a possible configuration for meeting N+2 system level goals for noise, emissions, and fuel burn. A recently completed NRA led by Boeing Research and Technology resulted in a full-scale aircraft design and wind tunnel model. This model will be tested acoustically in NASA Langley's 14-by 22-Foot Subsonic Tunnel and will include dual jet engine simulators and broadband engine noise simulators as part of the test campaign. The objectives of the test are to characterize the system level noise, quantify the effects of shielding, and generate a valuable database for prediction method development. Further details of the test and various component preparations are described.

  15. Advancement of the climate dual strategy. New concepts for a globally effective climate protection; Weiterentwicklung der baden-wuerttembergischen Klimadoppelstrategie. Neue Konzepte fuer einen global wirksamen Klimaschutz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-10-15

    The Baden-Wuerttemberg Council on Sustainable Development (Stuttgart, Federal Republic of Germany) presents a climate expert report with new concepts for a globally effective climate protection. First of all, the development of the global emissions of carbon dioxide since 1990 is described. The development of the global emissions of carbon dioxide up to 2050 is forecasted. Four general criteria (effectiveness, efficiency, fairness and acceptance) for a comparative evaluation of climate protection concepts are introduced. A proposal for solution on the basis of a globally effective cap-and-trade system as well as an identical scenario as an alternative with respect to the implementation are described. This alternative scenario is based on a cap-and-trade system but it develops on the basis of national self-commitment in accordance with an incentive and sanctionative system. Both implementation proposals are compared. Recommendations of the national government Baden-Wuerttemberg are given.

  16. Development of advanced NO{sub x} control concepts for coal-fired utility boilers. Quarterly technical progress report No. 2, January 1--March 31, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newhall, J.; England, G.; Seeker, W.R.

    1991-12-23

    Energy and Environmental Research Corporation (EER) is currently conducting a test program to develop an advanced NO{sub x} control method utilizing reburning, promoted selective noncatalytic agent injection. The study will consist of fundamental and process testing over a large enough range of operating parameters to significantly reduce the risk of a full scale demonstration project. The test plan for the fundamental testing phase of the program is presented here.

  17. Acceleration of objects to high velocity by electromagnetic forces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Post, Richard F

    2017-02-28

    Two exemplary approaches to the acceleration of projectiles are provided. Both approaches can utilize concepts associated with the Inductrack maglev system. Either of them provides an effective means of accelerating multi-kilogram projectiles to velocities of several kilometers per second, using launchers of order 10 meters in length, thus enabling the acceleration of projectiles to high velocities by electromagnetic forces.

  18. Development of high quality electron beam accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kando, Masaki; Dewa, Hideki; Kotaki, Hideyuki; Kondo, Shuji; Hosokai, Tomonao; Kanazawa, Shuhei; Yokoyama, Takashi; Nakajima, Kazuhisa [Advanced Photon Research Center, Kansai Research Establishment, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Kizu, Kyoto (Japan)

    2000-03-01

    A design study on a high quality electron beam accelerator is described. This accelerator will be used for second generation experiments of laser wakefield acceleration, short x-ray generation, and other experiments of interaction of high intensity laser with an electron beam at Advanced Photon Research Center, Kansai Research Establishment, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. The system consists of a photocathode rf gun and a race-track microtron (RTM). To combine these two components, injection and extraction beamlines are designed employing transfer matrix and compute codes. A present status of the accelerator system is also presented. (author)

  19. Advanced calculus

    CERN Document Server

    Nickerson, HK; Steenrod, NE

    2011-01-01

    ""This book is a radical departure from all previous concepts of advanced calculus,"" declared the Bulletin of the American Mathematics Society, ""and the nature of this departure merits serious study of the book by everyone interested in undergraduate education in mathematics."" Classroom-tested in a Princeton University honors course, it offers students a unified introduction to advanced calculus. Starting with an abstract treatment of vector spaces and linear transforms, the authors introduce a single basic derivative in an invariant form. All other derivatives - gradient, divergent, curl,

  20. Vacuum Brazing of Accelerator Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Rajvir; Pant, K. K.; Lal, Shankar; Yadav, D. P.; Garg, S. R.; Raghuvanshi, V. K.; Mundra, G.

    2012-11-01

    Commonly used materials for accelerator components are those which are vacuum compatible and thermally conductive. Stainless steel, aluminum and copper are common among them. Stainless steel is a poor heat conductor and not very common in use where good thermal conductivity is required. Aluminum and copper and their alloys meet the above requirements and are frequently used for the above purpose. The accelerator components made of aluminum and its alloys using welding process have become a common practice now a days. It is mandatory to use copper and its other grades in RF devices required for accelerators. Beam line and Front End components of the accelerators are fabricated from stainless steel and OFHC copper. Fabrication of components made of copper using welding process is very difficult and in most of the cases it is impossible. Fabrication and joining in such cases is possible using brazing process especially under vacuum and inert gas atmosphere. Several accelerator components have been vacuum brazed for Indus projects at Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology (RRCAT), Indore using vacuum brazing facility available at RRCAT, Indore. This paper presents details regarding development of the above mentioned high value and strategic components/assemblies. It will include basics required for vacuum brazing, details of vacuum brazing facility, joint design, fixturing of the jobs, selection of filler alloys, optimization of brazing parameters so as to obtain high quality brazed joints, brief description of vacuum brazed accelerator components etc.

  1. idaho Accelerator Center Advanced Fuel Cycle Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wells, Douglas; Dale, Dan

    2011-10-20

    The technical effort has been in two parts called; Materials Science and Instrumentation Development. The Materials Science technical program has been based on a series of research and development achievements in Positron-Annihilation Spectroscopy (PAS) for defect detection in structural materials. This work is of particular importance in nuclear power and its supporting systems as the work included detection of defects introduced by mechanical and thermal phenomena as well as those caused by irradiation damage. The second part of the program has focused on instrumentation development using active interrogation techniques supporting proliferation resistant recycling methodologies and nuclear material safeguards. This effort has also lead to basic physics studies of various phenomena relating to photo-fission. Highlights of accomplishments and facility improvement legacies in these areas over the program period include

  2. Concepts for a short wavelength rf gun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzikov, S. V.; Shchelkunov, S.; Vikharev, A. A.

    2017-03-01

    Three concepts of an rf gun to be operated at 0.1-10 mm wavelengths are considered. In all the concepts, the rf system exploits an accelerating traveling wave. In comparison with a classical decimeter standing-wave rf gun, we analyze the advantages of new concepts, available rf sources, and achievable beam parameters.

  3. Acceleration schedules for a recirculating heavy-ion accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharp, W.M.; Grote, D.P.

    2002-05-01

    Recent advances in solid-state switches have made it feasible to design programmable, high-repetition-rate pulsers for induction accelerators. These switches could lower the cost of recirculating induction accelerators, such as the ''small recirculator'' at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), by substantially reducing the number of induction modules. Numerical work is reported here to determine what effects the use of fewer pulsers at higher voltage would have on the beam quality of the LLNL small recirculator. Lattices with different numbers of pulsers are examined using the fluid/envelope code CIRCE, and several schedules for acceleration and compression are compared for each configuration. For selected schedules, the phase-space dynamics is also studied using the particle-in-cell code WARP3d.

  4. Biologic Treatments for Sports Injuries II Think Tank-Current Concepts, Future Research, and Barriers to Advancement, Part 1: Biologics Overview, Ligament Injury, Tendinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaPrade, Robert F; Geeslin, Andrew G; Murray, Iain R; Musahl, Volker; Zlotnicki, Jason P; Petrigliano, Frank; Mann, Barton J

    2016-12-01

    Biologic therapies, including stem cells, platelet-rich plasma, growth factors, and other biologically active adjuncts, have recently received increased attention in the basic science and clinical literature. At the 2015 AOSSM Biologics II Think Tank held in Colorado Springs, Colorado, a group of orthopaedic surgeons, basic scientists, veterinarians, and other investigators gathered to review the state of the science for biologics and barriers to implementation of biologics for the treatment of sports medicine injuries. This series of current concepts reviews reports the summary of the scientific presentations, roundtable discussions, and recommendations from this think tank.

  5. Performance Evaluation of the Concept of Hybrid Heat Pipe as Passive In-core Cooling Systems for Advanced Nuclear Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Yeong Shin; Kim, Kyung Mo; Kim, In Guk; Bang, In Cheol [UNIST, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    As an arising issue for inherent safety of nuclear power plant, the concept of hybrid heat pipe as passive in-core cooling systems was introduced. Hybrid heat pipe has unique features that it is inserted in core directly to remove decay heat from nuclear fuel without any changes of structures of existing facilities of nuclear power plant, substituting conventional control rod. Hybrid heat pipe consists of metal cladding, working fluid, wick structure, and neutron absorber. Same with working principle of the heat pipe, heat is transported by phase change of working fluid inside metal cask. Figure 1 shows the systematic design of the hybrid heat pipe cooling system. In this study, the concept of a hybrid heat pipe was introduced as a Passive IN-core Cooling Systems (PINCs) and demonstrated for internal design features of heat pipe containing neutron absorber. Using a commercial CFD code, single hybrid heat pipe model was analyzed to evaluate thermal performance in designated operating condition. Also, 1-dimensional reactor transient analysis was done by calculating temperature change of the coolant inside reactor pressure vessel using MATLAB. As a passive decay heat removal device, hybrid heat pipe was suggested with a concept of combination of heat pipe and control rod. Hybrid heat pipe has distinct feature that it can be a unique solution to cool the reactor when depressurization process is impossible so that refueling water cannot be injected into RPV by conventional ECCS. It contains neutron absorber material inside heat pipe, so it can stop the reactor and at the same time, remove decay heat in core. For evaluating the concept of hybrid heat pipe, its thermal performance was analyzed using CFD and one-dimensional transient analysis. From single hybrid heat pipe simulation, the hybrid heat pipe can transport heat from the core inside to outside about 18.20 kW, and total thermal resistance of hybrid heat pipe is 0.015 .deg. C/W. Due to unique features of long heat

  6. APT accelerator. Topical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawrence, G.; Rusthoi, D. [comp.] [ed.

    1995-03-01

    The Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT) project, sponsored by Department of Energy Defense Programs (DOE/DP), involves the preconceptual design of an accelerator system to produce tritium for the nation`s stockpile of nuclear weapons. Tritium is an isotope of hydrogen used in nuclear weapons, and must be replenished because of radioactive decay (its half-life is approximately 12 years). Because the annual production requirements for tritium has greatly decreased since the end of the Cold War, an alternative approach to reactors for tritium production, based on a linear accelerator, is now being seriously considered. The annual tritium requirement at the time this study was undertaken (1992-1993) was 3/8 that of the 1988 goal, usually stated as 3/8-Goal. Continued reduction in the number of weapons in the stockpile has led to a revised (lower) production requirement today (March, 1995). The production requirement needed to maintain the reduced stockpile, as stated in the recent Nuclear Posture Review (summer 1994) is approximately 3/16-Goal, half the previous level. The Nuclear Posture Review also requires that the production plant be designed to accomodate a production increase (surge) to 3/8-Goal capability within five years, to allow recovery from a possible extended outage of the tritium plant. A multi-laboratory team, collaborating with several industrial partners, has developed a preconceptual APT design for the 3/8-Goal, operating at 75% capacity. The team has presented APT as a promising alternative to the reactor concepts proposed for Complex-21. Given the requirements of a reduced weapons stockpile, APT offers both significant safety, environmental, and production-fexibility advantages in comparison with reactor systems, and the prospect of successful development in time to meet the US defense requirements of the 21st Century.

  7. Design Concepts for the Cherenkov Telescope Array CTA: An Advanced Facility for Ground-Based High-Energy Gamma-Ray Astronomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Actis, M

    2012-04-17

    Ground-based gamma-ray astronomy has had a major breakthrough with the impressive results obtained using systems of imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes. Ground-based gamma-ray astronomy has a huge potential in astrophysics, particle physics and cosmology. CTA is an international initiative to build the next generation instrument, with a factor of 5-10 improvement in sensitivity in the 100 GeV-10 TeV range and the extension to energies well below 100 GeV and above 100 TeV. CTA will consist of two arrays (one in the north, one in the south) for full sky coverage and will be operated as open observatory. The design of CTA is based on currently available technology. This document reports on the status and presents the major design concepts of CTA.

  8. Advances in developing the air-lift drilling technology. Concept of a portal drilling rig - trial of a steerable shaft drilling bit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, W.

    1988-12-01

    The Federal Minister of Research and Technology is supporting a project of Wirth GmbH to develop a new drilling rig suitable for drilling deep shafts from the surface through ground of almost any condition, from unstable formations to solid rock. The development of such drilling rig is based on the blind drilling method with air-assisted reverse circulation. - Various concepts of drilling rigs have been developed in accordance with different planning stages of a combined RD-project. Based on the experience of an extensive R and D program a steerable vertical drilling bit has been developed by which deviations from the vertical can be positively corrected. The prototype of this steerable bit with a diameter of 2.1 m has been tested successfully while drilling a well with a depth of more than 200 m in an open pit coal mine.

  9. Design concepts for the Cherenkov Telescope Array CTA: an advanced facility for ground-based high-energy gamma-ray astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Actis, M.; Agnetta, G.; Aharonian, F.; Akhperjanian, A.; Aleksić, J.; Aliu, E.; Allan, D.; Allekotte, I.; Antico, F.; Antonelli, L. A.; Antoranz, P.; Aravantinos, A.; Arlen, T.; Arnaldi, H.; Artmann, S.; Asano, K.; Asorey, H.; Bähr, J.; Bais, A.; Baixeras, C.; Bajtlik, S.; Balis, D.; Bamba, A.; Barbier, C.; Barceló, M.; Barnacka, A.; Barnstedt, J.; Barres de Almeida, U.; Barrio, J. A.; Basso, S.; Bastieri, D.; Bauer, C.; Becerra, J.; Becherini, Y.; Bechtol, K.; Becker, J.; Beckmann, V.; Bednarek, W.; Behera, B.; Beilicke, M.; Belluso, M.; Benallou, M.; Benbow, W.; Berdugo, J.; Berger, K.; Bernardino, T.; Bernlöhr, K.; Biland, A.; Billotta, S.; Bird, T.; Birsin, E.; Bissaldi, E.; Blake, S.; Blanch, O.; Bobkov, A. A.; Bogacz, L.; Bogdan, M.; Boisson, C.; Boix, J.; Bolmont, J.; Bonanno, G.; Bonardi, A.; Bonev, T.; Borkowski, J.; Botner, O.; Bottani, A.; Bourgeat, M.; Boutonnet, C.; Bouvier, A.; Brau-Nogué, S.; Braun, I.; Bretz, T.; Briggs, M. S.; Brun, P.; Brunetti, L.; Buckley, J. H.; Bugaev, V.; Bühler, R.; Bulik, T.; Busetto, G.; Buson, S.; Byrum, K.; Cailles, M.; Cameron, R.; Canestrari, R.; Cantu, S.; Carmona, E.; Carosi, A.; Carr, J.; Carton, P. H.; Casiraghi, M.; Castarede, H.; Catalano, O.; Cavazzani, S.; Cazaux, S.; Cerruti, B.; Cerruti, M.; Chadwick, P. M.; Chiang, J.; Chikawa, M.; Cieślar, M.; Ciesielska, M.; Cillis, A.; Clerc, C.; Colin, P.; Colomé, J.; Compin, M.; Conconi, P.; Connaughton, V.; Conrad, J.; Contreras, J. L.; Coppi, P.; Corlier, M.; Corona, P.; Corpace, O.; Corti, D.; Cortina, J.; Costantini, H.; Cotter, G.; Courty, B.; Couturier, S.; Covino, S.; Croston, J.; Cusumano, G.; Daniel, M. K.; Dazzi, F.; Angelis, A. De; de Cea Del Pozo, E.; de Gouveia Dal Pino, E. M.; de Jager, O.; de La Calle Pérez, I.; de La Vega, G.; de Lotto, B.; de Naurois, M.; de Oña Wilhelmi, E.; de Souza, V.; Decerprit, B.; Deil, C.; Delagnes, E.; Deleglise, G.; Delgado, C.; Dettlaff, T.; di Paolo, A.; di Pierro, F.; Díaz, C.; Dick, J.; Dickinson, H.; Digel, S. W.; Dimitrov, D.; Disset, G.; Djannati-Ataï, A.; Doert, M.; Domainko, W.; Dorner, D.; Doro, M.; Dournaux, J.-L.; Dravins, D.; Drury, L.; Dubois, F.; Dubois, R.; Dubus, G.; Dufour, C.; Durand, D.; Dyks, J.; Dyrda, M.; Edy, E.; Egberts, K.; Eleftheriadis, C.; Elles, S.; Emmanoulopoulos, D.; Enomoto, R.; Ernenwein, J.-P.; Errando, M.; Etchegoyen, A.; Falcone, A. D.; Farakos, K.; Farnier, C.; Federici, S.; Feinstein, F.; Ferenc, D.; Fillin-Martino, E.; Fink, D.; Finley, C.; Finley, J. P.; Firpo, R.; Florin, D.; Föhr, C.; Fokitis, E.; Font, Ll.; Fontaine, G.; Fontana, A.; Förster, A.; Fortson, L.; Fouque, N.; Fransson, C.; Fraser, G. W.; Fresnillo, L.; Fruck, C.; Fujita, Y.; Fukazawa, Y.; Funk, S.; Gäbele, W.; Gabici, S.; Gadola, A.; Galante, N.; Gallant, Y.; García, B.; García López, R. J.; Garrido, D.; Garrido, L.; Gascón, D.; Gasq, C.; Gaug, M.; Gaweda, J.; Geffroy, N.; Ghag, C.; Ghedina, A.; Ghigo, M.; Gianakaki, E.; Giarrusso, S.; Giavitto, G.; Giebels, B.; Giro, E.; Giubilato, P.; Glanzman, T.; Glicenstein, J.-F.; Gochna, M.; Golev, V.; Gómez Berisso, M.; González, A.; González, F.; Grañena, F.; Graciani, R.; Granot, J.; Gredig, R.; Green, A.; Greenshaw, T.; Grimm, O.; Grube, J.; Grudzińska, M.; Grygorczuk, J.; Guarino, V.; Guglielmi, L.; Guilloux, F.; Gunji, S.; Gyuk, G.; Hadasch, D.; Haefner, D.; Hagiwara, R.; Hahn, J.; Hallgren, A.; Hara, S.; Hardcastle, M. J.; Hassan, T.; Haubold, T.; Hauser, M.; Hayashida, M.; Heller, R.; Henri, G.; Hermann, G.; Herrero, A.; Hinton, J. A.; Hoffmann, D.; Hofmann, W.; Hofverberg, P.; Horns, D.; Hrupec, D.; Huan, H.; Huber, B.; Huet, J.-M.; Hughes, G.; Hultquist, K.; Humensky, T. B.; Huppert, J.-F.; Ibarra, A.; Illa, J. M.; Ingjald, J.; Inoue, Y.; Inoue, S.; Ioka, K.; Jablonski, C.; Jacholkowska, A.; Janiak, M.; Jean, P.; Jensen, H.; Jogler, T.; Jung, I.; Kaaret, P.; Kabuki, S.; Kakuwa, J.; Kalkuhl, C.; Kankanyan, R.; Kapala, M.; Karastergiou, A.; Karczewski, M.; Karkar, S.; Karlsson, N.; Kasperek, J.; Katagiri, H.; Katarzyński, K.; Kawanaka, N.; Kȩdziora, B.; Kendziorra, E.; Khélifi, B.; Kieda, D.; Kifune, T.; Kihm, T.; Klepser, S.; Kluźniak, W.; Knapp, J.; Knappy, A. R.; Kneiske, T.; Knödlseder, J.; Köck, F.; Kodani, K.; Kohri, K.; Kokkotas, K.; Komin, N.; Konopelko, A.; Kosack, K.; Kossakowski, R.; Kostka, P.; Kotuła, J.; Kowal, G.; Kozioł, J.; Krähenbühl, T.; Krause, J.; Krawczynski, H.; Krennrich, F.; Kretzschmann, A.; Kubo, H.; Kudryavtsev, V. A.; Kushida, J.; La Barbera, N.; La Parola, V.; La Rosa, G.; López, A.; Lamanna, G.; Laporte, P.; Lavalley, C.; Le Flour, T.; Le Padellec, A.; Lenain, J.-P.; Lessio, L.; Lieunard, B.; Lindfors, E.; Liolios, A.; Lohse, T.; Lombardi, S.; Lopatin, A.; Lorenz, E.; Lubiński, P.; Luz, O.; Lyard, E.; Maccarone, M. C.; Maccarone, T.; Maier, G.; Majumdar, P.; Maltezos, S.; Małkiewicz, P.; Mañá, C.; Manalaysay, A.; Maneva, G.; Mangano, A.; Manigot, P.; Marín, J.; Mariotti, M.; Markoff, S.; Martínez, G.; Martínez, M.; Mastichiadis, A.; Matsumoto, H.; Mattiazzo, S.; Mazin, D.; McComb, T. J. L.; McCubbin, N.; McHardy, I.; Medina, C.; Melkumyan, D.; Mendes, A.; Mertsch, P.; Meucci, M.; Michałowski, J.; Micolon, P.; Mineo, T.; Mirabal, N.; Mirabel, F.; Miranda, J. M.; Mirzoyan, R.; Mizuno, T.; Moal, B.; Moderski, R.; Molinari, E.; Monteiro, I.; Moralejo, A.; Morello, C.; Mori, K.; Motta, G.; Mottez, F.; Moulin, E.; Mukherjee, R.; Munar, P.; Muraishi, H.; Murase, K.; Murphy, A. Stj.; Nagataki, S.; Naito, T.; Nakamori, T.; Nakayama, K.; Naumann, C.; Naumann, D.; Nayman, P.; Nedbal, D.; Niedźwiecki, A.; Niemiec, J.; Nikolaidis, A.; Nishijima, K.; Nolan, S. J.; Nowak, N.; O'Brien, P. T.; Ochoa, I.; Ohira, Y.; Ohishi, M.; Ohka, H.; Okumura, A.; Olivetto, C.; Ong, R. A.; Orito, R.; Orr, M.; Osborne, J. P.; Ostrowski, M.; Otero, L.; Otte, A. N.; Ovcharov, E.; Oya, I.; Oziȩbło, A.; Paiano, S.; Pallota, J.; Panazol, J. L.; Paneque, D.; Panter, M.; Paoletti, R.; Papyan, G.; Paredes, J. M.; Pareschi, G.; Parsons, R. D.; Paz Arribas, M.; Pedaletti, G.; Pepato, A.; Persic, M.; Petrucci, P. O.; Peyaud, B.; Piechocki, W.; Pita, S.; Pivato, G.; Płatos, Ł.; Platzer, R.; Pogosyan, L.; Pohl, M.; Pojmański, G.; Ponz, J. D.; Potter, W.; Prandini, E.; Preece, R.; Prokoph, H.; Pühlhofer, G.; Punch, M.; Quel, E.; Quirrenbach, A.; Rajda, P.; Rando, R.; Rataj, M.; Raue, M.; Reimann, C.; Reimann, O.; Reimer, A.; Reimer, O.; Renaud, M.; Renner, S.; Reymond, J.-M.; Rhode, W.; Ribó, M.; Ribordy, M.; Rico, J.; Rieger, F.; Ringegni, P.; Ripken, J.; Ristori, P.; Rivoire, S.; Rob, L.; Rodriguez, S.; Roeser, U.; Romano, P.; Romero, G. E.; Rosier-Lees, S.; Rovero, A. C.; Roy, F.; Royer, S.; Rudak, B.; Rulten, C. B.; Ruppel, J.; Russo, F.; Ryde, F.; Sacco, B.; Saggion, A.; Sahakian, V.; Saito, K.; Saito, T.; Sakaki, N.; Salazar, E.; Salini, A.; Sánchez, F.; Sánchez Conde, M. Á.; Santangelo, A.; Santos, E. M.; Sanuy, A.; Sapozhnikov, L.; Sarkar, S.; Scalzotto, V.; Scapin, V.; Scarcioffolo, M.; Schanz, T.; Schlenstedt, S.; Schlickeiser, R.; Schmidt, T.; Schmoll, J.; Schroedter, M.; Schultz, C.; Schultze, J.; Schulz, A.; Schwanke, U.; Schwarzburg, S.; Schweizer, T.; Seiradakis, J.; Selmane, S.; Seweryn, K.; Shayduk, M.; Shellard, R. C.; Shibata, T.; Sikora, M.; Silk, J.; Sillanpää, A.; Sitarek, J.; Skole, C.; Smith, N.; Sobczyńska, D.; Sofo Haro, M.; Sol, H.; Spanier, F.; Spiga, D.; Spyrou, S.; Stamatescu, V.; Stamerra, A.; Starling, R. L. C.; Stawarz, Ł.; Steenkamp, R.; Stegmann, C.; Steiner, S.; Stergioulas, N.; Sternberger, R.; Stinzing, F.; Stodulski, M.; Straumann, U.; Suárez, A.; Suchenek, M.; Sugawara, R.; Sulanke, K. H.; Sun, S.; Supanitsky, A. D.; Sutcliffe, P.; Szanecki, M.; Szepieniec, T.; Szostek, A.; Szymkowiak, A.; Tagliaferri, G.; Tajima, H.; Takahashi, H.; Takahashi, K.; Takalo, L.; Takami, H.; Talbot, R. G.; Tam, P. H.; Tanaka, M.; Tanimori, T.; Tavani, M.; Tavernet, J.-P.; Tchernin, C.; Tejedor, L. A.; Telezhinsky, I.; Temnikov, P.; Tenzer, C.; Terada, Y.; Terrier, R.; Teshima, M.; Testa, V.; Tibaldo, L.; Tibolla, O.; Tluczykont, M.; Todero Peixoto, C. J.; Tokanai, F.; Tokarz, M.; Toma, K.; Torres, D. F.; Tosti, G.; Totani, T.; Toussenel, F.; Vallania, P.; Vallejo, G.; van der Walt, J.; van Eldik, C.; Vandenbroucke, J.; Vankov, H.; Vasileiadis, G.; Vassiliev, V. V.; Vegas, I.; Venter, L.; Vercellone, S.; Veyssiere, C.; Vialle, J. P.; Videla, M.; Vincent, P.; Vink, J.; Vlahakis, N.; Vlahos, L.; Vogler, P.; Vollhardt, A.; Volpe, F.; von Gunten, H. P.; Vorobiov, S.; Wagner, S.; Wagner, R. M.; Wagner, B.; Wakely, S. P.; Walter, P.; Walter, R.; Warwick, R.; Wawer, P.; Wawrzaszek, R.; Webb, N.; Wegner, P.; Weinstein, A.; Weitzel, Q.; Welsing, R.; Wetteskind, H.; White, R.; Wierzcholska, A.; Wilkinson, M. I.; Williams, D. A.; Winde, M.; Wischnewski, R.; Wiśniewski, Ł.; Wolczko, A.; Wood, M.; Xiong, Q.; Yamamoto, T.; Yamaoka, K.; Yamazaki, R.; Yanagita, S.; Yoffo, B.; Yonetani, M.; Yoshida, A.; Yoshida, T.; Yoshikoshi, T.; Zabalza, V.; Zagdański, A.; Zajczyk, A.; Zdziarski, A.; Zech, A.; Ziȩtara, K.; Ziółkowski, P.; Zitelli, V.; Zychowski, P.

    2011-12-01

    Ground-based gamma-ray astronomy has had a major breakthrough with the impressive results obtained using systems of imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes. Ground-based gamma-ray astronomy has a huge potential in astrophysics, particle physics and cosmology. CTA is an international initiative to build the next generation instrument, with a factor of 5-10 improvement in sensitivity in the 100 GeV-10 TeV range and the extension to energies well below 100 GeV and above 100 TeV. CTA will consist of two arrays (one in the north, one in the south) for full sky coverage and will be operated as open observatory. The design of CTA is based on currently available technology. This document reports on the status and presents the major design concepts of CTA.

  10. Recent advances in the concept and pathogenesis of IgG4-related disease in the hepato-bilio-pancreatic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okazaki, Kazuichi; Yanagawa, Masahito; Mitsuyama, Toshiyuki; Uchida, Kazushige

    2014-09-01

    Recent studies have proposed nomenclatures of type 1 autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) (IgG4-related pancreatitis), IgG4-related sclerosing cholangitis (IgG4-SC), IgG4-related cholecystitis, and IgG4-related hepatopathy as IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD) in the hepato-bilio-pancreatic system. In IgG4-related hepatopathy, a novel concept of IgG4-related autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) with the same histopathological features as AIH has been proposed. Among organs involved in IgG4-RD, associations with pancreatic and biliary lesions are most frequently observed, supporting the novel concept of "biliary diseases with pancreatic counterparts." Targets of type 1 AIP and IgG4-SC may be periductal glands around the bile and pancreatic ducts. Based on genetic backgrounds, innate and acquired immunity, Th2-dominant immune status, regulatory T (Treg) or B cells, and complement activation via a classical pathway may be involved in the development of IgG4-RD. Although the role of IgG4 remains unclear in IgG4-RD, IgG4-production is upregulated by interleukin 10 from Treg cells and by B cell activating factor from monocytes/basophils with stimulation of toll-like receptors/nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptors. Based on these findings, we have proposed a hypothesis for the development of IgG4-RD in the hepato-bilio-pancreatic system. Further studies are necessary to clarify the pathogenic mechanism of IgG4-RD.

  11. Concept, Characteristics and Advances of Geographic Knowledge Visualization%地学知识可视化概念特征与研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王伟星; 龚建华

    2009-01-01

    As a new field of visualization,knowledge visualization is to use maps,graphics or images to construct and transfer insights and knowledge between at least two persons.In view of geovisualization,geographic diagram,geoinformatic Tupu,and visual analytics are cutting edge researches on visual and graphic representation and discovery of geographic knowledge.Thus,this paper focuses on the discussion of geographic knowledge visualization in terms of general knowledge visualization and geographic diagram.In the paper,the concept and characteristics of geographic knowledge visualization are mainly explored according to the dual coding theory of representation of mental images and spatial thinking in mental images.Based on the theoretical foundation mentioned above,five formats of geographic knowledge visualization are introduced.Besides geographic knowledge map,they are concept maps,mind maps,cognitive maps,semantic networks and thinking maps.In the end,the practical application of geographic knowledge visualization and its development trend in the fields of geographic knowledge maps' construction,geographic collaborative work,design and implementation of visualization model and related algorithms,and so forth are summarized.%地学知识可视化是将知识可视化研究的理论、技术、方法引入地学研究领域,形成一个新的研究方向.通过分析地学知识可视化国内外研究现状,在总结其研究特点的基础上,对地学知识可视化的定义进行阐述,讨论其概念特征、理论基础以及表达方法,并对其应用研究现状与发展趋势进行概括总结.

  12. Accelerator x-ray sources

    CERN Document Server

    Talman, Richard

    2007-01-01

    This first book to cover in-depth the generation of x-rays in particle accelerators focuses on electron beams produced by means of the novel Energy Recovery Linac (ERL) technology. The resulting highly brilliant x-rays are at the centre of this monograph, which continues where other books on the market stop. Written primarily for general, high energy and radiation physicists, the systematic treatment adopted by the work makes it equally suitable as an advanced textbook for young researchers.

  13. Irradiation-Accelerated Corrosion of Reactor Core Materials. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiao, Zhujie [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Was, Gary [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Bartels, David [Univ. of Notre Dame, IN (United States)

    2015-04-02

    This project aims to understand how radiation accelerates corrosion of reactor core materials. The combination of high temperature, chemically aggressive coolants, a high radiation flux and mechanical stress poses a major challenge for the life extension of current light water reactors, as well as the success of most all GenIV concepts. Of these four drivers, the combination of radiation and corrosion places the most severe demands on materials, for which an understanding of the fundamental science is simply absent. Only a few experiments have been conducted to understand how corrosion occurs under irradiation, yet the limited data indicates that the effect is large; irradiation causes order of magnitude increases in corrosion rates. Without a firm understanding of the mechanisms by which radiation and corrosion interact in film formation, growth, breakdown and repair, the extension of the current LWR fleet beyond 60 years and the success of advanced nuclear energy systems are questionable. The proposed work will address the process of irradiation-accelerated corrosion that is important to all current and advanced reactor designs, but remains very poorly understood. An improved understanding of the role of irradiation in the corrosion process will provide the community with the tools to develop predictive models for in-reactor corrosion, and to address specific, important forms of corrosion such as irradiation assisted stress corrosion cracking.

  14. Biologic Treatments for Sports Injuries II Think Tank-Current Concepts, Future Research, and Barriers to Advancement, Part 2: Rotator Cuff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Iain R; LaPrade, Robert F; Musahl, Volker; Geeslin, Andrew G; Zlotnicki, Jason P; Mann, Barton J; Petrigliano, Frank A

    2016-03-01

    Rotator cuff tears are common and result in considerable morbidity. Tears within the tendon substance or at its insertion into the humeral head represent a considerable clinical challenge because of the hostile local environment that precludes healing. Tears often progress without intervention, and current surgical treatments are inadequate. Although surgical implants, instrumentation, and techniques have improved, healing rates have not improved, and a high failure rate remains for large and massive rotator cuff tears. The use of biologic adjuvants that contribute to a regenerative microenvironment have great potential for improving healing rates and function after surgery. This article presents a review of current and emerging biologic approaches to augment rotator cuff tendon and muscle regeneration focusing on the scientific rationale, preclinical, and clinical evidence for efficacy, areas for future research, and current barriers to advancement and implementation.

  15. Accelerator Control System at KEKB and Linac

    CERN Document Server

    Furukawa, Kazuro; Kadokura, Eiichi; Kurashina, Miho; Mikawa, Katsuhiko; Nakamura, Tatsuro; Odagiri, Jun-ichi; Satoh, Masanori; Suwada, Tsuyoshi

    2012-01-01

    KEKB completed all of the technical milestones, and had offered important insights into the flavor structure of elementary particles, especially the CP violation. The accelerator control system at KEKB and injector linac was initiated by a combination of scripting languages at the operation layer and EPICS at the equipment layer. During the project many features were implemented to achieve extreme performance out of the machine. Especially the online linkage to the accelerator simulation played an essential role. In order to further improve the reliability and flexibility two major concepts were additionally introduced later in the project, namely the channel access everywhere and the dual-tier controls. Based on the improved control system a concept of virtual accelerators were realized that enables the single injector linac serve as three separate injectors to KEKB HER, LER and Photon Factory, respectively. Those control technologies are indispensable for the future particle accelerators.

  16. Concepts for the magnetic design of the MITICA neutral beam test facility ion acceleratora)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitarin, G.; Agostinetti, P.; Marconato, N.; Marcuzzi, D.; Sartori, E.; Serianni, G.; Sonato, P.

    2012-02-01

    The megavolt ITER injector concept advancement neutral injector test facility will be constituted by a RF-driven negative ion source and by an electrostatic Accelerator, designed to produce a negative Ion with a specific energy up to 1 MeV. The beam is then neutralized in order to obtain a focused 17 MW neutral beam. The magnetic configuration inside the accelerator is of crucial importance for the achievement of a good beam efficiency, with the early deflection of the co-extracted and stripped electrons, and also of the required beam optic quality, with the correction of undesired ion beamlet deflections. Several alternative magnetic design concepts have been considered, comparing in detail the magnetic and beam optics simulation results, evidencing the advantages and drawbacks of each solution both from the physics and engineering point of view.

  17. Recent advances in the designing and the equipment of high activity laboratories; Progres recents dans la conception et l'equipement des laboratoires de haute activite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazire, R.; Duhamel, F. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1960-07-01

    The authors described the general principles governing the design of a laboratory for experimenting and handling radioactive substances. The difficulties encountered are of two types: 1) those due to the dangers of external irradiation; 2) those due to the dangers of internal contamination. As an example, the authors describe the French achievements in this field and in particular: - the high-activity laboratories at Saclay; - the laboratory for the examination of irradiated fuels at Saclay; - the 'hot' laboratory of the CEN-Grenoble; - the alpha, beta and gamma laboratories of the CEN-Fontenay-aux-Roses. Finally, the report describes the protective materials used for these installations. (author) [French] Les auteurs exposent quels sont les principes generaux qui president a la conception d'un laboratoire a des travaux et des manipulations sur des substances radioactives. Les difficultes a surmonter sont de deux ordres: 1) celles qui proviennent du danger d'irradiation externe; 2) celles qui proviennent du danger de contamination interne. A titre d'exemple, les auteurs decrivent les realisations francaises dans ce domaine et en particulier: - le laboratoire de haute activite de Saclay, - le laboratoire d'examen des combustibles irradies de Saclay, - le laboratoire chaud du CEN-Grenoble, - les laboratoires alpha, beta, gamma du CEN-Fontenay-aux-Roses. Enfin, le rapport decrit les materiaux de protection mis en oeuvre pour ces realisations. (auteur)

  18. Science Objectives of the FOXSI Small Explorer Mission Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Albert Y.; Christe, Steven; Alaoui, Meriem; Allred, Joel C.; Antiochos, Spiro K.; Battaglia, Marina; Camilo Buitrago-Casas, Juan; Caspi, Amir; Dennis, Brian R.; Drake, James; Fleishman, Gregory D.; Gary, Dale E.; Glesener, Lindsay; Grefenstette, Brian; Hannah, Iain; Holman, Gordon D.; Hudson, Hugh S.; Inglis, Andrew R.; Ireland, Jack; Ishikawa, Shin-Nosuke; Jeffrey, Natasha; Klimchuk, James A.; Kontar, Eduard; Krucker, Sam; Longcope, Dana; Musset, Sophie; Nita, Gelu M.; Ramsey, Brian; Ryan, Daniel; Saint-Hilaire, Pascal; Schwartz, Richard A.; Vilmer, Nicole; White, Stephen M.; Wilson-Hodge, Colleen

    2016-05-01

    Impulsive particle acceleration and plasma heating at the Sun, from the largest solar eruptive events to the smallest flares, are related to fundamental processes throughout the Universe. While there have been significant advances in our understanding of impulsive energy release since the advent of RHESSI observations, there is a clear need for new X-ray observations that can capture the full range of emission in flares (e.g., faint coronal sources near bright chromospheric sources), follow the intricate evolution of energy release and changes in morphology, and search for the signatures of impulsive energy release in even the quiescent Sun. The FOXSI Small Explorer (SMEX) mission concept combines state-of-the-art grazing-incidence focusing optics with pixelated solid-state detectors to provide direct imaging of hard X-rays for the first time on a solar observatory. We present the science objectives of FOXSI and how its capabilities will address and resolve open questions regarding impulsive energy release at the Sun. These questions include: What are the time scales of the processes that accelerate electrons? How do flare-accelerated electrons escape into the heliosphere? What is the energy input of accelerated electrons into the chromosphere, and how is super-heated coronal plasma produced?

  19. Biologic Treatments for Sports Injuries II Think Tank-Current Concepts, Future Research, and Barriers to Advancement, Part 3: Articular Cartilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zlotnicki, Jason P; Geeslin, Andrew G; Murray, Iain R; Petrigliano, Frank A; LaPrade, Robert F; Mann, Barton J; Musahl, Volker

    2016-04-01

    Focal chondral defects of the articular surface are a common occurrence in the field of orthopaedics. These isolated cartilage injuries, if not repaired surgically with restoration of articular congruency, may have a high rate of progression to posttraumatic osteoarthritis, resulting in significant morbidity and loss of function in the young, active patient. Both isolated and global joint disease are a difficult entity to treat in the clinical setting given the high amount of stress on weightbearing joints and the limited healing potential of native articular cartilage. Recently, clinical interest has focused on the use of biologically active compounds and surgical techniques to regenerate native cartilage to the articular surface, with the goal of restoring normal joint health and overall function. This article presents a review of the current biologic therapies, as discussed at the 2015 American Orthopaedic Society for Sports Medicine (AOSSM) Biologics Think Tank, that are used in the treatment of focal cartilage deficiencies. For each of these emerging therapies, the theories for application, the present clinical evidence, and specific areas for future research are explored, with focus on the barriers currently faced by clinicians in advancing the success of these therapies in the clinical setting.

  20. Hot gas ingestion testing of an advanced STOVL concept in the NASA Lewis 9- by 15-foot Low Speed Wind Tunnel with flow visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johns, Albert L.; Flood, Joseph D.; Strock, Thomas W.; Amuedo, Kurt C.

    1988-01-01

    Advanced Short Takeoff/Vertical Landing (STOVL) aircraft capable of operating from remote sites, damaged runways, and small air capable ships are being pursued for deployment around the turn of the century. To achieve this goal, it is important that the technologies critical to this unique class of aircraft be developed. Recognizing this need, NASA Lewis Research Center, McDonnell Douglas Aircraft, and DARPA defined a cooperative program for testing in the NASA Lewis 9- by 15-foot Low Speed Wind Tunnel (LSWT) to establish a database for hot gas ingestion, one of the technologies critical to STOVL. Results from a test program are presented along with a discussion of the facility modifications allowing this type of testing at modal scale. These modifications to the tunnel include a novel ground plane, an elaborate model support which included 4 degrees of freedom, heated high pressure air for nozzle flow, a suction system exhaust for inlet flow, and tunnel sidewall modifications. Several flow visualization techniques were employed including water mist in the nozzle flows and tufts on the ground plane. Headwind (free-stream) velocity was varied from 8 to 23 knots.

  1. Bio-image warehouse system: concept and implementation of a diagnosis-based data warehouse for advanced imaging modalities in neuroradiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minati, L; Ghielmetti, F; Ciobanu, V; D'Incerti, L; Maccagnano, C; Bizzi, A; Bruzzone, M G

    2007-03-01

    Advanced neuroimaging techniques, such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), chemical shift spectroscopy imaging (CSI), diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), and perfusion-weighted imaging (PWI) create novel challenges in terms of data storage and management: huge amounts of raw data are generated, the results of analysis may depend on the software and settings that have been used, and most often intermediate files are inherently not compliant with the current DICOM (digital imaging and communication in medicine) standard, as they contain multidimensional complex and tensor arrays and various other types of data structures. A software architecture, referred to as Bio-Image Warehouse System (BIWS), which can be used alongside a radiology information system/picture archiving and communication system (RIS/PACS) system to store neuroimaging data for research purposes, is presented. The system architecture is conceived with the purpose of enabling to query by diagnosis according to a predefined two-layered classification taxonomy. The operational impact of the system and the time needed to get acquainted with the web-based interface and with the taxonomy are found to be limited. The development of modules enabling automated creation of statistical templates is proposed.

  2. Pushing XPath Accelerator to its Limits

    OpenAIRE

    Grün, Christian; Holupirek, Alexander; Kramis, Marc; Scholl, Marc H.; Waldvogel, Marcel

    2006-01-01

    Two competing encoding concepts are known to scale well with growing amounts of XML data: XPath Accelerator encoding implemented by MonetDB for in-memory documents and X-Hive's Persistent DOM for on-disk storage. We identified two ways to improve XPath Accelerator and present prototypes for the respective techniques: BaseX boosts in-memory performance with optimized data and value index structures while Idefix introduces native block-oriented persistence with logarithmic update behavior for t...

  3. REMOTE OPERATIONS IN A GLOBAL ACCELERATOR NETWORK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PEGGS,S.SATOGATA,TAGARWAL,DRICE,D

    2003-05-12

    The INTRODUCTION to this paper summarizes the history of the Global Accelerator Network (GAN) concept and the recent workshops that discussed the relationship between GAN and Remote Operations. The REMOTE OPERATIONS SCENARIOS section brings out the organizational philosophy embodied in GAN-like and to non-GAN-like scenarios. The set of major TOPICS RAISED AT THE WORKSHOPS are only partially resolved. COLLABORATION TOOLS are described and discussed, followed by examples of REMOTE ACCELERATOR CONTROL PROJECTS around the world.

  4. 结直肠手术中微创技术和理念的进展%Advances in technology and the concept of minimally invasive colorectal surgery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵青川; 李纪鹏; 洪流

    2014-01-01

    ,dexterous procedures can be carried out laparoscopically in small spaces.Moreover,the conception of functionally minimal invasiveness has drawn more and more attention .Not only have surgeons been pursuing smaller incision and trauma, they also try to attain milder stress reaction and faster postoperative recovery.This paper reviews the development of minimally invasive techniques and conceptions in recent years, and gives an outlook of the application of minimally invasive surgery in colorectal operations .

  5. Experimental Study Of X-band Dielectric-loaded Accelerating Structures

    CERN Document Server

    Jing, C

    2005-01-01

    A joint Argonne National Laboratory (ANL)/Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) program is under way to investigate X- band dielectric-loaded accelerating (DLA) structures, using high-power 11.424GHz radiation from the NRL Magnicon facility. As an advanced accelerator concepts, the dielectric-loaded accelerator offers the potential for a simple, inexpensive alternative to high-gradient RF linear accelerators. In this thesis, a comprehensive account of X-band DLA structure design, including theoretical calculation, numerical simulation, fabrication and testing, is presented in detail. Two types of loading dielectrics, alumina and MgxCa1−xTiO 3 (MCT), are investigated. For alumina (with dielectric constant 9.4), no RF breakdown has been observed up to 5 MW of drive power (equivalent to 8MV/m accelerating gradient) in the high power RF testing at NRL, but multipactor was observed to absorb a large fraction of the incident microwave power. Experimental results on suppression of multipactor using TiN coating o...

  6. Understanding the fate and biological effects of Ag- and TiO₂-nanoparticles in the environment: The quest for advanced analytics and interdisciplinary concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaumann, Gabriele E; Philippe, Allan; Bundschuh, Mirco; Metreveli, George; Klitzke, Sondra; Rakcheev, Denis; Grün, Alexandra; Kumahor, Samuel K; Kühn, Melanie; Baumann, Thomas; Lang, Friederike; Manz, Werner; Schulz, Ralf; Vogel, Hans-Jörg

    2015-12-01

    Engineered inorganic nanoparticles (EINP) from consumers' products and industrial applications, especially silver and titanium dioxide nanoparticles (NP), are emitted into the aquatic and terrestrial environments in increasing amounts. However, the current knowledge on their environmental fate and biological effects is diverse and renders reliable predictions complicated. This review critically evaluates existing knowledge on colloidal aging mechanisms, biological functioning and transport of Ag NP and TiO2 NP in water and soil and it discusses challenges for concepts, experimental approaches and analytical methods in order to obtain a comprehensive understanding of the processes linking NP fate and effects. Ag NP undergo dissolution and oxidation with Ag2S as a thermodynamically determined endpoint. Nonetheless, Ag NP also undergo colloidal transformations in the nanoparticulate state and may act as carriers for other substances. Ag NP and TiO2 NP can have adverse biological effects on organisms. Whereas Ag NP reveal higher colloidal stability and mobility, the efficiency of NOM as a stabilizing agent is greater towards TiO2 NP than towards Ag NP, and multivalent cations can dominate the colloidal behavior over NOM. Many of the past analytical obstacles have been overcome just recently. Single particle ICP-MS based methods in combination with field flow fractionation techniques and hydrodynamic chromatography have the potential to fill the gaps currently hampering a comprehensive understanding of fate and effects also at a low field relevant concentrations. These analytical developments will allow for mechanistically orientated research and transfer to a larger set of EINP. This includes separating processes driven by NP specific properties and bulk chemical properties, categorization of effect-triggering pathways directing the EINP effects towards specific recipients, and identification of dominant environmental parameters triggering fate and effect of EINP in

  7. The scrounge-atron: a proton radiography demonstration accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alford, O J; Barnes, P D; Chargin, A K; Hartouni, E F; Hockman, J N; Moore, T L; Pico, R E; Ruggiero, A G

    1998-12-18

    The Scrounge-atron is a concept that could provide a demonstration accelerator for proton radiography. As discussed here, the Scrounge-atron would be capable of providing a 20 GeV beam of ten pulses, 10{sup 11} protons each, spaced 250 ns apart. This beam could be delivered once every minute to a single-axis radiographic station centered at the BEEF facility of the Nevada Test Site. These parameters would be sufficient to demonstrate, in five years, the capabilities of a proton-based Advanced Hydrotest Facility, and could return valuable information to the stockpile program, information that could not be obtained in any other way. The Scrounge-atron could be built in two to three years for $50-100 million. To meet this schedule and cost, the Scrounge-atron would rely heavily on the availability of components from the decommissioned Fermilab Main Ring.

  8. 尼采晚期思想的四个关键概念及其意图%Four Key Concepts and Their Intentions in Nietzsche's Advanced Thought

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李咏吟

    2016-01-01

    Nietzsche's advanced thought is mainly embodied in the Will to Power which is synthesized by several notes.Through the investigation of the will of power,Nietzsche emphasizes the significance of the revaluation of the living value.In Nietzsche's opinion,"Nihilism"implies suspecting the old value and exploring the new one and anti-moral or immoral is not to deny all the morals but to affirm Dionysus spirit through the negation of the values of Christianity and Buddhism.Ultimately,Nietzsche establishes the in-ner relationship beween artistic creation and living will,which regards the artistic free survival as the aes-thetic expression of the survival will.%尼采的晚期思想主要体现在若干笔记合成的«权力意志»之中。尼采通过权力意志的考察,强调生存价值重估的意义。在尼采看来,“虚无主义”就是对旧价值的怀疑并寻找新价值的活动;反道德或非道德,并不是否定所有的道德,而是通过对基督价值与佛教价值的否定,肯定酒神精神所代表的生命意志。最终,尼采确立了艺术创造与生存意志的内在联系,将艺术式的自由生存视作生存意志的审美表达。

  9. Solar Eruptive Events (SEE) 2020 Mission Concept

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, R P; Krucker, S; Hudson, H; Hurford, G; Bandler, S; Christe, S; Davila, J; Dennis, B; Holman, G; Milligan, R; Shih, A Y; Kahler, S; Kontar, E; Wiedenbeck, M; Cirtain, J; Doschek, G; Share, G H; Vourlidas, A; Raymond, J; Smith, D M; McConnell, M; Emslie, G

    2013-01-01

    Major solar eruptive events (SEEs), consisting of both a large flare and a near simultaneous large fast coronal mass ejection (CME), are the most powerful explosions and also the most powerful and energetic particle accelerators in the solar system, producing solar energetic particles (SEPs) up to tens of GeV for ions and hundreds of MeV for electrons. The intense fluxes of escaping SEPs are a major hazard for humans in space and for spacecraft. Furthermore, the solar plasma ejected at high speed in the fast CME completely restructures the interplanetary medium (IPM) - major SEEs therefore produce the most extreme space weather in geospace, the interplanetary medium, and at other planets. Thus, understanding the flare/CME energy release process(es) and the related particle acceleration processes are major goals in Heliophysics. To make the next major breakthroughs, we propose a new mission concept, SEE 2020, a single spacecraft with a complement of advanced new instruments that focus directly on the coronal e...

  10. Face perception : Concepts, issues and advance%面孔认知:概念、问题及其研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    诸薇娜; 张学杰

    2013-01-01

    Face recognition is a demanding process for both brain and computer. The research of face recognition involves Artificial Intelligence, Machine Vision, Pattern Recognition, Lie - detector, Cognitive Science and Neuroscience. One of important topic in compurter science is how to automatically identify or verify a face of human from digital images or a video source. On the other hand,how the brain understands and interprets the human face is a particular important topic for neuroscience scientists. Here,we introduced the concept,research topics and progress of face perception, especially the functional model of face recognition, the discussion of face - special processes, inverted face effects and familiar face effects. We presented some new research direction in face perception ; unconscious face processing and the perception of face micro - expression.%面孔识别是人类社会生活的重要功能,也是一个复杂的信息处理过程;它既是人工智能、机器视觉、模式识别、测谎领域的重要研究内容,也是认知心理学、认知神经科学、社会心理学等领域的重要研究方向.通过数字图像或者视频来完成自动面孔识别和辨认,是计算机科学领域的一个新的研究方向;而如何理解和解释大脑是如何处理面孔(特别是人类面孔)的研究,也是认知神经科学一个非常重要的领域.该文主要介绍了面孔认知的基本概念、研究的主要问题及相关领域的研究进展;具体从面孔认知模型、面孔特异性研究、面孔倒置效应和熟悉度效应几个方面,回顾了该领域内的一些重要研究成果,并对面孔认知研究的新方向,意识下面孔认知研究和面孔微表情认知研究提出了展望.

  11. Understanding the fate and biological effects of Ag- and TiO{sub 2}-nanoparticles in the environment: The quest for advanced analytics and interdisciplinary concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaumann, Gabriele E., E-mail: schaumann@uni-landau.de [Universität Koblenz-Landau, Institute for Environmental Sciences, Group of Environmental and Soil Chemistry, Fortstr. 7, D-76829 Landau (Germany); Philippe, Allan, E-mail: philippe@uni-landau.de [Universität Koblenz-Landau, Institute for Environmental Sciences, Group of Environmental and Soil Chemistry, Fortstr. 7, D-76829 Landau (Germany); Bundschuh, Mirco, E-mail: mirco.bundschuh@slu.se [Universität Koblenz-Landau, Institute for Environmental Sciences, Group of Ecotoxicology and Environment, Fortstr. 7, D-76829 Landau (Germany); Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Aquatic Sciences and Assessment, Lennart Hjelms väg 9, SE-75007 Uppsala (Sweden); Metreveli, George, E-mail: metreveli@uni-landau.de [Universität Koblenz-Landau, Institute for Environmental Sciences, Group of Environmental and Soil Chemistry, Fortstr. 7, D-76829 Landau (Germany); Klitzke, Sondra, E-mail: sondra.klitzke@tu-berlin.de [Albert-Ludwigs-Universität Freiburg, Institute of Forest Sciences, Chair of Soil Ecology, 79085 Freiburg i.Br. (Germany); Berlin University of Technology, Institute of Ecology, Department of Soil Science, Ernst-Reuter-Platz 1, D-10587 Berlin (Germany); Rakcheev, Denis, E-mail: rakcheev@uni-landau.de [Universität Koblenz-Landau, Institute for Environmental Sciences, Group of Environmental and Soil Chemistry, Fortstr. 7, D-76829 Landau (Germany); Grün, Alexandra, E-mail: alexg@uni-koblenz.de [Universität Koblenz-Landau, Institute for Integrated Natural Sciences, Dept. of Biology, Universitätsstr. 1, D-56070 Koblenz (Germany); and others

    2015-12-01

    Engineered inorganic nanoparticles (EINP) from consumers' products and industrial applications, especially silver and titanium dioxide nanoparticles (NP), are emitted into the aquatic and terrestrial environments in increasing amounts. However, the current knowledge on their environmental fate and biological effects is diverse and renders reliable predictions complicated. This review critically evaluates existing knowledge on colloidal aging mechanisms, biological functioning and transport of Ag NP and TiO{sub 2} NP in water and soil and it discusses challenges for concepts, experimental approaches and analytical methods in order to obtain a comprehensive understanding of the processes linking NP fate and effects. Ag NP undergo dissolution and oxidation with Ag{sub 2}S as a thermodynamically determined endpoint. Nonetheless, Ag NP also undergo colloidal transformations in the nanoparticulate state and may act as carriers for other substances. Ag NP and TiO{sub 2} NP can have adverse biological effects on organisms. Whereas Ag NP reveal higher colloidal stability and mobility, the efficiency of NOM as a stabilizing agent is greater towards TiO{sub 2} NP than towards Ag NP, and multivalent cations can dominate the colloidal behavior over NOM. Many of the past analytical obstacles have been overcome just recently. Single particle ICP-MS based methods in combination with field flow fractionation techniques and hydrodynamic chromatography have the potential to fill the gaps currently hampering a comprehensive understanding of fate and effects also at a low field relevant concentrations. These analytical developments will allow for mechanistically orientated research and transfer to a larger set of EINP. This includes separating processes driven by NP specific properties and bulk chemical properties, categorization of effect-triggering pathways directing the EINP effects towards specific recipients, and identification of dominant environmental parameters triggering

  12. Velocity, acceleration and gravity in Einstein's relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Abramowicz, Marek A

    2016-01-01

    Einstein's relativity theory demands that all meaningful physical objects should be defined covariantly, i.e. in a coordinate independent way. Concepts of relative velocity, acceleration, gravity acceleration and gravity potential are fundamental in Newton's theory and they are imprinted in everyone's physical intuition. Unfortunately, relativistic definitions of them are not commonly known or appreciated. Every now and then some confused authors use wrong, non-covariant, definitions of velocity, acceleration and gravity, based on their vague Newtonian intuitions and hidden in a superficial, often purely semantic, relativistic disguise. A recent example of such a confusion (Gorkavyi & Vasilkov, 2016) is discussed at the end of this Note.

  13. Hypervelocity accelerators with electro-thermo-chemical reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikuta, Kazunari

    1991-08-01

    A novel kind of electro-thermo-chemical (ETC) launcher for the acceleration of multikilogram-size projectiles to hypervelocity is proposed. The novel launcher concept utilizes the hot hydrogen gas generated by the chemical interaction between water and aluminum in order to accelerate the projectiles to a thermal velocity close to that of the light gas. This interaction is triggered by the Joule heating of the aluminum wire in water. Two possible designs for the accelerator concept are considered in detail. Further acceleration of the projectile near the muzzle is also discussed.

  14. Future HEP Accelerators: The US Perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhat, Pushpalatha [Fermilab; Shiltsev, Vladimir [Fermilab

    2015-11-02

    Accelerator technology has advanced tremendously since the introduction of accelerators in the 1930s, and particle accelerators have become indispensable instruments in high energy physics (HEP) research to probe Nature at smaller and smaller distances. At present, accelerator facilities can be classified into Energy Frontier colliders that enable direct discoveries and studies of high mass scale particles and Intensity Frontier accelerators for exploration of extremely rare processes, usually at relatively low energies. The near term strategies of the global energy frontier particle physics community are centered on fully exploiting the physics potential of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN through its high-luminosity upgrade (HL-LHC), while the intensity frontier HEP research is focused on studies of neutrinos at the MW-scale beam power accelerator facilities, such as Fermilab Main Injector with the planned PIP-II SRF linac project. A number of next generation accelerator facilities have been proposed and are currently under consideration for the medium- and long-term future programs of accelerator-based HEP research. In this paper, we briefly review the post-LHC energy frontier options, both for lepton and hadron colliders in various regions of the world, as well as possible future intensity frontier accelerator facilities.

  15. SuperB Progress Report for Accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biagini, M.E.; Boni, R.; Boscolo, M.; Buonomo, B.; Demma, T.; Drago, A.; Esposito, M.; Guiducci, S.; Mazzitelli, G.; Pellegrino, L.; Preger, M.A.; Raimondi, P.; Ricci, R.; Rotundo, U.; Sanelli, C.; Serio, M.; Stella, A.; Tomassini, S.; Zobov, M.; /Frascati; Bertsche, K.; Brachman, A.; /SLAC /Novosibirsk, IYF /INFN, Pisa /Pisa U. /Orsay, LAL /Annecy, LAPP /LPSC, Grenoble /IRFU, SPP, Saclay /DESY /Cockroft Inst. Accel. Sci. Tech. /U. Liverpool /CERN

    2012-02-14

    This report details the progress made in by the SuperB Project in the area of the Collider since the publication of the SuperB Conceptual Design Report in 2007 and the Proceedings of SuperB Workshop VI in Valencia in 2008. With this document we propose a new electron positron colliding beam accelerator to be built in Italy to study flavor physics in the B-meson system at an energy of 10 GeV in the center-of-mass. This facility is called a high luminosity B-factory with a project name 'SuperB'. This project builds on a long history of successful e+e- colliders built around the world, as illustrated in Figure 1.1. The key advances in the design of this accelerator come from recent successes at the DAFNE collider at INFN in Frascati, Italy, at PEP-II at SLAC in California, USA, and at KEKB at KEK in Tsukuba Japan, and from new concepts in beam manipulation at the interaction region (IP) called 'crab waist'. This new collider comprises of two colliding beam rings, one at 4.2 GeV and one at 6.7 GeV, a common interaction region, a new injection system at full beam energies, and one of the two beams longitudinally polarized at the IP. Most of the new accelerator techniques needed for this collider have been achieved at other recently completed accelerators including the new PETRA-3 light source at DESY in Hamburg (Germany) and the upgraded DAFNE collider at the INFN laboratory at Frascati (Italy), or during design studies of CLIC or the International Linear Collider (ILC). The project is to be designed and constructed by a worldwide collaboration of accelerator and engineering staff along with ties to industry. To save significant construction costs, many components from the PEP-II collider at SLAC will be recycled and used in this new accelerator. The interaction region will be designed in collaboration with the particle physics detector to guarantee successful mutual use. The accelerator collaboration will consist of several groups at present

  16. Medical research and multidisciplinary applications with laser-accelerated beams: the ELIMED netwotk at ELI-Beamlines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tramontana, A.; Anzalone, A.; Candiano, G.; Carpinelli, M.; Cirrone, G. A. P.; Cuttone, G.; Korn, G.; Licciardello, T.; Maggiore, M.; Manti, L.; Margarone, D.; Musumarra, A.; Perozziello, F.; Pisciotta, P.; Raffaele, L.; Romano, F.; Romano, F. P.; Stancampiano, C.; Schillaci, F.; Scuderi, V.; Torrisi, L.; Tudisco, S.

    2014-04-01

    Laser accelerated proton beams represent nowadays an attractive alternative to the conventional ones and they have been proposed in different research fields. In particular, the interest has been focused in the possibility of replacing conventional accelerating machines with laser-based accelerators in order to develop a new concept of hadrontherapy facilities, which could result more compact and less expensive. With this background the ELIMED (ELIMED: ELI-Beamlines MEDical applications) research project has been launched by LNS-INFN researchers (Laboratori Nazionali del Sud-Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Catania, IT) and ASCR-FZU researchers (Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic-Fyzikální ústar, Prague, Cz), within the pan-European ELI-Beamlines facility framework. Its main purposes are the demonstration of future applications in hadrontherapy of optically accelerated protons and the realization of a laser-accelerated ion transport beamline for multidisciplinary applications. Several challenges, starting from laser-target interaction and beam transport development, up to dosimetric and radiobiological issues, need to be overcome in order to reach the final goals. The design and the realization of a preliminary beam handling and dosimetric system and of an advanced spectrometer for high energy (multi-MeV) laser-accelerated ion beams will be shortly presented in this work.

  17. Synergistic Direct/Wakefield Acceleration of Plasma Electrons In the Plasma Bubble Regime Using Tailored Laser Pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shvets, Gennady

    2016-10-01

    The integration of direct laser acceleration (DLA) and laser wakefield acceleration (LWFA) is a new approach to plasma-based acceleration that confers several benefits over both schemes taken separately. Such integration requires a significant portion of the laser energy (e.g., a separate laser pulse) to trail the main bubble-producing laser pulse, and resonantly interact with the trapped accelerated electrons undergoing betatron motion inside the plasma bubble. I will demonstrate how electron dephasing from the accelerating wakefield, which is one of the key limitations of LWFA, is reduced by their growing undulating motion. Moreover, the distinct energy gains from wake and the laser pulse are compounding, thereby increasing the total energy gain. Even more significant increases of the overall acceleration can be obtained by moving away from single-frequency laser format toward combining mid-infrared laser pulses for plasma bubble generation with short-wavelength trailing pulses for DLA. Various injection mechanisms, such as ionization injection, external injection, self-injection, and their advantages will also be discussed. Translating these new concepts into specific experiments will take advantage of recent technological advances in synchronizing laser and electron beams, and using multiple beamlines for producing sophisticated laser pulse formats.

  18. Optimization of the electrostatic and magnetic field configuration in the MITICA accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chitarin, G., E-mail: giuseppe.chitarin@igi.cnr.it [Consorzio RFX, Association EURATOM-ENEA, C.so Stati Uniti 4, 35127 Padova (Italy); Univ. di Padova, Department of Engineering and Management, strad. S. Nicola 3, 36100 Vicenza (Italy); Agostinetti, P. [Consorzio RFX, Association EURATOM-ENEA, C.so Stati Uniti 4, 35127 Padova (Italy); Esch, H.P.L. de [CEA-Cadarache, IRFM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Marcuzzi, D.; Marconato, N.; Sartori, E.; Serianni, G.; Sonato, P.; Veltri, P.; Zaccaria, P. [Consorzio RFX, Association EURATOM-ENEA, C.so Stati Uniti 4, 35127 Padova (Italy)

    2013-10-15

    MITICA (Megavolt ITER Injector Concept Advancement) is a test facility for the development of a full-size heating and current drive neutral beam injectors for the ITER Tokamak reactor. The optimized electrostatic and magnetic configuration has been defined by means of an iterative optimization involving all the physics and the engineering aspects. The acceleration grids have been designed considering optical performances and mechanical constraints related to embedded magnets, to cooling channels, to the grid stiffness and manufacturability. A combination of “local” vertical field and horizontal “long range” field has been found to be the most effective set-up for ion extraction, beam focusing and minimization and equalization of thermo-mechanical loads and minimal number of electrons exiting the accelerator.

  19. Concept theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjørland, Birger

    2009-01-01

      Concept theory is an extremely broad, interdisciplinary and complex field of research related to many deep fields with very long historical traditions without much consensus. However, information science and knowledge organization cannot avoid relating to theories of concepts. Knowledge...... organizing systems (e.g. classification systems, thesauri and ontologies) should be understood as systems basically organizing concepts and their semantic relations. The same is the case with information retrieval systems. Different theories of concepts have different implications for how to construe......, evaluate and use such systems. Based on "a post-Kuhnian view" of paradigms this paper put forward arguments that the best understanding and classification of theories of concepts is to view and classify them in accordance with epistemological theories (empiricism, rationalism, historicism and pragmatism...

  20. Interdisciplinary glossary — particle accelerators and medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dmitrieva, V. V.; Dyubkov, V. S.; Nikitaev, V. G.; Ulin, S. E.

    2016-02-01

    A general concept of a new interdisciplinary glossary, which includes particle accelerator terminology used in medicine, as well as relevant medical concepts, is presented. Its structure and usage rules are described. An example, illustrating the quickly searching technique of relevant information in this Glossary, is considered. A website address, where one can get an access to the Glossary, is specified. Glossary can be refined and supplemented.

  1. Space Mission Concept Development Using Concept Maturity Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessen, Randii R.; Borden, Chester; Ziemer, John; Kwok, Johnny

    2013-01-01

    Over the past five years, pre-project formulation experts at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) has developed and implemented a method for measuring and communicating the maturity of space mission concepts. Mission concept development teams use this method, and associated tools, prior to concepts entering their Formulation Phases (Phase A/B). The organizing structure is Concept Maturity Level (CML), which is a classification system for characterizing the various levels of a concept's maturity. The key strength of CMLs is the ability to evolve mission concepts guided by an incremental set of assessment needs. The CML definitions have been expanded into a matrix form to identify the breadth and depth of analysis needed for a concept to reach a specific level of maturity. This matrix enables improved assessment and communication by addressing the fundamental dimensions (e.g., science objectives, mission design, technical risk, project organization, cost, export compliance, etc.) associated with mission concept evolution. JPL's collaborative engineering, dedicated concept development, and proposal teams all use these and other CML-appropriate design tools to advance their mission concept designs. This paper focuses on mission concept's early Pre-Phase A represented by CMLs 1- 4. The scope was limited due to the fact that CMLs 5 and 6 are already well defined based on the requirements documented in specific Announcement of Opportunities (AO) and Concept Study Report (CSR) guidelines, respectively, for competitive missions; and by NASA's Procedural Requirements NPR 7120.5E document for Projects in their Formulation Phase.

  2. 2014 CERN Accelerator Schools: Plasma Wake Acceleration

    CERN Multimedia

    2014-01-01

    A specialised school on Plasma Wake Acceleration will be held at CERN, Switzerland from 23-29 November, 2014.   This course will be of interest to staff and students in accelerator laboratories, university departments and companies working in or having an interest in the field of new acceleration techniques. Following introductory lectures on plasma and laser physics, the course will cover the different components of a plasma wake accelerator and plasma beam systems. An overview of the experimental studies, diagnostic tools and state of the art wake acceleration facilities, both present and planned, will complement the theoretical part. Topical seminars and a visit of CERN will complete the programme. Further information can be found at: http://cas.web.cern.ch/cas/PlasmaWake2014/CERN-advert.html http://indico.cern.ch/event/285444/

  3. History of hadron therapy accelerators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degiovanni, Alberto; Amaldi, Ugo

    2015-06-01

    In the last 60 years, hadron therapy has made great advances passing from a stage of pure research to a well-established treatment modality for solid tumours. In this paper the history of hadron therapy accelerators is reviewed, starting from the first cyclotrons used in the thirties for neutron therapy and passing to more modern and flexible machines used nowadays. The technical developments have been accompanied by clinical studies that allowed the selection of the tumours which are more sensitive to this type of radiotherapy. This paper aims at giving a review of the origin and the present status of hadron therapy accelerators, describing the technological basis and the continuous development of this application to medicine of instruments developed for fundamental science. At the end the present challenges are reviewed.

  4. Improved plasma accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, D. Y.

    1971-01-01

    Converging, coaxial accelerator electrode configuration operates in vacuum as plasma gun. Plasma forms by periodic injections of high pressure gas that is ionized by electrical discharges. Deflagration mode of discharge provides acceleration, and converging contours of plasma gun provide focusing.

  5. High Energy Particle Accelerators

    CERN Multimedia

    Audio Productions, Inc, New York

    1960-01-01

    Film about the different particle accelerators in the US. Nuclear research in the US has developed into a broad and well-balanced program.Tour of accelerator installations, accelerator development work now in progress and a number of typical experiments with high energy particles. Brookhaven, Cosmotron. Univ. Calif. Berkeley, Bevatron. Anti-proton experiment. Negative k meson experiment. Bubble chambers. A section on an electron accelerator. Projection of new accelerators. Princeton/Penn. build proton synchrotron. Argonne National Lab. Brookhaven, PS construction. Cambridge Electron Accelerator; Harvard/MIT. SLAC studying a linear accelerator. Other research at Madison, Wisconsin, Fixed Field Alternate Gradient Focusing. (FFAG) Oakridge, Tenn., cyclotron. Two-beam machine. Comments : Interesting overview of high energy particle accelerators installations in the US in these early years. .

  6. Concept and advances of applied bioremediation for organic pollutants in soil and water%土壤与水体有机污染的生物修复及其应用研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王庆仁; 刘秀梅; 崔岩山; 董艺婷

    2001-01-01

    系统论述了土壤、水有机污染物的主要来源、特点、有机污染生物修复的概念、应用范围、成功实例与研究进展等,特别是对于泄漏石油污染的生物成功降解方法、效果,土壤中易爆炸物如TNT、废水中有机污染物的有效降解等,评价了生物修复所具有的突出优势。对有机、无机污染物降解过程中植物、微生物筛选、基因修饰、分子克隆与转基因植物方面近年来所取得的惊人成果与突破性进展,无疑正激励着人们开拓更大的应用范围。预计不久的将来,更多具有环境净化与生物修复功能的商业性综合技术与高效性工程生物将投入应用。%Major sources and characteristics of organic pollutants in soil and water were systematically reviewed. It deals with the concept, application and advances of bioremediation.The success in biodegradation of petroleum spill, some hazardous pollutants, waste water treatment and other striking results in the field and laboratory were described. The advances in screening, gene modification and genetic engineering etc. have obtained some successful approaches. As more progress made in this area, it is estimated that integrated techniques with more effective engineered plants or microbes will meet peoples' requirement in the future.

  7. Accelerators, Colliders, and Snakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courant, Ernest D.

    2003-12-01

    The author traces his involvement in the evolution of particle accelerators over the past 50 years. He participated in building the first billion-volt accelerator, the Brookhaven Cosmotron, which led to the introduction of the "strong-focusing" method that has in turn led to the very large accelerators and colliders of the present day. The problems of acceleration of spin-polarized protons are also addressed, with discussions of depolarizing resonances and "Siberian snakes" as a technique for mitigating these resonances.

  8. PRODUCTION AND APPLICATIONS OF NEUTRONS USING PARTICLE ACCELERATORS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David L. Chichester

    2009-11-01

    Advances in neutron science have gone hand in hand with the development and of particle accelerators from the beginning of both fields of study. Early accelerator systems were developed simply to produce neutrons, allowing scientists to study their properties and how neutrons interact in matter, but people quickly realized that more tangible uses existed too. Today the diversity of applications for industrial accelerator-based neutron sources is high and so to is the actual number of instruments in daily use is high, and they serve important roles in the fields where they're used. This chapter presents a technical introduction to the different ways particle accelerators are used to produce neutrons, an historical overview of the early development of neutron-producing particle accelerators, a description of some current industrial accelerator systems, narratives of the fields where neutron-producing particle accelerators are used today, and comments on future trends in the industrial uses of neutron producing particle accelerators.

  9. Production and applications of neutrons using particle accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chichester, David L. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2009-11-01

    Advances in neutron science have gone hand in hand with the development and of particle accelerators from the beginning of both fields of study. Early accelerator systems were developed simply to produce neutrons, allowing scientists to study their properties and how neutrons interact in matter, but people quickly realized that more tangible uses existed too. Today the diversity of applications for industrial accelerator-based neutron sources is high and so to is the actual number of instruments in daily use is high, and they serve important roles in the fields where they're used. This chapter presents a technical introduction to the different ways particle accelerators are used to produce neutrons, an historical overview of the early development of neutron-producing particle accelerators, a description of some current industrial accelerator systems, narratives of the fields where neutron-producing particle accelerators are used today, and comments on future trends in the industrial uses of neutron producing particle accelerators.

  10. The charged particle accelerators subsystems modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Averyanov, G. P.; Kobylyatskiy, A. V.

    2017-01-01

    Presented web-based resource for information support the engineering, science and education in Electrophysics, containing web-based tools for simulation subsystems charged particle accelerators. Formulated the development motivation of Web-Environment for Virtual Electrophysical Laboratories. Analyzes the trends of designs the dynamic web-environments for supporting of scientific research and E-learning, within the framework of Open Education concept.

  11. Nuclear data for designing the IFMIF accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugimoto, Masayoshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1998-03-01

    The objective of the International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF) and the design concept of the IFMIF accelerator system are described. The status of the nuclear data, especially for the deuteron-induced reactions, to qualify the system design is reviewed. The requests for the nuclear data compilation and/or evaluation are summarized. (author)

  12. Travelling Concepts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Karen-Margrethe

    2013-01-01

    Review of "Travelling Concepts, Metaphors, and Narratives: Literary and Cultural Studies in an Age of Interdisciplinary Research" ed. by Sibylle Baumgarten, Beatrice Michaelis and Ansagar Nünning, Trier; Wissenschaftlicher Verlag Trier, 2012......Review of "Travelling Concepts, Metaphors, and Narratives: Literary and Cultural Studies in an Age of Interdisciplinary Research" ed. by Sibylle Baumgarten, Beatrice Michaelis and Ansagar Nünning, Trier; Wissenschaftlicher Verlag Trier, 2012...

  13. Accelerated shallow water modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandham, Rajesh; Medina, David; Warburton, Timothy

    2015-04-01

    ln this talk we will describe our ongoing developments in accelerated numerical methods for modeling tsunamis, and oceanic fluid flows using two dimensional shallow water model and/or three dimensional incompressible Navier Stokes model discretized with high order discontinuous Galerkin methods. High order discontinuous Galerkin methods can be computationally demanding, requiring extensive computational time to simulate real time events on traditional CPU architectures. However, recent advances in computing architectures and hardware aware algorithms make it possible to reduce simulation time and provide accurate predictions in a timely manner. Hence we tailor these algorithms to take advantage of single instruction multiple data (SIMD) architecture that is seen in modern many core compute devices such as GPUs. We will discuss our unified and extensive many-core programming library OCCA that alleviates the need to completely re-design the solvers to keep up with constantly evolving parallel programming models and hardware architectures. We will present performance results for the flow simulations demonstrating performance leveraging multiple different multi-threading APIs on GPU and CPU targets.

  14. Far field acceleration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernow, R.C.

    1995-07-01

    Far fields are propagating electromagnetic waves far from their source, boundary surfaces, and free charges. The general principles governing the acceleration of charged particles by far fields are reviewed. A survey of proposed field configurations is given. The two most important schemes, Inverse Cerenkov acceleration and Inverse free electron laser acceleration, are discussed in detail.

  15. Accelerators and Dinosaurs

    CERN Document Server

    Turner, Michael Stanley

    2003-01-01

    Using naturally occuring particles on which to research might have made accelerators become extinct. But in fact, results from astrophysics have made accelerator physics even more important. Not only are accelerators used in hospitals but they are also being used to understand nature's inner workings by searching for Higgs bosons, CP violation, neutrino mass and dark matter (2 pages)

  16. The CERN Accelerator School

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

    Introduction to accelerator physics The CERN Accelerator School: Introduction to Accelerator Physics, which should have taken place in Istanbul, Turkey, later this year has now been relocated to Budapest, Hungary.  Further details regarding the new hotel and dates will be made available as soon as possible on a new Indico site at the end of May.

  17. Acceleration: It's Elementary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Mariam

    2012-01-01

    Acceleration is one tool for providing high-ability students the opportunity to learn something new every day. Some people talk about acceleration as taking a student out of step. In actuality, what one is doing is putting a student in step with the right curriculum. Whole-grade acceleration, also called grade-skipping, usually happens between…

  18. Summary report of working group 3: Laser and high-gradient structure-based acceleration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andonian, Gerard; Simakov, Evgenya

    2017-03-01

    High-gradient particle acceleration with reduced power demands is essential for miniaturization and cost reduction of future accelerators. Applications for compact accelerators span collider research for High Energy Physics, light source development for Basic Energy Sciences and National Security, and industrial accelerators for Energy and Environmental Applications. Working Group 3 discussed and surveyed the recent advances in achieving higher gradients and better acceleration efficiency in externally powered, structure-based accelerators. The topics covered in Working Group 3 included dielectric laser acceleration, millimeter-wave accelerators, breakdown phenomena, exotic topologies such as photonic band-gap structures, artificial materials, and nanostructures, and novel rf technology.

  19. Contribution to the design of superconducting Nb{sub 3}Sn dipole windings for particle accelerator; Contribution a la conception des bobinages supraconducteurs de type dipolaire en Nb{sub 3}Sn pour les accelerateurs de particules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felice, H

    2006-10-15

    Improvement of particle accelerators relies on complex technologies such as the design and fabrication of superconducting magnets. A key parameter in magnet design is the mechanical pre-stress, applied at room temperature to insure compression of the coil during excitation. In dipole magnets, high field and high mechanical stresses in windings combined with the Nb{sub 3}Sn stress sensitivity ask the question of the limit of the mechanical stress that the Nb{sub 3}Sn can undergo without degradation. This limit estimated around 150 MPa is still discussed and has to be investigated. Whatever its value, preliminary studies show that conventional cosine theta design induces mechanical stresses (> 200 MPa) in large aperture (> 130 mm) and high field configurations, which underscore the need of alternative coil arrangements. The first part of this thesis gives an introduction to the issues and challenges encountered by the designers of superconducting ma nets. The second part is devoted to the study of large aperture (88, 130 and 160 mm) and high field (13 T) dipoles based on intersecting ellipses. After a theoretical study, a 2D magnetic design is detailed for each aperture and a mechanical study is developed for the 130 mm aperture dipole. In the last part, an experimental device dedicated to the study of the influence of the pre-stress on the training of sub-scale Nb{sub 3}Sn dipole and to the investigation of the mechanical stress limit is presented. The design of this magnet is detailed and the result of the first test carried out with the structure is reported. (author)

  20. RF linear accelerators for medical and industrial applications

    CERN Document Server

    Hanna, Samy

    2012-01-01

    This unique resource offers you a clear overview of medical and industrial accelerators. Using minimal mathematics, this book focuses on offering thorough explanations of basic concepts surrounding the operation of accelerators. you find well illustrated discussions designed to help you use accelerator-based systems in a safer, more productive, and more reliable manner.This practical book details the manufacturing process for producing accelerators for medical and industrial applications. You become knowledgeable about the commonly encountered real-world manufacturing issues and potential sources of defects which help you avoid costly production problems. From principles of operation and the role of accelerators in cancer radiation therapy, to manufacturing techniques and future trends in accelerator design and applications, this easy-to-comprehend volume quickly brings you up-to-speed with the critical concepts you need to understand for your work in the field.

  1. ACCELERATION GROWTH OF ICT MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drakulić Danica

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The wurk points to the importance of ICT (Information Communication Technologies, as one of the main trajectories by which advanced economies have come to the high dynamism and richness. How do the performsnces of these technological changes, determined mainly by ICT, exert influences on the economicgrowth or, in general, on production results at the aggregate, macroeconomic level. The U.S.A. supremacy in this field has faced challenges. It loses tempo, and the EU countries, after the multi-decade syndrome of technological catching up to U.S.A., go through faster into the future, giving an accelerating tone to the technological race.

  2. Advanced geometries and regimes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bulanov, S. S. [Univeristy of California, Berkeley, CA, 94720 (United States); Bulanov, S. V. [Kansai Photon Science Institute, JAEA, Kizugawa, Kyoto 619-0215 (Japan); Turchetti, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Bologna and INFN Sezione di Bologna, Via Irnerio, 46-I-40126 Bologna (Italy); Limpouch, J.; Klimo, O.; Psikal, J. [Institute of Physics of the ASCR, ELI-Beamlines/HiLASE project, Na Slovance 2, 18221 Prague, Czech Republic and Czech Technical University in Prague, FNSPE, Brehova 7, 115 19 Prague (Czech Republic); Antici, P. [Dipartimento di Energetica ed INFM, Università di Roma, La Sapienza, 00165 Roma (Italy); Margarone, D.; Korn, G. [Institute of Physics of the ASCR, ELI-Beamlines/HiLASE project, Na Slovance 2, 18221 Prague (Czech Republic)

    2013-07-26

    We review and discuss different schemes of laser ion acceleration as well as advanced target geometries in connection with the development of the laser-driven proton source for hadron therapy of oncological diseases, which is a part of the ELIMED project.

  3. Physics and engineering studies on the MITICA accelerator: comparison among possible design solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agostinetti, P.; Antoni, V.; Cavenago, M.; Chitarin, G.; Pilan, N.; Marcuzzi, D.; Serianni, G.; Veltri, P.

    2011-09-01

    Consorzio RFX in Padova is currently using a comprehensive set of numerical and analytical codes, for the physics and engineering design of the SPIDER (Source for Production of Ion of Deuterium Extracted from RF plasma) and MITICA (Megavolt ITER Injector Concept Advancement) experiments, planned to be built at Consorzio RFX. This paper presents a set of studies on different possible geometries for the MITICA accelerator, with the objective to compare different design concepts and choose the most suitable one (or ones) to be further developed and possibly adopted in the experiment. Different design solutions have been discussed and compared, taking into account their advantages and drawbacks by both the physics and engineering points of view.

  4. The Accelerator Reliability Forum

    CERN Document Server

    Lüdeke, Andreas; Giachino, R

    2014-01-01

    A high reliability is a very important goal for most particle accelerators. The biennial Accelerator Reliability Workshop covers topics related to the design and operation of particle accelerators with a high reliability. In order to optimize the over-all reliability of an accelerator one needs to gather information on the reliability of many different subsystems. While a biennial workshop can serve as a platform for the exchange of such information, the authors aimed to provide a further channel to allow for a more timely communication: the Particle Accelerator Reliability Forum [1]. This contribution will describe the forum and advertise it’s usage in the community.

  5. Operational radiation protection in high-energy physics accelerators: implementation of ALARA in design and operation of accelerators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fassò, A; Rokni, S

    2009-11-01

    This paper considers the historical evolution of the concept of optimisation of radiation exposures, as commonly expressed by the acronym ALARA, and discusses its application to various aspects of radiation protection at high-energy accelerators.

  6. Experimental and Numerical Investigation of Compact Dielectric Wakefield Accelerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    photocathode laser . . . . . . . . . . 24 3.3 Experimental realization of a linearly-ramped bunch with a multifrequency linac...wakefield accelerators − a concept developed in support to high-energy particle accelerator − as path toward the realization of compact accelerator with...of 43 coth(kx,ma) cot [ky(b− a)] = ky rkx,m . (12) Therefore each discrete value of kx,m there is an infinite set of discrete ky,n values where n is

  7. Beam-driven, Plasma-based Particle Accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Muggli, P

    2016-01-01

    We briefly give some of the characteristics of the beam-driven, plasma-based particle accelerator known as the plasma wakefield accelerator (PWFA). We also mention some of the major results that have been obtained since the birth of the concept. We focus on high-energy particle beams where possible.

  8. Recent work in advanced hydrogen production concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, D. D.

    1981-03-01

    The hydrogen photoelectrolytic conversion activity investigated the practicability of semiconductor electrolytic devises that use solar energy to decompose water into hydrogen and oxygen in an apparent single step process. The photocatalytic decomposition of inorganic hydrogen compounds; i.e., hydrobromic and hydriodic acids using rhodium organic bridge complexes were also studied. The feasibility of direct high temperature thermal decompositions of water with diffusion processes for separation of the equilibrium mixture of hydrogen and oxygen into usable energy sources was examined.

  9. Advanced Concepts Theory Annual Report 1983.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-05-18

    calculation and theirs is that they excited levels are typically 2 orders of magnitude smaller used the bound-state wave functions of Clementi and...Rev. Lett. 47, 921 1981. v2E. Clementi and C. Roeti, At. Data Nucl. Data Tables L4, ’ 2TFR Group, J. Dubau, and N1. Loulergue. J. Phys. B 12, 1007 177...Lighthill1 3 , and the positions of the ionization-dependent absorption edges are taken from the Hartree-Fock calculations of Clementi and Roetti 14

  10. Advanced Modeling Concepts for Conceptual Design Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Preliminary design of aircraft structures is multidisciplinary, involving knowledge of structural mechanics, aerodynamics, aeroelasticity, structural dynamics and...

  11. Advanced Operating Systems Concepts for BMD Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-06-03

    Results The key results of this work are reported in detail in the attached theses of Branimir Gajic and Debra Lane. In particular, Gajic’s thesis...below: Theses "A Distributed Operating System for BMD Applications," Branimir Gajic, TR-CS-82-4. "A Communications Subsystem Based on a CSMA/CD...Cohen Graduate Assistant Uuaim-’.v :52 ) Debra Lane Graduate Assistant J ’st-i-t: Branimir Gajic Graduate Assistant -w4 Robert Souza Graduate

  12. Advancing Blade Concept (ABC) Technology Demonstrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-04-01

    id5I:~ W Ith coIle t ior, I: a’ tlet- Liou tesýts, t~he 1total blades were iisa edad he ,! l01 ;wnq1 sys"tem11 tests and operationlal checks...Equipment The data acquisition system recording media was a Bell and Howell Model MARS-2000 14-track airborne analog magnetic tape recorder. The magnetic

  13. Test Concept for Advanced Oxidation Techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennedsen, Lars Rønn; Søgaard, Erik Gydesen; Mortensen, Lars

    of conducting screening laboratory and pilot tests prior to onset of full scale treatment of a contaminated site with a given technology. For this purpose, Ramboll has developed a mobile test unit in co-operation with universities and technology suppliers. The unit includes equipment for both standard and more...... of success. Based on the wide selection of different techniques, several screening matrices have been developed in order to make it easier to choose the best suited technique for a given situation. However, these matrices only provide an indication of which technology that might be effective and often...... the assessor ends up with 3 or 4 applicable techniques. In stead of selecting a full scale technique solely based on information collected during a literature research, it is best practice to supplement the remediation screening phase with laboratory and in situ pilot treatability tests. As well...

  14. Advanced Concepts Theory Annual Report 1984.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-06-26

    amu/cm3 ,4c- n is zwmmenrsrate with a density of 109 ions/ cm3 for a pure neon 7 asma . This corresponds approximately to the densities determined...DDST 1 copy ATTN: TITL 4 copies ATTN- RAEV 1 copy * ATTN: STVI I copy Commander 1 Copy Field Command Defense Nuclear Agency Kirtland AFB, New Mexico ...ATTN: Code F31 Air Force Weapons Laboratory I copy each *i Kirtland AFB, New Mexico 87117 ATTN: SUL ATTN: CA ATTN: APL ATTN: Lt. Col. Generosa Deputy

  15. Advanced Concepts for Electron-Ion Collider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yaroslav Derbenev

    2002-08-01

    A superconducting energy recovery linac (ERL) of 5 to 10 GeV was proposed earlier as an alternative to electron storage rings to deliver polarized electron beam for electron-ion collider (EIC). To enhance the utilization efficiency of electron beam from a polarized source, it is proposed to complement the ERL by circulator ring (CR) wherein the injected electrons undergo up to 100 revolutions colliding with the ion beam. In this way, electron injector and linac operate in pulsed current (beam energy recovery) regime of a relatively low average current, while the polarization is still easily delivered and preserved. To make it also easier delivering and manipulating the proton and light ion polarization, twisted (figure 8) synchrotrons are proposed for heavy particle booster and collider ring. Same type of beam orbit can be used then for electron circulator. Electron cooling (EC) of the ion beam is considered an inevitable component of high luminosity EIC (1033/s. cm2 or above). It is recognized that EC also gives a possibility to obtain very short ion bunches, that allows much stronger final focusing. At the same time, short bunches make feasible the crab crossing (and traveling focus for ion beam) at collision points, hence, allow maximizing the collision rate. As a result, one can anticipate the luminosity increase by one or two orders of magnitude.

  16. Advanced Concepts Theory Annual Report 1985.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-04-23

    jis js isi 0 where fis is the fractional population of atomic level i for the plasma 4 species s. Wji s is the net reaction rate describing the...min Improved EFS ModelO . . 2. J.Ambrosiano and J.E.Brandenburg, A1ZFOIL: I Simple, Finite Element " Computer Code to Model Moving Axial Foils, Berkeley

  17. Advanced Concepts and Methods of Approximate Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-12-01

    and L. Valverde. On mode and implication in approximate reasoning. In M.M. Gupta, A. Kandel, W. Bandler , J.B. Kiszka, editors, Approximate Reasoning and...190, 1981. [43] E. Trillas and L. Valverde. On mode and implication in approximate reasoning. In M.M. Gupta, A. Kandel, W. Bandler , J.B. Kiszka

  18. Advanced Concepts Theory Annual Report 1988

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-08-03

    charge-exchange model as envision by Prono et al. is given in figure 1. Ions are injected at the left hand boundary and the ion flux is F, wh-’re F has...mentioned previously, that causes premature switch opening. By using the one-dimensional Boltzmann equation, Prono et al. 3 found both the ion and neutral...as envisioned by Prono et al. We considered protons exchanging with 115 ON FLUX VS. X TIME.: 0. .5E-08 4Ox1D’" / \\JI’~7 \\J 36 - 30- 101 E o 26’IlD

  19. Flight Test of Advanced Digital Control Concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-03-01

    the model (Equation 51). 34 OPTIONII .>-COFY, GMATr, MMArtCOPY, IMATvAMAT, COP’Y, JMAT, BmA, 87, >COPY , FMArNMAT, COPYY GMAT , GMAT Next, EKEY...YCMA;TFFMAT ,COPY, FMAT, AMATY,COPY, MMA-T, EMAr ,74, COPY, CMAT r (ThAT, ’:.COFY LMAT, AMAT YCOPYP NMAT, EMAT,73, COPY, GMAT , BmAr, *::COFY, pmA, AMAT...74, COPY, GMAT , UMA’TLMAT, MMAT, NMA T, MA-T, PFMAT, ’UMATPUMAT Next use CKEY to check the results. C B and CF are substituted into the "simulator

  20. Advanced Microgrid Concepts and Technologies Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    vegetation contacts o Pole -top transformer bushing failure o Pole -top transformer winding failure o Bus capacitor bushing failure o Capacitor problems...desired location in the live power transmission system. The sensor does not require galvanic contact with the energized conductor, allowing for...R. Steele Technology Research Corporation 5250 140th Ave North Clearwater, FL 33760 Tel: (727) 812-0629 msteele@trci.net Mr. Howard J. Taylor