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Sample records for advance directive forms

  1. Advance care directives

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... advance directive; Do-not-resuscitate - advance directive; Durable power of attorney - advance care directive; POA - advance care directive; Health care agent - advance care directive; Health care proxy - ...

  2. Advance directives: prerequisites and usefulness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Asselt, D

    2006-10-01

    Advance directives allow competent persons to extend their right of self-determination into the future, by recording choices that are intended to influence their future care should they become unable to make choices. They are considered tools to facilitate end-of-life decision making. Advance directives are a form of anticipatory decision-making. This article will focus on instruction directives against a certain treatment, so-called advance refusals. The most important legal requirement is the acknowledgement of patient autonomy. This condition is met in all European countries. The legal uncertainties surrounding advance refusals are focused on practical modalities rather than on the validity of the general principle. According to leading ethics the underlying moral rule of advanced directives is that all truly autonomous refusals of treatment must be respected, no matter what the consequences. Physicians find it hard to adhere to the wishes and choices of patients as expressed in directives. They find the text ambiguous. Another weakness is that directives give little information about what in the patient's view constitutes a good quality of life. Some health professionals lack the willingness to step outside their own value systems and fully embrace that of the patient. Empathic skills are required. Very few persons create an advance directive. Furthermore, of the created directives only some are accessible when patients are admitted to hospital. However, when directives are available they usually influence medical treatment decisions.

  3. Psychiatric Advance Directives: Getting Started

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... More... Home Getting Started National Resource Center on Psychiatric Advance Directives - Getting Started Getting Started Psychiatric advance directives (PADs) are relatively new legal instruments ...

  4. Advanced directives: open issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriella Negrini

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND In Italy Advanced directives have not been regulated by law yet. Moreover, there is a confusion of concepts: advanced directives, refusal of treatment, medical futility and euthanasia are not synonymous.DISCUSSION The following aspects are then discussed: object of directives; elapse of time between their expression and their application; knowledge of the directives and their obligatory nature. The refusal of a treatment that can save a person’s life is a critical subject. There are different ethical points of view: according to lay ethics, the patient’s self-determination prevails; the religious viewpoint, instead, says that life is a gift which we cannot dispose of. In any case, the patient will be confronted with the professional autonomy of the doctor. Should the doctor save a patient’s life in any case or should he achieve best clinical practice, in respect of his will? The doctor should interpret the patient’s will but with caution and judgment. An exemption from responsibility should be provided by law for doctors who respect patient’s living will.

  5. Advanced forming technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Kliber

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Forming is usually the final stage of metallurgical production of steel (90 % of the 1,7 billion tons of total steel production in the world and traditionally also largely of the products made of non-ferrous metals. Many procedures and methods exist and we will focus only on some of them. The aim is usually to achieve ultra-fine grained structure, the proper microstructure and (mechanical / electrical properties in innovative materials. The presented article mentions only some examples.

  6. Advanced free-form micro tooling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tosello, Guido; Gavillet, J.

    2011-01-01

    The present deliverable contains the report of the work and results achieved within the framework of WP 2.2 in Tasks 2.2.4 “Advanced free-form micro tooling” in experimental research done regarding practical applications of methods of applying nano structures to tooling solutions. As part of Task 2...... nanometre features can affect physical and optical properties of the surface [Liu03][Por99]. Since sub-μm feature details with ultra-low tolerances have to be manufactured, these structures are usually fabricated using clean room technologies or direct ultra precision machining procedures. Methods such as e...

  7. Advance directives: role of nurse practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlenk, J S

    1997-07-01

    Advance directives are documents that guide end of life decisions. Although advance directives are a fairly recent phenomenon in health care, they are grounded in both legal and ethical principles. Studies show few people have completed advance directives. Persons do not tend to complete advance directives for various reasons. Lack of knowledge has been identified, as well as belief that physicians should initiate the discussion and that the topic is appropriate only for the elderly or those in poor health. Many nurse practitioners practice in primary care settings, which are ideal for discussions about advance directives. Nurse practitioners possess the opportunities and skills to discuss advance directives with their patients.

  8. Implementing effective staff education about advance directives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DesRosiers, M; Navin, P

    1997-01-01

    The Patient Self-Determination Act of 1990 guarantees the right to refuse medical or surgical treatment and the right to draft advance directives. This review of the current literature provides those in nursing staff development and inservice education with an overview of advance directives and their implications for nursing education and practice. Possible core subjects for inclusion in planned, purposeful, advance directive education programs are examined, including cultural sensitivity, facilitator skills, interviewing techniques, legal information, patient autonomy, and reasoning and decision making. This review provides a platform for future research.

  9. [Complications of acute lesions of the digestive tract as a direct cause of mortality in patients with advanced forms of neoplasms in palliative and symptomatic treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iaremchuk, O Ia; Zotov, O S; Bielik, O O; Mil'hram, S S

    2001-09-01

    There were analyzed an autopsy protocols of 117 patients with oncological disease, in whom during performance of pathomorphological investigation an acute erosive-ulcerative affection (AEUA) of digestive channel (DCH) was revealed, of them in 69 patients palliative and/or symptomatic treatment for extended forms of cancer was conducted. Structure of principal complications as well as their significance in pathogenesis, localization of affection, influence of different methods of palliative treatment on AEUA DCH occurrence. The data obtained must be taken in account during planning of palliative therapy in such patients.

  10. Advancing Material Models for Automotive Forming Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vegter, H.; An, Y.; ten Horn, C. H. L. J.; Atzema, E. H.; Roelofsen, M. E.

    2005-08-01

    Simulations in automotive industry need more advanced material models to achieve highly reliable forming and springback predictions. Conventional material models implemented in the FEM-simulation models are not capable to describe the plastic material behaviour during monotonic strain paths with sufficient accuracy. Recently, ESI and Corus co-operate on the implementation of an advanced material model in the FEM-code PAMSTAMP 2G. This applies to the strain hardening model, the influence of strain rate, and the description of the yield locus in these models. A subsequent challenge is the description of the material after a change of strain path. The use of advanced high strength steels in the automotive industry requires a description of plastic material behaviour of multiphase steels. The simplest variant is dual phase steel consisting of a ferritic and a martensitic phase. Multiphase materials also contain a bainitic phase in addition to the ferritic and martensitic phase. More physical descriptions of strain hardening than simple fitted Ludwik/Nadai curves are necessary. Methods to predict plastic behaviour of single-phase materials use a simple dislocation interaction model based on the formed cells structures only. At Corus, a new method is proposed to predict plastic behaviour of multiphase materials have to take hard phases into account, which deform less easily. The resulting deformation gradients create geometrically necessary dislocations. Additional micro-structural information such as morphology and size of hard phase particles or grains is necessary to derive the strain hardening models for this type of materials. Measurements available from the Numisheet benchmarks allow these models to be validated. At Corus, additional measured values are available from cross-die tests. This laboratory test can attain critical deformations by large variations in blank size and processing conditions. The tests are a powerful tool in optimising forming simulations

  11. Forms and terminology of Direct Democracy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensson, Palle

    It is apparent that some confusion exits both among researchers and political actors about the various forms of direct democracy. Various institutions such as IRI and IDEA, various countries such as Switzerland and California, and various authors such as Pier Vincenzo Uleri and David Altman present...

  12. Advanced waste forms from spent nuclear fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ackerman, J.P.; McPheeters, C.C.

    1995-12-31

    More than one hundred spent nuclear fuel types, having an aggregate mass of more than 5000 metric tons (2700 metric tons of heavy metal), are stored by the United States Department of Energy. This paper proposes a method for converting this wide variety of fuel types into two waste forms for geologic disposal. The method is based on a molten salt electrorefining technique that was developed for conditioning the sodium-bonded, metallic fuel from the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II) for geologic disposal. The electrorefining method produces two stable, optionally actinide-free, high-level waste forms: an alloy formed from stainless steel, zirconium, and noble metal fission products, and a ceramic waste form containing the reactive metal fission products. Electrorefining and its accompanying head-end process are briefly described, and methods for isolating fission products and fabricating waste forms are discussed.

  13. Geysers advanced direct contact condenser research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henderson, J.; Bahning, T.; Bharathan, D.

    1997-12-31

    The first geothermal application of the Advanced Direct Contact Condenser (ADCC) technology developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is now operational and is being tested at The Geysers Power Plant Unit 11. This major research effort is being supported through the combined efforts of NREL, The Department of Energy (DOE), and Pacific Gas and Electric (PG&E). NREL and PG&E have entered into a Cooperative Research And Development Agreement (CRADA) for a project to improve the direct-contact condenser performance at The Geysers Power Plant. This project is the first geothermal adaptation of an advanced condenser design developed for the Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) systems. PG&E expects this technology to improve power plant performance and to help extend the life of the steam field by using steam more efficiently. In accordance with the CRADA, no money is transferred between the contracting parties. In this case the Department of Energy is funding NREL for their efforts in this project and PG&E is contributing funds in kind. Successful application of this technology at The Geysers will provide a basis for NREL to continue to develop this technology for other geothermal and fossil power plant systems.

  14. The Texas Advanced Directive Law: Unfinished Business.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapottos, Michael; Youngner, Stuart

    2015-01-01

    The Texas Advance Directive Act allows physicians and hospitals to overrule patient or family requests for futile care. Purposefully not defining futility, the law leaves its determination in specific cases to an institutional process. While the law has received several criticisms, it does seem to work constructively in the cases that come to the review process. We introduce a new criticism: While the law has been justified by an appeal to professional values such as avoiding harm to patients, avoiding the provision of unseemly care, and good stewardship of medical resources, it is applied incompletely. It allows physicians and institutional committees to refuse "futile" treatments desired by patients and families while at the same time providing no way of regulating physicians who recommend or even push "futile" treatments in similar cases. In this sense, the TADA is incomplete on its own terms.

  15. Dietary biomarkers: advances, limitations and future directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hedrick Valisa E

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The subjective nature of self-reported dietary intake assessment methods presents numerous challenges to obtaining accurate dietary intake and nutritional status. This limitation can be overcome by the use of dietary biomarkers, which are able to objectively assess dietary consumption (or exposure without the bias of self-reported dietary intake errors. The need for dietary biomarkers was addressed by the Institute of Medicine, who recognized the lack of nutritional biomarkers as a knowledge gap requiring future research. The purpose of this article is to review existing literature on currently available dietary biomarkers, including novel biomarkers of specific foods and dietary components, and assess the validity, reliability and sensitivity of the markers. This review revealed several biomarkers in need of additional validation research; research is also needed to produce sensitive, specific, cost-effective and noninvasive dietary biomarkers. The emerging field of metabolomics may help to advance the development of food/nutrient biomarkers, yet advances in food metabolome databases are needed. The availability of biomarkers that estimate intake of specific foods and dietary components could greatly enhance nutritional research targeting compliance to national recommendations as well as direct associations with disease outcomes. More research is necessary to refine existing biomarkers by accounting for confounding factors, to establish new indicators of specific food intake, and to develop techniques that are cost-effective, noninvasive, rapid and accurate measures of nutritional status.

  16. Dietary biomarkers: advances, limitations and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedrick, Valisa E; Dietrich, Andrea M; Estabrooks, Paul A; Savla, Jyoti; Serrano, Elena; Davy, Brenda M

    2012-12-14

    The subjective nature of self-reported dietary intake assessment methods presents numerous challenges to obtaining accurate dietary intake and nutritional status. This limitation can be overcome by the use of dietary biomarkers, which are able to objectively assess dietary consumption (or exposure) without the bias of self-reported dietary intake errors. The need for dietary biomarkers was addressed by the Institute of Medicine, who recognized the lack of nutritional biomarkers as a knowledge gap requiring future research. The purpose of this article is to review existing literature on currently available dietary biomarkers, including novel biomarkers of specific foods and dietary components, and assess the validity, reliability and sensitivity of the markers. This review revealed several biomarkers in need of additional validation research; research is also needed to produce sensitive, specific, cost-effective and noninvasive dietary biomarkers. The emerging field of metabolomics may help to advance the development of food/nutrient biomarkers, yet advances in food metabolome databases are needed. The availability of biomarkers that estimate intake of specific foods and dietary components could greatly enhance nutritional research targeting compliance to national recommendations as well as direct associations with disease outcomes. More research is necessary to refine existing biomarkers by accounting for confounding factors, to establish new indicators of specific food intake, and to develop techniques that are cost-effective, noninvasive, rapid and accurate measures of nutritional status.

  17. The Advanced Automated Directional Solidification Furnace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillies, D. C.; Reeves, F. A.; Jeter, L. B.; Sledd, J. D.; Cole, J. M.; Lehoczky, S. L.

    1996-01-01

    The Advanced Automated Directional Solidification Furnace (AADSF) is a five zone tubular furnace designed for Bridgman-Stockbarger, other techniques of crystal growth involving multiple temperature zones such as vapor transport experiments and other materials science experiments. The five zones are primarily designed to produce uniform hot and cold temperature regions separated by an adiabatic region constructed of a heat extraction plate and an insert to reduce radiation from the hot to the cold zone. The hot and cold zone temperatures are designed to reach 1600 C and 1100 C, respectively. AADSF operates on a Multi-Purpose Experiment Support Structure (MPESS) within the cargo bay of the Space Shuttle on the United States Microgravity Payload (USMP) missions. Two successful flights, both employing the directional solidification or Bridgman Stockbarger technique for crystal growth have been made, and crystals of HgCdTe and PbSnTe grown in microgravity have been produced on USMP-2 and USMP-3, respectively. The addition of a Sample Exchange Mechanism (SEM) will enable three different samples to be processed on future flights including the USMP-4 mission.

  18. [Corticobasal syndrome: recent advances and future directions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiba, Ikuko

    2012-04-01

    Corticobasal degeneration (CBD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder described by Rebeiz et al. It is characterized by progressive, asymmetric, cortical (eg, apraxia, alien limb phenomena, cortical sensory loss, and myoclonus), and extrapyramidal (eg, rigidity, bradykinesia, dystonia, and tremor) dysfunction. However, CBD has many clinical phenotypes, and the features used for predicting CBD have low sensitivity. Therefore, the term corticobasal syndrome (CBS) has been used to characterize such clinical features, whereas the term CBD is used to refer to the pathological disorder. The most frequent causes of CBS are CBD, followed by Alzheimer's disease, progressive supranuclear palsy, frontotemporal lobar degeneration with TDP-43 pathology (sporadic and familial), Pick's disease, Lewy body disease, frontotemporal lobar degeneration with fused in sarcoma-positive inclusions, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, and mutations in the microtubule-associated protein tau (MAPT) and progranulin (GRN) genes. The topography of neurodegeneration dictates the clinical syndrome not according to the underlying pathology. Researchers have attempted to develop fluid biomarkers or imaging analysis for diagnosing CBS. The aim of this review was to highlight recent advances in CBS diagnosis and discuss future directions.

  19. Put It in Writing: Questions and Answers on Advance Directives

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... decisions support it. Formal advance directives can be critical to establishing such clear and convincing evidence of ... discussed in advance. Preferences can be clarified by thinking about and discussing with your family, friends and ...

  20. Optimizing tooth form with direct posterior composite restorations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramya Raghu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Advances in material sciences and technology have provided today′s clinicians the strategies to transform the mechanistic approach of operative dentistry into a biologic philosophy. In the last three decades, composite resins have gone from being just an esthetically pleasing way of restoring Class III and Class IV cavities to become the universal material for both anterior and posterior situations as they closely mimic the natural esthetics while restoring the form of the human dentition. In order to enhance their success, clinicians have to rethink their protocol instead of applying the same restorative concepts and principles practiced with metallic restorations. Paralleling the evolution of posterior composite resin materials, cavity designs, restorative techniques and armamentarium have also developed rapidly to successfully employ composite resins in Class II situations. Most of the earlier problems with posterior composites such as poor wear resistance, polymerization shrinkage, postoperative sensitivity, predictable bonding to dentin, etc., have been overcome to a major extent. However, the clinically relevant aspect of achieving tight contacts in Class II situations has challenged clinicians the most. This paper reviews the evolution of techniques and recent developments in achieving predictable contacts with posterior composites. A Medline search was performed for articles on ′′direct posterior composite contacts.′′ The keywords used were ′′contacts and contours of posterior composites.′′ The reference list of each article was manually checked for additional articles of relevance.

  1. Optimizing tooth form with direct posterior composite restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghu, Ramya; Srinivasan, Raghu

    2011-10-01

    Advances in material sciences and technology have provided today's clinicians the strategies to transform the mechanistic approach of operative dentistry into a biologic philosophy. In the last three decades, composite resins have gone from being just an esthetically pleasing way of restoring Class III and Class IV cavities to become the universal material for both anterior and posterior situations as they closely mimic the natural esthetics while restoring the form of the human dentition. In order to enhance their success, clinicians have to rethink their protocol instead of applying the same restorative concepts and principles practiced with metallic restorations. Paralleling the evolution of posterior composite resin materials, cavity designs, restorative techniques and armamentarium have also developed rapidly to successfully employ composite resins in Class II situations. Most of the earlier problems with posterior composites such as poor wear resistance, polymerization shrinkage, postoperative sensitivity, predictable bonding to dentin, etc., have been overcome to a major extent. However, the clinically relevant aspect of achieving tight contacts in Class II situations has challenged clinicians the most. This paper reviews the evolution of techniques and recent developments in achieving predictable contacts with posterior composites. A Medline search was performed for articles on "direct posterior composite contacts." The keywords used were "contacts and contours of posterior composites." The reference list of each article was manually checked for additional articles of relevance.

  2. Isotropic Forms of Dynamics in the Relativistic Direct Interaction Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Duviryak, A A; Tretyak, V I

    1998-01-01

    The Lagrangian relativistic direct interaction theory in the various forms of dynamics is formulated and its connections with the Fokker-type action theory and with the constrained Hamiltonian mechanics are established. The motion of classical two-particle system with relativistic direct interaction is analysed within the framework of isotropic forms of dynamics in the two- and four-dimensional space-time. Some relativistic exactly solvable quantum-mechanical models are also discussed.

  3. Glaucoma Genetics: Recent Advances and Future Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aung, Tin; Khor, Chiea Chuen

    2016-01-01

    Once considered primarily a disease of aging caused by unknown environmental influences, the notion that heritable factors could significantly contribute to the pathogenesis of sporadic glaucoma has rapidly gained traction. In part, this is due to the rapid and definitive identification of genes with strong effects on familial, earlier onset forms of glaucoma. Although the endpoint of glaucoma is irreversible optic nerve damage accompanied by blindness, the initial inciting trigger could differ. To this end, well-powered genome-wide association studies have each been conducted for primary open-angle glaucoma, primary angle-closure glaucoma, along with exfoliation syndrome and glaucoma. Each of these studies has revealed sets of significantly associated genetic loci implicating biological pathways that do not overlap between the forms of glaucoma. Although substantial biological insight has been gained from their identification, much further work remains to definitively link the implicated genetic variants with glaucoma causation. It is also hoped that the genetic findings could point us to potential routes of therapy beyond that of intraocular pressure-lowering medications or surgery.

  4. Direct broadcast of a sporting event as televisual cultural form

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jože Vogrinc

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Direct TV broadcasting of sport events is undoubtedly the focal point of interest of sport fans in sports media as well as of sponsors and investors responsible for the global mediatisation of popular sports. In this article, the centrality of direct TV broadcasts in the televisual coverage of sports, as well as in the presence of sports in new media in general is explained in the context of the impact of the mediatisation of sports upon cultural forms of TV coverage of sports. The complexity of these forms and its main features (the role of the commentator, the rules of editing, dramatisation and narrativisation in direct broadcasts are analysed.

  5. Advanced waste forms research and development. Annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCarthy, G.J.

    1975-06-11

    Research and development activities on advanced (alternatives to glass) nuclear waste forms are reported. The emphasis is on two phases of the work to give essential background information on supercalcine development. The first is a report of the data obtained in the study of cesium aluminosilicate for Cs and Ru fixation. Research on the compatibility of the phases formed in the complex oxide system made up of waste and additive cations is reported. The phase stability in a number of proposed formulations was determined. (JSR)

  6. Advances in imaging gene-directed enzyme prodrug therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhaumik, Srabani

    2011-04-01

    Gene-directed enzyme prodrug therapy (GDEPT) is one of the promising alternatives to conventional chemotherapy. Suicide gene therapy based anticancer strategy involves selective introduction of a foreign gene into tumor cells to produce a foreign enzyme that can activate an inert prodrug to its cytotoxic form and cause tumor cell death. In this review, we present three most promising suicide gene/prodrug combinations (1) herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase (HSV-TK) with ganciclovir (GCV), (2) cytosine deaminase (CD) from bacteria or yeast with 5-fluorocytodine (5-FC) and (3) bacterial nitroreductase (NTR) with 5-(azaridin-1-yl)-2,4-dinitrobenzamide (CB1954) and discuss how molecular imaging may improve therapy strategies. Current advances in noninvasive imaging technologies can measure vector dose, tumor selectivity, transgene expression and biodistribution of therapeutic gene with the aid of reporter genes and imageable probes from live animal. In this review we will discuss various imaging modalities - Optical, Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), Positron Emission Tomography (PET) and Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT), and highlight some of the approaches that can advance prodrug cancer therapy from bench to clinic.

  7. Controlling death: the false promise of advance directives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Henry S

    2007-07-03

    Advance directives promise patients a say in their future care but actually have had little effect. Many experts blame problems with completion and implementation, but the advance directive concept itself may be fundamentally flawed. Advance directives simply presuppose more control over future care than is realistic. Medical crises cannot be predicted in detail, making most prior instructions difficult to adapt, irrelevant, or even misleading. Furthermore, many proxies either do not know patients' wishes or do not pursue those wishes effectively. Thus, unexpected problems arise often to defeat advance directives, as the case in this paper illustrates. Because advance directives offer only limited benefit, advance care planning should emphasize not the completion of directives but the emotional preparation of patients and families for future crises. The existentialist Albert Camus might suggest that physicians should warn patients and families that momentous, unforeseeable decisions lie ahead. Then, when the crisis hits, physicians should provide guidance; should help make decisions despite the inevitable uncertainties; should share responsibility for those decisions; and, above all, should courageously see patients and families through the fearsome experience of dying.

  8. Material forming apparatus using a directed droplet stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holcomb, David E.; Viswanathan, Srinath; Blue, Craig A.; Wilgen, John B.

    2000-01-01

    Systems and methods are described for rapidly forming precision metallic and intermetallic alloy net shape parts directly from liquid metal droplets. A directed droplet deposition apparatus includes a crucible with an orifice for producing a jet of material, a jet destabilizer, a charging structure, a deflector system, and an impact zone. The systems and methods provide advantages in that fully dense, microstructurally controlled parts can be fabricated at moderate cost.

  9. Unified asymptotic theory for all partial directed coherence forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baccalá, L A; de Brito, C S N; Takahashi, D Y; Sameshima, K

    2013-08-28

    This paper presents a unified mathematical derivation of the asymptotic behaviour of the three main forms of partial directed coherence (PDC). Numerical examples are used to contrast PDC, gPDC (generalized PDC) and iPDC (information PDC) as to meaning and applicability and, more importantly, to show their essential statistical equivalence insofar as connectivity inference is concerned.

  10. [Advance Directives: theoretical concept and practical significance in the USA].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollmann, J; Pfaff, M

    2003-07-01

    The article examines on the basic of empirical data the discrepancy between the theoretical demand and the practical role of advance directives. Often advance directives have no influence on medical decision-making in clinical care of critically ill patients. The vague language of the widely used standard living wills and the lack of physician-patient communication in the process of delivering an advance directives are contributing factors. However, many physicians even disregard patients' preferences in concrete and meaningful living wills at the end of life. Besides the lack of information many even seriously ill patients do not deliver an advance because they misjudge their medical prognosis and life expectancy. Often the communication between patients and doctors are blocked because they expect from the each other the first step to talk about end of life decisions and advance directives. In this context physicians claim lack of time, training in communication skills and their discomfort in talking about death and dying with their patients.

  11. Recovery Act: Advanced Direct Methanol Fuel Cell for Mobile Computing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fletcher, James H. [University of North Florida; Cox, Philip [University of North Florida; Harrington, William J [University of North Florida; Campbell, Joseph L [University of North Florida

    2013-09-03

    ABSTRACT Project Title: Recovery Act: Advanced Direct Methanol Fuel Cell for Mobile Computing PROJECT OBJECTIVE The objective of the project was to advance portable fuel cell system technology towards the commercial targets of power density, energy density and lifetime. These targets were laid out in the DOE’s R&D roadmap to develop an advanced direct methanol fuel cell power supply that meets commercial entry requirements. Such a power supply will enable mobile computers to operate non-stop, unplugged from the wall power outlet, by using the high energy density of methanol fuel contained in a replaceable fuel cartridge. Specifically this project focused on balance-of-plant component integration and miniaturization, as well as extensive component, subassembly and integrated system durability and validation testing. This design has resulted in a pre-production power supply design and a prototype that meet the rigorous demands of consumer electronic applications. PROJECT TASKS The proposed work plan was designed to meet the project objectives, which corresponded directly with the objectives outlined in the Funding Opportunity Announcement: To engineer the fuel cell balance-of-plant and packaging to meet the needs of consumer electronic systems, specifically at power levels required for mobile computing. UNF used existing balance-of-plant component technologies developed under its current US Army CERDEC project, as well as a previous DOE project completed by PolyFuel, to further refine them to both miniaturize and integrate their functionality to increase the system power density and energy density. Benefits of UNF’s novel passive water recycling MEA (membrane electrode assembly) and the simplified system architecture it enabled formed the foundation of the design approach. The package design was hardened to address orientation independence, shock, vibration, and environmental requirements. Fuel cartridge and fuel subsystems were improved to ensure effective fuel

  12. University Students' Views on the Utility of Psychiatric Advance Directives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheyett, Anna M.; Rooks, Adrienne

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Rates of serious mental illnesses (SMIs) among university students are increasing, and universities are struggling with how to respond to students who show SMI symptoms. Psychiatric advance directives (PADs) allow individuals, when well, to document their wishes for treatment during a psychiatric crisis. This project explored the…

  13. A Method for Increasing Elders' Use of Advance Directives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luptak, Marilyn K.; Boult, Chad

    1994-01-01

    Studied effectiveness of intervention to help frail elders to record advance directives (ADs). In collaboration with physicians and lay volunteer, social worker provided information/counseling to elderly subjects, families, and proxies in series of visits to geriatric evaluation and management clinic. Seventy-one percent of subjects recorded ADs.…

  14. Recovery Act: Advanced Direct Methanol Fuel Cell for Mobile Computing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fletcher, James H. [University of North Florida; Cox, Philip [University of North Florida; Harrington, William J [University of North Florida; Campbell, Joseph L [University of North Florida

    2013-09-03

    ABSTRACT Project Title: Recovery Act: Advanced Direct Methanol Fuel Cell for Mobile Computing PROJECT OBJECTIVE The objective of the project was to advance portable fuel cell system technology towards the commercial targets of power density, energy density and lifetime. These targets were laid out in the DOE’s R&D roadmap to develop an advanced direct methanol fuel cell power supply that meets commercial entry requirements. Such a power supply will enable mobile computers to operate non-stop, unplugged from the wall power outlet, by using the high energy density of methanol fuel contained in a replaceable fuel cartridge. Specifically this project focused on balance-of-plant component integration and miniaturization, as well as extensive component, subassembly and integrated system durability and validation testing. This design has resulted in a pre-production power supply design and a prototype that meet the rigorous demands of consumer electronic applications. PROJECT TASKS The proposed work plan was designed to meet the project objectives, which corresponded directly with the objectives outlined in the Funding Opportunity Announcement: To engineer the fuel cell balance-of-plant and packaging to meet the needs of consumer electronic systems, specifically at power levels required for mobile computing. UNF used existing balance-of-plant component technologies developed under its current US Army CERDEC project, as well as a previous DOE project completed by PolyFuel, to further refine them to both miniaturize and integrate their functionality to increase the system power density and energy density. Benefits of UNF’s novel passive water recycling MEA (membrane electrode assembly) and the simplified system architecture it enabled formed the foundation of the design approach. The package design was hardened to address orientation independence, shock, vibration, and environmental requirements. Fuel cartridge and fuel subsystems were improved to ensure effective fuel

  15. Advance Directive from the Romanian Social Cultural Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia DUMITRAS

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Giving value to the wishes of the terminal patients regarding the treatment at the end of their life, the use of the advance directive, as an extension of their autonomy when the patients are incompetent, represents a mean to respect and promote their dignity. The authors present and discuss the results of their research that analysed the attitude of Romanians toward the use of the advance directive to identify the usefulness of implementing such a document in the Romanian social cultural context.The target group in this research is general population over 18 years old, speaking Romanian and without psychological illnesses. The representative random sample lot included 828 persons from Iasi County. The data were recorded based on a transversal descriptive study, using the method of questionnaire enquiryThe persons participating in the study admitted the importance of respecting the patient’s dignity and autonomy with reference to decisions concerning the treatment at the end of life. For the subjects agreeing with legalizing the advance directive, the main advantages of such a document are firstly the respect of the patient’s right to decide and secondly the improvement of the medical treatment.The study showed that young, healthy and better educated individuals are interested in the advance directive and are in favour of introducing it in the current medical practice. The results of our research suggest that educational and informative programmes are needed in Romania regarding the role and usefulness of the advance directive, as well as the way to implement it, in order to encourage the implication of all adult persons in planning their own medical treatment in general and in particular in the medical decisions concerning the end of life.

  16. Advances and Trends on Tube Bending Forming Technologies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG He; LI Heng; ZHANG Zhiyong; ZHAN Mei; LIU Jing; LI Guangjun

    2012-01-01

    As one kind of key components with enormous quantities and diversities,the bent tube parts satisfy the increasing needs for lightweight and high-strength product from both materials and structure aspects.The bent tubes have been widely used in many high-end industries such as aviation,aerospaee,shipbuilding,automobile,energy and health care.The tube bending has become one of the key manufacturing technologies for lightweight product forming.Via the analysis of bending characteristics and multiple defects,advances on exploring the common issues in tube bending are summarized regarding wrinkling instability at the intrados,wall thinning (cracking) at the extrados,springback phenomenon,cross-section deformation,forming limit and process/tooling design/optimization.Some currently developed bending techniques are reviewed in terms of their advantages and limitations.Finally,in view of the urgent requirements of high-performance complex bent tube components with difficult-to-deform and lightweight materials in aviation and aerospace fields,the development trends and corresponding challenges are presented for realizing the precise and high-efficiency tube bending deformation.

  17. Processing of alnico permanent magnets by advanced directional solidification methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Min; Johnson, Francis; Zhang, Wanming; Zhao, Qi; Rutkowski, Stephen F.; Zhou, Lin; Kramer, Matthew J.

    2016-12-01

    Advanced directional solidification methods have been used to produce large (>15 cm length) castings of Alnico permanent magnets with highly oriented columnar microstructures. In combination with subsequent thermomagnetic and draw thermal treatment, this method was used to enable the high coercivity, high-Titanium Alnico composition of 39% Co, 29.5% Fe, 14% Ni, 7.5% Ti, 7% Al, 3% Cu (wt%) to have an intrinsic coercivity (Hci) of 2.0 kOe, a remanence (Br) of 10.2 kG, and an energy product (BH)max of 10.9 MGOe. These properties compare favorably to typical properties for the commercial Alnico 9. Directional solidification of higher Ti compositions yielded anisotropic columnar grained microstructures if high heat extraction rates through the mold surface of at least 200 kW/m2 were attained. This was achieved through the use of a thin walled (5 mm thick) high thermal conductivity SiC shell mold extracted from a molten Sn bath at a withdrawal rate of at least 200 mm/h. However, higher Ti compositions did not result in further increases in magnet performance. Images of the microstructures collected by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) reveal a majority α phase with inclusions of secondary αγ phase. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) reveals that the α phase has a spinodally decomposed microstructure of FeCo-rich needles in a NiAl-rich matrix. In the 7.5% Ti composition the diameter distribution of the FeCo needles was bimodal with the majority having diameters of approximately 50 nm with a small fraction having diameters of approximately 10 nm. The needles formed a mosaic pattern and were elongated along one crystal direction (parallel to the field used during magnetic annealing). Cu precipitates were observed between the needles. Regions of abnormal spinodal morphology appeared to correlate with secondary phase precipitates. The presence of these abnormalities did not prevent the material from displaying superior magnetic properties in the 7.5% Ti composition

  18. Technological advances in site-directed spin labeling of proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbell, Wayne L; López, Carlos J; Altenbach, Christian; Yang, Zhongyu

    2013-10-01

    Molecular flexibility over a wide time range is of central importance to the function of many proteins, both soluble and membrane. Revealing the modes of flexibility, their amplitudes, and time scales under physiological conditions is the challenge for spectroscopic methods, one of which is site-directed spin labeling EPR (SDSL-EPR). Here we provide an overview of some recent technological advances in SDSL-EPR related to investigation of structure, structural heterogeneity, and dynamics of proteins. These include new classes of spin labels, advances in measurement of long range distances and distance distributions, methods for identifying backbone and conformational fluctuations, and new strategies for determining the kinetics of protein motion.

  19. Strategic directions and actions for advanced practice nursing in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha N. Hill

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a need and opportunity for China to develop education and practice innovations given that advance practice nurses (APNs improve health care and outcomes. The China Medical Board (CMB China Nursing Network (CCNN began planning for an Advanced Nursing Practice Program for education and career development that will facilitate CCNN's contributions to meeting national nursing policy priorities. This paper presents the discussion, recommendations and action plans developed at the inaugural planning meeting on June 26, 2015 at Fudan University in Shanghai. The recommendations are: Develop standards for advanced nursing practice; Develop Master's level curricula based on the standards; Commence pilot projects across a number of University affiliated hospitals; and Prepare clinical tutors and faculty. The strategic directions and actions are: Develop a clinical career ladder system; Expand the nursing role from hospital to community; and Build a specialty nurse accreditation system.

  20. Advances in generating functional diversity for directed protein evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivange, Amol V; Marienhagen, Jan; Mundhada, Hemanshu; Schenk, Alexander; Schwaneberg, Ulrich

    2009-02-01

    Despite advances in screening technologies, only a very small fraction of theoretical protein sequence can be sampled in directed evolution experiments. At the current state of random mutagenesis technologies mutation frequencies have often been adjusted to values that cause a limited number of amino acid changes (often one to four amino acid changes per protein). For harvesting the power of directed evolution algorithms it is therefore important that generated mutant libraries are rich in diversity and enriched in active population. Insufficient knowledge about protein traits, mutational robustness of protein folds and technological limitations in diversity generating methods are main challenges for managing the complexity of protein sequence space. This review covers computational and experimental advances for high quality mutant library generation that have been achieved in the past two years.

  1. Canadian advanced life support capacities and future directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamsey, M.; Graham, T.; Stasiak, M.; Berinstain, A.; Scott, A.; Vuk, T. Rondeau; Dixon, M.

    2009-07-01

    Canada began research on space-relevant biological life support systems in the early 1990s. Since that time Canadian capabilities have grown tremendously, placing Canada among the emerging leaders in biological life support systems. The rapid growth of Canadian expertise has been the result of several factors including a large and technically sophisticated greenhouse sector which successfully operates under challenging climatic conditions, well planned technology transfer strategies between the academic and industrial sectors, and a strong emphasis on international research collaborations. Recent activities such as Canada's contribution of the Higher Plant Compartment of the European Space Agency's MELiSSA Pilot Plant and the remote operation of the Arthur Clarke Mars Greenhouse in the Canadian High Arctic continue to demonstrate Canadian capabilities with direct applicability to advanced life support systems. There is also a significant latent potential within Canadian institutions and organizations with respect to directly applicable advanced life support technologies. These directly applicable research interests include such areas as horticultural management strategies (for candidate crops), growth media, food processing, water management, atmosphere management, energy management, waste management, imaging, environment sensors, thermal control, lighting systems, robotics, command and data handling, communications systems, structures, in-situ resource utilization, space analogues and mission operations. With this background and in collaboration with the Canadian aerospace industry sector, a roadmap for future life support contributions is presented here. This roadmap targets an objective of at least 50% food closure by 2050 (providing greater closure in oxygen, water recycling and carbon dioxide uptake). The Canadian advanced life support community has chosen to focus on lunar surface infrastructure and not low Earth orbit or transit systems (i.e. microgravity

  2. Directions for advanced use of nuclear power in century XXI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walter, C E

    1999-05-01

    Nuclear power can provide a significant contribution to electricity generation and meet other needs of the world and the US during the next century provided that certain directions are taken to achieve its public acceptance. These directions include formulation of projections of population, energy consumption, and energy resources over a responsible period of time. These projections will allow assessment of cumulative effects on the environment and on fixed resources. Use of fossil energy resources in a century of growing demand for energy must be considered in the context of long-term environmental damage and resource depletion. Although some question the validity of these consequences, they can be mitigated by use of advanced fast reactor technology. It must be demonstrated that nuclear power technology is safe, resistant to material diversion for weapon use, and economical. An unbiased examination of all the issues related to energy use, especially of electricity, is an essential direction to take.

  3. Forming Cryogenic Targets for Direct-Drive Experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harding, D.R.; Meyerhofer, D.D.; Loucks, S.J.; Lund, L.D.; Janezic, R.; Elasky, L.M.; Hinterman, T.H.; Edgell, D.H.; Seka, W.; Wittman, M.D.; Gram, R.Q.; Jacobs-Perkins, D.; Early, R.; Duffy, T.; Bonino, M.J.

    2006-06-09

    More than 100 spherical deuterium ice layers have been formed to make cryogenic targets for direct-drive inertial confinement fusion (ICF) implosion experiments on OMEGA. These ice layers have an inner surface roughness that ranges from 1.3- to 6-um rms, with the best layers having a value less than 2-um rms. These surface roughness values are averaged 2-D roughness measurements that cover the entire surface and includes all of the Fourier cosine modes. The ice thickness variation within the layer is predominately in the low spectral modes (mode 5 and lower) and is caused by the support used to hold the target. Changing the design of this support to minimize the thermal effect is constrained by the necessity of having a dynamically stable target for the implosion.

  4. Advanced materials for alternative fuel capable directly fired heat engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fairbanks, J.W.; Stringer, J. (eds.)

    1979-12-01

    The first conference on advanced materials for alternative fuel capable directly fired heat engines was held at the Maine Maritime Academy, Castine, Maine. It was sponsored by the US Department of Energy, (Assistant Secretary for Fossil Energy) and the Electric Power Research Institute, (Division of Fossil Fuel and Advanced Systems). Forty-four papers from the proceedings have been entered into EDB and ERA and one also into EAPA; three had been entered previously from other sources. The papers are concerned with US DOE research programs in this area, coal gasification, coal liquefaction, gas turbines, fluidized-bed combustion and the materials used in these processes or equipments. The materials papers involve alloys, ceramics, coatings, cladding, etc., and the fabrication and materials listing of such materials and studies involving corrosion, erosion, deposition, etc. (LTN)

  5. Living wills and advance directives in South African Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skeen, Andrew

    2004-01-01

    The legal status of living wills and advance directives in South African Law will be considered. Presently there is no reported judgment of a court in South Africa which has directly ruled on the validity of an advance directive or living will. In a case decided in 1992 the issue as to whether to discontinue life supporting treatment was decided with reference to the legal persuasions of society and whether, in light of these, it would be reasonable to discontinue artificial feeding of the patient. The judge indicated that just as a living person has an interest in the disposal of his body so did he think that the patient's wishes as expressed when he was in good health should be given effect. In South African law every person is legally entitled to refuse medical treatment even if the consequences may be to hasten death. The South African Law Convention has extensively investigated the issue in its report entitled Report on Euthanasia and the Artificial Preservation of Life in 1998. Certain problems were identified and a draft bill was suggested.

  6. Advances in Constitutive and Failure Models for Sheet Forming Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Jeong Whan; Stoughton, Thomas B.

    2016-08-01

    Non-Associated Flow Rule (Non-AFR) can be used as a convenient way to account for anisotropic material response in metal deformation processes, making it possible for example, to eliminate the problem of the anomalous yielding in equibiaxial tension that is mistakenly attributed to limitations of the quadratic yield function, but may instead be attributed to the Associated Flow Rule (AFR). Seeing as in Non-AFR based models two separate functions can be adopted for yield and plastic potential, there is no constraint to which models are used to describe each of them. In this work, the flexible combination of two different yield criteria as yield function and plastic potential under Non-AFR is proposed and evaluated. FE simulations were carried so as to verify the accuracy of the material directionalities predicted using these constitutive material models. The stability conditions for non-associated flow connected with the prediction of yield point elongation are also reviewed. Anisotropic distortion hardening is further incorporated under non-associated flow. It has been found that anisotropic hardening makes the noticeable improvements for both earing and spring-back predictions. This presentation is followed by a discussion of the topic of the forming limit & necking, the evidence in favor of stress analysis, and the motivation for the development of a new type of forming limit diagram based on the polar effective plastic strain (PEPS) diagram. In order to connect necking to fracture in metals, the stress-based necking limit is combined with a stress- based fracture criterion in the principal stress, which provides an efficient method for the analysis of necking and fracture limits. The concept for the PEPS diagram is further developed to cover the path-independent PEPS fracture which is compatible with the stress-based fracture approach. Thus this fracture criterion can be utilized to describe the post-necking behavior and to cover nonlinear strain-path. Fracture

  7. Delay chemical master equation: direct and closed-form solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leier, Andre; Marquez-Lago, Tatiana T.

    2015-01-01

    The stochastic simulation algorithm (SSA) describes the time evolution of a discrete nonlinear Markov process. This stochastic process has a probability density function that is the solution of a differential equation, commonly known as the chemical master equation (CME) or forward-Kolmogorov equation. In the same way that the CME gives rise to the SSA, and trajectories of the latter are exact with respect to the former, trajectories obtained from a delay SSA are exact representations of the underlying delay CME (DCME). However, in contrast to the CME, no closed-form solutions have so far been derived for any kind of DCME. In this paper, we describe for the first time direct and closed solutions of the DCME for simple reaction schemes, such as a single-delayed unimolecular reaction as well as chemical reactions for transcription and translation with delayed mRNA maturation. We also discuss the conditions that have to be met such that such solutions can be derived. PMID:26345616

  8. Advanced and new developments in bulk metal forming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Niels; Wanheim, Tarras; Ravn, Bjarne Gottlieb;

    2000-01-01

    Increasing demands to manufacturing industry of faster, better and cheaper production has intensified the research and development of bulk metal forming. The present paper gives examples on European industrial research on secondary bulk metal forming processes. The R&D follows three lines of appr...

  9. Novel interfaces for light directed neuronal stimulation: advances and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bareket-Keren L

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Lilach Bareket-Keren,1,2 Yael Hanein1,21School of Electrical Engineering, Tel-Aviv University, 2Tel-Aviv University Center for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Tel-Aviv University, Tel-Aviv, IsraelAbstract: Light activation of neurons is a growing field with applications ranging from basic investigation of neuronal systems to the development of new therapeutic methods such as artificial retina. Many recent studies currently explore novel methods for optical stimulation with temporal and spatial precision. Novel materials in particular provide an opportunity to enhance contemporary approaches. Here we review recent advances towards light directed interfaces for neuronal stimulation, focusing on state-of-the-art nanoengineered devices. In particular, we highlight challenges and prospects towards improved retinal prostheses.Keywords: neuronal stimulation, light, retinal implant, prosthesis, quantum dots, conducting polymers, photoconductive

  10. Benchmarking of direct and indirect friction tests in micro forming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Rasmus Solmer; Calaon, Matteo; Arentoft, M.

    2012-01-01

    The sizeable increase in metal forming friction at micro scale, due to the existence of size effects, constitutes a barrier to the realization of industrial micro forming processes. In the quest for improved frictional conditions in micro scale forming operations, friction tests are applied...... to qualify the tribological performance of the particular forming scenario. In this work the application of a simulative sliding friction test at micro scale is studied. The test setup makes it possible to measure the coefficient of friction as a function of the sliding motion. The results confirm a sizeable...... increase in the coefficient of friction when the work piece size is scaled down. © (2012) Trans Tech Publications....

  11. Forming Conditions and Neural Network Control of Continuously Directional Microstructure in Directional Solidification Continuous Casting Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    Directional solidification continuous casting (DSCC) process is a new manufacturing technology for metal- lic materials which combines advantages of both directional solidification technology and continuous casting technolo- gy. Unlimited long shaped metal with directionally solidifying microstructure can be produced by this process. It is experimentally shown that controlling condition of stable and continuous growth of single crystal structure means the precise control of the location of the S/L interface, which is affected and determined by seven process parameters. Moreover, these parameters are also interacted each other, so the disturbance of any parameters may cause the fail- ure of controlling of S/L interface. In this paper, on the basis of analyzing the forming conditions of continuously di- rectional microstructures in DSCC process, the control model of DSCC procedure by neural network control (NNC) method was proposed and discussed. Combining with the experiments, we first used the computer to simulate the effects of the solidification parameters on destination control variable (S/L interface) and the interactions among these parameters during DSCC procedure. Secondly many training samples necessary for neural network calculation can be obtained through the simulation. Moreover, these samples are inputted into neural network software (NNs) and trained, then the control model can be built up.

  12. Designing Advanced Ceramic Waste Forms for Electrochemical Processing Salt Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebert, W. L. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Snyder, C. T. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Frank, Steven [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Riley, Brian [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-03-01

    This report describes the scientific basis underlying the approach being followed to design and develop “advanced” glass-bonded sodalite ceramic waste form (ACWF) materials that can (1) accommodate higher salt waste loadings than the waste form developed in the 1990s for EBR-II waste salt and (2) provide greater flexibility for immobilizing extreme waste salt compositions. This is accomplished by using a binder glass having a much higher Na2O content than glass compositions used previously to provide enough Na+ to react with all of the Cl– in the waste salt and generate the maximum amount of sodalite. The phase compositions and degradation behaviors of prototype ACWF products that were made using five new binder glass formulations and with 11-14 mass% representative LiCl/KCl-based salt waste were evaluated and compared with results of similar tests run with CWF products made using the original binder glass with 8 mass% of the same salt to demonstrate the approach and select a composition for further studies. About twice the amount of sodalite was generated in all ACWF materials and the microstructures and degradation behaviors confirmed our understanding of the reactions occurring during waste form production and the efficacy of the approach. However, the porosities of the resulting ACWF materials were higher than is desired. These results indicate the capacity of these ACWF waste forms to accommodate LiCl/KCl-based salt wastes becomes limited by porosity due to the low glass-to-sodalite volume ratio. Three of the new binder glass compositions were acceptable and there is no benefit to further increasing the Na content as initially planned. Instead, further studies are needed to develop and evaluate alternative production methods to decrease the porosity, such as by increasing the amount of binder glass in the formulation or by processing waste forms in a hot isostatic press. Increasing the amount of binder glass to eliminate porosity will decrease

  13. Designing Advanced Ceramic Waste Forms for Electrochemical Processing Salt Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebert, W. L. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Snyder, C. T. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Frank, Steven [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Riley, Brian [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-03-01

    This report describes the scientific basis underlying the approach being followed to design and develop “advanced” glass-bonded sodalite ceramic waste form (ACWF) materials that can (1) accommodate higher salt waste loadings than the waste form developed in the 1990s for EBR-II waste salt and (2) provide greater flexibility for immobilizing extreme waste salt compositions. This is accomplished by using a binder glass having a much higher Na2O content than glass compositions used previously to provide enough Na+ to react with all of the Cl– in the waste salt and generate the maximum amount of sodalite. The phase compositions and degradation behaviors of prototype ACWF products that were made using five new binder glass formulations and with 11-14 mass% representative LiCl/KCl-based salt waste were evaluated and compared with results of similar tests run with CWF products made using the original binder glass with 8 mass% of the same salt to demonstrate the approach and select a composition for further studies. About twice the amount of sodalite was generated in all ACWF materials and the microstructures and degradation behaviors confirmed our understanding of the reactions occurring during waste form production and the efficacy of the approach. However, the porosities of the resulting ACWF materials were higher than is desired. These results indicate the capacity of these ACWF waste forms to accommodate LiCl/KCl-based salt wastes becomes limited by porosity due to the low glass-to-sodalite volume ratio. Three of the new binder glass compositions were acceptable and there is no benefit to further increasing the Na content as initially planned. Instead, further studies are needed to develop and evaluate alternative production methods to decrease the porosity, such as by increasing the amount of binder glass in the formulation or by processing waste forms in a hot isostatic press. Increasing the amount of binder glass to eliminate porosity will decrease the waste

  14. HIV Vaccine: Recent Advances, Current Roadblocks, and Future Directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muni Rubens

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available HIV/AIDS is a leading cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. In spite of successful interventions and treatment protocols, an HIV vaccine would be the ultimate prevention and control strategy. Ever since identification of HIV/AIDS, there have been meticulous efforts for vaccine development. The specific aim of this paper is to review recent vaccine efficacy trials and associated advancements and discuss the current challenges and future directions. Recombinant DNA technologies greatly facilitated development of many viral products which were later incorporated into vectors for effective vaccines. Over the years, a number of scientific approaches have gained popularity and include the induction of neutralizing antibodies in late 1980s, induction of CD8 T cell in early 1990s, and combination approaches currently. Scientists have hypothesized that stimulation of right sequences of somatic hypermutations could induce broadly reactive neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs capable of effective neutralization and viral elimination. Studies have shown that a number of host and viral factors affect these processes. Similarly, eliciting specific CD8 T cells immune responses through DNA vaccines hold future promises. In summary, future studies should focus on the continuous fight between host immune responses and ever-evasive viral factors for effective vaccines.

  15. Advancing Polymer-Supported Ionogel Electrolytes Formed via Radical Polymerization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visentin, Adam F.

    Applications ranging from consumer electronics to the electric grid have placed demands on current energy storage technologies. There is a drive for devices that store more energy for rapid consumption in the case of electric cars and the power grid, and safer, versatile design options for consumer electronics. Electrochemical double-layer capacitors (EDLCs) are an option that has garnered attention as a means to address these varied energy storage demands. EDLCs utilize charge separation in electrolytes to store energy. This energy storage mechanism allows for greater power density (W kg -1) than batteries and higher energy density (Wh kg-1) than conventional capacitors - along with a robust lifetime in the range of thousands to millions of charge-discharge cycles. Safety and working voltage windows of EDLCs currently on the market are limited by the organic solvents utilized in the electrolyte. A potential solution lies in the replacement of the organic solvents with ionic liquids, or room-temperature molten salts. Ionic liquids possess many superior properties in comparison to conventional solvents: wide electrochemical window, low volatility, nonflammability, and favorable ionic conductivity. It has been an endeavor of this work to exploit these advantages while altering the liquid form factor into a gel. An ionic liquid/solid support scaffold composite electrolyte, or ionogel, adds additional benefits: flexible device design, lower encapsulation weight, and elimination of electrolyte leakage. This work has focused on investigations of a UV-polymerizable monomer, poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate, as a precursor for forming ionogels in situ. The trade-off between gaining mechanical stability at the cost of ionic conductivity has been investigated for numerous ionogel systems. While gaining a greater understanding of the interactions between the gel scaffold and ionic liquid, an ionogel with the highest known ionic conductivity to date (13.1 mS cm-1) was

  16. Black holes formed by direct collapse: observational evidences

    CERN Document Server

    Mirabel, I F

    2016-01-01

    Binary black holes as the recently detected sources of gravitational waves can be formed from massive stellar binaries in the field or by dynamical interactions in clusters of high stellar density, if the black holes are the remnants of massive stars that collapsed without natal kicks that would disrupt the binary system or eject the black holes from the cluster before binary black hole formation. Here are summarized and discussed the kinematics in three dimensions of space of five Galactic black hole X-ray binaries. For Cygnus X-1 and GRS 1915+105 it is found that the black holes of ~15 and ~10 solar masses in these sources were formed in situ, without energetic kicks. These observations suggest that binary black holes with components of ~10 solar masses may have been prolifically produced in the universe.

  17. Advanced solid elements for sheet metal forming simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mataix, Vicente; Rossi, Riccardo; Oñate, Eugenio; Flores, Fernando G.

    2016-08-01

    The solid-shells are an attractive kind of element for the simulation of forming processes, due to the fact that any kind of generic 3D constitutive law can be employed without any additional hypothesis. The present work consists in the improvement of a triangular prism solid-shell originally developed by Flores[2, 3]. The solid-shell can be used in the analysis of thin/thick shell, undergoing large deformations. The element is formulated in total Lagrangian formulation, and employs the neighbour (adjacent) elements to perform a local patch to enrich the displacement field. In the original formulation a modified right Cauchy-Green deformation tensor (C) is obtained; in the present work a modified deformation gradient (F) is obtained, which allows to generalise the methodology and allows to employ the Pull-Back and Push-Forwards operations. The element is based in three modifications: (a) a classical assumed strain approach for transverse shear strains (b) an assumed strain approach for the in-plane components using information from neighbour elements and (c) an averaging of the volumetric strain over the element. The objective is to use this type of elements for the simulation of shells avoiding transverse shear locking, improving the membrane behaviour of the in-plane triangle and to handle quasi-incompressible materials or materials with isochoric plastic flow.

  18. UTILITY OF MECHANISTIC MODELS FOR DIRECTING ADVANCED SEPARATIONS RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT ACTIVITIES: Electrochemically Modulated Separation Example

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwantes, Jon M.

    2009-06-01

    The objective for this work was to demonstrate the utility of mechanistic computer models designed to simulate actinide behavior for use in efficiently and effectively directing advanced laboratory R&D activities associated with developing advanced separations methods.

  19. Supermassive black holes formed by direct collapse of inflationary perturbations

    CERN Document Server

    Nakama, Tomohiro; Yokoyama, Jun'ichi

    2016-01-01

    We propose a mechanism of producing a new type of primordial perturbations which collapse to primordial black holes whose mass can be as large as necessary for them to grow to the supermassive black holes observed at high redshifts, without contradicting COBE/FIRAS upper limits on cosmic microwave background (CMB) spectral distortions. In our model, the observable Universe consists of two kinds of many small patches which experienced different expansion histories during inflation. Large amplitudes of primordial perturbations enough to form primordial black holes are realized on patches that experienced more Hubble expansion than the others. By making these patches the minor component, the rarity of supermassive black holes can be explained. On the other hand, most regions of the Universe experienced the standard history and hence have only standard almost scale-invariant adiabatic perturbations confirmed by observations of CMB or large-scale structures of the universe. Thus our mechanism can evade the constra...

  20. Advanced topics in linear algebra weaving matrix problems through the Weyr form

    CERN Document Server

    O'Meara, Kevin; Vinsonhaler, Charles

    2011-01-01

    The Weyr matrix canonical form is a largely unknown cousin of the Jordan canonical form. Discovered by Eduard Weyr in 1885, the Weyr form outperforms the Jordan form in a number of mathematical situations, yet it remains somewhat of a mystery, even to many who are skilled in linear algebra. Written in an engaging style, this book presents various advanced topics in linear algebra linked through the Weyr form. Kevin O'Meara, John Clark, and Charles Vinsonhaler develop the Weyr form from scratch and include an algorithm for computing it. A fascinating duality exists between the Weyr form and the

  1. Supermassive black holes formed by direct collapse of inflationary perturbations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakama, Tomohiro; Suyama, Teruaki; Yokoyama, Jun'ichi

    2016-11-01

    We propose a mechanism of producing a new type of primordial perturbations that collapse to primordial black holes, whose mass can be as large as necessary for them to grow to the supermassive black holes observed at high redshifts, without contradicting Cosmic Background Explorer/Far Infrared Absolute Spectrophotometer (COBE/FIRAS) upper limits on cosmic microwave background (CMB) spectral distortions. In our model, the observable Universe consists of two kinds of many small patches which experienced different expansion histories during inflation. Primordial perturbations large enough to form primordial black holes are realized on patches that experienced more Hubble expansion than the others. By making these patches the minor component, the rarity of supermassive black holes can be explained. On the other hand, most regions of the Universe experienced the standard history and, hence, only have standard almost-scale-invariant adiabatic perturbations confirmed by observations of CMB or large-scale structures of the Universe. Thus, our mechanism can evade the constraint from the nondetection of the CMB distortion set by the COBE/FIRAS measurement. Our model predicts the existence of supermassive black holes even at redshifts much higher than those observed. Hence, our model can be tested by future observations peeking into the higher-redshift Universe.

  2. Nitroreductase gene-directed enzyme prodrug therapy: insights and advances toward clinical utility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Elsie M; Little, Rory F; Mowday, Alexandra M; Rich, Michelle H; Chan-Hyams, Jasmine V E; Copp, Janine N; Smaill, Jeff B; Patterson, Adam V; Ackerley, David F

    2015-10-15

    This review examines the vast catalytic and therapeutic potential offered by type I (i.e. oxygen-insensitive) nitroreductase enzymes in partnership with nitroaromatic prodrugs, with particular focus on gene-directed enzyme prodrug therapy (GDEPT; a form of cancer gene therapy). Important first indications of this potential were demonstrated over 20 years ago, for the enzyme-prodrug pairing of Escherichia coli NfsB and CB1954 [5-(aziridin-1-yl)-2,4-dinitrobenzamide]. However, it has become apparent that both the enzyme and the prodrug in this prototypical pairing have limitations that have impeded their clinical progression. Recently, substantial advances have been made in the biodiscovery and engineering of superior nitroreductase variants, in particular development of elegant high-throughput screening capabilities to enable optimization of desirable activities via directed evolution. These advances in enzymology have been paralleled by advances in medicinal chemistry, leading to the development of second- and third-generation nitroaromatic prodrugs that offer substantial advantages over CB1954 for nitroreductase GDEPT, including greater dose-potency and enhanced ability of the activated metabolite(s) to exhibit a local bystander effect. In addition to forging substantial progress towards future clinical trials, this research is supporting other fields, most notably the development and improvement of targeted cellular ablation capabilities in small animal models, such as zebrafish, to enable cell-specific physiology or regeneration studies.

  3. Effect of Health Literacy on the Utilization of Advance Directives Based on the Health Belief Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henkelman, Wallace J.

    2010-01-01

    Research has demonstrated that only a small proportion of individuals in the United States complete advance directives as part of their planning for end-of-life care. This study sought to determine if health literacy is a significant factor in advance directive completion as has been posited by previous researchers. Analysis of the data collected…

  4. Overview of the Hemostasis Research Program: Advances and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-09-01

    advanced to treat such an injury in the field. The hypothesis was that a hemostatic material could be infused into a closed body cavity by a trocar ...Research Program of the US Army Medical Research and Material Command is to reduce the morbidity and mortality resulting from injuries on the

  5. The positive attitudes and perceptions of care managers about advance directives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, Adam G; Tewary, Sweta; Qadri, Syeda; Zaw, Khin; Ruiz, Jorge G; Roos, Bernard A

    2011-03-01

    In a previous intervention, we found that reminders from care managers failed to increase the number of their homebound older adult clients with advance directives. Thus, in the current study, we looked at the perceptions and attitudes of care managers about the need to discuss advance directives with their clients. Ninety-five care managers serving community-based nursing home-eligible older adults completed an 18-question survey, which found that care managers overwhelmingly believe it is important to address advance directives. Only 3.2% reported that discussing advance directives is time consuming. No attitudinal barriers were identified. Given their positive attitudes about advance directives, care managers need educational interventions that will provide the knowledge and skills to interact effectively with clients who are resistant to addressing end-of-life issues.

  6. Advanced Gasoline Turbocharged Direction Injection (GTDI) Engine Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, Terrance [Ford Motor Co., Dearborn, MI (United States)

    2015-12-31

    This program was undertaken in response to US Department of Energy Solicitation DE-FOA-0000079, resulting in a cooperative agreement with Ford and MTU to demonstrate improvement of fuel efficiency in a vehicle equipped with an advanced GTDI engine. Ford Motor Company has invested significantly in GTDI engine technology as a cost effective, high volume, fuel economy solution, marketed globally as EcoBoost technology. Ford envisions additional fuel economy improvement in the medium and long term by further advancing EcoBoost technology. The approach for the project was to engineer a comprehensive suite of gasoline engine systems technologies to achieve the project objectives, and to progressively demonstrate the objectives via concept analysis / computer modeling, single-cylinder and multi-cylinder engine testing on engine dynamometer, and vehicle level testing on chassis rolls.

  7. CFH Y402H confers similar risk of soft drusen and both forms of advanced AMD.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristinn P Magnusson

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Age-related macular degeneration (AMD is the most common cause of irreversible visual impairment in the developed world. The two forms of advanced AMD, geographic atrophy and neovascular AMD, represent different pathological processes in the macula that lead to loss of central vision. Soft drusen, characterized by deposits in the macula without visual loss, are considered to be a precursor of advanced AMD. Recently, it has been proposed that a common missense variant, Y402H, in the Complement Factor H (CFH gene increases the risk for advanced AMD. However, its impact on soft drusen, GA, or neovascular AMD--or the relationship between them--is unclear. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We genotyped 581 Icelandic patients with advanced AMD (278 neovascular AMD, 203 GA, and 100 with mixed neovascular AMD/GA, and 435 with early AMD (of whom 220 had soft drusen. A second cohort of 431 US patients from Utah, 322 with advanced AMD (244 neovascular AMD and 78 GA and 109 early-AMD cases with soft drusen, were analyzed. We confirmed that the CFH Y402H variant shows significant association to advanced AMD, with odds ratio of 2.39 in Icelandic patients (p = 5.9 x 10(-12 and odds ratio of 2.14 in US patients from Utah (p = 2.0 x 10(-9 with advanced AMD. Furthermore, we show that the Y402H variant confers similar risk of soft drusen and both forms of advanced AMD (GA or neovascular AMD. CONCLUSION: Soft drusen occur prior to progression to advanced AMD and represent a histological feature shared by neovascular AMD and GA. Our results suggest that CFH is a major risk factor of soft drusen, and additional genetic factors and/or environmental factors may be required for progression to advanced AMD.

  8. CFH Y402H Confers Similar Risk of Soft Drusen and Both Forms of Advanced AMD.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Age-related macular degeneration (AMD is the most common cause of irreversible visual impairment in the developed world. The two forms of advanced AMD, geographic atrophy and neovascular AMD, represent different pathological processes in the macula that lead to loss of central vision. Soft drusen, characterized by deposits in the macula without visual loss, are considered to be a precursor of advanced AMD. Recently, it has been proposed that a common missense variant, Y402H, in the Complement Factor H (CFH gene increases the risk for advanced AMD. However, its impact on soft drusen, GA, or neovascular AMD-or the relationship between them-is unclear. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We genotyped 581 Icelandic patients with advanced AMD (278 neovascular AMD, 203 GA, and 100 with mixed neovascular AMD/GA, and 435 with early AMD (of whom 220 had soft drusen. A second cohort of 431 US patients from Utah, 322 with advanced AMD (244 neovascular AMD and 78 GA and 109 early-AMD cases with soft drusen, were analyzed. We confirmed that the CFH Y402H variant shows significant association to advanced AMD, with odds ratio of 2.39 in Icelandic patients (p = 5.9 x 10(-12 and odds ratio of 2.14 in US patients from Utah (p = 2.0 x 10(-9 with advanced AMD. Furthermore, we show that the Y402H variant confers similar risk of soft drusen and both forms of advanced AMD (GA or neovascular AMD. CONCLUSION: Soft drusen occur prior to progression to advanced AMD and represent a histological feature shared by neovascular AMD and GA. Our results suggest that CFH is a major risk factor of soft drusen, and additional genetic factors and/or environmental factors may be required for progression to advanced AMD.

  9. Cancer and Radiation Therapy: Current Advances and Future Directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajamanickam Baskar, Kuo Ann Lee, Richard Yeo, Kheng-Wei Yeoh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years remarkable progress has been made towards the understanding of proposed hallmarks of cancer development and treatment. However with its increasing incidence, the clinical management of cancer continues to be a challenge for the 21st century. Treatment modalities comprise of radiation therapy, surgery, chemotherapy, immunotherapy and hormonal therapy. Radiation therapy remains an important component of cancer treatment with approximately 50% of all cancer patients receiving radiation therapy during their course of illness; it contributes towards 40% of curative treatment for cancer. The main goal of radiation therapy is to deprive cancer cells of their multiplication (cell division potential. Celebrating a century of advances since Marie Curie won her second Nobel Prize for her research into radium, 2011 has been designated the Year of Radiation therapy in the UK. Over the last 100 years, ongoing advances in the techniques of radiation treatment and progress made in understanding the biology of cancer cell responses to radiation will endeavor to increase the survival and reduce treatment side effects for cancer patients. In this review, principles, application and advances in radiation therapy with their biological end points are discussed.

  10. Advancements in Catheter-Directed Ultrasound-Accelerated Thrombolysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doomernik, Denise E.; Schrijver, A. Marjolein; Zeebregts, Clark J.; de Vries, Jean-Paul P. M.; Reijnen, Michel M. P. J.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To review all available literature on catheter-directed ultrasound-accelerated thrombolysis for peripheral artery occlusions, stroke, deep venous thrombosis, and pulmonary embolism. Methods: A systematic literature search was performed, using MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane databases. A total

  11. Advancements in catheter-directed ultrasound-accelerated thrombolysis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doomernik, D.E.; Schrijver, A.M.; Zeebregts, C.J.A.; Vries, J.P. de; Reijnen, M.M.P.J.

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE: To review all available literature on catheter-directed ultrasound-accelerated thrombolysis for peripheral artery occlusions, stroke, deep venous thrombosis, and pulmonary embolism. METHODS: A systematic literature search was performed, using MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane databases. A total

  12. 42 CFR 422.128 - Information on advance directives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... the incapacitating condition or a mental disorder) or articulate whether or not he or she has executed... directives with respect to all adult individuals receiving medical care by or through the MA organization....

  13. Radiation-induced erectile dysfunction: Recent advances and future directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javed Mahmood, PhD

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer is one of the most prevalent cancers and the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths in men in the United States. A large number of patients undergo radiation therapy (RT as a standard care of treatment; however, RT causes erectile dysfunction (radiation-induced erectile dysfunction; RiED because of late side effects after RT that significantly affects quality of life of prostate cancer patients. Within 5 years of RT, approximately 50% of patients could develop RiED. Based on the past and current research findings and number of publications from our group, the precise mechanism of RiED is under exploration in detail. Recent investigations have shown prostate RT induces significant morphologic arterial damage with aberrant alterations in internal pudendal arterial tone. Prostatic RT also reduces motor function in the cavernous nerve which may attribute to axonal degeneration may contributing to RiED. Furthermore, the advances in radiogenomics such as radiation induced somatic mutation identification, copy number variation and genome-wide association studies has significantly facilitated identification of biomarkers that could be used to monitoring radiation-induced late toxicity and damage to the nerves; thus, genomic- and proteomic-based biomarkers could greatly improve treatment and minimize arterial tissue and nerve damage. Further, advanced technologies such as proton beam therapy that precisely target tumor and significantly reduce off-target damage to vital organs and healthy tissues. In this review, we summarize recent advances in RiED research and novel treatment modalities for RiED. We also discuss the possible molecular mechanism involved in the development of RiED in prostate cancer patients. Further, we discuss various readily available methods as well as novel strategies such as stem cell therapies, shockwave therapy, nerve grafting with tissue engineering, and nutritional supplementations might be used to

  14. Defending to the Four Directions Evolving Uechi-ryu’s Hojoundo Exercises for Advanced Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ihor Rymaruk

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This article introduces “Defending to the Four Directions,” techniques that add challenge to Uechi-ryu while incorporating and building upon the traditional katas which have formed the basis of the style. Making changes within a style’s training methods just to be different without any other purpose is of little value and actually destructive to the system. This article describes a meaningful and realistic addition to the practice of hojoundo, the formal exercises incorporating basic movements. “Defending to the Four Directions” is intended for advanced students who have mastered Uechi-ryu’s foundamentals. In addition, the practice is well-suited for adaptation and adoption into other martial art styles.

  15. Cardiac gene therapy: Recent advances and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Daniel; Chen, Yu-Zhe; Krishnan, Harini Venkata; Sant, Shilpa

    2015-10-10

    Gene therapy has the potential to serve as an adaptable platform technology for treating various diseases. Cardiovascular disease is a major cause of mortality in the developed world and genetic modification is steadily becoming a more plausible method to repair and regenerate heart tissue. Recently, new gene targets to treat cardiovascular disease have been identified and developed into therapies that have shown promise in animal models. Some of these therapies have advanced to clinical testing. Despite these recent successes, several barriers must be overcome for gene therapy to become a widely used treatment of cardiovascular diseases. In this review, we evaluate specific genetic targets that can be exploited to treat cardiovascular diseases, list the important delivery barriers for the gene carriers, assess the most promising methods of delivering the genetic information, and discuss the current status of clinical trials involving gene therapies targeted to the heart.

  16. Recent Advances and Future Directions for Quality Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vining, Geoff; Kulahci, Murat; Pedersen, Søren

    2015-01-01

    The origins of quality engineering are in manufacturing, where quality engineers apply basic statistical methodologies to improve the quality and productivity of products and processes. In the past decade, people have discovered that these methodologies are effective for improving almost any type...... of system or process, such as financial, health care, and supply chains. This paper begins with a review of key advances and trends within quality engineering over the past decade. The second part uses the first part as a foundation to outline new application areas for the field. It also discusses how...... quality engineering needs to evolve in order to make significant contributions to these new areas. © 2015 The Authors Quality and Reliability Engineering International Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd....

  17. Immunotherapy in melanoma: Recent advances and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, C; Livingstone, E; Roesch, A; Schilling, B; Schadendorf, D

    2017-03-01

    Malignant melanoma contributes the majority of skin cancer related deaths and shows an increasing incidence in the past years. Despite all efforts of early diagnosis, metastatic melanoma still has a poor prognosis and remains a challenge for treating physicians. In recent years, improved knowledge of the pathophysiology and a better understanding of the role of the immune system in tumour control have led to the development and approval of several immunotherapies. Monoclonal antibodies against different immune checkpoints have been revolutionizing the treatment of metastatic and unresectable melanoma. Ipilimumab, a monoclonal antibody against the cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4) as well as nivolumab and pembrolizumab which target the programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) have been shown to prolong overall survival in patients with advanced melanoma. The latter substances seem to have an increased response rate and more tolerable safety profile compared to ipilimumab. The combination of a CTLA-4 and a PD-1 inhibitor seems to be superior to the monotherapies, especially in patients with PD-L1 negative tumours. Checkpoint inhibitors are currently being tested in the adjuvant setting with initial data for ipilimumab suggesting efficacy in this context. Talimogene laherparepvec (TVEC) is the first oncolytic virus approved in the therapy of metastatic melanoma offering a treatment option especially for patients with limited disease. In this review, data on these recently developed and approved immunotherapies are presented. However, further studies are necessary to determine the optimal duration, sequencing and combinations of immunotherapies to further improve the outcome of patients with advanced melanoma.

  18. Recent Advances in Directed Assembly of Nanowires or Nanotub es

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mei Liu; Zhizheng Wu; Woon Ming Lau; Jun Yang

    2012-01-01

    Nanowires and nanotubes of diverse material compositions, properties and/or functions have been produced or fabricated through various bottom-up or top-down approaches. These nanowires or nanotubes have also been utilized as potential building blocks for functional nanodevices. The key for the integration of those nanowire or nanotube based devices is to assemble these one dimensional nanomaterials to specific locations using techniques that are highly controllable and scalable. Ideally such techniques should enable assembly of highly uniform nanowire/nanotube arrays with precise control of density, location, dimension or even ma-terial types of nanowires/nanotubes. Numerous assembly techniques are being developed that can quickly align and assemble large quantities of one type or multiple types of nanowires through parallel processes, in-cluding flow-assisted alignment, Langmuir-Blodgett assembly, bubble-blown technique, electric/magnetic- field directed assembly, contact/roll printing, knocking-down, etc.. With these assembling techniques, applications of nanowire/nanotube based devices such as flexible electronics and sensors have been demonstrated. This paper delivers an overall review of directed nanowire/nanotube assembling approaches and analyzes advantages and limitations of each method. The future research directions have also been discussed.

  19. Psychotherapy and Psychosocial Treatment: Recent Advances and Future Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plakun, Eric M

    2015-09-01

    Psychotherapy and psychosocial treatment have been shown to be effective forms of treatment of a range of individual and complex comorbid disorders. The future role of psychotherapy and psychosocial treatment depends on several factors, including full implementation of mental health parity, correction of underlying false assumptions that shape treatment, payment priorities and research, identification and teaching of common factors or elements shared by effective psychosocial therapies, and adequate teaching of psychotherapy and psychosocial treatment.

  20. Advances and directions of ion nitriding/carburizing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spalvins, Talivaldis

    1989-01-01

    Ion nitriding and carburizing are plasma activated thermodynamic processes for the production of case hardened surface layers not only for ferrous materials, but also for an increasing number of nonferrous metals. When the treatment variables are properly controlled, the use of nitrogenous or carbonaceous glow discharge medium offers great flexibility in tailoring surface/near-surface properties independently of the bulk properties. The ion nitriding process has reached a high level of maturity and has gained wide industrial acceptance, while the more recently introduced ion carburizing process is rapidly gaining industrial acceptance. The current status of plasma mass transfer mechanisms into the surface regarding the formation of compound and diffusion layers in ion nitriding and carbon build-up ion carburizing is reviewed. In addition, the recent developments in design and construction of advanced equipment for obtaining optimized and controlled case/core properties is summarized. Also, new developments and trends such as duplex plasma treatments and alternatives to dc diode nitriding are highlighted.

  1. Advanced Low Conductivity Thermal Barrier Coatings: Performance and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Dongming; Miller, Robert A.

    2008-01-01

    Thermal barrier coatings will be more aggressively designed to protect gas turbine engine hot-section components in order to meet future engine higher fuel efficiency and lower emission goals. In this presentation, thermal barrier coating development considerations and performance will be emphasized. Advanced thermal barrier coatings have been developed using a multi-component defect clustering approach, and shown to have improved thermal stability and lower conductivity. The coating systems have been demonstrated for high temperature combustor applications. For thermal barrier coatings designed for turbine airfoil applications, further improved erosion and impact resistance are crucial for engine performance and durability. Erosion resistant thermal barrier coatings are being developed, with a current emphasis on the toughness improvements using a combined rare earth- and transition metal-oxide doping approach. The performance of the toughened thermal barrier coatings has been evaluated in burner rig and laser heat-flux rig simulated engine erosion and thermal gradient environments. The results have shown that the coating composition optimizations can effectively improve the erosion and impact resistance of the coating systems, while maintaining low thermal conductivity and cyclic durability. The erosion, impact and high heat-flux damage mechanisms of the thermal barrier coatings will also be described.

  2. A Modified Time Advancement Algorithm for Optimizing Channel Flow Analysis in Direct Numerical Simulation Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Rajabi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this research a direct numerical simulation (DNS of turbulent flow is performed in a geometrically standard case like plane channel flow. Pseudo spectral (PS method is used due to geometry specifications and very high accuracy achieved despite relatively few grid points. A variable time-stepping algorithm is proposed which may reduce requirement of computational cost in simulation of such wall-bounded flow. Channel flow analysis is performed with both constant and varied time-step for 128 × 65×128 grid points. The time advancement is carried out by implicit third-order backward differentiation scheme for linear terms and explicit forward Euler for nonlinear convection term. PS method is used in Cartesian coordinates with Chebychev polynomial expansion in normal direction for one non-periodic boundary condition. Also Fourier series is employed in stream-wise and span-wise directions for two periodic boundary conditions. The friction Reynolds number is about Reτ=175 based on a friction velocity and channel half width. Standard common rotational form was chosen for discritization of nonlinear convective term of Navier-Stocks equation. The comparison is made between turbulent quantities such as the turbulent statistics, Reynolds stress, wall shear velocity, standard deviation of (u and total normalized energy of instantaneous velocities in both time-discretization methods. The results show that if final decision rests on economics, the proposed variable time-stepping algorithm will be proper choice which satisfies the accuracy and reduces the computational cost.

  3. Advance in the synthesis of aromatic amine via direct amination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Arylamines are very common and important organic molecules. Acting as important intermediates in medical and chemical industry, they are widely used in the synthesis of pharmaceuticals, dyes, pesticides, rubber additives, isocyanates and heterocyclic compounds. The traditional methods for the synthesis of arylamines include several steps. The production of aniline, for example, includes the following steps: the production of nitro-benzene by the nitration of benzene, and the reduction of the resulting nitro-benzene by catalytic hydrogenation or other reduction ways[1-6]; or the substitution of phenol or chlorbenzene by amino groups, etc.[7-10]. There are several disadvantages for these methods: low atom utilization, strict operation condition, large amount of by-products and serious environmental pollution, which could not afford for the needs of a sustainable civilization. So there has been growing interest in the direct amination to produce arylamines recently. With the direct methods, the multi- step reaction may change into one step, the atom utilization can be evidently improved, and the by-products H2 or/and H2O are harmless to the environment.

  4. Advances and Research Directions in Data-Warehousing Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukesh Mohania

    1999-11-01

    Full Text Available Information is one of the most valuable assets of an organisation and when used properly can assist in intelligent decision making that can significantly improve the functioning of an organisation. Data Warehousing is a recent technology that allows information to be easily and efficiently accessed for decision-making activities by collecting data from many operational, legacy and possibly heterogeneous data sources. On-Line Analytical Processing (OLAP tools are well-suited for complex data analysis, such as multi-dimensional data analysis, and to assist in decision support activities while data mining tools take the process one step further and actively search the data for patterns and hidden knowledge in the data held in the warehouse. Many organisations are building, or are planning to develop, a data warehouse for their operational and decision support needs. In this paper, we present an overview of data warehousing, multi-dimensional databases, OLAP and data mining technology and discuss the directions of current research in the area. We also discuss recent developments in data warehouse modelling, view selection and maintenance, indexing schemes, parallel query processing and data mining issues. A number of technical issues for exploratory research are presented and possible solutions are also discussed.

  5. Advances in directional borehole radar data analysis and visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, D.V.G.; Brown, P.J.

    2002-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey is developing a directional borehole radar (DBOR) tool for mapping fractures, lithologic changes, and underground utility and void detection. An important part of the development of the DBOR tool is data analysis and visualization, with the aim of making the software graphical user interface (GUI) intuitive and easy to use. The DBOR software system consists of a suite of signal and image processing routines written in Research Systems' Interactive Data Language (IDL). The software also serves as a front-end to many widely accepted Colorado School of Mines Center for Wave Phenomena (CWP) Seismic UNIX (SU) algorithms (Cohen and Stockwell, 2001). Although the SU collection runs natively in a UNIX environment, our system seamlessly emulates a UNIX session within a widely used PC operating system (MicroSoft Windows) using GNU tools (Noer, 1998). Examples are presented of laboratory data acquired with the prototype tool from two different experimental settings. The first experiment imaged plastic pipes in a macro-scale sand tank. The second experiment monitored the progress of an invasion front resulting from oil injection. Finally, challenges to further development and planned future work are discussed.

  6. A Multilevel Cross-National Analysis of Direct and Indirect Forms of School Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnich, Laura E.; Miyazaki, Yasuo

    2013-01-01

    The detrimental effects of school violence on students' physical and emotional health are well studied, and research has shown that school violence affects students in every nation across the globe. However, few cross-national studies have compared direct, physical forms of school violence to indirect, emotional forms such as teasing. Using…

  7. A Multilevel Cross-National Analysis of Direct and Indirect Forms of School Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnich, Laura E.; Miyazaki, Yasuo

    2013-01-01

    The detrimental effects of school violence on students' physical and emotional health are well studied, and research has shown that school violence affects students in every nation across the globe. However, few cross-national studies have compared direct, physical forms of school violence to indirect, emotional forms such as teasing. Using…

  8. Beyond advance directives: importance of communication skills at the end of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulsky, James A

    2005-07-20

    Patients and their families struggle with myriad choices concerning medical treatments that frequently precede death. Advance directives have been proposed as a tool to facilitate end-of-life decision making, yet frequently fail to achieve this goal. In the context of the case of a man with metastatic cancer for whom an advance directive was unable to prevent a traumatic death, I review the challenges in creating and implementing advance directives, discuss factors that can affect clear decision making; including trust, uncertainty, emotion, hope, and the presence of multiple medical providers; and offer practical suggestions for physicians. Advance care planning remains a useful tool for approaching conversations with patients about the end of life. However, such planning should occur within a framework that emphasizes responding to patient and family emotions and focuses more on goals for care and less on specific treatments.

  9. Degradation pathways of lamotrigine under advanced treatment by direct UV photolysis, hydroxyl radicals, and ozone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keen, Olya S; Ferrer, Imma; Michael Thurman, E; Linden, Karl G

    2014-12-01

    Lamotrigine is recently recognized as a persistent pharmaceutical in the water environment and wastewater effluents. Its degradation was studied under UV and ozone advanced oxidation treatments with reaction kinetics of lamotrigine with ozone (≈4 M(-1)s(-1)), hydroxyl radical [(2.1 ± 0.3) × 10(9)M(-1)s(-1)] and by UV photolysis with low and medium pressure mercury vapor lamps [quantum yields ≈0 and (2.7 ± 0.4)× 10(-4) respectively] determined. All constants were measured at pH 6 and at temperature ≈20°C. The results indicate that lamotrigine is slow to respond to direct photolysis or oxidation by ozone and no attenuation of the contaminant is expected in UV or ozone disinfection applications. The compound reacts rapidly with hydroxyl radicals indicating that advanced oxidation processes would be effective for its treatment. Degradation products were identified under each treatment process using accurate mass time-of-flight spectrometry and pathways of decay were proposed. The main transformation pathways in each process were: dechlorination of the benzene ring during direct photolysis; hydroxyl group addition to the benzene ring during the reaction with hydroxyl radicals; and triazine ring opening after reaction with ozone. Different products that form in each process may be to a varying degree less environmentally stable than the parent lamotrigine. In addition, a novel method of ozone quenching without addition of salts is presented. The new quenching method would allow subsequent mass spectrometry analysis without a solid phase extraction clean-up step. The method involves raising the pH of the sample to approximately 10 for a few seconds and lowering it back and is therefore limited to applications for which temporary pH change is not expected to affect the outcome of the analysis.

  10. Minimally Invasive Procedures - Direct and Video-Assisted Forms in the Treatment of Heart Diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, Josué Viana Neto, E-mail: jvcn@uol.com.br [Instituto do Coração do Nordeste (INCONE), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil); Universidade de Fortaleza (UNIFOR), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil); Melo, Emanuel Carvalho; Silva, Juliana Fernandes [Instituto do Coração do Nordeste (INCONE), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil); Rebouças, Leonardo Lemos; Corrêa, Larissa Chagas; Germano, Amanda de Queiroz [Universidade de Fortaleza (UNIFOR), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil); Machado, João José Aquino [Instituto do Coração do Nordeste (INCONE), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil)

    2014-03-15

    Minimally invasive cardiovascular procedures have been progressively used in heart surgery. To describe the techniques and immediate results of minimally invasive procedures in 5 years. Prospective and descriptive study in which 102 patients were submitted to minimally invasive procedures in direct and video-assisted forms. Clinical and surgical variables were evaluated as well as the in hospital follow-up of the patients. Fourteen patients were operated through the direct form and 88 through the video-assisted form. Between minimally invasive procedures in direct form, 13 had aortic valve disease. Between minimally invasive procedures in video-assisted forms, 43 had mitral valve disease, 41 atrial septal defect and four tumors. In relation to mitral valve disease, we replaced 26 and reconstructed 17 valves. Aortic clamp, extracorporeal and procedure times were, respectively, 91,6 ± 21,8, 112,7 ± 27,9 e 247,1 ± 20,3 minutes in minimally invasive procedures in direct form. Between minimally invasive procedures in video-assisted forms, 71,6 ± 29, 99,7 ± 32,6 e 226,1 ± 42,7 minutes. Considering intensive care and hospitalization times, these were 41,1 ± 14,7 hours and 4,6 ± 2 days in minimally invasive procedures in direct and 36,8 ± 16,3 hours and 4,3 ± 1,9 days in minimally invasive procedures in video-assisted forms procedures. Minimally invasive procedures were used in two forms - direct and video-assisted - with safety in the surgical treatment of video-assisted, atrial septal defect and tumors of the heart. These procedures seem to result in longer surgical variables. However, hospital recuperation was faster, independent of the access or pathology.

  11. Direct Forming of All-Polypropylene Composites Products from Fabrics made of Co-Extruded Tapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcock, B.; Cabrera, N. O.; Barkoula, N. M.; Peijs, T.

    2009-04-01

    Many technologies presented in literature for the forming of self-reinforced or all-polymer composites are based on manufacturing processes involving thermoforming of pre-consolidated sheets. This paper describes novel direct forming routes to manufacture simple geometries of self-reinforced, all-polypropylene (all-PP) composites, by moulding fabrics of woven co-extruded polypropylene tapes directly into composite products, without the need for pre-consolidated sheet. High strength co-extruded PP tapes have potential processing advantages over mono-extruded fibres or tapes as they allow for a larger temperature processing window for consolidation. This enlarged temperature processing window makes direct forming routes feasible, without the need for an intermediate pre-consolidated sheet product. Thermoforming studies show that direct forming is an interesting alternative to stamping of pre-consolidated sheets, as it eliminates an expensive belt-pressing step which is normally needed for the manufacturing of semi-finished sheets products. Moreover, results from forming studies shows that only half the energy was required to directly form a simple dome geometry from a stack of fabrics compared to stamping the same shape from a pre-consolidated sheet.

  12. Advances in Design and Fabrication of Free-Form Reciprocal Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parigi, Dario

    2016-01-01

    The paper presents the advances in design and fabrication of free-form Reciprocal Structures, and their application a during a one-week long workshop with the students of the 1st semester of the Master of Science in Architecture and Design, fall 2015, at Aalborg University. Two new factors were...... introduced and tested: a new version of the software Reciprocalizer, and an evolution of the Reciprocalizer Robot. The workshop didactic framework Performance Aided/Assisted Design (PAD) is presented....

  13. Advance Directives

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Center Volunteer Learning Center Follow Us Twitter Facebook Instagram Cancer Information, Answers, and Hope. Available Every Minute ... 227.2345 Live Chat Follow Us Twitter Facebook Instagram help site map privacy accessibility terms of use ...

  14. Advance Directives

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that reflects your values. Talk to your doctor, nurse, or social worker for advice or help with ... document is legal in 42 states and the District of Columbia, and is available in 26 languages, ...

  15. New tribo-systems for sheet metal forming of advanced high strength steels and stainless steels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ceron, Ermanno

    the reluctance of industry in the application of new solutions, due to the high trial costs. This project presents a new methodology for testing new environmentally friendly tribo-systems for sheet metal forming of advanced high strength steels and stainless steels. For the purpose, a new Universal Sheet......The environmental issue, concerning the lubrication in sheet metal forming, has become considerably important in the past 10 years. Besides the fact that legislation is becoming more restrictive on the type of lubricant industry is allowed to use, many companies are embracing the path of social...... responsibility and sustainability, which implies a careful application of environmentally friendly technology. On the other hand the global market requires more and more complex products, which ignites a chain reaction that affects the whole life cycle of the product. Regarding sheet metal forming, this means...

  16. Ductile damage prediction in metal forming processes: Advanced modeling and numerical simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saanouni, K.

    2013-05-01

    This paper describes the needs required in modern virtual metal forming including both sheet and bulk metal forming of mechanical components. These concern the advanced modeling of thermo-mechanical behavior including the multiphysical phenomena and their interaction or strong coupling, as well as the associated numerical aspects using fully adaptive simulation strategies. First a survey of advanced constitutive equations accounting for the main thermomechanical phenomena as the thermo-elasto-plastic finite strains with isotropic and kinematic hardenings fully coupled with ductile damage will be presented. Only the macroscopic phenomenological approach with state variables (monoscale approach) will be discussed in the general framework of the rational thermodynamics for generalized micromorphic continua. The micro-macro (multi-scales approach) in the framework of polycrystalline inelasticity is not presented here for the sake of shortness but will be presented during the oral presentation. The main numerical aspects related to the resolution of the associated initial and boundary value problem will be outlined. A fully adaptive numerical methodology will be briefly described and some numerical examples will be given in order to show the high predictive capabilities of this adaptive methodology for virtual metal forming simulations.

  17. Shape beyond recognition: form-derived directionality and its effects on visual attention and motion perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigurdardottir, Heida M; Michalak, Suzanne M; Sheinberg, David L

    2014-02-01

    The shape of an object restricts its movements and therefore its future location. The rules governing selective sampling of the environment likely incorporate any available data, including shape, that provide information about where important things are going to be in the near future so that the object can be located, tracked, and sampled for information. We asked people to assess in which direction several novel objects pointed or directed them. With independent groups of people, we investigated whether their attention and sense of motion were systematically biased in this direction. Our work shows that nearly any novel object has intrinsic directionality derived from its shape. This shape information is swiftly and automatically incorporated into the allocation of overt and covert visual orienting and the detection of motion, processes that themselves are inherently directional. The observed connection between form and space suggests that shape processing goes beyond recognition alone and may help explain why shape is a relevant dimension throughout the visual brain.

  18. Advanced numerical simulation based on a non-local micromorphic model for metal forming processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diamantopoulou Evangelia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An advanced numerical methodology is developed for metal forming simulation based on thermodynamically-consistent nonlocal constitutive equations accounting for various fully coupled mechanical phenomena under finite strain in the framework of micromorphic continua. The numerical implementation into ABAQUS/Explicit is made for 2D quadrangular elements thanks to the VUEL users’ subroutine. Simple examples with presence of a damaged area are made in order to show the ability of the proposed methodology to describe the independence of the solution from the space discretization.

  19. 75 FR 4450 - Financial Management Service; Proposed Collection of Information: Direct Deposit Sign-Up Form

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-27

    ... Fiscal Service Financial Management Service; Proposed Collection of Information: Direct Deposit Sign-Up Form AGENCY: Financial Management Service, Fiscal Service, Treasury. ACTION: Notice and Request for comments. SUMMARY: The Financial Management Service, as part of its continuing effort to reduce...

  20. The Effect of Advance Directive Completion on Hospital Care Among Chronically Homeless Persons: a Prospective Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Alexander K; To, Matthew J; Luong, Linh; Vahabi, Zahra Syavash; Gonçalves, Victor L; Song, John; Hwang, Stephen W

    2016-12-27

    Advance care planning is relevant for homeless individuals because they experience high rates of morbidity and mortality. The impact of advance directive interventions on hospital care of homeless individuals has not been studied. The objective of this study was to determine if homeless individuals who complete an advance directive through a shelter-based intervention are more likely to have information from their advance directive documented and used during subsequent hospitalizations. The advance directive included preferences for life-sustaining treatments, resuscitation, and substitute decision maker(s). A total of 205 homeless men from a homeless shelter for men in Toronto, Canada, were enrolled in the study and offered an opportunity to complete an advance directive with the guidance of a trained counselor from April to June 2013. One hundred and three participants chose to complete an advance directive, and 102 participants chose to not complete an advance directive. Participants were provided copies of their advance directives. In addition, advance directives were electronically stored, and hospitals within a 1.0-mile radius of the shelter were provided access to the database. A prospective cohort study was performed using chart reviews to ascertain the documentation, availability, and use of advance directives, end-of-life care preferences, and medical treatments during hospitalizations over a 1-year follow-up period (April 2013 to June 2014) after the shelter-based advance directive intervention. Chart reviewers were blinded as to whether participants had completed an advance directive. The primary outcome was documentation or use of an advance directive during any hospitalization. The secondary outcome was documentation of end-of-life care preferences, without reference to an advance directive, during any hospitalization. After unblinding, charts were studied to determine whether advance directives were available, hospital care was consistent with

  1. Analysis of hot forming of a sheet metal component made of advanced high strength steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirkaya, Sinem; Darendeliler, Haluk; Gökler, Mustafa İlhan; Ayhaner, Murat

    2013-05-01

    To provide reduction in weight while maintaining crashworthiness and to decrease the fuel consumption of vehicles, thinner components made of Advanced High Strength Steels (AHSS) are being increasingly used in automotive industry. However, AHSS cannot be formed easily at the room temperature (i.e. cold forming). The alternative process involves heating, hot forming and subsequent quenching. A-pillar upper reinforcement of a vehicle is currently being produced by cold forming of DP600 steel sheet with a thickness of 1.8 mm. In this study, the possible decrease in the thickness of this particular part by using 22MnB5 as appropriate AHSS material and applying this alternative process has been studied. The proposed process involves deep drawing, trimming, heating, sizing, cooling and piercing operations. Both the current production process and the proposed process are analyzed by the finite element method. The die geometry, blank holding forces and the design of the cooling channels for the cooling process are determined numerically. It is shown that the particular part made of 22MnB5 steel sheet with a thickness of 1.2 mm can be successfully produced by applying the proposed process sequence and can be used without sacrificing the crashworthiness. With the use of the 22MnB5 steel with a thickness of 1.2 mm instead of DP600 sheet metal with a thickness of 1.8 mm, the weight is reduced by approximately 33%.

  2. How do Most Planets Form? -- Constraints on Disk Instability from Direct Imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Janson, Markus; Klahr, Hubert; Lafreniere, David

    2011-01-01

    Core accretion and disk instability have traditionally been regarded as the two competing possible paths of planet formation. In recent years, evidence have accumulated in favor of core accretion as the dominant mode, at least for close-in planets. However, it might be hypothesized that a significant population of wide planets formed by disk instabilities could exist at large separations, forming an invisible majority. In previous work, we addressed this issue through a direct imaging survey of B2--A0-type stars, and concluded that <30% of such stars form and retain planets and brown dwarfs through disk instability, leaving core accretion as the likely dominant mechanism. In this paper, we extend this analysis to FGKM-type stars by applying a similar analysis to the Gemini Deep Planet Survey (GDPS) sample. The results strengthen the conclusion that substellar companions formed and retained around their parent stars by disk instabilities are rare. Specifically, we find that the frequency of such companions ...

  3. Advance directives in english and French law: different concepts, different values, different societies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Ruth Judith

    2014-03-01

    In Western societies advance directives are widely recognised as important means to extend patient self-determination under circumstances of incapacity. Following other countries, England and France have adopted legislation aiming to clarify the legal status of advance directives. In this paper, I will explore similarities and differences in both sets of legislation, the arguments employed in the respective debates and the socio-political structures on which these differences are based. The comparison highlights how different legislations express different concepts emphasising different values accorded to the duty to respect autonomy and to protect life, and how these differences are informed by different socio-political contexts. Furthermore each country associates different ethical concerns with ADs which raise doubts about whether these directives are a theoretical idea which is hardly applicable in practice.

  4. Extension of Direct Strength Method for Slender Cold Formed Steel Column Sections with Perforations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PravinAwalkonde

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Revolutionary development has taken place in the design methodology of thin walled structures since the introduction of direct strength method (DSM (Dr. B Schafer 2004. DSM gives direct approach for analyzing and designing the cold formed steel sections. The effort has also been put to extend DSM for the cold formed steel sections with perforations by Dr. C D Moen(2008. Though this method gives fairly accurate results for columns with medium height, but the method is not suitable for very short and slender columns. In this paper effort has been put to suggest modification in DSM formulae for slender columns. Particular column section was modelled with finite element method with different height and thickness combinations. The same section was then analyzed by DSM in CUFSM 4.06 software. Sufficient database was created through this, and the variation in the results with DSM was incorporated in modified formula in terms of thickness and length.

  5. Optically anisotropic microlens array film directly formed on a single substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Hongwen; Xu, Su; Liu, Yifan; Wu, Shin-Tson

    2013-12-02

    An optically anisotropic microlens array film directly formed on a single substrate is demonstrated. UV curable diacrylate monomers are coated as a film on the substrate. Under the action of fringing field, not only the film surface is flattened by the generated dielectric force but also the monomers are reoriented to form a gradient refractive index (GRIN) distribution in the film. Via UV exposure, the GRIN distribution is fixed and the polymeric film behaves as a microlens array. The fabrication process is simple and the film offers a switchable focus through controlling the polarization direction of the incident light. Integrating with a 90° twisted-nematic liquid crystal cell, our polymeric microlens array film shows great potential for switchable 2D/3D autostereoscopic displays.

  6. Fabrication of directional solidification components of nickel-base superalloys by laser metal forming

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liping Feng; Weidong Huang; Darong Chen; Xin Lin; Haiou Yang

    2004-01-01

    Straight plates, hollow columns, ear-like blade tips, twist plates with directional solidification microstructure made of Rene 95 superalloys were successfully fabricated on Nickel-base superalloy and DD3 substrates, respectively. The processing conditions for production of the parts with corresponding shapes were obtained. The fabrication precision was high and the components were compact. The solidification microstructure of the parts was analyzed by optical microscopy. The results show that the solidification microstructure is composed of columnar dendrites, by epitaxial growth onto the directional solidification substrates. The crystallography orientation of the parts was parallel to that of the substrates. The primary arm spacing was about 10 μm, which is in the range of superfine dendrites, and the secondary arm was small or even degenerated. It is concluded that the laser metal forming technique provides a method to manufacture directional solidification components.

  7. Effects of nuclear deformation on the form factor for direct dark matter detection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Ya-Zheng; CHEN Jun-Mou; LUO Yan-An; SHEN Hong; LI Xue-Qian

    2012-01-01

    For the detection of direct dark matter,in order to extract useful information about the fundamental interactions from the data,it is crucial to properly determine the nuclear form factor.The form factor for the spin-independent cross section of collisions between dark matter particles and the nucleus has been thoroughly studied by many authors.When the analysis was carried out,the nuclei were always supposed to be spherically symmetric.In this work,we investigate the effects of the deformation of nuclei from a spherical shape to an elliptical one on the form factor.Our results indicate that as long as the ellipticity is not too large,such deformation will not cause any substantial effects.In particular,when the nuclei are randomly orientated in room-temperature circumstances,one can completely neglect them.

  8. Advancement in additive manufacturing & numerical modelling considerations of direct energy deposition process

    OpenAIRE

    Quanren Zeng; Zhenhai Xu; Yankang Tian; Yi Qin

    2016-01-01

    The development speed and application range of the additive manufacturing (AM) processes, such as selective laser melting (SLM), laser metal deposition (LMD) or laser-engineering net shaping (LENS), are ever-increasing in modern advanced manufacturing field for rapid manufacturing, tooling repair or surface enhancement of the critical metal components. LMD is based on a kind of directed energy deposition (DED) technology which ejects a strand of metal powders into a moving molten pool caused ...

  9. Advance Directives and Communication Skills of Prehospital Physicians Involved in the Care of Cardiovascular Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Gigon, Fabienne; Merlani, Paolo; Ricou, Bara

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Advance directives (AD) were developed to respect patient autonomy. However, very few patients have AD, even in cases when major cardiovascular surgery is to follow. To understand the reasons behind the low prevalence of AD and to help decision making when patients are incompetent, it is necessary to focus on the impact of prehospital practitioners, who may contribute to an increase in AD by discussing them with patients. The purpose of this study was to investigate self-rated commun...

  10. Consciousness in humans and non-human animals: Recent advances and future directions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie eBoly

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This joint article reflects the authors’ personal views regarding noteworthy advances in the neuroscience of consciousness in the last ten years, and suggests what we feel may be promising future directions. It is based on a small conference at the Samoset Resort in Rockport, Maine, USA, in July of 2012, organized by the Mind Science Foundation of San Antonio, Texas. Here, we summarize recent advances in our understanding of subjectivity in humans and other animals, including empirical, applied, technical and conceptual insights. These include the evidence for the importance of fronto-parietal connectivity and of feedback processes, both of which enable information to travel across distant cortical areas effectively, as well as numerous dissociations between consciousness and cognitive functions, such as attention, in humans. In addition, we describe the development of mental imagery paradigms, which made it possible to identify covert awareness in non-responsive subjects. Non-human animal consciousness research has also witnessed substantial advances on the specific role of cortical areas and higher order thalamus for consciousness, thanks to important technological advances. In addition, much progress has been made in the understanding of non-vertebrate cognition relevant to possible conscious states. Finally, major advances have been made in theories of consciousness, and also in their comparison with the available evidence. Along with reviewing these findings, each author suggests future avenues for research in their field of investigation.

  11. A Korean perspective on developing a global policy for advance directives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soyoon; Hahm, Ki-Hyun; Park, Hyoung Wook; Kang, Hyun Hee; Sohn, Myongsei

    2010-03-01

    Despite the wide and daunting array of cross-cultural obstacles that the formulation of a global policy on advance directives will clearly pose, the need is equally evident. Specifically, the expansion of medical services driven by medical tourism, just to name one important example, makes this issue urgently relevant. While ensuring consistency across national borders, a global policy will have the additional and perhaps even more important effect of increasing the use of advance directives in clinical settings and enhancing their effectiveness within each country, regardless of where that country's state of the law currently stands. One cross-cultural issue that may represent a major obstacle in formulating, let alone applying, a global policy is whether patient autonomy as the underlying principle for the use of advance directives is a universal norm or a construct of western traditions that must be reconciled with alternative value systems that may place lesser significance on individual choice. A global policy, at a minimum, must emphasize respect for patient autonomy, provision of medical information, limits to the obligations for physicians, and portability. And though the development of a global policy will be no easy task, active engagement in close collaboration with the World Health Organization can make it possible.

  12. Direct fabrication of /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ fuel forms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burney, G.A.; Congdon, J.W.

    1982-07-01

    The current process for the fabrication of /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ heat sources includes precipitation of small particle plutonium oxalate crystals (4 to 6 ..mu..m diameter), a calcination to PuO/sub 2/, ball milling, cold pressing, granulation (60 to 125 ..mu..m), and granule sintering prior to hot pressing the fuel pellet. A new two-step direct-strike Pu(III) oxalate precipitation method which yields mainly large well-developed rosettes (50 to 100 ..mu..m diameter) has been demonstrated in the laboratory and in the plant. These large rosettes are formed by agglomeration of small (2 to 4 ..mu..m) crystals, and after calcining and sintering, were directly hot pressed into fuel forms, thus eliminating several of the powder conditioning steps. Conditions for direct hot pressing of the large heat-treated rosettes were determined and a full-scale General Purpose Heat Source pellet was fabricated. The pellet had the desired granule-type microstructure to provide dimensional stability at high temperature. 27 figures.

  13. Closed-form Solution to Directly Design FACE Waveforms for Beampatterns Using Planar Array

    KAUST Repository

    Bouchoucha, Taha

    2015-04-19

    In multiple-input multiple-output radar systems, it is usually desirable to steer transmitted power in the region-of-interest. To do this, conventional methods optimize the waveform covariance matrix, R, for the desired beampattern, which is then used to generate actual transmitted waveforms. Both steps require constrained optimization, therefore, use iterative algorithms. The main challenges encountered in the existing approaches are the computational complexity and the design of waveforms to use in practice. In this paper, we provide a closed-form solution to design covariance matrix for the given beampattern using the planar array, which is then used to derive a novel closed-form algorithm to directly design the finite-alphabet constant-envelope (FACE) waveforms. The proposed algorithm exploits the two-dimensional fast-Fourier-transform. The performance of our proposed algorithm is compared with existing methods that are based on semi-definite quadratic programming with the advantage of a considerably reduced complexity.

  14. Bioremediation of direct dyes in simulated textile effluents by a paramorphogenic form of Aspergillus oryzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corso, C R; Almeida, E J R; Santos, G C; Morão, L G; Fabris, G S L; Mitter, E K

    2012-01-01

    Azo dyes are extensively used for coloring textiles, paper, food, leather, drinks, pharmaceutical products, cosmetics and inks. The textile industry consumes the largest amount of azo dyes, and it is estimated that approximately 10-15% of dyes used for coloring textiles may be lost in waste streams. Almost all azo dyes are synthetic and resist biodegradation, however, they can readily be reduced by a number of chemical and biological reducing systems. Biological treatment has advantages over physical and chemical methods due to lower costs and minimal environmental effect. This research focuses on the utilization of Aspergillus oryzae to remove some types of azo dyes from aqueous solutions. The fungus, physically induced in its paramorphogenic form (called 'pellets'), was used in the dye biosorption studies with both non-autoclaved and autoclaved hyphae, at different pH values. The goals were the removal of dyes by biosorption and the decrease of their toxicity. The dyes used were Direct Red 23 and Direct Violet 51. Their spectral stability (325-700 nm) was analyzed at different pH values (2.50, 4.50 and 6.50). The best biosorptive pH value and the toxicity limit, (which is given by the lethal concentration (LC(100)), were then determined. Each dye showed the same spectrum at different pH values. The best biosorptive pH was 2.50, for both non- autoclaved and autoclaved hyphae of A. oryzae. The toxicity level of the dyes was determined using the Trimmed Spearman-Karber Method, with Daphnia similis in all bioassays. The Direct Violet 51 (LC(100) 400 mg · mL(-1)) was found to be the most toxic dye, followed by the Direct Red 23 (LC(100) 900 mg · mL(-1)). The toxicity bioassays for each dye have shown that it is possible to decrease the toxicity level to zero by adding a small quantity of biomass from A. oryzae in its paramorphogenic form. The autoclaved biomass had a higher biosorptive capacity for the dye than the non-autoclaved biomass. The results show that

  15. Use of Advance Directives: A Social Work Perspective on the Myth versus the Reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Molly K.

    1994-01-01

    Considers Directive to Physician, Durable Power of Attorney for Healthcare Decisions, and Medical Ethics Decision Form. Notes importance of process individuals go through in defining what quality of life means to them. Sees current struggle being individual articulation of one's wishes based on personal definition of quality of life set forth in…

  16. Guest Editorial Special Issue on Recent Advances and New Directions in Switched Control Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ As guest editors, it is our great honor to bring this special issue of the Journal of Control Theory and Applications devoted to Recent Advances and New Directions in Switched Control Systems. Recently, switched control systems have attracted much attention in the control systems community. Problems in this area are not only academically challenging for the inherent mathematical complexity, but also are derived or motivated from advanced applications in natural sciences, engineering, and social sciences. For survival, natural biological systems switch their survival strategies in accordance with environmental changes. For improved performance, switching has been extensively utilized/exploited in engineering systems such as automotive drive train control, electronic devices, control of power systems, etc.

  17. A new type of remote sensors which allow directly forming certain statistical estimates of images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podlaskin, Boris; Guk, Elena; Karpenko, Andrey

    2010-10-01

    A new approach to the problems of statistical and structural pattern recognition, a signal processing and image analysis techniques has been considered. These problems are extremely important for tasks being solved by airborne and space borne remote sensing systems. Development of new remote sensors for image and signal processing is inherently connected with a possibility of statistical processing of images. Fundamentally new optoelectronic sensors "Multiscan" have been suggested in the present paper. Such sensors make it possible to form directly certain statistical estimates, which describe completely enough the different types of images. The sensors under discussion perform the Lebesgue-Stieltjes signal integration rather than the Cauchy-Riemann one. That permits to create integral functionals for determining statistical features of images. The use of the integral functionals for image processing provides a good agreement of obtained statistical estimates with required image information features. The Multiscan remote sensors allows to create a set of integral moments of an input image right up to high-order integral moments, to form a quantile representation of an input image, which provides a count number limited texture, to form a median, which provides a localisation of a low-contrast horizon line in fog, localisation of water flow boundary etc. This work presents both the description of the design concept of the new remote sensor and mathematical apparatus providing the possibility to create input image statistical features and integral functionals.

  18. Direct Measurement of Surface Dissolution Rates in Potential Nuclear Waste Forms: The Example of Pyrochlore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Cornelius; Finkeldei, Sarah; Brandt, Felix; Bosbach, Dirk; Luttge, Andreas

    2015-08-19

    The long-term stability of ceramic materials that are considered as potential nuclear waste forms is governed by heterogeneous surface reactivity. Thus, instead of a mean rate, the identification of one or more dominant contributors to the overall dissolution rate is the key to predict the stability of waste forms quantitatively. Direct surface measurements by vertical scanning interferometry (VSI) and their analysis via material flux maps and resulting dissolution rate spectra provide data about dominant rate contributors and their variability over time. Using pyrochlore (Nd2Zr2O7) pellet dissolution under acidic conditions as an example, we demonstrate the identification and quantification of dissolution rate contributors, based on VSI data and rate spectrum analysis. Heterogeneous surface alteration of pyrochlore varies by a factor of about 5 and additional material loss by chemo-mechanical grain pull-out within the uppermost grain layer. We identified four different rate contributors that are responsible for the observed dissolution rate range of single grains. Our new concept offers the opportunity to increase our mechanistic understanding and to predict quantitatively the alteration of ceramic waste forms.

  19. Sigma Team for Advanced Actinide Recycle FY2015 Accomplishments and Directions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moyer, Bruce A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-09-30

    The Sigma Team for Minor Actinide Recycle (STAAR) has made notable progress in FY 2015 toward the overarching goal to develop more efficient separation methods for actinides in support of the United States Department of Energy (USDOE) objective of sustainable fuel cycles. Research in STAAR has been emphasizing the separation of americium and other minor actinides (MAs) to enable closed nuclear fuel recycle options, mainly within the paradigm of aqueous reprocessing of used oxide nuclear fuel dissolved in nitric acid. Its major scientific challenge concerns achieving selectivity for trivalent actinides vs lanthanides. Not only is this challenge yielding to research advances, but technology concepts such as ALSEP (Actinide Lanthanide Separation) are maturing toward demonstration readiness. Efforts are organized in five task areas: 1) combining bifunctional neutral extractants with an acidic extractant to form a single process solvent, developing a process flowsheet, and demonstrating it at bench scale; 2) oxidation of Am(III) to Am(VI) and subsequent separation with other multivalent actinides; 3) developing an effective soft-donor solvent system for An(III) selective extraction using mixed N,O-donor or all-N donor extractants such as triazinyl pyridine compounds; 4) testing of inorganic and hybrid-type ion exchange materials for MA separations; and 5) computer-aided molecular design to identify altogether new extractants and complexants and theory-based experimental data interpretation. Within these tasks, two strategies are employed, one involving oxidation of americium to its pentavalent or hexavalent state and one that seeks to selectively complex trivalent americium either in the aqueous phase or the solvent phase. Solvent extraction represents the primary separation method employed, though ion exchange and crystallization play an important role. Highlights of accomplishments include: Confirmation of the first-ever electrolytic oxidation of Am(III) in a

  20. (AADSF) Advanced Automated Directional Solidification Furnace Onboard STS-87 USMP-4

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of the experiments for the Advanced Automated Directional Solidification Furnace (AADSF) is to determine how gravity-driven convection affects the composition and properties of alloys (mixtures of two or more materials, usually metal). During the USMP-4 mission, the AADSF will solidify crystals of lead tin telluride and mercury cadmium telluride, alloys of compound semiconductor materials used to make infrared detectors and lasers, as experiment samples. Although these materials are used for the same type application their properties and compositional uniformity are affected differently during the solidification process.

  1. Wild orangutan males plan and communicate their travel direction one day in advance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carel P van Schaik

    Full Text Available The ability to plan for the future beyond immediate needs would be adaptive to many animal species, but is widely thought to be uniquely human. Although studies in captivity have shown that great apes are capable of planning for future needs, it is unknown whether and how they use this ability in the wild. Flanged male Sumatran orangutans (Pongo abelii emit long calls, which females use to maintain earshot associations with them. We tested whether long calls serve to communicate a male's ever-changing predominant travel direction to facilitate maintaining these associations. We found that the direction in which a flanged male emits his long calls predicts his subsequent travel direction for many hours, and that a new call indicates a change in his main travel direction. Long calls given at or near the night nest indicate travel direction better than random until late afternoon on the next day. These results show that male orangutans make their travel plans well in advance and announce them to conspecifics. We suggest that such a planning ability is likely to be adaptive for great apes, as well as in other taxa.

  2. Direct CP Violation, Branching Ratios and Form Factors B --> pi, B --> K in B decays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O. Leitner; X.-H. Guo; A.W. Thomas

    2004-11-01

    The B {yields} {pi} and B {yields} K transitions involved in hadronic B decays are investigated in a phenomenological way through the framework of QCD factorization. By comparing our results with experimental branching ratios from the BELLE, BABAR and CLEO collaborations for all the B decays including either a pion or a kaon, we propose boundaries for the transition form factors B {yields} {pi} and B {yields} K depending on the CKM matrix element parameters {rho} and {eta}. From this analysis, the form factors required to reproduce the experimental data for branching ratios are F{sup B {yields} {pi}} = 0.31 {+-} 0.12 and F{sup B {yields} K} = 0.37 {+-} 0.13. We calculate the direct CP violating asymmetry parameter, a{sub CP}, for B {yields} {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}{pi} and B {yields} {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -} K decays, in the case where {rho} - {omega} mixing effects are taken into account. Based on these results, we find that the direct CP asymmetry for B{sup -} {yields} {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}{pi}{sup -}, {bar B}{sup 0} {yields} {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}{pi}{sup 0}, B{sup -} {yields} {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}K{sup -}, and {bar B}{sup 0} {yields} {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -} {bar K}{sup 0}, reaches its maximum when the invariant mass {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -} is in the vicinity of the {omega} meson mass. The inclusion of {rho} - {omega} mixing provides an opportunity to erase, without ambiguity, the phase uncertainty mod{pi} in the determination of th CKM angles {alpha} in case of b {yields} u and {gamma} in case of b {yields} s.

  3. Direct synthesis of strong grating couplers for efficient integrated optical beam forming

    CERN Document Server

    Urošević, Stevan

    2014-01-01

    We describe a computational method for the direct synthesis of non-uniform optical grating coupler geometries on a photonic chip to form beams of arbitrary field distribution. The method is applied to grating couplers using high index contrast, typically encountered in silicon photonics for fiber-to-chip coupling and chip-based optical beam forming. We use a numerical synthesis approach to synthesize a non-uniform structure that emits a particular desired beam pattern, and explicitly take into account chirp generated by non-uniform gratings. Even for strong, short gratings, and for designs within the constraints of existing standard 45nm SOI-CMOS foundry process, mode overlaps exceeding 90% can be obtained. We discuss strengths and shortcomings of the approach and particular implementation. We demonstrate the method by synthesizing non-uniform grating coupler designs for efficient mode matching to optical fiber modes or single free-space beam modes with Gaussian magnitude and flat phase front and show that go...

  4. Health Care Providers’ Attitudes and Practices Regarding the use of Advance Directives in a Military Health Care Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    and skills about advance directives have been cited for low completion rates. Family nurse practitioners ( FNPs ), in both civilian and military settings...receive training on ethical and moral implications of advanced nursing practice. These characteristics make the FNP an ideal candidate for promoting...environment (Hunter et al., 1997). Advanced Nursing Role Family nurse practitioners ( FNPs ) are well suited to initiate conversations concerning end-of-life

  5. Intricate decision making: ambivalences and barriers when fulfilling an advance directive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schröder L

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Lars Schröder,1 Gerhard Homme,1,2 Stephan Sahm3,4 1Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Center of Integrated Oncology, University Hospital Bonn, Bonn, 2Institute of Medical Biometry, Epidemiology and Informatics, Johannes Gutenberg University, Mainz, 3Department of Gastroenterology and Oncology, Ketteler Hospital, Offenbach, 4Institute for Ethics and History of Medicine, Johann Wolfgang Goethe University, Frankfurt, Germany Background: Despite a recent statutory ruling stating the binding nature of advance directives (ADs, only a minority of the population has signed one. Yet, a majority deem it of utmost importance to ensure their wishes are followed through in case they are no longer able to decide. The reasons for this discrepancy have not yet been investigated sufficiently.Patients and methods: This article is based on a survey of patients using a well-established structured questionnaire. First, patients were asked about their attitudes with respect to six therapeutic options at the end of life: intravenous fluids, artificial feeding, antibiotics, analgesia, chemotherapy/dialysis, and artificial ventilation; and second, they were asked about the negative effects related to the idea of ADs surveying their apprehensions: coercion to fulfill an AD, dictatorial reading of what had been laid down, and abuse of ADs.Results: A total of 1,260 interviewees completed the questionnaires. A significant percentage of interviewees were indecisive with respect to therapeutic options, ranging from 25% (analgesia to 45% (artificial feeding. There was no connection to health status. Apprehensions about unwanted effects of ADs were widespread, at 51%, 35%, and 43% for coercion, dictatorial reading, and abuse, respectively.Conclusion: A significant percentage of interviewees were unable to anticipate decisions about treatment options at the end of life. Apprehensions about negative adverse effects of ADs are widespread. Keywords: advance directive, living

  6. Application of effect-directed analysis to identify mutagenic nitrogenous disinfection by-products of advanced oxidation drinking water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vughs, D; Baken, K A; Kolkman, A; Martijn, A J; de Voogt, P

    2016-07-22

    Advanced oxidation processes are important barriers for organic micropollutants in (drinking) water treatment. It is however known that medium pressure UV/H2O2 treatment may lead to mutagenicity in the Ames test, which is no longer present after granulated activated carbon (GAC) filtration. Many nitrogen-containing disinfection by-products (N-DBPs) result from the reaction of photolysis products of nitrate with (photolysis products of) natural organic material (NOM) during medium pressure UV treatment of water. Identification of the N-DBPs and the application of effect-directed analysis to combine chemical screening results with biological activity would provide more insight into the relation of specific N-DBPs with the observed mutagenicity and was the subject of this study. To this end, fractions of medium pressure UV-treated and untreated water extracts were prepared using preparative HPLC and tested using the Ames fluctuation test. In addition, high-resolution mass spectrometry was performed on all fractions to assess the presence of N-DBPs. Based on toxicity data and read across analysis, we could identify five N-DBPs that are potentially genotoxic and were present in relatively high concentrations in the fractions in which mutagenicity was observed. The results of this study offer opportunities to further evaluate the identity and potential health concern of N-DBPs formed during advanced oxidation UV drinking water treatment.

  7. Direct Closed-Form Design of Finite Alphabet Constant Envelope Waveforms for Planar Array Beampatterns

    KAUST Repository

    Bouchoucha, Taha

    2015-05-01

    Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) radar systems has attracted lately a lot of attention thanks to its advantage over the classical phased array radar systems. We site among these advantages the improvement of parametric identifiability, achievement of higher spatial resolution and design of complex beampatterns. In colocated multiple-input multiple-output radar systems, it is usually desirable to steer transmitted power in the region-of-interest in order to increase the Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) and reduce any undesired signal and thus improve the detection process. This problem is also known as transmit beampattern design. To achieve this goal, conventional methods optimize the waveform covariance matrix, R, for the desired beampattern, which is then used to generate the actual transmitted waveforms. Both steps require constrained optimization. Most of the existing methods use iterative algorithms to solve these problems, therefore their computational complexity is very high which makes them hard to use in practice especially for real time radar applications. In this paper, we provide a closed-form solution to design the covariance matrix for a given beampattern in the three dimensional space using planar arrays, which is then used to derive a novel closed-form algorithm to directly design the finite-alphabet constant-envelope waveforms. The proposed algorithm exploits the two-dimensional discrete Fourier transform which is implemented using fast Fourier transform algorithm. Consequently, the computational complexity of the proposed beampattern solution is very low allowing it to be used for large arrays to change the beampattern in real time. We also show that the number of required snapshots in each waveform depends on the beampattern and that it is less than the total number of transmit antennas. In addition, we show that the proposed waveform design method can be used with non symmetric beampatterns. The performance of our proposed algorithm compares

  8. Nonlinear chiro-optical amplification by plasmonic nanolens arrays formed via directed assembly of gold nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Sushmita; Liu, Xiaoying; Jarrett, Jeremy W; Brown, Dean; Pustovit, Vitaliy; Urbas, Augustine; Knappenberger, Kenneth L; Nealey, Paul F; Vaia, Richard A

    2015-03-11

    Metal nanoparticle assemblies are promising materials for nanophotonic applications due to novel linear and nonlinear optical properties arising from their plasmon modes. However, scalable fabrication approaches that provide both precision nano- and macroarchitectures, and performance commensurate with design and model predictions, have been limiting. Herein, we demonstrate controlled and efficient nanofocusing of the fundamental and second harmonic frequencies of incident linearly and circularly polarized light using reduced symmetry gold nanoparticle dimers formed by surface-directed assembly of colloidal nanoparticles. Large ordered arrays (>100) of these C∞v heterodimers (ratio of radii R1/R2 = 150 nm/50 nm = 3; gap distance l = 1 ± 0.5 nm) exhibit second harmonic generation and structure-dependent chiro-optic activity with the circular dichroism ratio of individual heterodimers varying less than 20% across the array, demonstrating precision and uniformity at a large scale. These nonlinear optical properties were mediated by interparticle plasmon coupling. Additionally, the versatility of the fabrication is demonstrated on a variety of substrates including flexible polymers. Numerical simulations guide architecture design as well as validating the experimental results, thus confirming the ability to optimize second harmonic yield and induce chiro-optical responses for compact sensors, optical modulators, and tunable light sources by rational design and fabrication of the nanostructures.

  9. Advanced direct liquefaction concepts for PETC generic units. Final report, Phase I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-03-01

    The Advanced Concepts for Direct Coal Liquefaction program was initiated by the Department of Energy in 1991 to develop technologies that could significantly reduce the cost of producing liquid fuels by the direct liquefaction of coal. The advanced 2-stage liquefaction technology that was developed at Wilsonville over the past 10 years has contributed significantly toward decreasing the cost of producing liquids from coal to about $33/bbl. It remains, however, the objective of DOE to further reduce this cost to a level more competitive with petroleum based products. This project, among others, was initiated to investigate various alternative approaches to develop technologies that might ultimately lead to a 25 % reduction in cost of product. In this project a number of novel concepts were investigated, either individually or in a coupled configuration that had the potential to contribute toward meeting the DOE goal. The concepts included mature technologies or ones closely related to them, such as coal cleaning by oil agglomeration, fluid coking and distillate hydrotreating and dewaxing. Other approaches that were either embryonic or less developed were chemical pretreatment of coal to remove oxygen, and dispersed catalyst development for application in the 2-stage liquefaction process. This report presents the results of this project. It is arranged in four sections which were prepared by participating organizations responsible for that phase of the project. A summary of the overall project and the principal results are given in this section. First, however, an overview of the process economics and the process concepts that were developed during the course of this program is presented.

  10. Tuberculosis--advances in development of new drugs, treatment regimens, host-directed therapies, and biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallis, Robert S; Maeurer, Markus; Mwaba, Peter; Chakaya, Jeremiah; Rustomjee, Roxana; Migliori, Giovanni Battista; Marais, Ben; Schito, Marco; Churchyard, Gavin; Swaminathan, Soumya; Hoelscher, Michael; Zumla, Alimuddin

    2016-04-01

    Tuberculosis is the leading infectious cause of death worldwide, with 9·6 million cases and 1·5 million deaths reported in 2014. WHO estimates 480,000 cases of these were multidrug resistant (MDR). Less than half of patients who entered into treatment for MDR tuberculosis successfully completed that treatment, mainly due to high mortality and loss to follow-up. These in turn illustrate weaknesses in current treatment regimens and national tuberculosis programmes, coupled with operational treatment challenges. In this Review we provide an update on recent developments in the tuberculosis drug-development pipeline (including new and repurposed antimicrobials and host-directed drugs) as they are applied to new regimens to shorten and improve outcomes of tuberculosis treatment. Several new or repurposed antimicrobial drugs are in advanced trial stages for MDR tuberculosis, and two new antimicrobial drug candidates are in early-stage trials. Several trials to reduce the duration of therapy in MDR and drug-susceptible tuberculosis are ongoing. A wide range of candidate host-directed therapies are being developed to accelerate eradication of infection, prevent new drug resistance, and prevent permanent lung injury. As these drugs have been approved for other clinical indications, they are now ready for repurposing for tuberculosis in phase 2 clinical trials. We assess risks associated with evaluation of new treatment regimens, and highlight opportunities to advance tuberculosis research generally through regulatory innovation in MDR tuberculosis. Progress in tuberculosis-specific biomarkers (including culture conversion, PET and CT imaging, and gene expression profiles) can support this innovation. Several global initiatives now provide unique opportunities to tackle the tuberculosis epidemic through collaborative partnerships between high-income countries and middle-income and low-income countries for clinical trials training and research, allowing funders to

  11. Early experience with digital advance care planning and directives, a novel consumer-driven program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fine, Robert L; Yang, Zhiyong; Spivey, Christy; Boardman, Bonnie; Courtney, Maureen

    2016-07-01

    Barriers to traditional advance care planning (ACP) and advance directive (AD) creation have limited the promise of ACP/AD for individuals and families, the healthcare team, and society. Our objectives were to determine the results of a digital ACP/AD through which consumers create, store, locate, and retrieve their ACP/AD at no charge and with minimal physician involvement, and the ACP/AD can be integrated into the electronic health record. The authors chose 900 users of MyDirectives, a digital ACP/AD tool, to achieve proportional representation of all 50 states by population size and then reviewed their responses. The 900 participants had an average age of 50.8 years (SD = 16.6); 84% of the men and 91% of the women were in self-reported good health when signing their ADs. Among the respondents, 94% wanted their physicians to consult a supportive and palliative care team if they were seriously ill; nearly 85% preferred cessation of life-sustaining treatments during their final days; 76% preferred to spend their final days at home or in a hospice; and 70% would accept attempted cardiopulmonary resuscitation in limited circumstances. Most respondents wanted an autopsy under certain conditions, and 62% wished to donate their organs. In conclusion, analysis of early experience with this ACP/AD platform demonstrates that individuals of different ages and conditions can engage in an interrogatory process about values, develop ADs that are more nuanced than traditional paper-based ADs in reflecting those values, and easily make changes to their ADs. Online ADs have the potential to remove barriers to ACP/AD and thus further improve patient-centered end-of-life care.

  12. Recent advances in direct methanol fuel cells at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Xiaoming; Zelenay, Piotr; Thomas, Sharon; Davey, John; Gottesfeld, Shimshon

    This paper describes recent advances in the science and technology of direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs) made at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The effort on DMFCs at LANL includes work devoted to portable power applications, funded by the Defense Advanced Research Project Agency (DARPA), and work devoted to potential transport applications, funded by the US DOE. We describe recent results with a new type of DMFC stack hardware that allows to lower the pitch per cell to 2 mm while allowing low air flow and air pressure drops. Such stack technology lends itself to both portable power and potential transport applications. Power densities of 300 W/l and 1 kW/l seem achievable under conditions applicable to portable power and transport applications, respectively. DMFC power system analysis based on the performance of this stack, under conditions applying to transport applications (joint effort with U.C. Davis), has shown that, in terms of overall system efficiency and system packaging requirements, a power source for a passenger vehicle based on a DMFC could compete favorably with a hydrogen-fueled fuel cell system, as well as with fuel cell systems based on fuel processing on board. As part of more fundamental studies performed, we describe optimization of anode catalyst layers in terms of PtRu catalyst nature, loading and catalyst layer composition and structure. We specifically show that, optimized content of recast ionic conductor added to the catalyst layer is a sensitive function of the nature of the catalyst. Other elements of membrane/electrode assembly (MEA) optimization efforts are also described, highlighting our ability to resolve, to a large degree, a well-documented problem of polymer electrolyte DMFCs, namely "methanol crossover". This was achieved by appropriate cell design, enabling fuel utilization as high as 90% in highly performing DMFCs.

  13. Advanced Parkinson’s disease effect on goal-directed and habitual processes involved in visuomotor associative learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fadila eHadj-Bouziane

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present behavioral study readdresses the question of habit learning in Parkinson's disease. Patients were early onset, non-demented, dopa-responsive, candidates for surgical treatment, similar to those we found earlier as suffering greater dopamine depletion in the putamen than in the caudate nucleus. The task was the same conditional associative learning task as that used previously in monkeys and healthy humans to unveil the striatum involvement in habit learning. Sixteen patients and 20 age- and education-matched healthy control subjects learned sets of 3 visuo-motor associations between complex patterns and joystick displacements during two testing sessions separated by a few hours. We distinguished errors preceding versus following the first correct response to compare patients' performance during the earliest phase of learning dominated by goal-directed actions with that observed later on, when responses start to become habitual. The disease significantly retarded both learning phases, especially in patients under sixty years of age. However, only the late phase deficit was disease severity-dependent and persisted on the second testing session. These findings provide the first corroboration in Parkinson patients of two ideas well-established in the animal literature. The first is the idea that associating visual stimuli to motor acts is a form of habit learning that engages the striatum. It is confirmed here by the global impairment in visuo-motor learning induced by Parkinson's disease. The second idea is that goal-directed behaviors are predominantly caudate-dependent whereas habitual responses are primarily putamen-dependent. At the advanced Parkinson's disease stages tested here, dopamine depletion is greater in the putamen than in the caudate nucleus. Accordingly, the late phase of learning corresponding to the emergence of habitual responses was more vulnerable to the disease than the early phase dominated by goal-directed

  14. Forming Limits of Weld Metal in Aluminum Alloys and Advanced High-Strength Steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephens, Elizabeth V.; Smith, Mark T.; Grant, Glenn J.; Davies, Richard W.

    2010-10-25

    This work characterizes the mechanical properties of DP600 laser welded TWBs (1 mm-1.5 mm) near and in the weld, as well as their limits of formability. The approach uses simple uniaxial experiments to measure the variability in the forming limits of the weld region, and uses a theoretical forming limit diagram calculation to establish a probabilistic distribution of weld region imperfection using an M-K method approach

  15. The Production of Advanced Glass Ceramic HLW Forms using Cold Crucible Induction Melter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veronica J Rutledge; Vince Maio

    2013-10-01

    Cold Crucible Induction Melters (CCIMs) will favorably change how High-Level radioactive Waste (from nuclear fuel recovery) is treated in the 21st century. Unlike the existing Joule-Heated Melters (JHMs) currently in operation for the glass-based immobilization of High-Level Waste (HLW), CCIMs offer unique material features that will increase melt temperatures, increase throughput, increase mixing, increase loading in the waste form, lower melter foot prints, eliminate melter corrosion and lower costs. These features not only enhance the technology for producing HLW forms, but also provide advantageous attributes to the waste form by allowing more durable alternatives to glass. This paper discusses advantageous features of the CCIM, with emphasis on features that overcome the historical issues with the JHMs presently utilized, as well as the benefits of glass ceramic waste forms over borosilicate glass waste forms. These advantages are then validated based on recent INL testing to demonstrate a first-of-a-kind formulation of a non-radioactive ceramic-based waste form utilizing a CCIM.

  16. Perspectives on advance directives in Japanese society: A population-based questionnaire survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slingsby Brian

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Japan, discussion concerning advance directives (ADs has been on the rise during the past decade. ADs are one method proposed to facilitate the process of communication among patients, families and health care providers regarding the plan of care of a patient who is no longer capable of communicating. In this paper, we report the results of the first in-depth survey on the general population concerning the preferences and use of ADs in Japan. Method A self-administered questionnaire was sent via mail to a stratified random sampling of 560 residents listed in the residential registry of one district of Tokyo, Japan (n = 165,567. Association between correlating factors and specific preferences toward ADs was assessed using contingency table bivariate analysis and multivariate regression model to estimate independent contribution. Results Of the 560 questionnaires sent out, a total of 425 participants took part in the survey yielding a response rate of 75.9 %. The results of the present study indicate that: 1 the most important components to be addressed are the specifics of medical treatment at the end of life stage and disclosure of diagnosis and prognosis; 2 the majority of participants found it suitable to express their directives by word to family and/or physician and not by written documentation; 3 there is no strong need for legal measures in setting up an AD; 4 it is permissible for family and physician to loosely interpret one's directives; 5 the most suitable proxy is considered to be a family member, relative, or spouse. Multivariate analysis found the following five factors as significantly associated with preferences: 1 awareness regarding living wills, 2 experience with the use of ADs, 3 preferences for end-of-life treatment, 4 preferences for information disclosure, and 5 intentions of creating a will. Conclusions Written ADs might be useful in the Japanese setting when the individual either wishes: 1 to not

  17. Item Response Theory Analysis and Differential Item Functioning across Age, Gender and Country of a Short Form of the Advanced Progressive Matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiesi, Francesca; Ciancaleoni, Matteo; Galli, Silvia; Morsanyi, Kinga; Primi, Caterina

    2012-01-01

    Item Response Theory (IRT) models were applied to investigate the psychometric properties of the Arthur and Day's Advanced Progressive Matrices-Short Form (APM-SF; 1994) [Arthur and Day (1994). "Development of a short form for the Raven Advanced Progressive Matrices test." "Educational and Psychological Measurement, 54," 395-403] in order to test…

  18. Advanced finite element analysis of die wear in sheet-bulk metal forming processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrens, Bernd-Arno; Bouguecha, Anas; Vucetic, Milan; Chugreev, Alexander; Rosenbusch, Daniel

    2016-10-01

    The novel sheet-bulk metal forming (SBMF) technology allows the production of solid metal components with various functional design features out of flat sheet specimens. However, due to the high working pressures arising during the forming process the efficiency of SBMF is tightly related to the tool service life, which is mainly limited by die wear. In the forming processes involving high contact pressures (e.g. SBMF) the influence of contact normal stresses on the die wear can be overestimated. In order to provide a realistic estimation of the die wear, the shear friction stress must be considered. The presented paper introduces a die wear model that intends the tangential component of contact stress and its implementation in the commercial FE code.

  19. Prototype Development of Remote Operated Hot Uniaxial Press (ROHUP) to Fabricate Advanced Tc-99 Bearing Ceramic Waste Forms - 13381

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alaniz, Ariana J.; Delgado, Luc R.; Werbick, Brett M. [University of Nevada - Las Vegas, Howard R. Hughes College of Engineering, 4505 S. Maryland Parkway, Box 454009, Las Vegas, NV 89154-4009 (United States); Hartmann, Thomas [University of Nevada - Las Vegas, Harry Reid Canter, 4505 S. Maryland Parkway, Box 454009, Las Vegas, NV 89154-4009 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    The objective of this senior student project is to design and build a prototype construction of a machine that simultaneously provides the proper pressure and temperature parameters to sinter ceramic powders in-situ to create pellets of rather high densities of above 90% (theoretical). This ROHUP (Remote Operated Hot Uniaxial Press) device is designed specifically to fabricate advanced ceramic Tc-99 bearing waste forms and therefore radiological barriers have been included in the system. The HUP features electronic control and feedback systems to set and monitor pressure, load, and temperature parameters. This device operates wirelessly via portable computer using Bluetooth{sup R} technology. The HUP device is designed to fit in a standard atmosphere controlled glove box to further allow sintering under inert conditions (e.g. under Ar, He, N{sub 2}). This will further allow utilizing this HUP for other potential applications, including radioactive samples, novel ceramic waste forms, advanced oxide fuels, air-sensitive samples, metallic systems, advanced powder metallurgy, diffusion experiments and more. (authors)

  20. Lightning Radio Source Retrieval Using Advanced Lightning Direction Finder (ALDF) Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshak, William J.; Blakeslee, Richard J.; Bailey, J. C.

    1998-01-01

    A linear algebraic solution is provided for the problem of retrieving the location and time of occurrence of lightning ground strikes from an Advanced Lightning Direction Finder (ALDF) network. The ALDF network measures field strength, magnetic bearing and arrival time of lightning radio emissions. Solutions for the plane (i.e., no Earth curvature) are provided that implement all of tile measurements mentioned above. Tests of the retrieval method are provided using computer-simulated data sets. We also introduce a quadratic planar solution that is useful when only three arrival time measurements are available. The algebra of the quadratic root results are examined in detail to clarify what portions of the analysis region lead to fundamental ambiguities in source location. Complex root results are shown to be associated with the presence of measurement errors when the lightning source lies near an outer sensor baseline of the ALDF network. In the absence of measurement errors, quadratic root degeneracy (no source location ambiguity) is shown to exist exactly on the outer sensor baselines for arbitrary non-collinear network geometries. The accuracy of the quadratic planar method is tested with computer generated data sets. The results are generally better than those obtained from the three station linear planar method when bearing errors are about 2 deg. We also note some of the advantages and disadvantages of these methods over the nonlinear method of chi(sup 2) minimization employed by the National Lightning Detection Network (NLDN) and discussed in Cummins et al.(1993, 1995, 1998).

  1. The Attitudes of Chinese Cancer Patients and Family Caregivers toward Advance Directives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiu Zhang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Advance directives (ADs have been legislated in many countries to protect patient autonomy regarding medical decisions at the end of life. China is facing a serious cancer burden and cancer patients’ quality at the end of life should be a concern. However, limited studies have been conducted locally to gather information about attitudes toward ADs. The purpose of this study was to investigate the attitudes of Chinese cancer patients and family caregivers toward ADs and to explore the predictors that are associated with attitudes. The study indicated that although there was low awareness of ADs, most cancer patients and family caregivers had positive attitudes toward ADs after related information was explained to them. Participants preferred to discuss ADs with medical staff when they were diagnosed with a life-threatening disease. Preferences for refusing life-sustaining treatment and choosing Hospice-Palliative Care (HPC at the end of life would increase the likelihood of agreeing with ADs. This suggests that some effective interventions to help participants better understand end-of-life treatments are helpful in promoting ADs. Moreover, the development of HPC would contribute to Chinese cancer patients and family caregivers agreeing with ADs.

  2. [Physicians' views and perspectives on advanced directives in patients with incipient dementia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattiussi, Mercedes; Dawidowski, Adriana; Restibo, Jimena; Pollán, Javier; Pezzano, Laura; Cámera, Luis

    2012-01-01

    Dementia is a progressive disease in which patients lose their ability to decide and communicate. Advance directives (AD) allow patients to express their preferences on end of life care in the early stages of the disease. Primary care practitioners (PCP) are in the best position to promote AD. The aim of this study was to elicit PCPs views about the discussion of AD with early stage dementia patients. A qualitative approach was taken, focus groups and individual interviews to elderly patients' PCPs from the Hospital italiano de buenos aires were conducted. A purposive sampling was performed, conforming homogeneous groups according to age and seniority. The discussion was stimulated by a vignette. We performed thematic content analysis in an interdisciplinary team. Twelve PCPs = 30 year of age, 32 middle-aged and 8 over 45 years participated of the study. The youngest group favored the discussion of AD while those over 45 regarded the family as the decision maker, and thus, the discussion as useless. Besides, they expressed that our society is not mature enough to discuss AD. Difficulties in AD implementation, in predicting the evolution of a patient's disease, the span of time between the discussion and AD implementation, lack of legislation and specific institutional policies were other factors that conditioned the discussion. Younger PCPs expressed concern on the lack of communication skills and difficulties to broach this subject with patients. PCPs perspectives on AD vary, their age should be taken into account when designing strategies to their implementation.

  3. [A case of advanced esophageal cancer with direct bronchial invasion successfully treated by multidisciplinary therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haba, Yusuke; Okamoto, Koichi; Watanabe, Toshifumi; Tsukada, Tomoya; Kinoshita, Jun; Makino, Isamu; Nakamura, Keishi; Oyama, Katsunobu; Ninomiya, Itasu; Fushida, Sachio; Fujimura, Takashi; Ohta, Tetsuo

    2014-11-01

    A 66-year-old man with advanced esophageal cancer (staging Mt, 6.0 cm, cT3N0M0, cStage II) was administered neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC: 5-fluorouracil and cisplatin). As the tumor continued to grow after one course of NAC, video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery(VATS) was used to perform an esophagectomy along with 3-field lymph node dissection and retrosternal route reconstruction using a gastric tube. The second course of NAC was not administered. Intraoperative findings showed the direct invasion of the primary esophageal cancer into the membranous portion of the left bronchus. The maximum possible tumor tissue was resected and removed. The tumor tissue was exposed extensively to the surface of the esophageal adventitia and a residual tumor at the surface of the left bronchus was suspected. It was diagnosed as CT-pT4 (left bronchus), N0, M0, CT-pStage III. Subsequently, we administered chemoradiotherapy consisting of weekly low-dose docetaxel with radiation for the residual tumor (60 Gy/30 Fr). The patient is still alive 40 months after surgery without any signs of recurrence.

  4. Advanced waste form and melter development for treatment of troublesome high-level wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marra, James [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Kim, Dong -Sang [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Maio, Vincent [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-09-02

    A number of waste components in US defense high level radioactive wastes (HLW) have proven challenging for current Joule heated ceramic melter (JHCM) operations and have limited the ability to increase waste loadings beyond already realized levels. Many of these "troublesome" waste species cause crystallization in the glass melt that can negatively impact product quality or have a deleterious effect on melter processing. Recent efforts at US Department of Energy laboratories have focused on understanding crystallization behavior within HLW glass melts and investigating approached to mitigate the impacts of crystallization so that increases in waste loading can be realized. Advanced glass formulations have been developed to highlight the unique benefits of next-generation melter technologies such as the Cold Crucible Induction Melter (CCIM). Crystal-tolerant HLW glasses have been investigated to allow sparingly soluble components such as chromium to crystallize in the melter but pass out of the melter before accumulating.

  5. Precision molding of advanced glass optics: innovative production technology for lens arrays and free form optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pongs, Guido; Bresseler, Bernd; Bergs, Thomas; Menke, Gert

    2012-10-01

    Today isothermal precision molding of imaging glass optics has become a widely applied and integrated production technology in the optical industry. Especially in consumer electronics (e.g. digital cameras, mobile phones, Blu-ray) a lot of optical systems contain rotationally symmetrical aspherical lenses produced by precision glass molding. But due to higher demands on complexity and miniaturization of optical elements the established process chain for precision glass molding is not sufficient enough. Wafer based molding processes for glass optics manufacturing become more and more interesting for mobile phone applications. Also cylindrical lens arrays can be used in high power laser systems. The usage of unsymmetrical free-form optics allows an increase of efficiency in optical laser systems. Aixtooling is working on different aspects in the fields of mold manufacturing technologies and molding processes for extremely high complex optical components. In terms of array molding technologies, Aixtooling has developed a manufacturing technology for the ultra-precision machining of carbide molds together with European partners. The development covers the machining of multi lens arrays as well as cylindrical lens arrays. The biggest challenge is the molding of complex free-form optics having no symmetrical axis. A comprehensive CAD/CAM data management along the entire process chain is essential to reach high accuracies on the molded lenses. Within a national funded project Aixtooling is working on a consistent data handling procedure in the process chain for precision molding of free-form optics.

  6. Development of advanced techniques for identification of flow stress and friction parameters for metal forming analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Hyunjoong

    The accuracy of process simulation in metal forming by finite element method depends on the accuracy of flow stress data and friction value that are input to FEM programs. Therefore, it is essential that these input values are determined using reliable tests and evaluation methods. This study presents the development of inverse analysis methodology and its application to determine flow stress data of bulk and sheet materials at room and elevated temperatures. The inverse problem is defined as the minimization of the differences between the experimental measurements and the corresponding FEM predictions. Rigid-viscoplastic FEM is used to analyze the metal flow while a numerical optimization algorithm adjusts the material parameters used in the simulation until the calculated response matches the measured data within a specified tolerance. The use of the developed inverse analysis methodology has been demonstrated by applying it to the selected reference rheological tests; cylinder compression test, ring compression test, instrumented indentation test, modified limiting dome height test, and sheet hydraulic bulge test. Furthermore, using the determined material property data, full 3-D finite element simulation models, as examples of industrial applications for orbital forming and thermoforming processes have been developed for reliable process simulation. As results of this study, it was shown that the developed inverse analysis methodology could identify both the material parameters and friction factors from one set of tests, simultaneously. Therefore, this technique can offer a systematic and cost effective way for determining material property data for simulation of metal forming processes.

  7. Directional Reflective Surface Formed via Gradient-Impeding Acoustic Meta-Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Kyungjun; Kim, Jedo; Hur, Shin; Kwak, Jun-Hyuk; Lee, Seong-Hyun; Kim, Taesung

    2016-08-01

    Artificially designed acoustic meta-surfaces have the ability to manipulate sound energy to an extraordinary extent. Here, we report on a new type of directional reflective surface consisting of an array of sub-wavelength Helmholtz resonators with varying internal coiled path lengths, which induce a reflection phase gradient along a planar acoustic meta-surface. The acoustically reshaped reflective surface created by the gradient-impeding meta-surface yields a distinct focal line similar to a parabolic cylinder antenna, and is used for directive sound beamforming. Focused beam steering can be also obtained by repositioning the source (or receiver) off axis, i.e., displaced from the focal line. Besides flat reflective surfaces, complex surfaces such as convex or conformal shapes may be used for sound beamforming, thus facilitating easy application in sound reinforcement systems. Therefore, directional reflective surfaces have promising applications in fields such as acoustic imaging, sonic weaponry, and underwater communication.

  8. Directional Reflective Surface Formed via Gradient-Impeding Acoustic Meta-Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Kyungjun; Kim, Jedo; Hur, Shin; Kwak, Jun-Hyuk; Lee, Seong-Hyun; Kim, Taesung

    2016-01-01

    Artificially designed acoustic meta-surfaces have the ability to manipulate sound energy to an extraordinary extent. Here, we report on a new type of directional reflective surface consisting of an array of sub-wavelength Helmholtz resonators with varying internal coiled path lengths, which induce a reflection phase gradient along a planar acoustic meta-surface. The acoustically reshaped reflective surface created by the gradient-impeding meta-surface yields a distinct focal line similar to a parabolic cylinder antenna, and is used for directive sound beamforming. Focused beam steering can be also obtained by repositioning the source (or receiver) off axis, i.e., displaced from the focal line. Besides flat reflective surfaces, complex surfaces such as convex or conformal shapes may be used for sound beamforming, thus facilitating easy application in sound reinforcement systems. Therefore, directional reflective surfaces have promising applications in fields such as acoustic imaging, sonic weaponry, and underwater communication. PMID:27562634

  9. Twelve-year results of a direct-bonded partial prosthesis in a patient with advanced periodontitis: a clinical report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minami, Hiroyuki; Minesaki, Yoshito; Suzuki, Shiro; Tanaka, Takuo

    2012-08-01

    Prosthodontic treatment for patients with advanced periodontitis is a therapeutic challenge. A minimally invasive technique is preferred to preserve the remaining mobile abutment teeth. This report describes the initial clinical treatment and 12-year follow-up of a direct-bonded prosthesis reinforced with a cast metal framework, used as a conservative treatment option to replace periodontally involved maxillary lateral incisors.

  10. Testing new tribo-systems for sheet metal forming of advanced high strength steels and stainless steels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Niels; Ceron, Ermanno

    2014-01-01

    Testing of new tribo-systems in sheet metal forming has become an important issue due to new legislation, which forces industry to replace current, hazardous lubricants. The present paper summarizes the work done in a recent PhD project at the Technical University of Denmark on the development...... of a methodology for off-line testing of new tribo-systems for advanced high strength steels and stainless steels. The methodology is presented and applied to an industrial case, where different tribo-systems are tested. A universal sheet tribotester has been developed, which can run automatically repetitive...

  11. A review of the physical metallurgy related to the hot press forming of advanced high strength steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan, Dong W.; Kim, Han S.; De Cooman, C. [Pohang Univ. of Science and Technology, Pohang (Korea). Graduate Inst. of Ferrous Technology

    2009-03-15

    The automotive industry requirements for vehicle weight reduction, weight containment, improved part functionality and passenger safety have resulted in the increased use of steel grades with a fully martensitic microstructure. These steel grades are essential to improve the anti-intrusion resistance of automotive body parts and the related passenger safety during car collisions. Standard advanced high strength steel (AHSS) grades are notoriously difficult to be press formed; they are characterized by elastic springback, poor stretch flangeability and low hole expansion ratios. Hot press forming has therefore received much attention recently as an alternative technology to produce AHSS automotive parts. In this contribution, the physical metallurgy principles of the hot press forming process are reviewed. The effect of composition on CCT curves of standard CMnB hot press forming steels is discussed taking the deformation during press forming into account. Furthermore, the effect of the static strain ageing processes occurring during the paint baking cycle on the in-service mechanical properties of press hardened steel will be presented. The influence of temperate and strain rate on the flow stress during press forming and the final room temperature mechanical properties will be discussed. Moreover, the issues related to coatings on B-alloyed CMn hot press forming steel will be critically reviewed. In particular the combined effects of thermal cycle and deformation on the degradation of the Al-10%Si coating will be discussed in detail. Finally, the properties of both Al-based and Zn-based coating systems are compared, and the possibility of the formation of a diffusion barrier during press forming is discussed. (orig.)

  12. Novel polymorphic form of adefovir dipivoxil derived from polymer-directed crystallization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Min Kyung; Lee, Hyeseung; Kim, Il Won; Lee, Jonghwi

    2011-10-01

    Crystallization is an essential step in pharmaceutical processing. The discovery of a non-classical crystallization pathway would be a promising strategy to engineer the properties of drug crystalline particles for specific delivery conditions. Herein, polymer-directed crystallization was successfully employed to modify the characteristics of a model drug, adefovir dipivoxil (AD). Polyacrylic acid (PAA), ethyl cellulose (EC), and hydroxypropyl cellulose were added as active polymers to control the crystallization pathway of AD. Changes in crystal habit were observed in all cases. A novel polymorph was found after the addition of PAA and EC, and was confirmed by XRD and DSC results. In FTIR investigations, the crystals derived from PAA-directed crystallization showed strong interactions between PAA and AD. The polymer content in polymer-directed crystallization-derived powders varied from 7 to 24 wt%, and the presence of polymers lead to sustained release of AD. These results make polymer-directed crystallization a simple and efficient technique to engineer the physical and chemical properties of drug crystals.

  13. Beam Steering at Higher Photonic Bands and Design of a Directional Cloak Formed by Photonic Crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkatachalam Subramanian

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Beam steering due to anomalous dispersion at higher photonic bands in dielectric photonic crystal is reported in this work. Based on this concept, directional cloak is designed that conceals a larger dimensional scattering object against the normal incident, linearly polarizedelectromagnetic waves.

  14. Serious but Fun, Self-Directed yet Social: Blogging as a Form of Lifelong Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harju, Vilhelmiina; Pehkonen, Leila; Niemi, Hannele

    2016-01-01

    The article explores the role of digital media in supporting lifelong learning. In particular, it focuses on bloggers who write their blogs voluntarily in their own free time. The aim is to examine how lifelong learning--viewed as self-directed, nonformal learning and active participation that evolves from a desire for self-actualization--occurs…

  15. Direct testing of scale effects in metal forming friction and lubrication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter Søe; Calaon, Matteo; Paldan, Nikolas Aulin

    2010-01-01

    work a new test equipment is developed for direct friction measurements in the range from macro to micro scale. Investigations confirm a significant friction increase when downscaling. Visual inspection of the work pieces show this to be explained by the amount of open and closed lubricant pockets....

  16. Direct Instruction Model to Increase Physical Science Competence of Students as One Form of Classroom Assesment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenno, Hendrik

    2014-01-01

    In designing the lesson teachers have to adapt the method or learning model with the material to be taught. In the teaching of measuring concept, students frequently faced with measuring instruments, micrometer, screw, scale, and so on. Direct Instruction Model would be suitable for teaching the measurement concepts specifically the skill of using…

  17. Vector velocity estimation using directional beam forming and cross-correlation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2000-01-01

    The two-dimensional velocity vector using a pulsed ultrasound field can be determined with the invention. The method uses a focused ultrasound field along the velocity direction for probing the moving medium under investigation. Several pulses are emitted and the focused received fields along...

  18. 21 CFR 1240.61 - Mandatory pasteurization for all milk and milk products in final package form intended for direct...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... pasteurization for all milk and milk products in final package form intended for direct human consumption. (a) No... for sale or other distribution after shipment in interstate commerce any milk or milk product in final... ingredients (milk or milk products) that have all been pasteurized, except where alternative procedures...

  19. DEVELOPMENT OF CERAMIC WASTE FORMS FOR AN ADVANCED NUCLEAR FUEL CYCLE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marra, J.; Billings, A.; Brinkman, K.; Fox, K.

    2010-11-30

    A series of ceramic waste forms were developed and characterized for the immobilization of a Cesium/Lanthanide (CS/LN) waste stream anticipated to result from nuclear fuel reprocessing. Simple raw materials, including Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and TiO{sub 2} were combined with simulated waste components to produce multiphase ceramics containing hollandite-type phases, perovskites (particularly BaTiO{sub 3}), pyrochlores and other minor metal titanate phases. Three fabrication methodologies were used, including melting and crystallizing, pressing and sintering, and Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS), with the intent of studying phase evolution under various sintering conditions. X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Scanning Electron Microscopy coupled with Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (SEM/EDS) results showed that the partitioning of the waste elements in the sintered materials was very similar, despite varying stoichiometry of the phases formed. Identification of excess Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} via XRD and SEM/EDS in the first series of compositions led to a Phase II study, with significantly reduced Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} concentrations and increased waste loadings. The Phase II compositions generally contained a reduced amount of unreacted Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} as identified by XRD. Chemical composition measurements showed no significant issues with meeting the target compositions. However, volatilization of Cs and Mo was identified, particularly during melting, since sintering of the pressed pellets and SPS were performed at lower temperatures. Partitioning of some of the waste components was difficult to determine via XRD. SEM/EDS mapping showed that those elements, which were generally present in small concentrations, were well distributed throughout the waste forms.

  20. Digital aesthetic forms between cinema and television: the need for new research directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Catolfi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Twentieth century visual conventions — organized by a competitive collusion between cinema and television — did not survive the multiple forms and applications of digital media that put into play the multiplication of screens, the differentiation of production practices and processes of diffusion, and the rise of audience participative experiences.

  1. Biological assessment of bisphenol A degradation in water following direct photolysis and UV advanced oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Pei-Jen; Linden, Karl G; Hinton, David E; Kashiwada, Shosaku; Rosenfeldt, Erik J; Kullman, Seth W

    2006-11-01

    Endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) are exogenous environmental chemicals that can interfere with normal hormone function and present a potential threat to both environmental and human health. The fate, distribution and degradation of EDCs is a subject of considerable investigation. To date, several studies have demonstrated that conventional water treatment processes are ineffective for removal of most EDCs and in some instances produce multiple unknown transformation products. In this study we have investigated the use of direct photolysis with low-pressure (LP) Hg UV lamps and UV+hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) advanced oxidation process (AOP) for the degradation of a prototypic endocrine disrupter, bisphenol A (BPA), in laboratory water. Removal rates of BPA and formation of degradation products were determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis. Changes in estrogenic activity were evaluated using both in vitro yeast estrogen screen (YES) and in vivo vitellogenin (VTG) assays with Japanese medaka fish (Oryzias latipes). Our results demonstrate that UV alone did not effectively degrade BPA. However, UV in combination with H(2)O(2) significantly removed BPA parent compound and aqueous estrogenic activity in vitro and in vivo. Removal rates of in vivo estrogenic activity were significantly lower than those observed in vitro, demonstrating differential sensitivities of these bioassays and that certain UV/AOP metabolites may retain estrogenic activity. Furthermore, the UV/H(2)O(2) AOP was effective for reducing larval lethality in treated BPA solutions, suggesting BPA degradation occurred and that the degradation process did not result in the production of acutely toxic intermediates.

  2. Advance Directives and Communication Skills of Prehospital Physicians Involved in the Care of Cardiovascular Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gigon, Fabienne; Merlani, Paolo; Ricou, Bara

    2015-12-01

    Advance directives (AD) were developed to respect patient autonomy. However, very few patients have AD, even in cases when major cardiovascular surgery is to follow. To understand the reasons behind the low prevalence of AD and to help decision making when patients are incompetent, it is necessary to focus on the impact of prehospital practitioners, who may contribute to an increase in AD by discussing them with patients. The purpose of this study was to investigate self-rated communication skills and the attitudes of physicians potentially involved in the care of cardiovascular patients toward AD.Self-administered questionnaires were sent to general practitioners, cardiologists, internists, and intensivists, including the Quality of Communication Score, divided into a General Communication score (QOCgen 6 items) and an End-of-life Communication score (QOCeol 7 items), as well as questions regarding opinions and practices in terms of AD.One hundred sixty-four responses were received. QOCgen (mean (±SD)): 9.0/10 (1.0); QOCeol: 7.2/10 (1.7). General practitioners most frequently start discussions about AD (74/149 [47%]) and are more prone to designate their own specialty (30/49 [61%], P communication skills as good, whereas end-of-life communication was rated much lower. Only half of those surveyed speak about AD with cardiovascular patients. The majority would prefer that physicians of another specialty, most frequently general practitioners, initiate conversation about AD. In order to increase prehospital AD incidence, efforts must be centered on improving practitioners' communication skills regarding death, by providing trainings to allow physicians to feel more at ease when speaking about end-of-life issues.

  3. [Advance directives in Italy: a goal not yet reached but already passed?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riccioni, Luigi; Gristina, Giuseppe

    2015-10-01

    The advance directives (ADs) have been adopted in many countries to defend patients' autonomy. In Italy, in the past, this topic gave rise to a heated debate involving philosophers, theologians, and politicians. In 2009, the government presented a bill of law on ADs firmly criticized from a scientific, moral and juridical point of view because the bill's content is against the principles of Italian Constitution, Italian Code of Medical Ethics, Oviedo Convention, and official statements of many scientific societies. Although the bill has passed the Low Chamber it lies, even since, in the Senate, lacking in regard any agreement among the political parties. The purpose of this article is to highlight that, in our country, patients, relatives and doctors deserve a law not only related to the specific topic of ADs, but - as in other European countries (Germany, Spain, France, UK) - aimed to deal with the complex issue of end of life care as a whole. This law should take into account the sound evidence existing in regard to the four fundamental principles supporting the best scientific and ethical approaches to the end of life issues: shared decision making process between doctors and patients/relatives; rejection of dying process marked by the suffering; withholding/withdrawing futile treatments together with palliative sedation as two crucial contributions to suppress the patient suffering and pain; clear-cut difference between these clinical/ethical options and euthanasia. At the same time, this law should be able to provide physicians with a legal coverage to make all the clinical and ethical decisions more and more complex because of the continuous evolution of medical science on one hand, and the impressive development of biotechnology on the other hand.

  4. Therapeutic Advances and Future Prospects in Progressive Forms of Multiple Sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirani, Afsaneh; Okuda, Darin T; Stüve, Olaf

    2016-01-01

    Identifying effective therapies for the treatment of progressive forms of multiple sclerosis (MS) is a highly relevant priority and one of the greatest challenges for the global MS community. Better understanding of the mechanisms involved in progression of the disease, novel trial designs, drug repurposing strategies, and new models of collaboration may assist in identifying effective therapies. In this review, we discuss various therapies under study in phase II or III trials, including antioxidants (idebenone); tyrosine kinase inhibitors (masitinib); sphingosine receptor modulators (siponimod); monoclonal antibodies (anti-leucine-rich repeat and immunoglobulin-like domain containing neurite outgrowth inhibitor receptor-interacting protein-1, natalizumab, ocrelizumab, intrathecal rituximab); hematopoetic stem cell therapy; statins and other possible neuroprotective agents (amiloride, riluzole, fluoxetine, oxcarbazepine); lithium; phosphodiesterase inhibitors (ibudilast); hormone-based therapies (adrenocorticotrophic hormone and erythropoietin); T-cell receptor peptide vaccine (NeuroVax); autologous T-cell immunotherapy (Tcelna); MIS416 (a microparticulate immune response modifier); dopamine antagonists (domperidone); and nutritional supplements, including lipoic acid, biotin, and sunphenon epigallocatechin-3-gallate (green tea extract). Given ongoing and planned clinical trial initiatives, and the largest ever focus of the global research community on progressive MS, future prospects for developing targeted therapeutics aimed at reducing disability in progressive forms of MS appear promising.

  5. Direction-fixed paroxysmal nystagmus lateral canal benign paroxysmal positioning vertigo (BPPV): another form of lateral canalolithiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Califano, L; Vassallo, A; Melillo, M G; Mazzone, S; Salafia, F

    2013-08-01

    Benign paroxysmal positioning vertigo (BPPV) is the most frequent vertiginous syndrome. It is caused either by free-floating otoliths in the semicircular canals (canalolithiasis) or by otoconial debris adhering to a canal cupula (cupulolithiasis). The posterior canal is the most frequently involved (80%), while the lateral canal is involved less frequently (15%), and the rarest conditions are anterior canalolithiasis and apogeotropic posterior canalolithiasis (5%). The main diagnostic sign of lateral canal BPPV is paroxysmal horizontal bidirectional positioning nystagmus evoked through Pagnini-McClure's test (head roll in the yaw plane in supine position). In the geotropic variant, which is more frequent, the fast phase of the nystagmus is directed towards the lowermost ear, when the patient lies on the affected side or on the healthy side; in the apogeotropic variant, which is less frequent, the fast phase is directed always toward the uppermost ear, regardless of which side the patient lies on. Paroxysmal nystagmus is more intense on the affected side in the geotropic form, and more intense on the healthy side in the apogeotropic form. The authors describe five cases of another primitive and rare form of lateral BPPV, defined as "direction-fixed paroxysmal nystagmus lateral canal BPPV", which has previously been described by other authors as a transitory step observed during the transformation from an apogeotropic into a geotropic form. It is characterized by typical BPPV symptoms and diagnosed by the presence of a paroxysmal horizontal unidirectional positioning nystagmus, evoked through Pagnini-McClure's test, which is apogeotropic on the affected side and geotropic on the healthy side. In the reported cases, direction-fixed horizontal paroxysmal nystagmus was always transformed into a typical geotropic form. The clinical features and pathophysiology of direction-fixed nystagmus lateral canal BPPV are discussed.

  6. The role of advance directives in end-of-life decisions in Austria: survey of intensive care physicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schopper Andrea

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Currently, intensive care medicine strives to define a generally accepted way of dealing with end-of-life decisions, therapy limitation and therapy discontinuation. In 2006 a new advance directive legislation was enacted in Austria. Patients may now document their personal views regarding extension of treatment. The aim of this survey was to explore Austrian intensive care physicians' experiences with and their acceptance of the new advance directive legislation two years after enactment (2008. Methods Under the aegis of the OEGARI (Austrian Society of Anaesthesiology, Resuscitation and Intensive Care an anonymised questionnaire was sent to the medical directors of all intensive care units in Austria. The questions focused on the physicians' experiences regarding advance directives and their level of knowledge about the underlying legislation. Results There were 241 questionnaires sent and 139 were turned, which was a response rate of 58%. About one third of the responders reported having had no experience with advance directives and only 9 directors of intensive care units had dealt with more than 10 advance directives in the previous two years. Life-supporting measures, resuscitation, and mechanical ventilation were the predominantly refused therapies, wishes were mainly expressed concerning pain therapy. Conclusion A response rate of almost 60% proves the great interest of intensive care professionals in making patient-oriented end-of-life decisions. However, as long as patients do not make use of their right of co-determination, the enactment of the new law can be considered only a first important step forward.

  7. Optimization of Process Parameters for High Efficiency Laser Forming of Advanced High Strength Steels within Metallurgical Constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikholeslami, Ghazal; Griffiths, Jonathan; Dearden, Geoff; Edwardson, Stuart P.

    Laser forming (LF) has been shown to be a viable alternative to form automotive grade advanced high strength steels (AHSS). Due to their high strength, heat sensitivity and low conventional formability show early fractures, larger springback, batch-to-batch inconsistency and high tool wear. In this paper, optimisation of the LF process parameters has been conducted to further understand the impact of a surface heat treatment on DP1000. A FE numerical simulation has been developed to analyse the dynamic thermo-mechanical effects. This has been verified against empirical data. The goal of the optimisation has been to develop a usable process window for the LF of AHSS within strict metallurgical constraints. Results indicate it is possible to LF this material, however a complex relationship has been found between the generation and maintenance of hardness values in the heated zone. A laser surface hardening effect has been observed that could be beneficial to the efficiency of the process.

  8. Study on forming directivity with constant beam width in low frequency based on small sensor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUI Junying; LIU Hong; YU Huabing; LIANG Guolong

    2001-01-01

    Based on a combined sensor with the size of 10 cm, a narrow beam with a constant receiving beam width of 20 degree has been formed in low frequency from several Hz to thousands of Hz by using simple adaptive algorithm. The results of theoretical simulation,laboratory experiment and lake experiment with one-dimension and two-dimension combined sensors have been given.

  9. Advanced waste form and Melter development for treatment of troublesome high-level wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marra, James [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Kim, Dong -Sang [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Maio, Vincent [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-10-01

    A number of waste components in US defense high level radioactive wastes (HLW) have proven challenging for current Joule heated ceramic melter (JHCM) operations and have limited the ability to increase waste loadings beyond already realized levels. Many of these “troublesome" waste species cause crystallization in the glass melt that can negatively impact product quality or have a deleterious effect on melter processing. Recent efforts at US Department of Energy laboratories have focused on understanding crystallization behavior within HLW glass melts and investigating approaches to mitigate the impacts of crystallization so that increases in waste loading can be realized. Advanced glass formulations have been developed to highlight the unique benefits of next-generation melter technologies such as the Cold Crucible Induction Melter (CCIM). Crystal-tolerant HLW glasses have been investigated to allow sparingly soluble components such as chromium to crystallize in the melter but pass out of the melter before accumulating.The Hanford site AZ-101 tank waste composition represents a waste group that is waste loading limited primarily due to high concentrations of Fe2O3 (also with high Al2O3 concentrations). Systematic glass formulation development utilizing slightly higher process temperatures and higher tolerance to spinel crystals demonstrated that an increase in waste loading of more than 20% could be achieved for this waste composition, and by extension higher loadings for wastes in the same group. An extended duration CCIM melter test was conducted on an AZ-101 waste simulant using the CCIM platform at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The melter was continually operated for approximately 80 hours demonstrating that the AZ-101 high waste loading glass composition could be readily processed using the CCIM technology. The resulting glass was close to the targeted composition and exhibited excellent durability in both

  10. Unnormalized and normalized forms of gefura measures in directed and undirected networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Raf GUNS; Ronald ROUSSEAU

    2015-01-01

    In some networks nodes belong to predefined groups (e.g., authors belong to institutions). Common network cen-trality measures do not take this structure into account. Gefura measures are designed as indicators of a node’s brokerage role between such groups. They are defined as variants of betweenness centrality and consider to what extent a node belongs to shortest paths between nodes from different groups. In this article we make the following new contributions to their study: (1) We systematically study unnormalized gefura measures and show that, next to the ‘structural’ normalization that has hitherto been applied, a ‘basic’ normalization procedure is possible. While the former normalizes at the level of groups, the latter normal-izes at the level of nodes. (2) Treating undirected networks as equivalent to symmetric directed networks, we expand the defini-tion of gefura measures to the directed case. (3) It is shown how Brandes’ algorithm for betweenness centrality can be adjusted to cover these cases.

  11. EVALUATION OF THOR MINERALIZED WASTE FORMS FOR THE DOE ADVANCED REMEDIATION TECHNOLOGIES PHASE 2 PROJECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawford, C.; Jantzen, C.

    2012-02-02

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of River Protection (ORP) is responsible for the retrieval, treatment, immobilization, and disposal of Hanford's tank waste. Currently there are approximately 56 million gallons of highly radioactive mixed wastes awaiting treatment. A key aspect of the River Protection Project (RPP) cleanup mission is to construct and operate the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). The WTP will separate the tank waste into high-level and low-activity waste (LAW) fractions, both of which will subsequently be vitrified. The projected throughput capacity of the WTP LAW Vitrification Facility is insufficient to complete the RPP mission in the time frame required by the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, also known as the Tri-Party Agreement (TPA), i.e. December 31, 2047. Therefore, Supplemental Treatment is required both to meet the TPA treatment requirements as well as to more cost effectively complete the tank waste treatment mission. The Supplemental Treatment chosen will immobilize that portion of the retrieved LAW that is not sent to the WTP's LAW Vitrification facility into a solidified waste form. The solidified waste will then be disposed on the Hanford site in the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF). In addition, the WTP LAW Vitrification facility off-gas condensate known as WTP Secondary Waste (WTP-SW) will be generated and enriched in volatile components such as Cs-137, I-129, Tc-99, Cl, F, and SO{sub 4} that volatilize at the vitrification temperature of 1150 C in the absence of a continuous cold cap. The current waste disposal path for the WTP-SW is to recycle it to the supplemental LAW treatment to avoid a large steady state accumulation in the pretreatment-vitrification loop. Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) offers a moderate temperature (700-750 C) continuous method by which LAW and/or WTP-SW wastes can be processed irrespective of whether they contain organics, nitrates

  12. EVALUATION OF THOR MINERALIZED WASTE FORMS FOR THE DOE ADVANCED REMEDIATION TECHNOLOGIES PHASE 2 PROJECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawford, C.; Jantzen, C.

    2012-02-02

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of River Protection (ORP) is responsible for the retrieval, treatment, immobilization, and disposal of Hanford's tank waste. Currently there are approximately 56 million gallons of highly radioactive mixed wastes awaiting treatment. A key aspect of the River Protection Project (RPP) cleanup mission is to construct and operate the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). The WTP will separate the tank waste into high-level and low-activity waste (LAW) fractions, both of which will subsequently be vitrified. The projected throughput capacity of the WTP LAW Vitrification Facility is insufficient to complete the RPP mission in the time frame required by the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, also known as the Tri-Party Agreement (TPA), i.e. December 31, 2047. Therefore, Supplemental Treatment is required both to meet the TPA treatment requirements as well as to more cost effectively complete the tank waste treatment mission. The Supplemental Treatment chosen will immobilize that portion of the retrieved LAW that is not sent to the WTP's LAW Vitrification facility into a solidified waste form. The solidified waste will then be disposed on the Hanford site in the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF). In addition, the WTP LAW Vitrification facility off-gas condensate known as WTP Secondary Waste (WTP-SW) will be generated and enriched in volatile components such as Cs-137, I-129, Tc-99, Cl, F, and SO{sub 4} that volatilize at the vitrification temperature of 1150 C in the absence of a continuous cold cap. The current waste disposal path for the WTP-SW is to recycle it to the supplemental LAW treatment to avoid a large steady state accumulation in the pretreatment-vitrification loop. Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) offers a moderate temperature (700-750 C) continuous method by which LAW and/or WTP-SW wastes can be processed irrespective of whether they contain organics, nitrates

  13. [Research on direct forming of comminuted fracture surgery orienting model by selective laser melting].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xingrong; Yang, Yongqiang; Wu, Weihui; Wang, Di; Ding, Huanwen; Huang, Weihong

    2010-06-01

    In order to simplify the distal femoral comminuted fracture surgery and improve the accuracy of the parts to be reset, a kind of surgery orienting model for the surgery operation was designed according to the scanning data of computer tomography and the three-dimensional reconstruction image. With the use of DiMetal-280 selective laser melting rapid prototyping system, the surgery orienting model of 316L stainless steel was made through orthogonal experiment for processing parameter optimization. The technology of direct manufacturing of surgery orienting model by selective laser melting was noted to have obvious superiority with high speed, precise profile and good accuracy in size when compared with the conventional one. The model was applied in a real surgical operation for thighbone replacement; it worked well. The successful development of the model provides a new method for the automatic manufacture of customized surgery model, thus building a foundation for more clinical applications in the future.

  14. A Conceptual Study for the Autonomous Direct Forming of Lunar Regolith into Flexlock (Trademark) Geomats for Lunar Surface Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Luke B.; Hintze, Paul; OConnor, Gregory W.

    2009-01-01

    We describe the conceptual method of an autonomously operable Direct Forming machine that would consume regolith or regolith slag to mold intimately, interlinked elements in a continuous process. The resulting product, one to three meter wide geomats, would be deployed over commonly traversed areas to isolate the astronauts and equipment from underlying dust. The porous geotextile would provide areas for dust settling, thereby mitigating dust impingement on astronaut suits or surface structures. Because of their self-supporting yet flexible structure, these geomats could be assembled into shields and buttresses to protect lunar habitants from radiation, forming a "flexoskeleton" from in situ materials.

  15. Photoluminescent carbon quantum dots as a directly film-forming phosphor towards white LEDs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Feng; Feng, Xiaoting; Zhang, Yi; Yan, Lingpeng; Yang, Yongzhen; Liu, Xuguang

    2016-04-01

    Photoluminescent organosilane-functionalized carbon quantum dots (CQDs), 3.0-3.5 nm in diameter, were synthesized via a facile hydrothermal method using citric acid monohydrate as a precursor and N-(3-(trimethoxysilyl) propyl) ethylenediamine as a coordinating and passivation agent. The optical properties of the as-obtained CQDs were investigated in detail. The CQD aqueous solution emits bright blue-white light under ultraviolet (UV) illumination with a quantum yield of 57.3% and high red-green-blue (RGB) spectral composition of 60.1%, and in particular the CQDs exhibit excitation-independent photoluminescence. The CQDs have a narrow size distribution around 3.1 nm and good film-forming ability through simple heat-treatment. By virtue of these excellent optical characteristics and good film-forming ability, a white light-emitting device (LED) was fabricated by combining a UV-LED chip with a single CQD phosphor film, which exhibited cool white light with a CIE coordinate of (0.31, 0.36), a color rendering index of 84 and a correlated color temperature of 6282 K. In addition, the white LED exhibits good optical stability under various working currents and for different working time intervals. Moreover, the interaction between the carbogenic core and surface groups was discussed using the DMol3 program based on density functional theory. This research suggests the great potential of CQDs for solid-state lighting systems and reveals the effect of the surface state on the photoluminescent mechanism of CQDs.

  16. Photoluminescent carbon quantum dots as a directly film-forming phosphor towards white LEDs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Feng; Feng, Xiaoting; Zhang, Yi; Yan, Lingpeng; Yang, Yongzhen; Liu, Xuguang

    2016-04-28

    Photoluminescent organosilane-functionalized carbon quantum dots (CQDs), 3.0-3.5 nm in diameter, were synthesized via a facile hydrothermal method using citric acid monohydrate as a precursor and N-(3-(trimethoxysilyl) propyl) ethylenediamine as a coordinating and passivation agent. The optical properties of the as-obtained CQDs were investigated in detail. The CQD aqueous solution emits bright blue-white light under ultraviolet (UV) illumination with a quantum yield of 57.3% and high red-green-blue (RGB) spectral composition of 60.1%, and in particular the CQDs exhibit excitation-independent photoluminescence. The CQDs have a narrow size distribution around 3.1 nm and good film-forming ability through simple heat-treatment. By virtue of these excellent optical characteristics and good film-forming ability, a white light-emitting device (LED) was fabricated by combining a UV-LED chip with a single CQD phosphor film, which exhibited cool white light with a CIE coordinate of (0.31, 0.36), a color rendering index of 84 and a correlated color temperature of 6282 K. In addition, the white LED exhibits good optical stability under various working currents and for different working time intervals. Moreover, the interaction between the carbogenic core and surface groups was discussed using the DMol(3) program based on density functional theory. This research suggests the great potential of CQDs for solid-state lighting systems and reveals the effect of the surface state on the photoluminescent mechanism of CQDs.

  17. Effects of Lighting Direction on the Impression of Faces and Objects and the Role of Gaze Direction in the Impression-Forming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keiichi Horibata

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available We examined whether lighting direction, left or right, has an influence on the impression of faces and objects, and the role of gaze direction in the impression-forming. In the first experiment, we examined how lighting directions influenced the impression of faces and objects. On each trial, a pair of faces or objects was presented on top of each other. Left side was brighter in one and right side was brighter in the other. The participants were asked to answer which face or object was more preferable. The results showed that the participants preferred left-brighter faces and objects significantly more frequently than right-brighter stimuli (p < .05, chi-square test. The effect was especially strong in the upright faces. The results suggested that faces and objects give better impressions when they are lit from the left. In the second experiment, we examined whether eye-movement would play a role in our preference for left-brighter faces and objects. We recorded eye-movements of the participants while doing the same task as the first experiment. The results showed that the participants' preference for left-brighter faces were stronger when the participant started viewing from the left. The gaze direction may modulate our impression-formation (Shimojo et al. 2003.

  18. 78 FR 63464 - William D. Ford Federal Direct Loan Program Repayment Plan Selection Form; Extension of Public...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-24

    ...On October 3, 2013 the U.S. Department of Education published a 30-day comment period notice in the Federal Register (Page 61347, Column 2) seeking public comment for an information collection entitled, ``William D. Ford Federal Direct Loan Program Repayment Plan Selection Form''. ED is extending the comment period to November 18, 2013 due to the public's inability to access the collection at......

  19. Heterojunction characteristics of ZnO and CuO substrates formed by direct bonding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abe, Hiroshi; Fujishima, Masahide; Komiyama, Takao; Chonan, Yasunori; Yamaguchi, Hiroyuki; Aoyama, Takashi [Department of Electronics and Information Systems, Akita Prefectural University, Yuri-honjo, Akita 015-0055 (Japan)

    2012-06-15

    The n-ZnO/p-CuO heterojunction characteristics have been investigated by direct bonding of ZnO and CuO substrates at room temperatures, and by post-annealing at 800 C. The ZnO substrate was fabricated by mixing of ZnO and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} (2%) powders, pressing at 50 MPa, and sintering at 1400 C while the CuO substrate was fabricated by mixing of CuO and Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3} (1%) powders, pressing at 300 MPa, and sintering at 700 C. Rectifying behaviour with an ideality factor of 126 was observed after bonding of these substrates. Post-annealing of the heterojunction, however, significantly increased both the forward and the reverse currents, and the rectifying behaviour was lost. Symmetrical I-V curves with threshold voltages of about {+-} 1 V were observed and this degradation could be explained by impurity (Al and Li) segregation at the junction interface. (copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  20. Preparation and evaluation of directly compressible forms of mutual prodrugs of ibuprofen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhosale A

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Tablets of mutual prodrugs of ibuprofen, i.e, ′ibuprofen with paracetamol′ and ′ibuprofen with salicylamide,′ were prepared by direct compression method. The preformulation studies such as flow property, solid state stability at elevated temperatures, solid state stability under different humidity conditions, photolytic stability and compatibility studies of prodrugs with excipients were also performed to design and develop tablet formulations of prodrugs. Quality control tests and in vivo studies of prepared tablets of prodrugs were performed. The result of preformulation studies revealed that prodrugs have good flow property, good solid state stability at elevated temperatures and unstable under different humidity conditions. The photolytic stability study showed that prodrugs are quite stable to light; hence prodrugs are nonphotolytic. The compatibility study indicated that there was no incompatibility or interaction between prodrugs and excipients, which were tried. The prepared tablets of prodrugs were found to satisfy all quality control requirements of tablets mentioned in the Indian Pharmacopoeia. In vivo study of tablet formulations of prodrugs confirmed that they possessed the ability of parent drug, i.e., ibuprofen. In vivo study also showed better extent of bioavailability (indicated by AUC0-24 of tablet of prodrugs as compared to tablets of ibuprofen.

  1. Stereo imaging and cytocompatibility of a model dental implant surface formed by direct laser fabrication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangano, Carlo; Raspanti, Mario; Traini, Tonino; Piattelli, Adriano; Sammons, Rachel

    2009-03-01

    Direct laser fabrication (DLF) allows solids with complex geometry to be produced by sintering metal powder particles in a focused laser beam. In this study, 10 Ti6Al4V alloy model dental root implants were obtained by DLF, and surface characterization was carried out using stereo scanning electron microscopy to produce 3D reconstructions. The surfaces were extremely irregular, with approximately 100 microm deep, narrow intercommunicating crevices, shallow depressions and deep, rounded pits of widely variable shape and size, showing ample scope for interlocking with the host bone. Roughness parameters were as follows: R(t), 360.8 microm; R(z), 358.4 microm; R(a), 67.4 microm; and R(q), 78.0 microm. Disc specimens produced by DLF with an identically prepared surface were used for biocompatibility studies with rat calvarial osteoblasts: After 9 days, cells had attached and spread on the DLF surface, spanning across the crevices, and voids. Cell density was similar to that on a commercial rough microtextured surface but lower than on commercial smooth machined and smooth-textured grit-blasted, acid-etched surfaces. Human fibrin clot extension on the DLF surface was slightly improved by inorganic acid etching to increase the microroughness. With further refinements, DLF could be an economical means of manufacturing implants from titanium alloys.

  2. Capability of Neutrophils to Form NETs Is Not Directly Influenced by a CMA-Targeting Peptide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maueröder, Christian; Schall, Nicolas; Meyer, Frédéric; Mahajan, Aparna; Garnier, Benjamin; Hahn, Jonas; Kienhöfer, Deborah; Hoffmann, Markus H.; Muller, Sylviane

    2017-01-01

    During inflammatory reaction, neutrophils exhibit numerous cellular and immunological functions, notably the formation of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) and autophagy. NETs are composed of decondensed chromatin fibers coated with various antimicrobial molecules derived from neutrophil granules. NETs participate in antimicrobial defense and can also display detrimental roles and notably trigger some of the immune features of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and other autoimmune diseases. Autophagy is a complex and finely regulated mechanism involved in the cell survival/death balance that may be connected to NET formation. To shed some light on the connection between autophagy and NET formation, we designed a number of experiments in human neutrophils and both in normal and lupus-prone MRL/lpr mice to determine whether the synthetic peptide P140, which is capable of selectively modulating chaperone-mediated autophagy (CMA) in lymphocytes, could alter NET formation. P140/Lupuzor™ is currently being evaluated in phase III clinical trials involving SLE patients. Overall our in vitro and in vivo studies established that P140 does not influence NET formation, cytokine/chemokine production, or CMA in neutrophils. Thus, the beneficial effect of P140/Lupuzor™ in SLE is apparently not directly related to modulation of neutrophil function. PMID:28191006

  3. IDN2 and its paralogs form a complex required for RNA-directed DNA methylation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cui-Jun Zhang

    Full Text Available IDN2/RDM12 has been previously identified as a component of the RNA-directed DNA methylation (RdDM machinery in Arabidopsis thaliana, but how it functions in RdDM remains unknown. By affinity purification of IDN2, we co-purified two IDN2 paralogs IDP1 and IDP2 (IDN2 PARALOG 1 and 2. The coiled-coil domain between the XS and XH domains of IDN2 is essential for IDN2 homodimerization, whereas the IDN2 C-terminal XH domain but not the coiled-coil domain is required for IDN2 interaction with IDP1 and IDP2. By introducing the wild-type IDN2 sequence and its mutated derivatives into the idn2 mutant for complementation testing, we demonstrated that the previously uncharacterized IDN2 XH domain is required for the IDN2-IDP1/IDP2 complex formation as well as for IDN2 function. IDP1 is required for de novo DNA methylation, siRNA accumulation, and transcriptional gene silencing, whereas IDP2 has partially overlapping roles with IDP1. Unlike IDN2, IDP1 and IDP2 are incapable of binding double-stranded RNA, suggesting that the roles of IDP1 and IDP2 are different from those of IDN2 in the IDN2-IDP1/IDP2 complex and that IDP1 and IDP2 are essential for the functioning of the complex in RdDM.

  4. GeSn-on-insulator substrate formed by direct wafer bonding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Dian; Lee, Kwang Hong; Bao, Shuyu; Wang, Wei; Wang, Bing; Gong, Xiao; Tan, Chuan Seng; Yeo, Yee-Chia

    2016-07-01

    GeSn-on-insulator (GeSnOI) on Silicon (Si) substrate was realized using direct wafer bonding technique. This process involves the growth of Ge1-xSnx layer on a first Si (001) substrate (donor wafer) followed by the deposition of SiO2 on Ge1-xSnx, the bonding of the donor wafer to a second Si (001) substrate (handle wafer), and removal of the Si donor wafer. The GeSnOI material quality is investigated using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, high-resolution X-ray diffraction (HRXRD), atomic-force microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and spectroscopic ellipsometry. The Ge1-xSnx layer on GeSnOI substrate has a surface roughness of 1.90 nm, which is higher than that of the original Ge1-xSnx epilayer before transfer (surface roughness is 0.528 nm). The compressive strain of the Ge1-xSnx film in the GeSnOI is as low as 0.10% as confirmed using HRXRD and Raman spectroscopy.

  5. The impact of Roman Catholic moral theology on end-of-life care under the Texas Advance Directives Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zientek, David M

    2006-04-01

    This essay reviews the Roman Catholic moral tradition surrounding treatments at the end of life together with the challenges presented to that tradition by the Texas Advance Directives Act. The impact on Catholic health care facilities and physicians, and the way in which the moral tradition should be applied under this statute, particularly with reference to the provision dealing with conflicts over end-of-life treatments, will be critically assessed. I will argue, based on the traditional treatment of end-of-life issues, that Catholic physicians and institutions should appeal to the conflict resolution process of the Advance Directives Act only under a limited number of circumstances. The implications, under the Texas statute, of varied interpretations of Pope John Paul II's recent allocution on artificial feeding and hydration in the persistent vegetative state will also be considered.

  6. Advances in the management of melanoma: targeted therapy, immunotherapy and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Emma; Lorigan, Paul

    2012-11-01

    Metastatic melanoma is an aggressive, immunogenic and molecularly heterogeneous disease for which most patients require systemic treatment. Recently, significant clinical breakthroughs have revolutionized the treatment of advanced melanoma, leading to the licensing of ipilimumab, a monoclonal antibody targeting cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen 4, and vemurafenib, a BRAF inhibitor used in patients whose tumors contain a V600 mutation in the BRAF gene. This recent success has led to optimism and momentum has gathered with updated trial results from these therapies, next-generation compounds that target validated molecular pathways and novel agents that are mechanistically distinct. This review summarizes the recent advances and updated results since the licensing of vemurafenib and ipilimumab, the benefits and limitations of these agents, future strategies to improve upon existing treatments and overcome acquired resistance, in-progress and future clinical trials, as well as novel therapeutic targets, pathways and therapies that hold promise in advancing clinical benefit.

  7. Remote access directional drilling : an innovative technological advancement in directional drilling based on a collaborative and strategic R and D effort

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buker, M. [Phoenix Income Trust, Toronto, ON (Canada); Gillett, G. [EnCana Oil and Gas Partnership, Bonnyville, AB (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    EnCana and Phoenix Income Trust identified an opportunity to develop a system that could reduce directional personnel in the field because of numerous rigs that were in close proximity to each other and the repetitive nature of well profiles. Directional personnel also had familiarity with drilling programs. This presentation discussed an innovative technological advancement in directional drilling based on a collaborative and strategic research and development effort between EnCana and Phoenix Income Trust called remote access directional drilling (RADD). The RADD system and process were presented in detail. Challenges that were addressed included the development of a system that could provide all the necessary drilling information remotely; establishing effective communication between the command center and rig; and training of Phoenix and EnCana personnel. The presentation also reviewed equipment solutions and re-defining job roles. A total of 265 wells have been drilled with this system at a cost savings of $350,000 and a savings of 12-15 per cent of total directional costs. It was concluded that fewer wellsite trailers are needed when field personnel is reduced, resulting in reduced cost and reduced safety liability. 2 figs.

  8. Advance Directives for End-of-Life Care and the Role of Health Education Specialists: Applying the Theory of Reasoned Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremethick, Mary Jane; Johnson, Maureen K.; Carter, Mary R.

    2011-01-01

    Quality end-of-life care is subjective and based on individual values and beliefs. An advance directive provides a legal means of communicating these values and beliefs, as well as preferences in regards to end-of-life care when an individual is no longer able to make his or her desires known. In many nations, advance directives are underused…

  9. A Qualitative Analysis of an Advanced Practice Nurse-Directed Transitional Care Model Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradway, Christine; Trotta, Rebecca; Bixby, M. Brian; McPartland, Ellen; Wollman, M. Catherine; Kapustka, Heidi; McCauley, Kathleen; Naylor, Mary D.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to describe barriers and facilitators to implementing a transitional care intervention for cognitively impaired older adults and their caregivers lead by advanced practice nurses (APNs). Design and Methods: APNs implemented an evidence-based protocol to optimize transitions from hospital to home. An…

  10. Sowing Black Hole Seeds: Forming Direct Collapse Black Holes With Realistic Lyman-Werner Radiation Fields in Cosmological Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holley-Bockelmann, Kelly; Dunn, Glenna; Bellovary, Jillian M.; Christensen, Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    Luminous quasars detected at redshifts z > 6 require that the first black holes form early and grow to ~109 solar masses within one Gyr. Our work uses cosmological simulations to study the formation and early growth of direct collapse black holes. In the pre-reionization epoch, molecular hydrogen (H2) causes gas to fragment and form Population III stars, but Lyman-Werner radiation can suppress H2 formation and allow gas to collapse directly into a massive black hole. The critical flux required to inhibit H2 formation, Jcrit, is hotly debated, largely due to the uncertainties in the source radiation spectrum, H2 self-shielding, and collisional dissociation rates. Here, we test the power of the direct collapse model in a non-uniform Lyman-Werner radiation field, using an updated version of the SPH+N-body tree code Gasoline with H2 non-equilibrium abundance tracking, H2 cooling, and a modern SPH implementation. We vary Jcrit from 30 to 104 J21 to study the effect on seed black holes, focusing on black hole formation as a function of environment, halo mass, metallicity, and proximity of the Lyman-Werner source. We discuss the constraints on massive black hole occupation fraction in the quasar epoch, and implications for reionization, high-redshift X-ray background radiation, and gravitational waves.

  11. Overcoming gaps to advance global health equity: a symposium on new directions for research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenk, Julio; Chen, Lincoln

    2011-02-22

    The 20th anniversary of the groundbreaking report of the Commission on Health Research for Development inspired a Symposium to assess progress made in strengthening essential national health research capacity in developing countries and in global research partnerships. Significant aspects of the health gains achieved in the 20th century can be attributed to the advancement and translation of knowledge, and knowledge continues to occupy center stage amidst growing complexity that characterizes the global health field. The way forward will entail a reinvigoration of research-generated knowledge as a crucial ingredient for global cooperation and global health advances. To do this we will need to overcome daunting gaps, including the divides between domestic and global health, among the disciplines of research (biomedical, clinical, epidemiological, health systems), between clinical and public health approaches, public and private investments, and between knowledge gained and action implemented. Overcoming systematically these obstacles can accelerate progress towards research for equity in health and development.

  12. Overcoming gaps to advance global health equity: a symposium on new directions for research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Lincoln

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The 20th anniversary of the groundbreaking report of the Commission on Health Research for Development inspired a Symposium to assess progress made in strengthening essential national health research capacity in developing countries and in global research partnerships. Significant aspects of the health gains achieved in the 20th century can be attributed to the advancement and translation of knowledge, and knowledge continues to occupy center stage amidst growing complexity that characterizes the global health field. The way forward will entail a reinvigoration of research-generated knowledge as a crucial ingredient for global cooperation and global health advances. To do this we will need to overcome daunting gaps, including the divides between domestic and global health, among the disciplines of research (biomedical, clinical, epidemiological, health systems, between clinical and public health approaches, public and private investments, and between knowledge gained and action implemented. Overcoming systematically these obstacles can accelerate progress towards research for equity in health and development.

  13. Direct methods for limit and shakedown analysis of structures advanced computational algorithms and material modelling

    CERN Document Server

    Pisano, Aurora; Weichert, Dieter

    2015-01-01

    Articles in this book examine various materials and how to determine directly the limit state of a structure, in the sense of limit analysis and shakedown analysis. Apart from classical applications in mechanical and civil engineering contexts, the book reports on the emerging field of material design beyond the elastic limit, which has further industrial design and technological applications. Readers will discover that “Direct Methods” and the techniques presented here can in fact be used to numerically estimate the strength of structured materials such as composites or nano-materials, which represent fruitful fields of future applications.   Leading researchers outline the latest computational tools and optimization techniques and explore the possibility of obtaining information on the limit state of a structure whose post-elastic loading path and constitutive behavior are not well defined or well known. Readers will discover how Direct Methods allow rapid and direct access to requested information in...

  14. Advances in directed protein evolution by recursive genetic recombination: applications to therapeutic proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtzman, A L; Govindarajan, S; Vahle, K; Jones, J T; Heinrichs, V; Patten, P A

    2001-08-01

    Recent developments in directed evolution technologies combined with innovations in robotics and screening methods have revolutionized protein engineering. These methods are being applied broadly to many fields of biotechnology, including chemical engineering, agriculture and human therapeutics. More specifically, DNA shuffling and other methods of genetic recombination and mutation have resulted in the improvement of proteins of therapeutic interest. Optimizing genetic diversity and fitness through iterative directed evolution will accelerate improvements in engineered protein therapeutics.

  15. Soluble Form of Receptor for Advanced Glycation End Products Is Associated with Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome in Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Tsueng He

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the relationship between soluble form of receptor for advanced glycation end products (sRAGE, obesity, and metabolic syndrome (MetS in adolescents. A total of 522 male and 561 female adolescents were enrolled into the final analyses. Anthropometric parameters, blood pressure, blood biochemistry, fasting insulin, and plasma sRAGE levels were measured. In males, sRAGE was significantly and inversely correlated with waist circumference (WC, body mass index (BMI, systolic blood pressure, triglyceride (TG, low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, and homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR. Only WC and BMI were significantly and inversely correlated with sRAGE in females. Using linear regression analysis adjusting for age and gender, significant association was found between sRAGE and WC, BMI, TG, LDL-C, and HOMA-IR in adolescents of either gender (P<0.05. This association was abolished when further adjusting BMI. In addition, sRAGE was significantly and inversely correlated with the increasing number of components of MetS in males (P for trend = 0.006 but not in females (P for trend = 0.422. In conclusion, plasma sRAGE is associated with obesity and MetS among adolescents. BMI may be the most important determinant of sRAGE levels in adolescents.

  16. Recent advances on Zeolite modification for direct alcohol fuel cells (DAFCs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makertihartha, I. G. B. N.; Zunita, M.; Rizki, Z.; Dharmawijaya, P. T.

    2017-03-01

    The increase of energy demand and global warming issues has driven studies of alternative energy sources. The polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) can be an alternative energy source by (partially) replacing the use of fossil fuel which is in line with the green technology concept. However, the usage of hydrogen as a fuel has several disadvantages mainly transportation and storage related to its safety aspects. Recently, alcohol has gained attention as an energy source for fuel cell application, namely direct alcohol fuel cell (DAFC). Among alcohols, high-mass energy density methanol and ethanol are widely used as direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) and direct ethanol fuel cell (DEFC), respectively. Currently, the performance of DMFC is still rudimentary. Furthermore, the use of ethanol gives some additional privileges such as non-toxic property, renewable, ease of production in great quantity by the fermentation of sugar-containing raw materials. Direct alcohol fuel cell (DAFC) still has weakness in the low proton conductivity and high alcohol crossover. Therefore, to increase the performance of DAFC, modification using zeolite has been performed to improve proton conductivity and decrease alcohol crossover. Zeolite also has high thermal resistance properties, thereby increasing DAFC performance. This paper will discuss briefly about modification of catalyst and membrane for DAFC using zeolite. Zeolite modification effect on fuel cell performance especially proton conductivity and alcohol crossover will be presented in detail.

  17. Polycaprolactone scaffolds fabricated with an advanced electrohydrodynamic direct-printing method for bone tissue regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Seung Hyun; Lee, Hyeong Jin; Kim, Geun Hyung

    2011-12-12

    Electrohydrodynamic (EHD) direct writing has been used in diverse microelectromechanical systems and various supplemental methods for biotechnology and electronics. In this work, we expanded the use of EHD-induced direct writing to fabricate 3D biomedical scaffolds designed as porous structures for bone tissue engineering. To prepare the scaffolds, we modified a grounded target used in conventional EHD direct printing using a poly(ethylene oxide) solution bath, elastically cushioning the plotted struts to prevent crumbling. The fabricated scaffolds were assessed for not only physical properties including surface roughness and water uptake ability but also biological capabilities by culturing osteoblast-like cells (MG63) for the EHD-plotted polycaprolactone (PCL) scaffold. The EHD-scaffolds showed significantly roughened surface and enhanced water-absorption ability (400% increase) compared with the pure rapid-prototyped PCL. The results of cell viability, alkaline phosphatase activity, and mineralization analyses showed significantly enhanced biological properties of the scaffold (20 times the cell viability and 6 times the mineralization) compared with the scaffolds fabricated using RP technology. Because of the results, the modified EHD direct-writing process can be a promising method for fabricating 3D biomedical scaffolds in tissue engineering.

  18. Advancing Scientific Reasoning in Upper Elementary Classrooms: Direct Instruction Versus Task Structuring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lazonder, A.W.; Wiskerke-Drost, Sjanou

    2015-01-01

    Several studies found that direct instruction and task structuring can effectively promote children’s ability to design unconfounded experiments. The present study examined whether the impact of these interventions extends to other scientific reasoning skills by comparing the inquiry activities of 5

  19. The Crosstalk between Tissue Engineering and Pharmaceutical Biotechnology: Recent Advances and Future Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco, Daniela P; Reis, Rui L; Correlo, Vítor M; Marques, Alexandra P

    2015-01-01

    Tissue-engineered constructs made of biotechnology-derived materials have been preferred due to their chemical and physical composition, which offers both high versatility and a support to enclose/ incorporate relevant signaling molecules and/or genes known to therapeutically induce tissue repair. Herein, a critical overview of the impact of different biotechnology-derived materials, scaffolds, and recombinant signaling molecules over the behavior of cells, another element of tissue engineered constructs, as well its regulatory role in tissue regeneration and disease progression is given. Additionally, these tissue-engineered constructs evolved to three-dimensional (3D) tissue-like models that, as an advancement of two-dimensional standard culture methods, are expected to be a valuable tool in the field of drug discovery and pharmaceutical research. Despite the improved design and conception of current proposed 3D tissue-like models, advanced control systems to enable and accelerate streamlining and automation of the numerous labor-intensive steps intrinsic to the development of tissue-engineered constructs are still to be achieved. In this sense, this review intends to present the biotechnology- derived materials that are being explored in the field of tissue engineering to generate 3D tissue-analogues and briefly highlight their foremost breakthroughs in tissue regeneration and drug discovery. It also aims to reinforce that the crosstalk between tissue engineering and pharmaceutical biotechnology has been fostering the outcomes of tissue engineering approaches through the use of biotechnology-derived signaling molecules. Gene delivery/therapy is also discussed as a forefront area that represents another cross point between tissue engineering and pharmaceutical biotechnology, in which nucleic acids can be considered a "super pharmaceutical" to drive biological responses, including tissue regeneration.

  20. Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation in Stroke Rehabilitation: A Review of Recent Advancements

    OpenAIRE

    Andrea Gomez Palacio Schjetnan; Jamshid Faraji; Metz, Gerlinde A.; Masami Tatsuno; Artur Luczak

    2013-01-01

    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a promising technique to treat a wide range of neurological conditions including stroke. The pathological processes following stroke may provide an exemplary system to investigate how tDCS promotes neuronal plasticity and functional recovery. Changes in synaptic function after stroke, such as reduced excitability, formation of aberrant connections, and deregulated plastic modifications, have been postulated to impede recovery from stroke. Howe...

  1. Experimental Advances Towards Neural Regeneration from Induced Stem Cells to Direct In Vivo Reprogramming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dametti, Sara; Faravelli, Irene; Ruggieri, Margherita; Ramirez, Agnese; Nizzardo, Monica; Corti, Stefania

    2016-05-01

    Neuronal loss is a common substrate of many neurological diseases that still lack effective treatments and highly burden lives of affected individuals. The discovery of self-renewing stem cells within the central nervous system (CNS) has opened the doors to the possibility of using the plasticity of CNS as a potential strategy for the development of regenerative therapies after injuries. The role of neural progenitor cells appears to be crucial, but insufficient in reparative processes after damage. In addition, the mechanisms that regulate these events are still largely unknown. Stem cell-based therapeutic approaches have primarily focused on the use of either induced pluripotent stem cells or induced neural stem cells as sources for cell transplantation. More recently, in vivo direct reprogramming of endogenous CNS cells into multipotent neural stem/progenitor cells has been proposed as an alternative strategy that could overcome the limits connected with both the invasiveness of exogenous cell transplantation and the technical issues of in vitro reprogramming (i.e., the time requested and the limited available amount of directly induced neuronal cells). In this review, we aim to highlight the recent studies on in vivo direct reprogramming, focusing on astrocytes conversion to neurons or to neural stem/precursors cells, in the perspective of future therapeutic purposes for neurological disorders.

  2. Combining floristic and growth form composition in a gradient- directed vegetation survey of Matjiesrivier Nature Reserve, Western Cape, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. G. Lechmere-Oertel

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available The floristically complex vegetation of Matjiesrivier Nature Reserve (MNR. which spans the ecotone between the Fynbos and Succulent Karoo Biomes in the eastern Cederberg Mountains, Western Cape, was surveyed using a gradient-directed transect (gradsect. The gradsect was aligned with a topo-ciimatic aridity gradient across MNR. The vegetation was classified using TWINSPAN. based on a combination of floristic and growth form characteristics, and an understanding of the main ecological gradients controlling vegetation distribution. The final classification described seven robust and eco­logically meaningful communities that represented a trade-off between statistical rigour and practicality for management. The seven communities were mapped using a geographical information system (GIS.

  3. Composition and hardness of mullite coatings formed with direct current power supply on LY12 aluminum alloy surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIN Shi-gang; JIANG Zhao-hua; LI Yan-ping; ZHANG Ji-lin

    2005-01-01

    The surface modification of aluminum and its alloys using plasma technology is increasingly being investigated. Thick ceramic coatings with high hardness on aluminum alloys can be prepared successfully using a micro-plasma oxidation (MPO) technique. In this work, the composition, microstructure and elemental distribution of ceramic coatings formed by MPO on LY 12 aluminum alloy and its hardness are investigated using XRD, EPMA and microhardness instruments. The results show that the ceramic coatings consist of mullite, γ -Al2 O3 and a lot of amorphous matter. The content of silicon in the coatings increases from interface to the coatings, however, the content of aluminum decreases along this direction. The maximum hardness of ceramic coatings is up to 9. 2 GPa.

  4. Direct closed-form covariance matrix and finite alphabet constant-envelope waveforms for planar array beampatterns

    KAUST Repository

    Ahmed, Sajid

    2016-11-24

    Various examples of methods and systems are provided for direct closed-form finite alphabet constant-envelope waveforms for planar array beampatterns. In one example, a method includes defining a waveform covariance matrix based at least in part upon a two-dimensional fast Fourier transform (2D-FFT) analysis of a frequency domain matrix Hf associated with a planar array of antennas. Symbols can be encoded based upon the waveform covariance matrix and the encoded symbols can be transmitted via the planar array of antennas. In another embodiment, a system comprises an N x M planar array of antennas and transmission circuitry configured to transmit symbols via a two-dimensional waveform beampattern defined based at least in part upon a 2D-FFT analysis of a frequency domain matrix Hf associated with the planar array of antennas.

  5. Fairly direct hit. Advances in imaging of shotgun projectiles in MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eggert, Sebastian [Kantonsspital Baden AG, Department of Radiology, Baden (Switzerland); University of Zurich, Institute of Forensic Medicine, Zurich (Switzerland); Kubik-Huch, Rahel A.; Peters, Alexander [Kantonsspital Baden AG, Department of Radiology, Baden (Switzerland); Klarhoefer, Markus [Siemens Healthcare, Zurich (Switzerland); Bolliger, Stephan A.; Thali, Michael J. [University of Zurich, Institute of Forensic Medicine, Zurich (Switzerland); Anderson, Suzanne [Kantonsspital Baden AG, Department of Radiology, Baden (Switzerland); University of Notre Dame Australia, Radiology, Sydney School of Medicine, Sydney, NSW (Australia); Froehlich, Johannes M. [Federal Institute of Technology, Pharmaceutical Sciences, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2015-09-15

    To investigate the magnetic properties of different types of projectiles and qualify the metal artefact reduction technique for diagnostic and/or forensic MRI. Ten different projectiles embedded in ordnance gelatine blocks underwent an in vitro 1.5-T MR study with seven sequences including a recently developed metal artefact reduction sequence (Advanced WARP) combining VAT (view-angle-tilting) and SEMAC (slice-encoding metal-artefact-correction). Resulting image quality (five-point scale: 1=best; 5=worst) was scored. Quantifiable magnetic characteristics were correlated with qualitative rating of the MR sequences and torque dislodgment. Metal artefact reduction sequence (median: 2.5) significantly (p < 0.001) improves depiction of projectiles in comparison to all other MR pulse sequences (median: 4.75). Images from diamagnetic composed bullets (median: 2) are much less disturbed compared to magnetic attracted ones (median: 5). Correlation (0.623) between deflection angle measurement (ferromagnetic mean 84.2 ; paramagnetic 62 ; diamagnetic mean 0 ) and median qualitative image quality was highly significant (p = 0.027). Torque dislodgement was distinct for elongated magnetic attracted projectiles. Significant improvement of MR imaging of projectiles using metal artefact reduction techniques has important implications for diagnostic/forensic work-up. The correlations between magnetic attraction force, deflection-angle results and image properties demonstrate that the MR safety of projectiles can be estimated with one of these methods. (orig.)

  6. Advances in liver-directed gene therapy for hepatocellular carcinoma by non-viral delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Buyun; Li, Tao; Zhang, Jian; Zhao, Lixia; Zhai, Guangxi

    2012-04-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a malignancy with a high mortality. Gene therapy provides a promising way for the treatment of HCC. Efficient gene delivery system, suitable gene target and appropriate way of administration together determine the effect of gene therapy for HCC. In recent years, employing non-viral gene delivery systems in gene therapy for HCC has attracted a lot of attention. Compared with viral vectors, non-viral gene delivery systems are nearly non-immunogenic, relatively safer, less expensive to produce and can carry a good many of genetic materials. But the transfection efficiency of these vectors still needs to be improved. And the liver targeting is another problem that needs to be solved. Attaching ligands to the non-viral vectors to enhance the targeting ability to the specific receptor and targeting to molecular targets of HCC are the effective strategies. Adopting suitable ways of administration is also a factor that plays an important role to achieve liver targeting. This review introduced the advances in liver-targeted gene therapy by non-viral vectors including the efforts to overcome the low transfection efficiency and enhance the liver targeting effect.

  7. Advanced oxidation processes applied to tannery wastewater containing Direct Black 38-Elimination and degradation kinetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sauer, Ticiane Pokrywiecki [Department of Chemical and Food Engineering, Federal University of Santa Catarina, Campus Universitario-Trindade, P.O. Box 476, 88040-900 Florianopolis, Santa Catarina (Brazil)]. E-mail: sauer@enq.ufsc.br; Casaril, Leonardo [Department of Chemical and Food Engineering, Federal University of Santa Catarina, Campus Universitario-Trindade, P.O. Box 476, 88040-900 Florianopolis, Santa Catarina (Brazil)]. E-mail: leonardocasaril@ufsc.grad.br; Oberziner, Andre Luiz Bertoldi [Department of Chemical and Food Engineering, Federal University of Santa Catarina, Campus Universitario-Trindade, P.O. Box 476, 88040-900 Florianopolis, Santa Catarina (Brazil)]. E-mail: andreoberzine@hotmail.com; Jose, Humberto Jorge [Department of Chemical and Food Engineering, Federal University of Santa Catarina, Campus Universitario-Trindade, P.O. Box 476, 88040-900 Florianopolis, Santa Catarina (Brazil)]. E-mail: humberto@enq.ufsc.br; Moreira, Regina de Fatima Peralta Muniz [Department of Chemical and Food Engineering, Federal University of Santa Catarina, Campus Universitario-Trindade, P.O. Box 476, 88040-900 Florianopolis, Santa Catarina (Brazil)]. E-mail: regina@enq.ufsc.br

    2006-07-31

    The application of advanced oxidation processes (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/UV, TiO{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/UV and TiO{sub 2}/UV) to treat tannery wastewater was investigated. The experiments were performed in batch and continuous UV reactors, using TiO{sub 2} as a catalyst. The effect of the hydrogen peroxide concentration on the degradation kinetics was evaluated in the concentration range 0-1800 mg L{sup -1}. We observed that the degradation rate increased as the hydrogen peroxide increased, but excessive H{sub 2}O{sub 2} concentration was detrimental because it acted as a hydroxyl radical scavenger since it can compete for the active sites of the TiO{sub 2}. In the H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/UV treatment, the COD removal reached around 60% in 4 h of reaction, indicating that the principal pollutants were chemically degraded as demonstrated by the results for BOD, COD, nitrate, ammonium and analysis of the absorbance at 254 nm. Artemia salina toxicity testing performed in parallel showed an increase in toxicity after AOP treatment of the tannery wastewater.

  8. Advanced Low Conductivity Thermal Barrier Coatings: Performance and Future Directions (Invited paper)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Dongming; Miller, Robert A.

    2008-01-01

    Thermal barrier coatings will be more aggressively designed to protect gas turbine engine hot-section components in order to meet future engine higher fuel efficiency and lower emission goals. In this presentation, thermal barrier coating development considerations and performance will be emphasized. Advanced thermal barrier coatings have been developed using a multi-component defect clustering approach, and shown to have improved thermal stability and lower conductivity. The coating systems have been demonstrated for high temperature combustor applications. For thermal barrier coatings designed for turbine airfoil applications, further improved erosion and impact resistance are crucial for engine performance and durability. Erosion resistant thermal barrier coatings are being developed, with a current emphasis on the toughness improvements using a combined rare earth- and transition metal-oxide doping approach. The performance of the toughened thermal barrier coatings has been evaluated in burner rig and laser heat-flux rig simulated engine erosion and thermal gradient environments. The results have shown that the coating composition optimizations can effectively improve the erosion and impact resistance of the coating systems, while maintaining low thermal conductivity and cyclic durability. The erosion, impact and high heat-flux damage mechanisms of the thermal barrier coatings will also be described.

  9. [Studies on Latin American freshwater macroinvertebrates: recent advances and future directions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez, Alonso; Gutiérrez-Fonseca, Pablo E

    2014-04-01

    Latin America is an active scientific research area, in particular with respect to the study of freshwater macroinvertebrates. The present serves as an introduction to a special issue that highlights recent research projects on macroinvertebrates in Latin America. As part of this introduction, we conducted a literature analysis of the last 14 years of publications from the region that highlights the steady increase in publications on macroinvertebrates. Most studies from 2000-2013 were conducted in Brazil, Colombia, Argentina, and Costa Rica, and were focused on taxonomy and different issues related to biodiversity and distribution. There was a tendency for the use of local low-impact journals, but high impact publications were also found. This special issue contributes with 18 studies conducted in eight different countries. Two major topics are covered in the special issue, the ecology and natural history of aquatic macroinvertebrates and their use in the evaluation of anthropogenic impacts to aquatic ecosystems. Based on the literature review and contributions included in the issue, we discuss research needs for the region. Identified needs include: (1) to continue emphasizing taxonomic research, (2) assess mechanisms responsible for changes in biodiversity, (3) assess the role of macroinvertebrates in ecosystem processes and function, (4) improve biomonitoring efforts beyond unimetric indices, (5) the need for an ecosystem perspective, and (6) establishing long-term studies. This special issue is an initial effort to advance our knowledge on freshwater macroinvertebrates in Latin America.

  10. Advanced design of conductive polymeric arrays with controlled electrical resistance using direct laser interference patterning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lasagni, A.F. [Saarland University, Department of Materials Science, Chair of Functional Materials, Building C 6.3, 7. Stock, P.O. Box 15 11 50, Saarbruecken (Germany); George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Acevedo, D.F. [Saarland University, Department of Materials Science, Chair of Functional Materials, Building C 6.3, 7. Stock, P.O. Box 15 11 50, Saarbruecken (Germany); Universidad Nacional de Rio Cuarto, Departamento de Quimica, Cordoba (Argentina); Barbero, C.A. [Universidad Nacional de Rio Cuarto, Departamento de Quimica, Cordoba (Argentina); Muecklich, F. [Saarland University, Department of Materials Science, Chair of Functional Materials, Building C 6.3, 7. Stock, P.O. Box 15 11 50, Saarbruecken (Germany)

    2008-06-15

    In this work, we report a simple method for the fabrication of regular conducting polyaniline periodic arrays on large areas of glass or gold substrates using direct laser interference patterning. Additionally, by controlling the laser intensity it is possible to precisely tune the width of the periodic arrays and consequently the electrical resistance of the polyaniline strips. The periodic arrays were characterized using scanning electron microscopy, white light interferometry and cyclic voltametry. The great importance of the method reported lies both in its versatility and the ability to control the properties of the modified polymer electrodes with high precision. This is important for prospective applications such as electrochemical sensors. (orig.)

  11. DIRECTIONS AND FORMS OF WORK OF THE UKRAINIAN SOCIETY OF FRIENDSHIP WITH FOREIGN STUDENTS (1959-1991

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. DITKOVSKA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the interaction of the Ukrainian public with foreign students in the era of socialism. Thanks to the Ukrainian society of friendship such a relationships were widespread. Individual and collective members of the sections of law, social sciences, pedagogical, medical and agricultural actively established and expanded contacts with foreign students. It is proved that it was conducted in three directions: organization of an exchange of student's groups of universities sworn brothers; assistance in training and the organization of leisure for students foreigners from socialist and developing countries; patronage of students from the USA and Canada. It is shown that the main forms of work with foreign students was the evenings of friendship, lectures, conversations, meetings with scientists, figures of culture and art, leaders of manufacture, the holding photo exhibitions, the exchange of literature and materials, establishing of links between different organizations, institutions, communities, regions, and the anniversary celebration of memorable dates. With U.S. and Canadian citizens practiced individual work, the basic forms of which were an invitation to study in the USSR, control of the learning, political and educational works and the organization of the tourist trips on the territory of the USSR. The content of the work of the Society in this direction was to introduce students to Soviet reality, life and culture of the Ukrainian people. However, excessive centralization, planning, ideologization and formalism reduce the possibilities of productive communication and played as a negative factor in the development of international educational and scientific contacts.

  12. 41 CFR 302-10.301 - May I receive an advance of funds when payment is made directly to the carrier by my agency?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... of funds when payment is made directly to the carrier by my agency? 302-10.301 Section 302-10.301... TRANSPORTATION AND STORAGE OF PROPERTY 10-ALLOWANCES FOR TRANSPORTATION OF MOBILE HOMES AND BOATS USED AS A PRIMARY RESIDENCE Advance of Funds § 302-10.301 May I receive an advance of funds when payment is...

  13. Advances in directed self assembly integration and manufacturability at 300 mm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathsack, Benjamen; Somervell, Mark; Muramatsu, Makato; Tanouchi, Keiji; Kitano, Takahiro; Nishimura, Eiichi; Yatsuda, Koichi; Nagahara, Seiji; Iwaki, Hiroyuki; Akai, Keiji; Ozawa, Mariko; Romo Negreira, Ainhoa; Tahara, Shigeru; Nafus, Kathleen

    2013-03-01

    Directed self-assembly (DSA) has the potential to extend scaling for both line/space and hole patterns. DSA has shown the capability for pitch reduction (multiplication), hole shrinks, CD self-healing as well as a pathway towards LWR and pattern collapse improvement [1-10]. TEL has developed a DSA development ecosystem (collaboration with customers, consortia, inspection vendors and material suppliers) to successfully demonstrate directed PS-PMMA DSA patterns using chemo-epitaxy (lift-off and etch guide) and grapho-epitaxy integrations on 300 mm wafers. New processes are being developed to simplify process integration, to reduce defects and to address design integration challenges with the long term goal of robust manufacturability. For hole DSA applications, a wet development process has been developed that enables traditional post-develop metrology through the high selectivity removal of PMMA cylindrical cores. For line/ space DSA applications, new track, cleans and etch processes have been developed to improve manufacturability. In collaboration with universities and consortia, fundamental process studies and simulations are used to drive process improvement and defect investigation. To extend DSA resolution beyond a PS-PMMA system, high chi materials and processes are also explored. In this paper, TEL's latest process solutions for both hole and line/space DSA process integrations are presented.

  14. Triple helix-forming oligonucleotides conjugated to indolocarbazole poisons direct topoisomerase I-mediated DNA cleavage to a specific site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arimondo, P B; Bailly, C; Boutorine, A S; Moreau, P; Prudhomme, M; Sun, J S; Garestier, T; Hélène, C

    2001-01-01

    Topoisomerase I is an ubiquitous DNA-cleaving enzyme and an important therapeutic target in cancer chemotherapy for camptothecins as well as for indolocarbazole antibiotics such as rebeccamycin. To achieve a sequence-specific cleavage of DNA by topoisomerase I, a triple helix-forming oligonucleotide was covalently linked to indolocarbazole-type topoisomerase I poisons. The three indolocarbazole-oligonucleotide conjugates investigated were able to direct topoisomerase I cleavage at a specific site based upon sequence recognition by triplex formation. The efficacy of topoisomerase I-mediated DNA cleavage depends markedly on the intrinsic potency of the drug. We show that DNA cleavage depends also upon the length of the linker arm between the triplex-forming oligonucleotide and the drug. Based on a known structure of the DNA-topoisomerase I complex, a molecular model of the oligonucleotide conjugates bound to the DNA-topoisomerase I complex was elaborated to facilitate the design of a potent topoisomerase I inhibitor-oligonucleotide conjugate with an optimized linker between the two moieties. The resulting oligonucleotide-indolocarbazole conjugate at 10 nM induced cleavage at the triple helix site 2-fold more efficiently than 5 microM of free indolocarbazole, while the other drug-sensitive sites were not cleaved. The rational design of drug-oligonucleotide conjugates carrying a DNA topoisomerase poison may be exploited to improve the efficacy and selectivity of chemotherapeutic cancer treatments by targeting specific genes and reducing drug toxicity.

  15. DFT-Based Closed-form Covariance Matrix and Direct Waveforms Design for MIMO Radar to Achieve Desired Beampatterns

    KAUST Repository

    Bouchoucha, Taha

    2017-01-23

    In multiple-input multiple-out (MIMO) radar, for desired transmit beampatterns, appropriate correlated waveforms are designed. To design such waveforms, conventional MIMO radar methods use two steps. In the first step, the waveforms covariance matrix, R, is synthesized to achieve the desired beampattern. While in the second step, to realize the synthesized covariance matrix, actual waveforms are designed. Most of the existing methods use iterative algorithms to solve these constrained optimization problems. The computational complexity of these algorithms is very high, which makes them difficult to use in practice. In this paper, to achieve the desired beampattern, a low complexity discrete-Fourier-transform based closed-form covariance matrix design technique is introduced for a MIMO radar. The designed covariance matrix is then exploited to derive a novel closed-form algorithm to directly design the finite-alphabet constant-envelope waveforms for the desired beampattern. The proposed technique can be used to design waveforms for large antenna array to change the beampattern in real time. It is also shown that the number of transmitted symbols from each antenna depends on the beampattern and is less than the total number of transmit antenna elements.

  16. Advanced fire-resistant forms of activated carbon and methods of adsorbing and separating gases using same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiong, Yongliang; Wang, Yifeng

    2016-04-19

    A method of removing a target gas from a gas stream is disclosed. The method uses advanced, fire-resistant activated carbon compositions having vastly improved fire resistance. Methods for synthesizing the compositions are also provided. The advanced compositions have high gas adsorption capacities and rapid adsorption kinetics (comparable to commercially-available activated carbon), without having any intrinsic fire hazard.

  17. Recent Advances and Future Direction in Lyophilisation and Desiccation of Mesenchymal Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bissoyi, Akalabya; Kumar, Awanish; Rizvanov, Albert A; Nesmelov, Alexander; Gusev, Oleg; Patra, Pradeep Kumar; Bit, Arindam

    2016-01-01

    Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs) are a promising mammalian cell type as they can be used for the reconstruction of human tissues and organs. MSCs are shown to form bone, cartilage, fat, and muscle-like cells under specific cultivation conditions. Current technology of MSCs cryopreservation has significant disadvantages. Alternative technologies of mammalian cells preservation through lyophilisation or desiccation (air-drying) are among the upcoming domains of investigation in the field of cryobiology. Different protectants and their combinations were studied in this context. Loading of the protectant in the live cell can be a challenging issue but recent studies have shown encouraging results. This paper deals with a review of the protectants, methods of their delivery, and physical boundary conditions adopted for the desiccation and lyophilisation of mammalian cells, including MSCs. A hybrid technique combining both methods is also proposed as a promising way of MSCs dry preservation.

  18. Recent Advances and Future Direction in Lyophilisation and Desiccation of Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akalabya Bissoyi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs are a promising mammalian cell type as they can be used for the reconstruction of human tissues and organs. MSCs are shown to form bone, cartilage, fat, and muscle-like cells under specific cultivation conditions. Current technology of MSCs cryopreservation has significant disadvantages. Alternative technologies of mammalian cells preservation through lyophilisation or desiccation (air-drying are among the upcoming domains of investigation in the field of cryobiology. Different protectants and their combinations were studied in this context. Loading of the protectant in the live cell can be a challenging issue but recent studies have shown encouraging results. This paper deals with a review of the protectants, methods of their delivery, and physical boundary conditions adopted for the desiccation and lyophilisation of mammalian cells, including MSCs. A hybrid technique combining both methods is also proposed as a promising way of MSCs dry preservation.

  19. Implementation of an advanced hybrid MPC-PID control system using PAT tools into a direct compaction continuous pharmaceutical tablet manufacturing pilot plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ravendra; Sahay, Abhishek; Karry, Krizia M; Muzzio, Fernando; Ierapetritou, Marianthi; Ramachandran, Rohit

    2014-10-01

    It is desirable for a pharmaceutical final dosage form to be manufactured through a quality by design (QbD)-based approach rather than a quality by testing (QbT) approach. An automatic feedback control system coupled with PAT tools that is part of the QbD paradigm shift, has the potential to ensure that the pre-defined end product quality attributes are met in a time and cost efficient manner. In this work, an advanced hybrid MPC-PID control architecture coupled with real time inline/online monitoring tools and principal components analysis (PCA) based additional supervisory control layer has been proposed for a continuous direct compaction tablet manufacturing process. The advantages of both MPC and PID have been utilized in a hybrid scheme. The control hardware and software integration and implementation of the control system has been demonstrated using feeders and blending unit operation of a continuous tablet manufacturing pilot plant and an NIR based PAT tool. The advanced hybrid MPC-PID control scheme leads to enhanced control loop performance of the critical quality attributes in comparison to a regulatory (e.g. PID) control scheme indicating its potential to improve pharmaceutical product quality.

  20. Testing the advanced oxidation processes on the degradation of Direct Blue 86 dye in wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed A. Hassaan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This work tests the viability of applying ozone (O3 and O3 combined with ultraviolet (UV to degrade the content of synthetic wastewater containing Direct Blue 86 (DB-86 dye. The tested parameters, which included pH, initial concentration of DB-86 dye and time of reaction, were tested in a batch reactor to achieve optimum operating circumstances. The results obtained in this study showed that pH and initial concentration of DB-86 dye controlled the efficiency of the decolorization process. The maximum decolorization was obtained at pH 11. More than 98% of color removal was reported after 35 min of O3 treatment (for 100 ppm dye concentration. Kinetic analyses showed that color removal of DB-86 dye followed first-order kinetics. The rate of color removal was primarily relative to the initial DB-86 dye concentration. The effect of seawater on the efficiency of the process was studied. Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrum analysis of treated synthetic DB-86 dye solution was performed at the end of the pre-treatment time to study the final degradation products of DB-86 dye. The obtained results revealed that ozonation processes had reduced the zooplankton toxicity belonging to the raw solution and had improved the biodegradability of the DB-86 dye wastewater.

  1. Advances in Virus-Directed Therapeutics against Epstein-Barr Virus-Associated Malignancies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Sajal K.; Perrine, Susan P.; Faller, Douglas V.

    2012-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is the causal agent in the etiology of Burkitt's lymphoma and nasopharyngeal carcinoma and is also associated with multiple human malignancies, including Hodgkin's and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, and posttransplantation lymphoproliferative disease, as well as sporadic cancers of other tissues. A causal relationship of EBV to these latter malignancies remains controversial, although the episomic EBV genome in most of these cancers is clonal, suggesting infection very early in the development of the tumor and a possible role for EBV in the genesis of these diseases. Furthermore, the prognosis of these tumors is invariably poor when EBV is present, compared to their EBV-negative counterparts. The physical presence of EBV in these tumors represents a potential “tumor-specific” target for therapeutic approaches. While treatment options for other types of herpesvirus infections have evolved and improved over the last two decades, however, therapies directed at EBV have lagged. A major constraint to pharmacological intervention is the shift from lytic infection to a latent pattern of gene expression, which persists in those tumors associated with the virus. In this paper we provide a brief account of new virus-targeted therapeutic approaches against EBV-associated malignancies. PMID:22500168

  2. Advances in Virus-Directed Therapeutics against Epstein-Barr Virus-Associated Malignancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajal K. Ghosh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Epstein-Barr virus (EBV is the causal agent in the etiology of Burkitt’s lymphoma and nasopharyngeal carcinoma and is also associated with multiple human malignancies, including Hodgkin’s and non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma, and posttransplantation lymphoproliferative disease, as well as sporadic cancers of other tissues. A causal relationship of EBV to these latter malignancies remains controversial, although the episomic EBV genome in most of these cancers is clonal, suggesting infection very early in the development of the tumor and a possible role for EBV in the genesis of these diseases. Furthermore, the prognosis of these tumors is invariably poor when EBV is present, compared to their EBV-negative counterparts. The physical presence of EBV in these tumors represents a potential “tumor-specific” target for therapeutic approaches. While treatment options for other types of herpesvirus infections have evolved and improved over the last two decades, however, therapies directed at EBV have lagged. A major constraint to pharmacological intervention is the shift from lytic infection to a latent pattern of gene expression, which persists in those tumors associated with the virus. In this paper we provide a brief account of new virus-targeted therapeutic approaches against EBV-associated malignancies.

  3. Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation in Stroke Rehabilitation: A Review of Recent Advancements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez Palacio Schjetnan, Andrea; Faraji, Jamshid; Metz, Gerlinde A.; Tatsuno, Masami; Luczak, Artur

    2013-01-01

    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a promising technique to treat a wide range of neurological conditions including stroke. The pathological processes following stroke may provide an exemplary system to investigate how tDCS promotes neuronal plasticity and functional recovery. Changes in synaptic function after stroke, such as reduced excitability, formation of aberrant connections, and deregulated plastic modifications, have been postulated to impede recovery from stroke. However, if tDCS could counteract these negative changes by influencing the system's neurophysiology, it would contribute to the formation of functionally meaningful connections and the maintenance of existing pathways. This paper is aimed at providing a review of underlying mechanisms of tDCS and its application to stroke. In addition, to maximize the effectiveness of tDCS in stroke rehabilitation, future research needs to determine the optimal stimulation protocols and parameters. We discuss how stimulation parameters could be optimized based on electrophysiological activity. In particular, we propose that cortical synchrony may represent a biomarker of tDCS efficacy to indicate communication between affected areas. Understanding the mechanisms by which tDCS affects the neural substrate after stroke and finding ways to optimize tDCS for each patient are key to effective rehabilitation approaches. PMID:23533955

  4. Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation in Stroke Rehabilitation: A Review of Recent Advancements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Gomez Palacio Schjetnan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS is a promising technique to treat a wide range of neurological conditions including stroke. The pathological processes following stroke may provide an exemplary system to investigate how tDCS promotes neuronal plasticity and functional recovery. Changes in synaptic function after stroke, such as reduced excitability, formation of aberrant connections, and deregulated plastic modifications, have been postulated to impede recovery from stroke. However, if tDCS could counteract these negative changes by influencing the system’s neurophysiology, it would contribute to the formation of functionally meaningful connections and the maintenance of existing pathways. This paper is aimed at providing a review of underlying mechanisms of tDCS and its application to stroke. In addition, to maximize the effectiveness of tDCS in stroke rehabilitation, future research needs to determine the optimal stimulation protocols and parameters. We discuss how stimulation parameters could be optimized based on electrophysiological activity. In particular, we propose that cortical synchrony may represent a biomarker of tDCS efficacy to indicate communication between affected areas. Understanding the mechanisms by which tDCS affects the neural substrate after stroke and finding ways to optimize tDCS for each patient are key to effective rehabilitation approaches.

  5. Advancing predictive models for particulate formation in turbulent flames via massively parallel direct numerical simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisetti, Fabrizio; Attili, Antonio; Pitsch, Heinz

    2014-08-13

    Combustion of fossil fuels is likely to continue for the near future due to the growing trends in energy consumption worldwide. The increase in efficiency and the reduction of pollutant emissions from combustion devices are pivotal to achieving meaningful levels of carbon abatement as part of the ongoing climate change efforts. Computational fluid dynamics featuring adequate combustion models will play an increasingly important role in the design of more efficient and cleaner industrial burners, internal combustion engines, and combustors for stationary power generation and aircraft propulsion. Today, turbulent combustion modelling is hindered severely by the lack of data that are accurate and sufficiently complete to assess and remedy model deficiencies effectively. In particular, the formation of pollutants is a complex, nonlinear and multi-scale process characterized by the interaction of molecular and turbulent mixing with a multitude of chemical reactions with disparate time scales. The use of direct numerical simulation (DNS) featuring a state of the art description of the underlying chemistry and physical processes has contributed greatly to combustion model development in recent years. In this paper, the analysis of the intricate evolution of soot formation in turbulent flames demonstrates how DNS databases are used to illuminate relevant physico-chemical mechanisms and to identify modelling needs.

  6. Advancing predictive models for particulate formation in turbulent flames via massively parallel direct numerical simulations

    KAUST Repository

    Bisetti, Fabrizio

    2014-07-14

    Combustion of fossil fuels is likely to continue for the near future due to the growing trends in energy consumption worldwide. The increase in efficiency and the reduction of pollutant emissions from combustion devices are pivotal to achieving meaningful levels of carbon abatement as part of the ongoing climate change efforts. Computational fluid dynamics featuring adequate combustion models will play an increasingly important role in the design of more efficient and cleaner industrial burners, internal combustion engines, and combustors for stationary power generation and aircraft propulsion. Today, turbulent combustion modelling is hindered severely by the lack of data that are accurate and sufficiently complete to assess and remedy model deficiencies effectively. In particular, the formation of pollutants is a complex, nonlinear and multi-scale process characterized by the interaction of molecular and turbulent mixing with a multitude of chemical reactions with disparate time scales. The use of direct numerical simulation (DNS) featuring a state of the art description of the underlying chemistry and physical processes has contributed greatly to combustion model development in recent years. In this paper, the analysis of the intricate evolution of soot formation in turbulent flames demonstrates how DNS databases are used to illuminate relevant physico-chemical mechanisms and to identify modelling needs. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society.

  7. Advanced feeder-free generation of induced pluripotent stem cells directly from blood cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trokovic, Ras; Weltner, Jere; Nishimura, Ken; Ohtaka, Manami; Nakanishi, Mahito; Salomaa, Veikko; Jalanko, Anu; Otonkoski, Timo; Kyttälä, Aija

    2014-12-01

    Generation of validated human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) for biobanking is essential for exploring the full potential of iPSCs in disease modeling and drug discovery. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) are attractive targets for reprogramming, because blood is collected by a routine clinical procedure and is a commonly stored material in biobanks. Generation of iPSCs from blood cells has previously been reported using integrative retroviruses, episomal Sendai viruses, and DNA plasmids. However, most of the published protocols require expansion and/or activation of a specific cell population from PBMCs. We have recently collected a PBMC cohort from the Finnish population containing more than 2,000 subjects. Here we report efficient generation of iPSCs directly from PBMCs in feeder-free conditions in approximately 2 weeks. The produced iPSC clones are pluripotent and transgene-free. Together, these properties make this novel method a powerful tool for large-scale reprogramming of PBMCs and for iPSC biobanking.

  8. Proceedings of the advanced research and technology development direct utilization, instrumentation and diagnostics contractors' review meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geiling, D.W. (USDOE Morgantown Energy Technology Center, WV (USA)); Goldberg, P.M. (eds.) (USDOE Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, PA (USA))

    1990-01-01

    The 1990 Advanced Research and Technology Development (AR TD) Direct Utilization, and Instrumentation and Diagnostics Contractors Review Meeting was held September 16--18, 1990, at the Hyatt at Chatham Center in Pittsburgh, PA. The meeting was sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Fossil Energy, and the Pittsburgh and Morgantown Energy Technology Centers. Each year the meeting provides a forum for the exchange of information among the DOE AR TD contractors and interested parties. This year's meeting was hosted by the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center and was attended by 120 individuals from industry, academia, national laboratories, and other governmental agencies. Papers were presented on research addressing coal surface, science, devolatilization and combustion, ash behavior, emission controls for gases particulates, fluid bed combustion and utilization in diesels and turbines. Individual reports are processed separately for the data bases.

  9. Advancing user experience research to facilitate and enable patient-centered research: current state and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Philip R O

    2013-01-01

    Human-computer interaction and related areas of user experience (UX) research, such as human factors, workflow evaluation, and data visualization, are thus essential to presenting data in ways that can further the analysis of complex data sets such as those used in patient-centered research. However, a review of available data on the state of UX research as it relates to patient-centered research demonstrates a significant underinvestment and consequently a large gap in knowledge generation. In response, this report explores trends in funding and research productivity focused on UX and patient-centered research and then presents a set of recommendations to advance innovation at this important intersection point. Ultimately, the aim is to catalyze a community-wide dialogue concerning future directions for research and innovation in UX as it applies to patient-centered research.

  10. Microstructural evolution and mechanical, and corrosion property evaluation of Cu-30Ni alloy formed by Direct Metal Deposition process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharya, S., E-mail: sudipb@umich.edu [University of Michigan, 2350 Hayward Street, 2040 G.G. Brown Laboratories, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Dinda, G.P.; Dasgupta, A.K. [Center for Advanced Technologies, Focus: HOPE, Detroit, MI 48238 (United States); Natu, H.; Dutta, B. [POM Group Inc., Auburn Hills, MI 48326 (United States); Mazumder, J. [University of Michigan, 2350 Hayward Street, 2040 G.G. Brown Laboratories, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); POM Group Inc., Auburn Hills, MI 48326 (United States)

    2011-06-02

    Research highlights: > Cu-30Ni alloy was successfully deposited with CO{sub 2} laser DMD system on C71500 substrate. > The microstructure consists of a single solid solution phase. > Columnar dendrites growing into equiaxed dendrites form layer microstructure. > Dendrite growth direction and angle relative to substrate was maintained in each layer. > Lattice parameter of solid solution phase is longer than reported lattice parameters. - Abstract: In the current investigation Cu-30Ni alloy was successfully laser deposited on a rolled C71500 plate substrate by Direct Metal Deposition technology. The microstructural investigation of the clad was performed using optical and scanning electron microscopy. The phase and crystal structure analysis was performed using X-ray diffraction technique and transmission electron microscopy. The microstructure consisted of columnar and equiaxed dendrites with face centered cubic crystal structure. The dendrites grew epitaxially from the substrate and layer and bead boundaries. Dendrites' growth direction <0 0 1> and growth angle 60{sup o} was maintained in each layer. The average primary dendritic arm spacing at the bottom part of the layers was about 7.5 {mu}m and average secondary dendritic arm spacing in the upper part of the layer varied between 2 {mu}m and 4.5 {mu}m. The lattice parameter of the identified phase was found to be longer than that reported in literature. The reported lattice parameters in literature are however from samples processed under equilibrium conditions. The microhardness of the clad was found to be less than the substrate but very consistent along the clad. Cu-30Ni clad specimen showed higher ultimate tensile strength but lower yield strength and percentage elongation as compared to the C71500 substrate. DMD Cu-30Ni clad/C71500 substrate specimen showed the worst mechanical properties. The corrosion resistance of the specimens was found to decrease in the order DMD Cu-30Ni clad, half-and-half DMD Cu

  11. Srv2/cyclase-associated protein forms hexameric shurikens that directly catalyze actin filament severing by cofilin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhry, Faisal; Breitsprecher, Dennis; Little, Kristin; Sharov, Grigory; Sokolova, Olga; Goode, Bruce L

    2013-01-01

    Actin filament severing is critical for the dynamic turnover of cellular actin networks. Cofilin severs filaments, but additional factors may be required to increase severing efficiency in vivo. Srv2/cyclase-associated protein (CAP) is a widely expressed protein with a role in binding and recycling actin monomers ascribed to domains in its C-terminus (C-Srv2). In this paper, we report a new biochemical and cellular function for Srv2/CAP in directly catalyzing cofilin-mediated severing of filaments. This function is mediated by its N-terminal half (N-Srv2), and is physically and genetically separable from C-Srv2 activities. Using dual-color total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy, we determined that N-Srv2 stimulates filament disassembly by increasing the frequency of cofilin-mediated severing without affecting cofilin binding to filaments. Structural analysis shows that N-Srv2 forms novel hexameric star-shaped structures, and disrupting oligomerization impairs N-Srv2 activities and in vivo function. Further, genetic analysis shows that the combined activities of N-Srv2 and Aip1 are essential in vivo. These observations define a novel mechanism by which the combined activities of cofilin and Srv2/CAP lead to enhanced filament severing and support an emerging view that actin disassembly is controlled not by cofilin alone, but by a more complex set of factors working in concert.

  12. The Influence of Electrolytic Concentration on the Electrochemical Deposition of Calcium Phosphate Coating on a Direct Laser Metal Forming Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qianyue Sun

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A calcium phosphate (CaP coating on titanium surface enhances its biocompatibility, thus facilitating osteoconduction and osteoinduction with the inorganic phase of the human bone. Electrochemical deposition has been suggested as an effective means of fabricating CaP coatings on porous surface. The purpose of this study was to develop CaP coatings on a direct laser metal forming implant using electrochemical deposition and to investigate the effect of electrolytic concentration on the coating’s morphology and structure by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, water contact angle analysis, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. In group 10−2, coatings were rich in dicalcium phosphate, characterized to be thick, layered, and disordered plates. In contrast, in groups 10−3 and 10−4, the relatively thin and well-ordered coatings predominantly consisted of granular hydroxyapatite. Further, the hydrophilicity and cell affinity were improved as electrolytic concentration increased. In particular, the cells cultured in group 10−3 appeared to have spindle morphology with thick pseudopodia on CaP coatings; these spindles and pseudopodia strongly adhered to the rough and porous surface. By analyzing and evaluating the surface properties, we provided further knowledge on the electrolytic concentration effect, which will be critical for improving CaP coated Ti implants in the future.

  13. The Influence of Electrolytic Concentration on the Electrochemical Deposition of Calcium Phosphate Coating on a Direct Laser Metal Forming Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yuhui; Luo, Wenjing

    2017-01-01

    A calcium phosphate (CaP) coating on titanium surface enhances its biocompatibility, thus facilitating osteoconduction and osteoinduction with the inorganic phase of the human bone. Electrochemical deposition has been suggested as an effective means of fabricating CaP coatings on porous surface. The purpose of this study was to develop CaP coatings on a direct laser metal forming implant using electrochemical deposition and to investigate the effect of electrolytic concentration on the coating's morphology and structure by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, water contact angle analysis, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. In group 10−2, coatings were rich in dicalcium phosphate, characterized to be thick, layered, and disordered plates. In contrast, in groups 10−3 and 10−4, the relatively thin and well-ordered coatings predominantly consisted of granular hydroxyapatite. Further, the hydrophilicity and cell affinity were improved as electrolytic concentration increased. In particular, the cells cultured in group 10−3 appeared to have spindle morphology with thick pseudopodia on CaP coatings; these spindles and pseudopodia strongly adhered to the rough and porous surface. By analyzing and evaluating the surface properties, we provided further knowledge on the electrolytic concentration effect, which will be critical for improving CaP coated Ti implants in the future. PMID:28250771

  14. Direct detection of precursors of gas giants formed by gravitational instability with the Atacama Large Millimetre/sub-millimetre Array

    CERN Document Server

    Mayer, Lucio; Pineda, Jaime E; Wadsley, James

    2016-01-01

    Phases of gravitational instability are expected in the early phases of disk evolution, when the disk mass is still a substantial fraction of the mass of the star. Disk fragmentation into sub-stellar objects could occur in the cold exterior part of the disk. Direct detection of massive gaseous clumps on their way to collapse into gas giant planets would offer an unprecedented test of the disk instability model. Here we use state-of-the-art 3D radiation-hydro simulations of disks undergoing fragmentation into massive gas giants, post-processed with the RADMC-3D ray-tracing code to produce dust continuum emission maps. These are then fed into the Common Astronomy Software Applications (CASA) ALMA simulator. The synthetic maps show that both overdense spiral arms and actual clumps at different stages of collapse can be detected with the Atacama Large Millimetre/sub-millimetre Array (ALMA) in the full configuration at the distance of the Ophiuchus star forming region (125 pc). The detection of clumps is particula...

  15. Inhibition of human prostate cancer xenograft growth by 125I labeled triple-helin forming oligonucleotide directed against androgen receptor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yong; MA Yi; LU Han-ping; GAO Jin-hui; LIANG Chang-sheng; LIU Chang-zheng; ZOU Jun-tao; WANG Hua-qiao

    2008-01-01

    Background The failure of hormone treatment for advanced prostate cancer might be related to aberrant activation of the androgen receptor.We have shown that 125I labeled triple-helix forming oligonucleotide (TFO) against the androgen receptor gene inhibits androgen receptor expression and cell proliferation of LNCaP prostate cancer cells in vitro.This study aimed at exploring the effects of the 125I-TFO on prostate tumor growth in vivo using a nude mouse xenograft model.Methods TFO was labeled with 125I by the iodogen method.Thirty-two nude mice bearing LNCaP xenograft tumors were randomized into 4 groups and were intratumorally injected with 125I-TFO,unlabeled TFO,Na125I and normal saline.Tumor size was measured weekly.The tumor growth inhibition rate (RI) was calculated by measurement of tumor weight.The expression of the androgen receptor gene was performed by RT-PCR and immunohistochemical study.The prostate specific antigen (PSA) serum levels were measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay.The tumor cell apoptosis index (Al) was detected by TUNEL assay.Results Tumor measurements showed that tumor development was significantly inhibited by either 125I-TFO or TFO,with tumor RIs of 50.79% and 32.80% respectively.125I-TFO caused greater inhibition of androgen receptor expression and higher Als in tumor tissue than TFO.Both the tumor weight and the PSA serum levels in 125I-TFO treated mice ((0.93±0.15) g and (17.43±1.85) ng/ml,respectively) were significantly lower than those ((1.27±0.21) g and (28.25±3.41)ng/ml,respectively) in TFO treated mice (all P<0.05).Na125I did not significantly affect tumor growth and androgen receptor expression in tumor tissue.Conclusions The 125I-TFO can effectively inhibit androgen receptor expression and tumor growth of human prostate cancer xenografts in vivo.The inhibitory efficacy of 125I-TFO is more potent than that of TFO,providing a reference for future studies of antigen radiotherapy.

  16. Advances and future directions towards virtual maintenance technology%虚拟维修技术研究与展望

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    焦玉民; 张琦; 屈宏伟

    2011-01-01

    As a keynote future direction towards virtual reality technology,the virtual maintenance technology, which possesses such advantages as high integration,strong interactivity and economical efficiency, has been broadly applied in academic researches, industrial practices and software systems. Through basic elements and vital technologies highlighted on virtual maintain, the advantages and differences among different methods are analyzed and compared in terms of research advances. By summarizing the critical features of virtual maintenance technology, the future directions in this area are pinpointed.%虚拟维修技术作为虚拟现实技术中的一个重要发展方向,以集成度高、交互性强、经济高效等优点在学术研究、工业应用、软件系统有着广泛的应用,通过归纳研究虚拟维修所包含的主要内容及其关键技术,结合目前研究现状,分析比较了其各方法的优势与区别,总结了虚拟维修技术的主要特点,并对虚拟维修技术发展进行展望.

  17. Enhanced reactivities toward amines by introducing an imine arm to the pincer ligand: Direct coupling of two amines to form an imine without oxidant

    KAUST Repository

    He, Lipeng

    2012-07-23

    Dehydrogenative homocoupling of primary alcohols to form esters and coupling of amines to form imines was accomplished using a class of novel pincer ruthenium complexes. The reactivities of the ruthenium pincer complexes for the direct coupling of amines to form imines were enhanced by introducing an imine arm to the pincer ligand. Selective oxidation of benzylamines to imines was achieved using aniline derivatives as the substrate and solvent. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  18. Advanced fire-resistant forms of activated carbon and methods of adsorbing and separating gases using same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Yongliang; Wang, Yifeng

    2015-02-03

    Advanced, fire-resistant activated carbon compositions useful in adsorbing gases; and having vastly improved fire resistance are provided, and methods for synthesizing the compositions are also provided. The advanced compositions have high gas adsorption capacities and rapid adsorption kinetics (comparable to commercially-available activated carbon), without having any intrinsic fire hazard. They also have superior performance to Mordenites in both adsorption capacities and kinetics. In addition, the advanced compositions do not pose the fibrous inhalation hazard that exists with use of Mordenites. The fire-resistant compositions combine activated carbon mixed with one or more hydrated and/or carbonate-containing minerals that release H.sub.2O and/or CO.sub.2 when heated. This effect raises the spontaneous ignition temperature to over 500.degree. C. in most examples, and over 800.degree. C. in some examples. Also provided are methods for removing and/or separating target gases, such as Krypton or Argon, from a gas stream by using such advanced activated carbons.

  19. In-silico oncology: an approximate model of brain tumor mass effect based on directly manipulated free form deformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, Stefan; Mang, Andreas; Toma, Alina; Buzug, Thorsten M. [University of Luebeck (Germany). Institute of Medical Engineering

    2010-12-15

    The present work introduces a novel method for approximating mass effect of primary brain tumors. The spatio-temporal dynamics of cancerous cells are modeled by means of a deterministic reaction-diffusion equation. Diffusion tensor information obtained from a probabilistic diffusion tensor imaging atlas is incorporated into the model to simulate anisotropic diffusion of cancerous cells. To account for the expansive nature of the tumor, the computed net cell density of malignant cells is linked to a parametric deformation model. This mass effect model is based on the so-called directly manipulated free form deformation. Spatial correspondence between two successive simulation steps is established by tracking landmarks, which are attached to the boundary of the gross tumor volume. The movement of these landmarks is used to compute the new configuration of the control points and, hence, determines the resulting deformation. To prevent a deformation of rigid structures (i.e. the skull), fixed shielding landmarks are introduced. In a refinement step, an adaptive landmark scheme ensures a dense sampling of the tumor isosurface, which in turn allows for an appropriate representation of the tumor shape. The influence of different parameters on the model is demonstrated by a set of simulations. Additionally, simulation results are qualitatively compared to an exemplary set of clinical magnetic resonance images of patients diagnosed with high-grade glioma. Careful visual inspection of the results demonstrates the potential of the implemented model and provides first evidence that the computed approximation of tumor mass effect is sensible. The shape of diffusive brain tumors (glioblastoma multiforme) can be recovered and approximately matches the observations in real clinical data. (orig.)

  20. Working Principle and Forming Process for Directly Forming to Square of Rectangular Pipe%方矩管直接成方原理及成型工艺

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱剑明; 吕晟

    2011-01-01

    Combining with production practice, this article introduced the characteristics of two kinds of forming processes for rectangular pipe, they are forming to square from round and directly forming to square. The basic principle of rectangular pipe directly forming to square and its function in technology system of product, process and equipment were explained, as well as interactional rule among the said three items. The forming theory, method and process of rectangular pipe directly forming to square are with universal and practical significance for enterprises which are manufacturing large-scale rectangular pipe, especially for enterprises which are intending to invest forming equipment for large-scale rectangular pipe.%结合生产实践,将直接成方工艺作为一个完整的技术工程,介绍了直接成方的基本原理,论述了产品、工艺、装备在其技术系统中各自的作用,以及它们之间互为依存,相互作用的内在规律.提出的直接成方成型原理、方法和工艺原则,对于正在生产大型方矩管的企业,特别是将要投资大型方矩管成型机组装备的企业,有着普遍而现实的意义.

  1. Old/new differences in direct and indirect memory tests using pictures and words in within- and cross-form conditions: event-related potential and behavioral measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazmerski, V A; Friedman, D

    1997-06-01

    Indirect measures of repetition priming are more sensitive to changes in surface features than are direct measures of memory. This dissociation may reflect differences in the extent to which the two tasks rely on form-specific processes, or on the activation of different memory systems. To assess this, subjects at study made semantic discriminations to a mixed list of pictures and words. At test, half the concepts were repeated in the surface form presented at study while half were repeated in the other surface form. Subjects in the indirect test continued making the same discrimination, whereas those in the direct test performed a yes/no recognition task. For both tasks, significant old/new within-form differences were found for event-related potential (ERP) and reaction time (RT) measures. Cross-form old/new differences were reliable only for the word-picture condition in the direct task and only for the ERP indices. These data suggest that both direct and indirect memory tasks are influenced by form-specific as well as form-non-specific processing, and that neither the transfer-appropriate processing nor memory systems approaches can completely account for this pattern of results.

  2. Five-Year Implementation Plan For Advanced Separations and Waste Forms Capabilities at the Idaho National Laboratory (FY 2011 to FY 2015)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Not Listed

    2011-03-01

    DOE-NE separations research is focused today on developing a science-based understanding that builds on historical research and focuses on combining a fundamental understanding of separations and waste forms processes with small-scale experimentation coupled with modeling and simulation. The result of this approach is the development of a predictive capability that supports evaluation of separations and waste forms technologies. The specific suite of technologies explored will depend on and must be integrated with the fuel development effort, as well as an understanding of potential waste form requirements. This five-year implementation plan lays out the specific near-term tactical investments in people, equipment and facilities, and customer capture efforts that will be required over the next five years to quickly and safely bring on line the capabilities needed to support the science-based goals and objectives of INL’s Advanced Separations and Waste Forms RD&D Capabilities Strategic Plan.

  3. La perspectiva de las personas mayores sobre el testamento vital Elders´perspective about Advance Directives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inés Mª Barrio Cantalejo

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Antecedentes. La popularización del testamento vital (TV exige conocer la perspectiva que sobre él tienen sus potenciales usuarios. Cualquier intento de generalizar el TV sin evaluar cómo será recibido por las personas mayores está condenado al fracaso. Objetivo: Explorar la perspectiva de los mayores sobre el testamento vital. Diseño: Estudio cualitativo. 40 personas mayores, usuarios de 3 Centros de Salud y 1 Residencia Asistida de Madrid, se reunieron en 5 grupos de discusión en abril de 2004. Participantes: 14 mediadores captaron a 2-3 participantes cada uno. Se consideró que edad y residencia en medio familiar o institucional son las variables que más diferencian la elaboración de los discursos sobre el TV. Se utilizaron, pues, como criterios de segmentación, buscando heterogeneidad entre grupos y homogeneidad y heterogeneidad intragrupal. La saturación se consideró cuando las ideas expresadas resultaron recurrentes. Resultados: 4 ideas se extraen de los datos: 1 los mayores prefieren la planificación anticipada de decisiones al TV. 2 Su opinión sobre el TV se asocia a la vivencia singular de otros eventos en el final de la vida. 3 Conceden un papel relevante a la familia. 4 Desean conducir su propia vida, pero "sin papeles escritos". Conclusiones. La implementación del TV a través de una estrategia educativa e institucional se beneficiará si consideramos la perspectiva de la población mayor española sobre el TV.Background: The introduction of advance directives (AD require to examine the perspective their potential users have about. Any public policy about the implementation of ADs adressed to elders will fall if their perspective is unknown. Objective: To examine the elders' perspective about advance directives. Methods: Qualitative study. 40 elders, users of 3 Primary Health Care Center, and of 1 Nursing Home from Madrid. 5 focus groups were organized in 2004 April. Participants: 14 providers recruited 2

  4. The cultural context of patient's autonomy and doctor's duty: passive euthanasia and advance directives in Germany and Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schicktanz, Silke; Raz, Aviad; Shalev, Carmel

    2010-11-01

    The moral discourse surrounding end-of-life (EoL) decisions is highly complex, and a comparison of Germany and Israel can highlight the impact of cultural factors. The comparison shows interesting differences in how patient's autonomy and doctor's duties are morally and legally related to each other with respect to the withholding and withdrawing of medical treatment in EoL situations. Taking the statements of two national expert ethics committees on EoL in Israel and Germany (and their legal outcome) as an example of this discourse, we describe the similarity of their recommendations and then focus on the differences, including the balancing of ethical principles, what is identified as a problem, what social role professionals play, and the influence of history and religion. The comparison seems to show that Israel is more restrictive in relation to Germany, in contrast with previous bioethical studies in the context of the moral and legal discourse regarding the beginning of life, in which Germany was characterized as far more restrictive. We reflect on the ambivalence of the cultural reasons for this difference and its expression in various dissenting views on passive euthanasia and advance directives, and conclude with a comment on the difficulty in classifying either stance as more or less restrictive.

  5. Non-CAR resists and advanced materials for Massively Parallel E-Beam Direct Write process integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourteau, Marie-Line; Servin, Isabelle; Lepinay, Kévin; Essomba, Cyrille; Dal'Zotto, Bernard; Pradelles, Jonathan; Lattard, Ludovic; Brandt, Pieter; Wieland, Marco

    2016-03-01

    The emerging Massively Parallel-Electron Beam Direct Write (MP-EBDW) is an attractive high resolution high throughput lithography technology. As previously shown, Chemically Amplified Resists (CARs) meet process/integration specifications in terms of dose-to-size, resolution, contrast, and energy latitude. However, they are still limited by their line width roughness. To overcome this issue, we tested an alternative advanced non-CAR and showed it brings a substantial gain in sensitivity compared to CAR. We also implemented and assessed in-line post-lithographic treatments for roughness mitigation. For outgassing-reduction purpose, a top-coat layer is added to the total process stack. A new generation top-coat was tested and showed improved printing performances compared to the previous product, especially avoiding dark erosion: SEM cross-section showed a straight pattern profile. A spin-coatable charge dissipation layer based on conductive polyaniline has also been tested for conductivity and lithographic performances, and compatibility experiments revealed that the underlying resist type has to be carefully chosen when using this product. Finally, the Process Of Reference (POR) trilayer stack defined for 5 kV multi-e-beam lithography was successfully etched with well opened and straight patterns, and no lithography-etch bias.

  6. The temporary and accumulated effects of transcranial direct current stimulation for the treatment of advanced Parkinson's disease monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hao; Lei, Xiaoguang; Yan, Ting; Li, Hongwei; Huang, Baihui; Li, Ling; Xu, Liqi; Liu, Li; Chen, Nanhui; Lü, Longbao; Ma, Yuanye; Xu, Lin; Li, Jiali; Wang, Zhengbo; Zhang, Baorong; Hu, Xintian

    2015-07-29

    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a useful noninvasive technique of cortical brain stimulation for the treatment of neurological disorders. Clinical research has demonstrated tDCS with anodal stimulation of primary motor cortex (M1) in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients significantly improved their motor function. However, few studies have been focused on the optimization of parameters which contributed significantly to the treatment effects of tDCS and exploration of the underline neuronal mechanisms. Here, we used different stimulation parameters of anodal tDCS on M1 for the treatment of aged advanced PD monkeys induced with 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1, 2, 3, 6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) administration, and then analyzed the temporary and accumulated effects of tDCS treatment. The results indicated anodal tDCS on M1 very significantly improved motor ability temporarily; importantly, the treatment effects of anodal tDCS on M1 were quantitatively correlated to the accumulated stimulation instead of the stimuli intensity or duration respectively. In addition, c-fos staining showed tDCS treatment effects activated the neurons both in M1 and substantia nigra (SN). Therefore, we propose that long time and continue anodal tDCS on M1 is a better strategy to improve the motor symptoms of PD than individual manipulation of stimuli intensity or duration.

  7. Directed assembly of nanoparticles monitored by liquid crystal topological defects for advanced optical properties of the composites (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacaze, Emmanuelle

    2016-09-01

    Directed assembly of nanoparticles is a promising alternative for original nanoparticle organizations. New kinds of optical properties are expected when semi-conductive or metallic nanoparticles are concerned. Using liquid crystal matrices oriented by their interfaces, it is possible to induce anisotropic nanoparticle organizations. We can then investigate the influence of these matrices on the optical properties of the nanoparticles. I will show how to create hierarchical arrays of oriented topological defects in thin smectic films that act as efficient traps for a specific localization and orientation of nanoparticles [1]. I will show how specific nanoparticle assemblies can be obtained, depending on the nanoparticle size and shape. Fluorescent nanorods trapped in smectic dislocations become strictly oriented along a single direction, providing, a fine control of the polarization of the emmitted single photons [2]. Similarly the orientation of gold nanorods leads to the control of their luminescence as well as of their plasmon resonance by light polarization. I will show that, when the nanoparticle concentration is increased, single chains are formed, and can lead to a strong anisotropic electromagnetic coupling between the particles [3]. We are not only capable of linearly confining the particles, but also of varying the inter-particle interactions and thus modifing their optical properties which are sensitive to the inter-particle distance [4]. [1] D. Coursault, Soft Matter 12 (2016) 629. [2] L. Pelliser et al, Adv. Funct. Mat. 25 (2015) 1719. [3] D. Coursault et al., Adv. Mat. 24 (2012) 1461. [4] D. Coursault et al., ACSNano 9 (2015) 11678.

  8. Narrative form

    CERN Document Server

    Keen, Suzanne

    2015-01-01

    This revised and expanded handbook concisely introduces narrative form to advanced students of fiction and creative writing, with refreshed references and new discussions of cognitive approaches to narrative, nonfiction, and narrative emotions.

  9. Low-temperature metal-oxide thin-film transistors formed by directly photopatternable and combustible solution synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rim, You Seung; Lim, Hyun Soo; Kim, Hyun Jae

    2013-05-01

    We investigated the formation of ultraviolet (UV)-assisted directly patternable solution-processed oxide semiconductor films and successfully fabricated thin-film transistors (TFTs) based on these films. An InGaZnO (IGZO) solution that was modified chemically with benzoylacetone (BzAc), whose chelate rings decomposed via a π-π* transition as result of UV irradiation, was used for the direct patterning. A TFT was fabricated using the directly patterned IGZO film, and it had better electrical characteristics than those of conventional photoresist (PR)-patterned TFTs. In addition, the nitric acid (HNO3) and acetylacetone (AcAc) modified In2O3 (NAc-In2O3) solution exhibited both strong UV absorption and high exothermic reaction. This method not only resulted in the formation of a low-energy path because of the combustion of the chemically modified metal-oxide solution but also allowed for photoreaction-induced direct patterning at low temperatures.

  10. 76 FR 72022 - 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: DS-4131 Advance Notification Form: Tourist and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-21

    ...-Governmental Activities in the Antarctic Treaty Area, 1405-0181 ACTION: Notice of request for public comment... Notification Form: Tourist and Other Non-Governmental Activities in the Antarctic Treaty Area. OMB Control... information on tourist and other non- governmental expeditions to the Antarctic Treaty area. The...

  11. Advance Health Care Directives and “Public Guardian”: The Italian Supreme Court Requests the Status of Current and Not Future Inability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Paolo Busardò

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Advance health care decisions animate an intense debate in several European countries, which started more than 20 years ago in the USA and led to the adoption of different rules, based on the diverse legal, sociocultural and philosophical traditions of each society. In Italy, the controversial issue of advance directives and end of life’s rights, in the absence of a clear and comprehensive legislation, has been over time a subject of interest of the Supreme Court. Since 2004 a law introduced the “Public Guardian,” aiming to provide an instrument of assistance to the person lacking in autonomy because of an illness or incapacity. Recently, this critical issue has once again been brought to the interest of the Supreme Court, which passed a judgment trying to clarify the legislative application of the appointment of the Guardian in the field of advance directives.

  12. Nurses' knowledge of advance directives and perceived confidence in end-of-life care: a cross-sectional study in five countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffey, Alice; McCarthy, Geraldine; Weathers, Elizabeth; Friedman, M Isabel; Gallo, Katherine; Ehrenfeld, Mally; Chan, Sophia; Li, William H C; Poletti, Piera; Zanotti, Renzo; Molloy, D William; McGlade, Ciara; Fitzpatrick, Joyce J; Itzhaki, Michal

    2016-06-01

    Nurses' knowledge regarding advance directives may affect their administration and completion in end-of-life care. Confidence among nurses is a barrier to the provision of quality end-of-life care. This study investigated nurses' knowledge of advance directives and perceived confidence in end-of-life care, in Hong Kong, Ireland, Israel, Italy and the USA using a cross-sectional descriptive design (n = 1089). In all countries, older nurses and those who had more professional experience felt more confident managing patients' symptoms at end-of-life and more comfortable stopping preventive medications at end-of-life. Nurses in the USA reported that they have more knowledge and experience of advance directives compared with other countries. In addition, they reported the highest levels of confidence and comfort in dealing with end-of-life care. Although legislation for advance directives does not yet exist in Ireland, nurses reported high levels of confidence in end-of-life care.

  13. A phase I, dose-escalation study of TB-403, a monoclonal antibody directed against PlGF, in patients with advanced solid tumours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, U; Nielsen, D L; Sørensen, M;

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: TB-403 (RO 5323441), a humanised monoclonal antibody, is a novel antiangiogenesis agent directed against placental growth factor. The safety, pharmacokinetics (PK), and antitumour activity of TB-403 were assessed in a phase I, dose-escalation study in patients with advanced solid...

  14. Nurses' knowledge of advance directives and perceived confidence in end-of-life care: a cross-sectional study in five countries.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Coffey, Alice

    2016-01-28

    Nurses\\' knowledge regarding advance directives may affect their administration and completion in end-of-life care. Confidence among nurses is a barrier to the provision of quality end-of-life care. This study investigated nurses\\' knowledge of advance directives and perceived confidence in end-of-life care, in Hong Kong, Ireland, Israel, Italy and the USA using a cross-sectional descriptive design (n = 1089). In all countries, older nurses and those who had more professional experience felt more confident managing patients\\' symptoms at end-of-life and more comfortable stopping preventive medications at end-of-life. Nurses in the USA reported that they have more knowledge and experience of advance directives compared with other countries. In addition, they reported the highest levels of confidence and comfort in dealing with end-of-life care. Although legislation for advance directives does not yet exist in Ireland, nurses reported high levels of confidence in end-of-life care.

  15. Environmental Barrier Coating Development for SiC/SiC Ceramic Matrix Composites: Recent Advances and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Dongming

    2016-01-01

    This presentation briefly reviews the SiC/SiC major environmental and environment-fatigue degradations encountered in simulated turbine combustion environments, and thus NASA environmental barrier coating system evolution for protecting the SiC/SiC Ceramic Matrix Composites for meeting the engine performance requirements. The presentation will review several generations of NASA EBC materials systems, EBC-CMC component system technologies for SiC/SiC ceramic matrix composite combustors and turbine airfoils, highlighting the temperature capability and durability improvements in simulated engine high heat flux, high pressure, high velocity, and with mechanical creep and fatigue loading conditions. This paper will also focus on the performance requirements and design considerations of environmental barrier coatings for next generation turbine engine applications. The current development emphasis is placed on advanced NASA candidate environmental barrier coating systems for SiC/SiC CMCs, their performance benefits and design limitations in long-term operation and combustion environments. The efforts have been also directed to developing prime-reliant, self-healing 2700F EBC bond coat; and high stability, lower thermal conductivity, and durable EBC top coats. Major technical barriers in developing environmental barrier coating systems, the coating integrations with next generation CMCs having the improved environmental stability, erosion-impact resistance, and long-term fatigue-environment system durability performance will be described. The research and development opportunities for turbine engine environmental barrier coating systems by utilizing improved compositions, state-of-the-art processing methods, and simulated environment testing and durability modeling will be briefly discussed.

  16. Giving up Treatment and Directives in Advance%放弃治疗与预先指示

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁爱华; 张凤佩; 韩春玲

    2013-01-01

    一方面,放弃治疗违背了我国传统的生死观,违背了医生救死扶伤,治病救人的职业道德和职责;另一方面,在进行放弃治疗的决策中,由于各种原因,患者的知情同意权被剥夺,由其家属进行代理,导致患者的权利无法完全保障.制定预先指示,患者在还有能力自主作出医疗决策时,就可通过生前预嘱或预立医疗代理人的方式,表明其在终末期的医疗选择或由谁代理其作出医疗决策.这可更好地保障患者的权益.%On the one hand,giving up treatment against the traditional view of life and death in our country,also is contrary to the doctors'ethics and responsibilities for healing the wounded and rescue the dying; On the other hand,in the decision of giving up treatment,due to various reasons,patients'informed consent right was deprived,represented by their families,which resulted in the rights of patients cant fully guaranteed.Make directives in advance when patients have capacity to make medical decisions,could through living wills or preset medical agent,show that the agent who is in the end-stage medical choices or their medical decisions,which can better safeguard the rights and interests of the patients.

  17. Research on film thickness of conductive line formed by laser micro-fine cladding and flexibly direct writing technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huiling Li(李慧玲); Xiaoyan Zeng(曾晓雁); Huifen Li(李惠芬); Xiangyou Li(李祥友); Yiqun Chen(陈佚群)

    2004-01-01

    The conventional technology could not fulfill the rapidly growing need for fine conductive lines for its inherent limits. Therefore, in this study laser micro-fine cladding and flexibly direct writing technique is used to obtain conductive lines with high precision and reliability. In the case of different substrates and parameters, film thickness will be different. Film thickness directly influences the reliability and stability of conductive lines with exception of quality and running speed. Therefore, we focus on developing the optimal parameters for the different substrates to achieve expected film thickness and make conductive lines have good performance and quality.

  18. [Method for direct generation data for formatted case report forms based on requirement for data authenticity in actual clinical conditions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Ming-Yi; Liu, Bao-Yan; He, Li-Yun; Zhang, Run-Shun

    2013-04-01

    Data authenticity is the basic requirement of clinical studies. In actual clinical conditions how to establish formatted case report forms (CRF) in line with the requirement for data authenticity is the key to ensure clinical data quality. On the basis of the characteristics of clinical data in actual clinical conditions, we determined elements for establishing formatted case report forms by comparing differences in data characteristics of CRFs in traditional clinical studies and in actual clinical conditions, and then generated formatted case report forms in line with the requirement for data authenticity in actual clinical conditions. The data of formatted CRFs generated in this study could not only meet the requirement for data authenticity of clinical studies in actual clinical conditions, but also comply with data management practices for clinical studies, thus it is deemed as a progress in technical methods.

  19. Melt processed crystalline ceramic waste forms for advanced nuclear fuel cycles: CRP T21027 1813: Processing technologies for high level waste, formulation of matrices and characterization of waste forms, Task 17208: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amoroso, J. W. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Marra, J. C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-08-26

    A multi-phase ceramic waste form is being developed at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) for treatment of secondary waste streams generated by reprocessing commercial spent nuclear. The envisioned waste stream contains a mixture of transition, alkali, alkaline earth, and lanthanide metals. Ceramic waste forms are tailored (engineered) to incorporate waste components as part of their crystal structure based on knowledge from naturally found minerals containing radioactive and non-radioactive species similar to the radionuclides of concern in wastes from fuel reprocessing. The ability to tailor ceramics to mimic naturally occurring crystals substantiates the long term stability of such crystals (ceramics) over geologic timescales of interest for nuclear waste immobilization [1]. A durable multi-phase ceramic waste form tailored to incorporate all the waste components has the potential to broaden the available disposal options and thus minimize the storage and disposal costs associated with aqueous reprocessing. This report summarizes results from three years of work on the IAEA Coordinated Research Project on “Processing technologies for high level waste, formulation of matrices and characterization of waste forms” (T21027), and specific task “Melt Processed Crystalline Ceramic Waste Forms for Advanced Nuclear Fuel Cycles” (17208).

  20. Melt processed crystalline ceramic waste forms for advanced nuclear fuel cycles: CRP T21027 1813: Processing technologies for high level waste, formulation of matrices and characterization of waste forms, task 17208: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amoroso, J. W. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Marra, J. C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-08-26

    A multi-phase ceramic waste form is being developed at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) for treatment of secondary waste streams generated by reprocessing commercial spent nuclear. The envisioned waste stream contains a mixture of transition, alkali, alkaline earth, and lanthanide metals. Ceramic waste forms are tailored (engineered) to incorporate waste components as part of their crystal structure based on knowledge from naturally found minerals containing radioactive and non-radioactive species similar to the radionuclides of concern in wastes from fuel reprocessing. The ability to tailor ceramics to mimic naturally occurring crystals substantiates the long term stability of such crystals (ceramics) over geologic timescales of interest for nuclear waste immobilization [1]. A durable multi-phase ceramic waste form tailored to incorporate all the waste components has the potential to broaden the available disposal options and thus minimize the storage and disposal costs associated with aqueous reprocessing. This report summarizes results from three years of work on the IAEA Coordinated Research Project on “Processing technologies for high level waste, formulation of matrices and characterization of waste forms” (T21027), and specific task “Melt Processed Crystalline Ceramic Waste Forms for Advanced Nuclear Fuel Cycles” (17208).

  1. Scientific misconduct: three forms that directly harm others as the modus operandi of Mill's tyranny of the prevailing opinion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabbolet, Marcoen J T F

    2014-03-01

    Scientific misconduct is usually assumed to be self-serving. This paper, however, proposes to distinguish between two types of scientific misconduct: 'type one scientific misconduct' is self-serving and leads to falsely positive conclusions about one's own work, while 'type two scientific misconduct' is other-harming and leads to falsely negative conclusions about someone else's work. The focus is then on the latter type, and three known issues are identified as specific forms of such scientific misconduct: biased quality assessment, smear, and officially condoning scientific misconduct. These concern the improper ways how challenges of the prevailing opinion are thwarted in the modern world. The central issue is pseudoskepticism: uttering negative conclusions about someone else's work that are downright false. It is argued that this may be an emotional response, rather than a calculated strategic action. Recommendations for educative and punitive measures are given to prevent and to deal with these three forms of scientific misconduct.

  2. Synthesis of Monoclinic Form of Gd2-xNaxCuO4 by Direct Precipitation from Molten Salt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    A new phase of Gd2-xNaxCuO4 was synthesized by direct precipitation from the mixture of Gd2O3 and CuO in the molten KOH/NaOH/KNO3 solution at temperature as low as 280° C. The resulting precipitate was characterized by using SEM, XRD, EDX, XPS and magnetic method. The XRD data indicate that the precipitated Gd2-xNaxCuO4 is monoclinic with lattice parameters a=8.6816(A), b=3.7233(A). C=6.0796(A), α =γ =90°, β =108.75° and V=186.1(A)3.

  3. Rapid changes in gene expression direct rapid shifts in intestinal form and function in the Burmese python after feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew, Audra L; Card, Daren C; Ruggiero, Robert P; Schield, Drew R; Adams, Richard H; Pollock, David D; Secor, Stephen M; Castoe, Todd A

    2015-05-01

    Snakes provide a unique and valuable model system for studying the extremes of physiological remodeling because of the ability of some species to rapidly upregulate organ form and function upon feeding. The predominant model species used to study such extreme responses has been the Burmese python because of the extreme nature of postfeeding response in this species. We analyzed the Burmese python intestine across a time series, before, during, and after feeding to understand the patterns and timing of changes in gene expression and their relationship to changes in intestinal form and function upon feeding. Our results indicate that >2,000 genes show significant changes in expression in the small intestine following feeding, including genes involved in intestinal morphology and function (e.g., hydrolases, microvillus proteins, trafficking and transport proteins), as well as genes involved in cell division and apoptosis. Extensive changes in gene expression occur surprisingly rapidly, within the first 6 h of feeding, coincide with changes in intestinal morphology, and effectively return to prefeeding levels within 10 days. Collectively, our results provide an unprecedented portrait of parallel changes in gene expression and intestinal morphology and physiology on a scale that is extreme both in the magnitude of changes, as well as in the incredibly short time frame of these changes, with up- and downregulation of expression and function occurring in the span of 10 days. Our results also identify conserved vertebrate signaling pathways that modulate these responses, which may suggest pathways for therapeutic modulation of intestinal function in humans.

  4. Microstructure and fractal characteristics of the solid-liquid interface forming during directional solidification of Inconel 718

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The solidification microstructure and fractal characteristics of the solid-liquid interfaces of Inconel718, under different cooling rates during directional solidification, ware investigated by using SEM. Results showed that 5 μm/s was the cellular-dendrite transient rate. The prime dendrite arm spacing (PDAS) was measured by Image Tool and it decreased with the cooling rate increased. The fractal dimension of the interfaces was calculated and it changes from 1.204310 to 1.517265 with the withdrawal rate ranging from 10 to 100 μm/s. The physical significance of the fractal dimension was analyzed by using fractal theory. It was found that the fractal dimension of the dendrites can be used to describe the solidification microstructure and parameters at low cooling rate, but both the fractal dimension and the dendrite arm spacing are needed in order to integrally describe the evaluation of the solidification microstructure completely.

  5. Microstructure and fractal characteristics of the solid-liquid interface forming during directional solidification of Inconel 718

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Ling

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The solidification microstructure and fractal characteristics of the solid-liquid interfaces of Inconel 718, under different cooling rates during directional solidification, were investigated by using SEM. Results showed that 5 μm/s was the cellular-dendrite transient rate. The prime dendrite arm spacing (PDAS was measured by Image Tool and it decreased with the cooling rate increased. The fractal dimension of the interfaces was calculated and it changes from 1.204310 to 1.517265 with the withdrawal rate ranging from 10 to 100 μm/s. The physical significance of the fractal dimension was analyzed by using fractal theory. It was found that the fractal dimension of the dendrites can be used to describe the solidification microstructure and parameters at low cooling rate, but both the fractal dimension and the dendrite arm spacing are needed in order to integrally describe the evaluation of the solidification microstructure completely.

  6. Way to Pray the Rosary: One Form of Directed Contemplation in New Spain of the 17th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia Krutitskaya

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The subjetc of this text is the review of rosary’s History from its oriental tradition to the secularization of its use by several ecclesiastic congregations. The different ways in wich the Rosary gained religious significations are explored as a colective scope regarding supernatural events refered on the Bible or those ocurred in quotidian life, and as an individual scope by the spiritual approach of the believer by the means of contemplation and meditation. Like wise these praxis are discovered as a guided form of contemplation inside the religious dogma with the purpose of guilt atonement and redemption. This will be usedas a benefit during the Counter-Reformation in order to guide the believer through the permitted paths of Catholic religion and prevent their deviation along the dark routes of Protestantism.

  7. Enhanced photoefficiency in positive-tone direct patterning of metal complexes for forming patterned indium tin oxide films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cordonier, Christopher E.J., E-mail: chris@kanto-gakuin.ac.jp; Nakamura, Akimasa; Shimada, Kazuhiko; Fujishima, Akira

    2012-07-01

    The efficiency of positive-tone directly photo-patternable 4-(2-nitrobenzyloxycarbonyl)catechol and 4-(6-nitroveratryloxycarbonyl)catechol complexes of indium tin was improved by tuning the solubility of the complexes and by chelation of maltol as a cooperative photo-solvolytic component, such that films could be patterned at up to 4.88 mW{center_dot}s/nm in terms of resultant indium tin oxide (ITO). Patterned indium tin complexes were thermally transformed to pattern shape preserved ITO by anisotropic contraction and oxidation. The photo-reaction of these ligands and related derivatives was characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance analysis showing decomposition to the respective carboxylic acid for which linear rate constants were approximated, further elucidating the mechanism and mechanics of selective solubility. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Photoreaction of ortho-nitrobenzyl dioxybenzoate derivatives was investigated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Tuning the photolabile ester-indium tin complex increased film photoefficiency. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A photoreaction of chelated maltol was also found to aid performance. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Complexes coated once gave patterned 8.35 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -4} {Omega}{center_dot}cm indium tin oxide films.

  8. Direct Numerical Simulations in Solid Mechanics for Quantifying the Macroscale Effects of Microstructure and Material Model-Form Error

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Joseph E.; Emery, John M.; Battaile, Corbett C.; Littlewood, David J.; Baines, Andrew J.

    2016-05-01

    Two fundamental approximations in macroscale solid-mechanics modeling are (1) the assumption of scale separation in homogenization theory and (2) the use of a macroscopic plasticity material model that represents, in a mean sense, the multitude of inelastic processes occurring at the microscale. With the goal of quantifying the errors induced by these approximations on engineering quantities of interest, we perform a set of direct numerical simulations (DNS) in which polycrystalline microstructures are embedded throughout a macroscale structure. The largest simulations model over 50,000 grains. The microstructure is idealized using a randomly close-packed Voronoi tessellation in which each polyhedral Voronoi cell represents a grain. An face centered cubic crystal-plasticity model is used to model the mechanical response of each grain. The overall grain structure is equiaxed, and each grain is randomly oriented with no overall texture. The detailed results from the DNS simulations are compared to results obtained from conventional macroscale simulations that use homogeneous isotropic plasticity models. The macroscale plasticity models are calibrated using a representative volume element of the idealized microstructure. Ultimately, we envision that DNS modeling will be used to gain new insights into the mechanics of material deformation and failure.

  9. 精神障碍患者的预先指示权与自愿治疗%Mentally disordered patients' right to advance directives and voluntary treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙也龙

    2013-01-01

    《中华人民共和国精神卫生法》确立了精神障碍患者自愿治疗原则,预先指示权应是这项原则的重要内容.预先指示权不仅能够保障患者自治,而且也具有多重的现实意义.我国具有确立预先指示权的法律环境,但大众对预先指示权比较陌生,建议对其进行适当的提倡和推广.%Mental Health Law of the People's Republic of China establishes the principle of voluntary treatment for mentally disordered patients. The right to advance directives should be an important aspect of the principle of voluntary treatment because it can protect mentally disordered patients'autonomy and has multiple practical values. China has the legal environment to establish mentally disordered patients'right to advance directives. However, most Chinese people are not fairly familiar with this right Therefore it is suggested to advocate and promote the right to advance directives in China.

  10. Direct imaging of extra-solar planets in star forming regions: Lessons learned from a false positive around IM Lup

    CERN Document Server

    Mawet, Dimitri; Riaud, Pierre; Surdej, Jean; Montagnier, Guillaume; Ducourant, Christine; Augereau, Jean-Charles; Rottinger, Sarah; Girard, Julien; Krist, John; Stapelfeldt, Karl

    2012-01-01

    Most exoplanet imagers consist of ground-based adaptive optics coronagraphic cameras which are currently limited in contrast, sensitivity and astrometric precision, but advantageously observe in the near-IR (1- 5{\\mu}m). Because of these practical limitations, our current observational aim at detecting and characterizing planets puts heavy constraints on target selection, observing strategies, data reduction, and follow-up. Most surveys so far have thus targeted young systems (1-100Myr) to catch the putative remnant thermal radiation of giant planets, which peaks in the near-IR. They also favor systems in the solar neighborhood (d<80pc), which eases angular resolution requirements but also ensures a good knowledge of the distance and proper motion, which are critical to secure the planet status, and enable subsequent characterization. Because of their youth, it is very tempting to target the nearby star forming regions, which are typically twice as far as the bulk of objects usually combed for planets by d...

  11. Ion-exclusion chromatography with the direct UV detection of non-absorbing inorganic cations using an anion-exchange conversion column in the iodide-form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Masanobu; Itabashi, Hideyuki; Ikedo, Mikaru; Tanaka, Kazuhiko

    2006-08-15

    An ion-exclusion chromatographic method for the direct UV detection of non-absorbing inorganic cations such as sodium (Na(+)), ammonium (NH(4)(+)) and hydrazine (N(2)H(5)(+)) ions was developed by connecting an anion-exchange column in the I(-)-form after the separation column. For example, NH(4)(+) is converted to a UV-absorbing molecule, NH(4)I, by the anion-exchange column in the I(-)-form after the ion-exclusion separation on anion-exchange column in the OH(-)-form with water eluent. As a result, the direct UV detection of Na(+), NH(4)(+) and N(2)H(5)(+) could be successfully obtained as well as the well-resolved separation. The calibration graphs of the analyte cations detected with UV at 230nm were linear in the range of 0.001-5.0mM. The detection limits at S/N=3 of the cations were below 0.1muM. This method was applied to real water analysis, the determination of NH(4)(+) in river and rain waters, or that of N(2)H(5)(+) in boiler water, with the satisfactory results. This could be applied also to low- or non-absorbing anions such as fluoride or hydrogencarbonate ions by the combination of a weakly acidic cation-exchange resin in the H(+)-form as the separation column and the anion-exchange conversion column.

  12. Forming of educational motivation of students to direction of preparation «Health of a man» in the process of study of medical and biological disciplines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babich N.L.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The features of forming of educational motivation of students are considered in the process of study of disciplines of medical and biological disciplines. 73 students took part in research. The analysis of publications is resulted in relation to determination of category vehicle of the probed problem, classification of educational reasons; motivational technologies of studies; correlation of reasons of educational activity of students. It is certain and grounded pedagogical terms of forming positive educational motivation of students on the example of study of discipline «Anatomy of timber-toe by bases of sporting morphology». It is recommended in the process of study of the rich in content modules of discipline to make examples of widespread diseases of the different systems and organs. It is set that the noted examples allow directly to influence on forming of educational motivation of students.

  13. Application of ultraviolet, ozone, and advanced oxidation treatments to washwaters to destroy nitrosamines, nitramines, amines, and aldehydes formed during amine-based carbon capture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Amisha D; Dai, Ning; Mitch, William A

    2013-03-19

    Although amine-based CO(2) absorption is a leading contender for full-scale postcombustion CO(2) capture at power plants, concerns have been raised about the potential release of carcinogenic N-nitrosamines and N-nitramines formed by reaction of exhaust gas NO(x) with the amines. Experiments with a laboratory-scale pilot unit suggested that washwater units meant to scrub contaminants from absorber unit exhaust could potentially serve as a source of N-nitrosamines via reactions of residual NO(x) with amines accumulating in the washwater. Dosage requirements for the continuous treatment of the washwater recycle line with ultraviolet (UV) light for destruction of N-nitrosamines and N-nitramines, and with ozone or hydroxyl radical-based advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) for destruction of amines and aldehydes, were evaluated. Although capture synergies between UV and ozone treatments.

  14. Advanced Manufacturing of Intermediate Temperature, Direct Methane Oxidation Membrane Electrode Assemblies for Durable Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed innovation builds on the successes of the Phase I program by integrating our direct oxidation membrane electrode assembly (MEA) into a monolithic solid...

  15. Direct measurement of dust attenuation in z~1.5 star-forming galaxies from 3D-HST: Implications for dust geometry and star formation rates

    CERN Document Server

    Price, Sedona H; Brammer, Gabriel B; Conroy, Charlie; Schreiber, Natascha M Forster; Franx, Marijn; Fumagalli, Mattia; Lundgren, Britt; Momcheva, Ivelina; Nelson, Erica J; Rix, Hans-Walter; Skelton, Rosalind E; van Dokkum, Pieter G; Whitaker, Katherine E; Wuyts, Stijn

    2013-01-01

    The nature of dust in distant galaxies is not well understood, and until recently few direct dust measurements have been possible. We investigate dust in distant star-forming galaxies using near-infrared grism spectra of the 3D-HST survey combined with archival multi-wavelength photometry. These data allow us to make a direct comparison between dust towards star-forming regions (measured using Balmer decrements) and the integrated dust properties (derived by comparing spectral energy distributions [SEDs] with stellar population and dust models) for a statistically significant sample of distant galaxies. We select a sample of 163 galaxies between 1.36 $\\le$ z $\\le$ 1.5 with H$\\alpha$ SNR $\\ge$ 5 and measure Balmer decrements from stacked spectra. First, we stack spectra in bins of integrated stellar dust attenuation, and find that there is extra dust extinction towards star-forming regions ($A_{V,HII}$ is 1.81 times the integrated $A_{V,star}$), though slightly lower than found for low-redshift starburst galax...

  16. Advance directives in action in a regional palliative care service: "road testing" the provisions of the Medical Treatment Act 1988 (VIC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Margaret; Fisher, John W; Brumley, David J; Ashby, Michael A; Milliken, Jan

    2005-11-01

    In order to explore the usefulness and acceptability of the provisions of the Medical Treatment Act 1988 (Vic) for palliative care patients in a rural region in Victoria, Australia, between July and December 2004 patients were given information explaining the Act and the opportunity to discuss it with the research officer. Grounded theory methodology was used to evaluate client responses. Findings suggested that palliative care patients are willing to engage in advance care planning but they have to be well enough and need skilled, practical, face-to-face assistance to complete the required legal forms. Written materials alone are not adequate, but provide the opportunity for medical staff to have conversations about death and dying. Doctors and nurses should understand the provisions of the Act to assist patients and families. It is recommended that advance care planning, appropriate to the jurisdiction, be an integral part of the palliative care assessment process.

  17. Systematic Structural Elucidation for the Protonated Form of Rare Earth Bis(porphyrinato) Double-Decker Complexes: Direct Structural Evidence of the Location of the Attached Proton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Ken-Ichi; Sakata, Naoya; Ogawa, Takuji

    2016-09-01

    Direct structural evidence of the presence and location of the attached proton in the protonated form of rare earth bis(porphyrinato) double-decker complexes is obtained from an X-ray diffraction study of single crystals for a series of protonated forms of bis(tetraphenylporphyrinato) complexes [M(III)(tpp)(tppH)] (M = Tb, Y, Sm, Nd, and La). When CHCl3 is used as a solvent for crystallization of the complexes, their nondisordered molecular structures are obtained and the attached proton is identified on one of the eight nitrogen atoms. Use of other solvents affords another type of crystal, in which the position of the proton is disordered and thus the molecular structure is averaged. La complex also affords the disordered average structure even when CHCl3 is used for crystallization. A variable-temperature diffraction study for the Tb complex reveals that the dynamics of the proton in the nondisordered crystal is restricted.

  18. Direct Measurement of Dust Attenuation in z approx. 1.5 Star-Forming Galaxies from 3D-HST: Implications for Dust Geometry and Star Formation Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Sedona H.; Kriek, Mariska; Brammer, Gabriel B; Conroy, Charlie; Schreiber, Natascha M. Foerster; Franx, Marijn; Fumagalli, Mattia; Lundren, Britt; Momcheva, Ivelina; Nelson, Erica J.; Rix, Hans-Walter; Skelton, Rosalind E.; VanDokkum, Pieter G.; Tease, Katherine Whitaker; Wuyts, Stijn

    2013-01-01

    The nature of dust in distant galaxies is not well understood, and until recently few direct dust measurements have been possible. We investigate dust in distant star-forming galaxies using near-infrared grism spectra of the 3D-HST survey combined with archival multi-wavelength photometry. These data allow us to make a direct comparison between dust towards star-forming regions (measured using Balmer decrements) and the integrated dust properties (derived by comparing spectral energy distributions [SEDs] with stellar population and dust models) for a statistically significant sample of distant galaxies. We select a sample of 163 galaxies between 1.36 or = 5 and measure Balmer decrements from stacked spectra. First, we stack spectra in bins of integrated stellar dust attenuation, and find that there is extra dust extinction towards star-forming regions (AV,HII is 1.81 times the integrated AV, star), though slightly lower than found for low-redshift starburst galaxies. Next, we stack spectra in bins of specific star formation rate (log sSFR), star formation rate (log SFR), and stellar mass (logM*). We find that on average AV,HII increases with SFR and mass, but decreases with increasing sSFR. The amount of extra extinction also decreases with increasing sSFR and decreasing stellar mass. Our results are consistent with the two-phase dust model - in which galaxies contain both a diffuse and a stellar birth cloud dust component - as the extra extinction will increase once older stars outside the star-forming regions become more dominant. Finally, using our Balmer decrements we derive dust-corrected H(alpha) SFRs, and find evidence that SED fitting produces incorrect SFRs if very rapidly declining SFHs are included in the explored parameter space. Subject headings: dust, extinction- galaxies: evolution- galaxies: high-redshift

  19. Soluble Forms and Ligands of the Receptor for Advanced Glycation End-Products in Patients with Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome: An Observational Prospective Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthieu Jabaudon

    Full Text Available The main soluble form of the receptor for advanced glycation end-products (sRAGE is elevated during acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS. However other RAGE isoforms and multiple ligands have been poorly reported in the clinical setting, and their respective contribution to RAGE activation during ARDS remains unclear. Our goal was therefore to describe main RAGE isoforms and ligands levels during ARDS.30 ARDS patients and 30 mechanically ventilated controls were prospectively included in this monocenter observational study. Arterial, superior vena cava and alveolar fluid levels of sRAGE, endogenous-secretory RAGE (esRAGE, high mobility group box-1 protein (HMGB1, S100A12 and advanced glycation end-products (AGEs were measured in duplicate ELISA on day 0, day 3 and day 6. In patients with ARDS, baseline lung morphology was assessed with computed tomography.ARDS patients had higher arterial, central venous and alveolar levels of sRAGE, HMGB1 and S100A12, but lower levels of esRAGE and AGEs, than controls. Baseline arterial sRAGE, HMGB1 and S100A12 were correlated with nonfocal ARDS (AUC 0.79, 0.65 and 0.63, respectively. Baseline arterial sRAGE, esRAGE, S100A12 and AGEs were associated with severity as assessed by PaO2/FiO2.This is the first kinetics study of levels of RAGE main isoforms and ligands during ARDS. Elevated sRAGE, HMGB1 and S100A12, with decreased esRAGE and AGEs, were found to distinguish patients with ARDS from those without. Our findings should prompt future studies aimed at elucidating RAGE/HMGB1/S100A12 axis involvement in ARDS.clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT01270295.

  20. Critical roles of microRNAs in the pathogenesis of systemic sclerosis: New advances, challenges and potential directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Cheng-Gui; Xiong, You-Yi; Yu, Hao; Zhang, Xiao-Lin; Qin, Mei-Song; Song, Tong-Wen; Du, Chuan-Lai

    2015-09-01

    Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is an autoimmune disease characterized by immune disorders, vascular obliteration, excessive extracellular matrix deposition, skin fibrosis, and further pathological change of internal organs. To date, the exact etiology of this complicated disease remains unknown. Over the past few years, the roles of epigenetic modifications caused by environmental factors have been intensively studied in relation to the disease pathogenesis, and important advances have been made. This review focuses on the new advances of microRNAs (miRNAs) in the field of SSc research, including the upstream regulatory factors of miRNAs, the downstream targets, and the feedback mechanisms between miRNAs and their targets. We also discussed the correlation of miRNAs and DNA methylation, the miRNAs and the gene polymorphism. Overall, the findings presented in this review illustrated how miRNAs play important roles in the pathogenesis of SSc. However, several unanswered questions continue to impede our understanding of this complex disease. Future research should focus on the identification of new biomarkers for early diagnosis and prognosis, which will help us improve the clinical treatment of patients with SSc. In addition, we discussed the challenges of miRNA study in SSc in the future. Since the miRNA injection may be a promising therapeutic approach for SSc treatment, one of the challenges in the future is to evaluate the therapeutic effects of miRNA and anti-miRNAs using SSc model animals. In light of the fact that one miRNA can target many mRNAs, and one mRNA is targeted by many miRNAs, the effect of miRNA changes on other gene expression should be investigated to evaluate the treatment safety of miRNA injection in vivo.

  1. 肿瘤科医护人员对晚期肿瘤患者实施预先指示的质性研究%Attitudes of Oncology Medical Staffs on Advance Directives for Advanced Cancer Patients: a Qualitative Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王丽英; 胡雁; 陆箴琦; 顾文英

    2011-01-01

    The research was to explore the attitudes of oncology medical staffs on advance directives (AD) for advancedcancer patients. 8 oncology medical staffs selected by purposive sampling participated in the semi - structure interviews.Three themes were extracted from the attitudes of oncology medical staffs towards AD: accepting and demanding it; beingdifficult to carry it out j being possible to try it out with some countermeasures. Although there are still some difficulties,oncology medical staffs support AD in general. And the implementation of AD in mainland of China needs a long time oflocalization.%探讨肿瘤科医护人员对晚期肿瘤患者实施预先指示(advance directives,AD)的态度.使用目的抽样法对8位肿瘤科医护人员进行半结构式访谈.结果显示,肿瘤科医护人员对实施AD的态度可归纳为:(1)认可并有需求;(2)具体实施仍有一定困难;(3)可尝试应用但需一定对策.因此,肿瘤科医护人员总体非常支持AD的实施,但具体应用还需一定时期的本土化过程.

  2. The temporary and accumulated effects of transcranial direct current stimulation for the treatment of advanced Parkinson’s disease monkeys

    OpenAIRE

    Hao Li; Xiaoguang Lei; Ting Yan; Hongwei Li; Baihui Huang; Ling Li; Liqi Xu; Li Liu; Nanhui Chen; Longbao Lü; Yuanye Ma; Lin Xu; Jiali Li; Zhengbo Wang; Baorong Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a useful noninvasive technique of cortical brain stimulation for the treatment of neurological disorders. Clinical research has demonstrated tDCS with anodal stimulation of primary motor cortex (M1) in Parkinson’s disease (PD) patients significantly improved their motor function. However, few studies have been focused on the optimization of parameters which contributed significantly to the treatment effects of tDCS and exploration of the under...

  3. 基于高级搜索页面的动态表单搜索%Advanced Search Page-Based Dynamic Form Search

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李海滨; 许南山

    2011-01-01

    According to the characteristics that the input information can be reflected by the textual content ahead of input item, this paper has proposed a method to dynamically fill the form items by parsing them, and solved the problem that how to search multiple web sites with the same type using their own advanced search page. In this paper, book shopping website was chosen as research object. Using the method of dynamically form, some resulting pages can be generated, then it will parse and sort these pages by their weights, and at last display them in the same format. At last, a satisfying result has obtained in the experiment and confirmed the algorithm accuracy, thus it can be used to search multiple websites with the same type, using their own search engine.%根据表单项前的文字信息反映表单项输入信息的特点,提出通过解析表单项动态填充表单的方法,解决了应用网站自身高级搜索页面对同一类型的多个网站进行搜索的问题.针对图书类的网站进行研究,利用动态解析表单获得结果页面,对其进行解析并加权排序,最后按照统一的显示格式展现.根据实验结果验证了算法设计的正确性,可利用本算法对多个同类型的网站借助其自身搜索进行搜索查询.

  4. Direct measurements of dust attenuation in z ∼ 1.5 star-forming galaxies from 3D-HST: Implications for dust geometry and star formation rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, Sedona H.; Kriek, Mariska [Astronomy Department, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Brammer, Gabriel B. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Conroy, Charlie [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Schreiber, Natascha M. Förster; Wuyts, Stijn [Max-Planck-Institut für extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstrasse, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Franx, Marijn; Fumagalli, Mattia [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9513, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Lundgren, Britt [Department of Astronomy, University of Wisconsin, 475 N Charter Street, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Momcheva, Ivelina; Nelson, Erica J.; Van Dokkum, Pieter G. [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06511 (United States); Skelton, Rosalind E. [South African Astronomical Observatory, P.O. Box 9, Observatory 7935 (South Africa); Whitaker, Katherine E., E-mail: sedona@berkeley.edu [Astrophysics Science Division, Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 665, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2014-06-10

    The nature of dust in distant galaxies is not well understood, and until recently few direct dust measurements have been possible. We investigate dust in distant star-forming galaxies using near-infrared grism spectra of the 3D-HST survey combined with archival multi-wavelength photometry. These data allow us to make a direct comparison between dust around star-forming regions (A {sub V,} {sub H} {sub II}) and the integrated dust content (A {sub V,} {sub star}). We select a sample of 163 galaxies between 1.36 ≤ z ≤ 1.5 with Hα signal-to-noise ratio ≥5 and measure Balmer decrements from stacked spectra to calculate A {sub V,} {sub H} {sub II}. First, we stack spectra in bins of A {sub V,} {sub star}, and find that A {sub V,} {sub H} {sub II} = 1.86 A {sub V,} {sub star}, with a significance of σ = 1.7. Our result is consistent with the two-component dust model, in which galaxies contain both diffuse and stellar birth cloud dust. Next, we stack spectra in bins of specific star formation rate (log SSFR), star formation rate (log SFR), and stellar mass (log M {sub *}). We find that on average A {sub V,} {sub H} {sub II} increases with SFR and mass, but decreases with increasing SSFR. Interestingly, the data hint that the amount of extra attenuation decreases with increasing SSFR. This trend is expected from the two-component model, as the extra attenuation will increase once older stars outside the star-forming regions become more dominant in the galaxy spectrum. Finally, using Balmer decrements we derive dust-corrected Hα SFRs, and find that stellar population modeling produces incorrect SFRs if rapidly declining star formation histories are included in the explored parameter space.

  5. Taxation in France / Letter from the French “Direction générale des finances publiques” / New form

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association and GAC-EPA

    2017-01-01

    Under this title, the CERN Management published, in the last issue of the Bulletin (52-4/2017, on 18 January 2017), a notice to active and retired members of personnel who have received a letter with a form from the French tax authorities. This notice was provided without prior concertation with the representatives of the personnel and the pensioners. A good example of a missed opportunity in our opinion: there was certainly a better way to defend the interests of the Organization and its personnel, both active and retired! Here is our position on this matter. This form shall be used to update the civil information that the French tax authorities have on taxpayers. This update is not obligatory, but it is likely in your best interest that your civil status and contact information are up to date in their database. Still, it is up to you to decide whether or not you want to return this form. Even if the letter cites the introduction of a direct income tax deduction from revenue in France as of 2018, we consider...

  6. The MOSDEF Survey: Detection of [OIII]$\\lambda$4363 and the direct-method oxygen abundance of a star-forming galaxy at z=3.08

    CERN Document Server

    Sanders, Ryan L; Kriek, Mariska; Reddy, Naveen A; Freeman, William R; Coil, Alison L; Siana, Brian; Mobasher, Bahram; Shivaei, Irene; Price, Sedona H; de Groot, Laura

    2016-01-01

    We present measurements of the electron-temperature based oxygen abundance for a highly star-forming galaxy at z=3.08, COSMOS-1908. This is the highest redshift at which [OIII]$\\lambda$4363 has been detected, and the first time that this line has been measured at z>2. We estimate an oxygen abundance of 12+log(O/H)$=8.00^{+0.13}_{-0.14}$. This galaxy is a low-mass ($10^{9.3}$ M$_{\\odot}$), highly star-forming ($\\sim50$ M$_{\\odot}$ yr$^{-1}$) system that hosts a young stellar population ($\\sim160$ Myr). We investigate the physical conditions of the ionized gas in COSMOS-1908 and find that this galaxy has a high ionization parameter, little nebular reddening ($E(B-V)_{\\rm gas}<0.14$), and a high electron density ($n_e\\sim500$ cm$^{-3}$). We compare the ratios of strong oxygen, neon, and hydrogen lines to the direct-method oxygen abundance for COSMOS-1908 and additional star-forming galaxies at z=0-1.8 with [OIII]$\\lambda$4363 measurements, and show that galaxies at z$\\sim$1-3 follow the same strong-line corre...

  7. Waste Classification based on Waste Form Heat Generation in Advanced Nuclear Fuel Cycles Using the Fuel-Cycle Integration and Tradeoffs (FIT) Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denia Djokic; Steven J. Piet; Layne F. Pincock; Nick R. Soelberg

    2013-02-01

    This study explores the impact of wastes generated from potential future fuel cycles and the issues presented by classifying these under current classification criteria, and discusses the possibility of a comprehensive and consistent characteristics-based classification framework based on new waste streams created from advanced fuel cycles. A static mass flow model, Fuel-Cycle Integration and Tradeoffs (FIT), was used to calculate the composition of waste streams resulting from different nuclear fuel cycle choices. This analysis focuses on the impact of waste form heat load on waste classification practices, although classifying by metrics of radiotoxicity, mass, and volume is also possible. The value of separation of heat-generating fission products and actinides in different fuel cycles is discussed. It was shown that the benefits of reducing the short-term fission-product heat load of waste destined for geologic disposal are neglected under the current source-based radioactive waste classification system , and that it is useful to classify waste streams based on how favorable the impact of interim storage is in increasing repository capacity.

  8. 从临终关怀的角度看预先指示%Look at Advance Directives From the Perspective of Hospice Care

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张凤佩; 韩春玲

    2011-01-01

    预先指示是指有决定能力的患者对自身将来丧失表意能力时接受何种医疗照护而事先做出的一种安排和指示.预先指示在国外随着临终关怀的发展而出现,在当前中国的文化背景下,其应用和发展也更具有现实意义.%Advance directives is the patients, who have the ability to make resolve, to make an arrangement and instruction for them to accept what medical treatment or medical care prior to lose self ideographic ability. With development and appear of the hospice care in foreign countries, its application and the development also has more practical meaning under the current Chinese cultural background. Advance directives comply with the concept and ethical principles of hospice care.

  9. Development of advanced pump impeller fabrication technology using direct nano- ceramic dispersion casting for long time erosion durability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rhee, Chang Kyu; Lee, Min Ku; Park, Jin Ju [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)] (and others)

    2008-09-15

    Many components of pump impeller of nuclear power plants is generally made of stainless steel and Al-bronze with superior corrosion resistance to sea water. However, they should be replaced by one- to five-year period because of material damage by a very big cavitation impact load, even though their designed durability is twenty years. Especially, in case of Young-Gwang nuclear power plant located at the west sea, damage of components of pump impeller is so critical due to the additional damage by solid particle erosion and hence their replacement period is very short as several months compared to other nuclear power plants. In addition, it is very difficult to maintain and repair the components of pump impeller since there is no database on the exact durability and damage mechanism. Therefore, in this study, fabrication technology of new advanced materials modified by dispersion of nano-carbide and -oxide ceramics into the matrix is developed first. Secondly, technology to estimate the dynamic damage by solid particle erosion is established and hence applied to the prediction of the service life of the components of pump impeller.

  10. Do the changes in muscle mass, muscle direction, and rotations of the condyles that occur after sagittal split advancement osteotomies play a role in the aetiology of progressive condylar resorption?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dicker, G.J.; Castelijns, J.A.; Tuinzing, D.B.; Stoelinga, P.J.W.

    2015-01-01

    Changes in cross-sectional area (CSA), volume (indicating muscle strength), and direction of the masseter and medial pterygoid muscles after surgical mandibular advancement were measured, along with the rotation of the condyles after bilateral sagittal split osteotomies (BSSOs) to advance the mandib

  11. 车用热成形先进高强度钢板样件的热胀形特征及成形性分析%Thermal Expansion Analysis Based on Forming Limit Diagram for Improving the Formability of Automotive Hot-forming Advanced High Strength Steel Parts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常颖; 靳菲; 李晓东; 史栋勇; 王存宇; 赵坤民

    2014-01-01

    通过高温热胀形特征分析,研究热冲压22MnB5合金在不同温度下的成形性,并利用Dynaform软件仿真验证。比较成形温度在800℃和700℃时样件的热胀形特征,结果表明,在800℃时成形,样件由于平面应变方向主应变过大,拉压应变区次应力为负值,造成拉伸破裂;在700℃下冲压成形的试件,各部分应变都处于安全区域,双向拉伸区域和拉伸-压缩复合区域的变形均匀,较前者成形性良好。另外,提出关于热成形先进高强度钢(Advanced high strength steel, AHSS)样件,其最佳成形温度不是现有文献报道的800~850℃的范围内,该结论为深入探索最佳成形温度、提高成形性提供了方向;建立成形前的快冷法(冷速不低于27℃/s),降温到目标温度700℃左右冲压成形。试验证明:通过该方法,样件的成形性明显改善,微观结构更为致密。%Based on the high-temperature thermal expansion analysis, the formability at different temperature of hot-forming 22MnB5 is studied and also verified by Dynaform simulation. Comparing the thermal expansion characteristics at forming temperature 800℃ and 700℃, the results suggest that:Forming at 800℃, the sample results in a tensile rupture since the principal strain in plane strain direction is too large, while the secondary strain in tensile-compressive zone is negative; forming at 700℃, the formability is significantly improved since the strain of all parts remain in a safety area and sample has a uniform deformation in biaxial stretching region and tensile-compressive zone. In addition, this work puts forward that the optimized forming temperature of hot-forming advanced high strength steel(AHSS) sample is not in the range of 800℃ to 850℃ reported in present literatures. This conclusion provides directions for deep exploration of optimized forming temperature and improvement of formability. A rapid cooling method is

  12. The Solvent-Exposed C-Terminus of the Cytolysin A Pore-Forming Toxin Directs Pore Formation and Channel Function in Membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathyanarayana, Pradeep; Desikan, Rajat; Ayappa, K Ganapathy; Visweswariah, Sandhya S

    2016-10-13

    Pore-forming toxins (PFTs) bind to cell membranes and form nanoscale pores that allow leakage of cellular components, resulting in cell death. The water-soluble, monomeric form of these toxins shows a dramatic conformational change during pore formation, as exemplified by crystal structures of the monomer and functional pore of cytolysin A (ClyA). The solvent-exposed, C-terminal residues of the protein are essential for activity, but the mechanism by which this region regulates pore formation remains unknown. We show here that deletion of the C-terminus of ClyA did not alter its ability to bind to the membrane or oligomerize in detergent. However, the truncated toxin lysed erythrocytes poorly, was more susceptible to proteolysis and thermal unfolding, and showed low calcein leakage from small unilamellar vesicles. Using fully atomistic molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, we find that deletion of C-terminal residues from the ClyA monomer significantly altered stability and unfolding trajectories in the transmembrane N-terminal helix, a region that is pivotal in maintaining the structural integrity of the helical bundle. MD simulations of pores with or without the C-terminus showed minor differences, implying that if oligomerization could be induced prior to the addition to vesicles, then an active pore could be generated. Via generation of oligomers in a detergent prior to the addition to vesicles, the truncated toxin could induce calcein leakage from vesicles, albeit to a lower extent. Therefore, regions of pore-forming toxins, not directly involved in the pore structure, are not passive players but have important roles in undergoing the transition through intermediary steps leading to successful pore formation in a membrane environment.

  13. Preoperative Direct Puncture Embolization of Advanced Juvenile Nasopharyngeal Angiofibroma in Combination with Transarterial Embolization: An Analysis of 22 Consecutive Patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lv Mingming, E-mail: lvmingming001@163.com; Fan, Xin-dong, E-mail: fanxindong@yahoo.com.cn [Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Ninth People' s Hospital (China); Su Lixin, E-mail: sulixin1975@126.com [Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Ninth People' s Hospital (China); Chen Dong, E-mail: chenjsun@public8.sta.net.cn [Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Department of Otolaryngology, Ninth People' s Hospital (China)

    2013-02-15

    ObjectiveThis study was designed to evaluate the clinical application of preoperative auxiliary embolization for juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma (JNA) by direct puncture embolization (DPE) of the tumor in combination with transarterial embolization (TAE). The study included 22 patients. An 18-gauge needle was used to puncture directly into the tumor, and 20-25 % N-butyl cyanoacrylate was injected under the guidance of fluoroscopy after confirming the placement of the needle into the JNA and no leaking into the surrounding tissue. Tumors were obstructed later via TAE. The supplying arteries of JNA were from branches of the internal carotid and external carotid arteries. Control angiography showed the obliteration of contrast stain in the entire tumor mass and the distal supplying arteries disappeared after DPE in combination with TAE. Surgical resection was performed within 4 days after embolization and none of the patients required blood transfusion. The use of DPE in combination with TAE was a safe, feasible, and efficacious method. It can devascularize effectively the JNAs and reduce intraoperative bleeding when JNAs are extirpated.

  14. Advances in Methane Isotope Measurements via Direct Absorption Spectroscopy with Applications to Oil and Gas Source Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yacovitch, T. I.; Herndon, S. C.; Roscioli, J. R.; Petron, G.; Shorter, J. H.; Jervis, D.; McManus, J. B.; Nelson, D. D.; Zahniser, M. S.; Kolb, C. E., Jr.

    2015-12-01

    Instrumental developments in the measurement of multiple isotopes of methane (12CH4, 13CH4 and 12CH3D) are presented. A first generation 8-micron instrument quantifies 12CH4 and 13CH4 at a 1-second rate via tunable infrared direct absorption spectroscopy (TILDAS). A second generation instrument uses two 3-micron intraband cascade lasers in an Aerodyne dual laser chassis for simultaneous measurement of 12CH4, 13CH4 and 12CH3D. Sensitivity and noise performance improvements are examined. The isotopic signature of methane provides valuable information for emission source identification of this greenhouse gas. A first generation spectrometer has been deployed in the field on a mobile laboratory along with a sophisticated 4-tank calibration system. Calibrations are done on an agressive schedule, allowing for the correction of measured isotope ratios to an absolute isotope scale. Distinct isotopic signatures are found for a number of emission sources in the Denver-Julesburg Basin: oil and gas gathering stations, compressor stations and processing plants; a municipal landfill, and dairy/cattle operations. The isotopic signatures are compared with measured ethane/methane ratios. These direct absorption measurements have larger uncertainties than samples measured via gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, but have several advantages over canister sampling methods: individual sources of short duration are easier to isolate; calibrated isotope ratio results are available immediately; replicate measurements on a single source are easily performed; and the number of sources sampled is not limited by canister availability and processing time.

  15. Recent approaches for the direct use of elemental sulfur in the synthesis and processing of advanced materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Jeewoo; Pyun, Jeffrey; Char, Kookheon

    2015-03-09

    Elemental sulfur is an abundant and inexpensive material obtained as a by-product of natural-gas and petroleum refining operations. Recently, the need for the development of new energy-storage systems brought into light the potential of sulfur as a high-capacity cathode material in secondary batteries. Sulfur-containing materials were also shown to have useful IR optical properties. These developments coupled with growing environmental concerns related to the global production of excess elemental sulfur have led to a keen interest in its utilization as a feedstock in materials applications. This Minireview focuses on the recent developments on physical and chemical methods for directly processing elemental sulfur to produce functional composites and polymers.

  16. Advanced methodology for measuring the extensive elastic compliance and mechanical loss directly in k31 mode piezoelectric ceramic plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majzoubi, Maryam; Shekhani, Husain N.; Bansal, Anushka; Hennig, Eberhard; Scholehwar, Timo; Uchino, Kenji

    2016-12-01

    Dielectric, elastic, and piezoelectric constants, and their corresponding losses are defined under constant conditions of two categories; namely, intensive (i.e., E, electric field or T, stress), and extensive (i.e., D, dielectric displacement or x, strain) ones. So far, only the intensive parameters and losses could be measured directly in a k31 mode sample. Their corresponding extensive parameters could be calculated indirectly using the coupling factor and "K" matrix. However, the extensive loss parameters, calculated through this indirect method, could have large uncertainty, due to the error propagation in calculation. In order to overcome this issue, extensive losses should be measured separately from the measurable intensive ones in lead-zirconate-titanate (PZT) k31 mode rectangular plate ceramics. We propose a new mechanical-excitation methodology, using a non-destructive testing approach by means of a partial electrode configuration, instead of the conventional full electrode configuration. For this purpose, a non-electrode sample was prepared, where the electrode covered only 10% of the top and bottom surfaces at the center to actuate the whole sample, and also monitor the responding vibration. The admittance spectrum of this sample, corresponds to PZT properties under dielectric displacement D constant condition. Furthermore, ceramics with partial-electrodes were also prepared to create short and open circuit boundary conditions, attributing to resonance and anti-resonance modes. In the proposed way, we were able to measure both intensive and extensive elastic compliances and mechanical losses directly for the first time. The accuracy of this new method is compared with the conventional measurements by use of indirect calculations. The preliminary results (by neglecting the 10% actuator part difference at this point) were obtained, which were in good agreements (less than 3% difference) with the previous indirect method.

  17. Development of advanced direct perception displays for nuclear power plants to enhance monitoring, control and fault management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, B.G.; Shaheen, S.; Moray, N. [and others

    1997-08-01

    Traditional Single-Sensor-Single Indicator (SSSI) displays are poorly matched to the cognitive abilities of operators, especially for large and complex systems. It is difficult for operators to monitor very large arrays of displays and controls, and to integrate the information displayed therein. In addition, standard operating procedures (SOPs) are bulky (running to many hundreds of pages) and difficult to use, and operators may become lost. For these reasons, and also because it is becoming increasingly difficult to find replacements for aging hardware components, there is a trend towards computerized graphical interfaces for nuclear power plants (NPPs). There is, however, little rational theory for display design in this domain. This report describes some recent theoretical developments and shows how to develop displays which will greatly reduce the cognitive load on the operator and allow the use of perceptual rather than cognitive mechanisms while using SON and to support state diagnosis and fault management. The report outlines the conceptual framework within which such a new approach could be developed, and provides an example of how the operating procedures for the start-up sequence of a NPP could be realized. A detailed description of a set of displays for a graphical interface for the SON of the feedwater system is provided as an example of how the proposed approach could be realized, and a general account of how it would fit into the overall start-up sequence is given. Examples of {open_quotes}direct perception{close_quotes} or {open_quotes}ecological{close_quotes} configural state space displays to support the use of the proposed direct manipulation SOP interface are provided, and also a critical discussion which identifies some difficulties which may be anticipated should the general approach herein advocated be adopted.

  18. Direct evidence of single quantum dot emission from GaN islands formed at threading dislocations using nanoscale cathodoluminescence: A source of single photons in the ultraviolet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, Gordon, E-mail: Gordon.Schmidt@ovgu.de; Berger, Christoph; Veit, Peter; Metzner, Sebastian; Bertram, Frank; Bläsing, Jürgen; Dadgar, Armin; Strittmatter, André; Christen, Jürgen [Institute of Experimental Physics, Otto-von-Guericke-University Magdeburg, 39106 Magdeburg (Germany); Callsen, Gordon; Kalinowski, Stefan; Hoffmann, Axel [Institute of Solid State Physics, Technical University Berlin, 10623 Berlin (Germany)

    2015-06-22

    Intense emission from GaN islands embedded in AlN resulting from GaN/AlN quantum well growth is directly resolved by performing cathodoluminescence spectroscopy in a scanning transmission electron microscope. Line widths down to 440 μeV are measured in a wavelength region between 220 and 310 nm confirming quantum dot like electronic properties in the islands. These quantum dot states can be structurally correlated to islands of slightly enlarged thicknesses of the GaN/AlN quantum well layer preferentially formed in vicinity to dislocations. The quantum dot states exhibit single photon emission in Hanbury Brown-Twiss experiments with a clear antibunching in the second order correlation function at zero time delay.

  19. Structures of the Apo and FAD-bound forms of 2-hydroxybiphenyl 3-monooxygenase (HbpA) locate activity hotspots identified by using directed evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Chantel N; Mielke, Tamara; Farrugia, Joseph E; Frank, Annika; Man, Henry; Hart, Sam; Turkenburg, Johan P; Grogan, Gideon

    2015-04-13

    The FAD-dependent monooxygenase HbpA from Pseudomonas azelaica HBP1 catalyses the hydroxylation of 2-hydroxybiphenyl (2HBP) to 2,3-dihydroxybiphenyl (23DHBP). HbpA has been used extensively as a model for studying flavoprotein hydroxylases under process conditions, and has also been subjected to directed-evolution experiments that altered its catalytic properties. The structure of HbpA has been determined in its apo and FAD-complex forms to resolutions of 2.76 and 2.03 Å, respectively. Comparisons of the HbpA structure with those of homologues, in conjunction with a model of the reaction product in the active site, reveal His48 as the most likely acid/base residue to be involved in the hydroxylation mechanism. Mutation of His48 to Ala resulted in an inactive enzyme. The structures of HbpA also provide evidence that mutants achieved by directed evolution that altered activity are comparatively remote from the substrate-binding site.

  20. The Effect of Ethylene and Propylene Pulses on Respiration, Ripening Advancement, Ethylene-Forming Enzyme, and 1-Aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic Acid Synthase Activity in Avocado Fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starrett, D A; Laties, G G

    1991-03-01

    When early-season avocado fruit (Persea americana Mill. cv Hass) were treated with ethylene or propylene for 24 hours immediately on picking, the time to the onset of the respiratory climacteric, i.e. the lag period, remained unchanged compared with that in untreated fruit. When fruit were pulsed 24 hours after picking, on the other hand, the lag period was shortened. In both cases, however, a 24 hour ethylene or propylene pulse induced a transient increase in respiration, called the pulse-peak, unaccompanied by ethylene production (IL Eaks [1980] Am Soc Hortic Sci 105: 744-747). The pulse also caused a sharp rise in ethylene-forming enzyme activity in both cases, without any increase in the low level of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid synthase activity. Thus, the shortening of the lag period by an ethylene pulse is not due to an effect of ethylene on either of the two key enzymes in ethylene biosynthesis. A comparison of two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis polypeptide profiles of in vitro translation products of poly(A(+)) mRNA from control and ethylene-pulsed fruit showed both up- and down-regulation in response to ethylene pulsing of a number of genes expressed during the ripening syndrome. It is proposed that the pulse-peak or its underlying events reflect an intrinsic element in the ripening process that in late-season or continuously ethylene-treated fruit may be subsumed in the overall climacteric response. A computerized system that allows continuous readout of multiple samples has established that the continued presentation of exogeneous ethylene or propylene to preclimacteric fruit elicits a dual respiration response comprising the merged pulse-peak and climacteric peak in series. The sequential removal of cores from a single fruit has proven an unsatisfactory sampling procedure inasmuch as coring induces wound ethylene, evokes a positive respiration response, and advances ripening.

  1. Bone-Forming Capacity and Biodistribution of Bone Marrow-Derived Stromal Cells Directly Loaded Into Scaffolds: A Novel and Easy Approach for Clinical Application of Bone Regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Léotot, Julie; Lebouvier, Angélique; Hernigou, Philippe; Bierling, Philippe; Rouard, Hélène; Chevallier, Nathalie

    2015-01-01

    In the context of clinical applications of bone regeneration, cell seeding into scaffolds needs to be safe and easy. Moreover, cell density also plays a crucial role in the development of efficient bone tissue engineering constructs. The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate a simple and rapid cell seeding procedure on hydroxyapatite/β-tricalcium phosphate (HA/βTCP), as well as define optimal cell density and control the biodistribution of grafted cells. To this end, human bone marrow-derived stromal cells (hBMSCs) were seeded on HA/βTCP scaffolds, and we have compared bone formation using an ectopic model. Our results demonstrated a significantly higher bone-forming capacity of hBMSCs directly loaded on HA/βTCP during surgery compared to hBMSCs preseeded for 7 days in vitro on HA/βTCP before ectopic implantation. The extent of new bone formation increases with increasing hBMSC densities quantitatively, qualitatively, and in frequency. Also, this study showed that grafted hBMSCs remained confined to the implantation site and did not spread toward other tissues, such as liver, spleen, lungs, heart, and kidneys. In conclusion, direct cell loading into a scaffold during surgery is more efficient for bone regeneration, as well as quick and safe. Therefore direct cell loading is suitable for clinical requirements and cell production control, making it a promising approach for orthopedic applications. Moreover, our results have provided evidence that the formation of a mature bone organ containing hematopoietic islets needs a sufficiently high local density of grafted hBMSCs, which should guide the optimal dose of cells for clinical use.

  2. Advancing Solar Irradiance Measurement for Climate-Related Studies: Accurate Constraint on Direct Aerosol Radiative Effect (DARE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsay, Si-Chee; Ji, Q. Jack

    2011-01-01

    Earth's climate is driven primarily by solar radiation. As summarized in various IPCC reports, the global average of radiative forcing for different agents and mechanisms, such as aerosols or CO2 doubling, is in the range of a few W/sq m. However, when solar irradiance is measured by broadband radiometers, such as the fleet of Eppley Precision Solar Pyranometers (PSP) and equivalent instrumentation employed worldwide, the measurement uncertainty is larger than 2% (e.g., WMO specification of pyranometer, 2008). Thus, out of the approx. 184 W/sq m (approx.263 W/sq m if cloud-free) surface solar insolation (Trenberth et al. 2009), the measurement uncertainty is greater than +/-3.6 W/sq m, overwhelming the climate change signals. To discern these signals, less than a 1 % measurement uncertainty is required and is currently achievable only by means of a newly developed methodology employing a modified PSP-like pyranometer and an updated calibration equation to account for its thermal effects (li and Tsay, 2010). In this talk, we will show that some auxiliary measurements, such as those from a collocated pyrgeometer or air temperature sensors, can help correct historical datasets. Additionally, we will also demonstrate that a pyrheliometer is not free of the thermal effect; therefore, comparing to a high cost yet still not thermal-effect-free "direct + diffuse" approach in measuring surface solar irradiance, our new method is more economical, and more likely to be suitable for correcting a wide variety of historical datasets. Modeling simulations will be presented that a corrected solar irradiance measurement has a significant impact on aerosol forcing, and thus plays an important role in climate studies.

  3. Advanced Microbial Taxonomy Combined with Genome-Based-Approaches Reveals that Vibrio astriarenae sp. nov., an Agarolytic Marine Bacterium, Forms a New Clade in Vibrionaceae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurhidayu Al-Saari

    Full Text Available Advances in genomic microbial taxonomy have opened the way to create a more universal and transparent concept of species but is still in a transitional stage towards becoming a defining robust criteria for describing new microbial species with minimum features obtained using both genome and classical polyphasic taxonomies. Here we performed advanced microbial taxonomies combined with both genome-based and classical approaches for new agarolytic vibrio isolates to describe not only a novel Vibrio species but also a member of a new Vibrio clade. Two novel vibrio strains (Vibrio astriarenae sp. nov. C7T and C20 showing agarolytic, halophilic and fermentative metabolic activity were isolated from a seawater sample collected in a coral reef in Okinawa. Intraspecific similarities of the isolates were identical in both sequences on the 16S rRNA and pyrH genes, but the closest relatives on the molecular phylogenetic trees on the basis of 16S rRNA and pyrH gene sequences were V. hangzhouensis JCM 15146T (97.8% similarity and V. agarivorans CECT 5085T (97.3% similarity, respectively. Further multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA on the basis of 8 protein coding genes (ftsZ, gapA, gyrB, mreB, pyrH, recA, rpoA, and topA obtained by the genome sequences clearly showed the V. astriarenae strain C7T and C20 formed a distinct new clade protruded next to V. agarivorans CECT 5085T. The singleton V. agarivorans has never been included in previous MLSA of Vibrionaceae due to the lack of some gene sequences. Now the gene sequences are completed and analysis of 100 taxa in total provided a clear picture describing the association of V. agarivorans into pre-existing concatenated network tree and concluded its relationship to our vibrio strains. Experimental DNA-DNA hybridization (DDH data showed that the strains C7T and C20 were conspecific but were separated from all of the other Vibrio species related on the basis of both 16S rRNA and pyrH gene phylogenies (e.g., V

  4. Teaching Form as Form

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Tina Bering

    2012-01-01

    understanding of form per se, or, to use an expression from this text, of form as form. This challenge can be reduced to one question: how can design teaching support students in achieving not only the ability to recognize and describe different form-related concepts in existing design (i.e. analytical...... means that form serves both as the connective value and as the concept for reflection. In other words, form is observed as form, not anything else. The didactical challenge of teaching form as form is accentuated by students’ everyday-based pre-orientation towards function at the expense of form....... In general, students enter design education as far more skilled observers with regards to function than form. They are, in other words, predisposed to observe objects asking ‘what is?’, rather than ‘how is?’. This habit has not only cognitive implications. It is closely intertwined with a rudimentary...

  5. An overview on the advanced oxidation processes applied for the treatment of water pollutants defined in the recently launched Directive 2013/39/EU.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Ana R; Nunes, Olga C; Pereira, Manuel F R; Silva, Adrián M T

    2015-02-01

    Environmental pollution is a recognized issue of major concern since a wide range of contaminants has been found in aquatic environment at ngL(-1) to μgL(-1) levels. In the year 2000, a strategy was defined to identify the priority substances concerning aquatic ecosystems, followed by the definition of environmental quality standards (EQS) in 2008. Recently it was launched the Directive 2013/39/EU that updates the water framework policy highlighting the need to develop new water treatment technologies to deal with such problem. This review summarizes the data published in the last decade regarding the application of advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) to treat priority compounds and certain other pollutants defined in this Directive, excluding the inorganic species (cadmium, lead, mercury, nickel and their derivatives). The Directive 2013/39/EU includes several pesticides (aldrin, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane, dicofol, dieldrin, endrin, endosulfan, isodrin, heptachlor, lindane, pentachlorophenol, chlorpyrifos, chlorfenvinphos, dichlorvos, atrazine, simazine, terbutryn, diuron, isoproturon, trifluralin, cypermethrin, alachlor), solvents (dichloromethane, dichloroethane, trichloromethane and carbon tetrachloride), perfluorooctane sulfonic acid and its derivatives (PFOS), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), nonylphenol and octylphenol, as well as the three compounds included in the recommendation for the first watch list of substances (diclofenac, 17-alpha-ethinylestradiol (EE2) and 17-beta-estradiol (E2)). Some particular pesticides (aclonifen, bifenox, cybutryne, quinoxyfen), organotin compounds (tributyltin), dioxins and dioxin-like compounds, brominated diphenylethers, hexabromocyclododecanes and di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate are also defined in this Directive, but studies dealing with AOPs are missing. AOPs are recognized tools to destroy recalcitrant compounds or, at least, to transform them into biodegradable species

  6. New Forming Technologies for Autobody at POSCO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hong-Woo; Cha, Myung-Hwan; Choi, Byung-Keun; Kim, Gyo-Sung; Park, Sung-Ho

    2011-08-01

    As development of car body with light weight and enhanced safety became one of the hottest issues in the auto industry, the advanced high strength steels have been broadly applied to various automotive parts over the last few years. Corresponding to this trend, POSCO has developed various types of cold and hot rolled AHSSs such as DP, TRIP, CP and FB, and continues to develop new types of steel in order to satisfy the requirement of OEMs more extensively. To provide optimal technical supports to customers, POSCO has developed more advanced EVI concept, which includes the concept of CE/SE, VA/VE, VI and PP as well as the conventional EVI strategy. To realize this concept, POSCO not only supports customers with material data, process guideline, and evaluation of formability, weld-ability, paint-ability and performance but also provides parts or sub-assemblies which demand highly advanced technologies. Especially, to accelerate adoption of AHSS in autobody, POSCO has tried to come up with optimal solutions to AHSS forming. Application of conventional forming technologies has been restricted more and more by relatively low formability of AHSS with high tensile-strength. To overcome the limitation in the forming, POSCO has recently developed new forming technologies such as hydro-forming, hot press forming, roll forming and form forming. In this paper, tailored strength HPF, hydroformed torsion beam axle and multi-directional roll forming are introduced as examples of new forming technologies.

  7. A new combined stepwise-based high-order decoupled direct and reduced-form method to improve uncertainty analysis in PM2.5 simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhijiong; Hu, Yongtao; Zheng, Junyu; Yuan, Zibing; Russell, Armistead G; Ou, Jiamin; Zhong, Zhuangmin

    2017-02-24

    The traditional reduced-form model (RFM) based on the high-order decoupled direct method (HDDM), is an efficient uncertainty analysis approach for air quality models, but it has large biases in uncertainty propagations due to the limitation of the HDDM in predicting nonlinear responses to large perturbations of model inputs. To overcome the limitation, a new stepwise-based RFM method that combines several sets of local sensitive coefficients under different conditions is proposed. Evaluations reveal that the new RFM improves the prediction of nonlinear responses. The new method is applied to quantify uncertainties in simulated PM2.5 concentrations in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region of China as a case study. Results show that the average uncertainty range of hourly PM2.5 concentrations is -28% to 57%, which can cover approximately 70% of the observed PM2.5 concentrations, while the traditional RFM underestimates the upper bound of the uncertainty range by 1% to 6%. Using a variance-based method, the PM2.5 boundary conditions and primary PM2.5 emissions are found to be the two major uncertainty sources in PM2.5 simulations. The new RFM better quantifies the uncertainty range in model simulations and can be applied to improve applications that rely on uncertainty information.

  8. Directional Carrier Transfer in Strongly Coupled Binary Nanocrystal Superlattice Films Formed by Assembly and in Situ Ligand Exchange at a Liquid–Air Interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Yaoting; Li, Siming; Gogotsi, Natalie; Zhao, Tianshuo; Fleury, Blaise; Kagan, Cherie R.; Murray, Christopher B.; Baxter, Jason B.

    2017-02-16

    Two species of monodisperse nanocrystals (NCs) can self-assemble into a variety of complex 2D and 3D periodic structures, or binary NC superlattice (BNSL) films, based on the relative number and size of the NCs. BNSL films offer great promise for both fundamental scientific studies and optoelectronic applications; however, the utility of as-assembled structures has been limited by the insulating ligands that originate from the synthesis of NCs. Here we report the application of an in situ ligand exchange strategy at a liquid–air interface to replace the long synthesis ligands with short ligands while preserving the long-range order of BNSL films. This approach is demonstrated for BNSL structures consisting of PbSe NCs of different size combinations and ligands of interest for photovoltaic devices, infrared detectors, and light-emitting diodes. To confirm enhanced coupling introduced by ligand exchange, we show ultrafast (~1 ps) directional carrier transfer across the type-I heterojunction formed by NCs of different sizes within ligand-exchanged BNSL films. In conclusion, this approach shows the potential promise of functional BNSL films, where the local and long-range energy landscape and electronic coupling can be adjusted by tuning NC composition, size, and interparticle spacing.

  9. The direct determination of the forms of sulphur in coal using microwave digestion and i.c.p.-a.e.s. analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laban, K.L.; Atkin, B.P. [University of Nottingham, Nottingham (United Kingdom). School of Chemical, Environmental and Mining Engineering

    2000-01-01

    A sequential digestion method is reported for the direct determination of sulphate, pyrite and organic sulphur concentrations in coals of either bituminous or sub-bituminous rank. A three stage extraction was developed, using acid digestion in a microwave oven. In the first stage, 5 M HCl is used to dissolve sulphate phases in the coal. Pyrite is then extracted from the stage 1 residue using 2 M HNO{sub 3}. The final stage, for the determination of organic sulphur, involves the use of concentrated HNO{sub 3}, HCl, HF and boric acid for the complete decomposition of residue that remains following stage 2. The extract solutions from each stage are rapidly analysed for sulphur using i.c.p.-a.e.s. The sums of the three forms of sulphur have shown consistent agreement with certified total sulphur data for most of the coals studied. This correlation, in addition to the good precision achieved by this technique, suggests that the sequential digestion method is reliable. Furthermore, significant timesavings are achievable over some of the standard techniques demonstrating the suitability of the method for routine analyses. 12 refs., 1 fig., 8 tabs.

  10. Using SpaceClaimTD Direct for Modeling Components with Complex Geometries for the Thermal Desktop-Based Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabanich, William A., Jr.

    2014-01-01

    SpaceClaim/TD Direct has been used extensively in the development of the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) thermal model. This paper outlines the workflow for that aspect of the task and includes proposed best practices and lessons learned. The ASRG thermal model was developed to predict component temperatures and power output and to provide insight into the prime contractor's thermal modeling efforts. The insulation blocks, heat collectors, and cold side adapter flanges (CSAFs) were modeled with this approach. The model was constructed using mostly TD finite difference (FD) surfaces/solids. However, some complex geometry could not be reproduced with TD primitives while maintaining the desired degree of geometric fidelity. Using SpaceClaim permitted the import of original CAD files and enabled the defeaturing/repair of those geometries. TD Direct (a SpaceClaim add-on from CRTech) adds features that allowed the "mark-up" of that geometry. These so-called "mark-ups" control how finite element (FE) meshes are to be generated through the "tagging" of features (e.g. edges, solids, surfaces). These tags represent parameters that include: submodels, material properties, material orienters, optical properties, and radiation analysis groups. TD aliases were used for most tags to allow analysis to be performed with a variety of parameter values. "Domain-tags" were also attached to individual and groups of surfaces and solids to allow them to be used later within TD to populate objects like, for example, heaters and contactors. These tools allow the user to make changes to the geometry in SpaceClaim and then easily synchronize the mesh in TD without having to redefine the objects each time as one would if using TDMesher. The use of SpaceClaim/TD Direct helps simplify the process for importing existing geometries and in the creation of high fidelity FE meshes to represent complex parts. It also saves time and effort in the subsequent analysis.

  11. Using SpaceClaim/TD Direct for Modeling Components with Complex Geometries for the Thermal Desktop-Based Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabanich, William

    2014-01-01

    SpaceClaim/TD Direct has been used extensively in the development of the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) thermal model. This paper outlines the workflow for that aspect of the task and includes proposed best practices and lessons learned. The ASRG thermal model was developed to predict component temperatures and power output and to provide insight into the prime contractors thermal modeling efforts. The insulation blocks, heat collectors, and cold side adapter flanges (CSAFs) were modeled with this approach. The model was constructed using mostly TD finite difference (FD) surfaces solids. However, some complex geometry could not be reproduced with TD primitives while maintaining the desired degree of geometric fidelity. Using SpaceClaim permitted the import of original CAD files and enabled the defeaturing repair of those geometries. TD Direct (a SpaceClaim add-on from CRTech) adds features that allowed the mark-up of that geometry. These so-called mark-ups control how finite element (FE) meshes were generated and allowed the tagging of features (e.g. edges, solids, surfaces). These tags represent parameters that include: submodels, material properties, material orienters, optical properties, and radiation analysis groups. TD aliases were used for most tags to allow analysis to be performed with a variety of parameter values. Domain-tags were also attached to individual and groups of surfaces and solids to allow them to be used later within TD to populate objects like, for example, heaters and contactors. These tools allow the user to make changes to the geometry in SpaceClaim and then easily synchronize the mesh in TD without having to redefine these objects each time as one would if using TD Mesher.The use of SpaceClaim/TD Direct has helped simplify the process for importing existing geometries and in the creation of high fidelity FE meshes to represent complex parts. It has also saved time and effort in the subsequent analysis.

  12. New CERN Health Insurance Scheme (CHIS) forms

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2015-01-01

    New versions of the following forms for claims and requests to the CERN Health Insurance Scheme (CHIS) have been released:   form for claiming reimbursement of medical expenses,   form for requesting advance reimbursement, and   dental estimate form (for treatments foreseen to exceed 800 CHF).   The new forms are available in French and English. They can either be completed electronically before being printed and signed, or completed in paper form. New detailed instructions can be found at the back of the claim form; CHIS members are invited to read them carefully. The electronic versions (PDF) of all the forms are available on the CHIS website and on the UNIQA Member Portal. CHIS Members are requested to use these new forms forthwith and to discard any previous version. Questions regarding the above should be addressed directly to UNIQA (72730 or 022.718 63 00 or uniqa.assurances@cern.ch).

  13. Nurses’ perceptions of advance directives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernestina Silva

    2014-11-01

    Conclusion: Nurses have little experience with AD. They are available to respect the patient's will but did not feel able to address the issue on their own initiative. Most agree that the AD can “fail” if the patient does not reevaluate it periodically. Reflection and debate on the ethical issues surrounding AD should be promoted: promoting patient autonomy, care in vulnerable situations, team decisions and conscientious objection.

  14. THE DIRECTIONS OF IMPROVEMENT OF A COMPETITION POLICY ON THE BASIS OF DEVELOPMENT OF CONTRACT FORMS OF JOINT ACTIVITY OF SMALL AND LARGE BUSINESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Serebriakova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary: The analysis of the foreign economic theory and practice of antimonopoly regulation, the principles of the Russian civil law and the antitrust law, allows to formulate a number of the basic principles and approaches to an assessment of influence of different types of the contract relations on efficiency of use of public resources, welfare of consumers and the competitive environment, the research basis presented in this article also consists in it. Support of the competition is guaranteed by the Constitution of the Russian Federation, is one of bases of the constitutional system of the Russian Federation, and also relevance of a subject of research is confirmed by a constant priority of a state policy it. Development of the competition in economy is a multidimensional task which decision substantially depends on efficiency of carrying out a state policy in a wide range of the directions: from macroeconomic policy, creation of favorable investment climate, including development of financial and tax system, decrease in administrative and infrastructure barriers, before protection of the rights of citizens and national policy. Due to the complexity of a task dynamic landmark approach to work on development of a competition policy in connection with development of contract forms of joint activity of small and large business in the Russian Federation and to formation of the respective directions is necessary. For research by authors of research the following methods are chosen: a statistical method, a reference method to value, a comparative method, system approach, a historical method and a method of the economic analysis of the public relations and the right. Research covers the latest sources in the field reflecting the last economic and standard and legal changes, in particular, them treat: the statistical given, expert estimates, regulations, acts of judicial and administrative practice, scientific publications of economists

  15. METAL-POOR, COOL GAS IN THE CIRCUMGALACTIC MEDIUM OF A z = 2.4 STAR-FORMING GALAXY: DIRECT EVIDENCE FOR COLD ACCRETION?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crighton, Neil H. M.; Hennawi, Joseph F. [Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Königstuhl 17, Heidelberg D-69117 (Germany); Prochaska, J. Xavier, E-mail: neilcrighton@gmail.com [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, UCO/Lick Observatory, University of California, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States)

    2013-10-20

    In our current galaxy formation paradigm, high-redshift galaxies are predominantly fueled by accretion of cool, metal-poor gas from the intergalactic medium. Hydrodynamical simulations predict that this material should be observable in absorption against background sightlines within a galaxy's virial radius, as optically thick Lyman limit systems (LLSs) with low metallicities. Here we report the discovery of exactly such a strong metal-poor absorber at an impact parameter R = 58 kpc from a star-forming galaxy at z = 2.44. Besides strong neutral hydrogen (N{sub H{sup 0}}=10{sup 19.50±0.16} cm{sup -2}) we detect neutral deuterium and oxygen, allowing a precise measurement of the metallicity: log{sub 10}(Z/Z {sub ☉}) = –2.0 ± 0.17, or (7-15) × 10{sup –3} solar. Furthermore, the narrow deuterium linewidth requires a cool temperature <20,000 K. Given the striking similarities between this system and the predictions of simulations, we argue that it represents the direct detection of a high-redshift cold-accretion stream. The low-metallicity gas cloud is a single component of an absorption system exhibiting a complex velocity, ionization, and enrichment structure. Two other components have metallicities >0.1 solar, 10 times larger than the metal-poor component. We conclude that the photoionized circumgalactic medium (CGM) of this galaxy is highly inhomogeneous: the majority of the gas is in a cool, metal-poor and predominantly neutral phase, but the majority of the metals are in a highly ionized phase exhibiting weak neutral hydrogen absorption but strong metal absorption. If such inhomogeneity is common, then high-resolution spectra and detailed ionization modeling are critical to accurately appraise the distribution of metals in the high-redshift CGM.

  16. Near infrared (NIR) lanthanide emissive Langmuir-Blodgett monolayers formed using Nd(III) directed self-assembly synthesis of chiral amphiphilic ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Dawn E; Kitchen, Jonathan A; Albrecht, Martin; Faulkner, Stephen; Gunnlaugsson, Thorfinnur

    2013-09-10

    The incorporation of chiral amphiphilic lanthanide-directed self-assembled Nd(III) complexes (Nd.13 and Nd.23) into stable Langmuir monolayers, and the subsequent Langmuir-Blodgett film formation of these, is described. The photophysical properties of the enantiomeric pair of ligands 1 and 2 in the presence of Nd(CF3SO3)3 were also investigated in CH3CN solutions using UV-vis, fluorescence, and lanthanide luminescence spectroscopies. Analysis of the resulting self-assembly processes revealed that two main species were formed in solution,1:1 and 1:3 Nd:L self-assembly complexes, with the latter being the dominant species upon the addition of 0.33 equivalents of Nd(III). Excited state lifetime measurements of Nd.13 and Nd.23 in CH3OH and CD3OD and CH3CN were also evaluated. The formation of the self-assembly in solution was also monitored by observing the changes in the circular dichroism (CD) spectra; and large differences were observed between the 1:3 and other stoichiometries in the spectra, allowing for correlation to be made with that seen in the emission studies of these systems. Surface pressure-area and surface pressure-time isotherms evidenced the formation of stable Langmuir monolayers of Nd.13 and Nd.23 at an air-water interface, and the deposition of these monolayers onto a quartz solid substrate (Langmuir-Blodgett films) gave rise to immobilized chiral monomolecular films which exhibited Nd(III) NIR luminescence upon excitation of the ligand chromophore, demonstrating efficient energy transfer to the Nd(III) excided state (sensitized) with concomitant emission centered at 800 and 1334 nm.

  17. New Advances in Direct Production of Light Olefins from Syngas%合成气直接制低碳烯烃技术发展前景

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董丽; 杨学萍

    2012-01-01

    New advances in the direct production of light olefins from syngas, including the catalysts, reactors and processes, are summarized. It is pointed out that the production of tight olefins from syngas by Fischer-Tropsch synthesis has good product demand and raw material guarantee. Compared with conventional steam cracking and methaol to olefins, the direct production of light olefins from syngas is economically competitive due to its low raw material price and high-value of the fuel oil byproducts. If the light olefin content in the total products increases to 40%(w) by the improvement of the catalysts and processes. Its economic advantage will be more apparent.%对合成气直接制低碳烯烃的技术进展(包括催化剂和工艺的研究情况)进行了综述;对合成气直接制低碳烯烃工艺的经济性进行了分析,同时分析了该工艺的未来发展前景.指出合成气通过费托合成制低碳烯烃工艺具有较好的产品市场需求和原料供应保障,且与传统蒸汽裂解和经甲醇制烯烃工艺相比,具有原料价格优势,并副产高价值油品,在经济性上具有较强的竞争力.如能通过改进催化剂和工艺优化提高低碳烯烃在总产品中的组成(如提高至40%(w)以上),合成气直接制低碳烯烃的经济性优势将更加明显.

  18. Motivational aftercare planning to better care: Applying the principles of advanced directives and motivational interviewing to discharge planning for people with mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisely, Steve; Wyder, Marianne; Dietrich, Josie; Robinson, Gail; Siskind, Dan; Crompton, David

    2017-02-01

    Improving the input of people with mental illness into their recovery plans can potentially lead to better outcomes. In the present study, we evaluated the introduction of motivational aftercare planning (MAP) into the discharge planning of psychiatric inpatients. MAP is a manualized intervention combining motivational interviewing with advance directives. We measured changes in the level of patient input into discharge planning following training staff in the use of MAP. This included the following: (i) documentation of early relapse signs along with successful past responses; (ii) evidence of aftercare planning; and (iii) the use of the patients' own words in the plan. We used a ward-level controlled before-and-after design comparing one intervention ward with two control wards. We used anonymized recovery plans, with a goal of 50 plans per ward before and after the intervention, to look for evidence of patient input into care planning with a standardized checklist. There were also qualitative interviews with individuals discharged from the unit. We reviewed 100 intervention ward plans and 197 control ones (total n = 297). There were no significant differences in recovery plans from intervention and control wards at baseline. Following MAP training, the intervention ward improved significantly (e.g. identification of triggers increased from 52 to 94%, χ(2)  = 23.3, d.f. =1, P planning. MAP increased inpatient input into discharge planning and was valued by participants. The effect on subsequent health service use needs evaluation.

  19. Development of the high-order decoupled direct method in three dimensions for particulate matter: enabling advanced sensitivity analysis in air quality models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Zhang

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The high-order decoupled direct method in three dimensions for particulate matter (HDDM-3D/PM has been implemented in the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ model to enable advanced sensitivity analysis. The major effort of this work is to develop high-order DDM sensitivity analysis of ISORROPIA, the inorganic aerosol module of CMAQ. A case-specific approach has been applied, and the sensitivities of activity coefficients and water content are explicitly computed. Stand-alone tests are performed for ISORROPIA by comparing the sensitivities (first- and second-order computed by HDDM and the brute force (BF approximations. Similar comparison has also been carried out for CMAQ sensitivities simulated using a week-long winter episode for a continental US domain. Second-order sensitivities of aerosol species (e.g., sulfate, nitrate, and ammonium with respect to domain-wide SO2, NOx, and NH3 emissions show agreement with BF results, yet exhibit less noise in locations where BF results are demonstrably inaccurate. Second-order sensitivity analysis elucidates poorly understood nonlinear responses of secondary inorganic aerosols to their precursors and competing species. Adding second-order sensitivity terms to the Taylor series projection of the nitrate concentrations with a 50% reduction in domain-wide NOx or SO2 emissions rates improves the prediction with statistical significance.

  20. Development of the high-order decoupled direct method in three dimensions for particulate matter: enabling advanced sensitivity analysis in air quality models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Zhang

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The high-order decoupled direct method in three dimensions for particular matter (HDDM-3D/PM has been implemented in the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ model to enable advanced sensitivity analysis. The major effort of this work is to develop high-order DDM sensitivity analysis of ISORROPIA, the inorganic aerosol module of CMAQ. A case-specific approach has been applied, and the sensitivities of activity coefficients and water content are explicitly computed. Stand-alone tests are performed for ISORROPIA by comparing the sensitivities (first- and second-order computed by HDDM and the brute force (BF approximations. Similar comparison has also been carried out for CMAQ results simulated using a week-long winter episode for a continental US domain. Second-order sensitivities of aerosol species (e.g., sulfate, nitrate, and ammonium with respect to domain-wide SO2, NOx, and NH3 emissions show agreement with BF results, yet exhibit less noise in locations where BF results are demonstrably inaccurate. Second-order sensitivity analysis elucidates nonlinear responses of secondary inorganic aerosols to their precursors and competing species that have not yet been well-understood with other approaches. Including second-order sensitivity coefficients in the Taylor series projection of the nitrate concentrations with a 50% reduction in domain-wide NOx emission shows a statistically significant improvement compared to the first-order Taylor series projection.

  1. Opposing Roles of Membrane and Soluble Forms of the Receptor for Advanced Glycation End Products in Primary Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), a common respiratory pathogen in infants and the older population, causes pulmonary inflammation and airway occlusion that leads to impairment of lung function. Here, we have established a role for receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) in RSV infection. RAGE-deficient (ager−/− ) mice were protected from RSV-induced weight loss and inflammation. This protection correlated with an early increase in type I interferons, later decreases in proinflam...

  2. The Forming Conditions of and Ore- searching Direction for B, Mg, Pb, Zn and Au Deposits in the Liaoji Proterozoic Rift

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhu Yongzheng; Yao Fengliang

    2001-01-01

    The Liaoji Proterozoic rift is an inter- intracontinenatl rift developed from Archean granite- greenstone tectonic regime and contains many important mineral deposits of U, B, magnesite, Pb - Zn, Au, Ag, Co and P. These deposits were formed as the result of late mobilization, transportation and concentration of the previously enriched ore - forming materials in several ore- bearing formations formed during the rift stage. So the metallogeny of these deposits in the rift shows both inheritance and new generation of the ore - forming materials. In future ore - searching practice, attentions should be paid on the studies of the ore - bearing formations in the rift, on the multiple stages of metallogeny and and on multiple derivations of the ore - forming materials.

  3. Review of Planning for uncertainty: living wills and other advance directives for you and your family, 2nd edition by David John Doukas, M.D., and William Reichel, M.D

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernal Ellen W

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Advance directives are useful ways to express one's wishes about end of life care, but even now most people have not completed one of the documents. David Doukas and William Reichel strongly encourage planning for end of life care. Although Planning for Uncertainty is at times fairly abstract for the general reader, it does provide useful background and practical steps.

  4. Advanced optical diagnostics applied to a multi-cylinder engine with gasoline direct injection; Weiterentwicklung der Visualisierungsmethodik am Beispiel eines Mehrzylindermotors mit Benzindirekteinspritzung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alt, M.; Eberle, F.; Schaffner, P.; Quarg, J. [Opel Powertrain GmbH, Ruesselsheim (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    The development of modern combustion processes requires a more intensive use of simulation and optical measuring methods. When the combustion method of an engine concept has been determined and subsequently applied to one or more engines, the following development steps usually do not include the optical access. But in this phase of multicylinder engine development, too, an optical evaluation of the combustion processes provides important information. Especially regarding problems of time, the optical data can help to adopt the right solution and check it for its effect more easily. In this way the videoscopy offers a significant tool to optimize today's engines. The techniques of visualizing the Otto engine related combustion are continuously advanced. The resolution of quickacting CCD cameras has been improved considerably while at the same time reducing the exposure time. Both the injection and the mixture preparation can be investigated in detail under realistic conditions. Variations in the mixture preparation from cycle to cycle can also be represented. Today's state-of-the-art cameras with amplifier can visualize the optimum sootfree combustion without the necessity of an additional light. High-speed photomultiplier cameras can record single combustion cycles with a high resolution and thus enable the analysis. The endoscopic consideration of the combustion processes is no longer restricted to the visible range of the wavelength, but constitutes a visualization of the combustion in the ultraviolet range. The example of a four-cylinder engine with gasoline direct injection demonstrates the good applicability of the videoscopy. This technique can be employed quite easily to improve the understanding of the engine processes during the development phase. (orig.)

  5. Real-world experience with interferon-free, direct acting antiviral therapies in Asian Americans with chronic hepatitis C and advanced liver disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Christine Y.; Nguyen, Pauline; Le, An; Zhao, Changqing; Ahmed, Aijaz; Daugherty, Tami; Garcia, Gabriel; Lutchman, Glen; Kumari, Radhika; Nguyen, Mindie H.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Real-life data on interferon (IFN)-free direct acting antiviral (DAA) therapies for chronic hepatitis C (CHC) is limited for Asian Americans. To evaluate sustained virologic response (SVR) and adverse events (AE) in Asian Americans treated with sofosbuvir (SOF)-based, IFN-free DAA therapies. This is a retrospective study of 110 consecutive Asian Americans with HCV genotypes 1 to 3 or 6 treated with IFN-free SOF-based regimens for 8 to 24 weeks between February 2014 and March 2016 at a university center in Northern California. Mean age was 63 ± 12 years, mean BMI was 25 ± 6 (kg/m2), and about half (52%) were male. Most patients were infected with HCV genotype 1 (HCV-1, 64%), followed by HCV-2 (14%), HCV-6 (13%), and HCV-3 (8%). Half had cirrhosis, and the majority of these (67%) had decompensation. Overall SVR12 was 93% (102/110), and highest among patients without cirrhosis, liver transplant, or HCC (100%, 37/37). SVR12 was lower among patients with HCC (82%, 14/17), decompensated cirrhosis (84%, 31/37), or liver transplant (89%, 17/19), regardless of treatment and genotype. Most common AEs were anemia (25%), fatigue (20%), and headache (12%). Anemia was highest in patients receiving SOF/RBV (67%). There was 1 treatment-unrelated serious adverse effect (SAE). There were 7 dose reductions due to anemia or fatigue from RBV and 2 treatment discontinuations due to fatigue or loss of insurance authorization. This real-life cohort of Asian American CHC patients treated with IFN-free SOF-based therapies showed high overall treatment response and good tolerability, despite very high rates of advanced disease and prior treatment failure. PMID:28178174

  6. Simulation of Direct Roving Forming Process Using VBA in Excel%在Excel中利用VBA模拟直接无捻粗纱成形过程的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦成立; 路伟锦

    2014-01-01

    The forming process and final shape of direct roving packages were simulated using VBA language pro-gramming and mathematical modelling in Excel. By this simulation,the parameters from the control panel of direct roving winder can be converted to direct roving forming process to provide guidance for direct roving production.%介绍了在Excel中模拟直接纱成形过程和最终的直接纱外形。研究过程利用了VBA语言编程和数学模型进行直接纱成形模拟。通过模拟成形过程,可以将直接纱拉丝机控制面板输入的参数转化为直接纱成形的过程,为直接纱生产提供指导。

  7. Forming of educational motivation of students to direction of preparation «Health of a man» in the process of study of medical and biological disciplines

    OpenAIRE

    Babich N.L.

    2012-01-01

    The features of forming of educational motivation of students are considered in the process of study of disciplines of medical and biological disciplines. 73 students took part in research. The analysis of publications is resulted in relation to determination of category vehicle of the probed problem, classification of educational reasons; motivational technologies of studies; correlation of reasons of educational activity of students. It is certain and grounded pedagogical terms of forming p...

  8. Advanced calculus

    CERN Document Server

    Nickerson, HK; Steenrod, NE

    2011-01-01

    ""This book is a radical departure from all previous concepts of advanced calculus,"" declared the Bulletin of the American Mathematics Society, ""and the nature of this departure merits serious study of the book by everyone interested in undergraduate education in mathematics."" Classroom-tested in a Princeton University honors course, it offers students a unified introduction to advanced calculus. Starting with an abstract treatment of vector spaces and linear transforms, the authors introduce a single basic derivative in an invariant form. All other derivatives - gradient, divergent, curl,

  9. Resource characterization and residuals remediation, Task 1.0: Air quality assessment and control, Task 2.0: Advanced power systems, Task 3.0: Advanced fuel forms and coproducts, Task 4.0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawthorne, S.B.; Timpe, R.C.; Hartman, J.H. [and others

    1994-02-01

    This report addresses three subtasks related to the Resource Characterization and Residuals Remediation program: (1) sulfur forms in coal and their thermal transformations, (2) data resource evaluation and integration using GIS (Geographic Information Systems), and (3) supplementary research related to the Rocky Mountain 1 (RM1) UCG (Underground Coal Gasification) test program.

  10. Do the changes in muscle mass, muscle direction, and rotations of the condyles that occur after sagittal split advancement osteotomies play a role in the aetiology of progressive condylar resorption?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dicker, G J; Castelijns, J A; Tuinzing, D B; Stoelinga, P J W

    2015-05-01

    Changes in cross-sectional area (CSA), volume (indicating muscle strength), and direction of the masseter and medial pterygoid muscles after surgical mandibular advancement were measured, along with the rotation of the condyles after bilateral sagittal split osteotomies (BSSOs) to advance the mandible. Measurements were done on magnetic resonance images obtained before and 2 years after surgery. CSA and volume were measured in five short-face and seven long-face patients (five males, seven females). Muscle direction was calculated in eight short-face and eight long-face patients (eight males, eight females). Short-face patients underwent BSSO only; long-face patients underwent combined BSSO and Le Fort I osteotomies. The CSA and volume decreased significantly (mean 18%) in all patients after surgery. The postoperative muscle direction was significantly more vertical (9°) in long-face patients. Rotations of the proximal segments (condyles) were minimal after 2 years. The results of this study showed that, after BSSO advancement surgery, changes in the masseter and medial pterygoid muscles are not likely to cause increased pressure on the condyles and nor are the minimal rotations of the condyles. It is concluded that neither increased muscle traction nor condylar rotations can be held responsible for progressive condylar resorption after advancement BSSO.

  11. 高强钢先进成型技术和本构模型研究现状与发展趋势%Advanced Forming Process for High Strength Steel and Research Status and Development Tendency of Constitutive Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙蓟泉; 李双娇; 尹衍军

    2014-01-01

    High strength steel, the best choice for application in the lightweight technology of automotive body is limited to be used due to the forming technique. The principle, characteristics and present research developments of the advanced forming processes such as hydroforming tech-nology, laser butt welding technology and hot stamping technology are discussed. And also the constitutive model of the advanced high strength steel is explained in order to provide the basis for improving the forming property of the steel.%高强钢是汽车车身轻量化的首选材料,但其成型问题一直是限制其推广应用的重要因素。对高强钢的先进成型技术,如液压成型、激光拼焊、热冲压成型等的原理、特点及最新研究进展进行了论述。同时,对先进高强钢的本构模型进行了阐述,以期对改进高强钢成型性能提供依据。

  12. Collaborative form(s)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunn, Wendy

    Gunn asks us to consider beauty as collaborative forms of action generated by moving between design by means of anthropology and anthropology by means of design. Specifically, she gives focus to play-like reflexions on practices of designing energy products, systems and infrastructure. Design...

  13. CH+(1-0) and 13CH+(1-0) absorption lines in the direction of massive star-forming regions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Falgarone, E.; Godard, B.; Cernicharo, J.; de Luca, M.; Gerin, M.; Phillips, T. G.; Black, J. H.; Lis, D. C.; Bell, T. A.; Boulanger, F.; Coutens, A.; Dartois, E.; Encrenaz, P.; Giesen, T.; Goicoechea, J. R.; Goldsmith, P. F.; Gupta, H.; Gry, C.; Hennebelle, P.; Herbst, E.; Hily-Blant, P.; Joblin, C.; Kaźmierczak, M.; Kołos, R.; Krełowski, J.; Martin-Pintado, J.; Monje, R.; Mookerjea, B.; Neufeld, D. A.; Perault, M.; Pearson, J. C.; Persson, C.; Plume, R.; Salez, M.; Schmidt, M.; Sonnentrucker, P.; Stutzki, J.; Teyssier, D.; Vastel, C.; Yu, S.; Menten, K.; Geballe, T. R.; Schlemmer, S.; Shipman, R.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.; Philipp, S.; Cros, A.; Zmuidzinas, J.; Samoska, L. A.; Klein, K.; Lorenzani, A.; Szczerba, R.; Péron, I.; Cais, P.; Gaufre, P.; Ravera, L.; Morris, P.; Lord, S.; Planesas, P.

    2010-01-01

    We report the detection of the ground-state rotational transition of the methylidyne cation CH+ and its isotopologue 13CH+ toward the remote massive star-forming regions W33A, W49N, and W51 with the HIFI instrument onboard the Herschel satellite. Both lines are seen only in absorption against the du

  14. Opposing roles of membrane and soluble forms of the receptor for advanced glycation end products in primary respiratory syncytial virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Allison L; Sims, Gary P; Brewah, Yambasu A; Rebelatto, Marlon C; Kearley, Jennifer; Benjamin, Ebony; Keller, Ashley E; Brohawn, Philip; Herbst, Ronald; Coyle, Anthony J; Humbles, Alison A; Kolbeck, Roland

    2012-04-15

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), a common respiratory pathogen in infants and the older population, causes pulmonary inflammation and airway occlusion that leads to impairment of lung function. Here, we have established a role for receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) in RSV infection. RAGE-deficient (ager(-/-)) mice were protected from RSV-induced weight loss and inflammation. This protection correlated with an early increase in type I interferons, later decreases in proinflammatory cytokines, and a reduction in viral load. To assess the contribution of soluble RAGE (sRAGE) to RSV-induced disease, wild-type and ager(-/-) mice were given doses of sRAGE following RSV infection. Of interest, sRAGE treatment prevented RSV-induced weight loss and neutrophilic inflammation to a degree similar to that observed in ager(-/-) mice. Our work further elucidates the roles of RAGE in the pathogenesis of respiratory infections and highlights the opposing roles of membrane and sRAGE in modulating the host response to RSV infection.

  15. Advanced superalloy airfoils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gell, M.; Duhl, D.N.; Gupta, D.K.; Sheffler, K.D.

    1987-07-01

    Single-crystal superalloy technology for gas-turbine blades has combined the design of alloys for exclusive use in single-crystal form with advancements in directional solidification, in order to manufacture single-crystal castings with complex internal cooling passages. To these improvements have been incorporated metallic and ceramic coatings that further extend high temperature capabilities. The directional solidification of single-crystal turbine alloys requires total control of the thermal environment, using large vacuum furnaces capable of casting up to 30 blades at a time. All modern coatings involve the enrichment of the superalloy surface with elements that promote the formation and retention of alumina, which precludes further oxidation. 15 references.

  16. Advance in pharmaceutical studies of expandable gastroretentive dosage forms%胃内膨胀型制剂的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐宇; 罗杰英; 王文苹; 刘姹; 贺福元; 杨大坚

    2009-01-01

    胃内膨胀剂型制剂是指通过体积膨胀,使制剂不能通过胃幽门而停留在胃内,从而延长在胃内的滞留时间,增加药物在胃内吸收的制剂.随着药物的释放,制剂通过不断溶蚀而体积变小最后排出胃.胃内膨胀型制剂属于胃内滞留制剂的一种,此类制剂符合缓控释制剂的要求,增加药物在胃部的吸收,提高生物利用度.文中根据胃内膨胀型制剂的研究概况、制剂特点、释药原理和体内评价等方面进行综述,对胃内滞留制剂方面的研究提供参考.%Expandable gastroretentive dosage forms do not easily pass through the pyloric sphincter in the stomach due to the expandable properties that prolong their gastric retention time (GRT). After drug release, their volumes decreased with subsequent evacuation from the stomach. The dosage form complies with the requirement of oral sustained-controlled release preparations that increase the drug absorption in the stomach and relative bioavail-ability. In this article, we summarized the properties of expandable gastroretentive dosage forms, including general information, preparation characteristics, release principle and evaluation in vivo in order to improve the research.

  17. MicroRNAs Form Triplexes with Double Stranded DNA at Sequence-Specific Binding Sites; a Eukaryotic Mechanism via which microRNAs Could Directly Alter Gene Expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven W Paugh

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs are important regulators of gene expression, acting primarily by binding to sequence-specific locations on already transcribed messenger RNAs (mRNA and typically down-regulating their stability or translation. Recent studies indicate that microRNAs may also play a role in up-regulating mRNA transcription levels, although a definitive mechanism has not been established. Double-helical DNA is capable of forming triple-helical structures through Hoogsteen and reverse Hoogsteen interactions in the major groove of the duplex, and we show physical evidence (i.e., NMR, FRET, SPR that purine or pyrimidine-rich microRNAs of appropriate length and sequence form triple-helical structures with purine-rich sequences of duplex DNA, and identify microRNA sequences that favor triplex formation. We developed an algorithm (Trident to search genome-wide for potential triplex-forming sites and show that several mammalian and non-mammalian genomes are enriched for strong microRNA triplex binding sites. We show that those genes containing sequences favoring microRNA triplex formation are markedly enriched (3.3 fold, p<2.2 × 10(-16 for genes whose expression is positively correlated with expression of microRNAs targeting triplex binding sequences. This work has thus revealed a new mechanism by which microRNAs could interact with gene promoter regions to modify gene transcription.

  18. An unusual form of spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia, with advanced carpal and spinal end-plate ossification mimicking COMP-mutation-like multiple epiphyseal dysplasia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pazzaglia, Ugo E.; Zarattini, Guido [University of Brescia Medical School, Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, Brescia (Italy); Beluffi, Giampiero [Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico S. Matteo, Section of Paediatric Radiology, Department of Radiodiagnosis, Pavia (Italy)

    2008-07-15

    We present a child with irregular ossification of tubular bone epiphyses, short bones, and spine. The radiographic evolution of bones undergoing endochondral ossification was followed from the age of 1 year 9 months to 6 years. The unusual features demonstrated in this child made classification difficult: pseudoachondroplasia was excluded because no mutations of the COMP gene were found. Considering the evolution of the radiographic appearances, the most likely diagnosis would seem to be an unusual form of spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia, mimicking some aspects of multiple epiphyseal dysplasia. Endochondral ossification was diffusely altered with a mixture of epiphyseal ossification delay associated with acceleration and early fusion. This case was a unique presentation within the family, suggesting a mutation in the affected child. (orig.)

  19. Simulation of nonlinear benchmarks and sheet metal forming processes using linear and quadratic solid–shell elements combined with advanced anisotropic behavior models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WangPeng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A family of prismatic and hexahedral solid‒shell (SHB elements with their linear and quadratic versions is presented in this paper to model thin 3D structures. Based on reduced integration and special treatments to eliminate locking effects and to control spurious zero-energy modes, the SHB solid‒shell elements are capable of modeling most thin 3D structural problems with only a single element layer, while describing accurately the various through-thickness phenomena. In this paper, the SHB elements are combined with fully 3D behavior models, including orthotropic elastic behavior for composite materials and anisotropic plastic behavior for metallic materials, which allows describing the strain/stress state in the thickness direction, in contrast to traditional shell elements. All SHB elements are implemented into ABAQUS using both standard/quasi-static and explicit/dynamic solvers. Several benchmark tests have been conducted, in order to first assess the performance of the SHB elements in quasi-static and dynamic analyses. Then, deep drawing of a hemispherical cup is performed to demonstrate the capabilities of the SHB elements in handling various types of nonlinearities (large displacements and rotations, anisotropic plasticity, and contact. Compared to classical ABAQUS solid and shell elements, the results given by the SHB elements show good agreement with the reference solutions.

  20. Forces, Growth and Form in Soft Condensed Matter: At the Interface between Physics and Biology NATO Advanced Study Institute, Geilo, Norway, 24 March - 3 April 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helgesen, G. ed.

    2003-05-01

    The goal of this ASI was to bring together a group of disparate sciences to discuss areas of research related to competition between interactions of different ranges, for it is this that creates local structure on which complexity depends in soft condensed matter, biological systems and their synthetic models. The starting point, and the underlying theme throughout the ASI, was thus a thorough discussion of the relative role of the various fundamental interactions in such systems (electrostatic, hydrophobic, steric, conformational, van der Waals, etc.). The next focus was on how these competing interactions influence the form and topology of soft and biological matter, like polymers and proteins, leading to hierarchical structures in self-assembling systems and folding patterns sometimes described in terms of chirality, braids and knots. Finally, focus was on how the competing interactions influence various bio processes like genetic regulation and biological evolution taking place in systems like biopolymers, macromolecules and cell membranes. The report includes the abstracts of the posters presented, two of which are given in this database: (1) Precise characterisation of nano channels in track etched membranes by SAXS and SANS, and (2) Cisplatin binding to DNA: Structure, bonding and NMR properties from CarParrinello/Classical MD simulations.

  1. PowerForms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brabrand, Claus; Møller, Anders; Ricky, Mikkel

    2000-01-01

    All uses of HTML forms may benefit from validation of the specified input field values. Simple validation matches individual values against specified formats, while more advanced validation may involve interdependencies of form fields. There is currently no standard for specifying or implementing...

  2. Direct modification of hydrogen/deuterium-terminated diamond particles with polymers to form reversed and strong cation exchange solid phase extraction sorbents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Li; Jensen, David S; Vail, Michael A; Dadson, Andrew; Linford, Matthew R

    2010-12-03

    We describe direct polymer attachment to hydrogen and deuterium-terminated diamond (HTD and DTD) surfaces using a radical initiator (di-tert-amyl peroxide, DTAP), a reactive monomer (styrene) and a crosslinking agent (divinylbenzene, DVB) to create polystyrene encapsulated diamond. Chemisorbed polystyrene is sulfonated with sulfuric acid in acetic acid. Surface changes were followed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) and diffuse reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (DRIFT). Finally, both polystyrene-modified DTD and sulfonated styrene-modified DTD were used in solid phase extraction (SPE). Percent recovery and column capacity were investigated for both phenyl (polystyrene) and sulfonic acid treated polystyrene SPE columns. These diamond-based SPE supports are stable under basic conditions, which is not the case for silica-based SPE supports.

  3. Diffusion barrier property of MnSi{sub x}O{sub y} layer formed by chemical vapor deposition for Cu advanced interconnect application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Mai Phuong, E-mail: nmphuong46@gmail.com; Sutou, Yuji; Koike, Junichi, E-mail: koikej@material.tohoku.ac.jp

    2015-04-01

    An amorphous manganese oxide layers formed by chemical vapor deposition have been studied as a copper diffusion barrier. The thermal stability of the barrier layer was assessed by annealing Cu/MnSi{sub x}O{sub y}/SiO{sub 2}/Si samples at 400 °C for various times up to 10 h. Transmission electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS), capacitance-voltage and current–voltage measurements were performed. Failure of the barrier property is marked by observing the copper peak appearing in EDX and SIMS spectra data from the SiO{sub 2} region. Amorphous MnSi{sub x}O{sub y} barrier with a thickness of 1.2 nm has failed in preventing Cu diffusion into SiO{sub 2} substrate after anneal at 400°C in vacuum for 1h, as proven by the presence of Cu in the dielectric (SiO{sub 2}) layer. However, the amorphous MnSi{sub x}O{sub y} with the thickness of 2.0 nm barrier was thermally stable and could prevent Cu from inter-diffusion to the SiO{sub 2} substrate after annealing at 400 °C even up to 10 h. - Highlights: • Amorphous manganese silicate layer has been studied as a copper diffusion barrier. • The 1.2 nm-thick Mn oxide layer is too thin to become a diffusion barrier. • Good thermal stability of 2.0 nm-thick manganese silicate layer.

  4. Temperature determines size and direction of effects of elevated CO2 and nitrogen form on yield quantity and quality of Chinese cabbage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reich, M; van den Meerakker, A N; Parmar, S; Hawkesford, M J; De Kok, L J

    2016-01-01

    Rising atmospheric CO2 concentrations (e[CO2 ]) are presumed to have a significant impact on plant growth and yield and also on mineral nutrient composition, and therefore, on nutritional quality of crops and vegetables. To assess the relevance of these effects in future agroecosystems it is important to understand how e[CO2 ] interacts with other environmental factors. In the present study, we examined the interactive effects of e[CO2 ] with temperature and the form in which nitrogen is supplied (nitrate or ammonium nitrate) on growth, amino acid content and mineral nutrient composition of Chinese cabbage (Brassica pekinensis Rupr.), a crop characterised by its high nutritional value and increasing relevance for human nutrition in many developing countries. Higher temperature, ammonium nitrate and e[CO2 ] had a positive impact on net photosynthesis and growth. A stimulating effect of e[CO2 ] on growth was only observed if the temperature was high (21/18 °C, day/night), and an interaction of e[CO2 ] with N form was only observed if the temperature was ambient (15/12 °C, day/night). Mineral nutrient composition was affected in a complex manner by all three factors and their interaction. These results demonstrate how much the effect of e[CO2 ] on mineral quality of crops depends on other environmental factors. Changes in temperature, adapting N fertilisation and the oxidation state of N have the potential to counteract the mineral depletion caused by e[CO2 ].

  5. Free-form illumination optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohedano, Rubén; Chaves, Julio; Hernández, Maikel

    2016-04-01

    In many illumination problems, the beam pattern needed and/or some geometrical constraints lead to very asymmetric design conditions. These asymmetries have been solved in the past by means of arrangements of rotationally symmetric or linear lamps aimed in different directions whose patterns overlap to provide the asymmetric prescriptions or by splitting one single lamp into several sections, each one providing a part of the pattern. The development of new design methods yielding smooth continuous free-form optical surfaces to solve these challenging design problems, combined with the proper CAD modeling tools plus the development of multiple axes diamond turn machines, give birth to a new generation of optics. These are able to offer the performance and other advanced features, such as efficiency, compactness, or aesthetical advantages, and can be manufactured at low cost by injection molding. This paper presents two examples of devices with free-form optical surfaces, a camera flash, and a car headlamp.

  6. FY2001 Final Report Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) on Advanced Nuclear Fuel Design in the Future Nuclear Energy Market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christensen, D.; Choi, J.-S.; DiSabatino, A.; Wirth, B.

    2001-09-30

    This study is to research the maturity of advanced nuclear fuel and cladding technology and to explore the suitability of existing technology for addressing the emerging requirements for Generation IV reactors and emerging thermal/fast spectrum reactors, while simultaneously addressing nuclear waste management, and proliferation resistance concerns.

  7. A comparison of 67Cu- and 131I-labelled forms of monoclonal antibodies SEN7 and SWA20 directed against small-cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, A; Zangemeister-Wittke, U; Waibel, R; Schenker, T; Schubiger, P A; Stahel, R A

    1994-01-01

    The intact anti-SCLC monoclonal antibody (MAb) SEN7 and its F(ab')2 were labelled with the beta-emitting isotope 67Cu. Both materials retained their biological activity in vitro as determined by the Lindmo assay. In a direct comparison of in vivo distribution in a xenograph model, 131I- and 67Cu-labelled intact SEN7 showed similar absolute tumour accumulation. Blood levels were markedly lower in the case of the 67Cu-labelled antibody, resulting in improved tumour:blood ratios which reached a maximum of 13:1 compared with only 4.5:1 for 131I-SEN7. In the case of the 67Cu-labelled F(ab')2, very high accumulation of the nuclide was observed in the kidney. Levels of radio copper in liver and spleen were also found to be significantly raised when compared with radio iodine. SWA20, a MAb which had previously failed to show any selective in vivo accumulation in tumour xenografts when labelled with radio iodine showed higher and more stable tumour accumulation when labelled with 67Cu.

  8. [Application of direct electric current and intravenous ozone therapy in the complex treatment of destructive forms of acute pancreatitis in experiment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhakiev, B S; Zhumabaeva, A N; Kaliev, A A; Kazbekova, G A

    2013-01-01

    The results of experimental study which have carried out on 40 outbread dogs were analyzed in this thesis. Modeling of destructive pancreatitis in animals has been achieved via canalicular-hypertensive model by S.A. Shalimov. 4 series of experimental study were made to achieve the targeted goal. The first series 10 dogs without treatment, the second series 10 dogs in which conventional conservative therapy was used for the treatment of acute experimental destructive pancreatitis in animals, the third series 10 dogs that underwent intravenous ozone therapy in the complex together with medication therapy, the forth series the effectiveness of combined administration of intravenous ozone therapy and small doses of direct current in 10 dogs was evaluated. Combined administration of small doses of DC and intravenous ozone therapy in the complex treatment of destructive pancreatitis shows antiphlogistic action, favors accelerated rejection of necrotic tissue, remits inflammatory process as well as encourages regeneration process in pancreas whereby allows to decrease the mortality in experimental animals from 60% to 20%.

  9. Inactivation of Candida Strains in Planktonic and Biofilm Forms Using a Direct Current, Atmospheric-Pressure Cold Plasma Micro-Jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wei-Dong; Sun, Peng; Sun, Yi; Yu, Shuang; Wu, Haiyan; Liu, Wei; Zhang, Jue; Fang, Jing

    A direct-current, atmospheric-pressure, He/O2 (2%) cold plasma ­microjet is applied to Candida species (C. glabrata, C. albicansand C. krusei). Effective inactivation is achieved both in air and in water within 5 min of plasma treatment. Same plasma treatment also successfully inactivated candida biofilms on Petri dish. The inactivation was verified by cell viability test (XTT assay). Severe deformation of Candida biofilms after the plasma treatment was observed through scanning electron microscope (SEM). Optical emission spectroscopy shows strong atomic oxygen emission at 777 nm. Hydroxyl radical (•OH), superoxide anion radical (•O2-) and singlet molecular oxygen (1O2) are detected by electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy. The sessile minimal inhibitory concentrations (SMICs) of fluconazole, amphotericin B, and caspofungin against the Candida spp. biofilms were decreased to 2-6 fold dilutions in plasma microjet treated group in comparison with the controls. This novel approach may become a new tool for the treatment of clinical dermatosis

  10. Metal-Poor, Cool Gas in the Circumgalactic Medium of a z = 2.4 Star-Forming Galaxy: Direct Evidence for Cold Accretion?

    CERN Document Server

    Crighton, Neil H M; Prochaska, J Xavier

    2013-01-01

    In our current galaxy formation paradigm, high-redshift galaxies are predominantly fuelled by accretion of cool, metal-poor gas from the intergalactic medium. Hydrodynamical simulations predict that this material should be observable in absorption against background sightlines within a galaxy's virial radius, as optically thick Lyman-limit systems (LLSs) with low metallicities. Here we report the discovery of exactly such a strong metal-poor absorber at an impact parameter R_perp = 58 kpc from a star-forming galaxy at z = 2.44. Besides strong neutral hydrogen [N(HI) = 10^(19.50 +/- 0.16) cm^-2] we detect neutral deuterium and oxygen, allowing a precise measurement of the metallicity: log10(Z / Zsolar) = -2.0 +/- 0.17, or (7-15) x 10^-3 solar. Furthermore, the narrow deuterium linewidth requires a cool temperature 0.1 solar, ten times larger than the metal-poor component. We conclude that the photoionized circumgalactic medium (CGM) of this galaxy is highly inhomogeneous: the majority of the gas is in a cool,...

  11. Metal-poor, Cool Gas in the Circumgalactic Medium of a z = 2.4 Star-forming Galaxy: Direct Evidence for Cold Accretion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crighton, Neil H. M.; Hennawi, Joseph F.; Prochaska, J. Xavier

    2013-10-01

    In our current galaxy formation paradigm, high-redshift galaxies are predominantly fueled by accretion of cool, metal-poor gas from the intergalactic medium. Hydrodynamical simulations predict that this material should be observable in absorption against background sightlines within a galaxy's virial radius, as optically thick Lyman limit systems (LLSs) with low metallicities. Here we report the discovery of exactly such a strong metal-poor absorber at an impact parameter R = 58 kpc from a star-forming galaxy at z = 2.44. Besides strong neutral hydrogen (N_{{H}^0}=10^{19.50+/- 0.16}\\, cm^{-2}) we detect neutral deuterium and oxygen, allowing a precise measurement of the metallicity: log10(Z/Z ⊙) = -2.0 ± 0.17, or (7-15) × 10-3 solar. Furthermore, the narrow deuterium linewidth requires a cool temperature 0.1 solar, 10 times larger than the metal-poor component. We conclude that the photoionized circumgalactic medium (CGM) of this galaxy is highly inhomogeneous: the majority of the gas is in a cool, metal-poor and predominantly neutral phase, but the majority of the metals are in a highly ionized phase exhibiting weak neutral hydrogen absorption but strong metal absorption. If such inhomogeneity is common, then high-resolution spectra and detailed ionization modeling are critical to accurately appraise the distribution of metals in the high-redshift CGM. .

  12. Technical advance: introducing a novel metric, directionality time, to quantify human neutrophil chemotaxis as a function of matrix composition and stiffness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Xian M; Loosley, Alex J; Oakley, Katie E; Tang, Jay X; Reichner, Jonathan S

    2014-06-01

    A direct consequence of cellular movement and navigation, migration incorporates elements of speed, direction, and persistence of motion. Current techniques to parameterize the trajectory of a chemotaxing cell most commonly pair migration speed with some measure of persistence by calculating MSD, RMS speed, TAD, and/or CI. We address inherent limitations in TAD and CI for comparative analysis by introducing two new analytical tools to quantify persistence: directionality index and directionality time. With the use of these tools, we show that the mechanical properties of the underlying substrate contribute significantly to the regulation of human neutrophil chemotaxis toward fMLP on Fgn-, Col-, and Fn-coated gels of varying elasticity. The β₁-integrin ligand Col demonstrated mechanosensitive speed. In contrast, β₂-integrin ligand Fgn supported mechanosensitive persistence. Fn, recognized by β₁ and β₂ integrins, mechanoregulated speed and persistence. Blocking β₂ integrins of cells migrating on Fn identified an underlying β₂-integrin-directed modulation of persistence. These data demonstrate that individual components of the neutrophil chemotactic response show integrin dependence and are finely tunable with different ligand, mechanotactic, and chemotactic cues, underscoring the need for sensitive analytical methods.

  13. Advanced calculus of several variables

    CERN Document Server

    Kumar, Devendra

    2014-01-01

    ADVANCED CALCULUS OF SEVERAL VARIABLES covers important topics of Transformations and topology on Euclidean in n-space Rn Functions of several variables, Differentiation in Rn, Multiple integrals and Integration in Rn. The topics have been presented in a simple clear and coherent style with a number of examples and exercises. Proofs have been made direct and simple. Unsolved problems just after relevant articles in the form of exercises and typical problems followed by suggestions have been given. This book will help the reader work on the problems of Numerical Analysis, Operations Research, Differential Equations and Engineering applications.

  14. The Advanced Controls Program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knee, H.E.; White, J.D.

    1990-01-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), under sponsorship of the US Department of Energy (DOE), is conducting research that will lead to advanced, automated control of new liquid-metal-reactor (LMR) nuclear power plants. Although this program of research (entitled the Advanced Controls Program'') is focused on LMR technology, it will be capable of providing control design, test, and qualification capability for other advanced reactor designs (e.g., the advanced light water reactor (ALWR) and high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) designs), while also benefiting existing nuclear plants. The Program will also have applicability to complex, non-nuclear process control environments (e.g., petrochemical, aerospace, etc.). The Advanced Controls Program will support capabilities throughout the entire plant design life cycle, i.e., from the initial interactive first-principle dynamic model development for the process, systems, components, and instruments through advanced control room qualification. The current program involves five principal areas of research activities: (1) demonstrations of advanced control system designs, (2) development of an advanced controls design environment, (3) development of advanced control strategies, (4) research and development (R D) in human-system integration for advanced control system designs, and (5) testing and validation of advanced control system designs. Discussion of the research in these five areas forms the basis of this paper. Also included is a description of the research directions of the program. 8 refs.

  15. Innovative forming and fabrication technologies : new opportunities.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, B.; Hryn, J.; Energy Systems; Kingston Process Metallurgy, Inc.

    2008-01-31

    The advent of light metal alloys and advanced materials (polymer, composites, etc.) have brought the possibility of achieving important energy reductions into the full life cycle of these materials, especially in transportation applications. 1 These materials have gained acceptance in the aerospace industry but use of light metal alloys needs to gain wider acceptance in other commercial transportation areas. Among the main reasons for the relatively low use of these materials are the lack of manufacturability, insufficient mechanical properties, and increased material costs due to processing inefficiencies. Considering the enormous potential energy savings associated with the use of light metal alloys and advanced materials in transportation, there is a need to identify R&D opportunities in the fields of materials fabrication and forming aimed at developing materials with high specific mechanical properties combined with energy efficient processes and good manufacturability. This report presents a literature review of the most recent developments in the areas of fabrication and metal forming focusing principally on aluminum alloys. In the first section of the document, the different sheet manufacturing technologies including direct chill (DC) casting and rolling, spray forming, spray rolling, thin slab, and strip casting are reviewed. The second section of the document presents recent research on advanced forming processes. The various forming processes reviewed are: superplastic forming, electromagnetic forming, age forming, warm forming, hydroforming, and incremental forming. Optimization of conventional forming processes is also discussed. Potentially interesting light metal alloys for high structural efficiency including aluminum-scandium, aluminum-lithium, magnesium, titanium, and amorphous metal alloys are also reviewed. This section concludes with a discussion on alloy development for manufacturability. The third section of the document reviews the latest

  16. New directions in the science and technology of advanced sheet explosive formulations and the key energetic materials used in the processing of sheet explosives: Emerging trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talawar, M B; Jangid, S K; Nath, T; Sinha, R K; Asthana, S N

    2015-12-30

    This review presents the work carried out by the international community in the area of sheet explosive formulations and its applications in various systems. The sheet explosive is also named as PBXs and is a composite material in which solid explosive particles like RDX, HMX or PETN are dispersed in a polymeric matrix, forms a flexible material that can be rolled/cut into sheet form which can be applied to any complex contour. The designed sheet explosive must possess characteristic properties such as flexible, cuttable, water proof, easily initiable, and safe handling. The sheet explosives are being used for protecting tanks (ERA), light combat vehicle and futuristic infantry carrier vehicle from different attacking war heads etc. Besides, sheet explosives find wide applications in demolition of bridges, ships, cutting and metal cladding. This review also covers the aspects such as risks and hazard analysis during the processing of sheet explosive formulations, effect of ageing on sheet explosives, detection and analysis of sheet explosive ingredients and the R&D efforts of Indian researchers in the development of sheet explosive formulations. To the best of our knowledge, there has been no review article published in the literature in the area of sheet explosives.

  17. A review of the advances in direct carbon fuel cell%直接碳燃料电池的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黑远飞; 王诚; 黄建兵; 毛宗强

    2013-01-01

    指出了直接碳燃料电池(DCFC)相比于其他燃料电池的优势;从电解质的角度,对熔融氢氧化物DCFC、熔融碳酸盐DCFC和固体氧化物DCFC的工作原理、发展现状及存在的问题进行了归纳;对DCFC的发展进行了展望.%The advantages of direct carbon fur cell(DCFC) compared with other types of fuel cells were pointed out.In terms of the electrolytes,the working principle,development situation and existing problems of three kinds of DCFC were described.The development prospect of DCFC was discussed.

  18. Direct Conversion of Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corliss, William R

    1964-01-01

    Topics include: direct versus dynamic energy conversion; laws governing energy conversion; thermoelectricity; thermionic conversion; magnetohydrodynamic conversion; chemical batteries; the fuel cell; solar cells; nuclear batteries; and advanced concepts including ferroelectric conversion and thermomagnetic conversion.

  19. Advances in chemical looping reforming for direct hydrogen production%化学链重整直接制氢技术进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾亮; 巩金龙

    2015-01-01

    Chemical looping reforming (CLR) technology is a clean and efficient fuel conversion process for direct hydrogen production by using solid metal oxides. Instead of the traditional use of steam or pure oxygen, solid metal oxides are typically used as oxygen carriers to convert carbonaceous fuel to syngas or CO2/H2O. The reduced oxygen carrier then reacts with the steam for directly generating H2, which is separatedin situ with near zero energy consumption. Based on the need for different products and the different heat supply methods, both two-reactor and three-reactor CLR systems have been discussed, with a focus on the characteristics of oxygen carriers and reactor design. The Elingham diagram is used to compare the redox properties of various metal oxides, and to guide the selection of suitable oxygen carriers for direct hydrogen production. Recent oxygen carrier development is also discussed to investigate the strategies for improving H2 selectivity and yield. The gas solid contacting pattern should be carefully selected when designing CLR reactors with various kinds of feed fuels and target products.%化学链重整直接制氢技术使用固态金属氧化物作为氧载体代替传统重整过程中所需的水蒸气或纯氧,将燃料直接转化为高纯度的合成气或者二氧化碳和水,被还原的金属氧化物则可以与水蒸气再生并直接产生氢气,实现了氢气的近零能耗原位分离,是一种绿色高效的新型制氢过程。根据产物和供热方式的不同,可以将化学链重整直接制氢工艺分为双床系统和三床系统两类,并对各系统中氧载体与反应器的设计与选择进行了分析。通过Elingham图对不同氧载体的氧化还原能力进行比较,选取适于直接制氢的金属氧化物,并讨论了氧载体材料研发的最新进展。化学链制氢反应器设计应根据不同原料和产品的特点,选择合适的气-固接触方式,以强化化学链重整直接制氢效率。

  20. Prosthetic advances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Zach T; Potter, Benjamin K; Vandersea, James; Wolf, Erik

    2012-01-01

    Much of the current prosthetic technology is based on developments that have taken place during or directly following times of war. These developments have evolved and improved over the years, and now there are many more available options to provide a comfortable, cosmetic, and highly functional prosthesis. Even so, problems with fit and function persist. Recent developments have addressed some of the limitations faced by some military amputees. On-board microprocessor-controlled joints are making prosthetic arms and legs more responsive to environmental barriers and easier to control by the user. Advances in surgical techniques will allow more intuitive control and secure attachment to the prosthesis. As surgical techniques progress and permeate into standard practice, more sophisticated powered prosthetic devices will become commonplace, helping to restore neuromuscular loss of function. Prognoses following amputation will certainly rise, factoring into the surgeon's decision to attempt to save a limb versus perform an amputation.

  1. IMRT and 3D conformal radiotherapy with or without elective nodal irradiation in locally advanced NSCLC. A direct comparison of PET-based treatment planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleckenstein, Jochen; Kremp, Katharina; Kremp, Stephanie; Palm, Jan; Ruebe, Christian [Saarland University Medical School, Department of Radiotherapy and Radiation Oncology, Homburg/Saar (Germany)

    2016-02-15

    The potential of intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) as opposed to three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) is analyzed for two different concepts of fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG PET)-based target volume delineation in locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (LA-NSCLC): involved-field radiotherapy (IF-RT) vs. elective nodal irradiation (ENI). Treatment planning was performed for 41 patients with LA-NSCLC, using four different planning approaches (3D-CRT-IF, 3D-CRT-ENI, IMRT-IF, IMRT-ENI). ENI included a boost irradiation after 50 Gy. For each plan, maximum dose escalation was calculated based on prespecified normal tissue constraints. The maximum prescription dose (PD), tumor control probability (TCP), conformal indices (CI), and normal tissue complication probabilities (NTCP) were analyzed. IMRT resulted in statistically significant higher prescription doses for both target volume concepts as compared with 3D-CRT (ENI: 68.4 vs. 60.9 Gy, p < 0.001; IF: 74.3 vs. 70.1 Gy, p < 0.03). With IMRT-IF, a PD of at least 66 Gy was achieved for 95 % of all plans. For IF as compared with ENI, there was a considerable theoretical increase in TCP (IMRT: 27.3 vs. 17.7 %, p < 0.00001; 3D-CRT: 20.2 vs. 9.9 %, p < 0.00001). The esophageal NTCP showed a particularly good sparing with IMRT vs. 3D-CRT (ENI: 12.3 vs. 30.9 % p < 0.0001; IF: 15.9 vs. 24.1 %; p < 0.001). The IMRT technique and IF target volume delineation allow a significant dose escalation and an increase in TCP. IMRT results in an improved sparing of OARs as compared with 3D-CRT at equivalent dose levels. (orig.) [German] Das Potenzial der intensitaetsmodulierten Strahlentherapie (IMRT) soll im Rahmen der FDG-PET basierten Bestrahlungsplanung des lokal fortgeschrittenen nichtkleinzelligen Bronchialkarzinoms (LA-NSCLC) fuer 2 Zielvolumenansaetze (Involved-Field-Bestrahlung, IF) sowie elektive Nodalbestrahlung (ENI) geprueft und mit der 3-D-konformalen Strahlentherapie (3-D

  2. On integrated student-centered factors and teacher-directed factors formed by sporting skills%运动技能形成融合主体因素和主导因素的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡海鹰

    2011-01-01

    通过对运动技能形成的主体因素和主导因素进行研究分析,揭示运动技能形成融合教师与学生“双边活动”共同努力的结果,为开发体育运动技能教学与学习的思路提供科学指导。%By studying and analyzing the integrated student-centered factors and teacher-directed factors formed from sporting skills, the article reveals that the formation of sporting skills can bring out the integration resulted of the joint effort from both teachers and students. This research provides some scientific advice for developing and improving athletic sports teaching and learning.

  3. Nanoparticle Filtration Characteristics of Advanced Metal Foam Media for a Spark Ignition Direct Injection Engine in Steady Engine Operating Conditions and Vehicle Test Modes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cha-Lee Myung

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the particle formation and reduction characteristics at the engine-out position, after a three-way catalyst (TWC and a metal foam gasoline particulate filter (GPF, were evaluated for a gasoline direct-injection (GDI engine under part-load operating conditions. The vehicle tests were performed under the Federal Test Procedure-75 (FTP-75 and the Highway Fuel Economy Test (HWFET modes. Particle number (PN concentrations, size distributions, and the filtering efficiency with the GPF were evaluated with a condensation particle counter (CPC and a differential mobility spectrometer (DMS500. Under steady engine operating conditions, the PN concentrations at the engine-out position were 9.7 × 105–2.5 × 106 N/cc. While, the PN concentrations after the GPF were 9.2 × 104–3.5 × 105 N/cc, and the PN was reduced by 77%–96%. The PN filtering efficiency with the GPF-GDI vehicle reached approximately 58% in the FTP-75 and 62% in the HWFET mode. The PN concentration of the GPF-GDI vehicle was significantly reduced to 3.95 × 1011 N/km for the FTP-75 and 8.86 × 1010 N/km for the HWFET mode. The amount of nucleation mode particles below 23 nm was substantially reduced with the GPF-GDI vehicle. The fuel economy, CO2, and regulated emissions of the GPF-GDI vehicle were equivalent to those of the base GDI vehicle under the vehicle certification modes.

  4. Advanced stitching technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scardino, Frank L.

    1992-01-01

    In the design of textile composites, the selection of materials and constructional techniques must be matched with product performance, productivity, and cost requirements. Constructional techniques vary. A classification of various textile composite systems is given. In general, the chopped fiber system is not suitable for structural composite applications because of fiber discontinuity, uncontrolled fiber orientation and a lack of fiber integration or entanglement. Linear filament yarn systems are acceptable for structural components which are exposed to simple tension in their applications. To qualify for more general use as structural components, filament yarn systems must be multi-directionally positioned. With the most sophisticated filament winding and laying techniques, however, the Type 2 systems have limited potential for general load-bearing applications because of a lack of filament integration or entanglement, which means vulnerability to splitting and delamination among filament layers. The laminar systems (Type 3) represented by a variety of simple fabrics (woven, knitted, braided and nonwoven) are especially suitable for load-bearing panels in flat form and for beams in a roled up to wound form. The totally integrated, advanced fabric system (Type 4) are thought to be the most reliable for general load-bearing applications because of fiber continuity and because of controlled multiaxial fiber orientation and entanglement. Consequently, the risk of splitting and delamination is minimized and practically omitted. Type 4 systems can be woven, knitted, braided or stitched through with very special equipment. Multiaxial fabric technologies are discussed.

  5. Applicability Analysis of Yield Criterion for Advanced High Strength Steels DP590 under Warm-forming Condition%高强钢板DP590温热环境下屈服准则适用性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程诚; 刁可山; 吴向东; 王文平; 万敏; 蔡正阳

    2016-01-01

    板料成形过程中温度的变化会影响其塑性流动行为。以先进高强钢板 DP590为研究对象,通过不同温度下单拉试验和不同温度不同加载比例双拉试验得到其在温热环境下的试验屈服轨迹,结果显示温度不仅会影响 DP590钢板屈服轨迹的大小,而且影响屈服轨迹的形状。将试验屈服轨迹和几种理论屈服轨迹进行对比分析,表明Yld2000-2D屈服准则与试验结果吻合较好,同时等效应力应变点分析也显示出Yld2000-2D屈服准则满足塑性力学的单一曲线假设规律。针对Yld2000-2D屈服准则,采用不同温度下的试验数据计算出不同温度下的各向异性参数,通过拟合获得各向异性参数与温度的四次多项式函数关系,建立温度相关Yld2000-2D屈服准则,并与常规Yld2000-2D屈服准则对比分析,结果显示温度相关Yld2000-2D屈服准则更加适合描述DP590钢板温热环境下的屈服行为。%In order to investigate the temperature effect on the yield behavior of the DP590 under warm forming condition, the yield loci are obtained by conducting biaxial and uniaxial tensile tests under different directions. The comparison of homogenized stresses of different tensile directions shows DP590 sheet obeys isotropic hardening law approximately and the shape and size of the yield loci are influenced by the temperature evidently. The yield criterion of Yld2000-2D proves to be a better choice for the accurate description of yield behavior under the warm-forming condition by comparing between the experimental and theoretical yield loci. Based on the equivalent stress and strain associated with the given yield criteria under different proportional loading paths, the applicability of Yld2000-2D yield criterion is verified. Furthermore, four polynomial function of temperature are used to fit the variation trend of the anisotropic parameters in Yld2000-2d yield function under different temperatures. The

  6. Behavioral cardiology: current advances and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozanski, Alan

    2014-07-08

    Growing epidemiological evidence identifies key domains relevant to behavioral cardiology, including health behaviors, emotions, mental mindsets, stress management, social connectedness, and a sense of purpose. Each of these domains exists along a continuum, ranging from positive factors that promote health, to negative factors, which are pathophysiological. To date, there has been relatively little translation of this growing knowledge base into cardiology practice. Four initiatives are proposed to meet this challenge: 1) promulgating greater awareness of the potency of psychosocial risks factors; 2) overcoming a current "artificial divide" between conventional and psychosocial risk factors; 3) developing novel cost-effective interventions using Internet and mobile health applications, group-based counseling, and development of tiered-care behavioral management; and 4) in recognition that "one size does not fit all" with respect to behavioral interventions, developing specialists who can counsel patients in multidisciplinary fashion and use evidence-based approaches for promoting patient motivation and execution of health goals.

  7. Cancer cachexia, recent advances, and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penet, Marie-France; Bhujwalla, Zaver M

    2015-01-01

    Cancer cachexia is defined as a multifactorial syndrome characterized by an ongoing loss of skeletal muscle mass with or without loss of fat mass. The syndrome cannot be fully reversed by conventional nutritional support, and despite an increased number of studies related to cancer cachexia, the underlying mechanisms are still poorly defined, and therapeutic options are limited. This review focuses on recent studies investigating mechanisms and pathways in cancer cachexia. The role of molecular and functional imaging in identifying cachexia at an earlier stage, in identifying potential metabolic targets and pathways, and in assessing treatment efficacy is also reviewed.

  8. Research situation and development direction of community nursing intervention form in hypertension group%高血压人群社区护理干预形式研究现状及发展方向

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚满英; 孔桂花

    2014-01-01

    高血压是一种危害性较大的慢性疾病,针对高血压人群实施社区护理干预是一项有效的防治手段。本文通过介绍社区护理的概念及作用,分析研究社区护理干预形式现状及未来的发展方向,期望推动社区护理干预的水平,达到患者健康的目的。%Hypertension is a more destructive chronic disease.The community nursing intervention for the hypertension group is an effective prevention and control means.We research on the situation and the future development direction of community nursing intervention form by introducing the concept and role of community nursing,we hope to promote the community nursing intervention level,make the patient health purposes.

  9. Fri form

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Henrik

    2006-01-01

    Dette Kompendiun er lavet i forbindelse med en workshop i møbeldesign. En række af form-Z's værktøjer til konstruktion af dobbeltkrumme flader gennemgås. Kompendiet kan bruges til selvstudie.......Dette Kompendiun er lavet i forbindelse med en workshop i møbeldesign. En række af form-Z's værktøjer til konstruktion af dobbeltkrumme flader gennemgås. Kompendiet kan bruges til selvstudie....

  10. Contributors Form

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chief Editor

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available CONTRIBUTOR FORMManuscript Title:________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________I/we certify that I/we have participated sufficiently in the intellectual content, conception and design of this work or the analysis and interpretation of the data (when applicable, as well as the writing of the manuscript, to take public responsibility for it and have agreed to have my/our name listed as a contributor. I/we believe the manuscript represents valid work. Neither this manuscript nor one with substantially similar content under my/our authorship has been published or is being considered for publication elsewhere, except as described in the covering letter. I/we certify that all the data collected during the study is presented in this manuscript and no data from the study has been or will be published separately. I/we attest that, if requested by the editors, I/we will provide the data/information or will cooperate fully in obtaining and providing the data/information on which the manuscript is based, for examination by the editors or their assignees. I/we also certify that we have taken all necessary permissions from our institution and/or department for conducting and publishing the present work.Financial interests, direct or indirect, that exist or may be perceived to exist for individual contributors in connection with the content of this paper have been disclosed in the cover letter. Sources of outside support of the project are named in the cover letter. I/We hereby transfer(s, assign(s, or otherwise convey(s all copyright ownership, including any and all rights incidental thereto, exclusively to the Journal, in the event that such work is published by the Journal. The Journal shall own the work, including 1 copyright; 2 the right to grant permission to republish the article in whole or in part, with or without fee; 3 the right

  11. Cosmic Forms

    CERN Document Server

    Kleman, Maurice

    2011-01-01

    The continuous 1D defects of an isotropic homogeneous material in an Euclidean 3D space are classified by a construction method, the Volterra process (VP). We employ the same method to classify the continuous 2D defects (which we call \\textit{cosmic forms}) of a vacuum in a 4D maximally symmetric spacetime. These defects fall into three different classes: i)- $m$-forms, akin to 3D space disclinations, related to ordinary rotations and analogous to Kibble's global cosmic strings (except that being continuous any deficit angle is allowed); ii)- $t$-forms, related to Lorentz boosts (hyperbolic rotations); iii)- $r$-forms, never been considered so far, related to null rotations. A detailed account of their metrics is presented. Their inner structure in many cases appears as a non-singular \\textit{core} separated from the outer part by a timelike hypersurface with distributional curvature and/or torsion, yielding new types of geometrical interactions with cosmic dislocations and other cosmic disclinations. Whereas...

  12. Automorphic Forms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Essen, Flemming Brændgaard

    systems. For automorphic forms wrt. Hecke triangle groups and Fuchsian groups with no elliptic elements and genus 0, we show that some logarithms of multiplier systems can be interpreted as a linking number. Finally we show a "twisted" version of the prime geodesics theorem, and logarithms of multiplier...

  13. Advanced capacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ennis, J. B.; Buritz, R. S.

    1984-10-01

    This report describes an experimental program to develop and test advanced dielectric materials for capacitors for airborne power systems. Five classes of capacitors were considered: high rep rate and low rep rate pulse capacitors for use in pulse-forming networks, high voltage filter capacitors, high frequency AC capacitors for series resonant inverters, and AC filter capacitors. To meet these requirements, existing dielectric materials were modified, and new materials were developed. The initial goal was to develop an improved polysulfone film with fewer imperfections that could operate at significantly higher electrical stresses. It was shown that contaminants enter the film via the resin and solvent, and that they can be partially removed. As far as developed, however, these treatments did not significantly improved the breakdown characteristics. The technique of casting films on a roughened drum was demonstrated, and found useful in preparing textured films -- the first step toward a replacement for Kraft paper. A new material, Ultem, was proposed for use in high energy density capacitors. This new polyetherimide resin has properties similar to polysulfone and polyimide, with improvement in breakdown characteristics and temperature capability. This material was selected for further study in model capacitor designs.

  14. Discussion on advanced manufacturing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiankui

    2007-01-01

    Advanced manufacturing consists of continuity of manufacturing,its broad sense,and the core of the manufacturing process.The technology of continuous manufacturing is discussed according to both historical and modern perspectives.The relationship between human development and manufacturing technology is also discussed.Manufacturing is a continuously evolving topic.It is not only the foundation and means of imagination,conception,the science,and the technology of material change,but also the expression of national economy,national defense,and the support industries.The broad sense of manufacturing theory,which extends the concept of manufacturing,is an important development in the 20th century.The sense is analyzed in connection with design,material forming theory,synthesis of manufacturing technology,manufacturing modes,life cycle of product,hardware and sottware,and support environment,etc.At the same time,the core action and the development of the theory and technology of process is also discussed.At the end of this paper,the development directions of mechanical manufacturing science and technology are mentioned.

  15. Discussion on the Form and Development about the Direction of Health Tourism%关于养生旅游的形式和发展方向之探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    俞静

    2015-01-01

    People in the quality of life requirements continue to increase at the same time,also began to become increasingly concerned about their own health and a way of keeping good health.Health tourism is a mix of health resources and tourism ac-tivities,because the concept of health of people's consumption is widely accepted.It meets the full range of needs for physical and mental health of the people.This new activity because of its strong vitality and good market prospects and is developing rapidly.This paper first puts forward the connotation of health tourism,then different forms of the development of health tourism at home and abroad,to discuss the future direction of development of health tourism.%人们在对生活品质要求不断提高的同时,也开始日益关注自身健康和养生之道。养生旅游是集养生资源与旅游活动的融合,因人们的养生消费观念被广泛接受。它满足了人们对身心健康的全方位需求。这种新型活动因其强大的生命力和良好的市场前景而发展迅速。本文首先提出养生旅游的内涵,然后就中外养生旅游发展的不同形式,来探讨未来养生旅游的发展方向。

  16. Research on laser direct metal deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yongzhong; Shi, Likai

    2003-03-01

    Laser direct deposition of metallic parts is a new manufacturing technology, which combines with computer-aided design, laser cladding and rapid prototyping. Fully dense metallic parts can be directly obtained through melting the coaxially fed powders with a high-power laser in a layer-by-layer manner. The process characteristics, system composition as well as some research and advancement on laser direct deposition are presented here. The microstructure and properties observation of laser direct formed 663 copper alloy, 316L stainless steel and Rene'95 nickel super alloy samples indicate that, the as-deposited microstructure is similar to rapidly solidified materials, with homogenous composition and free of defects. Under certain conditions, directionally solidified microstructure can be obtained. The as-formed mechanical properties are equal to or exceed those for casting and wrought annealed materials. At the same time, some sample parts with complicate shape are presented for technology demonstration. The formed parts show good surface quality and dimensional accuracy.

  17. Directional Modulation Signal Synthesis Algorithm Based on the Phase Beam-forming%基于相位赋形的方向调制信号综合方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    洪涛

    2016-01-01

    Directional Modulation (DM) technique is a hot research area for physical layer security communication in recent years. The baseband modulation signal is synthesized at the antenna level for transmitting different signal constellations at different directions. The genetic algorithm and vector method are the main synthesis algorithms for DM signal. However, these algorithms have some limitations for different communication models because of different research targets of these papers. In this paper, a DM signal synthesis algorithm based on phase beam-forming technique is proposed from the point view of that receive signal constellation of DM signal is scrambled at the undesired directions. First the phase beam function is set up for different communication models. Then the weighted values for array elements are obtained by the spatial Fourier transformation of the radiation pattern. Simulation results show that the proposed DM signal synthesis algorithm provides technological support for different communication models such as single user channel with pencil phase beam, broadcast channel with fanned phase beam and multi-access channel with orthogonal phase beam.%方向调制技术采用多天射阵列在天线端综合出具有方向特性的数字调制信号,是近年来物理层安全通信领域研究的热点之一。现有方向调制信号综合算法主要基于遗传算法和矢量法,但由于不同文献研究的通信系统模型不同,基于这两种算法的方向调制信号应用都具有一定的局限性。该文从窃听接收机所在的非期望方位接收方向调制信号星座点之间的相对相位关系产生畸变这一方向调制信号物理层安全本质出发,提出一种基于相位赋形的方向调制信号综合算法。首先根据不同的通信模型建立期望的相位波束空间覆盖函数,然后对期望的赋形相位波束采用空间傅里叶变换得到发射阵列的加权值。仿真结果表明该文提

  18. 多方向宽频带压电式振动能量采集器研究进展%Research advance in multi-directional wide-band piezoelectric vibration energy harvesters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈仁文; 任龙; 夏桦康; 王昊

    2014-01-01

    The principles of multi-directional wideband piezoelectric vibration energy harvesters are introduced in this paper. The structures and their characteristics of several traditional and newly developed piezoelectric energy conversion elements used in the vibration energy harvesters are presented, such as Unimorph/Bimorph, Rainbow, Wrinkled and Cymbal type. Afterwards, two research fields of multi-directional and wideband vibration energy harvesting to improve the environmental adaptability are introduced, along with their recent research advances at home and abroad. For wideband vibration energy harvesting, such methods as bandwidth broaden and resonance frequency tuning are elaborated, and for the other field, three structures, namely, nonlinear magnetic coupling, cube-sphere and dandelion-like structure are demonstrated. Finally, the trend of development of the multi-directional wideband piezoelectric vibration energy harvesting technology is prospected.%本文介绍了压电振动能量采集器的工作原理,阐述了振动能量采集器中的单/双晶片、Rainbow型、Cymbal型、褶皱型等几种常见和新研发的压电换能元件的结构形式和相应特点。然后,针对如何提高压电振动能量采集器的环境适应能力,介绍了振动能量采集宽频带和多方向两个研究方向,以及国内外在这两个方面的最新研究进展。着重阐述了压电振动能量采集器的拓宽频带宽度、调整共振频率等宽频带能量收集的实现方法,以及非线性磁力耦合结构、立方体-球结构、蒲公英状结构等多方向能量收集的实现方式。最后,对多方向宽频带压电式振动能量采集器的发展趋势进行了展望。

  19. Advanced sulfur control concepts in hot-gas desulfurization technology: Phase 2. Exploratory studies on the direct production of elemental sulfur during the regeneration of high temperature desulfurization sorbents. Topical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, A.; Huang, W.; White, J. [and others

    1997-07-01

    The topical report describes the results of Phase 2 research to determine the feasibility of the direct production of elemental sulfur during the regeneration of high temperature desulfurization sorbents. Many of the contaminants present in coal emerge from the gasification process in the product gas. Much effort has gone into the development of high temperature metal oxide sorbents for removal of H{sub 2}S from coal gas. The oxides of zinc, iron, manganese, and others have been studied. In order for high temperature desulfurization to be economical it is necessary that the sorbents be regenerated to permit multicycle operation. Current methods of sorbent regeneration involve oxidation of the metal sulfide to reform the metal oxide and free the sulfur as SO{sub 2}. An alternate regeneration process in which the sulfur is liberated in elemental form is desired. Elemental sulfur, which is the typical feed to sulfuric acid plants, may be easily separated, stored, and transported. Although research to convert SO{sub 2} produced during sorbent regeneration to elemental sulfur is on-going, additional processing steps are required and the overall process will be more complex. Clearly, the direct production of elemental sulfur is preferred. Desulfurization utilizing a cerium oxide based sorbent is discussed.

  20. Teaching Staff Advanced Training: European Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovalchuk Vasyl

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The issue of teaching staff advanced training is paid much attention in many countries. In the Republic of Moldova progressive professional credits system is used. Credits are scored not only in assigning teaching degrees or issuing a certificate of continuing professional education, but also for teachers’ evaluation at the educational institution. Advanced training of teaching staff in France is provided by various institutions of postgraduate education, university institutes and regional centers of education in order to help teachers to renew their professional knowledge and at the same time to refocus it on the level of consciousness according to the real problems of school and the community. The feature of teaching staff advanced training in France is that it is teachers’ personal matter and duration of all periods of training should come to one year during all professional career. In Finland, teaching staff advanced training is organized directly in schools under aegis of the National Board of Education, the National Centre for Advanced Training in Education, departments of teacher education and other faculties of higher educational institutions on credit system basis. Among the topical forms there are targeted, cascade, common (cooperative teaching and learning by own example. In the UK, advanced training takes place in two models: the course model based on higher educational establishments and school based in-service education. The main purpose of advanced training system is to familiarize teachers with theoretical and practical innovations in educational activities, progressive teaching technologies, and consolidate their skills of independent acquisition of knowledge necessary for their professional development.

  1. Rapid Prototyping of Ceramica via Temperature Induced Forming

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liwu Wang; Wolfgang Sigmund; Fritz Aldinger

    2000-01-01

    Rapid tooling is the process of directly or indirectly employing rapid prototyping technologies in tool and mold fabrication. By combining rapid tooling and temperature induced forming (TIF) a novel near-net shape process for the rapid production of complex-shaped prototypes of advanced ceramics has been developed. Rapid tooling via stereolithography quickly produces complex-shaped molds with precise surface quality and the TIF technology enables the forming and consolidation of Al2O3 green bodies in nonporous molds. Thus Al2O3 green parts with high density and without any cracks are realized. This novel process shows excellent potential for near-net shape production of advanced ceramics with complex geometry, fine surface finish and reliable mechanical properties.

  2. A patologia da forma hépato-esplênica da esquistossomose mansoni em sua forma avançada (estudo de 232 necrópsias completas The pathology of the hepatosplenic form of schistosomiasis mansoni in its advanced form (study of 232 complete necropsies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zilton A. Andrade

    1983-09-01

    entendida em toda a sua extensão.This study includes an evaluation of pathological findings on 232 complete necropsies performed on subjects with advanced hepatic schistosomiasis in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. The constant and characteristic feature was peri-portal hepatic fibrosis with destructive and obstructive vascular lesions of the intrahepatic branches of the portal vein. Usually the lesions were accomapained by signs of portal hypertension (splenomegaly and esophageal varices representing hepatosplenic schistosomiasis, but in 12 cases such signs were absent (advanced hepatic schistosomiasis. Some individuals progressed from a compensated to a decompensated form of hepatic schistosomiasis by showing progressive evidences of hepatic cell failure. In such cases the liver usually presented more intense septal fibrosis and changes of chronic active hepatitis, but not a transformation toward a diffuse cirrhosis. Spelonomegaly resulted from chronic passive congestion and cellular proliferation, specially of the phagocytic mononuclear system. Occasionally the enlarged spleen developed a peculiar nodular type of lymphoma. Intestinal involvement was less than expected. Only rarely some more prominent changes, such as peri-colonic and retroperitoneal fibrosis due to massive deposition of eggs, pseudo-neoplastic formations and polyps appeard. A frequent complication was cor pulmonale due to schistosomal pulmonary arteritis, which appeard in 44 cases (18,9%. Associated renal disease was found in 15% of the cases, usually represented by chronic diffuse glomerulonephritis, wich is presumed to represent a immune-complex manifestation of schistosomiasis. Concommitant infections were frequently observed, and some of them, such as salmonellosis and viral hepatitits, tended to run a rather prolonged course. Thus, advanced schistosomiasis appeard as a pathological process that damages mainly the liver, but that reaches various organs through a varied and complex pathogenesis, the

  3. Advance payments

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division

    2003-01-01

    Administrative Circular N 8 makes provision for the granting of advance payments, repayable in several monthly instalments, by the Organization to the members of its personnel. Members of the personnel are reminded that these advances are only authorized in exceptional circumstances and at the discretion of the Director-General. In view of the current financial situation of the Organization, and in particular the loans it will have to incur, the Directorate has decided to restrict the granting of such advances to exceptional or unforeseen circumstances entailing heavy expenditure and more specifically those pertaining to social issues. Human Resources Division Tel. 73962

  4. ADVANCE PAYMENTS

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division

    2002-01-01

    Administrative Circular Nº 8 makes provision for the granting of advance payments, repayable in several monthly instalments, by the Organization to the members of its personnel. Members of the personnel are reminded that these advances are only authorized in exceptional circumstances and at the discretion of the Director-General. In view of the current financial situation of the Organization, and in particular the loans it will have to incur, the Directorate has decided to restrict the granting of such advances to exceptional or unforeseen circumstances entailing heavy expenditure and more specifically those pertaining to social issues. Human Resources Division Tel. 73962

  5. Attitudes toward advance directives for medical care in family members of advanced cancer patients: a qualitative study%家属对晚期肿瘤患者实施预立医疗照护计划态度的质性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王丽英; 陆箴琦; 胡雁; 顾文英

    2012-01-01

    目的 了解家属对晚期肿瘤患者实施预立医疗照护计划的态度,为姑息照护领域相关医疗决策的制定提供依据.方法 对17名晚期肿瘤患者家属进行深度访谈,采用现象学分析法分析资料.结果 家属对预立医疗照护计划的态度提炼出4个主题:如患者主动提出,自己愿意支持;预立医疗照护计划本意较好,但不忍患者面对;预立医疗照护计划本身存在一定缺陷,效果令人质疑;目前实施有难度,将来有望推广.家属对晚期肿瘤患者终末治疗的选择提炼出2个主题:不忍患者受苦,选择放弃抢救;进退两难,抢救为无奈之举.结论 晚期肿瘤患者家属在认可预立医疗照护计划的同时存在很多顾虑,知晓抢救的无效性但因外在压力和良心不安选择抢救;医护人员应做好家属健康教育,并协助家属与患者、家属与家属之间进行坦诚沟通,以推广预立医疗照护计划的理念.%Objective To explore attitudes toward advance directives (ADs) for medical care in family members of advanced cancer patients, and to provide guidance for medical policy-making in palliative care. Methods Seventeen family members of advanced cancer patients participated in the semi-structure interviews. Data were analyzed by using Claizzi s phenomenological procedure. Results The data revealed four themes about family members' attitudes toward ADs: they would support ADs if patients proposed; though ADs had many benefits, they could not stand patients facing it; they doubted effects of ADs for it showed many defects; they thought that it was difficult to implement ADs right now, but the situation would change in the future. Family members' decision-making about life-sustaining treatment were concluded into two perspectives: they would give up life-sustaining treatment to decrease patients' pain; they were in dilemma as they felt ashamed to give up treatment and had no choice but withholding life-sustaining therapy

  6. Production and characterization of antibodies to advanced glycation products on proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, H; Taneda, S; Kuwajima, S; Aoki, S; Kuroda, Y; Misawa, K; Nakagawa, S

    1989-07-31

    Antibodies directed against advanced glycation products formed during Maillard reaction have been generated and characterized. These antibodies reacted specifically with advanced glycation products in common among proteins incubated with glucose, but not early-stage compounds such as a Schiff base adduct and Amadori rearrangement products. Incubation of bovine serum albumin with glucose caused a time-related increase in immunoreactivity and a concomitant increase in fluorescence intensity. These antibodies may serve as a useful tool to elucidate pathophysiological roles of advanced Maillard reaction in diabetic complications and aging processes.

  7. Advanced nanoelectronics

    CERN Document Server

    Ismail, Razali

    2012-01-01

    While theories based on classical physics have been very successful in helping experimentalists design microelectronic devices, new approaches based on quantum mechanics are required to accurately model nanoscale transistors and to predict their characteristics even before they are fabricated. Advanced Nanoelectronics provides research information on advanced nanoelectronics concepts, with a focus on modeling and simulation. Featuring contributions by researchers actively engaged in nanoelectronics research, it develops and applies analytical formulations to investigate nanoscale devices. The

  8. Advanced higher English

    CERN Document Server

    Bridges, Ann

    2016-01-01

    The only book to support the compulsory Textual Analysis component of Advanced Higher English. Written by subject experts, this book contains short extracts of prose fiction, non-fiction, poetry and drama with analysis and commentary to assist students' understanding and their ability to critically assess their reading of literature. Short writing tasks, linked to the analysis of particular techniques, help to develop aspects of creative writing skills. The Textual Analysis component forms a compulsory section of the Advanced Higher English syllabus and accounts for 20% of the final grade;

  9. Advanced router architectures

    CERN Document Server

    Kloth, Axel K

    2005-01-01

    Routers, switches, and transmission equipment form the backbone of the Internet, yet many users and service technicians do not understand how these nodes really work.Advanced Router Architectures addresses how components of advanced routers work together and how they are integrated with each other. This book provides the background behind why these building blocks perform certain functions, and how the function is implemented in general use. It offers an introduction to the subject matter that is intended to trigger deeper interest from the reader. The book explains, for example, why traffic m

  10. Advances in attosecond science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calegari, Francesca; Sansone, Giuseppe; Stagira, Salvatore; Vozzi, Caterina; Nisoli, Mauro

    2016-03-01

    Attosecond science offers formidable tools for the investigation of electronic processes at the heart of important physical processes in atomic, molecular and solid-state physics. In the last 15 years impressive advances have been obtained from both the experimental and theoretical points of view. Attosecond pulses, in the form of isolated pulses or of trains of pulses, are now routinely available in various laboratories. In this review recent advances in attosecond science are reported and important applications are discussed. After a brief presentation of various techniques that can be employed for the generation and diagnosis of sub-femtosecond pulses, various applications are reported in atomic, molecular and condensed-matter physics.

  11. AdvancED Flex 4

    CERN Document Server

    Tiwari, Shashank; Schulze, Charlie

    2010-01-01

    AdvancED Flex 4 makes advanced Flex 4 concepts and techniques easy. Ajax, RIA, Web 2.0, mashups, mobile applications, the most sophisticated web tools, and the coolest interactive web applications are all covered with practical, visually oriented recipes. * Completely updated for the new tools in Flex 4* Demonstrates how to use Flex 4 to create robust and scalable enterprise-grade Rich Internet Applications.* Teaches you to build high-performance web applications with interactivity that really engages your users.* What you'll learn Practiced beginners and intermediate users of Flex, especially

  12. The chemistry of planet-forming regions is not interstellar

    CERN Document Server

    Pontoppidan, Klaus M

    2014-01-01

    Advances in infrared and submillimeter technology have allowed for detailed observations of the molecular content of the planet-forming regions of protoplanetary disks. In particular, disks around solar-type stars now have growing molecular inventories that can be directly compared with both prestellar chemistry and that inferred for the early solar nebula. The data directly address the old question whether the chemistry of planet-forming matter is similar or different and unique relative to the chemistry of dense clouds and protostellar envelopes. The answer to this question may have profound consequences for the structure and composition of planetary systems. The practical challenge is that observations of emission lines from disks do not easily translate into chemical concentrations. Here, we present a two-dimensional radiative transfer model of RNO 90, a classical protoplanetary disk around a solar-mass star, and retrieve the concentrations of dominant molecular carriers of carbon, oxygen and nitrogen in ...

  13. Achieving form in autobiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas (Nick Meihuizen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article argues that, unlike biographies which tend to follow patterns based on conventional expectations, salient autobiographies achieve forms unique to themselves. The article draws on ideas from contemporary formalists such as Peter McDonald and Angela Leighton but also considers ideas on significant form stemming from earlier writers and critics such as P.N. Furbank and Willa Cather. In extracting from these writers the elements of what they consider comprise achieved form, the article does not seek to provide a rigid means of objectively testing the formal attributes of a piece of writing. It rather offers qualitative reminders of the need to be alert to the importance of form, even if the precise nature of this importance is not possible to define. Form is involved in meaning, and this continuously opens up possibilities regarding the reader’s relationship with the work in question. French genetic critic Debray Genette distinguishes between ‘semantic effect’ (the direct telling involved in writing and ‘semiological effect’ (the indirect signification involved. It is the latter, the article argues in summation, which gives a work its singular nature, producing a form that is not predictable but suggestive, imaginative.

  14. Advanced intelligence and mechanism approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHONG Yixin

    2007-01-01

    Advanced intelligence will feature the intelligence research in next 50 years.An understanding of the concept of advanced intelligence as well as its importance will be provided first,and detailed analysis on an approach,the mechanism approach.suitable to the advanced intelligence research will then be flolowed.And the mutual relationship among mechanism approach,traditional approaches existed in artificial intelligence research,and the cognitive informatics will be discussed.It is interesting to discover that mechanism approach is a good one to the Advanced Intelligence research and a tmified form of the existed approaches to artificial intelligence.

  15. Forms of matter and forms of radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Kleman, Maurice

    2009-01-01

    The theory of defects in ordered and ill-ordered media is a well-advanced part of condensed matter physics. Concepts developed in this field also occur in the study of spacetime singularities, namely: i)- the topological theory of quantized defects (Kibble's cosmic strings) and ii)- the Volterra process for continuous defects, used to classify the Poincar\\'e symmetry breakings. We reassess the classification of Minkowski spacetime defects in the same theoretical frame, starting from the conjecture that these defects fall into two classes, as on they relate to massive particles or to radiation. This we justify on the empirical evidence of the Hubble's expansion. We introduce timelike and null congruences of geodesics treated as ordered media, viz. 'm'-crystals of massive particles and 'r'-crystals of massless particles, with parallel 4-momenta in M^4. Classifying their defects (or 'forms') we find (i) 'm'- and 'r'- Volterra continuous line defects and (ii) quantized topologically stable 'r'-defects, these latt...

  16. Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-directed adoptive immunotherapy: a new era in targeted cancer therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Yamei; Liu, Delong

    2014-01-01

    As a result of the recent advances in molecular immunology, virology, genetics, and cell processing, chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-directed cancer therapy has finally arrived for clinical application. CAR-directed adoptive immunotherapy represents a novel form of gene therapy, cellular therapy, and immunotherapy, a combination of three in one. Early phase clinical trial was reported in patients with refractory chronic lymphoid leukemia with 17p deletion. Accompanying the cyto...

  17. Advanced nuclear thermal propulsion concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Steven D.

    1993-11-01

    In 1989, a Presidential directive created the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) which had a goal of placing mankind on Mars in the early 21st century. The SEI was effectively terminated in 1992 with the election of a new administration. Although the initiative did not exist long enough to allow substantial technology development, it did provide a venue, for the first time in 20 years, to comprehensively evaluate advanced propulsion concepts which could enable fast, manned transits to Mars. As part of the SEI based investigations, scientists from NASA, DoE National Laboratories, universities, and industry met regularly and proceeded to examine a variety of innovative ideas. Most of the effort was directed toward developing a solid-core, nuclear thermal rocket and examining a high-power nuclear electric propulsion system. In addition, however, an Innovative Concepts committee was formed and charged with evaluating concepts that offered a much higher performance but were less technologically mature. The committee considered several concepts and eventually recommended that further work be performed in the areas of gas core fission rockets, inertial confinement fusion systems, antimatter based rockets, and gas core fission electric systems. Following the committee's recommendations, some computational modeling work has been performed at Los Alamos in certain of these areas and critical issues have been identified.

  18. Advanced nuclear thermal propulsion concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Steven D.

    1993-01-01

    In 1989, a Presidential directive created the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) which had a goal of placing mankind on Mars in the early 21st century. The SEI was effectively terminated in 1992 with the election of a new administration. Although the initiative did not exist long enough to allow substantial technology development, it did provide a venue, for the first time in 20 years, to comprehensively evaluate advanced propulsion concepts which could enable fast, manned transits to Mars. As part of the SEI based investigations, scientists from NASA, DoE National Laboratories, universities, and industry met regularly and proceeded to examine a variety of innovative ideas. Most of the effort was directed toward developing a solid-core, nuclear thermal rocket and examining a high-power nuclear electric propulsion system. In addition, however, an Innovative Concepts committee was formed and charged with evaluating concepts that offered a much higher performance but were less technologically mature. The committee considered several concepts and eventually recommended that further work be performed in the areas of gas core fission rockets, inertial confinement fusion systems, antimatter based rockets, and gas core fission electric systems. Following the committee's recommendations, some computational modeling work has been performed at Los Alamos in certain of these areas and critical issues have been identified.

  19. Direct peroral cholangioscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsi, Mansour A

    2014-01-01

    Peroral cholangioscopy is an important tool for diagnosis and treatment of various biliary disorders. Peroral cholangioscopy can be performed by using a dedicated cholangioscope that is advanced through the accessory channel of a duodenoscope, or by direct insertion of a small-diameter endoscope into the bile duct. Direct peroral cholangioscopy refers to insertion of an ultraslim endoscope directly into the bile duct for visualization of the biliary mucosa and lumen. This approach provides a valuable and economic solution for diagnostic and therapeutic applications in the biliary tree. Compared to ductoscopy using a dedicated cholangioscope, the direct approach has several advantages and disadvantages. In this editorial, I discuss the advantages, disadvantages, and possible future developments pertaining to direct peroral cholangioscopy. PMID:24527174

  20. Forming limits of nickel coating on right region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The forming limits of nickel coating on the right region were studied, so as to direct the preparation of the material and help the production of workpieces. The electrodeposited nickel coating was prepared on steel substrate to form advanced structures,and its plastic instability was investigated by the Swift Plastic Instability Theory. By using the compound law for laminated sheet metals, explicit equations for the calculation of the instable eigen values were deduced. The forming limit diagrams of the nickel coating on the right region were plotted. It is exhibited that the forming limit of the coating sheet is between the forming limits of the individual nickel coating and steel substrate. The forming limit of the nickel coating is not so good as that of the steel substrate, and the forming limit strain of the coating sheet tends to diminish with the increase of thickness of the coating. The greater the normal anisotropic coefficient of the materials is, the better the forming limit is.

  1. 膜控微丸:口服缓控释固体制剂新兴产业方向%Coated pellets:the emerging direction of oral modified-release solid dosage forms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高春生

    2014-01-01

    Oral modified-release multiple-unit dosa ge forms such as coated pellets have always been more effective therapeutic alternative to conventional single-unit dosage forms. Coated pellets ranging in size,typically,between 0.5-1.0 mm,are produced primarily for the purpose of oral controlled-release dosage forms having gastro-resistant or sustained-release properties or the capability of site-specific drug delivery. With regards to the final dosage form,the multi-particulates are usually formulated into single-unit dosage forms such as filling them into hard gelatin capsules or compressing them into tablets. As drug-delivery systems become more sophisticated,the role of pellets in the design and development of dosage forms is increasing. The safety and efficacy of the formulation is higher than that of other dosage forms. This review provides an update on this research area and discusses the phenomena and mechanisms of the multi-particulate system concluding multiple-unit pellet system and pellet-containing tablets.%膜控微丸作为一种新型的剂量分散型调释制剂,具有比常规制剂更佳的治疗效果。它的粒径大多分布在0.5~1.0 mm,终剂型为胶囊剂或微丸压片剂,可实现药物的恒定释放、定时脉冲释放或肠道定位释药等。膜控微丸的安全性和有效性优势显著。随着新型释药系统研究和应用的不断深入,膜控微丸在新产品研发中的角色正被广泛关注,已成为缓控释制剂的主要发展方向。本文综述了膜控微丸的典型特性和应用,及其在行业发展中的巨大潜力,并分析其在产业化过程中的优势与不足。

  2. CADC Advanced Search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, D. N.

    2012-09-01

    The Canadian Astronomy Data Centre's (CADC) Advanced Search web application is a modern search tool to access data across the CADC archives. It allows searching in different units, and is well averse in wild card characters and numeric operations. Search results are displayed in a sortable and filterable manner allowing quick and accurate access to downloadable data. The Advanced Search interface makes extremely good use of the Astronomical Data Query Language (ADQL) to scour the Common Archive Observation Model (CAOM) Table Access Protocol (TAP) query service and the vast CADC Archive Data (AD) storage system. A new tabular view of the query form and the results data makes it easy to view the query, then return to the query form to make further changes, or, alternatively, filter the data from the paginated table. Results are displayed using a rich, open-source, JavaScript-based VOTable viewer called voview.

  3. Advances in microwaves 8

    CERN Document Server

    Young, Leo

    2013-01-01

    Advances in Microwaves, Volume 8 covers the developments in the study of microwaves. The book discusses the circuit forms for microwave integrated circuits; the analysis of microstrip transmission lines; and the use of lumped elements in microwave integrated circuits. The text also describes the microwave properties of ferrimagnetic materials, as well as their interaction with electromagnetic waves propagating in bounded waveguiding structures. The integration techniques useful at high frequencies; material technology for microwave integrated circuits; specific requirements on technology for d

  4. Advanced ferroelectricity

    CERN Document Server

    Blinc, R

    2011-01-01

    Advances in the field of ferroelectricity have implications both for basic physics and for technological applications such as memory devices, spintronic applications and electro-optic devices, as well as in acoustics, robotics, telecommunications and medicine. This book provides an account of recent developments in the field.

  5. Gold nanocrystals with DNA-directed morphologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xingyi; Huh, June; Park, Wounjhang; Lee, Luke P.; Kwon, Young Jik; Sim, Sang Jun

    2016-09-01

    Precise control over the structure of metal nanomaterials is important for developing advanced nanobiotechnology. Assembly methods of nanoparticles into structured blocks have been widely demonstrated recently. However, synthesis of nanocrystals with controlled, three-dimensional structures remains challenging. Here we show a directed crystallization of gold by a single DNA molecular regulator in a sequence-independent manner and its applications in three-dimensional topological controls of crystalline nanostructures. We anchor DNA onto gold nanoseed with various alignments to form gold nanocrystals with defined topologies. Some topologies are asymmetric including pushpin-, star- and biconcave disk-like structures, as well as more complex jellyfish- and flower-like structures. The approach of employing DNA enables the solution-based synthesis of nanocrystals with controlled, three-dimensional structures in a desired direction, and expands the current tools available for designing and synthesizing feature-rich nanomaterials for future translational biotechnology.

  6. Directed homology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fahrenberg, Uli

    2004-01-01

    We introduce a new notion of directed homology for semicubical sets. We show that it respects directed homotopy and is functorial, and that it appears to enjoy some good algebraic properties. Our work has applications to higher-dimensional automata....

  7. ADVANCED SULFUR CONTROL CONCEPTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apostolos A. Nikolopoulos; Santosh K. Gangwal; William J. McMichael; Jeffrey W. Portzer

    2003-01-01

    Conventional sulfur removal in integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants involves numerous steps: COS (carbonyl sulfide) hydrolysis, amine scrubbing/regeneration, Claus process, and tail-gas treatment. Advanced sulfur removal in IGCC systems involves typically the use of zinc oxide-based sorbents. The sulfides sorbent is regenerated using dilute air to produce a dilute SO{sub 2} (sulfur dioxide) tail gas. Under previous contracts the highly effective first generation Direct Sulfur Recovery Process (DSRP) for catalytic reduction of this SO{sub 2} tail gas to elemental sulfur was developed. This process is currently undergoing field-testing. In this project, advanced concepts were evaluated to reduce the number of unit operations in sulfur removal and recovery. Substantial effort was directed towards developing sorbents that could be directly regenerated to elemental sulfur in an Advanced Hot Gas Process (AHGP). Development of this process has been described in detail in Appendices A-F. RTI began the development of the Single-step Sulfur Recovery Process (SSRP) to eliminate the use of sorbents and multiple reactors in sulfur removal and recovery. This process showed promising preliminary results and thus further process development of AHGP was abandoned in favor of SSRP. The SSRP is a direct Claus process that consists of injecting SO{sub 2} directly into the quenched coal gas from a coal gasifier, and reacting the H{sub 2}S-SO{sub 2} mixture over a selective catalyst to both remove and recover sulfur in a single step. The process is conducted at gasifier pressure and 125 to 160 C. The proposed commercial embodiment of the SSRP involves a liquid phase of molten sulfur with dispersed catalyst in a slurry bubble-column reactor (SBCR).

  8. Posición y perspectivas de los médicos sobre las directivas anticipadas en pacientes con demencia incipiente Physicians´ views and perspectives on advanced directives in patients with incipient dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercedes Mattiussi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available La demencia es una enfermedad progresiva que compromete la capacidad de tomar decisiones. Las directivas anticipadas (DA permitirían a los pacientes expresar tempranamente sus voluntades sobre cuidados a recibir en estadios finales. Los médicos de cabecera (MC están en una situación privilegiada para indagar acerca de las DA. El objetivo del presente estudio fue conocer las perspectivas de los MC sobre las DA en pacientes con demencia. Se llevó a cabo una investigación cualitativa por grupos focales y entrevistas individuales a MC de ancianos del Hospital Italiano de Buenos Aires. Se realizó muestreo intencional, conformándose grupos homogéneos según edad y jerarquía. La discusión se estimuló con una viñeta. Se realizó análisis de contenido temático en equipo interdisciplinario. Participaron 12 MC de hasta 30 años; 32 de edad intermedia y 8 mayores de 45 años. Entre los jóvenes las DA tuvieron mayor aceptación. Los mayores consideran que la familia toma las decisiones y que nuestra sociedad está inmadura para estas discusiones. Otros condicionantes para la discusión fueron: dificultades prácticas para implementar las DA, el lapso temporal entre la formulación y su implementación, dificultad para predecir la evolución de los pacientes, falta de legislación y de políticas institucionales específicas. Los jóvenes manifestaron falta de capacitación para dialogar sobre DA con sus pacientes. Como conclusión, se observó que los facilitadores y barreras para la discusión sobre DA difieren según la edad de los MC. Las intervenciones que se orienten a favorecer su utilización deberían adaptarse a los médicos a quienes van dirigidas.Dementia is a progressive disease in which patients lose their ability to decide and communicate. Advance directives (AD allow patients to express their preferences on end of life care in the early stages of the disease. Primary care practitioners (PCP are in the best position to promote

  9. 雄黄中砷的不同形态及其毒性研究进展%Advances in Research on Different Forms of Arsenic in Realgar and its Toxicity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高双荣; 梁爱华; 易艳; 刘婷; 曹春雨; 王海林; 李春英; 郝然; 回连强

    2011-01-01

    The literatures on toxicity and mechanism of different forms of arsenic in realgar were collected and analyzed. Twenty-eight papers in journals home and abroad were consulted and classified. This paper introduces the toxicity and mechanisms of different forms of arsenic in realgar on the liver, kidneys, bladder, nerves, skin, fetal development and etc. The in vivo toxicity of different arsenic compounds is quite different depending on the exiting forms, inorganic arsenic and organic arsenic. As1 can cause liver cells apoptosis and focal necrosis, As , MMA and DMA can cause liver cells swelling and spotty inflammation. DMA is more toxic than MMAV. When prolonged exposure to DMAV and MMAv presents, bladder cancer and skin cancer in animals can caused. MMA and DMA metabolites are more toxic than iAs and iAs to the genes regulating the neurofilament proteins. In addition, iAs1 and MMA1 can produce significant toxicity to human hematopoietic stem cells. These reports will provide basis for exploring the relations of different forms of arsenic with toxicity.%对雄黄中不同形态砷的毒性及其毒性机制进行文献整理和分析.查阅了国内外有关文献28篇,进行归纳整理并分析汇总.首先介绍了其对肝、肾、膀胱、神经、皮肤、胎儿发育等的毒性损伤情况及损伤机制,砷在生物体内以无机砷和有机砷等不同形态存在,依形态不同毒性有较大差异:三价砷(AsⅢ)可引起肝细胞的凋亡和灶状坏死,五价砷(Asv),五价甲基砷酸( MMAv),五价二甲基砷酸(DMAv)可引起肝细胞肿胀和灶状炎症.DMAv的毒性较MMAv大,若长期接触DMAv和MMAv可引起动物膀胱和皮肤组织肿瘤.MMAv和DMAv对调节神经丝蛋白基因的毒性较亚砷酸盐(iAsⅢ)和砷酸盐(iAsv)强,能明显改变细胞骨架基因的表达水平.此外,iAsⅢ和MMAⅢ对人造血于细胞也能产生明显的毒性.这些总结将为系统探究雄黄不同形态砷与毒性的相关性提供基础.

  10. Advancing Leadership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penny L. Tenuto

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Preparing students to become active citizens and contributors to a democratic society is premised on teaching democratic principles and modeling standards of democratic practice at all levels of education. The purpose of this integrative literature review is to establish a conceptual framework grounded in literature and a model for cultivating democratic professional practice in education (DPPE to advance leadership for school improvement. This work is presented in three parts: (a a review of historical references, reports, and legislation that culminated in increased accountability and standards in P-12 public education; (b a discussion of social patterns in education generally associated with bureaucracy versus democracy; and (c a new contribution to the literature, a model for cultivating DPPE is conceptualized to encourage leading and teaching professionals to reflect on beliefs and evaluate practices in advancing leadership for school improvement. Recommendations are included for further research.

  11. Advanced Virgo

    CERN Multimedia

    Virgo, a first-generation interferometric gravitational wave (GW) detector, located in the European Gravitational Observatory, EGO, Cascina (Pisa-Italy) and constructed by the collaboration of French and Italian institutes (CNRS and INFN) has successfully completed its long-duration data taking runs. It is now undergoing a fundamental upgrade that exploits available cutting edges technology to open an exciting new window on the universe, with the first detection of a gravitational wave signal. Advanced Virgo (AdV) is the project to upgrade the Virgo detector to a second-generation instrument. AdV will be able to scan a volume of the Universe 1000 times larger than initial Virgo. AdV will be hosted in the same infrastructures as Virgo. The Advanced VIRGO project is funded and at present carried on by a larger collaboration of institutes belonging to CNRS- France , RMKI - Hungary, INFN- Italy, Nikhef - The Netherlands Polish Academy of Science - Poland.

  12. Advanced LIGO

    OpenAIRE

    Aasi, J.; Abbott, B.; Abbott, R.; Abbott, T.; Abernathy, M; Ackley, K.; Adams, C.; Adams, T.; Addesso, P; Adhikari, R.; Adya, V.; Affeldt, C.; Aggarwal, N.; Aguiar, O.; Ain, A.

    2014-01-01

    The Advanced LIGO gravitational wave detectors are second-generation instruments designed and built for the two LIGO observatories in Hanford, WA and Livingston, LA, USA. The two instruments are identical in design, and are specialized versions of a Michelson interferometer with 4 km long arms. As in Initial LIGO, Fabry–Perot cavities are used in the arms to increase the interaction time with a gravitational wave, and power recycling is used to increase the effective laser power. Signal recyc...

  13. Advanced Combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holcomb, Gordon R. [NETL

    2013-03-11

    The activity reported in this presentation is to provide the mechanical and physical property information needed to allow rational design, development and/or choice of alloys, manufacturing approaches, and environmental exposure and component life models to enable oxy-fuel combustion boilers to operate at Ultra-Supercritical (up to 650{degrees}C & between 22-30 MPa) and/or Advanced Ultra-Supercritical conditions (760{degrees}C & 35 MPa).

  14. A comparison of the electronic behaviour of In sub 0 sub . sub 5 sub 3 Ga sub 0 sub . sub 4 sub 7 As interfaces formed with directly and remotely PELVD silicon nitride

    CERN Document Server

    Parmiter, P J M

    2000-01-01

    The surfaces of the DPECVD devices were in majority accumulation at zero bias and the interface states communicated directly with the conduction band in reverse bias. On the other hand RPECVD devices were almost at flatband at zero bias and demonstrated greater Fermi level movement over the same voltage range. Investigation of the interface states indicated a higher density of states and more complicated behaviour including a lattice relaxation mechanism and tunnelling with the interface states communicating principally with the valence band. The two types of deposition gave rise to interfaces that exhibited very different behaviour. Communication requirements are constantly increasing both in terms of volume and speed. The compound ln sub x Ga sub 1 sub - sub x As is ideal for optoelectronic and microwave applications. It is direct bandgap and high speed with low field mobilities of the order of 12 000 cm sup 2 V sup - sup 1 s sup - sup 1 and an electron drift velocity of 2.8x10 sup 7 cm s sup - sup 1. In su...

  15. Advances in clinical research and new form of docetaxel%多西他赛的临床应用及其新剂型的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘广宣; 隋月; 赵茜; 刘嘉懿

    2016-01-01

    多西他赛(docetaxel,DTX)是一种紫杉烷类抗肿瘤药,其抗瘤谱广,被广泛用于乳腺癌、肺癌、胃癌和前列腺癌等肿瘤的治疗。多西他赛不仅能够单独用药,也可与其他药物联用。近年来,多西他赛市售注射剂的毒副反应逐渐引起关注,为达到减效增毒的目的,新剂型的研究在如火如荼进行中。笔者对多西他赛的临床应用及新剂型开发进行了综述。%Docetaxel (DXT)is a member of the taxane drug class,which is used to treat breast cancer,lung cancer,gastric cancer,prostate cancer and so on.Docetaxel can be used as a single agent or in combination with other chemotherapeutic drugs.Many side effects of docetaxel have been reported in recent years.New dosage forms are developed to reduce toxicity and increase efficacy.An overview of these novel formulations of docetaxel and clinical progress will be discussed by consulting 43 literatures.

  16. Advanced differential quadrature methods

    CERN Document Server

    Zong, Zhi

    2009-01-01

    Modern Tools to Perform Numerical DifferentiationThe original direct differential quadrature (DQ) method has been known to fail for problems with strong nonlinearity and material discontinuity as well as for problems involving singularity, irregularity, and multiple scales. But now researchers in applied mathematics, computational mechanics, and engineering have developed a range of innovative DQ-based methods to overcome these shortcomings. Advanced Differential Quadrature Methods explores new DQ methods and uses these methods to solve problems beyond the capabilities of the direct DQ method.After a basic introduction to the direct DQ method, the book presents a number of DQ methods, including complex DQ, triangular DQ, multi-scale DQ, variable order DQ, multi-domain DQ, and localized DQ. It also provides a mathematical compendium that summarizes Gauss elimination, the Runge-Kutta method, complex analysis, and more. The final chapter contains three codes written in the FORTRAN language, enabling readers to q...

  17. Advanced Analysis of Nontraditional Machining

    CERN Document Server

    Tsai, Hung-Yin

    2013-01-01

    Nontraditional machining utilizes thermal, chemical, electrical, mechanical and optical sources of energy to form and cut materials. Advanced Analysis of Nontraditional Machining explains in-depth how each of these advanced machining processes work, their machining system components, and process variables and industrial applications, thereby offering advanced knowledge and scientific insight. This book also documents the latest and frequently cited research results of a few key nonconventional machining processes for the most concerned topics in industrial applications, such as laser machining, electrical discharge machining, electropolishing of die and mold, and wafer processing for integrated circuit manufacturing. This book also: Fills the gap of the advanced knowledge of nonconventional machining between industry and research Documents latest and frequently cited research of key nonconventional machining processes for the most sought after topics in industrial applications Demonstrates advanced multidisci...

  18. Are Advanced Potentials Anomalous?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibison, Michael

    2006-10-01

    Advanced electromagnetic potentials are indigenous to the classical Maxwell theory. Generally however they are deemed undesirable and are forcibly excluded, destroying the theory's inherent time-symmetry. We investigate the reason for this, pointing out that it is not necessary and in some cases is counter-productive. We then focus on the direct-action theory in which the advanced and retarded contributions are present symmetrically, with no opportunity supplement the particular integral solution of the wave equation with an arbitrary complementary function. One then requires a plausible explanation for the observed broken symmetry that, commonly, is understood cannot be met by the Wheeler-Feynman mechanism because the necessary boundary condition cannot be satisfied in acceptable cosmologies. We take this opportunity to argue that the boundary condition is already met by all expanding cosmologies simply as a result of cosmological red-shift. A consequence is that the cosmological and thermodynamic arrows of time can be equated, the direct action version of EM is preferred, and that advanced potentials are ubiquitous.

  19. Direct Democracy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beramendi, Virginia; Ellis, Andrew; Kaufman, Bruno

    While many books on direct democracy have a regional or national approach, or simply focus on one of the many mechanisms associated with direct democracy, this Handbook delves into a global comparison of direct democracy mechanisms, including referendums, citizens' initiatives, agenda initiatives...... included as a chapter in the Handbook are possible measures for best practices of implementation, designed for those who wish to tailor direct democracy instruments to their specific needs. In order to further complement the best practices, a variety of global case studies detail the practical uses...... of direct democracy mechanisms in specific contexts. These country case studies allow for in depth discussion of particular issues, including signature collection and voter participation, campaign financing, media coverage, national variations in the usage of direct democracy procedures and national lessons...

  20. Which Form of Medical Training is the Best in Improving Interns’ knowledge Related to Advanced Cardiac Life Support Drugs Pharmacology? An Educational Analytical Intervention Study Between Electronic Learning and Lecture-Based Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoshbaten, Manouchehr; Soleimanpour, Hassan; Ala, Alireza; Shams Vahdati, Samad; Ebrahimian, Kimia; Safari, Saeid; Golzari, Samad EJ; Salek Ranjbarzadeh, Fariba; Mehdizadeh Esfanjani, Robab

    2014-01-01

    Background: Conventional educational systems seem to be improper throughout the cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) teaching process. The most common causes of failed resuscitation are unfamiliarity with cardiopulmonary resuscitation algorithms, poor performance of leader of the CPR team and lack of skilled personnel, coordination among members during resuscitation, and responsibility of staff. Objectives: Electronic learning, as a new educational method is controversial issue in medical education for improving physicians’ practical knowledge and it is inevitable that further research on its effectiveness should be done. Materials and Methods: The present study is a prospective, pre- and post-educational, cross-sectional research, in which 84 interns were randomly divided into two groups. pre- and post- educational interventions that took place in the Department of Emergency Medicine, interns were evaluated by 21 multiple choice questions related to American Heart Association guidelineson cardiopulmonary resuscitation drugs. Questions were assessed in terms of routes for CPR drugs administration, CPR drug dosage forms, clinical judgment and appropriate CPR drug administration, and the alternative drugs in emergency situations. Data were analyzed by generalized estimating equations regression models and P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Evaluating the effectiveness of both educational methods revealed that the mean answering score for 21 questions before education was 7.5 ± 2.6 and no significant difference was observed in groups (P = 0.55). However, after education, the average scores significantly increased to 11.0 ± 3.9 (P < 0.001). Electronic learning method was not associated with considerable increase in the knowledge of interns in this group compared with the lecture-based group (P = 0.49). Conclusions: No significant differences were observed between electronic learning and lecture-based education in improving interns

  1. Advanced powder processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janney, M.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1997-04-01

    Gelcasting is an advanced powder forming process. It is most commonly used to form ceramic or metal powders into complex, near-net shapes. Turbine rotors, gears, nozzles, and crucibles have been successfully gelcast in silicon nitride, alumina, nickel-based superalloy, and several steels. Gelcasting can also be used to make blanks that can be green machined to near-net shape and then high fired. Green machining has been successfully applied to both ceramic and metal gelcast blanks. Recently, the authors have used gelcasting to make tooling for metal casting applications. Most of the work has centered on H13 tool steel. They have demonstrated an ability to gelcast and sinter H13 to near net shape for metal casting tooling. Also, blanks of H13 have been cast, green machined into complex shape, and fired. Issues associated with forming, binder burnout, and sintering are addressed.

  2. Advances in energy harvesting methods

    CERN Document Server

    Elvin, Niell

    2012-01-01

    Advances in Energy Harvesting Methods presents a state-of-the-art understanding of diverse aspects of energy harvesting with a focus on: broadband energy conversion, new concepts in electronic circuits, and novel materials. This book covers recent advances in energy harvesting using different transduction mechanisms; these include methods of performance enhancement using nonlinear effects, non-harmonic forms of excitation and non-resonant energy harvesting, fluidic energy harvesting, and advances in both low-power electronics as well as  material science. The contributors include a brief liter

  3. Advanced trigonometry

    CERN Document Server

    Durell, C V

    2003-01-01

    This volume will provide a welcome resource for teachers seeking an undergraduate text on advanced trigonometry, when few are readily available. Ideal for self-study, this text offers a clear, logical presentation of topics and an extensive selection of problems with answers. Contents include the properties of the triangle and the quadrilateral; equations, sub-multiple angles, and inverse functions; hyperbolic, logarithmic, and exponential functions; and expansions in power-series. Further topics encompass the special hyperbolic functions; projection and finite series; complex numbers; de Moiv

  4. Flotation advances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clifford, D.

    1998-11-01

    This paper describes recent advances in flotation cell and mechanism design. OutoKumpu have designed larger cells, suitable for the flotation of smaller particles, with differing mechanisms for particles of different types. Froth handling is also closely controlled. Flotation cells from BQR are also described. Flotation columns are also increasingly being adopted, complementing the use of conventional flotation cells. Designs by Wemco, Multotec, VERTI-MIX, Jameson, Suedala, Quinn and Cytec are detailed, giving improvements in fine coal separation coarse particle separation, and other innovations. 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Advanced calculus

    CERN Document Server

    Friedman, Avner

    2007-01-01

    This rigorous two-part treatment advances from functions of one variable to those of several variables. Intended for students who have already completed a one-year course in elementary calculus, it defers the introduction of functions of several variables for as long as possible, and adds clarity and simplicity by avoiding a mixture of heuristic and rigorous arguments.The first part explores functions of one variable, including numbers and sequences, continuous functions, differentiable functions, integration, and sequences and series of functions. The second part examines functions of several

  6. Advanced calculus

    CERN Document Server

    Widder, David V

    2012-01-01

    This classic text by a distinguished mathematician and former Professor of Mathematics at Harvard University, leads students familiar with elementary calculus into confronting and solving more theoretical problems of advanced calculus. In his preface to the first edition, Professor Widder also recommends various ways the book may be used as a text in both applied mathematics and engineering.Believing that clarity of exposition depends largely on precision of statement, the author has taken pains to state exactly what is to be proved in every case. Each section consists of definitions, theorem

  7. NrrA directly regulates expression of the fraF gene and antisense RNAs for fraE in the heterocyst-forming cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehira, Shigeki; Ohmori, Masayuki

    2014-05-01

    The heterocystous cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120 grows as linear multicellular filaments that can contain hundreds of cells. Heterocysts, which are specialized cells for nitrogen fixation, are regularly intercalated among photosynthetic vegetative cells, and these cells are metabolically dependent on each other. Thus, multicellularity is essential for diazotrophic growth of heterocystous cyanobacteria. In Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120, the fraF gene, which is required to limit filament length, is induced by nitrogen deprivation. The fraF transcripts extend to the fraE gene, which lies on the opposite DNA strand and could possess dual functionality, mRNAs for fraF and antisense RNAs for fraE. In the present study, we found that NrrA, a nitrogen-regulated response regulator, directly regulated expression of fraF. Induction of fraF by nitrogen deprivation was abolished by the nrrA disruption. NrrA specifically bound to the promoter region of fraF, and recognized an inverted repeat sequence. Thus, it is concluded that NrrA controls expression of mRNAs for fraF and antisense RNAs for fraE in response to nitrogen deprivation.

  8. Dietary advanced glycation endproducts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Malene Wibe

    High heat cooking induces flavor, aroma, and color of food, but leads to formation of advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs) by the Maillard reaction. In addition to the formation in food, AGEs are also formed in vivo, and increased endogenous formation of AGEs has been linked to diabetic...... for biological effects of high heat-treated diets in humans. Studies with well-defined AGEs should be undertaken in order to advance our understanding of biological effects of specific AGEs....... sensitivity of cooking methods that induce or limit AGE formation were investigated in healthy overweight women. It was concluded that insulin sensitivity was improved with use of low heat cooking methods, compared with high heat cooking methods. In a rat study, effects on expression of AGE receptors, insulin...

  9. Recent Advances in Skarn Forming Models and the Yamansu Skarn Related Deposits%矽卡岩成因模式研究进展:兼论新疆雅满苏铁矿的成因

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黎广荣; 吴昌志

    2013-01-01

    Skarn has been scientifically recognized as a distinct class of rock for more than 100 years. However, the definition of skarn is loose. Recently, mineralogy was proposed to be the key to define a skarn:a mineral assemblage including a wide variety of calc-silicate and associated minerals, but is usually dominated by garnet and pyroxene;it was formed in almost all ages and a variety of tectonic settings. This pure“descriptive”definition is not genetic and does not account for processes such as“metasomatism”and“replacement”. As for the genetic aspect, diverse models have been proposed:from a general dictionary definition of contact metamorphic-metasomatic interactions with intruding granitic magma in early times to interactions with mafic-ultramafic magma and high temperature magmatic skarn in recent years. It seems that genetic geological domain of skarn could be controversial and is also expanding with time. Melt inclusion in skarn minerals and assimilation experiments studies provides new insight on the skarn. Skarn-related iron deposits are of the most abundant types among the others, which may reach 5000 Mt with a grade of 45%. Skarn-related iron deposits are mostly associated with mafic-ultramafic magmatism, alkaline alteration extensively developed, and were low in Au compared to IOCG. These deposits of Precambrian age are rare. This paper also summarizes some features of skarn-related iron deposits which promote our understanding of different iron ore deposits. In addition, the skarnization processes in Yamansu skarn deposit were illustrated..%矽卡岩在地壳中分布广泛,其研究历史超过一百年。然而,矽卡岩的定义却相对模糊。直到近年来,具有特征性矽卡岩矿物组合被认为是确认矽卡岩的关键。对于矽卡岩的成因亦长期缺乏统一认识。从花岗岩与灰岩的接触交代成因拓展到基性-超基性岩与碳酸盐岩接触成因,再到其岩浆成因,反映出矽卡岩所包

  10. Advanced LIGO

    CERN Document Server

    ,

    2014-01-01

    The Advanced LIGO gravitational wave detectors are second generation instruments designed and built for the two LIGO observatories in Hanford, WA and Livingston, LA. The two instruments are identical in design, and are specialized versions of a Michelson interferometer with 4 km long arms. As in initial LIGO, Fabry-Perot cavities are used in the arms to increase the interaction time with a gravitational wave, and power recycling is used to increase the effective laser power. Signal recycling has been added in Advanced LIGO to improve the frequency response. In the most sensitive frequency region around 100 Hz, the design strain sensitivity is a factor of 10 better than initial LIGO. In addition, the low frequency end of the sensitivity band is moved from 40 Hz down to 10 Hz. All interferometer components have been replaced with improved technologies to achieve this sensitivity gain. Much better seismic isolation and test mass suspensions are responsible for the gains at lower frequencies. Higher laser power, ...

  11. Advanced LIGO

    Science.gov (United States)

    LIGO Scientific Collaboration; Aasi, J.; Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Abbott, T.; Abernathy, M. R.; Ackley, K.; Adams, C.; Adams, T.; Addesso, P.; Adhikari, R. X.; Adya, V.; Affeldt, C.; Aggarwal, N.; Aguiar, O. D.; Ain, A.; Ajith, P.; Alemic, A.; Allen, B.; Amariutei, D.; Anderson, S. B.; Anderson, W. G.; Arai, K.; Araya, M. C.; Arceneaux, C.; Areeda, J. S.; Ashton, G.; Ast, S.; Aston, S. M.; Aufmuth, P.; Aulbert, C.; Aylott, B. E.; Babak, S.; Baker, P. T.; Ballmer, S. W.; Barayoga, J. C.; Barbet, M.; Barclay, S.; Barish, B. C.; Barker, D.; Barr, B.; Barsotti, L.; Bartlett, J.; Barton, M. A.; Bartos, I.; Bassiri, R.; Batch, J. C.; Baune, C.; Behnke, B.; Bell, A. S.; Bell, C.; Benacquista, M.; Bergman, J.; Bergmann, G.; Berry, C. P. L.; Betzwieser, J.; Bhagwat, S.; Bhandare, R.; Bilenko, I. A.; Billingsley, G.; Birch, J.; Biscans, S.; Biwer, C.; Blackburn, J. K.; Blackburn, L.; Blair, C. D.; Blair, D.; Bock, O.; Bodiya, T. P.; Bojtos, P.; Bond, C.; Bork, R.; Born, M.; Bose, Sukanta; Brady, P. R.; Braginsky, V. B.; Brau, J. E.; Bridges, D. O.; Brinkmann, M.; Brooks, A. F.; Brown, D. A.; Brown, D. D.; Brown, N. M.; Buchman, S.; Buikema, A.; Buonanno, A.; Cadonati, L.; Calderón Bustillo, J.; Camp, J. B.; Cannon, K. C.; Cao, J.; Capano, C. D.; Caride, S.; Caudill, S.; Cavaglià, M.; Cepeda, C.; Chakraborty, R.; Chalermsongsak, T.; Chamberlin, S. J.; Chao, S.; Charlton, P.; Chen, Y.; Cho, H. S.; Cho, M.; Chow, J. H.; Christensen, N.; Chu, Q.; Chung, S.; Ciani, G.; Clara, F.; Clark, J. A.; Collette, C.; Cominsky, L.; Constancio, M., Jr.; Cook, D.; Corbitt, T. R.; Cornish, N.; Corsi, A.; Costa, C. A.; Coughlin, M. W.; Countryman, S.; Couvares, P.; Coward, D. M.; Cowart, M. J.; Coyne, D. C.; Coyne, R.; Craig, K.; Creighton, J. D. E.; Creighton, T. D.; Cripe, J.; Crowder, S. G.; Cumming, A.; Cunningham, L.; Cutler, C.; Dahl, K.; Dal Canton, T.; Damjanic, M.; Danilishin, S. L.; Danzmann, K.; Dartez, L.; Dave, I.; Daveloza, H.; Davies, G. S.; Daw, E. J.; DeBra, D.; Del Pozzo, W.; Denker, T.; Dent, T.; Dergachev, V.; DeRosa, R. T.; DeSalvo, R.; Dhurandhar, S.; D´ıaz, M.; Di Palma, I.; Dojcinoski, G.; Dominguez, E.; Donovan, F.; Dooley, K. L.; Doravari, S.; Douglas, R.; Downes, T. P.; Driggers, J. C.; Du, Z.; Dwyer, S.; Eberle, T.; Edo, T.; Edwards, M.; Edwards, M.; Effler, A.; Eggenstein, H.-B.; Ehrens, P.; Eichholz, J.; Eikenberry, S. S.; Essick, R.; Etzel, T.; Evans, M.; Evans, T.; Factourovich, M.; Fairhurst, S.; Fan, X.; Fang, Q.; Farr, B.; Farr, W. M.; Favata, M.; Fays, M.; Fehrmann, H.; Fejer, M. M.; Feldbaum, D.; Ferreira, E. C.; Fisher, R. P.; Frei, Z.; Freise, A.; Frey, R.; Fricke, T. T.; Fritschel, P.; Frolov, V. V.; Fuentes-Tapia, S.; Fulda, P.; Fyffe, M.; Gair, J. R.; Gaonkar, S.; Gehrels, N.; Gergely, L. Á.; Giaime, J. A.; Giardina, K. D.; Gleason, J.; Goetz, E.; Goetz, R.; Gondan, L.; González, G.; Gordon, N.; Gorodetsky, M. L.; Gossan, S.; Goßler, S.; Gräf, C.; Graff, P. B.; Grant, A.; Gras, S.; Gray, C.; Greenhalgh, R. J. S.; Gretarsson, A. M.; Grote, H.; Grunewald, S.; Guido, C. J.; Guo, X.; Gushwa, K.; Gustafson, E. K.; Gustafson, R.; Hacker, J.; Hall, E. D.; Hammond, G.; Hanke, M.; Hanks, J.; Hanna, C.; Hannam, M. D.; Hanson, J.; Hardwick, T.; Harry, G. M.; Harry, I. W.; Hart, M.; Hartman, M. T.; Haster, C.-J.; Haughian, K.; Hee, S.; Heintze, M.; Heinzel, G.; Hendry, M.; Heng, I. S.; Heptonstall, A. W.; Heurs, M.; Hewitson, M.; Hild, S.; Hoak, D.; Hodge, K. A.; Hollitt, S. E.; Holt, K.; Hopkins, P.; Hosken, D. J.; Hough, J.; Houston, E.; Howell, E. J.; Hu, Y. M.; Huerta, E.; Hughey, B.; Husa, S.; Huttner, S. H.; Huynh, M.; Huynh-Dinh, T.; Idrisy, A.; Indik, N.; Ingram, D. R.; Inta, R.; Islas, G.; Isler, J. C.; Isogai, T.; Iyer, B. R.; Izumi, K.; Jacobson, M.; Jang, H.; Jawahar, S.; Ji, Y.; Jiménez-Forteza, F.; Johnson, W. W.; Jones, D. I.; Jones, R.; Ju, L.; Haris, K.; Kalogera, V.; Kandhasamy, S.; Kang, G.; Kanner, J. B.; Katsavounidis, E.; Katzman, W.; Kaufer, H.; Kaufer, S.; Kaur, T.; Kawabe, K.; Kawazoe, F.; Keiser, G. M.; Keitel, D.; Kelley, D. B.; Kells, W.; Keppel, D. G.; Key, J. S.; Khalaidovski, A.; Khalili, F. Y.; Khazanov, E. A.; Kim, C.; Kim, K.; Kim, N. G.; Kim, N.; Kim, Y.-M.; King, E. J.; King, P. J.; Kinzel, D. L.; Kissel, J. S.; Klimenko, S.; Kline, J.; Koehlenbeck, S.; Kokeyama, K.; Kondrashov, V.; Korobko, M.; Korth, W. Z.; Kozak, D. B.; Kringel, V.; Krishnan, B.; Krueger, C.; Kuehn, G.; Kumar, A.; Kumar, P.; Kuo, L.; Landry, M.; Lantz, B.; Larson, S.; Lasky, P. D.; Lazzarini, A.; Lazzaro, C.; Le, J.; Leaci, P.; Leavey, S.; Lebigot, E. O.; Lee, C. H.; Lee, H. K.; Lee, H. M.; Leong, J. R.; Levin, Y.; Levine, B.; Lewis, J.; Li, T. G. F.; Libbrecht, K.; Libson, A.; Lin, A. C.; Littenberg, T. B.; Lockerbie, N. A.; Lockett, V.; Logue, J.; Lombardi, A. L.; Lormand, M.; Lough, J.; Lubinski, M. J.

    2015-04-01

    The Advanced LIGO gravitational wave detectors are second-generation instruments designed and built for the two LIGO observatories in Hanford, WA and Livingston, LA, USA. The two instruments are identical in design, and are specialized versions of a Michelson interferometer with 4 km long arms. As in Initial LIGO, Fabry-Perot cavities are used in the arms to increase the interaction time with a gravitational wave, and power recycling is used to increase the effective laser power. Signal recycling has been added in Advanced LIGO to improve the frequency response. In the most sensitive frequency region around 100 Hz, the design strain sensitivity is a factor of 10 better than Initial LIGO. In addition, the low frequency end of the sensitivity band is moved from 40 Hz down to 10 Hz. All interferometer components have been replaced with improved technologies to achieve this sensitivity gain. Much better seismic isolation and test mass suspensions are responsible for the gains at lower frequencies. Higher laser power, larger test masses and improved mirror coatings lead to the improved sensitivity at mid and high frequencies. Data collecting runs with these new instruments are planned to begin in mid-2015.

  12. Information Technology and New Forms of Organisations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemiyeh, Rahim; Li, Feng

    This paper evaluates the impacts of the Internet on organizational structures and identifies new forms of organizations in light of information technology (IT) advances. Four traditional forms of organizations are summarized, i.e., the bureaucratic hierarchy, the entrepreneurial organization, the matrix organization, and the adhocacy. The…

  13. Direct-to-consumer Genetic Testing: Changes in the EU Regulatory Landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slokenberga, Santa

    2015-12-01

    Rapid advances in genomics and technology have rendered genetic testing services easily accessible to consumers over the Internet in the form of direct-to-consumer genetic testing. In the EU, the IVD Directive has been animadverted for its inability to tackle the challenges direct-to-consumer genetic testing has posed. Currently, the EU legislation is in a transition state. It is thus, timely to assess, to what extent the proposed IVD Regulation is intended to address the performance requirements and utility of direct-to-consumer genetic tests, which are made available to consumers within the EU over the Internet, and discuss the developments vis-à-vis the IVD Directive. To compare with the IVD Directive, the IVD Regulation presents a major shift in how direct-to-consumer genetic testing is treated in the E U. It remains unclear, whether and how the EU requirements can be applied beyond the EU market.

  14. Advanced fuel chemistry for advanced engines.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taatjes, Craig A.; Jusinski, Leonard E.; Zador, Judit; Fernandes, Ravi X.; Miller, James A.

    2009-09-01

    Autoignition chemistry is central to predictive modeling of many advanced engine designs that combine high efficiency and low inherent pollutant emissions. This chemistry, and especially its pressure dependence, is poorly known for fuels derived from heavy petroleum and for biofuels, both of which are becoming increasingly prominent in the nation's fuel stream. We have investigated the pressure dependence of key ignition reactions for a series of molecules representative of non-traditional and alternative fuels. These investigations combined experimental characterization of hydroxyl radical production in well-controlled photolytically initiated oxidation and a hybrid modeling strategy that linked detailed quantum chemistry and computational kinetics of critical reactions with rate-equation models of the global chemical system. Comprehensive mechanisms for autoignition generally ignore the pressure dependence of branching fractions in the important alkyl + O{sub 2} reaction systems; however we have demonstrated that pressure-dependent 'formally direct' pathways persist at in-cylinder pressures.

  15. The Content of the Form:Directly Reported Dialogues and Identity Construction in Narrative Fictions%形式的内容:小说叙事中直接引语塑造人物身份研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    兰良平

    2014-01-01

    Contemporary literary criticism in China tends to privilege macro ideological analysis and downplay micro discourse analysis , which is made nowhere more obvious than in characterization research in narrative fictions .The current paper aims to address such an imbalance by raising our awareness of the role of discourse in the novel .Drawing on the methodology of conversation analysis , this study focuses on directly re-ported dialogues within Pride and prejudice, viz.dialogues between characters , in an attempt to explore the process of identity formation of two minor characters .The study has yielded the following findings:first, the i-dentities of characters are constructed through a series of sequences expanded from an adjacency pair of request and refusal-a deeply ingrained syntax of interaction .Secondly , the author positions herself and expresses her viewpoints through manipulation of these two characters ’ voices.This paper extends our understanding of liter-ature by bridging the gap between ideological analysis and micro oriented conversational analysis .%当前国内文学批评界过于重视思想分析,忽视语言形式分析,这一点在文学形象塑造研究上尤为严重。文章旨在批判这一现象,凸显语言形式分析之重要性。通过分析《傲慢与偏见》中的直接引语即人物对话,研究人物身份塑造的过程,研究发现:人物身份通过交际句法逐步展开,在本文中体现为“请求---拒绝”这一基本交际结构,作者在人物形象塑造的同时,借助人物声音表达自己思想。本研究对弥补语言研究和思想研究之间的鸿沟具有一定的积极意义。

  16. Directing Creativity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Darsø, Lotte; Ibbotson, Piers

    2008-01-01

    In this article we argue that leaders facing complex challenges can learn from the arts, specifically that leaders can learn by examining how theatre directors direct creativity through creative constraints. We suggest that perceiving creativity as a boundary phenomenon is helpful for directing it....... Like leaders, who are caught in paradoxical situations where they have to manage production and logistics simultaneously with making space for creativity and innovation, theatre directors need to find the delicate balance between on one hand renewal of perceptions, acting and interaction...... and on the other hand getting ready for the opening night. We conclude that the art of directing creativity is linked to developing competencies of conscious presence, attention and vigilance, whereas the craft of directing creativity concerns communication, framing and choice....

  17. Future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raffa, Robert B; Tallarida, Ronald J

    2010-01-01

    The chapters of this book summarize much of what has been done and reported regarding cancer chemotherapy-related cognitive impairment. In this chapter, we point out some future directions for investigation.

  18. Rapid selective metal patterning on polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) fabricated by capillarity-assisted laser direct write

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Ming-Tsang

    2011-08-12

    In this study we demonstrate a novel approach for the rapid fabricating micro scale metal (silver) patterning directly on a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) substrate. Silver nanoparticles were sintered on PDMS to form conductive metal films using laser direct write (LDW) technology. To achieve good metal film quality, a capillarity-assisted laser direct writing (CALDW) of nanoparticle suspensions on a low surface energy material (PDMS) was utilized. Experimental results showed controllable electrical conductivities and good film properties of the sintered silver patterns. This study reveals an advanced method of metal patterning on PDMS, and proposes a new research application of LDW in a nanoparticle colloidal environment. © 2011 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  19. Advances in Modal Logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Modal logic is a subject with ancient roots in the western logical tradition. Up until the last few generations, it was pursued mainly as a branch of philosophy. But in recent years, the subject has taken new directions with connections to topics in computer science and mathematics. This volume i...... epistemic logic, and the logic of evidence.......Modal logic is a subject with ancient roots in the western logical tradition. Up until the last few generations, it was pursued mainly as a branch of philosophy. But in recent years, the subject has taken new directions with connections to topics in computer science and mathematics. This volume...... is the proceedings of the conference of record in its fi eld, Advances in Modal Logic. Its contributions are state-of-the-art papers. The topics include decidability and complexity results for specifi c modal logics, proof theory of modal logic, logics for reasoning about time and space, provability logic, dynamic...

  20. Careers (A Course of Study). Unit V: Forms, Forms, Forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turley, Kay

    Designed to enable special needs students to understand and complete various job-related forms, this set of activities devoted to forms encountered before and after one obtains a job is the fifth in a nine-unit secondary level careers course intended to provide handicapped students with the knowledge and tools necessary to succeed in the world of…

  1. Latest Advances Towards Ras Inhibition: A Medicinal Chemistry Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sautier, Brice; Nising, Carl F; Wortmann, Lars

    2016-12-23

    Owing to their high occurrence rate across many human cancers and their lack of druggability so far, mutant forms of the signaling protein Ras are currently among the most attractive (and elusive) oncology targets. This strong appeal explains the sustained effort in the field, and the ensuing progress has rekindled optimism regarding the discovery of Ras inhibitors. In this Minireview, we discuss the most recent advances towards irreversible inhibitors, and highlight approaches to inhibitors of Ras-effector interactions that have been overshadowed by the current focus on direct Ras inhibition. At the same time, we provide a critical assessment from a medicinal chemistry perspective.

  2. English Pidgins: Form and Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mufwene, Salikoko S.

    1988-01-01

    Highlights similarities and variation in both form and function of English pidgins the world over. It is argued that English pidgins are related more by socio-historical conditions and directions of development than by details of their formal structure. Reference list includes 68 citations. (Author/DJD)

  3. Materials issues in some advanced forming techniques, including superplasticity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wadsworth, J.; Henshall, G.A.; Nieh, T.G. [and others

    1995-08-22

    From mechanics and macroscopic viewpoints, the sensitivity of the flow stress of a material to the strain rate, i.e. the strain rate sensitivity (m), governs the development of neck formation and therefore has a strong influence on the tensile ductility and hence formability of materials. Values of strain rate sensitivity range from unity, for the case of Newtonian viscous materials, to less than 0.1 for some dispersion strengthened alloys. Intermediate values of m = 0.5 are associated with classical superplastic materials which contain very fine grain sizes following specialized processing. An overview is given of the influence of strain rate sensitivity on tensile ductility and of the various materials groups that can exhibit high values of strain rate sensitivity. Recent examples of enhanced formability (or extended tensile ductility) in specific regimes between m = 1 and m = 0.3 are described, and potential areas for commercial exploitation are noted. These examples include: internal stress superplasticity, superplastic ceramics, superplastic intermetallics, superplastic laminated composites, superplastic behavior over six orders of magnitude of strain rate in a range of aluminum-based alloys and composites, and enhanced ductility in Al-Mg alloys that require no special processing for microstructural development.

  4. Advanced Pattern Recognition Techniques (Techniques avancees de reconnaissance de forme)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-09-01

    adjusietmnt d the architecture of the network. Part of the art of can be adjusted by the user. This adjustmenh v- training is determining the smallest number...Joseph Corporation Company) 45 Sacro ’-Caeur Blvd., Hull (Quebec), Canada K1A 0S7 ISBN 92-837-1001-0

  5. Advanced waste forms research and development. First quarterly report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCarthy, G.J.

    1975-08-05

    Activities during the last two months are described. A significant portion of time was spent reviewing the literature on the Cs/sub 2/O-Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/-SiO/sub 2/ system, on the use of clays and zeolites for Cs-fixation of aqueous wastes, and on silicate-phosphate apatite structure crystal chemistry. The results from the latest group of compatibility studies (CS-runs) were used to modify the first demonstration supercalcine formulation so that it is more in line with the actual crystalline phase formation. Supercalcine formuation 75-2 is described.

  6. Directed Replacement

    CERN Document Server

    Karttunen, L

    1996-01-01

    This paper introduces to the finite-state calculus a family of directed replace operators. In contrast to the simple replace expression, UPPER -> LOWER, defined in Karttunen (ACL-95), the new directed version, UPPER @-> LOWER, yields an unambiguous transducer if the lower language consists of a single string. It transduces the input string from left to right, making only the longest possible replacement at each point. A new type of replacement expression, UPPER @-> PREFIX ... SUFFIX, yields a transducer that inserts text around strings that are instances of UPPER. The symbol ... denotes the matching part of the input which itself remains unchanged. PREFIX and SUFFIX are regular expressions describing the insertions. Expressions of the type UPPER @-> PREFIX ... SUFFIX may be used to compose a deterministic parser for a ``local grammar'' in the sense of Gross (1989). Other useful applications of directed replacement include tokenization and filtering of text streams.

  7. Urologic robots and future directions

    OpenAIRE

    Mozer, Pierre; Troccaz, Jocelyne; Stoianovici, Dan

    2008-01-01

    International audience; PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Robot-assisted laparoscopic surgery in urology has gained immense popularity with the daVinci system, but a lot of research teams are working on new robots. The purpose of this study is to review current urologic robots and present future development directions. RECENT FINDINGS: Future systems are expected to advance in two directions: improvements of remote manipulation robots and developments of image-guided robots. SUMMARY: The final goal of robot...

  8. Direct cooled power electronics substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiles, Randy H [Powell, TN; Wereszczak, Andrew A [Oak Ridge, TN; Ayers, Curtis W [Kingston, TN; Lowe, Kirk T [Knoxville, TN

    2010-09-14

    The disclosure describes directly cooling a three-dimensional, direct metallization (DM) layer in a power electronics device. To enable sufficient cooling, coolant flow channels are formed within the ceramic substrate. The direct metallization layer (typically copper) may be bonded to the ceramic substrate, and semiconductor chips (such as IGBT and diodes) may be soldered or sintered onto the direct metallization layer to form a power electronics module. Multiple modules may be attached to cooling headers that provide in-flow and out-flow of coolant through the channels in the ceramic substrate. The modules and cooling header assembly are preferably sized to fit inside the core of a toroidal shaped capacitor.

  9. Research Advance of Direct-fed Microbial on Dairy Production%直接饲喂微生物在奶牛生产中的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王小林

    2011-01-01

    Divot-fed microbial(DFM),also called "probiotics",it is commonly believed that it is a good substitute for antibiotics This paper discusses the mechanism of DFM.Meanwhile,the influence on the performance of the dairy milk production is involved,and the development prospects were discussed.%本文就直接饲喂微生物(direct-fed microbial,DFM)作用机理和对奶牛的生产性能的影响作了论述,并就今后的发展趋势作了探讨.

  10. Effects of directional and neutral category labels in bidimensional rule-learning problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, P G

    1974-07-01

    In bidimensional concept problems, the distinction between primary and complementary rule forms is, in some sense, a function of the directional nature of the sorting category labels. Primary rules are those rules which assign the TT class to the "positive" category. Complementary rule forms are obtained by reversing these category assignments. Instead of directional labels, neutral labels can be used. Reversing these labels creates no fundamental change in the solution of the problem. The present experiment investigates the effect of directional and neutral category labels in a design which incorporates all 12 problems defined by the combination of directional and neutral labels. Significant effects of labels on performance were obtained. Implications of these effects for hypotheses advanced by Seggie (1969), Peters and Denny (1971), and Bourne and Guy (1968) are discussed.

  11. Advances in pediatric colorectal surgical techniques.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rangel, S.J.; Blaauw, I. de

    2010-01-01

    The operative management of pediatric colorectal diseases has improved significantly in recent years through the development of innovative approaches for operative exposure and a better understanding of colorectal anatomy. Advances in transanal and minimal access techniques have formed the cornersto

  12. Critical Criminological Understandings of Adult Pornography and Woman Abuse: New Progressive Directions in Research and Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter DeKeseredy

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available There is a small, but growing, social scientific literature on the racist and violent nature of contemporary adult pornography. However, considerably more empirical and theoretical work needs to be done to advance a critical criminological understanding of how such hurtful sexual media contribute to various forms of woman abuse in intimate relationships. The main objective of this article is to briefly review the relevant literature and to suggest a few new progressive empirical and theoretical directions.

  13. Direct ELISA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Alice V

    2015-01-01

    First described by Engvall and Perlmann, the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is a rapid and sensitive method for detection and quantitation of an antigen using an enzyme-labeled antibody. Besides routine laboratory usage, ELISA has been utilized in medical field and food industry as diagnostic and quality control tools. Traditionally performed in 96-well or 384-well polystyrene plates, the technology has expanded to other platforms with increase in automation. Depending on the antigen epitope and availability of specific antibody, there are variations in ELISA setup. The four basic formats are direct, indirect, sandwich, and competitive ELISAs. Direct ELISA is the simplest format requiring an antigen and an enzyme-conjugated antibody specific to the antigen. This chapter describes the individual steps for detection of a plate-bound antigen using a horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-conjugated antibody and luminol-based enhanced chemiluminescence (ECL) substrate. The methodological approach to optimize the assay by chessboard titration is also provided.

  14. Directing Lives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    YANG Yang is he director of China Television PlayCenter.Before the arrival of the series Holding Hands,she filmed television plays reflecting women and marriage.Examples of her work include Niu Yuqin and Her Trees and theMidnight Trolley.The artistry and sympathy towards women inthese programmes make it obvious that they were directed by awoman.Holding Hands especially cements this connection.

  15. Recent Advances in Neural Recording Microsystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benoit Gosselin

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The accelerating pace of research in neuroscience has created a considerable demand for neural interfacing microsystems capable of monitoring the activity of large groups of neurons. These emerging tools have revealed a tremendous potential for the advancement of knowledge in brain research and for the development of useful clinical applications. They can extract the relevant control signals directly from the brain enabling individuals with severe disabilities to communicate their intentions to other devices, like computers or various prostheses. Such microsystems are self-contained devices composed of a neural probe attached with an integrated circuit for extracting neural signals from multiple channels, and transferring the data outside the body. The greatest challenge facing development of such emerging devices into viable clinical systems involves addressing their small form factor and low-power consumption constraints, while providing superior resolution. In this paper, we survey the recent progress in the design and the implementation of multi-channel neural recording Microsystems, with particular emphasis on the design of recording and telemetry electronics. An overview of the numerous neural signal modalities is given and the existing microsystem topologies are covered. We present energy-efficient sensory circuits to retrieve weak signals from neural probes and we compare them. We cover data management and smart power scheduling approaches, and we review advances in low-power telemetry. Finally, we conclude by summarizing the remaining challenges and by highlighting the emerging trends in the field.

  16. Modular Forms and Weierstrass Mock Modular Forms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Clemm

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Alfes, Griffin, Ono, and Rolen have shown that the harmonic Maass forms arising from Weierstrass ζ-functions associated to modular elliptic curves “encode” the vanishing and nonvanishing for central values and derivatives of twisted Hasse-Weil L-functions for elliptic curves. Previously, Martin and Ono proved that there are exactly five weight 2 newforms with complex multiplication that are eta-quotients. In this paper, we construct a canonical harmonic Maass form for these five curves with complex multiplication. The holomorphic part of this harmonic Maass form arises from the Weierstrass ζ-function and is referred to as the Weierstrass mock modular form. We prove that the Weierstrass mock modular form for these five curves is itself an eta-quotient or a twist of one. Using this construction, we also obtain p-adic formulas for the corresponding weight 2 newform using Atkin’s U-operator.

  17. Advances in upper extremity prosthetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zlotolow, Dan A; Kozin, Scott H

    2012-11-01

    Until recently, upper extremity prostheses had changed little since World War II. In 2006, the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency responded to an increasing number of military amputees with the Revolutionizing Prosthetics program. The program has yielded several breakthroughs both in the engineering of new prosthetic arms and in the control of those arms. Direct brain-wave control of a limb with 22° of freedom may be within reach. In the meantime, advances such as individually powered digits have opened the door to multifunctional full and partial hand prostheses. Restoring sensation to the prosthetic limb remains a major challenge to full integration of the limb into a patient's self-image.

  18. Forming Spirals From Shadows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-07-01

    What causes the large-scale spiral structures found in some protoplanetary disks? Most models assume theyre created by newly-forming planets, but a new study suggests that planets might have nothing to do with it.Perturbations from Planets?In some transition disks protoplanetary disks with gaps in their inner regions weve directly imaged large-scale spiral arms. Many theories currently attribute the formation of these structures to young planets: either the direct perturbations of a planet embedded in the disk cause the spirals, or theyre indirectly caused by the orbit of a planetary body outside of the arms.Another example of spiral arms detected in a protoplanetary disk, MWC 758. [NASA/ESA/ESO/M. Benisty et al.]But what if you could get spirals without any planets? A team of scientists led by Matas Montesinos (University of Chile) have recently published a study in which they examine what happens to a shadowed protoplanetary disk.Casting Shadows with WarpsIn the teams setup, they envision a protoplanetary disk that is warped: the inner region is slightly tilted relative to the outer region. As the central star casts light out over its protoplanetary disk, this disk warping would cause some regions of the disk to be shaded in a way that isnt axially symmetric with potentially interesting implications.Montesinos and collaborators ran 2D hydrodynamics simulations to determine what happens to the motion of particles within the disk when they pass in and out of the shadowed regions. Since the shadowed regions are significantly colder than the illuminated disk, the pressure in these regions is much lower. Particles are therefore accelerated and decelerated as they pass through these regions, and the lack of axial symmetry causes spiral density waves to form in the disk as a result.Initial profile for the stellar heating rate per unit area for one of the authors simulations. The regions shadowed as a result of the disk warp subtend 0.5 radians each (shown on the left

  19. High Torque, Direct Drive Electric Motor Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Bear Engineering proposes to advance the development of an innovative high torque, low speed, direct drive motor in order to meet NASA's requirements for such...

  20. 甲酸燃料电池中Pd催化剂失活机理研究进展%Recent Advances of Pd Catalyst Deactivation Mechanism in Direct Formic Acid Fuel Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔祥峰; 侯志强; 杜献明; 范新庄; 徐海波

    2012-01-01

    Catalysts play on important part in performance and commercialization of fuel cells. The progresses in the deactivation mechanism of Pd catalysts for direct formic acid fuel cells (DFAFC) were reviewed based on the brief introduction of electroca-talysis mechanisms of formic acid oxidation.%催化剂是影响燃料电池性能及其产业化进程的关键技术之一.本文在简要介绍直接甲酸燃料电池电催化反应的基础上综述了其阳极Pd催化剂的失活机制的研究进展.

  1. Evolution of form in metal-organic frameworks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jiyoung; Kwak, Ja Hun; Choe, Wonyoung

    2017-01-01

    Self-assembly has proven to be a widely successful synthetic strategy for functional materials, especially for metal-organic materials (MOMs), an emerging class of porous materials consisting of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) and metal-organic polyhedra (MOPs). However, there are areas in MOM synthesis in which such self-assembly has not been fully utilized, such as controlling the interior of MOM crystals. Here we demonstrate sequential self-assembly strategy for synthesizing various forms of MOM crystals, including double-shell hollow MOMs, based on single-crystal to single-crystal transformation from MOP to MOF. Moreover, this synthetic strategy also yields other forms, such as solid, core-shell, double and triple matryoshka, and single-shell hollow MOMs, thereby exhibiting form evolution in MOMs. We anticipate that this synthetic approach might open up a new direction for the development of diverse forms in MOMs, with highly advanced areas such as sequential drug delivery/release and heterogeneous cascade catalysis targeted in the foreseeable future.

  2. Evolution of form in metal–organic frameworks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jiyoung; Kwak, Ja Hun; Choe, Wonyoung

    2017-01-01

    Self-assembly has proven to be a widely successful synthetic strategy for functional materials, especially for metal–organic materials (MOMs), an emerging class of porous materials consisting of metal–organic frameworks (MOFs) and metal–organic polyhedra (MOPs). However, there are areas in MOM synthesis in which such self-assembly has not been fully utilized, such as controlling the interior of MOM crystals. Here we demonstrate sequential self-assembly strategy for synthesizing various forms of MOM crystals, including double-shell hollow MOMs, based on single-crystal to single-crystal transformation from MOP to MOF. Moreover, this synthetic strategy also yields other forms, such as solid, core-shell, double and triple matryoshka, and single-shell hollow MOMs, thereby exhibiting form evolution in MOMs. We anticipate that this synthetic approach might open up a new direction for the development of diverse forms in MOMs, with highly advanced areas such as sequential drug delivery/release and heterogeneous cascade catalysis targeted in the foreseeable future. PMID:28051066

  3. NATO Advanced Study Institute on Advanced Physical Oceanographic Numerical Modelling

    CERN Document Server

    1986-01-01

    This book is a direct result of the NATO Advanced Study Institute held in Banyuls-sur-mer, France, June 1985. The Institute had the same title as this book. It was held at Laboratoire Arago. Eighty lecturers and students from almost all NATO countries attended. The purpose was to review the state of the art of physical oceanographic numerical modelling including the parameterization of physical processes. This book represents a cross-section of the lectures presented at the ASI. It covers elementary mathematical aspects through large scale practical aspects of ocean circulation calculations. It does not encompass every facet of the science of oceanographic modelling. We have, however, captured most of the essence of mesoscale and large-scale ocean modelling for blue water and shallow seas. There have been considerable advances in modelling coastal circulation which are not included. The methods section does not include important material on phase and group velocity errors, selection of grid structures, advanc...

  4. Advanced Fuels Campaign FY 2015 Accomplishments Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braase, Lori Ann [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Carmack, William Jonathan [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-10-29

    The mission of the Advanced Fuels Campaign (AFC) is to perform research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) activities for advanced fuel forms (including cladding) to enhance the performance and safety of the nation’s current and future reactors; enhance proliferation resistance of nuclear fuel; effectively utilize nuclear energy resources; and address the longer-term waste management challenges. This report is a compilation of technical accomplishment summaries for FY-15. Emphasis is on advanced accident-tolerant LWR fuel systems, advanced transmutation fuels technologies, and capability development.

  5. Guenon-factor of advancing national economic development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.Yu. Yahelskaia

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article. Modern acceleration of evolutionary processes requires quick response and leading actions to harmonious existence and development of the national economy, which emphasizes the relevance of research of features and factors of advancing economic development. The purpose of this article is to investigate the factors of economic development, to identify those that affect the rate of development; to improve their classification and to form Guenon-factor of advancing national economic development. The subject of research is the causes underlying of advancing national economic development. Theoretical researches of world economic thought on the development of the national economy are served as methodological basis of this research. We used historically-logical method, comparative, structural and factorial analysis in the research. The results of the analysis. The factors of economic development are examined in the article. The emphasis was placed on finding those ones that impact directly on the advancing development. Attention was focused on classical and new approaches. It was justified, that the fundamental causes of advancing national economic development are the time and economic energy. It was proved that time determines the rate of development. The starting position of countries can vary, but the rate of the time that will be determined by culture, can provide leadership positions of national economy in a short period of time. It was concluded that the economic system is due to the economic value of the energy, which is an array of energies that determine the qualitative and quantitative state of the economic system and contribute to the transformation of its structure by changing the spatiotemporal layout. Research implies that time and energy are factors of broader action than others, and may be attributed to other factors of the general classification of economic development. So, on the basis of studied classifications

  6. Adaptive municipal electronic forms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuiper, Pieter; Dijk, van Betsy; Bondarouk, Tanya; Ruël, Huub; Guiderdoni-Jourdain, Karine; Oiry, Ewan

    2009-01-01

    Adaptation of electronic forms (e-forms) seems to be a step forward to reduce the burden for people who fill in forms. Municipalities more and more offer e-forms online that can be used by citizens to request a municipal product or service or by municipal employees to place a request on behalf of a

  7. Spin Forming of Aluminum Metal Matrix Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jonathan A.; Munafo, Paul M. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    An exploratory effort between NASA-Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) and SpinCraft, Inc., to experimentally spin form cylinders and concentric parts from small and thin sheets of aluminum Metal Matrix Composites (MMC), successfully yielded good microstructure data and forming parameters. MSFC and SpinCraft will collaborate on the recent technical findings and develop strategy to implement this technology for NASA's advanced propulsion and airframe applications such as pressure bulkheads, combustion liner assemblies, propellant tank domes, and nose cone assemblies.

  8. Advanced satellite communication system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staples, Edward J.; Lie, Sen

    1992-01-01

    The objective of this research program was to develop an innovative advanced satellite receiver/demodulator utilizing surface acoustic wave (SAW) chirp transform processor and coherent BPSK demodulation. The algorithm of this SAW chirp Fourier transformer is of the Convolve - Multiply - Convolve (CMC) type, utilizing off-the-shelf reflective array compressor (RAC) chirp filters. This satellite receiver, if fully developed, was intended to be used as an on-board multichannel communications repeater. The Advanced Communications Receiver consists of four units: (1) CMC processor, (2) single sideband modulator, (3) demodulator, and (4) chirp waveform generator and individual channel processors. The input signal is composed of multiple user transmission frequencies operating independently from remotely located ground terminals. This signal is Fourier transformed by the CMC Processor into a unique time slot for each user frequency. The CMC processor is driven by a waveform generator through a single sideband (SSB) modulator. The output of the coherent demodulator is composed of positive and negative pulses, which are the envelopes of the chirp transform processor output. These pulses correspond to the data symbols. Following the demodulator, a logic circuit reconstructs the pulses into data, which are subsequently differentially decoded to form the transmitted data. The coherent demodulation and detection of BPSK signals derived from a CMC chirp transform processor were experimentally demonstrated and bit error rate (BER) testing was performed. To assess the feasibility of such advanced receiver, the results were compared with the theoretical analysis and plotted for an average BER as a function of signal-to-noise ratio. Another goal of this SBIR program was the development of a commercial product. The commercial product developed was an arbitrary waveform generator. The successful sales have begun with the delivery of the first arbitrary waveform generator.

  9. Advances in analytical chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arendale, W. F.; Congo, Richard T.; Nielsen, Bruce J.

    1991-01-01

    Implementation of computer programs based on multivariate statistical algorithms makes possible obtaining reliable information from long data vectors that contain large amounts of extraneous information, for example, noise and/or analytes that we do not wish to control. Three examples are described. Each of these applications requires the use of techniques characteristic of modern analytical chemistry. The first example, using a quantitative or analytical model, describes the determination of the acid dissociation constant for 2,2'-pyridyl thiophene using archived data. The second example describes an investigation to determine the active biocidal species of iodine in aqueous solutions. The third example is taken from a research program directed toward advanced fiber-optic chemical sensors. The second and third examples require heuristic or empirical models.

  10. Advances in nanosized zeolites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mintova, Svetlana; Gilson, Jean-Pierre; Valtchev, Valentin

    2013-07-01

    This review highlights recent developments in the synthesis of nanosized zeolites. The strategies available for their preparation (organic-template assisted, organic-template free, and alternative procedures) are discussed. Major breakthroughs achieved by the so-called zeolite crystal engineering and encompass items such as mastering and using the physicochemical properties of the precursor synthesis gel/suspension, optimizing the use of silicon and aluminium precursor sources, the rational use of organic templates and structure-directing inorganic cations, and careful adjustment of synthesis conditions (temperature, pressure, time, heating processes from conventional to microwave and sonication) are addressed. An on-going broad and deep fundamental understanding of the crystallization process, explaining the influence of all variables of this complex set of reactions, underpins an even more rational design of nanosized zeolites with exceptional properties. Finally, the advantages and limitations of these methods are addressed with particular attention to their industrial prospects and utilization in existing and advanced applications.

  11. ISAAC Advanced Composites Research Testbed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, K. Chauncey; Stewart, Brian K.; Martin, Robert A.

    2014-01-01

    The NASA Langley Research Center is acquiring a state-of-art composites fabrication capability to support the Center's advanced research and technology mission. The system introduced in this paper is named ISAAC (Integrated Structural Assembly of Advanced Composites). The initial operational capability of ISAAC is automated fiber placement, built around a commercial system from Electroimpact, Inc. that consists of a multi-degree of freedom robot platform, a tool changer mechanism, and a purpose-built fiber placement end effector. Examples are presented of the advanced materials, structures, structural concepts, fabrication processes and technology development that may be enabled using the ISAAC system. The fiber placement end effector may be used directly or with appropriate modifications for these studies, or other end effectors with different capabilities may either be bought or developed with NASA's partners in industry and academia.

  12. Advanced Visual Quantum Mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Thaller, Bernd

    2005-01-01

    Advanced Visual Quantum Mechanics is a systematic effort to investigate and to teach quantum mechanics with the aid of computer-generated animations. It is a self-contained textbook that combines selected topics from atomic physics (spherical symmetry, the hydrogen atom, and particles with spin) with an introduction to quantum information theory (qubits, EPR paradox, teleportation, quantum computers). It explores relativistic quantum mechanics and the strange behavior of Dirac equation solutions. A series of appendices covers important topics from perturbation and scattering theory. The book places an emphasis on ideas and concepts, with a fair to moderate amount of mathematical rigor. Though this book stands alone, it can also be paired with Thaller Visual Quantum Mechanics to form a comprehensive course in quantum mechanics. The software for the first book earned the European Academic Software Award 2000 for outstanding innovation in its field.

  13. Polarons in advanced materials

    CERN Document Server

    Alexandrov, Alexandre Sergeevich

    2008-01-01

    Polarons in Advanced Materials will lead the reader from single-polaron problems to multi-polaron systems and finally to a description of many interesting phenomena in high-temperature superconductors, ferromagnetic oxides, conducting polymers and molecular nanowires. The book divides naturally into four parts. Part I introduces a single polaron and describes recent achievements in analytical and numerical studies of polaron properties in different electron-phonon models. Part II and Part III describe multi-polaron physics, and Part IV describes many key physical properties of high-temperature superconductors, colossal magnetoresistance oxides, conducting polymers and molecular nanowires, which were understood with polarons and bipolarons. The book is written in the form of self-consistent reviews authored by well-established researchers actively working in the field and will benefit scientists and postgraduate students with a background in condensed matter physics and materials sciences.

  14. Destruction of microcystins (cyanotoxins) by UV-254 nm-based direct photolysis and advanced oxidation processes (AOPs): influence of variable amino acids on the degradation kinetics and reaction mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xuexiang; de la Cruz, Armah A; Hiskia, Anastasia; Kaloudis, Triantafyllos; O'Shea, Kevin; Dionysiou, Dionysios D

    2015-05-01

    Hepatotoxic microcystins (MCs) are the most frequently detected group of cyanobacterial toxins. This study investigated the degradation of common MC variants in water, MC-LR, MC-RR, MC-YR and MC-LA, by UV-254 nm-based processes, UV only, UV/H2O2, UV/S2O8(2-) and UV/HSO5(-). Limited direct photolysis of MCs was observed, while the addition of an oxidant significantly improved the degradation efficiency with an order of UV/S2O8(2-) > UV/HSO5(-) > UV/H2O2 at the same initial molar concentration of the oxidant. The removal of MC-LR by UV/H2O2 appeared to be faster than another cyanotoxin, cylindrospermopsin, at either the same initial molar concentration or the same initial organic carbon concentration of the toxin. It suggested a faster reaction of MC-LR with hydroxyl radical, which was further supported by the determined second-order rate constant of MCs with hydroxyl radical. Both isomerization and photohydration byproducts were observed in UV only process for all four MCs; while in UV/H2O2, hydroxylation and diene-Adda double bond cleavage byproducts were detected. The presence of a tyrosine in the structure of MC-YR significantly promoted the formation of monohydroxylation byproduct m/z 1061; while the presence of a second arginine in MC-RR led to the elimination of a guanidine group and the absence of double bond cleavage byproducts. It was therefore demonstrated in this study that the variable amino acids in the structure of MCs influenced not only the degradation kinetics but also the preferable reaction mechanisms.

  15. Optical properties of advanced materials

    CERN Document Server

    Kajikawa, Kotaro

    2013-01-01

    In the last decade, optically functionalized materials have developed rapidly, from bulk matters to structured forms. Now we have a rich variety of attractive advanced materials. They are applied to optical and electrical devices that support the information communication technology in the mid 21-th century. Accordingly, it is quite important to have a broad knowledge of the optical properties of advanced materials for students, scientists and engineers working in optics and related fields. This book is designed to teach fundamental optical properties of such advanced materials effectively. These materials have their own peculiarities which are very interesting in modern optical physics and also for applications because the concepts of optical properties are quite different from those in conventional optical materials. Hence each chapter starts to review the basic concepts of the materials briefly and proceeds to the practical use. The important topics covered in this book include:  quantum structures of sem...

  16. Maass Forms and Quantum Modular Forms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolen, Larry

    This thesis describes several new results in the theory of harmonic Maass forms and related objects. Maass forms have recently led to a flood of applications throughout number theory and combinatorics in recent years, especially following their development by the work of Bruinier and Funke the modern understanding Ramanujan's mock theta functions due to Zwegers. The first of three main theorems discussed in this thesis concerns the integrality properties of singular moduli. These are well-known to be algebraic integers, and they play a beautiful role in complex multiplication and explicit class field theory for imaginary quadratic fields. One can also study "singular moduli" for special non-holomorphic functions, which are algebraic but are not necessarily algebraic integers. Here we will explain the phenomenon of integrality properties and provide a sharp bound on denominators of symmetric functions in singular moduli. The second main theme of the thesis concerns Zagier's recent definition of a quantum modular form. Since their definition in 2010 by Zagier, quantum modular forms have been connected to numerous different topics such as strongly unimodal sequences, ranks, cranks, and asymptotics for mock theta functions. Motivated by Zagier's example of the quantum modularity of Kontsevich's "strange" function F(q), we revisit work of Andrews, Jimenez-Urroz, and Ono to construct a natural vector-valued quantum modular form whose components. The final chapter of this thesis is devoted to a study of asymptotics of mock theta functions near roots of unity. In his famous deathbed letter, Ramanujan introduced the notion of a mock theta function, and he offered some alleged examples. The theory of mock theta functions has been brought to fruition using the framework of harmonic Maass forms, thanks to Zwegers. Despite this understanding, little attention has been given to Ramanujan's original definition. Here we prove that Ramanujan's examples do indeed satisfy his

  17. Advanced optic fabrication using ultrafast laser radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Lauren L.; Qiao, Jun; Qiao, Jie

    2016-03-01

    Advanced fabrication and finishing techniques are desired for freeform optics and integrated photonics. Methods including grinding, polishing and magnetorheological finishing used for final figuring and polishing of such optics are time consuming, expensive, and may be unsuitable for complex surface features while common photonics fabrication techniques often limit devices to planar geometries. Laser processing has been investigated as an alternative method for optic forming, surface polishing, structure writing, and welding, as direct tuning of laser parameters and flexible beam delivery are advantageous for complex freeform or photonics elements and material-specific processing. Continuous wave and pulsed laser radiation down to the nanosecond regime have been implemented to achieve nanoscale surface finishes through localized material melting, but the temporal extent of the laser-material interaction often results in the formation of a sub-surface heat affected zone. The temporal brevity of ultrafast laser radiation can allow for the direct vaporization of rough surface asperities with minimal melting, offering the potential for smooth, final surface quality with negligible heat affected material. High intensities achieved in focused ultrafast laser radiation can easily induce phase changes in the bulk of materials for processing applications. We have experimentally tested the effectiveness of ultrafast laser radiation as an alternative laser source for surface processing of monocrystalline silicon. Simulation of material heating associated with ultrafast laser-material interaction has been performed and used to investigate optimized processing parameters including repetition rate. The parameter optimization process and results of experimental processing will be presented.

  18. [Direct method of temporary restoration making with the help of 3D-modeling].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riakhovskiĭ, A N; Kalacheva, Ia A

    2010-01-01

    Use of temporary restorations in the process of prosthetic rehabilitation is generally accepted practice. Direct method of temporary restoration making as the results of computer modeling is offered. The method essence is in translation of the results of 3D computer modeling of the dentition into stereolithographic model from which later on silicone print (key) is taken; further on it is used for making temporary restoration by the direct method. Such method let in advance work off form and size of the future permanent restorations with taking into account peculiarities of the face and the smile of each patient and receive predictable aesthetic result and increase patient's motivation to the treatment.

  19. Recent Advances in Transformation Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    H. Jiang, M. D. Gregory and D. H. Werner, Experimental demonstration of a broadband transformation optics lens for highly directive multibeam ...Recent advances in transformation optics Yongmin Liua and Xiang Zhang*ab Received 9th May 2012, Accepted 27th June 2012 DOI: 10.1039/c2nr31140b...Within the past a few years, transformation optics has emerged as a new research area, since it provides a general methodology and design tool for

  20. Recent Advances in Complex Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Dramatic advances in the field of complex networks have been witnessed in the past few years. This paper reviews some important results in this direction of rapidly evolving research, with emphasis on the relationship between the dynamics and the topology of complex networks. Basic quantities and typical examples of various complex networks are described. Robustness of connectivity and epidemic dynamics in complex networks are evaluated.

  1. Electrohydrodynamic direct-writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yongan; Bu, Ningbin; Duan, Yongqing; Pan, Yanqiao; Liu, Huimin; Yin, Zhouping; Xiong, Youlun

    2013-11-01

    The electrohydrodynamic (EHD) direct-writing technique can be used to print solid/liquid straight/serpentine nanofibers onto a large-area substrate, in a direct, continuous, and controllable manner. It is a high-efficiency and cost-effective solution-processable technique to satisfy increasing demands of large-area micro/nano-manufacturing. It is ground-breaking to direct-write sub-100 nm fibers on a rigid/flexible substrate using organic materials. A comprehensive review is presented on the research and developments related to the EHD direct-writing technique and print heads. Many developments have been presented to improve the controllability of the electrospun fibers to form high-resolution patterns and devices. EHD direct-writing is characterized by its non-contact, additive and reproducible processing, high resolution, and compatibility with organic materials. It combines dip-pen, inkjet, and electrospinning by providing the feasibility of controllable electrospinning for sub-100 nm nanofabrication, and overcomes the drawbacks of conventional electron-beam lithography, which is relatively slow, complicated and expensive.

  2. Forms of Arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page please turn Javascript on. Forms of Arthritis Past Issues / Fall 2006 Table of Contents Today, ... of Linda Saisselin Osteoarthritis (OA) — the form of arthritis typically occurring during middle or old age, this ...

  3. Fornemmelse for form

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skude, Flemming

    2002-01-01

    Om den arkitektoniske forms afhængighed af aerodynamik, solens nedbrydning og optimering af materialers holdbarhed.......Om den arkitektoniske forms afhængighed af aerodynamik, solens nedbrydning og optimering af materialers holdbarhed....

  4. Future requirements for advanced materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olstad, W. B.

    1980-01-01

    Recent advances and future trends in aerospace materials technology are reviewed with reference to metal alloys, high-temperature composites and adhesives, tungsten fiber-reinforced superalloys, hybrid materials, ceramics, new ablative materials, such as carbon-carbon composite and silica tiles used in the Shuttle Orbiter. The technologies of powder metallurgy coupled with hot isostatic pressing, near net forging, complex large shape casting, chopped fiber molding, superplastic forming, and computer-aided design and manufacture are emphasized.

  5. FORMS OF YOUTH TRAVEL

    OpenAIRE

    Moisã Claudia Olimpia

    2011-01-01

    Taking into account the suite of motivation that youth has when practicing tourism, it can be said that the youth travel takes highly diverse forms. These forms are educational tourism, volunteer programs and “work and travel”, cultural exchanges or sports tourism and adventure travel. In this article, we identified and analyzed in detail the main forms of youth travel both internationally and in Romania. We also illustrated for each form of tourism the specific tourism products targeting you...

  6. Evaluation of Directed Diffusion Protocol for Mobile Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.E.Kannammal

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent technological advances have enabled distributed information gathering from a given region by deploying a large number of networked tiny microsensors which are low power devices equipped withprogrammable computing, multiple sensing and communication capability thus forms Wireless Sensor networks. Directed Diffusion is a data centric routing protocol in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN. It is a reactive protocol which creates routes based on needs. Sensed data’s are stored in attribute value pairs. A Sink request data by sendinginterests. The interest messages are flooding through the network and are added to each node’s interest cache. The data that match the interests are sent towards the sink. However, there is very little research addressing the impact of mobility on this class of routing protocols. In this paper, we address the behavior of a Directed Diffusion routing under different scenarios.

  7. Advanced Materials in Support of EERE Needs to Advance Clean Energy Technologies Program Implementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liby, Alan L [ORNL; Rogers, Hiram [ORNL

    2013-10-01

    The goal of this activity was to carry out program implementation and technical projects in support of the ARRA-funded Advanced Materials in Support of EERE Needs to Advance Clean Energy Technologies Program of the DOE Advanced Manufacturing Office (AMO) (formerly the Industrial Technologies Program (ITP)). The work was organized into eight projects in four materials areas: strategic materials, structural materials, energy storage and production materials, and advanced/field/transient processing. Strategic materials included work on titanium, magnesium and carbon fiber. Structural materials included work on alumina forming austentic (AFA) and CF8C-Plus steels. The advanced batteries and production materials projects included work on advanced batteries and photovoltaic devices. Advanced/field/transient processing included work on magnetic field processing. Details of the work in the eight projects are available in the project final reports which have been previously submitted.

  8. Method for forming ammonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Peter C.; Pink, Robert J.; Zuck, Larry D.

    2008-08-19

    A method for forming ammonia is disclosed and which includes the steps of forming a plasma; providing a source of metal particles, and supplying the metal particles to the plasma to form metal nitride particles; and providing a substance, and reacting the metal nitride particles with the substance to produce ammonia, and an oxide byproduct.

  9. Mesonic Form Factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frederic D. R. Bonnet; Robert G. Edwards; George T. Fleming; Randal Lewis; David Richards

    2003-07-22

    We have started a program to compute the electromagnetic form factors of mesons. We discuss the techniques used to compute the pion form factor and present preliminary results computed with domain wall valence fermions on MILC asqtad lattices, as well as Wilson fermions on quenched lattices. These methods can easily be extended to rho-to-gamma-pi transition form factors.

  10. Forms in Space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Paula

    1998-01-01

    Uses the work of M. C. Escher to instruct upper elementary students in the transformation of flat shape into three-dimensional form. Outlines the lesson as a series of sections: (1) reviewing form drawing; (2) creating three-dimensional effects; (3) imagining the forms in an inhabited world; and (4) using color and shading. (DSK)

  11. The Search for Directed Intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Lubin, Philip

    2016-01-01

    We propose a search for sources of directed energy systems such as those now becoming technologically feasible on Earth. Recent advances in our own abilities allow us to foresee our own capability that will radically change our ability to broadcast our presence. We show that systems of this type have the ability to be detected at vast distances and indeed can be detected across the entire horizon. This profoundly changes the possibilities for searches for extra-terrestrial technology advanced civilizations. We show that even modest searches can be extremely effective at detecting or limiting many civilization classes. We propose a search strategy that will observe more than 10 12 stellar and planetary systems with possible extensions to more than 10 20 systems allowing us to test the hypothesis that other similarly or more advanced civilization with this same capability, and are broadcasting, exist.

  12. Low temperature waste form process intensification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, K. M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Cozzi, A. D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Hansen, E. K. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Hill, K. A. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-09-30

    This study successfully demonstrated process intensification of low temperature waste form production. Modifications were made to the dry blend composition to enable a 50% increase in waste concentration, thus allowing for a significant reduction in disposal volume and associated costs. Properties measurements showed that the advanced waste form can be produced using existing equipment and processes. Performance of the waste form was equivalent or better than the current baseline, with approximately double the amount of waste incorporation. The results demonstrate the feasibility of significantly accelerating low level waste immobilization missions across the DOE complex and at environmental remediation sites worldwide.

  13. Nonlinear dynamics exploration through normal forms

    CERN Document Server

    Kahn, Peter B

    2014-01-01

    Geared toward advanced undergraduates and graduate students, this exposition covers the method of normal forms and its application to ordinary differential equations through perturbation analysis. In addition to its emphasis on the freedom inherent in the normal form expansion, the text features numerous examples of equations, the kind of which are encountered in many areas of science and engineering. The treatment begins with an introduction to the basic concepts underlying the normal forms. Coverage then shifts to an investigation of systems with one degree of freedom that model oscillations

  14. Directed and Almost-Directed Flow Loops in Real Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Todinov

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Directed flow loops are highly undesirable because they are associated with wastage of energy for maintaining them and entail big losses to the world economy. It is shown that directed flow loops may appear in networks even if the dispatched commodity does not physically travel along a closed contour. Consequently, a theorem giving the necessary and sufficient condition of a directed flow loop on randomly oriented straight-line flow paths has been formulated and a close-form expression has been derived for the probability of a directed flow loop. The results show that even for a relatively small number of intersecting flow paths, the probability of a directed flow loop is very large, which means that the existence of directed flow loops in real networks is practically inevitable. Consequently, a theorem and an efficient algorithm have been proposed related to discovering and removing directed flow loops in a network with feasible flows. The new concept ‘almost-directed flow loop’ has also been introduced for the first time. It is shown that the removal of an almost-directed flow loop also results in a significant decrease of the losses. It is also shown that if no directed flow loops exist in the network, the removal of an almost-directed flow loop cannot create a directed flow loop.

  15. Programming-Free Form Conversion, Design, and Processing

    OpenAIRE

    Fan, Ting-Jun; Machlin, Rona S.; Wang, Christopher P.; Chang, Ifay F.

    1990-01-01

    In this paper, we present the requirements and design considerations for programming-free form conversion, design, and processing. A set of object-oriented software tools are also presented to help users convert a paper form into an electronic form, design an electronic form, and fill in an electronic form directly on screen.

  16. Dusty Star-Forming Galaxies at High Redshift

    CERN Document Server

    Casey, Caitlin M; Cooray, Asantha

    2014-01-01

    Far-infrared and submillimeter wavelength surveys have now established the important role of dusty, star-forming galaxies (DSFGs) in the assembly of stellar mass and the evolution of massive galaxies in the Universe. The brightest of these galaxies have infrared luminosities in excess of 10$^{13}$ L$_{\\odot}$ with implied star-formation rates of thousands of solar masses per year. They represent the most intense starbursts in the Universe, yet many are completely optically obscured. Their easy detection at submm wavelengths is due to dust heated by ultraviolet radiation of newly forming stars. When summed up, all of the dusty, star-forming galaxies in the Universe produce an infrared radiation field that has an equal energy density as the direct starlight emission from all galaxies visible at ultraviolet and optical wavelengths. The bulk of this infrared extragalactic background light emanates from galaxies as diverse as gas-rich disks to mergers of intense starbursting galaxies. Major advances in far-infrare...

  17. Artificial solid electrolyte interphase with in-situ formed porosity for enhancing lithiation of silicon wafer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jie; Guo, Jianlai; Liu, Chang; Guo, Hang

    2016-12-01

    In order to utilize silicon wafer as electrode and substrate for integrated lithium-ion batteries, a composite film with in-situ formed porosity (lithium phosphorous oxynitride/tin oxide, LiPON/SnO2) is fabricated and directly exploited as the artificial solid electrolyte interphase film. Without the compromise of Coulombic efficiency, the capacity and cycle performance of silicon wafer are both developed, resulting from the reduced resistance and the dynamically stable coating. This work provides guidance to enhance the lithiation of bulk silicon, and the strategy of surface modification can be applied to other advanced materials or fields.

  18. Cell spreading on titanium dioxide film formed and modified with aerosol beam and femtosecond laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shinonaga, Togo, E-mail: togo@jwri.osaka-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 1-1 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Tsukamoto, Masahiro [Joining and Welding Research Institute, Osaka University, 11-1 Mihogaoka, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan); Nagai, Akiko; Yamashita, Kimihiro; Hanawa, Takao [Institute of Biomaterials and Bioengineering, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, 2-3-10 Kanda-Surugadai, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 101-0062 (Japan); Matsushita, Nobuhiro [Materials and Structures Laboratory, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta-cho, Midori-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa 226-8503 (Japan); Xie, Guoqiang [Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Karahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8577 (Japan); Abe, Nobuyuki [Joining and Welding Research Institute, Osaka University, 11-1 Mihogaoka, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan)

    2014-01-01

    Titanium (Ti) is widely used in biomaterials because of its excellent anti-corrosion properties and high strength. However, Ti has no biological function, so its bioactivity must be improved. Coating a titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) film on a Ti plate surface has been shown to improve the biocompatibility of Ti plates. If periodic nanostructures were formed on the film surface, the direction of cell spreading might be controlled by the direction of the grooves. Controlling cell spreading on biomaterials would contribute to the creation of advanced biomaterials. In this paper, a TiO{sub 2} film was formed on a Ti plate with an aerosol beam composed of sub micron-sized TiO{sub 2} particles and helium gas. Periodic nanostructures, lying perpendicular to the laser electric field polarization vector, were formed on the film by scanning the femtosecond laser focusing spot. The period and height of the periodic nanostructures were about 230 nm and 150 nm, respectively. In a cell test, cell spreading was observed along the grooves of the periodic nanostructures; in contrast, cell spreading did not show a definite direction on TiO{sub 2} a film without periodic nanostructures. These results suggest that the direction of cell spreading on the film can be controlled by periodic nanostructure formation generated using a femtosecond laser.

  19. Micro metal forming

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Micro Metal Forming, i. e. forming of parts and features with dimensions below 1 mm, is a young area of research in the wide field of metal forming technologies, expanding the limits for applying metal forming towards micro technology. The essential challenges arise from the reduced geometrical size and the increased lot size. In order to enable potential users to apply micro metal forming in production, information about the following topics are given: tribological behavior: friction between tool and work piece as well as tool wear mechanical behavior: strength and formability of the work piece material, durability of the work pieces size effects: basic description of effects occurring due to the fact, that the quantitative relation between different features changes with decreasing size process windows and limits for forming processes tool making methods numerical modeling of processes and process chains quality assurance and metrology All topics are discussed with respect to the questions relevant to micro...

  20. Polymer Directed Protein Assemblies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick van Rijn

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Protein aggregation and protein self-assembly is an important occurrence in natural systems, and is in some form or other dictated by biopolymers. Very obvious influences of biopolymers on protein assemblies are, e.g., virus particles. Viruses are a multi-protein assembly of which the morphology is dictated by poly-nucleotides namely RNA or DNA. This “biopolymer” directs the proteins and imposes limitations on the structure like the length or diameter of the particle. Not only do these bionanoparticles use polymer-directed self-assembly, also processes like amyloid formation are in a way a result of directed protein assembly by partial unfolded/misfolded biopolymers namely, polypeptides. The combination of proteins and synthetic polymers, inspired by the natural processes, are therefore regarded as a highly promising area of research. Directed protein assembly is versatile with respect to the possible interactions which brings together the protein and polymer, e.g., electrostatic, v.d. Waals forces or covalent conjugation, and possible combinations are numerous due to the large amounts of different polymers and proteins available. The protein-polymer interacting behavior and overall morphology is envisioned to aid in clarifying protein-protein interactions and are thought to entail some interesting new functions and properties which will ultimately lead to novel bio-hybrid materials.