WorldWideScience

Sample records for adulterated products

  1. 7 CFR 58.242 - Product adulteration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Product adulteration. 58.242 Section 58.242... Procedures § 58.242 Product adulteration. All necessary precautions shall be taken throughout the entire operation to prevent the adulteration of one product with another. The commingling of one type of liquid...

  2. Chemical Adulterants in Herbal Medicinal Products: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calahan, Jacob; Howard, Dylan; Almalki, Ahmad J; Gupta, Mahabir P; Calderón, Angela I

    2016-04-01

    Many herbal medicinal products have been found to contain synthetic prescription drugs as chemical adulterants. This has become evident by the number of toxicity cases and adverse reactions reported in which casualties were reported via analytical techniques that detected the presence of chemical adulterants in them, which could be responsible for their toxicity. The adulteration of herbal medicinal products with synthetic drugs continues to be a serious problem for regulatory agencies. This review provides up to date information on cases of toxicity, major chemical adulterants in herbal medicinal products, and current analytical techniques used for their detection. PMID:27054916

  3. Observations on Economic Adulteration of High-Value Food Products: The Honey Case

    OpenAIRE

    Fairchild, Gary F.; Nichols, John P.; Capps, Oral, Jr.

    2003-01-01

    The paper highlights the issue of economic adulteration of high-value food products and provides a context for discussion and analysis based on experiences with the U.S. honey industry. Perspectives on economic adulteration are identified, trends relevant to the issue of economic adulteration are discussed, and industry opinions on economic adulteration of honey are summarized. The paper is based on research funded by the National Honey Board to provide a platform for industry dialogue on the...

  4. 9 CFR 318.14 - Adulteration of product by polluted water; procedure for handling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Adulteration of product by polluted water; procedure for handling. 318.14 Section 318.14 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND...; REINSPECTION AND PREPARATION OF PRODUCTS General § 318.14 Adulteration of product by polluted water;...

  5. 9 CFR 381.151 - Adulteration of product by polluted water; procedure for handling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Adulteration of product by polluted water; procedure for handling. 381.151 Section 381.151 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND...; Processing Requirements § 381.151 Adulteration of product by polluted water; procedure for handling. (a)...

  6. Managing Opportunistic Supplier Product Adulteration: Deferred Payments, Inspection, and Combined Mechanisms

    OpenAIRE

    Volodymyr Babich; Tang, Christopher S.

    2012-01-01

    Recent cases of product adulteration by foreign suppliers have compelled many manufacturers to rethink approaches to deterring suppliers from cutting corners, especially when manufacturers cannot fully monitor and control the suppliers' actions. In this paper, we study three mechanisms for dealing with product adulteration problems: (a) the deferred payment mechanism--the buyer pays the supplier after the deferred payment period only if no adulteration has been discovered by the customers; (b...

  7. Assessment of adulteration of soybean proteins in dairy products by 2D microchip-CE device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ruige; Wang, Zhiping; Fung, Ying Sing; Seah, Daphne Yen Peng; Yeung, William Shu-Biu

    2014-06-01

    To determine the adulteration of soybean proteins in dairy product, a microchip-CE device was developed to isolate selected fraction of soybean and milk proteins in pI range from 5.5 ∼ 7.0 by 1D IEF, followed by ITP/CZE in the embedded capillary for preconcentration, separation and UV detection at 280 nm. Compared to IEF-CZE without ITP preconcentration, the enhancement factor (EF) in detection of soybean proteins was 20 times. Adulteration of 0.1% soybean protein in total dairy proteins can be detected in less than 10 min. PMID:25025095

  8. Differentiation of Adulterated Meat Products through Molecular Technique: PCR-RFLP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashmi Verma, Bhoomika Saluja and Rina Rani Singh

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Meat adulterations of different species are undetectable and it is common practice globally. In the field of food analysis, species determination is mostly sufficient, but simultaneous detection of several species in a single food product is desirable. The aim of the study was to distinguish between meats of two different species through PCR-RFLP analysis. The meat of two species were used include domestic pig (Sus scrofa; Porcidae and domestic goat (Capra hircus; Bovidae. DNA was isolated from these samples , followed by amplification through PCR and further species was differentiated by RFLP using five different restriction endonuclease (RE enzymes. The DNA sequences of different species are different, hence does not digest by same enzyme. The number and position of bands obtained after digestion were different in two species. In case of meat adulteration, the specific number and position of bands of DNA of a particular species will not be obtained, rather bands will be formed at intermediate positions and number of bands may vary. Thus, PCR-RFLP method is a potential tool for forensic identification and to differentiate specific meat sample and this molecular technique is an important tool to examine adulteration in meat food products.

  9. A study on adulteration of milk and milk products from local vendors

    OpenAIRE

    K., Swathi J.; N., Naazia Kauser

    2015-01-01

    Milk is an essential commodity in daily life. It is not only a source of good quality protein, but also of calcium and riboflavin besides other nutrients. Milk is most commercially sold commodity both by local vendor’s as well super markets .Due to rules laid by FSSAI, most of the branded products follow appropriate quality in the marketed products. However in local products to increase the yield certain adulterants are added which may affect the nutritional quality of milk. Hence, to know th...

  10. Dietary supplements: International legal framework and adulteration profiles, and characteristics of products on the Brazilian clandestine market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Justa Neves, Diana Brito; Caldas, Eloisa Dutra

    2015-10-01

    The objectives of this work were to evaluate current legislation on dietary supplements in the United States, the European Union and Brazil, and the profile of adulterated and/or irregular products on these markets. Due to a less restrictive legal framework, a supplement product that is freely available in the US may be considered a drug or even be proscribed in the EU and Brazil, thus giving rise to a clandestine market based on smuggling. From 2007 to 2014, the United States Food and Drug Administration reported 572 cases of supplement adulterations in the country, mainly products for sexual enhancement (41.6%). Data from the European Union Rapid Alert System for Food and Feed showed 929 adulterations during the same period, over 40% due to unauthorized ingredients or undeclared medicines. From 2007 to 2013, the Brazilian Federal Police Department seized 5470 supplement products, 92.2% with an American-declared origin. Qualitative chemical analyses performed on 2898 products found 180 adulterations, 41.1% due to undeclared drugs, mainly anabolic steroids, anorectics and products for erectile dysfunction, all considered medicines in Brazil. Educating the public regarding the potential risks they are taking when consuming adulterated or irregular products is necessary to protect the health of consumers. PMID:26107294

  11. RAPD and SCAR markers as potential tools for detection of milk origin in dairy products: Adulterant sheep breeds in Serra da Estrela cheese production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, Joana T; Ribeiro, Tânia I B; Rocha, João B; Nunes, João; Teixeira, José A; Domingues, Lucília

    2016-11-15

    Serra da Estrela Protected Designation of Origin (PDO) cheese is the most famous Portuguese cheese and has a high commercial value. However, the adulteration of production with cheaper/lower-quality milks from non-autochthones ovine breeds compromises the quality of the final product and undervalues the original PDO cheese. A Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) method was developed for efficient detection of adulterant breeds in milk mixtures used for fraudulent production of this cheese. Furthermore, Sequence Characterized Amplified Region (SCAR) markers were designed envisioning the detection of milk adulteration in processed dairy foods. The RAPD-SCAR technique is here described, for the first time, to be potentially useful for detection of milk origin in dairy products. In this sense, our findings will play an important role on the valorization of Serra da Estrela cheese, as well as on other high-quality dairy products prone to adulteration, contributing to the further development of the dairy industry. PMID:27283677

  12. Biogenic amine content, histamine-forming bacteria, and adulteration of pork in tuna sausage products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kung, Hsien-Feng; Tsai, Yung-Hsiang; Chang, Shih-Chih; Hong, Tang-Yao

    2012-10-01

    Twenty-five tuna sausage products were purchased from retail markets in Taiwan. The rates of occurrence of biogenic amines, histamine-forming bacteria, and adulteration by pork and poultry were determined. The average content of various biogenic amines in all tested samples was less than 2.0 mg/100 g (Thunnus albacares for 22 samples (88%), Thunnus alalunga for 1 sample (4%), and Thunnus thynnus for 1 sample (4%), whereas the remaining sample was identified as Makaira nigricans (blue marlin). PMID:23043830

  13. Mass spectrometric analysis of pharmaceutical adulterants in products labeled as botanical dietary supplements or herbal remedies: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaclavik, Lukas; Krynitsky, Alexander J; Rader, Jeanne I

    2014-11-01

    The increased availability and use of botanical dietary supplements and herbal remedies among consumers has been accompanied by an increased frequency of adulteration of these products with synthetic pharmaceuticals. Unscrupulous producers may add drugs and analogues of various classes, such as phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE-5) inhibitors, weight loss, hypoglycemic, antihypertensive and anti-inflammatory agents, or anabolic steroids, to develop or intensify biological effects of dietary supplements or herbal remedies. The presence of such adulterated products in the marketplace is a worldwide problem and their consumption poses health risks to consumers. Analytical methods that allow rapid and reliable testing of dietary supplements for the presence of synthetic drugs are needed to address such fraudulent practices. Mass spectrometry (MS) and hyphenated techniques such as liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) have become primary tools in this endeavor. The present review critically assesses the role and summarizes the applications of MS in the analysis of pharmaceutical adulterants in botanical dietary supplements and herbal remedies. The uses of MS techniques in detection, confirmation, and quantification of known pharmaceutical adulterants as well as in screening for and structure elucidation of unexpected adulterants and novel designer drugs are discussed. PMID:25270866

  14. RAPD and SCAR markers as potential tools for detection of milk origin in dairy products: adulterant sheep breeds in Serra da Estrela cheese production

    OpenAIRE

    Cunha, Joana T.; Ribeiro, Tânia I. B.; Rocha, João B.; Nunes, João; Teixeira, J. A.; Domingues, Lucília

    2016-01-01

    Available online 17 May 2016 Serra da Estrela Protected Designation of Origin (PDO) cheese is the most famous Portuguese cheese and has a high commercial value. However, the adulteration of production with cheaper/lower-quality milks from non-autochthones ovine breeds compromises the quality of the final product and undervalues the original PDO cheese. A Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) method was developed for efficient detection of adulterant breeds in milk mixtures used for fra...

  15. Development of nondestructive detection method for adulterated powder products using Raman spectroscopy and partial least squares regression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was conducted to develop a non-destructive detection method for adulterated powder products using Raman spectroscopy and partial least squares regression(PLSR). Garlic and ginger powder, which are used as natural seasoning and in health supplement foods, were selected for this experiment. Samples were adulterated with corn starch in concentrations of 5-35%. PLSR models for adulterated garlic and ginger powders were developed and their performances evaluated using cross validation. The R2c and SEC of an optimal PLSR model were 0.99 and 2.16 for the garlic powder samples, and 0.99 and 0.84 for the ginger samples, respectively. The variable importance in projection (VIP) score is a useful and simple tool for the evaluation of the importance of each variable in a PLSR model. After the VIP scores were taken pre-selection, the Raman spectrum data was reduced by one third. New PLSR models, based on a reduced number of wavelengths selected by the VIP scores technique, gave good predictions for the adulterated garlic and ginger powder samples.

  16. Development of nondestructive detection method for adulterated powder products using Raman spectroscopy and partial least squares regression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sang Dae; Lohumi, Santosh; Cho, Byoung Kwan [Dept. of Biosystems Machinery Engineering, Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Moon Sung [United States Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service, Washington (United States); Lee, Soo Hee [Life and Technology Co.,Ltd., Hwasung (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-08-15

    This study was conducted to develop a non-destructive detection method for adulterated powder products using Raman spectroscopy and partial least squares regression(PLSR). Garlic and ginger powder, which are used as natural seasoning and in health supplement foods, were selected for this experiment. Samples were adulterated with corn starch in concentrations of 5-35%. PLSR models for adulterated garlic and ginger powders were developed and their performances evaluated using cross validation. The R{sup 2}{sub c} and SEC of an optimal PLSR model were 0.99 and 2.16 for the garlic powder samples, and 0.99 and 0.84 for the ginger samples, respectively. The variable importance in projection (VIP) score is a useful and simple tool for the evaluation of the importance of each variable in a PLSR model. After the VIP scores were taken pre-selection, the Raman spectrum data was reduced by one third. New PLSR models, based on a reduced number of wavelengths selected by the VIP scores technique, gave good predictions for the adulterated garlic and ginger powder samples.

  17. Sensitivity enhancement of evanescent waveguide optical sensor for detecting adulterant traces in petroleum products using SiON technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Aradhana; Deka, Bidyut; Sahu, Partha Pratim

    2013-11-01

    The development of an evanescent waveguide optical sensor incorporating planar waveguide geometry using silicon oxynitride as the core layer on silica-silicon wafer and its implementation for detection of adulterant traces in petroleum products is presented in this paper. This work focuses on enhancement of sensitivity and analyzed by using Simple Effective Index Method (SEIM), based on sinusoidal modes. The embedded waveguide of length ~ 10,000 μm and core width ~ 50 μm have been developed using SiON technology and applied for checking adulteration so as to ensure the purity of the fuel such that the engine will give the desired performance including low emissions yielding better accuracy and high sensitivity within a very short pulse. The thin cladding layer acts as the analytes (mixture of adulterated fuel) that supports the waveguiding film having a refractive index smaller than that of the core. The main aim of this present work is to encompass a speedy choice to the time-consuming existing methods for detecting adulterated fuels, which generally requires some time to give the consequence. The developed sensor allows spot determination of the percentage concentration of adulterant in pure petrol without involving any chemical analysis. The waveguide based sensor is polarization independent and the sensitivity of the waveguide sensor is ~10 times more than that of the existing planar waveguide sensors and also 5 times more than that of asymmetric waveguide structure. Advantages include high sensitivity, simple fabrication and easy interrogation without involving the use of solvents or toxic chemicals.

  18. Detection of adulteration in acetonitrile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guoxiang; Fujimori, Kiyoshi; Lee, Hans; Nashed-Samuel, Yasser; Phillips, Joseph; Rogers, Gary; Shen, Hong; Yee, Chanel

    2011-05-01

    To address the increasing concern that acetonitrile may be intentionally adulterated to meet the shortfall in global supplies resulting from a downturn in its manufacturing, three analytical techniques were examined in this study. Gas Chromatography with Thermal Conductivity Detection (GC-TCD), Near Infrared (NIR) spectroscopy and Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy were assessed for their ability to detect and quantify potential adulterants including water, alternative organic solvents, and by-products associated with the production of acetonitrile. The results of the assessment of the three techniques for acetonitrile adulteration testing are discussed.

  19. 77 FR 26929 - Requirements for Official Establishments To Notify FSIS of Adulterated or Misbranded Product...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-08

    ... expects that this final rule will affect about 6,300 official federally-inspected establishments that... appointed by the Secretary to review and copy. In the Federal Register of March 25, 2010 (75 FR 14361), FSIS... the statutory language specified notification of the ``destination'' of the adulterated or...

  20. Species-specific identification of adulteration in cooked mutton Rista (a Kashmiri Wazwan cuisine product) with beef and buffalo meat through multiplex polymerase chain reaction

    OpenAIRE

    M. Mansoor Bhat; Mir Salahuddin; Imtiyaz A. Mantoo; Sheikh Adil; Henna Jalal; M. Ashraf Pal

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Meat adulteration is a serious problem in the meat industry and needs to be tackled to ensure the authenticity of meat products and protect the consumers from being the victims. In view of such likely problem in indigenous meat products of Kashmiri cuisine (Wazwan), the present work was performed to study the detection of beef and buffalo meat in cooked mutton Rista by mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) based multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method under laboratory conditions. Materia...

  1. Ultra-HPLC method for quality and adulterant assessment of steviol glycosides sweeteners - Stevia rebaudiana and stevia products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan-Hong; Avula, Bharathi; Tang, Wenzhao; Wang, Mei; Elsohly, Mahmoud A; Khan, Ikhlas A

    2015-01-01

    Stevia products are advertised as a zero-calorie sweetener. Glucose should not be an intrinsic component of this product, but it has been identified from some of stevia products in a preliminary study. An UHPLC-UV method was developed for the quantitative determination of glucose from stevia products. After stevia products reacted with 1-phenyl-3-methyl-5-pyrazolone (PMP), PMP derivatives were analysed and glucose was found in seven out of 35 products in the range 0.3-91.5% (w/w). Two products, SPR-12 and SPR-27, showed remarkable amounts of glucose at 61.6% and 91.5%, respectively. In addition, an UHPLC-UV-evaporative light-scattering detector (ELSD) method was developed for the quantitative determination of rebaudioside A, stevioside, rebaudioside D, dulcoside A and steviolbioside from Stevia rebaudiana and related products. In a 12 min run, five steviol glycosides were baseline-separated. ELSD and ultraviolet (UV) detections showed comparable results. The LC methods were validated for linearity, repeatability, accuracy, limits of detection (LOD) and limits of quantification (LOQ). For steviol glycosides, the LODs and LOQs were found to be less than 10 and 30 μg ml(-1), respectively. The RSD for intra- and inter-day analyses was less than 2.5%, and the recovery was 90-94%. For PMP derivative of glucose, the LOD and LOQ were 0.01 and 0.05 μg ml(-1), respectively. Repeatability (RSD) was less than 2.6%; recovery was 98.6-101.7%. The methods are useful for the identification, quality assurance, and adulterant assessment of S. rebaudiana and steviol glycosides sweeteners (stevia products). PMID:25822696

  2. Direct estimation of sialic acid in milk and milk products by fluorimetry and its application in detection of sweet whey adulteration in milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neelima; Rao, Priyanka Singh; Sharma, Rajan; Rajput, Yudhishthir S

    2012-11-01

    Sialic acid, being a biologically active compound, is recognised as an important component of milk and milk products. Almost all the sialic acid estimation protocols in milk require prior hydrolysis step to release the bound sialic acid followed by its estimation. The objective of this work was to estimate sialic acid in milk and milk products by fluorimetric assay which does not require a prior hydrolysis step thus decreasing the estimation time. The recovery of added sialic acid in milk was 91·6 to 95·8%. Sialic acid in milk was found to be dependent on cattle breed and was in the range of 1·68-3·93 g/kg (dry matter basis). The assay was further extended to detect adulteration of milk with sweet whey which is based on the detection of glycomacropeptide (GMP) bound sialic acid in adulterated milk. GMP is the C-terminal part of κ-casein which is released into the whey during cheese making. For detection of adulteration, selective precipitation of GMP was done using trichloroacetic acid (TCA). TCA concentration in milk was first raised to 5% to precipitate milk proteins, especially κ-casein, followed by raising the TCA concentration to 14% to precipitate out GMP. In the precipitates GMP bound sialic acid was estimated using fluorimetric method and the fluorescence intensity was found to be directly proportional to the level of sweet whey in adulterated milk samples. The method was found to detect the presence of 5% sweet whey in milk. PMID:23089266

  3. A quadruplex PCR (qxPCR) assay for adulteration in dairy products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrimonti, Caterina; Pirondini, Andrea; Marmiroli, Marta; Marmiroli, Nelson

    2015-11-15

    This study describes the development of a quadruplex quantitative Real Time PCR (qxPCR) based on SYBR®GreenER chemistry, for rapid identification of DNA of cow, goat, sheep and buffalo in dairy products, and for quantification of cow DNA in these products. The platform was applied to: (i) mixes of milks at fixed percentages; (ii) cheeses prepared with the same mixes; (iii) commercial dairy products. The methodology enabled the detection of DNA from cow in mixes of milk and cheeses with a limit of detection (LOD) of 0.1%. When applied to commercial dairy products the qxPCR gave results comparable with each single-plex Real Time PCR. A good correlation (R(2)>0.9) between peaks' area of derivative of melting curves of amplicons and percentages of cow milk in milk mixes and cheeses, allows for an estimation of cow DNA in a dynamic range varying from 0.1-5% to 1-25%. PMID:25976998

  4. Hydroxymethylfurfural and honey adulteration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, J W; Siciliano, J

    1980-01-01

    The value of the determination of hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) in the detection if invert sirup adulteration of honey is examined. Analysis of 481 samples of extracted honey and 41 comb honeys from producers, and samples of honey before and after processing from 8 packers provided basic data for establishing guidelines for HMF content of honey. A sample containing 20 mg/100 g or more should be considered as possibly adulterated and subjected to additional analysis for confirmation of the presence or absence of adulteration. Extremely high (about 50 mg/100 g) values are conclusive, however. PMID:7380794

  5. Research Progress on Detection Methods of Protein Adulteration in Milk Products%乳制品中异种蛋白掺假检测的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金萍; 丁洪流; 陈英; 李培

    2015-01-01

    Milk adulteration has become a prominent problem in the dairy industry development in our country. This paper presents the common means of protein adulteration in milk products , and summarizes the adulteration detection method for various means ,such as infrared spectroscopy , high-performance liquid chromatography, electrophoresis method, colorimetric method and PCR method, etc.%乳品掺假已成为困扰我国乳品工业发展的一个突出问题,本文阐述了乳制品中异种蛋白质摻假的常见手段,并综述了目前针对各种摻假手段的检测方法,如红外光谱法、高效液相色谱法、电泳法、比色法以及PCR方法等。

  6. Research Progress on Detection Methods of Protein Adulteration in Milk Products%乳制品中异种蛋白掺假检测的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金萍; 丁洪流; 陈英; 李培

    2015-01-01

    乳品掺假已成为困扰我国乳品工业发展的一个突出问题,本文阐述了乳制品中异种蛋白质摻假的常见手段,并综述了目前针对各种摻假手段的检测方法,如红外光谱法、高效液相色谱法、电泳法、比色法以及PCR方法等。%Milk adulteration has become a prominent problem in the dairy industry development in our country. This paper presents the common means of protein adulteration in milk products , and summarizes the adulteration detection method for various means ,such as infrared spectroscopy , high-performance liquid chromatography, electrophoresis method, colorimetric method and PCR method, etc.

  7. Species-specific identification of adulteration in cooked mutton Rista (a Kashmiri Wazwan cuisine product) with beef and buffalo meat through multiplex polymerase chain reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, M. Mansoor; Salahuddin, Mir; Mantoo, Imtiyaz A.; Adil, Sheikh; Jalal, Henna; Pal, M. Ashraf

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Meat adulteration is a serious problem in the meat industry and needs to be tackled to ensure the authenticity of meat products and protect the consumers from being the victims. In view of such likely problem in indigenous meat products of Kashmiri cuisine (Wazwan), the present work was performed to study the detection of beef and buffalo meat in cooked mutton Rista by mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) based multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method under laboratory conditions. Materials and Methods: Three experimental trials were conducted wherein the products were prepared from pure mutton, beef and buffalo meat, and their admixtures in the ratios of 60:20:20, 80:10:10, 90:05:05 and 98:01:01, respectively. Results: The primers used in the study amplified the cyt b gene fragments of sizes 124 bp, 472 bp and 585 bp for buffalo, cattle and sheep, respectively. It was possible to detect cattle and buffalo meat at the level of 1% in the mixed meat cooked Rista. The multiplex PCR successfully amplified cyt b gene fragments of mtDNA of the target species and thus produced characteristic band pattern for each species. The band intensities of cattle and buffalo in the mixed meat Rista progressively decreased corresponding to their decreasing level from 20% to 1%. Processing, cooking (moist heating) and non-meat formulation ingredients had no effect on detection of meat species adulteration. Conclusion: The multiplex PCR procedure standardized and developed in this study is simple, efficient, sensitive, reliable and highly specific for detecting falsification of cooked mutton product with beef and buffalo meat up to 1% level. PMID:27057103

  8. Species-specific identification of adulteration in cooked mutton Rista (a Kashmiri Wazwan cuisine product with beef and buffalo meat through multiplex polymerase chain reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mansoor Bhat

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Meat adulteration is a serious problem in the meat industry and needs to be tackled to ensure the authenticity of meat products and protect the consumers from being the victims. In view of such likely problem in indigenous meat products of Kashmiri cuisine (Wazwan, the present work was performed to study the detection of beef and buffalo meat in cooked mutton Rista by mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA based multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR method under laboratory conditions. Materials and Methods: Three experimental trials were conducted wherein the products were prepared from pure mutton, beef and buffalo meat, and their admixtures in the ratios of 60:20:20, 80:10:10, 90:05:05 and 98:01:01, respectively. Results: The primers used in the study amplified the cyt b gene fragments of sizes 124 bp, 472 bp and 585 bp for buffalo, cattle and sheep, respectively. It was possible to detect cattle and buffalo meat at the level of 1% in the mixed meat cooked Rista. The multiplex PCR successfully amplified cyt b gene fragments of mtDNA of the target species and thus produced characteristic band pattern for each species. The band intensities of cattle and buffalo in the mixed meat Rista progressively decreased corresponding to their decreasing level from 20% to 1%. Processing, cooking (moist heating and non-meat formulation ingredients had no effect on detection of meat species adulteration. Conclusion: The multiplex PCR procedure standardized and developed in this study is simple, efficient, sensitive, reliable and highly specific for detecting falsification of cooked mutton product with beef and buffalo meat up to 1% level.

  9. Methods for determination of milk and cheese adulteration by other milk types

    OpenAIRE

    Dubravka Samaržija; Sonja Damjanović; Jasmina Havranek

    2006-01-01

    In the world milk production, the contribution of goat, ovine, buffalo and other types of milk is small, compared to the cows' milk. Because of great availability, cows' milk is often used for adulteration of other milk types and dairy products. Due to adulteration, food characteristics are changed. Several analytical techniques were reported in the literature for the detection of milk and dairy products adulteration. Most of them are based on detection of milk protein fractions. Methods base...

  10. Genetic and Epigenetic Approaches for the Possible Detection of Adulteration and Auto-Adulteration in Saffron (Crocus sativus L.) Spice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soffritti, Giovanna; Busconi, Matteo; Sánchez, Rosa Ana; Thiercelin, Jean-Marie; Polissiou, Moschos; Roldán, Marta; Fernández, José Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Saffron (Crocus sativus L.) is very expensive and, because of this, often subject to adulteration. Modern genetic fingerprinting techniques are an alternative low cost technology to the existing chemical techniques, which are used to control the purity of food products. Buddleja officinalis Maxim, Gardenia jasminoides Ellis, Curcuma longa L., Carthamus tinctorius L. and Calendula officinalis L. are among the most frequently-used adulterants in saffron spice. Three commercial kits were compared concerning the ability to recover PCR-grade DNA from saffron, truly adulterated samples and possible adulterants, with a clear difference among them, mainly with the processed samples. Only one of the three kits was able to obtain amplifiable DNA from almost all of the samples, with the exception of extracts. On the recovered DNA, new markers were developed based on the sequence of the plastid genes matK and rbcL. These primers, mainly those developed on matK, were able to recognize saffron and the adulterant species and also in mixtures with very low percentages of adulterant. Finally, considering that the addition of different parts of saffron flowers is one of the most widespread adulterations, by analyzing the DNA of the different parts of the flower (styles, stamens and tepals) at the genetic and epigenetic level, we succeeded in finding differences between the three tissues that can be further evaluated for a possible detection of the kind of fraud. PMID:26978342

  11. Genetic and Epigenetic Approaches for the Possible Detection of Adulteration and Auto-Adulteration in Saffron (Crocus sativus L. Spice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna Soffritti

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Saffron (Crocus sativus L. is very expensive and, because of this, often subject to adulteration. Modern genetic fingerprinting techniques are an alternative low cost technology to the existing chemical techniques, which are used to control the purity of food products. Buddleja officinalis Maxim, Gardenia jasminoides Ellis, Curcuma longa L., Carthamus tinctorius L. and Calendula officinalis L. are among the most frequently-used adulterants in saffron spice. Three commercial kits were compared concerning the ability to recover PCR-grade DNA from saffron, truly adulterated samples and possible adulterants, with a clear difference among them, mainly with the processed samples. Only one of the three kits was able to obtain amplifiable DNA from almost all of the samples, with the exception of extracts. On the recovered DNA, new markers were developed based on the sequence of the plastid genes matK and rbcL. These primers, mainly those developed on matK, were able to recognize saffron and the adulterant species and also in mixtures with very low percentages of adulterant. Finally, considering that the addition of different parts of saffron flowers is one of the most widespread adulterations, by analyzing the DNA of the different parts of the flower (styles, stamens and tepals at the genetic and epigenetic level, we succeeded in finding differences between the three tissues that can be further evaluated for a possible detection of the kind of fraud.

  12. Detection of tallow adulteration in cow ghee by derivative spectrophotometry

    OpenAIRE

    Jirankalgikar, Nikhil M.; Subrata

    2014-01-01

    Context: Ghee is a widely consumed dairy product in India and that prepared from cow milk is mentioned in ayurvedic texts as an ingredient of many formulations/additive as well. Detection of cow ghee adulteration with vegetable oils/fats and animal body fats is a key concern. Indicated values for commonly used parameters to differentiate pure and adulterated ghee materials are many a times overlapping. Among reported techniques, ultraviolet fluorescence and paper chromatography technique are ...

  13. Research progress of identification techniques for meat products adulteration%肉制品掺假鉴别技术研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张小莉; 魏玲; 李宝明; 程小艳; 李萌; 武会娟

    2014-01-01

    As a large proportion of food consumption, meat products play an important role in the day life. In recent years, meat adulteration problem is increasingly serious, and identification and traceability of meat adulteration analysis become a hot topic. Traditional meat sensory and morphological identification methods cannot meet the needs of meat authentication. With the development of modern analytical instrumentation and biotechnology, a variety of protein analysis, DNA analysis and nondestructive testing technology become more sophisticated. Protein-based detection methods, such as immunoassay and chromatography, can detect quanti-tatively, but not for processed meat. Non-destructive testing method based on the spectral characteristics of the sample is simple, short detection time, has a unique advantage. DNA-based detection methods, especially quantitative PCR detection method has high sensitivity, good reproducibility of the results and other advantages, will become the future direction of the meat species identification, and has good prospects.%肉制品在食品消费中占很大比例,近年来,肉制品掺假问题日益严重,肉制品掺假鉴别和溯源分析成为研究热点。传统的通过感官及形态的肉类鉴别方法已经不能满足肉类掺假鉴别的需要。随着现代分析仪器和生物技术的发展,多种蛋白质分析法、DNA分析法和无损检测方法日趋成熟。基于蛋白质的检测方法,如免疫分析法和色谱分析法均可定量检测,但不适用于加工肉制品。基于样品特征光谱的无损检测方法操作简单,检测时间短,具有独特的优势。基于DNA的检测方法,特别是荧光定量PCR方法具有检测灵敏度高,结果重复性好等优势,将成为未来肉类物种鉴别的发展方向,具有很好的应用前景。

  14. Genetic and Epigenetic Approaches for the Possible Detection of Adulteration and Auto-Adulteration in Saffron (Crocus sativus L.) Spice

    OpenAIRE

    Giovanna Soffritti; Matteo Busconi; Rosa Ana Sánchez; Jean-Marie Thiercelin; Moschos Polissiou; Marta Roldán; José Antonio Fernández

    2016-01-01

    Saffron (Crocus sativus L.) is very expensive and, because of this, often subject to adulteration. Modern genetic fingerprinting techniques are an alternative low cost technology to the existing chemical techniques, which are used to control the purity of food products. Buddleja officinalis Maxim, Gardenia jasminoides Ellis, Curcuma longa L., Carthamus tinctorius L. and Calendula officinalis L. are among the most frequently-used adulterants in saffron spice. Three commercial kits were compare...

  15. Nanomaterial-based sensors for detection of foodborne bacterial pathogens and toxins as well as pork adulteration in meat products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Stephen Inbaraj

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Food safety draws considerable attention in the modern pace of the world owing to rapid-changing food recipes and food habits. Foodborne illnesses associated with pathogens, toxins, and other contaminants pose serious threat to human health. Besides, a large amount of money is spent on both analyses and control measures, which causes significant loss to the food industry. Conventional detection methods for bacterial pathogens and toxins are time consuming and laborious, requiring certain sophisticated instruments and trained personnel. In recent years, nanotechnology has emerged as a promising field for solving food safety issues in terms of detecting contaminants, enabling controlled release of preservatives to extend the shelf life of foods, and improving food-packaging strategies. Nanomaterials including metal oxide and metal nanoparticles, carbon nanotubes, and quantum dots are gaining a prominent role in the design of sensors and biosensors for food analysis. In this review, various nanomaterial-based sensors reported in the literature for detection of several foodborne bacterial pathogens and toxins are summarized highlighting their principles, advantages, and limitations in terms of simplicity, sensitivity, and multiplexing capability. In addition, the application through a noncross-linking method without the need for any surface modification is also presented for detection of pork adulteration in meat products.

  16. Coffee Adulteration: More than Two Decades of Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toci, Aline Theodoro; Farah, Adriana; Pezza, Helena Redigolo; Pezza, Leonardo

    2016-01-01

    Coffee is a ubiquitous food product of considerable economic importance to the countries that produce and export it. The adulteration of roasted coffee is a strategy used to reduce costs. Conventional methods employed to identify adulteration in roasted and ground coffee involve optical and electron microscopy, which require pretreatment of samples and are time-consuming and subjective. Other analytical techniques have been studied that might be more reliable, reproducible, and widely applicable. The present review provides an overview of three analytical approaches (physical, chemical, and biological) to the identification of coffee adulteration. A total of 30 published articles are considered. It is concluded that despite the existence of a number of excellent studies in this area, there still remains a lack of a suitably sensitive and widely applicable methodology able to take into account the various different aspects of adulteration, considering coffee varieties, defective beans, and external agents. PMID:25633422

  17. Detection of dyed saffron adulteration products%红花饮片染色掺伪品的检测方法探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    栾洁; 倪艳娜; 丁晴

    2012-01-01

    Objective To compare safflower and dyed false ones, and lo establish TLC and HPLC melhod for delerminalion of acid red 73 and carmine in safflower. Methods TLC was used lo idenlify acid red 73 and carmine in safflower; HPLC was used lo determine acid red 73 and carmine in safflower. Results Acid red 73 and carmine identified by TLC and determined by HPLC had clear features, and strong specificity. Conclusion The method is simple and feasible with good reproducibility, which can accurately detect in acid red 73 and carmine in the saffron dye-adulterated products.%目的 比较红花饮片及其染色掺伪品外观性状的区别,并建立TLC及HPLC方法,检测红花饮片中所使用的染料酸性红73和胭脂红.方法 采用TLC法对红花中的酸性红73和胭脂红进行了定性鉴别;采用HPLC法分别对酸性红73、胭脂红进行测定和定量分析.结果 红花中酸性红73和胭脂红的薄层色谱鉴别及HPLC测定特征明显,专属性强.结论 方法简单可行,重复性好,可准确检测红花染色掺伪品中的酸性红73和胭脂红.

  18. Screening of adulterants in milk powder using a high-throughput Raman chemical imaging method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milk is one of the most common targets for economically motivated adulteration. Adulterants in milk can cause illness and death when consumed, thus rapid and accurate detection method is needed for authenticating milk products. Our previous studies based on a point-scan Raman imaging system have dem...

  19. Detection of adulterated murine components in meat products by TaqMan© real-time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Xin; Zhang, Chi

    2016-02-01

    Using murine meat to substitute mutton has been identified as a new type of meat fraud in China, yet no detection method for murine species has been reported. Here, three kinds of rodent were used as target species to establish a murine-specific real-time PCR method of detection. The mitochondrial cytochrome b gene (cytb) of each target was sequenced and a TaqMan probe was designed based on the cytb. Simultaneously, an internal positive control (IPC) plasmid along with its respective probe were designed to monitor the PCR reaction. As a result, the duplex real-time PCR system was verified to be specific. The limit of detection (LOD) was lower than 1 pg of DNA per reaction and 0.1% murine contamination in meat mixtures. Standard curves were generated for a quantitative analysis. Thus, this study provided a new tool to control the quality of meat products for official and third-party laboratories. PMID:26304376

  20. Detection of 3-amino-1,2,4-triazine adulteration in milk using an oxidation product 3-amino-1,2,4-triazin-5(2H)-one.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abernethy, Grant; Higgs, Kerianne

    2013-04-12

    A rapid liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method to detect 3-amino-1,2,4-triazine (ATZ) in milk was developed as part of a programme to set up methods for detecting the economically motivated adulteration of raw milk with nitrogen-containing compounds. When ATZ was added to unpasteurised or pasteurised milk at levels of 10-1000 ppm, the levels declined over a period of a few days and in some cases declined below the limit of detection of the analytical method (1 ppm). ATZ did not degrade in deproteinised milk extracts, in aqueous standards or in aqueous (non-milk) controls, suggesting that degradation was mediated by a pasteurisation-resistant enzymatic or microbial process. An oxidation product of ATZ was detected by mass spectrometry, and a tentative structure for this compound (3-amino-1,2,4-triazin-5-one, ATZO) was determined by fragmentation analysis and high resolution mass spectrometry. The accumulation of this oxidation product correlated with the loss of ATZ in milk samples. It was concluded that the detection of ATZO could be used as a marker for the addition of ATZ and that both compounds should be monitored during surveys looking for the ATZ adulteration of milk. PMID:23473510

  1. Detection of Durum Wheat Pasta Adulteration in the Jordanian Market by Polymerase Chain Reaction Technology

    OpenAIRE

    H. Al-Rousan; N.D. Al-Hmoud; Ibrahim, M. A.; B.O. Hayek

    2011-01-01

    Taking into account the impact of monitoring food adulteration on the quality of food products, the aim of this study was to use polymerase chain reaction technology to detect possible adulteration of durum wheat pasta products in the Jordanian market. Cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide method was applied for extracting genomic DNA from twenty six randomly collected pasta products, the results suggested the suitability of this method for DNA extraction from pasta products. Specific primers were ...

  2. Nanobioprobe for the Determination of Pork Adulteration in Burger Formulations

    OpenAIRE

    Ali, M. E.; MUSTAFA, S.; Hashim, U.; Che Man, Y. B.; K L Foo

    2012-01-01

    We report the development of a swine-specific hybrid nanobioprobe through a covalent integration of a fluorophore-labeled 27-nucleotide AluI-fragment of swine cytochrome b gene to a 3 nm gold nanoparticle for the determination of pork adulteration in processed meat products. We tested the probe to estimate adulterated pork in ready-to-eat pork-spiked beef burgers. The probe quantitatively detected 1–100% spiked pork in burger formulations with ≥90% accuracy. A plot of observed fluorescence ag...

  3. Authenticity control of game meat products--a single method to detect and quantify adulteration of fallow deer (Dama dama), red deer (Cervus elaphus) and sika deer (Cervus nippon) by real-time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Druml, Barbara; Grandits, Stephanie; Mayer, Walter; Hochegger, Rupert; Cichna-Markl, Margit

    2015-03-01

    This contribution presents a single real-time PCR assay allowing the determination of the deer content (the sum of fallow deer (Dama dama), red deer (Cervus elaphus) and sika deer (Cervus nippon)) in meat products to detect food adulteration. The PCR assay does not show cross-reactivity with 20 animal species and 43 botanical species potentially contained in game meat products. The limit of quantification is 0.5% for fallow deer and red deer and 0.1% for sika deer. The deer content in meat products is determined by relating the concentration obtained with the deer PCR assay to that obtained with a reference system which amplifies mammals and poultry DNA. The analysis of binary meat mixtures with pork, a meat mixture containing equal amounts of fallow deer, red deer and sika deer in pork and a model game sausage showed that the quantification approach is very accurate (systematic error generally <25%). PMID:25306377

  4. Phenytoin Toxicity from Cocaine Adulteration

    OpenAIRE

    Roldan, Carlos J.

    2014-01-01

    The use of phenytoin (PHT) as a cocaine adulterant was reported decades ago;that practice is still current. Ironically PHT has also been used for the treatment of cocaine dependence. A drug smuggler developed PHT toxicity after swallowing several rocks of crack. We investigated the current trends of PHT as a cocaine adulterant and its toxicological implications. We also reviewed the clinical use of PTH in relation to cocaine. The use of PHT as cocaine cut is a current practice. This may affec...

  5. Phenytoin Toxicity from Cocaine Adulteration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roldan, Carlos J.

    2014-01-01

    The use of phenytoin (PHT) as a cocaine adulterant was reported decades ago; that practice is still current. Ironically PHT has also been used for the treatment of cocaine dependence. A drug smuggler developed PHT toxicity after swallowing several rocks of crack. We investigated the current trends of PHT as a cocaine adulterant and its toxicological implications. We also reviewed the clinical use of PTH in relation to cocaine. The use of PHT as cocaine cut is a current practice. This may affect the clinical manifestations and the management of the cocaine-related visits to the emergency department. PMID:24672596

  6. [Determination of adulteration in honey using near-infrared spectroscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lan-Zhen; Zhao, Jing; Ye, Zhi-Hua; Zhong, Yan-Ping

    2008-11-01

    The objective of the present research is to study the potential of using Fourier transform near-infrared spectroscopy (FT-NIR) in conjunction with discriminant partial least squares (DPLS) chemometric techniques for the discrimination of honey authenticity. First, seventy one commercial honey samples from Chinese market were analyzed to detect the levels of honey adulteration by stable carbon isotope ratio and the chemical result showed that the samples include unadulterated (n = 27) and adulterated (n = 44) products. The samples were scanned in the spectral region between 4 000 and 11 000 cm(-1) by FT-NIR spectrometer with an optic fiber of 2 mm path-length and an InGaAs detector and then divided randomly five times into two sets, namely calibration sets and validation sets, respectively. Five kinds of mathematic models of honey samples were established for classification of honeys as authentic or adulterated by using DPLS. Different spectra pretreatment methods, spectral range and different principal component factors were selected to optimize the calibration models. The calibration models were successfully validated with exterior cross-validation methods. Through comparison analysis of the results, the overall corrected identification rate of authentic and adulterated honey samples in five calibration models were 91.49%, 94.68%, 92.98%, 93.86% and 94.87%, respectively. The correct classification rate of the validation samples was 93.75%, 89.58%, 89.29%, 92.31% and 86.96% from model one to model five, respectively and 100% of adulterated honey samples were correctly identified and classified in validation models 2, 3 and 4. The results demonstrated that FT-NIR together with DPLS could be used as a rapid and cost-efficient screening tool for discrimination of commercial honey adulteration, and the analytical technique would be significant to Chinese honey quality supervision. PMID:19271491

  7. The "Adulteration" of Children's Books.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Jo

    1984-01-01

    Suggesting that children's books have become more adult in content and tone, this essay addresses problem of organization of children's library materials to provide access to adult readers. Extent of adult appeal in children's books, examples of "adulterated" nonfiction and fiction, and questions concerning organizational and attitudinal changes…

  8. Detection of adulteration in honey samples added various sugar syrups with 13C/12C isotope ratio analysis method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosun, Murat

    2013-06-01

    Honey can be adulterated in various ways. One of the adulteration methods is the addition of different sugar syrups during or after honey production. Starch-based sugar syrups, high fructose corn syrup (HFCS), glucose syrup (GS) and saccharose syrups (SS), which are produced from beet or canes, can be used for adulterating honey. In this study, adulterated honey samples were prepared with the addition of HFCS, GS and SS (beet sugar) at a ratio of 0%, 10%, 20%, 40% and 50% by weight. (13)C/(12)C analysis was conducted on these adulterated honey samples using an isotope ratio mass spectrometer in combination with an elemental analyser (EA-IRMS). As a result, adulteration using C(4) sugar syrups (HFCS and GS) could be detected to a certain extent while adulteration of honey using C(3) sugar syrups (beet sugar) could not be detected. Adulteration by using SS (beet sugar) still has a serious detection problem, especially in countries in which beet is used in manufacturing sugar. For this reason, practice and analysis methods are needed to meet this deficit and to detect the adulterations precisely in the studies that will be conducted. PMID:23411291

  9. Identification of Catechol as a New Marker for Detecting Propolis Adulteration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuai Huang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Adulteration of propolis with poplar extract is a serious issue in the bee products market. The aim of this study was to identify marker compounds in adulterated propolis, and examine the transformation of chemical components from poplar buds to propolis. The chemical profiles of poplar extracts and propolis were compared, and a new marker compound, catechol, was isolated and identified from the extracts of poplar buds. The polyphenol oxidase, catechol oxidase, responsible for catalyzing oxidation of catechol was detected in poplar buds and propolis. The results indicate catechol can be used as a marker to detect propolis adulterated with poplar extract.

  10. Evaluation of vibrational spectroscopic methods to identify and quantify multiple adulterants in herbal medicines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rooney, Jeremy S; McDowell, Arlene; Strachan, Clare J; Gordon, Keith C

    2015-06-01

    To counter the growth of herbal medicines adulterated with pharmaceuticals crossing borders, rapid, inexpensive and non-destructive analytical techniques, that can handle complex matrices, are required. Since mid-infrared (MIR), near infrared (NIR) and Raman spectroscopic techniques meet these criteria, their performance in identifying adulterants in seized weightloss herbal medicines is definitively determined. Initially a validated high pressure liquid chromatography methodology was used for reference identification and quantification of the adulterants sibutramine H2O·HCl, fenfluramine HCl and phenolphthalein. Of 38 products, only sibutramine and phenolphthalein were detected by HPLC. The spectroscopic measurements showed Raman was ill-suited due to sample burning and emission while NIR lacked adulterant selectivity. Conversely, MIR demonstrated apt identification performance, which manifested as spectrally meaningful separation based on the presence and type of adulterant during principal component analysis (test set validated). Partial least squares regression models were constructed from the MIR training sets for sibutramine and phenolphthalein - both models fitted the training set data well. Average test set prediction errors were 0.8% for sibutramine and 2.2% for phenolphthalein over the respective concentration ranges of 1.7-11.7% and 0.9-34.4%. MIR is apposite for the screening of anorectic and laxative adulterants and is the most viable technique for wider adulterant screening in herbal medicines. PMID:25863375

  11. Phenytoin Toxicity from Cocaine Adulteration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos J. Roldan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of phenytoin (PHT as a cocaine adulterant was reported decades ago;that practice is still current. Ironically PHT has also been used for the treatment of cocaine dependence. A drug smuggler developed PHT toxicity after swallowing several rocks of crack. We investigated the current trends of PHT as a cocaine adulterant and its toxicological implications. We also reviewed the clinical use of PTH in relation to cocaine. The use of PHT as cocaine cut is a current practice. This may affect the clinical manifestations and the management of the cocaine-related visits to the emergency department. [West J Emerg Med. 2014;15(2:127–130.

  12. Fuel adulteration issues in Greece

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalligeros, S.; Zannikos, F.; Stournas, S.; Lois, E. [National Technical Univ. of Athens, Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Athens (Greece)

    2003-01-01

    The fuel adulteration problem is associated with environmental pollution, problems with engine performance, and tax losses. Here, results are presented of a survey in leaded gasoline and automotive diesel, obtained from service stations representative of all the oil companies operating in Greece. For this purpose, 165 samples of gasoline and 420 samples of automotive diesel were collected from various parts of the country during the years 1998, 1999, and 2000. The gasoline samples were subsequently analyzed for their key properties and for any adulteration with cheaper unleaded gasoline. Octane number, benzene, olefins, and total aromatics were determined with the mid-IR method, and the sulfur content with a UVF elemental analyzer. The analysis of the automotive diesel samples concerned some key properties such as the cetane index, density, sulfur content, and the distillation properties of the fuel. The results indicate that there is a large fluctuation of fuel properties among the oil marketers. Examination of the quinizarin content (the tracer of unleaded gasoline) has shown that 11 leaded gasoline samples (8.8%) were mixed with unleaded gasoline, 5 leaded gasoline samples (4%) were mixed with aromatic solvents, whereas about 28% of the automotive diesel samples suffered from some degree of adulteration, mainly with cheaper heating fuel; and one automotive diesel sample was adulterated with a lighter fraction. Fuel misuse is a common problem not only for European countries but for practically every nation in the world. The European Union recently expressed its concern on this issue, mandating that by the year 2002 all the member states will promote the development of a uniform system for fuel quality monitoring. (Author)

  13. Detection of Adulteration in Argan Oil by Using an Electronic Nose and a Voltammetric Electronic Tongue

    OpenAIRE

    Madiha Bougrini; Khalid Tahri; Zouhair Haddi; Tarik Saidi; Nezha El Bari; Benachir Bouchikhi

    2014-01-01

    Adulteration detection of argan oil is one of the main aspects of its quality control. Following recent fraud scandals, it is mandatory to ensure product quality and customer protection. The aim of this study is to detect the percentages of adulteration of argan oil with sunflower oil by using the combination of a voltammetric e-tongue and an e-nose based on metal oxide semiconductor sensors and pattern recognition techniques. Data analysis is performed by three pattern recognition methods: p...

  14. Identification of Catechol as a New Marker for Detecting Propolis Adulteration

    OpenAIRE

    Shuai Huang; Cui-Ping Zhang; Li, George Q.; Yue-Yi Sun; Kai Wang; Fu-Liang Hu

    2014-01-01

    Adulteration of propolis with poplar extract is a serious issue in the bee products market. The aim of this study was to identify marker compounds in adulterated propolis, and examine the transformation of chemical components from poplar buds to propolis. The chemical profiles of poplar extracts and propolis were compared, and a new marker compound, catechol, was isolated and identified from the extracts of poplar buds. The polyphenol oxidase, catechol oxidase, responsible for catalyzing oxid...

  15. Screening of synthetic PDE-5 inhibitors and their analogues as adulterants: analytical techniques and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Dhavalkumar Narendrabhai; Li, Lin; Kee, Chee-Leong; Ge, Xiaowei; Low, Min-Yong; Koh, Hwee-Ling

    2014-01-01

    The popularity of phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE-5) enzyme inhibitors for the treatment of erectile dysfunction has led to the increase in prevalence of illicit sexual performance enhancement products. PDE-5 inhibitors, namely sildenafil, tadalafil and vardenafil, and their unapproved designer analogues are being increasingly used as adulterants in the herbal products and health supplements marketed for sexual performance enhancement. To date, more than 50 unapproved analogues of prescription PDE-5 inhibitors were found as adulterants in the literature. To avoid detection of such adulteration by standard screening protocols, the perpetrators of such illegal products are investing time and resources to synthesize exotic analogues and devise novel means for adulteration. A comprehensive review of conventional and advance analytical techniques to detect and characterize the adulterants is presented. The rapid identification and structural elucidation of unknown analogues as adulterants is greatly enhanced by the wide myriad of analytical techniques employed, including high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), liquid chromatography mass-spectrometry (LC-MS), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, vibrational spectroscopy, liquid chromatography-Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance-mass spectrometry (LC-FT-ICR-MS), liquid chromatograph-hybrid triple quadrupole linear ion trap mass spectrometer with information dependent acquisition, ultra high performance liquid chromatography-time of flight-mass spectrometry (UHPLC-TOF-MS), ion mobility spectroscopy (IMS) and immunoassay methods. The many challenges in detecting and characterizing such adulterants, and the need for concerted effort to curb adulteration in order to safe guard public safety and interest are discussed. PMID:23721687

  16. Detection of Adulteration in Argan Oil by Using an Electronic Nose and a Voltammetric Electronic Tongue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madiha Bougrini

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Adulteration detection of argan oil is one of the main aspects of its quality control. Following recent fraud scandals, it is mandatory to ensure product quality and customer protection. The aim of this study is to detect the percentages of adulteration of argan oil with sunflower oil by using the combination of a voltammetric e-tongue and an e-nose based on metal oxide semiconductor sensors and pattern recognition techniques. Data analysis is performed by three pattern recognition methods: principal component analysis (PCA, discriminant factor analysis (DFA, and support vector machines (SVMs. Excellent results were obtained in the differentiation between unadulterated and adulterated argan oil with sunflower one. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first attempt to demonstrate whether the combined e-nose and e-tongue technologies could be successfully applied to the detection of adulteration of argan oil.

  17. Oil Adulteration Identification by Hyperspectral Imaging Using QHM and ICA

    OpenAIRE

    Zhongzhi Han; Jianhua Wan; Limiao Deng; Kangwei Liu

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the feasibility of identification of qualified and adulterated oil product using hyperspectral imaging(HIS) technique, a novel feature set based on quantized histogram matrix (QHM) and feature selection method using improved kernel independent component analysis (iKICA) is proposed for HSI. We use UV and Halogen excitations in this study. Region of interest(ROI) of hyperspectral images of 256 oil samples from four varieties are obtained within the spectral region of 400-720nm. ...

  18. Detection of argan oil adulterated with vegetable oils: new markers

    OpenAIRE

    Ourrach, I.; Rada, M.; Pérez-Camino, M. C.; Benaissa, M.; Guinda, Á.

    2012-01-01

    This work aims to contribute to controlling the authenticity of pure argan oil, a valuable Moroccan product. Fatty acids, hydrocarbon fraction, 3,5-stigmastadiene, the alkyl esters of fatty acids, chlorophyllic pigments and physical properties such as viscosity, density and refractive index were studied in order to detect the adulteration of argan oil with edible vegetable oils. The results found in this study show that 3,5-stigmastadiene, kaurene and pheophytin-a can be used as possible new ...

  19. Food Adulteration in Switzerland: From 'Ravioli' over 'Springbok' to 'Disco Sushi'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubner, Philipp

    2016-01-01

    The driving force behind food adulteration is monetary profit and this has remained unchanged for at least the last hundred years. Food adulterations were and still are difficult to uncover because they occur mostly in an unpredictable and unexpected way. Very often food falsifiers take advantage of modern technology in such a way that food adulterations are difficult or sometimes even impossible to detect. Targets for food adulteration were and still are highly priced food items such as spirits, meat, seafood and olive oil. Although difficult to detect, food adulterations were in the past strong driving forces for the development of adequate detection methods in the official food control laboratories and for the enforcement of the food law. A very prominent example in this context is the 'Ravioli scandal' in Switzerland in the late 1970s which showed that cheap second-class meat could be processed into products without being discovered for long time. As a consequence the official food control laboratories in Switzerland were reinforced with more laboratory equipment and technical staff. With the introduction of new detection principles such as DNA-based analytical methods new kinds of food adulteration could and can be uncovered. Analytical methods have their limits and in some cases of food fraud there are no analytical means to detect them. In such cases the examination of trade by checking of accounts is the method of choice. PMID:27198810

  20. Fuel cycles using adulterated plutonium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brooksbank, R. E.; Bigelow, J. E.; Campbell, D. O.; Kitts, F. G.; Lindauer, R. B.

    1978-01-01

    Adjustments in the U-Pu fuel cycle necessitated by decisions made to improve the nonproliferation objectives of the US are examined. The uranium-based fuel cycle, using bred plutonium to provide the fissile enrichment, is the fuel system with the highest degree of commercial development at the present time. However, because purified plutonium can be used in weapons, this fuel cycle is potentially vulnerable to diversion of that plutonium. It does appear that there are technologically sound ways in which the plutonium might be adulterated by admixture with /sup 238/U and/or radioisotopes, and maintained in that state throughout the fuel cycle, so that the likelihood of a successful diversion is small. Adulteration of the plutonium in this manner would have relatively little effect on the operations of existing or planned reactors. Studies now in progress should show within a year or two whether the less expensive coprocessing scheme would provide adequate protection (coupled perhaps with elaborate conventional safeguards procedures) or if the more expensive spiked fuel cycle is needed as in the proposed civex pocess. If the latter is the case, it will be further necessary to determine the optimum spiking level, which could vary as much as a factor of a billion. A very basic question hangs on these determinations: What is to be the nature of the recycle fuel fabrication facilities. If the hot, fully remote fuel fabrication is required, then a great deal of further development work will be required to make the full cycle fully commercial.

  1. Evaluation of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) adulteration with plant adulterants by (1)H NMR metabolite fingerprinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrakis, Eleftherios A; Cagliani, Laura R; Polissiou, Moschos G; Consonni, Roberto

    2015-04-15

    In the present work, a preliminary study for the detection of adulterated saffron and the identification of the adulterant used by means of (1)H NMR and chemometrics is reported. Authentic Greek saffron and four typical plant-derived materials utilised as bulking agents in saffron, i.e., Crocus sativus stamens, safflower, turmeric, and gardenia were investigated. A two-step approach, relied on the application of both OPLS-DA and O2PLS-DA models to the (1)H NMR data, was adopted to perform authentication and prediction of authentic and adulterated saffron. Taking into account the deficiency of established methodologies to detect saffron adulteration with plant adulterants, the method developed resulted reliable in assessing the type of adulteration and could be viable for dealing with extensive saffron frauds at a minimum level of 20% (w/w). PMID:25466103

  2. Analysis method set up to check against adulterated export honey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over the past few years, North America has experienced occasional problems with the adulteration of honey, mainly by additions of other, cheaper sugar to increase bulk and lower production costs. The main addition was usually high fructose corn syrup, which had a similar chemical composition to that of honey. As a consequence of this type of adulteration, a method for its detection was developed using isotope ratio mass spectroscopy (IRMS). This was later refined to be more sensitive and is now specified as an Official Test. The Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences has now set up the analysis method to the international criteria at the Rafter Stable Isotope Laboratory in Lower Hutt. 2 refs

  3. Detection of argan oil adulterated with vegetable oils: New markers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ourrach, I.; Rada, M.; Perez-Camino, M. C.; Benaissa, M.; Guinda, A

    2012-07-01

    This work aims to contribute to controlling the authenticity of pure argan oil, a valuable Moroccan product. Fatty acids, hydrocarbon fraction, 3,5-stigmastadiene, the alkyl esters of fatty acids, chlorophyllic pigments and physical properties such as viscosity, density and refractive index were studied in order to detect the adulteration of argan oil with edible vegetable oils. The results found in this study show that 3,5-stigmastadiene, kaurene and pheophytin-a can be used as possible new markers for argan oil blends of up to 5% with refined, sunflower and virgin olive oils. Due to the similarity of the fatty acid compositions of the edible oils studied and argan oil, fatty acids can be employed as markers for the detection of argan oil adulteration at levels higher than 10%. Among the physical properties studied, the refractive index shows significant differences for sunflower oil and its blend at 10% with argan oil. (Author) 35 refs.

  4. [Dietary supplements on the domestic market adulterated with sildenafil and tadalafil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csupor, Dezsö; Szekeres, András; Kecskeméti, Anita; Vékes, Erika; Veres, Katalin; Micsinay, Akos; Szendrei, Kálmán; Hohmann, Judit

    2010-10-24

    Mandatory requirements regulating the manufacture and sale of dietary supplements are much less stringent than those related to pharmaceuticals. Hence, the sheer number and diversity of marketed products in this category has shown an unprecedented increase Europe-wide. Not surprising, that cases for incorrect marketing/promotion, incorrect recommendations for product use, as well as reported incidents of questionable product quality and/or deliberate adulterations have also become frequent in recent years. Typical adulterations consist of admixtures of synthetic pharmaceuticals to the matrix fraudulently declared to consist exclusively of extracts of various (medicinal) plants. In the present paper, the results of qualitative investigations of ten plant-based preparations, marketed in Hungary, and recommended as (or alleged to be) natural aphrodisiacs, are reported. Sildenafil and/or tadalafil or related analogs were detected in six of the ten products. These results highlight, once more, the unacceptable risks for the consumers of such adulterated dietary supplements. PMID:20940118

  5. The application of NMR and MS methods for detection of adulteration of wine, fruit juices, and olive oil. A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogrinc, N; Kosir, I J; Spangenberg, J E; Kidric, J

    2003-06-01

    This review covers two important techniques, high resolution nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and mass spectrometry (MS), used to characterize food products and detect possible adulteration of wine, fruit juices, and olive oil, all important products of the Mediterranean Basin. Emphasis is placed on the complementary use of SNIF-NMR (site-specific natural isotopic fractionation nuclear magnetic resonance) and IRMS (isotope-ratio mass spectrometry) in association with chemometric methods for detecting the adulteration. PMID:12819845

  6. Adulteration detection in milk using infrared spectroscopy combined with two-dimensional correlation analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Bin; Liu, Rong; Yang, Renjie; Xu, Kexin

    2010-02-01

    Adulteration of milk and dairy products has brought serious threats to human health as well as enormous economic losses to the food industry. Considering the diversity of adulterants possibly mixed in milk, such as melamine, urea, tetracycline, sugar/salt and so forth, a rapid, widely available, high-throughput, cost-effective method is needed for detecting each of the components in milk at once. In this paper, a method using Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) combined with two-dimensional (2D) correlation spectroscopy is established for the discriminative analysis of adulteration in milk. Firstly, the characteristic peaks of the raw milk are found in the 4000-400 cm-1 region by its original spectra. Secondly, the adulterant samples are respectively detected with the same method to establish a spectral database for subsequent comparison. Then, 2D correlation spectra of the samples are obtained which have high time resolution and can provide information about concentration-dependent intensity changes not readily accessible from one-dimensional spectra. And the characteristic peaks in the synchronous 2D correlation spectra of the suspected samples are compared with those of raw milk. The differences among their synchronous spectra imply that the suspected milk sample must contain some kinds of adulterants. Melamine, urea, tetracycline and glucose adulterants in milk are identified respectively. This nondestructive method can be used for a correct discrimination on whether the milk and dairy products are adulterated with deleterious substances and it provides a new simple and cost-effective alternative to test the components of milk.

  7. Fingerprinting food: current technologies for the detection of food adulteration and contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, David I; Brewster, Victoria L; Dunn, Warwick B; Allwood, J William; Golovanov, Alexander P; Goodacre, Royston

    2012-09-01

    Major food adulteration and contamination events seem to occur with some regularity, such as the widely publicised adulteration of milk products with melamine and the recent microbial contamination of vegetables across Europe for example. With globalisation and rapid distribution systems, these can have international impacts with far-reaching and sometimes lethal consequences. These events, though potentially global in the modern era, are in fact far from contemporary, and deliberate adulteration of food products is probably as old as the food processing and production systems themselves. This review first introduces some background into these practices, both historically and contemporary, before introducing a range of the technologies currently available for the detection of food adulteration and contamination. These methods include the vibrational spectroscopies: near-infrared, mid-infrared, Raman; NMR spectroscopy, as well as a range of mass spectrometry (MS) techniques, amongst others. This subject area is particularly relevant at this time, as it not only concerns the continuous engagement with food adulterers, but also more recent issues such as food security, bioterrorism and climate change. It is hoped that this introductory overview acts as a springboard for researchers in science, technology, engineering, and industry, in this era of systems-level thinking and interdisciplinary approaches to new and contemporary problems. PMID:22729179

  8. Methods for determination of milk and cheese adulteration by other milk types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dubravka Samaržija

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available In the world milk production, the contribution of goat, ovine, buffalo and other types of milk is small, compared to the cows' milk. Because of great availability, cows' milk is often used for adulteration of other milk types and dairy products. Due to adulteration, food characteristics are changed. Several analytical techniques were reported in the literature for the detection of milk and dairy products adulteration. Most of them are based on detection of milk protein fractions. Methods based on milk fat composition, such as profiles of triglycerides and ratios of distinct fatty acids, as well as polymerase chain reaction for detection of specific DNA sequences of species are also used. In this paper advantages and disadvantages of different methods (electrophoresis, isoelectric focusing, ELISA method, capillary electro-phoresis, chromatography, mass spectrometry, PCR which are used for the species detection of milk and cheese are described.

  9. Automotive gasoline quality analysis by gas chromatography: study of adulteration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, L.S.; Azevedo, D.A. [Dept. de Quimica Organica, Univ. Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Ilha do Fundao, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); d' Avila, L.A. [Dept. de Processos Organicos, Univ. Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Ilha do Fundao, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2003-10-01

    The addition of organic solvents (light aliphatic, heavy aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons) in Brazilian gasoline is unfortunately very frequent, and this illicit practice impares gasoline quality. Gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analyses can be used as a procedure to improve the detection of adulterated gasoline. The results showed that adulterated samples and also the type of organic solvent used in adulteration can be detected by comparison of chromatographic profiles (standard samples versus adulterated samples). However, a single GC analysis can detect an adulterated gasoline, and so decrease the number of adulterated samples approved as presenting good quality. (orig.)

  10. Determination of Milk Fat Adulteration with Vegetable Oils and Animal Fats by Gas Chromatographic Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin-Man; Kim, Ha-Jung; Park, Jung-Min

    2015-09-01

    This study assessed the potential application of gas chromatography (GC) in detecting milk fat (MF) adulteration with vegetable oils and animal fats and of characterizing samples by fat source. One hundred percent pure MF was adulterated with different vegetable oils and animal fats at various concentrations (0%, 10%, 30%, 50%, 70%, and 90%). GC was used to obtain the fatty acid (FA) profiles, triacylglycerol (TG) contents, and cholesterol contents. The pure MF and the adulterated MF samples were discriminated based on the total concentrations of saturated FAs and on the 2 major FAs (oleic acid [C18:1n9c] and linoleic acid [C18:2n6c], TGs [C52 and C54], and cholesterol contents using statistical analysis to compared difference. These bio-markers enabled the detection of as low as 10% adulteration of non-MF into 100% pure MF. The study demonstrated the high potential of GC to rapidly detect MF adulteration with vegetable and animal fats, and discriminate among commercial butter and milk products according to the fat source. These data can be potentially useful in detecting foreign fats in these butter products. Furthermore, it is important to consider that several individual samples should be analyzed before coming to a conclusion about MF authenticity. PMID:26265530

  11. Detection of adulteration in acetonitrile using near infrared spectroscopy coupled with pattern recognition techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Le-Qian; Yin, Chun-Ling; Zeng, Zhi-Peng

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, near infrared spectroscopy (NIR) in cooperation with the pattern recognition techniques were used to determine the type of neat acetonitrile and the adulteration in acetonitrile. NIR spectra were collected between 400 nm and 2498 nm. The experimental data were first subjected to analysis of principal component analysis (PCA) to reveal significant differences and potential patterns between samples. Then support vector machine (SVM) were applied to develop classification models and the best parameter combination was selected by grid search. Under the best parameter combination, the classification accuracy rates of three types of neat acetonitrile reached 87.5%, and 100% for the adulteration with different concentration levels. The results showed that NIR spectroscopy combined with SVM could be utilized for determining the potential adulterants including water, ethanol, isopropyl alcohol, acrylonitrile, methanol, and by-products associated with the production of acetonitrile. PMID:26123603

  12. An Approach to Quality Assessment and Detection of Adulterants in Selected Commercial Brands of Jelly in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Sarower, Kazi; Uddin, Burhan; Jubayer, Fahad

    2015-01-01

    The study was conducted to determine the adulteration and assessment the quality of jelly commercially available in local market of Mymensingh, Bangladesh. A comprehensive baseline survey was completed to know consumers attitude towards jelly covering the people of different sections of society. It was found that most of the consumers did not want to consume this product as they believed that all commercial jellies were adulterated. Analytical works were done in laboratories of Bangl...

  13. Uncovering the method of production and detection of synthetic acetic acid adulteration in vinegar by tandem use of 14C liquid scintillation counting and 13C/12C ratio mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    (standardized against the International Pee Dee Belemnite Standard). Delta values of acetic acid obtained from C4 plants including sugar cane, and pineapple were between (-12.2) to (-15.9) per mil respectively. The vinegar obtained from mango, a C3 plant, gave (-20.1) per mil. The acetic acid produced from sugar cane using an acetator presented a fractionation (-10.2 per mil.) which allows for it to be differentiated from cane vinegar produced via the conventional fermentation production, not using an acetator. Possible synthetic/petroleum derived vinegars exhibit delta values beyond (-30) per mil. Five out of seven of the commercial vinegar brands were suspected to be made of synthetic acetic acid. Isotope ratio mass spectrometry and liquid scintillation counting are promising tools for revealing the botanical origin and method of production, and detection of synthetic acid adulteration in vinegar samples. (author)

  14. Voltamperometric Discrimination of Urea and Melamine Adulterated Skimmed Milk Powder

    OpenAIRE

    Eduardo Cortón; M. Celina Bonetto; Sacco, Natalia J.; Fauerbach, Jonathan A.; Astrid Hilding-Ohlsson

    2012-01-01

    Nitrogen compounds like urea and melamine are known to be commonly used for milk adulteration resulting in undesired intoxication; a well-known example is the Chinese episode occurred in 2008. The development of a rapid, reliable and economic test is of relevance in order to improve adulterated milk identification. Cyclic voltammetry studies using an Au working electrode were performed on adulterated and non-adulterated milk samples from different independent manufacturers. Voltammetric data ...

  15. Fiber optical sensor for the determination of adulteration in petrol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bali, L. M.; Srivastava, Atul K.; Shukla, Rajesh K.; Srivastava, Anchal

    1999-07-01

    The newly designed prism based fiber optical refractometer sensor has been used to determine adulteration in petrol. A procedure for identification of the adulterant and determination of its concentration in a sample of petrol has been reported. Substances like kerosene, diesel, a mixture of these two or of aviation gasoline and kerosene have been used as adulterants.

  16. Development of QCM Biosensor with Specific Cow Milk Protein Antibody for Candidate Milk Adulteration Detection

    OpenAIRE

    Sakti, Setyawan P.; Nur Chabibah; Ayu, Senja P.; Masdiana C. Padaga; Aulanni’am Aulanni’am

    2016-01-01

    Adulteration of goat milk is usually done using cow’s milk product. Cow milk is used as it is widely available and its price is cheaper compared to goat milk. This paper shows a development of candidate tools for milk adulteration using cow milk. A quartz crystal microbalance immunosensor was developed using commercial crystal resonator and polyclonal antibody specific to cow milk protein. A specific protein at 208 KDa is found only in cow milk and does not exist in goat milk. The existence o...

  17. Simultaneous Detection of Three Phosphodiesterase Type 5 Inhibitors and Eight of Their Analogs in Lifestyle Products and Screening for Adulterants by High-Performance Thin-Layer Chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Tiên T K; Theocharis, Grigorios; Reich, Eike

    2015-01-01

    An HPTLC method is proposed to permit effective screening for the presence of three phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors (PDE5-Is; sildenafil, vardenafil, and tadalafil) and eight of their analogs (hydroxyacetildenafil, homosildenafil, thiohomosildenafil, acetildenafil, acetaminotadalafil, propoxyphenyl hydroxyhomosildenafil, hydroxyhomosildenafil, and hydroxythiohomosildenafil) in finished products, including tablets, capsules, chocolate, instant coffee, syrup, and chewing gum. For all the finished products, the same simple sample preparation may be applied: ultrasound-assisted extraction in 10 mL methanol for 30 min followed by centrifugation. The Rf values of individual HPTLC bands afford preliminary identification of potential PDE5-Is. Scanning densitometry capabilities enable comparison of the unknown UV spectra with those of known standard compounds and allow further structural insight. Mass spectrometric analysis of the material derived from individual zones supplies an additional degree of confidence. Significantly, the proposed screening technique allows focus on the already known PDE5 Is and provides a platform for isolation and chemical categorization of the newly-synthesized analogs. Furthermore, the scope could be expanded to other therapeutic categories (e.g., analgesics, antidiabetics, and anorexiants) that are occasionally coadulterated along with the PDE5-Is. The method was successfully applied to screening of 45 commercial lifestyle products. Of those, 31 products tested positive for at least one illegal component (sildenafil, tadalafil, propoxyphenyl hydroxyhomosildenafil, or dimethylsildenafil). PMID:26525240

  18. Barcoding melting curve analysis for rapid, sensitive, and discriminating authentication of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) from its adulterants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Chao; Cao, Liang; Yuan, Yuan; Chen, Min; Jin, Yan; Huang, Luqi

    2014-01-01

    Saffron (Crocus sativus L.) is one of the most important and expensive medicinal spice products in the world. Because of its high market value and premium price, saffron is often adulterated through the incorporation of other materials, such as Carthamus tinctorius L. and Calendula officinalis L. flowers, Hemerocallis L. petals, Daucus carota L. fleshy root, Curcuma longa L. rhizomes, Zea may L., and Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. stigmas. To develop a straightforward, nonsequencing method for rapid, sensitive, and discriminating detection of these adulterants in traded saffron, we report here the application of a barcoding melting curve analysis method (Bar-MCA) that uses the universal chloroplast plant DNA barcoding region trnH-psbA to identify adulterants. When amplified at DNA concentrations and annealing temperatures optimized for the curve analysis, peaks were formed at specific locations for saffron (81.92°C) and the adulterants: D. carota (81.60°C), C. tinctorius (80.10°C), C. officinalis (79.92°C), Dendranthema morifolium (Ramat.) Tzvel. (79.62°C), N. nucifera (80.58°C), Hemerocallis fulva (L.) L. (84.78°C), and Z. mays (84.33°C). The constructed melting curves for saffron and its adulterants have significantly different peak locations or shapes. In conclusion, Bar-MCA could be a faster and more cost-effective method to authenticate saffron and detect its adulterants. PMID:25548775

  19. Barcoding Melting Curve Analysis for Rapid, Sensitive, and Discriminating Authentication of Saffron (Crocus sativus L. from Its Adulterants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Jiang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Saffron (Crocus sativus L. is one of the most important and expensive medicinal spice products in the world. Because of its high market value and premium price, saffron is often adulterated through the incorporation of other materials, such as Carthamus tinctorius L. and Calendula officinalis L. flowers, Hemerocallis L. petals, Daucus carota L. fleshy root, Curcuma longa L. rhizomes, Zea may L., and Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. stigmas. To develop a straightforward, nonsequencing method for rapid, sensitive, and discriminating detection of these adulterants in traded saffron, we report here the application of a barcoding melting curve analysis method (Bar-MCA that uses the universal chloroplast plant DNA barcoding region trnH-psbA to identify adulterants. When amplified at DNA concentrations and annealing temperatures optimized for the curve analysis, peaks were formed at specific locations for saffron (81.92°C and the adulterants: D. carota (81.60°C, C. tinctorius (80.10°C, C. officinalis (79.92°C, Dendranthema morifolium (Ramat. Tzvel. (79.62°C, N. nucifera (80.58°C, Hemerocallis fulva (L. L. (84.78°C, and Z. mays (84.33°C. The constructed melting curves for saffron and its adulterants have significantly different peak locations or shapes. In conclusion, Bar-MCA could be a faster and more cost-effective method to authenticate saffron and detect its adulterants.

  20. Sensory analysis and species-specific PCR detect bovine milk adulteration of frescal (fresh) goat cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golinelli, L P; Carvalho, A C; Casaes, R S; Lopes, C S C; Deliza, R; Paschoalin, V M F; Silva, J T

    2014-11-01

    The Brazilian market for dairy products made from goat milk is increasing despite the seasonality of production and naturally small milk production per animal, factors that result in high-priced products and encourage fraud. In Brazil, no official analytical method exists for detecting adulteration of goat dairy products with cow milk. The aim of this study was to design a strategy to investigate the adulteration of frescal (fresh) goat cheeses available in the Rio de Janeiro retail market, combining analysis of cheese composition and the perception of adulteration by consumers. Commercial goat cheeses were tested by using a duplex PCR assay previously designed to authenticate cheeses, by targeting the mitochondrial 12S ribosomal RNA genes of both species simultaneously. The PCR test was able to detect 0.5% (vol/vol) cow milk added during goat cheese formulation. The analysis of 20 locally produced goat cheeses (20 lots of 4 brands) showed that all were adulterated with cow milk, even though the labels did not indicate the addition of cow milk. To estimate the ability of consumers to perceive the fraudulent addition of cow milk, a triangle test was performed, in which cheeses formulated with several different proportions of goat and cow milk were offered to 102 regular consumers of cheese. Detection threshold analysis indicated that almost half of the consumers were able to perceive adulteration at 10% (vol/vol) cow milk. Effective actions must be implemented to regulate the market for goat dairy products in Brazil, considering the rights and choices of consumers with respect to their particular requirements for diet and health, preference, and cost. PMID:25200782

  1. Adulterated and Counterfeit Male Enhancement Nutraceuticals and Dietary Supplements Pose a Real Threat to the Management of Erectile Dysfunction: A Global Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ElAmrawy, Fatema; ElAgouri, Ghada; Elnoweam, Ola; Aboelazayem, Samar; Farouk, ElMohanad; Nounou, Mohamed I

    2016-11-01

    Erectile dysfunction prevalence globally is noticeably high. This is accompanied by an increase in the use of nutraceuticals for male enhancement. However, the global market is invaded by counterfeit and adulterated nutraceuticals claimed to be of natural origin sold with a therapeutic claim. The objective of this article is to review male enhancement nutraceuticals worldwide with respect to claim, adulterants, and safety. The definition of such products is variable across countries. Thus, the registration procedures differ as well. This facilitates the manipulation of the process, which leads to widespread adulterated and counterfeit products without control. The tele-advertisement and Internet pharmacies aided the widespread sale of male enhancement nutraceuticals, unfortunately, the spurious ones. Finally, based on literature, most of these products were found to be adulterated with active pharmaceutical ingredients (API) and mislabeled as being natural. These products represent a major health hazard for consumers due to lack of clear regulations. PMID:26913542

  2. Determination of whey adulteration in milk powder by using laser induced breakdown spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilge, Gonca; Sezer, Banu; Eseller, Kemal Efe; Berberoglu, Halil; Topcu, Ali; Boyaci, Ismail Hakki

    2016-12-01

    A rapid and in situ method has been developed to detect and quantify adulterated milk powder through adding whey powder by using laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). The methodology is based on elemental composition differences between milk and whey products. Milk powder, sweet and acid whey powders were produced as standard samples, and milk powder was adulterated with whey powders. Based on LIBS spectra of standard samples and commercial products, species was identified using principle component analysis (PCA) method, and discrimination rate of milk and whey powders was found as 80.5%. Calibration curves were obtained with partial least squares regression (PLS). Correlation coefficient (R(2)) and limit of detection (LOD) values were 0.981 and 1.55% for adulteration with sweet whey powder, and 0.985 and 0.55% for adulteration with acid whey powder, respectively. The results were found to be consistent with the data from inductively coupled plasma - mass spectrometer (ICP-MS) method. PMID:27374522

  3. Nanobioprobe for the Determination of Pork Adulteration in Burger Formulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report the development of a swine-specific hybrid nanobioprobe through a covalent integration of a fluorophore-labeled 27-nucleotide AluI-fragment of swine cytochrome b gene to a 3 nm gold nanoparticle for the determination of pork adulteration in processed meat products. We tested the probe to estimate adulterated pork in ready-to-eat pork-spiked beef burgers. The probe quantitatively detected 1-100% spiked pork in burger formulations with ≥90% accuracy. A plot of observed fluorescence against the known concentration of AluI-digested pork DNA targets generated a concave curve, demonstrating a power relationship (y=2.956x0.509) with a regression coefficient (R2) of 0.986. No cross-species detection was found in a standard set of pork, beef, chicken, mutton, and chevon burgers. The method is suitable for the determination of very short-length nucleic acid targets which cannot be estimated by conventional and real-time PCR but are essential for the determination of micro RNA in bio diagnostics and degraded DNA in forensic testing and food analysis.

  4. A New Method for Estimation of Automobile Fuel Adulteration

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta, Anil; Sharma, R. K.

    2010-01-01

    The problem of increasing urban air pollution due to fast increasing number of auto mobiles and adulteration of automobile fuel has been pointed out in the context of developing countries. For prevention of the adulteration, the monitoring of fuel quality at the distribution point is essential. For the detection/estimation of the commonly used adulterants (i.e. diesel in petrol and kerosene in diesel), a number of possible methods have been reviewed. As such there is no standard method/equipm...

  5. Qualitative detection of oil adulteration with machine learning approaches

    OpenAIRE

    Jin, Xiao-Bo; LU Qiang; Wang, Feng; Huo, Quan-gong

    2013-01-01

    The study focused on the machine learning analysis approaches to identify the adulteration of 9 kinds of edible oil qualitatively and answered the following three questions: Is the oil sample adulterant? How does it constitute? What is the main ingredient of the adulteration oil? After extracting the high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) data on triglyceride from 370 oil samples, we applied the adaptive boosting with multi-class Hamming loss (AdaBoost.MH) to distinguish the oil adulte...

  6. Preliminary Study of 13C/12C Application for the Detection of Adulterated Honey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honey and pollen in natural products derived from the same plant both share the same carbon source; as a result their 13C isotope signature should be identical. The majority of honey adulteration in Thailand was done particularly by adding cheap sugars such as high sucrose cane syrup (HSCS). The accepted differences in 13C/12C between honey and its associated protein extract is -1δ/ο deviation, which provides the international benchmark of 7% C4 sugar addition. This study reports the preliminary detection of adulterated Thai honey samples by using isotope ratio mass spectrometer coupled to elemental analyzer (EAIRMS). The 5 Thailand honey samples and the pure honey were adulterated with HSCS dilution as: 0, 0.5, 1, 5, 7, 10, 15 and 50%, respectively. The results were found that two of the Thai honey samples and of 10, 15, and 50% dilution were adulterated. The result of analyzed cane sugar of ten replicates were found -11.2 and -10.8 δdeviation, respectively.

  7. Non-thermal plasma as preparative technique to evaluate olive oil adulteration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Durme, Jim; Vandamme, Jeroen

    2016-10-01

    In recent years adulteration of pure extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) with other types of vegetable oils has become an important issue. In this study, non-thermal plasma (NTP) is investigated as an innovative preparative analytical technique enabling classification of adulterated olive oil from an ascertained authentic batch of olive oil in a more sensitive manner. Non-thermal plasma discharges are a source of highly oxidative species such as singlet oxygen, and atomic oxygen. It was assumed that NTP-induced oxidation triggers unique lipid oxidation mechanisms depending on the specific composition of the oil matrix and minor constituents. In this work EVOO samples were adulterated with sunflower oil (1-3%) and submitted to NTP treatment. Results showed that while untreated samples could not be classified from the authentic olive oil reference, NTP treatments of 60min (Ar/O2 0.1%) on the oil batches resulted in the formation of a unique set of secondary volatile lipid oxidation products enabling classification of adulterated oil samples. PMID:27132839

  8. Molecular identification of adulteration in mutton based on mitochondrial 16S rRNA gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jia; Zhao, Wei; Zhu, Mengru; Wen, Yuanju; Xie, Tao; He, Xiaoqian; Zhang, Yongfeng; Cao, Suizhong; Niu, Lili; Zhang, Hongping; Zhong, Tao

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to set up a protocol for identification of the adulteration in mutton based on mitochondrial 16S rRNA gene. The multiplex polymerase chain reaction (multi-PCR) assay was carried out to trace the impure DNA in mutton. A universal primer pair yielded an approximate 610 bp fragment in mutton, pork, duck, chicken, horse and cat meats. The amplicons of multi-PCR assay represented the species-specific products, which could be discriminated by the size ranging from 106 bp to 532 bp. Subsequently, the authentication of each fragment was also confirmed by sequencing. Random analyses of adulterants with various meats yielded the identical results to their components, showing the suitability of the multi-PCR assay for tracing of adulterant meats with high-accuracy and precision. This assay was sensitive to detect the species-specific DNA in different proportional mixtures of mutton and duck/pork (9.1%-90.9%). In conclusion, this multi-PCR assay successfully discriminated the double-, triple-, quadruple-, and quintuple-mixtures containing variant counterparts. This method will be particularly useful in the detection of mutton adulteration in processed foods further. PMID:24739005

  9. Identification and Determination of Synthetic 10-Hydroxy-α-decanoic Acid in Adulterated Royal Jelly Products%蜂王浆制品中掺入人工癸烯酸的鉴别和测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘秀红; 徐锦忠

    2016-01-01

    A new method to detect if synthetic 10-hydroxy-α-decanoic acid was added into pure royal jelly/lyophilized royal jelly was proposed. This method was conducted by comparing the HPLC/MS/MS spectrum of pure royal jelly/lyophilized royal jelly with those of adulterated samples in order to detect the differences between both sample groups. The maker was found to be presented in royal jelly/lyophilized royal jelly samples adulterated with synthetic 10-hydroxy-α-decanoic acid while could not be detected in any of pure royal jelly/lyophilized royal jelly samples analyzed. In addition, this method is a great innovation in detecting adulterated samples and the pre-processing approch is very simple. This method allowed the detection of synthetic 10-hydroxy-α-decanoic acid in adulterated royal jelly/lyophilized royal jelly samples in concentrations as low as 40μg/L.%采用高效液相色谱串联三重四级杆质谱为分析手段对蜂王浆/蜂王浆冻干粉中掺入的人工合成癸烯酸进行鉴别和测定。方法通过对比掺入人工合成癸烯酸标准品的阳性样品和天然蜂王浆的LC-MS/MS图谱的差别,发现了人工合成癸烯酸的特征离子峰,该特征离子峰在天然的蜂王浆和蜂王浆冻干粉中是不存在的,而是只存在于掺入了人工合成的癸烯酸的阳性样品中。此外,该方法在掺假食品检测领域具有创新性,前处理简单。该方法对于蜂王浆/蜂王浆冻干粉中掺入的人工合成癸烯酸的检测限可以达到40μg/L。

  10. SYBR green I real-time polymerase chain reaction as a tool to detect poultry’s meat adulteration with pork’s meat

    OpenAIRE

    Amaral, J S; I. Mafra; Soares, Sónia; Oliveira, M.B.P.P.

    2009-01-01

    Nowadays, meat species adulteration in ground and comminuted products is being considered as a widespread problem in retail markets [1]. This problem encompasses many issues, such as adulteration by substitution with lower value meats, the presence of undeclared species and the fraudulent substitution of meat by lower price vegetable proteins. Another issue to be considered is related to religious practices since pork’s meat consumption is sometimes forbidden. Several techniques are currently...

  11. Voltamperometric Discrimination of Urea and Melamine Adulterated Skimmed Milk Powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Cortón

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen compounds like urea and melamine are known to be commonly used for milk adulteration resulting in undesired intoxication; a well-known example is the Chinese episode occurred in 2008. The development of a rapid, reliable and economic test is of relevance in order to improve adulterated milk identification. Cyclic voltammetry studies using an Au working electrode were performed on adulterated and non-adulterated milk samples from different independent manufacturers. Voltammetric data and their first derivative were subjected to functional principal component analysis (f-PCA and correctly classified by the KNN classifier. The adulterated and non-adulterated milk samples showed significant differences. Best results of prediction were obtained with first derivative data. Detection limits in milk samples adulterated with 1% of its total nitrogen derived from melamine or urea were as low as 85.0 mg·L−1 and 121.4 mg·L−1, respectively. We present this method as a fast and robust screening method for milk adulteration analysis and prevention of food intoxication.

  12. Voltamperometric discrimination of urea and melamine adulterated skimmed milk powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilding-Ohlsson, Astrid; Fauerbach, Jonathan A; Sacco, Natalia J; Bonetto, M Celina; Cortón, Eduardo

    2012-01-01

    Nitrogen compounds like urea and melamine are known to be commonly used for milk adulteration resulting in undesired intoxication; a well-known example is the Chinese episode occurred in 2008. The development of a rapid, reliable and economic test is of relevance in order to improve adulterated milk identification. Cyclic voltammetry studies using an Au working electrode were performed on adulterated and non-adulterated milk samples from different independent manufacturers. Voltammetric data and their first derivative were subjected to functional principal component analysis (f-PCA) and correctly classified by the KNN classifier. The adulterated and non-adulterated milk samples showed significant differences. Best results of prediction were obtained with first derivative data. Detection limits in milk samples adulterated with 1% of its total nitrogen derived from melamine or urea were as low as 85.0 mg · L(-1) and 121.4 mg · L(-1), respectively. We present this method as a fast and robust screening method for milk adulteration analysis and prevention of food intoxication. PMID:23112709

  13. Voltamperometric Discrimination of Urea and Melamine Adulterated Skimmed Milk Powder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilding-Ohlsson, Astrid; Fauerbach, Jonathan A.; Sacco, Natalia J.; Bonetto, M. Celina; Cortón, Eduardo

    2012-01-01

    Nitrogen compounds like urea and melamine are known to be commonly used for milk adulteration resulting in undesired intoxication; a well-known example is the Chinese episode occurred in 2008. The development of a rapid, reliable and economic test is of relevance in order to improve adulterated milk identification. Cyclic voltammetry studies using an Au working electrode were performed on adulterated and non-adulterated milk samples from different independent manufacturers. Voltammetric data and their first derivative were subjected to functional principal component analysis (f-PCA) and correctly classified by the KNN classifier. The adulterated and non-adulterated milk samples showed significant differences. Best results of prediction were obtained with first derivative data. Detection limits in milk samples adulterated with 1% of its total nitrogen derived from melamine or urea were as low as 85.0 mg·L−1 and 121.4 mg·L−1, respectively. We present this method as a fast and robust screening method for milk adulteration analysis and prevention of food intoxication. PMID:23112709

  14. Sound speed and density characterization of milk adulterated with melamine

    OpenAIRE

    Elvira, Luis; Rodríguez, Jaime; Lynnworth, Lawrence C.

    2009-01-01

    Milk contaminated with melamine resulted in an important health hazard that affected many babies in China recently. Ultrasonic characterization of adulterated milk may detect gross levels of melamine contamination. Sound speed and density measurements were made in skim milk as a function of melamine adulteration. An ultrasonic measurement technique to implement milk quality control is discussed.

  15. FTIR characterization of Mexican honey and its adulteration with sugar syrups by using chemometric methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A chemometric analysis of adulteration of Mexican honey by sugar syrups such as corn syrup and cane sugar syrup was realized. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) was used to measure the absorption of a group of bee honey samples from central region of Mexico. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to process FTIR spectra to determine the adulteration of bee honey. In addition to that, the content of individual sugars from honey samples: glucose, fructose, sucrose and monosaccharides was determined by using PLS-FTIR analysis validated by HPLC measurements. This analytical methodology which is based in infrared spectroscopy and chemometry can be an alternative technique to characterize and also to determine the purity and authenticity of nutritional products as bee honey and other natural products.

  16. FTIR characterization of Mexican honey and its adulteration with sugar syrups by using chemometric methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rios-Corripio, M A; Rojas-Lopez, M; Delgado-Macuil, R [CIBA-Tlaxcala, IPN, Tlaxcala, Tlax. (Mexico); Rios-Leal, E, E-mail: marlonrl@yahoo.com.mx [CINVESTAV, Zacatenco, Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2011-01-01

    A chemometric analysis of adulteration of Mexican honey by sugar syrups such as corn syrup and cane sugar syrup was realized. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) was used to measure the absorption of a group of bee honey samples from central region of Mexico. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to process FTIR spectra to determine the adulteration of bee honey. In addition to that, the content of individual sugars from honey samples: glucose, fructose, sucrose and monosaccharides was determined by using PLS-FTIR analysis validated by HPLC measurements. This analytical methodology which is based in infrared spectroscopy and chemometry can be an alternative technique to characterize and also to determine the purity and authenticity of nutritional products as bee honey and other natural products.

  17. Analisis Adulterasi Jamu Pegal Linu yang Diperoleh dari Pasar di Jakarta dan Sekitarnya (Analysis of Adulterated Jamu Pegal Linu Obtained from the Market in Jakarta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Retno Gitawati

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: “Jamu Pegal Linu” (traditional Indonesian herb for rheumatoid and gouty arthritis is one of the mostpopular jamu products manufactured and widely consumed in the community. Despite the claims that they are made ofnatural herbs, these kinds of jamu are susceptible for being counterfeited and adulterated with drugs that is potentiallyharmful for health. The aim of this study was to identify medicinal adulteration in jamu pegal linu products obtained from the market in Jakarta and surroundings. Method: This study was an experimental laboratory in a cross-sectional design. About 450 samples of jamu pegal linu products were randomly chosen, and the products with different brands wereanalyzed for medicinal adulteration using a thin layer chromatography (TLC method. Product labels of the adulterated jamu were also analyzed for the appropriateness of the product information. Results: Out of the 114 brands of jamu pegal linu analyzed, 52 samples (45.6% were positive for medicinal. The medicinal types detected were paracetamol (30.7%, phenylbutazone (20.4%, piroxicam (7.1% and mefenamic acid (3.5%. Two samples of jamu has been contaminated with molds and found damp. Of the 52 samples positive medicinal, 92.3% include the registration number and only 30.8% include the expiration date in the product labels. About 44.2% include the name of ingredients compositions written incorrectly in the labels. Conclusion: A. limited numbers of Jamu pegal linu products adulterated with medicinal still existed in the market.

  18. Optimum stearin adulteration in palm oil crystallization

    OpenAIRE

    Inthamanee, C.; Sukmanee, S.; Tongurai, C.

    2001-01-01

    Stearin adulteration in refined palm oil crystallization was investigated for industrial separation of stearin and olein. The important standard properties of olein are the iodine value which must be higher than 55-57, and the cloud point which must be lower than 9ºC. The crystallization temperature is the most important parameter of the process to obtain the standard olein properties and should not exceed 20ºC. Longer crystallization time is possibly the cause of lower yields but higher qual...

  19. ESTIMATION OF QUALITY OF RAW MILK (OPEN & BRANDED) BY MILK ADULTERATION TESTING KIT.

    OpenAIRE

    S D Kandpal; Srivastava, A. K.; Negi, K. S.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Milk is a compulsory part of daily diet for the expectant mothers as well as growing children. Milk is very important due to its special nutritive value and important role for human and animal health. Adulteration is practised either to substitute cheaper ingredients or to impress the buyer to think the product is more valuable or of better quality. Methods: The present study was conducted by the Department of Community Medicine at HIHT, Dehradun. All the samples of the raw milk ...

  20. Hyperspectral sensing based analysis for determining milk adulteration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimbahune, Sanjay; Ghouse, Syed M.; B. S., Mithun; Shinde, Sujit; Jha, Amit Kumar

    2016-05-01

    This research work was designed to evaluate the suitability and applicability of hyperspectral radiometry technology for robustly detecting adulterants in diary milk. The most common milk adulterants are (a) soda, (b) urea, (c) water and (d) detergents. The main contribution of this paper is to build a mathematical model to enable quantifying the degree of common adulterants present in milk. Data was collected using a portable spectroradiometer (Eko MS-720) which measures the spectral irradiance in the range from visible to near-infrared irradiance (350 nm 1050 nm) using samples of milk contaminated with four different adulterants (soda, urea, water and detergent) with known degree of contamination deliberately added in milk. In this study, we used the data in the range of 350 - 1050 nm to identify spectral signatures of different adulterants with different degree of concentration. Data cleansing, in the form of pre-processing was followed by machine learning techniques to create a model to capture the adulterants and also the degree of adulteration. Linear regression along with wrapper subset eval as attribute evaluator and best first search as search option was found to create the best model. Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) and Correlation Coefficient (CC) metrics were used to select the best model. The best model for detecting the degree of adulteration due to soda, urea, water and detergent in milk was found to have an RMSE of 0.027, 0.0069, 0.0382 and 0.0281 respectively while CC was 0.9919, 0.9997, 0.9887 and 0.9938 respectively. The preliminary experimental results demonstrate the effective use of spectroradiometer and machine learning technique in reliably detecting adulterants in milk.

  1. Physico-Chemical Studies on Adulteration of Honey in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.A. Lawal

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The extent of adulteration of honey samples from various geographical locations in Nigeria was evaluated. In order to ascertain the quality and extent of adulteration of the honey samples, the total titrable acidity, brix content, pH, colour, viscosity, moisture content, total solids, ash content, hydroxymethyl furfural and microbiological analysis were carried out. Honey samples from Akwa-Ibom, Ondo and Ogun had a high hydroxymethyl furfural with coliforms and total bacteria counts being absent, while honey samples from Shaki, Yola and Ibadan had a low hydroxymethyl furfural and some total viable counts were present in them. These results indicate that honey samples from Akwa-Ibom, Ondo and Ogun were completely free of adulteration. However, honey samples obtained from Shaki, Yola and Ibadan were discovered to have undergone some form of adulteration.

  2. Discrimination of Dendrobium officinale and Its Common Adulterants by Combination of Normal Light and Fluorescence Microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chu Chu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The stems of Dendrobium officinale Kimura et Migo, named Tie-pi-shi-hu, is one of the most endangered and precious species in China. Because of its various pharmacodynamic effects, D. officinale is widely recognized as a high-quality health food in China and other countries in south and south-east Asia. With the rising interest of D. officinale, its products have a high price due to a limited supply. This high price has led to the proliferation of adulterants in the market. To ensure the safe use of D. officinale, a fast and convenient method combining normal and fluorescence microscopy was applied in the present study to distinguish D. officinale from three commonly used adulterants including Zi-pi-shi-hu (D. devonianum, Shui-cao-shi-hu (D. aphyllum, Guang-jie-shi-hu (D. gratiosissimum. The result demonstrated that D. officinale could be identified by the characteristic “two hat-shaped” vascular bundle sheath observed under the fluorescence microscopy and the distribution of raphides under normal light microscopy. The other three adulterants could be discriminated by the vascular bundle differences and the distribution of raphides under normal light microscopy. This work indicated that combination of normal light and fluorescence microscopy is a fast and efficient technique to scientifically distinguish D. officinale from the commonly confused species.

  3. Detection of honey adulteration with starch syrup by high performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shaoqing; Guo, Qilei; Wang, Linlin; Lin, Li; Shi, Hailiang; Cao, Hong; Cao, Baosen

    2015-04-01

    According to saccharide profile comparison between starch syrups and pure honeys analysed through high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), a characteristic peak was found at 15.25 min retention time in HPLC chromatogram of syrup, but no peak was observed at the same retention time in chromatogram of pure honeys. This characteristic peak for syrup was identified as an overlapping peak of oligosaccharides with more than 5 degree of polymerisation (DP) based on HPLC chromatogram comparison between starch syrup and a series of standard mono-, di- and oligosaccharides of 3-7 DP. Additionally syrup content correlated linearly with the height of the characteristic peak of syrup under different slope in two ranges 2.5-7.5% and 10-100%, respectively. Therefore, the characteristic peak at 15.25 min retention time can serve as a syrup indicator in HPLC analysis of the adulterated honeys. This new HPLC method for honey adulteration detection was further applied in an authenticity inspection on more than 100 commercial honeys. In addition to the improved accuracy of honey adulteration detection, the proposed HPLC method was simple, low cost and easy practice for honey product quality control by government department considering the popularity of HPLC device and technology. PMID:25442605

  4. Physicochemical composition of pure and adulterated royal jelly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Henrique Garcia-Amoedo

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The physicochemical composition of pure royal jelly as well as of some adulterated samples was analyzed by determining moisture, ash, lipids, nitrogen/proteins, carbohydrates, starch and 10- HDA (10-hydroxy-2-decenoic acid. The solubility in alkaline medium was used to detect the main frauds for adulterating royal jelly which comprise addition of yogurt, water, egg white, sweet condensed milk mixed with propolis, unripe banana and corn starch slurry.

  5. Physicochemical composition of pure and adulterated royal jelly

    OpenAIRE

    Luis Henrique Garcia-Amoedo; Ligia Bicudo de Almeida-Muradian

    2007-01-01

    The physicochemical composition of pure royal jelly as well as of some adulterated samples was analyzed by determining moisture, ash, lipids, nitrogen/proteins, carbohydrates, starch and 10- HDA (10-hydroxy-2-decenoic acid). The solubility in alkaline medium was used to detect the main frauds for adulterating royal jelly which comprise addition of yogurt, water, egg white, sweet condensed milk mixed with propolis, unripe banana and corn starch slurry.

  6. Preliminary Discrimination of Butter Adulteration by ATR-FTIR Spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Lucian Cuibus; Rubén Maggio; Vlad Mureșan; Zorița Diaconeasa; Oana Lelia Pop; Carmen Socaciu

    2015-01-01

    The Attenuated Total Reflectance-Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR)  was applied for the discrimination of butter samples adulterated with solid fraction of palm oil. For FTIR fingerprinting of butter samples, with or without controlled additions of palm oil as adulterant was firstly obtained, using a Shimatsu Prestige 21 Spectrophotometer, including a horizontal diamond ATR accessory with reflection in the MIR region (3873-690) cm-1.The spiked butter samples including 0 level...

  7. Supply Chain Issues in China’s Milk Adulteration Incident

    OpenAIRE

    Gale, H. Frederick, Jr.; HU, Dinghuan

    2009-01-01

    China’s melamine milk adulteration crisis highlights the challenges that arise as large well-capitalized companies procure raw materials from a diffused supply chain of scattered small farmers and milk collection stations. As milk prices climbed sharply in 2007 and companies branched out into new territories, intense competition for raw milk supplies strengthened incentives to water down and adulterate milk. Effective food safety measures must account for incentives, the distribution of marke...

  8. Physico-Chemical Studies on Adulteration of Honey in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    R.A. Lawal; A.K. Lawal; J.B. Adekalu

    2009-01-01

    The extent of adulteration of honey samples from various geographical locations in Nigeria was evaluated. In order to ascertain the quality and extent of adulteration of the honey samples, the total titrable acidity, brix content, pH, colour, viscosity, moisture content, total solids, ash content, hydroxymethyl furfural and microbiological analysis were carried out. Honey samples from Akwa-Ibom, Ondo and Ogun had a high hydroxymethyl furfural with coliforms and total bacteria counts being abs...

  9. "Adulterated" Androstenedione: What FDA's Action against Andro Means for Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Collins Richard D

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract On March 11, 2004, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA pronounced that dietary supplement products containing androstenedione were adulterated new dietary ingredients under the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act of 1994 (DSHEA. The FDA issued a press release, held a news conference, and sent warning letters to 23 companies that had manufactured, marketed or distributed the products containing androstenedione. In its warning letters, FDA threatened possible enforcement actions for noncompliance. The authors have looked at the warning letters, statutes, regulations, and media reports to analyze the legal grounds and standards upon which FDA acted against androstenedione and question the appropriateness of the action taken. They have also looked at the negative impact that FDA's lack of communication and cooperation with Industry is having upon the fitness nutrition industry and the marketing of dietary supplements containing new dietary ingredients. The authors also suggest what might be done to ameliorate this escalating problem including more cooperation between FDA and Industry and more research into the benefits and use of supplement products.

  10. Rapid turbidimetric detection of milk powder adulteration with plant proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholl, Peter F; Farris, Samantha M; Mossoba, Magdi M

    2014-02-19

    Development of assays to screen milk for economically motivated adulteration with foreign proteins has been stalled since 2008 due to strong international reactions to the melamine poisoning incident in China and the surveillance emphasis placed on low molecular weight nitrogen-rich adulterants. New screening assays are still needed to detect high molecular weight foreign protein adulterants and characterize this understudied potential risk. A rapid turbidimetric method was developed to screen milk powder for adulteration with insoluble plant proteins. Milk powder samples spiked with 0.03-3% by weight of soy, pea, rice, and wheat protein isolates were extracted in 96-well plates, and resuspended pellet solution absorbance was measured. Limits of detection ranged from 100 to 200 μg, or 0.1-0.2% of the sample weight, and adulterant pellets were visually apparent even at ∼0.1%. Extraction recoveries ranged from 25 to 100%. Assay sensitivity and simplicity indicate that it would be ideally suitable to rapidly screen milk samples in resource poor environments where adulteration with plant protein is suspected. PMID:24484379

  11. Barcode High Resolution Melting (Bar-HRM) analysis for detection and quantification of PDO "Fava Santorinis" (Lathyrus clymenum) adulterants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganopoulos, Ioannis; Madesis, Panagiotis; Darzentas, Nikos; Argiriou, Anagnostis; Tsaftaris, Athanasios

    2012-07-15

    Legumes considered as one of the most important crops worldwide. Due to high price as a PDO product, commercial products of "Fava Santorinis" are often subjected to adulterations from other legume products coming from other Lathyrus or Vicia and Pisum species. Using plant DNA barcoding regions (trnL and rpoC) coupled with High Resolution Melting (Bar-HRM) we have developed a method allowing us to detect and authenticate PDO "Fava Santorinis". Bar-HRM proved to be a very sensitive tool able to genotype Lathyrus and its closed relative species and to detect admixtures, being sensitive enough to as low as 1:100 of non-"Fava Santorinis" in "Fava Santorinis" commercial products. In conclusion, Bar-HRM analysis can be a faster, with higher resolution and cost effectiveness alternative method to authenticate PDO "Fava Santorinis" and to quantitatively detect adulterations in "Fava Santorinis" with other relative commercial "Fava" food products. PMID:25683426

  12. Detection of argan oil adulterated with vegetable oils: new markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ourrach, I.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This work aims to contribute to controlling the authenticity of pure argan oil, a valuable Moroccan product. Fatty acids, hydrocarbon fraction, 3,5-stigmastadiene, the alkyl esters of fatty acids, chlorophyllic pigments and physical properties such as viscosity, density and refractive index were studied in order to detect the adulteration of argan oil with edible vegetable oils. The results found in this study show that 3,5-stigmastadiene, kaurene and pheophytin-a can be used as possible new markers for argan oil blends of up to 5% with refined, sunflower and virgin olive oils. Due to the similarity of the fatty acid compositions of the edible oils studied and argan oil, fatty acids can be employed as markers for the detection of argan oil adulteration at levels higher than 10%. Among the physical properties studied, the refractive index shows significant differences for sunflower oil and its blend at 10% with argan oil.

    El objetivo principal de este trabajo es contribuir al control de la autenticidad del aceite argán, un producto marroquí muy valorado. Con el fin de detectar la adulteración del aceite de argán con aceites vegetales comestibles, se han estudiado los siguientes parámetros: ácidos grasos, fracción de hidrocarburos, 3,5-estigmastadieno, ésteres alquílicos, pigmentos clorofílicos y propiedades físicas como la viscosidad, densidad e índice de refracción. Los resultados de este estudio muestran que el 3,5-estigmastadieno, kaureno y la feofitina-a podrían utilizarse como nuevos marcadores en la detección del aceite de argán adulterado con aceites refinados y aceite oliva virgen al 5%. La composición en ácidos grasos puede emplearse para la detección de la adulteración del aceite de argán a niveles superiores al 10%, debido a la similitud en la composición de los aceites estudiados. Entre las propiedades físicas analizadas, el índice de refracción mostró diferencias significativas entre el aceite de arg

  13. Determination of pork adulteration in meatballs using enzyme linked immuno sorbent assay (ELISA) techniques case study: Small medium enterprises meatballs traders at Jatinangor education area, sumedang district, west java, indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Roostita L.B.; Lengkey H.A.W.

    2014-01-01

    Adulteration of meatballs using pork begins to bloom in a row with the increase of beef price in the market. There is a risk that can occur around the education area of Jatinangor. Therefore the identification of meatballs adulteration with enzymes linked immuno sorbent assay (ELISA) approach need to be done in order to create certainty and security guarantee of the consumed products. Results showed that Small Medium Enterprises (SMEs) in Jatinangor who pro...

  14. Oil Adulteration Identification by Hyperspectral Imaging Using QHM and ICA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Zhongzhi; Wan, Jianhua; Deng, Limiao; Liu, Kangwei

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the feasibility of identification of qualified and adulterated oil product using hyperspectral imaging(HIS) technique, a novel feature set based on quantized histogram matrix (QHM) and feature selection method using improved kernel independent component analysis (iKICA) is proposed for HSI. We use UV and Halogen excitations in this study. Region of interest(ROI) of hyperspectral images of 256 oil samples from four varieties are obtained within the spectral region of 400–720nm. Radiation indexes extracted from each ROI are used as feature vectors. These indexes are individual band radiation index (RI), difference of consecutive spectral band radiation index (DRI), ratio of consecutive spectral band radiation index (RRI) and normalized DRI (NDRI). Another set of features called quantized histogram matrix (QHM) are extracted by applying quantization on the image histogram from these features. Based on these feature sets, improved kernel independent component analysis (iKICA) is used to select significant features. For comparison, algorithms such as plus L reduce R (plusLrR), Fisher, multidimensional scaling (MDS), independent component analysis (ICA), and principle component analysis (PCA) are also used to select the most significant wavelengths or features. Support vector machine (SVM) is used as the classifier. Experimental results show that the proposed methods are able to obtain robust and better classification performance with fewer number of spectral bands and simplify the design of computer vision systems. PMID:26820311

  15. Oil Adulteration Identification by Hyperspectral Imaging Using QHM and ICA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Zhongzhi; Wan, Jianhua; Deng, Limiao; Liu, Kangwei

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the feasibility of identification of qualified and adulterated oil product using hyperspectral imaging(HIS) technique, a novel feature set based on quantized histogram matrix (QHM) and feature selection method using improved kernel independent component analysis (iKICA) is proposed for HSI. We use UV and Halogen excitations in this study. Region of interest(ROI) of hyperspectral images of 256 oil samples from four varieties are obtained within the spectral region of 400-720nm. Radiation indexes extracted from each ROI are used as feature vectors. These indexes are individual band radiation index (RI), difference of consecutive spectral band radiation index (DRI), ratio of consecutive spectral band radiation index (RRI) and normalized DRI (NDRI). Another set of features called quantized histogram matrix (QHM) are extracted by applying quantization on the image histogram from these features. Based on these feature sets, improved kernel independent component analysis (iKICA) is used to select significant features. For comparison, algorithms such as plus L reduce R (plusLrR), Fisher, multidimensional scaling (MDS), independent component analysis (ICA), and principle component analysis (PCA) are also used to select the most significant wavelengths or features. Support vector machine (SVM) is used as the classifier. Experimental results show that the proposed methods are able to obtain robust and better classification performance with fewer number of spectral bands and simplify the design of computer vision systems. PMID:26820311

  16. Economically motivated adulteration (EMA) of food: common characteristics of EMA incidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everstine, Karen; Spink, John; Kennedy, Shaun

    2013-04-01

    Economically motivated adulteration (EMA) of food, also known as food fraud, is the intentional adulteration of food for financial advantage. A common form of EMA, undeclared substitution with alternative ingredients, is usually a health concern because of allergen labeling requirements. As demonstrated by the nearly 300,000 illnesses in China from melamine adulteration of infant formula, EMA also has the potential to result in serious public health consequences. Furthermore, EMA incidents reveal gaps in quality assurance testing methodologies that could be exploited for intentional harm. In contrast to foodborne disease outbreaks, EMA incidents present a particular challenge to the food industry and regulators because they are deliberate acts that are intended to evade detection. Large-scale EMA incidents have been described in the scientific literature, but smaller incidents have been documented only in media sources. We reviewed journal articles and media reports of EMA since 1980. We identified 137 unique incidents in 11 food categories: fish and seafood (24 incidents), dairy products (15), fruit juices (12), oils and fats (12), grain products (11), honey and other natural sweeteners (10), spices and extracts (8), wine and other alcoholic beverages (7), infant formula (5), plant-based proteins (5), and other food products (28). We identified common characteristics among the incidents that may help us better evaluate and reduce the risk of EMA. These characteristics reflect the ways in which existing regulatory systems or testing methodologies were inadequate for detecting EMA and how novel detection methods and other deterrence strategies can be deployed. Prevention and detection of EMA cannot depend on traditional food safety strategies. Comprehensive food protection, as outlined by the Food Safety Modernization Act, will require innovative methods for detecting EMA and for targeting crucial resources toward the riskiest food products. PMID:23575142

  17. 21 CFR 314.170 - Adulteration and misbranding of an approved drug.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Adulteration and misbranding of an approved drug... Applications and Abbreviated Applications § 314.170 Adulteration and misbranding of an approved drug. All drugs... subject to the adulteration and misbranding provisions in sections 501, 502, and 503 of the act. FDA...

  18. 78 FR 78067 - Focused Mitigation Strategies To Protect Food Against Intentional Adulteration; Public Meeting on...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-24

    ... 16 and 121 Focused Mitigation Strategies To Protect Food Against Intentional Adulteration; Public... CFR Parts 16 and 121 Focused Mitigation Strategies To Protect Food Against Intentional Adulteration... intentional adulteration caused by acts of terrorism. Along with this public meeting, FDA is...

  19. 75 FR 44973 - Report: A New Approach to Targeting Inspection Resources and Identifying Patterns of Adulteration...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-30

    ... Identifying Patterns of Adulteration: The Reportable Food Registry; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug... Identifying Patterns of Adulteration: The Reportable Food Registry.'' The report presents FDA's experience... Registry is to help FDA better protect public health by tracking patterns of food and feed adulteration...

  20. 21 CFR 99.405 - Applicability of labeling, adulteration, and misbranding authority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Applicability of labeling, adulteration, and..., adulteration, and misbranding authority. The dissemination of information relating to a new use for a drug or device may constitute labeling, evidence of a new intended use, adulteration, or misbranding of the...

  1. ESTIMATION OF QUALITY OF RAW MILK (OPEN & BRANDED BY MILK ADULTERATION TESTING KIT.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S D Kandpal

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Milk is a compulsory part of daily diet for the expectant mothers as well as growing children. Milk is very important due to its special nutritive value and important role for human and animal health. Adulteration is practised either to substitute cheaper ingredients or to impress the buyer to think the product is more valuable or of better quality. Methods: The present study was conducted by the Department of Community Medicine at HIHT, Dehradun. All the samples of the raw milk (open and branded supplied by the vendors in 5 Km radius of HIHT . The samples of milk were also collected from the Girls and Boys Hostel Mess and canteen. 500ml of each variety of open milk and 500 ml packet of branded milk were purchased from the milk vendors. The specific gravity of the milk was assessed by lactometer and chemically tested by Adulteration Test Kit supplied by NICE Chemicals Pvt. Ltd. ( an ISO 9001 Certified Company. Results: It was observed that out of 60 samples of milk, only 12 samples (20 % had specific gravity of 26 and more which is considered as undiluted milk while 48 (80% had specific gravity of less than 26 clearly indicating the dilution of milk with water. It was also observed that all the milk samples including double toned milk collected from different places showed presence of urea and detergents as common adulterants. Conclusion:The findings of this study highlights the need to implement improved hygiene practices and to apply effective monitoring throughout the production to delivery chain. Training and education is also needed for all persons who deal with milk production, marketing and processing.

  2. Discrimination of Dendrobium officinale and Its Common Adulterants by Combination of Normal Light and Fluorescence Microscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Chu Chu; Huimin Yin; Li Xia; Dongping Cheng; Jizhong Yan; Lin Zhu

    2014-01-01

    The stems of Dendrobium officinale Kimura et Migo, named Tie-pi-shi-hu, is one of the most endangered and precious species in China. Because of its various pharmacodynamic effects, D. officinale is widely recognized as a high-quality health food in China and other countries in south and south-east Asia. With the rising interest of D. officinale, its products have a high price due to a limited supply. This high price has led to the proliferation of adulterants in the market. To ensure the sa...

  3. SATTVA-Statistical AffirmativeTesting Tool for Various Adulterants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durga Karthik

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to determine the adulterants in edible oil using Chromatography and authenticate the output using Statistical methods. Sattva in Sanskrit means Purity that is food should be healthy and unadulterated so as to strengthen the equilibrium of our human system. On consuming adulterated food it affects the digestive system, leads to metabolic disorders like diabetes, cardiac problems, also affects the human Mind and in turn the society. Food gives energy that includes carbohydrate, protein, fat, minerals and vitamins, of which fat constitutes 30% of the energy store. Edible oil is a source of fat that is consumed in large quantities across the world. In the proposed study, Sunflower oil adulteration with other cheaper oils detection using chromatography is identified. Using Principal component analysis the chromatographic results are authenticated.

  4. Detection of cow milk adulteration in yak milk by ELISA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Q R; Zhang, H; Guo, H Y; Jiang, L; Tian, M; Ren, F Z

    2014-10-01

    In the current study, a simple, sensitive, and specific ELISA assay using a high-affinity anti-bovine β-casein monoclonal antibody was developed for the rapid detection of cow milk in adulterated yak milk. The developed ELISA was highly specific and could be applied to detect bovine β-casein (10-8,000 μg/mL) and cow milk (1:1,300 to 1:2 dilution) in yak milk. Cross-reactivity was milk. The linear range of adulterant concentration was 1 to 80% (vol/vol) and the minimum detection limit was 1% (vol/vol) cow milk in yak milk. Different treatments, including heating, acidification, and rennet addition, did not interfere with the assay. Moreover, the results were highly reproducible (coefficient of variation milk adulterated with cow milk. PMID:25151876

  5. Review of methods for the detection and quantification of adulteration of rice: Basmati as a case study

    OpenAIRE

    Vemireddy, Lakshminarayana R.; Satyavathi, V. V.; Siddiq, E. A.; Nagaraju, J.

    2014-01-01

    Rice is a staple and widely grown crop endowed with rich genetic diversity. As it is difficult to differentiate seeds of various rice varieties based on visual observation accurately, the harvested seeds and subsequent processed products are highly prone to adulteration with look-alike and low quality seeds by the dishonest traders. To protect the interests of importing countries and consumers, several methods have been employed over the last few decades for unambiguous discrimination of cult...

  6. Meat, the metabolites: an integrated metabolite profiling and lipidomics approach for the detection of the adulteration of beef with pork

    OpenAIRE

    Trivedi, Drupad K.; Katherine A. Hollywood; Rattray, Nicholas J. W.; Ward, Holli; Trivedi, Dakshat K.; Greenwood, Joseph; Ellis, David I.; Goodacre, Royston

    2016-01-01

    Adulteration of high quality food products with sub-standard and cheaper grades is a world-wide problem taxing the global economy. Currently, many traditional tests suffer from poor specificity, highly complex outputs and a lack of high-throughput processing. Metabolomics has been successfully used as an accurate discriminatory technique in a number of applications including microbiology, cancer research and environmental studies and certain types of food fraud. In this study, we have develop...

  7. Barcoding Melting Curve Analysis for Rapid, Sensitive, and Discriminating Authentication of Saffron (Crocus sativus L.) from Its Adulterants

    OpenAIRE

    Chao Jiang; Liang Cao; Yuan Yuan; Min Chen; Yan Jin; Luqi Huang

    2014-01-01

    Saffron (Crocus sativus L.) is one of the most important and expensive medicinal spice products in the world. Because of its high market value and premium price, saffron is often adulterated through the incorporation of other materials, such as Carthamus tinctorius L. and Calendula officinalis L. flowers, Hemerocallis L. petals, Daucus carota L. fleshy root, Curcuma longa L. rhizomes, Zea may L., and Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. stigmas. To develop a straightforward, nonsequencing method for rapi...

  8. A Biomimetic Sensor for the Classification of Honeys of Different Floral Origin and the Detection of Adulteration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maz Jamilah Masnan

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The major compounds in honey are carbohydrates such as monosaccharides and disaccharides. The same compounds are found in cane-sugar concentrates. Unfortunately when sugar concentrate is added to honey, laboratory assessments are found to be ineffective in detecting this adulteration. Unlike tracing heavy metals in honey, sugar adulterated honey is much trickier and harder to detect, and traditionally it has been very challenging to come up with a suitable method to prove the presence of adulterants in honey products. This paper proposes a combination of array sensing and multi-modality sensor fusion that can effectively discriminate the samples not only based on the compounds present in the sample but also mimic the way humans perceive flavours and aromas. Conversely, analytical instruments are based on chemical separations which may alter the properties of the volatiles or flavours of a particular honey. The present work is focused on classifying 18 samples of different honeys, sugar syrups and adulterated samples using data fusion of electronic nose (e-nose and electronic tongue (e-tongue measurements. Each group of samples was evaluated separately by the e-nose and e-tongue. Principal Component Analysis (PCA and Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA were able to separately discriminate monofloral honey from sugar syrup, and polyfloral honey from sugar and adulterated samples using the e-nose and e-tongue. The e-nose was observed to give better separation compared to e-tongue assessment, particularly when LDA was applied. However, when all samples were combined in one classification analysis, neither PCA nor LDA were able to discriminate between honeys of different floral origins, sugar syrup and adulterated samples. By applying a sensor fusion technique, the classification for the 18 different samples was improved. Significant improvement was observed using PCA, while LDA not only improved the discrimination but also gave better classification

  9. A Hybrid Sensing Approach for Pure and Adulterated Honey Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ammar Zakaria

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a comparison between data from single modality and fusion methods to classify Tualang honey as pure or adulterated using Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA and Principal Component Analysis (PCA statistical classification approaches. Ten different brands of certified pure Tualang honey were obtained throughout peninsular Malaysia and Sumatera, Indonesia. Various concentrations of two types of sugar solution (beet and cane sugar were used in this investigation to create honey samples of 20%, 40%, 60% and 80% adulteration concentrations. Honey data extracted from an electronic nose (e-nose and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR were gathered, analyzed and compared based on fusion methods. Visual observation of classification plots revealed that the PCA approach able to distinct pure and adulterated honey samples better than the LDA technique. Overall, the validated classification results based on FTIR data (88.0% gave higher classification accuracy than e-nose data (76.5% using the LDA technique. Honey classification based on normalized low-level and intermediate-level FTIR and e-nose fusion data scored classification accuracies of 92.2% and 88.7%, respectively using the Stepwise LDA method. The results suggested that pure and adulterated honey samples were better classified using FTIR and e-nose fusion data than single modality data.

  10. Detection of Illicium anisatum as Adulterant of Illicium verum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinese Star anise, Illicium verum Hook, is a well known spice in many cultures and has also been used to treat infant colic. Recent publications report that Chinese Star anise might be adulterated with the toxic Japanise Star anise, Illicium anisatum. We have developed a molecular method that helps...

  11. High-throughput analysis by SP-LDI-MS for fast identification of adulterations in commercial balsamic vinegars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Rapid identification of adulteration in balsamic vinegars. • Minimal sample preparation. • No matrix required for assisting laser desorption/ionization. • Fast sample discrimination by multivariate data analysis. - Abstract: Balsamic vinegar (BV) is a typical and valuable Italian product, worldwide appreciated thanks to its characteristic flavors and potential health benefits. Several studies have been conducted to assess physicochemical and microbial compositions of BV, as well as its beneficial properties. Due to highly-disseminated claims of antioxidant, antihypertensive and antiglycemic properties, BV is a known target for frauds and adulterations. For that matter, product authentication, certifying its origin (region or country) and thus the processing conditions, is becoming a growing concern. Striving for fraud reduction as well as quality and safety assurance, reliable analytical strategies to rapidly evaluate BV quality are very interesting, also from an economical point of view. This work employs silica plate laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (SP-LDI-MS) for fast chemical profiling of commercial BV samples with protected geographical indication (PGI) and identification of its adulterated samples with low-priced vinegars, namely apple, alcohol and red/white wines

  12. High-throughput analysis by SP-LDI-MS for fast identification of adulterations in commercial balsamic vinegars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerreiro, Tatiane Melina; Oliveira, Diogo Noin de; Ferreira, Mônica Siqueira; Catharino, Rodrigo Ramos, E-mail: rrc@fcm.unicamp.br

    2014-08-01

    Highlights: • Rapid identification of adulteration in balsamic vinegars. • Minimal sample preparation. • No matrix required for assisting laser desorption/ionization. • Fast sample discrimination by multivariate data analysis. - Abstract: Balsamic vinegar (BV) is a typical and valuable Italian product, worldwide appreciated thanks to its characteristic flavors and potential health benefits. Several studies have been conducted to assess physicochemical and microbial compositions of BV, as well as its beneficial properties. Due to highly-disseminated claims of antioxidant, antihypertensive and antiglycemic properties, BV is a known target for frauds and adulterations. For that matter, product authentication, certifying its origin (region or country) and thus the processing conditions, is becoming a growing concern. Striving for fraud reduction as well as quality and safety assurance, reliable analytical strategies to rapidly evaluate BV quality are very interesting, also from an economical point of view. This work employs silica plate laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (SP-LDI-MS) for fast chemical profiling of commercial BV samples with protected geographical indication (PGI) and identification of its adulterated samples with low-priced vinegars, namely apple, alcohol and red/white wines.

  13. Molecular authentication of Tetrastigma hemsleyanum from its adulterant species using ISSR, CAPS, and ITS2 barcode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Xin; Wu, Xiurong; Ji, Qingyong; Yang, Ruikang; Li, Yulan

    2016-08-01

    Tetrastigma hemsleyanum is a rare and endangered herb, which is commercialized as the resource of anti-cancer drugs. Wild T. hemsleyanum plants are on the verge of extinction recently, there are increasing numbers of counterfeits on the market. In the present study, inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR), Cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence (CAPS), and the internal transcribed spacer region II (ITS2) barcode were used for the first time for the authentication of T. hemsleyanum from its commonly counterfeits. ISSR analysis suggested that it was a useful method for distinguishing T. hemsleyanum from its adulterants of different genus. However, it was insufficient to distinguish T. hemsleyanum from those adulterants of the same genus. ITS2 of T. hemsleyanum and the commonly counterfeits were amplified and sequenced. The Neighbor-Joining tree constructed from the ITS2 sequences showed that T. hemsleyanum was clearly differentiated from all counterfeits samples. A mutation site in the ITS2 region of T. hemsleyanum had been found which could be recognized by the restriction endonuclease NcoI. T. hemsleyanum could be readily distinguished from counterfeits as the PCR products from T. hemsleyanum could be digested sufficiently by NcoI, while the PCR products from counterfeits could not be digested. The results indicated that CAPS and ITS2 barcode methods provided effective and accurate identification of T. hemsleyanum from all its adulterants, while ISSR could only distinguish T. hemsleyanum from its adulterants of different genus. The CAPS method developed in the present study will serve as a reliable tool for safe and effective use of T. hemsleyanum in the clinic application. It will also play an important role for the identification, management and conservation of this endangered species. PMID:27245064

  14. Food Adulteration: From Vulnerability Assessment to New Analytical Solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavin, Christophe; Cottenet, Geoffrey; Blancpain, Carine; Bessaire, Thomas; Frank, Nancy; Zbinden, Pascal

    2016-01-01

    Crises related to the presence of melamine in milk or horse meat in beef have been a wake-up call to the whole food industry showing that adulteration of food raw materials is a complex issue. By analysing the situation, it became clear that the risk-based approach applied to ensure the safety related to chemical contaminants in food is not adequate for food fraud. Therefore, a specific approach has been developed to evaluate adulteration vulnerabilities within the food chain. Vulnerabilities will require the development of new analytical solutions. Fingerprinting methodologies can be very powerful in determining the status of a raw material without knowing the identity of each constituent. Milk adulterated by addition of adulterants with very different chemical properties could be detected rapidly by Fourier-transformed mid-infrared spectroscopy (FT-mid-IR) fingerprinting technology. In parallel, a fast and simple multi-analytes liquid-chromatography tandem mass-spectrometry (LC/MS-MS) method has been developed to detect either high levels of nitrogen-rich compounds resulting from adulteration or low levels due to accidental contamination either in milk or in other sensitive food matrices. To verify meat species authenticity, DNA-based methods are preferred for both raw ingredients and processed food. DNA macro-array, and more specifically the Meat LCD Array have showed efficient and reliable meat identification, allowing the simultaneous detection of 32 meat species. While the Meat LCD Array is still a targeted approach, DNA sequencing is a significant step towards an untargeted one. PMID:27198809

  15. Discriminant analysis of milk adulteration based on near-infrared spectroscopy and pattern recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Rong; Lv, Guorong; He, Bin; Xu, Kexin

    2011-03-01

    Since the beginning of the 21st century, the issue of food safety is becoming a global concern. It is very important to develop a rapid, cost-effective, and widely available method for food adulteration detection. In this paper, near-infrared spectroscopy techniques and pattern recognition were applied to study the qualitative discriminant analysis method. The samples were prepared and adulterated with one of the three adulterants, urea, glucose and melamine with different concentrations. First, the spectral characteristics of milk and adulterant samples were analyzed. Then, pattern recognition methods were used for qualitative discriminant analysis of milk adulteration. Soft independent modeling of class analogy and partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLSDA) were used to construct discriminant models, respectively. Furthermore, the optimization method of the model was studied. The best spectral pretreatment methods and the optimal band were determined. In the optimal conditions, PLSDA models were constructed respectively for each type of adulterated sample sets (urea, melamine and glucose) and all the three types of adulterated sample sets. Results showed that, the discrimination accuracy of model achieved 93.2% in the classification of different adulterated and unadulterated milk samples. Thus, it can be concluded that near-infrared spectroscopy and PLSDA can be used to identify whether the milk has been adulterated or not and the type of adulterant used.

  16. Identification and quantification of turkey meat adulteration in fresh, frozen-thawed and cooked minced beef by FT-NIR spectroscopy and chemometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamprese, Cristina; Amigo, José Manuel; Casiraghi, Ernestina; Engelsen, Søren Balling

    2016-11-01

    This work aims at the development of a method based on FT-NIR spectroscopy and multivariate analysis for the identification and quantification of minced beef meat adulteration with turkey meat. Samples were analyzed as raw, frozen-thawed and cooked. Different multivariate regression and class-modeling strategies were evaluated. PLS regression models with R(2) in prediction higher than 0.884 and RMSEP lower than 10.8% were developed. PLS-DA applied to discriminate each type of sample in two classes (adulteration threshold=20%) showed values of sensitivity and specificity in prediction higher than 0.84 and 0.76, respectively. Thus, the study demonstrates that FT-NIR spectroscopy coupled with suitable chemometric strategies is a reliable tool for the identification and quantification of minced beef adulteration with turkey meat not only in fresh products, but also in frozen-thawed and cooked samples. This achievement is of crucial importance in the meat industry due to the increasing number of processed meat products, in which technological treatments can mask a possible inter-species adulteration. PMID:27337677

  17. Detection of adulteration in mulberry pekmez samples added various sugar syrups with ¹³C/¹²C isotope ratio analysis method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosun, Murat

    2014-12-15

    Mulberry pekmez can be adulterated in different ways either during the production process or after production is completed. To identify these adulterations, stable carbon isotope ratio analysis (SCIRA) was performed on the model examples prepared by adding saccharose syrup (SS), glucose syrup (GS) and high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) into two different pure mulberry pekmez samples in the ratios of 0%, 10%, 30% and 50%. The δ(13)C ratio of the pure mulberry pekmez was determined as -26.60‰ on average, the saccharose syrup as -24.80‰, the glucose syrup as -11.20‰ and the high-fructose corn syrup as -11.40‰. In identifying the adulteration made to pekmez, especially with the high-fructose corn syrup, which is obtained from corn starch, and with the glucose syrup, the δ(13)C ratio comes into prominence. However it remains impossible identify the adulterations made with the saccharose, which is obtained from beet sugar, or invert sugar syrups. PMID:25038711

  18. Nanoparticle-based assay for the detection of virgin argan oil adulteration and its rapid quality evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zougagh, M; Salghi, R; Dhair, S; Rios, A

    2011-03-01

    A new method, based on the formation of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) and spectrophotometric analysis, is proposed to determine total phenolic acids in virgin argan oil samples. These compounds have reducibility due to the presence of the phenol group in their molecular structure, and a redox reaction occurs in the presence of HAuCl(4). The formation of AuNPs as a result of the redox reaction leading to colour changes can be visually observed, resulting in strong light signals that show absorption at 555 nm. As ferulic acid represents more than 95% of the total phenolic acid content of virgin argan oil, this compound was used as an adulteration marker to carry out the screening of samples for the evaluation of the authenticity of virgin argan oils. The analytical features of this screening method also allowed a low precision quantization of the quality of the product. Then, a reference HPLC-DAD/FD method was used to confirm the potential adulterated samples, as well as to provide a detailed quantitative analysis of the most representative phenolic compounds in the samples. The overall screening-confirmation strategy was validated by analysing pure virgin argan oil samples and argan oil samples adulterated with other commercial vegetable oils, demonstrating the reliability of the results. This approach is characterised by its simplicity, low cost, rapid information and responded to practical laboratories needs. PMID:21221541

  19. Development of QCM Biosensor with Specific Cow Milk Protein Antibody for Candidate Milk Adulteration Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setyawan P. Sakti

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Adulteration of goat milk is usually done using cow’s milk product. Cow milk is used as it is widely available and its price is cheaper compared to goat milk. This paper shows a development of candidate tools for milk adulteration using cow milk. A quartz crystal microbalance immunosensor was developed using commercial crystal resonator and polyclonal antibody specific to cow milk protein. A specific protein at 208 KDa is found only in cow milk and does not exist in goat milk. The existence of this protein can be used as an indicator of cow milk content in a target solution. To detect the PSS 208 kDa protein, antibody specific to the PSS 208 was developed. The purified antibody was immobilized on top of the sensor surface on a polystyrene layer. The fraction of the immobilized antibody on the sensor was found at 1.5% of the given antibody. Using a static reaction cell, the developed immunosensor could detect the specific cow milk protein in buffer solution. The detection limit is 1 ppm. A linear relationship between frequency change and specific protein of cow milk concentration is found from a concentration of 1 ppm to 120 ppm.

  20. Computational estimation of soybean oil adulteration in Nepalese mustard seed oil based on fatty acid composition

    OpenAIRE

    Shrestha, Kshitij; De Meulenaer, Bruno

    2011-01-01

    The experiment was carried out for the computational estimation of soybean oil adulteration in the mustard seed oil using chemometric technique based on fatty acid composition. Principal component analysis and K-mean clustering of fatty acid composition data showed 4 major mustard/rapeseed clusters, two of high erucic and two of low erucic mustard type. Soybean and other possible adulterants made a distinct cluster from them. The methodology for estimation of soybean oil adulteration was deve...

  1. Detection of Virgin Olive Oil Adulteration Using Low Field Unilateral NMR

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng Xu; Robert H. Morris; Martin Bencsik; Newton, Michael I.

    2014-01-01

    The detection of adulteration in edible oils is a concern in the food industry, especially for the higher priced virgin olive oils. This article presents a low field unilateral nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) method for the detection of the adulteration of virgin olive oil that can be performed through sealed bottles providing a non-destructive screening technique. Adulterations of an extra virgin olive oil with different percentages of sunflower oil and red palm oil were measured with a com...

  2. IMPACTS OF ECONOMIC ADULTERATION ON THE U.S. HONEY INDUSTRY

    OpenAIRE

    Fairchild, Gary F.; Capps, Oral, Jr.; Nichols, John P.

    2000-01-01

    Research for this paper was funded by the National Honey Board to provide a basis for industry dialogue on the need for a quality assurance program. The paper provides a background perspective on economic adulteration, industry perspectives on the extent of economic adulteration in the U.S. honey industry, estimates of potential economic impacts, and a discussion of trends and issues relevant to economic adulteration.

  3. Recent Advances in Rapid Identification of Milk Adulteration%乳品掺假快速检测的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓会玲; 万宇平; 贾芳芳; 陶光灿

    2011-01-01

    The identification of milk adulteration is one of the current difficulties for milk quality control in our country and of great significance to ensure the food safety of milk products.This article reviews the current situation of milk adulteration,and focuses on the current domestic detection techniques for milk adulteration,and forecasts future technology development trends for the identification of milk adulteration,with the aim of providing theoretical evidence for further improvement of food safety detection techniques.%乳品掺假鉴别是目前我国乳品质量控制的难题之一,其对保障乳品的食用安全具有重要意义。本文综述乳品掺假的现状,重点阐述目前国内现有的乳品掺假检测技术,并对乳品掺假检测技术的发展趋势进行展望,旨在为进一步完善食品安全检测技术体系提供理论依据。

  4. Rapid screening for the adulterants of Berberis aristata using direct analysis in real-time mass spectrometry and principal component analysis for discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajpai, Vikas; Singh, Awantika; Arya, Kamal Ram; Srivastava, Mukesh; Kumar, Brijesh

    2015-01-01

    Adulteration or substitution of commercial Berberis aristata and its herbal products with inferior-quality substituents is very common. Metabolic profiling of B. aristata, along with its common adulterants/contaminants/substituents such as B. asiatica, Mahonia borealis and Coscinium fenestratum, was rapidly carried out using direct analysis in real-time mass spectrometry (DART MS) to generate the chemical fingerprints for the differentiation of these species. Phytochemical analysis showed the presence of mainly alkaloids. The identified alkaloids were berberrubine, berberine, jatrorrhizine, ketoberberine, palmatine, dihydropalmatine or 7,8-dihydro-8-hydroxyberberine, berbamine and pakistanamine. Berberine, which was mainly reported from the root and stem bark of B. aristata, was also identified in the leaf along with chlorogenic acid. The DART MS data have been subjected to principal component analysis (PCA). The resulting score plots showed clustering and clear differentiation of the species and plant parts. It is thus apparent that the technique of DART MS followed by PCA is a quick and reliable method for the direct profiling of B. aristata and its adulterant plants and plant parts. The study reports the rapid analytical method to identify the possibility of illegal adulteration/contamination/substitution in potential plant materials and herbal extracts. PMID:25739096

  5. Adulteration detection of Brazilian gasoline samples by statistical analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L.S.M. Wiedemann; L.A. d' Avila; D.A. Azevedo [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). Departamento de Quimica Organica, Instituto de Quimica

    2005-03-01

    Unfortunately, addition of organic solvents (heavy aliphatic, light aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons) in Brazilian gasoline is very frequent, and this illegal practice does not guarantee gasoline quality. Organic solvent adulterations of gasoline samples have been investigated. For characterization and comparison of these samples, physico-chemical parameters together with gas chromatographic analyses data were proposed as the factors for multivariate analysis. Hierarchical clusters analysis was used to improve the detection of the type of solvent and their relative proportion used for this practice. More detailed information of their compositions was revealed. It was found that using physico-chemical properties of gasoline samples together with statistical analysis are a useful method to adulteration detection. 20 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Detecção de adulterações em produtos alimentares contendo leite e/ou proteínas lácteas Detection of adulterations in food products containing milk and/or milk proteins

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Cristina A. Veloso; Natércia Teixeira; Ferreira, Isabel M.P.L.V.O.; Margarida A. Ferreira

    2002-01-01

    A critical review of the most relevant analytical methodologies for quality and authenticity control of dairy products and foods containing milk proteins is presented. Chromatographic, electrophoretic and immunological methods are used for: detection of cow's milk in ewe and goat milks, detection of whey added to milk, detection of caseins and/or whey proteins in non-lactic foods and study compounds resulting from milk proteins degradation. Techniques based on polimerase chain reaction are al...

  7. Optical sensor for the determination of adulteration in petrol: design and development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishor, Kamal; Sinha, R. K.; Varshney, Anshu D.; Kumar, Vinit

    2011-10-01

    In this paper, we report design and development of optical sensor for the determination of adulteration in petrol using optical time-domain reflectometer (OTDR). OTDR is generally used to find out fault in optical fibers but we effectively use this technique for the determination of the percentage of adulteration in petrol. This OTDR method enables detection of adulteration in petrol very accurately. The OTDR measurement method reported in this paper is easy to carry out and also a cost effective tool for the determination of adulteration in petrol.

  8. Purity and adulterant analysis of crack seizures in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukushima, André R; Carvalho, Virginia M; Carvalho, Débora G; Diaz, Ernesto; Bustillos, Jose Oscar William Vega; Spinosa, Helenice de S; Chasin, Alice A M

    2014-10-01

    Cocaine represents a serious problem to society. Smoked cocaine is very addictive and it is frequently associated with violence and health issues. Knowledge of the purity and adulterants present in seized cocaine, as well as variations in drug characteristics are useful to identify drug source and estimate health impact. No data are available regarding smoked cocaine composition in most countries, and the smoked form is increasing in the Brazilian market. The purpose of the present study is to contribute to the current knowledge on the status of crack cocaine seized samples on the illicit market by the police of São Paulo. Thus, 404 samples obtained from street seizures conducted by the police were examined. The specimens were macroscopically characterized by color, form, odor, purity, and adulterant type, as well as smoke composition. Samples were screened for cocaine using modified Scott test and thin-layer chromatographic (TLC) technique. Analyses of purity and adulterants were performed with gas chromatography equipped with flame ionization detector (GC-FID). Additionally, smoke composition was analyzed by GC-mass spectrometry (MS), after samples burning. Samples showed different colors and forms, the majority of which is yellow (74.0%) or white (20.0%). Samples free of adulterants represented 76.3% of the total. Mean purity of the analyzed drug was 71.3%. Crack cocaine presented no correlations between macroscopic characteristics and purity. Smoke analysis showed compounds found also in the degradation of diesel and gasoline. Therefore, the drug marketed as crack cocaine in São Paulo has similar characteristics to coca paste. High purity can represent a greater risk of dependency and smoke compounds are possibly worsening drug health impact. PMID:24887446

  9. Preliminary Discrimination of Butter Adulteration by ATR-FTIR Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucian Cuibus

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The Attenuated Total Reflectance-Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR  was applied for the discrimination of butter samples adulterated with solid fraction of palm oil. For FTIR fingerprinting of butter samples, with or without controlled additions of palm oil as adulterant was firstly obtained, using a Shimatsu Prestige 21 Spectrophotometer, including a horizontal diamond ATR accessory with reflection in the MIR region (3873-690 cm-1.The spiked butter samples including 0 level and seven increasing concentrations of palm fats, up to 50% were fingerprinted and the calibration curve was obtained (n=19. In parallel, the validation was realized using different set of spiked butter samples ranging 1-44.4 % of palm fat (n=7. Finally, an independent set of commercial samples was analized (n=14.Partial least squares (PLS model was used for statistical data processing in accordance with standard method. The value of the correlation coefficient (R2= 0.977 between actual and predicted values was statistically significant (p<0.001, considering the superposition of  "actual vs predicted” curves. This combined FTIR-PLS evaluation revealed that 3 out of  samples of butter were suspected of adulteration with palm oil, presented values 14 ranging 4-12%.In conclusion, ATR-FTIR methodology may offer an rapid evaluation of  butter samples authenticity. The low value for detection limit (3%palm oil in butter and the low limit of quantification (9.8% palm oil in butter confirms that ATR-FTIR spectroscopy  is a sensitive method to identify the adulteration of butter with  palm oil.   

  10. Detecção de adulterações em produtos alimentares contendo leite e/ou proteínas lácteas Detection of adulterations in food products containing milk and/or milk proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cristina A. Veloso

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available A critical review of the most relevant analytical methodologies for quality and authenticity control of dairy products and foods containing milk proteins is presented. Chromatographic, electrophoretic and immunological methods are used for: detection of cow's milk in ewe and goat milks, detection of whey added to milk, detection of caseins and/or whey proteins in non-lactic foods and study compounds resulting from milk proteins degradation. Techniques based on polimerase chain reaction are also suitable for detection of cow's milk on cheeses of ewe and goat milks.

  11. Direct analysis in real time high resolution mass spectrometry as a tool for rapid characterization of mind-altering plant materials and revelation of supplement adulteration--The case of Kanna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesiak, Ashton D; Cody, Robert B; Ubukata, Masaaki; Musah, Rabi A

    2016-03-01

    We demonstrate the utility of direct analysis in real time ionization coupled with high resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry (DART-HRTOFMS) in revealing the adulteration of commercially available Sceletium tortuosum, a mind-altering plant-based drug commonly known as Kanna. Accurate masses consistent with alkaloids previously isolated from S. tortuosum plant material enabled identification of the products as Kanna, and in-source collision-induced dissociation (CID) confirmed the presence of one of these alkaloids, hordenine, while simultaneously revealing the presence of an adulterant. The stimulant ephedrine, which has been banned in herbal products and supplements, was confirmed to be present in a sample through the use of in-source CID. High-throughput DART-HRTOFMS was shown to be a powerful tool to not only screen plant-based drugs of abuse for psychotropic alkaloids, but also to reveal the presence of scheduled substances and adulterants. PMID:26821203

  12. 49 CFR 40.145 - On what basis does the MRO verify test results involving adulteration or substitution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... involving adulteration or substitution? 40.145 Section 40.145 Transportation Office of the Secretary of... adulteration or substitution? (a) As an MRO, when you receive a laboratory report that a specimen is... to test because of adulteration or substitution, as applicable. (2) If you believe that the...

  13. Rapeseed oil as biodiesel resource and adulteration agent for expensive edible oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DULF F.V.

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Rapeseed (Brassica napus, also known as rape, oilseed rape, rapa, rapaseed and canola, has bright yellowflowers and is grown for the production of animal feed, vegetable oil for human consumption, and biodiesel.This oil was originally chosen for transesterification experiments because of its low price compared to othersreadily available vegetable oils. Due to the high content of oleic acid and low levels of both saturated andpolyunsaturated acids, the oil is the ideal raw material for combustion, due to its characteristics (oxidativestability and cold temperature behavior. It can be considered the most frequently used adulteration agent for alot of expensive edible oils, like extra virgin olive oil. Brassicasterol is mainly present only in rapeseed oil. It isabsent or present only in trace amounts in other oils.

  14. 75 FR 13555 - Compliance Policy Guide Sec. 540.375 Canned Salmon - Adulteration Involving Decomposition (CPG...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-22

    ... Register on March 28, 2006 (71 FR 15422 at 15453), FDA included the Compliance Policy Guides Manual, which.... 540.375 Canned Salmon -- Adulteration Involving Decomposition (CPG 7108.10); Withdrawal of Guidance... -- Adulteration Involving Decomposition (CPG 7108.10) (CPG Sec. 540.375). CPG Sec. 540.375 is included in...

  15. Detection of starch adulteration in onion powder by FT-NIR and FT-IR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adulteration of onion powder with cornstarch was identified by Fourier transform near-infrared (FT-NIR) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. The reflectance spectra of 180 pure and adulterated samples (1–35 wt% starch) were collected and preprocessed to generate calibration and predi...

  16. Targeted and Untargeted Detection of Skim Milk Powder Adulteration by Near-Infrared Spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Capuano, Edoardo; Boerrigter-Eenling, Rita; Koot, Alex; Ruth, van S.M.

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) was explored as a fast and reliable screening method for the detection of adulteration of skim milk powder (SMP). Sixty genuine SMP were adulterated with acid whey (1–25 % w/w), starch (2 and 5 %) and maltodextrin (2 and 5 %) for a total of

  17. Detection of adulteration in virgin olive oil using a fiber optic long period grating based sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A fiber optic sensing system for the detection of adulteration of virgin olive oil by less expensive sunflower oil is presented. The fundamental principle of detection is the sensitive dependence of the resonance peaks of a long period grating (LPG) on the changes in the refractive index of the environmental medium surrounding the cladding surface of the grating. The performance of the sensor has been tested by monitoring the amplitude changes of the attenuation bands of the LPG in response to variation of adulteration level. With good repeatability, the detection limit of adulteration is 4% and the sensor sensitivity is around 0.07 dB vol%−1 of adulterant in the measurement range. The developed sensor is user-friendly, reusable and allows instantaneous measurement of the amount of adulteration without involving any reagents. (paper)

  18. Detection of adulteration in virgin olive oil using a fiber optic long period grating based sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libish, T. M.; Bobby, M. C.; Linesh, J.; Mathew, S.; Pradeep, C.; Nampoori, V. P. N.; Biswas, P.; Bandyopadhyay, S.; Dasgupta, K.; Radhakrishnan, P.

    2013-04-01

    A fiber optic sensing system for the detection of adulteration of virgin olive oil by less expensive sunflower oil is presented. The fundamental principle of detection is the sensitive dependence of the resonance peaks of a long period grating (LPG) on the changes in the refractive index of the environmental medium surrounding the cladding surface of the grating. The performance of the sensor has been tested by monitoring the amplitude changes of the attenuation bands of the LPG in response to variation of adulteration level. With good repeatability, the detection limit of adulteration is 4% and the sensor sensitivity is around 0.07 dB vol%-1 of adulterant in the measurement range. The developed sensor is user-friendly, reusable and allows instantaneous measurement of the amount of adulteration without involving any reagents.

  19. Nontargeted detection of adulteration of skim milk powder with foreign proteins using UHPLC-UV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jablonski, Joseph E; Moore, Jeffrey C; Harnly, James M

    2014-06-01

    Chromatographic profiles of skim milk powder (SMP) and mixtures of SMP with soy (SPI), pea (PPI), brown rice (BRP), and hydrolyzed wheat protein (HWPI) isolates were obtained by ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) with 215 nm detection. Two data analysis approaches were compared for their utility to classify samples as authentic or adulterated. The t test approach evaluated data points exceeding the 99% confidence limit of the mean authentic SMP chromatogram and used data points from the entire chromatogram. The other approach used the multivariate Q statistic from a SIMCA model of authentic samples to determine adulteration and used a selected retention window to obtain best classifications. Q-Statistic and t test correctly classified adulteration of SMP with SPI at the 1% and 3% levels, respectively, while minimizing false classifications of authentic SMP. Detection of SMP adulterated with PPI, BRP, and HWPI was possible at higher adulteration levels. PMID:24811490

  20. Quality assessment of the saffron samples using second-order spectrophotometric data assisted by three-way chemometric methods via quantitative analysis of synthetic colorants in adulterated saffron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masoum, Saeed; Gholami, Ali; Hemmesi, Marjan; Abbasi, Saleheh

    2015-09-01

    Saffron is a valuable culinary spice that can be used not only for dyes and cooking, but also for many medical purposes. Due to its high price and restriction of its production, various fraud manners in its production have been growing. Addition of synthetic colorants to saffron is the most common way for adulteration. In this work, chemometric methods are proposed to resolve the three-dimensional absorbance spectra-pH data for simultaneous determination of the two colorants Tartrazin and Sunset yellow, in adulterated saffron. The rank deficiency in the concentration mode impaired the system. Therefore, to extirpate the ambiguity, which results from rank deficiency, three-way variation array V was generated by subtracting the first pH spectrum from each spectrum at each pH. This allows the extraction of extent reaction profile and mixture reaction spectral profiles, as well as the relative concentrations of the analytes. PMID:25919327

  1. Quality assessment of the saffron samples using second-order spectrophotometric data assisted by three-way chemometric methods via quantitative analysis of synthetic colorants in adulterated saffron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masoum, Saeed; Gholami, Ali; Hemmesi, Marjan; Abbasi, Saleheh

    2015-09-01

    Saffron is a valuable culinary spice that can be used not only for dyes and cooking, but also for many medical purposes. Due to its high price and restriction of its production, various fraud manners in its production have been growing. Addition of synthetic colorants to saffron is the most common way for adulteration. In this work, chemometric methods are proposed to resolve the three-dimensional absorbance spectra-pH data for simultaneous determination of the two colorants Tartrazin and Sunset yellow, in adulterated saffron. The rank deficiency in the concentration mode impaired the system. Therefore, to extirpate the ambiguity, which results from rank deficiency, three-way variation array V was generated by subtracting the first pH spectrum from each spectrum at each pH. This allows the extraction of extent reaction profile and mixture reaction spectral profiles, as well as the relative concentrations of the analytes.

  2. Adulteration and its detection of black raspberry products

    Science.gov (United States)

    We have continually researched improvements for commercially available cultivars of black raspberry (Rubus occidentalis L.; blackcap). During the past decade, we have analyzed fruit from over 1,000 black raspberry genotypes and cultivars, and found that the anthocyanin content to ranged from 39 to 9...

  3. Preliminary Discrimination of Cheese Adulteration by FT-IR Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucian Cuibus

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The present work describes a preliminary study to compare some traditional Romanian cheeses and adulterated cheeses using Attenuated Total Reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR. For PLS model calibration (6 concentration levels and validation (5 concentration levels sets were prepared from commercial Dalia Cheese from different manufacturers by spiking it with palm oil at concentrations ranging 2-50 % and 5-40 %, respectively. Fifteen Dalia Cheese were evaluated as external set. The spectra of each sample, after homogenization, were acquired in triplicate using a FTIR Shimatsu Prestige 21 Spectrophotometer, with a horizontal diamond ATR accessory in the MIR region 4000-600 cm-1. Statistical methods as PLS were applied using MVC1 routines written for Matlab R2010a. As first step the optimal condition for PLS model were obtained using cross-validation on the Calibration set. Spectral region in 3873-652 cm-1, and 3 PLS-factors were stated as the best conditions and showed an R2 value of 0.9338 and a relative error in the calibration of 17.2%. Then validation set was evaluated, obtaining good recovery rates (108% and acceptable dispersion of the data (20%. The curve of actual vs. predicted values shows slope near to 1 and origin close to 0, with an R2 of 0.9695. When the external sample set was evaluated, samples F19, F21, F22 and F24, showed detectable levels of palm fats. The results proved that FTIR-PLS is a reliable non-destructive technique for a rapid quantification the level of adulteration in cheese.  The spectroscopic methods could assist the quality control authority, traders and the producers to discriminate the adulterated cheeses with palm oil.

  4. DNA barcoding provides distinction between Radix Astragali and its adulterants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Based on variable nuclear and/or organellar DNA sequences among vastly divergent species as well as morphologically indistinguishable species, DNA barcoding is widely applicable in species identification, biodiversity studies, forensic analyses, and authentication of medicinal plants. The roots of Astragalus membranaceus and A. membranaceus var. mongholica are commonly used as Radix Astragali in several Asian countries, including China, Japan, and Korea. However, in addition to the two species recorded in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia, there are twenty-three species from different genera including Astragalus, Oxytropis, Hedysarum, and Glycyrrhiza, which have been used as adulterants not only in trading markets but also by the herbal medicine industry. Therefore, a simple, reliable, and accurate classification method is important for distinguishing authentic Radix Astragali from its adulterants. In this study, we acquired data for 37 samples from four related genera within the family Fabaceae. Then we compared four candidate DNA barcoding markers using ITS, matK, rbcL, and coxI sequences from nuclear, chloroplast, and mitochondrial genomes, all commonly used for plants to identify genetic variations among genera, intraspecies, and interspecies. We observed higher divergences among genera and interspecies for ITS, which have the average Kimura 2-parameter distances of 4.5% and 14.1%, respectively, whereas matK was found to have sufficient divergence at the intraspecific level. Moreover, two indels detected in the matK sequence are useful for PCR studies in distinguishing Radix Astragali from its adulterants. This study suggests that the combined barcoding regions of ITS and matK are superior barcodes for Radix Astragali and further studies should focus on evaluating the applicability and accuracy of such combined markers for a wide range of traditional Chinese herbs.

  5. Measurement of gasoline adulteration using optical fiber sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz Marulanda, Leonardo A.; Torres Moreno, Cesar O.; Mattos Velazque, Lorenzo

    2011-09-01

    This paper presents the application of a fiber optic sensor based on bifurcated fiber bundles; in the bifurcated design, separate fibers carry the excitation and emission radiation. The physics principle is simple, the fraction of light transmitted between the receive elements in the bundle and the transmit elements in the bundles depends of the light wave passes through the gasoline; three fuel-adulterant mixtures in different proportions by volume were prepared and individually tested. The high sensitivity of laser, and the versatility of fiber-optic technology and experiment proved that the system has simple construct and high sensitivity during absorption on a transition process.

  6. [Evaluation of the potential adulteration of commercial honey distributed in Costa Rica compared with artesanian honey samples coming from specific apiaries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ureña Varela, Maurico; Arrieta Bolaños, Esteban; Umaña, Eduardo; Zamora, Luis Gabriel; Arias Echandi, Maria Laura

    2007-03-01

    Honey is the principal apiculture product, produced by Apis mellifera bee. This, as any other food product, has to accomplish certain quality standards, including physicochemical, organoleptic and microbiological properties. Within these parameters, different measures are considered as adulteration indicators, including hydroxymethylfurfural and diastase enzyme activity which are associated to overheating, and the sucrose, glucose and fructose content. In this study, a determination of previous parameters, additional to glucose, fructose and fructose/glucose index was performed to 35 artisan samples, obtained directly from beekeeper, previously characterized as having good productive practices and 25 commercial samples. Same time, the results obtained were compared and interpreted, in order to determine the kind of adulteration present in the honey sample. The 89% of artesian samples accomplished the parameters established by the Codex Alimentarius for HMF content, diastase activity, sucrose and simple sugars content. Nevertheless, only 20% (5) of the commercial samples accomplished the international and national normative. 24% of these samples presented succrose addition, 32% overheating or inverted sugar syrup addition, and 24% were adulterated with inverted sugar syrup. PMID:17824201

  7. Detection of Corn Adulteration in Brazilian Coffee (Coffea arabica) by Tocopherol Profiling and Near-Infrared (NIR) Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler-Moser, Jill K; Singh, Mukti; Rennick, Kathy A; Bakota, Erica L; Jham, Gulab; Liu, Sean X; Vaughn, Steven F

    2015-12-16

    Coffee is a high-value commodity that is a target for adulteration, leading to loss of quality and causing significant loss to consumers. Therefore, there is significant interest in developing methods for detecting coffee adulteration and improving the sensitivity and accuracy of these methods. Corn and other lower value crops are potential adulterants, along with sticks and coffee husks. Fourteen pure Brazilian roasted, ground coffee bean samples were adulterated with 1-20% of roasted, ground corn and were analyzed for their tocopherol content and profile by HPLC. They were also analyzed by near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy. Both proposed methods of detection of corn adulteration displayed a sensitivity of around 5%, thus representing simple and fast analytical methods for detecting adulteration at likely levels of contamination. Further studies should be conducted to verify the results with a much larger sample size and additional types of adulterants. PMID:26600312

  8. Adulteration of Argentinean milk fats with animal fats: Detection by fatty acids analysis and multivariate regression techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebechi, S R; Vélez, M A; Vaira, S; Perotti, M C

    2016-02-01

    The aims of the present study were to test the accuracy of the fatty acid ratios established by the Argentinean Legislation to detect adulterations of milk fat with animal fats and to propose a regression model suitable to evaluate these adulterations. For this purpose, 70 milk fat, 10 tallow and 7 lard fat samples were collected and analyzed by gas chromatography. Data was utilized to simulate arithmetically adulterated milk fat samples at 0%, 2%, 5%, 10% and 15%, for both animal fats. The fatty acids ratios failed to distinguish adulterated milk fats containing less than 15% of tallow or lard. For each adulterant, Multiple Linear Regression (MLR) was applied, and a model was chosen and validated. For that, calibration and validation matrices were constructed employing genuine and adulterated milk fat samples. The models were able to detect adulterations of milk fat at levels greater than 10% for tallow and 5% for lard. PMID:26304443

  9. Buying Practices and Prevalence of Adulteration in Selected Food items in a Rural Area of Wardha District: A Cross - Sectional Study

    OpenAIRE

    Khapre MP; Mudey A; Sonali Chaudhary; Wagh V; Ajay Dawale

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Food adulteration in India includes both willful adulteration and substandard food which do not confirm to prescribe food standard. There is striking paucity of reliable data with regard to extent of adulteration and documentation of food borne illnesses reflecting lack of attention and focus on this problem. Objectives: To find the prevalence of food adulteration, buying practices of selected food items and their awareness towards food adulteration act. Also assess relationship...

  10. Lactose semicarbazone as a marker for semicarbazide adulteration in milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abernethy, Grant; Higgs, Kerianne

    2013-06-21

    A liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method to detect semicarbazide and lactose semicarbazone in milk was developed as part of a programme to set up methods for detecting the economically motivated adulteration of raw milk with nitrogen-containing compounds. The detection of semicarbazide was hampered by that fact that this compound tended to give broad, poor intensity peaks in the hydrophobic interaction chromatographic method employed. When spiked into milk at levels of 20-200 ppm, semicarbazide either partially or completely reacted with the matrix, which both increased the limit of detection of the method and made the setting of a threshold by using low level spikes almost impossible. Thus using lactose semicarbazone as a marker for semicarbazide addition to milk was investigated. Lactose semicarbazone was detected in semicarbazide-spiked milk, and its identity was confirmed by fragmentation analysis and comparison with the synthesised compound. The level of lactose semicarbazone correlated with the amount of semicarbazide added to the milk, and the acidic conditions employed in the extraction method appeared to enhance the sensitivity of detection by driving the semicarbazone-forming reaction towards completion. Thus lactose semicarbazone can be used as a marker for the addition of semicarbazide to milk; however, both compounds should be monitored during surveys looking for the semicarbazide adulteration of milk. PMID:23683401

  11. Quantitative analysis and detection of adulteration in pork using near-infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yuxia; Cheng, Fang; Xie, Lijuan

    2010-04-01

    Authenticity is an important food quality criterion. Rapid methods for confirming authenticity or detecting adulteration are increasingly demanded by food processors and consumers. Near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy has been used to detect economic adulteration in pork . Pork samples were adulterated with liver and chicken in 10% increments. Prediction and quantitative analysis were done using raw data and pretreatment spectra. The optimal prediction result was achieved by partial least aquares(PLS) regression with standard normal variate(SNV) pretreatment for pork adulterated with liver samples, and the correlation coefficient(R value), the root mean square error of calibration(RMSEC) and the root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) were 0.97706, 0.0673 and 0.0732, respectively. The best model for pork meat adulterated with chicken samples was obtained by PLS with the raw spectra, and the correlation coefficient(R value), RMSEP and RMSEC were 0.98614, 0.0525, and 0.122, respectively. The result shows that NIR technology can be successfully used to detect adulteration in pork meat adulterated with liver and chicken.

  12. Multivariate calibration in Fourier transform infrared spectrometry as a tool to detect adulterations in Brazilian gasoline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonardo S.G. Teixeira; Fabio S. Oliveira; Hilda C. dos Santos; Paulo W.L. Cordeiro; Selmo Q. Almeida [Universidade Salvador, Salvador (Brazil)

    2008-03-15

    In the present work, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) in association with multivariate chemometrics classification techniques was employed to identify gasoline samples adulterated with diesel oil, kerosene, turpentine spirit or thinner. Results indicated that partial least squares (PLS) models based on infrared spectra were proven suitable as practical analytical methods for predicting adulterant content in gasoline in the volume fraction range from 0% to 50%. The results obtained by PLS provided prediction errors lower than 2% (v/v) for all adulterant determined. Additionally, Soft Independent Modeling of Class Analogy (SIMCA) was performed using all spectral data (650-3700 cm{sup -1}) for sample classification into adulterant classes defined by training set and the results indicated that undoubted adulteration detection was possible but identification of the adulterant was subject to misclassification errors, specially for kerosene and turpentine adulterated samples, and must be carefully examined. Quality control and police laboratories for gasoline analysis should employ the proposed methods for rapid screening analysis for qualitative monitoring purposes. 22 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  13. [Textual research on adulteration of Chinese materia medica in ancient China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Jin; Wang, De-Qun

    2013-09-01

    By investigating the mainstream works of herbal classics of successive ages, it is found that adulteration of Chinese materia medica appeared early in ancient China. The main methods of adulteration was producing fraud medicines in the Northern-Southern Dynasties, fake medicines began to appear in the Tang Dynasty, and status of adulteration of Chinese materia medica ran unchecked since the Ming and Qing Dynasty. By statistics, there were 76 kinds of adulteration varieties before the Republican period. The main varieties were precious drugs, animal drugs and artifacts. Commonly methods used in the process included forging and adulterating, dealing with 11 kinds and 68 kinds respectively. Adulteration probably lead to the result of imposing the changes of the used medicinal parts of Herba Pogostemonis; Radix Aconiti Lateralis prepared by adding salt, Radix Angelica Sinensis processed by wine, and Radix Astragalis seu Hedysaris processed with bee honey. However, the root cause of adulteration in Chinese materia medica was the dissociation of professional physician and pharmacist, resulting in the ignorance of medical practitioners became unable to recognize Chinese materia medica; and the immorality of medicinal merchants. Besides, rating the quality of materia medica based on its producing areas without differentiating the false from the genuine may also contribute to this result passively. PMID:24429032

  14. Dose-to-dose variations with single packages of counterfeit medicines and adulterated dietary supplements as a potential source of false negatives and inaccurate health risk assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venhuis, B J; Zwaagstra, M E; Keizers, P H J; de Kaste, D

    2014-02-01

    In this report, we show three examples of how the variability in dose units in single packages of counterfeit medicines and adulterated dietary supplements may contribute to a false negative screening result and inaccurate health risk assessments. We describe a counterfeit Viagra 100mg blister pack and a box of an instant coffee both containing dose units with and without an active pharmaceutical ingredient (API). We also describe a purportedly herbal slimming product with capsules that mutually differed in API and impurities. The adulterated dietary supplements contained sibutramine, benzyl-sibutramine, N-desmethyl-sibutramine (DMS), N,N-didesmethyl-sibutramine (DDMS) and several other related impurities. Counterfeit medicines and adulterated dietary supplements are a health risk because their quality is unreliable. Health risks are even greater when such unreliability extends to fundamental differences between dose units in one package. Because dose-to-dose variability for these products is unpredictable, the confidence interval of a sample size is unknown. Consequently, the analyses of a selection of dose units may not be representative for the package. In the worst case, counterfeit or unauthorised medicines are not recognised as such or a health risk is not identified. In order to reduce erroneous results particular care should be taken when analysing a composite of dose units, when finding no API in a dietary supplement and when finding conformity in a suspect counterfeit medicine. PMID:24291553

  15. Visible and near-infrared spectral signatures for adulteration assessment of extra virgin olive oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mignani, A. G.; Ciaccheri, L.; Ottevaere, H.; Thienpont, H.; Conte, L.; Marega, M.; Cichelli, A.; Attilio, C.; Cimato, A.

    2010-04-01

    Because of its high price, the extra virgin olive oil is frequently target for adulteration with lower quality oils. This paper presents an innovative optical technique capable of quantifying the adulteration of extra virgin olive oil caused by lowergrade olive oils. It relies on spectral fingerprinting the test liquid by means of diffuse-light absorption spectroscopy carried out by optical fiber technology in the wide 400-1700 nm spectral range. Then, a smart multivariate processing of spectroscopic data is applied for immediate prediction of adulterant concentration.

  16. Thinned fibre Bragg grating as a fuel adulteration sensor: simulation and experimental study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, S.; Prajapati, Y. K.; Mishra, V.

    2015-12-01

    This paper presents the implementation of a thinned fibre Bragg grating as a fuel adulteration sensor for volatile organic compounds. The proposed sensor can detect upto 10% adulteration of benzene, toluene and xylene: hydrocarbons precisely, whereas traditional methods can detect only upto 20% adulteration. The results obtained from the experiments are verified using Finite Difference Time Domain method. It is found that experimental results have very less deviation from simulation results. The proposed sensor provides us with the new possibility that may have commercial application, as well.

  17. On the Economics of Adulteration in Food Imports: Application to US Fish and Seafood Imports

    OpenAIRE

    Pouliot, Sébastien

    2012-01-01

    This essay shows the role of economics in the adulteration of food imports.The mechanism of impact in the model is the choice of input quality by exporting firms. One implication of the model is that conomic variables can be used to predict adulteration in food imports. The essay offers an application to US fish and seafood imports following the closing of fisheries in the Gulf of Mexico because of the Deepwater Horizon platform oil spill. Simulations show an increase in adulteration in fish ...

  18. FT-IR Application for the Detection of Pistachio Oil Adulteration

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Sheibani; Naser Ghotbaddini Bahraman; Fatemeh Sadeghi

    2014-01-01

    In this work, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) is used to identify and detection the adulteration of pistachio oil with cheap edible oils of corn, sunflower and soybean. For this purpose, pistachio oil was blended with cheap oils at concentration level of 10 to 60% (w/w). Then, FT-IR spectra of pure and adulterated pistachio oil samples were obtained. The fingerprints region was found to be useful in investigation of the adulteration of pistachio oil. At this region, the absorb...

  19. Meat, the metabolites: an integrated metabolite profiling and lipidomics approach for the detection of the adulteration of beef with pork.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trivedi, Drupad K; Hollywood, Katherine A; Rattray, Nicholas J W; Ward, Holli; Trivedi, Dakshat K; Greenwood, Joseph; Ellis, David I; Goodacre, Royston

    2016-04-01

    Adulteration of high quality food products with sub-standard and cheaper grades is a world-wide problem taxing the global economy. Currently, many traditional tests suffer from poor specificity, highly complex outputs and a lack of high-throughput processing. Metabolomics has been successfully used as an accurate discriminatory technique in a number of applications including microbiology, cancer research and environmental studies and certain types of food fraud. In this study, we have developed metabolomics as a technique to assess the adulteration of meat as an improvement on current methods. Different grades of beef mince and pork mince, purchased from a national retail outlet were combined in a number of percentage ratios and analysed using GC-MS and UHPLC-MS. These techniques were chosen because GC-MS enables investigations of metabolites involved in primary metabolism whilst UHPLC-MS using reversed phase chromatography provides information on lipophilic species. With the application of chemometrics and statistical analyses, a panel of differential metabolites were found for identification of each of the two meat types. Additionally, correlation was observed between metabolite content and percentage of fat declared on meat products' labelling. PMID:26911805

  20. A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for the detection of economically motivated adulteration in protein-containing foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacMahon, Shaun; Begley, Timothy H; Diachenko, Gregory W; Stromgren, Selen A

    2012-01-13

    A new analytical method was developed to determine the presence of six (6) compounds with the potential to be used in economic adulteration to enhance the nitrogen content in milk products and bulk proteins. Residues were extracted from the matrix with 2% formic acid, after which acetonitrile (ACN) was added to induce precipitation of the proteins. Extracts were analyzed by liquid chromatography using a ZIC-HILIC column with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) using electrospray ionization (ESI). Single-laboratory method validation data was collected in six matrices fortified at concentrations down to 1.0 μg/g (ppm). Average recoveries and average relative standard deviations (RSD) using spiked matrix calibration standard curves were the following: cyromazine (CY) 95.9% (7.5% RSD), dicyandiamide (DC) 98.1% (5.6% RSD), urea 102.5% (8.6% RSD), biuret (BU) 97.2% (6.6% RSD), triuret (TU) 97.7% (5.7% RSD), and amidinourea (AU) 93.4% (7.4% RSD). This method provides a rapid and effective approach to proactively combat economically motivated adulteration in protein-containing products. PMID:22197251

  1. Identification of Salvia Miltiorrhiza Commercial Adulterants and Adulterants%丹参市售混淆品和伪品鉴别

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈慧

    2016-01-01

    丹参作为较常见中草药,近年来随着其药用价值的增加,使用量也逐步增加,导致目前市售产品中混淆品和伪品量增多,以致影响药效的同时,还带来较多的质量安全隐患。文章从丹参主要性状特点、显微和理化性质入手,对其进行鉴别分析,并结合目前常见的丹参混淆品、伪品,提出相关的鉴别方法。%Salvia Chinese herbal medicine as a more common in recent years with the increase of its medicinal value and usage gradually increased, leading to confusion currently marketed products, increase the amount of goods and counterfeit goods that affect the efficacy also bring relatively more quality and safety problems.Articles from Salvia main traits characteristic, microscopic and physical and chemical properties of the start, its discriminant analysis, combined with the current common adulterant Salvia, counterfeit goods to be introduced, and propose methods of identification.

  2. Detection of Adulterants and Contaminants in Liquid Foods-A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Shyam Narayan; Jaiswal, Pranita; Grewal, Manpreet Kaur; Gupta, Mansha; Bhardwaj, Rishi

    2016-07-26

    Milk and fruit juices have paramount importance in human diet. Increasing demand of these liquid foods has made them vulnerable to economic adulteration during processing and in supply chain. Adulterants are difficult to detect by consumers and thus necessitating the requirement of rapid, accurate and sensitive detection. The potential adulterants in milk and fruit juices and their limits set by different regulatory bodies have been briefly described in this review. Potential advantages and limitations of various techniques such as physicochemical methods, chromatography, immunoassays, molecular, electrical, spectroscopy with chemometrics, electronic nose, and biosensors have been described. Spectroscopy in combination with chemometrics has shown potential for rapid, precise, and sensitive detection of potential adulterants in these liquid foods. PMID:25975571

  3. Brazilian gasoline quality: study of adulteration by statistical analysis and gas chromatography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiedemann, Larissa S.M.; Azevedo, Debora de A. [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica]. E-mail: debora@iq.ufrj.br; D' Avila, Luiz A. [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Escola de Quimica

    2005-02-01

    The addition of organic solvents (heavy aliphatic, light aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons) in Brazilian gasoline is unfortunately very frequent, and this illicit practice does not guarantee gasoline quality. Organic solvent adulterations of gasoline samples have been investigated. For characterization and comparison of these samples, physico-chemical parameters were selected as the factor for hierarchic multivariate analysis (Cluster Analysis). However, these parameters are not efficient to detected all kinds of adulteration. Gas Chromatographic (GC) analysis can be used as a procedure to improve the detection of adulterated gasoline. More detailed information of their compositions was revealed. The use of physico-chemical properties of gasoline samples for hierarchic multivariate analysis and gas chromatographic fingerprints is a practicable method to adulteration detection. (author)

  4. Analysis of Peanut Oil Adulterated with Other Edible Oils by Spectrophotometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SU Rui; WANG Xing-hua; ZHAO Tian-qi; YU Wen-zhi; FENG Xu-dong; ZHANG Han-qi; YU Ai-min

    2012-01-01

    Since peanut oil(PO) is more expensive than other seed oils,some PO is adulterated with other cheap seed oils,such as soybean oil,palm olein,cottonseed oil,corn oil and rapeseed oil.The conventional method for determining whether PO was adulterated is to detect the freezing point of oils.The proposed method for the determination of adulterants in PO was based on monitoring the change of absorbance when the sample was refrigerated.A special spectrophotometer was developed.A total of 10 kinds of POs from different suppliers were chosen and adulterated with other seed oils at the volume fraction levels ranging from 5% to 30%.A total of 150 samples were analyzed by the proposed method and the results were satisfactory.

  5. Novel identification strategy for ground coffee adulteration based on UPLC-HRMS oligosaccharide profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Tie; Ting, Hu; Jin-Lan, Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Coffee is one of the most common and most valuable beverages. According to International Coffee Organization (ICO) reports, the adulteration of coffee for financial reasons is regarded as the most serious threat to the sustainable development of the coffee market. In this work, a novel strategy for adulteration identification in ground coffee was developed based on UPLC-HRMS oligosaccharide profiling. Along with integrated statistical analysis, 17 oligosaccharide composition were identified as markers for the identification of soybeans and rice in ground coffee. This strategy, validated by manual mixtures, optimized both the reliability and authority of adulteration identification. Rice and soybean adulterants present in ground coffee in amounts as low as 5% were identified and evaluated. Some commercial ground coffees were also successfully tested using this strategy. PMID:26213074

  6. Ion mobility spectrometry fingerprints: A rapid detection technology for adulteration of sesame oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liangxiao; Shuai, Qian; Li, Peiwu; Zhang, Qi; Ma, Fei; Zhang, Wen; Ding, Xiaoxia

    2016-02-01

    A simple and rapid detection technology was proposed based on ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) fingerprints to determine potential adulteration of sesame oil. Oil samples were diluted by n-hexane and analyzed by IMS for 20s. Then, chemometric methods were employed to establish discriminant models for sesame oils and four other edible oils, pure and adulterated sesame oils, and pure and counterfeit sesame oils, respectively. Finally, Random Forests (RF) classification model could correctly classify all five types of edible oils. The detection results indicated that the discriminant models built by recursive support vector machine (R-SVM) method could identify adulterated sesame oil samples (⩾ 10%) with an accuracy value of 94.2%. Therefore, IMS was shown to be an effective method to detect the adulterated sesame oils. Meanwhile, IMS fingerprints work well to detect the counterfeit sesame oils produced by adding sesame oil essence into cheaper edible oils. PMID:26304320

  7. Astronomy and Existentialism in Albert Camus' ``The Adulterous Woman''

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garwood, D.

    2013-04-01

    Camus' short story “An Adulterous Woman” from his collection Exile and the Kingdom narrates the experience of Janine, wife of a French Algerian cloth-trader, who accompanies her husband on a business trip to the Saharan interior at mid-20th century. The desert landscape and its weather play an integral role in the plot. Blending realism and fantasy that borders on science fiction, the narrator characterizes the sky as an animate cosmological energy whose virility is masked by sunlight during the day. Released after sundown and portrayed as a liberator at the climax of the story, the shaman-like night sky descends upon Janine as a shower of stars that leaves her with an existential sense of self. This paper explores themes of astronomy and existentialism that Camus develops through Janine's “adultery” with a cosmological force, supplemented by visual imagery related to the aesthetic and scientific cultural contexts of the story and Camus' era.

  8. [Detection of Adulteration in Milk Powder with Starch Near Infrared].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ning-ning; Shen, Bing-hui; Guan, Jian-jun; Zhao, Zhong-rui; Zhu, Ye-wei; Zhang, Lu-da; Yan, Yan-lu; Zheng, Yu-yan; Dong, Cheng-yu; Kang, Ding-ming

    2015-08-01

    Three China trademarks of milk powder called Mengniu, Yili, Wandashan were taken as testing samples. Each of them mixed varied amount of starch in different gradient, which were consisted of 32 adulterated milk powder samples mixed with starch, was taken as standard samples for constructing predicted model. To those 32 samples, the reflecting spectrum characteristics in middle wave of near infrared spectrum with Near Infrared Spectrum Analyzer (Micro NIR 1700) produced by JDSU Ltd. USA were collected for five repeats in five different days. The time span was nearly two months. Firstly, we build the model used the reflecting spectrum characteristics of those samples with biomimetic pattern recognition (BPR) arithmetic to do the qualitative analysis. The analysis included the reliability of testing result and stability of the model. When we took ninety percent as the evaluation threshold of testing result of CAR (Correct Acceptance Rate) and CRR (Correct Rejection Rate), the lowest starch content of adulterate milk powder in all tested samples which the tested result were bigger than that abovementioned threshold was designated CAR threshold (CAR-T) and CRR threshold (CRR-T). CAR means the correct rate of accepting a sample which is belong to itself, CRR means correct rate of refusing to accept a sample which is not belong to itself. The results were shown that, when we constructed a model based on the near infrared spectrum data from each of three China trademark milk powders, respectively, if we constructed a model with infrared spectrum data tested in a same day, both the CAR-T and CRR-T of adulterate starch content of a sample can reach 0.1% in predicting the remainder infrared spectrum data tested within a same day. The three China trademarks of milk powder had the same result. In addition, when we ignored the trademarks, put the spectrum data of adulterate milk powder samples mixed with the same content of starch of three China trademarks milk powder together

  9. Meat, the metabolites: an integrated metabolite profiling and lipidomics approach for the detection of the adulteration of beef with pork

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trivedi, Drupad K.; Hollywood, Katherine A.; Rattray, Nicholas J. W.; Ward, Holli; Trivedi, Dakshat K.; Greenwood, Joseph; Ellis, David I.

    2016-01-01

    Adulteration of high quality food products with sub-standard and cheaper grades is a world-wide problem taxing the global economy. Currently, many traditional tests suffer from poor specificity, highly complex outputs and a lack of high-throughput processing. Metabolomics has been successfully used as an accurate discriminatory technique in a number of applications including microbiology, cancer research and environmental studies and certain types of food fraud. In this study, we have developed metabolomics as a technique to assess the adulteration of meat as an improvement on current methods. Different grades of beef mince and pork mince, purchased from a national retail outlet were combined in a number of percentage ratios and analysed using GC-MS and UHPLC-MS. These techniques were chosen because GC-MS enables investigations of metabolites involved in primary metabolism whilst UHPLC-MS using reversed phase chromatography provides information on lipophilic species. With the application of chemometrics and statistical analyses, a panel of differential metabolites were found for identification of each of the two meat types. Additionally, correlation was observed between metabolite content and percentage of fat declared on meat products’ labelling. PMID:26911805

  10. What's NOT to eat- Food adulteration in the context of human biology

    OpenAIRE

    Schell, Lawrence M.; Gallo, Mia V.; Cook, Katsi

    2012-01-01

    Food has nutritional and non-nutritional components. The latter are not well studied despite the fact that food adulteration has been common. Food adulteration may have reached its peak in cities of western Europe and the US in the 18th and 19th centuries when foods were often purposely contaminated with additives to increase bulk, attractiveness, disguise spoilage and increase profit. Effective regulation of food began in the late 19th and 20th centuries. Nevertheless, today food recalls for...

  11. An Approach for Routine Analytical Detection of Beeswax Adulteration Using FTIR-ATR Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svečnjak Lidija

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Although beeswax adulteration represents one of the main beeswax quality issues, there are still no internationally standardised analytical methods for routine quality control. The objective of this study was to establish an analytical procedure suitable for routine detection of beeswax adulteration using FTIR-ATR spectroscopy. For the purpose of this study, reference IR spectra of virgin beeswax, paraffin, and their mixtures containing different proportions of paraffin (5 - 95%, were obtained. Mixtures were used for the establishment of calibration curves. To determine the prediction strength of IR spectral data for the share of paraffin in mixtures, the Partial Least Squares Regression method was used. The same procedure was conducted on beeswax-beef tallow mixtures. The model was validated using comb foundation samples of an unknown chemical background which had been collected from the international market (n = 56. Selected physico-chemical parameters were determined for comparison purposes. Results revealed a strong predictive power (R2 = 0.999 of IR spectra for the paraffin and beef tallow share in beeswax. The results also revealed that the majority of the analysed samples (89% were adulterated with paraffin; only 6 out of 56 (11% samples were identified as virgin beeswax, 28% of the samples exhibited a higher level of paraffin adulteration (>46% of paraffin, while the majority of the analysed samples (50% were found to be adulterated with 5 - 20% of paraffin. These results indicate an urgent need for routine beeswax authenticity control. In this study, we demonstrated that the analytical approach defining the standard curves for particular adulteration levels in beeswax, based on chemometric modelling of specific IR spectral region indicative for adulteration, enables reliable determination of the adulterant proportions in beeswax.

  12. Adulteration of Oblica Virgin Olive Oil with Edible Sunflower and Refined Olive Pomace Oil

    OpenAIRE

    Škevin, Dubravka; Kraljić, Klara; Miletić, Lina; Obranović, Marko; Neđeral, Sandra; Petričević, Sandra

    2011-01-01

    Adulteration of virgin olive oils is a common problem on the market which is battled against with different authenticity indicators. This work investigated the effi ciency of some legally prescribed indicators (fatty acid composition, trans fatty acids, total wax content and K values) in the determination of adulteration of extra virgin olive oil from variety Oblica with addition up to 20 % of edible sunfl ower and refi ned pomace oil, respectively. Fatty acid composition enabled the identifi...

  13. Study of adulteration of extra virgin olive oil with peanut oil using FTIR spectroscopy and chemometrics

    OpenAIRE

    Magda Vasconcelos; Luis Coelho; Ana Barros; José Manuel Marques Martins de Almeida

    2015-01-01

    A methodology based on Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy with attenuated total reflectance sampling technique, combined with multivariate analysis, was developed to monitor adulteration of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) with peanut oil (PEO). Principal components regression (PCR), partial least squares regression (PLS-R), and linear discriminant analysis (LDA) allowed quantification of percentage of adulteration based on spectral data of 192 samples. Wavenumbers associated with the bioch...

  14. An Approach for Routine Analytical Detection of Beeswax Adulteration Using FTIR-ATR Spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Svečnjak Lidija; Baranović Goran; Vinceković Marko; Prđun Saša; Bubalo Dragan; Tlak Gajger Ivana

    2015-01-01

    Although beeswax adulteration represents one of the main beeswax quality issues, there are still no internationally standardised analytical methods for routine quality control. The objective of this study was to establish an analytical procedure suitable for routine detection of beeswax adulteration using FTIR-ATR spectroscopy. For the purpose of this study, reference IR spectra of virgin beeswax, paraffin, and their mixtures containing different proportions of paraffin (5 - 95%), were obtain...

  15. A low cost instrumentation system to analyze different types of milk adulteration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Siuli; Sivaramakrishna, Mulinti; Biswas, Karabi; Goswami, Bhaswati

    2015-05-01

    In this paper, the design of a complete instrumentation system to detect different types of milk adulteration has been reported. A simple to use indicator type readout device is reported which can be used by milk community people. A low cost microcontroller based automatic sensing system is also reported to detect 'synthetic milk', which has been reconstructed after adulterating the milk with 'liquid-whey'. PMID:25532935

  16. Short communication: rapid detection of milk fat adulteration with vegetable oil by fluorescence spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntakatsane, M P; Liu, X M; Zhou, P

    2013-04-01

    This study assessed the potential application of fluorescence spectroscopy in detecting adulteration of milk fat with vegetable oil and characterizing the samples according to the source of the fat. Pure butterfat was adulterated with different vegetable oils at various concentrations (0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 30, and 40%). Nonfat and reduced-fat milk were also adulterated with vegetable oils to simulate full-fat milk (3.2%). The 2- and 3-dimensional front-face fluorescence spectroscopy and gas chromatography were used to obtain the fluorescence spectra and fatty acid profile, respectively. Principal component analysis and 3-way partial least squares regression analysis were applied to analyze the data. The pure and adulterated samples were discriminated based on the total concentration of saturated fatty acids and unsaturated fatty acids, and also on the 3 major fluorophores: tryptophan, tocopherols, and riboflavin. Fluorescence spectroscopy was able to detect up to 5% of adulteration of vegetable oil into the butterfat. The saturated fatty acids showed higher predictability than the unsaturated fatty acids (R(2) = 0.73-0.92 vs. 0.20-0.65, respectively). The study demonstrated the high potential of fluorescence spectroscopy to rapidly detect adulteration of milk fat with vegetable oil, and discriminate commercial butter and milk according to the source of the fat. PMID:23415535

  17. A new comprehensive index for discriminating adulteration in bovine raw milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jing; Ren, Jing; Liu, Zhen-Min; Guo, Ben-Heng

    2015-04-01

    This paper proposes a new comprehensive index, called Q, which can effectively discriminate artificial adulterated milk from unadulterated milk. Both normal and adulterated samples of bovine raw milk were analysed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic instrument to measure the traditional indices of quality, including fat (FAT), protein (PRO), lactose (LAC), total solids (TS), non-fat solid (NFS), freezing point (FP) and somatic cell counts (SCC). From these traditional indices, this paper elaborates a method to build the index Q. First, correlated analysis and principle component analysis were used to select parameter pairs TS-FAT and FP-LAC as predominant variables. Second, linear-regression analysis and residual analysis are applied to determine the index Q and its discriminating ranges. The verification and two-blind trial results suggested that index Q could accurately detect milk adulteration with maltodextrin and water (as low as 1.0% of adulteration proportions), and with other nine kinds of synthetic adulterants (as low as 0.5% of adulteration proportions). PMID:25442551

  18. Targeted and non-targeted detection of lemon juice adulteration by LC-MS and chemometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhengfang; Jablonski, Joseph E

    2016-03-01

    Economically motivated adulteration (EMA) of lemon juice was detected by LC-MS and principal component analysis (PCA). Twenty-two batches of freshly squeezed lemon juice were adulterated by adding an aqueous solution containing 5% citric acid and 6% sucrose to pure lemon juice to obtain 30%, 60% and 100% lemon juice samples. Their total titratable acidities, °Brix and pH values were measured, and then all the lemon juice samples were subject to LC-MS analysis. Concentrations of hesperidin and eriocitrin, major phenolic components of lemon juice, were quantified. The PCA score plots for LC-MS datasets were used to preview the classification of pure and adulterated lemon juice samples. Results showed a large inherent variability in the chemical properties among 22 batches of 100% lemon juice samples. Measurement or quantitation of one or several chemical properties (targeted detection) was not effective in detecting lemon juice adulteration. However, by using the LC-MS datasets, including both chromatographic and mass spectrometric information, 100% lemon juice samples were successfully differentiated from adulterated samples containing 30% lemon juice in the PCA score plot. LC-MS coupled with chemometric analysis can be a complement to existing methods for detecting juice adulteration. PMID:26807674

  19. Screening of adulterants in powdered foods and ingredients using line-scan Raman chemical imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Jianwei; Chao, Kuanglin; Kim, Moon S.

    2015-05-01

    A newly developed line-scan Raman imaging system using a 785 nm line laser was used to authenticate powdered foods and ingredients. The system was used to collect hyperspectral Raman images in a wavenumber range of 102-2865 cm-1 from three representative food powders mixed with selected adulterants with a concentration of 0.5%, including milk and melamine, flour and benzoyl peroxide, and starch and maleic anhydride. An acoustic mixer was used to create food adulterant mixtures. All the mixed samples were placed in sample holders with a surface area of 50 mm×50 mm. Spectral and image processing algorithms were developed based on single-band images at unique Raman peaks of the individual adulterants. Chemical images were created to show identification, spatial distribution, and morphological features of the adulterant particles mixed in the food powders. The potential of estimating mass concentrations of the adulterants using the percentages of the adulterant pixels in the chemical images was also demonstrated.

  20. Diffuse-light absorption spectroscopy by fiber optics for detecting and quantifying the adulteration of extra virgin olive oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mignani, A. G.; Ciaccheri, L.; Ottevaere, H.; Thienpont, H.; Conte, L.; Marega, M.; Cichelli, A.; Attilio, C.; Cimato, A.

    2010-09-01

    A fiber optic setup for diffuse-light absorption spectroscopy in the wide 400-1700 nm spectral range is experimented for detecting and quantifying the adulteration of extra virgin olive oil caused by lower-grade olive oils. Absorption measurements provide spectral fingerprints of authentic and adulterated oils. A multivariate processing of spectroscopic data is applied for discriminating the type of adulterant and for predicting its fraction.

  1. Identification of Adulteration of Olive Oil with Other Edible Oils by LED-induced Fluorescence and Multivariate Calibration

    OpenAIRE

    Marilena Meira; Cristina M. Quintella; Erika Maria de Oliveira Ribeiro; Mariana A. Santos; Saionara Luna; Alexandre Lopes Del Cid

    2014-01-01

    The most common adulterants found in extra-virgin olive oil are refined olive oil and other vegetable oils, such as sunflower, soybean, corn, and canola. In addition to constituting economic fraud, adulteration can cause serious damage to the health of the consumer. This study focuses on the detection and quantification of the adulteration of extra-virgin olive oil with edible oils, using spectrofluorimetry and chemometrics. The data were analyzed by Principal Components Analysis (PCA) and Pa...

  2. 基于电子舌的掺假牛乳的快速检测%Rapid Detection of Adulterated Milk Based on Electronic Tongue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范佳利; 韩剑众; 田师一; 邓少平

    2011-01-01

    以掺假牛乳样品为检测对象,利用电子舌结合主成分分析法进行研究,旨在寻求一种能有效监控牛乳品质的快速检测方法.对几种常见的掺假(掺入水、食盐、蔗糖、尿素、大豆油)牛乳样品、复原乳以及纯牛乳样品进行检测和评价.试验结果表明:电子舌可以很好地区分纯牛乳和掺入不同物质的牛乳样品,纯牛乳、纯鲜牛乳、复原乳及其混合乳样品得到有效辨识,同时各种掺假牛乳样品随掺入物质的比例在主成分得分图中呈规律性分布.电子舌可用于掺假牛乳的快速检测.在建立典型标准样品数据库的前提下电子舌可有效监控牛乳品质,其在乳制品的质量控制及评价中具有较大的应用潜力.%To seek a method of rapid monitoring of milk quality, adulterated milk were analyzed by the electronic tongue coupled with principal component analysis (PCA). Milk samples adulterated with water, NaCl, sucrose, urea or bean oil, reconstituted milk and UHT sterilized milk samples were analyzed. The experimental results showed that electronic tongue could discriminate not only between UHT sterilized milk and different kinds of adulterated milk, but also UHT sterilized milk, pasteurized milk, reconstituted milk and their mixed milk. The application of electronic tongue in adulterated milk with different additive proportions showed the similar result, too. The electronic tongue could be used for rapid detection of adulterated milk, and also for effective monitoring of milk quality with a database of typical standard samples. The electronic tongue shows a greater potential in the evaluation of dairy products quality.

  3. Stable isotope ratio mass spectrometry in forensic science and food adulteration research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stable Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry (SIRMS) is an established technique for the determination of origin of geological, biological, chemical and physio-chemical samples/materials. With the development of highly precise mass spectrometers, the stable isotope ratio determination of hydrogen, carbon, nitrogen and oxygen have gained considerable interest in the fields of forensic science and food authentication. Natural variations in the isotopic composition of lighter elements occur due to fractionation effects, resulting in the finger printing of specific isotope ratio values that are characteristic of the origin, purity, and manufacturing processes of the products and their constituents. Forensic science uses scientific and technical methods to investigate traceable evidence of criminal acts. Stable isotope ratio mass spectrometry has been applied to numerous aspects of the forensic science. The analysis of explosives such as ammonium nitrate, gun powder and tri-nitro-toluene (TNT), cases of murder, armed robbery, drug smuggling, terrorism, arson and hit and run traffic accidents are a few of them. The main types of geological evidences in such cases are mud, soil, rocks, sand, gravel, dust particles, biological materials, organic particles and anthropogenic components. Stable isotopes are used as tools to corroborate and confirm the evidential leads in the investigation of such crimes. The variation in natural abundances of carbon and nitrogen and their isotopic ratios δ13C and δ15N can identify links between items found at crime scene with those of suspect. The paper discusses the applications of SIRMS in the field of forensic science and food adulteration research

  4. Effect of oxidizing adulterants on human urinary steroid profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzhiumparambil, Unnikrishnan; Fu, Shanlin

    2013-02-01

    Steroid profiling is the most versatile and informative technique adapted by doping control laboratories for detection of steroid abuse. The absolute concentrations and ratios of endogenous steroids including testosterone, epitestosterone, androsterone, etiocholanolone, 5α-androstane-3α,17β-diol and 5β-androstane-3α,17β-diol constitute the significant characteristics of a steroid profile. In the present study we report the influence of various oxidizing adulterants on the steroid profile of human urine. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis was carried out to develop the steroid profile of human male and female urine. Oxidants potassium nitrite, sodium hypochlorite, potassium permanganate, cerium ammonium nitrate, sodium metaperiodate, pyridinium chlorochromate, potassium dichromate and potassium perchlorate were reacted with urine at various concentrations and conditions and the effect of these oxidants on the steroid profile were analyzed. Most of the oxidizing chemicals led to significant changes in endogenous steroid profile parameters which were considered stable under normal conditions. These oxidizing chemicals can cause serious problems regarding the interpretation of steroid profiles and have the potential to act as masking agents that can complicate or prevent the detection of the steroid abuse. PMID:23238517

  5. Rapid detection of peanut oil adulteration using low-field nuclear magnetic resonance and chemometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wenran; Wang, Xin; Chen, Lihua

    2017-02-01

    (1)H low-field nuclear magnetic resonance (LF-NMR) and chemometrics were employed to screen the quality changes of peanut oil (PEO) adulterated with soybean oil (SO), rapeseed oil (RO), or palm oil (PAO) in ratios ranging from 0% to 100%. Significant differences in the LF-NMR parameters, single component relaxation time (T2W), and peak area proportion (S21 and S22), were detected between pure and adulterated peanut oil samples. As the ratio of adulteration increased, the T2W, S21, and S22 changed linearly; however, the multicomponent relaxation times (T21 and T22) changed slightly. The established principal component analysis or discriminant analysis models can correctly differentiate authentic PEO from fake and adulterated samples with at least 10% of SO, RO, or PAO. The binary blends of oils can be clearly classified by discriminant analysis when the adulteration ratio is above 30%, illustrating possible applications in screening the oil species in peanut oil blends. PMID:27596419

  6. Rapid quantitative analysis of adulterant Lonicera species in preparations of Lonicerae Japonicae Flos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao; Guo, Qing; Yu, Boyang

    2015-12-01

    Lonicerae Japonicae Flos is often adulterated with Lonicerae Flos, which is derived from the other four Lonicera species, in both the crude drug and Lonicerae Japonicae Flos preparations. We proposed a methodology for the quantitative analysis of adulterant Lonicerae Flos in Lonicerae Japonicae Flos preparations. Taking macranthoidins A, B, dipsacoside B (saponins), sweroside (iridoids), and luteolin-7-O-d-glucoside (flavonoids) as markers, a method of ultra high performance liquid chromatography with triple quadrupole mass spectrometry was employed to determine their amounts in Lonicerae Flos, Lonicerae Japonicae Flos, and Lonicerae Japonicae Flos preparations. The proportion of adulterant Lonicerae Flos in Lonicerae Japonicae Flos preparations was estimated based on the saponin contents of Lonicerae Japonicae Flos and Lonicerae Flos. All analytes separated under isocratic elution in 12 min with acceptable linearity, precision, repeatability, and accuracy. Lonicerae Japonicae Flos was easily distinguished from Lonicerae Flos by the total amount of saponins (0.067 and > 45.8 mg/g for Lonicerae Japonicae Flos and Lonicerae Flos, respectively). Eighteen of twenty one Lonicerae Japonicae Flos preparation samples were adulterated with Lonicerae Flos in proportions of 11.3-100%. The developed ultra high performance liquid chromatography with triple quadrupole mass spectrometry method could be used for the identification of Lonicerae Japonicae Flos and the four species of Lonicerae Flos and for the analysis of Lonicerae Japonicae Flos preparations adulterated with Lonicerae Flos. PMID:26420337

  7. 21 CFR 2.25 - Grain seed treated with poisonous substances; color identification to prevent adulteration of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Grain seed treated with poisonous substances; color identification to prevent adulteration of human and animal food. 2.25 Section 2.25 Food and Drugs... identification to prevent adulteration of human and animal food. (a) In recent years there has...

  8. Detection of corn adulteration in Brazilian coffee (Coffea arabica) by tocopherol profiling and near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffee is a high-value commodity that is a target for adulteration, especially after the beans have been roasted and ground. Countries such as Brazil, the second largest coffee producer, have set limits on the allowable amount of coffee contamination and adulteration. Therefore, there is significant...

  9. A comprehensive strategy to detect the fraudulent adulteration of herbs: The oregano approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Connor; Haughey, Simon A; Chevallier, Olivier P; Galvin-King, Pamela; Elliott, Christopher T

    2016-11-01

    Fraud in the global food supply chain is becoming increasingly common due to the huge profits associated with this type of criminal activity. Food commodities and ingredients that are expensive and are part of complex supply chains are particularly vulnerable. Both herbs and spices fit these criteria perfectly and yet strategies to detect fraudulent adulteration are still far from robust. An FT-IR screening method coupled to data analysis using chemometrics and a second method using LC-HRMS were developed, with the latter detecting commonly used adulterants by biomarker identification. The two tier testing strategy was applied to 78 samples obtained from a variety of retail and on-line sources. There was 100% agreement between the two tests that over 24% of all samples tested had some form of adulterants present. The innovative strategy devised could potentially be used for testing the global supply chains for fraud in many different forms of herbs. PMID:27211681

  10. The Influence of Transmutation Conditions on the Adulteration Performance of Nano-scale Nickel Hydroxide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Spherical Nano-scale nickel hydroxide was prepared through precipitation transmutation method by controlling the transmutation conditions in this paper. The measurement results of XRD and TEM indicate that the crystallization of the nano-scale nickel hydroxide isβ-style and its shape is spherical with a diameter of 40~70 nanometer. The adulteration experiment shows that the adulteration ratio of nano- scale Ni(OH)2 in common spherical micrometer-scale Ni(OH)2 exists a optimal value (1∶9). And at this point, the utilization ratio of Ni(OH)2 in electrodes can be raised by 10%, and the nano-scale nickel hydroxide with sphericity shape shows a better adulteration performance than that with needle shape.

  11. NIR detection of honey adulteration reveals differences in water spectral pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bázár, György; Romvári, Róbert; Szabó, András; Somogyi, Tamás; Éles, Viktória; Tsenkova, Roumiana

    2016-03-01

    High fructose corn syrup (HFCS) was mixed with four artisanal Robinia honeys at various ratios (0-40%) and near infrared (NIR) spectra were recorded with a fiber optic immersion probe. Levels of HFCS adulteration could be detected accurately using leave-one-honey-out cross-validation (RMSECV=1.48; R(2)CV=0.987), partial least squares regression and the 1300-1800nm spectral interval containing absorption bands related to both water and carbohydrates. Aquaphotomics-based evaluations showed that unifloral honeys contained more highly organized water than the industrial sugar syrup, supposedly because of the greater variety of molecules dissolved in the multi-component honeys. Adulteration with HFCS caused a gradual reduction of water molecular structures, especially water trimers, which facilitate interaction with other molecules. Quick, non-destructive NIR spectroscopy combined with aquaphotomics could be used to describe water molecular structures in honey and to detect a rather common form of adulteration. PMID:26471630

  12. The use of the Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy to determine adulterants in raw milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laerte Dagher Cassoli

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to develop calibrations to determine the concentration of some milk adulterants by using the automated methodology of Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR. For construction of calibrations, samples were collected from 100 farms in the states of São Paulo and Minas Gerais. Samples were tainted with three different adulterants commonly used in the adulteration of raw milk: sodium bicarbonate (SB, sodium citrate (SC and cheese whey (W. Each adulterant was used at three different concentrations (SB: 0.05, 0.10 and 0.25%; SC: 0.025, 0.050 and 0.075% and W: 5, 10 and 20%. For validation, 60 samples were collected in other farms, which were not considered at the development stage of calibration. Adulterants were added at the following concentrations: 0.03, 0.06, 0.10 and 0.12% for SB; 0.02, 0.04, 0.06 and 0.08% for SC and 5, 10 and 20% for W. Performance of each calibration was evaluated in terms of accuracy (Se, detection limit (DL and determination coefficient (R². All calibrations presented R² higher than 0.91 with DL of 0.015%; 0.017% and 3.9% for SB, SC and W, respectively. Accuracy was 0.005%, 0.009% and 2.26% for SB, SC and W, respectively. Results show that the FTIR methodology can be used for determining the concentration of sodium bicarbonate, sodium citrate and whey in raw milk. Associated with automated equipment, it is a viable option for monitoring these adulterants, having low operational costs and high analytical performance as additional features.

  13. Gold Nanoparticle Sensor for the Visual Detection of Pork Adulteration in Meatball Formulation

    OpenAIRE

    Ali, M. E.; Hashim, U.; MUSTAFA, S.; Che Man, Y. B.; Kh. N. Islam

    2012-01-01

    We visually identify pork adulteration in beef and chicken meatball preparations using 20 nm gold nanoparticles (GNPs) as colorimetric sensors. Meatball is a popular food in certain Asian and European countries. Verification of pork adulteration in meatball is necessary to meet the Halal and Kosher food standards. Twenty nm GNPs change color from pinkish-red to gray-purple, and their absorption peak at 525 nm is red-shifted by 30–50 nm in 3 mM phosphate buffer saline (PBS). Adsorption of sing...

  14. Vernonia amygdalina: Anticancer Activity, Authentication, and Adulteration Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lecia J. Gresham

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Evidence suggests that most chemotherapeutic agents are less effective as treatment in patients with estrogen receptor-negative (ER- breast carcinomas compared to those with estrogen receptor-positive (ER+ breast carcinomas. Moreover, African American Women (AAW is disproportionately diagnosed with ER- breast cancer compared to their white counterparts. Novel therapies effective against ER- breast carcinomas are urgently needed to ameliorate the health disparity. Previous reports show that low concentrations (microgram/ml of water-soluble leaf extracts of a Nigerian edible plant, V. amygdalina (VA, potently retards the proliferative activities of ER+ human breast cancerous cells (MCF-7 in vitro in a concentration-dependent fashion. However, the anti-proliferative activities of VA in either ductal or ER- carcinoma cells have not been characterized. The exposure of BT-549 to increasing concentrations of VA (10, 100, and 1000 mmL inhibited cell growth by approximately 14 % (P<0.05, 22 % (p<0.05, and 50 % (p<0.005 respectively. The cell count studies were corroborated by DNA synthesis studies. Treatments of BT-549 with 10, 100, and 1000 mg/mL VA inhibited DNA synthesis in a concentration dependent fashion by 22 %, 76 % (P<0.05, and 86 % (p<0.01 respectively. BT-549 cells were insensitive to 10 and 100 nM paclitaxel (TAX treatments. Isolation of DNA from dried VA leaves yielded approximately 12.2 and 1 kbp genomic DNA that were Eco RI-insensitive but Hind III and Bam HI-sensitive. These pieces of information may be used to enhance the safety of medicinal botanical VA through authentication, and adulteration detection.

  15. Relationship Between Milk Adulterated With Melamine and the Appearance of Renal Stones in a Childhood Population: A Review of the Literature of the Cases That Occurred in the People’s Republic of China

    OpenAIRE

    Jasmina Bordón-González; José Roig-Beltrán; Rocío Ortiz-Moncada

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Melamine is a chemical substance used in the production of resins. When melamine is added to milk, nitrogen concentration increases, which suggest an increase the amount of false proteins and consequently causing kidney diseases in some population subgroups. The objective of this study is to document the possible connection in between adulterated industrial milk with melamine and the appearance of kidney stones in children under 12 years old by reviewing cases occurred in the Pe...

  16. Olive oil adulterated with hazelnut oils: simulation to identify possible risks to allergic consumers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Arlorio; J.D. Coisson; M. Bordiga; F. Travaglia; C. Garino; L. Zuidmeer; R. van Ree; M.G. Giuffrida; A. Conti; A. Martelli

    2010-01-01

    According to European Union Regulation EC 1531/2001, olive oil labelled as oextra-virgino should be cold-pressed and contain no refined oil or oil from other oleaginous seeds or nuts. Adulteration of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) with hazelnut oil (HAO) is a serious concern both for oil suppliers an

  17. A rapid screening for adulterants in olive oil using DNA barcodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    A distinctive methodology is developed to trace out the mixing into olive oil, which is marketed every year with 20% or more fraudulent oils. Such adulteration has been difficult to differentiate using fatty acid analysis and other available current techniques, as chemically fatty acids are the same...

  18. Efficiency of GC-MS method in detection of beeswax adulterated with paraffin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waś Ewa

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency of the gas chromatography - mass detector (GC-MS technique for the detection of beeswax adulterated with paraffin, was evaluated. For this purpose, beeswax samples with paraffin additions (3, 5, 10, 30, 50% were analysed. Since not enough is known about paraffin compositions, and since it is difficult to detect paraffin in beeswax, the aim of our research was also to compare the hydrocarbon composition of different types of paraffin. The analysis showed that the types of paraffin available on the market, differ qualitatively and quantitatively as far as their hydrocarbon compositions are concerned. In all kinds of paraffin, we found homologous series of n-alkanes that were much longer than those in beeswax. In beeswax, the amount of added paraffin that is possible to detect, differs and depends on the kind of paraffin used for adulteration. In this study, the minimum estimated percent that was detected using the GC-MS technique, was 3%. The adulteration is indicated by the presence of hydrocarbons containing over 35 carbon atoms in the molecule, and by the higher contents of n-alkanes (C20H42 - C35H72, in comparison to the concentration of these compounds determined in pure beeswax. We also presented the results of the quality control of commercial beeswax. Based on our results, it can be stated that beeswax adulteration is currently a problem.

  19. Simultaneous Determination of Heroin, Amphetamine and their Basic Impurities and Adulterants Using Microemulsion Electrokinetic Chromatography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tao WEN; Xia ZHAO; Guo An LUO; Jian WANG; Yi Ming WANG; Pan LI; Jun ZHU; Zhong Shang YU

    2005-01-01

    Simultaneous separation of 17 species of heroin, amphetamine and their basic impurities and adulterants was conducted within 10 minutes by using capillary microemulsion electrokinetic chromatography. The influences of pH and 1-butanol cosurfactant on the separation were investigated, and 1-butanol was found to be a principal factor to improve separation efficiency.

  20. Spreeta-based biosensor immunoassays to detect fraudulent adulteration in milk and milk powder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haasnoot, W.; Marchesini, G.R.; Koopal, K.

    2006-01-01

    Biacore biosensors (Biacore AB, Uppsala, Sweden) have proven to be robust analytical tools for the automated immunochemical detection of different adulterants and contaminants in milk and milk powder. However, the significant cost of the instruments is a disincentive for their wide application in fo

  1. Rapid detection and quantification of milk adulteration using infrared microspectroscopy and chemometrics analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, P M; Pereira-Filho, E R; Rodriguez-Saona, L E

    2013-05-01

    The application of attenuated total reflectance mid-infrared microspectroscopy (MIR-microspectroscopy) was evaluated as a rapid method for detection and quantification of milk adulteration. Milk samples were purchased from local grocery stores (Columbus, OH, USA) and spiked at different concentrations of whey, hydrogen peroxide, synthetic urine, urea and synthetic milk. Samples were place on a 192-well microarray slide, air-dried and spectra were collected by using MIR-microspectroscopy. Pattern recognition analysis by Soft Independent Modeling of Class Analogy (SIMCA) showed tight and well-separated clusters allowing discrimination of control samples from adulterated milk. Partial Least Squares Regression (PLSR) showed standard error of prediction (SEP) ~2.33, 0.06, 0.41, 0.30 and 0.014 g/L for estimation of levels of adulteration with whey, synthetic milk, synthetic urine, urea and hydrogen peroxide, respectively. Results showed that MIR-microspectroscopy can provide an alternative methodology to the dairy industry for screening potential fraudulent practice for economic adulteration of cow's milk. PMID:23265450

  2. Quantification of MBM adulteration in compound fertilizers and composts by NIRS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han L.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to demonstrate the feasibility of using near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS to determine MBM content in compound fertilizers and composts. One hundred fourty adulterated compound fertilizer samples were prepared in the laboratory by mixing 4 types of compound fertilizers with 3 types of MBM randomly at different levels of 0.1%-10.0% (w/w. One hundred twenty adulterated compost samples were obtained by mixing 41 compost samples with 28 MBM at different levels of 3.0%-24.0% (w/w. NIRS calibration models were developed using the partial least squares (PLS regression method. Results showed that the coefficients of determination for calibration (R2 and validation (r2 were 0.996 and 0.622, 0.988 and 0.722 for adulterated compound fertilizers and composts respectively. The ratios of prediction to deviation (RPD were 8.84 and 1.87 for them respectively. These results indicated that NIRS could be used to quantify the adulteration of banned MBM in compound fertilizers with high prediction accuracy, and be insufficient to determine the content of MBM in composts due to low prediction accuracy.

  3. Real-time near-infrared spectroscopic inspection system for adulterated sesame oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sesame seed oil is popular and expensive in Korea and has been often mixed with other less expensive vegetable oils. The objective of this research is to develop an economical and rapid adulteration determination system for sesame seed oil mixed with other vegetable oils. A recent inspection system ...

  4. Finding Self: A Qualitative Study of Transgender, Transitioning, and Adulterated Silicone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Phyllis M.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To describe the development and testing of a theory-based interview guide. To increase awareness of adulterated silicone use among Transgender. Design: A qualitative study based on semi-structured interviews. Setting: Interviews were conducted in Chicago, Illinois, USA. Method: Seven transgender adults aged 18 and over were interviewed…

  5. Detection and confirmation of milk adulteration with cheese whey using proteomic-like sample preparation and liquid chromatography-electrospray-tandem mass spectrometry analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos Motta, T M; Hoff, R B; Barreto, F; Andrade, R B S; Lorenzini, D M; Meneghini, L Z; Pizzolato, T M

    2014-03-01

    Caseinomacropeptide (CMP) is a peptide released by chymosin in cheese production, remaining in whey. Thus, CMP can be used as a biomarker to fluid milk adulteration through whey addition. Commonly, CMP is analyzed by reversed phase (RP-HPLC) or size-exclusion chromatography (SEC). However, some psychrotropic microorganisms - specially Pseudomonas fluorescens - when present in storaged milk, can produce, by enzymatic pathway, a CMP-like peptide generally called pseudo-CMP. These two peptides differ from each other only by one amino acid. RP-HPLC and SEC methods are unable to distinguish these two peptides, which demand development of a confirmatory method with high selectivity. Considering the several degrees of glycosilation and phosphorylation sites in CMP, allied with possible genetic variation (CMP A and CMP B), analytical methods able to differentiate these peptides are extremely complex. In the present work, we developed a proteomic-like technique for separation and characterization of these peptides, using liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry with electrospray ionization able to differentiate and subsequently quantify CMP and pseudo-CMP in milk samples in order to identify adulteration or contamination of these products. The method shows satisfactory precision (<11%) with a detection limit of 1.0 µg mL(-1) and quantification limit of 5.0 µg mL(-1). Specificity, matrix effects and applicability to real samples analysis were also performed and discussed. PMID:24468402

  6. Rapid detection of economic adulterants in fresh milk by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abernethy, Grant; Higgs, Kerianne

    2013-05-01

    A method to aid in the detection of the economically driven adulteration of fresh milk with a range of small, nitrogen containing compounds, including melamine, ammeline, ammelide, cyanuric acid, allantoin, thiourea, urea, biuret, triuret, semicarbazide, aminotriazine, 3- and 4-aminotriazole, cyanamide, dicyandiamide, guanidine, choline, hydroxyproline, nitrate, and a range of amino acids, has been developed. (15)N2-Urea is used as an internal standard. The adulteration of milk with exogenous urea has previously been difficult to detect because of the variation in the naturally occurring levels of urea in milk. However, by monitoring the contaminants biuret and triuret, which comprise up to 1% of synthetic urea, the adulteration of milk with urea-based fertilizer can be detected. We estimate that to be economically viable, adulteration of the order of 90-4000ppm of the above adulterants would need to be added to fresh milk. For most of the compounds, an arbitrary detection threshold of 2ppm is therefore more than sufficient. For biuret, a lower detection threshold, better than 0.5ppm, is desirable and the sensitivity for biuret and triuret can be improved by the post-column addition of lithium to create lithium adducts under electrospray ionisation. Sample handling involves a two-step solvent precipitation method that is deployed in a 96-well plate format, and the hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography uses a rapid gradient (1.2min). Three separate injections, to detect the positively charged compounds, the negatively charged compounds and amino acids and finally the lithium adducts, are used. This rapid and qualitative survey method may be deployed as a second tier screening method to quickly reduce sample numbers indicated as irregular by an FTIR based screening system, and to direct analysis to appropriate quantification methods. PMID:23540766

  7. Application of lag-k autocorrelation coefficient and the TGA signals approach to detecting and quantifying adulterations of extra virgin olive oil with inferior edible oils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The combination of lag-k autocorrelation coefficients (LCCs) and thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) equipment is defined here as a tool to detect and quantify adulterations of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) with refined olive (ROO), refined olive pomace (ROPO), sunflower (SO) or corn (CO) oils, when the adulterating agents concentration are less than 14%. The LCC is calculated from TGA scans of adulterated EVOO samples. Then, the standardized skewness of this coefficient has been applied to classify pure and adulterated samples of EVOO. In addition, this chaotic parameter has also been used to quantify the concentration of adulterant agents, by using successful linear correlation of LCCs and ROO, ROPO, SO or CO in 462 EVOO adulterated samples. In the case of detection, more than 82% of adulterated samples have been correctly classified. In the case of quantification of adulterant concentration, by an external validation process, the LCC/TGA approach estimates the adulterant agents concentration with a mean correlation coefficient (estimated versus real adulterant agent concentration) greater than 0.90 and a mean square error less than 4.9%.

  8. Detection and quantification of adulteration of sesame oils with vegetable oils using gas chromatography and multivariate data analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Dan; Bi, Yanlan; Ren, Xiaona; Yang, Guolong; Sun, Shangde; Wang, Xuede

    2015-12-01

    This study was performed to develop a hierarchical approach for detection and quantification of adulteration of sesame oil with vegetable oils using gas chromatography (GC). At first, a model was constructed to discriminate the difference between authentic sesame oils and adulterated sesame oils using support vector machine (SVM) algorithm. Then, another SVM-based model is developed to identify the type of adulterant in the mixed oil. At last, prediction models for sesame oil were built for each kind of oil using partial least square method. To validate this approach, 746 samples were prepared by mixing authentic sesame oils with five types of vegetable oil. The prediction results show that the detection limit for authentication is as low as 5% in mixing ratio and the root-mean-square errors for prediction range from 1.19% to 4.29%, meaning that this approach is a valuable tool to detect and quantify the adulteration of sesame oil. PMID:26041212

  9. 掺假肉检验技术发展现状%Present Situation of Testing Technology of Meat Adulteration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李欣南; 关一夫

    2016-01-01

    综述近年来掺假肉的类别。阐述掺假肉现状的产生原因。收集、整理现有掺假肉鉴别检测技术研究进展及现状。剖析掺假肉检测技术发展趋势,为相关检测技术研发人员提供技术参考和思路。%Review category adulterated meat in recent years. Expounds the causes of adulterated meat status. Collecting and sorting out the progress and present situation of the existing detection techniques to identify adulterated meat. Analysis of the development trend of meat adulteration detection technology , to provide technical reference and ideas for the correlation detection technology research and development personnel.

  10. 基于ITS序列分析对紫花地丁的分子鉴别%Molecular authentication of Viola yedoensis Makino and adulterants by analysis of rDNA ITS sequences

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱烨; 张春; 庄元春; 税丕先

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The rDNA ITS sequences of Viola yedoensis Makino and the adulterants were analyzed to establish the molecular biological method for authentication of Viola yedoensis Makino and the adulterants. Methods: Total DNA of Viola yedoensis Makino and the adulterants were extracted. The ITS sequence was amplified by universal primer. The PCR products were directly sequenced and both directions were sequenced. Results: 8 specific authenticate sites were found in the ITS1 and ITS2 region. Conclusion: The rDNA ITS sequence can be used as good marker for authenticating Viola yedoensis Makino from the adulterants.%目的:通过研究比较紫花地丁与其易混中药材ITS序列的差异和规律,建立紫花地丁与其易混药材之间的分子鉴别方法.方法:分别从紫花地丁和易混品中提取总DNA,用ITS序列通用引物扩增,扩增产物双向测序.结果:紫花地丁与其他易混品在ITS1和ITS2区段存在特异鉴别位点共8个.结论:根据ITS序列特征,能有效区分紫花地丁和其他易混中药材.ITS序列是紫花地丁鉴定的有效的分子标记.

  11. 防己及其混伪品的鉴别方法%Identification method of Stephania tetrandra and its adulterants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李亚玲; 叶云; 余德智

    2012-01-01

    针对防己的混伪品在产供销环节鱼目混珠的情况,笔者通过查阅近年来国内外的有关资料,对防己及其混伪品的来源、性状鉴别、显微鉴别、理化鉴别等鉴别方法进行了概述,以便在临床使用过程中能够鉴别品种,分清科属,正确用药.%Aiming at the confused situation of Stephania tetrandra and its adulterants in the production,supply and sale market,the author had overviewed information on Stephania tetrandra and its adulterants in source,character identification,microscopic identification,physical and chemical identification at home and abroad in recent years,so thus for scientific identify of species,distinguishing between the families and genera and correcting medication for clinical use.

  12. Chemical and functional properties of glycomacropeptide (GMP) and its role in the detection of cheese whey adulteration in milk: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neelima; Sharma, Rajan; Rajput, Yudhishthir Singh; Mann, Bimlesh

    2013-01-01

    Glycomacropeptide (GMP) is a C-terminal part (f 106-169) of kappa-casein which is released in whey during cheese making by the action of chymosin. GMP being a biologically active component has gained much attention in the past decade. It also has unique chemical and functional properties. Many of the biological properties have been ascribed to the carbohydrate moieties attached to the peptide. The unique set of amino acids in GMP makes it a sought-after ingredient with nutraceutical properties. Besides its biological activity, GMP has several interesting techno-functional properties such as wide pH range solubility, emulsifying properties as well as foaming abilities which are shown to be promising for applications in food and nutrition industry. These properties of GMP have given new dimension for the profitable utilization of cheese whey to the dairy industry. A number of protocols for isolation of GMP from cheese whey have been reported. Moreover, its role in detection of sweet/rennet whey adulteration in milk and milk products has also attracted attention of various researchers, and many GMP-specific analytical methods have been proposed. This review discusses the chemico-functional properties of GMP and its role in the detection methods for checking cheese or sweet whey adulteration in milk. Recent concepts used in the isolation of GMP from cheese whey have also been discussed. PMID:23396893

  13. Evaluation of Turmeric Powder Adulterated with Metanil Yellow Using FT-Raman and FT-IR Spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Sagar Dhakal; Kuanglin Chao; Walter Schmidt; Jianwei Qin; Moon Kim; Diane Chan

    2016-01-01

    Turmeric powder (Curcuma longa L.) is valued both for its medicinal properties and for its popular culinary use, such as being a component in curry powder. Due to its high demand in international trade, turmeric powder has been subject to economically driven, hazardous chemical adulteration. This study utilized Fourier Transform-Raman (FT-Raman) and Fourier Transform-Infra Red (FT-IR) spectroscopy as separate but complementary methods for detecting metanil yellow adulteration of turmeric powd...

  14. A Supervised Feature Extraction Method For GC-MS Data Based On PLS. Application To Olive Oil Adulteration Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burian, C.; Brezmes, J.; Correig, X.; Martinelli, E.; Di Natale, C.

    2011-09-01

    Olive oil adulteration is often complicated and more than one test is necessary to determine olive oil authenticity. In particular, detection of hazelnut oil in admixtures has been difficult to confirm due to the similarity of the two oils. In this work a method to identify the olive oil adulteration is presented based on GC-MS analysis coupled with data analysis techniques and a feature selection step.

  15. Microscopic detection of adulteration of Bengal gram (Cicer arietinum) flour with other legume flour based on the seed testa macrosclereids

    OpenAIRE

    Dattatreya, Akshatha M.; Nanjegowda, Divyashree K.; Viswanath, Prema

    2010-01-01

    Besan, the flour of Bengal gram (Cicer arietinum Linn), a legume, is a popular ingredient of many culinary dishes in India. Because of its high demand, its flour is often adulterated by that of other legumes, such as, Lathyrus sativus (lathyrus) or Pisum sativum (pea) by unscrupulous traders. There are chemical methods of paper chromatography and HPLC by which the adulteration with the flour of L. sativus can be established but they are sophisticated techniques. At present, there are no chemi...

  16. Investigation of adulteration of sunflower oil with thermally deteriorated oil using Fourier transform mid-infrared spectroscopy and chemometrics

    OpenAIRE

    Joana Vilela; Luis Coelho; José Manuel Marques Martins de Almeida

    2015-01-01

    Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy based on attenuated total reflectance sampling technique, combined with multivariate analysis methods was used to monitor the adulteration of pure sunflower oil (SO) with thermally deteriorated oil (TDO). Contrary to published research, in this work, SO was thermally deteriorated in the absence of foodstuff. SO samples were exposed to temperatures between 125 and 225°C from 6 to 24 h. Quantification of adulteration of SO with TDO, based on principal com...

  17. Potential of Visible and Near Infrared Spectroscopy and Pattern Recognition for Rapid Quantification of Notoginseng Powder with Adulterants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yidan Bao

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Notoginseng is a classical traditional Chinese medical herb, which is of high economic and medical value. Notoginseng powder (NP could be easily adulterated with Sophora flavescens powder (SFP or corn flour (CF, because of their similar tastes and appearances and much lower cost for these adulterants. The objective of this study is to quantify the NP content in adulterated NP by using a rapid and non-destructive visible and near infrared (Vis-NIR spectroscopy method. Three wavelength ranges of visible spectra, short-wave near infrared spectra (SNIR and long-wave near infrared spectra (LNIR were separately used to establish the model based on two calibration methods of partial least square regression (PLSR and least-squares support vector machines (LS-SVM, respectively. Competitive adaptive reweighted sampling (CARS was conducted to identify the most important wavelengths/variables that had the greatest influence on the adulterant quantification throughout the whole wavelength range. The CARS-PLSR models based on LNIR were determined as the best models for the quantification of NP adulterated with SFP, CF, and their mixtures, in which the rP values were 0.940, 0.939, and 0.867 for the three models respectively. The research demonstrated the potential of the Vis-NIR spectroscopy technique for the rapid and non-destructive quantification of NP containing adulterants.

  18. Rapid identification of adulterated cow milk by non-linear pattern recognition methods based on near infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li-Guo; Zhang, Xin; Ni, Li-Jun; Xue, Zhi-Bin; Gu, Xin; Huang, Shi-Xin

    2014-02-15

    More than 800 representative milk samples, which consisted of 287 raw cow milk samples from different pastures surrounding Shanghai of China and 526 adulteration milk samples containing different pseudo proteins and thickeners, were collected and designed to demonstrate a method for rapidly discriminating adulterated milks based on near infrared (NIR) spectra. The NIR classification models were built by two non-linear supervised pattern recognition methods of improved support vector machine (I-SVM) and improved and simplified K nearest neighbours (IS-KNN). Uniform design theory was applied to optimize the parameters of SVM and thus the computation amount was reduced 90%. Both two methods exhibit good adaptability in discriminating adulterated milks from raw cow milks. Further investigation showed that the correction ratio for discriminating milk samples increased with the increasing of adulteration solutions' level in the adulterated milk. The concentration of adulterants is an important factor of influencing milk discrimination results of the NIR pattern recognition models. The results demonstrated the usefulness of NIR spectra combined with non-linear pattern recognition methods as an objective and rapid method for the authentication of complicated raw cow milks. PMID:24128487

  19. The Feasibility of Using Near-Infrared Spectroscopy and Chemometrics for Untargeted Detection of Protein Adulteration in Yogurt: Removing Unwanted Variations in Pure Yogurt

    OpenAIRE

    Lu Xu; Si-Min Yan; Chen-Bo Cai; Zhen-Ji Wang; Xiao-Ping Yu

    2013-01-01

    Untargeted detection of protein adulteration in Chinese yogurt was performed using near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy and chemometrics class modelling techniques. sixty yogurt samples were prepared with pure and fresh milk from local market, and 197 adulterated yogurt samples were prepared by blending the pure yogurt objects with different levels of edible gelatin, industrial gelatin, and soy protein powder, which have been frequently used for yogurt adulteration. A recently proposed one-class ...

  20. Development of a novel continuous statistical modelling technique for detecting the adulteration of extra virgin olive oil with hazelnut oil by using spectroscopic data

    OpenAIRE

    Georgouli, Konstantia; Martinez-del-Rincon, Jesus; Koidis, Anastasios

    2014-01-01

    The adulteration of extra virgin olive oil with other vegetable oils is a certain problem with economic and health consequences. Current official methods have been proved insufficient to detect such adulterations. One of the most concerning and undetectable adulterations with other vegetable oils is the addition of hazelnut oil. The main objective of this work was to develop a novel dimensionality reduction technique able to model oil mixtures as a part of an integrated pattern recognition so...

  1. Colorimetric Sensor for Detection of Adulteration in Gasoline using Polydiacetyleneelectro-Spun Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamshad Ali

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available We report the successful incorporation of pentacosadiynoic acid (PCDA in poly(Ɛ-caprolactone (PCL by electro-spinning technique for sensor application. The UV-polymerization of the resulting electro-spun fibers mats (EFMs produced polydiacetylenes (PDA polymer exhibiting blue color. The PCL-PDA EFMs were characterized by Raman Spectroscopy, UV-Vis Spectroscopy and FE-SEM analysis. Sensor test results revealed that the treatment of the PCL-PDA EFMs with adulterated gasoline showed a blue to red color transitionrapidly. FE-SEM images demonstrated that the thinner or toluene used as an adulterant in the gasoline destroyed the PCL electro-spun fibers; which gave access to PDA polymer producing red color.

  2. An electronic tongue taste evaluation: identification of goat milk adulteration with bovine milk

    OpenAIRE

    Dias, L. G.; Peres, António M.; Veloso, Ana C. A.; Reis, F.S.; Vilas-Boas, Miguel; Machado, A.A.S.C.

    2009-01-01

    An electronic tongue with 36 cross-sensibility sensors was built allowing a successful recognition of the five basic taste standards, showing high sensibility to acid, salty and umami taste substances and lower performance to bitter and sweet tastes. The taste recognition capability was afterwards tested in the detection of goat milk adulteration with bovine milk, which is a problem for the dairy industry. This new methodology is an alternative to the classical analyticalmethods u...

  3. A comprehensive strategy to detect the fraudulent adulteration of herbs: The oregano approach

    OpenAIRE

    Black, Connor; Haughey, Simon A.; Chevallier, Olivier P; Galvin-King, Pamela; ELLIOTT Christopher T.

    2016-01-01

    Fraud in the global food supply chain is becoming increasingly common due to the huge profits associated with this type of criminal activity. Food commodities and ingredients that are expensive and are part of complex supply chains are particularly vulnerable. Both herbs and spices fit these criteria perfectly and yet strategies to detect fraudulent adulteration are still far from robust. An FT-IR screening method coupled to data analysis using chemometrics and a second method using LC-HRMS w...

  4. Screening analysis to detect adulterations in Brazilian gasoline samples using distillation curves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabio Santos de Oliveira; Leonardo Sena Gomes Teixeira; Mario Cesar Ugulino Araujo; Mauro Korn [Universidade Federal da Bahia, Salvador (Brazil). Instituto de Quimica

    2004-05-01

    Data on evaporated fraction temperatures obtained from the distillation curves of Brazilian gasolines were employed to identify adulterated samples by applying the Soft Independent Modeling of Class Analogy (SIMCA) model. Since 1977, different quantities of ethanol have been added to the gasoline sold in Brazil. The ethanol concentration is established by Brazil's Petroleum Regulatory Agency. Ethanol and heavy solvent prices are lower than that for gasoline, so they are often added to the fuel for purpose of gasoline adulteration. Presence of these species in high or low concentration creates modifications in distillation curves. The SIMCA chemometrics method was selected due to its offering the possibility of sample classification into to the defined class. The training set for the SIMCA model consisted of 34 samples and test set consisted of 16 gasoline samples, eight of which were adulterated. Five principal components were necessary to explain 95% of the total variance. All test set samples were correctly classified while four samples of the training set, which were in conformity with legislation, were misclassified as contaminated by SIMCA. 18 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Discrimination between authentic and adulterated liquors by near-infrared spectroscopy and ensemble classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hui; Tan, Chao; Wu, Tong; Wang, Li; Zhu, Wanping

    2014-09-01

    Chinese liquor is one of the famous distilled spirits and counterfeit liquor is becoming a serious problem in the market. Especially, age liquor is facing the crisis of confidence because it is difficult for consumer to identify the marked age, which prompts unscrupulous traders to pose off low-grade liquors as high-grade liquors. An ideal method for authenticity confirmation of liquors should be non-invasive, non-destructive and timely. The combination of near-infrared spectroscopy with chemometrics proves to be a good way to reach these premises. A new strategy is proposed for classification and verification of the adulteration of liquors by using NIR spectroscopy and chemometric classification, i.e., ensemble support vector machines (SVM). Three measures, i.e., accuracy, sensitivity and specificity were used for performance evaluation. The results confirmed that the strategy can serve as a screening tool applied to verify adulteration of the liquor, that is, a prior step used to condition the sample to a deeper analysis only when a positive result for adulteration is obtained by the proposed methodology.

  6. Discrimination and quantification of cocaine and adulterants in seized drug samples by infrared spectroscopy and PLSR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grobério, Tatiane S; Zacca, Jorge J; Botelho, Élvio D; Talhavini, Marcio; Braga, Jez W B

    2015-12-01

    Middle infrared spectroscopy and multivariate analysis have been applied for the development of methods to perform both quantitative and qualitative analysis of real drug samples seized by the Brazilian Police Federal (BPF). Currently, quantification of cocaine and determination of adulterants in seizures is performed using gas chromatography with flame ionization detection. However, this technique requires a relatively complex sample preparation, higher time of analysis, the destruction of sample and a high cost. In this context, this paper presents a simpler method to quantify cocaine and its major adulterants in seized materials. Out of 375 seizures, taken within a time frame of 2009-2013. A total of 1085 samples were analyzed of which 500 were selected for the calibration set and 585 for the validation set. Cocaine concentration in seized samples was determined by using middle infrared spectroscopy and partial least squares regression (PLSR), obtaining an average prediction error of 3.0% (w/w), precision of 2.0 and 11.8% (w/w) of minimum detectable cocaine concentration in a range varying from 24.2 to 99.9% (w/w). Results indicate that the developed method is able to discriminate between cocaine hydrochloride and free base samples, to quantify cocaine content as well as to estimate the concentration of main adulterants phenacetin, benzocaine, caffeine, lidocaine and aminopyrine. PMID:26448534

  7. Voltammetric Electronic Tongue for Discrimination of Milk Adulterated with Urea, Formaldehyde and Melamine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lígia Bueno

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available We report the fabrication of a voltammetric electronic tongue for the detection and discrimination of harmful substances intentionally added to milk to increase its shelf life or imitate protein content. The electronic tongue consisted of three working electrodes composed of platinum, gold, and copper. The measurement principles involved the extraction of information from cyclic voltammograms recorded in unadulterated and adulterated milk. The extracted data were analysed using principal component analysis and the contaminants were successfully differentiated from one another in a score plot. Electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance analysis was used to investigate the electrode response in order to understand the mechanism by which the tongue could discriminate between the samples. It was found that the electrochemical formation and dissolution of platinum and gold oxides, and the reduction of a copper-melamine ionic pair formed at the surface of the copper electrode were the main factors responsible for discrimination. In addition, the electronic tongue was capable of identifying adulterations in different types of milk (whole, skimmed, and semi-skimmed and milk from different brands. The lowest concentration of adulterant that resulted in a good discrimination was 10.0, 4.16, and 0.95 mmol·L−1 for formaldehyde, urea, and melamine, respectively.

  8. Rapid identification of illegal synthetic adulterants in herbal anti-diabetic medicines using near infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yanchun; Lei, Deqing; Hu, Changqin

    We created a rapid detection procedure for identifying herbal medicines illegally adulterated with synthetic drugs using near infrared spectroscopy. This procedure includes a reverse correlation coefficient method (RCCM) and comparison of characteristic peaks. Moreover, we made improvements to the RCCM based on new strategies for threshold settings. Any tested herbal medicine must meet two criteria to be identified with our procedure as adulterated. First, the correlation coefficient between the tested sample and the reference must be greater than the RCCM threshold. Next, the NIR spectrum of the tested sample must contain the same characteristic peaks as the reference. In this study, four pure synthetic anti-diabetic drugs (i.e., metformin, gliclazide, glibenclamide and glimepiride), 174 batches of laboratory samples and 127 batches of herbal anti-diabetic medicines were used to construct and validate the procedure. The accuracy of this procedure was greater than 80%. Our data suggest that this protocol is a rapid screening tool to identify synthetic drug adulterants in herbal medicines on the market.

  9. Talcum induced pneumoconiosis following inhalation of adulterated marijuana, a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scheel Andreas

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Talcosis, a granulomatous inflammation of the lungs caused by inhalation of talcum dust, is a rare form of pneumoconiosis. Besides inhalative occupational exposure, intravenous abuse of adulterated drugs is a major cause for this condition. Minerals such as talcum (magnesium silicate and sand (predominant silicon dioxide are used to increase both volume and weight of illicit substances. In intravenous heroin-abuse, talcosis is a well-known complication. Here we describe a case of talcosis caused by inhalative abuse of adulterated marijuana. Clinical history A 29-year old man presented with persistent fever, dyspnea and cervical emphysema. He admitted consumption of 'cut' marijuana for several years, preferentially by water pipe smoking. Morphologic findings Lung-biopsies showed chronic interstitial lung disease, anthracotic pigments and birefringent material. Energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy revealed silicon-containing particles (1-2 μm and fine aluminum particles ( Conclusions The exacerbated chronic interstitial lung disease in a 29-year old patient could be attributed to his prolonged abuse of talcum-adulterated marjuana by histopathology and x-ray spectroscopy. Since cannabis consumption is widely spread among young adults, it seems to be justified to raise attention to this form of interstitial pulmonary disease. Virtual slides The virtual slide(s for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnomx.eu/vs/krause/html/start.html.

  10. Development of qualitative and quantitative PCR analysis for meat adulteration from RNA samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jai-Hong; Chou, Hsiao-Ting; Lee, Meng-Shiou; Sheu, Shyang-Chwen

    2016-02-01

    Total RNA samples were used to establish qualitative and quantitative PCR-based methods for assessing meat adulteration. The primers were designed based on the mRNA sequences of troponin I (TnI), mitochondrial ribosomal protein (MRP) and tropomodulin genes to distinguish chicken, pork, goat, beef and ostrich. There was no cross reaction between the primers, and the detection limit of the cDNA template was 0.01 and 20 ng in simplex PCR and multiplex PCR, respectively. In the low temperature storage test, the detection limits of cDNA template with 10 and 1 ng were determined at 4 °C and -80 °C. In quantitative assay, the precision of real-time PCR analysis expressed as a coefficient of variation (CV) ranged from 0.25% to 5.24% and the trueness, expressed as an error, ranged from 0.28% to 6.98% for adulteration. Thus, herein, we provided alternative tools for the assessment of meat adulteration using mRNA-based PCR methods. PMID:26304356

  11. Species determination - can we detect and quantify meat adulteration?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ballin, Nicolai Zederkopff; Vogensen, Finn Kvist; Karlsson, Anders H

    2009-01-01

    Proper labelling of meat products is important to help fair-trade, and to enable consumers to make informed choices. However, it has been shown that labelling of species, expressed as weight/weight (w/w), on meat product labels was incorrect in more than 20% of cases. Enforcement of labelling reg...

  12. 食用油掺假检测方法研究进展%Detection Methods of Edible Oil Adulteration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋玉峰; 王微山; 杨学军; 张继斌; 徐超; 田亮光

    2012-01-01

    Food safety was caused wide concern because of the prevalence of hogwash oil in adulterated edible oil recently. Powerful safety management and rapid alert system for adulteration of edible oil with hogwash oil were hampered for lack of effective detection meth- ods. To save time, money and cost of human resources, international methods for detection of adulterated edible oil would be benefit to deter- mine extra edible oil adulterated with hogwash oil. Therefore, international detection methods of edible oil adulteration were reviewed.%最近地沟油事件再次引起人们对食品安全的担忧。目前由于缺乏有效的食用油中地沟油掺假的检测方法,制约着食品安全的有效监管和预警体系建设。为了节约时间、财力和人力,我国食用油掺假(例如地沟油)的检测需要借鉴国际经验。基于此,本文对国际上食用油掺假的检测方法研究最新进展进行综述。

  13. IR laser sensors for the detection food adulteration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper reports the results of the project SAL@CQO aimed at the development of instrumentation Innovative optical, laser based sensors, for the improvement of the level of safety of products food and for the detection of food fraud. Through the developed prototypes, the project aims provide on the one hand a means of rapid screening, automated, and to facilitate the use of simplified Work of the Audit Institutions responsible for monitoring and repression of food frauds. On the other hand It intends to provide a method of production chains practical monitoring for the maintenance of a of the final product quality standards.

  14. Application of principal component-radial basis function neural networks (PC-RBFNN) for the detection of water-adulterated bayberry juice by near-infrared spectroscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li-juan XIE; Xing-qian YE; Dong-hong LIU; Yi-bin YING

    2008-01-01

    Near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy combined with chemometrics techniques was used to classify the pure bayberry juice and the one adulterated with 10% (w/w) and 20% (w/w) water. Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to reduce the dimensions of spectral data, give information regarding a potential capability of separation of objects, and provide principal component (PC) scores for radial basis function neural networks (RBFNN). RBFNN was used to detect bayberry juice adulterant. Multiplicative scatter correction (MSC) and standard normal variate (SNV) transformation were used to preprocess spectra. The results demonstrate that PC-RBFNN with optimum parameters can separate pure bayberry juice samples from water-adulterated bayberry at a recognition rate of 97.62%, but cannot clearly detect water levels in the adulterated bayberry juice. We conclude that NIR technology can be successfully applied to detect water-adulterated bayberry juice.

  15. Discrimination of adulterated milk based on two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy (2D-COS) combined with kernel orthogonal projection to latent structure (K-OPLS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Renjie; Liu, Rong; Xu, Kexin; Yang, Yanrong

    2013-12-01

    A new method for discrimination analysis of adulterated milk and pure milk is proposed by combining two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy (2D-COS) with kernel orthogonal projection to latent structure (K-OPLS). Three adulteration types of milk with urea, melamine, and glucose were prepared, respectively. The synchronous 2D spectra of adulterated milk and pure milk samples were calculated. Based on the characteristics of 2D correlation spectra of adulterated milk and pure milk, a discriminant model of urea-tainted milk, melamine-tainted milk, glucose-tainted milk, and pure milk was built by K-OPLS. The classification accuracy rates of unknown samples were 85.7, 92.3, 100, and 87.5%, respectively. The results show that this method has great potential in the rapid discrimination analysis of adulterated milk and pure milk. PMID:24359648

  16. Raman spectroscopy as an effective screening method for detecting adulteration of milk with small nitrogen-rich molecules and sucrose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieuwoudt, M K; Holroyd, S E; McGoverin, C M; Simpson, M C; Williams, D E

    2016-04-01

    Adulteration of milk for commercial gain is acknowledged as a serious issue facing the dairy industry. Several analytical techniques can be used to detect adulteration but they often require time-consuming sample preparation, expensive laboratory equipment, and highly skilled personnel. Here we show that Raman spectroscopy provides a simple, selective, and sensitive method for screening milk, specifically for small nitrogen-rich compounds, such as melamine, urea, ammonium sulfate, dicyandiamide, and for sucrose. Univariate and multivariate statistical methods were used to determine limits of detection and quantification from Raman spectra of milk spiked with 50 to 1,000 mg/L of the N-rich compounds and 0.25 to 4% sucrose. Partial least squares (PLS) calibration provided limit of detection minimum thresholds adulterants. PMID:26874427

  17. Impact of using automotive diesel fuel adulterated with heating diesel on the performance of a stationary diesel engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalligeros, S. [Elinoil S.A., Athens (Greece). Research and Development Dept.; Zannikos, F.; Stournas, S.; Lois, E.; Anastopoulos, G. [National Technical University of Athens (Greece). School of Chemical Engineering

    2005-03-01

    Air quality improvement, especially in urban areas, is one of the major concerns. For this reason, car and equipment manufacturers and refiners have been exploring various avenues to comply with the increasingly severe anti-pollution requirements. Adulteration of fuels stands as a roadblock to this improvement. In this paper, fuel consumption, particulate matter and exhaust emission measurements from a single cylinder, stationary Diesel engine are presented. The engine was fuelled with automotive Diesel fuel, which was adulterated with domestic heating Diesel in proportions up to 100%. The four types of adulterated Diesel fuel investigated increased all types of emissions compared to automotive Diesel fuel. The only positive result was a slight decrease of the volumetric fuel consumption in some loads. (author)

  18. Rapid screening for detection and differentiation of detergent powder adulteration in infant milk formula by LC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tay, Manjun; Fang, Guihua; Chia, Poh Ling; Li, Sam Fong Yau

    2013-10-10

    Reports of infant milk formula adulteration by detergent powders as economic frauds and poisoning incidents are common as detergents are readily available and are inexpensive household items. Liquid chromatography (LC)-Qtrap and LC-hybrid quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-QTOF-MS) in combination with chemometrics were effectively employed to detect the presence of detergent powder adulterated in infant milk formula. Partial least square analysis (PLS) regression was also utilized to quantify the amount of detergent powder in adulterated infant milk formula without the need to purchase any standards. Dodecylbenzenesulfonate (C12-LAS) was identified and verified as the marker which existed in detergent powder using LC-QTOF-MS. The amount of C12-LAS present in the admixture was successfully quantified through standard addition method. PMID:24053862

  19. Rapid detection of authenticity and adulteration of walnut oil by FTIR and fluorescence spectroscopy: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bingning; Wang, Haixia; Zhao, Qiaojiao; Ouyang, Jie; Wu, Yanwen

    2015-08-15

    Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and fluorescence spectroscopy combined with soft independent modeling of class analogies (SIMCA) and partial least square (PLS) were used to detect the authenticity of walnut oil and adulteration amount of soybean oil in walnut oil. A SIMCA model of FTIR spectra could differentiate walnut oil and other oils into separate categories; the classification limit of soybean oil in walnut oil was 10%. Fluorescence spectroscopy could differentiate oil composition by the peak position and intensity of emission spectrum without multivariate analysis. The classification limit of soybean oil adulterated in walnut oil by fluorescence spectroscopy was below 5%. The deviation of the prediction model for fluorescence spectra was lower than that for FTIR spectra. Fluorescence spectroscopy was more applicable than FTIR in the adulteration detection of walnut oil, both from the determination limit and prediction deviation. PMID:25794716

  20. 利用近红外光谱技术检测掺假豆浆%Adulteration detection of soymilk based on near-infrared spectroscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李东华; 潘园园; 张卉

    2014-01-01

    In order to rapidly detect the internal nutritive index and discriminate adulteration soymilk, the near infrared transmission spectrometer such as Purespect was used to obtain spectrums for 83 unadulterated and adulterated soymilk samples. The spectral scanning procedure was conducted in dark room, 643.26-954.15 nm wavelength range was chosen, scanning wavelength interval was 1.29 nm. Each soymilk sample was scanned three times. Pure soymilks were made according to the regulations in soymilk products industry standard SB/T 10633-2011. A lot of water, essence, thickening agent, food sunset yellow pigment were added to unadulterated soymilk samples in order to obtain adulterated soymilk samples. In this study, 31 adulteration samples and 62 unadulterated samples were prepared in the processing laboratories. 14 soymilk samples were gathered from the market. All samples were used to scan the spectrum and determining chemical composition. The experimental results indicated that smooth lines and clear spectrogram were obtained using Savitzky-Golay and the second derivative method. Chemometrics method of partial least squares (PLS) was used to the model calibration for protein and total solid content in samples. The correlation coefficient of predicted value and measured value of protein and total solid content for soymilk calibration samples were 0.9756 and 0.9489 respectively. The correction of root mean square error for soymilk calibration samples were 0.186 and 0.175 respectively. 12 and 14 was selected for principal component number respectively. 24 prediction samples were prepared for analyzing predictive capability. The results indicated that the residual values of predicted value and measured value for soymilk prediction samples were small and close to zero. The distribution of residual was uniform for both sides of zero line. The residual sums between predicted and measured protein and total solid content values were -0.074 and -1.191 respectively. The results

  1. Differential effects of adulterated versus unadulterated forms of linoleic acid on cardiovascular health

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Stephen D.Anton; Kacey Heekin; Carrah Simkins; Andres Acosta

    2013-01-01

    According to the classic "diet-heart" hypothesis,high dietary intake of saturated fats and cholesterol combined with low intake of polyunsaturated fats can increase levels of serum cholesterol and lead to the development of atherogenic plaques and ultimately cardiovascular diseases.Recently,the beneficial health effects of omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids,particularly linoleic acid (LA),on cardiovascular health have been called into question with some scientists suggesting that consumption of LA should be reduced in Western countries.The focus of this critical review is on the controversy surrounding the effects of dietary intake of LA on cardiovascular health.Specifically,we critically examined the effects of both unadulterated and adulterated forms of LA on cardiovascular health outcomes based on findings from epidemiological studies and randomized controlled trials.Additionally,we address common concerns surrounding dietary intake of LA regarding its relationship with arachidonic acid,the ratio of omega-6 to omega-3 fatty acids,and its relationship with inflammation.Our critical review indicates that unadulterated forms of LA are cardioprotective and should be consumed as part of a healthy diet.In contrast,abundant evidence now indicates that adulterated forms of LA,predominantly hydrogenated vegetable oils,are atherogenic and should not be considered part of a healthy diet.The ability to adulterate the natural omega-6 fatty acid,LA,has contributed to mixed findings regarding the effects of this fatty acid on cardiovascular health.Thus,it is critical that the source of LA be taken into account when drawing conclusions about the physiological effects of this fatty acid.The findings of the present review are in line with current dietary recommendations of the American Heart Association.

  2. Comparison of original and adulterated Oscypek cheese based on volatile and sensory profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Majcher

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. This paper describes a preliminary studies aiming to compare volatile fractions of Oscypek and oscypek-like cheeses with SPME-GC/TOFMS to determine the possibility of applying for future routine investigation of adulteration of Polish PDO cheeses. Material and methods. For sensory and volatiles analysis four different cheeses were compared: Oscypek cheese prepared according to PDO regulations and three oscypek-like cheeses: type “CM industry” – produced from pasteurised cow milk in dairy plant, type “EM-industry” – produced from pasteurised ewe milk in dairy plant and type “CM-shep­herds” – produced from unpasteurised cow milk in shepherds huts. Isolation of volatiles was performed with PDMS/CAR/DVB fiber. Compounds identification was performed using gas chromatography coupled to time of flight mass spectrometry. Results. Headspace SPME-GC/TOFMS method revealed a total of 51 compounds in Oscypek and oscypek-like cheeses representing nine chemical groups such as: free fatty acids, esters, ketones, alcohols, aldehydes, furans and furanones, phenols, sulfur compounds and terpenes. Results showed that original Oscypek, PDO labeled was represented by the largest number of volatiles identified compared to oscypek-like cheeses, which also showed a relationship with sensory analysis where Oscypek has been described as a cheese with mostly developed flavour bouquet. Additionally it could be observed that cheeses made from unpasteurised milk using traditional method of preparation in shepherds huts (Oscypek and CM-shepherds had superior volatile profiles and enhanced aroma compared to cheeses made industrially. Conclusions. The differences showed in volatile fraction of original Oscypek cheese and adulterated ones provide possibility of employing SPME-GC/TOFMS technique to find adulteration in PDO labelled Oscypek.

  3. PROGRESS ON THE IDENTIFICATION OF HONEY TYPE AND ADULTERATED HONEY ABROAD%国外蜂蜜品种识别和掺假鉴别方法研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘建平; 胡乐乾; 蔡玉乐; 尹春玲

    2011-01-01

    蜂蜜产地来源和蜂蜜掺伪的辨别方法是当今许多国家和蜂产品生产相关部门研究的热点.针对目前国外应用理化方法、现代仪器分析以及生物免疫技术结合模式识别对蜂蜜的产地、植物来源及掺伪辨别方法和研究进展进行了综述.%The identification method of honey producing area and adulterated honey is the research hotspot of many countries and bee product production departments at present. The paper mainly reviewed the progress on the identification method of the producing area and the plant resources of honey products and the identification of adulterated honey products by the combination of physico-chemical analysis method, modern instrumental analysis, bio-immunization technique and pattern recognition.

  4. Levamisole adulterated cocaine and pulmonary vasculitis: Presentation of two lethal cases and brief literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karch, Steven B; Busardò, Francesco Paolo; Vaiano, Fabio; Portelli, Francesca; Zaami, Simona; Bertol, Elisabetta

    2016-08-01

    The first case reports of levamisole-related disease in cocaine users were published in 2010, although levamisole adulteration of cocaine was first recognized several years earlier. Currently, more than 70% of street cocaine seizures, in the US and the EU, contain levamisole, which could potentially be converted to aminorex, though the reasons for this practice still remain obscure. Here we report two fatal cases of isolated pulmonary vasculitis in abusers of levamisole-adulterated cocaine, where a complete autopsy, full toxicological analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) using a previously published method of Karch et al. and histological examination were performed. A control group composed of 11 cases of cocaine related deaths, where the presence of levamisole was excluded in blood, urine and hair, was used. Recent literature on the human pharmacokinetics of levamisole and aminorex is also reviewed. The toxicological analysis revealed positive qualitative and quantitative results for cocaine, benzoylecgonine and levamisole in both cases. In case 1 levamisole was found at the concentration of 13.5 and 61.3mg/L in blood and urine respectively, whereas in case 2 at 17.9 and 70.2mg/L. The histological examination highlighted in case 1 in heart samples microscopic evidence of the typical remodeling changes associated with chronic stimulant abuse, whereas lungs showed numerous lymphocytes surrounding and infiltrating the wall of small pulmonary vessels and a perivascular fibrosis with transforming fibroblasts. In case 2, the myocardial samples showed wide fields of myocardial necrosis characterized by hypercontraction of the myocytes with thickened Z-lines and short sarcomeres, whereas lung samples showed a significant intimal thickening of arteriole walls and lymphocytic infiltration of the wall and edema. Moreover, there were also numerous perivascular lymphocytic infiltrates. Although the pathological cardiac findings have allowed us to establish

  5. The Use of Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy for Quantification of Adulteration in Virgin Walnut Oil

    OpenAIRE

    Pengjuan Liang; Hao Wang; Chaoyin Chen; Feng Ge; Diqiu Liu; Shiqi Li; Benyong Han; Xianfeng Xiong; Shenglan Zhao

    2013-01-01

    Currently, the authentication of virgin walnut oil (VWO) has become very important due to the possible adulteration of VWO with cheaper plant oils such as soybean oil (SO), puer tea seed oil (PO), and sunflower oil (SFO). Methods involving Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy combined with chemometric techniques (partial least square) were developed for quantification of SO, PO, and SFO in VWO. IR spectra of oil samples were recorded at frequency regions of 4000–650 cm−1 on horizon...

  6. Separation and identification of a novel tadalafil analogue adulterant in a dietary supplement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yen-Chun; Lee, Hui-Chun; Lin, Yun-Lian; Li, Chia-Ying; Tsai, Chia-Fen; Cheng, Hwei-Fang

    2016-02-01

    A novel tadalafil analogue found in a dietary supplement by routine drug-adulteration screening was isolated by column chromatography and HPLC. On the basis of extensive 1D- and 2D-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), infrared (IR) and mass spectral analyses, the structure of the new compound YJ-02 was established as 6-(benzo[d][1,3]dioxol-5-yl)-2,3,6,7,12,12a-hexahydro-2-(1E,2E)-3-phenylallylidene)amino)pyrazino[1',2':1,6]pyrido[3,4-b]indole-1,4-dione. Its common name is N-phenylpropenyltadalafil. PMID:26635133

  7. Can the dietary element content of virgin argan oils really be used for adulteration detection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Faez A E; Bchitou, Rahma; Bouhaouss, Ahmed; Gharby, Saïd; Harhar, Hicham; Guillaume, Dominique; Charrouf, Zoubida

    2013-01-01

    Levels of eight dietary elements were assessed by ICP-AES in virgin edible and beauty argan oil samples prepared from four remote locations of the argan forest, and over a three-year period. The data showed sufficiently little variability to assess that all argan oil samples present, in terms of dietary elements, a similar composition, independently from the tree location within the argan forest. Therefore, adulteration detection by trace element analysis in edible and beauty argan oil is a method that can be generalised. PMID:23017399

  8. Proving the adulteration of ewe and goat cheeses with cow milk using the reference method of isoelectric focusing of γ-casein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataša Mikulec

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to introduce a reference method for the detection of cow milk in ewe and goat cheeses (EC 273/08 in order to protect manufacturers and consumers from adulterations and imitations, and to ensure alignment with the demands of domestic and EU markets. The method includes isolation of casein from cheese, isoelectric focusing of γ2- and γ3-casein originating from the hydrolysis of β-casein by plasmin, the detection and quantitative determination of γ-casein in cow, ewe and goat cheese by densitometry. Ewe or goat cheese products with a minimum of 1 % of cow milk are considered to be adulterated. For the quantitative determination of cow, ewe and goat milk in cheeses, standard mixtures of cow-ewe and cow-goat milk were made by adding 0; 0.5; 1; 2; 5; 10; 25; 50; 75 and 100 % (v/v of cow milk. The quantification was performed by determining the peak area ratio of cow γ-casein in comparison to ewe/goat casein in prepared standard cheeses. The calibration curves were calculated based on the relation of the peak area ratio of cow γ-caseins (calculated as the percentage of total γ-caseins in contrast to the relative content (% of cow milk in the mixture. The method proved to be adequate for the detection of raw and heat-treated cow milk in fresh and ripened cheeses made from ewe or goat milk, or a mixture of ewe and goat milk.

  9. SDS-PAGE in conjunction with match lane statistical analysis for the detection of meat adulteration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) of seven meat types and two component mixtures of them were made. Banding patterns of resulting denstograms in conjunction with cluster analysi and match lane statistical analysis were used for the detection of meat adulteration. The use of beef as a reference meat have resulted in a clear distinction from goat, pork, chicken, turkey, camel meats and their mixture and camel meat. The use of pork meat as a reference was more assurate because of the low degrees of matching with all meats and their mixtures and consequently high abilities of differentiations. The purpose of identification. the purpose of identification of meat species arises from the desire of human, in general, to confirm what he eat ? for moslems the establisment that meat is free from pork type is most important. Another economic purpose is the detection of adulteration of valuable meat by less valuable types. Several attempts in different laboratories were done to serve this object but most of analytical techniques. Barbieri and formi (1999) were able to detect 5% of meat type in mixtures by isolelectric focusing and 1% of meat type by PCR technique in beef, pork, chicken and turkey meats. By crossover immunoelectrophoresis technique, zanon and vianello (1998) were also to detect a limit of 5% of specific meat in mixuters of beef, pork, mutton/lamb, horse and chicken meats

  10. Real-time near-infrared spectroscopic inspection system for adulterated sesame oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Sukwon; Lee, Kang-jin; Son, Jaeryong; Kim, Moon S.

    2010-04-01

    Sesame seed oil is popular and expensive in Korea and has been often mixed with other less expensive vegetable oils. The objective of this research is to develop an economical and rapid adulteration determination system for sesame seed oil mixed with other vegetable oils. A recently developed inspection system consists of a light source, a measuring unit, a spectrophotometer, fiber optics, and a data acquisition module. A near-infrared transmittance spectroscopic method was used to develop the prediction model using Partial Least Square (PLS). Sesame seed oil mixed with a range of concentrations of corn, or perilla, or soybean oil was measured in 8 mm diameter glass tubes. For the model development, a correlation coefficient value of 0.98 was observed for corn, perilla, and soybean oil mixtures with standard errors of correlation of 6.32%, 6.16%, and 5.67%, respectively. From the prediction model, the correlation coefficients of corn oil, perilla oil, and soybean oil were 0.98, 0.97 and 0.98, respectively. The Standard Error of Prediction (SEP) for corn oil, perilla oil, and soybean oil were 6.52%, 6.89% and 5.88%, respectively. The results indicated that this system can potentially be used as a rapid non-destructive adulteration analysis tool for sesame seed oil mixed with other vegetable oils.

  11. Composition of tocopherols in sesame seed oil: an indicative of adulteration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gastaldo Badolato, Elza S.

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to verify how the composition of tocopherols can help to reveal adulteration in samples of sesame seed oils commercialized in Brazil. Five samples have been analyzed. One sample presented the composition of fatty acids, tocopherols and desmethylsterols of authentic sesame oil. Another one presented only non complying parameters. Three other samples showed the fatty acid composition of pure sesame oil, but the tocopherol and desmethylsterol profiles did not comply with those for sesame seed oil. The results indicate that samples could be adulterated by other vegetable oils like soybean, lauric and corn oils.Este trabajo examina la importancia de los tocoferoles en la detección de la adulteración del aceite de sésamo comercializado en Brasil. Se analizaron cinco muestras a las que se le determinaron su composición en ácidos grasos, esteroles y tocoferoles. Una de las muestras se reveló puro aceite de semilla de sésamo; en otra, todos los parámetros estaban en desacuerdo. En las demás, el perfil de ácidos grasos caracterizaba el aceite de sésamo, sin embargo los tocoferoles y esteroles permanecieron en desacuerdo. Los resultados indican adulteración con otros aceites vegetales como soja, aceites láuricos y maíz.

  12. Evaluation of Taurine by HPTLC Reveals the Mask of Adulterated Edible Bird’s Nest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peishan Teo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Detection of amino acid is an effective and common method to determine adulteration in edible bird’s nest. Therefore, a simple and sensitive method was developed to detect taurine for determining adulteration in edible bird’s nest in the future. Sample was separated on precoated silica gel GF254 high-performance thin layer chromatographic plates. Separation of taurine was performed by n-propyl alcohol : ethanol : water : glacial acetic acid (5.2 : 0.8 : 2 : 2, v : v : v : v. Densitometric analysis of taurine was carried out in the absorbance mode at 485 nm. The method was validated for precision, intra- and interday variation, and recovery. This study proved that high-performance thin layer chromatography is a simple, rapid, precise, and selective method for qualitative and quantitative analysis of taurine in edible bird’s nest.

  13. Gold Nanoparticle Sensor for the Visual Detection of Pork Adulteration in Meatball Formulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. E. Ali

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We visually identify pork adulteration in beef and chicken meatball preparations using 20 nm gold nanoparticles (GNPs as colorimetric sensors. Meatball is a popular food in certain Asian and European countries. Verification of pork adulteration in meatball is necessary to meet the Halal and Kosher food standards. Twenty nm GNPs change color from pinkish-red to gray-purple, and their absorption peak at 525 nm is red-shifted by 30–50 nm in 3 mM phosphate buffer saline (PBS. Adsorption of single-stranded DNA protects the particles against salt-induced aggregation. Mixing and annealing of a 25-nucleotide (nt single-stranded (ss DNA probe with denatured DNA of different meatballs differentiated well between perfectly matched and mismatch hybridization at a critical annealing temperature. The probes become available in nonpork DNA containing vials due to mismatches and interact with GNPs to protect them from salt-induced aggregation. Whereas, all the pork containing vials, either in pure and mixed forms, consumed the probes totally by perfect hybridization and turned into grey, indicating aggregation. This is clearly reflected by a well-defined red-shift of the absorption peak and significantly increased absorbance in 550–800 nm regimes. This label-free low-cost assay should find applications in food analysis, genetic screening, and homology studies.

  14. 显微共聚焦拉曼检测中药中非法添加的化学降糖药%Confocal Raman microscopy identification of synthetic hypoglycemic drugs adulterated in Chinese traditional medicines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹玲; 王玉; 罗疆南

    2011-01-01

    目的:建立检测中药中非法添加化学降糖药的拉曼光谱法.方法:采用显微共聚焦拉曼光谱法,使样品在显微镜下微区成像,逐点选择不同的点采集拉曼光谱图,并与对照品光谱图进行比对分析,判断是否非法添加.结果:在市场监督抽样的中药中检出非法添加盐酸二甲双胍,检出结果进一步得到HPLC-MS法验证.结论:显微共聚焦拉曼光谱可作为中药、保健食品中非法添加化学药物检测的可选方法.%Objective: To develop a method of Raman spectroscopy for the identification of Synthetic Hypoglycemic Drugs adulterated in Chinese traditional medicines. Methods : The spectra of the samples,collected by confocal Raman microscopy with the spatial mapping and multivariate analysis of Raman maps,were compared with those obtained from the reference substances. Results : The synthetic hypoglycemic drugs such as metformin hydrochloride adulterated in the products supplied for inspection were rapidly differentiated. The results were further demonstrated by HPLC - MS analysis. Conclusion: Confocal Raman microscopy can be used as an alternative method for the identification of the adulteration of Chinese traditional medicines and health - care food with synthetic drugs.

  15. Identification of Adulterated PDE5 Inhibitors by Confocal Raman Microscopy%显微共聚焦拉曼光谱法检测非法添加的化学壮阳药

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王玉; 曹玲; 罗疆南

    2011-01-01

    目的 建立显微共聚焦拉曼光谱法检测中药中非法添加磷酸二酯酶5型(PDE5)抑制剂的方法.方法 供试品在显微镜下微区成像,逐点选择不同的点采集拉曼光谱图,并与对照品光谱图进行比对分析,以判断是否非法添加.结果 在市场监督抽样的不同种类的壮阳类中药中分别检出非法添加PDE5抑制剂西地那非及其同系物他达那非.检出结果进一步经HPLC-MS分析验证.结论 显微共聚焦拉曼光谱可作为中药、保健食品中非法添加化学药物检测的可选方法.%OBJECTIVE To develop a Raman spectroscopy method for the identification of PDE5 inhibitors adulterated in traditional Chinese medicines. METHODS The spectra of the samples, collected by Confocal Raman microscopy with the spatial mapping and multivariate analysis of Raman maps, were compared with those obtained with the reference substances. RESULTS The PDE5 inhibitors such as Sildenafil and Tadalafil adulterated in the products supplied for inspection were rapidly detected.The results were further verified by HPLC-MS analysis. CONCLUSION The Confocal Raman microscopy can be used as an alternative method for the identification of the adulteration of traditional Chinese medicines and health-care food with synthetic drugs.

  16. Sequential (step-by-step) detection, identification and quantitation of extra virgin olive oil adulteration by chemometric treatment of chromatographic profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capote, F Priego; Jiménez, J Ruiz; de Castro, M D Luque

    2007-08-01

    An analytical method for the sequential detection, identification and quantitation of extra virgin olive oil adulteration with four edible vegetable oils--sunflower, corn, peanut and coconut oils--is proposed. The only data required for this method are the results obtained from an analysis of the lipid fraction by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. A total number of 566 samples (pure oils and samples of adulterated olive oil) were used to develop the chemometric models, which were designed to accomplish, step-by-step, the three aims of the method: to detect whether an olive oil sample is adulterated, to identify the type of adulterant used in the fraud, and to determine how much aldulterant is in the sample. Qualitative analysis was carried out via two chemometric approaches--soft independent modelling of class analogy (SIMCA) and K nearest neighbours (KNN)--both approaches exhibited prediction abilities that were always higher than 91% for adulterant detection and 88% for type of adulterant identification. Quantitative analysis was based on partial least squares regression (PLSR), which yielded R2 values of >0.90 for calibration and validation sets and thus made it possible to determine adulteration with excellent precision according to the Shenk criteria. PMID:17611742

  17. Detection of sheep and goat milk adulterations by direct MALDI-TOF MS analysis of milk tryptic digests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvano, Cosima Damiana; De Ceglie, Cristina; Monopoli, Antonio; Zambonin, Carlo Giorgio

    2012-09-01

    In dairy field, one of the most common frauds is the adulteration of higher value types of milk (sheep's and goat's) with milk of lower value (cow's milk). This illegal practice has an economic advantage for milk producers and poses a threat for consumers' health because of the presence of hidden allergens as, for example, cow milk proteins, in particular, α(s1)-casein and β-lactoglobulin. The urgent need of sensitive techniques to detect this kind of fraud brought to the development of chromatographic, immunoenzymatic, electrophoretic and mass spectrometric assays. In the current work, we present a fast, reproducible and sensitive method based on the direct matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) MS analysis of milk tryptic digests for the detection of milk adulteration by evaluating specie-specific markers in the peptide profiles. Several pure raw and commercial milk samples and binary mixtures containing cows' and goats', cows' and sheep's and goats' and sheep's milk (concentrations of each milk varied from 0% to 100%) were prepared, and tryptic digests were analyzed by MALDI-TOF MS. The use of the new MALDI matrix α-cyano-4-chlorocinnamic acid allowed to detect cow and goat milk peptide markers up to 5% level of adulteration. Finally, from preliminary data, it seems that the strategy could be successfully applied also to detect similar adulterations in cheese samples. PMID:22972782

  18. Comparison of Three Analytical Methods for Separation of Mineral and Chelated Fraction from an Adulterated Zn-EDTA Fertilizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Summary: Different analytical procedures are being employed in the world to quantify the chelated portion in a Zn-EDTA fertilizer. Agriculture Department, Government of the Punjab is following Shahid's analytical method in this regard. This method is based on Ion-chromatography (IC) that separates the mineral zinc (Zn) from an adulterated Zn-EDTA fertilizer sample i.e. mixture of mineral and chelated Zn fractions. To find out its effectiveness and suitability, this comparative study was carried out by analyzing adulterated, non-adulterated Zn-EDTA standard and Zn-EDTA samples taken from market in thrice following three methods namely Shahid's (IC) analytical method, Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometric (AAS) method based on the principle of precipitating the mineral Zn fraction at high pH value by using alkali solution of suitable concentration and analysis of filtrate containing only chelated fraction and Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC) method FM-841 respectively. Adulterated Zn-EDTA samples were prepared by mixing of known quantity of mineral Zn with chelated Zn-EDTA standard. The results showed that Shahid's analytical method and AAS method, both successfully estimated the chelated fraction. The AOAC FM-841 method was insensitive to put a ceiling on the mineral fraction hence did not furnish the reliable results. The Shahid's analytical method was selected being equallyeffective to produce reliable results both for solid and liquid Zn-EDTA samples. The AAS method was comparable in only liquid samples. (author)

  19. Evaluation of turmeric powder adulterated with metanil yellow using FT-Raman and FT-IR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turmeric powder (Curcuma longa L.) is valued both for its medicinal properties and for its popular culinary use such as being a component in curry powder. Due to its high demand in international trade, turmeric powder has been subject to economically driven, hazardous chemical adulteration. This stu...

  20. Detection of pasteurized milk adulteration through official methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Mareze

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The quality of milk consumed is a constant concern of dairy industry and healthcare-related authorities, technicians as well as consumers. The most serious problems are the various frauds which cause economic losses, risks to consumer health and, sometimes, problems for industries, such as the decrease in industrial output. Many foods are subject to fraud, but milk is one of the most commonly spoofed. The purpose of this study was to determine the presence of fraudulent substances and assess the physico-chemical properties of pasteurized milk produced in dairies from the North region of Paraná. Eighty samples were evaluated in the period from March to June 2014 and carried out specific methods for detection of restoratives: starch, alcohol, chloride and sucrose; neutralizers: bicarbonate and sodium hydroxide; preservatives: chlorine, sodium hypochlorite, hydrogen peroxide and formaldehyde. The evaluation of physico-chemical characteristics was carried out through the following analyses: density at 15° C, cryoscopic index, Dornic titratable acidity, 72 alizarol stability, pH, alkaline phosphatase, peroxidase, fat, total solids, non-fat solids, urea, protein and lactose. Non-standard samples were observed for the following analyses: fat (12.5%, non-fat solids (5%, density (1.25%, cryoscopy (3.75%, pH (48.75%, urea (1.25%. Frauds were observed by addition of water and sucrose (3.75%, presence of hypochlorite (5% and occurrence of skim milk (12.5%. The evidence together can assist in detecting fraud most commonly performed in pasteurized milk, but does not show in which thread might have occurred. However, if not detected, the quality of the product cannot be assured since many frauds have been carried out in a balanced way hindering its detection.

  1. Adulteration determination of the anhydrous ethanol fuels samples with methanol; Determinacao de adulteracao por metanol em amostras de alcool etilico anidro combustivel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campos, Eduardo; Mota, Claudio J.A. [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica]. E-mail: eduardoc@dh.com.br; cmota@iq.ufrj.br

    2003-07-01

    A fast test made to evidence an adulteration of anhydrous ethanol with methanol consist in mixing the alcohol with gasoline. A pink coloration indicates the adulteration by methanol. Samples of gasoline A, ethanol and high purity methanol were mixed at different proportions, but no color change was observed. On the other hand, samples of gasoline A, ethanol and formaldehyde 40% showed the characteristic pink coloration, for methanol adulteration. This result indicates that the test is sensible to the presence of formaldehyde, probably presence as impurity or formed by oxidation of the methanol. A lower detection limit of 4.8% of formaldehyde in the alcohol was determined. (author)

  2. Analysis of volatile compounds of Ilex paraguariensis A. St. - Hil. and its main adulterating species Ilex theizans Mart. ex Reissek and Ilex dumosa Reissek Análise de compostos voláteis de Ilex paraguariensis A. St. - Hil. e suas principais espécies adulterantes Ilex theizans Mart. ex Reissek e Ilex dumosa Reissek

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Marcos Dallago

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The adulteration of the product Ilex paraguariensis with other Ilex species is a mAjor problem for maté tea producers. In this work, three species of Ilex were evaluated for their volatile composition by headspace solid phase microextraction coupled to gas chromatography and mass spectrum detector (HS-SPME/GC-MS. The adulterating species I. dumnosa and I. theizans Mart. ex Reissek presented a different profile of volatile organic compounds when compared to I. paraguariensis. Aldehydes methyl-butanal, pentanal, hexanal, heptanal and nonanal were detected only in the adulterating species. This result suggests that such compounds are potential chemical markers for identification of adulteration and quality analysis of products based on Ilex paraguariensis.A adulteração do produto Ilex paraguariensis com outras espécies de Ilex é um dos principais problemas dos produtores de erva-mate. Neste trabalho, três espécies de Ilex foram avaliadas quanto à sua composição volátil por microextração em fase sólida acoplada à cromatografia gasosa e detector de espectro de massas (HS-SPME/GC-MS. As espécies adulterantes I. dumnosa e I. theizans Mart. ex Reissek apresentaram um perfil diferente de compostos orgânicos voláteis, quando comparadas com a I. paraguariensis. Os aldeídos metil-butanal, pentanal, hexanal, heptanal e nonanal foram detectados apenas nas espécies adulterantes. Esse resultado sugere que esses compostos químicos são marcadores potenciais para a identificação de adulteração e análise da qualidade dos produtos à base de Ilex paraguariensis.

  3. DNA-based Simultaneous Identification of Three Terminalia Species Targeting Adulteration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Sonal; Shrivastava, Neeta

    2016-01-01

    Background: Various parts of three Terminalia species, namely, Terminalia arjuna (stem bark), Terminalia bellirica (fruit), and Terminalia chebula (fruit) are widely known for their therapeutic principles and other commercial values. However, stem bark of T. bellirica and T. chebula along with Terminalia tomentosa are reported as adulterants of T. arjuna. Correct botanical identification is very critical for safe and effective herbal drugs. DNA-based identification approaches are advancing the conventional methods and sometime proved more beneficial. Objective: The purpose of the study was to develop polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method using internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region to ascertain the identity of T. arjuna herbal material as well as detection of mixing of other three Terminalia species. Materials and Methods: DNA from stem barks samples were isolated and subjected to ITS region amplification and sequencing. Sequences were compared for polymorphic nucleotides determination to develop species-specific primers. Final primers were selected on the basis of in silico analysis and experimentally validated. PCR assays for botanical identification of Terminalia species were developed. Sensitivity testing and assay validation were also performed. Results: The PCR assays developed for Terminalia species were resulted in definite amplicons of the corresponding species. No cross-reactivity of the primers was detected. Sensitivity was found enough to amplify as low as 2 ng of DNA. Mixing of DNA in various concentrations for validation also proved the sensitivity of assay to detect original botanicals in the mixture. The developed methods proved very specific and sensitive to authenticate Arjuna bark to develop evidence-based herbal medicines. SUMMARY Internal transcribed spacer-based species-specific polymerase chain reaction.(PCR) assays were developed to authenticate Terminalia arjuna stem bark and to identify substitution/adulteration of Terminalia bellirica

  4. Based on the Analysis of Detection Methods of Edible Oil Adulteration%基于食用油掺假检测方法分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄秋娜; 续颖; 陈金体

    2016-01-01

    文章就现阶段大部分食用油的分类和掺杂油的种类作为切入点,浅要论述食用油掺假的主要检测方法,并提出食用油掺假检测的发展,以期促进我国食用油掺假检测方法的优化和完善。%This stage most edible oil classification and adulterated oil type as the breakthrough, this paper shallowly discussed the edible oil adulteration detection method, and putted forward the development of the edible oil adulteration detection, with a view to promoting our country and adulteration detection method for optimization and perfection.

  5. A feasibility study of non-targeted adulterant screening based on NIRM spectral library of soybean meal to guarantee quality: The example of non-protein nitrogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Guanghui; Fan, Xia; Yang, Zengling; Han, Lujia

    2016-11-01

    The quality and safety of soybean meal is a key matter for the livestock breeding and food industries, since it is one of the most important and widely used protein feed raw materials. As driven by commercial interests, new illegal adulterants which are unknown to consumers and regulators emerge constantly. In order to make up for the inadequacy of traditional detection methods, a novel non-targeted adulterant screening method based on a near-infrared microscopy spectral library of soybean meal is proposed. This study focused on the feasibility of non-targeted screening methods for the detection of adulteration in soybean meal. Six types of non-protein nitrogen were taken as examples and partial least squares discriminant analysis was employed to verify the feasibility of this novel method. The results showed that the non-targeted screening method could screen out adulterations in soybean meal with satisfactory results. PMID:27211617

  6. 从外观性状识别酸枣仁伪品%Morphological identification by appearance for adulterant of spine date seed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄德耀

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the morphological identification of spine date seed and its common adulterants, in order to ensure safe and effective drug use. The appearance characteristics of spine date seed and its common adulterants were compared and analyzed. There were obvious differences between the appearance characteristics of spine date seed and its common adulterants. Morphological identification can effectively identify spine date seed and its adulterants.%探讨酸枣仁及其常见伪品的性状鉴别,确保临床用药的安全、有效。取酸枣仁及其常见伪品,对外观性状进行比对讨论发现酸枣仁及其伪品在外观性状有明显区别。性状鉴别方法能有效地识别酸枣仁及其伪品。

  7. 从外观性状识别酸枣仁伪品%Morphological identification by appearance for adulterant of spine date seed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄德耀

    2015-01-01

    探讨酸枣仁及其常见伪品的性状鉴别,确保临床用药的安全、有效。取酸枣仁及其常见伪品,对外观性状进行比对讨论发现酸枣仁及其伪品在外观性状有明显区别。性状鉴别方法能有效地识别酸枣仁及其伪品。%To investigate the morphological identification of spine date seed and its common adulterants, in order to ensure safe and effective drug use. The appearance characteristics of spine date seed and its common adulterants were compared and analyzed. There were obvious differences between the appearance characteristics of spine date seed and its common adulterants. Morphological identification can effectively identify spine date seed and its adulterants.

  8. Concomitant Use of Fourier Transform Infrared Attenuated Total Reflectance Spectroscopy and Chemometrics for Quantification of Multiple Adulterants in Roasted and Ground Coffee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nádia Reis

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposed the joint use of Fourier Transform Infrared Attenuated Total Reflectance Spectroscopy (FTIR-ATR and Partial Least Square (PLS regression for the simultaneous quantification of four adulterants (coffee husks, spent coffee grounds, barley, and corn in roasted and ground coffee. Roasted coffee samples were intentionally blended with the adulterants, at adulteration levels ranging from 0.5 to 66% w/w. A robust methodology was implemented in which the identification of outliers was carried out. High correlation coefficients (0.99 for both calibration and validation coupled with low degrees of error (0.69% for calibration; 2.00% for validation confirmed that FTIR-ATR can be a valuable analytical tool for quantification of adulteration in roasted and ground coffee. This method is simple, fast, and reliable for the proposed purpose.

  9. Milk adulteration: Detection of bovine milk in bulk goat milk produced by smallholders in northeastern Brazil by a duplex PCR assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, N P A; Givisiez, P E N; Queiroga, R C R E; Azevedo, P S; Gebreyes, W A; Oliveira, C J B

    2012-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the adulteration of goat milk produced by smallholders in semiarid northeastern Brazil with bovine milk as an adulterant. The study was requested by the association of smallholder producers in the region to investigate and to inhibit adulteration practices as a need to ensure the quality and safety of goat milk. A duplex PCR assay has been developed and standardized. Further validation was performed in 160 fresh bulk goat milk samples. The detection limit of the duplex PCR was 0.5% bovine milk in goat milk and the results indicated that 41.2% of the goat milk presented to market was positive for bovine milk. Making the test available to the association of producers, together with extension activities, have been applied to reduce adulteration in goat milk sold to small-scale dairy plants and to ensure the species origin for goat milk in the state of Paraíba. PMID:22541505

  10. Sensibility of hydrous ethanol adulteration detection using ultrasonic parameters validated in a metrological base

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study is to identify possible changes in fuels, in this case hydrous ethanol, through ultrasonic parameters such as attenuation and propagation speed. The system setup and method were implemented at Inmetro's Laboratory of Ultrasound. Experiments and method uncertainties were assessed accordingly to ISO/IEC Guide 98 1:2009 (Uncertainty of measurement - Part 1: Introduction to the expression of uncertainty in measurement). Mixtures of ethanol and water varying from 90% to 94% of alcohol in mass were used as testing samples. Attenuation and propagation speed were accurately measured and uncertainties evaluated. The accordingly to Brazilian biofuel regulations, the concentration of water in hydrous ethanol can be accepted at a maximum concentration of 93.8 and minimum of 92.6 of alcohol in mass. To achieve that figure, a functional combination of tested parameters should be implemented. Those results could be used as a tool to identify adulteration of biofuel, even in analysis performed on site.

  11. Sensibility of hydrous ethanol adulteration detection using ultrasonic parameters validated in a metrological base

    Science.gov (United States)

    K-K Figueiredo, Monique; Costa-Felix, Rodrigo P. B.; Maggi, Luis E.; Alvarenga, André V.; Romeiro, Gilberto A.

    2011-02-01

    The aim of this study is to identify possible changes in fuels, in this case hydrous ethanol, through ultrasonic parameters such as attenuation and propagation speed. The system setup and method were implemented at Inmetro's Laboratory of Ultrasound. Experiments and method uncertainties were assessed accordingly to ISO/IEC Guide 98 1:2009 (Uncertainty of measurement - Part 1: Introduction to the expression of uncertainty in measurement). Mixtures of ethanol and water varying from 90% to 94% of alcohol in mass were used as testing samples. Attenuation and propagation speed were accurately measured and uncertainties evaluated. The accordingly to Brazilian biofuel regulations, the concentration of water in hydrous ethanol can be accepted at a maximum concentration of 93.8 and minimum of 92.6 of alcohol in mass. To achieve that figure, a functional combination of tested parameters should be implemented. Those results could be used as a tool to identify adulteration of biofuel, even in analysis performed on site.

  12. Isoelectric focusing and ELISA for detecting adulteration of donkey milk with cow milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzano, Rosa; Salimei, Elisabetta

    2014-06-25

    Donkey milk has been recently revalued intensely due to its nutritional properties. Moreover, donkey milk has been proposed as an effective alternative food for some infants with cow milk allergy. Two fast analytical methods were proposed to detect the fraudulent practice of blending cow milk to donkey milk. Detection of cow αs1-casein bands along the profiles of experimental donkey-cow milk mixtures analyzed by isoelectric focusing was adequate to estimate cow milk used as adulterant of donkey milk starting from 5% (v/v). An ELISA-based method using the antipeptide antibodies raised against the 1-28 sequence stretch of cow β-casein was also developed for an accurate definition of composition of donkey-cow milk mixtures. The presence of cow milk at levels as low as 0.5% (v/v) was detected in donkey-cow milk mixtures prepared at laboratory scale and assayed by ELISA. PMID:24892189

  13. IDENTIFICATION OF ADULTERANT AND ALCOHOL ROUTE IN BIODIESEL USING MID-INFRARED ABSORPTION SPECTROSCOPY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryleide Ventura da Silva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mid-infrared absorption spectroscopy was used to analyze soybean oil, ethylic and methylic soybean biodiesel, and blends prepared with soybean oil mixed with biodiesel, in order to evaluate this method as an alternative to assess oil as impurities or adulterant in biodiesel. We also aimed to determine whether the biodiesel was prepared by the ethyl or methyl routes, by inspecting the infrared spectra. The C-O functional groups between 1100 and 1200 cm-1 are different for oil and biodiesel, which allows them to be used to distinguish impurities (residual oil in biofuel. The peak C-O-C at 1017 cm-1 is characteristic for methylic biodiesel, and the peak O-C-C at 1035 cm-1 for ethylic biodiesel. These vibrational modes can therefore be used to indicate the route used to prepare the biofuel. Results indicated that infrared spectroscopy is appropriate for monitoring the quality of biofuel for commercial sale.

  14. Relationship Between Milk Adulterated With Melamine and the Appearance of Renal Stones in a Childhood Population: A Review of the Literature of the Cases That Occurred in the People’s Republic of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmina Bordón-González

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Melamine is a chemical substance used in the production of resins. When melamine is added to milk, nitrogen concentration increases, which suggest an increase the amount of false proteins and consequently causing kidney diseases in some population subgroups. The objective of this study is to document the possible connection in between adulterated industrial milk with melamine and the appearance of kidney stones in children under 12 years old by reviewing cases occurred in the People’s Republic of China.Material and methods: A literature review was carried out on articles published on dated between 2005-2010, and an extensive analysis was made on the results found.Results: A total of 20 articles were reviewed, of which 11 met the criteria for inclusion, There were 9 cross-sectional studies, one follow-up study and a case-control study. Four studies calculated odds ratio (OR in their analysis to evaluate the relative risk of having stones in those children exposed to melamine formula. In the case-control study, children exposed to melamine formula were 5.17 times as likely to have kidney stones as children exposed to a non-melamine formula (95% confidence interval, 3.28-8.14; P<.001.Conclusions: Melamine adulteration in milk is a preventable public health issue which suggests the establishing of greater control measures and the implementation of food regulations by the food industry and Health and Food Institutions.

  15. Characterization of Adulteration of "Espinheira Santa" ( Maytenus ilicifolia and Maytenus aquifolium, Celastraceae) Hydroalcoholic Extracts with Sorocea bomplandii ( Moraceae) by High-Performance Thin Layer Chromatography

    OpenAIRE

    VILEGAS Janete H.Y; Fernando M. Lanças; Wauters, Jean-Noël; Angenot, Luc

    1998-01-01

    A HPTLC procedure for the characterization of adulteration of " espinheira santa ( Maytenus sp) with Sorocea bomplandii by monitoring their flavonoid content with the aid of diphenylboric reagent, is presented. HPTLC data showed the predominance of higly glycosated quercetin and kaempferol derivatives. The derivated flavonoids were shown to be best markers for distinguishing between authentic and adulterated drug samples, with several advantages over triterpene analysis Peer reviewed

  16. A rapid reversed-phase thin layer chromatographic protocol for detection of adulteration in ghee (clarified milk fat) with vegetable oils

    OpenAIRE

    Rani, Anupama; Sharma, Vivek; Arora, Sumit; Lal, Darshan; Kumar, Anil

    2013-01-01

    Detection of milk fat adulteration with foreign fats/oils continues to be a challenge for the dairy industry as well as food testing laboratories, especially in the present scenario of rampant adulteration using the scientific knowledge by unscrupulous persons involved in the trade. In the present investigation a rapid reversed-phase thin layer chromatographic (RP-TLC) protocol was standardized to ascertain the purity of milk fat. RP-TLC protocol did not show any false positive results in the...

  17. The effect of thermal treatment on the enhancement of detection of adulteration in extra virgin olive oils by synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy and chemometric analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabood, F.; Boqué, R.; Folcarelli, R.; Busto, O.; Jabeen, F.; Al-Harrasi, Ahmed; Hussain, J.

    2016-05-01

    In this study the effect of thermal treatment on the enhancement of synchronous fluorescence spectroscopic method for discrimination and quantification of pure extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) samples from EVOO samples adulterated with refined oil was investigated. Two groups of samples were used. One group was analyzed at room temperature (25 °C) and the other group was thermally treated in a thermostatic water bath at 75 °C for 8 h, in contact with air and with light exposure, to favor oxidation. All the samples were then measured with synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy. Synchronous fluorescence spectra were acquired by varying the wavelength in the region from 250 to 720 nm at 20 nm wavelength differential interval of excitation and emission. Pure and adulterated olive oils were discriminated by using partial least-squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA). It was found that the best PLS-DA models were those built with the difference spectra (75 °C-25 °C), which were able to discriminate pure from adulterated oils at a 2% level of adulteration of refined olive oils. Furthermore, PLS regression models were also built to quantify the level of adulteration. Again, the best model was the one built with the difference spectra, with a prediction error of 3.18% of adulteration.

  18. The effect of thermal treatment on the enhancement of detection of adulteration in extra virgin olive oils by synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy and chemometric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabood, F; Boqué, R; Folcarelli, R; Busto, O; Jabeen, F; Al-Harrasi, Ahmed; Hussain, J

    2016-05-15

    In this study the effect of thermal treatment on the enhancement of synchronous fluorescence spectroscopic method for discrimination and quantification of pure extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) samples from EVOO samples adulterated with refined oil was investigated. Two groups of samples were used. One group was analyzed at room temperature (25 °C) and the other group was thermally treated in a thermostatic water bath at 75 °C for 8h, in contact with air and with light exposure, to favor oxidation. All the samples were then measured with synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy. Synchronous fluorescence spectra were acquired by varying the wavelength in the region from 250 to 720 nm at 20 nm wavelength differential interval of excitation and emission. Pure and adulterated olive oils were discriminated by using partial least-squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA). It was found that the best PLS-DA models were those built with the difference spectra (75 °C-25 °C), which were able to discriminate pure from adulterated oils at a 2% level of adulteration of refined olive oils. Furthermore, PLS regression models were also built to quantify the level of adulteration. Again, the best model was the one built with the difference spectra, with a prediction error of 3.18% of adulteration. PMID:26963728

  19. Detection of argan oil adulteration with vegetable oils by high-performance liquid chromatography-evaporative light scattering detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salghi, Rachid; Armbruster, Wolfgang; Schwack, Wolfgang

    2014-06-15

    Triacylglycerol profiles were selected as indicator of adulteration of argan oils to carry out a rapid screening of samples for the evaluation of authenticity. Triacylglycerols were separated by high-performance liquid chromatography-evaporative light scattering detection. Different peak area ratios were defined to sensitively detect adulteration of argan oil with vegetable oils such as sunflower, soy bean, and olive oil up to the level of 5%. Based on four reference argan oils, mean limits of detection and quantitation were calculated to approximately 0.4% and 1.3%, respectively. Additionally, 19 more argan oil reference samples were analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography-refractive index detection, resulting in highly comparative results. The overall strategy demonstrated a good applicability in practise, and hence a high potential to be transferred to routine laboratories. PMID:24491744

  20. Feasibility of using near infrared spectroscopy to detect and quantify an adulterant in high quality sandalwood oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuriakose, Saji; Joe, I. Hubert

    2013-11-01

    Determination of the authenticity of essential oils has become more significant, in recent years, following some illegal adulteration and contamination scandals. The present investigative study focuses on the application of near infrared spectroscopy to detect sample authenticity and quantify economic adulteration of sandalwood oils. Several data pre-treatments are investigated for calibration and prediction using partial least square regression (PLSR). The quantitative data analysis is done using a new spectral approach - full spectrum or sequential spectrum. The optimum number of PLS components is obtained according to the lowest root mean square error of calibration (RMSEC = 0.00009% v/v). The lowest root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP = 0.00016% v/v) in the test set and the highest coefficient of determination (R2 = 0.99989) are used as the evaluation tools for the best model. A nonlinear method, locally weighted regression (LWR), is added to extract nonlinear information and to compare with the linear PLSR model.

  1. MALDI-TOF-MS Platform for Integrated Proteomic and Peptidomic Profiling of Milk Samples Allows Rapid Detection of Food Adulterations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sassi, Mauro; Arena, Simona; Scaloni, Andrea

    2015-07-15

    Adulteration of ovine, caprine, and buffalo milks with more common bovine material occurs for economic reasons and seasonal availability. Frauds are also associated with the use of powdered milk instead of declared, fresh material. In this context, various analytical methods have been adapted to dairy science applications with the aim to evaluate adulteration of milk samples, although time-consuming, suitable only for speciation or thermal treatment analysis, or useful for a specific fraud type. An integrated MALDI-TOF-MS platform for the combined peptidomic and proteomic profiling of milk samples is here presented, which allows rapid detection of illegal adulterations due to the addition of either nondeclared bovine material to water buffalo, goat, and ovine milks or of powdered bovine milk to the fresh counterpart. Peptide and protein markers of each animal milk were identified after direct analysis of a large number of diluted skimmed and/or enriched diluted skimmed filtrate samples. In parallel, markers of thermal treatment were characterized in different types of commercial milks. Principal components scores of ad hoc prepared species- or thermal treatment-associated adulterated milk samples were subjected to partial least-squares regression, permitting a fast accurate estimate of the fraud extents in test samples at either protein and peptide level. With respect to previous reports on MALDI-TOF-MS protein profiling methodologies for milk speciation, this study extends that approach to the analysis of the thermal treatment and introduces an independent, complementary peptide profiling measurement, which integrates protein data with additional information on peptides, validating final results and ultimately broadening the method applicability. PMID:26098723

  2. 黄柏常见伪品的鉴别%The Identification of Cortex Phellodendri and its Adulterants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭万周; 姬诚

    2016-01-01

    Objective To analyze Cortex Phellodendri medicinal materials common adulterants and identify inspection method, and provide a reliable means of identification test for Cortex Phellodendri medicinal materials to ensure medication safety. Methods The identification characters of character, microstructure, physical and chemical nature of Cortex Phellodendri and a variety of adulterate Cortex Phellodendri were analyzed and compared. Results There is a significant difference between the genuine and adulterants of Cortex Phellodendri in character, microstructure and physical and chemical nature identification features, and pharmacological action is completely different, which cannot mix. Conclusion We should strengthen the authenticity identification of Cortex Phellodendri medicinal materials. This method is simple, practicable, rapid and accurate, and it is suitable to be used in identification of Cortex Phellodendri and adulterate Cortex Phellodendri avoid the misuse of adverse consequences.%目的:分析黄柏药材的常见伪品及其鉴别方法,为黄柏药材提供可靠的真伪鉴别手段,以利安全用药。方法文章针对黄柏正品与多种伪品的性状、显微和理化等鉴别特征进行了分析比较。结果黄柏正品与多种伪品在性状、显微及理化特征之间有显著差别,药理作用完全不同,不能混用。结论应加强对黄柏药材的真伪鉴别,这些鉴别方法简便易行,快速准确,可用于黄柏常见伪品的鉴别检验,避免因误用造成不良后果。

  3. Discriminant analysis of the common adulterated Chinese medicine%常见中药掺假的辨别分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付蔷

    2013-01-01

    Objective To introduce the identification methods for common Chinese medicine,and to provide effective analytical and determination methods for adulterated Chinese medicine. Methods Several kinds of Chinese medicine,such as pangolin,honeysuckle,tuckahoe,etc.were bought and compared with the corresponding adulterated Chinese medcine,their features were summarized and its corresponding determination methods were recorded. Results This study identified approximately ten kinds of common adulterated Chinese medcine and optimized its corresponding determination methods,it provided valid references for Chinese medicine identification. Conclusion The determination methods for common adulterated Chinese medcine in this study has the characteristics of simple,convenient and efficient, also has a high practical application value.%目的:介绍常见中药的识别方法,为中药掺假提供有效的分析鉴别方法。方法购买多种常见中药如穿山甲、银花、茯苓等并与相应的掺假的中药进行对照,将两者的特性进行总结归纳,并记录相应的鉴别方法。结果本研究对近10种常见掺假中药进行鉴别,并对其相应的鉴别方法进行优化,为中药的鉴别提供了有效的参考。结论本研究提供的常见中药掺假的鉴别方法,具有简便、高效的特点,具有较强的实际应用价值。

  4. Investigation of adulteration of sunflower oil with thermally deteriorated oil using Fourier transform mid-infrared spectroscopy and chemometrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana Vilela

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy based on attenuated total reflectance sampling technique, combined with multivariate analysis methods was used to monitor the adulteration of pure sunflower oil (SO with thermally deteriorated oil (TDO. Contrary to published research, in this work, SO was thermally deteriorated in the absence of foodstuff. SO samples were exposed to temperatures between 125 and 225°C from 6 to 24 h. Quantification of adulteration of SO with TDO, based on principal components regression (PCR, partial least squares regression (PLS-R, and linear discriminant analysis (LDA applied to mid-infrared spectra and to their first and second derivatives is reported for the first time. Infrared frequencies associated with the biochemical differences between TDO samples deteriorated in different conditions were investigated by principal component analysis (PCA. LDA was effective in the twofold classification presence/absence of TDO in adulterated SO (with 5% V/V of less of TDO. It provided 93.7% correct classification for the calibration set and 91.3% correct classification when cross-validated. A detection limit of 1% V/V of TDO in SO was determined. Investigation of an external set of samples allowed the evaluation of the predictability of the models. The regression coefficient (R2 for prediction was 0.95 and 0.96 and the RMSE was 2.1 and 1.9% V/V when using the PCR or PLS-R models, respectively, and the first derivative of spectra. To the best of our knowledge, no investigation of adulteration of SO with TDO based on PCR, PLS-R, and LDA has been reported so far.

  5. Application of Gas Chromatography with the Mass Detector (GC-MS) Technique for Detection of Beeswax Adulteration with Paraffin

    OpenAIRE

    Waś Ewa; Szczęsna Teresa; Rybak-Chmielewska Helena

    2015-01-01

    To detect beeswax adulteration with hydrocarbons of alien origin (e.g. paraffin), gas chromatography with mass detector (GC-MS) technique was used. The method has been verified here on beeswax samples with different addition (3, 5, 10, 30, and 50%) of paraffin and validated under the conditions of repeatability and within - laboratory reproducibility. The addition of paraffin to beeswax can already be detected on the basis of an analysis of the chromatograms. The intensity of individual alkan...

  6. Molecular identification of the traditional herbal medicines, Arisaematis Rhizoma and Pinelliae Tuber, and common adulterants via universal DNA barcode sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, B C; Kim, W J; Ji, Y; Lee, Y M; Kang, Y M; Choi, G

    2016-01-01

    Methods to identify Pinelliae Tuber and Arisaematis Rhizoma are required because of frequent reciprocal substitution between these two herbal medicines and the existence of several closely related plant materials. As a result of the morphological similarity of dried tubers, correct discrimination of authentic herbal medicines is difficult by conventional methods. Therefore, we analyzed DNA barcode sequences to identify each herbal medicine and the common adulterants at a species level. To verify the identity of these herbal medicines, we collected five authentic species (Pinellia ternata for Pinelliae Tuber, and Arisaema amurense, A. amurense var. serratum, A. erubescens, and A. heterophyllum for Arisaematis Rhizoma) and six common adulterant plant species. Maturase K (matK) and ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase large subunit (rbcL) genes were then amplified using universal primers. In comparative analyses of two DNA barcode sequences, we obtained 45 species-specific nucleotides sufficient to identify each species (except A. erubescens with matK) and 28 marker nucleotides for each species (except P. pedatisecta with rbcL). Sequence differences at corresponding positions of the two combined DNA barcodes provided genetic marker nucleotides that could be used to identify specimens of the correct species among the analyzed medicinal plants. Furthermore, we generated a phylogenetic tree showing nine distinct groups depending on the species. These results can be used to authenticate Pinelliae Tuber and Arisaematis Rhizoma from their adulterants and to identify each species. Thus, comparative analyses of plant DNA barcode sequences identified useful genetic markers for the authentication of Pinelliae Tuber and Arisaematis Rhizoma from several adulterant herbal materials. PMID:26909979

  7. Comparative Pharmacognostical Studies Of Asclepias Curassavica Used In Ayurvedic Drug “ Kakanasa ” With Its Adulterant Martynia Annua

    OpenAIRE

    L. Ramesh; K. Madhava Chetty

    2013-01-01

    “Kakanasa” an Ayurvedic drug used as emetic, and controls edema, haemorrhaids, vitiligo and other skin diseases is formulated with plant (root, stem, leaves) extracts of Asclepias curassvica. Because of number of factors the botanical specimens were adultered or contaminated and these adulterations can potentially alter the results in clinicals and reports causing suitable variations to have effects on quality, efficacy of these botanical supplements: we focused pharmacognostical studies of o...

  8. Authentication of ruta graveolens and its adulterant using internal transcribed spacer (its) sequences of nuclear ribosomal DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruta graveolens L. (Rutaceae) is commonly known as 'Sudab' which is well known for hippocratic medicine and is commonly used in indigenous health-care system in India. Euphorbia dracunculoides Lam. (Euphorbiaceae) in raw drug trading has almost similar morphology to R. graveolens in dried state, is being sold locally or used clinically as an adulterant of R. graveolens (genuine) at a relatively low price under the same name 'Sudab' which has ultimately reduced the efficacy and quality of this herb. The internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequence of nuclear ribosomal DNA gene of genuine and adulterant were sequenced and analyzed to assess species admixture in raw drug trading of genuine herbal drug. The BLAST search results of ITS sequence of genuine sample of 'Sudab' i.e., R. graveolens showed 99% similarity to the sequence of R. graveolens, however, E. dracunculoides showed 100% similarity to the species of Euphorbia and did not show any similarity with R. graveolens. The sequence alignment of both species was entirely different to each other. Phylogenetic analysis based on ITS sequence of adulterant sample i.e., E. dracunculoides together with sequences of Euphorbia species available in the GenBank has also clearly showed its nesting within the Euphorbia tree. The generated ITS sequences of both samples in the present study may be referred hereafter as species-specific DNA barcode signature, which can be used in authenticating and validating the exact species identities to discriminate the genuine sample of 'Sudab' from its adulterants if any available to guarantee the quality and purity of this drug in the herbal drug market. (author)

  9. Capillary zone electrophoresis for fatty acids with chemometrics for the determination of milk adulteration by whey addition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira Mendes, Thiago; Porto, Brenda Lee Simas; Bell, Maria José Valenzuela; Perrone, Ítalo Tuler; de Oliveira, Marcone Augusto Leal

    2016-12-15

    Adulteration of milk with whey is difficult to detect because these two have similar physical and chemical characteristics. The traditional methodologies to monitor this fraud are based on the analysis of caseinomacropeptide. The present study proposes a new approach to detect and quantify this fraud using the fatty acid profiles of milk and whey. Fatty acids C14:0, C16:0, C18:0, C18:1, C18:2 and C18:3 were selected by gas chromatography associated with discriminant analysis to differentiate milk and whey, as they are present in quite different amounts. These six fatty acids were quantified within a short time by capillary zone electrophoresis in a set of adulterated milk samples. The correlation coefficient between the true values of whey addition and the experimental values obtained by this technique was 0.973. The technique is thus useful for the evaluation of milk adulteration with whey, contributing to the quality control of milk in the dairy industry. PMID:27451230

  10. Identification of Chinese Yam and Its Adulterants%山药及其混伪品的鉴别

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈新

    2013-01-01

    Objective To identify the true and adulterants of Chinese yam,and learn more about it, which can prevent the mistaken for sale and using Chinese yam in the market and ensure the safety of the people’s medication. Chinese yam and its adulterants described the experience of identiifcation, comparison and microscopic identiifcation of the original plant. Methods Introduce the experience in identifying 、the comparison of the original plant and Microscopic identiifcation between Chinese yam and its adulerants.Results Chinese yam are close to its adulterants in the general traits. However,experience in the identification and microscopic identification of Chinese yam have significant differences.Conclusion These methods can tell the authenticity of Dioscorea opposita Thunb correctly.%目的:鉴别山药真伪,进一步了解山药,防止市场上误售、误用,确保人民群众的用药安全。方法介绍山药及其混伪品的经验鉴别、原植物比较和显微鉴别。结果山药与其混伪品在一般性状比较接近,但是在山药商品经验鉴别与显微鉴别方面有明显差异。结论此方法可以正确辨别山药真伪。

  11. A study on chemical composition and detection of chemical adulteration in tetra pack milk samples commercially available in Multan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awan, Adeela; Naseer, Misbah; Iqbal, Aasfa; Ali, Muhammad; Iqbal, Rehana; Iqbal, Furhan

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze and compare the chemical composition of 8 tetra pack milk samples, Olpers (S1), Haleeb (S2), Good milk (S3), Everyday (S4), Milk Pack (S5), Dairy Queen (S6), Dairy Umang (S7), Nurpur (S8) available in local markets and to detect the presence of various chemical adulterants in tetra pack milk samples in Southern Punjab (Pakistan). Density, pH, solid not fat, total solids, lactometer reading, specific gravity and fat contents were analyzed to determine the chemical composition of milk samples. Our results revealed that all the studied parameters had statistically non significant differences (P>0.05) except total fat in milk samples which was significantly different (P=0.03) among the 8 studied milk samples. Presence of a number of chemical adulterants, formalin, cane sugar, starch, glucose, ammonium sulphate, salt, pulverized soap, detergents, skim milk powder, benzoic acid, salicylic acid, borax, boric acid and alkalinity were also detected in milk samples following standard procedures. Results indicated that formalin, cane sugar, glucose, alkalinity and benzoic acid were present in all samples while salt test was positive only for Olper milk. All other studied adulterants were not detected in 8 milk samples under study. % fat was the only significantly different feature among the studied milk quality parameters with S8 containing lowest while S5 having the maximum % fat. PMID:24374447

  12. Comparison of FT-NIR Spectroscopy and ELISA for Detection of Adulteration of Goat Cheeses with Cow's Milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvorak, Lukas; Mlcek, Jiri; Sustova, Kvetoslava

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the ability of two methods to detect adulteration of goat cheeses via the addition of cow's milk, with a negligible effect on the raw materials. Cheeses were produced from a mixture of goat's and cow's milk and were then analyzed by Fourier transform near-IR (FT-NIR) spectroscopy and competitive ELISA. The cheese spectra were scanned in the spectroscope in reflectance mode on an integrating sphere at 80 scans and a resolution of 4 cm(-1). The spectra were evaluated via discriminant analysis, and a calibration was created via a partial least-squares algorithm to quantify the cow's milk admixture. A correlation coefficient of R = 0.999 was reached with a standard error of calibration of 0.0407. The results were statistically processed to a median value via a t-test. Adulteration detection by the ELISA method was performed using a commercial Milk Fraud/Bovine ELISA kit. It was found that the FT-NIR spectroscopy method is capable of detecting an admixture of cow's milk in goat cheese as small as 1%. The ELISA method did not return satisfactory results for the detection of adulteration with cow's milk. PMID:26822518

  13. 枸杞子掺伪检测方法的研究进展%Research progress on adulteration detection of dried fruits of wolfberry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田晓静; 马忠仁; 王彩霞

    2015-01-01

    As for its medicinal and high nutritional value, dried fruits of wolfberry are highly popular by consumers, and widely used in food industry and health care products. However, malicious doping and adulteration of dried fruits of wolfberry are increasingly serious, which affected the quality of dried fruits of wolfberry, infringed the health, rights and interests of consumers and disrupted normal operating of market. The demands for methods to identify the dried fruits of wolfberry are been more concern to consumers. The adulteration of dried fruits of wolfberry and methods used to detect the adulteration of dried fruits of wolfberry were reviewed in this paper. For origin traceability and species identification of dried fruits of wolfberry, the application of morphological identification, microscopic identification, chemical composition analysis, biochemistry methods and fast detection method based on infrared spectroscopy, near infrared spectroscopy, and raman spectroscopy, machine vision and electronic tongue were introduced and compared, providing theoretical basis for the authenticity of dried fruits of wolfberry and method basis for market supervision.%枸杞子以其药用价值和营养品质深受消费者的青睐,广泛应用于食品和保健品行业。但是市场上枸杞子恶意掺杂、掺假现象日益严重,此行为严重影响枸杞子品质、危害消费者健康、损害消费者权益、扰乱市场正常秩序,如何正确鉴别枸杞子真伪成为广大消费者普遍关注的问题。本文对枸杞子的主要掺伪现象进行了综述,并介绍了性状鉴别、显微鉴别、化学成分分析鉴别、分子生物学技术鉴别和基于红外光谱、近红外光谱和拉曼光谱法、机器视觉和电子舌等技术的快速检测方法在枸杞子品种和产地掺伪检测中的应用情况,对不同检测方法的优缺点进行对比分析。通过对枸杞子掺伪主要检测方法的比较,为市场监督枸

  14. Raw milk sulfur cyanide adulterate qualitative detection method%原料乳硫氰化物掺假定性检测方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王慧; 王艳华; 袁凤琴; 李梅

    2012-01-01

    The raw milk sulfur in cyanide adulterate material qualitative detection method, through to the raw milk which artificial add quantitative sulfur cyanide, in acid solution thiocyanic acid root and ferric iron ion reaction generate soluble in water and ethyl ether sanguine compound, according to samples thiocyanic acid root content of how many, shows different colors. Through the color reaction determine whether raw milk add sulfur cyanide adulterate material. Through the experiment discovered, and the results show that this method is mainly used in the detection of raw milk sulfur in cyanide mass fraction in more than 0.005% have good maneuverability, and at the same time, methods the operation is simple, the result for observation, suitable for dairy products enterprise to carry out the raw milk quality acrceptance inspection.%研究原料乳中硫氰化物掺假物质定性检测的方法,通过向原料乳中人为添加定量硫氰化物,在酸溶液中硫氰酸根与三价铁离子反应生成可溶于水及乙醚的血红色化合物,根据样品中硫氰酸根含量的多少,所显示的颜色不同。通过颜色反应判定原料乳中是否添加硫氰化物掺假物质。实验结果表明,该方法用于检测原料乳中硫氰化物质量分数在0.005%以上,具有良好的可操作性,同时方法操作简单,结果便于观察,适用于乳制品企业进行原料乳质量验收检验。

  15. 古代中药掺伪考%Textual research on adulteration of Chinese materia medica in ancient China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢晋; 王德群

    2013-01-01

    By investigating the mainstream works of herbal classics of successive ages,it is found that adulteration of Chinese materia medica appeared early in ancient China.The main methods of adulteration was producing fraud medicines in the Northern-Southern Dynasties,fake medicines began to appear in the Tang Dynasty,and status of adulteration of Chinese materia medica ran unchecked since the Ming and Qing Dynasty.By statistics,there were 76 kinds of adulteration varieties before the Republican period.The main varieties were precious drugs,animal drugs and artifacts.Commonly methods used in the process included forging and adulterating,dealing with 11 kinds and 68 kinds respectively.Adulteration probably lead to the result of imposing the changes of the used medicinal parts of Herba Pogostemonis ; Radix Aconiti Lateralis prepared by adding salt,Radix Angelica Sinensis processed by wine,and Radix Astragalis seu Hedysaris processed with bee honey.However,the root cause of adulteration in Chinese materia medica was the dissociation of professional physician and pharmacist,resulting in the ignorance of medical practitioners became unable to recognize Chinese materia medica; and the immorality of medicinal merchants.Besides,rating the quality of materia medica based on its producing areas without differentiating the false from the genuine may also contribute to this result passively.%通过梳理历代主流本草发现,中药掺伪古已有之.南北朝时期以造作为主,唐代始见伪充,明清以后掺伪现象泛滥.据统计,民国以前本草著作记载的掺伪品种达76味,主要集中在贵重药、动物药和人工制品.常用掺伪手法有造作、伪充2种方式.其中涉及造作的中药有11味,而以假乱真的伪充品种高达68味.掺伪现象泛滥,迫使藿香药用部位改变,盐附子、酒制当归和蜜炙黄芪等炮制品的出现均可能与之有关.中药掺伪的根本原因是医药分家,医不识药,而商家职业操守淡漠;

  16. 77 FR 31975 - Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli in Certain Raw Beef Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-31

    ... University, the E. coli Center at Penn State University, the American Type Culture Collection in Manassas... September 20, 2011, Federal Register notice states (at 76 FR 58161, col. 1-2): ``For imported products... meaning of 21 U.S.C. 601(m)(1) (76 FR 58157; Sep. 20, 2011). The products are adulterated because...

  17. Molecular assay to fraud identification of meat products

    OpenAIRE

    Doosti, Abbas; Ghasemi Dehkordi, Payam; Rahimi, Ebrahim

    2011-01-01

    Detection of species fraud in meat products is important for consumer protection and food industries. A molecular technique such as PCR method for detection of beef, sheep, pork, chicken, donkey, and horse meats in food products was established. The purpose of this study was to identification of fraud and adulteration in industrial meat products by PCR-RFLP assay in Iran. In present study, 224 meat products include 68 sausages, 48 frankfurters, 55 hamburgers, 33 hams and 20 cold cut meats wer...

  18. 紫外光谱法对油茶籽油掺伪的检测%Detection of adulterated oil-tea camellia seed oil by UV spectrophotometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑艳艳; 吴雪辉; 侯真真

    2014-01-01

    Based on the differences in the UV absorption spectrum between 200 nm and 360 nm of oil-tea camellia seed oil and other vegetable oils,qualitative and quantitative detections of adulterated oil-tea camellia seed oil were carried out by discriminant analysis and regression analysis. The results showed that the adulteration types of adulterated oil-tea camellia seed oil could be identified using discriminant function established by discriminant analysis,and the accuracy rate was 100%;the adulteration amount of adulterated oil-tea camellia seed oil could be detected quantitatively by regression analysis;the optimal detection ranges of adulteration amounts of rapeseed oil,soybean oil and rice bran oil adulterated in oil-tea camellia seed oil were 12% -100%;and the optimal detection ranges of adulteration amounts of corn oil and palm oil adulterated in oil-tea camellia seed oil were 15% -100%.%利用油茶籽油及其他植物油在紫外波长200~360 nm间吸收光谱的差异性,通过判别分析和回归分析,对掺伪油茶籽油实现定性和定量检测。结果表明:通过判别分析建立的判别函数可以对掺伪油茶籽油的掺伪种类进行鉴别,准确率为100%;通过回归分析可对掺伪油茶籽油进行掺伪量的定量检测,掺杂菜籽油、大豆油和米糠油掺伪量的最佳检测范围为12%~100%,掺杂玉米油和棕榈油掺伪量的最佳检测范围为15%~100%。

  19. Unmasking of Olive Oil Adulteration Via a Multi-Sensor Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Santonico

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Methods for the chemical and sensorial evaluation of olive oil are frequently changed and tuned to oppose the increasingly sophisticated frauds. Although a plethora of promising alternatives has been developed, chromatographic techniques remain the more reliable yet, even at the expense of their related execution time and costs. In perspective of a continuous increment in the number of the analyses as a result of the global market, more rapid and effective methods to guarantee the safety of the olive oil trade are required. In this study, a novel artificial sensorial system, based on gas and liquid analysis, has been employed to deal with olive oil genuineness and authenticity issues. Despite these sensors having been widely used in the field of food science, the innovative electronic interface of the device is able to provide a higher reproducibility and sensitivity of the analysis. The multi-parametric platform demonstrated the capability to evaluate the organoleptic properties of extra-virgin olive oils as well as to highlight the presence of adulterants at blending concentrations usually not detectable through other methods.

  20. Sensibility of hydrous ethanol adulteration detection using ultrasonic parameters validated in a metrological base

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figueiredo, Monique K-K; Costa-Felix, Rodrigo P B; Maggi, Luis E; Alvarenga, Andre V [Laboratory of Ultrasound (LABUS), Directory of Scientific and Industrial Metrology (DIMCI), National Institute of Metrology, Standardization, and Industrial Quality - Inmetro, Av. Nossa Sra das Gracas, 50 Predio 1, Duque de Caxias, RJ, ZIP 25250-020 (Brazil); Romeiro, Gilberto A, E-mail: mkfigueiredo@inmetro.gov.br, E-mail: rpfelix@inmetro.gov.br, E-mail: lemaggi@inmetro.gov.br, E-mail: avalvarenga@inmetro.gov.br, E-mail: gilbertoromeiro@ig.com.br [Depto of Organic Chemistry, Institute of Chemistry, Fluminense Federal University (UFF), Campus of Valonguinho, Outeiro de Sao Joao Batista, s/n, Niteroi, RJ, ZIP 24020150 (Brazil)

    2011-02-01

    The aim of this study is to identify possible changes in fuels, in this case hydrous ethanol, through ultrasonic parameters such as attenuation and propagation speed. The system setup and method were implemented at Inmetro's Laboratory of Ultrasound. Experiments and method uncertainties were assessed accordingly to ISO/IEC Guide 98 1:2009 (Uncertainty of measurement - Part 1: Introduction to the expression of uncertainty in measurement). Mixtures of ethanol and water varying from 90% to 94% of alcohol in mass were used as testing samples. Attenuation and propagation speed were accurately measured and uncertainties evaluated. The accordingly to Brazilian biofuel regulations, the concentration of water in hydrous ethanol can be accepted at a maximum concentration of 93.8 and minimum of 92.6 of alcohol in mass. To achieve that figure, a functional combination of tested parameters should be implemented. Those results could be used as a tool to identify adulteration of biofuel, even in analysis performed on site.

  1. An improved method to discover adulteration of Styrian pumpkin seed oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenzl, Thomas; Prettner, Elke; Schweiger, Klaus; Wagner, Franz S

    2002-01-01

    Pumpkin seed oil is rather expensive compared to other vegetable oils. Therefore, it is often adulterated by the addition of cheaper oils. In contrast to other edible oils, the content of Delta 5-sterols is very low, while Delta 7-sterols are dominating. The determination of Delta 5-sterols, especially beta-sitosterol has proven to be a good possibility to detect admixture of cheap vegetable oils to a level below which the economic profit is not significant any more. The presented method is a variant of an analysis concept, which has been published previously in European Food Research and Technology by Mandl et al. [Eur. Food Res. Technol. 209 (1999) 400. ]. It includes saponification of the triglycerides as a first step followed by separation of the potassium salts of the fatty acids from the unsaponifiable fraction by adsorption chromatography. In order to enhance gas chromatographic properties of the analytes, the hydroxyl function of the sterols is derivatized with N-Methyl-N-(trimethylsilyl)trifluoroacetamide (MSTFA) to the trimethylsilylether. Finally, the analytes are separated on a capillary column of medium polarity (HP 35 MS) in a temperature programmed run within 18 min. Detection of the analytes was done by flame ionization. Special attention was set onto the precision and repeatability of the method. PMID:12406602

  2. A Case of Hepatotoxicity Induced by Adulterated "Tiger King", a Chinese Herbal Medicine Containing Sildenafil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nissan, Ran; Poperno, Alina; Stein, Gideon Y; Shapira, Barak; Fuchs, Shmuel; Berkovitz, Ronny; Hess, Zipora; Arieli, Mickey

    2016-01-01

    Detection of Phosphodiesterase Type 5 (PDE-5) inhibitors and their analogues in "100% natural" or "herbal" supplements have been described in numerous reports. However, few reports have been published in relation to actual harm caused by counterfeit erectile dysfunction herbal supplements. We describe a case of a 65-year old male admitted to a tertiary hospital with acute liver toxicity, possibly induced by adulterated "Chinese herbal" supplement "Tiger King" for sexual enhancement. Chemical analysis of the tablets discovered the presence of therapeutic doses of sildenafil with no other herbal components. Other medications were excluded as potential causes of the hepatic impairment. According to the Naranjo adverse drug reaction scale and the Roussel Uclaf Causality Assessment Method (RUCAM) the probability of association of Hepatotoxicity with Sildenafil was "possible" and "probable" respectively (Naranjo score of 4, RUCAM score of 7). Within three days of admission, the patient's clinical status and liver function improved without any specific treatment. His liver function tests normalized 30 days post discharge. Further pharmacovigilance actions should be taken by regulatory authorities and pharmaceutical companies in order to determine the relation between sildenafil and hepatotoxicity. This case emphasizes the importance of raising public awareness on the potential dangers of "Tiger king" in particular, and other counterfeit medications or herbal supplements of unknown origin. PMID:26560492

  3. Fibre optic sensor for the detection of adulterant traces in coconut oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheeba, M.; Rajesh, M.; Vallabhan, C. P. G.; Nampoori, V. P. N.; Radhakrishnan, P.

    2005-11-01

    The design and development of a fibre optic evanescent wave refractometer for the detection of trace amounts of paraffin oil and palm oil in coconut oil is presented. This sensor is based on a side-polished plastic optical fibre. At the sensing region, the cladding and a small portion of the core are removed and the fibre nicely polished. The sensing region is fabricated in such a manner that it sits perfectly within a bent mould. This bending of the sensing region enhances its sensitivity. The oil mixture of different mix ratios is introduced into the sensing region and we observed a sharp decrease in the output intensity. The observed variation in the intensity is found to be linear and the detection limit is 2% (by volume) paraffin oil/palm oil in coconut oil. The resolution of this refractometric sensor is of the order of 10-3. Since coconut oil is consumed in large volumes as edible oil in south India, this fibre optic sensor finds great relevance for the detection of adulterants such as paraffin oil or palm oil which are readily miscible in coconut oil. The advantage of this type of sensor is that it is inexpensive and easy to set up. Another attraction of the side-polished fibre is that only a very small amount of analyte is needed and its response time is only 7 s.

  4. Monitoring the adulteration of milk with melamine: a visualised sensor array approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Limin; Huo, Danqun; Jiang, Yuhao; Hou, Changjun; Zhang, Suyi

    2013-01-01

    Melamine, a toxic triazine, is illegally used as an additive in milk to apparently increase the amount of protein, causing acute renal failure in thousands of Chinese infants. In this study, a rapid, simple, sensitive and selective colourimetric sensor array is reported as a potential screening tool for monitoring the adulteration of raw milk with melamine. Using chemically responsive dyes (mainly porphyrins and pH indicators) as the recognition elements, determination of melamine at different concentrations (0.1, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 mg kg⁻¹) and a detection limit of 0.1 mg kg⁻¹ were achieved because of diverse and strong molecular interactions. Furthermore, the colourimetric sensor array was successfully able to discriminate between melamine and its analogues. The unique "fingerprint" of melamine was obtained with a novel signal processing method named "two-step subtraction", which made it possible for the detection results to be easily observed with the naked eye even without any statistical analysis. In addition, the process including sample pre-treatment and detection process took only 12 min at room temperature. The merits (such as simplicity, rapidity, low cost, visual colourimetry, sensitivity and selectivity) make the proposed method especially useful for on-site screening of melamine levels in milk. PMID:23768006

  5. Unmasking of Olive Oil Adulteration Via a Multi-Sensor Platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santonico, Marco; Grasso, Simone; Genova, Francesco; Zompanti, Alessandro; Parente, Francesca Romana; Pennazza, Giorgio

    2015-01-01

    Methods for the chemical and sensorial evaluation of olive oil are frequently changed and tuned to oppose the increasingly sophisticated frauds. Although a plethora of promising alternatives has been developed, chromatographic techniques remain the more reliable yet, even at the expense of their related execution time and costs. In perspective of a continuous increment in the number of the analyses as a result of the global market, more rapid and effective methods to guarantee the safety of the olive oil trade are required. In this study, a novel artificial sensorial system, based on gas and liquid analysis, has been employed to deal with olive oil genuineness and authenticity issues. Despite these sensors having been widely used in the field of food science, the innovative electronic interface of the device is able to provide a higher reproducibility and sensitivity of the analysis. The multi-parametric platform demonstrated the capability to evaluate the organoleptic properties of extra-virgin olive oils as well as to highlight the presence of adulterants at blending concentrations usually not detectable through other methods. PMID:26404285

  6. MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry for the monitoring of she-donkey's milk contamination or adulteration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunsolo, Vincenzo; Muccilli, Vera; Saletti, Rosaria; Foti, Salvatore

    2013-02-01

    Donkey's milk (DM), representing a safe and alternative food in both IgE-mediated and non-IgE-mediated cow's milk protein allergy, can be categorized as precious pharma-food. Moreover, an economically relevant interest for the use of DM in cosmetology is also developing. The detection of adulterations and contaminations of DM is a matter of fundamental importance from both an economic and allergenic standpoint, and, to this aim, fast and efficient analytical approaches to assess the authenticity of this precious nutrient are desirable. Here, a rapid matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS)-based method aimed to the detection of bovine or caprine milk in raw DM is reported. The presence of the extraneous milks was revealed by monitoring the protein profiles of the most abundant whey proteins, α-lactalbumin (α-LA) and β-lactoglobulin, used as molecular markers. The possibility of obtaining a quantitative analysis of the level of cow or goat milk in DM based on the MALDI-TOF peak areas of α-LAs was also explored. The results showed that the experimental quantitative values were in good agreement with the real composition of each mixture. As pretreatment of the milk samples is not required, and owing to the speed and the high sensitivity of MALDI-MS, the protocol here reported could represent a reliable method for routine analyses aimed to assess the absence of contamination in raw fresh DM samples. PMID:23378086

  7. Thin layer chromatography coupled to paper spray ionization mass spectrometry for cocaine and its adulterants analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Carvalho, Thays C; Tosato, Flavia; Souza, Lindamara M; Santos, Heloa; Merlo, Bianca B; Ortiz, Rafael S; Rodrigues, Rayza R T; Filgueiras, Paulo R; França, Hildegardo S; Augusti, Rodinei; Romão, Wanderson; Vaz, Boniek G

    2016-05-01

    Thin layer chromatography (TLC) is a simple and inexpensive type of chromatography that is extensively used in forensic laboratories for drugs of abuse analysis. In this work, TLC is optimized to analyze cocaine and its adulterants (caffeine, benzocaine, lidocaine and phenacetin) in which the sensitivity (visual determination of LOD from 0.5 to 14mgmL(-1)) and the selectivity (from the study of three different eluents: CHCl3:CH3OH:HCOOHglacial (75:20:5v%), (C2H5)2O:CHCl3 (50:50v%) and CH3OH:NH4OH (100:1.5v%)) were evaluated. Aiming to improve these figures of merit, the TLC spots were identified and quantified (linearity with R(2)>0.98) by the paper spray ionization mass spectrometry (PS-MS), reaching now lower LOD values (>1.0μgmL(-1)). The method developed in this work open up perspective of enhancing the reliability of traditional and routine TLC analysis employed in the criminal expertise units. Higher sensitivity, selectivity and rapidity can be provided in forensic reports, besides the possibility of quantitative analysis. Due to the great simplicity, the PS(+)-MS technique can also be coupled directly to other separation techniques such as the paper chromatography and can still be used in analyses of LSD blotter, documents and synthetic drugs. PMID:26970868

  8. The Feasibility of Using Near-Infrared Spectroscopy and Chemometrics for Untargeted Detection of Protein Adulteration in Yogurt: Removing Unwanted Variations in Pure Yogurt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Xu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Untargeted detection of protein adulteration in Chinese yogurt was performed using near-infrared (NIR spectroscopy and chemometrics class modelling techniques. sixty yogurt samples were prepared with pure and fresh milk from local market, and 197 adulterated yogurt samples were prepared by blending the pure yogurt objects with different levels of edible gelatin, industrial gelatin, and soy protein powder, which have been frequently used for yogurt adulteration. A recently proposed one-class partial least squares (OCPLS model was used to model the NIR spectra of pure yogurt objects and analyze those of future objects. To improve the raw spectra, orthogonal projection (OP of raw spectra onto the spectrum of pure water and standard normal variate (SNV transformation were used to remove unwanted spectral variations. The best model was obtained with OP preprocessing with sensitivity of 0.900 and specificity of 0.949. Moreover, adulterations of yogurt with 1% (w/w edible gelatin, 2% (w/w industrial gelatin, and 2% (w/w soy protein powder can be safely detected by the proposed method. This study demonstrates the potential of combining NIR spectroscopy and OCPLS as an untargeted detection tool for protein adulteration in yogurt.

  9. The feasibility of using near-infrared spectroscopy and chemometrics for untargeted detection of protein adulteration in yogurt: removing unwanted variations in pure yogurt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lu; Yan, Si-Min; Cai, Chen-Bo; Wang, Zhen-Ji; Yu, Xiao-Ping

    2013-01-01

    Untargeted detection of protein adulteration in Chinese yogurt was performed using near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy and chemometrics class modelling techniques. sixty yogurt samples were prepared with pure and fresh milk from local market, and 197 adulterated yogurt samples were prepared by blending the pure yogurt objects with different levels of edible gelatin, industrial gelatin, and soy protein powder, which have been frequently used for yogurt adulteration. A recently proposed one-class partial least squares (OCPLS) model was used to model the NIR spectra of pure yogurt objects and analyze those of future objects. To improve the raw spectra, orthogonal projection (OP) of raw spectra onto the spectrum of pure water and standard normal variate (SNV) transformation were used to remove unwanted spectral variations. The best model was obtained with OP preprocessing with sensitivity of 0.900 and specificity of 0.949. Moreover, adulterations of yogurt with 1% (w/w) edible gelatin, 2% (w/w) industrial gelatin, and 2% (w/w) soy protein powder can be safely detected by the proposed method. This study demonstrates the potential of combining NIR spectroscopy and OCPLS as an untargeted detection tool for protein adulteration in yogurt. PMID:23844318

  10. Analytical strategies for the early quality and safety assurance in the global feed chain. Approaches for nitrogen adulterants in soybean meal and mineral and transformer oils in vegetable oils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, de Jacob; Lopez Sanchez, Patricia; Mol, Hans

    2016-01-01

    In the past decade, several major food safety crises originated from problems with feed. Consequently, there is an urgent need for early detection of fraudulent adulteration and contamination in the feed chain. Strategies are presented for two specific cases, viz. adulterations of (i) soybean mea

  11. Identification of adulterants in a Chinese herbal medicine by LC-HRMS and LC-MS-SPE/NMR and comparative in vivo study with standards in a hypertensive rat model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kesting, Julie Regitze; Huang, JingQi; Sørensen, Dan

    2010-01-01

    combination of commercially purchased standards was shown to be equivalent to that of the capsule content. Adulteration of herbal remedies and dietary supplements with synthetic drugs is an increasing problem that may lead to serious adverse effects. LC-MS-SPE/NMR as a method for the rapid identification of...... such adulterants is highlighted in this case study....

  12. Determination of cottonseed oil and soybean oil adulteration in edible peanut oil%花生油中掺杂棉籽油、大豆油的鉴定方法概述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高丽萍

    2013-01-01

    Edible peanut oil is often adulterated with soybean oil and cottonseed oil. Identification of adulterate d oil in edible peanut oil was researched in this paper. The sample was obtained by adulterating the peanut oil with the cotton-seed oil and soybean oil. By Belier experiment and gas chromatography (GC) method, different turbid temperature and fatty acid composition of adulterating were determined to identify the adulterated oil in edible peanut oil.%花生油中掺杂棉籽油、大豆油的现象比较普遍。主要以掺入这两种油的花生油为样品,通过伯利哀试验和气润色谱法测定不同掺入量的混浊温度和脂肪酸组成,从而对花生油的掺杂进行鉴定。

  13. QUALITY STATUS AND ADULTERATION DETECTION METHODS ON SESAME OIL%芝麻油质量现状及掺假检检方法的探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李凝

    2011-01-01

    介绍了芝麻油的质量现状及掺假检验方法.论述了显色法、紫外分光光度法、色谱法等的原理及其在芝麻油掺假检验中的应用,对比分析了这些检测方法的优缺点,指出应用简便、快速、准确的芝麻油掺假现场检测方法的重要性和必要性.%The quality status and adulteration detection methods of sesame oil were introduced. The principle and application in detection adulteration sesame oil by color method, UV spectrophotometry, chromatography, etc were discussed. The advantages and disadvantages of these detection methods were compared. The importance and necessity of using simple, rapid and accurate method to site detect adulteration sesame oil were proposed.

  14. 橄榄油掺假检测技术的研究进展%Progress in detection of olive oil adulteration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张欣; 于瑞祥; 方晓明; 丁卓平

    2013-01-01

    橄榄油具有很高的营养价值和保健功效,因其价格昂贵,掺假现象屡屡发生.综述了橄榄油的掺假检测方法,包括色谱法、波谱法、差示扫描量热法、电子鼻、基因检测、DNA条形码技术在橄榄油掺假鉴别中的应用,并对橄榄油掺假检测技术进行了展望.%Olive oil has high nutritional value and health function. Because of its high price, adulteration happens continuously. The analytical methods applied to the detection of olive oil adulteration were reviewed, including chromatography, spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, electronic nose, genetic detection and DNA barcodes. The technique for the detection of olive oil adulteration was also prospected.

  15. Research Progress of Methods for Detecting Adulterant in Milk%牛奶掺假掺杂现状及检测方法的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林芳栋; 蒋珍菊; 曹蕊

    2011-01-01

    The paper cited the cases for water, starch, rice soup, soya-bean milk, sugar and other adulterants adulterated in milk,gave several common situations and targeted detection methods and reviewed the modern detection methods, such as emerging high performance liquid chromatography, biosensors, etc.in the milk adulteration detection.%列举了在牛奶中掺入水、淀粉、米汤、豆浆及蔗糖等几种常见的掺假掺杂物的情况,并针对性地给出了检测方法;综述了新兴的高效液相色谱法、生物传感器等现代检测方法在牛奶掺杂掺假检测中的应用.

  16. A sensitive and effective proteomic approach to identify she-donkey's and goat's milk adulterations by MALDI-TOF MS fingerprinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Girolamo, Francesco; Masotti, Andrea; Salvatori, Guglielmo; Scapaticci, Margherita; Muraca, Maurizio; Putignani, Lorenza

    2014-01-01

    She-donkey's milk (DM) and goat's milk (GM) are commonly used in newborn and infant feeding because they are less allergenic than other milk types. It is, therefore, mandatory to avoid adulteration and contamination by other milk allergens, developing fast and efficient analytical methods to assess the authenticity of these precious nutrients. In this experimental work, a sensitive and robust matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) profiling was designed to assess the genuineness of DM and GM milks. This workflow allows the identification of DM and GM adulteration at levels of 0.5%, thus, representing a sensitive tool for milk adulteration analysis, if compared with other laborious and time-consuming analytical procedures. PMID:25110863

  17. A Sensitive and Effective Proteomic Approach to Identify She-Donkey’s and Goat’s Milk Adulterations by MALDI-TOF MS Fingerprinting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Girolamo, Francesco; Masotti, Andrea; Salvatori, Guglielmo; Scapaticci, Margherita; Muraca, Maurizio; Putignani, Lorenza

    2014-01-01

    She-donkey’s milk (DM) and goat’s milk (GM) are commonly used in newborn and infant feeding because they are less allergenic than other milk types. It is, therefore, mandatory to avoid adulteration and contamination by other milk allergens, developing fast and efficient analytical methods to assess the authenticity of these precious nutrients. In this experimental work, a sensitive and robust matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) profiling was designed to assess the genuineness of DM and GM milks. This workflow allows the identification of DM and GM adulteration at levels of 0.5%, thus, representing a sensitive tool for milk adulteration analysis, if compared with other laborious and time-consuming analytical procedures. PMID:25110863

  18. A rapid reversed-phase thin layer chromatographic protocol for detection of adulteration in ghee (clarified milk fat) with vegetable oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rani, Anupama; Sharma, Vivek; Arora, Sumit; Lal, Darshan; Kumar, Anil

    2015-04-01

    Detection of milk fat adulteration with foreign fats/oils continues to be a challenge for the dairy industry as well as food testing laboratories, especially in the present scenario of rampant adulteration using the scientific knowledge by unscrupulous persons involved in the trade. In the present investigation a rapid reversed-phase thin layer chromatographic (RP-TLC) protocol was standardized to ascertain the purity of milk fat. RP-TLC protocol did not show any false positive results in the genuine ghee (clarified butter fat) samples of known origin. Adulteration of ghee with coconut oil up to 7. 5 %, soybean oil, sunflower oil and groundnut oil up to 1 %, while, designer oil up to 2 % level could be detected using the standardized RP-TLC protocol. The protocol standardized is rapid and convenient to use. PMID:25825547

  19. A Sensitive and Effective Proteomic Approach to Identify She-Donkey’s and Goat’s Milk Adulterations by MALDI-TOF MS Fingerprinting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Di Girolamo

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available She-donkey’s milk (DM and goat’s milk (GM are commonly used in newborn and infant feeding because they are less allergenic than other milk types. It is, therefore, mandatory to avoid adulteration and contamination by other milk allergens, developing fast and efficient analytical methods to assess the authenticity of these precious nutrients. In this experimental work, a sensitive and robust matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS profiling was designed to assess the genuineness of DM and GM milks. This workflow allows the identification of DM and GM adulteration at levels of 0.5%, thus, representing a sensitive tool for milk adulteration analysis, if compared with other laborious and time-consuming analytical procedures.

  20. [A new herbs traceability method based on DNA barcoding-origin-morphology analysis--an example from an adulterant of 'Heiguogouqi'].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Xuan; Zhang, Xiao-qin; Song, Xiao-na; Zang, Yi-mei; Li Yan-peng; Ma, Chang-hua; Zhao, Bai-xiao; Liu, Chun-sheng

    2014-12-01

    The fruit of Lycium ruthenicum is a common folk medicine in China. Now it is popular for its antioxidative effect and other medical functions. The adulterants of the herb confuse consumers. In order to identify a new adulterant of L. ruthenicum, a research was performed based on NCBI Nucleotide Database ITS Sequence, combined analysis of the origin and morphology of the adulterant to traceable varieties. Total genomic DNA was isolated from the materials, and nuclear DNA ITS sequences were amplified and sequenced; DNA fragments were collated and matched by using ContingExpress. Similarity identification of BLAST analysis was performed. Besides, the distribution of plant origin and morphology were considered to further identification and verification. Families and genera were identified by molecular identification method. The adulterant was identified as plant belonging to Berberis. Origin analysis narrowed the range of sample identification. Seven different kinds of plants in Berberis were potential sources of the sample. Adulterants variety was traced by morphological analysis. The united molecular identification-origin-morphology research proves to be a preceding way to medical herbs traceability with time-saving and economic advantages and the results showed the new adulterant of L. ruthenicum was B. kaschgarica. The main differences between B. kaschgarica and L. ruthenicum are as follows: in terms of the traits, the surface of B. kaschgarica is smooth and crispy, and that of L. ruthenicum is shrinkage, solid and hard. In microscopic characteristics, epicarp cells of B. aschgarica thickening like a string of beads, stone cells as the rectangle, and the stone cell walls of L. ruthenicum is wavy, obvious grain layer. In molecular sequences, the length of ITS sequence of B. kaschgarica is 606 bp, L. ruthenicum is 654 bp, the similarity of the two sequences is 53.32%. PMID:25898573

  1. One-hour screening of adulterated heparin by simplified peroxide digestion and fast RPIP-LC-MS(2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongli; Wickramasekara, Samanthi; Nemes, Peter

    2015-08-18

    Early detection of potential contaminants in heparin, an extensively used anticoagulant in drug formulations and medical devices, is critical to ensuring public health. In response to heparin adulteration by oversulfated chondroitin sulfates (OSCS) that was associated with adverse events including deaths in 2007-2008, many methods have been developed to detect OSCS in heparin. However, an analytical challenge for quality screenings has been to speed up these measurements to address the complex distribution scheme of heparin in today's global market. Here an approach based on mass spectrometry is described that enables the measurement of adulterated heparin in 1 h, significantly shortening the time frame of screening for potential contaminants. The methodology is based on simplified peroxide digestion that rapidly depolymerizes large polysaccharide chains to small oligosaccharides followed by fast liquid chromatography mass spectrometry to determine sample purity. We find that rapid peroxide digestion generates abundant C- and Y-type oligosaccharides that can be used to differentiate parent glycosaminoglycans via unsupervised multivariate analysis, including heparin, chondroitin sulfate A, dermatan sulfate, and the infamous OSCS. With quantitation demonstrated at 1% (w/w), or 50 ng, OSCS in heparin and the lower limit of detection estimated at ∼0.20% (w/w), or ∼10 ng, OSCS in heparin, the technology was sufficiently sensitive to differentiate real-life, "authentic" adulterated heparin samples and to quantify this contaminant with an error <10% relative standard deviation. The methodologies presented here are deliberately simple to foster adoption and increase the analytical throughput of mass spectrometric screening in the routine quality assessment of heparin and other types of compounds of this molecular family. PMID:26168275

  2. 蒲黄及其伪品的鉴别%Identification of Pollen Typhae and its Adulterants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘香英; 王海祥; 劳敏华

    2013-01-01

    Objective To distinguish lists of pol en Typhae and its adulterants, provide the basis for the identification of pol en Typhae Worker Identification of Chinese medicine. Methods The water test, microscopic identification and physicochemical identification method wil compare pol en Typhae and its adulterants. Results The fake"pol en"from the characters, microscopic and physicochemical propertiesand quality are not the same, speckled with genuine pol en Typhae TLC spots position, dif erent colors are. Conclusion There is very big difference between pol en Typhae and its adulterants, through water test, microscopic identification and physicochemical identification can be easily identified.%目的列出蒲黄及其伪品的区别,为中药鉴定工作者提供鉴别蒲黄的依据。方法用水试、显微鉴别和理化鉴别的方法将蒲黄及其伪品进行比较。结果伪品“蒲黄”从性状、显微及一般理化性质与正品均不相同,薄层色谱的斑点与正品蒲黄的斑点位置,颜色均有很大差异。结论蒲黄与其伪品有非常巨大的差别,通过水试、显微鉴别或理化鉴别的方法都能轻易地鉴别出来。

  3. Proton NMR for detection, identification and quantification of adulterants in 160 herbal food supplements marketed for weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hachem, Rabab; Assemat, Gaëtan; Martins, Nathalie; Balayssac, Stéphane; Gilard, Véronique; Martino, Robert; Malet-Martino, Myriam

    2016-05-30

    One hundred and sixty food supplements (FS) marketed for weight loss and mainly purchased on the Internet were analyzed. All the FS were claimed as 100% natural containing only natural compounds, plant extracts and/or vitamins and the presence of an active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) was never mentioned. (1)H NMR spectroscopy was used for detecting the presence of adulterants and for their identification and quantification. Mass spectrometry was used as a complementary method for supporting their identification. Among the 164 samples considered because capsules from 5 different blisters of the same FS were analyzed, 56% were tainted with six API. Forty three contained sibutramine as single adulterant (26%), 9 phenolphthalein (6%) and 23 a mixture of these API (14%) that were both withdrawn from the market several years ago because of toxicity concerns. Sildenafil was found in 12 samples, either as a single adulterant (n=5) or in combination with sibutramine (n=3), phenolphthalein (n=3) and both sibutramine and phenolphthalein (n=1). Fluoxetine was present in 4 formulations, alone (n=3) or in combination with sibutramine and orlistat (n=1). At last, lorcaserine was detected in one FS. The content of sibutramine per dosage unit was comprised between 0.1 and 22 mg and that of phenolphthalein between 0.05 and 56 mg. The study also highlights poor manufacturing practices as evidenced for instance by the variability of API in capsules from different blisters of the same box. This paper demonstrates the need for more effective quality control of weight loss FS and the efficiency of (1)H NMR spectroscopy for the detection of tainted FS. PMID:26928212

  4. Chinese Herbal Medicine to explore common adulteration and identification methods%中药饮片的常见掺伪与鉴别方法的探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王桂芝; 王小娟

    2014-01-01

    目的:对几种常见中药饮片掺伪现象进行鉴别。方法:对中药饮片的性状理化进行鉴别。结果:通过对几种常见掺伪现象总结,供同行借鉴参考。%The purpose of several common phenomenon adulteration of Chinese Herbal Medicine for identification. Methods: Physical and Chemical Characters of Chinese Herbal Medicine for identification. Results: By several common phenomenon adulteration summary for peer learning reference.

  5. Adequacy of the measurement capability of fatty acid compositions and sterol profiles to determine authenticity of milk fat through formulation of adulterated butter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soha, Sahel; Mortazavian, Amir M.; Piravi-Vanak, Zahra;

    2015-01-01

    In this research a comparison has been made between the fatty acid and sterol compositions of Iranian pure butter and three samples of adulterated butter. These samples were formulated using edible vegetable fats/oils with similar milk fat structures including palm olein, palm kernel and coconut...... butter (B1), and 97.61%, 98.48% and 97.98% of the total sterols in the samples adulterated with palm olein, palm kernel and coconut oil (B2, B3, and B4), respectively. Contents of the main phytosterol profiles such as β-sitosterol, stigmasterol and campesterol were also determined. The β...

  6. Adulterants and diluents in heroin, amphetamine, and cocaine found on the illicit drug market in Aarhus, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Mette Findal; Lindholst, Christian; Kaa, Elisabet

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the composition of heroin, amphetamine, and cocaine seized in the police district of Aarhus, the second largest city in Denmark, during a 2-year period. The purity of the active substance was measured together with the frequency and purity of...... adulterants and diluents present in the drugs. Results are compared with a similar study conducted ten years earlier. The concentrations of the active substances in illicit heroin, amphetamine, and cocaine samples have decreased significantly over a 10-year period. This finding shows that the "cutting" of...

  7. Assessment of goat milk adulteration with a label-free monolithically integrated optoelectronic biosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelopoulou, Μichailia; Botsialas, Athanasios; Salapatas, Alexandros; Petrou, Panagiota S; Haasnoot, Willem; Makarona, Eleni; Jobst, Gerhard; Goustouridis, Dimitrios; Siafaka-Kapadai, Athanasia; Raptis, Ioannis; Misiakos, Konstantinos; Kakabakos, Sotirios E

    2015-05-01

    The label-free detection of bovine milk in goat milk through a miniaturized optical biosensor is presented. The biosensor consists of ten planar silicon nitride waveguide Broad-Band Mach-Zehnder interferometers (BB-MZIs) monolithically integrated and self-aligned with their respective silicon LEDs on the same Si chip. The BB-MZIs were transformed to biosensing transducers by functionalizing their sensing arm with bovine k-casein. Measurements were performed by continuously recording the transmission spectra of each interferometer through an external spectrometer. The amount of bovine milk in goat milk was determined through a competitive immunoassay by passing over the sensor mixtures of anti-k-casein antibodies with the calibrators or the samples. The output spectra of each BB-MZI recorded during the reaction were subjected to Discrete Fourier Transform in order to convert the observed spectral shifts to phase shifts in the wavenumber domain. The method had a detection limit of 0.04 % (v/v) bovine milk in goat milk, dynamic range 0.1-1.0 % (v/v), recoveries 93-110 %, and intra- and inter-assay coefficients of variation less than 12 and 15 %, respectively. The proposed biosensor compared well in terms of analytical performance with a competitive ELISA developed using the same monoclonal antibodies. Nevertheless, the duration of the biosensor assay was 10 min whereas the ELISA required 2 h. Thus, the fast and sensitive determinations along with the small size of the sensor make it ideal for incorporation into portable devices for assessment of goat or ewe's milk adulteration with bovine milk at the point-of-need. PMID:25796524

  8. LATENT VARIABLE MODELING TO ASSIST PRODUCT QUALITY CHARACTERIZATION IN THE FOOD AND PHARMACEUTICAL INDUSTRIES

    OpenAIRE

    Ottavian, Matteo

    2014-01-01

    The pressure of the global competition, continuously asking for lower costs and improved productivity, is forcing companies to seek global supply chains to cut production costs down. As a result, it is becoming more and more difficult to accurately monitor each step of a production process and to protect products from economically motivated fraud, adulterations and counterfeiting. In such context, traditional methods for product quality characterization, such as lab assays, are expensive, des...

  9. Fingerprint of Herb Product by Matrix-assisted Laser Desorption Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Product authentication, quality assurance, and identification of adulterants/contamination are major issues facing the dietary supplement industry. Scutellaria lateriflora is an herb widely used as a remedy for many ailments ranging from rabies to epilepsy. It could be easily contaminated by similar...

  10. Quantification of pure refined olive oil adulterant in extra virgin olive oil using diamond cell atr-ftir spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study depicts spectroscopic method development to deliver a rapid, simple and reproducible quantification of pure refined olive oil (PROO) adulterant in extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) using partial least square (PLS) regression (statistical parameter). Single bounce attenuated total reflectance (SB-ATR) Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) was choice in the developed method. Blended standards of PROO and EVOO were obtained by their weight by weight percentage and the values were used to construct calibration curves for quantification. The optimum regression values (i.e. >0.99) were achieved using the combined frequencies of 3105-2761, 1838-1687, and 1482-440 cm-1 with regression coefficients (R2) 0.99718 and achieved residual mean square error of calibration (RMSEC) 1.40% w/w. To determine the suitability of developed method principal component spectra (PCS) diagnostic was also used. The results of the present study prove that the developed methods reported in preceding studies can be good option for more rapid and accurate determination of PROO adulteration in EVOO. (author)

  11. Simultaneous determination of capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin for vegetable oil adulteration by immunoaffinity chromatography cleanup coupled with LC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Fei; Yang, Qingqing; Matthäus, Bertrand; Li, Peiwu; Zhang, Qi; Zhang, Liangxiao

    2016-05-15

    Capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin were selected as adulteration markers to authenticate vegetable oils. In this study, a method of immunoaffinity chromatography (IAC) combined with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was established for the determination of capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin in vegetable oils. In this method, immunosorbents were obtained by covalently coupling highly specific capsaicinoid polyclonal antibodieswith CNBr-activated Sepharose 4B, and then packed into a polyethylene column. In this paper, the major parameters affecting IAC extraction efficiency, including loading, washing and eluting conditions, were also investigated. The IAC column displayed high selectivity for capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin with the maximum capacity of 240ng. The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) for capsaicin were calculated as 0.02 and 0.08μgkg(-1), and for dihydrocapsaicin were 0.03 and 0.10μgkg(-1). The recoveries of capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin in oil samples were in the range of 87.3-95.2% with the relative standard deviation (RSD) of less than 6.1%. The results indicated that capsaicinoid compounds could not be found in edible vegetable oils. Therefore, the proposed method is simple, reliable and adequate for routine monitoring of capsaicinoid compounds in vegetable oils and has an excellent potential for detection of adulteration with inedible waste oil. PMID:26739369

  12. Durbin-Watson partial least-squares regression applied to MIR data on adulteration with edible oils of different origins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jović, Ozren

    2016-12-15

    A novel method for quantitative prediction and variable-selection on spectroscopic data, called Durbin-Watson partial least-squares regression (dwPLS), is proposed in this paper. The idea is to inspect serial correlation in infrared data that is known to consist of highly correlated neighbouring variables. The method selects only those variables whose intervals have a lower Durbin-Watson statistic (dw) than a certain optimal cutoff. For each interval, dw is calculated on a vector of regression coefficients. Adulteration of cold-pressed linseed oil (L), a well-known nutrient beneficial to health, is studied in this work by its being mixed with cheaper oils: rapeseed oil (R), sesame oil (Se) and sunflower oil (Su). The samples for each botanical origin of oil vary with respect to producer, content and geographic origin. The results obtained indicate that MIR-ATR, combined with dwPLS could be implemented to quantitative determination of edible-oil adulteration. PMID:27451249

  13. Determination of rice syrup adulterant concentration in honey using three-dimensional fluorescence spectra and multivariate calibrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Quansheng; Qi, Shuai; Li, Huanhuan; Han, Xiaoyan; Ouyang, Qin; Zhao, Jiewen

    2014-10-01

    To rapidly and efficiently detect the presence of adulterants in honey, three-dimensional fluorescence spectroscopy (3DFS) technique was employed with the help of multivariate calibration. The data of 3D fluorescence spectra were compressed using characteristic extraction and the principal component analysis (PCA). Then, partial least squares (PLS) and back propagation neural network (BP-ANN) algorithms were used for modeling. The model was optimized by cross validation, and its performance was evaluated according to root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) and correlation coefficient (R) in prediction set. The results showed that BP-ANN model was superior to PLS models, and the optimum prediction results of the mixed group (sunflower ± longan ± buckwheat ± rape) model were achieved as follow: RMSEP = 0.0235 and R = 0.9787 in the prediction set. The study demonstrated that the 3D fluorescence spectroscopy technique combined with multivariate calibration has high potential in rapid, nondestructive, and accurate quantitative analysis of honey adulteration.

  14. A Rapid Method to Detect Milk Adulteration Using Selective Fluoride-electrode%氟离子选择电极法快速检测鲜奶掺假

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫瑞霞; 李胜利; 何玲; 李彦国; 田印荣

    2012-01-01

    采用氟离子选择电极法测定鲜奶中氟含量的变化,判断鲜奶是否掺假,进而探讨快速检验鲜牛奶掺假的一种新型方法.具体做法是按一定比例在纯鲜奶中分别兑入掺假物:奶牛场水、纯净水、食盐及淀粉,配成掺假奶.用氟离子选择电极法分别测量样品奶的电位值,观察掺假奶样品与纯鲜奶之间电位值差的变化,用以判断鲜奶是否掺假.%A novel and easy way, selective fluoride-electrode, was introduced in this paper to milk adulteration. Raw milk was proportionally adulterated with dairy effluent, purified water, salt and starch, thus the adulterated milk was grouped into Group 1 , Group 2, Group 3 and Group 4. By using selective fluoride-electrode method, the potential value of the sample milk was measured to observe the variation of its difference between the adulterated milk and the raw milk.

  15. Progress in Identification Techniques for Adulteration in Honey%掺假蜂蜜识别技术的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵立夫; 姜宇懋; 张清清; 张晶

    2012-01-01

    Because to adulteration phenomenon by adding syrup,amylase,pectin in honey,the paper reviewed the techniques to detect adulteration at home and abroad in recent years.And the application and progress of infrared fluorescence spectrometry,high performance liquid chromatography,isotope ratio mass spectrometryand,some physical and chemical methods for detection of amylase value and syrup in the adulteration honey were introduced to provide some references for the identification of honey quality and adulteration.%针对常见的蜂蜜添加糖浆、淀粉酶、果胶等掺假现象,综述了近年国内外检测蜂蜜掺杂物的技术,介绍了红外、荧光等光谱法、高效液相色谱法、同位素比值质谱法及一些理化方法在蜂蜜中淀粉酶值及各种掺杂糖浆检测上的应用及研究概况,为蜂蜜品质及掺假的鉴别研究提供参考。

  16. A chemometric approach toward the detection and quantification of coffee adulteration by solid-phase microextraction using polymeric ionic liquid sorbent coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toledo, Bruna R; Hantao, Leandro W; Ho, Tien D; Augusto, Fabio; Anderson, Jared L

    2014-06-13

    Solid-phase microextraction (SPME) using cross-linked polymeric ionic liquid (PIL)-based sorbent coatings was used to extract volatile aroma-related compounds from coffee samples. Several PIL-based coatings were screened alongside a commercial poly(acrylate) (PA) SPME coating. The best performing PIL-based SPME fiber, poly(1-vinyl-3-hexadecylimidazolium bis[(trifluoromethyl)sulfonylimide]) with 50% (w/w) 1,12-di(3-vinylbenzylimidazolium)dodecane dibis[(trifluoromethyl)sulfonyl]imide incorporated cross-linker, was used to isolate the volatile fraction of Arabica coffee. To illustrate the importance of trace analyte isolation, a method for the detection and quantification of coffee adulteration is described. Chromatographic profiles obtained by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) were used to create the chemometric model. Partial least squares (PLS) regression was employed to correlate the aroma-related chemical fingerprint to the degree of adulteration. The proposed method successfully detected fraud down to 1% (w/w) of adulterant and accurately determined the degree of coffee adulteration (i.e, root mean square error of calibration and prediction of 0.54% and 0.83% (w/w), respectively). Finally, important aroma-related compounds including furans, methoxyphenols, pyrazines, and ketones were identified. PMID:24786655

  17. 酱油掺假检验方法研究进展%Research Progress of Methods for Detecting Adulteration of Soy Sauce

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖昭竞; 李根容; 朱宏明; 赵博; 朱永红

    2014-01-01

    酱油掺假形式多种多样,掺假检验方法也各不相同,有的基于酱油特有的酿造组分如挥发性风味组分、有机酸、氨基酸等进行检验,有的通过检验酱油中掺入的非酿造组分如酸水解植物蛋白调味液等进行识别。虽然当前酱油掺假检验方法研究取得了一定进展,但其实际应用尚不理想,将多指标组合用于识别酱油掺假可能是未来酱油掺假检验的重要方向。%Soy sauce is adulterated in many forms and the methods for identifying the adulteration also vary.Some methods are based on the detection of specific brewing compounds e.g.volatile flavor compounds,organic acids,amino acids in soy sauce;some are based on the detection of added compo-nents e.g.acid hydrolyzed vegetable protein seasonings in soy sauce.Although some progress has been made in developing the methods for identifying adulterated soy sauce,the practical application of the methods are not very satisfactory.Use of multiple indicators for identifying soy sauce adulteration may represent an important research trend of soy sauce adulteration testing.

  18. Research Progress of Methods for Detecting Adulteration of Soy Sauce%酱油掺假检验方法研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖昭竞; 李根容; 朱宏明; 赵博; 朱永红

    2014-01-01

    Soy sauce is adulterated in many forms and the methods for identifying the adulteration also vary.Some methods are based on the detection of specific brewing compounds e.g.volatile flavor compounds,organic acids,amino acids in soy sauce;some are based on the detection of added compo-nents e.g.acid hydrolyzed vegetable protein seasonings in soy sauce.Although some progress has been made in developing the methods for identifying adulterated soy sauce,the practical application of the methods are not very satisfactory.Use of multiple indicators for identifying soy sauce adulteration may represent an important research trend of soy sauce adulteration testing.%酱油掺假形式多种多样,掺假检验方法也各不相同,有的基于酱油特有的酿造组分如挥发性风味组分、有机酸、氨基酸等进行检验,有的通过检验酱油中掺入的非酿造组分如酸水解植物蛋白调味液等进行识别。虽然当前酱油掺假检验方法研究取得了一定进展,但其实际应用尚不理想,将多指标组合用于识别酱油掺假可能是未来酱油掺假检验的重要方向。

  19. 21 CFR 211.84 - Testing and approval or rejection of components, drug product containers, and closures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Testing and approval or rejection of components, drug product containers, and closures. 211.84 Section 211.84 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG... with filth, insect infestation, or other extraneous adulterant shall be examined against...

  20. Use of acousto-optic grating as a sensor for determining the adulteration in liquids being used in daily life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soni, Kirti; Kasana, R. S.

    2008-01-01

    An optical sensor has been developed for finding the proportional composition of two liquids in a mixture. The variation of the refractive index of a liquid produces light diffraction phenomenon. A liquid mixture is filled in a rectangular glass cell, which is placed orthogonically to the incident collimated beams of light. This cell consists of a piezoelectric crystal vibrator for generating ultrasonic waves. The collimated light while passing through this cell gets diffracted. The diffracted dots are collected by a converging lens and displayed in the back focal plane of the lens. The location of the diffracted dots decide the composition of mixture constituents namely fuel oils, edible oils, wine, water, etc. Thus, the adulteration of various liquids can be determined by having the knowledge of the position of diffraction dots.

  1. Application of class-modelling techniques to infrared spectra for analysis of pork adulteration in beef jerkys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuswandi, Bambang; Putri, Fitra Karima; Gani, Agus Abdul; Ahmad, Musa

    2015-12-01

    The use of chemometrics to analyse infrared spectra to predict pork adulteration in the beef jerky (dendeng) was explored. In the first step, the analysis of pork in the beef jerky formulation was conducted by blending the beef jerky with pork at 5-80 % levels. Then, they were powdered and classified into training set and test set. The second step, the spectra of the two sets was recorded by Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy using atenuated total reflection (ATR) cell on the basis of spectral data at frequency region 4000-700 cm(-1). The spectra was categorised into four data sets, i.e. (a) spectra in the whole region as data set 1; (b) spectra in the fingerprint region (1500-600 cm(-1)) as data set 2; (c) spectra in the whole region with treatment as data set 3; and (d) spectra in the fingerprint region with treatment as data set 4. The third step, the chemometric analysis were employed using three class-modelling techniques (i.e. LDA, SIMCA, and SVM) toward the data sets. Finally, the best result of the models towards the data sets on the adulteration analysis of the samples were selected and the best model was compared with the ELISA method. From the chemometric results, the LDA model on the data set 1 was found to be the best model, since it could classify and predict 100 % accuracy of the sample tested. The LDA model was applied toward the real samples of the beef jerky marketed in Jember, and the results showed that the LDA model developed was in good agreement with the ELISA method. PMID:26604341

  2. Adequacy of the Measurement Capability of Fatty Acid Compositions and Sterol Profiles to Determine Authenticity of Milk Fat Through Formulation of Adulterated Butter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soha, Sahel; Mortazavian, Amir M; Piravi-Vanak, Zahra; Mohammadifar, Mohammad A; Sahafar, Hamed; Nanvazadeh, Sara

    2015-01-01

    In this research a comparison has been made between the fatty acid and sterol compositions of Iranian pure butter and three samples of adulterated butter. These samples were formulated using edible vegetable fats/oils with similar milk fat structures including palm olein, palm kernel and coconut oil to determine the authenticity of milk fat. The amount of vegetable fats/oils used in the formulation of the adulterated butter was 10%. The adulterated samples were formulated so that their fatty acid profiles were comforted with acceptable levels of pure butter as specified by the Iranian national standard. Based on the type of the vegetable oil/fat, fatty acids such as C4:0, C12:0 and C18:2 were used as indicators for the adulterated formulations. According to the standard method of ISO, the analysis was performed using gas chromatography. The cholesterol contents were 99.71% in pure butter (B1), and 97.61%, 98.48% and 97.98% of the total sterols in the samples adulterated with palm olein, palm kernel and coconut oil (B2, B3 and B4), respectively. Contents of the main phytosterol profiles such as β-sitosterol, stigmasterol and campesterol were also determined. The β-sitosterol content, as an indicator of phytosterols, was 0% in pure butter, and 1.81%, 1.67% and 2.16%, of the total sterols in the adulterated samples (B2, B3 and B4), respectively. Our findings indicate that fatty acid profiles are not an efficient indicator for butter authentication. Despite the increase in phytosterols and the reduction in cholesterol and with regard to the conformity of the sterol profiles of the edible fats/oils used in the formulations with Codex standards, lower cholesterol and higher phytosterols contents should have been observed. It can therefore be concluded that sterol measurement is insufficient to verify the authenticity of the milk fat in butter. It can therefore be concluded that sterol measurement is insufficient in verifying the authenticity of milk fat. PMID:26246145

  3. 蜂蜜掺假鉴别技术研究进展%Review of identification techniques of adulteration in honey

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李水芳; 朱向荣; 单扬

    2009-01-01

    This paper viewed all kinds of techniques used in identification of adulteration of honey at present, including sensory analysis, pollen analysis, physico- chemical analysis, isotope ratio- mass spectra, chromatography, spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance techniques. The prospect of identification of adulteration in honey was also discussed.%综述了目前国内外蜂蜜掺假的鉴别技术,简要介绍了感官分析、花粉分析、理化指标分析及同位素率质谱、色谱、光谱、核磁共振技术在蜂蜜掺假鉴别上的应用及研究概况,并对蜂蜜掺假鉴别今后的研究方向进行了展望.

  4. Detection of plant oil DNA using high resolution melting (HRM) post PCR analysis: a tool for disclosure of olive oil adulteration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vietina, Michelangelo; Agrimonti, Caterina; Marmiroli, Nelson

    2013-12-15

    Extra virgin olive oil is frequently subjected to adulterations with addition of oils obtained from plants other than olive. DNA analysis is a fast and economic tool to identify plant components in oils. Extraction and amplification of DNA by PCR was tested in olives, in milled seeds and in oils, to investigate its use in olive oil traceability. DNA was extracted from different oils made of hazelnut, maize, sunflower, peanut, sesame, soybean, rice and pumpkin. Comparing the DNA melting profiles in reference plant materials and in the oils, it was possible to identify any plant components in oils and mixtures of oils. Real-Time PCR (RT-PCR) platform has been added of the new methodology of high resolution melting (HRM), both were used to analyse olive oils mixed with different percentage of other oils. Results showed HRM a cost effective method for efficient detection of adulterations in olive oils. PMID:23993554

  5. Is it possible to screen for milk or whey protein adulteration with melamine, urea and ammonium sulphate, combining Kjeldahl and classical spectrophotometric methods?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finete, Virgínia de Lourdes Mendes; Gouvêa, Marcos Martins; Marques, Flávia Ferreira de Carvalho; Netto, Annibal Duarte Pereira

    2013-12-15

    The Kjeldahl method and four classic spectrophotometric methods (Biuret, Lowry, Bradford and Markwell) were applied to evaluate the protein content of samples of UHT whole milk deliberately adulterated with melamine, ammonium sulphate or urea, which can be used to defraud milk protein and whey contents. Compared with the Kjeldahl method, the response of the spectrophotometric methods was unaffected by the addition of the nitrogen compounds to milk or whey. The methods of Bradford and Markwell were most robust and did not exhibit interference subject to composition. However, the simultaneous interpretation of results obtained using these methods with those obtained using the Kjeldahl method indicated the addition of nitrogen-rich compounds to milk and/or whey. Therefore, this work suggests a combination of results of Kjeldahl and spectrophotometric methods should be used to screen for milk adulteration by these compounds. PMID:23993532

  6. Development and analytical validation of a screening method for simultaneous detection of five adulterants in raw milk using mid-infrared spectroscopy and PLS-DA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botelho, Bruno G; Reis, Nádia; Oliveira, Leandro S; Sena, Marcelo M

    2015-08-15

    This paper proposed a new screening method for the simultaneous detection of five common adulterants in raw cow milk by using attenuated total reflectance (ATR) mid infrared spectroscopy and multivariate supervised classification (partial least squares discrimination analysis - PLSDA). The method was able to detect the presence of the adulterants water, starch, sodium citrate, formaldehyde and sucrose in milk samples containing from one up to five of these analytes, in the range of 0.5-10% w/v. A multivariate qualitative validation was performed, estimating specific figures of merit, such as false positive and false negative rates, selectivity, specificity and efficiency rates, accordance and concordance. The proposed method does not need any sample pretreatment, requires a small amount of sample (30 μL), is fast and simple, being suitable for the control of raw milk in a dairy industry or for the quality inspection of commercialized milk. PMID:25794717

  7. Fourier transform infrared-attenuated total reflectance (FTIR-ATR spectroscopy and chemometric techniques for the determination of adulteration in petrodiesel/biodiesel blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando Guerrero Peña

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available We propose an analytical method based on fourier transform infrared-attenuated total reflectance (FTIR-ATR spectroscopy to detect the adulteration of petrodiesel and petrodiesel/palm biodiesel blends with African crude palm oil. The infrared spectral fingerprints from the sample analysis were used to perform principal components analysis (PCA and to construct a prediction model using partial least squares (PLS regression. The PCA results separated the samples into three groups, allowing identification of those subjected to adulteration with palm oil. The obtained model shows a good predictive capacity for determining the concentration of palm oil in petrodiesel/biodiesel blends. Advantages of the proposed method include cost-effectiveness and speed; it is also environmentally friendly.

  8. Detection of roasted and ground coffee adulteration by HPLC and by amperometric and by post-column derivatization UV-Vis detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingues, Diego S; Pauli, Elis D; de Abreu, Julia E M; Massura, Francys W; Cristiano, Valderi; Santos, Maria J; Nixdorf, Suzana L

    2014-03-01

    Coffee is one of the most consumed beverages in the world. Due to its commercial importance, the detection of impurities and foreign matters has been a constant concern in fraud verification, especially because it is difficult to percept adulterations with the naked eye in samples of roasted and ground coffee. In Brazil, the most common additions are roasted materials, such as husks, sticks, corn, wheat middling, soybean, and more recently - acai palm seeds. The performance and correlation of two chromatographic methods, HPLC-HPAEC-PAD and post-column derivatization HPLC-UV-Vis, were compared for carbohydrate analysis in coffee samples. To verify the correlation between the two methods, the principal component analysis for the same mix of triticale and acai seeds in different proportions with coffee was employed. The performance for detecting adulterations in roasted and ground coffee of the two methods was compared. PMID:24176354

  9. KOPLS-DA在掺杂牛奶判别中的应用%Application of Kernel Orthogonal Projection to Latent Structure Discriminant Analysis in the Discrimination of Adulterated Milk

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘蓉; 杨仁杰; 苗静; 徐可欣

    2013-01-01

    Based on the method of kernet Orthogonal Projection to Latent Structure Discriminant Analysis,discrimination models for adulterated milk were established in the present paper.Forty adulterated milk samples with melamine(0.01~3 g · L-1)and 40 adulterated milk samples with urea (1 ~20 g · L-1)were prepared,respectively.Then the near-infrared absorption spectra of all samples were measured.The spectra in the range of 4 200~4 800 cm 1 were selected to construct the KOPLS-DA models for milk adulterated with melamine,milk adulterated with urea and milk adulterated with both melamine and urea The results showed that,compared with PLS-DA and OPLS-DA models,KOPLS-DA model had better discriminant ability for the adulterated milk,and its classification accuracy rate (CAR) for milk adulterated with melamine,milk adulterated with urea and milk adulterated with both melamine and urea were 95%,100% and 97.5%,respectively.%运用核隐变量正交投影(kernel orthogonal projection to latent structure,KOPLS)方法,建立掺杂牛奶与纯牛奶的判别模型.分别配置含有三聚氰胺牛奶(0.01~3g·L-1)和尿素牛奶(1~20 g·L-1)样品各40个,采集纯牛奶及掺杂牛奶样品的近红外光谱.选择4 200~4 800 em-1为建模区间,采用KOPLS分别建立掺杂三聚氰胺、掺杂尿素、两种掺杂牛奶与纯牛奶的判别模型,并利用这些模型对未知样品进行判别.研究结果表明:与偏最小二乘判别(partial least squares discriminant analysis,PLS-DA)和隐变量正交投影判别(orthogonal projections to latent structures discriminant analysis,OPLS-DA)建模方法相比,KOPLS-DA具有更强的掺杂判别能力,对掺杂三聚氰胺、掺杂尿素牛奶和两种掺杂牛奶的判别正确率分别为95%,100%和97.5%.

  10. Construction of fingerprint of rice bran oil and quantitative detection method for adulterated rice bran oil%米糠油指纹图谱的构建及掺伪定量检测技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    喻凤香

    2015-01-01

    The fingerprint of rice bran oil was constructed by constant temperature capillary gas chroma-tography so as to improve the quantitative detection system of adulterated rice bran oil. The linear model of the adulteration amount of low-cost oil in rice bran oil and characteristic fatty acid content was built by simulate adulteration of rice bran oil. The results showed that the optimal quantitative detection model of rice bran oil adulterated with palm oil was YC16∶0 = 16. 719X + 18. 722 (R2 = 0. 993 7);the optimal quantitative detection model of rice bran oil adulterated with rapeseed oil was YC22∶1 = 0. 158 2X +0. 350 7(R2 = 0. 991 0), suitable for the adulteration amount more than 2%; the optimal quantitative detection model of rice bran oil adulterated with cottonseed oil was YC14∶0 = 0. 004X + 0. 316 8(R2 =0. 981 3),suitable for the adulteration amount over 17%;the optimal quantitative detection model of rice bran oil adulterated with soybean oil was YC18∶3 = 0. 090 6X + 2. 456 4(R2 = 0. 992 5) , suitable for the adulteration amount above 24%.%为完善米糠油掺伪的定量检测系统,采用恒温毛细管气相色谱法建立了米糠油指纹图谱,对米糠油进行模拟掺伪,建立了米糠油中廉价油脂掺伪量与特征脂肪酸含量的一元线性模型。结果表明:掺伪棕榈油最佳线性模型为YC16∶0=16.719X +18.722(R2=0.9937);掺伪菜籽油最佳线性模型为YC22∶1=0.1582X +0.3507(R2=0.9910),菜籽油掺伪量2%以上适用;掺伪棉籽油最佳线性模型为YC14∶0=0.004X +0.3168(R2=0.9813),棉籽油掺伪量17%以上适用;掺伪大豆油最佳线性模型为YC18∶3=0.0906X +2.4564(R2=0.9925),大豆油掺伪量24%以上适用。

  11. 米糠油指纹图谱的构建及掺伪定量检测技术研究%Construction of fingerprint of rice bran oil and quantitative detection method for adulterated rice bran oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    喻凤香

    2015-01-01

    为完善米糠油掺伪的定量检测系统,采用恒温毛细管气相色谱法建立了米糠油指纹图谱,对米糠油进行模拟掺伪,建立了米糠油中廉价油脂掺伪量与特征脂肪酸含量的一元线性模型。结果表明:掺伪棕榈油最佳线性模型为YC16∶0=16.719X +18.722(R2=0.9937);掺伪菜籽油最佳线性模型为YC22∶1=0.1582X +0.3507(R2=0.9910),菜籽油掺伪量2%以上适用;掺伪棉籽油最佳线性模型为YC14∶0=0.004X +0.3168(R2=0.9813),棉籽油掺伪量17%以上适用;掺伪大豆油最佳线性模型为YC18∶3=0.0906X +2.4564(R2=0.9925),大豆油掺伪量24%以上适用。%The fingerprint of rice bran oil was constructed by constant temperature capillary gas chroma-tography so as to improve the quantitative detection system of adulterated rice bran oil. The linear model of the adulteration amount of low-cost oil in rice bran oil and characteristic fatty acid content was built by simulate adulteration of rice bran oil. The results showed that the optimal quantitative detection model of rice bran oil adulterated with palm oil was YC16∶0 = 16. 719X + 18. 722 (R2 = 0. 993 7);the optimal quantitative detection model of rice bran oil adulterated with rapeseed oil was YC22∶1 = 0. 158 2X +0. 350 7(R2 = 0. 991 0), suitable for the adulteration amount more than 2%; the optimal quantitative detection model of rice bran oil adulterated with cottonseed oil was YC14∶0 = 0. 004X + 0. 316 8(R2 =0. 981 3),suitable for the adulteration amount over 17%;the optimal quantitative detection model of rice bran oil adulterated with soybean oil was YC18∶3 = 0. 090 6X + 2. 456 4(R2 = 0. 992 5) , suitable for the adulteration amount above 24%.

  12. Adulteration Identification of Commercial Honey with the C-4 Sugar Content of Negative Values by an Elemental Analyzer and Liquid Chromatography Coupled to Isotope Ratio Mass Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Hao; Luo, Donghui; Xian, Yanping; Luo, Haiying; Guo, Xindong; Li, Chao; Zhao, Mouming

    2016-04-27

    According to the AOAC 998.12 method, honey is considered to contain significant C-4 sugars with a C-4 sugar content of >7%, which are naturally identified as the adulteration. However, the authenticity of honey with a C-4 sugar content of authenticity of honey with a C-4 sugar content of authenticity identification of honey with a C-4 sugar content of <0%. PMID:27064147

  13. 通关藤及其混淆品的RAPD鉴别研究%Identification of Marsdeniae Tenacissimae Caulis and Its Adulterants by RAPD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张慧; 裴志东; 倪冲; 康廷国

    2011-01-01

    目的:应用RAPD技术鉴别通关藤及其混淆品,并分析同种不同产地通关藤基因同源性.方法:CTAB法提取7个不同产地的通关藤及其6种混淆品的DNA,以20条随机引物进行非特异扩增.结果:随机引物285( GGG AAC CCG T)可稳定扩增不同产地通关藤药材的DNA,随机引物E01 (CCC AAG GTC C)可有效的鉴别通关藤及其混淆品.结论:RAPD法可准确鉴别正品通关藤及其混淆品,不同产地通关藤的基因具有同源性.%Objective;To identify Marsdeniae Tenacissimae Caulis and its adulterants by RAPD (random amplified polymorphic DNA) and analyze the gene homology of Marsdeniae Tenacissimae Caulis from various habitats. Methods; General DNA was isolated from Marsdeniae tenacissimae Caulis which were from seven various habitats and its six adulterants by CTAB, the twenty RAPD was used to identify them. Results; Random primer 285 (GGG AAC CCT T) could amplify the gene of Marsdeniae tenacissimae Caulis from various habitats stablely, Marsdeniae tenacissimae Caulis and its adulterants could be identified by primer E01 (CCC AAG GTC C) effectively. Conclusion;The method of RAPD can be used to identify Marsdeniae Tenacissimae Caulis and its adulterants, the gene of Marsdeniae tenacissimae Caulis from various habitats have homology.

  14. 山萸肉常见伪品的鉴别检验方法%Test method for identification of Fructus Corni and its adulterants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭万周

    2015-01-01

    目的:分析山茱萸药材的常见伪品及其鉴别检验方法,为山茱萸药材提供可靠的鉴别检验手段。方法文章针对山茱萸正品与多种伪品的性状、显微和理化等鉴别特征进行了分析比较。结果山茱萸正品与多种伪品在性状、显微和理化特征之间有显著差别,药理作用完全不同,不能混用。结论应加强对山茱萸药材的真伪鉴别,这些鉴别检验方法简便易行,快速准确,可用于山茱萸常见伪品的鉴别检验,避免因误用造成不良后果。%Objective Analysis of Fructus Corni medicinal materials common adulterants and identify inspection method , and provided a reliable means of identification test for Fructus Corni medicinal materials .Methods Analyzes and compares the identification of character , microstructure , physical and chemical nature of Fructus Corni and a variety of adulterate Fructus Corni .Results There is a significant difference between the genuine and adulterants of Fructus Corni in character ,microstructure and physical and chemical nature identification features and pharmacological action is completely different ,do not mix.Conclusion Should strengthen the authenticity of the identification of Fructus Corni , this method is simple , practicable , rapid and accurate , it is suitable to be used in identification of Fructus Corni and adulterate Fructus Corni , avoid the misuse of adverse consequences .

  15. 山萸肉常见伪品的鉴别检验方法%Test method for identification of Fructus Corni and its adulterants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭万周

    2015-01-01

    Objective Analysis of Fructus Corni medicinal materials common adulterants and identify inspection method , and provided a reliable means of identification test for Fructus Corni medicinal materials .Methods Analyzes and compares the identification of character , microstructure , physical and chemical nature of Fructus Corni and a variety of adulterate Fructus Corni .Results There is a significant difference between the genuine and adulterants of Fructus Corni in character ,microstructure and physical and chemical nature identification features and pharmacological action is completely different ,do not mix.Conclusion Should strengthen the authenticity of the identification of Fructus Corni , this method is simple , practicable , rapid and accurate , it is suitable to be used in identification of Fructus Corni and adulterate Fructus Corni , avoid the misuse of adverse consequences .%目的:分析山茱萸药材的常见伪品及其鉴别检验方法,为山茱萸药材提供可靠的鉴别检验手段。方法文章针对山茱萸正品与多种伪品的性状、显微和理化等鉴别特征进行了分析比较。结果山茱萸正品与多种伪品在性状、显微和理化特征之间有显著差别,药理作用完全不同,不能混用。结论应加强对山茱萸药材的真伪鉴别,这些鉴别检验方法简便易行,快速准确,可用于山茱萸常见伪品的鉴别检验,避免因误用造成不良后果。

  16. A Simple and Effective Mass Spectrometric Approach to Identify the Adulteration of the Mediterranean Diet Component Extra-Virgin Olive Oil with Corn Oil

    OpenAIRE

    Francesco Di Girolamo; Andrea Masotti; Isabella Lante; Margherita Scapaticci; Cosima Damiana Calvano; Carlo Zambonin; Maurizio Muraca; Lorenza Putignani

    2015-01-01

    Extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) with its nutraceutical characteristics substantially contributes as a major nutrient to the health benefit of the Mediterranean diet. Unfortunately, the adulteration of EVOO with less expensive oils (e.g., peanut and corn oils), has become one of the biggest source of agricultural fraud in the European Union, with important health implications for consumers, mainly due to the introduction of seed oil-derived allergens causing, especially in children, severe food ...

  17. A Sensitive and Effective Proteomic Approach to Identify She-Donkey’s and Goat’s Milk Adulterations by MALDI-TOF MS Fingerprinting

    OpenAIRE

    Francesco Di Girolamo; Andrea Masotti; Guglielmo Salvatori; Margherita Scapaticci; Maurizio Muraca; Lorenza Putignani

    2014-01-01

    She-donkey’s milk (DM) and goat’s milk (GM) are commonly used in newborn and infant feeding because they are less allergenic than other milk types. It is, therefore, mandatory to avoid adulteration and contamination by other milk allergens, developing fast and efficient analytical methods to assess the authenticity of these precious nutrients. In this experimental work, a sensitive and robust matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) profiling...

  18. Fourier transform infrared-attenuated total reflectance (FTIR-ATR) spectroscopy and chemometric techniques for the determination of adulteration in petrodiesel/biodiesel blends

    OpenAIRE

    Armando Guerrero Peña; Francisco Anguebes Franseschi; Mepivoseth Castelán Estrada; Victorino Morales Ramos; Reyes García Zarracino; José C. Zavala Loría; Atl V. Córdova Quiroz

    2014-01-01

    We propose an analytical method based on fourier transform infrared-attenuated total reflectance (FTIR-ATR) spectroscopy to detect the adulteration of petrodiesel and petrodiesel/palm biodiesel blends with African crude palm oil. The infrared spectral fingerprints from the sample analysis were used to perform principal components analysis (PCA) and to construct a prediction model using partial least squares (PLS) regression. The PCA results separated the samples into three groups, allowing id...

  19. 应用电子鼻对奶粉掺假快速检测的研究%Research of adulterated powdered milk identification by electronic nose

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高晓霞; 宋娟娟; 董亚飞; 杨凤莲; 马云飞; 李晔

    2012-01-01

    Several different brands powdered milks,as well as adulterated powdered milk,were measured by the electronic nose(E-nose) which was composed of ten metallic oxide sensors.Principal Component Analysis(PCA) and Linear Discriminant Analysis(LDA) were used in the data analysis and pattern recognition.The results demonstrated the powdered milk could be identified according to their bands.The model was useful for predicting the bands of the powdered milk.Meanwhile,the adulterated powdered milk could be discriminated by E-nose.Furthermore,the concentration of adulterant in the powdered milk could also be acquired in general.In conclusion,the E-nose could be applied to identify the adulterated powdered milk.%利用由十个金属氧化物传感器组成的电子鼻对几种不同品牌的奶粉和掺入其他物质的奶粉样品分别进行了测量,并通过PCA和LDA法对数据进行了统计分析。数据分析显示所建立的奶粉电子鼻模型能够用于识别不同品牌的奶粉样品,同时电子鼻也能够鉴别奶粉是否有其他物质的掺入。另外基于电子鼻的灵敏性,其对于奶粉中掺入物的浓度也有一定的鉴定能力。研究结果表明电子鼻技术应用在奶粉掺假的快速检测上是可行的。

  20. A survey of adulterants used to cut cocaine in samples seized in the Espírito Santo State by GC-MS allied to chemometric tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Lindamara M; Rodrigues, Rayza R T; Santos, Heloá; Costa, Helber B; Merlo, Bianca B; Filgueiras, Paulo R; Poppi, Ronei J; Vaz, Boniek G; Romão, Wanderson

    2016-03-01

    Cocaine is a stimulant drug of the central nervous system (CNS) extracted from the leaves of Erytroxylum coca. It is defined as a tropane alkaloid containing 1R-(exo,exo)-3-(benzoyloxy)-8-methyl-8-azabicyclo[3.2.1]octane-2-carboxylic acid methyl esther. However, despite its defined composition, a wide variety of chemical additives are present in cocaine found in the illicit market, such as benzocaine, lidocaine, caffeine, procaine and phenacetin. In this work, 512 cocaine samples seized by the Civil Police of Espirito Santo state (PC-ES, Brazil) were analyzed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) allied to principal component analysis (PCA) in order to classify the samples as a function of seizure year (2008, 2009, 2010, 2011 and 2012) and location (metropolitan, north, south and central). The cocaine content (wt.%) and its adulterants were also estimated. Analyzing the samples seized between 2008 and 2011, three sample sets are clearly grouped according to the degree of adulteration with caffeine and lidocaine: 100-50 wt.% of cocaine; 50-20 wt.% of cocaine; and 20-80 wt.% of lidocaine and 60-80 wt.% of caffeine, simultaneously. The last group is formed by samples seized between 2008 and 2009, which proves the higher degree of adulteration during this period. In 2012, higher cocaine content was observed for the 191 analyzed samples than in samples from previous years. The PCA data also suggests that the metropolitan region samples had a higher degree of adulteration than the state countryside samples. PMID:26976463

  1. Adulteration of butterfat: validity of Reichert-Meissl, Polenske and iodine values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youness, N. A.

    1991-08-01

    Full Text Available Buffaloe's milkfat was obtained during the winter and the summer seasons. The beef tallow (Heart fat was purchased from the local market. Beef tallow was added to the summer milkfat in the ratios 5%, 10%, 15% and 50% w/w. Thin layer chromatography was applied to obtain the triglycerides fraction of each sample obtained. Gas chromatography was used to identify the fatty acid content of the winter, summer and the admixtures. Reichert-Meissl (RM, Polenske (P and Iodine values were also determined for each sample. It was concluded that the (RM of the winter and the summer milkfat were 25.52±0.511 and 28.74±0.568, respectively. The (P and iodine values were 1.94±0.162, 2.53±0.146 and 42.1±0.85, 30.33±0.839 in the same respect. The addition of beef tallow to the milkfat in the ratios 5% and 10% did not affect the (RM and (P values of the resultant admixtures. The presence of 15% beef tallow in milkfat slightly affected the (RM, (P and iodine values. The addition of 50% beef tallow to the milkfat got the values of (RM and (P out of the normal range. The iodine values was still within the normal range of milkfat. It was also observed that the addition of beef tallow in the ratios 5%, 10% and 15% to summer milkfat, improved the fatty acid pattern of the milk fat, while the 50% beef tallow in milkfat, decreased all the short chain fatty acids. The determination of the (RM, (P and iodine values to detect the beef tallow as an adulterant in pure milkfat is not sufficient at 5% and 10% beef tallow in milkfat.

    Durante las estaciones de invierno y verano se obtuvo grasa de leche de búfalo. Sebo de vaca (grasa del corazón se adquirió del mercado local. El sebo de vaca se añadió a la grasa de leche de verano en las relaciones 5%, 10%, 15% y 50% w/w. Se aplicó la cromatografía en capa fina para obtener la fracción de triglicéridos de cada muestra obtenida. La cromatografía gaseosa se usó para identificar el contenido en ácidos grasos de

  2. Generation and Characterization of SCARs by Cloning and Sequencing of RAPD Products: A Strategy for Species-specific Marker Development in Bamboo

    OpenAIRE

    Das, Malay; Bhattacharya, Samik; Pal, Amita

    2005-01-01

    • Background and Aims The aim of this study was to develop species-specific molecular markers for Bambusa balcooa and B. tulda to allow for their proper identification, in order to avoid unintentional adulteration that affects the quality and quantity of paper pulp production.

  3. Identification Study on Centipede ( Scolopendra subspinipes) and Its Adulterants%蜈蚣及其混淆品的鉴别研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨成俊; 周伟庆

    2011-01-01

    [目的]对蜈蚣及其混淆品的性状与凝胶电泳图谱进行研究.[方法]采用SDS-聚丙烯酰胺凝胶电泳法,测定并比较它们的电泳图的谱带数目和种类.[结果]蜈蚣及其混淆品的电泳谱带数目和种类均不相同.[结论] SDS-PAGE图谱可以作为蜈蚣及其混淆品的有效鉴别依据.%[Objective] The aim was to study characters and gel electrophoresis patterns of centipede and its adulterants. [ Method] Using SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis method, the number of electrophoretic bands and types of graphs were determined and compared. [ Results] Centipede and its adulterants number and types of the electrophoretic bands were not the same. [Conclusion] SDS-PACE patterns can be used as effective identification basis for centipedes and its adulterants.

  4. Application of DNA fingerprint technique in identification of adulterate food%DNA 指纹技术在食品掺假鉴定中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李溪盛; 马莺

    2014-01-01

    食品掺假欺诈行为长久以来一直是普遍问题,开发食品的真伪鉴定技术也是食品安全领域的重点之一。其中DNA指纹技术在食品真伪鉴定中有广泛的应用。本文就当前常用的DNA指纹分析手段在食品真伪、掺假鉴定中的应用进行综述,并阐述了技术不足及应用展望。%The fraudulent misdescription of food is a widespread problem .Developing the techniques in identifi-cation of adulterate food is a focus in food safety field .Among these techniques , DNA fingerprint technique has a wide use in identification of adulterate food .This paper summarized several current DNA fingerprint technique in identification of adulterate food , and elaborated the defect and application prospect of this technique .

  5. STUDY ON ADULTERATION IN MILK USING MILKOSCAN FT 120%应用Milkoscan FT120对牛奶掺假的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张丽萍; 李慧源

    2011-01-01

    Milkoscan FT 120 infrared spectra was scanner used to test row milk index such as fat, protein, dry matter, lactose, citric acid specific gravity, freezing point, carbohydrate, total sugar, free fatty acids and so on. The row milk spectral database was established. The creamer was added to rew milk to simulated adulteration of milk. The adulteration module was applied to identify whether the row milk was adulterated.%采用红外扫描乳品测定仪对原料乳中脂肪、蛋白、干物质、乳糖、柠檬酸密度、冰点、碳水化合物、全糖、游离脂肪酸等成分参数的检测建立原料乳光谱数据库,在具有代表性原料乳中加入植脂末模拟牛奶掺假,通过应用掺假模块鉴别生鲜牛奶是否掺假.

  6. 芝麻油掺伪鉴别技术研究进展%Research Advance of Detection Methods for Adulterated Sesame Oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张丽霞; 黄纪念; 芦鑫; 宋国辉; 孙强

    2012-01-01

    芝麻油具有独特的香味以及丰富的营养价值和市场价值,因此掺伪现象非常严重。本文根据芝麻油中的特征成分性质、油脂中甘三酯及脂肪酸性质的差异,就目前芝麻油掺假检测技术研究进展进行综述,分析了这些检测方法的优缺点和影响因素,并对芝麻油掺伪检测技术的发展方向进行了展望。%The adulteration of sesame oil is usually existed for its unique flavor, nutritional value and marketable value. Research advance of adulteration detection for sesame oil were reviewed according to characteristic constituents and different structure of triglyeerides and fatty acids. The advantages and shortcomings of the different detection methods were discussed, and develop trend for adulteration detection technique for sesame oil were prospected.

  7. Identification of Decoction Pieces of Poria from Its Adulterants%中药饮片茯苓及其混伪品的鉴别

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶贤琦

    2011-01-01

    目的 对中药饮片茯苓与其混伪品进行鉴别.方法 通过性状、显微、薄层色谱法等方法进行综合鉴别.结果 薄层色谱法:正品茯苓与对照药材薄层鉴别分别显2个相同颜色的荧光宽点,混伪品显4个荧光斑点,且有2个荧光斑点位置不一致.结论 中药饮片茯苓及其混伪品的鉴别,可通过性状鉴别、显微鉴别与薄层色谱法进行检识.%Objective To distinguish decoction pieces of Poria from its adulterants. Methods To make comprehensive identification by comparing characters, microscopic study, thin-layer chromatographic behavior,etc. Result In the thin-layer chromatographies, the cultivated ones exhibited two fluorescent spots with the same color and sites to the standards, while there appeared four spots for the adulterants with two of spots at different sites.Conclusion Decoction pieces of Poria could be identified from its adulterants by comparing characters, microscopic study and thin-layer chromatogram.

  8. Identification of glabrous greenbrier rhizome with two adulterants%土茯苓与其两种混伪品的鉴别

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李亚玲; 王晓蓉

    2010-01-01

    目的 探讨土茯苓及其两种混伪品的鉴别方法,以区别真伪,保证临床准确用药.方法 从性状、显微、理化、化学成分、功效等方面对土茯苓和其混伪品进行鉴别比较.结果 三者在性状、显微、理化、化学成分、功效等方面有显著差异.结论 三者有明显差异,可鉴别清楚.%Objective To explore identification method for genuine glabrous greenbrier rhizome and ensure an accurate clinical medication. Methods Such aspects as characters, microscope appearance, physicochemical analysis,chemical composition, and efficacy were used to identified the genuine glabrous from its adulterants. Results There are significant differences between glabrous greenbrier and its adulterants in the above-mentioned aspects. Conclusion Genuine glabrous greenbrier rhizome can be identified since it has obvious differences from its adulterants.

  9. New method for the discovery of adulterated cognacs and brandies based on solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography - mass spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darya Mozhayeva

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The article represents new method for discovery of adulterated cognacs and brandies based on solidphase microextraction (SPME in combination with gas chromatography – mass spectrometry (GC-MS. The work comprised optimization of SPME parameters (extraction temperature and time, concentration of added salt with subsequent analysis of authentic samples and comparison of the obtained chromatograms using principal component analysis (PCA. According to the obtained results, increase of extraction temperature resulted in an increase of response of the most volatile brandy constituents. To avoid chemical transformations and/or degradation of the samples, the extraction temperature must be limited to 30!C. Increase of the extraction time lead to higher total peak area, but longer extraction times (>10 min for 100 µm polydimethylsiloxane and >2 min for divinylbenzene/Carboxen/polydimethylsiloxane fibers caused displacement of analytes. Salt addition increased total response of analytes, but caused problems with reproducibility. The developed method was successfully applied for discovery of adulterated samples of brandy, cognac, whisky and whiskey sold in Kazakhstan. The obtained data was analyzed applying principal component analysis (PCA. Five adulterated brandy and whisky samples were discovered and confirmed. The developed method is recommended for application in forensic laboratories.

  10. 气相色谱法检测掺假植物油方法研究%Measuring vegetable oil adulteration with gas chromatography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石朝晖; 吴庆洁; 蔡江帆

    2011-01-01

    目的:建立掺假植物油的气相色谱检测方法.方法:将油脂样品用0.5 mol/L的KOH-CHOH溶液甲酯化后用石油醚苯混合溶液提取,通过气相色谱检测分析样品的脂肪酸构成比,并根据不同油种其脂肪酸的特征组分和含量以及其特征组分的绝对量的不同来鉴别食用植物油的掺伪.结果:能有效鉴别植物油掺假比例.结论:方法简便、可靠、实用.%Objective:To establish a GC method for determining adulterated vegetable oil. Methods: The sample was esterifled with KOH - CH3 OH. and then extracted with a mixed solvent of petroleum ether and benzene, Determination of major fatty acids in sample were done by using gas chromatography. According to the characteristic constituent, relative concentration and absolute concentration, different kinds of fatty acid methylester were determined at the same time to appraise edible vegetable oil trueness or adulteration. Results: The method can effectively identify adulterated vegetable oil. Conclusion:The method is simple, reliable and practical.

  11. Pharmacognostic study of Lignum Naucleae and its adulterant%胆木与其混淆品的生药学鉴别研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏爱华; 康帅

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To explore the authentication characteristics of Lignum Naucleae and its adulterant-lignum of Picrasma quassioides (D. Don) Benn. ,to improve and refine the authentication characteristics of Lignum Naucleae. Method;Base on the literatures related and collected samples,the differences between Lignum Naucleae and its adulterant were studied by comparing the descriptions and microscopical characters of cross section, radial section or tangential section. Result: The differences between the two species were obvious in macroscopical and microscopical characteristics. Conclusion; Lignum Naucleae and its adulterant -lignum of Picrasma quassioides (D. Don) Benn. can be identified by the differences of descriptions and microscopical characteristics.%目的:探讨胆木与其混淆品——苦木木材的鉴别特征,完善药材胆木的性状和显微鉴别特征.方法:在对照研究相关文献与标本的基础上,对胆木与其混淆品进行外观性状和横切面、径切面和弦切面显微特征研究.结果:发现胆木与其混淆品在外观性状和显微特征方面均存在较大差异.结论:胆木与其混淆品——苦木木材可通过性状和显微特征比较进行鉴别.

  12. DNA 指纹技术在食品掺假鉴定中的应用%Application of DNA fingerprint technique in identification of adulterate food

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李溪盛; 马莺

    2014-01-01

    食品掺假欺诈行为长久以来一直是普遍问题,开发食品的真伪鉴定技术也是食品安全领域的重点之一。其中DNA指纹技术在食品真伪鉴定中有广泛的应用。本文就当前常用的DNA指纹分析手段在食品真伪、掺假鉴定中的应用进行综述,并阐述了技术不足及应用展望。%The fraudulent misdescription of food is a widespread problem .Developing the techniques in identifi-cation of adulterate food is a focus in food safety field .Among these techniques , DNA fingerprint technique has a wide use in identification of adulterate food .This paper summarized several current DNA fingerprint technique in identification of adulterate food , and elaborated the defect and application prospect of this technique .

  13. A Simple and Effective Mass Spectrometric Approach to Identify the Adulteration of the Mediterranean Diet Component Extra-Virgin Olive Oil with Corn Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Di Girolamo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Extra virgin olive oil (EVOO with its nutraceutical characteristics substantially contributes as a major nutrient to the health benefit of the Mediterranean diet. Unfortunately, the adulteration of EVOO with less expensive oils (e.g., peanut and corn oils, has become one of the biggest source of agricultural fraud in the European Union, with important health implications for consumers, mainly due to the introduction of seed oil-derived allergens causing, especially in children, severe food allergy phenomena. In this regard, revealing adulterations of EVOO is of fundamental importance for health care and prevention reasons, especially in children. To this aim, effective analytical methods to assess EVOO purity are necessary. Here, we propose a simple, rapid, robust and very sensitive method for non-specialized mass spectrometric laboratory, based on the matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS coupled to unsupervised hierarchical clustering (UHC, principal component (PCA and Pearson’s correlation analyses, to reveal corn oil (CO adulterations in EVOO at very low levels (down to 0.5%.

  14. 典型掺假蜂蜜的电子鼻信息变化特征及判别能力%Information variation feature and discriminant capabilities of electronic nose for typical adulteration honey identification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    裴高璞; 史波林; 赵镭; 高海燕; 尹京苑; 汪厚银; 支瑞聪

    2015-01-01

    To establish a method for rapid detection of honey adulteration,in this paper, Acacia honey, Jing nectar, Date honey of market liquidity greatly and rape honey, rice syrup of typical adulterated substances were studied, the electronic nose (e-nose) information of natural honey and adulterated honey that was made by incorporation 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50%, 60%, 70%rape honey and rice syrup were collected by FOX4000 e-nose. The data processing method of principal component analysis (PCA) was employed to study information variation characteristics of the electronic nose of natural honey and adulterated honey, and the minimum amount added that adulterated substances cause honey aroma system changes. On the basis of information variation characteristics of the electronic nose was as the guidance, the pattern recognition algorithm of Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) was employed to study the ability of qualitative recognition of electronic nose for adulterated honey. The results showed that there was a linear relationship between e-nose signals and the level of adulteration. Adulterated honey samples array from right to left with the increase in the content of adulteration in the direction of the principal component 1, adulterated samples of incorporation rape honey and rice syrup both located on the left side of pure acacia honey and arrayed from right to left in the direction of the principal component 1. The linear relationship of adulterated information was not affected by nectar, and the adulterated samples of date honey, Jing nectar, acacia honey had the same regular pattern, and the linear relationship of adulterated information had universality in honey. The minimum amount to be added of rape honey and rice syrup as adulterated substances that can cause honey aroma system changes were 2% and 1%, respectively. Honey aroma system can easily be changed by added substances. This showed that the electronic nose had a strong discriminable ability for honey adulteration

  15. 典型掺假蜂蜜的电子鼻信息变化特征及判别能力%Information variation feature and discriminant capabilities of electronic nose for typical adulteration honey identification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    裴高璞; 史波林; 赵镭; 高海燕; 尹京苑; 汪厚银; 支瑞聪

    2015-01-01

    为建立蜂蜜掺假快速检测方法,该文利用电子鼻并结合主成分分析(principal component analysis,PCA)数据处理方法研究了掺入10%、20%、30%、40%、50%、60%、70%油菜蜜和大米糖浆的掺假蜂蜜的电子鼻信息变化特征,并以掺假蜂蜜的电子鼻信息变化特征为指导,结合判别因子分析(linear discriminant analysis,LDA)模式识别算法研究了电子鼻对掺假蜂蜜的定性识别分析能力。结果表明,掺假蜂蜜的电子鼻信息呈现线性变化,并且电子鼻对掺假蜂蜜有较强的敏感力。LDA 模式识别算法可以将纯蜂蜜样品与掺假蜂蜜样品很好的区分开, LDA掺假判别模型正确识别率为94.7%,该技术可以为蜂蜜掺假鉴别提供技术支撑。%To establish a method for rapid detection of honey adulteration,in this paper, Acacia honey, Jing nectar, Date honey of market liquidity greatly and rape honey, rice syrup of typical adulterated substances were studied, the electronic nose (e-nose) information of natural honey and adulterated honey that was made by incorporation 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50%, 60%, 70%rape honey and rice syrup were collected by FOX4000 e-nose. The data processing method of principal component analysis (PCA) was employed to study information variation characteristics of the electronic nose of natural honey and adulterated honey, and the minimum amount added that adulterated substances cause honey aroma system changes. On the basis of information variation characteristics of the electronic nose was as the guidance, the pattern recognition algorithm of Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) was employed to study the ability of qualitative recognition of electronic nose for adulterated honey. The results showed that there was a linear relationship between e-nose signals and the level of adulteration. Adulterated honey samples array from right to left with the increase in the content of adulteration in the direction of the

  16. Survey of commercial Rhodiola products revealed species diversity and potential safety issues

    OpenAIRE

    Tianyi Xin; Xiaojin Li; Hui Yao; Yulin Lin; Xiaochong Ma; Ruiyang Cheng; Jingyuan Song; Lianghong Ni; Congzhao Fan; Shilin Chen

    2015-01-01

    The adulteration of herbal products is a threat to consumer safety. Here we surveyed the species composition of commercial Rhodiola products using DNA barcoding as a supervisory method. A Rhodiola dietary supplement DNA barcode database was successfully constructed using 82 voucher samples from 10 Rhodiola species. Based on the DNA barcoding standard operating procedure (SOP), we used this database to identify 100 Rhodiolae Crenulatae Radix et Rhizoma decoction piece samples that were purchas...

  17. Is it really organic? Authenticity testing of organic plant products using elemental and isotopic fingerprinting

    OpenAIRE

    Laursen, K. H.; Husted, S.

    2012-01-01

    The commercial market for high-value plant products is steadily increasing. Consumers are willingly paying premium prices for plants that originate from specific geographical regions or are produced according to certain agricultural management practices. This has significantly enhanced the market shares of organically grown plant products but has simultaneously increased the risk of food adulteration and fraudulent activities. Consequently, sophisticated analytical principles are currently be...

  18. Hybrid analysis (barcode-high resolution melting) for authentication of Thai herbal products, Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f.) Wall.ex Nees

    OpenAIRE

    Maslin Osathanunkul; Chatmongkon Suwannapoom; Nuttaluck Khamyong; Danupol Pintakum; Santisuk Na Lamphun; Kanokporn Triwitayakorn; Kitisak Osathanunkul; Panagiotis Madesis

    2016-01-01

    Background: Andrographis paniculata Nees is a medicinal plant with multiple pharmacological properties. It has been used over many centuries as a household remedy. A. paniculata products sold on the markets are in processed forms so it is difficult to authenticate. Therefore buying the herbal products poses a high-risk of acquiring counterfeited, substituted and/or adulterated products. Due to these issues, a reliable method to authenticate products is needed. Materials and Methods: High reso...

  19. Application of strongly overcoupled resonant modes of long-period fiber gratings to measure the adulteration of olive oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Palas; Basumallick, Nandini; Dasgupta, Kamal; Ghosh, Ajay; Bandyopadhyay, Somnath

    2016-07-01

    We have shown that strongly overcoupled resonant modes of long-period fiber gratings (LPFGs) can be used to assess the adulteration of olive oil. In this background, we investigate the response characteristics of strongly overcoupled resonant modes of different orders to a surrounding medium, the refractive index (RI) of which is greater than that of the fiber cladding, and in the range where a precise refractive index measurement is immensely useful for inspecting the quality of olive oils and other edible oils. A theoretical simulation that would help in designing a sensor with suitable sensitivity and range of measurement has been presented in detail and also validated with experimental results. It was interesting to observe that in a high RI surrounding, a lower order overcoupled resonant mode is much more sensitive as compared to a higher-order one having a similar coupling coefficient. A quantitative analysis demonstrates that for a particular LPFG, the sensitivity of a strongly overcoupled LP06 mode was found to be ∼2000  dB/RIU, while that of the LP07 mode having similar coupling strength was ∼550  dB/RIU in the surrounding refractive index range from 1.458 to 1.520. The results have been validated experimentally. PMID:27409199

  20. 丹参及其常见伪品鉴别%The Identification of Salvia Miltiorrhiza and Its Common Adulterants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于广孝

    2015-01-01

    丹参为唇形科植物鼠尾草属的干燥根及根茎,为常见中药之一,药用价值较高,近年来,随着使用量增加,丹参混淆品种也逐渐增多,对药物的药效影响的同时还带来较多的质量安全隐患。文章从丹参主要性状、显微特征和理化性质着手,简要描述了其一般性状,并就目前常见丹参混淆品、伪品加以介绍,并提出相关的鉴别方法。%Salvia is dried roots and rhizomes of Labiatae Salvia, one of the common medicine, high medicinal value, in recent years, with the increased use of Salvia species confusion is gradually increasing, the impact on the efficacy of drugs while also bringing more quality and safety problems. Articles from Salvia main characters, microscopic characteristics and physical and chemical properties of the start, a brief description of their general character, and Salvia now common adulterant, counterfeit goods to be introduced, and make relevant identification methods.

  1. Drugs and other product choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyman, Paul M; Carvajal, Ricardo

    2009-01-01

    Dermatologists have at their disposal a wide range of products to recommend or prescribe to their patients, all of which are regulated in some way by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). However, the degree to which FDA has confirmed the safety and efficacy of a dermatological product can vary widely. Most prescription and some over-the-counter drugs and medical devices are approved by the FDA based on scientific data. Most over-the-counter drugs are marketed in compliance with FDA regulations based on expert medical review. The FDA clears most medical devices based on their substantial equivalence to other legally marketed devices. Cosmetics, medical foods, and dietary supplements are subject only to general postmarket prohibitions against adulterated and misbranded products, although the FDA may review ingredient safety and specific claims for dietary supplements. Some product information is available on FDA's Web site, but the prudent physician should supplement that information by reviewing available scientific literature. PMID:19453345

  2. Multilocus genetic characterization of two ant vectors (Group II ‘‘Dirty 22’’ species) known to contaminate food and food products and spread foodborne pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Food and Drug Administration utilizes the presence of filth and extraneous materials as one of the criteria for implementing regulatory actions and assessing adulteration of food products of public health importance. Twenty-two prevalent pest species (also known as the ‘‘Dirty 22’’ species)...

  3. 基于近红外光谱技术的蜂蜜掺假识别%Adulteration detection of honey based on near-infrared spectroscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    屠振华; 朱大洲; 籍保平; 陈红茜; 庆兆珅

    2011-01-01

    为了实现蜂蜜掺假的快速识别,应用近红外光谱结合模式识别方法对蜂蜜掺假现象进行了识别分析.该研究收集了中国不同品种、不同地域的典型天然蜂蜜样品,根据目前市场上常见的蜂蜜掺假手段,掺假物质及相对含量情况配制了掺假蜂蜜样品,利用傅立叶近红外光谱仪采集其透反射近红外光谱,分别采用偏最小二乘判别分析(PLS-DA),独立软模式法(SIMCA),误差反向传播神经网络(BP-ANN)和最小二乘支持向量机(LS-SVM)等模式识别方法,进行蜂蜜掺假识别研究.研究结果表明:利用这4种方法在蜂蜜中掺入果葡糖浆和果葡糖水的情况下均能很好地识别出掺假蜂蜜样品,其中对于掺入果葡糖浆的掺假情况,校正集的正确判别率均达到95%以上,验证集的正确判别率均达到87%以上,对于掺入果葡糖水的掺假蜂蜜校正集的正确判别率均达到93%以上,验证集的正确判别率均达到84%以上.通过比较4种不同的识别算法,发现采用LS-SVM时,对两种掺假情况下校正集和验证集的正确判别率均达到了100%,表明基于近红外光谱的蜂蜜掺假快速准确识别是可行的.%Near infrared spectroscopy combined with pattern recognition methods was used to discriminate the unadulterated and adulterated honey samples. Various crude honey samples from different area in China were collected, and the adulterated honey were prepared according to typical adulteration method, adulteration substance and construction in the market. FT-NIR spectrometer was used to measure the trans-reflectance spectra of honey. The differentiation models for adulteration of honey were constructed by four kinds of pattern recognition methods, including partial least squares discriminate analysis (PLS-DA), soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA), error back propagation network (BP-ANN), least-squares support vector machine (LS-SVM). The results showed that four

  4. NIR techniques and chemometrics data analysis applied to food adulteration detection

    OpenAIRE

    Fluvià Sabio, Sergi

    2015-01-01

    With the current growing need for low production costs and high efficiency, the food industry is faced with a number of challenges, including maintenance of high-quality standards and assurance of food safety while avoiding liability issues. Meeting these challenges has become crucial in regards to grading food products for different markets. Food companies and suppliers need efficient, low-cost, and non-invasive quality and safety inspection technologies to enable them to satisfy different m...

  5. Adulteration Determining of Pharmaceutical Forms of Ginkgo biloba Extracts from Different International Manufacturers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Ömür Demirezer

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, Ginkgo biloba products used for the same purpose, but licensed to varying authorities were analyzed in point of similarity to each other. A group of these products were licensed from health authorities as herbal medicinal product (HMP, while the other groups of products were licensed as the food supplement (FS. The evaluation of their phytoequivalence was carried out comparing the chromatographic fingerprint profiles. Furthermore, ginkgolides (ginkgolides GA, GB, GC, and GJ and flavonoid aglycones (quercetin, kaempferol, and isorhamnetin were quantitatively analyzed by using liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC-MS and HPLC-diode Array detector (HPLC-DAD assays. All six herbal medicinal products and two food supplements were found to be phytoequivalent to each other, but five of the seven food supplements did not possess similar content as herbal medicinal products, and the quantity of ginkgolides and flavonoid aglycones per tablet/capsule was found to be lower than declared on the labels. In addition, food supplements were found to be adultered with rutin to reach expected total flavonoid glycosides amount.

  6. 利用近红外光谱技术同时检测奶粉中的多个掺假成分%Discrimination of milk powder with multi-adulteration by near infrared spectroscopy technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭攀; 林慧; 杜如虚

    2011-01-01

    利用近红外光谱技术对奶粉中含有多种掺假物的情况进行了定性判别分析.样本集除12个纯正奶粉样品外,146个掺假奶粉样品中分别加入了植脂末,天然大豆分离蛋白粉和麦芽糊精中的1~3种,掺假物的总含量范围在1.96%~35.9%之间.用Thermo Scientific Antaris MX型近红外光谱仪测量样本近红外光谱,采用非线性迭代偏最小二乘法(NIPALS)提取主成分,然后利用马氏距离进行线性判别分析,建立了1个8类判别模型.在138个样本集的交叉验证中,判别准确率达99.28%,20个测试样本的判别准确率达100%.另一方面,将3种掺假物中的1种作为未知干扰掺假物,用不含未知干扰物的样本建立了定性判别模型,然后用含有未知干扰物的样本进行验证.在植脂末作为未知干扰的情况下,判断奶粉是否掺假的准确率有100%,判断大豆分离蛋白粉和麦芽糊精是否掺入的准确度分别为78.94%和88.42%;而使用麦芽糊精作为未知干扰物时,调用模型判别奶粉是否掺假,准确率依然有100%,但判断植脂末和大豆蛋白粉掺入情况的准确率只有34.74%和32.63%.研究表明近红外光谱技术可以对奶粉中的掺假情况和掺假物种类进行快速判断;当掺假物定性判别模型遇到未知干扰时,使用该方法虽然可以对奶粉是否存在掺假进行判断,但对掺假物种类难以进行正确判别,因此建模样本集应包含尽可能多类型的掺假物.%Near Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS) was used to discriminate the adulterate milk powder with adulterations such as vegetal creamer, bean albumen powder and maltodextrin. We got a set of 158 samples. 12 samples was pure milk powder without adulteration, the other 146 samples contained one or more adulterations above whose total contents were from 1.9% to 35.9% .The samples were divided into the modeling set of 138 samples and the validation set of 20 samples. Thermo Scientific Antaris MX FT

  7. / production

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    François Arleo; Pol-Bernard Gossiaux; Thierry Gousset; Jörg Aichelin

    2003-04-01

    For more than 25 years /Ψ production has helped to sharpen our understanding of QCD. In proton induced reaction some observations are rather well understood while others are still unclear. The current status of the theory of /Ψ production will be sketched, paying special attention to the issues of formation time and /Ψ re-interaction in a nuclear medium.

  8. 脂肪酸在饲料原料油脂掺假辨析中的应用%Applications of fatty acids in the analysis of adulterated feedstuffs-oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙伟健; 聂灿军

    2011-01-01

    样品选用氢氧化钾-甲醇快速酯化法进行前处理,采用毛细管气相色谱法测定深海鱼油、大豆油、菜籽油、鸡油、猪油中特征脂肪酸,并对深海鱼油进行部分掺假试验,探讨了掺假鱼油中脂肪酸的变化趋势.掺假实验表明,掺假后鱼油脂肪酸含量随掺入油脂特征不同有不同的变化.当掺假量在10%以上时,EPA+DHA等特征指标变化趋势较明显,可作为油脂掺假鉴别的依据.%We pretreated the materials by potassium hydroxide-methanol rapid esterification method, and determined the characteristic patterns of fatty acid in deep-sea fish oil, soybean oil, rapeseed oil, chicken fat and lard oil using capillary gas chromatography, and discussed the variation trend of fatty acids in adulterated fish oil through part of deep-sea fish oil for the adulteration test. The adulteration experiments showed that fatty acids in fish oil after adulteration changed with different characteristics of mixing oil. When the amount of adulteration was more than 10%, the variation trends of EPA/DHA and other indicators were more obvious, which could be identified as the basis for oil adulteration.

  9. Study of Lemon Yellow and Sunset Yellow in Adulterated Rhizoma Belamcandae%射干伪品中柠檬黄与日落黄的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王祥红; 谢培山

    2012-01-01

    Objective; To identify and assay of watersoluble dyestuff-lemon yellow and sunset yellow in Adulterated Rhizoma Belamcandae. Method; Use TLC for iddentification and HPLC-DAD for iddentification and assay lemon yellow and sunset yellow. Result; Both TLC and HPLC-DAD can identify lemon yellow and sunset yellow in Adulterated Rhizoma Belamcandae, and HPLC detection indicate the content of lemon yellow between 0. 11-0. 37 g·kg-1, and sunset yellow between 0. 04-0. 11 g·kg-1. Conclusion; Staining Iridis kectori khizoma or other adulterants with lemon yellow and sunset yellow as Rhizoma Belamcandae for sales is not only unnecessary, but also increase unsafe factors in clinic. It is necessary to pay attention to about this by relative medicine researcher and manufactory.%目的:鉴别并测定伪品射干中水溶性色素柠檬黄与日落黄.方法:采用薄层色谱法和高效液相色谱法二极管陈列检测鉴别并定量测定样品中的柠檬黄与日落黄.结果:伪品射干中可检出柠檬黄与日落黄,HPLC法测定柠檬黄含量为0.11 ~0.37 g·kg-1,日落黄含量为0.04 ~0.11 g·kg-1.结论:以川射干或其他伪品用柠檬黄与日落黄染色作为射干销售,即无必要,又曾加临床使用不安全因素,值得相关药品研究与生产单位注意.

  10. Identification of Honey Adulteration by Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry%同位素比率质谱技术对蜂蜜掺假的鉴别

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李鑫; 陈小珍; 刘柱; 蒋鑫; 张东雷

    2013-01-01

    本文扩展了同位素比率质谱联用技术的应用,完善了液相色谱联用同位素比率质谱(LC-IRMS)测定蜂蜜中多种糖组分δ13C值的方法.通过对3种糖浆、3种掺糖蜜和纯正蜂蜜测定结果和图谱的多重比较,发现单纯的使用元素分析联用同位素比率质谱(HT-IRMS)进行测定,无法完全鉴别出掺糖蜜,但是结合LC-IRMS的测定结果则能有效的对以上3种方式的掺假进行鉴别.对6种特制蜂蜜进行测定并判定,判定结论与实际制样情况相符.该技术手段丰富了鉴别掺假蜂蜜的方法,具有较强的应用价值.%In this research, Liquid Chromatography - Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry (LC-IRMS) was applied toDetermination of honey adulteration by testing the value of δ13C of a variety of sugar components in honey. After the multiple comparisons of the measurements and the collection of plates of 3 kinds of syrup, doped molasses and pure honey, it was found that doped molasses could not be used to identify honey adulteration by only using Elemental Analysis-Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry (HT-IRMS).However, the 3 kinds of doped molasses could be measured effectively by the method of HT-IRMS combined with LC-IRMS. The technology enriched the identification method for adulterated honey.

  11. Analytical methods for the species identification of milk and milk products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Zachar

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this article is to point out the importance of milk and dairy product authentication with particular focus on the application of analytical methods to detect adulteration.The production of sheep and goat milk has considerable economic importance resulting from the widespread acceptance of traditional cheeses, many made exclusively of pure sheep milk. Fraudulent incorporation of nondeclared kind of milk during technological processing is a common practice that can cause a problem for reasons related to intolerance or allergy, religious, ethical or cultural objections, and legal requirements. Unfortunately, fraudulent substitution of sheep and goat milk with the cheaper cow milk is a common practice and for the detection of mutual adulteration various methods have been reviewed, such as immunological, electrophoretic, chromatographic, and PCR techniques.

  12. Detection of Gelatin Adulteration in Traditional Chinese Medicine: Analysis of Deer-Horn Glue by Rapid-Resolution Liquid Chromatography-Triple Quadrupole Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jia; Cheng, Xian-Long; Wei, Feng; Zhang, Qian-Qian; Li, Ming-Hua; Ma, Shuang-Cheng

    2015-01-01

    Simultaneous identification of donkey-hide gelatin and bovine-hide gelatin in deer-horn glue was established by rapid-resolution liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry. Water containing 1% NH4HCO3 was used for sample dissolution and trypsin was used for hydrolysis of the gelatins. After separation by a SB-C18 reversed-phase analytical column, collagen marker peptides were detected by mass spectrometry in positive electrospray ionization mode with multiple reaction monitoring. The method was specific, precise and reliable, and suitable for detection of adulterants derived from donkey-hide gelatin and bovine-hide gelatin in deer-horn glue. PMID:26504613

  13. Skeletal Muscle Troponin I (TnI) in Animal Fat Tissues to Be Used as Biomarker for the Identification of Fat Adulteration

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Bong-Sup; Oh, Young-Kyoung; Kim, Min-Jin; Shim, Won-Bo

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the existence of skeletal muscle troponin I (smTnI), well-known as a muscle protein in fat tissues, and the utilization of smTnI as a biomarker for the identification of fat adulteration were investigated. A commercial antibody (ab97427) specific to all of animals smTnI was used in this study. Fat and meat samples (cooked and non-cooked) of pork and beef, and chicken considered as representative meats were well minced and extracted by heating and non-heating methods, and the ex...

  14. Application of Orbitrap-mass spectrometry to differentiate isomeric sildenafil- and thiosildenafil-like analogues used for the adulteration of dietary supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kee, Chee-Leong; Ge, Xiaowei; Low, Min-Yong

    2015-01-01

    Two groups of isomeric phosphodiestrase-type 5 inhibitors (PDE-5), consisting of four sildenafil- and three thiosildenafil-like analogues, have been successfully differentiated using high-resolution MS/MS. The optimised MS/MS data obtained from each compound were used to build a database with the aid of mass processing software. Isomeric compounds with very close chromatographic separation like dimethylsildenafil and homosildenafil could be distinguished by their unique fingerprint fragment ions in the MS/MS database. All fragment ions were within the mass tolerance of 5 ppm. One case study using an adulterated dietary supplement is included to provide more insights into this application. PMID:26179419

  15. 砷含量测定在蜂蜜掺假鉴别中的应用%Arsenic detection in the application of honey adulteration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    桂茜雯; 林宏; 丁涛; 王艳; 郭玲; 顾玉婷; 季美泉

    2014-01-01

    目的:建立一种通过检测蜂蜜中砷的含量来鉴别大米糖浆掺假的方法。方法检测并比较大量不同来源的大米糖浆和纯正蜂蜜中砷的含量,同时优化了蜂蜜中砷的检测方法,样品以硝酸-微波消解,电感耦合等离子体质谱(ICP-MS)测定,内标法定量。结果在0~5.0μg/L范围内线性良好,定量限为10μg/kg,10、15和30μg/kg的添加水平的回收率均在83.7%~109.6%之间,相对标准偏差小于5.9%,并确定了蜂蜜中大米糖浆的阳性判定限,砷含量在15μg/kg以上的蜂蜜为大米糖浆掺假蜂蜜。结论该方法前处理简单,结果准确度和精密度高,纯蜂蜜和大米糖浆的中砷的含量差别明显,可用于蜂蜜中大米糖浆的掺假鉴别。%Objective To develop a method for detecting the arsenic concentration in honey to identify rice syrup adulteration.Methods Different sources and numbers of honeys and rice syrup were detected and compared by arsenic concentration. The experimental conditions for the arsenic determination in honey by mi-crowave digestion/inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) were optimized.Results Good linearity was obtained in the range of 0~5μg/L for arsenic detection with the quantitation limit of 10μg/kg. The recovery ranged from83.7%~109.6% at three levels of 10, 15 and 30μg/kg with relative standard deviation less than 5.9%. The concentration limit of positive rice syrup in honey was determined. The arsenic concentration over 15μg/kg was identified as the rice syrup adulteration honey.Conclusion It has significant difference between pure honey and adulterated honey. The method is fast, easy and suitable for identifying rice syrup in honey adulteration.

  16. Use of fluorometry for determination of skim milk powder adulteration in fresh milk

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUAN Rong-fa; LIU Dong-hong; YE Xing-qian; YANG Kai

    2005-01-01

    A FAST (fluorescence of advanced Maillard products and Soluble Tryptophan) method for identification of reconstituted milk made from skim milk powder in the fresh milk was developed. Considering milk and skim milk powders variations from different seasons and countries, milk was collected from different dairy farms in different seasons and skim milk powders were collected from different countries to measure the Tryptophan (Trp), advanced Maillard products (AMP) fluorescence values.The results showed that there were differences (P<0.01) between raw and reconstituted milk. The plot of values in each mixed level of raw and reconstituted milk had a correlation coefficient >0.97. The FAST method is a simple, rapid, low-cost and sensitive method enabling the detection of 5% reconstituted milk in fresh milk. The measurement of the Trp, AMP fluorescence values and calculation of the FAST index is a suitable method for large-scale monitoring of fresh milk samples.

  17. The use of stable isotopes for the characterization of honeys, their origin and adulteration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In general, plants used by bees as nectar sources belong to the C3-typ of photosynthetic CO2-fixation. As a consequence, honey mostly shows the delta13C-values of C3-plants. Addition of cane-sugar or corn-products ('isomerose syrup' or 'apireve') to the honey (or feeding these substances to bees) would change this delta13C-value. This allows a sensitive proof for the absence of such additions. The deltaD-values in the dry substance of honey may be used in special cases to identify the geographic origin of the honey

  18. Rapid detection of melamine adulteration in dairy milk by SB-ATR-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jawaid, Sana; Talpur, Farah N; Sherazi, S T H; Nizamani, Shafi M; Khaskheli, Abid A

    2013-12-01

    Melamine is a nitrogenous chemical substance used principally as a starting material for the manufacture of synthetic resins. Due to its very high proportion of nitrogen melamine has been added illegitimately to foods and feeds to increase the measured protein content, which determines the value of the product. These issues prompted private as well as governmental laboratories to develop methods for the analysis of melamine in a wide variety of food products and ingredients. Owing to this fact present study is aimed to use single bounce attenuated total reflectance (SB-ATR) Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) method as an effective rapid tool for the detection and quantification of melamine in milk (liquid and powder). Partial least-squares (PLS) models were established for correlating spectral data to melamine concentration with R(2)>0.99, and RMSEC 0.370. Linear calibration curves were obtained over the calibration range of 25-0.0625%. The LOD and LOQ of the method was 0.00025% (2.5 ppm) and 0.0015% (15 ppm) respectively. Proposed SB-ATR-FTIR method requires little or no sample preparation with an assay time of 1-2 min. PMID:23871060

  19. Authentication of Punica granatum L.: Development of SCAR markers for the detection of 10 fruits potentially used in economically motivated adulteration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marieschi, Matteo; Torelli, Anna; Beghé, Deborah; Bruni, Renato

    2016-07-01

    The large commercial success of pomegranate increase the likelihood of economically motivated adulteration (EMA), which has been gradually spotted with the undeclared addition of anthocyanin-rich plants or cheaper fruit juices used as bulking and diluting agents. A method based on Sequence-Characterized Amplified Regions (SCARs) was developed to detect the presence of Aristotelia chilensis, Aronia melanocarpa, Dioscorea alata, Euterpe oleracea, Malus×domestica, Morus nigra, Sambucus nigra, Vaccinium macrocarpon, Vaccinium myrtillus, Vitis vinifera as bulking agents in Punica granatum. The method enabled the unequivocal detection of up to 1% of each adulterant, allowing the preemptive rejection of suspect samples. The recourse to such method may reduce the number of samples to be subjected to further phytochemical analyses when multiple batches have to be evaluated in a short time. Vice versa, it allows the cross-check of suspect batches previously tested only for their anthocyanin profile. The dimension of the amplicons is suitable for the analysis of degraded DNA obtained from stored and processed commercial material. Proper SCAR markers may represent a fast, sensitive, reliable and low-cost screening method for the authentication of processed commercial pomegranate material. PMID:26920316

  20. 掺假蜂蜜检测技术的研究综述%Review of detecting techniques of honey adulteration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷鸣; 何晋浙; 孙培龙

    2012-01-01

    According to the situation of the forms and characteristics of honey adulteration, this paper reviewed several current main methods and its features on the feasibility of detecting: stable carbon isotope ratio method, high-performance anion-exchange chromatography-pulsed amperometric detection, near-infrared spectroscopy, enzymatic activity detection and microscopic analysis. The prospect of detecting techniques of honey adulteration was also discussed.%通过对蜂蜜掺假的形式、特点等入手,概述了目前在蜂蜜掺假检测中的几种主要可行性方法及其特点:稳定碳同位素比率法、高效阴离子交换色谱-脉冲安培检测法、近红外光谱法、淀粉酶活性检测法和显微镜检验法。最后,对掺假蜂蜜检测技术的发展进行了展望。

  1. Quality assessment of gasoline using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography combined with unfolded partial least squares: A reliable approach for the detection of gasoline adulteration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parastar, Hadi; Mostafapour, Sara; Azimi, Gholamhasan

    2016-01-01

    Comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography and flame ionization detection combined with unfolded-partial least squares is proposed as a simple, fast and reliable method to assess the quality of gasoline and to detect its potential adulterants. The data for the calibration set are first baseline corrected using a two-dimensional asymmetric least squares algorithm. The number of significant partial least squares components to build the model is determined using the minimum value of root-mean square error of leave-one out cross validation, which was 4. In this regard, blends of gasoline with kerosene, white spirit and paint thinner as frequently used adulterants are used to make calibration samples. Appropriate statistical parameters of regression coefficient of 0.996-0.998, root-mean square error of prediction of 0.005-0.010 and relative error of prediction of 1.54-3.82% for the calibration set show the reliability of the developed method. In addition, the developed method is externally validated with three samples in validation set (with a relative error of prediction below 10.0%). Finally, to test the applicability of the proposed strategy for the analysis of real samples, five real gasoline samples collected from gas stations are used for this purpose and the gasoline proportions were in range of 70-85%. Also, the relative standard deviations were below 8.5% for different samples in the prediction set. PMID:26541637

  2. Quantitative Analysis of Adulterations in Oat Flour by FT-NIR Spectroscopy, Incomplete Unbalanced Randomized Block Design, and Partial Least Squares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper developed a rapid and nondestructive method for quantitative analysis of a cheaper adulterant (wheat flour in oat flour by NIR spectroscopy and chemometrics. Reflectance FT-NIR spectra in the range of 4000 to 12000 cm−1 of 300 oat flour objects adulterated with wheat flour were measured. The doping levels of wheat flour ranged from 5% to 50% (w/w. To ensure the generalization performance of the method, both the oat and the wheat flour samples were collected from different producing areas and an incomplete unbalanced randomized block (IURB design was performed to include the significant variations that may be encountered in future samples. Partial least squares regression (PLSR was used to develop calibration models for predicting the levels of wheat flour. Different preprocessing methods including smoothing, taking second-order derivative (D2, and standard normal variate (SNV transformation were investigated to improve the model accuracy of PLS. The root mean squared error of Monte Carlo cross-validation (RMSEMCCV and root mean squared error of prediction (RMSEP were 1.921 and 1.975 (%, w/w by D2-PLS, respectively. The results indicate that NIR and chemometrics can provide a rapid method for quantitative analysis of wheat flour in oat flour.

  3. Simultaneous determination of isoflavones and resveratrols for adulteration detection of soybean and peanut oils by mixed-mode SPE LC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xin; Ma, Fei; Li, Peiwu; Li, Guangming; Zhang, Liangxiao; Zhang, Qi; Zhang, Wen; Wang, Xiupin

    2015-06-01

    To ensure authenticity of vegetable oils, isoflavones (genistein, genistin, daidzein and daidzin) and resveratrols (cis-resveratrol and trans-resveratrol) were selected as the putative markers for adulteration of soybean and peanut oils. Firstly, mixed mode solid-phase extraction coupled with liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (mixed-mode SPE LC-MS/MS) method was developed to analyze isoflavones and resveratrols in vegetable oils. The concentration of marker compounds in vegetable oils were 0.08-1.47mgkg(-1) for daidzein, ND-78.9μgkg(-1) for daidzin, 0.40-5.89mgkg(-1) for genistein, 1.2-114.9μgkg(-1) for genistin, 3.1-85.0μgkg(-1) for trans-resveratrol and 1.9-51.0μgkg(-1) for cis-resveratrol, which are compatible with the raw materials for oil press. Additionally, the applicability of this method has been successfully tested in thirteen vegetable oils from the market. Mixed-mode SPE LC-MS/MS method can simultaneously detect isoflavones and resveratrols in vegetable oils and assess adulteration and quality of soybean and peanut oils. PMID:25624257

  4. 原料乳掺假物质及其快速检测技术%Quick Detection Technology of Chemical Adulterations in Raw Milk

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹殿洁; 黄信龙; 冯学花; 余大群; 苏成; 郭乔乔

    2012-01-01

    Milk contained many necessary nutrients which were easily absorbed by our body,such as protein,fat,sugar,minerals,vitamin,enzyme,etc.At present,the problem of milk adulteration was serious in our country in the field of food safety.Some chemical reactions and phenomenon were employed to detect eleven kinds of adulterations in raw milk.%牛乳来源广泛,营养丰富,其中含有蛋白质、脂肪、乳糖、无机盐、维生素、酶类等几十种易被人体吸收的营养成分。当前,我国食品安全问题日益突出,其中乳制品掺假问题也倍受关注。本文主要介绍了利用若干化学反应的基本原理和现象,检测出原料乳中11种掺假物质。

  5. Rapid Identification of Officinal Akebiae Caulis and Its Toxic Adulterant Aristolochiae Manshuriensis Caulis (Aristolochia manshuriensis) by Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lan; Wang, Bo; Zhao, Mingming; Liu, Wei; Zhang, Peng; Shi, Yuhua; Xiong, Chao; Wang, Ping; Sun, Wei; Chen, Shilin

    2016-01-01

    Mu-tong (Akebiae Caulis) is a traditional Chinese medicine commonly used as a diuretic and antiphlogistic. A common adulterant of Mu-tong is Guan-mu-tong (Aristolochiae Manshuriensis Caulis), which is derived from the stem of Aristolochia manshuriensis Komarov, and contains carcinogenic aristolochic acids. We used an alternative technique, loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP), to differentiate Mu-tong from Guan-mu-tong because LAMP is quick, highly sensitive, and specific. We designed a set of four common primers (G-F3, G-B3, G-FIP, and G-BIP) and a loop primer (G-LB) for LAMP based on the internal transcribed spacer 2 sequence of Ar. manshuriensis. We successfully amplified the LAMP assays and visual detection occurred within 60 min at isothermal conditions of 65°C. The LAMP reaction exhibited a tenfold increase in detection (4.22 pg/μl DNA) over conventional polymerase chain reaction demonstrating that LAMP is a useful technique to detect Guan-mu-tong. We conclude that the LAMP technique is a potentially valuable safety control method for simple and efficient discrimination of Mu-tong from its adulterant Guan-mu-tong. PMID:27379153

  6. Validation of a rapid method of analysis using ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography - tandem mass spectrometry for nitrogen-rich adulterants in nutritional food ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draher, Jon; Pound, Vickie; Reddy, Todime M

    2014-12-19

    A method for the rapid quantification of 9 potential nitrogen-rich economic adulterants (dicyandiamide, urea, biuret, cyromazine, amidinourea, ammeline, amidinourea, melamine, and cyanuric acid) in five milk and soy derived nutritional ingredients, i.e. whole milk powder, nonfat dry milk, milk protein concentrate, sodium caseinate, and soy protein isolate has been developed and validated for routine use. The samples were diluted tenfold with water followed by treatment with 2% formic acid and acetonitrile to precipitate proteins. Sample extracts were analyzed using hydrophilic interaction chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry (HILIC-MS/MS) under both positive and negative modes. Stable isotope labeled internal standards were used to ensure accurate quantification. In multi-day validation experiments, the average accuracies, relative standard deviations (RSD), and method detection limits (MDL) for all analytes in whole milk powder were 82-101%, 6-13%, and 0.1mg/kg-7 mg/kg, respectively. The retention times of the analytes in matrix spiked controls were within ± 0.06 min of the average retention times of the corresponding analytes in calibration standards. The validated method was proven to be rugged for routine use to quantify the presence of 9 nitrogen-rich compounds in milk and soy derived ingredients and to provide a defense from economically motivated adulteration. PMID:25435465

  7. Interval ridge regression (iRR) as a fast and robust method for quantitative prediction and variable selection applied to edible oil adulteration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jović, Ozren; Smrečki, Neven; Popović, Zora

    2016-04-01

    A novel quantitative prediction and variable selection method called interval ridge regression (iRR) is studied in this work. The method is performed on six data sets of FTIR, two data sets of UV-vis and one data set of DSC. The obtained results show that models built with ridge regression on optimal variables selected with iRR significantly outperfom models built with ridge regression on all variables in both calibration (6 out of 9 cases) and validation (2 out of 9 cases). In this study, iRR is also compared with interval partial least squares regression (iPLS). iRR outperfomed iPLS in validation (insignificantly in 6 out of 9 cases and significantly in one out of 9 cases for pAdulteration of hempseed (H) oil, a well known health beneficial nutrient, is studied in this work by mixing it with cheap and widely used oils such as soybean (So) oil, rapeseed (R) oil and sunflower (Su) oil. Binary mixture sets of hempseed oil with these three oils (HSo, HR and HSu) and a ternary mixture set of H oil, R oil and Su oil (HRSu) were considered. The obtained accuracy indicates that using iRR on FTIR and UV-vis data, each particular oil can be very successfully quantified (in all 8 cases RMSEPadulteration in the adulterated hempseed oil (R(2)>0.99). PMID:26838379

  8. Classification of Brazilian and foreign gasolines adulterated with alcohol using infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Neirivaldo C; Pimentel, Maria Fernanda; Honorato, Ricardo S; Talhavini, Marcio; Maldaner, Adriano O; Honorato, Fernanda A

    2015-08-01

    The smuggling of products across the border regions of many countries is a practice to be fought. Brazilian authorities are increasingly worried about the illicit trade of fuels along the frontiers of the country. In order to confirm this as a crime, the Federal Police must have a means of identifying the origin of the fuel. This work describes the development of a rapid and nondestructive methodology to classify gasoline as to its origin (Brazil, Venezuela and Peru), using infrared spectroscopy and multivariate classification. Partial Least Squares Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA) and Soft Independent Modeling Class Analogy (SIMCA) models were built. Direct standardization (DS) was employed aiming to standardize the spectra obtained in different laboratories of the border units of the Federal Police. Two approaches were considered in this work: (1) local and (2) global classification models. When using Approach 1, the PLS-DA achieved 100% correct classification, and the deviation of the predicted values for the secondary instrument considerably decreased after performing DS. In this case, SIMCA models were not efficient in the classification, even after standardization. Using a global model (Approach 2), both PLS-DA and SIMCA techniques were effective after performing DS. Considering that real situations may involve questioned samples from other nations (such as Peru), the SIMCA method developed according to Approach 2 is a more adequate, since the sample will be classified neither as Brazil nor Venezuelan. This methodology could be applied to other forensic problems involving the chemical classification of a product, provided that a specific modeling is performed. PMID:26042439

  9. 基于氨基酸模式的牛奶蛋白掺假分析%Adulteration analysis of milk protein based on amino acid pattern

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赖玉婷; 董芷呈; 陈挺强; 王培坚; 李明芬; 柳春红

    2013-01-01

    以市售合格牛奶及奶粉为材料,采用面粉及淀粉对其进行模拟掺假,通过柱前衍生化-高效液相色谱法(HPLC)对样品中的色氨酸(Trp)、苏氨酸(Thr)、缬氨酸(Val)、赖氨酸(Lys)进行检测,建立判别牛奶蛋白掺假的氨基酸简洁模式.结果表明,建立的牛奶氨基酸模式为:色氨酸∶苏氨酸∶缬氨酸∶赖氨酸=1.0∶2.7∶3.5∶5.4,与世界卫生组织(WHO)提出的牛乳标准氨基酸模式吻合;奶粉氨基酸模式为:色氨酸∶苏氨酸∶缬氨酸∶赖氨酸=1.0∶3.0∶4.5∶5.4;掺假牛奶、奶粉的氨基酸模式与上述氨基酸模式相比有明显差异.利用柱前衍生化-高效液相色谱法建立牛奶及奶粉的氨基酸简洁模式可有效判别出牛奶及奶粉的蛋白掺假,能满足常规检测及乳品的安全控制需要.%To establish a method for identifying of milk protein adulteration based on amino acid pattern. With on sale qualified milk and milk powder as material,flour and starch were used to simulate adulteration. Tryptophan (Trp),threonine(Thr),valine(Val) and lysine(Lys) of the samples were determined by pre-column derivation-high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to establish amino acid concise patterns for identifying milk protein adulteration. The result indicated that the amino acid pattern of qualified milk was Trp:Thr:Val:Lys = 1.0:2.7:3.5:5.4,which was highly anastomosed with the standard one proposed by World Health Organization (WHO). And the amino acid pattern of qualified milk powder was Trp:Thr:Val:Lys = 1.0:3.0:4.5:5.4. The amino acid patterns of adulterate milk and milk powder were significantly different from these of qualified ones. In conclusion, it was feasible to apply amino acid concise patterns of milk and milk powder to analyze milk protein adulteration,and this method could meet the requirements of routine determination and food safety control of dairy.

  10. Research progress on authentication methods for edible oils adulteration%食用油脂掺伪鉴别技术研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙淑敏; 谢岩黎; 张严

    2014-01-01

    As an important part of people's diet structure, as well as the important basic raw material of food industry, the quality and safety of edible oil have an important influence on people’s health. Now the edible oil market is quite disordered, with diverse and complex adulteration phenomenon emerging frequently, which made oil adulteration become a technical problem in the field of oil security monitoring. Therefore, a set of scientific and effective methods for edible oil adulteration identification need to be established, to protect consumers’ health, to ensure food safety, and to strengthen the supervision power of government. This paper mainly reviewed the latest research progress and existing problems of modern analytic technologies including gas or liquid chromatography, infrared/near infrared spectrum, raman spectrum spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance method as well as electronic nose technology for edible oil adulteration detection, as well as to prospect the future research, aiming at supplying a detailed way for edible oil adulteration identification.%食用油脂既是人们膳食结构中不可缺少的重要组成部分,也是食品工业的重要基础原料,其品质和安全性对人类健康有着重要的影响。当前食用油市场较为混乱,各种掺伪现象层出不穷,其掺伪种类和方式多变且复杂,使得油脂掺伪检验已成为油脂安全监控领域的一项技术性难题,亟待建立一套科学、有效的食用油脂掺伪鉴别方法以保护消费者健康,保障食品安全,强化政府监管能力。本文重点综述了气相色谱、液相色谱和色质联用等色谱技术,红外光谱、近红外光谱和拉曼光谱等光谱技术,以及核磁共振法和电子鼻技术等现代分析技术在食用油脂掺伪鉴别中的最新研究进展和应用中存在的问题,并展望今后研究方向,旨在为食用油掺伪鉴别研究提供一定的思路和方法指导。

  11. 食用油脂掺伪鉴别技术研究进展%Research progress on authentication methods for edible oils adulteration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙淑敏; 谢岩黎; 张严

    2014-01-01

    As an important part of people's diet structure, as well as the important basic raw material of food industry, the quality and safety of edible oil have an important influence on people’s health. Now the edible oil market is quite disordered, with diverse and complex adulteration phenomenon emerging frequently, which made oil adulteration become a technical problem in the field of oil security monitoring. Therefore, a set of scientific and effective methods for edible oil adulteration identification need to be established, to protect consumers’ health, to ensure food safety, and to strengthen the supervision power of government. This paper mainly reviewed the latest research progress and existing problems of modern analytic technologies including gas or liquid chromatography, infrared/near infrared spectrum, raman spectrum spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance method as well as electronic nose technology for edible oil adulteration detection, as well as to prospect the future research, aiming at supplying a detailed way for edible oil adulteration identification.%食用油脂既是人们膳食结构中不可缺少的重要组成部分,也是食品工业的重要基础原料,其品质和安全性对人类健康有着重要的影响。当前食用油市场较为混乱,各种掺伪现象层出不穷,其掺伪种类和方式多变且复杂,使得油脂掺伪检验已成为油脂安全监控领域的一项技术性难题,亟待建立一套科学、有效的食用油脂掺伪鉴别方法以保护消费者健康,保障食品安全,强化政府监管能力。本文重点综述了气相色谱、液相色谱和色质联用等色谱技术,红外光谱、近红外光谱和拉曼光谱等光谱技术,以及核磁共振法和电子鼻技术等现代分析技术在食用油脂掺伪鉴别中的最新研究进展和应用中存在的问题,并展望今后研究方向,旨在为食用油掺伪鉴别研究提供一定的思路和方法指导。

  12. Tragedy, transformation, and triumph: comparing the factors and forces that led to the adoption of the 1860 Adulteration Act in England and the 1906 Pure Food and Drug Act in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    London, Jillian

    2014-01-01

    The 1860 Adulteration Act in England and the 1906 Pure Food and Drug Act in the United States were two of the earliest pieces of legislation to provide generalized regulation of food and drugs on a national scale. While significant scholarly attention has been given to explaining the factors and forces that led to the passage of each Act independent of the other, few books or articles have directly compared the similar individuals and events that led to the adoption of both Acts. This paper attempts to fill that gap. Through a comparative examination, this paper reveals that four main components were key to the national pure food and drug movements in both countries: individuals who crusaded for national adulteration legislation; tragedies that shocked the public into calling for reform; press and publicity that was willing and able to bring the evils of adulteration to the forefront of the public mind; and a transformation of the social, political, and economic systems, which created atmospheres conducive to reform. This paper aims to shed new light on the 1860 Adulteration Act and the 1906 Pure Food and Drug Act--two acts that derive their importance not just from the effect that they directly had on the regulation of food and drugs but also as some of the earliest examples of western governments coming to recognize the need for national regulation to protect the public from harm and coming to embrace their changing role as spearheads of modern regulatory states. PMID:25163213

  13. Levamisole and cocaine synergism: a prevalent adulterant enhances cocaine's action in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tallarida, Christopher S; Egan, Erin; Alejo, Gissel D; Raffa, Robert; Tallarida, Ronald J; Rawls, Scott M

    2014-04-01

    Levamisole is estimated by the Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA) to be present in about 80% of cocaine seized in the United States and linked to debilitating, and sometimes fatal, immunologic effects in cocaine abusers. One explanation for the addition of levamisole to cocaine is that it increases the amount of product and enhances profits. An alternative possibility, and one investigated here, is that levamisole alters cocaine's action in vivo. We specifically investigated effects of levamisole on cocaine's stereotypical and place-conditioning effects in an established invertebrate (planarian) assay. Acute exposure to levamisole or cocaine produced concentration-dependent increases in stereotyped movements. For combined administration of the two agents, isobolographic analysis revealed that the observed stereotypical response was enhanced relative to the predicted effect, indicating synergism for the interaction. In conditioned place preference (CPP) experiments, cocaine produced a significant preference shift; in contrast, levamisole was ineffective at all concentrations tested. For combination experiments, a submaximal concentration of cocaine produced CPP that was enhanced by inactive concentrations of levamisole, indicating synergism. The present results provide the first experimental evidence that levamisole enhances cocaine's action in vivo. Most important is the identification of synergism for the levamisole/cocaine interaction, which now requires further study in mammals. PMID:24440755

  14. Recognition of Sesame Oil Essence Adulteration in Sesame Oil Using Electronic Nose%电子鼻在芝麻油掺芝麻油香精识别中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾洪锋; 邓红; 梁爱华

    2013-01-01

    In this study,the recognition of sesame oil essence adulteration in sesame oil was performed using an electronic nose system.The principal component analysis (PCA),discriminant factor analysis (DFA) and partial least-squares analysis (PLS) and statistical quality control analysis (SQC) were conducted on the obtained data.The results indicated that different samples had different characteristic response signals in electronic nose sensor,the adulteration of sesame oil sample with different proportions could be recognized effectively and DFA was more competent than PCA in distinguishing effect.Sesame oils adulterated with sesame oil essence at levels of adulteration exceeding 50% were distinguished easily by SQC.There was high correlation between electronic nose sensors' response signals and the adulteration ratio of sesame oil essence (correlation coefficient =0.992 1) in processing data by the PLS model.PLS could effectively identify the experimental samples of sesame oils adulterated with 0% ~ 100% sesame oil essence.It proved in the test that electronic nose could be applied in adulteration recognition of sesame oil.%采用电子鼻对芝麻油中掺入芝麻油香精进行识别.通过对所获得的数据进行主成分分析(Principal Component Analysis,PCA)、判别因子分析(Discriminant Factor Analysis,DFA)、偏最小二乘回归分析(Partial Least-squares Analysis,PLS)和统计质量控制分析(Statistical Quality Control,SQC).结果表明:不同样品在电子鼻传感器上有不同的特征性响应图谱,电子鼻能够有效识别不同掺入比例的芝麻油样品;DFA方法的区分效果比PCA方法更好;SQC模型对于掺入芝麻油香精超过50%的芝麻油能明显区分;采用PLS对数据进行处理,电子鼻响应信号和芝麻油香精掺入比例之间有很好的相关性(相关系数为0.992 1),PLS方法能有效识别掺入比例为0%~ 100%的试验样品.试验证明电子鼻可用于芝麻油掺假的识别.

  15. 气相色谱—质谱法鉴定油茶籽油掺杂的方法研究%Method study on the identification of the adulterated camellia oil by gas chromatographymass spectrometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柴振林; 杨柳; 朱杰丽; 吴翠蓉; 钭培明

    2012-01-01

    The fatty acid composition of the common edible vegetable oil was analyzed,and the significant changed characteristic components in adulterated camellia oil was also determined. By setting different proportions of adulterating contents and using the method of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry ( GC-MS) ,the regression equation was established between the characteristic components contents after adulterated of palm oil, rapeseed oil, cotton seed oil, peanut oil and soybean oil in camellia oil and the adulterated amount. The correlation coefficient was greater than 0. 99, and the overall accuracy was 101%. This method can be used for the qualitative identification and quantitative detection of adulterated camellia oil.%分析了常见食用植物油脂肪酸组成,确定油茶籽油掺杂后变化显著的特征成分,通过设置不同比例的掺杂量,采用气相色谱—质谱法,研究建立了油茶籽油中掺杂棕榈油、菜籽油、棉籽油、花生油和大豆油等5种植物油后的特征组分含量与掺杂量的回归方程,相关系数0.99以上,总体准确率101%.本方法可以用于油茶籽油掺杂的定性鉴定和定量检测.

  16. Detection of adulterated honey produced by honeybee (Apis mellifera L.) colonies fed with different levels of commercial industrial sugar (C₃ and C₄ plants) syrups by the carbon isotope ratio analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guler, Ahmet; Kocaokutgen, Hasan; Garipoglu, Ali V; Onder, Hasan; Ekinci, Deniz; Biyik, Selim

    2014-07-15

    In the present study, one hundred pure and adulterated honey samples obtained from feeding honeybee colonies with different levels (5, 20 and 100 L/colony) of various commercial sugar syrups including High Fructose Corn Syrup 85 (HFCS-85), High Fructose Corn Syrup 55 (HFCS-55), Bee Feeding Syrup (BFS), Glucose Monohydrate Sugar (GMS) and Sucrose Sugar (SS) were evaluated in terms of the δ(13)C value of honey and its protein, difference between the δ(13)C value of protein and honey (Δδ(13)C), and C4% sugar ratio. Sugar type, sugar level and the sugar type*sugar level interaction were found to be significant (Psyrup level of all sugar types when the δ(13)C value of honey, Δδ(13)C (protein-honey), and C4% sugar ratio were used as criteria according to the AOAC standards. However, it was possible to detect the adulteration by using the same criteria in the honeys taken from the 20 and 100 L/colony of HFCS-85 and the 100L/colony of HFCS-55. Adulteration at low syrup level (20 L/colony) was more easily detected when the fructose content of HFCS syrup increased. As a result, the official methods (AOAC, 978.17, 1995; AOAC, 991.41, 1995; AOAC 998.12, 2005) and Internal Standard Carbon Isotope Ratio Analysis could not efficiently detect the indirect adulteration of honey obtained by feeding the bee colonies with the syrups produced from C3 plants such as sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) and wheat (Triticium vulgare). For this reason, it is strongly needed to develop novel methods and standards that can detect the presence and the level of indirect adulterations. PMID:24594168

  17. Determination of the Authenticity of Dairy Products on the Basis of Fatty Acids and Triacylglycerols Content using GC Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jung-Min; Kim, Na-Kyeong; Yang, Cheul-Young; Moon, Kyong-Whan; Kim, Jin-Man

    2014-01-01

    Milk fat is an important food component, and plays a significant role in the economics, functional nutrition, and chemical properties of dairy products. Dairy products also contain nutritional resources and essential fatty acids (FAs). Because of the increasing demand for dairy products, milk fat is a common target in economic fraud. Specifically, milk fat is often replaced with cheaper or readily available vegetable oils or animal fats. In this study, a method for the discrimination of milk fat was developed, using FAs profiles, and triacylglycerols (TGs) profiles. A total of 11 samples were evaluated: four milk fats (MK), four vegetable oils (VG), two pork lards (PL), and one beef tallow (BT). Gas chromathgraphy analysis were performed, to monitor the FAs content and TGs composition in MK, VG, PL, and BT. The result showed that qualitative determination of the MK of samples adulterated with different vegetable oils and animal fats was possible by a visual comparision of FAs, using C14:0, C16:0, C18:1n9c, C18:0, and C18:2n6c, and of TGs, using C36, C38, C40, C50, C52, and C54 profiles. Overall, the objective of this study was to evaluate the potential of the use of FAs and TGs in the detection of adulterated milk fat, and accordingly characterize the samples by the adulterant oil source, and level of adulteration. Also, based on this preliminary investigation, the usefulness of this approach could be tested for other oils in the future. PMID:26761172

  18. Effect of Optical Length on Detection Accuracy of Camellia Oil Adulteration by Near Infrared Spectroscopy%不同光程对山茶油掺假近红外检测精度的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙通; 吴宜青; 许朋; 温珍才; 胡田; 刘木华

    2015-01-01

    In this research ,near infrared spectroscopy was used to detect adulterated percent of camellia oil adulterated with soy‐bean oil quantificationally at different optical lengths ,and the effect of optical length on detection accuracy of adulterated percent was investigated .Soybean oil was put into camellia oil according to different mass fraction ,the adulterated mass fraction was ranged from 1% to 50% .Transmission spectra of samples were acquired by a Quality Specspectrometer at different optical lengths (1 ,2 ,4 ,10 mm) ,and effect of optical length on detection accuracy of adulterated percent was analyzed by comparing quantitative prediction models that developed at different calibration methods ,pretreatment methods and wavelength range .The results indicate that the performance of quantitative prediction model of adulterated percent is improved as the optical length is in‐creasing from 1 to 4 mm ,while the performance of quantitative prediction model of adulterated percent is deteriorated as the opti‐cal length is increasing from 4 to 10 mm .4 mm is a better optical length for camellia oil adulteration .The coefficients of determi‐nation of prediction (R2P ) and root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) in quantitative prediction models of adulterated per‐cent for optical lengths of 1 ,2 ,4 ,10 mm are 0.923 ,0.977 ,0.989 ,0.962 and 4.58% ,2.54% ,1.72% ,3.20% ,respectively .%利用近红外光谱在不同光程下对山茶油中掺杂大豆油的掺伪量进行定量检测研究,着重分析光程对掺伪量检测精度的影响。将大豆油按一定质量分数掺入山茶油获取实验样本,掺伪质量分数范围为1%~50%。利用QualitySpec型光谱仪采集样本在不同光程(1,2,4,10 mm)下的透射光谱,通过对比不同建模方法、预处理方法及建模波段范围所建立的掺伪量定量预测模型,分析光程对掺伪量检测精度的影响。研究结果表明,光程由1 mm增加到4 mm

  19. 不同光程对山茶油掺假近红外检测精度的影响%Effect of Optical Length on Detection Accuracy of Camellia Oil Adulteration by Near Infrared Spectroscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙通; 吴宜青; 许朋; 温珍才; 胡田; 刘木华

    2015-01-01

    In this research ,near infrared spectroscopy was used to detect adulterated percent of camellia oil adulterated with soy‐bean oil quantificationally at different optical lengths ,and the effect of optical length on detection accuracy of adulterated percent was investigated .Soybean oil was put into camellia oil according to different mass fraction ,the adulterated mass fraction was ranged from 1% to 50% .Transmission spectra of samples were acquired by a Quality Specspectrometer at different optical lengths (1 ,2 ,4 ,10 mm) ,and effect of optical length on detection accuracy of adulterated percent was analyzed by comparing quantitative prediction models that developed at different calibration methods ,pretreatment methods and wavelength range .The results indicate that the performance of quantitative prediction model of adulterated percent is improved as the optical length is in‐creasing from 1 to 4 mm ,while the performance of quantitative prediction model of adulterated percent is deteriorated as the opti‐cal length is increasing from 4 to 10 mm .4 mm is a better optical length for camellia oil adulteration .The coefficients of determi‐nation of prediction (R2P ) and root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) in quantitative prediction models of adulterated per‐cent for optical lengths of 1 ,2 ,4 ,10 mm are 0.923 ,0.977 ,0.989 ,0.962 and 4.58% ,2.54% ,1.72% ,3.20% ,respectively .%利用近红外光谱在不同光程下对山茶油中掺杂大豆油的掺伪量进行定量检测研究,着重分析光程对掺伪量检测精度的影响。将大豆油按一定质量分数掺入山茶油获取实验样本,掺伪质量分数范围为1%~50%。利用QualitySpec型光谱仪采集样本在不同光程(1,2,4,10 mm)下的透射光谱,通过对比不同建模方法、预处理方法及建模波段范围所建立的掺伪量定量预测模型,分析光程对掺伪量检测精度的影响。研究结果表明,光程由1 mm增加到4 mm

  20. Quality control of saffron (Crocus sativus L.): development of SCAR markers for the detection of plant adulterants used as bulking agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marieschi, Matteo; Torelli, Anna; Bruni, Renato

    2012-11-01

    A method based on sequence-characterized amplified regions (SCARs) was developed from random amplified polymorphic DNA markers (RAPDs) specific for Arnica montana L., Bixa orellana L., Calendula officinalis L., Carthamus tinctorius L., Crocus vernus L. (Hill), Curcuma longa L., and Hemerocallis sp. to detect these common bulking agents in commercial saffron (Crocus sativus). The method enabled the unequivocal detection of low amounts (up to 1%) of each adulterant, allowing the preemptive rejection of suspect samples. Its enforcement limits the number of samples to be subjected to further evaluation with pharmacognostic or phytochemical analyses, especially when multiple batches have to be evaluated in a short time. The dimension of the amplicons is suitable for the analysis of degraded DNA obtained from dried, stored, processed, and finely ground commercial material. Proper SCAR markers may represent a fast, sensitive, reliable, and low-cost screening method for the authentication of dried commercial saffron material. PMID:22989071

  1. Research of quality characteristics and adulteration tests in vegetable oil%植物油品质特性和掺伪检验技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛雅琳; 龙伶俐; 史文青; 马榕; 皇甫志鹏; 沈媛

    2012-01-01

    根据所列举植物油不同品种固有的特征成分的差异,论述采用光谱、色谱、质谱以及电子鼻等分析技术,研究植物油的真实性成分,从而建立科学合理的综合掺伪检验方法,规范市场,促进植物油行业健康发展。%According to the differences of the inherent characteristic components among different vegetable oils ,the authentic component of vegetable oil was studied by the spectrum, chromatography and mass spectrum analysis technology and electronic nose. The scientific comprehensive method of adulteration detection was established in order to regulate the market, and promote the healthy development of vegetable oil industry.

  2. Discrimination between Leave of Apocynum venetum and Its Adulterant, A. pictum Based on Antioxidant Assay and Chemical Profiles Combined with Multivariate Statistical Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-On Chan

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available An integrated approach including chemical and biological assessments was developed to investigate the differences between Apocynum venetum L. (AV and its adulterant, Apocynum pictum Schrenk (AP. Ten flavonoids were tentatively identified by ultra-visible and mass spectra data. The chemical component, hyperoside, was identified as a critical parameter for discrimination of two species from the results of principal component analysis (PCA and quantitative analysis. The anti-oxidative power of the herbal extracts were determined using 2,2-diphenyl-1-(2,4,6-trinitrophenyl hydrazyl (DPPH assay and H2O2-induced cell damage on LO2 cells. The results of the biological assays suggested that the chemical differences between AV and AP do lead to difference in activity and AV is demonstrated to have higher anti-oxidant activity.

  3. Identification of mutton adulteration by multiplex fluorescent PCR%多重荧光PCR鉴别羊肉掺假

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨冬燕; 韦梅霞; 杨永存; 李浩; 邓平建

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT:Objective To establish multiplex fluorescent polymerase chain reaction (PCR) system, and simultaneously detect pig, horse, cattle and duck meat mixed in mutton. Methods Mutton samples were mixed with 17%~45% pig, horse, cattle and duck meat. The specific species genes were selected with good specificity and sensitivity to form random duplex and triplex fluorescent PCR detection system for pig, cattle, horse and duck. ResultsThe duplex fluorescent PCR system could identify single added component as low as 7% for 100% accuracy. The triplex fluorescent PCR system could identify 8%~15% pig,cattle, horse and 5%~10% duck in any combination for 100% accuracy.Conclusion The established multiplex fluorescent PCR system can detect pig, horse, cattle and duck meat mixed in prepared mutton samples accurately. It can be further researched to application in market meat and processed meat adulteration detection.%目的:建立可同时检测掺入羊肉中的猪、马、牛、鸭成分的多重荧光PCR检测体系。方法配制掺入猪、马、牛、鸭源性成分的模拟羊肉掺假样品,掺假比例17%~45%。筛选特异性强、敏感度高的猪、马、牛、鸭物种特异性基因,优化反应体系,建立了针对猪、牛、马、鸭两两配对的两重荧光PCR检测体系和其中3个任意组合的三重荧光PCR检测体系。结果模拟羊肉掺假样品两重荧光PCR检测结果显示,包括单个成分掺入比例低至7%的样品,其检测准确率为100%。而三重荧光PCR检测同时检测猪、牛、马、鸭四种肉品中的3种,其中猪肉、牛肉和马肉的掺假比例均为8%~15%;鸭牛肉掺假比例为5%~10%。三重荧光PCR检测结果显示,所有掺假样品中的各种掺假组分都被准确检出。结论本研究建立的多重荧光 PCR 检测体系能准确检出配制的模拟掺假羊肉制品中的猪、马、牛、鸭成分,可进一步研究以应用于市场肉制品及加工肉制品掺假的检测。

  4. Identification of Adulterants in Adulterated Milks by Near Infrared Spectroscopy Combined with Non-Linear Pattern Recognition Methods%近红外光谱结合非线性模式识别方法进行牛奶中掺假物质的判别

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪力军; 钟霖; 张鑫; 张立国; 黄士新

    2014-01-01

    collected from pastures in Shanghai and surrounding ar-eas of Shanghai were used as true milk samples and divided into three true milk sets .Five hundred and twenty six adulterated milk samples ,which contained dextrin (or starch) mixed with melamine (or urea ,or ammonium nitrate) ,were prepared as six different adulterated milk sets .The concentrations of these adulterants in the adulterated milks were designed to be 0.15% ~0.45% (starch or dextrin) ,700~2 100 mg · kg -1 (ammonium nitrate) ,524~1 572 mg · kg -1 (urea) ,and 365.5~1 096.5 mg · kg -1 (melamine) to guarantee the protein content of adulterated milks detected by Kjeldahl method not lower than 3% .All the near infrared spectra (NIR) of the samples should have a pretreatment of normal variable transformation (SNV) before they were used to build discriminating models .The three true milk sets and six adulterated milk sets were combined in different ways in order to build NIR models for discriminating different kinds of adulterants (i .e .,dextrin ,starch ,melamine ,urea and ammo-nium nitrate) based on simplified K-nearest neighbor classification algorithm (IS-KNN) and an improved and simplified of sup-port vector machine (ν-SVM ) method .The relationship between mass concentration of the adulterants and the rate of correct discrimination was also investigated .The results show that the average discrimination accuracy of IS-KNN andν-SVM for identi-fying melamine ,urea and ammonium nitrate were in the region of 49.55% to 51.01% ,61.78% to 68.79% and 68.25% to 73.51% ,respectively .Therefore within the concentration regions designed in this study ,it is difficult to distinguish different kinds of pseudo proteins by NIR spectroscopy .However ,the average accuracy of IS-KNN andν-SVM for identifying starch and dextrin are 92.33% and 93.66% ,77.29% and 85.08% ,respectively .Most discrimination results of ν-SVM are better than those of IS-KNN .The correlative analysis between the discrimination accuracy rate and

  5. Chemostimuli for guanylyl cyclase-D-expressing olfactory sensory neurons promote the acquisition of preferences for foods adulterated with the rodenticide warfarin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Robert Kelliher

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Many animals have the ability to acquire food preferences from conspecifics via social signals. For example, the coincident detection of a food odor by canonical olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs and agonists of the specialized OSNs expressing the receptor guanylyl cyclase GC-D (GC-D+ OSNs will promote a preference in recipient rodents for similarly odored foods. It has been hypothesized that these preferences are acquired and maintained regardless of the palatability or quality of the food. We assessed whether mice could acquire and maintain preferences for food that had been adulterated with the anticoagulant rodenticide warfarin. After olfactory investigation of a saline droplet containing either cocoa (2%, w/w or cinnamon (1%, w/w along with a GC-D+ OSN-specific chemostimulus (either of the guanylin-family peptides uroguanylin and guanylin; 1–50 nM, C57BL/6J mice exhibited robust preferences for unadulterated food containing the demonstrated odor. The peptide-dependent preference was observed even when the food contained warfarin (0.025% w/w. Repeated ingestion of warfarin-containing food over four days did not disrupt the preference, even though mice were not re-exposed to the peptide stimulus. Surprisingly, mice continued to prefer warfarin-adulterated food containing the demonstrated odor when presented with a choice of warfarin-free food containing a novel odor. Our results indicate that olfactory-mediated food preferences can be acquired and maintained for warfarin-containing foods and suggest that guanylin peptides may be effective stimuli for promoting the ingestion of foods or other edibles with low palatability or potential toxicity.

  6. 蔓荆子药材及其混伪品DNA条形码鉴定研究*%Identification of Viticis Fructus and Its Adulterants by ITS2 Sequence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓存; 徐迪; 孙伟; 宋明; 刘霞

    2014-01-01

    ITS2 sequence was used as a barcode to identify Viticis Fructus and its adulterants. The study collected 46 samples include Viticis Fructus and its adulterants. The sequences were obtained by extracting DNA, amplification, sequencing bi-direstionlly, and then assembling with CodonCode Aligner. To identify Viticis Fructus and its adulterants, the study used the methods of computing the genetic distances by Kimura 2-Parameter (K2P) model and constructing the Neighbor-joining (NJ) phylogenetic trees using MEGA5.0. The results showed that the maximum inter-specific K2P distance of Viticis Fructus was less than the minimum inter-specific K2P distance of Viticis Fructus and its adulterants and the NJ tree indicated that the Viticis Fructus and its adulterants could be distinguished clearly. Therefore, using ITS2 barcode can distinguished Viticis Fructus and its adulterants accurately.%本研究应用ITS2序列鉴别蔓荆子及其混伪品,收集药材和基原植物样本共46份,通过提取基因组DNA、PCR扩增和双向测序获得ITS2序列,经CodonCode Aligner V4.2拼接注释获得序列,应用MEGA5.0对序列进行分析比对,计算种内和种间遗传距离(Kimura 2-Parameter ,K2P),构建系统发育NJ树进行鉴定。结果表明,蔓荆子药材基于ITS2序列的种内最大K2P遗传距离均小于其与混伪品的种间最小K2P遗传距离,NJ树显示蔓荆子药材与其混伪品可明显分开,表现出良好的单系性。因此,应用ITS2序列能够准确地鉴定蔓荆子药材及其混伪品。

  7. 应用 matK 基因鉴别青天葵及其常见混伪品%Apply matK gene to identify Nervilia fordii and its common adulterants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄琼林; 梁凌玲; 何瑞; 詹若挺; 陈蔚文

    2014-01-01

    In order to establish the novel method on distinguishing Nervilia fordii and its common adulterants,matK genes from N .fordii and its adulterants were amplified and sequenced using a pair of universal primes.The results revealed that matK genes acquired from N .fordii and its adulterants contained 587 base pairs,and average GC con-tent was 32.8%.The intraspecific distances among N .fordii were 0,whereas the interspecific distance between N . fordii and its adulterants ranged from 0.016 to 0.375.The clustering tree according to Neighbor Joining method and Kimura 2-Parameter model discriminated N .fordii and its adulterants obviously.matK gene is suggested to be an effective biomarker to identify N .fordii and its common adulterants.%分析了青天葵及其混伪品 matK 序列,以期在分子水平建立青天葵及其常见混伪品的鉴别方法.采用一对通用引物对 matK 基因进行 PCR 扩增并测序,所得序列用 DNAMAN、MEGA 等软件进行分析.获得青天葵及其混伪品的 matK 基因序列长度为587 bp,平均 GC 含量为32.8%.青天葵的种内遗传距离为0,与混伪品种间遗传距离范围为0.016~0.375.基于 matK 基因序列构建的 NJ 聚类树能明显地区别青天葵及其混伪品.因此,应用 matK 基因序列可以有效鉴别青天葵及其混伪品.

  8. 改进神经网络在芝麻油掺伪检测中的应用%Application of Improved Neural Network in Sesame Oil Adulteration Detection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱清妍; 潘勇军

    2012-01-01

    Study sesame oil adulteration detection problems to improve the accuracy of detection. Hie traditional physical or chemical sesame oil adulteration detection methods need complex operation, expensive equipment. Combined the advantages of near infrared spectroscopy technology and neural network, the paper proposed a RBF neural network - near infrared spectroscopy sesame oil adulteration detection method ( NIR - RBF) . First, sesame oil sample spectral information was extracted by near infrared spectroscopy. Then, the principal component analysis was used to extract main effective components of spectral information Finally, the main effective components were input to the neural network for learning, and the detection results of sesame oil adulteration were acquired. Using the established model to detect the sesame oil incorporating different types of plant oil, the results show that, compared with other sesame oil adulteration detection method, NIR - RBF improves the detection precision and speed, reduces the error of detection, and is a fast and effective method for detection of sesame oil adulteration.%研究芝麻油掺伪检测问题,提高检测精度.由于成分复杂,掺伪后化学成分变化,直观难以检测.传统物理或化学芝麻油掺伪检测方法操作复杂,设备昂贵,存在不同程度缺陷.结合近红外光谱技术和神经网络优点,提出一种RBF神经网络-近红外光谱的芝麻油掺伪检测方法( NIR - RBF).首先采用近红外光谱提取芝麻油样本的光谱信息,然后采用主成分分析提取光谱信息主要有效成分,最后将主要有效成分输入到神经网络进行学习,得到芝麻油掺伪检测结果.采用建立的模型对掺入不同类型植物油的芝麻油进行检测,结果表明,相对于其它芝麻油掺伪检测方法,NIR - RBF提高了检测精度和速度,降低了检测误差,是一种快速、有效的芝麻油掺伪检测方法.

  9. 基于COI基因的水蛭及其混伪品的DNA条形码研究%DNA barcodes of Shuizhi (Hirudo) and its adulterants studied based on COI gene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晓帆; 刘春生; 杨瑶珺; 白贞芳; 吴立洁; 徐佳; 刘杰; 戴代

    2013-01-01

    目的 利用COI基因对水蛭、蚂蟥、柳叶蚂蟥及常见混伪品进行分子鉴定,探讨快速、准确鉴定水蛭及其混伪品的方法.方法 在全国范围内收集水蛭、蚂蟥、柳叶蚂蝗的正品及其混伪品5种,共12份样品,提取DNA,得到其COI序列.用ContigExpress、DNAMAN、DNA STAR、MEGA5等软件进行变异位点分析,并构建正品水蛭及其混伪品的系统聚类树图.结果 水蛭的正品来源蚂蟥、水蛭、柳叶蚂蟥与其混伪品种间存在较多变异位点.由所构建的系统聚类树图可以看出,同属聚在一起,且各物种又形成相对独立的支.结论 基于COI序列的DNA条形码技术可以很好地鉴定水蛭及其混伪品.%Objective To give the molecular identification to Shuizhi (Hirudo), Mahuang ( Whitmania pigra) , Liuyemahuang {Whitmania acranulata Whitman) and common adulterants by applying COI sequences, and investigate a rapid and accurate method for identifying Shuizhi ( Hirudo) and its adulterants. Methods Qualified Shuizhi, Mahuang, Liuyemahuang and five kinds of adulterants were collected from the whole county (12 samples), and the DNA was extracted for obtaining COI sequences. The softwares of ContigExpress, DNAMAN, EDIT SEQUENCE and MEGA 5 were used to analyze variable sites and build up N-J trees of qualified Shuizhi and its adulterants. Results There were many variable sites between qualified sources of Shuizhi ( Mahuang, Shuizhi and Liuyemahuang) and its adulterants. The N-J trees showed that congeneric species got together and different species formed relative independent branches. Conclusion The technology of DNA barcodes based on COI sequences can be used for identifying Shuizhi and its adulterants excellently.

  10. 蔓荆子药材及其混伪品DNA条形码鉴定研究*%Identification of Viticis Fructus and Its Adulterants by ITS2 Sequence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓存; 徐迪; 孙伟; 宋明; 刘霞

    2014-01-01

    本研究应用ITS2序列鉴别蔓荆子及其混伪品,收集药材和基原植物样本共46份,通过提取基因组DNA、PCR扩增和双向测序获得ITS2序列,经CodonCode Aligner V4.2拼接注释获得序列,应用MEGA5.0对序列进行分析比对,计算种内和种间遗传距离(Kimura 2-Parameter ,K2P),构建系统发育NJ树进行鉴定。结果表明,蔓荆子药材基于ITS2序列的种内最大K2P遗传距离均小于其与混伪品的种间最小K2P遗传距离,NJ树显示蔓荆子药材与其混伪品可明显分开,表现出良好的单系性。因此,应用ITS2序列能够准确地鉴定蔓荆子药材及其混伪品。%ITS2 sequence was used as a barcode to identify Viticis Fructus and its adulterants. The study collected 46 samples include Viticis Fructus and its adulterants. The sequences were obtained by extracting DNA, amplification, sequencing bi-direstionlly, and then assembling with CodonCode Aligner. To identify Viticis Fructus and its adulterants, the study used the methods of computing the genetic distances by Kimura 2-Parameter (K2P) model and constructing the Neighbor-joining (NJ) phylogenetic trees using MEGA5.0. The results showed that the maximum inter-specific K2P distance of Viticis Fructus was less than the minimum inter-specific K2P distance of Viticis Fructus and its adulterants and the NJ tree indicated that the Viticis Fructus and its adulterants could be distinguished clearly. Therefore, using ITS2 barcode can distinguished Viticis Fructus and its adulterants accurately.

  11. 应用 matK 基因鉴别青天葵及其常见混伪品%Apply matK gene to identify Nervilia fordii and its common adulterants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄琼林; 梁凌玲; 何瑞; 詹若挺; 陈蔚文

    2014-01-01

    分析了青天葵及其混伪品 matK 序列,以期在分子水平建立青天葵及其常见混伪品的鉴别方法.采用一对通用引物对 matK 基因进行 PCR 扩增并测序,所得序列用 DNAMAN、MEGA 等软件进行分析.获得青天葵及其混伪品的 matK 基因序列长度为587 bp,平均 GC 含量为32.8%.青天葵的种内遗传距离为0,与混伪品种间遗传距离范围为0.016~0.375.基于 matK 基因序列构建的 NJ 聚类树能明显地区别青天葵及其混伪品.因此,应用 matK 基因序列可以有效鉴别青天葵及其混伪品.%In order to establish the novel method on distinguishing Nervilia fordii and its common adulterants,matK genes from N .fordii and its adulterants were amplified and sequenced using a pair of universal primes.The results revealed that matK genes acquired from N .fordii and its adulterants contained 587 base pairs,and average GC con-tent was 32.8%.The intraspecific distances among N .fordii were 0,whereas the interspecific distance between N . fordii and its adulterants ranged from 0.016 to 0.375.The clustering tree according to Neighbor Joining method and Kimura 2-Parameter model discriminated N .fordii and its adulterants obviously.matK gene is suggested to be an effective biomarker to identify N .fordii and its common adulterants.

  12. Identification of Adulterate Distilled Spirit with Sodium Cyclamate by Gas Chromatography%气相色谱法对白酒中环己基氨基磺酸钠的搀伪鉴别

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祖新; 徐轶飞

    2011-01-01

    Through the conversion reaction of sodium cyclamate,Identification of adulterate distilled spirit with sodium cyclamate by wide-bore capillary gas chromatography.%通过对环己基氨基磺酸钠的转化反应,利用大口径毛细管气相色谱,对白酒中搀入的环己基氨基磺酸钠进行鉴别。

  13. Analysis of the Causes of Several Costly Chinese Medicine Adulteration and Identiifcation Methods%几种贵重中药掺假成因分析及鉴别方法分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张举良

    2015-01-01

    目的:分析几种贵重中药掺假成因分析及鉴别方法。方法购买海马、麝香、冬虫夏草等贵重中药,并采购相应的掺假中药进行对比分析,总结两者特性,并记录其鉴别方法。结果在本次研究中,对海马、麝香、冬虫夏草等三种名贵掺假中药进行了详细对比分析,总结了其鉴别方法,为其鉴别提供了重要价值。结论利用多种方法对本次研究的这几味中药进行鉴定,可提高掺假中药的鉴别率,实际应用价值良好。%Objective To analysis the causes and several precious Chinese medicine adulteration identification method. Methods The purchase of hippocampus, musk, Cordyceps sinensis and precious traditional Chinese medicine, Chinese medicine and procurement adulteration corresponding comparative analysis, summarize the characteristics of the two, and record the differential method. Results In this study, the hippocampus, musk, Cordyceps three kinds of precious Chinese medicine contrast adulteration in detail, summarizes the identification method, and provides an important value for its identiifcation. Conclusion Through this a few herbs were identiifed in this study from many aspects, and can improve the identiifcation of adulterated in traditional Chinese medicine rate, good practical application value.

  14. Analysis of the Causes of Several Costly Chinese Medicine Adulteration and Identiifcation Methods%几种贵重中药掺假成因分析及鉴别方法分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张举良

    2015-01-01

    Objective To analysis the causes and several precious Chinese medicine adulteration identification method. Methods The purchase of hippocampus, musk, Cordyceps sinensis and precious traditional Chinese medicine, Chinese medicine and procurement adulteration corresponding comparative analysis, summarize the characteristics of the two, and record the differential method. Results In this study, the hippocampus, musk, Cordyceps three kinds of precious Chinese medicine contrast adulteration in detail, summarizes the identification method, and provides an important value for its identiifcation. Conclusion Through this a few herbs were identiifed in this study from many aspects, and can improve the identiifcation of adulterated in traditional Chinese medicine rate, good practical application value.%目的:分析几种贵重中药掺假成因分析及鉴别方法。方法购买海马、麝香、冬虫夏草等贵重中药,并采购相应的掺假中药进行对比分析,总结两者特性,并记录其鉴别方法。结果在本次研究中,对海马、麝香、冬虫夏草等三种名贵掺假中药进行了详细对比分析,总结了其鉴别方法,为其鉴别提供了重要价值。结论利用多种方法对本次研究的这几味中药进行鉴定,可提高掺假中药的鉴别率,实际应用价值良好。

  15. 基于脂肪酸含量变化的茶油掺假判别%Determination of Spinetoram with High-Performance Liquid Chromatography Identification of Adulteration of Camellia Oil Based on the Content Change of Fatty Acids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭思敏; 吴卫国; 黄天柱

    2013-01-01

    Based on the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry(GC-MS) technology,we obtained the Fatty acid content of the adulterate model of camellia oil. The model consists of peanut oil,soybean oil,rapeseed oil as a single grease and two kinds of oil adulterated into camellia oil. The content of fatty acids were analyzed and the contour map by the content of fatty acids and fat content were drew. Their can intuitively showing the distribution of each oil in the adulterated model.The research results of this paper were useful for the quality control and adulteration detection of vegetable oils.%  采用气质联用(GC-MS)技术获取茶油、花生油、大豆油、菜籽油的纯油脂及茶油掺假后的油脂掺假模型的脂肪酸含量组成,在对脂肪酸含量变化进行分析的基础上,通过绘制以顺式油酸甲酯面积百分含量为X轴,花生酸甲酯面积百分含量为Y轴与茶油、大豆油、花生油、菜籽油油脂含量的等值线图,直观地呈现出茶油掺假油中茶油、花生油、大豆油、菜籽油的分布,可以定性且定量的鉴别茶油掺假油情况。研究结果可以为食用植物油脂的产品质量控制和掺假检测提供理论依据。

  16. 两种豆科药材及其混伪品的可溶性蛋白质电泳鉴别%Electrophoresis identification of two leguminosae Chinese drugs and the ir adulterants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马晓莉; 史超群

    2001-01-01

    目的:对赤小豆、决明子及其混伪品进行电泳鉴别,并考察考马 斯亮蓝G-250的染色效果。方法:可溶性蛋白质凝胶电泳。 结果:赤小豆、决明子及其混伪品的电泳图谱存在显著差异。结论:电泳图谱可作为赤小豆、决明子及其混伪品的鉴别依据,考马斯亮蓝G-250可用于电泳 鉴别。%OBJECTIVE:To identify two leguminosae Chinese drugs,semen phaseoli,semen cassiae,and their adulterants by electrophoresis and to study the dyeing effect of coomassie brilliant blue G-250.METHOD:Gel electrophoresis of soluble protein was used.RESULTS:The elect rophoretograms of semen phaseoli,semen cassiae and their adulterants are used d ifferent.CONCLUSION:The electrophoretograms can be used to different iate semen phaseoli and semen cassiae from their adulterants.Coomassie brilliant blue G-250 can be used in the electrophoresis identification.

  17. 几味常用中药材非药用部位或混淆品入药现象分析%Analysis of Non-medicinal Parts and Adulterant of Chinese Herbal Medicine Used as Medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李勇

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:To analyze the phenomenon of non-medicinal parts and adulterant of Chinese herbal medicine used as medicine.METHODS:The property,physicochemical property and pesticide effects were indentified in authentic and fake Uncaria tomentosa,Polygala tenuifolia,Cryptotympana pustulata,Rubia cordifolia and the thorn of Gleditsia sinensis.RESULTS:Pesticide effects of non-medicinal parts were worse than authentic medicine or opposite to authentic medicine,and adulterant had no pesticide effects even had toxic effects.CONCLUSIONS:Non-medicinal parts and adulterant has a severe impact on pesticide effects of Chinese herbal medicine.%目的:防止中药材非药用部位或混淆品入药.方法:对钩藤、远志、蝉蜕、茜草、皂荚刺的正伪品性状、理化性状及药效进行鉴别.结果:非药用部位的药效差于正品或者药效相反,混淆品一般无药用价值甚至有毒副作用.结论:非药用部位或混淆品入药会严重影响中药的药效,甚至危害患者.

  18. Comparative Identification of Angelicae Pubescentis Radix and Its Adulterants-Roots of Heracleum Hemsleyanum Diels and Roots of Heracleum Moellendorffii Hance%独活与混淆品牛尾独活、短毛独活的鉴别

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周燕; 金佩芬; 赵宇炯

    2013-01-01

    目的 鉴别独活与混淆品牛尾独活、短毛独活.方法 采用性状、显微、薄层色谱法及液相色谱法鉴别.结果 独活与混淆品牛尾独活、短毛独活的性状、显微特征、薄层色谱、液相色谱均有差异.结论 本实验提供的鉴别方法,能准确地把独活与牛尾独活、短毛独活予以区别.%OBJECTIVE To identify Angelicae Pubescentis Radix and its adulterants-roots of Heracleum hemsleyanum Diels and roots of Heracleum moellendorffii Hance.METHODS Description,microscope,TLC and HPLC were used.RESULTS There were some differences between Angelicae Pubescentis Radix and its adulterants-roots of Heracleum hemsleyanum Diels and roots of Heracleum moellendorffii Hance in histological,morphological characters and physicochemical Properties.CONCLUSION This experiment provides the method for identification which can accurately distinguish Angelicaepubescentis Radix and its adulterants-roots ofHeracleum hemsleyanum Diels and roots of Heracleum moellendorffii Hance.

  19. 基于蛋白质差异鉴别蜂蜜真伪的研究进展%Advance in identifying honey adulteration based on the protein differentiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周厚报; 邓建军; 胡苗苗; 丰凡; 曹炜

    2013-01-01

    Protein which is an important internal standard substance in honey can be used for identifying honey adulteration.It mainly comes from the bees and honey plants.Some differences exist in proteins obtained from different honeys,which is the basis of whether it' s adulterated honey or not.This paper reviewed and evaluated some detection methods of honey adulteration.%蜂蜜蛋白主要来自蜜蜂和蜜源植物,是蜂蜜真伪鉴别的重要内标物.不同来源的蜂蜜,其蛋白之间存在一定的差异,这些差异可以作为蜂蜜是否掺假和真伪鉴别的依据.文中从蛋白质差异方面对蜂蜜真伪鉴别的方法作了综述,并对各种方法进行了分析评价.

  20. [On the need to improve the system for the prevention of falsification of food products in the Eurasian Economic Union].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnautov, O V; Bagryantseva, O V; Bessonov, V V

    2016-01-01

    Adulteration of food is misleading consumers about the composition of foods in order to obtain economic benefits. Olive oil, wine and other alcoholic beverages, spices, tea, fish, honey, milk and dairy products, meat products, cereal products, beverages based on fruit juices, spices, coffee are falsified with the highest frequency. In addition, sufficient data on the frequency of adulterated food products are missing not only in Russia but also in the developed countries. This is because the purpose of the manufacturer and distributors of such products is primarily an economic advantage. Therefore, the majority of incidents of falsification of food products remained undetected since their production, generally had not led to the risk of food safety, and consumers often did not notice the reduction in quality of foodstuffs. The analysis of international data and data of the Eurasian Economic Union (EAEU) has shown that, in order to improve the quality of food products and to reduce sales of adulterated food the following steps should be done: introduce the definition of falsificated food products into legislation of the EAEU; expand the list of methods for confirming the authenticity of the food and detecting the presence of substances which are not permitted for usage in the food industry; consolidate the principle of the responsibility of all participants in the treatment of food that does not comply with the mandatory requirements at the legislative level; introduce the indicators of the quality of foodstuffs in the technical regulations of the EAEU; return to the mandatory requirements for the quality of foods given in the interstate and state standards. PMID:27455606

  1. Determination of Minoxidil Illegally Adulterated in Cosmetics by HPLC%HPLC测定化妆品中非法添加的米诺地尔

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗金文; 颜琳琦; 李樱红; 吴鸳鸯; 倪维芳; 陶巧凤

    2013-01-01

    目的 建立快速鉴定化妆品中非法添加的米诺地尔的检测方法.方法 以迪马C18柱(4.6 mm×250 mm,5μm)为分析柱;采用甲醇-水-冰醋酸(730∶270∶10)(1 000 mL-1中含磺基丁二酸钠二辛酯3.0 g,并用高氯酸调节pH值至3.0)为流动相;流速为1.0 mL·min-1;检测波长为280 nm.结果 米诺地尔在1~100 μg·mL-1浓度内线性良好;最低检测限为5 μg·g-1;平均回收率100.4%.结论 本法快速准确、专属性强、灵敏度高,可用于育发类化妆品中米诺地尔的检测.%OBJECTIVE To establish a specific method for the determination of minoxidil illegally adulterated in cosmetics.METHODS The separation and analysis was performed on a Diamonsil C18 column(4.6 mm×250 mm,5.0 μm).The mobile phase consisted of methanol-water-acetic acid glacial (730∶270∶ 10)(contained 0.3% of dioctyl sodium sulfosuccinate and adjusted pH to 3.0 with perchloric acid).The flow rate was 1.0 mL·min-1 and detected at 280 nm.RESULTS The assay linearity of minoxidil was confirmed over the range of 1-100 μg·mL-1,and the detection limit was 5 μtg·g-1.The average recovery was 100.4%.CONCLUSION The method is proved to be accurate,specific,sensitive and convenient.Therefore,it can be used to determinate minoxidil illegally adulterated in hair cosmetics.

  2. Estudo de adulteração em méis brasileiros através de razão isotópica do carbono A study of adulteration in brazilian honeys by carbon isotope ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cibele Regina de Souza-Kruliski

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho, objetivou-se analisar isotopicamente méis comercializados nas regiões Sul e Sudeste do Brasil, para a detecção de fraude. Foram colhidas amostras comerciais com registro no Serviço de Inspeção Federal, Estadual ou Municipal. As amostras foram submetidas à combustão no Analisador Elementar EA 1108 CHN e analisadas no espectrômetro de massas de razão isotópica DELTA-S (Finningan Mat. Os valores isotópicos (δ13C dos méis in natura foram comparados aos de suas respectivas proteínas (padrão interno. Foram consideradas adulteradas as amostras cuja diferença entre o valor isotópico da proteína e do mel foi igual ou inferior a -1‰. As amostras consideradas adulteradas pela análise isotópica foram submetidas a testes químicos qualitativos que não foram capazes de indicar adulteração para algumas delas. Das 61 amostras analisadas, 18,0% encontram-se adulteradas, sendo 11,5% na Região Sudeste e 6,5% na Região Sul. Ao contrário dos testes químicos, a análise isotópica mostrou-se eficaz em identificar e quantificar a adulteração de méis comerciais.The aim of this study was the isotopic evaluation of honey traded in the Southern and Southeastern Brazilian regions, to detect fraud. Commercial samples, registered in the municipal, State or Federal Inspection Service, were collected and submitted to combustion in the EA 1108 CHN Elemental Analyzer and analyzed in the DELTA-S (Finningan Mat. isotope ratio mass spectrometer. The isotopic values (δ13C of in natura honey were compared to their respective proteins (internal standard. Samples whose difference between the isotopic value of protein and honey was equal or inferior to -1‰ were considered adulterated. The samples considered adulterated were submitted to qualitative chemical tests which were unable to show adulteration for some of them. Among the 61 samples analyzed, 18.0% were adulterated; 11.5% in the Southeastern and 6.5% in the Southern region

  3. 党参及其易混伪品的ITS2分子鉴定%Molecular Identification of Codonopsis Radix and Its Adulterants Based on ITS2 Barcode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘美子; 刘萍; 李美妮; 姚辉

    2011-01-01

    目的:对中药党参及其易混伪品进行ITS2条形码鉴定,探讨ITS2条形码序列对党参及其伪品鉴定的可行性.方法:对党参样品进行DNA提取、PCR扩增和双向测序,用CodonCode Aligner3.7.1进行序列拼接,MEGA4.1计算党参基原植物及其易混伪品的种间、种内的K2P距离,并采用P距离法建立N-J树,利用Koetschan等建立的ITS2数据库预测ITS2二级结构.结果:党参基原植物种内平均K2P距离均值为0.0339,与易混伪品的种间平均K2P距离为0.2688,党参的3个基原聚在一起,与易混伪品明显区分.党参与其易混伪品的ITS2二级结构Helix Ⅰ和Ⅲ区存在明显差异.结论:ITS2条形码序列能够鉴定党参及其易混伪品,为党参及其混伪品的鉴定提供了新思路.%This study aimed to discriminate between Codonopsis Radix and its adulterants by using ITS2 barcode sequence. DNA was extracted from Codonopsis Radix specimens. The ITS2 barcode was amplified by PCR and sequenced bidirectionally. Sequence assembly and generation of consensus sequence were conducted by using the CodonCode Aligner. The interspecific divergence and intraspecific variation of 'and its adulterants were computed.And then N-J tree was constructed by MEGA V4. 1. The ITS2 secondary structures were predicted by database which was established by Koetschan et al. Results showed that the average interspecific K2P distance of Codonopsis Radix was 0.2688, while the intraspecific was 0.0339. N-J tree revealed that different sources of Codonopsis Radix clustered and its adulterants were obviously distinguished. Codonopsis Radix was differentiated from its adulterants in helix I and helix III of the ITS2 secondary structure. It is concluded that ITS2 barcode sequence can be used to distinguish Codonopsis Radix from its adulterants.

  4. Molecular identification of Euphorbia pekinensis and its adulterants using ITS2 barcode sequence%基于ITS2条形码序列的京大戟及其易混品的DNA分子鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石林春; 宋经元; 李莉; 姚辉; 陈士林

    2011-01-01

    目的 对京大戟及其易混品进行DNA分子鉴定,以保证京大戟的用药安全.方法 对京大戟及其18种易混品共29份样品的内转录第二间隔区(ITS2)条形码序列进行分析.对京大戟ITS2序列种内序列变异,京大戟与其易混品间的种间序列差异进行分析比较,并构建京大戟及其易混品的NJ树.结果 京大戟ITS2序列种内变异较小,平均K-2P距离为0.0092,最大K-2P距离为0.0138.京大戟与其易混品间的种间序列差异较大,种间K-2P距离的平均值为0.3395,最小种间K-2P距离为0.0427.京大戟在NJ树上聚为独立一支,表现出单系性.结论 ITS2条形码可以对京大戟及其易混品进行DNA分子鉴定,在中药材鉴定中具有重要的应用价值.%Objective To identify Euphorbia pekinensis and its adulterants, and assure the safety of this medicinal material.Methods In this study, the ITS2 barcode sequences of 29 samples of 19 species of Euphorbia pekinensis and its adulterants have been analyzed.The intra-specific variation of Euphorbia pekinensis, as well as the inter-specific divergence between Euphorbia pekinensis and its adulterants had been calculated.NJ tree of Euphorbia pekinensis and its adulterants had been constructed using MEGA5 software.Results Euphorbia pekinensis possessed low intra-specific sequence variation.The average intra-specific K-2P distance of Euphorbia pekinensis was 0.0092, and the maximum was 0.0168.The inter-specific sequence divergence between Euphorbia pekinensis and its adulterants is relatively high.The average inter-specific K-2P distance between Euphorbia pekinensis and its adulterants was 0.3395, and the minimum was 0.0427.In the cluster dendrogram, Euphorbia pekinensis showed monophyletic.Conclusion Euphorbia pekinensis and its adulterants can be correctly identified using ITS2 barcode sequence, and the ITS2 region showed potential use to identify traditional Chinese medicine.

  5. Applied research on gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and MassHunter data mining and statistic software for sesame oil adulteration recognition%基于GC-MS和MassHunter统计方法的芝麻油掺伪识别

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨虹; 姜元荣; 周川; 魏婷婷

    2015-01-01

    Objective To establish a new method for the sesame oil adulteration. Methods For the purpose of the authentication of sorts which were adulterated into sesame oil, 40 sesame oil samples adulterated with different ratio of soybean oil, maize oil and palm oil were detected by near infrared instrument and principal component analysis were used to cluster analysis. The mass data possessed a multitude of flavor components obtained from a series of samples containing different proportion three-level corn oil adulterated sesame oil were investigated and statistical evaluated using SPME-GC/MS and MassHunter software. Results The results showed that the characteristics of the marker was more sensitive analyzed from complex and overlapped matrix utilized deconvolution software and Agilent Mass Profiler Professional data statistical software. The marker was determined to distinguish the pure sesame oils with the sesame oils adulterated with maize oils using factor change analysis (FC=5) and variance analysis (P=0.05). Based on the characteristics of marker, the real sesame oils and adulterated sesame oils were classified through principal component analysis. Conclusion Experiments proved that statistical analysis of mass spectrometry data for flavor characteristics of markers could be used in the identification of sesame oil adulteration.%目的:提出了一种用于芝麻油掺伪识别的新方法。方法为实现芝麻油中掺伪的识别,对掺入不同比例的大豆油、玉米油、棕榈油的芝麻油的40个样品进行近红外分析,并且基于主成分分析对掺入油进行识别;应用固相微萃取-气相色谱/质谱联用仪(SPME-GC/MS)和MassHunter软件,对于玉米油掺伪芝麻油的风味质谱数据进行了研究。结果 MassHunter解卷积软件和Agilent Mass Profiler Professional数据统计软件更加灵敏地从复杂包埋的目标物剖析分离得到了独特的标记物。倍率变化(FC=5)分析和 ANOVA(P=0.05)分析的

  6. 基于GC-MS和MassHunter统计方法的芝麻油掺伪识别%Applied research on gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and MassHunter data mining and statistic software for sesame oil adulteration recognition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨虹; 姜元荣; 周川; 魏婷婷

    2015-01-01

    Objective To establish a new method for the sesame oil adulteration. Methods For the purpose of the authentication of sorts which were adulterated into sesame oil, 40 sesame oil samples adulterated with different ratio of soybean oil, maize oil and palm oil were detected by near infrared instrument and principal component analysis were used to cluster analysis. The mass data possessed a multitude of flavor components obtained from a series of samples containing different proportion three-level corn oil adulterated sesame oil were investigated and statistical evaluated using SPME-GC/MS and MassHunter software. Results The results showed that the characteristics of the marker was more sensitive analyzed from complex and overlapped matrix utilized deconvolution software and Agilent Mass Profiler Professional data statistical software. The marker was determined to distinguish the pure sesame oils with the sesame oils adulterated with maize oils using factor change analysis (FC=5) and variance analysis (P=0.05). Based on the characteristics of marker, the real sesame oils and adulterated sesame oils were classified through principal component analysis. Conclusion Experiments proved that statistical analysis of mass spectrometry data for flavor characteristics of markers could be used in the identification of sesame oil adulteration.%目的:提出了一种用于芝麻油掺伪识别的新方法。方法为实现芝麻油中掺伪的识别,对掺入不同比例的大豆油、玉米油、棕榈油的芝麻油的40个样品进行近红外分析,并且基于主成分分析对掺入油进行识别;应用固相微萃取-气相色谱/质谱联用仪(SPME-GC/MS)和MassHunter软件,对于玉米油掺伪芝麻油的风味质谱数据进行了研究。结果 MassHunter解卷积软件和Agilent Mass Profiler Professional数据统计软件更加灵敏地从复杂包埋的目标物剖析分离得到了独特的标记物。倍率变化(FC=5)分析和 ANOVA(P=0.05)分析的

  7. 我国果汁掺假检测技术研究现状%The Research on Detection Techniques of Adulteration about Fruit Juice in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张淼; 李燮昕; 贾洪锋; 王熙

    2016-01-01

    Because of it is rich in nutrients and better taste , fruit juice is more and more popular in most consumers. But with the high processing costs , producers often add other substances or dilution to adulteration. This behavior threaded to the health of consumers. The detection technique standard of international and China for fruit juice was introduced;common detection indicators, methods and new detection methods in recent years were summarized in this paper. The developments of detection techniques for fruit juice are prospected in the last.%果汁由于其营养丰富且口感较好深受广大消费者的喜爱,但果汁加工原料成本较高,某些生产者在加工过程中添加外来物质或稀释来掺假,以此谋取高额利润,给消费者的健康带来了危害。文章介绍了我国及国际果汁的检测标准,总结了常见检测指标和检测方法,对新型果汁检测技术发展现状进行了综述,并展望了我国果汁掺假检测技术的发展前景。

  8. Combined NIR/MIR analysis: A novel method for the classification of complex substances such as Illicium verum Hook. F. and its adulterants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yong; Mei, Minghua; Ni, Yongnian; Kokot, Serge

    2014-09-01

    A novel combined near- and mid-infrared (NIR and MIR) spectroscopic method has been researched and developed for the analysis of complex substances such as the Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), Illicium verum Hook. F. (IVHF), and its noxious adulterant, Iuicium lanceolatum A.C. Smith (ILACS). Three types of spectral matrix were submitted for classification with the use of the linear discriminant analysis (LDA) method. The data were pretreated with either the successive projections algorithm (SPA) or the discrete wavelet transform (DWT) method. The SPA method performed somewhat better, principally because it required less spectral features for its pretreatment model. Thus, NIR or MIR matrix as well as the combined NIR/MIR one, were pretreated by the SPA method, and then analysed by LDA. This approach enabled the prediction and classification of the IVHF, ILACS and mixed samples. The MIR spectral data produced somewhat better classification rates than the NIR data. However, the best results were obtained from the combined NIR/MIR data matrix with 95-100% correct classifications for calibration, validation and prediction. Principal component analysis (PCA) of the three types of spectral data supported the results obtained with the LDA classification method.

  9. Analysis of illicit dietary supplements sold in the Italian market: identification of a sildenafil thioderivative as adulterant using UPLC-TOF/MS and GC/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damiano, Fabio; Silva, Claudia; Gregori, Adolfo; Vacondio, Federica; Mor, Marco; Menozzi, Mattia; Di Giorgio, Domenico

    2014-05-01

    Identification of pharmaceutical active ingredients sildenafil and tadalafil and the characterization of a dimethylated thio-derivative of sildenafil, called thioaildenafil or thiodimethylsildenafil, in illicit dietary supplements were described. A multi-residual ultra-performance liquid chromatography-time of flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-TOF/MS) method was developed to screen for the presence of the phosphodiesterase-5 (PDE-5) inhibitors sildenafil, tadalafil, and vardenafil and their analogues thioaildenafil and thiohomosildenafil in powders and pharmaceutical dosage forms. The study was developed in connection with an operation supervised by the Italian Medicines Agency (A.I.F.A.), aimed to monitor dietary supplements in the Italian market. In two of the eleven specimens under investigation, high-resolution mass spectrometry (HR-MS) allowed the identification of the PDE-5 inhibitors sildenafil and tadalafil, while another specimen proved to contain a unapproved dimethylated thioderivative of sildenafil, thioaildenafil or thiodimethylsildenafil, identified for the first time in Italy as adulterant in food supplements. PMID:24796952

  10. Identification of volatile organic compounds generated from healthy and infected powdered chili using solvent-free solid injection coupled with GC/MS: application to adulteration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Ah-Young; Musfiqur Rahman, Md; Abd El-Aty, A M; Jang, Jin; Choi, Jeong-Heui; Mamun, M I R; Shim, Jae-Han

    2014-08-01

    To investigate adulteration in commercial chili powder, the volatile organic compounds of healthy and infected powdered chili pepper were characterized using a solvent-free solid injector (SFSI) coupled with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Except for one compound (capillary compound for blank), 43 compounds were identified in healthy and infected chili powder. Specifically, 31, 36, and 41 compounds were identified in healthy, medium-infected, and severely infected chili powder. Among these compounds, acetic acid (13.77%), propanal (2.477%), N-methylpyrrole (1.986%), and 2-methyl-propanal (1.768%) were leading volatiles in the healthy chili powder. In contrast, infected chili powder contained 9,12-octadecadienoic acid, ethyl ester (15.984%), acetic acid (11.249%), hexadecanoic acid, methyl ester (3.3%), N-methylpyrrole (3.221%), and 2-furanmethanol (2.629%) as major compounds. Trimethylamine and isosorbide were detected in both medium and severely infected chili, but not in healthy chili. This means that these compounds could be used as biomarkers to distinguish between healthy and infected chili. The proposed technique was applied to 12 commercial chili powders, and trimethylamine and isosorbide were detected in six samples. These results suggest that a contaminated chili that was added to a healthy one could be successfully identified by a combination of the SFSI and GC/MS. PMID:24629976

  11. MALDI-TOF mass spectrometric determination of intact phospholipids as markers of illegal bovine milk adulteration of high-quality milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvano, Cosima D; De Ceglie, Cristina; Aresta, Antonella; Facchini, Laura A; Zambonin, Carlo G

    2013-02-01

    In the dairy industry one of the most common frauds is mixing high-value milk (sheep's and goats') with milk of lower value (cows'). This illegal practice has commercial, ethical, and serious sanitary consequences because consumers can be exposed to hidden allergens contained in the undeclared cows' milk. Here, we investigated the possibility of using matrix-assisted laser-desorption/ionization (MALDI)-time of flight (TOF) mass spectrometry (MS) as a rapid, sensitive, and accurate technique for detection of milk adulteration by analysis of phospholipid profiles. Lipid extracts of pure raw milk, commercial milk, and binary mixtures of cows' and goats' milk and cows' and sheep's milk (the concentrations of each milk varied from 0 % to 50 %) were analyzed with α-cyano-4-chlorocinnamic acid as matrix. The abundance ratio of the ions at m/z 703 and m/z 706 was found to be species-correlated and was used as marker of cows' milk in sheep's and goats' milk. Furthermore, the procedure could potentially be applied to cheese samples, because peaks at m/z 703 and 706 were also found in several commercial cheese samples. This approach proved to be an efficient, rapid, and inexpensive method of detecting milk fraud. PMID:23232957

  12. Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes-Dispersive Solid-Phase Extraction Coupled with UPLC-ESI-MS-MS for Simultaneous Determination of 10 Illegal Adulterants in Antihypertensive Functional Foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jielan; Zeng, Li; He, Ling; You, Fan; Sun, Chengjun

    2016-05-01

    A reliable method for simultaneous determination of 10 illegal adulterants including chlortalidone, hydrochlorothiazide, indapamide, metoprolol, nifedipine, nimodipine, nitrendipine, reserpine, triamterene and valsartan in antihypertensive functional foods by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry is presented in this article. The target chemicals were extracted with acetonitrile ultrasonically and cleaned up using multiwalled carbon nanotubes-dispersive solid-phase extraction. The separation was performed on a Waters ACQUITY UPLC BEH C18 Column (2.1 × 100 mm, 1.7 µm) with acetonitrile, 0.1% formic acid and 10 mmol/L ammonium acetate solution as mobile phase at a flow rate of 0.2 mL/min. Multiple reaction monitoring was applied for detection and sildenafil was used as the internal standard. The correlation coefficients of the method were >0.995, with the limits of detection of 0.022-0.30 ng/mL and the limits of quantification of 0.075-0.99 ng/mL. The interday and intraday relative standard deviations were <9.77% and the recoveries were in the range of 85.8-109%. The established method has been applied for the analysis of real samples, and reserpine was detected in a tonic wine sample with a content of 60.1 ± 3.2 mg/L. PMID:26850731

  13. Evaluation of the botanical origin of black cohosh products by genetic and chemical analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masada-Atsumi, Sayaka; Kumeta, Yukie; Takahashi, Yutaka; Hakamatsuka, Takashi; Goda, Yukihiro

    2014-01-01

    Despite the increasing sales of black cohosh (the dried rhizome and root of Cimicifuga racemosa L.) in the world herbal market, these products have continuous adulteration issues. The botanical authenticity of the black cohosh products is the first important step for ensuring their quality, safety and efficacy. In this study, we genetically identified the botanical sources of 10 black cohosh products and 5 Cimicifuga Rhizome crude drugs of Japanese Pharmacopoeia grade, and analyzed the metabolic profiling of 25 black cohosh products using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Consequently, we found that C. dahurica and possibly C. foetida are misused as sources of the black cohosh products and in some cases, the extracts of black cohosh were adulterated with the plant materials of C. dahurica. We demonstrated that these three species can be distinguished by three marker compounds in a specific mass range. These results must be helpful in establishing regulations for the safe use of the black cohosh products. PMID:24583864

  14. Nanomaterial-based sensors for detection of foodborne bacterial pathogens and toxins as well as pork adulteration in meat products

    OpenAIRE

    Stephen Inbaraj, B; Chen, B H

    2016-01-01

    Food safety draws considerable attention in the modern pace of the world owing to rapid-changing food recipes and food habits. Foodborne illnesses associated with pathogens, toxins, and other contaminants pose serious threat to human health. Besides, a large amount of money is spent on both analyses and control measures, which causes significant loss to the food industry. Conventional detection methods for bacterial pathogens and toxins are time consuming and laborious, requiring certain soph...

  15. Molecular identification of Foeniculum vulgare and its adulterants by ITS2 sequence%ITS2序列鉴定小茴香及其常见混伪品

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘义梅; 罗焜; 陈科力; 陈士林

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨基于ITS2序列鉴定小茴香及其混伪品的新方法.方法 对小茴香4份样品的ITS2序列进行PCR扩增和测序,同时从GenBank上下载小茴香及其常见混伪品共6个物种42个样本.用MEGA4.1计算其种间、种内的K-2-P距离,并分析各物种间ITS2序列二级结构的差异,最后利用ITS2序列构建其系统发育树.结果 小茴香种内最大K-2-P距离为0.0307,与混伪品的种间最小K-2-P距离为0.0405;小茴香及其混伪品的ITS2二级结构存在明显差异;构建的系统发育树显示小茴香的不同来源样本聚在一支,能很好与混伪品区分.结论 ITS2序列能够成功鉴定小茴香及其易混伪品,可以作为小茴香及其混伪品的分子鉴定方法.%Objective To explore the new method of discriminating Foeniculum vulgare from its adulterants by using ITS2 sequence. Method DNA samples were extracted from Foeniculum vulgare.ITS2 sequence was amplified by PCR and sequenced hidirectionally. Sequences were assembled hy CodonCode Aligner. The intra-specific and inter-specific K-2P distances of Foeniculum vulgare ancl its adulterants were calculated. and NJ tree was constructed by MEGA V 4. 1. ITS2 and secondary structure were predicted by the web tool established by Schultz etc. Results The maximum intra-specific K-2P distance was0. 0307 . while the minimum inter-specific K-2P distance was 0. 0405. Different samples of Foeniculum vulgare were gathered together and could be distinguished from its adulterants by NJ tree. And Foeniculum vulgare could he differentiated obviously from its adulterants by their ITS2 secondary structure. Conclusion Our study shows that ITS2 sequence is able to identify Foeniculum vulgare from its adulterants successfully and is an efficient molecular identification method for Foeniculum vulgare and its adulterants.

  16. 傅里叶变换红外光谱法对掺假橄榄油的快速鉴别%Rapid Discrimination of Adulteration of Olive Oil by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrophotometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王志嘉; 赵延华

    2012-01-01

    FT-IRS with attenuated total reflection (ATR) was applied to the rapid discrimination of adulteration of olive oil. Samples of olive oil mixed with transgenic and non-transgenic, soybean oil, peanut oil, corn oil, sunflower oil or blended oil were heated at 160 ℃ for 8 h, on the base of the difference in absorption peaks at 988 em-1 shown in the 2nd derivative spectra obtained before and after heating, adulteration of olive oil was determined. The proposed method has the special features of simple and easy in pre-treatment without using organic reagents, and feasible for use in rapid discrimination of adulterated olive oil on market.%利用衰减全反射傅里叶红外光谱法对掺假橄榄油进行了快速鉴别研究。对掺入转基因大豆油、非转基因大豆油、花生油、玉米油、葵花籽油、调和油等的橄榄油采用160℃高温加热8h处理,通过观察样品加热前、后二阶导数光谱在988cm叫处特征吸收峰的吸光度变化,准确鉴别橄榄油是否掺假。该方法操作简便、前处理无需有机试剂,可作为市场筛查掺假橄榄油的快速鉴别方法。

  17. Preparation of Nickle-adulterated Foam Ceramics and Nickle-coated on its Surface%Al2O3泡沫金属复合陶瓷的制备及表面包镍处理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨少锋; 晏彬彬; 吴阳; 李恺

    2013-01-01

    采用有机泡沫前驱体浸渍工艺制备Al2O3泡沫金属复合陶瓷.通过涂覆处理获得缺陷较少、结构均匀的泡沫金属复合陶瓷;采用Ni(NO3)2·6H2O液相包覆+氢气热还原技术对泡沫金属复合陶瓷体表面进行金属化处理.采用SEM、EDS研究了含镍泡沫陶瓷体的结构及金属化处理后的表面形貌.结果表明,镍颗粒均匀地分布在泡沫陶瓷骨架内部,骨架中心宏观孔保持通孔;经包覆处理后,金属层较均匀地附着于陶瓷表面.%The open cell Nickle-adulterated alumina foam ceramics were prepared by impregnating a polymeric sponge with aqueous ceramic slurry. The Nickle-adulterated alumina foam ceramics with a very u-niform macrostructure and few flaws were produced by recoating process. A nickelousnitrate liquid-phase coating and deoxidized by hydrogen method was used to deposit Ni on the surface of Ni-adulterated alumina foams. Coating morphology and microstructure of the foam ceramics were observed by SEM (scanning electron microscope) and EDS (energy dispersed spectrometer). The results indicate that Ni particles are distributed uniformly in the foam skeleton and pores in the sintered body exhibit interconnected. Furthermore, Ni is successfully coated on alumina foams surface after coating process.

  18. Determinação de ácido acéttico em amostra de vinagre adulterada com ácido clorídrico - um experimento integrado de titulação potenciométrica e condutométrica Determination of acetic acid in vinegar adulterated sample with cloridric acid - an experiment integrated of potentiometric and conductometric titrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Vinicius Martins

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The determination of acetic acid in vinegar adulterated sample using simultaneous potentiometric and condutometric titrations was used as an example of integrated experiment in instrumental analysis. An Excel® spreadsheet, which allows the entry of simultaneous data and the construction of the superimposed experimental curves (condutometric, potentiometric, first and second derivative potentiometric curve and, distribution diagrama of the acetic species as function of pH, was used as powerful tool to discuss the fundamental concepts involved in each technique and choose the best of them to quantify, without mutual interference, H3CCOOH and HCl in vinegar adulterated sample.

  19. 基于二维红外相关谱欧氏距离判别掺杂牛奶%Discrimination of Adulterated Milk Based on Euclidian Distances between Two-Dimensional Infrared Correlation Spectra

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨仁杰; 杨延荣; 董桂梅; 杜艳红; 单慧勇; 张伟玉

    2014-01-01

    Based on Euclidian distances between synchronous two-dimensional infrared correlation spectra,in terms of the aver-age Euclidian distances between unknown samples and “extreme samples”,and average intra- and inter- Euclidian distances of samples in the calibration set,a new method for the discrimination of adulterated milk was proposed.Sixteen pure milk samples were collected and 16 adulterated milk samples with urea (0. 01~0. 3 g·L-1 ),and 16 adulterated milk samples with melamine (0. 01~0. 3 g·L-1 )samples were prepared,respectively.The IR absorption spectra of all samples were measured at room tem-perature.The synchronous two-dimensional correlation spectra were generated from concentration-dependent spectral variation of adulterant in milk.The Euclidian distances were calculated between synchronous two-dimensional infrared correlation spectra of all samples.Then,the classification models were built respectively for adulterated milk with urea,and adulterated milk with melamine.The “extreme samples”,average intra- and inter- Euclidian distances were determined.Finally,the unknown samples in prediction set were predicted using constructed models in terms of classification rules of adulterated milk.The classification accuracy rates for pure milk and adulterated milk were 100%.The effectiveness of the proposed method was verified.The re-sults obtained in this study revealed that synchronous two-dimensional infrared correlation spectra in combination with Euclidian distance has a feasible potential to discriminate adulterated milk and pure milk.%基于纯牛奶、掺杂牛奶样品间二维红外相关谱欧氏距离,依据未知样品与校正集中“极值样品”欧氏距离平均值、组内、组间样品欧氏距离平均值,提出了一种掺杂牛奶判别的新方法。分别配置掺杂尿素牛奶(0.01~0.3 g·L-1)和掺杂三聚氰胺牛奶(0.01~0.3 g·L-1)样品各16个,采集纯牛奶及掺杂牛奶样品的红外

  20. Discrimination of Adulterated Milk Based on Euclidian Distances between Two-Dimensional Infrared Correlation Spectra%基于二维红外相关谱欧氏距离判别掺杂牛奶

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨仁杰; 杨延荣; 董桂梅; 杜艳红; 单慧勇; 张伟玉

    2014-01-01

    基于纯牛奶、掺杂牛奶样品间二维红外相关谱欧氏距离,依据未知样品与校正集中“极值样品”欧氏距离平均值、组内、组间样品欧氏距离平均值,提出了一种掺杂牛奶判别的新方法。分别配置掺杂尿素牛奶(0.01~0.3 g·L-1)和掺杂三聚氰胺牛奶(0.01~0.3 g·L-1)样品各16个,采集纯牛奶及掺杂牛奶样品的红外光谱。以牛奶中掺杂物浓度为外扰,构建纯牛奶与掺杂牛奶的同步二维红外相关谱,并计算了各样品相关谱矩阵间的欧氏距离。在此基础上,分别建立掺杂尿素牛奶、掺杂三聚氰胺牛奶与纯牛奶的判别模型,确定模型中的“极值样品”,组内、组间样品欧氏距离平均值。利用所建模型,计算未知样品与“极值样品”的欧式距离,并依据判别规则,对未知样品进行判别。研究结果表明:基于样品红外相关谱矩阵间欧氏距离可实现掺杂牛奶的判别,其判别正确率为100%,验证了该方法的有效性。该研究为掺杂牛奶的检测提供了一种新的可能方法。%Based on Euclidian distances between synchronous two-dimensional infrared correlation spectra,in terms of the aver-age Euclidian distances between unknown samples and “extreme samples”,and average intra- and inter- Euclidian distances of samples in the calibration set,a new method for the discrimination of adulterated milk was proposed.Sixteen pure milk samples were collected and 16 adulterated milk samples with urea (0. 01~0. 3 g·L-1 ),and 16 adulterated milk samples with melamine (0. 01~0. 3 g·L-1 )samples were prepared,respectively.The IR absorption spectra of all samples were measured at room tem-perature.The synchronous two-dimensional correlation spectra were generated from concentration-dependent spectral variation of adulterant in milk.The Euclidian distances were calculated between synchronous two-dimensional infrared correlation

  1. An adulteration detection methods for peanut oil flavor based on HS-GC ×GC-TOF/MS%基于顶空 GC ×GC-TOF/MS 的花生油掺伪鉴别方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡为; 韩凤梅; 张良晓; 李培武; 王秀嫔; 陈勇; 张文

    2016-01-01

    花生油因其独特香味备受消费者青睐,其市场价格普遍较高,因此成为利益驱动的食用油掺伪的重要对象,其中廉价食用油甚至非食用油添加花生油香精,以假乱真冒充花生油的情况尤为严重。采用顶空全二维气相色谱-飞行时间质谱技术( HS-GC ×GC-TOF/MS),顶空温敷温度为150℃,温敷时间30 min,气相二维炉温高于一维炉温10℃,调制周期为4 s,以花生油和花生油香精的挥发性成分为检测对象,建立花生油中花生油香精掺伪鉴别技术,即通过识别花生油中是否存在花生油香精的特征成分实现花生油香精掺伪鉴别,为有效识别花生油香精掺伪提供必要的技术支撑。%Peanut oil is one of favorite edible oils in China due to its special and favorable aroma.Since the price of peanut oil is often higher than other edible oils, it becomes an important target of edible oil adulteration.The phenomenon of adulteration with cheaper edible oil or even non-cooking oil and peanut oil essence is serious.In this study, volatile components in peanut oil and peanut oil essence were detected by HS-GC ×GC-TOF/MS.Incubate temperature was 150℃, incubate time was 30 min.The secondary oven was operated at 10 ℃ higher than the primary oven throughout. The cryogenic modulation was used with modulation period (PM) of 4.0 s.The characteristic volatile components in peanut oil flavor were found and used to detect the adulteration of peanut oil with peanut oil flavor.The results of test samples indicate that the method proposed in this study could effectively detect the adulteration of peanut oil flavor.

  2. 77 FR 72686 - HACCP Plan Reassessment for Not-Ready-To-Eat Comminuted Poultry Products and Related Agency...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-06

    ... establishments (61 FR 38806). These regulations require that federally inspected establishments take preventive... convened to investigate and provide information regarding a non-routine incident involving the adulteration... regard to assessing whether their food safety systems present similar vulnerabilities. Adulteration...

  3. Analysis of adulterated herbal medicines and dietary supplements marketed for weight loss by DOSY 1H NMR

    OpenAIRE

    VAYSSE, Julie; BALAYSSAC, Stéphane; GILARD, Véronique; DESOUBZDANNE, Denis; MALET-MARTINO, Myriam; Martino, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Twenty herbal medicines or dietary supplements marketed as natural slimming products were analyzed by Diffusion Ordered SpectroscopY (DOSY) 1H NMR and DOSY-COSY 1H NMR. The method allows analysis of the whole sample with detection of both active and inactive ingredients in these complex matrices. Among the 20 formulations analyzed, 2 were strictly herbal and 4 had a composition corresponding to declared ingredients on the packaging or the leaflet. The others were all adult...

  4. Mercury Toxicity and Contamination of Households from the Use of Skin Creams Adulterated with Mercurous Chloride (Calomel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lori Copan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Inorganic mercury, in the form of mercurous chloride, or calomel, is intentionally added to some cosmetic products sold through informal channels in Mexico and the US for skin lightening and acne treatment. These products have led to multiple cases of mercury poisoning but few investigations have addressed the contamination of cream users’ homes. We report on several cases of mercury poisoning among three Mexican-American families in California from use of mercury-containing skin creams. Each case resulted in widespread household contamination and secondary contamination of family members. Urine mercury levels in cream users ranged from 37 to 482 µg/g creatinine and in non-users from non-detectable to 107 µg/g creatinine. Air concentrations of up to 8 µg/m3 of mercury within homes exceeded the USEPA/ATSDR health-based guidance and action level of <1.0 μg/m3. Mercury contamination of cream users’ homes presented a multi-pathway exposure environment to residents. Homes required extensive decontamination, including disposal of most household items, to achieve acceptable air levels. The acceptable air levels used were not designed to consider multi-pathway exposure scenarios. These findings support that the calomel is able to change valence form to elemental mercury and volatilize once exposed to the skin or surfaces in the indoor environment.

  5. Use of NMR spectroscopy in combination with pattern recognition techniques for elucidation of origin and adulteration of foodstuffs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Standal, Inger Beate

    2009-07-01

    Consumers and food authorities are, to an increasing extent, concerned about factors such as the origin of food, how it is produced, and if it is healthy and safe. There are methods for general quality control to map the safety and nutritional value; however there is a need for suitable analytical methods to verify information such as the production method (wild/farmed), geographical origin, species, and process history of foods. This thesis evaluates the applicability of using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy combined with pattern recognition techniques for authentication of foodstuffs. Fish and marine oils were chosen as materials. 13C NMR was applied to authenticate marine oils and muscle lipids of both fatty and lean fish, according to production method (wild/farmed), geographical origin, species, and process history. 1H NMR was applied on low molecular weight compounds extracted from cod muscle to authenticate fish according to species and processing conditions. 13C NMR combined with pattern recognition techniques enabled the differentiation of marine oils according to wild/farmed and geographical origin of the raw material. It is suggested that this was mainly due to the different diets of the fish from which the oil was produced. It was also possible to authenticate marine oils according to species, and to say something about the level of mixtures detectable. The Sn-2 position specificity of fatty acids in triacylglycerols was shown to be an important characteristic to separate oils of different species. Esterified fish oil (concentrates) could easily be differentiated from natural fish oil by their 13C NMR profile. (Author)

  6. Global harmonization of food safety regulation from the perspective of Korea and a novel fast automatic product recall system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Mun-Gi; Oh, Sangsuk

    2014-08-01

    Efforts have been made for global harmonization of food safety regulations among countries through international organizations such as WTO and WHO/FAO. Global harmonization of food safety regulations is becoming increasingly important for Korean consumers because more than half of food and agricultural products are imported and consumed. Through recent reorganization of the Korean government, a consolidated national food safety authority-the Ministry of Food and Drug Safety (MFDS)-has been established for more efficient food safety control and better communication with consumers. The Automatic Sales Blocking System (ASBS), which blocks the sales of the recalled food products at the point of sale, has been implemented at over 40,000 retail food stores around the nation using state-of-the art information and communication technology (ICT) for faster recall of adulterated food products, and the e-Food Safety Control System has been developed for more efficient monitoring of national food safety surveillance situations. The National Food Safety Information Service was also established for monitoring and collecting food safety information and incidents worldwide, and shares relevant information with all stakeholders. The new approaches adopted by the Korean Food Safety Authority are expected to enhance public trust with regard to food safety issues and expedite the recall process of adulterated products from the market. PMID:23794245

  7. Two-Dimensional Hetero-Spectral Near-Inf rared and Mid-Inf rared Correlation Spectroscopy for Discrimination Adulterated Milk%基于异谱二维NIR-IR相关判别掺杂牛奶

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于舸; 杨仁杰; 吕爱君; 谭恩忠

    2015-01-01

    New approach for discriminant analysis of adulterated milk is proposed based on combining hetero‐spectral two‐dimen‐sional (2D) near‐infrared (NIR) and mid‐infrared (IR) correlation spectroscopy along with multi‐way partial least squares dis‐criminant analysis (NPLS‐DA) .Firstly ,36 pure milk samples were collected and 36 adulterated milk with starch samples (0.01 to 1 g · L -1 ) were prepared by adding appropriate mass of starch into pure milk .Then ,one‐dimensional NIR transmittance spectra and IR attenuated total reflection spectra of pure milk and adulterated milk with starch were measured at room tempera‐ture .And the synchronous 2D NIR‐IR (4 200~4 800 vs .900~1 700 cm -1 ) correlation spectra of all samples were calculated . Due to the trace of adulterants ,the synchronous 2D IR‐NIR correlation spectral differences between adulterated milk with starch and pure milk are very subtle .Consequently ,it was impossible to directly distinguish whether the sample was pure milk or adul‐terated milk .Finally ,2D IR‐NIR correlation spectra were to build a discriminant model to classify adulterated milk and pure milk .The classification accuracy rates of samples in calibration set and in prediction set were 95.8% and 100% respectively .Al‐so ,the NPLS‐DA models were built based on 2D NIR and 2D IR correlation spectra ,respectively .The classification accuracy rates of samples in prediction set were 95.8% .Comparison results showed that the NPLS‐DA model could provide better results using 2D NIR‐IR correlation spectra than using 2D NIR ,and 2D IR correlation spectra .The proposed method can not only effec‐tively extract the feature information of adulterants in milk ,but also explores a new perspective method for detection of adultera‐ted food .%为更快、更准确的判别掺杂牛奶和纯牛奶,将二维异谱 N IR‐IR相关谱与多维偏最小二乘判别(NPLS‐DA)相结合,建立了掺杂牛奶与纯牛奶 NPLS

  8. 基于异谱二维NIR-IR相关判别掺杂牛奶%Two-Dimensional Hetero-Spectral Near-Inf rared and Mid-Inf rared Correlation Spectroscopy for Discrimination Adulterated Milk

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于舸; 杨仁杰; 吕爱君; 谭恩忠

    2015-01-01

    为更快、更准确的判别掺杂牛奶和纯牛奶,将二维异谱 N IR‐IR相关谱与多维偏最小二乘判别(NPLS‐DA)相结合,建立了掺杂牛奶与纯牛奶 NPLS‐DA 模型。首先,准备并配置纯牛奶和浓度范围为0.01~1 g · L -1掺杂淀粉牛奶样品各36个,并在室温的条件下采集所有样品的一维近红外透射光谱和中红外衰减全反射光谱。接着,计算了所有样品在4200~4800和900~1700 cm -1范围的同步二维N IR‐IR相关谱,研究了其二维相关谱特性,并指出虽然该技术可提供更多的信息,但由于掺杂物微量,仍旧无法根据相关图谱直接对比判定牛奶是否掺杂,需要借助模式识别的方法进行判别。最后,将同步二维NIR‐IR相关谱与NPLS‐DA结合建立掺杂牛奶与纯牛奶的判别模型,该模型对校正集内部样品和预测集外部样品的判别正确率分别为95.8%和100%。此外,为了比较,分别建立了基于二维NIR和IR相关光谱的 NPLS‐DA模型,两模型对未知样品的判别正确率均为95.8%。研究结果表明:采用NIR‐IR相关谱的NPLS‐DA模型能提供更好判别结果。该方法可有效提取食品中掺杂物的特征信息,为检测掺杂食品提供了一个新的方法。%New approach for discriminant analysis of adulterated milk is proposed based on combining hetero‐spectral two‐dimen‐sional (2D) near‐infrared (NIR) and mid‐infrared (IR) correlation spectroscopy along with multi‐way partial least squares dis‐criminant analysis (NPLS‐DA) .Firstly ,36 pure milk samples were collected and 36 adulterated milk with starch samples (0.01 to 1 g · L -1 ) were prepared by adding appropriate mass of starch into pure milk .Then ,one‐dimensional NIR transmittance spectra and IR attenuated total reflection spectra of pure milk and adulterated milk with starch were measured at room tempera‐ture .And the synchronous 2D NIR‐IR (4

  9. Adulteration detection of cocoa powder by clustering analysis of lipid%基于脂质聚类分析的可可粉掺假检测方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王琴; 胡明华; 戴军; 陈尚卫; 朱松; 詹晟

    2012-01-01

    为从脂质指纹分析角度建立可可粉掺假检测方法,用索氏提取法提取可可粉中的可可脂,通过反相高效液相色谱(RP- HPLC)分离-蒸发光散射检测器(ELSD)检测,构建可可粉的脂质色谱指纹图谱,根据其共有特征峰的相对峰面积,应用系统聚类分析(HCA)法,对模拟分别掺入板栗壳粉与桂圆壳粉且分别掺入代可可脂和棕榈油的可可粉掺假样品进行脂质指纹分析和掺假鉴别试验.结果表明:该方法对掺入1.2%(占样品质量的百分含量)及以上代可可脂或棕榈油的掺假可可粉样品可以予以鉴别.该方法较简便、灵敏且重复性好,可用于掺入不合脂质或低脂质类杂质的伪劣样品的检测.%For development of the adulterating detection method of cocoa powder, the lipids in cocoa powder samples made from cacao of 11 different country and area were extracted by Soxhlet extractor, and then was analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography ( HPLC ) coupled with evaporative light - scattering detector (ELSD), and chromatographic fingerprint of lipid was obtained. According to relative peak area of the common peak, simulated cocoa powder samples adulterated respectively with chestnut shell powder/ cocoa butter replacer(CBR) and longan shell powder/palm oil were i-dentified by system clustering analysis method (HCA). The result showed that cocoa powder which was adulterated with more than 1.2% CBR or palm oil can be identified. Relative standard deviations of relative retention time and relative peak area of 1 4 common peaks of chromatographic fingerprint in this method were less than 3%.

  10. Identification and Quantification of Common Adulterants of Saffron (Crocus sativus) by HPLC-DAD%西红花常见伪品的HPLC-DAD鉴别和掺伪量测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    安慧景; 张继; 孙兰; 南垚; 武佳; 周立东

    2012-01-01

    目的:建立HPLC-DAD方法,一次性鉴别西红花常见伪品红花、菊花,并测定其掺伪量.方法:采用高效液相色谱法,流动相为乙腈-0.3%磷酸水;波长范围200~410 nm;羟基红花黄色素A检测波长402 nm,绿原酸检测波长327 nm;梯度洗脱.结果:通过HPLC分析,确定羟基红花黄色素A、绿原酸分别为红花、菊花的特征成分,测定样品含量,可鉴别出样品中是否掺入了红花、菊花,并确定伪品掺入量.羟基红花黄色素A 0.005~0.25 mg·mL-1,绿原酸0.001~0.05 mg·mL-1范围内线性关系良好,方法回收率高,重复性好.结论:此方法能一次性鉴别西红花常见伪品红花、菊花,并测定其掺伪量,对其它药材的相关研究也有参考价值.%This study was aimed to develop a method to identify and quantify common adulterants of saffron by simultaneously determining specific constituents by HPLC-DAD. The separation was achieved using a C18 column and CH3CN-0.3%H3PO4 solution as a mobile phase with gradient elution. Hydroxysafflor yellow A and chloro-genic acid, used as specific constituents, were detected at 402 nm and 327 nm, respectively. By detecting specific constituents, we can find out if samples were adulterated with safflower and/or chrysanthemum and calculate the percentage. The method was validated in terms of linearity, precision, accuracy and recovery. And results were found to be satisfactory. This method is simple, sensitive and operational in the identification and quantification of common adulterants of saffron.

  11. Authentication of the botanical origin of Western herbal products using Cimicifuga and Vitex products as examples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masada, Sayaka

    2016-07-01

    Various herbal medicines have been developed and used in various parts of the world for thousands of years. Although locally grown indigenous plants were originally used for traditional herbal preparations, Western herbal products are now becoming popular in Japan with the increasing interest in health. At the same time, there are growing concerns about the substitution of ingredients and adulteration of herbal products, highlighting the need for the authentication of the origin of plants used in herbal products. This review describes studies on Cimicifuga and Vitex products developed in Europe and Japan, focusing on establishing analytical methods to evaluate the origins of material plants and finished products. These methods include a polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism method and a multiplex amplification refractory mutation system method. A genome-based authentication method and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry-based authentication for black cohosh products, and the identification of two characteristic diterpenes of agnus castus fruit and a shrub chaste tree fruit-specific triterpene derivative are also described. PMID:27188194

  12. 基于二维相关近红外谱参数化及BP神经网络的掺杂牛奶鉴别%Identification of Adulterated Milk Based on Two-Dimensional Correlation Near-Infrared Spectra Parameterization and BP Neural Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苗静; 曹玉珍; 杨仁杰; 刘蓉; 孙惠丽; 徐可欣

    2013-01-01

    Discriminant models of adulterated milk and pure milk were established using BP neural network combined with two-dimensional (2D) correlation near-infrared spectra parameterization .Forty pure milk samples ,40 adulterated milk samples with urea (1~20 g · L -1 ) and 40 adulterated milk samples with melamine (0.01~3 g · L -1 ) were prepared respectively .Based on the characteristics of 2D correlation near-infrared spectra of pure milk and adulterated milk ,5 apparent statistic parameters were calculated based on the parameterization theory .Using 5 characteristic parameters ,discriminant models of urea adulterated milk , melamine adulterated milk and two types of adulterated milk were built by BP neural network .The prediction rate of unknown samples were 95% ,100% and 96.7% ,respectively .The results show that this method can extract effectively feature informa-tion of adulterant ,reduce the input dimensions of BP neural network ,and better realize qualitative analysis of adulterant in milk .%将二维相关近红外谱参数化方法与BP神经网络结合,建立掺杂牛奶与纯牛奶的判别模型。分别配制含有尿素牛奶(1~20g·L -1)和三聚氰胺牛奶(0.01~3g·L -1)样品各40个。研究了纯牛奶、掺杂牛奶的二维相关近红外谱特性,在此基础上,分别提取了各样品二维相关同步谱的5个特征参数。将这5个特征参数作为BP神经网络的输入,分别建立掺杂尿素、掺杂三聚氰胺、两种掺杂牛奶与纯牛奶的判别模型,采用这些模型对未知样品进行预测,其预测正确率分别为95%,100%和96.7%。研究结果表明:该方法有效地提取了牛奶中掺杂目标物的特征光谱信息,同时又减少了BP神经网络输入变量的维数,实现了掺杂牛奶与纯牛奶的鉴别。

  13. Análise da adulteração de méis por açúcares comerciais utilizando-se a composição isotópica de carbono Honey adulteration analysis by commercial sugars additions using the stable carbon isotope composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nádia F. ROSSI

    1999-05-01

    Full Text Available O mel é um alimento apreciado por seu sabor característico e pelo seu considerável valor nutritivo. Devido a oferta do produto ser menor que a procura, seu preço é relativamente alto, incentivando sua adulteração. Geralmente, a adulteração do mel é feita através da adição de açúcares comerciais, derivados de cana-de-açúcar e milho. Como essas plantas têm uma composição isotópica do carbono distinta das plantas utilizadas pelas abelhas como fonte de néctar (flores silvestres, citros e eucaliptos, é possível utilizar a composição isotópica do carbono de amostras de mel para se avaliar a adulteração desse produto por açúcares comerciais oriundos da cana e do milho. Foram analisadas amostras de plantas pertencentes ao ciclo fotos-sintético C3, subprodutos de plantas C4 (açúcares comerciais e 61 amostras de mel obtidas no mercado. As plantas C3 analisadas apresentaram valores de d13C de -28,9±1,1‰ (n=8, enquanto os açúcares apresentaram valores de -11,1±0,7‰ (n=3. Das 61 amostras de mel analisadas, cerca de 8% (5 amostras tiveram sinais claros de adulteração. A amostra de número 34 teve um valor igual a -12,9‰, indicando que açúcar puro de cana-de-açúcar ou milho estaria sendo comercializado como mel. As amostras 13, 14, 33 e 54 apresentaram valores iguais a -21,0; -19,9; -21,9 e -17,6‰, respectivamente. Esses valores indicam também adição de açúcares de cana-de-açúcar ou milho, no entanto em menor proporção. A metodologia testada neste trabalho foi aprovada como um método simples, confiável e complementar aos métodos químicos e físicos convencionais visando detectar adulteração de mel.Honey is a known product for its nutritional value. Considering that offer is smaller than the market demand, honey is relatively expensive. This fact contribute to the incentive of its adulteration by commercial sugars derived from sugar cane and corn. As these plants have a distinct stable carbon

  14. Application of a high resolution benchtop quadrupole-Orbitrap mass spectrometry for the rapid screening, confirmation and quantification of illegal adulterated phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors in herbal medicines and dietary supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Feng; Guo, Changchuan; Gong, Liping; Li, Jun; Dong, Peng; Zhang, Jinling; Cui, Ping; Jiang, Shuyin; Zhao, Yanxia; Zeng, Su

    2014-05-30

    In this study, the applicability of high resolution quadrupole-Orbitrap (Q-Orbitrap) mass spectrometry for the simultaneous qualitative and quantitative analysis of illegal adulterated phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors (PDE-5 inhibitors) in herbal medicines and dietary supplements was investigated. The mass spectrometer was operated in full MS scan/dd-MS(2) (data-dependent MS(2)) mode. The use of 70,000 FWHM mass resolution and narrow mass windows (5 ppm) could effectively improve the selectivity of the method, increasing the signal-to-noise ratio for the analytes. The response showed good linear relationship with the analytes' concentrations over wide ranges (e.g., 0.05-10 μg/g for sildenafil) with all the coefficient of determinations (r(2)) >0.9996. The detection limits (LODs) were in the range of 1.0-5.0 ng/g for different analytes. The recoveries ranged from 85.4% to 96.7%. The intra- and inter-day accuracies were in the range of -6.6 to 10.1%, while the intra- and inter-day precision ranged from 0.0039% to 13.2%. Among 68 batches of herbal medicines and 20 batches of dietary supplements (including 83 capsules, 3 pellets and 2 liquid) samples, sildenafil was detected in 8 dietary supplements, while noracetildenafil was detected in only one dietary supplement. The novel Q-Orbitrap mass spectrometry has been proved to be a very promising and powerful tool for routine screening of illegal adulterate in herbal medicines and dietary supplements, ensuring food safety and public health. PMID:24377735

  15. Food product authentification based on isotopic analysis in concordance with the European standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Under current EU research projects, dozens of public research institutes, universities and private companies are collaborating to develop new methods of identifying evidence for food adulteration and safety. The use of mass spectrometry (MS) to determine the ratios of stable isotopes in bio-molecules now provides the means to prove the botanical and geographical origin of a wide variety of foodstuffs, and therefore, to authenticate and eliminate fraud. Isotope analysis has been officially adopted by the EU as a means of controlling adulteration of some food products. A network of research organisations developed the use of isotopic analysis to support training and technology transfer to encourage uptake of the technique. There were also developed a proficiency-testing scheme to ensure the correct use of isotopic techniques in national testing laboratories. In addition, the food quality and safety is a requirement which must be fulfilled for the integration in EU. The present paper emphasize the isotopic analysis for D/H, 18O/16O, 13C/12C from food (honey, juice, wines) using a new generation Isotope Ratio MS, Finnigan Delta V Plus, coupling with a three flexible continuous flow preparation device (GasBench II, TC Elemental Analyser and GCC/ TC). (author)

  16. Time--temperature indicator for perishable products based on kinetically programmable Ag overgrowth on Au nanorods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chao; Yin, An-Xiang; Jiang, Ruibin; Rong, Jie; Dong, Lu; Zhao, Tian; Sun, Ling-Dong; Wang, Jianfang; Chen, Xing; Yan, Chun-Hua

    2013-05-28

    Food safety is a constant concern for humans. Besides adulteration and contamination, another major threat comes from the spontaneous spoilage of perishable products, which is basically inevitable and highly dependent on the temperature history during the custody chain. For advanced quality control and assessment, time-temperature indicators (TTIs) can be deployed to document the temperature history. However, the use of TTIs is currently limited by either relatively high cost or poor programmability. Here we describe a general, kinetically programmable, and cost-efficient TTI protocol constructed from plasmonic nanocrystals. We present proof-of-principle demonstrations that our TTI can be specifically tailored and thus used to track perishables, dynamically mimic the deteriorative processes therein, and indicate product quality through sharp-contrast multicolor changes. The flexible programmability of our TTI, combined with its substantially low cost and low toxicity, promises a general applicability to each single packaged item of a plethora of perishable products. PMID:23627773

  17. Classification of the gasoline sample related to the adulteration with solvent based in a Principal Component Analysis (PCA) using FT-IR spectrometry; Classificacao de amostra de gasolina em relacao a adulteracao por solvente baseada na Analise de Componente Principal (PCA) usando espectrometria FT-IR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Hilda Costa dos; Teixeira, Leonardo Sena Gomes [Universidade Salvador (UNIFACS), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia e Arquitetura]. E-mail: hildac69@hotmail.com

    2003-07-01

    A descriptive and exploratory method to identify adulteration with solvent in samples of gasoline based on the principal component analysis (PCA) using FT-IR spectroscopy was developed. Oil diesel, kerosene, turpentine spirit and thinner were the solvents tested. The samples were added different amounts of solvent to the sample of gasoline type 'A' in way to maintain the alcohol concentration in 25%. After obtaining of the spectrum of infrared was made analysis of principal component using the program MATLAB. The results showed that it was possible to cluster samples of gasoline in different groups in agreement with the used solvent. Besides, samples previously analyzed at Universidade Salvador's laboratory, obeying conform criteria and no conform with the brazilian specifications, they were analyzed and classified as the presence or not of solvent, besides to inform which the solvent type used in the adulteration. (author)

  18. Status Analysis and Discuss of metronidazole & chloramphenicol illegally adulteration in commercial cosmetics for removing acne%市售祛痘类化妆品中非法添加甲硝唑、氯霉素的现状分析和探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱燕; 严晓明; 蓝献泉

    2016-01-01

    目的:对韶关市售祛痘化妆品非法添加甲硝唑、氯霉素的现状进行分析和探讨。方法在已建立的化妆品中非法添加甲硝唑、氯霉素筛查方法的基础上,对韶关市零售店、药店、商场、超市、化妆品专卖店5种类型的销售场所所售祛痘类28个厂家32批化妆品进行了测定,涉及面膜、护肤膏霜、乳液、洗面系列。结果检出非法添加甲硝唑、氯霉素0批次。结论所涉销售场所祛痘类化妆品中非法添加甲硝唑、氯霉素现象相对乐观,通过本文分析,为该问题的有效监管提供进一步思路。%Objective to analysis and discuss of metronidazole& chloramphenicol Illegally adulteration in commercial cosmetics for removing acneMethods Metronidazole&chloramphenicol in the cosmetics for removing acne gotten in retail store drugstore,market,store,cosmetics shop was determined by the developed method.Results A total of 32 batches samples from 28 manufacturing enterprises were analyzed.involving facial mask,skin care creams,lotions,Cleansing Foam. And illegally adulteration metronidazole& chloramphenicol was 0,the positive rate was 0%.Conclusion The situation of Metronidazole& chloramphenicol adulteration in acne cosmetics was relatively optimistic, this analyzes provide ideas for effective regulation of metronidazole;chloramphenicol adulteration.

  19. 植物油中甾醇含量、存在形式及其在掺伪检验中的作用%Existing Forms and Content of Sterols as Possible Markers for Detection of Adulteration in Vegetable Oils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金俊; 张俊辉; 金青哲; 马晓军

    2013-01-01

    植物油掺伪对食用油品质和使用价值的不利影响与日俱增.甾醇作为食用油内源性成分之一,具有在各植物油料中分布专一性的特点,因而测定油样中甾醇的含量和组成,可方便地检出某些植物油是否掺伪.综述了常见植物油中甾醇的组成、含量和存在形式,分析了其在精炼过程中的变化,并介绍了典型植物油掺伪鉴定中特征甾醇的作用.%There are increasing negative effects caused by the adulteration in vegetable oils.As an endogenous component,sterols distribute distinguishingly in various vegetable oils,therefore,the content and constituents of sterols can provide information on conveniently identifying adulteration in vegetable oils.This article reviews sterols' existing forms and content and their change during refining processes,meanwhile,it presents the characteristic sterols in vegetable oils as possible markers for detection of adulteration.

  20. 党参药材及其混伪品的ITS/ITS2条形码鉴定研究*%Identification of Codonopsis Radix and Its Adulterants Using the ITS/ITS2 Barcodes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    The ITS/ITS2 barcodes were used to simply and effectively identify Codonopsis Radix and its adulter-ants. In this study, ITS (internal transcribed spacer of unclear ribosomal DNA) regions were amplified using PCR (polymerase chain reaction) from thirty-three samples of Codonopsis Radix and ITS2 regions were obtained from the ITS sequences using the hidden Markov model (HMMer)-based annotation methods. The sequences of ITS/ITS2 regions were aligned and the genetic distances were computed by MEGA5.0. Species identification efficiency of ITS/ITS2 sequences were evaluated using BLAST1 and nearest distance methods. The results indicated that The sequences lengths of ITS regions of Codonopsis Radix were 654-655 bp, and the lengths of ITS2 regions were 239 bp. The intraspecific genetic distances among Codonopsis Radix were obviously lower than the interspecific genetic distance between Codonopsis Radix and its adulterants. Therefore, ITS/ITS2 regions can stably and accu-rately distinguish Codonopsis Radix and its adulterants.%  为简便有效地鉴定党参药材及其混伪品并验证ITS/ITS2序列作为DNA条形码鉴定药材的稳定性和准确性,本研究选用党参药材及其混伪品作为研究对象,对33份药材样本提取基因组DNA,通过PCR扩增ITS序列,采用比对法、最小距离法对序列鉴定能力进行评估。通过序列比对,分析变异位点信息确定不同的单倍型并计算种内和种间K2P距离。ITS2序列采用基于隐马尔可夫模型的HMMer(Hidden Markov Model)注释方法获得。结果表明,党参药材3个基原物种ITS序列长度为654-655 bp,ITS2序列长度均为239 bp,ITS/ITS2序列种内平均K2P遗传距离均远小于其与混伪品的种间平均K2P遗传距离,因此ITS/ITS2序列作为DNA条形码能稳定、准确鉴别党参药材及其混伪品,为其鉴定提供新的技术手段。