WorldWideScience

Sample records for advance directive forms

  1. Readability of state-sponsored advance directive forms in the United States: a cross sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Mueller Paul S; Reid Kevin I; Mueller Luke A

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background State governments provide preprinted advance directive forms to the general public. However, many adults in the United States (US) lack the skills necessary to read and comprehend health care-related materials. In this study, we sought to determine the readability of state government-sponsored advance directive forms. Methods A cross sectional study design was used. The readability of advance directive forms available online from all 50 US states and the District of Columb...

  2. Dementia, death and advance directives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Jonathan

    2012-10-01

    This article considers the ethics of advance directives, especially in relation to conditions such as dementia. For some choices, such as over whether one's life should end at home or in a hospice, advance directives can be very enlightened and helpful. For others, such as those to end the life of an autonomous subject, against their will, have no moral appeal and would rightly be ignored. In a wide range of intermediate cases, given our typical lack of insight into how changes in our health condition will affect us in other ways, we should be very cautious indeed in promoting the use of advance directives in end-of-life decisions, at least where a reasonable quality of life remains. There may be some reasons for giving priority to the earlier autonomous self over a later, contented but non-autonomous self, but these reasons seem far from compelling. PMID:23079306

  3. Dementia, death and advance directives.

    OpenAIRE

    Wolff, J.

    2012-01-01

    This article considers the ethics of advance directives, especially in relation to conditions such as dementia. For some choices, such as over whether one's life should end at home or in a hospice, advance directives can be very enlightened and helpful. For others, such as those to end the life of an autonomous subject, against their will, have no moral appeal and would rightly be ignored. In a wide range of intermediate cases, given our typical lack of insight into how changes in our health ...

  4. Advances in metal forming expert system for metal forming

    CERN Document Server

    Hingole, Rahulkumar Shivajirao

    2015-01-01

    This comprehensive book offers a clear account of the theory and applications of advanced metal forming. It provides a detailed discussion of specific forming processes, such as deep drawing, rolling, bending extrusion and stamping. The author highlights recent developments of metal forming technologies and explains sound, new and powerful expert system techniques for solving advanced engineering problems in metal forming. In addition, the basics of expert systems, their importance and applications to metal forming processes, computer-aided analysis of metalworking processes, formability analysis, mathematical modeling and case studies of individual processes are presented.

  5. Advanced free-form micro tooling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tosello, Guido; Gavillet, J.

    2011-01-01

    -beam lithography and nano imprinting lithography [Che05][Che09] have high manufacturing cost and a low throughput. The aim was obtain large tool area with nano structures patterning without using energy intensive nano machining (e.g. focus ion beam, X-ray lithography, etc) but, instead, by exploiting the advantage......The present deliverable contains the report of the work and results achieved within the framework of WP 2.2 in Tasks 2.2.4 “Advanced free-form micro tooling” in experimental research done regarding practical applications of methods of applying nano structures to tooling solutions. As part of Task 2.......2.4, tests based on three different chemical-based-batch techniques to establish surface nano (i.e. sub-μm) structures on large tools area were performed. The three approached regarded: o Scheme 1  The use of Ø500nm nanobeads deposition for direct patterning of a Ø4inch. silicon wafer and subsequent nickel...

  6. Directions in advanced reactor technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Successful nuclear power plant concepts must simultaneously performance in terms of both safety and economics. To be attractive to both electric utility companies and the public, such plants must produce economical electric energy consistent with a level of safety which is acceptable to both the public and the plant owner. Programs for reactor development worldwide can be classified according to whether the reactor concept pursues improved safety or improved economic performance as the primary objective. When improved safety is the primary goal, safety enters the solution of the design problem as a constraint which restricts the set of allowed solutions. Conversely, when improved economic performance is the primary goal, it is allowed to be pursued only to an extent which is compatible with stringent safety requirements. The three major reactor coolants under consideration for future advanced reactor use are water, helium and sodium. Reactor development programs focuses upon safety and upon economics using each coolant are being pursued worldwide. These programs are discussed

  7. Advance Directives - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Advance Directives URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/advancedirectives.html Other topics A-Z A B ...

  8. Preferences for Advance Directives in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    KiSun Yeo; Jung-Eun Lee; JooYoung Cheon; Won-Hee Lee; So-Sun Kim; JuHee Lee

    2011-01-01

    Background. The goal of advance directives is to help patients retain their dignity and autonomy by making their own decisions regarding end-stage medical treatment. The purpose of this study was to examine preferences of advance directives among general population in Korea. Method. A descriptive cross-sectional survey was performed from October 2007 to June 2008 in Seoul, Korea. A total of 336 city-dwelling adults self-administered the questionnaire and returned it via mail. Data analyses we...

  9. FORMS AND MOTIVATIONS OF FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria-Ramona SÂRBU

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes the identification of forms of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI and analyzes factors influencing FDI motivation. Designing a coherent program to encourage foreign direct investment is based on knowledge of the factors that determine international companies to resort to this type of development: these companies resort to foreign direct investment if they have ownership advantages and internationalization, while another country has locational advantages to the company's home country. Thus, identifying the factors that influence the motivation of FDI is important both at the microeconomic level, local, local authorities and macroeconomic, national, government to develop measures for multiplying FDI .

  10. Forms and terminology of Direct Democracy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensson, Palle

    It is apparent that some confusion exits both among researchers and political actors about the various forms of direct democracy. Various institutions such as IRI and IDEA, various countries such as Switzerland and California, and various authors such as Pier Vincenzo Uleri and David Altman present...

  11. 78 FR 32533 - Proposed Collection of Information: Direct Deposit, Go Direct, and Direct Express Sign-Up Forms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-30

    ... Bureau of the Fiscal Service Proposed Collection of Information: Direct Deposit, Go Direct, and Direct...'', Form 1200 ``Go Direct Sign-Up Form for Direct Deposit of Federal Benefit Payments'', Form 1200VADE... below: Title: Direct Deposit Sign-Up Form, and Go Direct Sign-Up Form, and Direct Express Form...

  12. Advanced Automated Directional Solidification Furnace (AADSF)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    The Advanced Automated Directional Solidification Furnace (AADSF) with the Experimental Apparatus Container (EAC) attached flew during the USMP-2 mission. This assembly consists of a furnace module, a muffle tube assembly and a translation mechanism which are enclosed in the EAC. During USMP-2, the AADSF was used to study the growth of mercury cadmium telluride crystals in microgravity by directional solidification, a process commonly used on earth to process metals and grow crystals. The furnace is tubular and has three independently controlled temperature zone . The sample travels from the hot zone of the furnace (1600 degrees F) where the material solidifies as it cools. The solidification region, known as the solid/liquid interface, moves from one end of the sample to the other at a controlled rate, thus the term directional solidification.

  13. [Euthanasia in advanced dementia: directive is useful].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijsbek, Henri

    2013-01-01

    The Dutch Euthanasia Act states that an advance directive can replace an actual request for euthanasia in cases in which a patient has become unable to make autonomous decisions. In Euthanasia and the Severely Demented, I agree with Keizer that the severely demented can suffer unbearably, but contrary to Keizer I do not believe that it is impossible to state in advance the conditions under which one would not wish to go on living any longer. Consequently, euthanasia can be permissible even in patients with late-stage dementia, provided that the other due-care criteria are met. Permissibility by itself, however, will not settle disputes about borderline cases. Due to the erratic course of the disease, the right moment for euthanasia may very well be impossible to determine. PMID:23777971

  14. Geysers advanced direct contact condenser research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henderson, J.; Bahning, T.; Bharathan, D.

    1997-12-31

    The first geothermal application of the Advanced Direct Contact Condenser (ADCC) technology developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is now operational and is being tested at The Geysers Power Plant Unit 11. This major research effort is being supported through the combined efforts of NREL, The Department of Energy (DOE), and Pacific Gas and Electric (PG&E). NREL and PG&E have entered into a Cooperative Research And Development Agreement (CRADA) for a project to improve the direct-contact condenser performance at The Geysers Power Plant. This project is the first geothermal adaptation of an advanced condenser design developed for the Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) systems. PG&E expects this technology to improve power plant performance and to help extend the life of the steam field by using steam more efficiently. In accordance with the CRADA, no money is transferred between the contracting parties. In this case the Department of Energy is funding NREL for their efforts in this project and PG&E is contributing funds in kind. Successful application of this technology at The Geysers will provide a basis for NREL to continue to develop this technology for other geothermal and fossil power plant systems.

  15. Advances in solid dosage form manufacturing technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Gavin P

    2007-12-15

    Currently, the pharmaceutical and healthcare industries are moving through a period of unparalleled change. Major multinational pharmaceutical companies are restructuring, consolidating, merging and more importantly critically assessing their competitiveness to ensure constant growth in an ever-more demanding market where the cost of developing novel products is continuously increasing. The pharmaceutical manufacturing processes currently in existence for the production of solid oral dosage forms are associated with significant disadvantages and in many instances provide many processing problems. Therefore, it is well accepted that there is an increasing need for alternative processes to dramatically improve powder processing, and more importantly to ensure that acceptable, reproducible solid dosage forms can be manufactured. Consequently, pharmaceutical companies are beginning to invest in innovative processes capable of producing solid dosage forms that better meet the needs of the patient while providing efficient manufacturing operations. This article discusses two emerging solid dosage form manufacturing technologies, namely hot-melt extrusion and fluidized hot-melt granulation. PMID:17855217

  16. Dietary biomarkers: advances, limitations and future directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hedrick Valisa E

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The subjective nature of self-reported dietary intake assessment methods presents numerous challenges to obtaining accurate dietary intake and nutritional status. This limitation can be overcome by the use of dietary biomarkers, which are able to objectively assess dietary consumption (or exposure without the bias of self-reported dietary intake errors. The need for dietary biomarkers was addressed by the Institute of Medicine, who recognized the lack of nutritional biomarkers as a knowledge gap requiring future research. The purpose of this article is to review existing literature on currently available dietary biomarkers, including novel biomarkers of specific foods and dietary components, and assess the validity, reliability and sensitivity of the markers. This review revealed several biomarkers in need of additional validation research; research is also needed to produce sensitive, specific, cost-effective and noninvasive dietary biomarkers. The emerging field of metabolomics may help to advance the development of food/nutrient biomarkers, yet advances in food metabolome databases are needed. The availability of biomarkers that estimate intake of specific foods and dietary components could greatly enhance nutritional research targeting compliance to national recommendations as well as direct associations with disease outcomes. More research is necessary to refine existing biomarkers by accounting for confounding factors, to establish new indicators of specific food intake, and to develop techniques that are cost-effective, noninvasive, rapid and accurate measures of nutritional status.

  17. Antioxidant activity directed isolations form punica granatum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The extracts derived from pomegranate juice following antioxidant activity directed isolation were screened for their antioxidant activity through their ability to scavenge 2,2- diphenyl-l-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals. Only fractions which exhibited >50/0 DPPH scavenging effect at each step of isolation were selected for further purification and their ability to reduce peroxide formation (peroxide value) in heated com oil. Phytochemical analysis of the pure compounds finally obtained, revealed the presence of pelargonidin-3- galactose (Pg-3-galactose), cyanidin-3-glucose (Cy-3-Glucose), gallic acid, quercetin and myricetin in the fractions exhibiting >50% DPPH scavenging potential. The order of antioxidant activity of these pure compounds by DPPH method was found to be gallic acid> quercetin> myricetin> Cy-3-galactose> Pg-3-Glucose while order with respect to reduction in peroxide value (PV) was the reverse of DPPH. (author)

  18. Beyond competence: advance directives in dementia research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jongsma, Karin Rolanda; van de Vathorst, Suzanne

    2015-01-01

    Dementia is highly prevalent and incurable. The participation of dementia patients in clinical research is indispensable if we want to find an effective treatment for dementia. However, one of the primary challenges in dementia research is the patients' gradual loss of the capacity to consent. Patients with dementia are characterized by the fact that, at an earlier stage of their life, they were able to give their consent to participation in research. Therefore, the phase when patients are still competent to decide offers a valuable opportunity to authorize research, by using an advance research directive (ARD). Yet, the use of ARDs as an authorization for research participation remains controversial. In this paper we discuss the role of autonomous decision-making and the protection of incompetent research subjects. We will show why ARDs are a morally defensible basis for the inclusion of this population in biomedical research and that the use of ARDs is compatible with the protection of incompetent research subjects. PMID:26458366

  19. Models of advance directives in mental health care: stakeholder views

    OpenAIRE

    Atkinson, J.M.; Garner, H.C.; Gilmour, W H

    2004-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to examine perceptions of the place of advance directives in mental health care. Methods: Postal survey of stakeholders was carried out to assess their views on different models of advance directives in mental health care. A total of 473 responded. Results: In all, 28% of psychiatrists thought advance directives were needed compared to 89% of voluntary organisations and above two–thirds of the other stakeholder groups. There were clear tensions be...

  20. Direct therapeutic intervention for advanced pancreatic cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Takakura, Kazuki; Koido, Shigeo

    2015-01-01

    Currently, chemotherapy is an accredited, standard treatment for unresectable, advanced pancreatic cancer (PC). However, it has been still showed treatment-resistance and followed dismal prognosis in many cases. Therefore, some sort of new, additional treatments are needed for the better therapeutic results for advanced PC. According to the previous reports, it is obvious that interventional endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) is a well-established, helpful and low-risky procedure in general. As...

  1. Direct therapeutic intervention for advanced pancreatic cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takakura, Kazuki; Koido, Shigeo

    2015-01-01

    Currently, chemotherapy is an accredited, standard treatment for unresectable, advanced pancreatic cancer (PC). However, it has been still showed treatment-resistance and followed dismal prognosis in many cases. Therefore, some sort of new, additional treatments are needed for the better therapeutic results for advanced PC. According to the previous reports, it is obvious that interventional endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) is a well-established, helpful and low-risky procedure in general. As the additional treatments of the conventional therapy for advanced PC, many therapeutic strategies, such as immunotherapies, molecular biological therapies, physiochemical therapies, radioactive therapies, using siRNA, using autophagy have been developing in recent years. Moreover, the efficacy of the other potential therapeutic targets for PC using EUS-fine needle injection, for example, intra-tumoral chemotherapeutic agents (paclitaxel, irinotecan), several ablative energies (radiofrequency ablation and cryothermal treatment, neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet laser, high-intensity focused ultrasound), etc., has already been showed in animal models. Delivering these promising treatments reliably inside tumor, interventional EUS may probably be indispensable existence for the treatment of locally advanced PC in near future. PMID:26677434

  2. Direct therapeutic intervention for advanced pancreatic cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takakura, Kazuki; Koido, Shigeo

    2015-12-10

    Currently, chemotherapy is an accredited, standard treatment for unresectable, advanced pancreatic cancer (PC). However, it has been still showed treatment-resistance and followed dismal prognosis in many cases. Therefore, some sort of new, additional treatments are needed for the better therapeutic results for advanced PC. According to the previous reports, it is obvious that interventional endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) is a well-established, helpful and low-risky procedure in general. As the additional treatments of the conventional therapy for advanced PC, many therapeutic strategies, such as immunotherapies, molecular biological therapies, physiochemical therapies, radioactive therapies, using siRNA, using autophagy have been developing in recent years. Moreover, the efficacy of the other potential therapeutic targets for PC using EUS-fine needle injection, for example, intra-tumoral chemotherapeutic agents (paclitaxel, irinotecan), several ablative energies (radiofrequency ablation and cryothermal treatment, neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet laser, high-intensity focused ultrasound), etc., has already been showed in animal models. Delivering these promising treatments reliably inside tumor, interventional EUS may probably be indispensable existence for the treatment of locally advanced PC in near future. PMID:26677434

  3. Advances in the directed evolution of proteins

    OpenAIRE

    Lane, Michael D.; Seelig, Burckhard

    2014-01-01

    Natural evolution has produced a great diversity of proteins that can be harnessed for numerous applications in biotechnology and pharmaceutical science. Commonly, specific applications require proteins to be tailored by protein engineering. Directed evolution is a type of protein engineering that yields proteins with the desired properties under well-defined conditions and in a practical time frame. While directed evolution has been employed for decades, recent creative developments enable t...

  4. Optimizing tooth form with direct posterior composite restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghu, Ramya; Srinivasan, Raghu

    2011-10-01

    Advances in material sciences and technology have provided today's clinicians the strategies to transform the mechanistic approach of operative dentistry into a biologic philosophy. In the last three decades, composite resins have gone from being just an esthetically pleasing way of restoring Class III and Class IV cavities to become the universal material for both anterior and posterior situations as they closely mimic the natural esthetics while restoring the form of the human dentition. In order to enhance their success, clinicians have to rethink their protocol instead of applying the same restorative concepts and principles practiced with metallic restorations. Paralleling the evolution of posterior composite resin materials, cavity designs, restorative techniques and armamentarium have also developed rapidly to successfully employ composite resins in Class II situations. Most of the earlier problems with posterior composites such as poor wear resistance, polymerization shrinkage, postoperative sensitivity, predictable bonding to dentin, etc., have been overcome to a major extent. However, the clinically relevant aspect of achieving tight contacts in Class II situations has challenged clinicians the most. This paper reviews the evolution of techniques and recent developments in achieving predictable contacts with posterior composites. A Medline search was performed for articles on "direct posterior composite contacts." The keywords used were "contacts and contours of posterior composites." The reference list of each article was manually checked for additional articles of relevance. PMID:22144797

  5. Optimizing tooth form with direct posterior composite restorations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramya Raghu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Advances in material sciences and technology have provided today′s clinicians the strategies to transform the mechanistic approach of operative dentistry into a biologic philosophy. In the last three decades, composite resins have gone from being just an esthetically pleasing way of restoring Class III and Class IV cavities to become the universal material for both anterior and posterior situations as they closely mimic the natural esthetics while restoring the form of the human dentition. In order to enhance their success, clinicians have to rethink their protocol instead of applying the same restorative concepts and principles practiced with metallic restorations. Paralleling the evolution of posterior composite resin materials, cavity designs, restorative techniques and armamentarium have also developed rapidly to successfully employ composite resins in Class II situations. Most of the earlier problems with posterior composites such as poor wear resistance, polymerization shrinkage, postoperative sensitivity, predictable bonding to dentin, etc., have been overcome to a major extent. However, the clinically relevant aspect of achieving tight contacts in Class II situations has challenged clinicians the most. This paper reviews the evolution of techniques and recent developments in achieving predictable contacts with posterior composites. A Medline search was performed for articles on ′′direct posterior composite contacts.′′ The keywords used were ′′contacts and contours of posterior composites.′′ The reference list of each article was manually checked for additional articles of relevance.

  6. [Written advance directives in dementia: useful and relevant].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widdershoven, Guy A M; Nieuwenhuijzen Kruseman, Arie C; van Wijmen, Frans C B

    2014-01-01

    According to the Dutch euthanasia law, the current wishes of the patient can be replaced by an advance directive if the patient is unable to give consent. However, Dutch physicians say they have difficulty responding to advance directives in people with dementia. A crucial issue is how to establish whether the patient actually suffers in a specific situation. We argue that the patient's wishes, views and decisions should be discussed in a timely manner, and laid down both in patient directives and in the doctor's files. We also ask for regular discussion, updating and reaffirmation of the advance directive so that the patient can trust the doctor knowing the patient's wishes and what constitutes unbearable suffering for that patient. Through frequent discussion and reaffirmation, the advance directive can play the role intended by the law on euthanasia. PMID:25424631

  7. Integrating Advance Research Directives into the European Legal Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andorno, Roberto; Gennet, Eloïse; Jongsma, Karin; Elger, Bernice

    2016-04-01

    The possibility of using advance directives to prospectively consent to research participation in the event of dementia remains largely unexplored in Europe. Moreover, the legal status of advance directives for research is unclear in the European regulations governing biomedical research. The article explores the place that advance research directives have in the current European legal framework, and considers the possibility of integrating them more explicitly into the existing regulations. Special focus is placed on issues regarding informed consent, the role of proxies, and the level of acceptable risks and burdens. PMID:27228684

  8. Direct broadcast of a sporting event as televisual cultural form

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jože Vogrinc

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Direct TV broadcasting of sport events is undoubtedly the focal point of interest of sport fans in sports media as well as of sponsors and investors responsible for the global mediatisation of popular sports. In this article, the centrality of direct TV broadcasts in the televisual coverage of sports, as well as in the presence of sports in new media in general is explained in the context of the impact of the mediatisation of sports upon cultural forms of TV coverage of sports. The complexity of these forms and its main features (the role of the commentator, the rules of editing, dramatisation and narrativisation in direct broadcasts are analysed.

  9. Put It in Writing: Questions and Answers on Advance Directives

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... at any time. Any alterations and any written revocation should be signed and dated, and copies should ... the National Hospice and Palliative Care Organization (NHPCO) offers free, state-specific advance directives and advice for ...

  10. Did supermassive black holes form by direct collapse?

    OpenAIRE

    Begelman, Mitchell C.

    2007-01-01

    Rapid infall of gas in the nuclei of galaxies could lead to the formation of black holes by direct collapse, without first forming stars. Black holes formed in this way would have initial masses of a few solar masses, but would be embedded in massive envelopes that would allow them to grow at a highly super-Eddington rate. Thus, seed black holes as large as 10^3-10^4 solar masses could form very rapidly. I will sketch the basic physics of the direct collapse process and the properties of the ...

  11. Advanced waste forms research and development. Annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research and development activities on advanced (alternatives to glass) nuclear waste forms are reported. The emphasis is on two phases of the work to give essential background information on supercalcine development. The first is a report of the data obtained in the study of cesium aluminosilicate for Cs and Ru fixation. Research on the compatibility of the phases formed in the complex oxide system made up of waste and additive cations is reported. The phase stability in a number of proposed formulations was determined

  12. Advance directives, dementia, and withholding food and water by mouth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menzel, Paul T; Chandler-Cramer, M Colette

    2014-01-01

    People with dementia who are no longer competent have limited control over how their lives end. But an advance directive to withhold food and water by mouth could be used to ensure that one does not live for years in severe dementia. Such directives are arguably already legal. PMID:24821250

  13. Recovery Act: Advanced Direct Methanol Fuel Cell for Mobile Computing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fletcher, James H. [University of North Florida; Cox, Philip [University of North Florida; Harrington, William J [University of North Florida; Campbell, Joseph L [University of North Florida

    2013-09-03

    ABSTRACT Project Title: Recovery Act: Advanced Direct Methanol Fuel Cell for Mobile Computing PROJECT OBJECTIVE The objective of the project was to advance portable fuel cell system technology towards the commercial targets of power density, energy density and lifetime. These targets were laid out in the DOE’s R&D roadmap to develop an advanced direct methanol fuel cell power supply that meets commercial entry requirements. Such a power supply will enable mobile computers to operate non-stop, unplugged from the wall power outlet, by using the high energy density of methanol fuel contained in a replaceable fuel cartridge. Specifically this project focused on balance-of-plant component integration and miniaturization, as well as extensive component, subassembly and integrated system durability and validation testing. This design has resulted in a pre-production power supply design and a prototype that meet the rigorous demands of consumer electronic applications. PROJECT TASKS The proposed work plan was designed to meet the project objectives, which corresponded directly with the objectives outlined in the Funding Opportunity Announcement: To engineer the fuel cell balance-of-plant and packaging to meet the needs of consumer electronic systems, specifically at power levels required for mobile computing. UNF used existing balance-of-plant component technologies developed under its current US Army CERDEC project, as well as a previous DOE project completed by PolyFuel, to further refine them to both miniaturize and integrate their functionality to increase the system power density and energy density. Benefits of UNF’s novel passive water recycling MEA (membrane electrode assembly) and the simplified system architecture it enabled formed the foundation of the design approach. The package design was hardened to address orientation independence, shock, vibration, and environmental requirements. Fuel cartridge and fuel subsystems were improved to ensure effective fuel

  14. Advance Directive from the Romanian Social Cultural Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia DUMITRAS

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Giving value to the wishes of the terminal patients regarding the treatment at the end of their life, the use of the advance directive, as an extension of their autonomy when the patients are incompetent, represents a mean to respect and promote their dignity. The authors present and discuss the results of their research that analysed the attitude of Romanians toward the use of the advance directive to identify the usefulness of implementing such a document in the Romanian social cultural context.The target group in this research is general population over 18 years old, speaking Romanian and without psychological illnesses. The representative random sample lot included 828 persons from Iasi County. The data were recorded based on a transversal descriptive study, using the method of questionnaire enquiryThe persons participating in the study admitted the importance of respecting the patient’s dignity and autonomy with reference to decisions concerning the treatment at the end of life. For the subjects agreeing with legalizing the advance directive, the main advantages of such a document are firstly the respect of the patient’s right to decide and secondly the improvement of the medical treatment.The study showed that young, healthy and better educated individuals are interested in the advance directive and are in favour of introducing it in the current medical practice. The results of our research suggest that educational and informative programmes are needed in Romania regarding the role and usefulness of the advance directive, as well as the way to implement it, in order to encourage the implication of all adult persons in planning their own medical treatment in general and in particular in the medical decisions concerning the end of life.

  15. Advances and Trends on Tube Bending Forming Technologies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG He; LI Heng; ZHANG Zhiyong; ZHAN Mei; LIU Jing; LI Guangjun

    2012-01-01

    As one kind of key components with enormous quantities and diversities,the bent tube parts satisfy the increasing needs for lightweight and high-strength product from both materials and structure aspects.The bent tubes have been widely used in many high-end industries such as aviation,aerospaee,shipbuilding,automobile,energy and health care.The tube bending has become one of the key manufacturing technologies for lightweight product forming.Via the analysis of bending characteristics and multiple defects,advances on exploring the common issues in tube bending are summarized regarding wrinkling instability at the intrados,wall thinning (cracking) at the extrados,springback phenomenon,cross-section deformation,forming limit and process/tooling design/optimization.Some currently developed bending techniques are reviewed in terms of their advantages and limitations.Finally,in view of the urgent requirements of high-performance complex bent tube components with difficult-to-deform and lightweight materials in aviation and aerospace fields,the development trends and corresponding challenges are presented for realizing the precise and high-efficiency tube bending deformation.

  16. Acceptability of an Advance Directive That Limits Food and Liquids in Advanced Dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volicer, Ladislav; Stets, Karen

    2016-02-01

    Some individuals fear living with advanced dementia and may even commit suicide if they receive dementia diagnosis. Living with advanced dementia could be prevented if a person who cannot feed himself or herself would not be fed by others. The purpose of the study was to find out how acceptable would be an advance directive that includes discontinuation of feeding at certain stage of dementia for relatives of persons who died with dementia. All participants of 2 focus groups would be willing to indicate at least 1 condition in which they would not want to be fed. Some of them would be willing to make a proxy decision to stop feeding in the absence of advance directives. PMID:25313239

  17. Direct mineral identification with Geoscan Mk II Advanced Multispectral Scanner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyon, Ronald J. P.; Honey, Frank R.

    1990-09-01

    Analysis of the Geoscan Mk II scanner imagery obtained over the past twelve months in Australia and in the USA has shown that this advanced system can effect direct mineral identification (DM1) with only a minimum of processing and in an operational commercial mode of use. This paper attempts to show some of these results with imagery flown over goldmineralizaon (Leonora W. Australia) porphyry-copper mineralization and associated higher-level advanced argiffic alteration (Yerington NV--Ann Mason and Buckskin Ra. ) and a copper-gold skarn nearby (Ludwig NV). In all cases simple banddifferencing is all the processing that is required and this can be effected minutes after landing from a flight using a proprietary image-display system (GIPSy) which accepts the optical disks directly. [3 1.

  18. Technological advances in site-directed spin labeling of proteins

    OpenAIRE

    Hubbell, Wayne L.; López, Carlos J.; Altenbach, Christian; Yang, Zhongyu

    2013-01-01

    Molecular flexibility over a wide time range is of central importance to the function of many proteins, both soluble and membrane. Revealing the modes of flexibility, their amplitudes, and time scales under physiological conditions is the challenge for spectroscopic methods, one of which is site-directed spin labeling EPR (SDSL-EPR). Here we provide an overview of some recent technological advances in SDSL-EPR related to investigation of structure, structural heterogeneity, and dynamics of pr...

  19. Canadian advanced life support capacities and future directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamsey, M.; Graham, T.; Stasiak, M.; Berinstain, A.; Scott, A.; Vuk, T. Rondeau; Dixon, M.

    2009-07-01

    Canada began research on space-relevant biological life support systems in the early 1990s. Since that time Canadian capabilities have grown tremendously, placing Canada among the emerging leaders in biological life support systems. The rapid growth of Canadian expertise has been the result of several factors including a large and technically sophisticated greenhouse sector which successfully operates under challenging climatic conditions, well planned technology transfer strategies between the academic and industrial sectors, and a strong emphasis on international research collaborations. Recent activities such as Canada's contribution of the Higher Plant Compartment of the European Space Agency's MELiSSA Pilot Plant and the remote operation of the Arthur Clarke Mars Greenhouse in the Canadian High Arctic continue to demonstrate Canadian capabilities with direct applicability to advanced life support systems. There is also a significant latent potential within Canadian institutions and organizations with respect to directly applicable advanced life support technologies. These directly applicable research interests include such areas as horticultural management strategies (for candidate crops), growth media, food processing, water management, atmosphere management, energy management, waste management, imaging, environment sensors, thermal control, lighting systems, robotics, command and data handling, communications systems, structures, in-situ resource utilization, space analogues and mission operations. With this background and in collaboration with the Canadian aerospace industry sector, a roadmap for future life support contributions is presented here. This roadmap targets an objective of at least 50% food closure by 2050 (providing greater closure in oxygen, water recycling and carbon dioxide uptake). The Canadian advanced life support community has chosen to focus on lunar surface infrastructure and not low Earth orbit or transit systems (i.e. microgravity

  20. Directions for advanced use of nuclear power in century XXI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walter, C E

    1999-05-01

    Nuclear power can provide a significant contribution to electricity generation and meet other needs of the world and the US during the next century provided that certain directions are taken to achieve its public acceptance. These directions include formulation of projections of population, energy consumption, and energy resources over a responsible period of time. These projections will allow assessment of cumulative effects on the environment and on fixed resources. Use of fossil energy resources in a century of growing demand for energy must be considered in the context of long-term environmental damage and resource depletion. Although some question the validity of these consequences, they can be mitigated by use of advanced fast reactor technology. It must be demonstrated that nuclear power technology is safe, resistant to material diversion for weapon use, and economical. An unbiased examination of all the issues related to energy use, especially of electricity, is an essential direction to take.

  1. Can giant planets form by direct gravitational instability?

    CERN Document Server

    Rafikov, R

    2004-01-01

    Gravitational instability has been invoked as a possible mechanism of giant planet formation in protoplanetary disks. Here we critically revise its viability by noting that for the direct production of giant planets it is not enough for protoplanetary disks to be gravitationally unstable. They must also be able to cool efficiently (on a timescale comparable to the local disk orbital period) to allow the formation of bound clumps by fragmentation. Combination of dynamical and thermal constraints puts very stringent lower limits on the surface density and temperature of disks capable of fragmenting into self-gravitating objects: for the gravitational instability to form giant planets at 10 AU gas temperature at this location must exceed 10^3 K for a minimum disk mass of 0.7 M_Sun and minimum disk luminosity of 40 L_Sun. Although these requirements relax in more distant parts of the disk, masses of bound objects formed as a result of instability even at 100 AU are too large (\\sim 10 M_Jupiter) to explain charact...

  2. Advanced materials for alternative fuel capable directly fired heat engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fairbanks, J.W.; Stringer, J. (eds.)

    1979-12-01

    The first conference on advanced materials for alternative fuel capable directly fired heat engines was held at the Maine Maritime Academy, Castine, Maine. It was sponsored by the US Department of Energy, (Assistant Secretary for Fossil Energy) and the Electric Power Research Institute, (Division of Fossil Fuel and Advanced Systems). Forty-four papers from the proceedings have been entered into EDB and ERA and one also into EAPA; three had been entered previously from other sources. The papers are concerned with US DOE research programs in this area, coal gasification, coal liquefaction, gas turbines, fluidized-bed combustion and the materials used in these processes or equipments. The materials papers involve alloys, ceramics, coatings, cladding, etc., and the fabrication and materials listing of such materials and studies involving corrosion, erosion, deposition, etc. (LTN)

  3. Accretion onto black holes formed by direct collapse

    CERN Document Server

    Johnson, Jarrett L; Greif, Thomas H; Durier, Fabrice

    2010-01-01

    One possible scenario for the formation of massive black holes (BHs) in the early Universe is from the direct collapse of primordial gas in atomic-cooling dark matter haloes in which the gas is unable to cool efficiently via molecular transitions. We study the formation of such BHs, as well as the accretion of gas onto these objects and the high energy radiation emitted in the accretion process, by carrying out cosmological radiation hydrodynamics simulations. In the absence of radiative feedback, we find an upper limit to the accretion rate onto the central object which forms from the initial collapse of hot (~ 10^4 K) gas of the order of 0.1 MSun per year. This is high enough for the formation of a supermassive star, the immediate precursor of a BH, with a mass of the order of 10^5 MSun. Assuming that a fraction of this mass goes into a BH, we track the subsequent accretion of gas onto the BH self-consistently with the high energy radiation emitted from the accretion disk. Using a ray-tracing algorithm to f...

  4. Innovative powder production and granulation for advanced MOX fuel forming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In accordance with a long ranged research and development plan on the MOX fuel production for future FBR, we have been investigating the innovative MOX processing. Along with this plan, a new idea for realizing the serial processing, (1) crushing the solidified solute, and (2) granulation, in one vessel, are being proposed. An innovative design of a new system and the granulation examination were attempted. In order to establish the granulation technology, JAEA selected a candidate of machine, which has a rotating three lobes impeller (the crusher) driven from top outside of the casing, so as to fit our new system. This machine is mounted on a circular pan which sustains the evaporation dish, forming a vessel. The evaporation dish filled by solidified solute is moved from the Microwave oven into this vessel after the de-nitration. The rotary impeller is inserted on the solidified solute and crushes it until a reasonable powder state is obtained. The impeller is also utilized as the granulator after completion of the crushing. Namely, giving a slow rotation under showering, those powder changes into particles. Thus, the crushing and granulation are combined through the rotary impeller. As a result, the air flow assisted transfer of powder from the crusher to the granulator becomes unnecessary. According to the cold testing employing WO3 powder, the practical granulation was successfully carried out. The size of formed particle was larger than 100 m, and the flow-ability was ranged 80-90, being better than averaged value of conventional MOX particles produced by microwave direct heating method. The merits of the new granulation system are, (1) dispersion, scatter, and deposit of MOX powder which appear in the conventional transfer route are easy to prevent, and (2) running and control of job are easy. Due to the establishment of granulation technology by the system, it contributes the improvement of processing efficiency, lowering the construction and maintenance

  5. Advance directives, dementia, and physician-assisted death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menzel, Paul T; Steinbock, Bonnie

    2013-01-01

    Physician-assisted suicide laws in Oregon and Washington require the person's current competency and a prognosis of terminal illness. In The Netherlands voluntariness and unbearable suffering are required for euthanasia. Many people are more concerned about the loss of autonomy and independence in years of severe dementia than about pain and suffering in their last months. To address this concern, people could write advance directives for physician-assisted death in dementia. Should such directives be implemented even though, at the time, the person is no longer competent and would not be either terminally ill or suffering unbearably? We argue that in many cases they should be, and that a sliding scale which considers both autonomy and the capacity for enjoyment provides the best justification for determining when: when written by a previously well-informed and competent person, such a directive gains in authority as the later person's capacities to generate new critical interests and to enjoy life decrease. Such an extension of legalized death assistance is grounded in the same central value of voluntariness that undergirds the current more limited legalization. PMID:23802899

  6. Advanced and new developments in bulk metal forming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Niels; Wanheim, Tarras; Ravn, Bjarne Gottlieb; Arentoft, Mogens

    Increasing demands to manufacturing industry of faster, better and cheaper production has intensified the research and development of bulk metal forming. The present paper gives examples on European industrial research on secondary bulk metal forming processes. The R&D follows three lines of appr...

  7. Emergency nurses' knowledge, attitudes, and experiential survey on advance directives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jezewski, Mary Ann; Feng, Jui-Ying

    2007-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine emergency nurses' knowledge of, attitudes toward, and experiences with advance directives (ADs). This was a descriptive, correlation, mailed survey study sent to a random sample of members of the Emergency Nurses Association. The results, based on the responses of 579 emergency nurses, found that the nurses were not very knowledgeable about ADs in general (68% correct) and even less knowledgeable about the Patient Self-Determination Act (PSDA) (51% correct) and their state laws (56% correct). The nurses were experienced with ADs but they were less confident in their ability to assist patients with completing ADs. Forty-seven percent of the nurses agreed that actively assisting some terminally ill patients to die should be made legal. Nurses need information pertaining to ADs in general, the PSDA, and their individual state laws. This could increase their level of confidence in being able to effectively assist patients to understand and complete ADs. PMID:17693216

  8. Numerical Simulations and Optimisation in Forming of Advanced Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huétink, J.

    2007-04-01

    With the introduction of new materials as high strength steels, metastable steels and fiber reinforce composites, the need for advanced physically valid constitutive models arises. A biaxial test equipment is developed and applied for the determination of material data as well as for validation of material models. An adaptive through- thickness integration scheme for plate elements is developed, which improves the accuracy of spring back prediction at minimal costs. An optimization strategy is proposed that assists an engineer to model an optimization problem.

  9. Advance directives for non-therapeutic dementia research: some ethical and policy considerations.

    OpenAIRE

    Berghmans, R L

    1998-01-01

    This paper explores the use of advance directives in clinical dementia research. The focus is on advance consent to participation of demented patients in non-therapeutic research involving more than minimal risks and/or burdens. First, morally relevant differences between advance directives for treatment and care, and advance directives for dementia research are discussed. Then attention is paid to the philosophical issue of dementia and personal identity, and the implications for the moral a...

  10. Fundamental issues, recent advances, and future directions in myodynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatze, H

    2002-12-01

    A state-of-the-art report is presented on recent progress in selected areas of myodynamics, but also on problems that severely hamper the further development of the discipline. Significant advances have been made in elucidating the force-producing interaction between actin and the myosin-S1-subunit, including the localization of the most probable molecular site of power stroke initiation. Concerning the architecture of the myostructures, strong experimental evidence has accumulated for numerous intra-, inter-, and extramuscular pathways for lateral force transmission in addition to the serial sarcomere-to-sarcomere myotendinous path. It is shown that contemporary muscle models are inadequate in most respects and lag far behind the requirements an appropriate myodynamic model should fulfil. A similar comment applies to the current approaches designed to solve the myoskeletal indeterminacy problem. These formulations neglect myodynamic properties and do not allow for the implementation of biologically realistic objective functions. The solutions currently obtained are highly unsatisfactory. New research directions to rectify these situations are suggested, also with regard to the identification of subject-specific myodynamic parameters. PMID:12435541

  11. Recent Advances in PV Research and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deb, Satyen K.

    1998-04-01

    The photovoltaic technology is making a major thrust in the commercial arena with 1997 worldwide production of PV modules reaching over 125 MW and growing at the rate of 20-25semiconductor materials and devices are emerging as strong contenders for PV applications even though silicon is still the 'work-horse' of the industry. Ultra-high efficiency solar cells fabricated from gallium arsenide (GaAs) and its ternary alloys like gallium indium phosphide (GaInP2) are finding applications in space technology. Enormous progress has also been made on various thin-film solar cell technologies, which offer the promise for substantially reducing the cost of PV systems. Some of the leading contenders are amorphous and polycrystalline silicon, compound semiconductor thin films such as copper indium diselenide (CuInSe2) based alloys, and cadmium telluride (CdTe) thin films. Exciting new developments are happening in the use of nano-particle semiconductor materials like titanium dioxide (TiO2) for low-cost PV devices. Intense research on these and other materials and devices is making a strong impact on the technology. In this presentation, a brief overview of recent advances in PV research will b e made and the trends and opportunities for future research directions will be identified.

  12. Advancing Polymer-Supported Ionogel Electrolytes Formed via Radical Polymerization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visentin, Adam F.

    Applications ranging from consumer electronics to the electric grid have placed demands on current energy storage technologies. There is a drive for devices that store more energy for rapid consumption in the case of electric cars and the power grid, and safer, versatile design options for consumer electronics. Electrochemical double-layer capacitors (EDLCs) are an option that has garnered attention as a means to address these varied energy storage demands. EDLCs utilize charge separation in electrolytes to store energy. This energy storage mechanism allows for greater power density (W kg -1) than batteries and higher energy density (Wh kg-1) than conventional capacitors - along with a robust lifetime in the range of thousands to millions of charge-discharge cycles. Safety and working voltage windows of EDLCs currently on the market are limited by the organic solvents utilized in the electrolyte. A potential solution lies in the replacement of the organic solvents with ionic liquids, or room-temperature molten salts. Ionic liquids possess many superior properties in comparison to conventional solvents: wide electrochemical window, low volatility, nonflammability, and favorable ionic conductivity. It has been an endeavor of this work to exploit these advantages while altering the liquid form factor into a gel. An ionic liquid/solid support scaffold composite electrolyte, or ionogel, adds additional benefits: flexible device design, lower encapsulation weight, and elimination of electrolyte leakage. This work has focused on investigations of a UV-polymerizable monomer, poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate, as a precursor for forming ionogels in situ. The trade-off between gaining mechanical stability at the cost of ionic conductivity has been investigated for numerous ionogel systems. While gaining a greater understanding of the interactions between the gel scaffold and ionic liquid, an ionogel with the highest known ionic conductivity to date (13.1 mS cm-1) was

  13. New Directions for NASA's Advanced Life Support Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barta, Daniel J.

    2006-01-01

    Exploration Life Support (ELS) Project, under the Exploration Technology Development Program, has recently been initiated to perform directed life support technology development in support of Constellation and the Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV). ELS) has replaced ALS, with several major differences. Thermal Control Systems have been separated into a new stand alone project (Thermal Systems for Exploration Missions). Tasks in Advanced Food Technology have been relocated to the Human Research Program. Tasks in a new discipline area, Habitation Engineering, have been added. Research and technology development for capabilities required for longer duration stays on the Moon and Mars, including bioregenerative system, have been deferred.

  14. UTILITY OF MECHANISTIC MODELS FOR DIRECTING ADVANCED SEPARATIONS RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT ACTIVITIES: Electrochemically Modulated Separation Example

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwantes, Jon M.

    2009-06-01

    The objective for this work was to demonstrate the utility of mechanistic computer models designed to simulate actinide behavior for use in efficiently and effectively directing advanced laboratory R&D activities associated with developing advanced separations methods.

  15. Supermassive black holes formed by direct collapse of inflationary perturbations

    CERN Document Server

    Nakama, Tomohiro; Yokoyama, Jun'ichi

    2016-01-01

    We propose a mechanism of producing a new type of primordial perturbations which collapse to primordial black holes whose mass can be as large as necessary for them to grow to the supermassive black holes observed at high redshifts, without contradicting COBE/FIRAS upper limits on cosmic microwave background (CMB) spectral distortions. In our model, the observable Universe consists of two kinds of many small patches which experienced different expansion histories during inflation. Large amplitudes of primordial perturbations enough to form primordial black holes are realized on patches that experienced more Hubble expansion than the others. By making these patches the minor component, the rarity of supermassive black holes can be explained. On the other hand, most regions of the Universe experienced the standard history and hence have only standard almost scale-invariant adiabatic perturbations confirmed by observations of CMB or large-scale structures of the universe. Thus our mechanism can evade the constra...

  16. Nitroreductase gene-directed enzyme prodrug therapy: insights and advances toward clinical utility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Elsie M; Little, Rory F; Mowday, Alexandra M; Rich, Michelle H; Chan-Hyams, Jasmine V E; Copp, Janine N; Smaill, Jeff B; Patterson, Adam V; Ackerley, David F

    2015-10-15

    This review examines the vast catalytic and therapeutic potential offered by type I (i.e. oxygen-insensitive) nitroreductase enzymes in partnership with nitroaromatic prodrugs, with particular focus on gene-directed enzyme prodrug therapy (GDEPT; a form of cancer gene therapy). Important first indications of this potential were demonstrated over 20 years ago, for the enzyme-prodrug pairing of Escherichia coli NfsB and CB1954 [5-(aziridin-1-yl)-2,4-dinitrobenzamide]. However, it has become apparent that both the enzyme and the prodrug in this prototypical pairing have limitations that have impeded their clinical progression. Recently, substantial advances have been made in the biodiscovery and engineering of superior nitroreductase variants, in particular development of elegant high-throughput screening capabilities to enable optimization of desirable activities via directed evolution. These advances in enzymology have been paralleled by advances in medicinal chemistry, leading to the development of second- and third-generation nitroaromatic prodrugs that offer substantial advantages over CB1954 for nitroreductase GDEPT, including greater dose-potency and enhanced ability of the activated metabolite(s) to exhibit a local bystander effect. In addition to forging substantial progress towards future clinical trials, this research is supporting other fields, most notably the development and improvement of targeted cellular ablation capabilities in small animal models, such as zebrafish, to enable cell-specific physiology or regeneration studies. PMID:26431849

  17. The views of older Malaysians on advanced directive and advanced care planning: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Htut, Y; Shahrul, K; Poi, P J H

    2007-01-01

    The provision of optimum care for the ageing population is dependent on the understanding of their views and values on end of life issues. A qualitative descriptive study was conducted to describe views of elderly Malaysians on Advanced Care Planning (henceforth ACP) and Advanced Directives (henceforth AD), and explore factors influencing these views. Fifteen elderly subjects with ages ranging from 65 to 83 years, representing different ethnic and religious groups in Malaysia were selected for in-depth interviews guided by a questionnaire. Five core themes were extracted from the interviews: 1) Considering the future 2) Contingency plans for future illnesses 3) Attitudes towards life prolonging treatment procedures 4) Doctor-patient relationships and 5) Influence of religion on decisions related to future illness. Despite the lack of knowledge on ACP and AD, older respondents were very receptive to their concept. Although the majority agreed on the importance of planning for future medical management and having open discussion on end of life issues with their doctor, they felt it unnecessary to make a formal written AD. Most felt that the future was best left to fate or God, and none had made any contingency plan for severe future illnesses citing religion as reason for this view. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation, mechanical ventilation and dialysis were considered by most to be invasive life prolonging treatments. We suggest that doctors initiate discussions on end of life care with every older patient and their family so as to promote awareness and introduce the concept of ACP/AD to a Malaysian setting. PMID:18330404

  18. Advanced health biotechnologies in Thailand: redefining policy directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velasco Román Pérez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Thailand faces a significant burden in terms of treating and managing degenerative and chronic diseases. Moreover, incidences of rare diseases are rising. Many of these—such as diabetes, cancer, and inherited inborn metabolic diseases—have no definite treatments or cure. Meanwhile, advanced health biotechnology has been found, in principle, to be an effective solution for these health problems. Methods Qualitative approaches were employed to analyse the current situation and examine existing public policies related to advanced health biotechnologies in Thailand. The results of this analysis were then used to formulate policy recommendations. Results Our research revealed that the system in Thailand in relation to advanced health biotechnologies is fragmented, with multiple unaddressed gaps, underfunding of research and development (R&D, and a lack of incentives for the private sector. In addition, there are no clear definitions of advanced health biotechnologies, and coverage pathways are absent. Meanwhile, false advertising and misinformation are prevalent, with no responsible bodies to actively and effectively provide appropriate information and education (I&E. The establishment of a specialised institution to fill the gaps in this area is warranted. Conclusion The development and implementation of a comprehensive national strategic plan related to advanced health biotechnologies, greater investment in R&D and I&E for all stakeholders, collaboration among agencies, harmonisation of reimbursement across public health schemes, and provision of targeted I&E are specifically recommended.

  19. Variations in Consumer Self-Determination within US Psychiatric Advance Directives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeman, Laura Dreuth; Swanke, Jayme

    2008-01-01

    Advance directives are legal documents that formalize consumer psychiatric care preferences. This article examines the statutes and goals of US psychiatric advance directives within the framework of consumer self-determination, a priority in national mental health reform. It seeks to distinguish between state models based on the degree that…

  20. Effect of Health Literacy on the Utilization of Advance Directives Based on the Health Belief Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henkelman, Wallace J.

    2010-01-01

    Research has demonstrated that only a small proportion of individuals in the United States complete advance directives as part of their planning for end-of-life care. This study sought to determine if health literacy is a significant factor in advance directive completion as has been posited by previous researchers. Analysis of the data collected…

  1. A survey of stakeholder knowledge, experience, and opinions of advance directives for mental health in Virginia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilder, Christine M; Swanson, Jeffrey W; Bonnie, Richard J; Wanchek, Tanya; McLaughlin, Laura; Richardson, Jeanita

    2013-05-01

    An innovative Virginia health care law enables competent adults with serious mental illness to plan for treatment during incapacitating crises using an integrated advance directive with no legal distinction between psychiatric or other causes of decisional incapacity. This article reports results of a survey of 460 individuals in five stakeholder groups during the initial period of the law's implementation. All respondents held favorable views of advance directives for mental health care. Identified barriers to completing and using advance directives varied by group. We conclude that relevant stakeholders support implementation of advance directives for mental health, but level of baseline knowledge and perception of barriers vary. A multi-pronged approach will be needed to achieve successful implementation of advance directives for mental health. PMID:22240937

  2. Advanced Gasoline Turbocharged Direction Injection (GTDI) Engine Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, Terrance [Ford Motor Co., Dearborn, MI (United States)

    2015-12-31

    This program was undertaken in response to US Department of Energy Solicitation DE-FOA-0000079, resulting in a cooperative agreement with Ford and MTU to demonstrate improvement of fuel efficiency in a vehicle equipped with an advanced GTDI engine. Ford Motor Company has invested significantly in GTDI engine technology as a cost effective, high volume, fuel economy solution, marketed globally as EcoBoost technology. Ford envisions additional fuel economy improvement in the medium and long term by further advancing EcoBoost technology. The approach for the project was to engineer a comprehensive suite of gasoline engine systems technologies to achieve the project objectives, and to progressively demonstrate the objectives via concept analysis / computer modeling, single-cylinder and multi-cylinder engine testing on engine dynamometer, and vehicle level testing on chassis rolls.

  3. CFH Y402H confers similar risk of soft drusen and both forms of advanced AMD.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristinn P Magnusson

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Age-related macular degeneration (AMD is the most common cause of irreversible visual impairment in the developed world. The two forms of advanced AMD, geographic atrophy and neovascular AMD, represent different pathological processes in the macula that lead to loss of central vision. Soft drusen, characterized by deposits in the macula without visual loss, are considered to be a precursor of advanced AMD. Recently, it has been proposed that a common missense variant, Y402H, in the Complement Factor H (CFH gene increases the risk for advanced AMD. However, its impact on soft drusen, GA, or neovascular AMD--or the relationship between them--is unclear. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We genotyped 581 Icelandic patients with advanced AMD (278 neovascular AMD, 203 GA, and 100 with mixed neovascular AMD/GA, and 435 with early AMD (of whom 220 had soft drusen. A second cohort of 431 US patients from Utah, 322 with advanced AMD (244 neovascular AMD and 78 GA and 109 early-AMD cases with soft drusen, were analyzed. We confirmed that the CFH Y402H variant shows significant association to advanced AMD, with odds ratio of 2.39 in Icelandic patients (p = 5.9 x 10(-12 and odds ratio of 2.14 in US patients from Utah (p = 2.0 x 10(-9 with advanced AMD. Furthermore, we show that the Y402H variant confers similar risk of soft drusen and both forms of advanced AMD (GA or neovascular AMD. CONCLUSION: Soft drusen occur prior to progression to advanced AMD and represent a histological feature shared by neovascular AMD and GA. Our results suggest that CFH is a major risk factor of soft drusen, and additional genetic factors and/or environmental factors may be required for progression to advanced AMD.

  4. Advance Care Planning in Nursing Homes: Correlates of Capacity and Possession of Advance Directives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Rebecca S.; DeLaine, Shermetra R.; Chaplin, William F.; Marson, Daniel C.; Bourgeois, Michelle S.; Dijkstra, Katinka; Burgio, Louis D.

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: The identification of nursing home residents who can continue to participate in advance care planning about end-of-life care is a critical clinical and bioethical issue. This study uses high quality observational research to identify correlates of advance care planning in nursing homes, including objective measurement of capacity. Design…

  5. Recent Advances and Future Directions for Quality Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vining, Geoff; Kulahci, Murat; Pedersen, Søren

    2015-01-01

    The origins of quality engineering are in manufacturing, where quality engineers apply basic statistical methodologies to improve the quality and productivity of products and processes. In the past decade, people have discovered that these methodologies are effective for improving almost any type...... of system or process, such as financial, health care, and supply chains. This paper begins with a review of key advances and trends within quality engineering over the past decade. The second part uses the first part as a foundation to outline new application areas for the field. It also discusses...

  6. Defending to the Four Directions Evolving Uechi-ryu’s Hojoundo Exercises for Advanced Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ihor Rymaruk

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This article introduces “Defending to the Four Directions,” techniques that add challenge to Uechi-ryu while incorporating and building upon the traditional katas which have formed the basis of the style. Making changes within a style’s training methods just to be different without any other purpose is of little value and actually destructive to the system. This article describes a meaningful and realistic addition to the practice of hojoundo, the formal exercises incorporating basic movements. “Defending to the Four Directions” is intended for advanced students who have mastered Uechi-ryu’s foundamentals. In addition, the practice is well-suited for adaptation and adoption into other martial art styles.

  7. Advanced cellular ceramics processed using direct foaming methods

    OpenAIRE

    Guzi De Moraes, Elisangela

    2015-01-01

    The research work presented in this thesis concerns the development of silicon nitride based ceramics with a cellular structure and containing designed interconnected porosity (> 80 vol%) and cell size distribution (10 up to 800 μm) by direct foaming processing routes. Concentrated emulsions (O/W oil-in-water) stabilized by surfactants and gelcasting using environmentally friendly biopolymers as gelling agents, were developed as intermediates in the production of highly porous inorganic mater...

  8. Recent Advances in Directed Assembly of Nanowires or Nanotub es

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mei Liu; Zhizheng Wu; Woon Ming Lau; Jun Yang

    2012-01-01

    Nanowires and nanotubes of diverse material compositions, properties and/or functions have been produced or fabricated through various bottom-up or top-down approaches. These nanowires or nanotubes have also been utilized as potential building blocks for functional nanodevices. The key for the integration of those nanowire or nanotube based devices is to assemble these one dimensional nanomaterials to specific locations using techniques that are highly controllable and scalable. Ideally such techniques should enable assembly of highly uniform nanowire/nanotube arrays with precise control of density, location, dimension or even ma-terial types of nanowires/nanotubes. Numerous assembly techniques are being developed that can quickly align and assemble large quantities of one type or multiple types of nanowires through parallel processes, in-cluding flow-assisted alignment, Langmuir-Blodgett assembly, bubble-blown technique, electric/magnetic- field directed assembly, contact/roll printing, knocking-down, etc.. With these assembling techniques, applications of nanowire/nanotube based devices such as flexible electronics and sensors have been demonstrated. This paper delivers an overall review of directed nanowire/nanotube assembling approaches and analyzes advantages and limitations of each method. The future research directions have also been discussed.

  9. Variations of plant life form diversity along northeast China transect and its direct gradient analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Plant life form diversity and its direct gradientanalysis on a larger scale climate change gradient were tested,based on the data from Northeast China transect platform. Theresults showed that the species numbers, life form richness andlife form diversity were relative higher at the eastern forests andthe ecotone between typical vegetation, while those on the meadowgrasslands and typical steppes were lower. Although plant lifeforms can reflect the climate variations, life form diversity isnot consistent with the major global gradient along the NECT.

  10. A Modified Time Advancement Algorithm for Optimizing Channel Flow Analysis in Direct Numerical Simulation Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Rajabi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this research a direct numerical simulation (DNS of turbulent flow is performed in a geometrically standard case like plane channel flow. Pseudo spectral (PS method is used due to geometry specifications and very high accuracy achieved despite relatively few grid points. A variable time-stepping algorithm is proposed which may reduce requirement of computational cost in simulation of such wall-bounded flow. Channel flow analysis is performed with both constant and varied time-step for 128 × 65×128 grid points. The time advancement is carried out by implicit third-order backward differentiation scheme for linear terms and explicit forward Euler for nonlinear convection term. PS method is used in Cartesian coordinates with Chebychev polynomial expansion in normal direction for one non-periodic boundary condition. Also Fourier series is employed in stream-wise and span-wise directions for two periodic boundary conditions. The friction Reynolds number is about Reτ=175 based on a friction velocity and channel half width. Standard common rotational form was chosen for discritization of nonlinear convective term of Navier-Stocks equation. The comparison is made between turbulent quantities such as the turbulent statistics, Reynolds stress, wall shear velocity, standard deviation of (u and total normalized energy of instantaneous velocities in both time-discretization methods. The results show that if final decision rests on economics, the proposed variable time-stepping algorithm will be proper choice which satisfies the accuracy and reduces the computational cost.

  11. Advanced Low Conductivity Thermal Barrier Coatings: Performance and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Dongming; Miller, Robert A.

    2008-01-01

    Thermal barrier coatings will be more aggressively designed to protect gas turbine engine hot-section components in order to meet future engine higher fuel efficiency and lower emission goals. In this presentation, thermal barrier coating development considerations and performance will be emphasized. Advanced thermal barrier coatings have been developed using a multi-component defect clustering approach, and shown to have improved thermal stability and lower conductivity. The coating systems have been demonstrated for high temperature combustor applications. For thermal barrier coatings designed for turbine airfoil applications, further improved erosion and impact resistance are crucial for engine performance and durability. Erosion resistant thermal barrier coatings are being developed, with a current emphasis on the toughness improvements using a combined rare earth- and transition metal-oxide doping approach. The performance of the toughened thermal barrier coatings has been evaluated in burner rig and laser heat-flux rig simulated engine erosion and thermal gradient environments. The results have shown that the coating composition optimizations can effectively improve the erosion and impact resistance of the coating systems, while maintaining low thermal conductivity and cyclic durability. The erosion, impact and high heat-flux damage mechanisms of the thermal barrier coatings will also be described.

  12. Advancements and future directions in enzyme technology for biomass conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zisheng; Donaldson, Adam A; Ma, Xiaoxun

    2012-01-01

    Enzymatic hydrolysis of pre-treated lignocellulosic biomass is an ideal alternative to acid hydrolysis for bio-ethanol production, limited primarily by pre-treatment requirements and economic considerations arising from enzyme production costs and specific activities. The quest for cheaper and better enzymes has prompted years of bio-prospecting, strain optimization through genetic engineering, enzyme characterization for simple and complex lignocellulosic feedstock, and the development of pre-treatment strategies to mitigate inhibitory effects. The recent shift to systematic characterizations of de novo mixtures of purified proteins is a promising indicator of maturation within this field of study, facilitating progression towards feedstock assay-based rapid enzyme mixture optimization. It is imperative that international standards be developed to enable meaningful comparisons between these studies and the construction of a database of enzymatic activities and kinetics, aspects of which are explored here-in. Complementary efforts to improve the economic viability of enzymatic hydrolysis through process integration and reactor design are also considered, where membrane-confinement shows significant promise despite the associated technological challenges. Significant advancements in enzyme technology towards the economic conversion of lignocellulosic biomass should be expected within the next few years as systematic research in enzyme activities conforms to that of traditional reaction engineering. PMID:22306162

  13. Advances and directions of ion nitriding/carburizing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spalvins, Talivaldis

    1989-01-01

    Ion nitriding and carburizing are plasma activated thermodynamic processes for the production of case hardened surface layers not only for ferrous materials, but also for an increasing number of nonferrous metals. When the treatment variables are properly controlled, the use of nitrogenous or carbonaceous glow discharge medium offers great flexibility in tailoring surface/near-surface properties independently of the bulk properties. The ion nitriding process has reached a high level of maturity and has gained wide industrial acceptance, while the more recently introduced ion carburizing process is rapidly gaining industrial acceptance. The current status of plasma mass transfer mechanisms into the surface regarding the formation of compound and diffusion layers in ion nitriding and carbon build-up ion carburizing is reviewed. In addition, the recent developments in design and construction of advanced equipment for obtaining optimized and controlled case/core properties is summarized. Also, new developments and trends such as duplex plasma treatments and alternatives to dc diode nitriding are highlighted.

  14. Ceramic thermal wind sensor based on advanced direct chip attaching package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An advanced direct chip attaching packaged two-dimensional ceramic thermal wind sensor is studied. The thermal wind sensor chip is fabricated by metal lift-off processes on the ceramic substrate. An advanced direct chip attaching (DCA) packaging is adopted and this new packaged method simplifies the processes of packaging further. Simulations of the advanced DCA packaged sensor based on computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model show the sensor can detect wind speed and direction effectively. The wind tunnel testing results show the advanced DCA packaged sensor can detect the wind direction from 0° to 360° and wind speed from 0 to 20 m/s with the error less than 0.5 m/s. The nonlinear fitting based least square method in Matlab is used to analyze the performance of the sensor. (semiconductor devices)

  15. Status and future directions for advanced accelerator research - conventional and non-conventional collider concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The relationship between advanced accelerator research and future directions for particle physics is discussed. Comments are made about accelerator research trends in hadron colliders, muon colliders, and e+3- linear colliders

  16. Extension of Direct Strength Method for Slender Cold Formed Steel Column Sections with Perforations

    OpenAIRE

    PravinAwalkonde; Akshata Deshpande

    2015-01-01

    Revolutionary development has taken place in the design methodology of thin walled structures since the introduction of direct strength method (DSM) (Dr. B Schafer 2004). DSM gives direct approach for analyzing and designing the cold formed steel sections. The effort has also been put to extend DSM for the cold formed steel sections with perforations by Dr. C D Moen(2008). Though this method gives fairly accurate results for columns with medium height, but the method is not suitab...

  17. Manipulateurs paralleles, 4eme partie : mode d'assemblage et cinematique directe sous forme polynomiale

    OpenAIRE

    Merlet, Jean-Pierre

    1990-01-01

    Dans cette quatrieme partie, nous allons nous interesser aux developpements recents du probleme de la cinematique directe, exprimee sous forme polynomiale- , ainsi qu'a son corollaire qui est a l'etude des modes d'assemblages, a variables articulaires fixees, des robots paralleles. Dans une premiere partie, on considere les manipulateurs paralleles plans. On y montre que la cinematique directe peut toujours s'exprimer sous la forme d'un polynome mono-variable. Pour les robots planaires classi...

  18. Advances and Research Directions in Data-Warehousing Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukesh Mohania

    1999-11-01

    Full Text Available Information is one of the most valuable assets of an organisation and when used properly can assist in intelligent decision making that can significantly improve the functioning of an organisation. Data Warehousing is a recent technology that allows information to be easily and efficiently accessed for decision-making activities by collecting data from many operational, legacy and possibly heterogeneous data sources. On-Line Analytical Processing (OLAP tools are well-suited for complex data analysis, such as multi-dimensional data analysis, and to assist in decision support activities while data mining tools take the process one step further and actively search the data for patterns and hidden knowledge in the data held in the warehouse. Many organisations are building, or are planning to develop, a data warehouse for their operational and decision support needs. In this paper, we present an overview of data warehousing, multi-dimensional databases, OLAP and data mining technology and discuss the directions of current research in the area. We also discuss recent developments in data warehouse modelling, view selection and maintenance, indexing schemes, parallel query processing and data mining issues. A number of technical issues for exploratory research are presented and possible solutions are also discussed.

  19. A Multilevel Cross-National Analysis of Direct and Indirect Forms of School Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnich, Laura E.; Miyazaki, Yasuo

    2013-01-01

    The detrimental effects of school violence on students' physical and emotional health are well studied, and research has shown that school violence affects students in every nation across the globe. However, few cross-national studies have compared direct, physical forms of school violence to indirect, emotional forms such as teasing. Using…

  20. Minimally Invasive Procedures - Direct and Video-Assisted Forms in the Treatment of Heart Diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minimally invasive cardiovascular procedures have been progressively used in heart surgery. To describe the techniques and immediate results of minimally invasive procedures in 5 years. Prospective and descriptive study in which 102 patients were submitted to minimally invasive procedures in direct and video-assisted forms. Clinical and surgical variables were evaluated as well as the in hospital follow-up of the patients. Fourteen patients were operated through the direct form and 88 through the video-assisted form. Between minimally invasive procedures in direct form, 13 had aortic valve disease. Between minimally invasive procedures in video-assisted forms, 43 had mitral valve disease, 41 atrial septal defect and four tumors. In relation to mitral valve disease, we replaced 26 and reconstructed 17 valves. Aortic clamp, extracorporeal and procedure times were, respectively, 91,6 ± 21,8, 112,7 ± 27,9 e 247,1 ± 20,3 minutes in minimally invasive procedures in direct form. Between minimally invasive procedures in video-assisted forms, 71,6 ± 29, 99,7 ± 32,6 e 226,1 ± 42,7 minutes. Considering intensive care and hospitalization times, these were 41,1 ± 14,7 hours and 4,6 ± 2 days in minimally invasive procedures in direct and 36,8 ± 16,3 hours and 4,3 ± 1,9 days in minimally invasive procedures in video-assisted forms procedures. Minimally invasive procedures were used in two forms - direct and video-assisted - with safety in the surgical treatment of video-assisted, atrial septal defect and tumors of the heart. These procedures seem to result in longer surgical variables. However, hospital recuperation was faster, independent of the access or pathology

  1. Minimally Invasive Procedures - Direct and Video-Assisted Forms in the Treatment of Heart Diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, Josué Viana Neto, E-mail: jvcn@uol.com.br [Instituto do Coração do Nordeste (INCONE), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil); Universidade de Fortaleza (UNIFOR), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil); Melo, Emanuel Carvalho; Silva, Juliana Fernandes [Instituto do Coração do Nordeste (INCONE), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil); Rebouças, Leonardo Lemos; Corrêa, Larissa Chagas; Germano, Amanda de Queiroz [Universidade de Fortaleza (UNIFOR), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil); Machado, João José Aquino [Instituto do Coração do Nordeste (INCONE), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil)

    2014-03-15

    Minimally invasive cardiovascular procedures have been progressively used in heart surgery. To describe the techniques and immediate results of minimally invasive procedures in 5 years. Prospective and descriptive study in which 102 patients were submitted to minimally invasive procedures in direct and video-assisted forms. Clinical and surgical variables were evaluated as well as the in hospital follow-up of the patients. Fourteen patients were operated through the direct form and 88 through the video-assisted form. Between minimally invasive procedures in direct form, 13 had aortic valve disease. Between minimally invasive procedures in video-assisted forms, 43 had mitral valve disease, 41 atrial septal defect and four tumors. In relation to mitral valve disease, we replaced 26 and reconstructed 17 valves. Aortic clamp, extracorporeal and procedure times were, respectively, 91,6 ± 21,8, 112,7 ± 27,9 e 247,1 ± 20,3 minutes in minimally invasive procedures in direct form. Between minimally invasive procedures in video-assisted forms, 71,6 ± 29, 99,7 ± 32,6 e 226,1 ± 42,7 minutes. Considering intensive care and hospitalization times, these were 41,1 ± 14,7 hours and 4,6 ± 2 days in minimally invasive procedures in direct and 36,8 ± 16,3 hours and 4,3 ± 1,9 days in minimally invasive procedures in video-assisted forms procedures. Minimally invasive procedures were used in two forms - direct and video-assisted - with safety in the surgical treatment of video-assisted, atrial septal defect and tumors of the heart. These procedures seem to result in longer surgical variables. However, hospital recuperation was faster, independent of the access or pathology.

  2. Advance directives and nursing home stays associated with less aggressive end-of-life care for patients with severe dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas, Lauren H; Bynum, Julie P W; Iwashyna, Theodore J; Weir, David R; Langa, Kenneth M

    2014-04-01

    The number of older adults with cognitive impairment is increasing, and such adults often require a surrogate to make decisions about health care. However, little is known about the aggressiveness of end-of-life care for these people, especially those who reside in the community. We found that cognitive impairment is common among older adults approaching the end of life, whether they live in the community or in a nursing home, and that nearly 30 percent of patients with severe dementia remained in the community until death. Among those patients, having an advance directive in the form of a living will was associated with significantly less aggressive care at the end of life, compared to similar patients without an advance directive-as measured by Medicare spending ($11,461 less per patient), likelihood of in-hospital death (17.9 percentage points lower), and use of the intensive care unit (9.4 percentage points lower). In contrast, advance directives were not associated with differences in care for people with normal cognition or mild dementia, whether they resided in the community or in a nursing home. Timely advance care planning after a diagnosis of cognitive impairment may be particularly important for older adults who reside in the community. PMID:24711329

  3. Investigation of advanced strain-path dependent material models for sheet metal forming simulations

    OpenAIRE

    Haddag, Badis; BALAN, Tudor; ABED-MERAIM, Farid

    2006-01-01

    Sheet metal forming processes often involve complex loading sequences. To improve the prediction of some undesirable phenomena, such as springback, physical behavior models should be considered. This paper investigates springback behavior predicted by advanced elastoplastic hardening models which combine isotropic and kinematic hardening and take strain-path changes into account. A dislocation-based microstructural hardening model formulated from physical observations and the more classical c...

  4. Advance Directives

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Local Offices Volunteer Employment Become a Supplier Report Fraud or ... reserved. The American Cancer Society is a qualified 501(c)(3) tax-exempt organization. Cancer.org is provided courtesy of ...

  5. Advance Directives

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Caring Connections is a national consumer and community engagement program of NHPCO that works to improve care ... Institutes of Health FOLLOW US Facebook Twitter Instagram YouTube Google+ LinkedIn GovDelivery RSS CONTACT INFORMATION Contact Us ...

  6. Bringing Advanced Directives and Symptom Assessment and Management to Community Oncology Practices

    OpenAIRE

    Lesperance, Mary; Shannon, Robert; Phyllis K. Pumphrey; Dunbar, Erin; Genther, Renee; Coleman, C. Lynn; Tabano, Margaret; Maurer, Jennifer; Vazquez, Adrienne; Capp, Elizabeth; McMillan, Jessica; Wilkerson, Katie; Robbins, Gerald; Phillips, Dorothy Green; Howick, Priscilla

    2013-01-01

    Palliative care services are not available in most outpatient oncology practices. A program training 11 mid-level providers from oncology practices on advanced directive discussions and supportive symptom assessment and management performed by palliative care specialists was completed. A follow-up session 9 months later identified barriers to implementation. Of the 11 mid-level providers, 8 participated in the follow-up session, and 9 of the 11 providers implemented advanced directive’s discu...

  7. How do Most Planets Form? -- Constraints on Disk Instability from Direct Imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Janson, Markus; Bonavita, Mariangela; Klahr, Hubert; Lafreniere, David

    2011-01-01

    Core accretion and disk instability have traditionally been regarded as the two competing possible paths of planet formation. In recent years, evidence have accumulated in favor of core accretion as the dominant mode, at least for close-in planets. However, it might be hypothesized that a significant population of wide planets formed by disk instabilities could exist at large separations, forming an invisible majority. In previous work, we addressed this issue through a direct imaging survey ...

  8. Study of mould design and forming process on advanced polymer-matrix composite complex structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, S. J.; Zhan, L. H.; Bai, H. M.; Chen, X. P.; Zhou, Y. Q.

    2015-07-01

    Advanced carbon fibre-reinforced polymer-matrix composites are widely applied to aviation manufacturing field due to their outstanding performance. In this paper, the mould design and forming process of the complex composite structure were discussed in detail using the hat stiffened structure as an example. The key issues of the moulddesign were analyzed, and the corresponding solutions were also presented. The crucial control points of the forming process such as the determination of materials and stacking sequence, the temperature and pressure route of the co-curing process were introduced. In order to guarantee the forming quality of the composite hat stiffened structure, a mathematical model about the aperture of rubber mandrel was introduced. The study presented in this paper may provide some actual references for the design and manufacture of the important complex composite structures.

  9. Early experience with digital advance care planning and directives, a novel consumer-driven program

    OpenAIRE

    Fine, Robert L.; Yang, Zhiyong; Spivey, Christy; Boardman, Bonnie; Courtney, Maureen

    2016-01-01

    Barriers to traditional advance care planning (ACP) and advance directive (AD) creation have limited the promise of ACP/AD for individuals and families, the healthcare team, and society. Our objectives were to determine the results of a digital ACP/AD through which consumers create, store, locate, and retrieve their ACP/AD at no charge and with minimal physician involvement, and the ACP/AD can be integrated into the electronic health record. The authors chose 900 users of MyDirectives, a digi...

  10. How do Most Planets Form? -- Constraints on Disk Instability from Direct Imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Janson, Markus; Klahr, Hubert; Lafreniere, David

    2011-01-01

    Core accretion and disk instability have traditionally been regarded as the two competing possible paths of planet formation. In recent years, evidence have accumulated in favor of core accretion as the dominant mode, at least for close-in planets. However, it might be hypothesized that a significant population of wide planets formed by disk instabilities could exist at large separations, forming an invisible majority. In previous work, we addressed this issue through a direct imaging survey of B2--A0-type stars, and concluded that <30% of such stars form and retain planets and brown dwarfs through disk instability, leaving core accretion as the likely dominant mechanism. In this paper, we extend this analysis to FGKM-type stars by applying a similar analysis to the Gemini Deep Planet Survey (GDPS) sample. The results strengthen the conclusion that substellar companions formed and retained around their parent stars by disk instabilities are rare. Specifically, we find that the frequency of such companions ...

  11. Form factor effects in the direct detection of isospin-violating dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isospin-violating dark matter (IVDM) provides a possible mechanism to ameliorate the tension among recent direct detection experiments. For IVDM, we demonstrate that the results of direct detection experiments based on neutron-rich target nuclei may depend strongly on the density dependence of the symmetry energy which is presently largely unknown and controls the neutron skin thickness that reflects the relative difference of neutron and proton form factors in the neutron-rich nuclei. In particular, using the neutron and proton form factors obtained from Skyrme-Hartree-Fock calculations by varying the symmetry energy within the uncertainty region set by the latest model-independent measurement of the neutron skin thickness of 208Pb from PREX experiment at JLab, we find that, for IVDM with neutron-to-proton coupling ratio fixed to fn/fp=-0.7, the form factor effect may enhance the sensitivity of Xe-based detectors (e.g., XENON100 and LUX) to the DM-proton cross section by a factor of 3 in the DM mass region constrained by CMDS-II(Si) and even by more than an order of magnitude for heavy DM with mass larger than 80 GeV, compared with the results using the empirical Helm form factor. Our results further indicate that the form factor effect can significantly modify the recoil spectrum of Xe-based detectors for heavy IVDM with fn/fp=-0.7

  12. End-of-life communication in Korean older adults: With focus on advance care planning and advance directives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Dong Wook; Lee, Ji Eun; Cho, BeLong; Yoo, Sang Ho; Kim, SangYun; Yoo, Jun-Hyun

    2016-04-01

    The present article aimed to provide a comprehensive review of current status of end-of-life (EOL) care and sociocultural considerations in Korea, with focus on the EOL communication and use of advance directives (AD) in elderly Koreans. Through literature review, we discuss the current status of EOL care and sociocultural considerations in Korea, and provide a look-ahead. In Korea, patients often receive life-sustaining treatment until the very end of life. Advance care planning is rare, and most do-not-resuscitate decisions are made between the family and physician at the very end of patient's life. Koreans, influenced mainly by Confucian tradition, prefer a natural death and discontinuation of life-sustaining treatment. Although Koreans generally believe that death is natural and unavoidable, they tend not to think about or discuss death, and regard preparation for death as unnecessary. As a result, AD are completed by just 4.7% of the general adult population. This situation can be explained by several sociocultural characteristics including opting for natural death, wish not to burden others, preference for family involvement and trust in doctor, avoidance of talking about death, and filial piety. Patients often receive life-sustaining treatment until the very EOL, advance care planning and the use of AD is not common in Korea. This was related to unique sociocultural characteristics of Korea. A more active role of physicians, development of a more deliberate EOL discussion process, development of culturally appropriate AD and promotion of advance care planning might be required to provide good EOL care in Korea. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2016; 16: 407-415. PMID:26459613

  13. Extension of Direct Strength Method for Slender Cold Formed Steel Column Sections with Perforations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PravinAwalkonde

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Revolutionary development has taken place in the design methodology of thin walled structures since the introduction of direct strength method (DSM (Dr. B Schafer 2004. DSM gives direct approach for analyzing and designing the cold formed steel sections. The effort has also been put to extend DSM for the cold formed steel sections with perforations by Dr. C D Moen(2008. Though this method gives fairly accurate results for columns with medium height, but the method is not suitable for very short and slender columns. In this paper effort has been put to suggest modification in DSM formulae for slender columns. Particular column section was modelled with finite element method with different height and thickness combinations. The same section was then analyzed by DSM in CUFSM 4.06 software. Sufficient database was created through this, and the variation in the results with DSM was incorporated in modified formula in terms of thickness and length.

  14. Effects of forming gas plasma treatment on low-temperature Cu–Cu direct bonding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sungdong; Nam, Youngju; Eunkyung Kim, Sarah

    2016-06-01

    Low-temperature Cu–Cu direct bonding becomes of great importance as Cu is widely used as an interconnection material in the packaging industry. Preparing a clean surface is a key to successful Cu–Cu direct bonding. We investigated the effects of forming gas plasma treatment on the reduction of Cu oxide and Cu–Cu bonding temperature. As plasma input power and treatment time increased, Cu oxide could be effectively reduced, and this could be attributed to the enhanced chemical reaction between forming gas plasma and Cu oxide. When the bonding temperature was reduced from 415 to 300 °C, the bonding strength of the plasma-treated interface was increased from 1.8 to 5.55 J/m2 while that of the wet-treated interface was decreased.

  15. Fabrication of directional solidification components of nickel-base superalloys by laser metal forming

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liping Feng; Weidong Huang; Darong Chen; Xin Lin; Haiou Yang

    2004-01-01

    Straight plates, hollow columns, ear-like blade tips, twist plates with directional solidification microstructure made of Rene 95 superalloys were successfully fabricated on Nickel-base superalloy and DD3 substrates, respectively. The processing conditions for production of the parts with corresponding shapes were obtained. The fabrication precision was high and the components were compact. The solidification microstructure of the parts was analyzed by optical microscopy. The results show that the solidification microstructure is composed of columnar dendrites, by epitaxial growth onto the directional solidification substrates. The crystallography orientation of the parts was parallel to that of the substrates. The primary arm spacing was about 10 μm, which is in the range of superfine dendrites, and the secondary arm was small or even degenerated. It is concluded that the laser metal forming technique provides a method to manufacture directional solidification components.

  16. Effects of nuclear deformation on the form factor for direct dark matter detection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Ya-Zheng; CHEN Jun-Mou; LUO Yan-An; SHEN Hong; LI Xue-Qian

    2012-01-01

    For the detection of direct dark matter,in order to extract useful information about the fundamental interactions from the data,it is crucial to properly determine the nuclear form factor.The form factor for the spin-independent cross section of collisions between dark matter particles and the nucleus has been thoroughly studied by many authors.When the analysis was carried out,the nuclei were always supposed to be spherically symmetric.In this work,we investigate the effects of the deformation of nuclei from a spherical shape to an elliptical one on the form factor.Our results indicate that as long as the ellipticity is not too large,such deformation will not cause any substantial effects.In particular,when the nuclei are randomly orientated in room-temperature circumstances,one can completely neglect them.

  17. Advanced HLW management strategies employing both synroc and borosilicate glass waste-forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent resurgence of interest in waste partitioning permits the consideration of advanced strategies for Righ-level waste (HLW) management based on exploitation of Synroc in conjunction with borosilicate glass. The synergies resulting from the complementary of these waste-forms and their respective process technologies opens up the opportunity to reduce the overall volume of conditioned HLW for geological disposal. The paper provides a summary of the salient features of Synroc and discusses strategies for the conditioning of partitioned wastes from the reprocessing of UOX and MOX fuels from nuclear power generation. The discussion will also explore potential in U.S. defence waste remediation and disposition of excess fissile materials such as Pu. (authors)

  18. High plasma levels of vitamin E forms and reduced Alzheimer's disease risk in advanced age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangialasche, Francesca; Kivipelto, Miia; Mecocci, Patrizia; Rizzuto, Debora; Palmer, Katie; Winblad, Bengt; Fratiglioni, Laura

    2010-01-01

    In this study we investigated the association between plasma levels of eight forms of vitamin E and incidence of Alzheimer's disease (AD) among oldest-old individuals in a population-based setting. A dementia-free sample of 232 subjects aged 80+ years, derived from the Kungsholmen Project, was followed-up to 6 years to detect incident AD. Plasma levels of vitamin E (alpha-, beta-, gamma, and delta-tocopherol; alpha-, beta-, gamma-, and delta-tocotrienol) were measured at baseline. Vitamin E forms-AD association was analyzed with Cox proportional hazard model after adjustment for several potential confounders. Subjects with plasma levels of total tocopherols, total tocotrienols, or total vitamin E in the highest tertile had a reduced risk of developing AD in comparison to persons in the lowest tertile. Multi-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were 0.55 (0.32-0.94) for total tocopherols, 0.46 (0.23-0.92) for total tocotrienols, and 0.55 (0.32-0.94) for total vitamin E. When considering each vitamin E form, the risk of developing AD was reduced only in association with high plasma levels of beta-tocopherol (HR: 0.62, 95% CI 0.39-0.99), whereas alpha-tocopherol, alpha- tocotrienol, and beta-tocotrienol showed only a marginally significant effect in the multiadjusted model [HR (95% CI): alpha-tocopherol: 0.72 (0.48-1.09); alpha-tocotrienol: 0.70 (0.44-1.11); beta-tocotrienol: 0.69 (0.45-1.06)]. In conclusion, high plasma levels of vitamin E are associated with a reduced risk of AD in advanced age. The neuroprotective effect of vitamin E seems to be related to the combination of different forms, rather than to alpha-tocopherol alone, whose efficacy in interventions against AD is currently debated. PMID:20413888

  19. [Respect for autonomy of "incompetent" patients?--the ethical problem of advanced directives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehbock, Theda

    2005-12-01

    In addressing the ethical and legal problems of advanced directives, the article discusses whether respect for the autonomy of the so-called "incompetent" patients is possible and morally required. Starting with a critique of how modern medicine threatens patient autonomy and care (2.), the author goes on to highlight the mutual interdependence between respect for autonomy and patient care as two moral requirements arising from respect for human dignity (3.). Finally; the article elucidates the practical consequences as they relate to a treatment approach for each patient that is simultaneously caring and respectful of their autonomy, commenting on the ramifications for a sensitive and conscientious approach to advanced medical directives and for the special -role of nursing in this context. PMID:16398303

  20. Direct Reduction of Ferrous Oxides to form an Iron-Rich Alternative Charge Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ünal, H. İbrahim; Turgut, Enes; Atapek, Ş. H.; Alkan, Attila

    2015-12-01

    In this study, production of sponge iron by direct reduction of oxides and the effect of reductant on metallization were investigated. In the first stage of the study, scale formed during hot rolling of slabs was reduced in a rotating furnace using solid and gas reductants. Coal was used as solid reductant and hydrogen released from the combustion reaction of LNG was used as the gas one. The sponge iron produced by direct reduction was melted and solidified. In the second stage, Hematite ore in the form of pellets was reduced using solid carbon in a furnace heated up to 1,100°C for 60 and 120 minutes. Reduction degree of process was evaluated as a function of time and the ratio of Cfix/Fetotal. In the third stage, final products were examined using scanning electron microscope and microanalysis was carried out by energy dispersive x-ray spectrometer attached to the electron microscope. It is concluded that (i) direct reduction using both solid and gas reductants caused higher metallization compared to using only solid reductant, (ii) as the reduction time and ratio of Cfix/Fetotal increased %-reduction of ore increased.

  1. Perspectives on advance directives in Japanese society: A population-based questionnaire survey

    OpenAIRE

    Slingsby Brian; Akabayashi Akira; Kai Ichiro

    2003-01-01

    Abstract Background In Japan, discussion concerning advance directives (ADs) has been on the rise during the past decade. ADs are one method proposed to facilitate the process of communication among patients, families and health care providers regarding the plan of care of a patient who is no longer capable of communicating. In this paper, we report the results of the first in-depth survey on the general population concerning the preferences and use of ADs in Japan. Method A self-administered...

  2. Default options in advance directives: study protocol for a randomised clinical trial

    OpenAIRE

    Gabler, Nicole B.; Cooney, Elizabeth; Small, Dylan S.; Troxel, Andrea B.; Arnold, Robert M.; White, Douglas B.; Angus, Derek C.; Loewenstein, George; Volpp, Kevin G; Bryce, Cindy L.; Halpern, Scott D.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Although most seriously ill Americans wish to avoid burdensome and aggressive care at the end of life, such care is often provided unless patients or family members specifically request otherwise. Advance directives (ADs) were created to provide opportunities to set limits on aggressive care near life's end. This study tests the hypothesis that redesigning ADs such that comfort-oriented care is provided as the default, rather than requiring patients to actively choose it, will pr...

  3. Indirect Versus Direct Heating of Sheet Materials: Superplastic Forming and Diffusion Bonding Using Lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jocelyn, Alan; Kar, Aravinda; Fanourakis, Alexander; Flower, Terence; Ackerman, Mike; Keevil, Allen; Way, Jerome

    2010-06-01

    Many from within manufacturing industry consider superplastic forming (SPF) to be ‘high tech’, but it is often criticized as too complicated, expensive, slow and, in general, an unstable process when compared to other methods of manipulating sheet materials. Perhaps, the fundamental cause of this negative perception of SPF, and also of diffusion bonding (DB), is the fact that the current process of SPF/DB relies on indirect sources of heating to produce the conditions necessary for the material to be formed. Thus, heat is usually derived from the electrically heated platens of hydraulic presses, to a lesser extent from within furnaces and, sometimes, from heaters imbedded in ceramic moulds. Recent evaluations of these isothermal methods suggest they are slow, thermally inefficient and inappropriate for the process. In contrast, direct heating of only the material to be formed by modern, electrically efficient, lasers could transform SPF/DB into the first choice of designers in aerospace, automotive, marine, medical, architecture and leisure industries. Furthermore, ‘variable temperature’ direct heating which, in theory, is possible with a laser beam(s) may provide a means to control material thickness distribution, a goal of enormous importance as fuel efficient, lightweight structures for transportation systems are universally sought. This paper compares, and contrasts, the two systems and suggests how a change to laser heating might be achieved.

  4. A Korean perspective on developing a global policy for advance directives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soyoon; Hahm, Ki-Hyun; Park, Hyoung Wook; Kang, Hyun Hee; Sohn, Myongsei

    2010-03-01

    Despite the wide and daunting array of cross-cultural obstacles that the formulation of a global policy on advance directives will clearly pose, the need is equally evident. Specifically, the expansion of medical services driven by medical tourism, just to name one important example, makes this issue urgently relevant. While ensuring consistency across national borders, a global policy will have the additional and perhaps even more important effect of increasing the use of advance directives in clinical settings and enhancing their effectiveness within each country, regardless of where that country's state of the law currently stands. One cross-cultural issue that may represent a major obstacle in formulating, let alone applying, a global policy is whether patient autonomy as the underlying principle for the use of advance directives is a universal norm or a construct of western traditions that must be reconciled with alternative value systems that may place lesser significance on individual choice. A global policy, at a minimum, must emphasize respect for patient autonomy, provision of medical information, limits to the obligations for physicians, and portability. And though the development of a global policy will be no easy task, active engagement in close collaboration with the World Health Organization can make it possible. PMID:20136819

  5. Direct determination and quantification of sulfur forms in coals from the Argonne premium sample bank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sulfur K Edge X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure Spectroscopy (XANES) and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) have been developed for the direct determination and quantification of the forms of organically bound sulfur in nonvolatile petroleum and coal samples. XANES and XPS spectra were taken of a number of model compounds, mixtures of model compounds, heavy petroleum and coal samples. A third derivative analysis of the XANES spectra and deconvolution of the XPS spectra allowed approximate quantification of the sulfidic and thiophenic components of the model mixtures and heavy hydrocarbon resources. Recently obtained data for characterizing organically bound sulfur forms in coals from the Argonne Premium Coal Sample Bank will be discussed

  6. Closed-form Solution to Directly Design FACE Waveforms for Beampatterns Using Planar Array

    KAUST Repository

    Bouchoucha, Taha

    2015-04-19

    In multiple-input multiple-output radar systems, it is usually desirable to steer transmitted power in the region-of-interest. To do this, conventional methods optimize the waveform covariance matrix, R, for the desired beampattern, which is then used to generate actual transmitted waveforms. Both steps require constrained optimization, therefore, use iterative algorithms. The main challenges encountered in the existing approaches are the computational complexity and the design of waveforms to use in practice. In this paper, we provide a closed-form solution to design covariance matrix for the given beampattern using the planar array, which is then used to derive a novel closed-form algorithm to directly design the finite-alphabet constant-envelope (FACE) waveforms. The proposed algorithm exploits the two-dimensional fast-Fourier-transform. The performance of our proposed algorithm is compared with existing methods that are based on semi-definite quadratic programming with the advantage of a considerably reduced complexity.

  7. Effects of PSDF forms on floor response spectra generation in direct solution methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several reported power spectra, compatible with US NRC RG 1.60 spectra, differ widely in their definitions and power contents. Through the study of an example, the effects of PSDF (Power Spectral Density Function) forms on floor response spectra generation are examined using direct solution method. It is shown that total power and magnitude of power in high frequency band have great influence on floor spectra. Among those PSDFs studied, which are compatible with US NRC RG 1.60 spectra, the PSDF of US NRC SRP 3.7.1 yields the best result. (author)

  8. Direct testing of scale effects in metal forming friction and lubrication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter Søe; Calaon, Matteo; Paldan, Nikolas Aulin;

    2010-01-01

    Downscaling of metal forming operations from macro to micro scale implies significant changes caused by size effects, among these the friction increase, which has been reported by researchers using indirect test methods such as ring-compression test and double-cup-extrusion test. In the present...... work a new test equipment is developed for direct friction measurements in the range from macro to micro scale. Investigations confirm a significant friction increase when downscaling. Visual inspection of the work pieces show this to be explained by the amount of open and closed lubricant pockets....

  9. In-chip fabrication of free-form 3D constructs for directed cell migration analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Mark Holm; Hjortø, Gertrud Malene; Hansen, Morten;

    2013-01-01

    Free-form constructs with three-dimensional (3D) microporosity were fabricated by two-photon polymerization inside the closed microchannel of an injection-molded, commercially available polymer chip for analysis of directed cell migration. Acrylate constructs were produced as woodpile topologies...... with a range of pore sizes from 5 × 5 μm to 15 × 15 μm and prefilled with fibrillar collagen. Dendritic cells seeded into the polymer chip in a concentration gradient of the chemoattractant CCL21 efficiently negotiated the microporous maze structure for pore sizes of 8 × 8 μm or larger. The cells...

  10. Thermal gasification or direct combustion? Comparison of advanced cogeneration systems in the sugarcane industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We compare different cogeneration system scenarios for efficient energy production from bagasse fuel in an Indonesian sugar and ethanol factory. These scenarios include the use of condensing-extraction steam turbines, variable speed electric drives for process equipment, measures to reduce low pressure steam demand for process needs, and two advanced cogeneration systems. One advanced system includes an 80 bar high pressure direct combustion steam Rankine cycle (advanced SRC), while the other uses a biomass integrated gasifier combined cycle (BIGCC); both utilize fuel dryers. Using steady-state thermodynamic models, we estimate that the net electricity generation potentials of the BIGCC and advanced SRC systems are approximately seven and five times the potential of the existing factory, respectively. The maximum net electricity generation potentials for the respective systems are 170 kWh/tc (BIGCC) and 140 kWh/tc (advanced SRC). However, the BIGCC system needs a bagasse feed rate that is 50 percent higher than the advanced SRC system to satisfy the factory low pressure steam demand for sugar and ethanol processing, which may affect its ability to provide steam and electricity during the off-season. For the Indonesian sugar factory, the annual revenue potential of the BIGCC system is US$14 million per year, approximately 50 percent higher than that of the advanced SRC system (electricity sale rate: US$45/MsWh; carbon credit price: US$13.60). BIGCC technology is still in an early stage of development and there are no commercial systems in sugar factories, so an advanced SRC system may be a more suitable option in the near future. -- Highlights: ► We use steady state thermodynamic models to simulate a sugar-ethanol factory. ► We compare existing performance with five improved and advanced cogeneration system scenarios. ► High pressure steam Rankine cycle can significantly increase electricity generation. ► Biomass integrated gasification combined cycle can

  11. Bioremediation of direct dyes in simulated textile effluents by a paramorphogenic form of Aspergillus oryzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corso, C R; Almeida, E J R; Santos, G C; Morão, L G; Fabris, G S L; Mitter, E K

    2012-01-01

    Azo dyes are extensively used for coloring textiles, paper, food, leather, drinks, pharmaceutical products, cosmetics and inks. The textile industry consumes the largest amount of azo dyes, and it is estimated that approximately 10-15% of dyes used for coloring textiles may be lost in waste streams. Almost all azo dyes are synthetic and resist biodegradation, however, they can readily be reduced by a number of chemical and biological reducing systems. Biological treatment has advantages over physical and chemical methods due to lower costs and minimal environmental effect. This research focuses on the utilization of Aspergillus oryzae to remove some types of azo dyes from aqueous solutions. The fungus, physically induced in its paramorphogenic form (called 'pellets'), was used in the dye biosorption studies with both non-autoclaved and autoclaved hyphae, at different pH values. The goals were the removal of dyes by biosorption and the decrease of their toxicity. The dyes used were Direct Red 23 and Direct Violet 51. Their spectral stability (325-700 nm) was analyzed at different pH values (2.50, 4.50 and 6.50). The best biosorptive pH value and the toxicity limit, (which is given by the lethal concentration (LC(100)), were then determined. Each dye showed the same spectrum at different pH values. The best biosorptive pH was 2.50, for both non- autoclaved and autoclaved hyphae of A. oryzae. The toxicity level of the dyes was determined using the Trimmed Spearman-Karber Method, with Daphnia similis in all bioassays. The Direct Violet 51 (LC(100) 400 mg · mL(-1)) was found to be the most toxic dye, followed by the Direct Red 23 (LC(100) 900 mg · mL(-1)). The toxicity bioassays for each dye have shown that it is possible to decrease the toxicity level to zero by adding a small quantity of biomass from A. oryzae in its paramorphogenic form. The autoclaved biomass had a higher biosorptive capacity for the dye than the non-autoclaved biomass. The results show that

  12. Consciousness in humans and non-human animals: recent advances and future directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boly, Melanie; Seth, Anil K.; Wilke, Melanie; Ingmundson, Paul; Baars, Bernard; Laureys, Steven; Edelman, David B.; Tsuchiya, Naotsugu

    2013-01-01

    This joint article reflects the authors' personal views regarding noteworthy advances in the neuroscience of consciousness in the last 10 years, and suggests what we feel may be promising future directions. It is based on a small conference at the Samoset Resort in Rockport, Maine, USA, in July of 2012, organized by the Mind Science Foundation of San Antonio, Texas. Here, we summarize recent advances in our understanding of subjectivity in humans and other animals, including empirical, applied, technical, and conceptual insights. These include the evidence for the importance of fronto-parietal connectivity and of “top-down” processes, both of which enable information to travel across distant cortical areas effectively, as well as numerous dissociations between consciousness and cognitive functions, such as attention, in humans. In addition, we describe the development of mental imagery paradigms, which made it possible to identify covert awareness in non-responsive subjects. Non-human animal consciousness research has also witnessed substantial advances on the specific role of cortical areas and higher order thalamus for consciousness, thanks to important technological enhancements. In addition, much progress has been made in the understanding of non-vertebrate cognition relevant to possible conscious states. Finally, major advances have been made in theories of consciousness, and also in their comparison with the available evidence. Along with reviewing these findings, each author suggests future avenues for research in their field of investigation. PMID:24198791

  13. Guest Editorial Special Issue on Recent Advances and New Directions in Switched Control Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ As guest editors, it is our great honor to bring this special issue of the Journal of Control Theory and Applications devoted to Recent Advances and New Directions in Switched Control Systems. Recently, switched control systems have attracted much attention in the control systems community. Problems in this area are not only academically challenging for the inherent mathematical complexity, but also are derived or motivated from advanced applications in natural sciences, engineering, and social sciences. For survival, natural biological systems switch their survival strategies in accordance with environmental changes. For improved performance, switching has been extensively utilized/exploited in engineering systems such as automotive drive train control, electronic devices, control of power systems, etc.

  14. HOW DO MOST PLANETS FORM?—CONSTRAINTS ON DISK INSTABILITY FROM DIRECT IMAGING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Core accretion and disk instability have traditionally been regarded as the two competing possible paths of planet formation. In recent years, evidence has accumulated in favor of core accretion as the dominant mode, at least for close-in planets. However, it might be hypothesized that a significant population of wide planets formed by disk instabilities could exist at large separations, forming an invisible majority. In previous work, we addressed this issue through a direct imaging survey of B2-A0-type stars and concluded that <30% of such stars form and retain planets and brown dwarfs through disk instability, leaving core accretion as the likely dominant mechanism. In this paper, we extend this analysis to FGKM-type stars by applying a similar analysis to the Gemini Deep Planet Survey sample. The results strengthen the conclusion that substellar companions formed and retained around their parent stars by disk instabilities are rare. Specifically, we find that the frequency of such companions is <8% for FGKM-type stars under our most conservative assumptions, for an outer disk radius of 300 AU, at 99% confidence. Furthermore, we find that the frequency is always <10% at 99% confidence independently of outer disk radius, for any radius from 5 to 500 AU. We also simulate migration at a wide range of rates and find that the conclusions hold even if the companions move substantially after formation. Hence, core accretion remains the likely dominant formation mechanism for the total planet population, for every type of star from M-type through B-type.

  15. Sigma Team for Advanced Actinide Recycle FY2015 Accomplishments and Directions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moyer, Bruce A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-09-30

    The Sigma Team for Minor Actinide Recycle (STAAR) has made notable progress in FY 2015 toward the overarching goal to develop more efficient separation methods for actinides in support of the United States Department of Energy (USDOE) objective of sustainable fuel cycles. Research in STAAR has been emphasizing the separation of americium and other minor actinides (MAs) to enable closed nuclear fuel recycle options mainly within the paradigm of aqueous reprocessing of used oxide nuclear fuel dissolved in nitric acid. Its major scientific challenge concerns achieving selectivity for trivalent actinides vs lanthanides. Not only is this challenge yielding to research advances, but technology concepts such as ALSEP (Actinide Lanthanide Separation) are maturing toward demonstration readiness. Efforts are organized in five task areas: 1) combining bifunctional neutral extractants with an acidic extractant to form a single process solvent, developing a process flowsheet, and demonstrating it at bench scale; 2) oxidation of Am(III) to Am(VI) and subsequent separation with other multivalent actinides; 3) developing an effective soft-donor solvent system for An(III) selective extraction using mixed N,O-donor or all-N donor extractants such as triazinyl pyridine compounds; 4) testing of inorganic and hybrid-type ion exchange materials for MA separations; and 5) computer-aided molecular design to identify altogether new extractants and complexants and theory-based experimental data interpretation. Within these tasks, two strategies are employed, one involving oxidation of americium to its pentavalent or hexavalent state and one that seeks to selectively complex trivalent americium either in the aqueous phase or the solvent phase. Solvent extraction represents the primary separation method employed, though ion exchange and crystallization play an important role. Highlights of accomplishments include: Confirmation of the first-ever electrolytic oxidation of Am(III) in a

  16. Wild orangutan males plan and communicate their travel direction one day in advance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carel P van Schaik

    Full Text Available The ability to plan for the future beyond immediate needs would be adaptive to many animal species, but is widely thought to be uniquely human. Although studies in captivity have shown that great apes are capable of planning for future needs, it is unknown whether and how they use this ability in the wild. Flanged male Sumatran orangutans (Pongo abelii emit long calls, which females use to maintain earshot associations with them. We tested whether long calls serve to communicate a male's ever-changing predominant travel direction to facilitate maintaining these associations. We found that the direction in which a flanged male emits his long calls predicts his subsequent travel direction for many hours, and that a new call indicates a change in his main travel direction. Long calls given at or near the night nest indicate travel direction better than random until late afternoon on the next day. These results show that male orangutans make their travel plans well in advance and announce them to conspecifics. We suggest that such a planning ability is likely to be adaptive for great apes, as well as in other taxa.

  17. Free form fabrication of metallic components using the Directed Light Fabrication process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, G.K.; Milewski, J.O.; Nemec, R.B.; Thoma, D.J.

    1998-03-01

    The Directed Light Fabrication (DLF) process uses a laser beam and metal powder, fed into the laser focal zone, to produce free standing metal components that are fully dense and have structural properties equivalent to conventional metal forming processes. The motion of the laser focal zone is precisely controlled by a motion path produced from a 3 dimensional solid model of a desired component. The motion path commands move the focal zone of the laser such that all solid areas of the part are deposited and the part can be built (deposited) in its entirety to near net shape, typically within {+-} 0.13 mm. The process is applicable to any metal or intermetallic. Full density and mechanical properties equivalent to conventionally processed material are achieved.

  18. Fluid dynamics of jet-forming elements of contact devices with directional gas stream injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One way to intensify heat and mass transfer processes in column-type equipment is through use of contact devices with directional gas phase injection into a liquid. Making the perforations at an angle to the tray plane permits a rise in the permissible gas velocity in the column, since inertial force adds to gravity during separation. Different arrangements of the jet-forming elements relative to one another and to partitions and baffle-type contacts installed on the trays can improve phase contact conditions and intensify heat and mass transfer. Design of jet-type trays for a specific purpose requires that the influence of jet-forming, element design parameters on at least the fluid dynamic situation on the tray be known. In this work, the authors evaluate the influence of tab bend-up angle on jet tray working characteristics. These investigations demonstrate that the jet inclination angle (the angle of maximum gas velocity in the jet) exceeds the tab bend-up angle for all types of notches over the range of angles studied. The data presented here can be used in designing various types of trays utilizing cutout-type contact elements, to optimize the arrangement of notches relative to one another and to sectioning partitions and baffles, as well as to provide control of liquid stream structure. 9 refs., 3 figs

  19. The Recent Revolution in the Design and Manufacture of Cranial Implants: Modern Advancements and Future Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonda, David J; Manjila, Sunil; Selman, Warren R; Dean, David

    2015-11-01

    Large format (i.e., >25 cm) cranioplasty is a challenging procedure not only from a cosmesis standpoint, but also in terms of ensuring that the patient's brain will be well-protected from direct trauma. Until recently, when a patient's own cranial flap was unavailable, these goals were unattainable. Recent advances in implant computer-aided design and 3-dimensional (3-D) printing are leveraging other advances in regenerative medicine. It is now possible to 3-D-print patient-specific implants from a variety of polymer, ceramic, or metal components. A skull template may be used to design the external shape of an implant that will become well integrated in the skull, while also providing beneficial distribution of mechanical force in the event of trauma. Furthermore, an internal pore geometry can be utilized to facilitate the seeding of banked allograft cells. Implants may be cultured in a bioreactor along with recombinant growth factors to produce implants coated with bone progenitor cells and extracellular matrix that appear to the body as a graft, albeit a tissue-engineered graft. The growth factors would be left behind in the bioreactor and the graft would resorb as new host bone invades the space and is remodeled into strong bone. As we describe in this review, such advancements will lead to optimal replacement of cranial defects that are both patient-specific and regenerative. PMID:26171578

  20. Zirconia-magnesia inert matrix fuel and waste form: Synthesis, characterization and chemical performance in an advanced fuel cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holliday, Kiel Steven

    There is a significant buildup in plutonium stockpiles throughout the world, because of spent nuclear fuel and the dismantling of weapons. The radiotoxicity of this material and proliferation risk has led to a desire for destroying excess plutonium. To do this effectively, it must be fissioned in a reactor as part of a uranium free fuel to eliminate the generation of more plutonium. This requires an inert matrix to volumetrically dilute the fissile plutonium. Zirconia-magnesia dual phase ceramic has been demonstrated to be a favorable material for this task. It is neutron transparent, zirconia is chemically robust, magnesia has good thermal conductivity and the ceramic has been calculated to conform to current economic and safety standards. This dissertation contributes to the knowledge of zirconia-magnesia as an inert matrix fuel to establish behavior of the material containing a fissile component. First, the zirconia-magnesia inert matrix is synthesized in a dual phase ceramic containing a fissile component and a burnable poison. The chemical constitution of the ceramic is then determined. Next, the material performance is assessed under conditions relevant to an advanced fuel cycle. Reactor conditions were assessed with high temperature, high pressure water. Various acid solutions were used in an effort to dissolve the material for reprocessing. The ceramic was also tested as a waste form under environmental conditions, should it go directly to a repository as a spent fuel. The applicability of zirconia-magnesia as an inert matrix fuel and waste form was tested and found to be a promising material for such applications.

  1. Trial examination of direct pebble fabrication for advanced tritium breeders by the emulsion method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoshino, Tsuyoshi, E-mail: hoshino.tsuyoshi@jaea.go.jp

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • The integration of raw material preparation and granulation is proposed as a new direct pebble fabrication process. • The emulsion method granulates gel spheres of Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3} and TiO{sub 2} or SiO{sub 2}. • The gel spheres are calcined and sintered in air. • The crush load of the sintered Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3} or Li{sub 4}SiO{sub 4} pebbles obtained is 37.2 or 59.3 N, respectively. - Abstract: Demonstration power plant reactors require advanced tritium breeders with high thermal stability. For the mass production of advanced tritium breeder pebbles, pebble fabrication by the emulsion method is a promising technique. To develop the most efficient pebble fabrication method, a new direct pebble fabrication process utilizing the emulsion method was implemented. A prior pebble fabrication process consisted of the preparation of raw materials followed by granulation. The new process integrates the preparation and granulation of raw materials. The slurry for the emulsion granulation of Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3} or Li{sub 4}SiO{sub 4} as a tritium breeder consists of mixtures of Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3} and TiO{sub 2} or SiO{sub 2} at specific ratios. Subsequently, gel spheres of tritium breeders are fabricated by controlling the relative flow speeds of slurry and oil. The average diameter and crush load of the obtained sintered Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3} or Li{sub 4}SiO{sub 4} pebbles were 1.0 or 1.5 mm and 37.2 or 59.3 N, respectively. The trial fabrication results suggest that the new process has the potential to increase the fabrication efficiency of advanced tritium breeder pebbles.

  2. Trial examination of direct pebble fabrication for advanced tritium breeders by the emulsion method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The integration of raw material preparation and granulation is proposed as a new direct pebble fabrication process. • The emulsion method granulates gel spheres of Li2CO3 and TiO2 or SiO2. • The gel spheres are calcined and sintered in air. • The crush load of the sintered Li2TiO3 or Li4SiO4 pebbles obtained is 37.2 or 59.3 N, respectively. - Abstract: Demonstration power plant reactors require advanced tritium breeders with high thermal stability. For the mass production of advanced tritium breeder pebbles, pebble fabrication by the emulsion method is a promising technique. To develop the most efficient pebble fabrication method, a new direct pebble fabrication process utilizing the emulsion method was implemented. A prior pebble fabrication process consisted of the preparation of raw materials followed by granulation. The new process integrates the preparation and granulation of raw materials. The slurry for the emulsion granulation of Li2TiO3 or Li4SiO4 as a tritium breeder consists of mixtures of Li2CO3 and TiO2 or SiO2 at specific ratios. Subsequently, gel spheres of tritium breeders are fabricated by controlling the relative flow speeds of slurry and oil. The average diameter and crush load of the obtained sintered Li2TiO3 or Li4SiO4 pebbles were 1.0 or 1.5 mm and 37.2 or 59.3 N, respectively. The trial fabrication results suggest that the new process has the potential to increase the fabrication efficiency of advanced tritium breeder pebbles

  3. Hot-pressed barium sulphate ceramic waste forms for direct immobilization of medium level Magnox waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A possible method of treatment for Magnox cladding waste is by dissolution in nitric acid and precipitation of barium sulphate-based floc with which radioactive ions are co-precipitated. The floc could then be immobilized in a matrix material such as cement or bitumen to give the waste form, or alternatively can be converted directly into a waste form by hot pressing. This paper describes the direct conversion of barium sulphate floc, containing simulated radwaste, into a synthetic, ceramic version of the natural mineral barite by a hot-pressing route. By variation of the parameters pressure, temperature and time, optimum conditions for consolidation of the floc to > 90% theoretical density on a laboratory scale are found to be 22.5 MPa, 9000C for 10 minutes. Using a pressure of 15 MPa, at 9000C for 30 min., hot-pressed billets of BaSO4 have been made on a 5 kg scale. In going from the magnox waste to the hot-pressed barium sulphate a volume reduction factor approx. 18 is achieved. The principal phases in the product are found to be BaSO4, MgO and Fe3O4, and the degree of consolidation achieved depends on the MgO content. The leaching behaviour of the hot-pressed materials in 1000C, 3 day Soxhlet tests also depends on the MgO content, and on the consequent level of open porosity. If there is porosity accessible to the leach water, MgO at the internal surfaces is converted to Mg(OH)2, which deposits within the pores, and a weight gain is registered in the Soxhlet test. If, however, there is no open porosity, a weight loss occurs, and leach rates approx. 4 x 10-7 kg/m2/sec are found. In contrast, pure BaSO4, hot-pressed to similar densities, shows no variation in leaching behaviour over a wide range of open porosities, and gives Soxhlet leach rates approx. 8 x 10-8 kg/m2/sec. 6 figures, 2 tables

  4. Direct Closed-Form Design of Finite Alphabet Constant Envelope Waveforms for Planar Array Beampatterns

    KAUST Repository

    Bouchoucha, Taha

    2015-05-01

    Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) radar systems has attracted lately a lot of attention thanks to its advantage over the classical phased array radar systems. We site among these advantages the improvement of parametric identifiability, achievement of higher spatial resolution and design of complex beampatterns. In colocated multiple-input multiple-output radar systems, it is usually desirable to steer transmitted power in the region-of-interest in order to increase the Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) and reduce any undesired signal and thus improve the detection process. This problem is also known as transmit beampattern design. To achieve this goal, conventional methods optimize the waveform covariance matrix, R, for the desired beampattern, which is then used to generate the actual transmitted waveforms. Both steps require constrained optimization. Most of the existing methods use iterative algorithms to solve these problems, therefore their computational complexity is very high which makes them hard to use in practice especially for real time radar applications. In this paper, we provide a closed-form solution to design the covariance matrix for a given beampattern in the three dimensional space using planar arrays, which is then used to derive a novel closed-form algorithm to directly design the finite-alphabet constant-envelope waveforms. The proposed algorithm exploits the two-dimensional discrete Fourier transform which is implemented using fast Fourier transform algorithm. Consequently, the computational complexity of the proposed beampattern solution is very low allowing it to be used for large arrays to change the beampattern in real time. We also show that the number of required snapshots in each waveform depends on the beampattern and that it is less than the total number of transmit antennas. In addition, we show that the proposed waveform design method can be used with non symmetric beampatterns. The performance of our proposed algorithm compares

  5. CONTRIBUTIONS TO DIVERSIFY SOLES MOULDS THAT FORMS DIRECTLY ON FACES SHOES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IONESCU Cozmin

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The classical moulds which are currently used for forming the soles directly on the uppers, allow obtaining one sole model. One mould for each foot is made, and at least one mould for each size number in the size number series. To manufacture one single sole model in the sizes series an average set of 16 moulds are needed. Changing the model implies the entire production of a new set of moulds. Therefore, a large diversification of the soles requires the manufacturing a quantity of moulds sets equal with the quantity of sole models. In this paper are presented solutions to obtain more cavity shapes in the same mould, through the use of modular interchangeable pieces. The moulds with versatile cavities have the same functional characteristics as the moulds with unique cavities, are usable on the same type of machines and can be used independently or together with the classical moulds. A brief analysis on the technological processes for manufacturing moulds with versatile cavities reveals a significant lowering of the manufacturing time for moulds in which will be obtained other sole models. This is due to the fact that some of the mould parts are reused. In conclusion, the producers that chose this type of moulds can launch on the market new models in a shorter time and at lower prices.

  6. DIRECT DIAGNOSTICS OF FORMING MASSIVE STARS: STELLAR PULSATION AND PERIODIC VARIABILITY OF MASER SOURCES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 6.7 GHz methanol maser emission, a tracer of forming massive stars, sometimes shows enigmatic periodic flux variations over several 10-100 days. In this Letter, we propose that these periodic variations could be explained by the pulsation of massive protostars growing under rapid mass accretion with rates of M-dot*∼>10-3 M☉ yr-1. Our stellar evolution calculations predict that the massive protostars have very large radii exceeding 100 R☉ at maximum, and here we study the pulsational stability of such bloated protostars by way of the linear stability analysis. We show that the protostar becomes pulsationally unstable with various periods of several 10-100 days depending on different accretion rates. With the fact that the stellar luminosity when the star is pulsationally unstable also depends on the accretion rate, we derive the period-luminosity relation log (L/ L☉) = 4.62 + 0.98log (P/100 days), which is testable with future observations. Our models further show that the radius and mass of the pulsating massive protostar should also depend on the period. It would be possible to infer such protostellar properties and the accretion rate with the observed period. Measuring the maser periods enables a direct diagnosis of the structure of accreting massive protostars, which are deeply embedded in dense gas and are inaccessible with other observations.

  7. Advance Directives in Some Western European Countries: A Legal and Ethical Comparison between Spain, France, England, and Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veshi, Denard; Neitzke, Gerald

    2015-09-01

    We have studied national laws on advance directives in various Western European countries: Romance-speaking countries (Italy, France, Portugal, and Spain), English-speaking countries (Ireland and the United Kingdom), and German-speaking countries (Austria, Germany, and Switzerland). We distinguish two potentially complementary types of advance medical declaration: the 'living will' and the nomination of a legal proxy. After examining the similarities and differences between countries, we analyse in detail the legislation of four countries (Spain, France, England, and Germany), since the other countries in this survey have similar legal principles and/or a similar political approach. In conclusion, we note that in all the countries examined, advance directives have been seen as an instrument to enable the patient's right to self-determination. Notwithstanding, in Romance-speaking countries, the involvement of physicians in the end-of-life process and risks arising from the execution of advance directives were also considered. PMID:26427271

  8. Functional connectivity measures as schizophrenia intermediate phenotypes: advances, limitations, and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Hengyi; Dixson, Luanna; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Tost, Heike

    2016-02-01

    The search for quantifiable biological mediators of genetic risk or 'intermediate phenotypes' is an essential strategy in psychiatric neuroscience and a useful tool for exploring the complex relationships between genes, neural circuits and behaviors. In recent years, the examination of connectivity-based intermediate phenotypes has gained increasing popularity in the study of schizophrenia, a brain disorder that manifests in early adulthood and disturbs a wide range of neural network functions. To date, several potential connectivity phenotypes have been identified that link neuroimaging measures of neural circuit interaction to genetic susceptibility for schizophrenia. This paper briefly reviews recent advances, current limitations and future directions in the search for functional connectivity intermediate phenotypes for schizophrenia across different cognitive domains. PMID:26276700

  9. Advances in direct numerical simulation for MHD modeling of free surface flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The utilization of FLiBe (LiF-BeF2) free-surface flow as a chamber protection scheme is considered in advanced nuclear fusion reactor. At the design of the nuclear fusion reactor from the viewpoint of thermofluid research, it would be very important to understand the influence of a magnetic field in turbulent free surface flow. On the other hand, turbulent free surface flow (called open channel flow) by direct numerical simulation (DNS) with non-deformable surface was first succeeded by imposing free-slip and non-slip conditions as velocity boundary conditions at the upper and lower, respectively. After that, the research by DNS has been advanced more, it has been clarified that turbulent structures generated from the lower wall travels to the free surface and affected the mechanism of heat and mass transfer at the free surface. The behavior of the structures is affected by the strong magnetic field in the nuclear fusion reactor. Therefore, a DNS of liquid film cooling in the nuclear fusion reactor is performed by authors, and the relations between a magnetic orientation and turbulent flow statistics are clearly observed. In this paper, the DNS result is introduced, and the trial turbulence modeling for MHD free-surface flow by using the DNS database is also discussed

  10. Tuberculosis-advances in development of new drugs, treatment regimens, host-directed therapies, and biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallis, Robert S; Maeurer, Markus; Mwaba, Peter; Chakaya, Jeremiah; Rustomjee, Roxana; Migliori, Giovanni Battista; Marais, Ben; Schito, Marco; Churchyard, Gavin; Swaminathan, Soumya; Hoelscher, Michael; Zumla, Alimuddin

    2016-04-01

    Tuberculosis is the leading infectious cause of death worldwide, with 9·6 million cases and 1·5 million deaths reported in 2014. WHO estimates 480 000 cases of these were multidrug resistant (MDR). Less than half of patients who entered into treatment for MDR tuberculosis successfully completed that treatment, mainly due to high mortality and loss to follow-up. These in turn illustrate weaknesses in current treatment regimens and national tuberculosis programmes, coupled with operational treatment challenges. In this Review we provide an update on recent developments in the tuberculosis drug-development pipeline (including new and repurposed antimicrobials and host-directed drugs) as they are applied to new regimens to shorten and improve outcomes of tuberculosis treatment. Several new or repurposed antimicrobial drugs are in advanced trial stages for MDR tuberculosis, and two new antimicrobial drug candidates are in early-stage trials. Several trials to reduce the duration of therapy in MDR and drug-susceptible tuberculosis are ongoing. A wide range of candidate host-directed therapies are being developed to accelerate eradication of infection, prevent new drug resistance, and prevent permanent lung injury. As these drugs have been approved for other clinical indications, they are now ready for repurposing for tuberculosis in phase 2 clinical trials. We assess risks associated with evaluation of new treatment regimens, and highlight opportunities to advance tuberculosis research generally through regulatory innovation in MDR tuberculosis. Progress in tuberculosis-specific biomarkers (including culture conversion, PET and CT imaging, and gene expression profiles) can support this innovation. Several global initiatives now provide unique opportunities to tackle the tuberculosis epidemic through collaborative partnerships between high-income countries and middle-income and low-income countries for clinical trials training and research, allowing funders to

  11. Advanced direct liquefaction concepts for PETC generic units. Final report, Phase I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-03-01

    The Advanced Concepts for Direct Coal Liquefaction program was initiated by the Department of Energy in 1991 to develop technologies that could significantly reduce the cost of producing liquid fuels by the direct liquefaction of coal. The advanced 2-stage liquefaction technology that was developed at Wilsonville over the past 10 years has contributed significantly toward decreasing the cost of producing liquids from coal to about $33/bbl. It remains, however, the objective of DOE to further reduce this cost to a level more competitive with petroleum based products. This project, among others, was initiated to investigate various alternative approaches to develop technologies that might ultimately lead to a 25 % reduction in cost of product. In this project a number of novel concepts were investigated, either individually or in a coupled configuration that had the potential to contribute toward meeting the DOE goal. The concepts included mature technologies or ones closely related to them, such as coal cleaning by oil agglomeration, fluid coking and distillate hydrotreating and dewaxing. Other approaches that were either embryonic or less developed were chemical pretreatment of coal to remove oxygen, and dispersed catalyst development for application in the 2-stage liquefaction process. This report presents the results of this project. It is arranged in four sections which were prepared by participating organizations responsible for that phase of the project. A summary of the overall project and the principal results are given in this section. First, however, an overview of the process economics and the process concepts that were developed during the course of this program is presented.

  12. Advances in directed monooxygenase evolution : from diversity generation and flow cytometry screening to tailor-made monooxygenases

    OpenAIRE

    Ruff, Anna Joëlle

    2012-01-01

    Directed Evolution became a powerful tool for proteins engineers to generate tailor-made biocatalyst. Directed protein evolution consist of the following three consecutive main steps, which are performed in iterative cycles; Step 1 the gene diversity generation, Step 2 the screening for improved variants and Step 3 the isolation of gene encoding for improved proteins. In this thesis, methodological advancements in the two key steps of the directed evolution, the diversity generation (SeSaM me...

  13. Advanced Parkinson’s disease effect on goal-directed and habitual processes involved in visuomotor associative learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fadila eHadj-Bouziane

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present behavioral study readdresses the question of habit learning in Parkinson's disease. Patients were early onset, non-demented, dopa-responsive, candidates for surgical treatment, similar to those we found earlier as suffering greater dopamine depletion in the putamen than in the caudate nucleus. The task was the same conditional associative learning task as that used previously in monkeys and healthy humans to unveil the striatum involvement in habit learning. Sixteen patients and 20 age- and education-matched healthy control subjects learned sets of 3 visuo-motor associations between complex patterns and joystick displacements during two testing sessions separated by a few hours. We distinguished errors preceding versus following the first correct response to compare patients' performance during the earliest phase of learning dominated by goal-directed actions with that observed later on, when responses start to become habitual. The disease significantly retarded both learning phases, especially in patients under sixty years of age. However, only the late phase deficit was disease severity-dependent and persisted on the second testing session. These findings provide the first corroboration in Parkinson patients of two ideas well-established in the animal literature. The first is the idea that associating visual stimuli to motor acts is a form of habit learning that engages the striatum. It is confirmed here by the global impairment in visuo-motor learning induced by Parkinson's disease. The second idea is that goal-directed behaviors are predominantly caudate-dependent whereas habitual responses are primarily putamen-dependent. At the advanced Parkinson's disease stages tested here, dopamine depletion is greater in the putamen than in the caudate nucleus. Accordingly, the late phase of learning corresponding to the emergence of habitual responses was more vulnerable to the disease than the early phase dominated by goal-directed

  14. The production of advanced glass ceramic HLW forms using cold crucible induction melter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cold Crucible Induction Melters (CCIM) will favorably change how High-Level radioactive Waste (from nuclear fuel recovery) is treated in a near future. Unlike the existing Joule-Heated Melters (JHM) currently in operation for the glass-based immobilization of High-Level Waste (HLW), CCIM offers unique material features that will increase melt temperatures, increase throughput, increase mixing, increase loading in the waste form, lower melter foot prints, eliminate melter corrosion and lower costs. These features not only enhance the technology for producing HLW forms, but also provide advantageous attributes to the waste form by allowing more durable alternatives to glass. It is concluded that glass ceramic waste forms that are tailored to immobilize fission products of HLW can be can be made from the HLW processed with the CCIM. The advantageous higher temperatures reached with the CCIM and unachievable with JHM allows the lanthanides, alkali, alkaline earths, and molybdenum to dissolve into a molten glass. Upon controlled cooling they go into targeted crystalline phases to form a glass ceramic waste form with higher waste loadings than achievable with borosilicate glass waste forms. Natural cooling proves to be too fast for the formation of all targeted crystalline phases

  15. Factors associated with the designation of a health care proxy and writing advance directives for patients suffering from haematological malignancies

    OpenAIRE

    Trarieux-Signol, Sophie; Moreau, Stéphane; Gourin, Marie-Pierre; Penot, Amélie; Edoux de Lafont, Geoffroy; Preux, Pierre-Marie; Bordessoule, Dominique

    2014-01-01

    Background During the last few decades, patients’ rights have been reinforced in many countries by acts of law. Measures now include health care proxies to uphold the doctor-patient relationship and advance directives for end-of-life patients. These could be relevant tools as early as the initial diagnosis of haematological malignancies because of the uncertain disease course. The aim of this research was to assess the factors associated with the designation of a proxy and writing advance dir...

  16. Electro-hydraulic forming of advanced high-strength steels: Deformation and microstructural characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rohatgi, Aashish; Stephens, Elizabeth V.; Edwards, Danny J.; Smith, Mark T.; Davies, Richard W.

    2012-06-08

    This conference manuscript describes mechanical and microstructural characterization of steel sheets that were deformed via the electro-hydraulic forming technique. The manuscripts shows the importance of the experimental technique developed at PNNL in the sense that the deformation history information enabled by this technique is not obtainable through existing conventional approaches. Additionally, strain-rate effects on texture development during sheet-forming at high-rates are described. Thus, we have demonstrated that it is now possible to correlate deformation history with microstructural development during high-rate forming, a capability that is unique to PNNL.

  17. Perspectives on advance directives in Japanese society: A population-based questionnaire survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slingsby Brian

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Japan, discussion concerning advance directives (ADs has been on the rise during the past decade. ADs are one method proposed to facilitate the process of communication among patients, families and health care providers regarding the plan of care of a patient who is no longer capable of communicating. In this paper, we report the results of the first in-depth survey on the general population concerning the preferences and use of ADs in Japan. Method A self-administered questionnaire was sent via mail to a stratified random sampling of 560 residents listed in the residential registry of one district of Tokyo, Japan (n = 165,567. Association between correlating factors and specific preferences toward ADs was assessed using contingency table bivariate analysis and multivariate regression model to estimate independent contribution. Results Of the 560 questionnaires sent out, a total of 425 participants took part in the survey yielding a response rate of 75.9 %. The results of the present study indicate that: 1 the most important components to be addressed are the specifics of medical treatment at the end of life stage and disclosure of diagnosis and prognosis; 2 the majority of participants found it suitable to express their directives by word to family and/or physician and not by written documentation; 3 there is no strong need for legal measures in setting up an AD; 4 it is permissible for family and physician to loosely interpret one's directives; 5 the most suitable proxy is considered to be a family member, relative, or spouse. Multivariate analysis found the following five factors as significantly associated with preferences: 1 awareness regarding living wills, 2 experience with the use of ADs, 3 preferences for end-of-life treatment, 4 preferences for information disclosure, and 5 intentions of creating a will. Conclusions Written ADs might be useful in the Japanese setting when the individual either wishes: 1 to not

  18. The Production of Advanced Glass Ceramic HLW Forms using Cold Crucible Induction Melter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veronica J Rutledge; Vince Maio

    2013-10-01

    Cold Crucible Induction Melters (CCIMs) will favorably change how High-Level radioactive Waste (from nuclear fuel recovery) is treated in the 21st century. Unlike the existing Joule-Heated Melters (JHMs) currently in operation for the glass-based immobilization of High-Level Waste (HLW), CCIMs offer unique material features that will increase melt temperatures, increase throughput, increase mixing, increase loading in the waste form, lower melter foot prints, eliminate melter corrosion and lower costs. These features not only enhance the technology for producing HLW forms, but also provide advantageous attributes to the waste form by allowing more durable alternatives to glass. This paper discusses advantageous features of the CCIM, with emphasis on features that overcome the historical issues with the JHMs presently utilized, as well as the benefits of glass ceramic waste forms over borosilicate glass waste forms. These advantages are then validated based on recent INL testing to demonstrate a first-of-a-kind formulation of a non-radioactive ceramic-based waste form utilizing a CCIM.

  19. Form of the compensatory stepping response to repeated laterally directed postural disturbances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurt, Christopher P; Rosenblatt, Noah J; Grabiner, Mark D

    2011-10-01

    A compensatory stepping response (CSR) is a common strategy to restore dynamic stability in response to a postural disturbance. Currently, few studies have investigated the CSR to laterally directed disturbances delivered to subjects during quiet standing. The purpose of this study was to characterize the CSR of younger adults following exposure to a series of similar laterally directed disturbances for which no instructions were given with regard to the recovery response. We hypothesized that in the absence of externally applied constraints to the recovery response, subjects would be equally as likely to perform a crossover step as a sidestep sequence (SSS). We further hypothesized that there would be an asymmetry in arm abduction that would be dependent on the disturbance direction. Finally, we were interested in characterizing the effect of practice on the CSR to repeated disturbances. Ten younger adults were exposed to thirty laterally directed platform disturbances that forced a stepping response. Subjects responded by primarily utilizing a SSS that differs from previously reported results. Further, five of the ten subjects utilized a different recovery response that was dependent on the direction of the disturbance (i.e., left or right). Greater arm abduction was characterized for the arm in the direction of the external disturbance in comparison with the contralateral arm. Lastly, subjects modified their recovery response to this task within 12 disturbances. Taken together, these results suggest that recovery responses to laterally directed disturbances can be quickly modified but can be quite variable between and within subjects. PMID:21915670

  20. Vector velocity estimation using directional beam forming and cross-correlation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2000-01-01

    The two-dimensional velocity vector using a pulsed ultrasound field can be determined with the invention. The method uses a focused ultrasound field along the velocity direction for probing the moving medium under investigation. Several pulses are emitted and the focused received fields along the...... velocity direction are cross-correlated. The time shift between received signals is found from the peak in the cross-correlation function and the velocity is thereby determined....

  1. Direct and indirect forms of non-suicidal self-injury: Evidence for a distinction

    OpenAIRE

    St. Germain, Sarah Ann; Hooley, Jill Miranda

    2012-01-01

    Non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) involves deliberate acts (such as cutting) that directly damage the body but occur without suicidal intent. However, other non-suicidal behaviors that involve people mistreating or abusing themselves but that do not deliberately and directly damage bodily tissue may have much in common with NSSI. Such ‘indirect’ methods of self-injury might include involvement in abusive relationships, substance abuse, risky or reckless behavior, or eating disordered behavior. ...

  2. Lightning Radio Source Retrieval Using Advanced Lightning Direction Finder (ALDF) Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshak, William J.; Blakeslee, Richard J.; Bailey, J. C.

    1998-01-01

    A linear algebraic solution is provided for the problem of retrieving the location and time of occurrence of lightning ground strikes from an Advanced Lightning Direction Finder (ALDF) network. The ALDF network measures field strength, magnetic bearing and arrival time of lightning radio emissions. Solutions for the plane (i.e., no Earth curvature) are provided that implement all of tile measurements mentioned above. Tests of the retrieval method are provided using computer-simulated data sets. We also introduce a quadratic planar solution that is useful when only three arrival time measurements are available. The algebra of the quadratic root results are examined in detail to clarify what portions of the analysis region lead to fundamental ambiguities in source location. Complex root results are shown to be associated with the presence of measurement errors when the lightning source lies near an outer sensor baseline of the ALDF network. In the absence of measurement errors, quadratic root degeneracy (no source location ambiguity) is shown to exist exactly on the outer sensor baselines for arbitrary non-collinear network geometries. The accuracy of the quadratic planar method is tested with computer generated data sets. The results are generally better than those obtained from the three station linear planar method when bearing errors are about 2 deg. We also note some of the advantages and disadvantages of these methods over the nonlinear method of chi(sup 2) minimization employed by the National Lightning Detection Network (NLDN) and discussed in Cummins et al.(1993, 1995, 1998).

  3. Development of an Advanced Flow Meter using the Averaging Bi-directional Flow Tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Advanced flow meter using the concept of averaging bi-directional flow tube was developed. To find characteristics of flow meter and derive theory of measurement in the single and two phase flow condition, some basic tests were attempted using flow meters with diameters of 27, 80 and 200 mm. The CFD(computational fluid dynamics) calculation was also performed to find the effects of temperature and pressure, and to optimize design of a prototypic flow meter. Following this procedure, prototypical flow meters with diameters of 200 and 500 mm were designed and manufactured. It is aimed to use in the region in which calibration constant was unchanged. The stress analysis showed that the proposed flow meter of H-beam shape is inherently strong against the bending force induced by flow. The flow computer was developed for the flow rate calculation from the measured pressure difference. In this study, the performance test using this prototype flow meter was carried out. The developed flow meter can be applied in the wide range of pressure and temperature. The basic tests showed that the lineality of the proposed flow meter is ± 0.5 % of full scale and flow turn down ratio is 1:20 where the Reynolds number is larger than 10,000

  4. [Physicians' views and perspectives on advanced directives in patients with incipient dementia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattiussi, Mercedes; Dawidowski, Adriana; Restibo, Jimena; Pollán, Javier; Pezzano, Laura; Cámera, Luis

    2012-01-01

    Dementia is a progressive disease in which patients lose their ability to decide and communicate. Advance directives (AD) allow patients to express their preferences on end of life care in the early stages of the disease. Primary care practitioners (PCP) are in the best position to promote AD. The aim of this study was to elicit PCPs views about the discussion of AD with early stage dementia patients. A qualitative approach was taken, focus groups and individual interviews to elderly patients' PCPs from the Hospital italiano de buenos aires were conducted. A purposive sampling was performed, conforming homogeneous groups according to age and seniority. The discussion was stimulated by a vignette. We performed thematic content analysis in an interdisciplinary team. Twelve PCPs = 30 year of age, 32 middle-aged and 8 over 45 years participated of the study. The youngest group favored the discussion of AD while those over 45 regarded the family as the decision maker, and thus, the discussion as useless. Besides, they expressed that our society is not mature enough to discuss AD. Difficulties in AD implementation, in predicting the evolution of a patient's disease, the span of time between the discussion and AD implementation, lack of legislation and specific institutional policies were other factors that conditioned the discussion. Younger PCPs expressed concern on the lack of communication skills and difficulties to broach this subject with patients. PCPs perspectives on AD vary, their age should be taken into account when designing strategies to their implementation. PMID:22892082

  5. Item Response Theory Analysis and Differential Item Functioning across Age, Gender and Country of a Short Form of the Advanced Progressive Matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiesi, Francesca; Ciancaleoni, Matteo; Galli, Silvia; Morsanyi, Kinga; Primi, Caterina

    2012-01-01

    Item Response Theory (IRT) models were applied to investigate the psychometric properties of the Arthur and Day's Advanced Progressive Matrices-Short Form (APM-SF; 1994) [Arthur and Day (1994). "Development of a short form for the Raven Advanced Progressive Matrices test." "Educational and Psychological Measurement, 54," 395-403] in order to test…

  6. On recent advances and future research directions for computational fluid dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, A. J.; Soliman, M. O.; Manhardt, P. D.

    1986-01-01

    This paper highlights some recent accomplishments regarding CFD numerical algorithm constructions for generation of discrete approximate solutions to classes of Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations. Following an overview of turbulent closure modeling, and development of appropriate conservation law systems, a Taylor weak-statement semi-discrete approximate solution algorithm is developed. Various forms for completion to the final linear algebra statement are cited, as are a range of candidate numerical linear algebra solution procedures. This development sequence emphasizes the key building blocks of a CFD RNS algorithm, including solution trial and test spaces, integration procedure and added numerical stability mechanisms. A range of numerical results are discussed focusing on key topics guiding future research directions.

  7. Minor groove DNA alkylation directed by major groove triplex forming oligodeoxyribonucleotides.

    OpenAIRE

    Lukhtanov, E A; Mills, A G; Kutyavin, I V; Gorn, V V; Reed, M W; Meyer, R. B.

    1997-01-01

    We describe sequence-specific alkylation in the minor groove of double-stranded DNA by a hybridization-triggered reactive group conjugated to a triplex forming oligodeoxyribonucleotide (TFO) that binds in the major groove. The 24 nt TFOs (G/A motif) were designed to form triplexes with a homopurine tract within a 65 bp target duplex. They were conjugated to an N 5-methyl-cyclopropapyrroloindole (MCPI) residue, a structural analog of cyclopropapyrroloindole (CPI), the reactive subunit of the p...

  8. New tribo-systems for sheet metal forming of advanced high strength steels and stainless steels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ceron, Ermanno

    production run and fulfilling the product specification. This means that galling is one of the first problems occurring in sheet metal forming. The remedy has been so far the application of hazardous lubricant such as chlorinated paraffin oils. The technology in environmentally friendly lubrication is......The environmental issue, concerning the lubrication in sheet metal forming, has become considerably important in the past 10 years. Besides the fact that legislation is becoming more restrictive on the type of lubricant industry is allowed to use, many companies are embracing the path of social...... responsibility and sustainability, which implies a careful application of environmentally friendly technology. On the other hand the global market requires more and more complex products, which ignites a chain reaction that affects the whole life cycle of the product. Regarding sheet metal forming, this means...

  9. Two new advanced forms of spectrometry for space and commercial applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlager, Kenneth J.

    1991-01-01

    Reagentless ultraviolet absorption spectrometry (UVAS) and Liquid Atomic Emission Spectrometry (LAES) represent new forms of spectrometry with extensive potential in both space and commercial applications. Originally developed under KSC sponsorship for monitoring nutrient solutions for the Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS), both UVAS and LAES have extensive analytical capabilities for both organic and inorganic chemical compounds. Both forms of instrumentation involve the use of remote fiber optic probes and real-time measurements for on-line process monitoring. Commercial applications exist primarily in environmental analysis and for process control in the chemical, pulp and paper, food processing, metal plating, and water/wastewater treatment industries.

  10. Prototype Development of Remote Operated Hot Uniaxial Press (ROHUP) to Fabricate Advanced Tc-99 Bearing Ceramic Waste Forms - 13381

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alaniz, Ariana J.; Delgado, Luc R.; Werbick, Brett M. [University of Nevada - Las Vegas, Howard R. Hughes College of Engineering, 4505 S. Maryland Parkway, Box 454009, Las Vegas, NV 89154-4009 (United States); Hartmann, Thomas [University of Nevada - Las Vegas, Harry Reid Canter, 4505 S. Maryland Parkway, Box 454009, Las Vegas, NV 89154-4009 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    The objective of this senior student project is to design and build a prototype construction of a machine that simultaneously provides the proper pressure and temperature parameters to sinter ceramic powders in-situ to create pellets of rather high densities of above 90% (theoretical). This ROHUP (Remote Operated Hot Uniaxial Press) device is designed specifically to fabricate advanced ceramic Tc-99 bearing waste forms and therefore radiological barriers have been included in the system. The HUP features electronic control and feedback systems to set and monitor pressure, load, and temperature parameters. This device operates wirelessly via portable computer using Bluetooth{sup R} technology. The HUP device is designed to fit in a standard atmosphere controlled glove box to further allow sintering under inert conditions (e.g. under Ar, He, N{sub 2}). This will further allow utilizing this HUP for other potential applications, including radioactive samples, novel ceramic waste forms, advanced oxide fuels, air-sensitive samples, metallic systems, advanced powder metallurgy, diffusion experiments and more. (authors)

  11. Directional Reflective Surface Formed via Gradient-Impeding Acoustic Meta-Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Kyungjun; Kim, Jedo; Hur, Shin; Kwak, Jun-Hyuk; Lee, Seong-Hyun; Kim, Taesung

    2016-01-01

    Artificially designed acoustic meta-surfaces have the ability to manipulate sound energy to an extraordinary extent. Here, we report on a new type of directional reflective surface consisting of an array of sub-wavelength Helmholtz resonators with varying internal coiled path lengths, which induce a reflection phase gradient along a planar acoustic meta-surface. The acoustically reshaped reflective surface created by the gradient-impeding meta-surface yields a distinct focal line similar to a parabolic cylinder antenna, and is used for directive sound beamforming. Focused beam steering can be also obtained by repositioning the source (or receiver) off axis, i.e., displaced from the focal line. Besides flat reflective surfaces, complex surfaces such as convex or conformal shapes may be used for sound beamforming, thus facilitating easy application in sound reinforcement systems. Therefore, directional reflective surfaces have promising applications in fields such as acoustic imaging, sonic weaponry, and underwater communication. PMID:27562634

  12. Development of technetium alloy waste forms for advanced nuclear energy cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Fuel Cycle Technologies (FCT) Program within the Office of Nuclear Energy of the U.S. Department of Energy is charged with developing nuclear fuel cycle options that improve use of actinide resources, responsibly manage wastes, improve and limit proliferation risk. Technetium is a fission product of particular concern for disposal in a repository because of its high fission yield, long half-life, and high solubility and mobility in groundwater as pertechnetate. For example, modeling studies for the former Yucca Mountain repository site indicated that technetium would be an important dose contributor after closure of the repository, in the first 10,000 years. The FCT Program is investigating a range of potential repository environments for ultimate disposal of fission products including technetium from advanced nuclear fuel recycling schemes

  13. Microscopical examination of carbon deposits formed in the Windscale advanced gas cooled reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Methods are described of sampling and examining carbon deposits on fuel cladding in the Windscale advanced gas-cooled reactor. Deposition is observed on fuel cladding in both the reactor core and experimental loops in carbon dioxide coolants containing various amounts of carbon monoxide and methane. Deposit distribution over the cladding surface indicated that nucleation is dependent on local surface conditions. Microscopical examination showed that deposit thickness increases by carbon filament growth into the coolant gas stream and that the process can be markedly influenced by metallic impurities. There is evidence that nickel can play a particularly significant role in deposition in loop experiments but similar effects have not been observed in the reactor core. (author)

  14. Advanced waste form and melter development for treatment of troublesome high-level wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marra, James [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Kim, Dong -Sang [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Maio, Vincent [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-09-02

    A number of waste components in US defense high level radioactive wastes (HLW) have proven challenging for current Joule heated ceramic melter (JHCM) operations and have limited the ability to increase waste loadings beyond already realized levels. Many of these "troublesome" waste species cause crystallization in the glass melt that can negatively impact product quality or have a deleterious effect on melter processing. Recent efforts at US Department of Energy laboratories have focused on understanding crystallization behavior within HLW glass melts and investigating approached to mitigate the impacts of crystallization so that increases in waste loading can be realized. Advanced glass formulations have been developed to highlight the unique benefits of next-generation melter technologies such as the Cold Crucible Induction Melter (CCIM). Crystal-tolerant HLW glasses have been investigated to allow sparingly soluble components such as chromium to crystallize in the melter but pass out of the melter before accumulating.

  15. Finite element analysis of advanced bicycle precision brake disk forming technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Dyi-Cheng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the bicycle has become an environmentally friendly transportation. The bicycle can be divided into mountain bicycle and highway bicycle. Safe driving is the prior consideration. The bicycle braking system can be divided into oil pressure disk brakes and mechanical disk brakes. The brake disk system is one indispensable component of the safe system. In accordance to overall weight consideration of the bike, the brake disk should also focus on the lightweight design. This paper discussed an innovative brake disk forming technology for 6061 aluminum alloy by the rigid-plastic finite element analysis. The simulation parameters include geometric shapes of the brake disk and mold, die temperature, and friction factors. The stress and strain in forming, brake deformation and vibration modal analysis of brake disk in riding were studied. The paper is expected to offer some precision bicycle brake disk manufacture knowledge for industry.

  16. Beam Steering at Higher Photonic Bands and Design of a Directional Cloak Formed by Photonic Crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkatachalam Subramanian

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Beam steering due to anomalous dispersion at higher photonic bands in dielectric photonic crystal is reported in this work. Based on this concept, directional cloak is designed that conceals a larger dimensional scattering object against the normal incident, linearly polarizedelectromagnetic waves.

  17. Beam Steering at Higher Photonic Bands and Design of a Directional Cloak Formed by Photonic Crystals

    OpenAIRE

    Venkatachalam Subramanian; Natesan Yogesh

    2013-01-01

    Beam steering due to anomalous dispersion at higher photonic bands in dielectric photonic crystal is reported in this work. Based on this concept, directional cloak is designed that conceals a larger dimensional scattering object against the normal incident, linearly polarizedelectromagnetic waves.

  18. Direct Instruction Model to Increase Physical Science Competence of Students as One Form of Classroom Assesment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenno, Hendrik

    2014-01-01

    In designing the lesson teachers have to adapt the method or learning model with the material to be taught. In the teaching of measuring concept, students frequently faced with measuring instruments, micrometer, screw, scale, and so on. Direct Instruction Model would be suitable for teaching the measurement concepts specifically the skill of using…

  19. Recent Advances in Solution NMR: Fast Methods and Heteronuclear Direct Detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Today, NMR spectroscopy is the technique of choice to investigate molecular structure, dynamics, and interactions in solution at atomic resolution. A major limitation of NMR spectroscopy for the study of biological macromolecules such as proteins, nucleic acids, and their complexes, has always been its low sensitivity, a consequence of the weak magnetic spin interactions. Therefore many efforts have been invested in the last decade to improve NMR instrumentation in terms of experimental sensitivity. As a result of these efforts, the availability of high-field magnets, cryogenically cooled probes, and probably in the near future hyper-polarization techniques, the intrinsic NMR sensitivity has increased by at least one order of magnitude. Stimulated by new challenges in the life sciences, these technical improvements have triggered the development of new NMR methods for the study of molecular systems of increasing size and complexity. Herein, we focus on two examples of recently developed NMR methodologies. First, advanced multidimensional data acquisition schemes provide a speed increase of several orders of magnitude. Second, NMR methods based on the direct detection of low-gamma nuclei present a new spectroscopic tool, highly complementary to conventional NMR techniques. These new methods provide powerful new NMR tools for the study of short-lived molecules, large and intrinsically unstructured proteins, paramagnetic systems, as well as for the characterization of molecular kinetic processes at atomic resolution. These examples illustrate how NMR is continuously adapting to the new challenges in the life sciences, with the focus shifting from the characterization of single biomolecules to an integrated view of interacting molecular networks observed at varying levels of biological organization. (authors)

  20. [Advance directives in Italy: a goal not yet reached but already passed?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riccioni, Luigi; Gristina, Giuseppe

    2015-10-01

    The advance directives (ADs) have been adopted in many countries to defend patients' autonomy. In Italy, in the past, this topic gave rise to a heated debate involving philosophers, theologians, and politicians. In 2009, the government presented a bill of law on ADs firmly criticized from a scientific, moral and juridical point of view because the bill's content is against the principles of Italian Constitution, Italian Code of Medical Ethics, Oviedo Convention, and official statements of many scientific societies. Although the bill has passed the Low Chamber it lies, even since, in the Senate, lacking in regard any agreement among the political parties. The purpose of this article is to highlight that, in our country, patients, relatives and doctors deserve a law not only related to the specific topic of ADs, but - as in other European countries (Germany, Spain, France, UK) - aimed to deal with the complex issue of end of life care as a whole. This law should take into account the sound evidence existing in regard to the four fundamental principles supporting the best scientific and ethical approaches to the end of life issues: shared decision making process between doctors and patients/relatives; rejection of dying process marked by the suffering; withholding/withdrawing futile treatments together with palliative sedation as two crucial contributions to suppress the patient suffering and pain; clear-cut difference between these clinical/ethical options and euthanasia. At the same time, this law should be able to provide physicians with a legal coverage to make all the clinical and ethical decisions more and more complex because of the continuous evolution of medical science on one hand, and the impressive development of biotechnology on the other hand. PMID:26442974

  1. Default options in advance directives: study protocol for a randomised clinical trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabler, Nicole B; Cooney, Elizabeth; Small, Dylan S; Troxel, Andrea B; Arnold, Robert M; White, Douglas B; Angus, Derek C; Loewenstein, George; Volpp, Kevin G; Bryce, Cindy L; Halpern, Scott D

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Although most seriously ill Americans wish to avoid burdensome and aggressive care at the end of life, such care is often provided unless patients or family members specifically request otherwise. Advance directives (ADs) were created to provide opportunities to set limits on aggressive care near life's end. This study tests the hypothesis that redesigning ADs such that comfort-oriented care is provided as the default, rather than requiring patients to actively choose it, will promote better patient-centred outcomes. Methods and analysis This multicentre trial randomises seriously ill adults to receive 1 of 3 different ADs: (1) a traditional AD that requires patients to actively choose their goals of care or preferences for specific interventions (eg, feeding tube insertion) or otherwise have their care guided by their surrogates and the prevailing societal default toward aggressive care; (2) an AD that defaults to life-extending care and receipt of life-sustaining interventions, enabling patients to opt out from such care; or (3) an AD that defaults to comfort care, enabling patients to opt into life-extending care. We seek to enrol 270 patients who return complete, legally valid ADs so as to generate sufficient power to detect differences in the primary outcome of hospital-free days (days alive and not in an acute care facility). Secondary outcomes include hospital and intensive care unit admissions, costs of care, hospice usage, decision conflict and satisfaction, quality of life, concordance of preferences with care received and bereavement outcomes for surrogates of patients who die. Ethics and dissemination This study has been approved by the Institutional Review Boards at all trial centres, and is guided by a data safety and monitoring board and an ethics advisory board. Study results will be disseminated using methods that describe the results in ways that key stakeholders can best understand and implement. Trial registration number NCT02017548

  2. Testing new tribo-systems for sheet metal forming of advanced high strength steels and stainless steels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Niels; Ceron, Ermanno

    2014-01-01

    Testing of new tribo-systems in sheet metal forming has become an important issue due to new legislation, which forces industry to replace current, hazardous lubricants. The present paper summarizes the work done in a recent PhD project at the Technical University of Denmark on the development of a...... methodology for off-line testing of new tribo-systems for advanced high strength steels and stainless steels. The methodology is presented and applied to an industrial case, where different tribo-systems are tested. A universal sheet tribotester has been developed, which can run automatically repetitive...

  3. Negative index fishnet with nanopillars formed by direct nano-imprint lithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper we demonstrate the ability to fabricate fishnets by nanoimprinting directly into a pre-deposited three layer metal–dielectric–metal stack, enabling us to pattern large areas in two minutes. We have designed and fabricated two different fishnet structures of varying dimensions using this method and measured their resonant wavelengths in the near-infrared at 1.45 μm and 1.88 μm. An important by-product of directly imprinting into the metal–dielectric stack, without separation from the substrate, is the formation of rectangular nanopillars that sit within the rectangular apertures between the fishnet slabs. Simulations complement our measurements and suggest a negative refractive index real part with a magnitude of 1.6. Further simulations suggest that if the fishnet were to be detached from the supporting substrate a refractive index real part of 5 and FOM of 2.74 could be obtained. (paper)

  4. DEVELOPMENT OF CERAMIC WASTE FORMS FOR AN ADVANCED NUCLEAR FUEL CYCLE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marra, J.; Billings, A.; Brinkman, K.; Fox, K.

    2010-11-30

    A series of ceramic waste forms were developed and characterized for the immobilization of a Cesium/Lanthanide (CS/LN) waste stream anticipated to result from nuclear fuel reprocessing. Simple raw materials, including Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and TiO{sub 2} were combined with simulated waste components to produce multiphase ceramics containing hollandite-type phases, perovskites (particularly BaTiO{sub 3}), pyrochlores and other minor metal titanate phases. Three fabrication methodologies were used, including melting and crystallizing, pressing and sintering, and Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS), with the intent of studying phase evolution under various sintering conditions. X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Scanning Electron Microscopy coupled with Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (SEM/EDS) results showed that the partitioning of the waste elements in the sintered materials was very similar, despite varying stoichiometry of the phases formed. Identification of excess Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} via XRD and SEM/EDS in the first series of compositions led to a Phase II study, with significantly reduced Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} concentrations and increased waste loadings. The Phase II compositions generally contained a reduced amount of unreacted Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} as identified by XRD. Chemical composition measurements showed no significant issues with meeting the target compositions. However, volatilization of Cs and Mo was identified, particularly during melting, since sintering of the pressed pellets and SPS were performed at lower temperatures. Partitioning of some of the waste components was difficult to determine via XRD. SEM/EDS mapping showed that those elements, which were generally present in small concentrations, were well distributed throughout the waste forms.

  5. #The #method of recognition of forms when trying to select street direction

    OpenAIRE

    Novak, Štefan; Darja TOPOLŠEK

    2012-01-01

    The methods concerned together with their characteristics of technical advantage exploitation affects the realization times and costs of the transport. The proper selection of a street would greatly affect those costs of transport that can be reduced as well as the speeds of the realization which could be accelerated. This article shows one of the methods of recognition of the forms with a test on a street type selection example. The aim of this article is showing the possibilities of the for...

  6. The role of advance directives in end-of-life decisions in Austria: survey of intensive care physicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schopper Andrea

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Currently, intensive care medicine strives to define a generally accepted way of dealing with end-of-life decisions, therapy limitation and therapy discontinuation. In 2006 a new advance directive legislation was enacted in Austria. Patients may now document their personal views regarding extension of treatment. The aim of this survey was to explore Austrian intensive care physicians' experiences with and their acceptance of the new advance directive legislation two years after enactment (2008. Methods Under the aegis of the OEGARI (Austrian Society of Anaesthesiology, Resuscitation and Intensive Care an anonymised questionnaire was sent to the medical directors of all intensive care units in Austria. The questions focused on the physicians' experiences regarding advance directives and their level of knowledge about the underlying legislation. Results There were 241 questionnaires sent and 139 were turned, which was a response rate of 58%. About one third of the responders reported having had no experience with advance directives and only 9 directors of intensive care units had dealt with more than 10 advance directives in the previous two years. Life-supporting measures, resuscitation, and mechanical ventilation were the predominantly refused therapies, wishes were mainly expressed concerning pain therapy. Conclusion A response rate of almost 60% proves the great interest of intensive care professionals in making patient-oriented end-of-life decisions. However, as long as patients do not make use of their right of co-determination, the enactment of the new law can be considered only a first important step forward.

  7. Therapeutic Advances and Future Prospects in Progressive Forms of Multiple Sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirani, Afsaneh; Okuda, Darin T; Stüve, Olaf

    2016-01-01

    Identifying effective therapies for the treatment of progressive forms of multiple sclerosis (MS) is a highly relevant priority and one of the greatest challenges for the global MS community. Better understanding of the mechanisms involved in progression of the disease, novel trial designs, drug repurposing strategies, and new models of collaboration may assist in identifying effective therapies. In this review, we discuss various therapies under study in phase II or III trials, including antioxidants (idebenone); tyrosine kinase inhibitors (masitinib); sphingosine receptor modulators (siponimod); monoclonal antibodies (anti-leucine-rich repeat and immunoglobulin-like domain containing neurite outgrowth inhibitor receptor-interacting protein-1, natalizumab, ocrelizumab, intrathecal rituximab); hematopoetic stem cell therapy; statins and other possible neuroprotective agents (amiloride, riluzole, fluoxetine, oxcarbazepine); lithium; phosphodiesterase inhibitors (ibudilast); hormone-based therapies (adrenocorticotrophic hormone and erythropoietin); T-cell receptor peptide vaccine (NeuroVax); autologous T-cell immunotherapy (Tcelna); MIS416 (a microparticulate immune response modifier); dopamine antagonists (domperidone); and nutritional supplements, including lipoic acid, biotin, and sunphenon epigallocatechin-3-gallate (green tea extract). Given ongoing and planned clinical trial initiatives, and the largest ever focus of the global research community on progressive MS, future prospects for developing targeted therapeutics aimed at reducing disability in progressive forms of MS appear promising. PMID:26729332

  8. Direct phase-sensitive identification of a d-form factor density wave in underdoped cuprates

    OpenAIRE

    K. Fujita; Hamidian, M. H.; Edkins, S.D.; Kim, C. K.; Kohsaka, Y.; Azuma, M; Takano, M.; Takagi, H; Eisaki, H.; Uchida, S.-i.; Allais, Andrea; Lawler, M J; Kim, E. -A.; Sachdev, Subir; Davis, J. C. S.

    2014-01-01

    The identity of the fundamental broken symmetry (if any) in the underdoped cuprates is unresolved. However, evidence has been accumulating that this state may be an unconventional density wave. Here we carry out site-specific measurements within each CuO$_2$ unit-cell, segregating the results into three separate electronic structure images containing only the Cu sites (Cu(r)) and only the x/y-axis O sites (O$_x$(r) and O$_y$(r)). Phase resolved Fourier analysis reveals directly that the modul...

  9. Advanced waste form and Melter development for treatment of troublesome high-level wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marra, James [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Kim, Dong -Sang [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Maio, Vincent [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-10-01

    A number of waste components in US defense high level radioactive wastes (HLW) have proven challenging for current Joule heated ceramic melter (JHCM) operations and have limited the ability to increase waste loadings beyond already realized levels. Many of these “troublesome" waste species cause crystallization in the glass melt that can negatively impact product quality or have a deleterious effect on melter processing. Recent efforts at US Department of Energy laboratories have focused on understanding crystallization behavior within HLW glass melts and investigating approaches to mitigate the impacts of crystallization so that increases in waste loading can be realized. Advanced glass formulations have been developed to highlight the unique benefits of next-generation melter technologies such as the Cold Crucible Induction Melter (CCIM). Crystal-tolerant HLW glasses have been investigated to allow sparingly soluble components such as chromium to crystallize in the melter but pass out of the melter before accumulating.The Hanford site AZ-101 tank waste composition represents a waste group that is waste loading limited primarily due to high concentrations of Fe2O3 (also with high Al2O3 concentrations). Systematic glass formulation development utilizing slightly higher process temperatures and higher tolerance to spinel crystals demonstrated that an increase in waste loading of more than 20% could be achieved for this waste composition, and by extension higher loadings for wastes in the same group. An extended duration CCIM melter test was conducted on an AZ-101 waste simulant using the CCIM platform at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The melter was continually operated for approximately 80 hours demonstrating that the AZ-101 high waste loading glass composition could be readily processed using the CCIM technology. The resulting glass was close to the targeted composition and exhibited excellent durability in both

  10. Advancements in the development of a directional-position sensing fast neutron detector using acoustically tensioned metastable fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archambault, Brian C.; Webster, Jeffrey A.; Grimes, Thomas F.; Fischer, Kevin F.; Hagen, Alex R.; Taleyakhan, Rusi P.

    2015-06-01

    Advancements in the development of a direction and position sensing fast neutron detector which utilizes the directional acoustic tensioned metastable fluid detector (D-ATMFD) are described. The resulting D-ATMFD sensor is capable of determining the direction of neutron radiation with a single compact detector versus use of arrays of detectors in conventional directional systems. Directional neutron detection and source positioning offer enhanced detection speeds in comparison to traditional proximity searching; including enabling determination of the neutron source shape, size, and strength in near real time. This paper discusses advancements that provide the accuracy and precision of ascertaining directionality and source localization information utilizing enhanced signal processing-cum-signal analysis, refined computational algorithms, and on-demand enlargement capability of the detector sensitive volume. These advancements were accomplished utilizing experimentation and theoretical modeling. Benchmarking and qualifications studies were successfully conducted with random and fission based special nuclear material (SNM) neutron sources (239Pu-Be and 252Cf). These results of assessments have indicated that the D-ATMFD compares well in technical performance with banks of competing directional fast neutron detector technologies under development worldwide, but it does so with a single detector unit, an unlimited field of view, and at a significant reduction in both cost and size while remaining completely blind to common background (e.g., beta-gamma) radiation. Rapid and direct SNM neutron source imaging with two D-ATMFD sensors was experimentally demonstrated, and furthermore, validated via multidimensional nuclear particle transport simulations utilizing MCNP-PoliMi. Characterization of a scaled D-ATMFD based radiation portal monitor (RPM) as a cost-effective and efficient 3He sensor replacement was performed utilizing MCNP-PoliMi simulations, the results of which

  11. Advancements in the development of a directional-position sensing fast neutron detector using acoustically tensioned metastable fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Advancements in the development of a direction and position sensing fast neutron detector which utilizes the directional acoustic tensioned metastable fluid detector (D-ATMFD) are described. The resulting D-ATMFD sensor is capable of determining the direction of neutron radiation with a single compact detector versus use of arrays of detectors in conventional directional systems. Directional neutron detection and source positioning offer enhanced detection speeds in comparison to traditional proximity searching; including enabling determination of the neutron source shape, size, and strength in near real time. This paper discusses advancements that provide the accuracy and precision of ascertaining directionality and source localization information utilizing enhanced signal processing-cum-signal analysis, refined computational algorithms, and on-demand enlargement capability of the detector sensitive volume. These advancements were accomplished utilizing experimentation and theoretical modeling. Benchmarking and qualifications studies were successfully conducted with random and fission based special nuclear material (SNM) neutron sources (239Pu–Be and 252Cf). These results of assessments have indicated that the D-ATMFD compares well in technical performance with banks of competing directional fast neutron detector technologies under development worldwide, but it does so with a single detector unit, an unlimited field of view, and at a significant reduction in both cost and size while remaining completely blind to common background (e.g., beta-gamma) radiation. Rapid and direct SNM neutron source imaging with two D-ATMFD sensors was experimentally demonstrated, and furthermore, validated via multidimensional nuclear particle transport simulations utilizing MCNP-PoliMi. Characterization of a scaled D-ATMFD based radiation portal monitor (RPM) as a cost-effective and efficient 3He sensor replacement was performed utilizing MCNP-PoliMi simulations, the results of

  12. Nickel sulfide nanotubes formed by a directional infiltration self-assembly route in AAO templates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nickel sulfide nanotube was successfully synthesized by a directional infiltration self-assembly route in AAO templates. The self-assembly process mainly involves infiltration, decomposition and crystal growth in nanochannels, in which dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) first acts as both sulfur source and unique infiltrator. For increasing S atom content in nickel sulfides thiourea was also used as additional sulfur source. Scanning electron microscope images (SEM) revealed that the nanotubes have uniform length distributions, several tens micrometers lengths and ultrathin tube-walls of 20 nm thickness. The nanotubes were confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman spectroscopy, showing hexagonal Ni3S2, α-NiS and cubic NiS2, respectively. The magnetic hysteresis scan of NiS2 NTs showed weak ferromagnetism at room temperature. Its growth mechanism was discussed and proposed as well

  13. NOUVELLES FORMES D'ENGAGEMENT AUTOUR DU LOCAL. PORTRAITS DE PAYSANS EN « VENTE DIRECTE »

    OpenAIRE

    Cheyns, Emmanuelle,

    2010-01-01

    Les circuits courts et la vente directe émergent comme des choix pour valoriser des produits issus de l'agriculture familiale, mais aussi de façons de faire et de produire non conventionnelles, où les « paysans » (qui se définissent ainsi) souhaitent pouvoir accorder plus de soin à leur activité, à eux-mêmes et à leur environnement, ou encore d'un désir d'indépendance et d'autonomie. Enfin ils ne sont pas sans créer certaines transformations du métier, là où les producteurs choisissent aussi ...

  14. Photoluminescent carbon quantum dots as a directly film-forming phosphor towards white LEDs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Feng; Feng, Xiaoting; Zhang, Yi; Yan, Lingpeng; Yang, Yongzhen; Liu, Xuguang

    2016-04-01

    Photoluminescent organosilane-functionalized carbon quantum dots (CQDs), 3.0-3.5 nm in diameter, were synthesized via a facile hydrothermal method using citric acid monohydrate as a precursor and N-(3-(trimethoxysilyl) propyl) ethylenediamine as a coordinating and passivation agent. The optical properties of the as-obtained CQDs were investigated in detail. The CQD aqueous solution emits bright blue-white light under ultraviolet (UV) illumination with a quantum yield of 57.3% and high red-green-blue (RGB) spectral composition of 60.1%, and in particular the CQDs exhibit excitation-independent photoluminescence. The CQDs have a narrow size distribution around 3.1 nm and good film-forming ability through simple heat-treatment. By virtue of these excellent optical characteristics and good film-forming ability, a white light-emitting device (LED) was fabricated by combining a UV-LED chip with a single CQD phosphor film, which exhibited cool white light with a CIE coordinate of (0.31, 0.36), a color rendering index of 84 and a correlated color temperature of 6282 K. In addition, the white LED exhibits good optical stability under various working currents and for different working time intervals. Moreover, the interaction between the carbogenic core and surface groups was discussed using the DMol3 program based on density functional theory. This research suggests the great potential of CQDs for solid-state lighting systems and reveals the effect of the surface state on the photoluminescent mechanism of CQDs.

  15. Advanced Modeling and Experimental Validation of Complex Nuclear Material Forms of Potential Transportation Concern

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present here computer modeling efforts to describe the time-dependent pressurization and gas-phase mole fractions inside sealed canisters containing actinide materials packaged with small (0.12 - 0.5 wt. %) amounts of water. The model is run using Chemkin software, and the chemical reaction mechanism includes gas generation due to radiolysis of adsorbed water, interfacial chemical reactions, and adsorption/desorption kinetics of water on PuO2 materials. The ultimate goal is to provide a verifiable computer model that can be used to predict problematic gas generation in storage forms and assure design criteria for short-term storage and transportation of less than well-characterized (with respect to gas generation) material classes. Our initial efforts are intended to assess pressurization and gas-phase mole fractions using well-defined 3013 container test cases. We have modeled gas generation on PuO2 with water loading up to 0.5 wt. %, at 300 and 525 K, for time frames of 3 years. Estimates of the initial H2 generation rates were determined using RadCalc and employed in the Chemkin model to assess time- and coverage-dependent system behavior. Results indicate that canister pressurization due to radiolysis is a relatively slow process, with pressure increases at 300 K of approximately 1.5 atm. for 5000 g of PuO2 packaged with 0.5 wt. % water. At higher temperatures (> 400 K), desorption of water into the gas phase largely dictates pressurization and the gas-phase mole fractions. These modeling efforts provide a predictive capability for potential gas generation behavior that when augmented and validated by surveillance information will provide a technical basis for safe storage and transportation

  16. Evaluation Of THORTM Mineralized Waste Forms For The DOE Advanced Remediation Technologies Phase 2 Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of River Protection (ORP) is responsible for the retrieval, treatment, immobilization, and disposal of Hanford's tank waste. Currently there are approximately 56 million gallons of highly radioactive mixed wastes awaiting treatment. A key aspect of the River Protection Project (RPP) cleanup mission is to construct and operate the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). The WTP will separate the tank waste into high-level and low-activity waste (LAW) fractions, both of which will subsequently be vitrified. The projected throughput capacity of the WTP LAW Vitrification Facility is insufficient to complete the RPP mission in the time frame required by the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, also known as the Tri-Party Agreement (TPA), i.e. December 31, 2047. Therefore, Supplemental Treatment is required both to meet the TPA treatment requirements as well as to more cost effectively complete the tank waste treatment mission. The Supplemental Treatment chosen will immobilize that portion of the retrieved LAW that is not sent to the WTP's LAW Vitrification facility into a solidified waste form. The solidified waste will then be disposed on the Hanford site in the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF). In addition, the WTP LAW Vitrification facility off-gas condensate known as WTP Secondary Waste (WTP-SW) will be generated and enriched in volatile components such as Cs-137, I-129, Tc-99, Cl, F, and SO4 that volatilize at the vitrification temperature of 1150 C in the absence of a continuous cold cap. The current waste disposal path for the WTP-SW is to recycle it to the supplemental LAW treatment to avoid a large steady state accumulation in the pretreatment-vitrification loop. Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) offers a moderate temperature (700-750 C) continuous method by which LAW and/or WTP-SW wastes can be processed irrespective of whether they contain organics, nitrates, sulfates

  17. EVALUATION OF THOR MINERALIZED WASTE FORMS FOR THE DOE ADVANCED REMEDIATION TECHNOLOGIES PHASE 2 PROJECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawford, C.; Jantzen, C.

    2012-02-02

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of River Protection (ORP) is responsible for the retrieval, treatment, immobilization, and disposal of Hanford's tank waste. Currently there are approximately 56 million gallons of highly radioactive mixed wastes awaiting treatment. A key aspect of the River Protection Project (RPP) cleanup mission is to construct and operate the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). The WTP will separate the tank waste into high-level and low-activity waste (LAW) fractions, both of which will subsequently be vitrified. The projected throughput capacity of the WTP LAW Vitrification Facility is insufficient to complete the RPP mission in the time frame required by the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, also known as the Tri-Party Agreement (TPA), i.e. December 31, 2047. Therefore, Supplemental Treatment is required both to meet the TPA treatment requirements as well as to more cost effectively complete the tank waste treatment mission. The Supplemental Treatment chosen will immobilize that portion of the retrieved LAW that is not sent to the WTP's LAW Vitrification facility into a solidified waste form. The solidified waste will then be disposed on the Hanford site in the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF). In addition, the WTP LAW Vitrification facility off-gas condensate known as WTP Secondary Waste (WTP-SW) will be generated and enriched in volatile components such as Cs-137, I-129, Tc-99, Cl, F, and SO{sub 4} that volatilize at the vitrification temperature of 1150 C in the absence of a continuous cold cap. The current waste disposal path for the WTP-SW is to recycle it to the supplemental LAW treatment to avoid a large steady state accumulation in the pretreatment-vitrification loop. Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) offers a moderate temperature (700-750 C) continuous method by which LAW and/or WTP-SW wastes can be processed irrespective of whether they contain organics, nitrates

  18. Numerical evaluation of longitudinal motions of Wigley hulls advancing in waves by using Bessho form translating-pulsating source Green'S function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Wenbin; Dong, Wencai

    2016-06-01

    In the framework of 3D potential flow theory, Bessho form translating-pulsating source Green's function in frequency domain is chosen as the integral kernel in this study and hybrid source-and-dipole distribution model of the boundary element method is applied to directly solve the velocity potential for advancing ship in regular waves. Numerical characteristics of the Green function show that the contribution of local-flow components to velocity potential is concentrated at the nearby source point area and the wave component dominates the magnitude of velocity potential in the far field. Two kinds of mathematical models, with or without local-flow components taken into account, are adopted to numerically calculate the longitudinal motions of Wigley hulls, which demonstrates the applicability of translating-pulsating source Green's function method for various ship forms. In addition, the mesh analysis of discrete surface is carried out from the perspective of ship-form characteristics. The study shows that the longitudinal motion results by the simplified model are somewhat greater than the experimental data in the resonant zone, and the model can be used as an effective tool to predict ship seakeeping properties. However, translating-pulsating source Green function method is only appropriate for the qualitative analysis of motion response in waves if the ship geometrical shape fails to satisfy the slender-body assumption.

  19. GeSn-on-insulator substrate formed by direct wafer bonding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Dian; Lee, Kwang Hong; Bao, Shuyu; Wang, Wei; Wang, Bing; Gong, Xiao; Tan, Chuan Seng; Yeo, Yee-Chia

    2016-07-01

    GeSn-on-insulator (GeSnOI) on Silicon (Si) substrate was realized using direct wafer bonding technique. This process involves the growth of Ge1-xSnx layer on a first Si (001) substrate (donor wafer) followed by the deposition of SiO2 on Ge1-xSnx, the bonding of the donor wafer to a second Si (001) substrate (handle wafer), and removal of the Si donor wafer. The GeSnOI material quality is investigated using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, high-resolution X-ray diffraction (HRXRD), atomic-force microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and spectroscopic ellipsometry. The Ge1-xSnx layer on GeSnOI substrate has a surface roughness of 1.90 nm, which is higher than that of the original Ge1-xSnx epilayer before transfer (surface roughness is 0.528 nm). The compressive strain of the Ge1-xSnx film in the GeSnOI is as low as 0.10% as confirmed using HRXRD and Raman spectroscopy.

  20. A Rich Star-forming Region in the Direction of RCW 95

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman-Lopes, A.; Abraham, Z.

    2004-11-01

    Near-IR imaging in the direction of the IRAS 15408-5356 point source, which is associated with the RCW 95 H II region, revealed a young and massive stellar cluster. We detected 136 member candidates up to our completeness limit, embedded in an infrared nebula and concentrated in an area of about 3 pc2. About 60% of the candidates detected in all three of the J, H, and K bands present infrared excess at 2.2 μm. The UV photons provided by the most massive stars are enough to explain the observed free-free emission at radio wavelengths and the integrated infrared luminosity produced by the heated dust. The near-IR counterpart of the IRAS point source was identified using a more accurate position from the Midcourse Space Experiment (MSX) catalog; it coincides with the peak of emission in the MSX mid-IR bands. The measured integrated flux density of the infrared nebula at the K band is compatible with the expected free-free emission derived from the radio data, but an excess at the J and H bands was detected and may be due to either nonhomogeneous absorption across the nebula or to the presence of scattered stellar light, more prominent at smaller wavelengths. Based on observations made at Laboratório Nacional de Astrofisica/MCT, Brazil.

  1. Preparation and evaluation of directly compressible forms of mutual prodrugs of ibuprofen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhosale A

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Tablets of mutual prodrugs of ibuprofen, i.e, ′ibuprofen with paracetamol′ and ′ibuprofen with salicylamide,′ were prepared by direct compression method. The preformulation studies such as flow property, solid state stability at elevated temperatures, solid state stability under different humidity conditions, photolytic stability and compatibility studies of prodrugs with excipients were also performed to design and develop tablet formulations of prodrugs. Quality control tests and in vivo studies of prepared tablets of prodrugs were performed. The result of preformulation studies revealed that prodrugs have good flow property, good solid state stability at elevated temperatures and unstable under different humidity conditions. The photolytic stability study showed that prodrugs are quite stable to light; hence prodrugs are nonphotolytic. The compatibility study indicated that there was no incompatibility or interaction between prodrugs and excipients, which were tried. The prepared tablets of prodrugs were found to satisfy all quality control requirements of tablets mentioned in the Indian Pharmacopoeia. In vivo study of tablet formulations of prodrugs confirmed that they possessed the ability of parent drug, i.e., ibuprofen. In vivo study also showed better extent of bioavailability (indicated by AUC0-24 of tablet of prodrugs as compared to tablets of ibuprofen.

  2. Free-form processing of near-net shapes using directed light fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Directed light fabrication (DLF) is a rapid fabrication process that fuses gas delivered metal powders within a focal zone of a laser beam to produce fully dense, near-net shape, three-dimensional metal components from a computer generated solid model. Computer controls dictate the metal deposition pathways, and no preforms or molds are required to generate complex sample geometries with accurate and precise tolerances. The DLF technique offers unique advantages over conventional thermomechanical processes or thermal spray processes in that many labor and equipment intensive steps can be avoided to produce components with fully dense microstructures. Moreover, owing to the flexibility in power distributions of lasers, a variety of materials have been processed, ranging from aluminum alloys to tungsten, and including intermetallics such as Mo5Si3. Since DLF processing offers unique capabilities and advantages for the rapid fabrication of complex metal components, an examination of the microstructural development has been performed in order to define and optimize the processed materials. Solidification studies of DLF processing have demonstrated that a continuous liquid/solid interface is maintained while achieving high constant cooling rates that can be varied between 10 to 105 K s-1 and solidification growth rates ranging up to the 10-2 m s-1

  3. IDN2 and its paralogs form a complex required for RNA-directed DNA methylation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cui-Jun Zhang

    Full Text Available IDN2/RDM12 has been previously identified as a component of the RNA-directed DNA methylation (RdDM machinery in Arabidopsis thaliana, but how it functions in RdDM remains unknown. By affinity purification of IDN2, we co-purified two IDN2 paralogs IDP1 and IDP2 (IDN2 PARALOG 1 and 2. The coiled-coil domain between the XS and XH domains of IDN2 is essential for IDN2 homodimerization, whereas the IDN2 C-terminal XH domain but not the coiled-coil domain is required for IDN2 interaction with IDP1 and IDP2. By introducing the wild-type IDN2 sequence and its mutated derivatives into the idn2 mutant for complementation testing, we demonstrated that the previously uncharacterized IDN2 XH domain is required for the IDN2-IDP1/IDP2 complex formation as well as for IDN2 function. IDP1 is required for de novo DNA methylation, siRNA accumulation, and transcriptional gene silencing, whereas IDP2 has partially overlapping roles with IDP1. Unlike IDN2, IDP1 and IDP2 are incapable of binding double-stranded RNA, suggesting that the roles of IDP1 and IDP2 are different from those of IDN2 in the IDN2-IDP1/IDP2 complex and that IDP1 and IDP2 are essential for the functioning of the complex in RdDM.

  4. Salt waste form development in pyroprocess. Direct synthesis study for sodalite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salt waste generated from the pyroprocessing for the FBR Metallic Fuel consists of LiCl/KCl eutectic salt, chlorides of alkaline metal's fission products and alkaline earth metal's fission products, and sodium chloride comes from sodium bond of the fuel. These chlorides contained in the salt wastes are not suitable for the vitrified waste form because of the thermodynamically difficulties of converting chlorides into oxides and the problem of generating corrosive gases, such as chlorine, during the converting. Sodalite, which is known as a natural mineral containing chlorides compounds in it beta-cage, is considered to be applied for an immobilization matrix for the salt wastes. In this study, a solid state synthesis method for sodalite which is compatible with the Pyroprocess is examined. The mixture of simulated salt waste, sodium aluminate, and silicate, is pressed into a solid pellet, and the pellet is heated at up to 900degC for up to 200 hr. Almost single phase of sodalite is generated in the pellet by the above sequence. This report will describe the result of the examination for the synthesis of sodalite. (author)

  5. Direct diagnostics of forming massive stars: stellar pulsation and periodic variability of maser sources

    CERN Document Server

    Inayoshi, Kohei; Hosokawa, Takashi; Motogi, Kazuhito; Tanaka, Kei E I

    2013-01-01

    The 6.7 GHz methanol maser emission, a tracer of forming massive stars, sometimes shows enigmatic periodic flux variations over several 10-100 days. In this Letter, we propose that this periodic variations could be explained by the pulsation of massive protostars growing under rapid mass accretion with rates of Mdot > 10^-3 Msun/yr. Our stellar evolution calculations predict that the massive protostars have very large radius exceeding 100 Rsun at maximum, and we here study the pulsational stability of such the bloated protostars by way of the linear stability analysis. We show that the protostar becomes pulsationally unstable with various periods of several 10-100 days, depending on different accretion rates. With the fact that the stellar luminosity when the star is pulsationally unstable also depends on the accretion rate, we derive the period-luminosity relation log (L/Lsun) = 4.62 + 0.98log(P/100 day), which is testable with future observations. Our models further show that the radius and mass of the puls...

  6. Silver nanoparticles directly formed on natural macroporous matrix and their anti-microbial activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, silver nanoparticles were formed on a natural macroporous matrix, the stem of rice-paper plant, by reducing Ag+ in aqueous solution through in situ processing without using any other stabilizers. The pores of the matrix, with their size of about 100 μm, were thought to act as reaction compartments for the nucleation and growth of silver nanoparticles, and the control of nucleation of silver crystal during the reduction reaction was found to be important to the successful formation of nanosized silver particles onto the matrix. The diameter and amount of resultant silver particles can be controlled by changing the reaction conditions. Under optimized conditions, the content of silver particles in the matrix can reach as high as 1.8 wt% with the particle diameters being kept below 100 nm. The anti-microbial activities in terms of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) for the silver nanoparticle composites against Escherichia coli and Candida albicans were assayed in agar gel, and the results show that MIC values for silver nanoparticle composites are 14.1 mg(Ag) l-1 and 28.1 mg(Ag) l-1 for Escherichia coli and Candida albicans respectively, which are comparable to the value for colloidal nanosilver

  7. Inapplicability of advance directives in a paternalistic setting: the case of a post-communist health system

    OpenAIRE

    Kruja Jera; Vyshka Gentian

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background The Albanian medical system and Albanian health legislation have adopted a paternalistic position with regard to individual decision making. This reflects the practices of a not-so-remote past when state-run facilities and a totalitarian philosophy of medical care were politically imposed. Because of this history, advance directives concerning treatment refusal and do-not-resuscitate decisions are still extremely uncommon in Albania. Medical teams cannot abstain from inter...

  8. Advance Directives for End-of-Life Care and the Role of Health Education Specialists: Applying the Theory of Reasoned Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremethick, Mary Jane; Johnson, Maureen K.; Carter, Mary R.

    2011-01-01

    Quality end-of-life care is subjective and based on individual values and beliefs. An advance directive provides a legal means of communicating these values and beliefs, as well as preferences in regards to end-of-life care when an individual is no longer able to make his or her desires known. In many nations, advance directives are underused…

  9. Engaging Men and Boys in Advancing Women's Agency : Where We Stand and New Directions

    OpenAIRE

    Fleming, Paul J.; Barker, Gary; McCleary-Sills, Jennifer; Morton, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    Despite advances in gender equality, women and girls still face disadvantages and limits on their agency. Men and boys can be key stakeholders and allies to increase women's agency. This paper focuses on examining men's attitudes and behaviors related to gender equality and violence perpetration to better understand how to engage men and boys as. It uses data collected from men and women f...

  10. Sowing Black Hole Seeds: Forming Direct Collapse Black Holes With Realistic Lyman-Werner Radiation Fields in Cosmological Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holley-Bockelmann, Kelly; Dunn, Glenna; Bellovary, Jillian M.; Christensen, Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    Luminous quasars detected at redshifts z > 6 require that the first black holes form early and grow to ~109 solar masses within one Gyr. Our work uses cosmological simulations to study the formation and early growth of direct collapse black holes. In the pre-reionization epoch, molecular hydrogen (H2) causes gas to fragment and form Population III stars, but Lyman-Werner radiation can suppress H2 formation and allow gas to collapse directly into a massive black hole. The critical flux required to inhibit H2 formation, Jcrit, is hotly debated, largely due to the uncertainties in the source radiation spectrum, H2 self-shielding, and collisional dissociation rates. Here, we test the power of the direct collapse model in a non-uniform Lyman-Werner radiation field, using an updated version of the SPH+N-body tree code Gasoline with H2 non-equilibrium abundance tracking, H2 cooling, and a modern SPH implementation. We vary Jcrit from 30 to 104 J21 to study the effect on seed black holes, focusing on black hole formation as a function of environment, halo mass, metallicity, and proximity of the Lyman-Werner source. We discuss the constraints on massive black hole occupation fraction in the quasar epoch, and implications for reionization, high-redshift X-ray background radiation, and gravitational waves.

  11. Directional Compton profiles and reciprocal form factors for the isoelectronic hydrides PH3, H2S and HCl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isotropic and directional Compton profiles (J(q)) and reciprocal form factors (B(s)), as well as momentum densities and various momentum expectation values, were evaluated for the 18-electron hydrides PH3, H2S and HCl in their ground states, as well as for the argon atom. Density functional theory, Moeller-Plesset and configuration interaction wavefunctions were employed for this purpose. Components of the J(q) and B(s) were obtained for several directions relevant to the molecular structure of these molecules. Results were obtained using a configuration interaction wavefunction with singles and doubles, and analysed by means of difference curves with the corresponding isotropic and self-consistent field results

  12. Mechanistic approaches to understanding and predicting mammalian space use: Recent advances, future directions

    OpenAIRE

    Moorcroft, Paul R.

    2012-01-01

    The coming of age of global positioning system telemetry, in conjunction with recent theoretical innovations for formulating quantitative descriptions of how different ecological forces and behavioral mechanisms shape patterns of animal space use, has led to renewed interest and insight into animal home-range patterns. This renaissance is likely to continue as a result of ongoing synergies between these empirical and theoretical advances. In this article I review key developments that have oc...

  13. Imaging-Genetics in Autism Spectrum Disorder: Advances, Translational Impact, and Future Directions

    OpenAIRE

    StephanieH.Ameis; PeterSzatmari

    2012-01-01

    Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) refers to a group of heterogeneous neurodevelopmental disorders that are unified by impairments in reciprocal social communication and a pattern of inflexible behaviors. Recent genetic advances have resolved some of the complexity of the genetic architecture underlying ASD by identifying several genetic variants that contribute to the disorder. Different etiological pathways associated with ASD may converge through effects on common molecular mechanisms, such as...

  14. Design of a novel triple helix-forming oligodeoxyribonucleotide directed to the major promoter of the c-myc gene

    OpenAIRE

    McGuffie, E M; Catapano, C. V.

    2002-01-01

    Altered expression of c-myc is implicated in pathogenesis and progression of many human cancers. Triple helix-forming oligonucleotides (TFOs) directed to a polypurine/polypyrimidine sequence in a critical regulatory region near the c-myc P2 promoter have been shown to inhibit c-myc transcription in vitro and in cells. However, these guanine-rich TFOs had moderate binding affinity and required high concentrations for activity. The 23 bp myc P2 sequence is split equally into AT- and GC-rich tra...

  15. Employing beam-forming for estimating the direction of arrival in a multi-path propagation environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Bresch

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to recent researches on traffic accidents with vulnerable road users (VRUs, several measures revealed a great opportunity of reduction. However, all measures applied so far failed to reduce the number of traffic accidents if there is no line-of-sight. Therefore, a transponder signal is utilized to make the VRU visible. The motor vehicle carries a mobile receiver for VRU detection and location. The receiver employs digital beam-forming for estimating the direction of arrival (DOA with an antenna array for RF ISM band. A sequence of DOA estimations is used for location and motion estimation purposes.

  16. Recent advances in direct-drive ICF target physics at the laboratory for laser energetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The principal role of the Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE) is the development and validation of the direct-drive approach to inertial fusion. The LLE experimental and theoretical programs in support of this mission were organized to provide a moderate-gain option for the U.S. National Ignition Facility (NIF). Experimental implementation of the LLE program is carried out on the LLE's 30-kJ, 60-beam, UV OMEGA laser. This paper summarizes the status of the direct-drive ICF physics program at LLE with emphasis on the development of beam-smoothing techniques, long-scale-length plasma interaction experiments, direct-drive planar-foil hydrodynamic instability experiments, the effect of laser nonuniformity on target stability, integrated spherical target implosion experiments, design of direct-drive targets, development of target diagnostic techniques, and implementation of cryogenic-fuel-layering technology. (author)

  17. Direct methods for limit and shakedown analysis of structures advanced computational algorithms and material modelling

    CERN Document Server

    Pisano, Aurora; Weichert, Dieter

    2015-01-01

    Articles in this book examine various materials and how to determine directly the limit state of a structure, in the sense of limit analysis and shakedown analysis. Apart from classical applications in mechanical and civil engineering contexts, the book reports on the emerging field of material design beyond the elastic limit, which has further industrial design and technological applications. Readers will discover that “Direct Methods” and the techniques presented here can in fact be used to numerically estimate the strength of structured materials such as composites or nano-materials, which represent fruitful fields of future applications.   Leading researchers outline the latest computational tools and optimization techniques and explore the possibility of obtaining information on the limit state of a structure whose post-elastic loading path and constitutive behavior are not well defined or well known. Readers will discover how Direct Methods allow rapid and direct access to requested information in...

  18. Recent advances in direct-drive ICF target physics at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The principal role of the Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE) is the development and validation of the direct-drive approach to inertial fusion. The LLE experimental and theoretical programs in support of this mission were organized to provide a moderate-gain option for the U.S. National Ignition Facility (NIF). Experimental implementation of the LLE program is carried out on the LLE's 30-kJ, 60-beam, UV OMEGA laser. This paper summarizes the status of the direct-drive ICF physics program at LLE with emphasis on the development of beam-smoothing techniques, long-scale-length plasma interaction experiments, direct-drive planar-foil hydrodynamic instability experiments, the effect of laser nonuniformity on target stability, integrated spherical target implosion experiments, design of direct-drive targets, development of target diagnostic techniques, and implementation of cryogenic-fuel-layering technology. (author)

  19. Family consent, communication, and advance directives for cancer disclosure: a Japanese case and discussion.

    OpenAIRE

    Akabayashi, A.; Fetters, M. D.; Elwyn, T S

    1999-01-01

    The dilemma of whether and how to disclose a diagnosis of cancer or of any other terminal illness continues to be a subject of worldwide interest. We present the case of a 62-year-old Japanese woman afflicted with advanced gall bladder cancer who had previously expressed a preference not to be told a diagnosis of cancer. The treating physician revealed the diagnosis to the family first, and then told the patient: "You don't have any cancer yet, but if we don't treat you, it will progress to a...

  20. Advancing Scientific Reasoning in Upper Elementary Classrooms: Direct Instruction Versus Task Structuring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lazonder, A.W.; Wiskerke-Drost, Sjanou

    2015-01-01

    Several studies found that direct instruction and task structuring can effectively promote children’s ability to design unconfounded experiments. The present study examined whether the impact of these interventions extends to other scientific reasoning skills by comparing the inquiry activities of 5

  1. Objectification Theory and Psychology of Women: A Decade of Advances and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradi, Bonnie; Huang, Yu-Ping

    2008-01-01

    Fredrickson and Roberts (1997) proposed objectification theory as an integrative framework for understanding how women's socialization and experiences of sexual objectification are translated into mental health problems. This article reviews the past decade of research grounded in objectification theory and highlights needed directions for future…

  2. Direct evidence of lymphatic function improvement after advanced pneumatic compression device treatment of lymphedema

    OpenAIRE

    Adams, Kristen E.; Rasmussen, John C.; Darne, Chinmay; Tan, I-Chih; Aldrich, Melissa B.; Marshall, Milton V.; Fife, Caroline E.; Maus, Erik A.; Smith, Latisha A.; Guilloid, Renie; Hoy, Sunday; Sevick-Muraca, Eva M.

    2010-01-01

    Lymphedema affects up to 50% of all breast cancer survivors. Management with pneumatic compression devices (PCDs) is controversial, owing to the lack of methods to directly assess benefit. This pilot study employed an investigational, near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence imaging technique to evaluate lymphatic response to PCD therapy in normal control and breast cancer-related lymphedema (BCRL) subjects. Lymphatic propulsion rate, apparent lymph velocity, and lymphatic vessel recruitment were mea...

  3. Direct puncture embolization for the treatment of advanced juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To discuss the clinical application of direct puncture tumor embolization, which is used as a preoperative supplementary embolization,in treating juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma (JNA). Methods: Twenty-nine patients were enrolled in this study. The shape and location of JNA were documented through the carotid angiography. Then, an 18-gauge needle was used to puncture the tumor. After the needle's position was confirmed to be in the right site and it was certain that no contrast leaked into the brain, 20-25% N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate was slowly injected under fluoroscopic guidance until the entire JNA was fully filled with it. Results: Angiography revealed that the JNA received its blood supply from both the internal carotid artery and the external carotid artery in all 29 patients. After direct puncture tumor embolization the tumor stain became lessened and the distal end of the supplying arteries was not obviously displayed. Surgical resection was carried out within one week after embolization and the blood loss during the surgery was significantly reduced to 150-500 ml (mean 350 ml). Conclusion: Percutaneous direct puncture tumor embolization is a safe treatment for juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma, it can effectively occlude the tumor's vessels and markedly reduce the blood loss during the surgery. (authors)

  4. Combining floristic and growth form composition in a gradient- directed vegetation survey of Matjiesrivier Nature Reserve, Western Cape, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. G. Lechmere-Oertel

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available The floristically complex vegetation of Matjiesrivier Nature Reserve (MNR. which spans the ecotone between the Fynbos and Succulent Karoo Biomes in the eastern Cederberg Mountains, Western Cape, was surveyed using a gradient-directed transect (gradsect. The gradsect was aligned with a topo-ciimatic aridity gradient across MNR. The vegetation was classified using TWINSPAN. based on a combination of floristic and growth form characteristics, and an understanding of the main ecological gradients controlling vegetation distribution. The final classification described seven robust and eco­logically meaningful communities that represented a trade-off between statistical rigour and practicality for management. The seven communities were mapped using a geographical information system (GIS.

  5. The Relationship between Glycan Binding and Direct Membrane Interactions in Vibrio cholerae Cytolysin, a Channel-forming Toxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De, Swastik; Bubnys, Adele; Alonzo, Francis; Hyun, Jinsol; Lary, Jeffrey W; Cole, James L; Torres, Victor J; Olson, Rich

    2015-11-20

    Bacterial pore-forming toxins (PFTs) are structurally diverse pathogen-secreted proteins that form cell-damaging channels in the membranes of host cells. Most PFTs are released as water-soluble monomers that first oligomerize on the membrane before inserting a transmembrane channel. To modulate specificity and increase potency, many PFTs recognize specific cell surface receptors that increase the local toxin concentration on cell membranes, thereby facilitating channel formation. Vibrio cholerae cytolysin (VCC) is a toxin secreted by the human pathogen responsible for pandemic cholera disease and acts as a defensive agent against the host immune system. Although it has been shown that VCC utilizes specific glycan receptors on the cell surface, additional direct contacts with the membrane must also play a role in toxin binding. To better understand the nature of these interactions, we conducted a systematic investigation of the membrane-binding surface of VCC to identify additional membrane interactions important in cell targeting. Through cell-based assays on several human-derived cell lines, we show that VCC is unlikely to utilize high affinity protein receptors as do structurally similar toxins from Staphylococcus aureus. Next, we identified a number of specific amino acid residues that greatly diminish the VCC potency against cells and investigated the interplay between glycan binding and these direct lipid contacts. Finally, we used model membranes to parse the importance of these key residues in lipid and cholesterol binding. Our study provides a complete functional map of the VCC membrane-binding surface and insights into the integration of sugar, lipid, and cholesterol binding interactions. PMID:26416894

  6. DIRECTIONS AND FORMS OF WORK OF THE UKRAINIAN SOCIETY OF FRIENDSHIP WITH FOREIGN STUDENTS (1959-1991

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. DITKOVSKA

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the interaction of the Ukrainian public with foreign students in the era of socialism. Thanks to the Ukrainian society of friendship such a relationships were widespread. Individual and collective members of the sections of law, social sciences, pedagogical, medical and agricultural actively established and expanded contacts with foreign students. It is proved that it was conducted in three directions: organization of an exchange of student's groups of universities sworn brothers; assistance in training and the organization of leisure for students foreigners from socialist and developing countries; patronage of students from the USA and Canada. It is shown that the main forms of work with foreign students was the evenings of friendship, lectures, conversations, meetings with scientists, figures of culture and art, leaders of manufacture, the holding photo exhibitions, the exchange of literature and materials, establishing of links between different organizations, institutions, communities, regions, and the anniversary celebration of memorable dates. With U.S. and Canadian citizens practiced individual work, the basic forms of which were an invitation to study in the USSR, control of the learning, political and educational works and the organization of the tourist trips on the territory of the USSR. The content of the work of the Society in this direction was to introduce students to Soviet reality, life and culture of the Ukrainian people. However, excessive centralization, planning, ideologization and formalism reduce the possibilities of productive communication and played as a negative factor in the development of international educational and scientific contacts.

  7. Inapplicability of advance directives in a paternalistic setting: the case of a post-communist health system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kruja Jera

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Albanian medical system and Albanian health legislation have adopted a paternalistic position with regard to individual decision making. This reflects the practices of a not-so-remote past when state-run facilities and a totalitarian philosophy of medical care were politically imposed. Because of this history, advance directives concerning treatment refusal and do-not-resuscitate decisions are still extremely uncommon in Albania. Medical teams cannot abstain from intervening even when the patient explicitly and repeatedly solicits therapeutic abstinence. The Albanian law on health care has no provisions regarding limits or withdrawal of treatment. This restricts the individual's healthcare choices. Discussion The question of 'medically futile' interventions and pointless life-prolonging treatment has been discussed by several authors. Dutch physicians call such interventions 'medisch zinloos' (senseless, and the Netherlands, as one of the first states to legislate on end-of-life situations, actually regulates such issues through appropriate laws. In contrast, leaving an 'advance directive' is not a viable option for Albanian ailing individuals of advanced age. Verbal requests are provided during periods of mental competence, but unfortunately such instructions are rarely taken seriously, and none of them has ever been upheld in a legal or other official forum. Summary End-of-life decisions, treatment refusal and do-not-resuscitate policies are hazardous options in Albania, from the legal point of view. Complying with them involves significant risk on the part of the physician. Culturally, the application of such instructions is influenced from a mixture of religious beliefs, death coping-behaviors and an immense confusion concerning the role of proxies as decision-makers. Nevertheless, Albanian tradition is familiar with the notion of 'amanet', a sort of living will that mainly deals the property and inheritance issues

  8. A carbon dioxide partial condensation direct cycle for advanced gas cooled fast and thermal reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A carbon dioxide partial condensation direct cycle concept has been proposed for gas cooled fast and thermal reactors. The fast reactor with the concept are evaluated to be a potential alternative option to liquid metal cooled fast reactors, providing comparable cycle efficiency at the same core outlet temperature, eliminating the safety problems, simplifying the heat transport system and making easier plant maintenance. The thermal reactor with the concept is expected to be an alternative solution to current high temperature gas cooled reactors (HTGRs) with helium gas turbines, allowing comparable cycle efficiency at the moderate temperature of 650 C instead of 800 C in HTGRs. (author)

  9. Human Identity Verification based on Heart Sounds: Recent Advances and Future Directions

    CERN Document Server

    Beritelli, Francesco

    2011-01-01

    Identity verification is an increasingly important process in our daily lives, and biometric recognition is a natural solution to the authentication problem. One of the most important research directions in the field of biometrics is the characterization of novel biometric traits that can be used in conjunction with other traits, to limit their shortcomings or to enhance their performance. The aim of this work is to introduce the reader to the usage of heart sounds for biometric recognition, describing the strengths and the weaknesses of this novel trait and analyzing in detail the methods developed so far by different research groups and their performance.

  10. Advanced Low Conductivity Thermal Barrier Coatings: Performance and Future Directions (Invited paper)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Dongming; Miller, Robert A.

    2008-01-01

    Thermal barrier coatings will be more aggressively designed to protect gas turbine engine hot-section components in order to meet future engine higher fuel efficiency and lower emission goals. In this presentation, thermal barrier coating development considerations and performance will be emphasized. Advanced thermal barrier coatings have been developed using a multi-component defect clustering approach, and shown to have improved thermal stability and lower conductivity. The coating systems have been demonstrated for high temperature combustor applications. For thermal barrier coatings designed for turbine airfoil applications, further improved erosion and impact resistance are crucial for engine performance and durability. Erosion resistant thermal barrier coatings are being developed, with a current emphasis on the toughness improvements using a combined rare earth- and transition metal-oxide doping approach. The performance of the toughened thermal barrier coatings has been evaluated in burner rig and laser heat-flux rig simulated engine erosion and thermal gradient environments. The results have shown that the coating composition optimizations can effectively improve the erosion and impact resistance of the coating systems, while maintaining low thermal conductivity and cyclic durability. The erosion, impact and high heat-flux damage mechanisms of the thermal barrier coatings will also be described.

  11. Imaging-Genetics in Autism Spectrum Disorder: Advances, Translational Impact and Future Directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    StephanieH.Ameis

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD refers to a group of heterogeneous neurodevelopmental disorders that are unified by impairments in reciprocal social communication and a pattern of inflexible behaviours. Recent genetic advances have resolved some of the complexity of the genetic architecture underlying ASD by identifying several genetic variants that contribute to the disorder. Different etiological pathways associated with ASD may converge through effects on common molecular mechanisms, such as synaptogenesis, neuronal motility, and axonal guidance. Recently, with more sophisticated techniques, neuroimaging and neuropathological studies have provided some consistency of evidence that altered structure, activity, and connectivity within complex neural networks is present in ASD, compared to typically developing children. The imaging-genetics approach promises to help bridge the gap between genetic variation, resultant biological effects on the brain, and production of complex neuropsychiatric symptoms. Here, we review recent findings from the developing field of imaging-genetics applied to ASD. Studies to date have indicated that relevant risk genes are associated with alterations in circuits that mediate socio-emotional, visuospatial and language processing. Longitudinal studies ideally focused on early development, in conjunction with investigation for gene-gene, and gene-environment interactions may move the promise of imaging-genetics in ASD closer to the clinical domain.

  12. Fairly direct hit. Advances in imaging of shotgun projectiles in MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eggert, Sebastian [Kantonsspital Baden AG, Department of Radiology, Baden (Switzerland); University of Zurich, Institute of Forensic Medicine, Zurich (Switzerland); Kubik-Huch, Rahel A.; Peters, Alexander [Kantonsspital Baden AG, Department of Radiology, Baden (Switzerland); Klarhoefer, Markus [Siemens Healthcare, Zurich (Switzerland); Bolliger, Stephan A.; Thali, Michael J. [University of Zurich, Institute of Forensic Medicine, Zurich (Switzerland); Anderson, Suzanne [Kantonsspital Baden AG, Department of Radiology, Baden (Switzerland); University of Notre Dame Australia, Radiology, Sydney School of Medicine, Sydney, NSW (Australia); Froehlich, Johannes M. [Federal Institute of Technology, Pharmaceutical Sciences, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2015-09-15

    To investigate the magnetic properties of different types of projectiles and qualify the metal artefact reduction technique for diagnostic and/or forensic MRI. Ten different projectiles embedded in ordnance gelatine blocks underwent an in vitro 1.5-T MR study with seven sequences including a recently developed metal artefact reduction sequence (Advanced WARP) combining VAT (view-angle-tilting) and SEMAC (slice-encoding metal-artefact-correction). Resulting image quality (five-point scale: 1=best; 5=worst) was scored. Quantifiable magnetic characteristics were correlated with qualitative rating of the MR sequences and torque dislodgment. Metal artefact reduction sequence (median: 2.5) significantly (p < 0.001) improves depiction of projectiles in comparison to all other MR pulse sequences (median: 4.75). Images from diamagnetic composed bullets (median: 2) are much less disturbed compared to magnetic attracted ones (median: 5). Correlation (0.623) between deflection angle measurement (ferromagnetic mean 84.2 ; paramagnetic 62 ; diamagnetic mean 0 ) and median qualitative image quality was highly significant (p = 0.027). Torque dislodgement was distinct for elongated magnetic attracted projectiles. Significant improvement of MR imaging of projectiles using metal artefact reduction techniques has important implications for diagnostic/forensic work-up. The correlations between magnetic attraction force, deflection-angle results and image properties demonstrate that the MR safety of projectiles can be estimated with one of these methods. (orig.)

  13. Fairly direct hit. Advances in imaging of shotgun projectiles in MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To investigate the magnetic properties of different types of projectiles and qualify the metal artefact reduction technique for diagnostic and/or forensic MRI. Ten different projectiles embedded in ordnance gelatine blocks underwent an in vitro 1.5-T MR study with seven sequences including a recently developed metal artefact reduction sequence (Advanced WARP) combining VAT (view-angle-tilting) and SEMAC (slice-encoding metal-artefact-correction). Resulting image quality (five-point scale: 1=best; 5=worst) was scored. Quantifiable magnetic characteristics were correlated with qualitative rating of the MR sequences and torque dislodgment. Metal artefact reduction sequence (median: 2.5) significantly (p < 0.001) improves depiction of projectiles in comparison to all other MR pulse sequences (median: 4.75). Images from diamagnetic composed bullets (median: 2) are much less disturbed compared to magnetic attracted ones (median: 5). Correlation (0.623) between deflection angle measurement (ferromagnetic mean 84.2 ; paramagnetic 62 ; diamagnetic mean 0 ) and median qualitative image quality was highly significant (p = 0.027). Torque dislodgement was distinct for elongated magnetic attracted projectiles. Significant improvement of MR imaging of projectiles using metal artefact reduction techniques has important implications for diagnostic/forensic work-up. The correlations between magnetic attraction force, deflection-angle results and image properties demonstrate that the MR safety of projectiles can be estimated with one of these methods. (orig.)

  14. Development of advanced direct perception displays for nuclear power plants to enhance monitoring, control and fault management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With recent theoretical and empirical research in basic and applied psychology, human factors, and engineering, it is now sufficient to define an integrated approach to the deign of advanced displays for present and future nuclear power plants. Traditionally, the conventional displays have shown operators the individual variables on gauges, meters, strip charts, etc. This design approach requires the operators to mentally integrate the separately displayed variables and determine the implications for the plant state. This traditional approach has been known as the single-sensor-single-indicator display design and it places an intolerable amount of mental workload on operators during transients and abnormal conditions. This report discusses a new alternative approach which is the use of direct perception interfaces. Direct perception a interfaces display the underlying physical and system constraints of the situation in a directly perceptual way, such that the viewer need not reason about what is seen to identify system states, but can identify the state of the system perceptually. It is expected that displays which show the dynamics of fundamental physical laws should better support operator decisions and diagnoses of plant states. The purpose of this research project is to develop a suite of direct perception displays for PWR nuclear power plant operations

  15. Magnetic properties of MnSb inclusions formed in GaSb matrix directly during molecular beam epitaxial growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despite of intensive search for the proper semiconductor base materials for spintronic devices working at room temperature no appropriate material based on ferromagnetic semiconductors has been found so far. We demonstrate that the phase segregated system with MnSb hexagonal inclusions inside the GaSb matrix, formed directly during the molecular beam epitaxial growth reveals the ferromagnetic properties at room temperature and is a good candidate for exploitation in spintronics. Furthermore, the MnSb inclusions with only one crystalline structure were identified in this GaMn:MnSb granular material. The SQUID magnetometry confirmed that this material exhibits ferromagnetic like behavior starting from helium up to room temperature. Moreover, the magnetic anisotropy was found which was present also at room temperature, and it was proved that by choosing a proper substrate it is possible to control the direction of easy axis of inclusions' magnetization moment between in-plane and out-of-plane; the latter is important in view of potential applications in spintronic devices.

  16. The effect of biochar in soil enzyme activities: Latest advances and future directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paz-Ferreiro, Jorge; Méndez, Ana; Gascó, Gabriel

    2014-05-01

    In the last years there has been an increasing interest in biochar research. Soil biological and biochemical properties have a preeminent role driving nutrient cycling and can be considered as indicators of soil quality. The information on the effects of biochar addition in soil biological activities in still scarce, although an influential number of articles have appeared lately. The aim of this work is to provide an overview of those articles dealing with the biological impact of biochar addition to soil. Studies conducted in soils in different countries differing in forming factors and fertility status are presented. The focus of this work is on how biochar interacts with soil fauna, on changes in soil biological and biochemical properties following heavy metal immobilization after biochar addition and on how these changes are important in relation to global change. Priority areas were research is needed are identified.

  17. Advanced fire-resistant forms of activated carbon and methods of adsorbing and separating gases using same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiong, Yongliang; Wang, Yifeng

    2016-04-19

    A method of removing a target gas from a gas stream is disclosed. The method uses advanced, fire-resistant activated carbon compositions having vastly improved fire resistance. Methods for synthesizing the compositions are also provided. The advanced compositions have high gas adsorption capacities and rapid adsorption kinetics (comparable to commercially-available activated carbon), without having any intrinsic fire hazard.

  18. MOTHER MK II: An advanced direct cycle high temperature gas reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The MOTHER (MOdular Thermal HElium Reactor) power plant concepts employ high temperature gas reactors utilizing TRISO fuel, graphite moderator, and helium coolant, in combination with a direct Brayton cycle for electricity generation. The helium coolant from the reactor vessel passes through a Power Conversion Unit (PCU), which includes a turbine-generator, recuperator, precooler, intercooler and turbine-compressors, before being returned to the reactor vessel. The PCU substitutes for the reactor coolant system pumps and steam generators and most of the Balance Of Plant (BOP), including the steam turbines and condensers, employed by conventional nuclear power plants utilizing water cooled reactors. This provides a compact, efficient, and relatively simple plant configuration. The MOTHER MK I conceptual design, completed in the 1987 - 1989 time frame, was developed to economically meet the energy demands for extracting and processing heavy oil from the tar sands of western Canada. However, considerable effort was made to maximize the market potential beyond this application. Consistent with the remote and very high labour rate environment in the tar sands region, simplification of maintenance procedures and facilitation of 'change-out' in lieu of in situ repair was a design focus. MOTHER MK I had a thermal output of 288 MW and produced 120 MW electrical when operated in the electricity only production mode. An annular Prismatic reactor core was utilized, largely to minimize day-to-day operations activities. Key features of the power conversion system included two Power Conversion Units (144 MWth each), the horizontal orientation of all rotating machinery and major heat exchangers axes, high speed rotating machinery (17,030 rpm for the turbine-compressors and 10,200 rpm for the power turbine-generator), gas (helium) bearings for all rotating machinery, and solid state frequency conversion from 170 cps (at full power) to the grid frequency. Recognizing that the on

  19. Advancing predictive models for particulate formation in turbulent flames via massively parallel direct numerical simulations

    KAUST Repository

    Bisetti, Fabrizio

    2014-07-14

    Combustion of fossil fuels is likely to continue for the near future due to the growing trends in energy consumption worldwide. The increase in efficiency and the reduction of pollutant emissions from combustion devices are pivotal to achieving meaningful levels of carbon abatement as part of the ongoing climate change efforts. Computational fluid dynamics featuring adequate combustion models will play an increasingly important role in the design of more efficient and cleaner industrial burners, internal combustion engines, and combustors for stationary power generation and aircraft propulsion. Today, turbulent combustion modelling is hindered severely by the lack of data that are accurate and sufficiently complete to assess and remedy model deficiencies effectively. In particular, the formation of pollutants is a complex, nonlinear and multi-scale process characterized by the interaction of molecular and turbulent mixing with a multitude of chemical reactions with disparate time scales. The use of direct numerical simulation (DNS) featuring a state of the art description of the underlying chemistry and physical processes has contributed greatly to combustion model development in recent years. In this paper, the analysis of the intricate evolution of soot formation in turbulent flames demonstrates how DNS databases are used to illuminate relevant physico-chemical mechanisms and to identify modelling needs. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society.

  20. Advancing predictive models for particulate formation in turbulent flames via massively parallel direct numerical simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisetti, Fabrizio; Attili, Antonio; Pitsch, Heinz

    2014-08-13

    Combustion of fossil fuels is likely to continue for the near future due to the growing trends in energy consumption worldwide. The increase in efficiency and the reduction of pollutant emissions from combustion devices are pivotal to achieving meaningful levels of carbon abatement as part of the ongoing climate change efforts. Computational fluid dynamics featuring adequate combustion models will play an increasingly important role in the design of more efficient and cleaner industrial burners, internal combustion engines, and combustors for stationary power generation and aircraft propulsion. Today, turbulent combustion modelling is hindered severely by the lack of data that are accurate and sufficiently complete to assess and remedy model deficiencies effectively. In particular, the formation of pollutants is a complex, nonlinear and multi-scale process characterized by the interaction of molecular and turbulent mixing with a multitude of chemical reactions with disparate time scales. The use of direct numerical simulation (DNS) featuring a state of the art description of the underlying chemistry and physical processes has contributed greatly to combustion model development in recent years. In this paper, the analysis of the intricate evolution of soot formation in turbulent flames demonstrates how DNS databases are used to illuminate relevant physico-chemical mechanisms and to identify modelling needs. PMID:25024412

  1. Advances of direct drive schemes in laser fusion research at ILE Osaka

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ILE Osaka is concentrating on the physical elements of fast ignition aiming at the proof of principle for ignition-and-burn of direct-drive laser fusion. A 1PW laser will be introduced to fast ignition experiments by the middle of 2001. A high intensity plasma experimental research system, HIPER, has been in operation for obtaining scientific data base relevant to ignition target. By irradiating a intense short pulse onto a long scale length plasma observed are penetration of a relativistically self-focused laser beam into over-dense region without considerable energy loss in under-dense region, MeV electrons generation with conversion efficiency of 25%, heating of compressed core plasma by irradiating a 100 ps, 1017W/cm2 pulse and 1 ps, 1019W/cm2 pulse. In the hydrodynamic instability, the initial imprint of hydrodynamic instability and Rayleigh-Taylor growth rate at wavelength less than 10 μm have been investigated extensively. (author)

  2. Direct observation of macro-layer for advanced understanding of critical heat flux mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text of publication follows: Water and R134a boiling phenomena have investigated in the subcooled flow boiling. The results emphasize that the behavior of a liquid layer near the boiling surface plays the most important role in occurring boiling crisis. However, actually its dynamic behavior could not be investigated due to very fast and complex near-wall phenomena. Therefore, it is considered that an investigation in rather slower phenomena can provide the dynamic behavior of the liquid layer or its actual existence. Therefore, pool boiling experiment was tried to observe it. In vertical pool boiling, a thin liquid film adhering to a heater surface was directly observed underneath a massive vapor bubble. Its repeated life cycle continues with the periodic formation of a large vapor bubble. The liquid film of this structure plays a significant role on a heat transfer process. The liquid film results from internally trapping by means of both lateral and vertical coalescence of nucleate bubbles and externally supplying with spreading. The film consists of three parts such as liquid wetting area, dry spots, nucleating bubbles in charge of heat transfer from the heater surface during the growth period of a vapor bubble. Dryout proceeds with evaporation of the film starting from centers of some dry spots. Boiling crisis occurs by means of no wetting with interfering liquid resupply due to increase of wall temperature of repeated dryout. (authors)

  3. Nitrogen dynamics in managed boreal forests: Recent advances and future research directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sponseller, Ryan A; Gundale, Michael J; Futter, Martyn; Ring, Eva; Nordin, Annika; Näsholm, Torgny; Laudon, Hjalmar

    2016-02-01

    Nitrogen (N) availability plays multiple roles in the boreal landscape, as a limiting nutrient to forest growth, determinant of terrestrial biodiversity, and agent of eutrophication in aquatic ecosystems. We review existing research on forest N dynamics in northern landscapes and address the effects of management and environmental change on internal cycling and export. Current research foci include resolving the nutritional importance of different N forms to trees and establishing how tree-mycorrhizal relationships influence N limitation. In addition, understanding how forest responses to external N inputs are mediated by above- and belowground ecosystem compartments remains an important challenge. Finally, forestry generates a mosaic of successional patches in managed forest landscapes, with differing levels of N input, biological demand, and hydrological loss. The balance among these processes influences the temporal patterns of stream water chemistry and the long-term viability of forest growth. Ultimately, managing forests to keep pace with increasing demands for biomass production, while minimizing environmental degradation, will require multi-scale and interdisciplinary perspectives on landscape N dynamics. PMID:26744052

  4. Advance care directives and the position in Ireland: what lessons can Ireland learn from the United Kingdom, the United States and Europe?

    OpenAIRE

    Laura Donnellan

    2008-01-01

    An Advance care directive entitles a person to request in advance either the refusal of or consent to certain medical treatment if that person is not competent to consent or refuse at the time such refusal or consent is required.  The 2003 Law Reform Commission’s Consultation Paper on Law and the Elderly briefly mentioned advance directives.  However, the Paper decided to leave the issue to a future Paper that would give a more comprehensive analysis.  There is no Irish legislation on the mat...

  5. ADVANCED BYPRODUCT RECOVERY: DIRECT CATALYTIC REDUCTION OF SO2 TO ELEMENTAL SULFUR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert S. Weber

    1999-05-01

    Arthur D. Little, Inc., together with its commercialization partner, Engelhard Corporation, and its university partner Tufts, investigated a single-step process for direct, catalytic reduction of sulfur dioxide from regenerable flue gas desulfurization processes to the more valuable elemental sulfur by-product. This development built on recently demonstrated SO{sub 2}-reduction catalyst performance at Tufts University on a DOE-sponsored program and is, in principle, applicable to processing of regenerator off-gases from all regenerable SO{sub 2}-control processes. In this program, laboratory-scale catalyst optimization work at Tufts was combined with supported catalyst formulation work at Engelhard, bench-scale supported catalyst testing at Arthur D. Little and market assessments, also by Arthur D. Little. Objectives included identification and performance evaluation of a catalyst which is robust and flexible with regard to choice of reducing gas. The catalyst formulation was improved significantly over the course of this work owing to the identification of a number of underlying phenomena that tended to reduce catalyst selectivity. The most promising catalysts discovered in the bench-scale tests at Tufts were transformed into monolith-supported catalysts at Engelhard. These catalyst samples were tested at larger scale at Arthur D. Little, where the laboratory-scale results were confirmed, namely that the catalysts do effectively reduce sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur when operated under appropriate levels of conversion and in conditions that do not contain too much water or hydrogen. Ways to overcome those limitations were suggested by the laboratory results. Nonetheless, at the end of Phase I, the catalysts did not exhibit the very stringent levels of activity or selectivity that would have permitted ready scale-up to pilot or commercial operation. Therefore, we chose not to pursue Phase II of this work which would have included further bench-scale testing

  6. Advance Care Directives and the Position in Ireland: What lessons can Ireland learn from the United Kingdom, the United States and Europe?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Donnellan

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available An Advance care directive entitles a person to request in advance either the refusal of or consent to certain medical treatment if that person is not competent to consent or refuse at the time such refusal or consent is required.  The 2003 Law Reform Commission’s Consultation Paper on Law and the Elderly briefly mentioned advance directives.  However, the Paper decided to leave the issue to a future Paper that would give a more comprehensive analysis.  There is no Irish legislation on the matter and consequently the legal position is unclear.  The English Mental Capacity Act 2005 has given recognition to advance directives under section 24.  It is interesting to note that only refusal is covered by the Act.  The 2005 Law Reform Commission Consultation Paper on Vulnerable Adults discusses the issue of advance directives in more detail.  This Paper will examine the Irish position of advance directives.  The British Mental Capacity Act and recent case law will provide a comparative analysis.  The UN Convention on the Protection of the Rights and Dignity of Persons with Disabilities will also be examined.

  7. Proceedings of the advanced research and technology development direct utilization, instrumentation and diagnostics contractors' review meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geiling, D.W. (USDOE Morgantown Energy Technology Center, WV (USA)); Goldberg, P.M. (eds.) (USDOE Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, PA (USA))

    1990-01-01

    The 1990 Advanced Research and Technology Development (AR TD) Direct Utilization, and Instrumentation and Diagnostics Contractors Review Meeting was held September 16--18, 1990, at the Hyatt at Chatham Center in Pittsburgh, PA. The meeting was sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Fossil Energy, and the Pittsburgh and Morgantown Energy Technology Centers. Each year the meeting provides a forum for the exchange of information among the DOE AR TD contractors and interested parties. This year's meeting was hosted by the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center and was attended by 120 individuals from industry, academia, national laboratories, and other governmental agencies. Papers were presented on research addressing coal surface, science, devolatilization and combustion, ash behavior, emission controls for gases particulates, fluid bed combustion and utilization in diesels and turbines. Individual reports are processed separately for the data bases.

  8. Advanced direct liquefaction concepts for PETC generic units, Phase 2. Quarterly technical progress report, January--March 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-05-01

    The aims of this research program are to advance to bench-scale testing, concepts that have the potential for making net reductions in direct coal liquefaction process costs. The research involves a teaming arrangement between the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research (CAER), Consolidation Coal Company (CONSOL), Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), and LDP Associates. Progress reports are presented for: Task 2.1.1 development of a catalyst screening test (UK/CAER); Task 2.1.2 activation of impregnated catalysts (UK/CAER); Task 2.2 laboratory support (CONSOL); Task 3 continuous operations/parametric studies (Hydrocarbon Technologies, Inc.) and; Task 4.4 conceptual design, preliminary technical assessment (LDP Associates).

  9. Do Spanish Hospital Professionals Educate Their Patients About Advance Directives? : A Descriptive Study in a University Hospital in Madrid, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, María; Herreros, Benjamín; Martín, M Dolores; Molina, Julia; Kanouzi, Jack; Velasco, María

    2016-06-01

    It is unknown whether hospital-based medical professionals in Spain educate patients about advance directives (ADs). The objective of this research was to determine the frequency of hospital-based physicians' and nurses' engagement in AD discussions in the hospital and which patient populations merit such efforts. A short question-and-answer-based survey of physicians and nurses taking care of inpatients was conducted at a university hospital in Madrid, Spain. In total, 283 surveys were collected from medical professionals, of whom 71 per cent were female, with an average age of thirty-four years. Eighty-four per cent had never educated patients about ADs because of lack of perceived responsibility, time, or general knowledge of ADs. Patient populations that warranted AD discussions included those with terminal illnesses (77 per cent), chronic diseases (61 per cent), and elderly patients (43 per cent). Regarding degree of AD understanding in medical professionals: 57 per cent of medical professionals claimed sufficient general knowledge of ADs, 19 per cent understood particulars regarding AD document creation, and 16 per cent were aware of AD regulatory policies. Engagement in AD discussions was considered important by 83 per cent of medical professionals, with 79 per cent interested in participating in such discussions themselves. The majority of hospital physicians and nurses do not educate their patients about ADs, despite acknowledging their importance. Patient populations of highest priority included those with terminal diseases or chronic illness or who are of advanced age. PMID:26797513

  10. Direct detection of precursors of gas giants formed by gravitational instability with the Atacama Large Millimetre/sub-millimetre Array

    CERN Document Server

    Mayer, Lucio; Pineda, Jaime E; Wadsley, James

    2016-01-01

    Phases of gravitational instability are expected in the early phases of disk evolution, when the disk mass is still a substantial fraction of the mass of the star. Disk fragmentation into sub-stellar objects could occur in the cold exterior part of the disk. Direct detection of massive gaseous clumps on their way to collapse into gas giant planets would offer an unprecedented test of the disk instability model. Here we use state-of-the-art 3D radiation-hydro simulations of disks undergoing fragmentation into massive gas giants, post-processed with the RADMC-3D ray-tracing code to produce dust continuum emission maps. These are then fed into the Common Astronomy Software Applications (CASA) ALMA simulator. The synthetic maps show that both overdense spiral arms and actual clumps at different stages of collapse can be detected with the Atacama Large Millimetre/sub-millimetre Array (ALMA) in the full configuration at the distance of the Ophiuchus star forming region (125 pc). The detection of clumps is particula...

  11. Cold pressed and sintered barium sulphate ceramic waste forms for direct immobilisation of medium level Magnox waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The cold pressing and sintering behaviour of barium sulphate ceramic waste forms for direct immobilisation of medium level Magnox waste is described. Pellets having a density of 3.7 g cm-3 and containing 11.5 v/o open porosity were obtained by first cold pressing at 120 MPa and then sintering at 1300 deg C for 8 h. The leach rate derived from weight losses in Soxhlet tests were 0.5 to 3.5 x 10-7 kg m-2 sec-1. They are similar to the values obtained for hot pressed barium sulphate floc having only 0.7 to 4.0 v/o open porosity. Unlike single phase ceramic materials where at constant temperature, density is found to be dependent on time, the sintering behaviour of barium sulphate floc was observed to have a short initial period where density was time dependent but then became independent of time (i.e. no further increase of density occurred irrespective of sintering time at a constant temperature). (author)

  12. Inhibition of human prostate cancer xenograft growth by 125I labeled triple-helin forming oligonucleotide directed against androgen receptor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yong; MA Yi; LU Han-ping; GAO Jin-hui; LIANG Chang-sheng; LIU Chang-zheng; ZOU Jun-tao; WANG Hua-qiao

    2008-01-01

    Background The failure of hormone treatment for advanced prostate cancer might be related to aberrant activation of the androgen receptor.We have shown that 125I labeled triple-helix forming oligonucleotide (TFO) against the androgen receptor gene inhibits androgen receptor expression and cell proliferation of LNCaP prostate cancer cells in vitro.This study aimed at exploring the effects of the 125I-TFO on prostate tumor growth in vivo using a nude mouse xenograft model.Methods TFO was labeled with 125I by the iodogen method.Thirty-two nude mice bearing LNCaP xenograft tumors were randomized into 4 groups and were intratumorally injected with 125I-TFO,unlabeled TFO,Na125I and normal saline.Tumor size was measured weekly.The tumor growth inhibition rate (RI) was calculated by measurement of tumor weight.The expression of the androgen receptor gene was performed by RT-PCR and immunohistochemical study.The prostate specific antigen (PSA) serum levels were measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay.The tumor cell apoptosis index (Al) was detected by TUNEL assay.Results Tumor measurements showed that tumor development was significantly inhibited by either 125I-TFO or TFO,with tumor RIs of 50.79% and 32.80% respectively.125I-TFO caused greater inhibition of androgen receptor expression and higher Als in tumor tissue than TFO.Both the tumor weight and the PSA serum levels in 125I-TFO treated mice ((0.93±0.15) g and (17.43±1.85) ng/ml,respectively) were significantly lower than those ((1.27±0.21) g and (28.25±3.41)ng/ml,respectively) in TFO treated mice (all P<0.05).Na125I did not significantly affect tumor growth and androgen receptor expression in tumor tissue.Conclusions The 125I-TFO can effectively inhibit androgen receptor expression and tumor growth of human prostate cancer xenografts in vivo.The inhibitory efficacy of 125I-TFO is more potent than that of TFO,providing a reference for future studies of antigen radiotherapy.

  13. Advanced direct liquefaction concepts for PETC generic units: Phase 2. Quarterly technical progress report, July--September, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-11-01

    The Advanced Direct Liquefaction Concepts Program sponsored by the DOE Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center was initiated in 1991 with the objective of promoting the development of new and emerging technology that has the potential for reducing the cost of producing liquid fuels by direct coal liquefaction. The laboratory research program (Phase I) was completed in 1995 by UK/CAER, CONSOL, Sandia National Laboratories and LDP Associates. A three year extension was subsequently awarded in October 1995 to further develop several promising concepts derived from the laboratory program. During Phase II, four continuous bench scale runs will be conducted at Hydrocarbon Technologies, Inc. using a 2 kg/hr continuous bench scale unit located at their facility in Lawrenceville, NJ. The first run in this program (ALC-1), conducted between April 19 and May 14, 1996, consisted of five test conditions to evaluate the affect of coal cleaning and recycle solvent modification. A detailed discussion of this run is included in Section Two of this report. Results obtained during this reporting period for all participants in this program are summarized.

  14. Directional Advanced Intruder Handling Ad-hoc on Demand Distance Vector Protocol Using Divide and Conquer Strategy Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Hemalatha

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The Aim of this study is to develop the protocol for identify the failure node, intruder node with power optimized routing protocol named Directional Advanced Intruder Handling Adhoc On demand Vector protocol. Mobile Ad-hoc Network is an infrastructure less network, nodes in mobile Ad-hoc are comprised to work with wireless nodes, can move freely and dynamically self organized in to arbitrary topologies. Over the past twenty years the development of Ad-hoc network was developed from tactical networks to Bluetooth, HyperLAN and IEEE 802.11. In the protocol stack of Ad-hoc network, the major issues on network layers, which has a responsibility to transfer the packets from one node to another. Many protocols have been proposed in Ad-hoc network, but none of the protocol is working under the principle of handling checking on packet delivery. This study presents the Directional Advanced Intruder Handling Ad-hoc on demand Vector protocol algorithm definition and implementation. The working principle of this protocol is checking the packet delivery to the destination. If any one of the nodes in the route is not forwarding the packet, that corresponding node will be identified and redirect the packet to the new route. For doing this checking this protocol uses divide and conquer strategy. The number hop between the source to destination is divided into two halves and check whether the up to the middle node the packet are flowing in a proper order or not. Recursively doing the divide and conquer of the route path, can identify the node which is not forward the packet to the next node. The design of this protocol itself able to identify the intruder in the routing path. Contains several stages from path discovery, packet transmits, apply divide and conquer strategy on route, identify the node which is not forward the packet, redirect the new path, alert all the nodes about the victim node. Finally performance of the protocol is improved with transmission

  15. Enhanced reactivities toward amines by introducing an imine arm to the pincer ligand: Direct coupling of two amines to form an imine without oxidant

    KAUST Repository

    He, Lipeng

    2012-07-23

    Dehydrogenative homocoupling of primary alcohols to form esters and coupling of amines to form imines was accomplished using a class of novel pincer ruthenium complexes. The reactivities of the ruthenium pincer complexes for the direct coupling of amines to form imines were enhanced by introducing an imine arm to the pincer ligand. Selective oxidation of benzylamines to imines was achieved using aniline derivatives as the substrate and solvent. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  16. Direct Detection of Precursors of Gas Giants Formed by Gravitational Instability with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Lucio; Peters, Thomas; Pineda, Jaime E.; Wadsley, James; Rogers, Patrick

    2016-06-01

    Phases of gravitational instability are expected in the early phases of disk evolution, when the disk mass is still a substantial fraction of the mass of the star. Disk fragmentation into sub-stellar objects could occur in the cold exterior part of the disk. Direct detection of massive gaseous clumps on their way to collapse into gas giant planets would offer an unprecedented test of the disk instability model. Here we use state-of-the-art 3D radiation-hydro simulations of disks undergoing fragmentation into massive gas giants, post-processed with RADMC-3D to produce dust continuum emission maps. These are then fed into the Common Astronomy Software Applications (CASA) ALMA simulator. The synthetic maps show that both overdense spiral arms and actual clumps at different stages of collapse can be detected with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) in the full configuration at the distance of the Ophiuchus star forming region (125 pc). The detection of clumps is particularly effective at shorter wavelengths (690 GHz) combining two resolutions with multi-scale clean. Furthermore, we show that a flux-based estimate of the mass of a protoplanetary clump can be comparable to a factor of three higher than the gravitationally bound clump mass. The estimated mass depends on the assumed opacity, and on the gas temperature, which should be set using the input of radiation-hydro simulations. We conclude that ALMA has the capability to detect “smoking gun” systems that are a signpost of the disk instability model for gas giant planet formation.

  17. Advances in solar photoelectro-Fenton: Decolorization and mineralization of the Direct Yellow 4 diazo dye using an autonomous solar pre-pilot plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Assessment of an autonomous solar pre-pilot plant for solar photoelectro-Fenton. • Total decolorization and 96-97% mineralization for solutions of Direct Yellow 4 diazo dye at pH 3.0. • More rapid dye decay and mineralization at 0.50 mmol dm−3 Fe2+ and maximum current of 5.0 A. • 11 aromatics, 22 hydroxylated derivatives and 9 carboxylic acids detected as intermediates. • Release of NH4+ and SO42−as main inorganic ions. - Abstract: Here, an overview on the advances in solar photoelectro-Fenton (SPEF) is initially presented to show that it is the more potent electrochemical advanced oxidation process based on Fenton's reaction chemistry to remove organic pollutants from waters, due to the synergistic action of generated hydroxyl radicals and solar irradiation. As a novel advance for SPEF, an autonomous solar pre-pilot plant is proposed to make an energetically inexpensive process that can be viable at industrial level. The plant of 10 dm3 capacity contained a Pt/air-diffusion cell with 90.2 cm2 electrode area, coupled to a solar compound parabolic collectors (CPCs) photoreactor of 1.57 dm3 irradiation volume and to a solar photovoltaic panel that provides a maximum average current of 5.0 A. The oxidation ability of this plant was assessed by studying the degradation of Direct Yellow 4 (DY4) diazo dye, which involved the predominant destruction of organics by ·OH formed from Fenton's reaction between H2O2 generated at the cathode and added Fe2+, along with the photolysis of Fe(III)-carboxylate complexes with sunlight in the CPCs photoreactor. The effect of Fe2+ and dye contents as well as current on decolorization rate, substrate decay and mineralization rate was examined. About 96-97% mineralization was rapidly attained using 0.50 mmol dm−3 Fe2+ and up to 0.32 mmol dm−3 DY4 at 5.0 A. The DY4 decay always obeyed a pseudo-first-order kinetics. Eleven aromatic products, twenty two hydroxylated derivatives and nine short

  18. Advance care directives

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... order on your medical chart. Fill out an organ donation card and carry it in your wallet. Keep ... your important papers. You can find out about organ donation from your doctor. You can also have this ...

  19. 19 CFR 4.7 - Inward foreign manifest; production on demand; contents and form; advance filing of cargo...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Form 5129, (4) Crew List, Customs and Immigration Form I-418, and (5) Passenger List, Customs and... rescind an exemption granted to a carrier at any time. (c) No Passenger List or Crew List shall be... application for rebuilt determination as required by 46 CFR 67.27-3. (3) The declaration shall be ready...

  20. Effect of statins on the serum soluble form of receptor for advanced glycation end-products and its association with coronary atherosclerosis in patients with angina pectoris

    OpenAIRE

    Tsuyoshi Nozue; Sho-ichi Yamagishi; Masayoshi Takeuchi; Tsutomu Hirano; Shingo Yamamoto; Shinichi Tohyama; Kazuki Fukui; Shigeo Umezawa; Yuko Onishi; Tomoyuki Kunishima; Kiyoshi Hibi; Mitsuyasu Terashima; Ichiro Michishita

    2014-01-01

    Background: Advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) and their receptor (RAGE) play an important role in the pathogenesis of diabetic vascular complications. Recently, soluble form of RAGE (sRAGE) has been identified in mice and humans. Statins have been reported to increase serum sRAGE levels. However, whether modulation of circulating sRAGE levels has a beneficial effect on the progression of atherosclerosis is unknown. Methods: We reviewed 91 patients who had undergone percutaneous corona...

  1. Five-Year Implementation Plan For Advanced Separations and Waste Forms Capabilities at the Idaho National Laboratory (FY 2011 to FY 2015)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Not Listed

    2011-03-01

    DOE-NE separations research is focused today on developing a science-based understanding that builds on historical research and focuses on combining a fundamental understanding of separations and waste forms processes with small-scale experimentation coupled with modeling and simulation. The result of this approach is the development of a predictive capability that supports evaluation of separations and waste forms technologies. The specific suite of technologies explored will depend on and must be integrated with the fuel development effort, as well as an understanding of potential waste form requirements. This five-year implementation plan lays out the specific near-term tactical investments in people, equipment and facilities, and customer capture efforts that will be required over the next five years to quickly and safely bring on line the capabilities needed to support the science-based goals and objectives of INL’s Advanced Separations and Waste Forms RD&D Capabilities Strategic Plan.

  2. La perspectiva de las personas mayores sobre el testamento vital Elders´perspective about Advance Directives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inés Mª Barrio Cantalejo

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Antecedentes. La popularización del testamento vital (TV exige conocer la perspectiva que sobre él tienen sus potenciales usuarios. Cualquier intento de generalizar el TV sin evaluar cómo será recibido por las personas mayores está condenado al fracaso. Objetivo: Explorar la perspectiva de los mayores sobre el testamento vital. Diseño: Estudio cualitativo. 40 personas mayores, usuarios de 3 Centros de Salud y 1 Residencia Asistida de Madrid, se reunieron en 5 grupos de discusión en abril de 2004. Participantes: 14 mediadores captaron a 2-3 participantes cada uno. Se consideró que edad y residencia en medio familiar o institucional son las variables que más diferencian la elaboración de los discursos sobre el TV. Se utilizaron, pues, como criterios de segmentación, buscando heterogeneidad entre grupos y homogeneidad y heterogeneidad intragrupal. La saturación se consideró cuando las ideas expresadas resultaron recurrentes. Resultados: 4 ideas se extraen de los datos: 1 los mayores prefieren la planificación anticipada de decisiones al TV. 2 Su opinión sobre el TV se asocia a la vivencia singular de otros eventos en el final de la vida. 3 Conceden un papel relevante a la familia. 4 Desean conducir su propia vida, pero "sin papeles escritos". Conclusiones. La implementación del TV a través de una estrategia educativa e institucional se beneficiará si consideramos la perspectiva de la población mayor española sobre el TV.Background: The introduction of advance directives (AD require to examine the perspective their potential users have about. Any public policy about the implementation of ADs adressed to elders will fall if their perspective is unknown. Objective: To examine the elders' perspective about advance directives. Methods: Qualitative study. 40 elders, users of 3 Primary Health Care Center, and of 1 Nursing Home from Madrid. 5 focus groups were organized in 2004 April. Participants: 14 providers recruited 2

  3. Non-CAR resists and advanced materials for Massively Parallel E-Beam Direct Write process integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourteau, Marie-Line; Servin, Isabelle; Lepinay, Kévin; Essomba, Cyrille; Dal'Zotto, Bernard; Pradelles, Jonathan; Lattard, Ludovic; Brandt, Pieter; Wieland, Marco

    2016-03-01

    The emerging Massively Parallel-Electron Beam Direct Write (MP-EBDW) is an attractive high resolution high throughput lithography technology. As previously shown, Chemically Amplified Resists (CARs) meet process/integration specifications in terms of dose-to-size, resolution, contrast, and energy latitude. However, they are still limited by their line width roughness. To overcome this issue, we tested an alternative advanced non-CAR and showed it brings a substantial gain in sensitivity compared to CAR. We also implemented and assessed in-line post-lithographic treatments for roughness mitigation. For outgassing-reduction purpose, a top-coat layer is added to the total process stack. A new generation top-coat was tested and showed improved printing performances compared to the previous product, especially avoiding dark erosion: SEM cross-section showed a straight pattern profile. A spin-coatable charge dissipation layer based on conductive polyaniline has also been tested for conductivity and lithographic performances, and compatibility experiments revealed that the underlying resist type has to be carefully chosen when using this product. Finally, the Process Of Reference (POR) trilayer stack defined for 5 kV multi-e-beam lithography was successfully etched with well opened and straight patterns, and no lithography-etch bias.

  4. The Effect of Direct and Indirect Forms of Citizenship Education. Results from a three wave longitudinal panel survey in Belgium

    OpenAIRE

    Claes, Ellen; Hooghe, Marc

    2013-01-01

    Research in several liberal democracies has documented a decline in institutionalized political participation among young adults. More intense and innovating forms of citizenship education are often considered as a policy answer to this trend, but in the current state of research, we do have insufficient knowledge about the effectiveness of these forms, but on the short as on the long run. In this article we will look into the short and long term impact of different types of citizenship educa...

  5. Direct compatibility check of the CEA and Cornell electroproduction pion form factor data with e+e- ones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using precise experimental information on the imaginary part of the pion form factor from e+e- → π+π- up to the inelastic threshold and QCD constraints for it in the range of momenta (mπ0+mω)2 < t < infinity, was investigated by means of a dispersion integral the reliability of individual electroproduction CEA and Cornell model-dependent pion form factor data points

  6. The impact of parent material, climate, soil type and vegetation on Venetian forest humus forms: a direct gradient approach

    OpenAIRE

    Ponge, Jean-François; Sartori, Giacomo; Garlato, Adriano; Ungaro, Fabrizio; Zanella, Augusto; Jabiol, Bernard; Obber, Silvia

    2014-01-01

    The impact of geology, climate, soil type and vegetation on forest humus forms was studied in the Veneto Region (northern Italy). A total of 352 study sites were compared by Redundancy Analysis (RDA). Humus forms were described by the structure (micro-, meso-, or macro-aggregated) of the organo-mineral A horizon, by the thickness of litter horizons and by their nomenclature, which followed the morpho-functional classification recently proposed for inclusion in the WRB-FAO. The size of aggrega...

  7. Advance Health Care Directives and “Public Guardian”: The Italian Supreme Court Requests the Status of Current and Not Future Inability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Paolo Busardò

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Advance health care decisions animate an intense debate in several European countries, which started more than 20 years ago in the USA and led to the adoption of different rules, based on the diverse legal, sociocultural and philosophical traditions of each society. In Italy, the controversial issue of advance directives and end of life’s rights, in the absence of a clear and comprehensive legislation, has been over time a subject of interest of the Supreme Court. Since 2004 a law introduced the “Public Guardian,” aiming to provide an instrument of assistance to the person lacking in autonomy because of an illness or incapacity. Recently, this critical issue has once again been brought to the interest of the Supreme Court, which passed a judgment trying to clarify the legislative application of the appointment of the Guardian in the field of advance directives.

  8. Nurses' knowledge of advance directives and perceived confidence in end-of-life care: a cross-sectional study in five countries.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Coffey, Alice

    2016-01-28

    Nurses\\' knowledge regarding advance directives may affect their administration and completion in end-of-life care. Confidence among nurses is a barrier to the provision of quality end-of-life care. This study investigated nurses\\' knowledge of advance directives and perceived confidence in end-of-life care, in Hong Kong, Ireland, Israel, Italy and the USA using a cross-sectional descriptive design (n = 1089). In all countries, older nurses and those who had more professional experience felt more confident managing patients\\' symptoms at end-of-life and more comfortable stopping preventive medications at end-of-life. Nurses in the USA reported that they have more knowledge and experience of advance directives compared with other countries. In addition, they reported the highest levels of confidence and comfort in dealing with end-of-life care. Although legislation for advance directives does not yet exist in Ireland, nurses reported high levels of confidence in end-of-life care.

  9. Contribution of Morphological Awareness and Lexical Inferencing Ability to L2 Vocabulary Knowledge and Reading Comprehension among Advanced EFL Learners: Testing Direct and Indirect Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dongbo; Koda, Keiko

    2012-01-01

    Within the Structural Equation Modeling framework, this study tested the direct and indirect effects of morphological awareness and lexical inferencing ability on L2 vocabulary knowledge and reading comprehension among advanced Chinese EFL readers in a university in China. Using both regular z-test and the bootstrapping (data-based resampling)…

  10. Advanced byproduct recovery: Direct catalytic reduction of sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur. Quarterly report, April 1--June 30, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    The team of Arthur D. Little, Tufts University and Engelhard Corporation are conducting Phase 1 of a four and a half year, two-phase effort to develop and scale-up an advanced byproduct recovery technology that is a direct, single-stage, catalytic process for converting sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur. This catalytic process reduces SO{sub 2} over a fluorite-type oxide (such as ceria and zirconia). The catalytic activity can be significantly promoted by active transition metals, such as copper. More than 95% elemental sulfur yield, corresponding to almost complete sulfur dioxide conversion, was obtained over a Cu-Ce-O oxide catalyst as part of an on-going DOE-sponsored, University Coal Research Program. This type of mixed metal oxide catalyst has stable activity, high selectivity for sulfur production, and is resistant to water and carbon dioxide poisoning. Tests with CO and CH{sub 4} reducing gases indicate that the catalyst has the potential for flexibility with regard to the composition of the reducing gas, making it attractive for utility use. The performance of the catalyst is consistently good over a range of SO{sub 2} inlet concentration (0.1 to 10%) indicating its flexibility in treating SO{sub 2} tail gases as well as high concentration streams. The principal objective of the Phase 1 program is to identify and evaluate the performance of a catalyst which is robust and flexible with regard to choice of reducing gas. In order to achieve this goal, the authors have planned a structured program including: Market/process/cost/evaluation; Lab-scale catalyst preparation/optimization studies; Lab-scale, bulk/supported catalyst kinetic studies; Bench-scale catalyst/process studies; and Utility review. Progress is reported from all three organizations.

  11. Environmental Barrier Coating Development for SiC/SiC Ceramic Matrix Composites: Recent Advances and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Dongming

    2016-01-01

    This presentation briefly reviews the SiC/SiC major environmental and environment-fatigue degradations encountered in simulated turbine combustion environments, and thus NASA environmental barrier coating system evolution for protecting the SiC/SiC Ceramic Matrix Composites for meeting the engine performance requirements. The presentation will review several generations of NASA EBC materials systems, EBC-CMC component system technologies for SiC/SiC ceramic matrix composite combustors and turbine airfoils, highlighting the temperature capability and durability improvements in simulated engine high heat flux, high pressure, high velocity, and with mechanical creep and fatigue loading conditions. This paper will also focus on the performance requirements and design considerations of environmental barrier coatings for next generation turbine engine applications. The current development emphasis is placed on advanced NASA candidate environmental barrier coating systems for SiC/SiC CMCs, their performance benefits and design limitations in long-term operation and combustion environments. The efforts have been also directed to developing prime-reliant, self-healing 2700F EBC bond coat; and high stability, lower thermal conductivity, and durable EBC top coats. Major technical barriers in developing environmental barrier coating systems, the coating integrations with next generation CMCs having the improved environmental stability, erosion-impact resistance, and long-term fatigue-environment system durability performance will be described. The research and development opportunities for turbine engine environmental barrier coating systems by utilizing improved compositions, state-of-the-art processing methods, and simulated environment testing and durability modeling will be briefly discussed.

  12. Editorial, Workshop on New Directions for Advanced Computer Simulations and Experiments in Fusion-Related Plasma-Surface Interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Because plasma-boundary physics encompasses some of the most important unresolved issues for both the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) project and future fusion power reactors, there is a strong interest in the fusion community for better understanding and characterization of plasma-wall interactions. Chemical and physical sputtering cause the erosion of the limiters/divertor plates and vacuum vessel walls (made of C, Be and W, for example) and degrade fusion performance by diluting the fusion fuel and excessively cooling the core, while carbon redeposition could produce long-term in-vessel tritium retention, degrading the superior thermo-mechanical properties of the carbon materials. Mixed plasma-facing materials are proposed, requiring optimization for different power and particle flux characteristics. Knowledge of material properties as well as characteristics of the plasma-material interaction are prerequisites for such optimizations. Computational power will soon reach hundreds of teraflops, so that theoretical and plasma science expertise can be matched with new experimental capabilities in order to mount a strong response to these challenges. To begin to address such questions, a Workshop on New Directions for Advanced Computer Simulations and Experiments in Fusion-Related Plasma-Surface Interactions for Fusion (PSIF) was held at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory from 21 to 23 March, 2005. The purpose of the workshop was to bring together researchers in fusion related plasma-wall interactions in order to address these topics and to identify the most needed and promising directions for study, to exchange opinions on the present depth of knowledge of surface properties for the main fusion-related materials, e.g., C, Be and W, especially for sputtering, reflection, and deuterium (tritium) retention properties. The goal was to suggest the most important next steps needed for such basic computational and experimental work to be facilitated

  13. Preclinical Students' Predispositions towards Social Forms of Instruction and Self-Directed Learning: A Challenge for the Development of Autonomous and Collaborative Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raidal, S. L.; Volet, S. E.

    2009-01-01

    Self-directed and social forms of learning are fundamentally different from traditional didactic educational settings from which students are selected for veterinary, medical and other professional degree courses. It is therefore expected that a mismatch may emerge between students' conceptions of effective learning and expectations inherent to…

  14. Melt processed crystalline ceramic waste forms for advanced nuclear fuel cycles: CRP T21027 1813: Processing technologies for high level waste, formulation of matrices and characterization of waste forms, task 17208: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amoroso, J. W. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Marra, J. C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-08-26

    A multi-phase ceramic waste form is being developed at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) for treatment of secondary waste streams generated by reprocessing commercial spent nuclear. The envisioned waste stream contains a mixture of transition, alkali, alkaline earth, and lanthanide metals. Ceramic waste forms are tailored (engineered) to incorporate waste components as part of their crystal structure based on knowledge from naturally found minerals containing radioactive and non-radioactive species similar to the radionuclides of concern in wastes from fuel reprocessing. The ability to tailor ceramics to mimic naturally occurring crystals substantiates the long term stability of such crystals (ceramics) over geologic timescales of interest for nuclear waste immobilization [1]. A durable multi-phase ceramic waste form tailored to incorporate all the waste components has the potential to broaden the available disposal options and thus minimize the storage and disposal costs associated with aqueous reprocessing. This report summarizes results from three years of work on the IAEA Coordinated Research Project on “Processing technologies for high level waste, formulation of matrices and characterization of waste forms” (T21027), and specific task “Melt Processed Crystalline Ceramic Waste Forms for Advanced Nuclear Fuel Cycles” (17208).

  15. Melt processed crystalline ceramic waste forms for advanced nuclear fuel cycles: CRP T21027 1813: Processing technologies for high level waste, formulation of matrices and characterization of waste forms, Task 17208: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amoroso, J. W. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Marra, J. C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-08-26

    A multi-phase ceramic waste form is being developed at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) for treatment of secondary waste streams generated by reprocessing commercial spent nuclear. The envisioned waste stream contains a mixture of transition, alkali, alkaline earth, and lanthanide metals. Ceramic waste forms are tailored (engineered) to incorporate waste components as part of their crystal structure based on knowledge from naturally found minerals containing radioactive and non-radioactive species similar to the radionuclides of concern in wastes from fuel reprocessing. The ability to tailor ceramics to mimic naturally occurring crystals substantiates the long term stability of such crystals (ceramics) over geologic timescales of interest for nuclear waste immobilization [1]. A durable multi-phase ceramic waste form tailored to incorporate all the waste components has the potential to broaden the available disposal options and thus minimize the storage and disposal costs associated with aqueous reprocessing. This report summarizes results from three years of work on the IAEA Coordinated Research Project on “Processing technologies for high level waste, formulation of matrices and characterization of waste forms” (T21027), and specific task “Melt Processed Crystalline Ceramic Waste Forms for Advanced Nuclear Fuel Cycles” (17208).

  16. Physician perspectives and compliance with patient advance directives: the role external factors play on physician decision making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burkle Christopher M

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Following passage of the Patient Self Determination Act in 1990, health care institutions that receive Medicare and Medicaid funding are required to inform patients of their right to make their health care preferences known through execution of a living will and/or to appoint a surrogate-decision maker. We evaluated the impact of external factors and perceived patient preferences on physicians’ decisions to honor or forgo previously established advance directives (ADs. In addition, physician views regarding legal risk, patients’ ability to comprehend complexities involved with their care, and impact of medical costs related to end-of-life care decisions were explored. Methods Attendees of two Mayo Clinic continuing medical education courses were surveyed. Three scenarios based in part on previously court-litigated matters assessed impact of external factors and perceived patient preferences on physician compliance with patient-articulated wishes regarding resuscitation. General questions measured respondents’ perception of legal risk, concerns over patient knowledge of idiosyncrasies involved with their care, and impact medical costs may have on compliance with patient preferences. Responses indicating strength of agreement or disagreement with statements were treated as ordinal data and analyzed using the Cochran Armitage trend test. Results Three hundred eighty-eight of 951 surveys were completed (41% response rate. Eighty percent reported they were likely to honor a patient’s AD despite its 5 year age. Fewer than half (41% would honor the AD of a patient in ventricular fibrillation who had expressed a desire to “pass away in peace.” Few (17% would forgo an AD following a family’s request for continued resuscitative treatment. A majority (52% considered risk of liability to be lower when maintaining someone alive against their wishes than mistakenly failing to provide resuscitative efforts. A large percentage

  17. A directly coupled monolithic rectangular resonator forming a robust microwave plasma ion source for SIFT-MS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A simple ion source is described that consists of a glass discharge tube positioned judiciously in a rectangular waveguide resonator that is directly coupled to an under-run standard magnetron. This ion source operates well with gas mixtures, including rare gases, air and water vapour in the pressure range 10-100 Pa and at magnetron powers within the range 15-40 W. The main advantage of this magnetron/cavity arrangement is the absence of mechanically adjustable parts (aerial and tuning stub), in contrast to other commonly used arrangements that combine a cavity resonator that is connected to the magnetron via a launcher and a coaxial cable

  18. A directly coupled monolithic rectangular resonator forming a robust microwave plasma ion source for SIFT-MS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spanel, P [Trans Spectra Limited, 9 The Elms, Newcastle under Lyme, ST5 8RP (United Kingdom); Hall, E F H [Trans Spectra Limited, 9 The Elms, Newcastle under Lyme, ST5 8RP (United Kingdom); Workman, C T [Trans Spectra Limited, 9 The Elms, Newcastle under Lyme, ST5 8RP (United Kingdom); Smith, D [Trans Spectra Limited, 9 The Elms, Newcastle under Lyme, ST5 8RP (United Kingdom)

    2004-05-01

    A simple ion source is described that consists of a glass discharge tube positioned judiciously in a rectangular waveguide resonator that is directly coupled to an under-run standard magnetron. This ion source operates well with gas mixtures, including rare gases, air and water vapour in the pressure range 10-100 Pa and at magnetron powers within the range 15-40 W. The main advantage of this magnetron/cavity arrangement is the absence of mechanically adjustable parts (aerial and tuning stub), in contrast to other commonly used arrangements that combine a cavity resonator that is connected to the magnetron via a launcher and a coaxial cable.

  19. Injection molding as a one-step process for the direct production of pharmaceutical dosage forms from primary powders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggenreich, K; Windhab, S; Schrank, S; Treffer, D; Juster, H; Steinbichler, G; Laske, S; Koscher, G; Roblegg, E; Khinast, J G

    2016-05-30

    The objective of the present study was to develop a one-step process for the production of tablets directly from primary powder by means of injection molding (IM), to create solid-dispersion based tablets. Fenofibrate was used as the model API, a polyvinyl caprolactame-polyvinyl acetate-polyethylene glycol graft co-polymer served as a matrix system. Formulations were injection-molded into tablets using state-of-the-art IM equipment. The resulting tablets were physico-chemically characterized and the drug release kinetics and mechanism were determined. Comparison tablets were produced, either directly from powder or from pre-processed pellets prepared via hot melt extrusion (HME). The content of the model drug in the formulations was 10% (w/w), 20% (w/w) and 30% (w/w), respectively. After 120min, both powder-based and pellet-based injection-molded tablets exhibited a drug release of 60% independent of the processing route. Content uniformity analysis demonstrated that the model drug was homogeneously distributed. Moreover, analysis of single dose uniformity also revealed geometric drug homogeneity between tablets of one shot. PMID:27012981

  20. THE ADVANCED CAMERA FOR SURVEYS NEARBY GALAXY SURVEY TREASURY. VI. THE ANCIENT STAR-FORMING DISK OF NGC 404

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present HST/WFPC2 observations across the disk of the nearby isolated dwarf S0 galaxy NGC 404, which hosts an extended gas disk. The locations of our fields contain a roughly equal mixture of bulge and disk stars. All of our resolved stellar photometry reaches m F814W = 26 (M F814W = -1.4), which covers 2.5 mag of the red giant branch and main-sequence stars with ages F814W = 27.2 (M F814W = -0.2), sufficient to resolve the red clump and main-sequence stars with ages 10 Gyr) population. Detailed modeling of the color-magnitude diagram suggests that ∼70% of the stellar mass in the NGC 404 disk formed by z ∼ 2 (10 Gyr ago) and at least ∼90% formed prior to z ∼ 1 (8 Gyr ago). These results indicate that the stellar populations of the NGC 404 disk are on average significantly older than those of other nearby disk galaxies, suggesting that early- and late-type disks may have different long-term evolutionary histories, not simply differences in their recent star formation rates. Comparisons of the spatial distribution of the young stellar mass and FUV emission in Galaxy Evolution Explorer images show that the brightest FUV regions contain the youngest stars, but that some young stars (<160 Myr) lie outside of these regions. FUV luminosity appears to be strongly affected by both age and stellar mass within individual regions. Finally, we use our measurements to infer the relationship between the star formation rate and the gas density of the disk at previous epochs. We find that most of the history of the NGC 404 disk is consistent with star formation that has decreased with the gas density according to the Schmidt law. However, ∼ 0.5-1 Gyr ago, the star formation rate was unusually low for the inferred gas density, consistent with the possibility that there was a gas accretion event that reignited star formation ∼0.5 Gyr ago. Such an event could explain why this S0 galaxy hosts an extended gas disk.

  1. Microstructure and fractal characteristics of the solid-liquid interface forming during directional solidification of Inconel 718

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Ling

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The solidification microstructure and fractal characteristics of the solid-liquid interfaces of Inconel 718, under different cooling rates during directional solidification, were investigated by using SEM. Results showed that 5 μm/s was the cellular-dendrite transient rate. The prime dendrite arm spacing (PDAS was measured by Image Tool and it decreased with the cooling rate increased. The fractal dimension of the interfaces was calculated and it changes from 1.204310 to 1.517265 with the withdrawal rate ranging from 10 to 100 μm/s. The physical significance of the fractal dimension was analyzed by using fractal theory. It was found that the fractal dimension of the dendrites can be used to describe the solidification microstructure and parameters at low cooling rate, but both the fractal dimension and the dendrite arm spacing are needed in order to integrally describe the evaluation of the solidification microstructure completely.

  2. Diffusion barrier property of MnSixOy layer formed by chemical vapor deposition for Cu advanced interconnect application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An amorphous manganese oxide layers formed by chemical vapor deposition have been studied as a copper diffusion barrier. The thermal stability of the barrier layer was assessed by annealing Cu/MnSixOy/SiO2/Si samples at 400 °C for various times up to 10 h. Transmission electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS), capacitance-voltage and current–voltage measurements were performed. Failure of the barrier property is marked by observing the copper peak appearing in EDX and SIMS spectra data from the SiO2 region. Amorphous MnSixOy barrier with a thickness of 1.2 nm has failed in preventing Cu diffusion into SiO2 substrate after anneal at 400°C in vacuum for 1h, as proven by the presence of Cu in the dielectric (SiO2) layer. However, the amorphous MnSixOy with the thickness of 2.0 nm barrier was thermally stable and could prevent Cu from inter-diffusion to the SiO2 substrate after annealing at 400 °C even up to 10 h. - Highlights: • Amorphous manganese silicate layer has been studied as a copper diffusion barrier. • The 1.2 nm-thick Mn oxide layer is too thin to become a diffusion barrier. • Good thermal stability of 2.0 nm-thick manganese silicate layer

  3. Waste-form development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contemporary solidification agents are being investigated relative to their applications to major fuel cycle and non-fuel cycle low-level waste (LLW) streams. Work is being conducted to determine the range of conditions under which these solidification agents can be applied to specific LLW streams. These studies are directed primarily towards defining operating parameters for both improved solidification of problem wastes and solidification of new LLW streams generated from advanced volume reduction technologies. Work is being conducted to measure relevant waste form properties. These data will be compiled and evaluated to demonstrate compliance with waste form performance and shallow land burial acceptance criteria and transportation requirements

  4. Direct Numerical Simulations in Solid Mechanics for Quantifying the Macroscale Effects of Microstructure and Material Model-Form Error

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Joseph E.; Emery, John M.; Battaile, Corbett C.; Littlewood, David J.; Baines, Andrew J.

    2016-05-01

    Two fundamental approximations in macroscale solid-mechanics modeling are (1) the assumption of scale separation in homogenization theory and (2) the use of a macroscopic plasticity material model that represents, in a mean sense, the multitude of inelastic processes occurring at the microscale. With the goal of quantifying the errors induced by these approximations on engineering quantities of interest, we perform a set of direct numerical simulations (DNS) in which polycrystalline microstructures are embedded throughout a macroscale structure. The largest simulations model over 50,000 grains. The microstructure is idealized using a randomly close-packed Voronoi tessellation in which each polyhedral Voronoi cell represents a grain. An face centered cubic crystal-plasticity model is used to model the mechanical response of each grain. The overall grain structure is equiaxed, and each grain is randomly oriented with no overall texture. The detailed results from the DNS simulations are compared to results obtained from conventional macroscale simulations that use homogeneous isotropic plasticity models. The macroscale plasticity models are calibrated using a representative volume element of the idealized microstructure. Ultimately, we envision that DNS modeling will be used to gain new insights into the mechanics of material deformation and failure.

  5. Calculation of ice clearing resistance using normal vector of hull form and direct calculation of buoyancy force under the hull

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Park Kyung-Duk

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The ice-resistance estimation technique for icebreaking ships had been studied intensively over recent years to meet the needs of designing Arctic vessels. Before testing in the ice model basin, the estimation of a ship’s ice resistance with high reliability is very important to decide the delivered power necessary for level ice operation. The main idea of previous studies came from several empirical formulas, such as Poznyak and Ionov (1981, Enkvist (1972 and Shimansky (1938 methods, in which ice resistance components such as icebreaking, buoyancy and clearing resistances were represented by the integral equations along the Design Load Water Line (DLWL. The current study pro-poses a few modified methods not only considering the DLWL shape, but also the hull shape under the DLWL. In the proposed methodology, the DLWL shape for icebreaking resistance and the hull shape under the DLWL for buoyancy and clearing resistances can be directly considered in the calculation. Especially, when calculating clearing resistance, the flow pattern of ice particles under the DLWL of ship is assumed to be in accordance with the ice flow observed during ice model testing. This paper also deals with application examples for a few ship designs and its ice model testing programs at the AARC ice model basin. From the comparison of results of the model test and the estimation, the reliability of this estimation technique has been discussed.

  6. Direct imaging of extra-solar planets in star forming regions: Lessons learned from a false positive around IM Lup

    CERN Document Server

    Mawet, Dimitri; Riaud, Pierre; Surdej, Jean; Montagnier, Guillaume; Ducourant, Christine; Augereau, Jean-Charles; Rottinger, Sarah; Girard, Julien; Krist, John; Stapelfeldt, Karl

    2012-01-01

    Most exoplanet imagers consist of ground-based adaptive optics coronagraphic cameras which are currently limited in contrast, sensitivity and astrometric precision, but advantageously observe in the near-IR (1- 5{\\mu}m). Because of these practical limitations, our current observational aim at detecting and characterizing planets puts heavy constraints on target selection, observing strategies, data reduction, and follow-up. Most surveys so far have thus targeted young systems (1-100Myr) to catch the putative remnant thermal radiation of giant planets, which peaks in the near-IR. They also favor systems in the solar neighborhood (d<80pc), which eases angular resolution requirements but also ensures a good knowledge of the distance and proper motion, which are critical to secure the planet status, and enable subsequent characterization. Because of their youth, it is very tempting to target the nearby star forming regions, which are typically twice as far as the bulk of objects usually combed for planets by d...

  7. 精神障碍患者的预先指示权与自愿治疗%Mentally disordered patients' right to advance directives and voluntary treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙也龙

    2013-01-01

    《中华人民共和国精神卫生法》确立了精神障碍患者自愿治疗原则,预先指示权应是这项原则的重要内容.预先指示权不仅能够保障患者自治,而且也具有多重的现实意义.我国具有确立预先指示权的法律环境,但大众对预先指示权比较陌生,建议对其进行适当的提倡和推广.%Mental Health Law of the People's Republic of China establishes the principle of voluntary treatment for mentally disordered patients. The right to advance directives should be an important aspect of the principle of voluntary treatment because it can protect mentally disordered patients'autonomy and has multiple practical values. China has the legal environment to establish mentally disordered patients'right to advance directives. However, most Chinese people are not fairly familiar with this right Therefore it is suggested to advocate and promote the right to advance directives in China.

  8. Forming of educational motivation of students to direction of preparation «Health of a man» in the process of study of medical and biological disciplines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babich N.L.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The features of forming of educational motivation of students are considered in the process of study of disciplines of medical and biological disciplines. 73 students took part in research. The analysis of publications is resulted in relation to determination of category vehicle of the probed problem, classification of educational reasons; motivational technologies of studies; correlation of reasons of educational activity of students. It is certain and grounded pedagogical terms of forming positive educational motivation of students on the example of study of discipline «Anatomy of timber-toe by bases of sporting morphology». It is recommended in the process of study of the rich in content modules of discipline to make examples of widespread diseases of the different systems and organs. It is set that the noted examples allow directly to influence on forming of educational motivation of students.

  9. A time-dependent direct current potential drop method to evaluate thickness of an oxide layer formed naturally and thermally on a large surface of carbon steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study describes the use of a time-dependent spring-loaded four-point-probe technique to measure the direct current potential drop (DCPD) on oxidized test surfaces for different spring force values, with the purpose of evaluating the thickness of the oxide layer. The force of the spring attached to the current probe was reduced by inserting spacers with different thicknesses under the supporting legs of the sensor block. The PD measurement was first performed on machined sample exposed to the atmosphere for approximately 6 months. The sample was made of carbon steel (SS400). Then, the thickness of the oxide layer formed on the surface of the sample was increased by heat treatment. The PD was also measured on the samples subjected to heat treatment. The measurements were performed at different locations on the test surface under the same experimental conditions. The experimental results establish a relationship between the spring force and the time required for the current probe to penetrate the oxide layer. This article also proposes a procedure for evaluating the thickness of the oxide layer. Finally, the proposed method was used to evaluate the thickness of the oxide layer formed on a large surface. The method was performed to evaluate thickness of single phase monolayer oxide in the range of 3.5–8.7 μm. To demonstrate the validity and accuracy of the proposed method, the obtained thickness was compared to the thickness measured directly using a field emission scanning electron microscopy. - Highlights: ► Four-point-probe direct current potential drop technique. ► Naturally and thermally formed oxide layer on a large metallic surface. ► A procedure for evaluation of thickness of oxide layer formed on hot-rolled steel.

  10. Application of ultraviolet, ozone, and advanced oxidation treatments to washwaters to destroy nitrosamines, nitramines, amines, and aldehydes formed during amine-based carbon capture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Amisha D; Dai, Ning; Mitch, William A

    2013-03-19

    Although amine-based CO(2) absorption is a leading contender for full-scale postcombustion CO(2) capture at power plants, concerns have been raised about the potential release of carcinogenic N-nitrosamines and N-nitramines formed by reaction of exhaust gas NO(x) with the amines. Experiments with a laboratory-scale pilot unit suggested that washwater units meant to scrub contaminants from absorber unit exhaust could potentially serve as a source of N-nitrosamines via reactions of residual NO(x) with amines accumulating in the washwater. Dosage requirements for the continuous treatment of the washwater recycle line with ultraviolet (UV) light for destruction of N-nitrosamines and N-nitramines, and with ozone or hydroxyl radical-based advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) for destruction of amines and aldehydes, were evaluated. Although cost estimates would require pilot testing to capture synergies between UV and ozone treatments. PMID:23425146

  11. Advance directives and physicians' orders in nursing home residents with dementia in Flanders, Belgium: prevalence and associated outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Vandervoort, An; Van den Block, Lieve; van der Steen, Jenny T; Vander Stichele, Robert; Bilsen, Johan; Deliens, Luc

    2012-01-01

    Background: Advance care planning (ACP) is an important element of high-quality care in nursing homes, especially for residents having dementia who are often incompetent in decision-making toward the end of life. The aim of this study was describe the prevalence of documented ACP among nursing home residents with dementia in Flanders, Belgium, and associated clinical characteristics and outcomes. Methods: All 594 nursing homes in Flanders were asked to participate in a retrospective cross...

  12. Forming-free, bi-directional polarity conductive-bridge memory devices with Ge2Sb2Te5 solid-state electrolyte and Ag active electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yin-Hsien; Chen, Hsuan-An; Wu, Hsin-Han; Hsieh, Tsung-Eong

    2015-01-01

    Preparation and characteristics of conductive-bridge random access memory devices containing Ge2Sb2Te5 (GST) chalcogenide as the solid-state electrolyte, Ag as the active electrode, and W-Ti as the counter electrode are presented. As revealed by the electrical measurement, only the samples containing crystalline GST exhibited the resistive switching behaviors. With an insertion of ZnS-SiO2 dielectric layer at the Ag/GST interface and a postannealing at 100 °C for 1 min, the sample exhibited the best electrical performance with satisfactory cycleability and retention properties. Moreover, the forming-free and bi-directional polarity features were observed in such a sample type. Microstructure and composition analyses found the finely dispersed nano-scale Ag clusters in GST and, when electrical bias is applied, the migrating Ag ions may build up the connections in between neighboring Ag clusters. Moreover, grain boundaries in polycrystalline GST might be the main paths for Ag migration. The thread-like conduction channels in GST hence form, leading to the low resistance state of sample. On the contrary, the depletion of Ag in GST broke the connections in between Ag clusters when the electrical bias is reversed. This led to the rupture of conduction channels and, hence, the high resistance state of sample. The low operational voltage, forming-free, and bi-directional polarity features observed in (AZGW)T sample might also originated from the fine dispersion of Ag clusters in GST electrolyte.

  13. Advanced Manufacturing of Intermediate Temperature, Direct Methane Oxidation Membrane Electrode Assemblies for Durable Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed innovation builds on the successes of the Phase I program by integrating our direct oxidation membrane electrode assembly (MEA) into a monolithic solid...

  14. Structures of the Apo and FAD-Bound Forms of 2-Hydroxybiphenyl 3-monooxygenase (HbpA) Locate Activity Hotspots Identified by Using Directed Evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Jensen, Chantel N.; Mielke, Tamara; Farrugia, Joseph E; Frank, Annika; Man, Henry; Hart, Sam; Turkenburg, Johan P.; Grogan, Gideon

    2015-01-01

    The FAD-dependent monooxygenase HbpA from Pseudomonas azelaica HBP1 catalyses the hydroxylation of 2-hydroxybiphenyl (2HBP) to 2,3-dihydroxybiphenyl (23DHBP). HbpA has been used extensively as a model for studying flavoprotein hydroxylases under process conditions, and has also been subjected to directed-evolution experiments that altered its catalytic properties. The structure of HbpA has been determined in its apo and FAD-complex forms to resolutions of 2.76 and 2.03 Å, respectively. Compar...

  15. Comparative Characterization of Complete and Truncated Forms of Lactobacillus amylovorus α-Amylase and Role of the C-Terminal Direct Repeats in Raw-Starch Binding

    OpenAIRE

    Rodriguez Sanoja, R.; Morlon-Guyot, J.; Jore, J; Pintado, J.; Juge, N.; Guyot, J P

    2000-01-01

    Two constructs derived from the α-amylase gene (amyA) of Lactobacillus amylovorus were expressed in Lactobacillus plantarum, and their expression products were purified, characterized, and compared. These products correspond to the complete (AmyA) and truncated (AmyAΔ) forms of α-amylase; AmyAΔ lacks the 66-kDa carboxyl-terminal direct-repeating-unit region. AmyA and AmyAΔ exhibit similar amylase activities towards a range of soluble substrates (amylose, amylopectin and α-cyclodextrin, and so...

  16. Direct Measurement of Dust Attenuation in z approx. 1.5 Star-Forming Galaxies from 3D-HST: Implications for Dust Geometry and Star Formation Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Sedona H.; Kriek, Mariska; Brammer, Gabriel B; Conroy, Charlie; Schreiber, Natascha M. Foerster; Franx, Marijn; Fumagalli, Mattia; Lundren, Britt; Momcheva, Ivelina; Nelson, Erica J.; Rix, Hans-Walter; Skelton, Rosalind E.; VanDokkum, Pieter G.; Tease, Katherine Whitaker; Wuyts, Stijn

    2013-01-01

    The nature of dust in distant galaxies is not well understood, and until recently few direct dust measurements have been possible. We investigate dust in distant star-forming galaxies using near-infrared grism spectra of the 3D-HST survey combined with archival multi-wavelength photometry. These data allow us to make a direct comparison between dust towards star-forming regions (measured using Balmer decrements) and the integrated dust properties (derived by comparing spectral energy distributions [SEDs] with stellar population and dust models) for a statistically significant sample of distant galaxies. We select a sample of 163 galaxies between 1.36 or = 5 and measure Balmer decrements from stacked spectra. First, we stack spectra in bins of integrated stellar dust attenuation, and find that there is extra dust extinction towards star-forming regions (AV,HII is 1.81 times the integrated AV, star), though slightly lower than found for low-redshift starburst galaxies. Next, we stack spectra in bins of specific star formation rate (log sSFR), star formation rate (log SFR), and stellar mass (logM*). We find that on average AV,HII increases with SFR and mass, but decreases with increasing sSFR. The amount of extra extinction also decreases with increasing sSFR and decreasing stellar mass. Our results are consistent with the two-phase dust model - in which galaxies contain both a diffuse and a stellar birth cloud dust component - as the extra extinction will increase once older stars outside the star-forming regions become more dominant. Finally, using our Balmer decrements we derive dust-corrected H(alpha) SFRs, and find evidence that SED fitting produces incorrect SFRs if very rapidly declining SFHs are included in the explored parameter space. Subject headings: dust, extinction- galaxies: evolution- galaxies: high-redshift

  17. Advance directives in action in a regional palliative care service: "road testing" the provisions of the Medical Treatment Act 1988 (VIC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Margaret; Fisher, John W; Brumley, David J; Ashby, Michael A; Milliken, Jan

    2005-11-01

    In order to explore the usefulness and acceptability of the provisions of the Medical Treatment Act 1988 (Vic) for palliative care patients in a rural region in Victoria, Australia, between July and December 2004 patients were given information explaining the Act and the opportunity to discuss it with the research officer. Grounded theory methodology was used to evaluate client responses. Findings suggested that palliative care patients are willing to engage in advance care planning but they have to be well enough and need skilled, practical, face-to-face assistance to complete the required legal forms. Written materials alone are not adequate, but provide the opportunity for medical staff to have conversations about death and dying. Doctors and nurses should understand the provisions of the Act to assist patients and families. It is recommended that advance care planning, appropriate to the jurisdiction, be an integral part of the palliative care assessment process. PMID:16304759

  18. Direct measurements of dust attenuation in z ∼ 1.5 star-forming galaxies from 3D-HST: Implications for dust geometry and star formation rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nature of dust in distant galaxies is not well understood, and until recently few direct dust measurements have been possible. We investigate dust in distant star-forming galaxies using near-infrared grism spectra of the 3D-HST survey combined with archival multi-wavelength photometry. These data allow us to make a direct comparison between dust around star-forming regions (A V, H II) and the integrated dust content (A V, star). We select a sample of 163 galaxies between 1.36 ≤ z ≤ 1.5 with Hα signal-to-noise ratio ≥5 and measure Balmer decrements from stacked spectra to calculate A V, H II. First, we stack spectra in bins of A V, star, and find that A V, H II = 1.86 A V, star, with a significance of σ = 1.7. Our result is consistent with the two-component dust model, in which galaxies contain both diffuse and stellar birth cloud dust. Next, we stack spectra in bins of specific star formation rate (log SSFR), star formation rate (log SFR), and stellar mass (log M *). We find that on average A V, H II increases with SFR and mass, but decreases with increasing SSFR. Interestingly, the data hint that the amount of extra attenuation decreases with increasing SSFR. This trend is expected from the two-component model, as the extra attenuation will increase once older stars outside the star-forming regions become more dominant in the galaxy spectrum. Finally, using Balmer decrements we derive dust-corrected Hα SFRs, and find that stellar population modeling produces incorrect SFRs if rapidly declining star formation histories are included in the explored parameter space.

  19. Direct measurements of dust attenuation in z ∼ 1.5 star-forming galaxies from 3D-HST: Implications for dust geometry and star formation rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, Sedona H.; Kriek, Mariska [Astronomy Department, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Brammer, Gabriel B. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Conroy, Charlie [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Schreiber, Natascha M. Förster; Wuyts, Stijn [Max-Planck-Institut für extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstrasse, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Franx, Marijn; Fumagalli, Mattia [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9513, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Lundgren, Britt [Department of Astronomy, University of Wisconsin, 475 N Charter Street, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Momcheva, Ivelina; Nelson, Erica J.; Van Dokkum, Pieter G. [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06511 (United States); Skelton, Rosalind E. [South African Astronomical Observatory, P.O. Box 9, Observatory 7935 (South Africa); Whitaker, Katherine E., E-mail: sedona@berkeley.edu [Astrophysics Science Division, Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 665, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2014-06-10

    The nature of dust in distant galaxies is not well understood, and until recently few direct dust measurements have been possible. We investigate dust in distant star-forming galaxies using near-infrared grism spectra of the 3D-HST survey combined with archival multi-wavelength photometry. These data allow us to make a direct comparison between dust around star-forming regions (A {sub V,} {sub H} {sub II}) and the integrated dust content (A {sub V,} {sub star}). We select a sample of 163 galaxies between 1.36 ≤ z ≤ 1.5 with Hα signal-to-noise ratio ≥5 and measure Balmer decrements from stacked spectra to calculate A {sub V,} {sub H} {sub II}. First, we stack spectra in bins of A {sub V,} {sub star}, and find that A {sub V,} {sub H} {sub II} = 1.86 A {sub V,} {sub star}, with a significance of σ = 1.7. Our result is consistent with the two-component dust model, in which galaxies contain both diffuse and stellar birth cloud dust. Next, we stack spectra in bins of specific star formation rate (log SSFR), star formation rate (log SFR), and stellar mass (log M {sub *}). We find that on average A {sub V,} {sub H} {sub II} increases with SFR and mass, but decreases with increasing SSFR. Interestingly, the data hint that the amount of extra attenuation decreases with increasing SSFR. This trend is expected from the two-component model, as the extra attenuation will increase once older stars outside the star-forming regions become more dominant in the galaxy spectrum. Finally, using Balmer decrements we derive dust-corrected Hα SFRs, and find that stellar population modeling produces incorrect SFRs if rapidly declining star formation histories are included in the explored parameter space.

  20. The MOSDEF Survey: Detection of [OIII]$\\lambda$4363 and the direct-method oxygen abundance of a star-forming galaxy at z=3.08

    CERN Document Server

    Sanders, Ryan L; Kriek, Mariska; Reddy, Naveen A; Freeman, William R; Coil, Alison L; Siana, Brian; Mobasher, Bahram; Shivaei, Irene; Price, Sedona H; de Groot, Laura

    2016-01-01

    We present measurements of the electron-temperature based oxygen abundance for a highly star-forming galaxy at z=3.08, COSMOS-1908. This is the highest redshift at which [OIII]$\\lambda$4363 has been detected, and the first time that this line has been measured at z>2. We estimate an oxygen abundance of 12+log(O/H)$=8.00^{+0.13}_{-0.14}$. This galaxy is a low-mass ($10^{9.3}$ M$_{\\odot}$), highly star-forming ($\\sim50$ M$_{\\odot}$ yr$^{-1}$) system that hosts a young stellar population ($\\sim160$ Myr). We investigate the physical conditions of the ionized gas in COSMOS-1908 and find that this galaxy has a high ionization parameter, little nebular reddening ($E(B-V)_{\\rm gas}<0.14$), and a high electron density ($n_e\\sim500$ cm$^{-3}$). We compare the ratios of strong oxygen, neon, and hydrogen lines to the direct-method oxygen abundance for COSMOS-1908 and additional star-forming galaxies at z=0-1.8 with [OIII]$\\lambda$4363 measurements, and show that galaxies at z$\\sim$1-3 follow the same strong-line corre...

  1. Waste Classification based on Waste Form Heat Generation in Advanced Nuclear Fuel Cycles Using the Fuel-Cycle Integration and Tradeoffs (FIT) Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denia Djokic; Steven J. Piet; Layne F. Pincock; Nick R. Soelberg

    2013-02-01

    This study explores the impact of wastes generated from potential future fuel cycles and the issues presented by classifying these under current classification criteria, and discusses the possibility of a comprehensive and consistent characteristics-based classification framework based on new waste streams created from advanced fuel cycles. A static mass flow model, Fuel-Cycle Integration and Tradeoffs (FIT), was used to calculate the composition of waste streams resulting from different nuclear fuel cycle choices. This analysis focuses on the impact of waste form heat load on waste classification practices, although classifying by metrics of radiotoxicity, mass, and volume is also possible. The value of separation of heat-generating fission products and actinides in different fuel cycles is discussed. It was shown that the benefits of reducing the short-term fission-product heat load of waste destined for geologic disposal are neglected under the current source-based radioactive waste classification system , and that it is useful to classify waste streams based on how favorable the impact of interim storage is in increasing repository capacity.

  2. Development of advanced pump impeller fabrication technology using direct nano- ceramic dispersion casting for long time erosion durability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rhee, Chang Kyu; Lee, Min Ku; Park, Jin Ju [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)] (and others)

    2008-09-15

    Many components of pump impeller of nuclear power plants is generally made of stainless steel and Al-bronze with superior corrosion resistance to sea water. However, they should be replaced by one- to five-year period because of material damage by a very big cavitation impact load, even though their designed durability is twenty years. Especially, in case of Young-Gwang nuclear power plant located at the west sea, damage of components of pump impeller is so critical due to the additional damage by solid particle erosion and hence their replacement period is very short as several months compared to other nuclear power plants. In addition, it is very difficult to maintain and repair the components of pump impeller since there is no database on the exact durability and damage mechanism. Therefore, in this study, fabrication technology of new advanced materials modified by dispersion of nano-carbide and -oxide ceramics into the matrix is developed first. Secondly, technology to estimate the dynamic damage by solid particle erosion is established and hence applied to the prediction of the service life of the components of pump impeller.

  3. Preoperative Direct Puncture Embolization of Advanced Juvenile Nasopharyngeal Angiofibroma in Combination with Transarterial Embolization: An Analysis of 22 Consecutive Patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lv Mingming, E-mail: lvmingming001@163.com; Fan, Xin-dong, E-mail: fanxindong@yahoo.com.cn [Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Ninth People' s Hospital (China); Su Lixin, E-mail: sulixin1975@126.com [Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Ninth People' s Hospital (China); Chen Dong, E-mail: chenjsun@public8.sta.net.cn [Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Department of Otolaryngology, Ninth People' s Hospital (China)

    2013-02-15

    ObjectiveThis study was designed to evaluate the clinical application of preoperative auxiliary embolization for juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma (JNA) by direct puncture embolization (DPE) of the tumor in combination with transarterial embolization (TAE). The study included 22 patients. An 18-gauge needle was used to puncture directly into the tumor, and 20-25 % N-butyl cyanoacrylate was injected under the guidance of fluoroscopy after confirming the placement of the needle into the JNA and no leaking into the surrounding tissue. Tumors were obstructed later via TAE. The supplying arteries of JNA were from branches of the internal carotid and external carotid arteries. Control angiography showed the obliteration of contrast stain in the entire tumor mass and the distal supplying arteries disappeared after DPE in combination with TAE. Surgical resection was performed within 4 days after embolization and none of the patients required blood transfusion. The use of DPE in combination with TAE was a safe, feasible, and efficacious method. It can devascularize effectively the JNAs and reduce intraoperative bleeding when JNAs are extirpated.

  4. Preoperative Direct Puncture Embolization of Advanced Juvenile Nasopharyngeal Angiofibroma in Combination with Transarterial Embolization: An Analysis of 22 Consecutive Patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ObjectiveThis study was designed to evaluate the clinical application of preoperative auxiliary embolization for juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma (JNA) by direct puncture embolization (DPE) of the tumor in combination with transarterial embolization (TAE). The study included 22 patients. An 18-gauge needle was used to puncture directly into the tumor, and 20–25 % N-butyl cyanoacrylate was injected under the guidance of fluoroscopy after confirming the placement of the needle into the JNA and no leaking into the surrounding tissue. Tumors were obstructed later via TAE. The supplying arteries of JNA were from branches of the internal carotid and external carotid arteries. Control angiography showed the obliteration of contrast stain in the entire tumor mass and the distal supplying arteries disappeared after DPE in combination with TAE. Surgical resection was performed within 4 days after embolization and none of the patients required blood transfusion. The use of DPE in combination with TAE was a safe, feasible, and efficacious method. It can devascularize effectively the JNAs and reduce intraoperative bleeding when JNAs are extirpated.

  5. Direct evidence of single quantum dot emission from GaN islands formed at threading dislocations using nanoscale cathodoluminescence: A source of single photons in the ultraviolet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intense emission from GaN islands embedded in AlN resulting from GaN/AlN quantum well growth is directly resolved by performing cathodoluminescence spectroscopy in a scanning transmission electron microscope. Line widths down to 440 μeV are measured in a wavelength region between 220 and 310 nm confirming quantum dot like electronic properties in the islands. These quantum dot states can be structurally correlated to islands of slightly enlarged thicknesses of the GaN/AlN quantum well layer preferentially formed in vicinity to dislocations. The quantum dot states exhibit single photon emission in Hanbury Brown-Twiss experiments with a clear antibunching in the second order correlation function at zero time delay

  6. Development of advanced direct perception displays for nuclear power plants to enhance monitoring, control and fault management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Traditional Single-Sensor-Single Indicator (SSSI) displays are poorly matched to the cognitive abilities of operators, especially for large and complex systems. It is difficult for operators to monitor very large arrays of displays and controls, and to integrate the information displayed therein. In addition, standard operating procedures (SOPs) are bulky (running to many hundreds of pages) and difficult to use, and operators may become lost. For these reasons, and also because it is becoming increasingly difficult to find replacements for aging hardware components, there is a trend towards computerized graphical interfaces for nuclear power plants (NPPs). There is, however, little rational theory for display design in this domain. This report describes some recent theoretical developments and shows how to develop displays which will greatly reduce the cognitive load on the operator and allow the use of perceptual rather than cognitive mechanisms while using SON and to support state diagnosis and fault management. The report outlines the conceptual framework within which such a new approach could be developed, and provides an example of how the operating procedures for the start-up sequence of a NPP could be realized. A detailed description of a set of displays for a graphical interface for the SON of the feedwater system is provided as an example of how the proposed approach could be realized, and a general account of how it would fit into the overall start-up sequence is given. Examples of open-quotes direct perceptionclose quotes or open-quotes ecologicalclose quotes configural state space displays to support the use of the proposed direct manipulation SOP interface are provided, and also a critical discussion which identifies some difficulties which may be anticipated should the general approach herein advocated be adopted

  7. Development of advanced direct perception displays for nuclear power plants to enhance monitoring, control and fault management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, B.G.; Shaheen, S.; Moray, N. [and others

    1997-08-01

    Traditional Single-Sensor-Single Indicator (SSSI) displays are poorly matched to the cognitive abilities of operators, especially for large and complex systems. It is difficult for operators to monitor very large arrays of displays and controls, and to integrate the information displayed therein. In addition, standard operating procedures (SOPs) are bulky (running to many hundreds of pages) and difficult to use, and operators may become lost. For these reasons, and also because it is becoming increasingly difficult to find replacements for aging hardware components, there is a trend towards computerized graphical interfaces for nuclear power plants (NPPs). There is, however, little rational theory for display design in this domain. This report describes some recent theoretical developments and shows how to develop displays which will greatly reduce the cognitive load on the operator and allow the use of perceptual rather than cognitive mechanisms while using SON and to support state diagnosis and fault management. The report outlines the conceptual framework within which such a new approach could be developed, and provides an example of how the operating procedures for the start-up sequence of a NPP could be realized. A detailed description of a set of displays for a graphical interface for the SON of the feedwater system is provided as an example of how the proposed approach could be realized, and a general account of how it would fit into the overall start-up sequence is given. Examples of {open_quotes}direct perception{close_quotes} or {open_quotes}ecological{close_quotes} configural state space displays to support the use of the proposed direct manipulation SOP interface are provided, and also a critical discussion which identifies some difficulties which may be anticipated should the general approach herein advocated be adopted.

  8. The MOSDEF Survey: Detection of [O III]λ4363 and the Direct-method Oxygen Abundance of a Star-forming Galaxy at z = 3.08

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Ryan L.; Shapley, Alice E.; Kriek, Mariska; Reddy, Naveen A.; Freeman, William R.; Coil, Alison L.; Siana, Brian; Mobasher, Bahram; Shivaei, Irene; Price, Sedona H.; de Groot, Laura

    2016-07-01

    We present measurements of the electron-temperature-based oxygen abundance for a highly star-forming galaxy at z = 3.08, COSMOS-1908. This is the highest redshift at which [O iii]λ4363 has been detected and the first time that this line has been measured at z\\gt 2. We estimate an oxygen abundance of 12+{log}({{O}}/{{H}})={8.00}-0.14+0.13. This galaxy is a low-mass ({10}9.3 {M}ȯ ), highly star-forming (∼50 {M}ȯ yr‑1) system that hosts a young stellar population (∼160 Myr). We investigate the physical conditions of the ionized gas in COSMOS-1908 and find that this galaxy has a high ionization parameter, little nebular reddening (E{(B-V)}{{gas}}\\lt 0.14), and a high electron density ({n}e∼ 500 cm‑3). We compare the ratios of strong oxygen, neon, and hydrogen lines to the direct-method oxygen abundance for COSMOS-1908 and additional star-forming galaxies at z=0-1.8 with [O iii]λ4363 measurements and show that galaxies at z∼ 1{--}3 follow the same strong-line correlations as galaxies in the local universe. This agreement suggests that the relationship between ionization parameter and O/H is similar for z∼ 0 and high-redshift galaxies. These results imply that metallicity calibrations based on lines of oxygen, neon, and hydrogen do not strongly evolve with redshift and can reliably estimate abundances out to z∼ 3, paving the way for robust measurements of the evolution of the mass–metallicity relation to high redshift. Based on data obtained at the W.M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California, and NASA, and was made possible by the generous financial support of the W.M. Keck Foundation.

  9. Facile synthesis of Pt-Pd@Silicon nanostructure as an advanced electrocatalyst for direct methanol fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ensafi, Ali A.; Jafari-Asl, M.; Rezaei, B.; Abarghoui, M. Mokhtari; Farrokhpour, H.

    2015-05-01

    In this work, platinum-palladium (Pt-Pd) is assembled in-situ on the surface of porous silicon flour (PSiF) through chemical reduction of PtCl62-/PdCl42- and oxidation of the precursor solution SiF64-. The components and the morphological properties of the Pt-Pd on PSiF is investigated by means of transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction techniques. In the next stage, screen printed graphene electrode (SPGE) is prepared by electro-reduction of exfoliated graphene oxide at the surface of a screen printed carbon electrode (SPCE), which is subsequently characterized by FT-IR, Raman spectroscopy, FE-SEM, and electrochemical methods. Finally, a combination of Pt-Pd@PSi nanostructure and SPGE is used for the electro-oxidation of methanol in direct methanol fuel cell. The electrochemical results demonstrate that the Pt-Pd@PSiF-SPGE exhibits an excellent electrocatalytic activity for methanol oxidation. In addition, the electron transfer kinetic of methanol oxidation on Pt-Pd@PSiF-SPGE is investigated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The results showed that the surface of Pt-Pd@PSiF-SPGE is not affected (poisoned) by intermediate products such as CO.

  10. Advances in the simulation and automated measurement of well-sorted granular material: 2. Direct measures of particle properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buscombe, Daniel D.; Rubin, David M.

    2012-01-01

    1. In this, the second of a pair of papers on the structure of well-sorted natural granular material (sediment), new methods are described for automated measurements from images of sediment, of: 1) particle-size standard deviation (arithmetic sorting) with and without apparent void fraction; and 2) mean particle size in material with void fraction. A variety of simulations of granular material are used for testing purposes, in addition to images of natural sediment. Simulations are also used to establish that the effects on automated particle sizing of grains visible through the interstices of the grains at the very surface of a granular material continue to a depth of approximately 4 grain diameters and that this is independent of mean particle size. Ensemble root-mean squared error between observed and estimated arithmetic sorting coefficients for 262 images of natural silts, sands and gravels (drawn from 8 populations) is 31%, which reduces to 27% if adjusted for bias (slope correction between observed and estimated values). These methods allow non-intrusive and fully automated measurements of surfaces of unconsolidated granular material. With no tunable parameters or empirically derived coefficients, they should be broadly universal in appropriate applications. However, empirical corrections may need to be applied for the most accurate results. Finally, analytical formulas are derived for the one-step pore-particle transition probability matrix, estimated from the image's autocorrelogram, from which void fraction of a section of granular material can be estimated directly. This model gives excellent predictions of bulk void fraction yet imperfect predictions of pore-particle transitions.

  11. Forming characteristics and application of advanced high strength steel%先进高强度钢板的冲压成形特性及其应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋浩民; 陈新平; 石磊; 陈庆欣; 陈军; 李淑慧

    2009-01-01

    文章在研究高强度钢板成形特性、回弹特性以及拉毛特性的基础上,深入探讨了先进高强度钢板冲压过程的变形特征.研究结果表明,与传统HSLA钢板相比,DP钢和TRIP钢具有较好的应变均化能力,和较高的成形性,有利于提高零件的使用强度.钢种特性和材料参数对回弹影响显著,使先进高强度钢板尺寸精度控制难度加大.当钢板强度升高时,高强度钢板表现出更易产生拉毛的趋势.%The forming characteristics of advanced high strength steel are studied in this paper based on the experimental study and simulation of formability, springback and galling. It is shown that compared to conventional HSLA steel, DP steel and TRIP steel have relatively higher ability to ensure the strain distribution much evener and obtain much higher formability, which will improve the part strengths remarkably. The steel grade and material mechanical parameters have obvious effect on the spring-back, which will increase the difficulty to control the dimension precision of high strength steel. With the increase of steel strength, the galling defects are much easier to occur.

  12. Advance directives in the perioperative setting: Managing ethical and legal issues when patient rights and perceived obligations of the healthcare provider conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Stephen P; Howe, Christopher L

    2013-01-01

    Perhaps individual wishes are not always acknowledged or accepted when it comes to end-of-life care. This possibility, in conjunction with the experiences of healthcare risk managers, should cause concern in the healthcare risk management community. One particularly concerning issue where a persistent failure to honor a patient's wishes exists is with Do Not Resuscitate (DNR) orders in the perioperative arena. Despite a strong focus on informed consent and advance directives, evidence suggests a number of healthcare organizations either have no policy in place regarding DNR orders during the perioperative period, or, for those organizations that do have a policy, many call for automatic suspension of the DNR order without consultation with the patient. This latter practice poses many ethical, medico-legal, and regulatory concerns, and healthcare organizations with such a policy in place should strongly consider revisiting this practice. PMID:23609975

  13. Waste form development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this program, contemporary solidification agents are being investigated relative to their applications to major fuel cycle and non-fuel cycle low-level waste (LLW) streams. Work is being conducted to determine the range of conditions under which these solidification agents can be applied to specific LLW streams. These studies are directed primarily towards defining operating parameters for both improved solidification of problem wastes and solidification of new LLW streams generated from advanced volume reduction technologies. Work is being conducted to measure relevant waste form properties. These data will be compiled and evaluated to demonstrate compliance with waste form performance and shallow land burial acceptance criteria and transportation requirements (both as they exist and as they are modified with time). 6 tables

  14. Advanced Microbial Taxonomy Combined with Genome-Based-Approaches Reveals that Vibrio astriarenae sp. nov., an Agarolytic Marine Bacterium, Forms a New Clade in Vibrionaceae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurhidayu Al-Saari

    Full Text Available Advances in genomic microbial taxonomy have opened the way to create a more universal and transparent concept of species but is still in a transitional stage towards becoming a defining robust criteria for describing new microbial species with minimum features obtained using both genome and classical polyphasic taxonomies. Here we performed advanced microbial taxonomies combined with both genome-based and classical approaches for new agarolytic vibrio isolates to describe not only a novel Vibrio species but also a member of a new Vibrio clade. Two novel vibrio strains (Vibrio astriarenae sp. nov. C7T and C20 showing agarolytic, halophilic and fermentative metabolic activity were isolated from a seawater sample collected in a coral reef in Okinawa. Intraspecific similarities of the isolates were identical in both sequences on the 16S rRNA and pyrH genes, but the closest relatives on the molecular phylogenetic trees on the basis of 16S rRNA and pyrH gene sequences were V. hangzhouensis JCM 15146T (97.8% similarity and V. agarivorans CECT 5085T (97.3% similarity, respectively. Further multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA on the basis of 8 protein coding genes (ftsZ, gapA, gyrB, mreB, pyrH, recA, rpoA, and topA obtained by the genome sequences clearly showed the V. astriarenae strain C7T and C20 formed a distinct new clade protruded next to V. agarivorans CECT 5085T. The singleton V. agarivorans has never been included in previous MLSA of Vibrionaceae due to the lack of some gene sequences. Now the gene sequences are completed and analysis of 100 taxa in total provided a clear picture describing the association of V. agarivorans into pre-existing concatenated network tree and concluded its relationship to our vibrio strains. Experimental DNA-DNA hybridization (DDH data showed that the strains C7T and C20 were conspecific but were separated from all of the other Vibrio species related on the basis of both 16S rRNA and pyrH gene phylogenies (e.g., V

  15. Direct Kernel Perceptron (DKP): ultra-fast kernel ELM-based classification with non-iterative closed-form weight calculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Delgado, Manuel; Cernadas, Eva; Barro, Senén; Ribeiro, Jorge; Neves, José

    2014-02-01

    The Direct Kernel Perceptron (DKP) (Fernández-Delgado et al., 2010) is a very simple and fast kernel-based classifier, related to the Support Vector Machine (SVM) and to the Extreme Learning Machine (ELM) (Huang, Wang, & Lan, 2011), whose α-coefficients are calculated directly, without any iterative training, using an analytical closed-form expression which involves only the training patterns. The DKP, which is inspired by the Direct Parallel Perceptron, (Auer et al., 2008), uses a Gaussian kernel and a linear classifier (perceptron). The weight vector of this classifier in the feature space minimizes an error measure which combines the training error and the hyperplane margin, without any tunable regularization parameter. This weight vector can be translated, using a variable change, to the α-coefficients, and both are determined without iterative calculations. We calculate solutions using several error functions, achieving the best trade-off between accuracy and efficiency with the linear function. These solutions for the α coefficients can be considered alternatives to the ELM with a new physical meaning in terms of error and margin: in fact, the linear and quadratic DKP are special cases of the two-class ELM when the regularization parameter C takes the values C=0 and C=∞. The linear DKP is extremely efficient and much faster (over a vast collection of 42 benchmark and real-life data sets) than 12 very popular and accurate classifiers including SVM, Multi-Layer Perceptron, Adaboost, Random Forest and Bagging of RPART decision trees, Linear Discriminant Analysis, K-Nearest Neighbors, ELM, Probabilistic Neural Networks, Radial Basis Function neural networks and Generalized ART. Besides, despite its simplicity and extreme efficiency, DKP achieves higher accuracies than 7 out of 12 classifiers, exhibiting small differences with respect to the best ones (SVM, ELM, Adaboost and Random Forest), which are much slower. Thus, the DKP provides an easy and fast way

  16. An overview on the advanced oxidation processes applied for the treatment of water pollutants defined in the recently launched Directive 2013/39/EU.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Ana R; Nunes, Olga C; Pereira, Manuel F R; Silva, Adrián M T

    2015-02-01

    Environmental pollution is a recognized issue of major concern since a wide range of contaminants has been found in aquatic environment at ngL(-1) to μgL(-1) levels. In the year 2000, a strategy was defined to identify the priority substances concerning aquatic ecosystems, followed by the definition of environmental quality standards (EQS) in 2008. Recently it was launched the Directive 2013/39/EU that updates the water framework policy highlighting the need to develop new water treatment technologies to deal with such problem. This review summarizes the data published in the last decade regarding the application of advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) to treat priority compounds and certain other pollutants defined in this Directive, excluding the inorganic species (cadmium, lead, mercury, nickel and their derivatives). The Directive 2013/39/EU includes several pesticides (aldrin, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane, dicofol, dieldrin, endrin, endosulfan, isodrin, heptachlor, lindane, pentachlorophenol, chlorpyrifos, chlorfenvinphos, dichlorvos, atrazine, simazine, terbutryn, diuron, isoproturon, trifluralin, cypermethrin, alachlor), solvents (dichloromethane, dichloroethane, trichloromethane and carbon tetrachloride), perfluorooctane sulfonic acid and its derivatives (PFOS), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), nonylphenol and octylphenol, as well as the three compounds included in the recommendation for the first watch list of substances (diclofenac, 17-alpha-ethinylestradiol (EE2) and 17-beta-estradiol (E2)). Some particular pesticides (aclonifen, bifenox, cybutryne, quinoxyfen), organotin compounds (tributyltin), dioxins and dioxin-like compounds, brominated diphenylethers, hexabromocyclododecanes and di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate are also defined in this Directive, but studies dealing with AOPs are missing. AOPs are recognized tools to destroy recalcitrant compounds or, at least, to transform them into biodegradable species

  17. The Power Generation Characteristics and Durability of a Vibration Power Generation Device using Piezoelectric Thick Film Formed Directly by Screen Printing on a Stainless Steel Substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a small, high-performance and novel device that generates power from vibrations, made using screen-printing to form a piezoelectric thick film directly on a stainless steel substrate. This simple and cheap method realizes a 20 – 40 μm-thick piezoelectric film, otherwise difficult to achieve using thin-film techniques or ceramic sintering, on a stainless steel substrate. A maximum output power of 1.1 mW was recorded with acceleration of 0.1 G0p (0.98 ms−2) applied at a resonance frequency of 24 Hz. We also evaluated the durability of the device by repeatedly striking the tip of the element. Output power exceeding 100 mW under damped resonant vibration was generated at the instant of striking, with approximately 0.9 mJ of power measured per single damped vibration. No deterioration was seen in the integrity of the stainless steel substrate or the piezoelectric thick film after over 10 million strikes

  18. Teaching Form as Form

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Tina Bering

    2012-01-01

    understanding of form per se, or, to use an expression from this text, of form as form. This challenge can be reduced to one question: how can design teaching support students in achieving not only the ability to recognize and describe different form-related concepts in existing design (i.e. analytical and...

  19. Using SpaceClaimTD Direct for Modeling Components with Complex Geometries for the Thermal Desktop-Based Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabanich, William A., Jr.

    2014-01-01

    SpaceClaim/TD Direct has been used extensively in the development of the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) thermal model. This paper outlines the workflow for that aspect of the task and includes proposed best practices and lessons learned. The ASRG thermal model was developed to predict component temperatures and power output and to provide insight into the prime contractor's thermal modeling efforts. The insulation blocks, heat collectors, and cold side adapter flanges (CSAFs) were modeled with this approach. The model was constructed using mostly TD finite difference (FD) surfaces/solids. However, some complex geometry could not be reproduced with TD primitives while maintaining the desired degree of geometric fidelity. Using SpaceClaim permitted the import of original CAD files and enabled the defeaturing/repair of those geometries. TD Direct (a SpaceClaim add-on from CRTech) adds features that allowed the "mark-up" of that geometry. These so-called "mark-ups" control how finite element (FE) meshes are to be generated through the "tagging" of features (e.g. edges, solids, surfaces). These tags represent parameters that include: submodels, material properties, material orienters, optical properties, and radiation analysis groups. TD aliases were used for most tags to allow analysis to be performed with a variety of parameter values. "Domain-tags" were also attached to individual and groups of surfaces and solids to allow them to be used later within TD to populate objects like, for example, heaters and contactors. These tools allow the user to make changes to the geometry in SpaceClaim and then easily synchronize the mesh in TD without having to redefine the objects each time as one would if using TDMesher. The use of SpaceClaim/TD Direct helps simplify the process for importing existing geometries and in the creation of high fidelity FE meshes to represent complex parts. It also saves time and effort in the subsequent analysis.

  20. Using SpaceClaim/TD Direct for Modeling Components with Complex Geometries for the Thermal Desktop-Based Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabanich, William

    2014-01-01

    SpaceClaim/TD Direct has been used extensively in the development of the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) thermal model. This paper outlines the workflow for that aspect of the task and includes proposed best practices and lessons learned. The ASRG thermal model was developed to predict component temperatures and power output and to provide insight into the prime contractors thermal modeling efforts. The insulation blocks, heat collectors, and cold side adapter flanges (CSAFs) were modeled with this approach. The model was constructed using mostly TD finite difference (FD) surfaces solids. However, some complex geometry could not be reproduced with TD primitives while maintaining the desired degree of geometric fidelity. Using SpaceClaim permitted the import of original CAD files and enabled the defeaturing repair of those geometries. TD Direct (a SpaceClaim add-on from CRTech) adds features that allowed the mark-up of that geometry. These so-called mark-ups control how finite element (FE) meshes were generated and allowed the tagging of features (e.g. edges, solids, surfaces). These tags represent parameters that include: submodels, material properties, material orienters, optical properties, and radiation analysis groups. TD aliases were used for most tags to allow analysis to be performed with a variety of parameter values. Domain-tags were also attached to individual and groups of surfaces and solids to allow them to be used later within TD to populate objects like, for example, heaters and contactors. These tools allow the user to make changes to the geometry in SpaceClaim and then easily synchronize the mesh in TD without having to redefine these objects each time as one would if using TD Mesher.The use of SpaceClaim/TD Direct has helped simplify the process for importing existing geometries and in the creation of high fidelity FE meshes to represent complex parts. It has also saved time and effort in the subsequent analysis.

  1. New CERN Health Insurance Scheme (CHIS) forms

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2015-01-01

    New versions of the following forms for claims and requests to the CERN Health Insurance Scheme (CHIS) have been released:   form for claiming reimbursement of medical expenses,   form for requesting advance reimbursement, and   dental estimate form (for treatments foreseen to exceed 800 CHF).   The new forms are available in French and English. They can either be completed electronically before being printed and signed, or completed in paper form. New detailed instructions can be found at the back of the claim form; CHIS members are invited to read them carefully. The electronic versions (PDF) of all the forms are available on the CHIS website and on the UNIQA Member Portal. CHIS Members are requested to use these new forms forthwith and to discard any previous version. Questions regarding the above should be addressed directly to UNIQA (72730 or 022.718 63 00 or uniqa.assurances@cern.ch).

  2. Eldercare at Home: Advanced Directives

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... which means someone who has the authority to act for another person. (Other terms that refer to the same role ... included in the medical record if the older person is admitted to a hospital or skilled ... Act, patients or their representatives will be asked if ...

  3. Nurses’ perceptions of advance directives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernestina Silva

    2014-11-01

    Conclusion: Nurses have little experience with AD. They are available to respect the patient's will but did not feel able to address the issue on their own initiative. Most agree that the AD can “fail” if the patient does not reevaluate it periodically. Reflection and debate on the ethical issues surrounding AD should be promoted: promoting patient autonomy, care in vulnerable situations, team decisions and conscientious objection.

  4. The Forming Conditions of and Ore- searching Direction for B, Mg, Pb, Zn and Au Deposits in the Liaoji Proterozoic Rift

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhu Yongzheng; Yao Fengliang

    2001-01-01

    The Liaoji Proterozoic rift is an inter- intracontinenatl rift developed from Archean granite- greenstone tectonic regime and contains many important mineral deposits of U, B, magnesite, Pb - Zn, Au, Ag, Co and P. These deposits were formed as the result of late mobilization, transportation and concentration of the previously enriched ore - forming materials in several ore- bearing formations formed during the rift stage. So the metallogeny of these deposits in the rift shows both inheritance and new generation of the ore - forming materials. In future ore - searching practice, attentions should be paid on the studies of the ore - bearing formations in the rift, on the multiple stages of metallogeny and and on multiple derivations of the ore - forming materials.

  5. Resource characterization and residuals remediation, Task 1.0: Air quality assessment and control, Task 2.0: Advanced power systems, Task 3.0: Advanced fuel forms and coproducts, Task 4.0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawthorne, S.B.; Timpe, R.C.; Hartman, J.H. [and others

    1994-02-01

    This report addresses three subtasks related to the Resource Characterization and Residuals Remediation program: (1) sulfur forms in coal and their thermal transformations, (2) data resource evaluation and integration using GIS (Geographic Information Systems), and (3) supplementary research related to the Rocky Mountain 1 (RM1) UCG (Underground Coal Gasification) test program.

  6. Advanced calculus

    CERN Document Server

    Nickerson, HK; Steenrod, NE

    2011-01-01

    ""This book is a radical departure from all previous concepts of advanced calculus,"" declared the Bulletin of the American Mathematics Society, ""and the nature of this departure merits serious study of the book by everyone interested in undergraduate education in mathematics."" Classroom-tested in a Princeton University honors course, it offers students a unified introduction to advanced calculus. Starting with an abstract treatment of vector spaces and linear transforms, the authors introduce a single basic derivative in an invariant form. All other derivatives - gradient, divergent, curl,

  7. Effect of horizontal cross flow on the heat transfer form the moderator bricks in the Advanced Gas-cooled Reactor: A CFD study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Small cross flow can have a significant effect on the cooling of the graphite brick of UK Advanced Gas-cooled Reactor (AGR). • Cross flow causes the peak temperature of the brick to reduce. • Cross flow causes a redistribution of the main axial downward flow. • Cross flow enhances the heat transfer in some of passages of small clearances of the key/keyway connections. -- Abstract: The paper reports an investigation of the effect of the horizontal cross flow on the temperature of the moderator brick in the UK Advanced Gas-cooled Reactor (AGR) using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) with a conjugate heat transfer model for the solid and fluid. The commercial software package ANSYS Fluent is used to study the correlation between the flow structure and heat transfer which ultimately determine the temperature within the system. The CFD model comprises the full axial length of one-half of a typical fuel channel (assuming symmetry) and part of the neighbouring channels on either side. Two sets of simulations have been carried out, namely, one with cross flow and one without cross flow. The effect of cross flow has subsequently been derived by comparing the results from these two groups of simulations. The study shows that a small cross flow can have a significant effect on the cooling of the graphite brick, causing the peak temperature of the brick to reduce significantly. Two mechanisms are identified to be responsible for this. Firstly, the small cross flow causes a significant redistribution of the main axial downward flow and this leads to an enhancement of heat transfer in some of the small clearances, and an impairment in others although overall, the enhancement is dominant leading to a better cooling. Secondly, the cross flow makes effective use of the small clearances between the key/keyway connections which increases the effective heat transfer area, hence increasing the cooling. Under the conditions of no cross flow, these areas remain

  8. MicroRNAs Form Triplexes with Double Stranded DNA at Sequence-Specific Binding Sites; a Eukaryotic Mechanism via which microRNAs Could Directly Alter Gene Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paugh, Steven W; Coss, David R; Bao, Ju; Laudermilk, Lucas T; Grace, Christy R; Ferreira, Antonio M; Waddell, M Brett; Ridout, Granger; Naeve, Deanna; Leuze, Michael; LoCascio, Philip F; Panetta, John C; Wilkinson, Mark R; Pui, Ching-Hon; Naeve, Clayton W; Uberbacher, Edward C; Bonten, Erik J; Evans, William E

    2016-02-01

    MicroRNAs are important regulators of gene expression, acting primarily by binding to sequence-specific locations on already transcribed messenger RNAs (mRNA) and typically down-regulating their stability or translation. Recent studies indicate that microRNAs may also play a role in up-regulating mRNA transcription levels, although a definitive mechanism has not been established. Double-helical DNA is capable of forming triple-helical structures through Hoogsteen and reverse Hoogsteen interactions in the major groove of the duplex, and we show physical evidence (i.e., NMR, FRET, SPR) that purine or pyrimidine-rich microRNAs of appropriate length and sequence form triple-helical structures with purine-rich sequences of duplex DNA, and identify microRNA sequences that favor triplex formation. We developed an algorithm (Trident) to search genome-wide for potential triplex-forming sites and show that several mammalian and non-mammalian genomes are enriched for strong microRNA triplex binding sites. We show that those genes containing sequences favoring microRNA triplex formation are markedly enriched (3.3 fold, ptriplex binding sequences. This work has thus revealed a new mechanism by which microRNAs could interact with gene promoter regions to modify gene transcription. PMID:26844769

  9. MicroRNAs Form Triplexes with Double Stranded DNA at Sequence-Specific Binding Sites; a Eukaryotic Mechanism via which microRNAs Could Directly Alter Gene Expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven W Paugh

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs are important regulators of gene expression, acting primarily by binding to sequence-specific locations on already transcribed messenger RNAs (mRNA and typically down-regulating their stability or translation. Recent studies indicate that microRNAs may also play a role in up-regulating mRNA transcription levels, although a definitive mechanism has not been established. Double-helical DNA is capable of forming triple-helical structures through Hoogsteen and reverse Hoogsteen interactions in the major groove of the duplex, and we show physical evidence (i.e., NMR, FRET, SPR that purine or pyrimidine-rich microRNAs of appropriate length and sequence form triple-helical structures with purine-rich sequences of duplex DNA, and identify microRNA sequences that favor triplex formation. We developed an algorithm (Trident to search genome-wide for potential triplex-forming sites and show that several mammalian and non-mammalian genomes are enriched for strong microRNA triplex binding sites. We show that those genes containing sequences favoring microRNA triplex formation are markedly enriched (3.3 fold, p<2.2 × 10(-16 for genes whose expression is positively correlated with expression of microRNAs targeting triplex binding sequences. This work has thus revealed a new mechanism by which microRNAs could interact with gene promoter regions to modify gene transcription.

  10. Comparative molecular developmental aspects of the mammalian- and the avian lungs, and the insectan tracheal system by branching morphogenesis: recent advances and future directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maina John N

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Gas exchangers fundamentally form by branching morphogenesis (BM, a mechanistically profoundly complex process which derives from coherent expression and regulation of multiple genes that direct cell-to-cell interactions, differentiation, and movements by signaling of various molecular morphogenetic cues at specific times and particular places in the developing organ. Coordinated expression of growth-instructing factors determines sizes and sites where bifurcation occurs, by how much a part elongates before it divides, and the angle at which branching occurs. BM is essentially induced by dualities of factors where through feedback- or feed forward loops agonists/antagonists are activated or repressed. The intricate transactions between the development orchestrating molecular factors determine the ultimate phenotype. From the primeval time when the transformation of unicellular organisms to multicellular ones occurred by systematic accretion of cells, BM has been perpetually conserved. Canonical signalling, transcriptional pathways, and other instructive molecular factors are commonly employed within and across species, tissues, and stages of development. While much still remain to be elucidated and some of what has been reported corroborated and reconciled with rest of existing data, notable progress has in recent times been made in understanding the mechanism of BM. By identifying and characterizing the morphogenetic drivers, and markers and their regulatory dynamics, the elemental underpinnings of BM have been more precisely explained. Broadening these insights will allow more effective diagnostic and therapeutic interventions of developmental abnormalities and pathologies in pre- and postnatal lungs. Conservation of the molecular factors which are involved in the development of the lung (and other branched organs is a classic example of nature’s astuteness in economically utilizing finite resources. Once purposefully formed, well

  11. Collaborative form(s)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunn, Wendy

    Gunn asks us to consider beauty as collaborative forms of action generated by moving between design by means of anthropology and anthropology by means of design. Specifically, she gives focus to play-like reflexions on practices of designing energy products, systems and infrastructure. Design...... anthropology engages groups of people within collaborative, interdisciplinary, inter-organizational design processes and co-analytic activities vs. the individual anthropologist conducting studies of people. In doing anthropology by means of design as Gatt and Ingold (2013) have shown, design is considered the...... premise designing as a social process and can be understood as a material engagement and constructive critique involving participant observation....

  12. Corrosion resistance of Mg(OH)2/Mg–Al layered double hydroxide composite film formed directly on combustion-resistant magnesium alloy AMCa602 by steam coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Composite films were formed on non-combustible magnesium alloy by steam coating. • The film consists of mixed phases composed mainly of Mg(OH)2 and Mg–Al LDH. • Corrosion resistance of the film were investigated by electrochemical measurements. - Abstract: Films of the Mg(OH)2/Mg–Al layered double hydroxide composite were formed on the combustion-resistant magnesium alloy AMCa602 by steam coating and characterized by X-ray diffraction, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. The corrosion-resistance performances of the films in a 5 wt% NaCl solution were investigated using electrochemical measurements. The corrosion current density of the sample that was steam-coated at 433 K for 6 h using the aqueous solution containing 200 mM Al(NO3)3 decreased significantly more than that of the bare AMCa602. The correlations between the Mg–Al LDH content in the films, Al(NO3)3 concentration in the aqueous solutions, and corrosion current densities were investigated

  13. "I don't need my patients' opinion to withdraw treatment": patient preferences at the end-of-life and physician attitudes towards advance directives in England and France.

    OpenAIRE

    Horn, R

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a qualitative interview study exploring English and French physicians' moral perspectives and attitudes towards end-of-life decisions when patients lack capacity to make decisions for themselves. The paper aims to examine the importance physicians from different contexts accord to patient preferences and to explore the (potential) role of advance directives (ADs) in each context. The interviews focus on (1) problems that emerge when deciding to withdraw/-hol...

  14. Forces, Growth and Form in Soft Condensed Matter: At the Interface between Physics and Biology NATO Advanced Study Institute, Geilo, Norway, 24 March - 3 April 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helgesen, G. ed.

    2003-05-01

    The goal of this ASI was to bring together a group of disparate sciences to discuss areas of research related to competition between interactions of different ranges, for it is this that creates local structure on which complexity depends in soft condensed matter, biological systems and their synthetic models. The starting point, and the underlying theme throughout the ASI, was thus a thorough discussion of the relative role of the various fundamental interactions in such systems (electrostatic, hydrophobic, steric, conformational, van der Waals, etc.). The next focus was on how these competing interactions influence the form and topology of soft and biological matter, like polymers and proteins, leading to hierarchical structures in self-assembling systems and folding patterns sometimes described in terms of chirality, braids and knots. Finally, focus was on how the competing interactions influence various bio processes like genetic regulation and biological evolution taking place in systems like biopolymers, macromolecules and cell membranes. The report includes the abstracts of the posters presented, two of which are given in this database: (1) Precise characterisation of nano channels in track etched membranes by SAXS and SANS, and (2) Cisplatin binding to DNA: Structure, bonding and NMR properties from CarParrinello/Classical MD simulations.

  15. FY2001 Final Report Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) on Advanced Nuclear Fuel Design in the Future Nuclear Energy Market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christensen, D.; Choi, J.-S.; DiSabatino, A.; Wirth, B.

    2001-09-30

    This study is to research the maturity of advanced nuclear fuel and cladding technology and to explore the suitability of existing technology for addressing the emerging requirements for Generation IV reactors and emerging thermal/fast spectrum reactors, while simultaneously addressing nuclear waste management, and proliferation resistance concerns.

  16. Free-form illumination optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohedano, Rubén; Chaves, Julio; Hernández, Maikel

    2016-04-01

    In many illumination problems, the beam pattern needed and/or some geometrical constraints lead to very asymmetric design conditions. These asymmetries have been solved in the past by means of arrangements of rotationally symmetric or linear lamps aimed in different directions whose patterns overlap to provide the asymmetric prescriptions or by splitting one single lamp into several sections, each one providing a part of the pattern. The development of new design methods yielding smooth continuous free-form optical surfaces to solve these challenging design problems, combined with the proper CAD modeling tools plus the development of multiple axes diamond turn machines, give birth to a new generation of optics. These are able to offer the performance and other advanced features, such as efficiency, compactness, or aesthetical advantages, and can be manufactured at low cost by injection molding. This paper presents two examples of devices with free-form optical surfaces, a camera flash, and a car headlamp.

  17. Effects of a delocalizable cation on the headgroup of gemini lipids on the lipoplex-type nanoaggregates directly formed from plasmid DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Santosh K; Muñoz-Úbeda, Mónica; Datta, Sougata; Barrán-Berdón, Ana L; Aicart-Ramos, Clara; Castro-Hartmann, Pablo; Kondaiah, Paturu; Junquera, Elena; Bhattacharya, Santanu; Aicart, Emilio

    2013-11-11

    Lipoplex-type nanoaggregates prepared from pEGFP-C3 plasmid DNA (pDNA) and mixed liposomes, with a gemini cationic lipid (CL) [1,2-bis(hexadecyl imidazolium) alkanes], referred as (C16Im)2Cn (where Cn is the alkane spacer length, n = 2, 3, 5, or 12, between the imidazolium heads) and DOPE zwitterionic lipid, have been analyzed by zeta potential, gel electrophoresis, SAXS, cryo-TEM, fluorescence anisotropy, transfection efficiency, fluorescence confocal microscopy, and cell viability/cytotoxicity experiments to establish a structure-biological activity relationship. The study, carried out at several mixed liposome compositions, α, and effective charge ratios, ρeff, of the lipoplex, demonstrates that the transfection of pDNA using CLs initially requires the determination of the effective charge of both. The electrochemical study confirms that CLs with a delocalizable positive charge in their headgroups yield an effective positive charge that is 90% of their expected nominal one, while pDNA is compacted yielding an effective negative charge which is only 10-25% than that of the linear DNA. SAXS diffractograms show that lipoplexes formed by CLs with shorter spacer (n = 2, 3, or 5) present three lamellar structures, two of them in coexistence, while those formed by CL with longest spacer (n = 12) present two additional inverted hexagonal structures. Cryo-TEM micrographs show nanoaggregates with two multilamellar structures, a cluster-type (at low α value) and a fingerprint-type, that coexist with the cluster-type at moderate α composition. The optimized transfection efficiency (TE) of pDNA, in HEK293T, HeLa, and H1299 cells was higher using lipoplexes containing gemini CLs with shorter spacers at low α value. Each lipid formulation did not show any significant levels of toxicity, the reported lipoplexes being adequate DNA vectors for gene therapy and considerably better than both Lipofectamine 2000 and CLs of the 1,2-bis(hexadecyl ammnoniun) alkane series, recently

  18. [Application of direct electric current and intravenous ozone therapy in the complex treatment of destructive forms of acute pancreatitis in experiment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhakiev, B S; Zhumabaeva, A N; Kaliev, A A; Kazbekova, G A

    2013-01-01

    The results of experimental study which have carried out on 40 outbread dogs were analyzed in this thesis. Modeling of destructive pancreatitis in animals has been achieved via canalicular-hypertensive model by S.A. Shalimov. 4 series of experimental study were made to achieve the targeted goal. The first series 10 dogs without treatment, the second series 10 dogs in which conventional conservative therapy was used for the treatment of acute experimental destructive pancreatitis in animals, the third series 10 dogs that underwent intravenous ozone therapy in the complex together with medication therapy, the forth series the effectiveness of combined administration of intravenous ozone therapy and small doses of direct current in 10 dogs was evaluated. Combined administration of small doses of DC and intravenous ozone therapy in the complex treatment of destructive pancreatitis shows antiphlogistic action, favors accelerated rejection of necrotic tissue, remits inflammatory process as well as encourages regeneration process in pancreas whereby allows to decrease the mortality in experimental animals from 60% to 20%. PMID:24772873

  19. Metal-Poor, Cool Gas in the Circumgalactic Medium of a z = 2.4 Star-Forming Galaxy: Direct Evidence for Cold Accretion?

    CERN Document Server

    Crighton, Neil H M; Prochaska, J Xavier

    2013-01-01

    In our current galaxy formation paradigm, high-redshift galaxies are predominantly fuelled by accretion of cool, metal-poor gas from the intergalactic medium. Hydrodynamical simulations predict that this material should be observable in absorption against background sightlines within a galaxy's virial radius, as optically thick Lyman-limit systems (LLSs) with low metallicities. Here we report the discovery of exactly such a strong metal-poor absorber at an impact parameter R_perp = 58 kpc from a star-forming galaxy at z = 2.44. Besides strong neutral hydrogen [N(HI) = 10^(19.50 +/- 0.16) cm^-2] we detect neutral deuterium and oxygen, allowing a precise measurement of the metallicity: log10(Z / Zsolar) = -2.0 +/- 0.17, or (7-15) x 10^-3 solar. Furthermore, the narrow deuterium linewidth requires a cool temperature 0.1 solar, ten times larger than the metal-poor component. We conclude that the photoionized circumgalactic medium (CGM) of this galaxy is highly inhomogeneous: the majority of the gas is in a cool,...

  20. METAL-POOR, COOL GAS IN THE CIRCUMGALACTIC MEDIUM OF A z = 2.4 STAR-FORMING GALAXY: DIRECT EVIDENCE FOR COLD ACCRETION?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In our current galaxy formation paradigm, high-redshift galaxies are predominantly fueled by accretion of cool, metal-poor gas from the intergalactic medium. Hydrodynamical simulations predict that this material should be observable in absorption against background sightlines within a galaxy's virial radius, as optically thick Lyman limit systems (LLSs) with low metallicities. Here we report the discovery of exactly such a strong metal-poor absorber at an impact parameter R = 58 kpc from a star-forming galaxy at z = 2.44. Besides strong neutral hydrogen (NH0=1019.50±0.16 cm-2) we detect neutral deuterium and oxygen, allowing a precise measurement of the metallicity: log10(Z/Z ☉) = –2.0 ± 0.17, or (7-15) × 10–3 solar. Furthermore, the narrow deuterium linewidth requires a cool temperature 0.1 solar, 10 times larger than the metal-poor component. We conclude that the photoionized circumgalactic medium (CGM) of this galaxy is highly inhomogeneous: the majority of the gas is in a cool, metal-poor and predominantly neutral phase, but the majority of the metals are in a highly ionized phase exhibiting weak neutral hydrogen absorption but strong metal absorption. If such inhomogeneity is common, then high-resolution spectra and detailed ionization modeling are critical to accurately appraise the distribution of metals in the high-redshift CGM

  1. 医学院校本科生对医疗预立的认知状况分析%Study on the Cognition of Undergraduates on Advance Directives in Medical Undergraduates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    管秉书; 刘婵娟; 崔仕臣; 孟雪晖

    2015-01-01

    目的:了解某医学高校本科生对医疗预立的认知现状,分析医疗预立认知的影响因素。方法采用分层整群随机抽样的方法,采用自行设计的调查问卷对某医学高校的594名本科生进行问卷调查。结果调查对象对医疗预立的认知情况总体较差。在认知影响因素的分析中,性别、健康状况自评、平均月生活费、生存时间和生存质量的情景选择、家庭医疗保险的种类等变量差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论医学高校本科生对医疗预立的认知情况总体较差,应采取相关措施来提高大学生对医疗预立的认知。%Objective:To explore the cognition of undergraduates on advance directives in a medical universi -ty, and to analyze the affect factors on cognition status of advance directives .Method: Total 594 undergraduates were selected by stratified cluster random sampling and this study conducted a face to face interview using self -de-signed questionnaire .Results: The cognitive status on advance directives was poor .This study found the inde-pendent variables of the gender , religion, the self-reported health, the average monthly living expenditure , the survival time and quality choice and the type of health insurance were the effect factors (P<0.05).Conclusion:the undergraduates′cognitive status on advance directives was poor in this medical university , and we need adopt relevant measures to improve the cognitive of undergraduates on advance directives .

  2. Direct Monitoring of the Reaction between Photochemically Generated Nitric Oxide and Mycobacterium tuberculosis Truncated Hemoglobin N Wild Type and Variant Forms: An Assessment of Computational Mechanistic Predictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koebke, Karl J; Waletzko, Michael T; Pacheco, A Andrew

    2016-02-01

    The previously reported nitric oxide precursor [Mn(PaPy2Q)NO]ClO4 (1), where (PaPy2QH) is N,N-bis(2-pyridylmethyl)-amine-N-ethyl-2-quinoline-2-carboxamide, was used to investigate the interaction between NO and the protein truncated hemoglobin N (trHbN) from the pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Oxy-trHbN is exceptionally efficient at converting NO to nitrate, with a reported rate constant of 7.45 × 10(8) M(-1) s(-1) [Ouellet, H., et al. (2002) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 99, 5902] compared to 4 × 10(7) M(-1) s(-1) for oxy-myoglobin [Eich, R. F., et al. (1996) Biochemistry 35, 6976]. This work analyzed the NO dioxygenation kinetics of wild type oxy-trHbN and a set of variants, as well as the nitrosylation kinetics for the reduced (red-trHbN) forms of these proteins. The NO dioxygenation reaction was remarkably insensitive to mutations, even within the active site, while nitrosylation was somewhat more sensitive. Curiously, the most profound change to the rate constant for nitrosylation was effected by deletion of a 12-amino acid dangling N-terminal sequence. The deletion mutant exhibited first-order kinetics with respect to NO but was zero-order with respect to protein concentration; by contrast, all other variants exhibited second-order rate constants of >10(8) M(-1) s(-1). trHbN boasts an extensive tunnel system that connects the protein exterior with the active site, which is likely the main contributor to the protein's impressive NO dioxygenation efficiency. The results herein suggest that N-terminal deletion abolishes a large scale conformational motion, in the absence of which NO can still readily enter the tunnel system but is then prevented from binding to the heme for an extended period of time. PMID:26757411

  3. A Method for Biomarker Directed Survival Prediction in Advanced Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer Patients Treated with Carboplatin-Based Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Chen

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Platinum-based chemotherapy is a primary treatment of choice for advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC. Analytical methods to specifically evaluate biomarkers predictive of therapeutic efficacy have not been developed. Two randomized phase III trials of carboplatin-based chemotherapy in advanced NSCLC were used for learning and validating the predictive value of ERCC1 in situ protein levels, as measured by accurate quantitative analysis (AQUA. A novel Bayesian method was applied to identify the outcome-based threshold in the learning trial only. Overall survival (OS was assessed by Kaplan-Meier analysis with log rank testing to determine statistical significance in the validating trial. For patients treated with gemcitabine and carboplatin, the median OS was 9.5 months (95% CI 6.7 to 11.8 for the high ERCC1 group compared to 15.6 months (95% CI 11.6 to 24.8 for the low ERCC1 group in the validation trial (log rank p-value = 0.007. The hazard ratio for low ERCC1 was 0.598 (95% CI, 0.394 to 0.908; p = 0.016 relative to high ERCC1 adjusted for age, sex, and histology. Conclusions: Patients with advanced NSCLC could be stratified into high and low ERCC1 expression groups. Patients with low levels benefited from platinum-based chemotherapy, whereas those with high levels did not.

  4. Current management and future directions in the treatment of advanced renal cell carcinoma-a latin american perspective: 10 years in review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smaletz, Oren

    2015-01-01

    The worldwide incidence of kidney cancer is estimated at 337,860 new cases per year in the International Agency for Research on Cancer's GLOBOCAN 2012 update, with an estimated 143,369 deaths annually. Over the past 10 years, there have been significant advances in the treatment of advanced/metastatic renal cell carcinoma, including the development of targeted therapies. Currently recommended first-line treatments include sunitinib, temsirolimus, bevacizumab plus interferon, and pazopanib, or high-dose interleukin-2 or sorafenib for selected patients. Recommended second-line treatments include all of the above agents, as well as everolimus and axitinib. Unfortunately, combination therapies have generally resulted in increased toxicity and little improvement in efficacy. Recent studies focused on identification of predictive biomarkers for responses to specific targeted therapies and have not been successful to date. Despite recent advances in targeted treatment for metastatic renal cell carcinoma, important questions regarding biomarkers of efficacy, and optimal combination and sequencing of agents remain to be answered. This paper reviews literature concerned with first-and second-line treatment of metastatic renal cell carcinoma and will discuss key issues in Latin America. PMID:26689508

  5. Current management and future directions in the treatment of advanced renal cell carcinoma-a latin american perspective: 10 years in review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oren Smaletz

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The worldwide incidence of kidney cancer is estimated at 337,860 new cases per year in the International Agency for Research on Cancer's GLOBOCAN 2012 update, with an estimated 143,369 deaths annually. Over the past 10 years, there have been significant advances in the treatment of advanced/metastatic renal cell carcinoma, including the development of targeted therapies. Currently recommended first-line treatments include sunitinib, temsirolimus, bevacizumab plus interferon, and pazopanib, or high-dose interleukin-2 or sorafenib for selected patients. Recommended second-line treatments include all of the above agents, as well as everolimus and axitinib. Unfortunately, combination therapies have generally resulted in increased toxicity and little improvement in efficacy. Recent studies focused on identification of predictive biomarkers for responses to specific targeted therapies and have not been successful to date. Despite recent advances in targeted treatment for metastatic renal cell carcinoma, important questions regarding biomarkers of efficacy, and optimal combination and sequencing of agents remain to be answered. This paper reviews literature concerned with first-and second-line treatment of metastatic renal cell carcinoma and will discuss key issues in Latin America.

  6. Quality of Dying in Nursing Home Residents Dying with Dementia: Does Advanced Care Planning Matter? A Nationwide Postmortem Study

    OpenAIRE

    Vandervoort, An; Houttekier, Dirk; Vander Stichele, Robert; van der Steen, Jenny T; Van den Block, Lieve

    2014-01-01

    Background Advance care planning is considered a central component of good quality palliative care and especially relevant for people who lose the capacity to make decisions at the end of life, which is the case for many nursing home residents with dementia. We set out to investigate to what extent (1) advance care planning in the form of written advance patient directives and verbal communication with patient and/or relatives about future care and (2) the existence of written advance general...

  7. FORM development

    OpenAIRE

    Vermaseren, J. A. M.

    2011-01-01

    I give an overview of FORM development based on a few pilot projects, explaining how they have influenced the FORM capabilities. Next I explain what is happnening right now in the field of Open Sourcing and the FORM Forum.

  8. Advanced calculus of several variables

    CERN Document Server

    Kumar, Devendra

    2014-01-01

    ADVANCED CALCULUS OF SEVERAL VARIABLES covers important topics of Transformations and topology on Euclidean in n-space Rn Functions of several variables, Differentiation in Rn, Multiple integrals and Integration in Rn. The topics have been presented in a simple clear and coherent style with a number of examples and exercises. Proofs have been made direct and simple. Unsolved problems just after relevant articles in the form of exercises and typical problems followed by suggestions have been given. This book will help the reader work on the problems of Numerical Analysis, Operations Research, Differential Equations and Engineering applications.

  9. Identifying the Factors That Facilitate or Hinder Advance Planning by Persons With Dementia

    OpenAIRE

    Hirschman, Karen B.; Kapo, Jennifer M.; Karlawish, Jason H.T.

    2008-01-01

    We performed semistructured interviews with 30 family members of patients with advanced dementia to identify the factors that facilitate or hinder advance planning by persons with dementia. All interviews were analyzed using qualitative data analysis techniques. The majority (77%) of family members reported that their relative had some form of written advance directive, and at least half reported previous discussions about health care preferences (57%), living situation or placement issues (5...

  10. Exotic Forms of Silicon for Energy Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, P. Craig

    2015-03-01

    Over the last few decades many exotic forms of carbon, such as carbon-60, carbon nanotubes, and graphene, have generated novel scientific discoveries and revolutionized many important applications. Similar potentially transformative breakthroughs may be expected with exotic forms of silicon. Such structures include, but are not necessarily limited to, (1) those formed under high pressure that are metastable at ambient pressure, (2) single layers of Si (silicene), (2) clathrate Si, which has been studied for superconducting and thermoelectric properties but not in any detail for semiconductor applications, (3) nanostructured forms of Si (nanodots and nanowires), including those composed of diamond Si, (4) porous Si, and (5) any other structures that differ in their structural, optical or electronic properties from bulk diamond Si. Silicon is an abundant, non-toxic element around which an advanced technology exists for semiconducting devices based on diamond Si. One of these exotic forms of Si could form the basis for the next revolution in electronics or even opto-electronics, since some forms exhibit direct, or nearly direct, band gaps. Recent results toward producing pure and dopable semiconductors out of Si nanodots imbedded in amorphous matrices and in clathrate Si and clathrate Si-Ge alloys will be discussed. The author acknowledges important collaborations with R. T. Collins, C. A. Koh, L. Krishna, M. Lusk, and P. Stradins. DOE SUNSHOT program, under Contract DE-EE0005326 and by the NSF MRSEC program under Grant DMR-0820518.

  11. Advanced DVI+

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Tae Soon; Lee, S. T.; Euh, D. J.; Chu, I. C.; Youn, Y. J. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    A new advanced safety feature of DVI+ (Direct Vessel Injection Plus) for the APR+ (Advanced Power Reactor Plus), to mitigate the ECC (Emergency Core Cooling) bypass fraction and to prevent switching an ECC outlet to a break flow inlet during a DVI line break, is presented for an advanced DVI system. In the current DVI system, the ECC water injected into the downcomer is easily shifted to the broken cold leg by a high steam cross flow which comes from the intact cold legs during the late reflood phase of a LBLOCA (Large Break Loss Of Coolant Accident). For the new DVI+ system, an ECBD (Emergency Core Barrel Duct) is installed on the outside of a core barrel cylinder. The ECBD has a gap (From the core barrel wall to the ECBD inner wall to the radial direction) of 3/25-7/25 of the downcomer annulus gap. The DVI nozzle and the ECBD are only connected by the ECC water jet, which is called a hydrodynamic water bridge, during the ECC injection period. Otherwise these two components are disconnected from each other without any pipes inside the downcomer. The ECBD is an ECC downward isolation flow sub-channel which protects the ECC water from the high speed steam crossflow in the downcomer annulus during a LOCA event. The injected ECC water flows downward into the lower downcomer through the ECBD without a strong entrainment to a steam cross flow. The outer downcomer annulus of the ECBD is the major steam flow zone coming from the intact cold leg during a LBLOCA. During a DVI line break, the separated DVI nozzle and ECBD have the effect of preventing the level of the cooling water from being lowered in the downcomer due to an inlet-outlet reverse phenomenon at the lowest position of the outlet of the ECBD.

  12. Innovative forming and fabrication technologies : new opportunities.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, B.; Hryn, J.; Energy Systems; Kingston Process Metallurgy, Inc.

    2008-01-31

    The advent of light metal alloys and advanced materials (polymer, composites, etc.) have brought the possibility of achieving important energy reductions into the full life cycle of these materials, especially in transportation applications. 1 These materials have gained acceptance in the aerospace industry but use of light metal alloys needs to gain wider acceptance in other commercial transportation areas. Among the main reasons for the relatively low use of these materials are the lack of manufacturability, insufficient mechanical properties, and increased material costs due to processing inefficiencies. Considering the enormous potential energy savings associated with the use of light metal alloys and advanced materials in transportation, there is a need to identify R&D opportunities in the fields of materials fabrication and forming aimed at developing materials with high specific mechanical properties combined with energy efficient processes and good manufacturability. This report presents a literature review of the most recent developments in the areas of fabrication and metal forming focusing principally on aluminum alloys. In the first section of the document, the different sheet manufacturing technologies including direct chill (DC) casting and rolling, spray forming, spray rolling, thin slab, and strip casting are reviewed. The second section of the document presents recent research on advanced forming processes. The various forming processes reviewed are: superplastic forming, electromagnetic forming, age forming, warm forming, hydroforming, and incremental forming. Optimization of conventional forming processes is also discussed. Potentially interesting light metal alloys for high structural efficiency including aluminum-scandium, aluminum-lithium, magnesium, titanium, and amorphous metal alloys are also reviewed. This section concludes with a discussion on alloy development for manufacturability. The third section of the document reviews the latest

  13. The advanced controls program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), under sponsorship of the US Department of Energy (DOE), is conducting research that will lead to advanced, automated control of new liquid-metal-reactor (LMR) nuclear power plants. Although this program of research (entitled the ''Advanced Controls Program'') is focused on LMR technology, it will be capable of providing control design, test, and qualification capability for other advanced reactor designs (e.g., the advanced light water reactor [ALWR] and high temperature gas-cooled reactor [HTGR] designs), while also benefiting existing nuclear plants. The Program will also have applicability to complex, non-nuclear process control environments (e.g., petrochemical, aerospace, etc.). The Advanced Controls Program will support capabilities throughout the entire plant design life cycle, i.e., from the initial interactive first-principle dynamic model development for the process, systems, components, and instruments through advanced control room qualification. The current program involves five principal areas of research activities: (1) demonstrations of advanced control system designs, (2) development of an advanced controls design environment, (3) development of advanced control strategies, (4) research and development (R ampersand D) in human-system integration for advanced control system designs, and (5) testing and validation of advanced control system designs. Discussion of the research in these five areas forms the basis of this paper. Also included is a description of the research directions of the program. 8 refs

  14. New directions in the science and technology of advanced sheet explosive formulations and the key energetic materials used in the processing of sheet explosives: Emerging trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talawar, M B; Jangid, S K; Nath, T; Sinha, R K; Asthana, S N

    2015-12-30

    This review presents the work carried out by the international community in the area of sheet explosive formulations and its applications in various systems. The sheet explosive is also named as PBXs and is a composite material in which solid explosive particles like RDX, HMX or PETN are dispersed in a polymeric matrix, forms a flexible material that can be rolled/cut into sheet form which can be applied to any complex contour. The designed sheet explosive must possess characteristic properties such as flexible, cuttable, water proof, easily initiable, and safe handling. The sheet explosives are being used for protecting tanks (ERA), light combat vehicle and futuristic infantry carrier vehicle from different attacking war heads etc. Besides, sheet explosives find wide applications in demolition of bridges, ships, cutting and metal cladding. This review also covers the aspects such as risks and hazard analysis during the processing of sheet explosive formulations, effect of ageing on sheet explosives, detection and analysis of sheet explosive ingredients and the R&D efforts of Indian researchers in the development of sheet explosive formulations. To the best of our knowledge, there has been no review article published in the literature in the area of sheet explosives. PMID:26196849

  15. IMRT and 3D conformal radiotherapy with or without elective nodal irradiation in locally advanced NSCLC. A direct comparison of PET-based treatment planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleckenstein, Jochen; Kremp, Katharina; Kremp, Stephanie; Palm, Jan; Ruebe, Christian [Saarland University Medical School, Department of Radiotherapy and Radiation Oncology, Homburg/Saar (Germany)

    2016-02-15

    The potential of intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) as opposed to three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) is analyzed for two different concepts of fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG PET)-based target volume delineation in locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (LA-NSCLC): involved-field radiotherapy (IF-RT) vs. elective nodal irradiation (ENI). Treatment planning was performed for 41 patients with LA-NSCLC, using four different planning approaches (3D-CRT-IF, 3D-CRT-ENI, IMRT-IF, IMRT-ENI). ENI included a boost irradiation after 50 Gy. For each plan, maximum dose escalation was calculated based on prespecified normal tissue constraints. The maximum prescription dose (PD), tumor control probability (TCP), conformal indices (CI), and normal tissue complication probabilities (NTCP) were analyzed. IMRT resulted in statistically significant higher prescription doses for both target volume concepts as compared with 3D-CRT (ENI: 68.4 vs. 60.9 Gy, p < 0.001; IF: 74.3 vs. 70.1 Gy, p < 0.03). With IMRT-IF, a PD of at least 66 Gy was achieved for 95 % of all plans. For IF as compared with ENI, there was a considerable theoretical increase in TCP (IMRT: 27.3 vs. 17.7 %, p < 0.00001; 3D-CRT: 20.2 vs. 9.9 %, p < 0.00001). The esophageal NTCP showed a particularly good sparing with IMRT vs. 3D-CRT (ENI: 12.3 vs. 30.9 % p < 0.0001; IF: 15.9 vs. 24.1 %; p < 0.001). The IMRT technique and IF target volume delineation allow a significant dose escalation and an increase in TCP. IMRT results in an improved sparing of OARs as compared with 3D-CRT at equivalent dose levels. (orig.) [German] Das Potenzial der intensitaetsmodulierten Strahlentherapie (IMRT) soll im Rahmen der FDG-PET basierten Bestrahlungsplanung des lokal fortgeschrittenen nichtkleinzelligen Bronchialkarzinoms (LA-NSCLC) fuer 2 Zielvolumenansaetze (Involved-Field-Bestrahlung, IF) sowie elektive Nodalbestrahlung (ENI) geprueft und mit der 3-D-konformalen Strahlentherapie (3-D

  16. Nanoparticle Filtration Characteristics of Advanced Metal Foam Media for a Spark Ignition Direct Injection Engine in Steady Engine Operating Conditions and Vehicle Test Modes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cha-Lee Myung

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the particle formation and reduction characteristics at the engine-out position, after a three-way catalyst (TWC and a metal foam gasoline particulate filter (GPF, were evaluated for a gasoline direct-injection (GDI engine under part-load operating conditions. The vehicle tests were performed under the Federal Test Procedure-75 (FTP-75 and the Highway Fuel Economy Test (HWFET modes. Particle number (PN concentrations, size distributions, and the filtering efficiency with the GPF were evaluated with a condensation particle counter (CPC and a differential mobility spectrometer (DMS500. Under steady engine operating conditions, the PN concentrations at the engine-out position were 9.7 × 105–2.5 × 106 N/cc. While, the PN concentrations after the GPF were 9.2 × 104–3.5 × 105 N/cc, and the PN was reduced by 77%–96%. The PN filtering efficiency with the GPF-GDI vehicle reached approximately 58% in the FTP-75 and 62% in the HWFET mode. The PN concentration of the GPF-GDI vehicle was significantly reduced to 3.95 × 1011 N/km for the FTP-75 and 8.86 × 1010 N/km for the HWFET mode. The amount of nucleation mode particles below 23 nm was substantially reduced with the GPF-GDI vehicle. The fuel economy, CO2, and regulated emissions of the GPF-GDI vehicle were equivalent to those of the base GDI vehicle under the vehicle certification modes.

  17. Structural properties of a family of hydrogen-bonded co-crystals formed between gemfibrozil and hydroxy derivatives of t-butylamine, determined directly from powder X-ray diffraction data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Eugene Y.; David, Sarah E.; Harris, Kenneth D. M.; Conway, Barbara R.; Timmins, Peter

    2007-03-01

    We report the formation and structural properties of co-crystals containing gemfibrozil and hydroxy derivatives of t-butylamine H 2NC(CH 3) 3-n(CH 2OH) n, with n=0, 1, 2 and 3. In each case, a 1:1 co-crystal is formed, with transfer of a proton from the carboxylic acid group of gemfibrozil to the amino group of the t-butylamine derivative. All of the co-crystal materials prepared are polycrystalline powders, and do not contain single crystals of suitable size and/or quality for single crystal X-ray diffraction studies. Structure determination of these materials has been carried out directly from powder X-ray diffraction data, using the direct-space Genetic Algorithm technique for structure solution followed by Rietveld refinement. The structural chemistry of this series of co-crystal materials reveals well-defined structural trends within the first three members of the family ( n=0, 1, 2), but significantly contrasting structural properties for the member with n=3.

  18. Structural properties of a family of hydrogen-bonded co-crystals formed between gemfibrozil and hydroxy derivatives of t-butylamine, determined directly from powder X-ray diffraction data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report the formation and structural properties of co-crystals containing gemfibrozil and hydroxy derivatives of t-butylamine H2NC(CH3)3-n (CH2OH) n , with n=0, 1, 2 and 3. In each case, a 1:1 co-crystal is formed, with transfer of a proton from the carboxylic acid group of gemfibrozil to the amino group of the t-butylamine derivative. All of the co-crystal materials prepared are polycrystalline powders, and do not contain single crystals of suitable size and/or quality for single crystal X-ray diffraction studies. Structure determination of these materials has been carried out directly from powder X-ray diffraction data, using the direct-space Genetic Algorithm technique for structure solution followed by Rietveld refinement. The structural chemistry of this series of co-crystal materials reveals well-defined structural trends within the first three members of the family (n=0, 1, 2), but significantly contrasting structural properties for the member with n=3. - Graphical abstract: Structural properties of a family of co-crystals containing gemfibrozil and hydroxy derivatives of t-butylamine are discussed and rationalized

  19. Isoproterenol directs hair follicle-associated pluripotent (HAP) stem cells to differentiate in vitro to cardiac muscle cells which can be induced to form beating heart-muscle tissue sheets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, Aiko; Yashiro, Masateru; Mii, Sumiyuki; Aki, Ryoichi; Hamada, Yuko; Arakawa, Nobuko; Kawahara, Katsumasa; Hoffman, Robert M; Amoh, Yasuyuki

    2016-03-01

    Nestin-expressing hair-follicle-associated pluripotent (HAP) stem cells are located in the bulge area of the follicle. Previous studies have shown that HAP stem cells can differentiate to neurons, glia, keratinocytes, smooth muscle cells, and melanocytes in vitro. HAP stem cells effected nerve and spinal cord regeneration in mouse models. Recently, we demonstrated that HAP stem cells differentiated to beating cardiac muscle cells. The differentiation potential to cardiac muscle cells was greatest in the upper part of the follicle. The beat rate of the cardiac muscle cells was stimulated by isoproterenol. In the present study, we observed that isoproterenol directs HAP stem cells to differentiate to cardiac muscle cells in large numbers in culture compared to HAP stem cells not supplemented with isoproterenol. The addition of activin A, bone morphogenetic protein 4, and basic fibroblast growth factor, along with isoproternal, induced the cardiac muscle cells to form tissue sheets of beating heart muscle cells. These results demonstrate that HAP stem cells have great potential to form beating cardiac muscle cells in tissue sheets. PMID:27104748

  20. Danish directional adverbs:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hovmark, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    Danish directional adverbs (DDA) (for instance op ’up’, ned ’down’, and ud ’out’) are characterized by an important special feature as satellites – they have different forms: a zero-form (ud-Ø), a form with a derivative e-suffix (ud-e), and a third form with a prepositional ad-suffix (‘ wards’). In...

  1. Fish Locomotion: Recent Advances and New Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauder, George V.

    2015-01-01

    Research on fish locomotion has expanded greatly in recent years as new approaches have been brought to bear on a classical field of study. Detailed analyses of patterns of body and fin motion and the effects of these movements on water flow patterns have helped scientists understand the causes and effects of hydrodynamic patterns produced by swimming fish. Recent developments include the study of the center-of-mass motion of swimming fish and the use of volumetric imaging systems that allow three-dimensional instantaneous snapshots of wake flow patterns. The large numbers of swimming fish in the oceans and the vorticity present in fin and body wakes support the hypothesis that fish contribute significantly to the mixing of ocean waters. New developments in fish robotics have enhanced understanding of the physical principles underlying aquatic propulsion and allowed intriguing biological features, such as the structure of shark skin, to be studied in detail.

  2. Dietary biomarkers: advances, limitations and future directions

    OpenAIRE

    Hedrick Valisa E; Dietrich Andrea M; Estabrooks Paul A; Savla Jyoti; Serrano Elena; Davy Brenda M

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The subjective nature of self-reported dietary intake assessment methods presents numerous challenges to obtaining accurate dietary intake and nutritional status. This limitation can be overcome by the use of dietary biomarkers, which are able to objectively assess dietary consumption (or exposure) without the bias of self-reported dietary intake errors. The need for dietary biomarkers was addressed by the Institute of Medicine, who recognized the lack of nutritional biomarkers as a ...

  3. Cancer Cachexia, Recent Advances, and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penet, Marie-France; Bhujwalla, Zaver M.

    2016-01-01

    Cancer cachexia is defined as a multifactorial syndrome characterized by an ongoing loss of skeletal muscle mass with or without loss of fat mass. The syndrome cannot be fully reversed by conventional nutritional support, and despite an increased number of studies related to cancer cachexia, the underlying mechanisms are still poorly defined and therapeutic options are limited. This review focuses on recent studies investigating mechanisms and pathways in cancer cachexia. The role of molecular and functional imaging in identifying cachexia at an earlier stage, in identifying potential metabolic targets and pathways, and in assessing treatment efficacy is also reviewed. PMID:25815852

  4. Beyond competence: advance directives in dementia research

    OpenAIRE

    Jongsma, Karin Rolanda; van de Vathorst, Suzanne

    2015-01-01

    Dementia is highly prevalent and incurable. The participation of dementia patients in clinical research is indispensable if we want to find an effective treatment for dementia. However, one of the primary challenges in dementia research is the patients’ gradual loss of the capacity to consent. Patients with dementia are characterized by the fact that, at an earlier stage of their life, they were able to give their consent to participation in research. Therefore, the phase when patients are st...

  5. Research situation and development direction of community nursing intervention form in hypertension group%高血压人群社区护理干预形式研究现状及发展方向

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚满英; 孔桂花

    2014-01-01

    高血压是一种危害性较大的慢性疾病,针对高血压人群实施社区护理干预是一项有效的防治手段。本文通过介绍社区护理的概念及作用,分析研究社区护理干预形式现状及未来的发展方向,期望推动社区护理干预的水平,达到患者健康的目的。%Hypertension is a more destructive chronic disease.The community nursing intervention for the hypertension group is an effective prevention and control means.We research on the situation and the future development direction of community nursing intervention form by introducing the concept and role of community nursing,we hope to promote the community nursing intervention level,make the patient health purposes.

  6. Advanced Ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The First Florida-Brazil Seminar on Materials and the Second State Meeting about new materials in Rio de Janeiro State show the specific technical contribution in advanced ceramic sector. The others main topics discussed for the development of the country are the advanced ceramic programs the market, the national technic-scientific capacitation, the advanced ceramic patents, etc. (C.G.C.)

  7. Form Matters

    OpenAIRE

    Hedegaard Larsen, Morten

    2010-01-01

    This thesis investigates the reasons for our (in the Western World) preference for shopping (for food) in supermarkets? What social and performative historical developments might explain this preference? And what are the consequences of this preference? Historical descriptions of the performativity of the food market from the first Agora’s to the supermarkets of the 21st century as well as from theatre’s and Western performance spaces will form the comparative analytical basis, together wi...

  8. Discussion on advanced manufacturing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiankui

    2007-01-01

    Advanced manufacturing consists of continuity of manufacturing,its broad sense,and the core of the manufacturing process.The technology of continuous manufacturing is discussed according to both historical and modern perspectives.The relationship between human development and manufacturing technology is also discussed.Manufacturing is a continuously evolving topic.It is not only the foundation and means of imagination,conception,the science,and the technology of material change,but also the expression of national economy,national defense,and the support industries.The broad sense of manufacturing theory,which extends the concept of manufacturing,is an important development in the 20th century.The sense is analyzed in connection with design,material forming theory,synthesis of manufacturing technology,manufacturing modes,life cycle of product,hardware and sottware,and support environment,etc.At the same time,the core action and the development of the theory and technology of process is also discussed.At the end of this paper,the development directions of mechanical manufacturing science and technology are mentioned.

  9. "I don't need my patients' opinion to withdraw treatment": patient preferences at the end-of-life and physician attitudes towards advance directives in England and France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Ruth

    2014-08-01

    This paper presents the results of a qualitative interview study exploring English and French physicians' moral perspectives and attitudes towards end-of-life decisions when patients lack capacity to make decisions for themselves. The paper aims to examine the importance physicians from different contexts accord to patient preferences and to explore the (potential) role of advance directives (ADs) in each context. The interviews focus on (1) problems that emerge when deciding to withdraw/-hold life-sustaining treatment from both conscious and unconscious patients; (2) decision-making procedures and the participation of proxies/relatives; (3) previous experience with ADs and views on their usefulness; and (4) perspectives on ways in which the decision-making processes in question might be improved. The analysis reveals differences in the way patient preferences are taken into consideration and shows how these differences influence the reasons physicians in each country invoke to justify their reluctance to adhering to ADs. Identifying cultural differences that complicate efforts to develop the practical implementation of ADs can help to inform national policies governing ADs and to better adapt them to practice. PMID:24687368

  10. Automorphic Forms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Essen, Flemming Brændgaard

    Hecke characters in the points 4 and 6. It is well known, that all zeros of the Eisenstein series Ek wrt. SL2(Z) in the standard fundamental domain has modulus 1. We show that this is also true for #n Ek, where # is a certain differential operator. We then proceed to study logarithms of multiplier...... systems. For automorphic forms wrt. Hecke triangle groups and Fuchsian groups with no elliptic elements and genus 0, we show that some logarithms of multiplier systems can be interpreted as a linking number. Finally we show a "twisted" version of the prime geodesics theorem, and logarithms of multiplier...

  11. Rapid Prototyping of Ceramica via Temperature Induced Forming

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liwu Wang; Wolfgang Sigmund; Fritz Aldinger

    2000-01-01

    Rapid tooling is the process of directly or indirectly employing rapid prototyping technologies in tool and mold fabrication. By combining rapid tooling and temperature induced forming (TIF) a novel near-net shape process for the rapid production of complex-shaped prototypes of advanced ceramics has been developed. Rapid tooling via stereolithography quickly produces complex-shaped molds with precise surface quality and the TIF technology enables the forming and consolidation of Al2O3 green bodies in nonporous molds. Thus Al2O3 green parts with high density and without any cracks are realized. This novel process shows excellent potential for near-net shape production of advanced ceramics with complex geometry, fine surface finish and reliable mechanical properties.

  12. Teaching Staff Advanced Training: European Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovalchuk Vasyl

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The issue of teaching staff advanced training is paid much attention in many countries. In the Republic of Moldova progressive professional credits system is used. Credits are scored not only in assigning teaching degrees or issuing a certificate of continuing professional education, but also for teachers’ evaluation at the educational institution. Advanced training of teaching staff in France is provided by various institutions of postgraduate education, university institutes and regional centers of education in order to help teachers to renew their professional knowledge and at the same time to refocus it on the level of consciousness according to the real problems of school and the community. The feature of teaching staff advanced training in France is that it is teachers’ personal matter and duration of all periods of training should come to one year during all professional career. In Finland, teaching staff advanced training is organized directly in schools under aegis of the National Board of Education, the National Centre for Advanced Training in Education, departments of teacher education and other faculties of higher educational institutions on credit system basis. Among the topical forms there are targeted, cascade, common (cooperative teaching and learning by own example. In the UK, advanced training takes place in two models: the course model based on higher educational establishments and school based in-service education. The main purpose of advanced training system is to familiarize teachers with theoretical and practical innovations in educational activities, progressive teaching technologies, and consolidate their skills of independent acquisition of knowledge necessary for their professional development.

  13. Directed Polymer -- Directed Percolation Transition

    OpenAIRE

    Perlsman, Ehud; Havlin, Shlomo

    1999-01-01

    We study the relation between the directed polymer and the directed percolation models, for the case of a disordered energy landscape where the energies are taken from bimodal distribution. We find that at the critical concentration of the directed percolation, the directed polymer undergoes a transition from the directed polymer universality class to the directed percolation universality class. We also find that directed percolation clusters affect the characterisrics of the directed polymer...

  14. Advanced training of specialists in nuclear energy at ONPU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The is considered the relevance of training of specialists in nuclear energy in the form of advanced training to maintain professional skills at the needed level.The problems of thr re-profiling of specialists working in the nuclear industry and having a non specialized education to the specialty 'Nuclear Engineering' are also considered. The results of activity of the Centre for Continuing Education of ONPU in this direction for recent years are presented.

  15. ADVANCE PAYMENTS

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division

    2002-01-01

    Administrative Circular Nº 8 makes provision for the granting of advance payments, repayable in several monthly instalments, by the Organization to the members of its personnel. Members of the personnel are reminded that these advances are only authorized in exceptional circumstances and at the discretion of the Director-General. In view of the current financial situation of the Organization, and in particular the loans it will have to incur, the Directorate has decided to restrict the granting of such advances to exceptional or unforeseen circumstances entailing heavy expenditure and more specifically those pertaining to social issues. Human Resources Division Tel. 73962

  16. Advance payments

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division

    2003-01-01

    Administrative Circular N 8 makes provision for the granting of advance payments, repayable in several monthly instalments, by the Organization to the members of its personnel. Members of the personnel are reminded that these advances are only authorized in exceptional circumstances and at the discretion of the Director-General. In view of the current financial situation of the Organization, and in particular the loans it will have to incur, the Directorate has decided to restrict the granting of such advances to exceptional or unforeseen circumstances entailing heavy expenditure and more specifically those pertaining to social issues. Human Resources Division Tel. 73962

  17. Advanced Microsensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    This video looks at a spinoff application of the technology from advanced microsensors -- those that monitor and determine conditions of spacecraft like the Space Shuttle. The application featured is concerned with the monitoring of the health of premature babies.

  18. Advanced nanoelectronics

    CERN Document Server

    Ismail, Razali

    2012-01-01

    While theories based on classical physics have been very successful in helping experimentalists design microelectronic devices, new approaches based on quantum mechanics are required to accurately model nanoscale transistors and to predict their characteristics even before they are fabricated. Advanced Nanoelectronics provides research information on advanced nanoelectronics concepts, with a focus on modeling and simulation. Featuring contributions by researchers actively engaged in nanoelectronics research, it develops and applies analytical formulations to investigate nanoscale devices. The

  19. Advanced router architectures

    CERN Document Server

    Kloth, Axel K

    2005-01-01

    Routers, switches, and transmission equipment form the backbone of the Internet, yet many users and service technicians do not understand how these nodes really work.Advanced Router Architectures addresses how components of advanced routers work together and how they are integrated with each other. This book provides the background behind why these building blocks perform certain functions, and how the function is implemented in general use. It offers an introduction to the subject matter that is intended to trigger deeper interest from the reader. The book explains, for example, why traffic m

  20. Advanced Containment System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostelnik, Kevin M.; Kawamura, Hideki; Richardson, John G.; Noda, Masaru

    2005-02-08

    An advanced containment system for containing buried waste and associated leachate. The advanced containment system comprises a plurality of casing sections with each casing section interlocked to an adjacent casing section. Each casing section includes a complementary interlocking structure that interlocks with the complementary interlocking structure on an adjacent casing section. A barrier filler substantially fills the casing sections and may substantially fill the spaces of the complementary interlocking structure to form a substantially impermeable barrier. Some of the casing sections may include sensors so that the casing sections and the zone of interest may be remotely monitored after the casing sections are emplaced in the ground.

  1. Explicit form of Pauli potential for direct derivation of pair density from a two-particle differential equation for the quintet state of four electrons with harmonic interparticle interactions

    OpenAIRE

    Akbari, A; Amovilli, C.; March, N. H.; Rubio, A.

    2013-01-01

    We acknowledge financial support from the European Research Council Advanced Grant DYNamo (ERC-2010-AdG, Proposal No. 267374), Spanish Grants No. FIS2011-65702-C02-01 and No. PIB2010US-00652, ACI-Promociona (Grant No. ACI2009-1036), Grupos Consolidados UPV/EHU del Gobierno Vasco (Grant No. IT-319-07), Consolider nanoTHERM (Grant No. CSD2010-00044), and DIPC. C.A. acknowledges partial financial support from Italian Ministry of University and Research under the project PRIN 2009.

  2. AdvancED Flex 4

    CERN Document Server

    Tiwari, Shashank; Schulze, Charlie

    2010-01-01

    AdvancED Flex 4 makes advanced Flex 4 concepts and techniques easy. Ajax, RIA, Web 2.0, mashups, mobile applications, the most sophisticated web tools, and the coolest interactive web applications are all covered with practical, visually oriented recipes. * Completely updated for the new tools in Flex 4* Demonstrates how to use Flex 4 to create robust and scalable enterprise-grade Rich Internet Applications.* Teaches you to build high-performance web applications with interactivity that really engages your users.* What you'll learn Practiced beginners and intermediate users of Flex, especially

  3. Integration of adaptive process control with computational simulation for spin-forming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Improvements in spin-forming capabilities through upgrades to a metrology and machine control system and advances in numerical simulation techniques were studied in a two year project funded by Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Numerical analyses were benchmarked with spin-forming experiments and computational speeds increased sufficiently to now permit actual part forming simulations. Extensive modeling activities examined the simulation speeds and capabilities of several metal forming computer codes for modeling flat plate and cylindrical spin-forming geometries. Shape memory research created the first numerical model to describe this highly unusual deformation behavior in Uranium alloys. A spin-forming metrology assessment led to sensor and data acquisition improvements that will facilitate future process accuracy enhancements, such as a metrology frame. Finally, software improvements (SmartCAM) to the manufacturing process numerically integrate the part models to the spin-forming process and to computational simulations

  4. Advanced intelligence and mechanism approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHONG Yixin

    2007-01-01

    Advanced intelligence will feature the intelligence research in next 50 years.An understanding of the concept of advanced intelligence as well as its importance will be provided first,and detailed analysis on an approach,the mechanism approach.suitable to the advanced intelligence research will then be flolowed.And the mutual relationship among mechanism approach,traditional approaches existed in artificial intelligence research,and the cognitive informatics will be discussed.It is interesting to discover that mechanism approach is a good one to the Advanced Intelligence research and a tmified form of the existed approaches to artificial intelligence.

  5. Forming limits of nickel coating on right region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The forming limits of nickel coating on the right region were studied, so as to direct the preparation of the material and help the production of workpieces. The electrodeposited nickel coating was prepared on steel substrate to form advanced structures,and its plastic instability was investigated by the Swift Plastic Instability Theory. By using the compound law for laminated sheet metals, explicit equations for the calculation of the instable eigen values were deduced. The forming limit diagrams of the nickel coating on the right region were plotted. It is exhibited that the forming limit of the coating sheet is between the forming limits of the individual nickel coating and steel substrate. The forming limit of the nickel coating is not so good as that of the steel substrate, and the forming limit strain of the coating sheet tends to diminish with the increase of thickness of the coating. The greater the normal anisotropic coefficient of the materials is, the better the forming limit is.

  6. Study of transitory forms of carotenoids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to explain the biological role of the carotenoids their transitory forms were studied with an apparatus measuring the small (∼10-3) short-lived (100 ns to 1 ms) optical density variations obtained by excitation with a ruby laser. Two forms were studied: a) Triplet state 3Car. - This state (t1/2∼6 μs) is obtained not by direct excitation but by T-T energy transfer from chlorophyll, in different media (chloroplasts, pigments in solution or in micelle). Two arguments can be advanced to explain in terms of triplet energy transfer an essential biological role of carotenoids, protection against photodynamic effects: - the energy level of 3Car is lower than that of the singlet of oxygen; - in vivo the T-T transfer from chlorophyll to the carotenoids is very fast: 30 ns.. b) Radical cation Car+. - This form is obtained by electron transfer from carotene to the triplet of Toluidine Blue, in ethanol. Car+ (t1/2∼200 μs) shows a strong absorption band at 910 nm. The properties of Car+ are discussed in relation to other polyene derivatives and to hydrocarbon ions. Car+ could be involved in certain biological electron transfers. (author)

  7. Advances on Talbot projection profilometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Vera, R.; Rayas, J. A.; Mendoza-Santoyo, F.; Aranda, A.

    2010-04-01

    When a periodic screen is illuminated with a monochromatic plane wavefront, it is formed exact replicas of the screen in defined planes along the illumination direction. This phenomenon is known as the Talbot effect or self-imaging. If a Talbot image of a linear grating is formed on a surface structure under study, the grating lines are deformed according to the topography of the structure surface. The deformed fringe image is captured with a CCD camera and processed for obtaining a wrapped phase map by means of the Fourier transform method. From the unwrapped phase map, the profile of the structure surface is obtained. In this work some advances of the Talbot projection profilometry (TPP) are presented, in particular, its use in macro and microscopic experimental mechanics. To macroscopic level, an inverse problem is described. This problem consists on using the TPP technique as a force sensor: Knowing the Young's modulus of a material subjected to a mechanical deformation, determine the field of forces that produce the deformation. From this last procedure, experimental results are shown using a latex membrane as the structure subjected to a uniform load taken place by an applied pressure. Additionally, the detected force limits with the proposed experimental setup are shown.

  8. Outrunning Nature: Directed Evolution of Superior Biocatalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodyer, Ryan; Chen, Wilfred; Zhao, Huimin

    2004-01-01

    The development of enzymes as biocatalysts for industrial use and the emergence of directed evolution in the invention of advanced biocatalysts are discussed and illustrated. Thus, directed evolution has bridged the functional gap between natural and specially designed biocatalysts.

  9. Directed homology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fahrenberg, Uli

    2004-01-01

    We introduce a new notion of directed homology for semicubical sets. We show that it respects directed homotopy and is functorial, and that it appears to enjoy some good algebraic properties. Our work has applications to higher-dimensional automata.......We introduce a new notion of directed homology for semicubical sets. We show that it respects directed homotopy and is functorial, and that it appears to enjoy some good algebraic properties. Our work has applications to higher-dimensional automata....

  10. Electro-Hydraulic Forming of Sheet Metals: Free-forming vs. Conical-die Forming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rohatgi, Aashish; Stephens, Elizabeth V.; Davies, Richard W.; Smith, Mark T.; Soulami, Ayoub; Ahzi, Said

    2012-05-01

    This work builds upon our recent advances in quantifying high-rate deformation behavior of sheet metals, during electro-hydraulic forming (EHF), using high-speed imaging and digital image correlation techniques. Following recent publication of an earlier manuscript, resulting from this project, in the Journal of Materials Processing Technology, this manuscript further details our results and compares forming behavior when the process is carried out inside an open-die or a conical die. It is anticipated that quantitative information of the sheet deformation history, made possible by the experimental technique developed in this work, will improve our understanding on the roles of strain-rate and sheet-die interactions in enhancing the sheet metal formability during high-rate forming. This knowledge will be beneficial to the automotive industry and enable them to fabricate light-weight sheet parts out of Al and advanced high strength steels.

  11. Advances in microwaves 8

    CERN Document Server

    Young, Leo

    2013-01-01

    Advances in Microwaves, Volume 8 covers the developments in the study of microwaves. The book discusses the circuit forms for microwave integrated circuits; the analysis of microstrip transmission lines; and the use of lumped elements in microwave integrated circuits. The text also describes the microwave properties of ferrimagnetic materials, as well as their interaction with electromagnetic waves propagating in bounded waveguiding structures. The integration techniques useful at high frequencies; material technology for microwave integrated circuits; specific requirements on technology for d

  12. 78 FR 25351 - Reports, Forms, and Recordkeeping Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION...: Advanced Crash Avoidance Technologies Consumer Research. OMB Control Number: 2127-XXXX. Form Number: None... Government 5-Star Safety Ratings label to include information about advanced crash avoidance...

  13. Advanced ferroelectricity

    CERN Document Server

    Blinc, R

    2011-01-01

    Advances in the field of ferroelectricity have implications both for basic physics and for technological applications such as memory devices, spintronic applications and electro-optic devices, as well as in acoustics, robotics, telecommunications and medicine. This book provides an account of recent developments in the field.

  14. Posición y perspectivas de los médicos sobre las directivas anticipadas en pacientes con demencia incipiente Physicians´ views and perspectives on advanced directives in patients with incipient dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercedes Mattiussi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available La demencia es una enfermedad progresiva que compromete la capacidad de tomar decisiones. Las directivas anticipadas (DA permitirían a los pacientes expresar tempranamente sus voluntades sobre cuidados a recibir en estadios finales. Los médicos de cabecera (MC están en una situación privilegiada para indagar acerca de las DA. El objetivo del presente estudio fue conocer las perspectivas de los MC sobre las DA en pacientes con demencia. Se llevó a cabo una investigación cualitativa por grupos focales y entrevistas individuales a MC de ancianos del Hospital Italiano de Buenos Aires. Se realizó muestreo intencional, conformándose grupos homogéneos según edad y jerarquía. La discusión se estimuló con una viñeta. Se realizó análisis de contenido temático en equipo interdisciplinario. Participaron 12 MC de hasta 30 años; 32 de edad intermedia y 8 mayores de 45 años. Entre los jóvenes las DA tuvieron mayor aceptación. Los mayores consideran que la familia toma las decisiones y que nuestra sociedad está inmadura para estas discusiones. Otros condicionantes para la discusión fueron: dificultades prácticas para implementar las DA, el lapso temporal entre la formulación y su implementación, dificultad para predecir la evolución de los pacientes, falta de legislación y de políticas institucionales específicas. Los jóvenes manifestaron falta de capacitación para dialogar sobre DA con sus pacientes. Como conclusión, se observó que los facilitadores y barreras para la discusión sobre DA difieren según la edad de los MC. Las intervenciones que se orienten a favorecer su utilización deberían adaptarse a los médicos a quienes van dirigidas.Dementia is a progressive disease in which patients lose their ability to decide and communicate. Advance directives (AD allow patients to express their preferences on end of life care in the early stages of the disease. Primary care practitioners (PCP are in the best position to promote

  15. Landward-advancing Quaternary eolianites of Bermuda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Mark P.; Bristow, Charlie S.

    2015-12-01

    The landscape of Bermuda is dominated by Quaternary carbonate cemented dunes, or "eolianites", which form the islands' topography. Sections through the dunes are revealed in extensive natural and man-made rock faces, which expose the dune stratigraphy as well as the preserved morphology. An analysis of 3751 foreset measurements confirms the conclusion reached by earlier researchers that Bermuda's dunes advanced sub-perpendicularly to the coast in a landward direction away from source beaches. Dune orientation, being multi-directional, is not consistent with northeast net sand transportation predicted by a drift potential analysis of modern wind data. The putative predisposition of Bermuda's carbonate dunes to rapid cementation is supposed to have curtailed their landward advance such that younger dunes developed as static ridges at the seaward margin of their lithified predecessors. Geological mapping has revealed, however, that in many cases young dunes did advance inland onto interior terrain, overstepping older dune ridges. Molds of large trees, preserved within the dunes, and a sharp contact of steep slip-face dune foresets on palaeosols evoke the encroachment of landward-advancing precipitation ridges into a forested landscape. The internal structure of the dunes, featuring thick sets of slip-face foresets truncated by sub-horizontal planar bounding surfaces, uphold the ascendancy of sand transportation processes over those of sand retention and vertical accretion. Although meteoric cementation was responsible for the ultimate preservation of eolianite ridges which dominate Bermuda's landscape, it took effect too slowly to influence the behaviour of the carbonate dunes at the time of their emplacement.

  16. The effects of monovalent and divalent cations on the stability of silver nanoparticles formed from direct reduction of silver ions by Suwannee River humic acid/natural organic matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The formation and characterization of AgNPs (silver nanoparticles) formed from the reduction of Ag+ by SRNOM (Suwannee River natural organic matter) is reported. The images of SRNOM-formed AgNPs and the selected area electron diffraction (SAED) were captured by high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). The colloidal and chemical stability of SRNOM- and SRHA (Suwannee River humic acid)-formed AgNPs in different ionic strength solutions of NaCl, KCl, CaCl2 and MgCl2 was investigated in an effort to evaluate the key fate and transport processes of these nanoparticles in natural aqueous environments. The aggregation state, stability and sedimentation rate of the AgNPs were monitored by Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS), zeta potential, and UV–vis measurements. The results indicate that both types of AgNPs are very unstable in high ionic strength solutions. Interestingly, the nanoparticles appeared more unstable in divalent cation solutions than in monovalent cation solutions at similar concentrations. Furthermore, the presence of SRNOM and SRHA contributed to the nanoparticle instability at high ionic strength in divalent metallic cation solutions, most likely due to intermolecular bridging with the organic matter. The results clearly suggest that changes in solution chemistry greatly affect nanoparticle long term stability and transport in natural aqueous environments. Highlights: ► Formation of SRNOM-AgNPs under environmentally relevant conditions ► Influence of monovalent versus divalent cations on SRHA- and SRNOM-AgNP stability ► Effect of AgNPs on organic matter removal from water columns

  17. ADVANCED SULFUR CONTROL CONCEPTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apostolos A. Nikolopoulos; Santosh K. Gangwal; William J. McMichael; Jeffrey W. Portzer

    2003-01-01

    Conventional sulfur removal in integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants involves numerous steps: COS (carbonyl sulfide) hydrolysis, amine scrubbing/regeneration, Claus process, and tail-gas treatment. Advanced sulfur removal in IGCC systems involves typically the use of zinc oxide-based sorbents. The sulfides sorbent is regenerated using dilute air to produce a dilute SO{sub 2} (sulfur dioxide) tail gas. Under previous contracts the highly effective first generation Direct Sulfur Recovery Process (DSRP) for catalytic reduction of this SO{sub 2} tail gas to elemental sulfur was developed. This process is currently undergoing field-testing. In this project, advanced concepts were evaluated to reduce the number of unit operations in sulfur removal and recovery. Substantial effort was directed towards developing sorbents that could be directly regenerated to elemental sulfur in an Advanced Hot Gas Process (AHGP). Development of this process has been described in detail in Appendices A-F. RTI began the development of the Single-step Sulfur Recovery Process (SSRP) to eliminate the use of sorbents and multiple reactors in sulfur removal and recovery. This process showed promising preliminary results and thus further process development of AHGP was abandoned in favor of SSRP. The SSRP is a direct Claus process that consists of injecting SO{sub 2} directly into the quenched coal gas from a coal gasifier, and reacting the H{sub 2}S-SO{sub 2} mixture over a selective catalyst to both remove and recover sulfur in a single step. The process is conducted at gasifier pressure and 125 to 160 C. The proposed commercial embodiment of the SSRP involves a liquid phase of molten sulfur with dispersed catalyst in a slurry bubble-column reactor (SBCR).

  18. A comparison of the electronic behaviour of In sub 0 sub . sub 5 sub 3 Ga sub 0 sub . sub 4 sub 7 As interfaces formed with directly and remotely PELVD silicon nitride

    CERN Document Server

    Parmiter, P J M

    2000-01-01

    The surfaces of the DPECVD devices were in majority accumulation at zero bias and the interface states communicated directly with the conduction band in reverse bias. On the other hand RPECVD devices were almost at flatband at zero bias and demonstrated greater Fermi level movement over the same voltage range. Investigation of the interface states indicated a higher density of states and more complicated behaviour including a lattice relaxation mechanism and tunnelling with the interface states communicating principally with the valence band. The two types of deposition gave rise to interfaces that exhibited very different behaviour. Communication requirements are constantly increasing both in terms of volume and speed. The compound ln sub x Ga sub 1 sub - sub x As is ideal for optoelectronic and microwave applications. It is direct bandgap and high speed with low field mobilities of the order of 12 000 cm sup 2 V sup - sup 1 s sup - sup 1 and an electron drift velocity of 2.8x10 sup 7 cm s sup - sup 1. In su...

  19. Densified waste form and method for forming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garino, Terry J.; Nenoff, Tina M.; Sava Gallis, Dorina Florentina

    2015-08-25

    Materials and methods of making densified waste forms for temperature sensitive waste material, such as nuclear waste, formed with low temperature processing using metallic powder that forms the matrix that encapsulates the temperature sensitive waste material. The densified waste form includes a temperature sensitive waste material in a physically densified matrix, the matrix is a compacted metallic powder. The method for forming the densified waste form includes mixing a metallic powder and a temperature sensitive waste material to form a waste form precursor. The waste form precursor is compacted with sufficient pressure to densify the waste precursor and encapsulate the temperature sensitive waste material in a physically densified matrix.

  20. Densified waste form and method for forming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garino, Terry J.; Nenoff, Tina M.; Sava Gallis, Dorina Florentina

    2016-05-17

    Materials and methods of making densified waste forms for temperature sensitive waste material, such as nuclear waste, formed with low temperature processing using metallic powder that forms the matrix that encapsulates the temperature sensitive waste material. The densified waste form includes a temperature sensitive waste material in a physically densified matrix, the matrix is a compacted metallic powder. The method for forming the densified waste form includes mixing a metallic powder and a temperature sensitive waste material to form a waste form precursor. The waste form precursor is compacted with sufficient pressure to densify the waste precursor and encapsulate the temperature sensitive waste material in a physically densified matrix.

  1. Directed and multi-directed animals on the king's lattice

    OpenAIRE

    Bacher, Axel

    2013-01-01

    This article introduces a new, simple solvable lattice for directed animals: the directed king's lattice, or square lattice with next nearest neighbor bonds and preferred directions {W, NW, N, NE, E}. We show that the directed animals in this lattice have an algebraic generating function linked to the Schr\\"oder numbers and belong to the same universality class as the ones in the square and triangular lattices. We also define multi-directed animals in the king's lattice, which form a supercla...

  2. Notes: Several Problems with Advance Ruling (Japanese)

    OpenAIRE

    KOHYAMA Hiroyuki

    2010-01-01

    In Japan, most tax scholars and practitioners have believed that the introduction of "advance-ruling" would dispel the uncertainty about tax consequences and facilitate transactions. However, Givati (2009) shows that in the U.S. advance rulings (Private Letter Ruling and Advance Pricing Agreements) are not frequently used. Givati (2009) argues that some taxpayers avoid applying for advance ruling not because of the "direct cost" of the application, but because of strategic disadvantages. For ...

  3. Maintenance of a Computerized Medical Record Form

    OpenAIRE

    Steichen, Olivier; Rossignol, Patrick; Daniel-Lebozec, Christel; Charlet, Jean; Jaulent, Marie-Christine; Degoulet, Patrice

    2007-01-01

    Structured entry forms for clinical records should be updated to take into account the physicians’ needs during consultation and advances in medical knowledge and practice. We updated the computerized medical record form of a hypertension clinic, based on its previous use and clinical guidelines. A statistical analysis of previously completed forms identified several unnecessary items rarely used by clinicians. A terminological analysis of guidelines and of free-text answers on completed form...

  4. Direct Democracy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beramendi, Virginia; Ellis, Andrew; Kaufman, Bruno;

    While many books on direct democracy have a regional or national approach, or simply focus on one of the many mechanisms associated with direct democracy, this Handbook delves into a global comparison of direct democracy mechanisms, including referendums, citizens' initiatives, agenda initiatives...... included as a chapter in the Handbook are possible measures for best practices of implementation, designed for those who wish to tailor direct democracy instruments to their specific needs. In order to further complement the best practices, a variety of global case studies detail the practical uses of...... direct democracy mechanisms in specific contexts. These country case studies allow for in depth discussion of particular issues, including signature collection and voter participation, campaign financing, media coverage, national variations in the usage of direct democracy procedures and national lessons...

  5. Typologie des consommateurs en fonction de la proximité perçue en vente directe : exploration de trois formes de vente : AMAP, Points de vente collectifs et Marchés

    OpenAIRE

    Hérault-Fournier, Catherine; Prigent-Simonin, Anne-Hélène

    2012-01-01

    Cet article présente une analyse des scores de proximité perçue par des consommateurs dans trois modalités de vente directe : AMAP, Points de vente collectifs et marchés. Prenant appui sur échantillon de 579 individus ces travaux montrent 1- que les scores de proximité perçue par les consommateurs sont significativement différents d’une modalité de vente à une autre, 2- qu’il est possible de déterminer trois types de consommateurs en fonction des scores de proximité perçue : les intimes, les...

  6. Advanced Virgo

    CERN Multimedia

    Virgo, a first-generation interferometric gravitational wave (GW) detector, located in the European Gravitational Observatory, EGO, Cascina (Pisa-Italy) and constructed by the collaboration of French and Italian institutes (CNRS and INFN) has successfully completed its long-duration data taking runs. It is now undergoing a fundamental upgrade that exploits available cutting edges technology to open an exciting new window on the universe, with the first detection of a gravitational wave signal. Advanced Virgo (AdV) is the project to upgrade the Virgo detector to a second-generation instrument. AdV will be able to scan a volume of the Universe 1000 times larger than initial Virgo. AdV will be hosted in the same infrastructures as Virgo. The Advanced VIRGO project is funded and at present carried on by a larger collaboration of institutes belonging to CNRS- France , RMKI - Hungary, INFN- Italy, Nikhef - The Netherlands Polish Academy of Science - Poland.

  7. Advanced Nanoemulsions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fryd, Michael M.; Mason, Thomas G.

    2012-05-01

    Recent advances in the growing field of nanoemulsions are opening up new applications in many areas such as pharmaceuticals, foods, and cosmetics. Moreover, highly controlled nanoemulsions can also serve as excellent model systems for investigating basic scientific questions about soft matter. Here, we highlight some of the most recent developments in nanoemulsions, focusing on methods of formation, surface modification, material properties, and characterization. These developments provide insight into the substantial advantages that nanoemulsions can offer over their microscale emulsion counterparts.

  8. Advanced LIGO

    OpenAIRE

    Aasi, J.; Abbott, B.; Abbott, R.; Abbott, T.; Abernathy, M; Ackley, K.; Adams, C.; Adams, T.; Addesso, P.; Adhikari, R.; Adya, V.; Affeldt, C.; Aggarwal, N.; Aguiar, O.; Ain, A.

    2014-01-01

    The Advanced LIGO gravitational wave detectors are second-generation instruments designed and built for the two LIGO observatories in Hanford, WA and Livingston, LA, USA. The two instruments are identical in design, and are specialized versions of a Michelson interferometer with 4 km long arms. As in Initial LIGO, Fabry–Perot cavities are used in the arms to increase the interaction time with a gravitational wave, and power recycling is used to increase the effective laser power. Signal recyc...

  9. Advanced Combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holcomb, Gordon R. [NETL

    2013-03-11

    The activity reported in this presentation is to provide the mechanical and physical property information needed to allow rational design, development and/or choice of alloys, manufacturing approaches, and environmental exposure and component life models to enable oxy-fuel combustion boilers to operate at Ultra-Supercritical (up to 650{degrees}C & between 22-30 MPa) and/or Advanced Ultra-Supercritical conditions (760{degrees}C & 35 MPa).

  10. Advanced differential quadrature methods

    CERN Document Server

    Zong, Zhi

    2009-01-01

    Modern Tools to Perform Numerical DifferentiationThe original direct differential quadrature (DQ) method has been known to fail for problems with strong nonlinearity and material discontinuity as well as for problems involving singularity, irregularity, and multiple scales. But now researchers in applied mathematics, computational mechanics, and engineering have developed a range of innovative DQ-based methods to overcome these shortcomings. Advanced Differential Quadrature Methods explores new DQ methods and uses these methods to solve problems beyond the capabilities of the direct DQ method.After a basic introduction to the direct DQ method, the book presents a number of DQ methods, including complex DQ, triangular DQ, multi-scale DQ, variable order DQ, multi-domain DQ, and localized DQ. It also provides a mathematical compendium that summarizes Gauss elimination, the Runge-Kutta method, complex analysis, and more. The final chapter contains three codes written in the FORTRAN language, enabling readers to q...

  11. Directing 101.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pintoff, Ernest

    Providing an introduction to anyone considering directing as a field of study or career, this book takes a broad look at the process of directing and encourages students and professionals alike to look outside of the movie industry for inspiration. Chapters in the book discuss selecting and acquiring material; budgeting and financing; casting and…

  12. Advanced Analysis of Nontraditional Machining

    CERN Document Server

    Tsai, Hung-Yin

    2013-01-01

    Nontraditional machining utilizes thermal, chemical, electrical, mechanical and optical sources of energy to form and cut materials. Advanced Analysis of Nontraditional Machining explains in-depth how each of these advanced machining processes work, their machining system components, and process variables and industrial applications, thereby offering advanced knowledge and scientific insight. This book also documents the latest and frequently cited research results of a few key nonconventional machining processes for the most concerned topics in industrial applications, such as laser machining, electrical discharge machining, electropolishing of die and mold, and wafer processing for integrated circuit manufacturing. This book also: Fills the gap of the advanced knowledge of nonconventional machining between industry and research Documents latest and frequently cited research of key nonconventional machining processes for the most sought after topics in industrial applications Demonstrates advanced multidisci...

  13. Advanced powder processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janney, M.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1997-04-01

    Gelcasting is an advanced powder forming process. It is most commonly used to form ceramic or metal powders into complex, near-net shapes. Turbine rotors, gears, nozzles, and crucibles have been successfully gelcast in silicon nitride, alumina, nickel-based superalloy, and several steels. Gelcasting can also be used to make blanks that can be green machined to near-net shape and then high fired. Green machining has been successfully applied to both ceramic and metal gelcast blanks. Recently, the authors have used gelcasting to make tooling for metal casting applications. Most of the work has centered on H13 tool steel. They have demonstrated an ability to gelcast and sinter H13 to near net shape for metal casting tooling. Also, blanks of H13 have been cast, green machined into complex shape, and fired. Issues associated with forming, binder burnout, and sintering are addressed.

  14. Direct-to-consumer Genetic Testing: Changes in the EU Regulatory Landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slokenberga, Santa

    2015-12-01

    Rapid advances in genomics and technology have rendered genetic testing services easily accessible to consumers over the Internet in the form of direct-to-consumer genetic testing. In the EU, the IVD Directive has been animadverted for its inability to tackle the challenges direct-to-consumer genetic testing has posed. Currently, the EU legislation is in a transition state. It is thus, timely to assess, to what extent the proposed IVD Regulation is intended to address the performance requirements and utility of direct-to-consumer genetic tests, which are made available to consumers within the EU over the Internet, and discuss the developments vis-à-vis the IVD Directive. To compare with the IVD Directive, the IVD Regulation presents a major shift in how direct-to-consumer genetic testing is treated in the E U. It remains unclear, whether and how the EU requirements can be applied beyond the EU market. PMID:26665691

  15. Advanced mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Gupta, CB; Kumar, V

    2009-01-01

    About the Book: This book `Advanced Mathematics` is primarily designed for B.Tech., IV Semester (EE and EC branch) students of Rajasthan Technical University. The subject matter is discussed in a lucid manner. The discussion is covered in five units: Unit I: deals with Numerical Analysis, Unit-II: gives different aspects of Numerical Analysis, Unit-III: Special Function, Unit-IV:Statistics and Probability, Calculus of Variation and Transforms are discussed in Unit V. All the theoretical concepts are explained through solved examples. Besides, a large number of unsolved problems on each top

  16. Advanced calculus

    CERN Document Server

    Friedman, Avner

    2007-01-01

    This rigorous two-part treatment advances from functions of one variable to those of several variables. Intended for students who have already completed a one-year course in elementary calculus, it defers the introduction of functions of several variables for as long as possible, and adds clarity and simplicity by avoiding a mixture of heuristic and rigorous arguments.The first part explores functions of one variable, including numbers and sequences, continuous functions, differentiable functions, integration, and sequences and series of functions. The second part examines functions of several

  17. The Content of the Form:Directly Reported Dialogues and Identity Construction in Narrative Fictions%形式的内容:小说叙事中直接引语塑造人物身份研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    兰良平

    2014-01-01

    Contemporary literary criticism in China tends to privilege macro ideological analysis and downplay micro discourse analysis , which is made nowhere more obvious than in characterization research in narrative fictions .The current paper aims to address such an imbalance by raising our awareness of the role of discourse in the novel .Drawing on the methodology of conversation analysis , this study focuses on directly re-ported dialogues within Pride and prejudice, viz.dialogues between characters , in an attempt to explore the process of identity formation of two minor characters .The study has yielded the following findings:first, the i-dentities of characters are constructed through a series of sequences expanded from an adjacency pair of request and refusal-a deeply ingrained syntax of interaction .Secondly , the author positions herself and expresses her viewpoints through manipulation of these two characters ’ voices.This paper extends our understanding of liter-ature by bridging the gap between ideological analysis and micro oriented conversational analysis .%当前国内文学批评界过于重视思想分析,忽视语言形式分析,这一点在文学形象塑造研究上尤为严重。文章旨在批判这一现象,凸显语言形式分析之重要性。通过分析《傲慢与偏见》中的直接引语即人物对话,研究人物身份塑造的过程,研究发现:人物身份通过交际句法逐步展开,在本文中体现为“请求---拒绝”这一基本交际结构,作者在人物形象塑造的同时,借助人物声音表达自己思想。本研究对弥补语言研究和思想研究之间的鸿沟具有一定的积极意义。

  18. Directing Creativity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Darsø, Lotte; Ibbotson, Piers

    2008-01-01

    In this article we argue that leaders facing complex challenges can learn from the arts, specifically that leaders can learn by examining how theatre directors direct creativity through creative constraints. We suggest that perceiving creativity as a boundary phenomenon is helpful for directing it....... Like leaders, who are caught in paradoxical situations where they have to manage production and logistics simultaneously with making space for creativity and innovation, theatre directors need to find the delicate balance between on one hand renewal of perceptions, acting and interaction and on the...... other hand getting ready for the opening night. We conclude that the art of directing creativity is linked to developing competencies of conscious presence, attention and vigilance, whereas the craft of directing creativity concerns communication, framing and choice....

  19. Advanced LIGO

    CERN Document Server

    ,

    2014-01-01

    The Advanced LIGO gravitational wave detectors are second generation instruments designed and built for the two LIGO observatories in Hanford, WA and Livingston, LA. The two instruments are identical in design, and are specialized versions of a Michelson interferometer with 4 km long arms. As in initial LIGO, Fabry-Perot cavities are used in the arms to increase the interaction time with a gravitational wave, and power recycling is used to increase the effective laser power. Signal recycling has been added in Advanced LIGO to improve the frequency response. In the most sensitive frequency region around 100 Hz, the design strain sensitivity is a factor of 10 better than initial LIGO. In addition, the low frequency end of the sensitivity band is moved from 40 Hz down to 10 Hz. All interferometer components have been replaced with improved technologies to achieve this sensitivity gain. Much better seismic isolation and test mass suspensions are responsible for the gains at lower frequencies. Higher laser power, ...

  20. Recent advances in understanding psoriasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberle, Franziska C.; Brück, Jürgen; Holstein, Julia; Hirahara, Kiyoshi; Ghoreschi, Kamran

    2016-01-01

    T helper (Th) cells producing interleukin (IL)-17, IL-22, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) form the key T cell population driving psoriasis pathogenesis. They orchestrate the inflammation in the skin that results in the proliferation of keratinocytes and endothelial cells. Besides Th17 cells, other immune cells that are capable of producing IL-17-associated cytokines participate in psoriatic inflammation. Recent advances in psoriasis research improved our understanding of the cellular and molecular players that are involved in Th17 pathology and inflammatory pathways in the skin. The inflammation-driving actions of TNF in psoriasis are already well known and antibodies against TNF are successful in the treatment of Th17-mediated psoriatic skin inflammation. A further key cytokine with potent IL-17-/IL-22-promoting properties is IL-23. Therapeutics directly neutralizing IL-23 or IL-17 itself are now extending the therapeutic spectrum of antipsoriatic agents and further developments are on the way. The enormous progress in psoriasis research allows us to control this Th17-mediated inflammatory skin disease in many patients.

  1. Advanced fuel chemistry for advanced engines.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taatjes, Craig A.; Jusinski, Leonard E.; Zador, Judit; Fernandes, Ravi X.; Miller, James A.

    2009-09-01

    Autoignition chemistry is central to predictive modeling of many advanced engine designs that combine high efficiency and low inherent pollutant emissions. This chemistry, and especially its pressure dependence, is poorly known for fuels derived from heavy petroleum and for biofuels, both of which are becoming increasingly prominent in the nation's fuel stream. We have investigated the pressure dependence of key ignition reactions for a series of molecules representative of non-traditional and alternative fuels. These investigations combined experimental characterization of hydroxyl radical production in well-controlled photolytically initiated oxidation and a hybrid modeling strategy that linked detailed quantum chemistry and computational kinetics of critical reactions with rate-equation models of the global chemical system. Comprehensive mechanisms for autoignition generally ignore the pressure dependence of branching fractions in the important alkyl + O{sub 2} reaction systems; however we have demonstrated that pressure-dependent 'formally direct' pathways persist at in-cylinder pressures.

  2. Rapid selective metal patterning on polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) fabricated by capillarity-assisted laser direct write

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study we demonstrate a novel approach for the rapid fabricating micro scale metal (silver) patterning directly on a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) substrate. Silver nanoparticles were sintered on PDMS to form conductive metal films using laser direct write (LDW) technology. To achieve good metal film quality, a capillarity-assisted laser direct writing (CALDW) of nanoparticle suspensions on a low surface energy material (PDMS) was utilized. Experimental results showed controllable electrical conductivities and good film properties of the sintered silver patterns. This study reveals an advanced method of metal patterning on PDMS, and proposes a new research application of LDW in a nanoparticle colloidal environment

  3. Rapid selective metal patterning on polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) fabricated by capillarity-assisted laser direct write

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Ming-Tsang

    2011-08-12

    In this study we demonstrate a novel approach for the rapid fabricating micro scale metal (silver) patterning directly on a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) substrate. Silver nanoparticles were sintered on PDMS to form conductive metal films using laser direct write (LDW) technology. To achieve good metal film quality, a capillarity-assisted laser direct writing (CALDW) of nanoparticle suspensions on a low surface energy material (PDMS) was utilized. Experimental results showed controllable electrical conductivities and good film properties of the sintered silver patterns. This study reveals an advanced method of metal patterning on PDMS, and proposes a new research application of LDW in a nanoparticle colloidal environment. © 2011 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  4. Fractional dynamics recent advances

    CERN Document Server

    Klafter, Joseph; Metzler, Ralf

    2011-01-01

    This volume provides the latest developments in the field of fractional dynamics, which covers fractional (anomalous) transport phenomena, fractional statistical mechanics, fractional quantum mechanics and fractional quantum field theory. The contributors are selected based on their active and important contributions to their respective topics. This volume is the first of its kind that covers such a comprehensive range of topics in fractional dynamics. It will point out to advanced undergraduate and graduate students, and young researchers the possible directions of research in this subject. I

  5. Advances in Modal Logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Modal logic is a subject with ancient roots in the western logical tradition. Up until the last few generations, it was pursued mainly as a branch of philosophy. But in recent years, the subject has taken new directions with connections to topics in computer science and mathematics. This volume is...... the proceedings of the conference of record in its fi eld, Advances in Modal Logic. Its contributions are state-of-the-art papers. The topics include decidability and complexity results for specifi c modal logics, proof theory of modal logic, logics for reasoning about time and space, provability...

  6. Vente directe et terroir

    OpenAIRE

    Delfosse, Claire; Bernard, Cécile

    2009-01-01

    Si, dans la relation de proximité qu’établit la vente directe, il semble qu’il ne soit pas nécessaire de revendiquer le lien au terroir, il apparaît qu’aujourd’hui les nouvelles formes de vente directe et les formes « traditionnelles » renouvelées le font de plus en plus. Cela peut prendre différentes formes : revendication de la proximité, de la provenance « campagne », voire création de marques collectives faisant référence à un terroir ou un pays… Il s’agira donc dans cette communication d...

  7. Direct Taxation - Directions of Harmonization

    OpenAIRE

    Narcis Eduard MITU

    2008-01-01

    Most often, harmonization in the fiscal field concerned indirect taxation, and was aimed at assuring that national tax system do not interfere with the freedom of movement of goods, services, persons and capitals. There is no need to harmonize most part of direct taxation rules, as they are strictly enforceable the EU member states and they are thus an attribute of these states sovereignty. In the field of direct taxation, the community acquis mainly concerns the profit (company) tax and the ...

  8. Directed Replacement

    CERN Document Server

    Karttunen, L

    1996-01-01

    This paper introduces to the finite-state calculus a family of directed replace operators. In contrast to the simple replace expression, UPPER -> LOWER, defined in Karttunen (ACL-95), the new directed version, UPPER @-> LOWER, yields an unambiguous transducer if the lower language consists of a single string. It transduces the input string from left to right, making only the longest possible replacement at each point. A new type of replacement expression, UPPER @-> PREFIX ... SUFFIX, yields a transducer that inserts text around strings that are instances of UPPER. The symbol ... denotes the matching part of the input which itself remains unchanged. PREFIX and SUFFIX are regular expressions describing the insertions. Expressions of the type UPPER @-> PREFIX ... SUFFIX may be used to compose a deterministic parser for a ``local grammar'' in the sense of Gross (1989). Other useful applications of directed replacement include tokenization and filtering of text streams.

  9. A New Multi-Band Multiple Beam Forming Nolen Matrix Antenna Feeding Network for Cognitive Radio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivasundarapandian.S

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A novel method of Beam forming network for multiband frequencies based on Nolen matrix (4×4 topology using multiband 90º ring Coupler was proposed and its performance was analyzed in this paper. The above method is able to produce a multiband Beam forming output with different center resonant frequencies for 2.8GHz, 6.3GHz and 9GHz which provides beam steering in various directions so as to avoid the interference between the users. Beam steering is used in smart antenna to minimize the wastage of power and to maximize the directivity in the desired direction.This formation was simulated and measured using Microstrip technology in ADS (Advanced Design system software . The simulated and measured results show the good agreement in return loss.

  10. Fusion advanced studies Torus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The successful development of ITER and DEMO scenarios requires preparatory activities on devices that are smaller than ITER, sufficiently flexible and capable of investigating the peculiar physics of burning plasma conditions. The aim of the Fusion Advanced Studies Torus (FAST) proposal [2.1] (formerly FT3 [2.2]) is to show that the preparation of ITER scenarios and the development of new expertise for the DEMO design and RD can be effectively implemented on a new facility. FAST will a) operate with deuterium plasmas, thereby avoiding problems associated with tritium, and allow investigation of nonlinear dynamics (which are important for understanding alpha particle behaviour in burning plasmas) by using fast ions accelerated by heating and current drive systems; b) work in a dimensionless parameter range close to that of ITER; c) test technical innovative solutions, such as full-tungsten plasma-facing components and an advanced liquid metal divertor target for the first wall/divertor, directly relevant for ITER and DEMO; d) exploit advanced regimes with a much longer pulse duration than the current diffusion time; e) provide a test bed for ITER and DEMO diagnostics; f) provide an ideal framework for model and numerical code benchmarks, their verification and validation in ITER/ DEMO-relevant plasma conditions

  11. Advanced waste forms research and development. Annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thermogravimetric analysis on cesium aluminosilicates was performed. Pollucite, CsAlSi2O6, appears to have more than adequate thermal stability for Cs fixation in supercalcine. The possibility of leaving Ru as RuO2 during supercalcine crystallization is being assessed. The apatite solid solution [A/sub ss/] phases used in supercalcine phase formation models have been easily prepared as pure phases. Use of Ca instead of Sr as an alkaline earth additive yields a more stable A/sub ss/ phase. Weight ratios have been optimized for two firing temperatures in terms of soxhlet leachability. However, this is not the preferred approach to supercalcine consolidation. The phase formation models developed for PW-4b-type wastes were routinely applied to PW-7, in spite of several significant composition differences in the latter. Uranium oxide remains as a fluorite structure oxide after supercalcine crystallization, but it does seem to have incorporated either or both CeO2 or ZrO2. Characterization of this F/sub ss/ phase will require further study. Based on observations during several complex compatibility studies, it appears that good overall thermal stability at as high as 12000C might be attainable for nepheline based supercalcine formulations. A thorough literature review of the oxide crystal chemistry of Te has been completed

  12. Advanced waste forms research and development. Annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCarthy, G.J.

    1976-06-11

    Thermogravimetric analysis on cesium aluminosilicates was performed. Pollucite, CsAlSi/sub 2/O/sub 6/, appears to have more than adequate thermal stability for Cs fixation in supercalcine. The possibility of leaving Ru as RuO/sub 2/ during supercalcine crystallization is being assessed. The apatite solid solution (A/sub ss/) phases used in supercalcine phase formation models have been easily prepared as pure phases. Use of Ca instead of Sr as an alkaline earth additive yields a more stable A/sub ss/ phase. Weight ratios have been optimized for two firing temperatures in terms of soxhlet leachability. However, this is not the preferred approach to supercalcine consolidation. The phase formation models developed for PW-4b-type wastes were routinely applied to PW-7, in spite of several significant composition differences in the latter. Uranium oxide remains as a fluorite structure oxide after supercalcine crystallization, but it does seem to have incorporated either or both CeO/sub 2/ or ZrO/sub 2/. Characterization of this F/sub ss/ phase will require further study. Based on observations during several complex compatibility studies, it appears that good overall thermal stability at as high as 1200/sup 0/C might be attainable for nepheline based supercalcine formulations. A thorough literature review of the oxide crystal chemistry of Te has been completed.

  13. Advanced waste forms research and development. Comprehensive progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Progress is reported in the following research areas: cesium fixation in aluminosilicates and supercalcine development; low sodium wastes and high sodium wastes. Phase relations in the appropriate (for supercalcine) portion of the Cs2O-Al2O3-SiO2 system are being investigated. Several compatibility lines (tie lines) have been established on the phase diagram. Methods of preparing pure single phases of CsAlSiO4 and CsAlSi2O6 (pollucite) are being developed. Compatibility studies continue to be the basis of supercalcine crystalline phase formation modeling

  14. Advanced waste forms research and development. Comprehensive progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCarthy, G.J.

    1977-03-22

    Progress is reported in the following research areas: cesium fixation in aluminosilicates and supercalcine development; low sodium wastes and high sodium wastes. Phase relations in the appropriate (for supercalcine) portion of the Cs/sub 2/O-Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/-SiO/sub 2/ system are being investigated. Several compatibility lines (tie lines) have been established on the phase diagram. Methods of preparing pure single phases of CsAlSiO/sub 4/ and CsAlSi/sub 2/O/sub 6/ (pollucite) are being developed. Compatibility studies continue to be the basis of supercalcine crystalline phase formation modeling. (LK)

  15. Advance in the biological handling of pathogen forming sclerocios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Field rehearsals in the Center of Investigations Tibaitata allowed to determine that the mushrooms Trichoderma sp., Trichogramma search. Konigui No.1, Trichoderma search Konigui No.2 and Gliocladium sp. They have antagonistic effects against Rhizoctonia solani, that which showed in low percentages of tubers affected by R. solani, when the soil was treated with the mentioned mushrooms. In the control of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, it was determined that Trichoderma barzianum should be applied in the moment in that it is presented more than 3 days of continuous humidity in the soil; lower these conditions 14.3 percent of plants it was only observed affected by the pathogen

  16. Direct cooled power electronics substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiles, Randy H [Powell, TN; Wereszczak, Andrew A [Oak Ridge, TN; Ayers, Curtis W [Kingston, TN; Lowe, Kirk T [Knoxville, TN

    2010-09-14

    The disclosure describes directly cooling a three-dimensional, direct metallization (DM) layer in a power electronics device. To enable sufficient cooling, coolant flow channels are formed within the ceramic substrate. The direct metallization layer (typically copper) may be bonded to the ceramic substrate, and semiconductor chips (such as IGBT and diodes) may be soldered or sintered onto the direct metallization layer to form a power electronics module. Multiple modules may be attached to cooling headers that provide in-flow and out-flow of coolant through the channels in the ceramic substrate. The modules and cooling header assembly are preferably sized to fit inside the core of a toroidal shaped capacitor.

  17. Future advances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celesia, Gastone G; Hickok, Gregory

    2015-01-01

    Future advances in the auditory systems are difficult to predict, and only educated guesses are possible. It is expected that innovative technologies in the field of neuroscience will be applied to the auditory system. Optogenetics, Brainbow, and CLARITY will improve our knowledge of the working of neural auditory networks and the relationship between sound and language, providing a dynamic picture of the brain in action. CLARITY makes brain tissue transparent and offers a three-dimensional view of neural networks, which, combined with genetically labeling neurons with multiple, distinct colors (Optogenetics), will provide detailed information of the complex brain system. Molecular functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) will allow the study of neurotransmitters detectable by MRI and their function in the auditory pathways. The Human Connectome project will study the patterns of distributed brain activity that underlie virtually all aspects of cognition and behavior and determine if abnormalities in the distributed patterns of activity may result in hearing and behavior disorders. Similarly, the programs of Big Brain and ENIGMA will improve our understanding of auditory disorders. New stem-cell therapy and gene therapies therapy may bring about a partial restoration of hearing for impaired patients by inducing regeneration of cochlear hair cells. PMID:25726297

  18. New Visions on Form and Growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howard, M [Department of Mathematics, Imperial College-University of London, UK (United Kingdom)

    2005-03-11

    It is now nearly 90 years since the publication of D'Arcy Thompson's book On Growth and Form, a classic work that attempted a unification of pattern-forming phenomena in systems ranging from inanimate to living matter. Thompson's book came early in the development of mathematical techniques in biology. His work has had enormous influence in succeeding decades and has helped inspire the rapid growth in the application of theoretical techniques to biological phenomena. Pelce's book New Visions on Form and Growth takes its inspiration and title directly from D'Arcy Thompson. Furthermore, Pelce attempts what could not be achieved in D'Arcy Thompson's time, namely the presentation of a quantitative analysis of pattern forming phenomena. However, it should be emphasised that the vast majority of this book is concerned with inanimate matter, with rather little discussion of biology. The book begins with a presentation of the basic physics, including surface tension, first-order phase transition kinetics and a brief outline of chemical kinetics. With the essential physics established, Pelce then investigates simple growth forms, before showing how these regular geometries are destabilized into more complex forms by instabilities. The problem of velocity selection of growing patterns is then extensively discussed, before the question of (secondary) instabilities of the more complex growth forms is analysed. A chapter on stochastic patterns is also included. For the most part, the book concentrates on a few intensively studied pattern forming systems in physics, particularly viscous fingering in Hele-Shaw cells, the growth of dendrites, electrodeposition, flames, and, in the chapter on stochastic patterns, diffusion-limited aggregation. Only in a rather brief final chapter is a more speculative link made with biological pattern formation and morphogenesis. In general, I found the book to be a useful reference work on the theory of pattern

  19. Research Advance of Direct-fed Microbial on Dairy Production%直接饲喂微生物在奶牛生产中的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王小林

    2011-01-01

    Divot-fed microbial(DFM),also called "probiotics",it is commonly believed that it is a good substitute for antibiotics This paper discusses the mechanism of DFM.Meanwhile,the influence on the performance of the dairy milk production is involved,and the development prospects were discussed.%本文就直接饲喂微生物(direct-fed microbial,DFM)作用机理和对奶牛的生产性能的影响作了论述,并就今后的发展趋势作了探讨.

  20. Advanced Concepts: Aneutronic Fusion Power and Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, John J.

    2012-01-01

    Aneutronic Fusion for In-Space thrust, power. Clean energy & potential nuclear gains. Fusion plant concepts, potential to use advanced fuels. Methods to harness ionic momentum for high Isp thrust plus direct power conversion into electricity will be presented.

  1. Critical Criminological Understandings of Adult Pornography and Woman Abuse: New Progressive Directions in Research and Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter DeKeseredy

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available There is a small, but growing, social scientific literature on the racist and violent nature of contemporary adult pornography. However, considerably more empirical and theoretical work needs to be done to advance a critical criminological understanding of how such hurtful sexual media contribute to various forms of woman abuse in intimate relationships. The main objective of this article is to briefly review the relevant literature and to suggest a few new progressive empirical and theoretical directions.

  2. [Euthanasia in advanced dementia: a moral impossibility].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keizer, A A Bert

    2013-01-01

    Advance directives containing a request for euthanasia in cases of severely debilitating dementia are of no use. In such an advanced stage of the disease, the doctor would have to administer lethal medication to a patient who does not realise what is happening to him/her. The Dutch Euthanasia Act is ambivalent about this possibility. PMID:23777970

  3. Invariants of quadratic differential forms

    CERN Document Server

    Wright, Joseph Edmund

    2013-01-01

    This classic monograph by a mathematician affiliated with Trinity College, Cambridge, offers a brief account of the invariant theory connected with a single quadratic differential form. Suitable for advanced undergraduates and graduate students of mathematics, it avoids unnecessary analysis and offers an accessible view of the field for readers unfamiliar with the subject.A historical overview is followed by considerations of the methods of Christoffel and Lie as well as Maschke's symbolic method and explorations of geometrical and dynamical methods. The final chapter on applications, which d

  4. General survey of Korean advanced technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book includes advanced technology, world trend of advanced technology, technological innovation study for strengthening international competitiveness, patterns of Korea industrialization and its causes, structures of Korea electronic equipment and development direction, middle and long-term prospects of home appliance, the world of computer, current situation and prospect of robot industry, homework for strengthening international competitiveness of machine industry, direction for rationalization of materials industry, current situations of technical textile, future technology of developed countries, and trend of Korea technological activities.

  5. Modular Forms and Weierstrass Mock Modular Forms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Clemm

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Alfes, Griffin, Ono, and Rolen have shown that the harmonic Maass forms arising from Weierstrass ζ-functions associated to modular elliptic curves “encode” the vanishing and nonvanishing for central values and derivatives of twisted Hasse-Weil L-functions for elliptic curves. Previously, Martin and Ono proved that there are exactly five weight 2 newforms with complex multiplication that are eta-quotients. In this paper, we construct a canonical harmonic Maass form for these five curves with complex multiplication. The holomorphic part of this harmonic Maass form arises from the Weierstrass ζ-function and is referred to as the Weierstrass mock modular form. We prove that the Weierstrass mock modular form for these five curves is itself an eta-quotient or a twist of one. Using this construction, we also obtain p-adic formulas for the corresponding weight 2 newform using Atkin’s U-operator.

  6. Characterization and evaluation of spray dried co-processed excipients and their application in solid dosage forms

    OpenAIRE

    Avachat Amelia; Ahire V

    2007-01-01

    Major challenge for tablet manufacture comes from the powder characteristics of the materials to be compressed. This in turn poses a challenge in achieving greater productivity and better quality product especially on the new generation high-speed machines. Advancement in directly compressible materials has come in the form of co-processed spray dried materials. The present work evaluates and characterizes two spray dried co-processed materials, one comprising of microcrystalline cellulose, c...

  7. Electroweak form factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present status of electroweak nucleon form factors and the N - Δ transition form factors is reviewed. Particularly the determination of dipole mass MA in the axial vector form factor is discussed

  8. High Torque, Direct Drive Electric Motor Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Bear Engineering proposes to advance the development of an innovative high torque, low speed, direct drive motor in order to meet NASA's requirements for such...

  9. Recent Advances in Neural Recording Microsystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benoit Gosselin

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The accelerating pace of research in neuroscience has created a considerable demand for neural interfacing microsystems capable of monitoring the activity of large groups of neurons. These emerging tools have revealed a tremendous potential for the advancement of knowledge in brain research and for the development of useful clinical applications. They can extract the relevant control signals directly from the brain enabling individuals with severe disabilities to communicate their intentions to other devices, like computers or various prostheses. Such microsystems are self-contained devices composed of a neural probe attached with an integrated circuit for extracting neural signals from multiple channels, and transferring the data outside the body. The greatest challenge facing development of such emerging devices into viable clinical systems involves addressing their small form factor and low-power consumption constraints, while providing superior resolution. In this paper, we survey the recent progress in the design and the implementation of multi-channel neural recording Microsystems, with particular emphasis on the design of recording and telemetry electronics. An overview of the numerous neural signal modalities is given and the existing microsystem topologies are covered. We present energy-efficient sensory circuits to retrieve weak signals from neural probes and we compare them. We cover data management and smart power scheduling approaches, and we review advances in low-power telemetry. Finally, we conclude by summarizing the remaining challenges and by highlighting the emerging trends in the field.

  10. Forming Spirals From Shadows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-07-01

    What causes the large-scale spiral structures found in some protoplanetary disks? Most models assume theyre created by newly-forming planets, but a new study suggests that planets might have nothing to do with it.Perturbations from Planets?In some transition disks protoplanetary disks with gaps in their inner regions weve directly imaged large-scale spiral arms. Many theories currently attribute the formation of these structures to young planets: either the direct perturbations of a planet embedded in the disk cause the spirals, or theyre indirectly caused by the orbit of a planetary body outside of the arms.Another example of spiral arms detected in a protoplanetary disk, MWC 758. [NASA/ESA/ESO/M. Benisty et al.]But what if you could get spirals without any planets? A team of scientists led by Matas Montesinos (University of Chile) have recently published a study in which they examine what happens to a shadowed protoplanetary disk.Casting Shadows with WarpsIn the teams setup, they envision a protoplanetary disk that is warped: the inner region is slightly tilted relative to the outer region. As the central star casts light out over its protoplanetary disk, this disk warping would cause some regions of the disk to be shaded in a way that isnt axially symmetric with potentially interesting implications.Montesinos and collaborators ran 2D hydrodynamics simulations to determine what happens to the motion of particles within the disk when they pass in and out of the shadowed regions. Since the shadowed regions are significantly colder than the illuminated disk, the pressure in these regions is much lower. Particles are therefore accelerated and decelerated as they pass through these regions, and the lack of axial symmetry causes spiral density waves to form in the disk as a result.Initial profile for the stellar heating rate per unit area for one of the authors simulations. The regions shadowed as a result of the disk warp subtend 0.5 radians each (shown on the left

  11. Direct Democracy in Croatia

    OpenAIRE

    Rodin, Siniša

    2001-01-01

    Author discusses forms of direct democracy envisaged by the Croatian Constitution of 1990 which defined Croatia as semi-presidential republic, before constitutional ammendment of 1997. Article describes normative regulation of referenda and speculates about reasons for their absence. One of the main reasons seems to be specific institutional framework and political consensus existing among the Parliament, the Government and the President of the Republic which is of dynamic nature. Referendum,...

  12. Colloidal thermoresponsive gel forming hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ruixue; Tirelli, Nicola; Cellesi, Francesco; Saunders, Brian R

    2010-09-15

    Colloidal hybrids comprise organic and inorganic components and are attracting considerable attention in the literature. Recently, we reported hybrid anisotropic microsheets that formed thermoresponsive gels in polymer solutions [Liu et al., Langmuir, 25, 490, 2009]. Here, we investigate the composition and properties of these hybrid colloids themselves in detail for the first time. Three different cationic PNIPAm (N-isopropylacrylamide) graft copolymers and two inorganic nanoparticle types (laponite and Ludox silica) were used to prepare a range of hybrids. Anisotropic microsheets only formed when laponite particles were added to the copolymer implying directed self-assembly. Aqueous dispersions of the microsheets spontaneously formed gels at room temperature and these gels were thermoresponsive. They represent a new class of gel forming colloid and are termed thermoresponsive gel forming hybrids. The compositions of the hybrids were determined from thermogravimetric analysis and those that gave gel forming behaviour identified. Variable-temperature rheology experiments showed that the elasticity of the gels increased linearly with temperature. The reversibility of the thermally-triggered changes in gel elasticity was investigated. The concentration dependence of the rheology data was well described by elastic percolation scaling theory and the data could be collapsed onto a master curve. The concentration exponent for the elastic modulus was 2.5. The strong attractive interactions that exist between the dispersed gel forming hybrids was demonstrated by the formation of stable thermoresponsive hybrid hydrogels through casting of hybrid dispersions. PMID:20561633

  13. Palliative care in advanced dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merel, Susan E; Merel, Susan; DeMers, Shaune; Vig, Elizabeth

    2014-08-01

    Because neurodegenerative dementias are progressive and ultimately fatal, a palliative approach focusing on comfort, quality of life, and family support can have benefits for patients, families, and the health system. Elements of a palliative approach include discussion of prognosis and goals of care, completion of advance directives, and a thoughtful approach to common complications of advanced dementia. Physicians caring for patients with dementia should formulate a plan for end-of-life care in partnership with patients, families, and caregivers, and be prepared to manage common symptoms at the end of life in dementia, including pain and delirium. PMID:25037291

  14. Production Equipment and Processes for Bulk Formed Micro Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paldan, N. A.; Arentoft, M.; Eriksen, R. S.

    2007-04-01

    Manufacturing techniques for production of small precise metallic parts has gained interest during recent years, an interest led by an industrial demand for components for integrated products like mobile phones, personal digital assistants (PDAs), mp3-players and in the future for spare parts for the human body. Micro components have also found several applications within the medical, audiological and dental industry, applications that impose increased demands for biocompatible and corrosion-resistant materials and cleanness. So far these micro components have mainly been manufactured by traditional machining techniques or chemical etching. However, these traditional machining and etching techniques are generally not well suited for mass production of advanced micro components, due to handling problems, waste of expensive material and long machining times. This calls for development of a novel production system that can meet the demands for high productivity, high reliability, low cost, while being environmental acceptable. Bulk metal forming meets these demands to a great extent, but the technology cannot directly be transferred to the micro scale. A flexible machine system for bulk micro forming has been developed and used to form a number of industrial micro parts in aluminium and silver, with ongoing work on forming of titanium. Manufacture of billets by cropping has been examined using a simple test rig and an automatic cropping device has been designed, manufactured and tested.

  15. New education coalition formed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watt Ireto, M. Frank

    The Coalition for Earth Science Education (CESE) was recently formed to promote Earth science education at all levels. Earth science is a diverse group of sciences and as a result, professional and academic organizations from the various areas, though united in their goal to stimulate student enthusiasm for the Earth sciences, have not had an effective way of reaching students or their precollege teachers. Over the past year, meetings sponsored by the National Academy of Science's Board on Earth Sciences and Resources and the National Science Foundation have paved the way for this coalition. Victor Mayer, Director of the Program for Leadership in Earth Systems Science (PLESE) project at the University of Ohio, has been the leader in initiating and promoting this effort for the last several years.The purpose of CESE is to promote communication among the member organizations and to coordinate projects in Earth science education. Individual organizations will continue to develop and run projects, but will be able to find out what types of projects others are working on or have completed through a coalition clearinghouse. The clearinghouse should aid organizations as they design projects and should afford opportunities for collaborative efforts. This will directly benefit teachers, who will be able to contact one source for information on the multitude of projects in the Earth and space sciences. The new coalition's steering committee is working on goals and guidelines, and will give a report at the next coalition meeting at the National Science Teachers Association annual convention in Boston.

  16. Advanced accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report discusses the suitability of four novel particle acceleration technologies for multi-TeV particle physics machines: laser driven linear accelerators (linac), plasma beat-wave devices, plasma wakefield devices, and switched power and cavity wakefield linacs. The report begins with the derivation of beam parameters practical for multi-TeV devices. Electromagnetic field breakdown of materials is reviewed. The two-beam accelerator scheme for using a free electron laser as the driver is discussed. The options recommended and the conclusions reached reflect the importance of cost. We recommend that more effort be invested in achieving a self-consistent range of TeV accelerator design parameters. Beat-wave devices have promise for 1-100 GeV applications and, while not directly scalable to TeV designs, the current generation of ideas are encouraging for the TeV regime. In particular, surfatrons, finite-angle optical mixing devices, plasma grating accelerator, and the Raman forward cascade schemes all deserve more complete analysis. The exploitation of standard linac geometry operated in an unconventional mode is in a phase of rapid evolution. While conceptual projects abound, there are no complete designs. We recommend that a fraction of sponsored research be devoted to this approach. Wakefield devices offer a great deal of potential; trades among their benefits and constraints are derived and discussed herein. The study of field limitation processes has received inadequate attention; this limits experiment designers. The costs of future experiments are such that investment in understanding these processes is prudent. 34 refs., 12 figs., 3 tabs

  17. Axial stress corrosion cracking forming method to metal tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Generally, it is more difficult in a metal tube, to intentionally cause a stress corrosion cracking in axial direction than in circumferential direction. In the present invention, a bevel is formed on a metal tube and welding is conducted in circumferential direction along the bevel, and welding is conducted in axial direction partially to the portion welded in circumferential direction. Namely, a bevel is formed in circumferential direction to an abutting portion of thick-walled metal tubes with each other, welding is conducted in circumferential direction along the bevel, and welding is conducted in axial direction partially to a portion welded in circumferential direction. With such procedures, since tensile stress in the circumferential direction is increased partially at a portion welded in axial direction, stress corrosion cracking is caused in axial direction at the portion. Then, stress corrosion cracking in axial direction can thus be formed on the thick-walled metal tube. (N.H.)

  18. Bacteria form tellurium nanocrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oremland, R.S.

    2007-01-01

    A team of researchers have found two bacterial species that produce tellurium oxyanions as respiratory electron acceptors for growth, leaving elemental tellurium in the form of nanoparticles. The crystals from the two organisms exhibit distinctively different structures. Bacillus selenitireducens initially forms nanorods that cluster together to form rosettes. Sulfurospirillum barnesii forms irregularly-shaped nanospheres that coalesce into larger composite aggregates.

  19. Adaptive municipal electronic forms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuiper, Pieter; Dijk, van Betsy; Bondarouk, Tanya; Ruël, Huub; Guiderdoni-Jourdain, Karine; Oiry, Ewan

    2009-01-01

    Adaptation of electronic forms (e-forms) seems to be a step forward to reduce the burden for people who fill in forms. Municipalities more and more offer e-forms online that can be used by citizens to request a municipal product or service or by municipal employees to place a request on behalf of a

  20. NATO Advanced Study Institute on Advanced Physical Oceanographic Numerical Modelling

    CERN Document Server

    1986-01-01

    This book is a direct result of the NATO Advanced Study Institute held in Banyuls-sur-mer, France, June 1985. The Institute had the same title as this book. It was held at Laboratoire Arago. Eighty lecturers and students from almost all NATO countries attended. The purpose was to review the state of the art of physical oceanographic numerical modelling including the parameterization of physical processes. This book represents a cross-section of the lectures presented at the ASI. It covers elementary mathematical aspects through large scale practical aspects of ocean circulation calculations. It does not encompass every facet of the science of oceanographic modelling. We have, however, captured most of the essence of mesoscale and large-scale ocean modelling for blue water and shallow seas. There have been considerable advances in modelling coastal circulation which are not included. The methods section does not include important material on phase and group velocity errors, selection of grid structures, advanc...

  1. Manufacturing processes 4 forming

    CERN Document Server

    Klocke, Fritz

    2013-01-01

    This book provides essential information on metal forming, utilizing a practical distinction between bulk and sheet metal forming. In the field of bulk forming, it examines processes of cold, warm and hot bulk forming, as well as rolling and a new addition, the process of thixoforming. As for the field of sheet metal working, on the one hand it deals with sheet metal forming processes (deep drawing, flange forming, stretch drawing, metal spinning and bending). In terms of special processes, the chapters on internal high-pressure forming and high rate forming have been revised and refined. On the other, the book elucidates and presents the state of the art in sheet metal separation processes (shearing and fineblanking). Furthermore, joining by forming has been added to the new edition as a new chapter describing mechanical methods for joining sheet metals. The new chapter “Basic Principles” addresses both sheet metal and bulk forming, in addition to metal physics, plastomechanics and computational basics; ...

  2. Guenon-factor of advancing national economic development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.Yu. Yahelskaia

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article. Modern acceleration of evolutionary processes requires quick response and leading actions to harmonious existence and development of the national economy, which emphasizes the relevance of research of features and factors of advancing economic development. The purpose of this article is to investigate the factors of economic development, to identify those that affect the rate of development; to improve their classification and to form Guenon-factor of advancing national economic development. The subject of research is the causes underlying of advancing national economic development. Theoretical researches of world economic thought on the development of the national economy are served as methodological basis of this research. We used historically-logical method, comparative, structural and factorial analysis in the research. The results of the analysis. The factors of economic development are examined in the article. The emphasis was placed on finding those ones that impact directly on the advancing development. Attention was focused on classical and new approaches. It was justified, that the fundamental causes of advancing national economic development are the time and economic energy. It was proved that time determines the rate of development. The starting position of countries can vary, but the rate of the time that will be determined by culture, can provide leadership positions of national economy in a short period of time. It was concluded that the economic system is due to the economic value of the energy, which is an array of energies that determine the qualitative and quantitative state of the economic system and contribute to the transformation of its structure by changing the spatiotemporal layout. Research implies that time and energy are factors of broader action than others, and may be attributed to other factors of the general classification of economic development. So, on the basis of studied classifications

  3. Methodological advances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lebreton, J.-D.

    2004-06-01

    approaches are the usual ultra–structural model and a new one based on a random effects model. Thispaper can be viewed as part of a revival of studies of the dynamics of exploited populations, in the broad sense, including the study of man–induced mortality in the framework of conservation biology (Lebreton, in press. This revival is a direct consequence of the increasing impact of man on the biosphere and of continuing methodological progress (Ferson & Burgman, 2000. The use of random effects models (see also Schaub & Lebreton, 2004 directly builds upon the seminal work by Anderson and Burnham (1976. Stauffer presented a Winbugs implementation of the Cormack–Jolly–Seber model that complemented other presentations in the conference and the short course. Finally, Morgan, Besbeas, Thomas, Buckland, Harwood,Duck and Pomery, proposed a thorough and timely review of integrated modelling, i.e., in our context, of models considering simultaneously capture–recapture demographic information and census information. These methods were covered in other sessions, in relation to Bayesian methodology. Integrated modelling appears indeed to be the logical way of combining all pieces of information arising from integrated monitoring, and as one of the great methodological challenges for our community in the years to come (Besbeas et al., 2002.

  4. Advance in Toll-like receptors (TLRs) directly regulate the immunosuppressive function of regulatory T cells%Toll样受体直接调节Treg细胞抑制功能的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李文新; 王嘉军

    2012-01-01

    Regulatory T (Treg) cells maintain self-immune tolerance and regulate immune responses to prevent excessive immune-mediated tissue damage. The family of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) is a major class receptors that recognize the molecular pattern associated with pathogen or endogenous ligands to initiate innate as well as the adaptive immune responses. Recent evidence has showed that Treg cells selectively expressed some TLRs, whose activation can increase or decrease their suppressive activity. Treg modulation by TLRs might influence such processes as the response to infections, immune surveillance to cancer, transplant rejection, and the induction of autoimmunity. Understanding the link between Tregs and TLR could be beneficial to the discovery of new therapeutic targets and strategies. This paper briefly review relative reports, which TLRs directly affect the function of Treg cells.%Treg细胞具有维持自身免疫耐受,调节免疫应答的作用.Toll样受体(Toll-like receptors,TLRs)家族可识别病原相关分子模式或内源性配体,启动固有和适应性免疫应答.Treg细胞选择性表达某些TLRs,TLRs活化可能直接增强或降低Treg的免疫抑制功能,这种调节可以影响对感染和肿瘤的免疫监视、移植免疫排斥和自身免疫病发生的进程.因此,了解两者的关系对发现新的治疗靶点和对策有重要的作用.简要综述TLRs对Treg细胞抑制功能直接调节作用的研究进展.

  5. Advanced Fuels Campaign FY 2015 Accomplishments Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braase, Lori Ann [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Carmack, William Jonathan [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-10-29

    The mission of the Advanced Fuels Campaign (AFC) is to perform research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) activities for advanced fuel forms (including cladding) to enhance the performance and safety of the nation’s current and future reactors; enhance proliferation resistance of nuclear fuel; effectively utilize nuclear energy resources; and address the longer-term waste management challenges. This report is a compilation of technical accomplishment summaries for FY-15. Emphasis is on advanced accident-tolerant LWR fuel systems, advanced transmutation fuels technologies, and capability development.

  6. Advances in analytical chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arendale, W. F.; Congo, Richard T.; Nielsen, Bruce J.

    1991-01-01

    Implementation of computer programs based on multivariate statistical algorithms makes possible obtaining reliable information from long data vectors that contain large amounts of extraneous information, for example, noise and/or analytes that we do not wish to control. Three examples are described. Each of these applications requires the use of techniques characteristic of modern analytical chemistry. The first example, using a quantitative or analytical model, describes the determination of the acid dissociation constant for 2,2'-pyridyl thiophene using archived data. The second example describes an investigation to determine the active biocidal species of iodine in aqueous solutions. The third example is taken from a research program directed toward advanced fiber-optic chemical sensors. The second and third examples require heuristic or empirical models.

  7. [Advanced pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triebel, H J; von Hülst, M; Schofer, M

    1987-09-01

    A severe course of microlithiasis alveolaris pulmonum in a 28-year old patient is described. The disease, which had progressed to a very advanced stage at the time of examination, produced in the plain radiograph of the thorax an extensive, homogeneous, ground-glass like shadow of practically all organs of the thorax. The typical miliary (spot-like) shadow ("sandstorm lung") is visible only in the lateral and apical parts of the lung. CT revealed massive calcareous deposits which increased in craniocaudal and ventrodorsal direction. Bullous metaplasia of the lung was particularly striking in the apical region. No effective therapy is known so far. A combined heart and lung transplantation might be the only therapy that could prolong the patient's life. PMID:3659783

  8. Advanced microlithiasis alveolaris pulmonum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Triebel, H.J.; Schofer, M.; Huelst, M. v.

    1987-09-01

    A severe course of microlithiasis alveolaris pulmonum in a 28-year old patient is described. The disease, which had progressed to a very advanced stage at the time of examination, produced in the plain radiograph of the thorax an extensive, homogeneous, ground-glass like shadow of practically all organs of the thorax. The typical miliary (spotlike) shadow ('sandstorm lung') is visible only in the lateral and apical parts of the lung. CT revealed massive calcareous deposits which increased in craniocaudal and ventrodorsal direction. Bullous metaplasia of the lung was particularly striking in the apical region. No effective therapy is known so far. A combined heart and lung transplantation might be the only therapy that could prolong the patient's life.

  9. Direct cervicoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, J Randall; Yellin, Seth

    2014-08-01

    Rejuvenation of the aging neck is one of the common reasons for the patients presented to facial plastic surgeons. In the author's opinion, most of these patients will be best served by a full rhytidectomy approach with periauricular incisions, skin flap undermining, and platysmaplasty. There is a subset of patients, however, who presented with complaints limited to the so-called Turkey Gobbler deformity, and who do not wish to undergo a full rhytidectomy approach. These patients may be well served by a lesser procedure such as a direct cervicoplasty or submentoplasty. The advantages of this approach include shorter operative time, faster recovery, and lower complication rates. The primary disadvantage of these more limited approaches is that there is an anterior cervical scar that may be visible under some conditions. This article will review the multiple options for skin incisions as well as details of the technique that the authors have found may lead to a successful rejuvenation of the submental region. PMID:25076453

  10. Advanced Motors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knoth, Edward A.; Chelluri, Bhanumathi; Schumaker, Edward J.

    2012-12-14

    motor fabrication opens up a new dimension in motor design. Feasibility Results We were able to optimize a IPMSM rotor to take advantage of the powder co-filling and DMC compaction processing methods. The minimum low speed torque requirement of 5 N-m can be met through an optimized design with magnet material having a Br capability of 0.2 T. This level of magnetic performance can be met with a variety of bonded magnet compositions. The torque ripple was found to drop significantly by using thinner magnet segments. The powder co-filling and subsequent compaction processing allow for thinner magnet structures to be formed. Torque ripple can be further reduced by using skewing and pole shaping techniques. The techniques can be incorporated into the rotor during the powder co-filling process.

  11. Genes of ancient microtubule-stabilizing proteins traveled through pre-Cambrian Echinoidea to advanced life forms of dry land and ended up in the human genome as the fusion oncogenes-oncoproteins eml1/EML1-abl/ABL, and eml4/EML4-alk/ALK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JG Sinkovics

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The genes eml1/4 of the Echinodermata microtubule-stabilizing gene product-like 1/4 proteins EML1/4 of the sea cucumbers (Holothuroidea traveled through the evolutionary scale up to the human genome. Human cells malignantly transformed by oncogenes abl or alk enlist the protein products EML1/4 for the activation and protection of the gene product oncoproteins ABL or ALK against destruction by ubiquitination, and for gaining virulence and chemotherapy resistance. Neither the abl nor the alk genes act as oncogenes without fusion with another particular gene, such as eml1/4 in this case. A large number of ancient but conserved gene product proteins chaperon, protect and enhance oncoproteins. These mechanisms indicate that ancient cell survival pathways exist conserved in the genomes of advanced multicellular diplo- and triploblastic hosts (including Homo. These genomic pathways are on special occasions constitutively reactivated in extant cells undergoing transformations for survival under adverse circumstances. Extant cells under threat react by re-living scenarios that characterized life forms in the primordial physico-chemical universe. In the clinical practice these cells are recognized as chemoradiotherapy-resistant cancer cells undergoing a process of retrograde immortalization.

  12. Biotechnological advances in Lilium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhshaie, Mehdi; Khosravi, Solmaz; Azadi, Pejman; Bagheri, Hedayat; van Tuyl, Jaap M

    2016-09-01

    Modern powerful techniques in plant biotechnology have been developed in lilies (Lilium spp., Liliaceae) to propagate, improve and make new phenotypes. Reliable in vitro culture methods are available to multiply lilies rapidly and shorten breeding programs. Lilium is also an ideal model plant to study in vitro pollination and embryo rescue methods. Although lilies are recalcitrant to genetic manipulation, superior genotypes are developed with improved flower colour and form, disease resistance and year round forcing ability. Different DNA molecular markers have been developed for rapid indirect selection, genetic diversity evaluation, mutation detection and construction of Lilium linkage map. Some disease resistance-QTLs are already mapped on the Lilium linkage map. This review presents latest information on in vitro propagation, genetic engineering and molecular advances made in lily. PMID:27318470

  13. Dietary advanced glycation endproducts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Malene Wibe

    High heat cooking induces flavor, aroma, and color of food, but leads to formation of advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs) by the Maillard reaction. In addition to the formation in food, AGEs are also formed in vivo, and increased endogenous formation of AGEs has been linked to diabetic...... postprandial subjective appetite sensations, appetite hormones, and markers of inflammation of two cooking methods that respectively induce or limit AGE formation were investigated in healthy overweight individuals. It was concluded that the meals affected subjective appetite sensations similarly, but the high...... sensitivity of cooking methods that induce or limit AGE formation were investigated in healthy overweight women. It was concluded that insulin sensitivity was improved with use of low heat cooking methods, compared with high heat cooking methods. In a rat study, effects on expression of AGE receptors, insulin...

  14. Advanced Visual Quantum Mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Thaller, Bernd

    2005-01-01

    Advanced Visual Quantum Mechanics is a systematic effort to investigate and to teach quantum mechanics with the aid of computer-generated animations. It is a self-contained textbook that combines selected topics from atomic physics (spherical symmetry, the hydrogen atom, and particles with spin) with an introduction to quantum information theory (qubits, EPR paradox, teleportation, quantum computers). It explores relativistic quantum mechanics and the strange behavior of Dirac equation solutions. A series of appendices covers important topics from perturbation and scattering theory. The book places an emphasis on ideas and concepts, with a fair to moderate amount of mathematical rigor. Though this book stands alone, it can also be paired with Thaller Visual Quantum Mechanics to form a comprehensive course in quantum mechanics. The software for the first book earned the European Academic Software Award 2000 for outstanding innovation in its field.

  15. Polarons in advanced materials

    CERN Document Server

    Alexandrov, Alexandre Sergeevich

    2008-01-01

    Polarons in Advanced Materials will lead the reader from single-polaron problems to multi-polaron systems and finally to a description of many interesting phenomena in high-temperature superconductors, ferromagnetic oxides, conducting polymers and molecular nanowires. The book divides naturally into four parts. Part I introduces a single polaron and describes recent achievements in analytical and numerical studies of polaron properties in different electron-phonon models. Part II and Part III describe multi-polaron physics, and Part IV describes many key physical properties of high-temperature superconductors, colossal magnetoresistance oxides, conducting polymers and molecular nanowires, which were understood with polarons and bipolarons. The book is written in the form of self-consistent reviews authored by well-established researchers actively working in the field and will benefit scientists and postgraduate students with a background in condensed matter physics and materials sciences.

  16. Optical properties of advanced materials

    CERN Document Server

    Kajikawa, Kotaro

    2013-01-01

    In the last decade, optically functionalized materials have developed rapidly, from bulk matters to structured forms. Now we have a rich variety of attractive advanced materials. They are applied to optical and electrical devices that support the information communication technology in the mid 21-th century. Accordingly, it is quite important to have a broad knowledge of the optical properties of advanced materials for students, scientists and engineers working in optics and related fields. This book is designed to teach fundamental optical properties of such advanced materials effectively. These materials have their own peculiarities which are very interesting in modern optical physics and also for applications because the concepts of optical properties are quite different from those in conventional optical materials. Hence each chapter starts to review the basic concepts of the materials briefly and proceeds to the practical use. The important topics covered in this book include:  quantum structures of sem...

  17. Advanced optic fabrication using ultrafast laser radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Lauren L.; Qiao, Jun; Qiao, Jie

    2016-03-01

    Advanced fabrication and finishing techniques are desired for freeform optics and integrated photonics. Methods including grinding, polishing and magnetorheological finishing used for final figuring and polishing of such optics are time consuming, expensive, and may be unsuitable for complex surface features while common photonics fabrication techniques often limit devices to planar geometries. Laser processing has been investigated as an alternative method for optic forming, surface polishing, structure writing, and welding, as direct tuning of laser parameters and flexible beam delivery are advantageous for complex freeform or photonics elements and material-specific processing. Continuous wave and pulsed laser radiation down to the nanosecond regime have been implemented to achieve nanoscale surface finishes through localized material melting, but the temporal extent of the laser-material interaction often results in the formation of a sub-surface heat affected zone. The temporal brevity of ultrafast laser radiation can allow for the direct vaporization of rough surface asperities with minimal melting, offering the potential for smooth, final surface quality with negligible heat affected material. High intensities achieved in focused ultrafast laser radiation can easily induce phase changes in the bulk of materials for processing applications. We have experimentally tested the effectiveness of ultrafast laser radiation as an alternative laser source for surface processing of monocrystalline silicon. Simulation of material heating associated with ultrafast laser-material interaction has been performed and used to investigate optimized processing parameters including repetition rate. The parameter optimization process and results of experimental processing will be presented.

  18. Forms of Arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page please turn Javascript on. Forms of Arthritis Past Issues / Fall 2006 Table of Contents Today, ... of Linda Saisselin Osteoarthritis (OA) — the form of arthritis typically occurring during middle or old age, this ...

  19. Advancing Autonomous Structural Health Monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    Grisso, Benjamin Luke

    2007-01-01

    The focus of this dissertation is aimed at advancing autonomous structural health monitoring. All the research is based on developing the impedance method for monitoring structural health. The impedance technique utilizes piezoelectric patches to interrogate structures of interested with high frequency excitations. These patches are bonded directly to the structure, so information about the health of the structure can be seen in the electrical impedance of the piezoelectric patch. However, tr...

  20. Advancing the technologies of CANDU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CANDU standard product design will continue to evolve, building upon the success of current operating units. Progressive improvements and enhancements will continue to be made to the CANDU system with heavy water moderated, pressure tube reactor technology of high neutron efficiency, based on the results of advanced technology R and D and operational experience from operating CANDU stations. The directions of development will respond to customer's requirements for economical, reliable and safe generating stations

  1. Recent Advances in Complex Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Dramatic advances in the field of complex networks have been witnessed in the past few years. This paper reviews some important results in this direction of rapidly evolving research, with emphasis on the relationship between the dynamics and the topology of complex networks. Basic quantities and typical examples of various complex networks are described. Robustness of connectivity and epidemic dynamics in complex networks are evaluated.

  2. Form postponement: a reconceptualization

    OpenAIRE

    FABRIZIO SALVADOR

    2004-01-01

    Form postponement has been widely acknowledged as one of the main avenues to mitigate the adverse effects of product proliferation or customization on operational performance. As it often happens with long debated concepts, the proposed definitions of form postponement sometimes display substantial differences. This paper aims at moving a step forward towards a more precise definition of form postponement in the domain of tangible products. A first result on this way is that form postponement...

  3. FORMS OF YOUTH TRAVEL

    OpenAIRE

    Moisã Claudia Olimpia

    2011-01-01

    Taking into account the suite of motivation that youth has when practicing tourism, it can be said that the youth travel takes highly diverse forms. These forms are educational tourism, volunteer programs and “work and travel”, cultural exchanges or sports tourism and adventure travel. In this article, we identified and analyzed in detail the main forms of youth travel both internationally and in Romania. We also illustrated for each form of tourism the specific tourism products targeting you...

  4. The Search for Directed Intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Lubin, Philip

    2016-01-01

    We propose a search for sources of directed energy systems such as those now becoming technologically feasible on Earth. Recent advances in our own abilities allow us to foresee our own capability that will radically change our ability to broadcast our presence. We show that systems of this type have the ability to be detected at vast distances and indeed can be detected across the entire horizon. This profoundly changes the possibilities for searches for extra-terrestrial technology advanced civilizations. We show that even modest searches can be extremely effective at detecting or limiting many civilization classes. We propose a search strategy that will observe more than 10 12 stellar and planetary systems with possible extensions to more than 10 20 systems allowing us to test the hypothesis that other similarly or more advanced civilization with this same capability, and are broadcasting, exist.

  5. Thrombin activation and liver inflammation in advanced hepatitis C virus infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Reimers, Emilio; Quintero-Platt, Geraldine; Martín-González, Candelaria; Pérez-Hernández, Onán; Romero-Acevedo, Lucía; Santolaria-Fernández, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is associated with increased thrombotic risk. Several mechanisms are involved including direct endothelial damage by the HCV virus, with activation of tissue factor, altered fibrinolysis and increased platelet aggregation and activation. In advanced stages, chronic HCV infection may evolve to liver cirrhosis, a condition in which alterations in the portal microcirculation may also ultimately lead to thrombin activation, platelet aggregation, and clot formation. Therefore in advanced HCV liver disease there is an increased prevalence of thrombotic phenomena in portal vein radicles. Increased thrombin formation may activate hepatic stellate cells and promote liver fibrosis. In addition, ischemic changes derived from vascular occlusion by microthrombi favor the so called parenchymal extinction, a process that promotes collapse of hepatocytes and the formation of gross fibrous tracts. These reasons may explain why advanced HCV infection may evolve more rapidly to end-stage liver disease than other forms of cirrhosis.

  6. Low temperature waste form process intensification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, K. M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Cozzi, A. D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Hansen, E. K. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Hill, K. A. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-09-30

    This study successfully demonstrated process intensification of low temperature waste form production. Modifications were made to the dry blend composition to enable a 50% increase in waste concentration, thus allowing for a significant reduction in disposal volume and associated costs. Properties measurements showed that the advanced waste form can be produced using existing equipment and processes. Performance of the waste form was equivalent or better than the current baseline, with approximately double the amount of waste incorporation. The results demonstrate the feasibility of significantly accelerating low level waste immobilization missions across the DOE complex and at environmental remediation sites worldwide.

  7. Nonlinear dynamics exploration through normal forms

    CERN Document Server

    Kahn, Peter B

    2014-01-01

    Geared toward advanced undergraduates and graduate students, this exposition covers the method of normal forms and its application to ordinary differential equations through perturbation analysis. In addition to its emphasis on the freedom inherent in the normal form expansion, the text features numerous examples of equations, the kind of which are encountered in many areas of science and engineering. The treatment begins with an introduction to the basic concepts underlying the normal forms. Coverage then shifts to an investigation of systems with one degree of freedom that model oscillations

  8. Therapeutic advances in muscular dystrophy

    OpenAIRE

    Leung, Doris G.; Wagner, Kathryn R.

    2013-01-01

    The muscular dystrophies comprise a heterogeneous group of genetic disorders that produce progressive skeletal muscle weakness and wasting. There has been rapid growth and change in our understanding of these disorders in recent years, and advances in basic science are being translated into increasing numbers of clinical trials. This review will discuss therapeutic developments in 3 of the most common forms of muscular dystrophy: Duchenne muscular dystrophy, facioscapulohumeral muscular dystr...

  9. Fiscal Limits in Advanced Economies

    OpenAIRE

    Eric M. Leeper; Walker, Todd B

    2011-01-01

    Aging populations in advanced economies are placing ever-increasing demands on government spending in the form of old-age benefits. Economies that have promised substantially more benefits than they have made provision to finance are heading into a prolonged era of fiscal stress. Unresolved fiscal stress raises the possibility that the economies will hit their fiscal limits where taxes and spending no longer adjust to stabilize debt. In such economies, monetary policy may lose its ability to ...

  10. Theory of Single Point Incremental Forming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martins, P.A.F.; Bay, Niels; Skjødt, Martin;

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a closed-form theoretical analysis modelling the fundamentals of single point incremental forming and explaining the experimental and numerical results available in the literature for the past couple of years. The model is based on membrane analysis with bi-directional in...

  11. Advanced Materials in Support of EERE Needs to Advance Clean Energy Technologies Program Implementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liby, Alan L [ORNL; Rogers, Hiram [ORNL

    2013-10-01

    The goal of this activity was to carry out program implementation and technical projects in support of the ARRA-funded Advanced Materials in Support of EERE Needs to Advance Clean Energy Technologies Program of the DOE Advanced Manufacturing Office (AMO) (formerly the Industrial Technologies Program (ITP)). The work was organized into eight projects in four materials areas: strategic materials, structural materials, energy storage and production materials, and advanced/field/transient processing. Strategic materials included work on titanium, magnesium and carbon fiber. Structural materials included work on alumina forming austentic (AFA) and CF8C-Plus steels. The advanced batteries and production materials projects included work on advanced batteries and photovoltaic devices. Advanced/field/transient processing included work on magnetic field processing. Details of the work in the eight projects are available in the project final reports which have been previously submitted.

  12. Light distribution through advanced fenestration systems

    OpenAIRE

    Andersen, Marilyne

    2002-01-01

    Most energy-saving applications of advanced fenestration systems, e.g. solar blinds, novel types of glazing and daylight redirecting devices, require a precise knowledge of their directional light-transmission features. These photometric properties are described by a Bi-directional Transmission Distribution Function (BTDF), which is experimentally assessed by a bi-directional photogoniometer. As such a function represents a heavy amount of data, there is a need for a synthetic and intuitive v...

  13. Polymer Directed Protein Assemblies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick van Rijn

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Protein aggregation and protein self-assembly is an important occurrence in natural systems, and is in some form or other dictated by biopolymers. Very obvious influences of biopolymers on protein assemblies are, e.g., virus particles. Viruses are a multi-protein assembly of which the morphology is dictated by poly-nucleotides namely RNA or DNA. This “biopolymer” directs the proteins and imposes limitations on the structure like the length or diameter of the particle. Not only do these bionanoparticles use polymer-directed self-assembly, also processes like amyloid formation are in a way a result of directed protein assembly by partial unfolded/misfolded biopolymers namely, polypeptides. The combination of proteins and synthetic polymers, inspired by the natural processes, are therefore regarded as a highly promising area of research. Directed protein assembly is versatile with respect to the possible interactions which brings together the protein and polymer, e.g., electrostatic, v.d. Waals forces or covalent conjugation, and possible combinations are numerous due to the large amounts of different polymers and proteins available. The protein-polymer interacting behavior and overall morphology is envisioned to aid in clarifying protein-protein interactions and are thought to entail some interesting new functions and properties which will ultimately lead to novel bio-hybrid materials.

  14. Cell spreading on titanium dioxide film formed and modified with aerosol beam and femtosecond laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shinonaga, Togo, E-mail: togo@jwri.osaka-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 1-1 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Tsukamoto, Masahiro [Joining and Welding Research Institute, Osaka University, 11-1 Mihogaoka, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan); Nagai, Akiko; Yamashita, Kimihiro; Hanawa, Takao [Institute of Biomaterials and Bioengineering, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, 2-3-10 Kanda-Surugadai, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 101-0062 (Japan); Matsushita, Nobuhiro [Materials and Structures Laboratory, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta-cho, Midori-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa 226-8503 (Japan); Xie, Guoqiang [Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Karahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8577 (Japan); Abe, Nobuyuki [Joining and Welding Research Institute, Osaka University, 11-1 Mihogaoka, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan)

    2014-01-01

    Titanium (Ti) is widely used in biomaterials because of its excellent anti-corrosion properties and high strength. However, Ti has no biological function, so its bioactivity must be improved. Coating a titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) film on a Ti plate surface has been shown to improve the biocompatibility of Ti plates. If periodic nanostructures were formed on the film surface, the direction of cell spreading might be controlled by the direction of the grooves. Controlling cell spreading on biomaterials would contribute to the creation of advanced biomaterials. In this paper, a TiO{sub 2} film was formed on a Ti plate with an aerosol beam composed of sub micron-sized TiO{sub 2} particles and helium gas. Periodic nanostructures, lying perpendicular to the laser electric field polarization vector, were formed on the film by scanning the femtosecond laser focusing spot. The period and height of the periodic nanostructures were about 230 nm and 150 nm, respectively. In a cell test, cell spreading was observed along the grooves of the periodic nanostructures; in contrast, cell spreading did not show a definite direction on TiO{sub 2} a film without periodic nanostructures. These results suggest that the direction of cell spreading on the film can be controlled by periodic nanostructure formation generated using a femtosecond laser.

  15. Cell spreading on titanium dioxide film formed and modified with aerosol beam and femtosecond laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinonaga, Togo; Tsukamoto, Masahiro; Nagai, Akiko; Yamashita, Kimihiro; Hanawa, Takao; Matsushita, Nobuhiro; Xie, Guoqiang; Abe, Nobuyuki

    2014-01-01

    Titanium (Ti) is widely used in biomaterials because of its excellent anti-corrosion properties and high strength. However, Ti has no biological function, so its bioactivity must be improved. Coating a titanium dioxide (TiO2) film on a Ti plate surface has been shown to improve the biocompatibility of Ti plates. If periodic nanostructures were formed on the film surface, the direction of cell spreading might be controlled by the direction of the grooves. Controlling cell spreading on biomaterials would contribute to the creation of advanced biomaterials. In this paper, a TiO2 film was formed on a Ti plate with an aerosol beam composed of sub micron-sized TiO2 particles and helium gas. Periodic nanostructures, lying perpendicular to the laser electric field polarization vector, were formed on the film by scanning the femtosecond laser focusing spot. The period and height of the periodic nanostructures were about 230 nm and 150 nm, respectively. In a cell test, cell spreading was observed along the grooves of the periodic nanostructures; in contrast, cell spreading did not show a definite direction on TiO2 a film without periodic nanostructures. These results suggest that the direction of cell spreading on the film can be controlled by periodic nanostructure formation generated using a femtosecond laser.

  16. Waste form development/test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main objective of this study is to investigate new solidification agents relative to their potential application to wastes generated by advanced high volume reduction technologies, e.g., incinerator ash, dry solids, and ion exchange resins. Candidate materials selected for the solidification of these wastes include a modified sulfur cement and low-density polyethylene, neither of which are currently employed commerically for the solidification of low-level waste (LLW). As both the modified sulfur cement and the polyethylene are thermoplastic materials, a heated screw type extruder is utilized in the production of waste form samples for testing and evaluation. In this regard, work is being conducted to determine the range of conditions under which these solidification agents can be satisfactorily applied to the specific LLW streams and to provide information relevant to operating parameters and process control

  17. Semantic form as interface

    OpenAIRE

    Bierwisch, Manfred

    2009-01-01

    The term interface had a remarkable career over the past several decades, motivated largely by its use in computer science. Although the concept of a "surface common to two areas" (Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary, 1980) is intuitively clear enough, the range of its application is not very sharp and well defined, a "common surface" is open to a wide range of interpretations.

  18. Nuclei in high forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of 1991 Joliot-Curie Summer School is to review the most advances in the understanding of the nuclei physics after the considerable progress in gamma spectroscopy. It covers the following topics: Highly and super-deformed nuclei, nuclear structures, mean-field approach and beyond, fission isomers, nuclear excitations with long lifetime and metal clusters

  19. Xalkori Approved for Rare Genetic Form of Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... html Xalkori Approved For Rare Genetic Form of Lung Cancer ROS-1 positive NSCLC To use the sharing ... Drug Administration to treat advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with tumors that have a rare ROS- ...

  20. Directed evolution: selection of the host organism

    OpenAIRE

    Azadeh Pourmir; Johannes, Tyler W.

    2012-01-01

    Directed evolution has become a well-established tool for improving proteins and biological systems. A critical aspect of directed evolution is the selection of a suitable host organism for achieving functional expression of the target gene. To date, most directed evolution studies have used either Escherichia coli or Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a host; however, other bacterial and yeast species, as well as mammalian and insect cell lines, have also been successfully used. Recent advances in ...

  1. Micro metal forming

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Micro Metal Forming, i. e. forming of parts and features with dimensions below 1 mm, is a young area of research in the wide field of metal forming technologies, expanding the limits for applying metal forming towards micro technology. The essential challenges arise from the reduced geometrical size and the increased lot size. In order to enable potential users to apply micro metal forming in production, information about the following topics are given: tribological behavior: friction between tool and work piece as well as tool wear mechanical behavior: strength and formability of the work piece material, durability of the work pieces size effects: basic description of effects occurring due to the fact, that the quantitative relation between different features changes with decreasing size process windows and limits for forming processes tool making methods numerical modeling of processes and process chains quality assurance and metrology All topics are discussed with respect to the questions relevant to micro...

  2. Pulsed Power Forming

    OpenAIRE

    Gafri, O.; Izhar, A.; Livshitz, Y.; Shribman, V.

    2004-01-01

    R&D and application work in the sphere of Pulsed Power Forming (PPF) is well known and has been documented since the 1960's, along with its advantages. Pulsed Power Forming applications, which have been developed at Pulsar Ltd over the last decade, are described in this paper. Special equipment and tools for forming have been designed, developed, and manufactured, utilising pulsed magnetic fields. Theoretical and experimental research has been carried out to determine the magnetic field distr...

  3. FLOW FORMING OF AEROENGINEMATERIALS

    OpenAIRE

    Kubilay, Ceylan

    2014-01-01

    Flow forming is a fairly new technique used for the production of dimensionallyaccurate near net shaped hollow components. The process has many advantagessuch as cost effectiveness and eliminating further operations like welding, machin-ing, etc. This study focuses on the characterization of flow formed componentsto understand the process. Flow formed components are composed of differentreductions and characterization techniques are applied to reveal the resulting mi-crostructural differences...

  4. Fractional Differential Forms

    OpenAIRE

    Cotrill-Shepherd, Kathleen; NAber, Mark

    2003-01-01

    A generalization of exterior calculus is considered by allowing the partial derivatives in the exterior derivative to assume fractional orders. That is, a fractional exterior derivative is defined. This is found to generate new vector spaces of finite and infinite dimension, fractional differential form spaces. The definitions of closed and exact forms are extended to the new fractional form spaces with closure and integrability conditions worked out for a special case. Coordinate transformat...

  5. Regarding proton form factors

    OpenAIRE

    Bloch, J. C. R.; Krassnigg, A.; Roberts, C. D.

    2003-01-01

    The proton's elastic electromagnetic form factors are calculated using an Ansatz for the nucleon's Poincare' covariant Faddeev amplitude that only retains scalar diquark correlations. A spectator approximation is employed for the current. On the domain of q^2 accessible in modern precision experiments these form factors are a sensitive probe of nonperturbative strong interaction dynamics. The ratio of Pauli and Dirac form factors can provide realistic constraints on models of the nucleon and ...

  6. Cooperative Station History Forms

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Various forms, photographs and correspondence documenting the history of Cooperative station instrumentation, location changes, inspections, and...

  7. Youth, Technology, and HIV: Recent Advances and Future Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hightow-Weidman, Lisa B; Muessig, Kathryn E; Bauermeister, Jose; Zhang, Chen; LeGrand, Sara

    2015-12-01

    Technology, including mobile technologies and social media, offers powerful tools to reach, engage, and retain youth and young adults in HIV prevention and care interventions both in the USA and globally. In this report, we focus on HIV, technology, and youth, presenting a synthesis of recently published (Jan 2014-May 2015) observational and experimental studies relevant for understanding and intervening on HIV risk, prevention, and care. We present findings from a selection of the 66 relevant citations identified, highlighting studies that demonstrate a novel approach to technology interventions among youth in regard to content, delivery, target population, or public health impact. We discuss current trends globally and in the USA in how youth are using technology, as well as emergent research issues in this field-including the need for new theories for developing technology-based HIV interventions and new metrics of engagement, exposure, and evaluation. PMID:26385582

  8. Advanced Direct Liquefaction Concepts for PETC Generic Units - Phase II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1997-02-01

    Reported here are the results of Laboratory and Bench-Scale experiments and supporting technical and economic assessments conducted under DOE Contract No. DE-AC22-91PC9104O during the period October 1, 1996 to December 31, 1996. This contract is with the University of Kentucky Research Foundation which supports work with the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research, CONSOI+ Inc., LDP Associates, and Hydrocarbon Technologies, Inc. This work invoives the introduction into the basic two stage liquefaction process several novel concepts which include dispersed lower-cost catalysts, coal cleaning by oil agglomeration, and distillate hydrotreating and dewaxing.

  9. Crosswell Imaging Technology & Advanced DSR Navigation for Horizontal Directional Drilling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larry Stolarczyk

    2008-08-08

    The objective of Phase II is to develop and demonstrate real-time measurement-while-drilling (MWD) for guidance and navigation of drill strings during horizontal drilling operations applicable to both short and long holes. The end product of Phase II is a functional drill-string assembly outfitted with a commercial version of Drill String Radar (DSR). Project Objectives Develop and demonstrate a dual-phase methodology of in-seam drilling, imaging, and structure confirmation. This methodology, illustrated in Figure 1, includes: (1) Using RIM to image between drill holes for seam thickness estimates and in-seam structures detection. Completed, February 2005; and (2) Using DSR for real-time MWD guidance and navigation of drillstrings during horizontal drilling operations. Completed, November 2008. As of November 2008, the Phase II portion of Contract DE-FC26-04NT42085 is about 99% complete, including milestones and tasks original outlined as Phase II work. The one percent deficiency results from MSHA-related approvals which have yet to be granted (at the time of reporting). These approvals are pending and are do not negatively impact the scope of work or project objectives.

  10. Advance directives in dementia research: A medical ethical inquiry

    OpenAIRE

    Jongsma, Karin

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractDementia is highly prevalent and incurable. The participation of dementia patients in clinical research is indispensable if we want to find an effective treatment for dementia. However, one of the primary challenges in dementia research is the patients’ gradual loss of the capacity to consent. Patients with dementia are characterized by the fact that, at an earlier stage of their life, they were able to give their consent to participation in research. Therefore, the phase when...

  11. Advanced Direct Liquefaction Concepts for PETC Generic Units - Phase II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1997-09-01

    Reported here are the results of Laboratory and Bench- Scale experiments and supporting technical and economic assessments conducted under DOE Contract No. DE- AC22- 91PC91040 during the period April 1, 1997 to June 30, 1997. This contract is with the University of Kentucky Research Foundation which supports work with the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research, CONSOL, Inc., LDP Associates, and Hydrocarbon Technologies, Inc. This work involves the introduction into the basic two stage liquefaction process several novel concepts which includes dispersed lower- cost catalysts, coal cleaning by oil agglomeration, and distillate hydrotreating and dewaxing. This report includes a data analysis of the ALC- 2 run which was the second continuous run in which Wyodak Black Thunder coal was fed to a two kg/ h bench- scale unit. One of the objectives of that run was to determine the relative activity of several Mo- based coal impregnated catalyst precursors. The precursors included ammonium heptamolybdate (100 mg Mo/ kg dry coal), which was used alone as well as in combination with ferrous sulfate (1% Fe/ dry coal) and nickel sulfate (50 mg Ni/ kg dry coal). The fourth precursor that was tested was phosphomolybdic acid which was used at a level of 100 mg Mo/ kg dry coal. Because of difficulties in effectively separating solids from the product stream, considerable variation in the feed stream occurred. Although the coal feed rate was nearly constant, the amount of recycle solvent varied which resulted in wide variations of resid, unconverted coal and mineral matter in the feed stream. Unfortunately, steady state was not achieved in any of the four conditions that were run. Earlier it was reported that Ni- Mo catalyst appeared to give the best results based upon speculative steady- state yields that were developed.

  12. Superplastic Forming and Diffusion Bonding of Titanium Alloys

    OpenAIRE

    A. K. Ghosh; C. H. Hamilton

    1986-01-01

    New and advanced fabrication methods for titanium components are emerging today to replace age-old fabrication processes and reduce component cost. Superplastic forming and diffusion bonding are two such advanced fabrication technologies which when applied individually or in combination can provide significant cost and weight benefits and a rather broad manufacturing technology base. This paper briefly reviews the state of understanding of the science and technology of super plastic forming o...

  13. 33 CFR 210.1 - Advance notice to prospective bidders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... than $100,000 and for supplies where considered desirable. ENG Form 3132-R or ENG Form 3133-R will be... ENG Form 3133-R as a foldover wrapper fastened with a wire staple. Advance notices will contain the information required by ENG Form 3132-R, but additional information may be added as appropriate. The...

  14. Combined Waste Form Cost Trade Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dirk Gombert; Steve Piet; Timothy Trickel; Joe Carter; John Vienna; Bill Ebert; Gretchen Matthern

    2008-11-01

    A new generation of aqueous nuclear fuel reprocessing, now in development under the auspices of the DOE Office of Nuclear Energy (NE), separates fuel into several fractions, thereby partitioning the wastes into groups of common chemistry. This technology advance enables development of waste management strategies that were not conceivable with simple PUREX reprocessing. Conventional wisdom suggests minimizing high level waste (HLW) volume is desirable, but logical extrapolation of this concept suggests that at some point the cost of reducing volume further will reach a point of diminishing return and may cease to be cost-effective. This report summarizes an evaluation considering three groupings of wastes in terms of cost-benefit for the reprocessing system. Internationally, the typical waste form for HLW from the PUREX process is borosilicate glass containing waste elements as oxides. Unfortunately several fission products (primarily Mo and the noble metals Ru, Rh, Pd) have limited solubility in glass, yielding relatively low waste loading, producing more glass, and greater disposal costs. Advanced separations allow matching the waste form to waste stream chemistry, allowing the disposal system to achieve more optimum waste loading with improved performance. Metals can be segregated from oxides and each can be stabilized in forms to minimize the HLW volume for repository disposal. Thus, a more efficient waste management system making the most effective use of advanced waste forms and disposal design for each waste is enabled by advanced separations and how the waste streams are combined. This trade-study was designed to juxtapose a combined waste form baseline waste treatment scheme with two options and to evaluate the cost-benefit using available data from the conceptual design studies supported by DOE-NE.

  15. Recent advances in imaging of brain tumors

    OpenAIRE

    D A Sanghvi

    2009-01-01

    The recent advances in brain tumor imaging offer unique anatomical as well as pathophysiological information that provides new insights on brain tumors, directed at facilitating therapeutic decisions and providing information regarding prognosis. This information is presently utilized in clinical practice for initial diagnosis and noninvasive, preoperative grading of tumors, biopsy planning, surgery, and radiation portal planning, as well as, prognostication. The newer advances described in t...

  16. Clustering in Complex Directed Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Fagiolo, Giorgio

    2006-01-01

    Many empirical networks display an inherent tendency to cluster, i.e. to form circles of connected nodes. This feature is typically measured by the clustering coefficient (CC). The CC, originally introduced for binary, undirected graphs, has been recently generalized to weighted, undirected networks. Here we extend the CC to the case of (binary and weighted) directed networks and we compute its expected value for random graphs. We distinguish between CCs that count all directed triangles in t...

  17. Form and Human Body

    OpenAIRE

    Wan, Mingchao

    2014-01-01

    Architectural form offers an expression and an observer receives an impression. This interaction exists at both intellectual (mind) and physical (body) levels. Through designing a sculpture pavilion in a forest, this thesis explores different means of empathetic expression in modern architectural form.

  18. Mastering HTML5 forms

    CERN Document Server

    Gupta, Gaurav

    2013-01-01

    This tutorial will show you how to create stylish forms, not only visually appealing, but interactive and customized, in order to gather valuable user inputs and information.Enhance your skills in building responsive and dynamic web forms using HTML5, CSS3, and related technologies. All you need is a basic understanding of HTML and PHP.

  19. Forms of Customs Control

    OpenAIRE

    Шевчук, Олег Анатолійович

    2015-01-01

    The research on the forms of customs control was conducted. There was analysed the specific of control activity of customs authorities in the field of financial relations, conditions and forms of its realization. The introduction into practice of customs control system analysis and risk management, customs inspection, the method of "customs audit" is suggested.

  20. Forming of Laminates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Jong, T.W.

    2004-01-01

    Fibre-Metal-Laminates have excellent properties for aerospace applications, with GLARE as an example. The metal layers inside the laminate provide permanent plastic deformations for the whole laminate; in principle Fibre-Metal-Laminates can be formed with common sheet metal forming processes. The d