WorldWideScience

Sample records for adulterated products

  1. 9 CFR 590.840 - Identification of inedible, unwholesome, or adulterated egg products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., unwholesome, or adulterated egg products. 590.840 Section 590.840 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Identification of Restricted Eggs Or Egg Products Not Intended for...

  2. 7 CFR 57.840 - Identification of inedible, unwholesome, or adulterated egg products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... adulterated egg products. 57.840 Section 57.840 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture... AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) INSPECTION OF EGGS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Regulations...

  3. 77 FR 26929 - Requirements for Official Establishments To Notify FSIS of Adulterated or Misbranded Product...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-08

    ... 418 Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) Systems, Meat inspection, Poultry and poultry... amending the Federal meat and poultry products inspection regulations to require official establishments to promptly notify the appropriate District Office that an adulterated or misbranded meat or poultry...

  4. Adulteration of Ginkgo biloba products and a simple method to improve its detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohlmuth, Hans; Savage, Kate; Dowell, Ashley; Mouatt, Peter

    2014-05-15

    Extracts of ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba) leaf are widely available worldwide in herbal medicinal products, dietary supplements, botanicals and complementary medicines, and several pharmacopoeias contain monographs for ginkgo leaf, leaf extract and finished products. Being a high-value botanical commodity, ginkgo extracts may be the subject of economically motivated adulteration. We analysed eight ginkgo leaf retail products purchased in Australia and Denmark and found compelling evidence of adulteration with flavonol aglycones in three of these. The same three products also contained genistein, an isoflavone that does not occur in ginkgo leaf. Although the United States Pharmacopeia - National Formulary (USP-NF) and the British and European Pharmacopoeias stipulate a required range for flavonol glycosides in ginkgo extract, the prescribed assays quantify flavonol aglycones. This means that these pharmacopoeial methods are not capable of detecting adulteration of ginkgo extract with free flavonol aglycones. We propose a simple modification of the USP-NF method that addresses this problem: by assaying for flavonol aglycones pre and post hydrolysis the content of flavonol glycosides can be accurately estimated via a simple calculation. We also recommend a maximum limit be set for free flavonol aglycones in ginkgo extract.

  5. Differentiation of Adulterated Meat Products through Molecular Technique: PCR-RFLP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashmi Verma, Bhoomika Saluja and Rina Rani Singh

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Meat adulterations of different species are undetectable and it is common practice globally. In the field of food analysis, species determination is mostly sufficient, but simultaneous detection of several species in a single food product is desirable. The aim of the study was to distinguish between meats of two different species through PCR-RFLP analysis. The meat of two species were used include domestic pig (Sus scrofa; Porcidae and domestic goat (Capra hircus; Bovidae. DNA was isolated from these samples , followed by amplification through PCR and further species was differentiated by RFLP using five different restriction endonuclease (RE enzymes. The DNA sequences of different species are different, hence does not digest by same enzyme. The number and position of bands obtained after digestion were different in two species. In case of meat adulteration, the specific number and position of bands of DNA of a particular species will not be obtained, rather bands will be formed at intermediate positions and number of bands may vary. Thus, PCR-RFLP method is a potential tool for forensic identification and to differentiate specific meat sample and this molecular technique is an important tool to examine adulteration in meat food products.

  6. Dietary supplements: International legal framework and adulteration profiles, and characteristics of products on the Brazilian clandestine market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Justa Neves, Diana Brito; Caldas, Eloisa Dutra

    2015-10-01

    The objectives of this work were to evaluate current legislation on dietary supplements in the United States, the European Union and Brazil, and the profile of adulterated and/or irregular products on these markets. Due to a less restrictive legal framework, a supplement product that is freely available in the US may be considered a drug or even be proscribed in the EU and Brazil, thus giving rise to a clandestine market based on smuggling. From 2007 to 2014, the United States Food and Drug Administration reported 572 cases of supplement adulterations in the country, mainly products for sexual enhancement (41.6%). Data from the European Union Rapid Alert System for Food and Feed showed 929 adulterations during the same period, over 40% due to unauthorized ingredients or undeclared medicines. From 2007 to 2013, the Brazilian Federal Police Department seized 5470 supplement products, 92.2% with an American-declared origin. Qualitative chemical analyses performed on 2898 products found 180 adulterations, 41.1% due to undeclared drugs, mainly anabolic steroids, anorectics and products for erectile dysfunction, all considered medicines in Brazil. Educating the public regarding the potential risks they are taking when consuming adulterated or irregular products is necessary to protect the health of consumers.

  7. RAPD and SCAR markers as potential tools for detection of milk origin in dairy products: Adulterant sheep breeds in Serra da Estrela cheese production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, Joana T; Ribeiro, Tânia I B; Rocha, João B; Nunes, João; Teixeira, José A; Domingues, Lucília

    2016-11-15

    Serra da Estrela Protected Designation of Origin (PDO) cheese is the most famous Portuguese cheese and has a high commercial value. However, the adulteration of production with cheaper/lower-quality milks from non-autochthones ovine breeds compromises the quality of the final product and undervalues the original PDO cheese. A Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) method was developed for efficient detection of adulterant breeds in milk mixtures used for fraudulent production of this cheese. Furthermore, Sequence Characterized Amplified Region (SCAR) markers were designed envisioning the detection of milk adulteration in processed dairy foods. The RAPD-SCAR technique is here described, for the first time, to be potentially useful for detection of milk origin in dairy products. In this sense, our findings will play an important role on the valorization of Serra da Estrela cheese, as well as on other high-quality dairy products prone to adulteration, contributing to the further development of the dairy industry.

  8. Biogenic amine content, histamine-forming bacteria, and adulteration of pork in tuna sausage products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kung, Hsien-Feng; Tsai, Yung-Hsiang; Chang, Shih-Chih; Hong, Tang-Yao

    2012-10-01

    Twenty-five tuna sausage products were purchased from retail markets in Taiwan. The rates of occurrence of biogenic amines, histamine-forming bacteria, and adulteration by pork and poultry were determined. The average content of various biogenic amines in all tested samples was less than 2.0 mg/100 g (sausage. The fish species in the tuna sausage samples were identified as Thunnus albacares for 22 samples (88%), Thunnus alalunga for 1 sample (4%), and Thunnus thynnus for 1 sample (4%), whereas the remaining sample was identified as Makaira nigricans (blue marlin).

  9. Dexamethasone and diclofenac confirmation by LC-MS-MS as herbal product adulterants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourdes Garza-Ocañas

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To confirm the presence of dexamethasone and diclofenac as adulterants of an herbal product. Materials and methods. For identificaction and confirmation of drugs a method of instrumental analysis by liquid chromatography coupled with high pressure tandem mass spectrometry was used. Results. The presence of dexamethasone and diclofenac was confirmed in samples of 11 bottles of Reumofan Plus obtained from patients and/or physicians. The methodology used, allowed separation of stereoisomers dexamethasone and betamethasone, the relative abundances of product ions 237.2 and 279.2 m / z spectrally differentiate the compounds. Conclusions. The presence of dexamethasone and diclofenac was confirmed in samples of a product marketed as “100% natural” obtained from patients and / or physicians in a period from January to December, 2011.

  10. Identification and quantification of adulteration in Garcinia cambogia commercial products by chromatographic and spectrometric methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamila, Nargis; Choi, Ji Yeon; Hong, Joon Ho; Nho, Eun Yeong; Khan, Naeem; Jo, Cheon Ho; Chun, Hyang Sook; Kim, Kyong Su

    2016-12-01

    Species of genus Garcinia are rich sources of bioactive constituents with antimicrobial, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective and anti-HIV activities. Commercial products of Garcinia cambogia are used as anti-obesity drugs with increasing market demand. Because of the high price of its products, it can be adulterated with similar lower-priced species. This study was designed to develop and validate an accurate and efficient method for the detection of any adulteration (G. indica) in G. cambogia products. For this purpose, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to analyse the ethanolic fruit rind extracts of G. cambogia and G. indica, their formulations of 0.5, 1, 2, 5, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90 and 95% G. indica with G. cambogia, and 11 G. cambogia commercial products. The analytical methods were validated by quality assurance parameters of linearity, sensitivity, precision and accuracy. Two marker peaks were detected in G. indica fruit extract, whereas G. cambogia did not show these peaks. The detected peaks were identified as anthocyanins; cyanidin-3-O-sambubioside and cyanidin-3-O-glucoside. In the study to determine the effect of pH and temperature on the stability of its anthocyanin content, HPLC analysis of G. indica extract showed the highest content at pH 1 and 50°C. Using two different mobile phases, the limits of detection (LOD) for cyanidin-3-O-sambubioside and cyanidin-3-O-glucoside were 0.036 and 0.059, and 0.022 and 0.033 mg kg(-1), respectively. Furthermore, the inter-day precision (cambogia products is rapid and accurate.

  11. Assessing product adulteration in natural health products for laxative yielding plants, Cassia, Senna, and Chamaecrista, in Southern India using DNA barcoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seethapathy, Gopalakrishnan Saroja; Ganesh, Doss; Santhosh Kumar, Jayanthinagar Urumarudappa; Senthilkumar, Umapathy; Newmaster, Steven G; Ragupathy, Subramanyam; Uma Shaanker, Ramanan; Ravikanth, Gudasalamani

    2015-07-01

    Medicinal plants such as Cassia, Senna, and Chamaecrista (belonging to the family Fabaceae) are well known for their laxative properties. They are extensively used within indigenous health care systems in India and several other countries. India exports over 5000 metric tonnes per year of these specific herbal products, and the demand for natural health product market is growing at approximately 10-15% annually. The raw plant material used as active ingredients is almost exclusively sourced from wild populations. Consequently, it is widely suspected that the commercial herbal products claiming to contain these species may be adulterated or contaminated. In this study, we have attempted to assess product authentication and the extent of adulteration in the herbal trade of these species using DNA barcoding. Our method includes four common DNA barcode regions: ITS, matK, rbcL, and psbA-trnH. Analysis of market samples revealed considerable adulteration of herbal products: 50% in the case of Senna auriculata, 37% in Senna tora, and 8% in Senna alexandrina. All herbal products containing Cassia fistula were authentic, while the species under the genus Chamaecrista were not in trade. Our results confirm the suspicion that there is rampant herbal product adulteration in Indian markets. DNA barcodes such as that demonstrated in this study could be effectively used as a regulatory tool to control the adulteration of herbal products and contribute to restoring quality assurance and consumer confidence in natural health products.

  12. Development of nondestructive detection method for adulterated powder products using Raman spectroscopy and partial least squares regression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sang Dae; Lohumi, Santosh; Cho, Byoung Kwan [Dept. of Biosystems Machinery Engineering, Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Moon Sung [United States Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service, Washington (United States); Lee, Soo Hee [Life and Technology Co.,Ltd., Hwasung (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-08-15

    This study was conducted to develop a non-destructive detection method for adulterated powder products using Raman spectroscopy and partial least squares regression(PLSR). Garlic and ginger powder, which are used as natural seasoning and in health supplement foods, were selected for this experiment. Samples were adulterated with corn starch in concentrations of 5-35%. PLSR models for adulterated garlic and ginger powders were developed and their performances evaluated using cross validation. The R{sup 2}{sub c} and SEC of an optimal PLSR model were 0.99 and 2.16 for the garlic powder samples, and 0.99 and 0.84 for the ginger samples, respectively. The variable importance in projection (VIP) score is a useful and simple tool for the evaluation of the importance of each variable in a PLSR model. After the VIP scores were taken pre-selection, the Raman spectrum data was reduced by one third. New PLSR models, based on a reduced number of wavelengths selected by the VIP scores technique, gave good predictions for the adulterated garlic and ginger powder samples.

  13. Analysis of an Adulterated Herbal Medicinal Product Using Ultra-Performance Liquid Chromatography Coupled with QTOF Mass Spectrometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kate Yu; Mark Powell; Margaret Maziarz; Dhavalkumar Narendrabhai Patel

    2016-01-01

    The reports of severe adverse effects and fatalities associated with herbal medicinal products adulterated with synthetic compounds have raised global concerns. The objective of this study is to analyze one commercial herbal medicinal product suspected to be adulterated with synthetic drugs in order to identify potential adulterants, to verify if the product contained the herbs listed as ingredients in label claim and to determine quality consistency among different batches of the product. Analyses of suspected product obtained from seven different batches were performed using ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF-MS) with multiple data processing tools and multivariate analyses. In addition, 23 individual powdered herbs (12 as per label claim and 11 suspected herbs), 11 marker compounds of the labeled herbs and five suspected synthetic drugs as adulterants were also concurrently analyzed to have clear understanding of product composition. Based on our analysis, the major ingredients of studied product were found to be 5 synthetic compounds:caffeine, chlorphenamine, piroxicam, betamethasone and oxethazaine. Three of them have been found to exceed their recommended doses. From the herbal composition analysis, GanCao (Glycyrrhizae radix et rhizoma) was found to be the main ingredient, which is not among the claimed 12 herbs that were supposed to be in the product. Other herbs detected as minor ingredients were MuGua (Chaenomelis fructus), DangGui (Angelicae sinensis radix), and HuangQi (Astragali radix), which are among the 12 herbs that were supposed to be in the product. Based on our results we demonstrated that UPLC-QTOF MS is an effective and versatile tool for the analysis of herbal medicinal products. It is highly desirable to have a streamlined process with automatic workflow and fit-for-purpose database to increase efficiency and productivity of sample analysis. Results of this work also

  14. Ultra-HPLC method for quality and adulterant assessment of steviol glycosides sweeteners - Stevia rebaudiana and stevia products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan-Hong; Avula, Bharathi; Tang, Wenzhao; Wang, Mei; Elsohly, Mahmoud A; Khan, Ikhlas A

    2015-01-01

    Stevia products are advertised as a zero-calorie sweetener. Glucose should not be an intrinsic component of this product, but it has been identified from some of stevia products in a preliminary study. An UHPLC-UV method was developed for the quantitative determination of glucose from stevia products. After stevia products reacted with 1-phenyl-3-methyl-5-pyrazolone (PMP), PMP derivatives were analysed and glucose was found in seven out of 35 products in the range 0.3-91.5% (w/w). Two products, SPR-12 and SPR-27, showed remarkable amounts of glucose at 61.6% and 91.5%, respectively. In addition, an UHPLC-UV-evaporative light-scattering detector (ELSD) method was developed for the quantitative determination of rebaudioside A, stevioside, rebaudioside D, dulcoside A and steviolbioside from Stevia rebaudiana and related products. In a 12 min run, five steviol glycosides were baseline-separated. ELSD and ultraviolet (UV) detections showed comparable results. The LC methods were validated for linearity, repeatability, accuracy, limits of detection (LOD) and limits of quantification (LOQ). For steviol glycosides, the LODs and LOQs were found to be less than 10 and 30 μg ml(-1), respectively. The RSD for intra- and inter-day analyses was less than 2.5%, and the recovery was 90-94%. For PMP derivative of glucose, the LOD and LOQ were 0.01 and 0.05 μg ml(-1), respectively. Repeatability (RSD) was less than 2.6%; recovery was 98.6-101.7%. The methods are useful for the identification, quality assurance, and adulterant assessment of S. rebaudiana and steviol glycosides sweeteners (stevia products).

  15. Development and validation of an HPLC-DAD method for simultaneous determination of cocaine, benzoic acid, benzoylecgonine and the main adulterants found in products based on cocaine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floriani, Gisele; Gasparetto, João Cleverson; Pontarolo, Roberto; Gonçalves, Alan Guilherme

    2014-02-01

    Here, an HPLC-DAD method was developed and validated for simultaneous determination of cocaine, two cocaine degradation products (benzoylecgonine and benzoic acid), and the main adulterants found in products based on cocaine (caffeine, lidocaine, phenacetin, benzocaine and diltiazem). The new method was developed and validated using an XBridge C18 4.6mm×250mm, 5μm particle size column maintained at 60°C. The mobile phase consisted of a gradient of acetonitrile and ammonium formate 0.05M - pH 3.1, eluted at 1.0mL/min. The volume of injection was 10μL and the DAD detector was set at 274nm. Method validation assays demonstrated suitable sensitivity, selectivity, linearity, precision and accuracy. For selectivity assay, a MS detection system could be directly adapted to the method without the need of any change in the chromatographic conditions. The robustness study indicated that the flow rate, temperature and pH of the mobile phase are critical parameters and should not be changed considering the conditions herein determined. The new method was then successfully applied for determining cocaine, benzoylecgonine, benzoic acid, caffeine, lidocaine, phenacetin, benzocaine and diltiazem in 115 samples, seized in Brazil (2007-2012), which consisted of cocaine paste, cocaine base and salt cocaine samples. This study revealed cocaine contents that ranged from undetectable to 97.2%, with 97 samples presenting at least one of the degradation products or adulterants here evaluated. All of the studied degradation products and adulterants were observed among the seized samples, justifying the application of the method, which can be used as a screening and quantification tool in forensic analysis.

  16. Screening of Indian aphrodisiac ayurvedic/herbal healthcare products for adulteration with sildenafil, tadalafil and/or vardenafil using LC/PDA and extracted ion LC-MS/TOF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savaliya, Akash A; Shah, Ravi P; Prasad, Bhagwat; Singh, Saranjit

    2010-07-08

    Ayurvedic/herbal healthcare products are considered safe under the impression that they are derived from natural products. But recently, there have been several reports worldwide on the adulteration of synthetic PDE-5 inhibitors in aphrodisiac herbal formulations. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to explore the presence of synthetic PDE-5 inhibitors (sildenafil, tadalafil and/or vardenafil) in ayurvedic/herbal healthcare products sold in Indian market for aphrodisiac/related uses. In total, 85 herbal formulations (HFs) were included in the study. The formulations were extracted with methanol and subjected to centrifugation. The supernatant was analysed by HPLC and LC-MS/TOF. Early detection of the presence of sildenafil, tadalafil and vardenafil in the herbal samples was done by the study of extracted ion mass chromatograms at the m/z values of respective parent ions, and two prominent fragments of each. In case of sildenafil and tadalafil, adulteration was also detected by comparing the relative retention times (RR(T)) and UV spectra. Further substantiation was done through comparison of accurate mass spectra with those of the two available standards. Of the 85 HFs tested, only one was eventually found to be adulterated with sildenafil. The extent of adulterant in this sample was determined to the therapeutic dose in the formulation. The study thus indicates emergence of the problem of adulteration of Indian herbal products with PDE-5 inhibitors.

  17. A quadruplex PCR (qxPCR) assay for adulteration in dairy products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrimonti, Caterina; Pirondini, Andrea; Marmiroli, Marta; Marmiroli, Nelson

    2015-11-15

    This study describes the development of a quadruplex quantitative Real Time PCR (qxPCR) based on SYBR®GreenER chemistry, for rapid identification of DNA of cow, goat, sheep and buffalo in dairy products, and for quantification of cow DNA in these products. The platform was applied to: (i) mixes of milks at fixed percentages; (ii) cheeses prepared with the same mixes; (iii) commercial dairy products. The methodology enabled the detection of DNA from cow in mixes of milk and cheeses with a limit of detection (LOD) of 0.1%. When applied to commercial dairy products the qxPCR gave results comparable with each single-plex Real Time PCR. A good correlation (R(2)>0.9) between peaks' area of derivative of melting curves of amplicons and percentages of cow milk in milk mixes and cheeses, allows for an estimation of cow DNA in a dynamic range varying from 0.1-5% to 1-25%.

  18. Identification and screening of a tadalafil analogue found in adulterated herbal products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ji Hyun; Kim, Hyung Joo; Noh, Eunyoung; Kim, Jung Yeon; Cho, So Hyun; Do, Jung-Ah; Yoon, Chang-Yong; Cho, Sooyeul; Kim, Woo Seong

    2015-01-25

    A tadalafil analogue was detected in an herbal product by high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector (HPLC-DAD) with a similar chromatographic retention time to tadalafil. The compounds were separated using semi-preparative HPLC. The structure of the detected tadalafil analogue was elucidated by LC-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-Q-TOF/MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. A positive ion at m/z 404.1644 was detected by LC-Q-TOF/MS, corresponding to a molecular formula of C23H22N3O4. This unknown compound was identified as an analogue of tadalafil containing an additional methylene group and named homotadalafil. Homotadalafil was detected in 10 of 91 herbal products at concentrations of 0.058mgg(-1) to 8.735mgg(-1).

  19. Forensic electrochemistry: the electroanalytical sensing of synthetic cathinone-derivatives and their accompanying adulterants in "legal high" products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jamie P; Metters, Jonathan P; Irving, Craig; Sutcliffe, Oliver B; Banks, Craig E

    2014-01-21

    The production and abuse of new psychoactive substances, known as "legal highs" which mimic traditional drugs of abuse is becoming a global epidemic. Traditional analytical methodologies exist which can provide confirmatory analysis but there is a requirement for an on-the-spot analytical screening tool that could be used to determine whether a substance, or sample matrix contains such legal, or formally "legal highs". In this paper the electrochemical sensing of (±)-methcathinone and related compounds at a range of commercially available electrode substrates is explored. We demonstrate for the first time that this class of "legal highs" are electrochemically active providing a novel sensing protocol based upon their electrochemical oxidation. Screen-printed graphite sensing platforms are favoured due to their proven ability to be mass-produced providing large numbers of reliable and reproducible electrode sensing platforms that preclude the requirement of surface pre-treatment such as mechanical polishing as is the case in the use of solid/re-usable electrode substrates. Additionally they hold potential to be used on-site potentially being the basis of an on-site legal high screening device. Consequently the electroanalytical sensing of (±)-methcathinone (3a), (±)-4′-methylmethcathinone [3b, 4-MMC, (±)-mephedrone] and (±)-4′-methyl-N-ethylcathinone (3c, 4-MEC) is explored using screen-printed sensing platforms with the effect of pH explored upon the analytical response with their analytical efficiency evaluated towards the target legal highs. Interesting at pH values below 6 the voltammetric response quantitatively changes from that of an electrochemically irreversible response to that of a quasi-reversible signature which can be used analytically. It is demonstrated for the first time that the electroanalytical sensing of (±)-methcathinone (3a), (±)-mephedrone (3b) and 4-MEC (3c) are possible with accessible linear ranges found to correspond to 16

  20. Research Progress on Detection Methods of Protein Adulteration in Milk Products%乳制品中异种蛋白掺假检测的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金萍; 丁洪流; 陈英; 李培

    2015-01-01

    Milk adulteration has become a prominent problem in the dairy industry development in our country. This paper presents the common means of protein adulteration in milk products , and summarizes the adulteration detection method for various means ,such as infrared spectroscopy , high-performance liquid chromatography, electrophoresis method, colorimetric method and PCR method, etc.%乳品掺假已成为困扰我国乳品工业发展的一个突出问题,本文阐述了乳制品中异种蛋白质摻假的常见手段,并综述了目前针对各种摻假手段的检测方法,如红外光谱法、高效液相色谱法、电泳法、比色法以及PCR方法等。

  1. Validation and application of a quantitative real-time PCR assay to detect common wheat adulteration of durum wheat for pasta production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carloni, Elisa; Amagliani, Giulia; Omiccioli, Enrica; Ceppetelli, Veronica; Del Mastro, Michele; Rotundo, Luca; Brandi, Giorgio; Magnani, Mauro

    2017-06-01

    Pasta is the Italian product par excellence and it is now popular worldwide. Pasta of a superior quality is made with pure durum wheat. In Italy, addition of Triticum aestivum (common wheat) during manufacturing is not allowed and, without adequate labeling, its presence is considered an adulteration. PCR-related techniques can be employed for the detection of common wheat contaminations. In this work, we demonstrated that a previously published method for the detection of T. aestivum, based on the gliadin gene, is inadequate. Moreover, a new molecular method, based on DNA extraction from semolina and real-time PCR determination of T. aestivum in Triticum spp., was validated. This multiplex real-time PCR, based on the dual-labeled probe strategy, guarantees target detection specificity and sensitivity in a short period of time. Moreover, the molecular analysis of common wheat contamination in commercial wheat and flours is described for the first time.

  2. Bilberry adulteration using the food dye amaranth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penman, Kerry G; Halstead, Clynton W; Matthias, Anita; De Voss, James J; Stuthe, Julia M U; Bone, Kerry M; Lehmann, Reginald P

    2006-09-20

    Vaccinium myrtillus or bilberry fruit is a commonly used herbal product. The usual method of determining the anthocyanin content is a single-wavelength spectrophotometric assay. Using this method, anthocyanin levels of two extracts were found to be 25% as claimed by the manufacturers. When high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used, however, one extract was found to contain 9% anthocyanins probably not derived from V. myrtillus but from an adulterant. This adulterant was subsequently identified, using HPLC, mass spectroscopy, and nuclear magnetic resonance, as amaranth, that is, 3-hydroxy-4-[(4-sulfo-1-naphthalenyl)azo]-2,7-naphthalenedisulfonic acid trisodium salt-a synthetic dark red sulfonic acid based naphthylazo dye. As described in this study, if deliberate adulteration occurs in an extract, a single-wavelength spectrophotometric assay is inadequate to accurately determine the levels of compounds such as anthocyanins. Detection of deliberate adulteration in commercial samples thus requires the use of alternative, more sophisticated, methods of analysis such as HPLC with photodiode array detection as a minimum.

  3. Genetic and Epigenetic Approaches for the Possible Detection of Adulteration and Auto-Adulteration in Saffron (Crocus sativus L.) Spice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soffritti, Giovanna; Busconi, Matteo; Sánchez, Rosa Ana; Thiercelin, Jean-Marie; Polissiou, Moschos; Roldán, Marta; Fernández, José Antonio

    2016-03-11

    Saffron (Crocus sativus L.) is very expensive and, because of this, often subject to adulteration. Modern genetic fingerprinting techniques are an alternative low cost technology to the existing chemical techniques, which are used to control the purity of food products. Buddleja officinalis Maxim, Gardenia jasminoides Ellis, Curcuma longa L., Carthamus tinctorius L. and Calendula officinalis L. are among the most frequently-used adulterants in saffron spice. Three commercial kits were compared concerning the ability to recover PCR-grade DNA from saffron, truly adulterated samples and possible adulterants, with a clear difference among them, mainly with the processed samples. Only one of the three kits was able to obtain amplifiable DNA from almost all of the samples, with the exception of extracts. On the recovered DNA, new markers were developed based on the sequence of the plastid genes matK and rbcL. These primers, mainly those developed on matK, were able to recognize saffron and the adulterant species and also in mixtures with very low percentages of adulterant. Finally, considering that the addition of different parts of saffron flowers is one of the most widespread adulterations, by analyzing the DNA of the different parts of the flower (styles, stamens and tepals) at the genetic and epigenetic level, we succeeded in finding differences between the three tissues that can be further evaluated for a possible detection of the kind of fraud.

  4. Research progress of identification techniques for meat products adulteration%肉制品掺假鉴别技术研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张小莉; 魏玲; 李宝明; 程小艳; 李萌; 武会娟

    2014-01-01

    As a large proportion of food consumption, meat products play an important role in the day life. In recent years, meat adulteration problem is increasingly serious, and identification and traceability of meat adulteration analysis become a hot topic. Traditional meat sensory and morphological identification methods cannot meet the needs of meat authentication. With the development of modern analytical instrumentation and biotechnology, a variety of protein analysis, DNA analysis and nondestructive testing technology become more sophisticated. Protein-based detection methods, such as immunoassay and chromatography, can detect quanti-tatively, but not for processed meat. Non-destructive testing method based on the spectral characteristics of the sample is simple, short detection time, has a unique advantage. DNA-based detection methods, especially quantitative PCR detection method has high sensitivity, good reproducibility of the results and other advantages, will become the future direction of the meat species identification, and has good prospects.%肉制品在食品消费中占很大比例,近年来,肉制品掺假问题日益严重,肉制品掺假鉴别和溯源分析成为研究热点。传统的通过感官及形态的肉类鉴别方法已经不能满足肉类掺假鉴别的需要。随着现代分析仪器和生物技术的发展,多种蛋白质分析法、DNA分析法和无损检测方法日趋成熟。基于蛋白质的检测方法,如免疫分析法和色谱分析法均可定量检测,但不适用于加工肉制品。基于样品特征光谱的无损检测方法操作简单,检测时间短,具有独特的优势。基于DNA的检测方法,特别是荧光定量PCR方法具有检测灵敏度高,结果重复性好等优势,将成为未来肉类物种鉴别的发展方向,具有很好的应用前景。

  5. Nanomaterial-based sensors for detection of foodborne bacterial pathogens and toxins as well as pork adulteration in meat products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Stephen Inbaraj

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Food safety draws considerable attention in the modern pace of the world owing to rapid-changing food recipes and food habits. Foodborne illnesses associated with pathogens, toxins, and other contaminants pose serious threat to human health. Besides, a large amount of money is spent on both analyses and control measures, which causes significant loss to the food industry. Conventional detection methods for bacterial pathogens and toxins are time consuming and laborious, requiring certain sophisticated instruments and trained personnel. In recent years, nanotechnology has emerged as a promising field for solving food safety issues in terms of detecting contaminants, enabling controlled release of preservatives to extend the shelf life of foods, and improving food-packaging strategies. Nanomaterials including metal oxide and metal nanoparticles, carbon nanotubes, and quantum dots are gaining a prominent role in the design of sensors and biosensors for food analysis. In this review, various nanomaterial-based sensors reported in the literature for detection of several foodborne bacterial pathogens and toxins are summarized highlighting their principles, advantages, and limitations in terms of simplicity, sensitivity, and multiplexing capability. In addition, the application through a noncross-linking method without the need for any surface modification is also presented for detection of pork adulteration in meat products.

  6. Coffee Adulteration: More than Two Decades of Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toci, Aline Theodoro; Farah, Adriana; Pezza, Helena Redigolo; Pezza, Leonardo

    2016-01-01

    Coffee is a ubiquitous food product of considerable economic importance to the countries that produce and export it. The adulteration of roasted coffee is a strategy used to reduce costs. Conventional methods employed to identify adulteration in roasted and ground coffee involve optical and electron microscopy, which require pretreatment of samples and are time-consuming and subjective. Other analytical techniques have been studied that might be more reliable, reproducible, and widely applicable. The present review provides an overview of three analytical approaches (physical, chemical, and biological) to the identification of coffee adulteration. A total of 30 published articles are considered. It is concluded that despite the existence of a number of excellent studies in this area, there still remains a lack of a suitably sensitive and widely applicable methodology able to take into account the various different aspects of adulteration, considering coffee varieties, defective beans, and external agents.

  7. Detection of dyed saffron adulteration products%红花饮片染色掺伪品的检测方法探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    栾洁; 倪艳娜; 丁晴

    2012-01-01

    Objective To compare safflower and dyed false ones, and lo establish TLC and HPLC melhod for delerminalion of acid red 73 and carmine in safflower. Methods TLC was used lo idenlify acid red 73 and carmine in safflower; HPLC was used lo determine acid red 73 and carmine in safflower. Results Acid red 73 and carmine identified by TLC and determined by HPLC had clear features, and strong specificity. Conclusion The method is simple and feasible with good reproducibility, which can accurately detect in acid red 73 and carmine in the saffron dye-adulterated products.%目的 比较红花饮片及其染色掺伪品外观性状的区别,并建立TLC及HPLC方法,检测红花饮片中所使用的染料酸性红73和胭脂红.方法 采用TLC法对红花中的酸性红73和胭脂红进行了定性鉴别;采用HPLC法分别对酸性红73、胭脂红进行测定和定量分析.结果 红花中酸性红73和胭脂红的薄层色谱鉴别及HPLC测定特征明显,专属性强.结论 方法简单可行,重复性好,可准确检测红花染色掺伪品中的酸性红73和胭脂红.

  8. Authenticity control of game meat products--a single method to detect and quantify adulteration of fallow deer (Dama dama), red deer (Cervus elaphus) and sika deer (Cervus nippon) by real-time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Druml, Barbara; Grandits, Stephanie; Mayer, Walter; Hochegger, Rupert; Cichna-Markl, Margit

    2015-03-01

    This contribution presents a single real-time PCR assay allowing the determination of the deer content (the sum of fallow deer (Dama dama), red deer (Cervus elaphus) and sika deer (Cervus nippon)) in meat products to detect food adulteration. The PCR assay does not show cross-reactivity with 20 animal species and 43 botanical species potentially contained in game meat products. The limit of quantification is 0.5% for fallow deer and red deer and 0.1% for sika deer. The deer content in meat products is determined by relating the concentration obtained with the deer PCR assay to that obtained with a reference system which amplifies mammals and poultry DNA. The analysis of binary meat mixtures with pork, a meat mixture containing equal amounts of fallow deer, red deer and sika deer in pork and a model game sausage showed that the quantification approach is very accurate (systematic error generally <25%).

  9. Identification of Catechol as a New Marker for Detecting Propolis Adulteration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuai Huang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Adulteration of propolis with poplar extract is a serious issue in the bee products market. The aim of this study was to identify marker compounds in adulterated propolis, and examine the transformation of chemical components from poplar buds to propolis. The chemical profiles of poplar extracts and propolis were compared, and a new marker compound, catechol, was isolated and identified from the extracts of poplar buds. The polyphenol oxidase, catechol oxidase, responsible for catalyzing oxidation of catechol was detected in poplar buds and propolis. The results indicate catechol can be used as a marker to detect propolis adulterated with poplar extract.

  10. Determination of whey adulteration in milk powder by using laser induced breakdown spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilge, Gonca; Sezer, Banu; Eseller, Kemal Efe; Berberoglu, Halil; Topcu, Ali; Boyaci, Ismail Hakki

    2016-12-01

    A rapid and in situ method has been developed to detect and quantify adulterated milk powder through adding whey powder by using laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). The methodology is based on elemental composition differences between milk and whey products. Milk powder, sweet and acid whey powders were produced as standard samples, and milk powder was adulterated with whey powders. Based on LIBS spectra of standard samples and commercial products, species was identified using principle component analysis (PCA) method, and discrimination rate of milk and whey powders was found as 80.5%. Calibration curves were obtained with partial least squares regression (PLS). Correlation coefficient (R(2)) and limit of detection (LOD) values were 0.981 and 1.55% for adulteration with sweet whey powder, and 0.985 and 0.55% for adulteration with acid whey powder, respectively. The results were found to be consistent with the data from inductively coupled plasma - mass spectrometer (ICP-MS) method.

  11. Papain: a novel urine adulterant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrows, David L; Nicolaides, Andrea; Rice, Peter J; Dufforc, Michelle; Johnson, David A; Ferslew, Kenneth E

    2005-01-01

    The estimated number of employees in the United Stated screened annually for illicit drugs is approximately 20 million, with marijuana being the most frequently abused drug. Urine adulterants provide an opportunity for illicit drug users to obtain a false-negative result on commonly used primary drug screening methods such as the enzyme multiplied immunoassay technique and the fluorescence polarized immunoassay technique (FPIA). Typical chemical adulterants such as nitrites are easily detected or render the urine specimen invalid as defined in the proposed SAMHSA guidelines for specimen validity testing based on creatinine, specific gravity, and pH. Papain is a cysteine protease with intrinsic ester hydrolysis capability. The primary metabolite of the psychoactive chemical in marijuana, 11-norcarboxy-Delta9-tetrahydrocannibinol (THC-COOH), was assayed by FPIA in concentrations ranging from 25 to 500 ng/mL, at pH values ranging from 4.5 to 8, over the course of 3 days with papain concentrations ranging from 0 to 10 mg/mL. FPIA analysis of other frequently abused drugs: amphetamines, barbiturates, benzodiazepines, cocaine, opiates, and phencyclidine, along with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) of THC-COOH and high-pressure liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detection (HPLC-UV) of nordiazepam was performed in order to determine if the mechanism of urine adulteration by papain was analyte specific. Control and adulterated urine specimens (n = 30) were assayed for creatinine, specific gravity, and pH to determine if papain rendered the specimens invalid based on the proposed SAMHSA guidelines. There was a direct pH, temperature, and time-dependent correlate between the increase in papain concentration and the decrease in THC-COOH concentration from the untreated control groups (p < 0.01). The average 72-h THC-COOH concentration decrease at pH 6.2 with a papain concentration of 10 mg/mL was 50%. Papain did not significantly decrease the concentration of the

  12. Detection of Adulteration in Argan Oil by Using an Electronic Nose and a Voltammetric Electronic Tongue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madiha Bougrini

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Adulteration detection of argan oil is one of the main aspects of its quality control. Following recent fraud scandals, it is mandatory to ensure product quality and customer protection. The aim of this study is to detect the percentages of adulteration of argan oil with sunflower oil by using the combination of a voltammetric e-tongue and an e-nose based on metal oxide semiconductor sensors and pattern recognition techniques. Data analysis is performed by three pattern recognition methods: principal component analysis (PCA, discriminant factor analysis (DFA, and support vector machines (SVMs. Excellent results were obtained in the differentiation between unadulterated and adulterated argan oil with sunflower one. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first attempt to demonstrate whether the combined e-nose and e-tongue technologies could be successfully applied to the detection of adulteration of argan oil.

  13. Detection of Honey Adulteration using Hyperspectral Imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shafiee, Sahameh; Polder, Gerrit; Minaei, Saeid; Moghadam-charkari, Nasrolah; Ruth, Van Saskia; Kuś, Piotr M.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the application of hyperspectral imaging system and data mining based classifiers for honey adulteration detection. Hyperspectral images from pure and adulterated samples were captured in using a VIS-NIR hyperspectral camera (400 – 1000 nm). After preprocessing the images, fi

  14. Detection of adulterated commercial Spanish beeswax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serra Bonvehi, J; Orantes Bermejo, F J

    2012-05-01

    The physical and chemical parameters (melting point and saponification number), and the fraction of hydrocarbons, monoesters, acids and alcohols have been determined in 90 samples of Spanish commercial beeswax from Apis mellifera L. The adulteration with paraffins of different melting point, cow tallow, stearic acid, and carnauba wax were determined by HTGC-FID/MS detection, and the research was focussed mainly on paraffins and microcrystallines waxes. In general, the added adulterant can be identified by the presence of non-naturally beeswax components, and by the differences of values of selected components between pure and adulterated beeswax. The detection limits were determined using pure and adulterated beeswax with different amounts of added waxes (5%, 10%, 20% and 30%). Percentages higher than 1-5% of each adulterant can be detected in the mixtures. Paraffin waxes were confirmed in 33 of the 90 samples analysed at concentrations between 5% and 30%.

  15. Detection of argan oil adulterated with vegetable oils: new markers

    OpenAIRE

    Ourrach, I.; Rada, M.; Pérez-Camino, M. C.; Benaissa, M; Guinda, Á.

    2012-01-01

    This work aims to contribute to controlling the authenticity of pure argan oil, a valuable Moroccan product. Fatty acids, hydrocarbon fraction, 3,5-stigmastadiene, the alkyl esters of fatty acids, chlorophyllic pigments and physical properties such as viscosity, density and refractive index were studied in order to detect the adulteration of argan oil with edible vegetable oils. The results found in this study show that 3,5-stigmastadiene, kaurene and pheophytin-a can be used as possible new ...

  16. Extent of awareness and prevalence of adulteration in selected food items in rural Dehradun

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Kumar Srivastava

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Adulteration of food items is common phenomenon in India. It includes both willful adulteration to improve texture and quality of food items and supply of substandard food items. The usual outcomes is outbreak of food borne illness. Aims & Objectives: i To estimate the prevalence of food adulteration in selected food items ii the awareness of subjects regarding food adulteration act and iii their buying practices. Material and Methods: Samplesize:150 households was sampled, based on prevalence of adulteration to be around 50%, with 95% confidence interval and absolute allowable error of 10%. Sample household were drawn from the selected villages randomly. Pre-designed and pretested questionnaires was administered to fulfill the objectives and food items were tested using NICE food adulteration kit. Data were analyzed by numeral with percentage, Pearson’s correlation test and F test. Results: In 59.3% households, housewives purchased the food items for the house. The prevalence of adulteration ranged from 17.3% to 66.2% in selected food items. Loose product was purchased by 54.3%. The food labels on packed items was not read by 86.3%. Mean percentage of purity was highest among literates (57.3 ±12.3 than illiterates and those having primary education. Statistically significant F ratio was seen for mean percentage of purity and respondent’s literacy status. Conclusion: Adulterant is rampant in poor strata of  society due to consumer’s illiteracy and lack of awareness towards food safety rules.

  17. The effects of adulterants and selected ingested compounds on drugs-of-abuse testing in urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasgupta, Amitava

    2007-09-01

    Household chemicals such as bleach, table salt, laundry detergent, toilet bowl cleaner, vinegar, lemon juice, and eyedrops are used for adulterating urine specimens. Most of these adulterants except eyedrops can be detected by routine specimen integrity tests (creatinine, pH, temperature, and specific gravity); however, certain adulterants such as Klear, Whizzies, Urine Luck, and Stealth cannot. These adulterants can successfully mask drug testing if the concentrations of certain abused drugs are moderate. Several spot tests have been described to detect the presence of such adulterants in urine. Urine dipsticks are commercially available for detecting the presence of such adulterants, along with performance of tests for creatinine, pH, and specific gravity. Certain hair shampoo and saliva-cleaning mouthwashes are available to escape detection in hair or saliva samples, but the effectiveness of such products in masking drugs-of-abuse testing has not been demonstrated. Ingestion of poppy seed cake may result in positive screening test results for opiates, and hemp oil exposure can cause positive results for marijuana. These would be identified as true-positive results in drugs-of-abuse testing even though they do not represent the actual drug of abuse.

  18. Detection of argan oil adulterated with vegetable oils: New markers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ourrach, I.; Rada, M.; Perez-Camino, M. C.; Benaissa, M.; Guinda, A

    2012-07-01

    This work aims to contribute to controlling the authenticity of pure argan oil, a valuable Moroccan product. Fatty acids, hydrocarbon fraction, 3,5-stigmastadiene, the alkyl esters of fatty acids, chlorophyllic pigments and physical properties such as viscosity, density and refractive index were studied in order to detect the adulteration of argan oil with edible vegetable oils. The results found in this study show that 3,5-stigmastadiene, kaurene and pheophytin-a can be used as possible new markers for argan oil blends of up to 5% with refined, sunflower and virgin olive oils. Due to the similarity of the fatty acid compositions of the edible oils studied and argan oil, fatty acids can be employed as markers for the detection of argan oil adulteration at levels higher than 10%. Among the physical properties studied, the refractive index shows significant differences for sunflower oil and its blend at 10% with argan oil. (Author) 35 refs.

  19. Evaluation of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) adulteration with plant adulterants by (1)H NMR metabolite fingerprinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrakis, Eleftherios A; Cagliani, Laura R; Polissiou, Moschos G; Consonni, Roberto

    2015-04-15

    In the present work, a preliminary study for the detection of adulterated saffron and the identification of the adulterant used by means of (1)H NMR and chemometrics is reported. Authentic Greek saffron and four typical plant-derived materials utilised as bulking agents in saffron, i.e., Crocus sativus stamens, safflower, turmeric, and gardenia were investigated. A two-step approach, relied on the application of both OPLS-DA and O2PLS-DA models to the (1)H NMR data, was adopted to perform authentication and prediction of authentic and adulterated saffron. Taking into account the deficiency of established methodologies to detect saffron adulteration with plant adulterants, the method developed resulted reliable in assessing the type of adulteration and could be viable for dealing with extensive saffron frauds at a minimum level of 20% (w/w).

  20. Determination of Milk Fat Adulteration with Vegetable Oils and Animal Fats by Gas Chromatographic Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin-Man; Kim, Ha-Jung; Park, Jung-Min

    2015-09-01

    This study assessed the potential application of gas chromatography (GC) in detecting milk fat (MF) adulteration with vegetable oils and animal fats and of characterizing samples by fat source. One hundred percent pure MF was adulterated with different vegetable oils and animal fats at various concentrations (0%, 10%, 30%, 50%, 70%, and 90%). GC was used to obtain the fatty acid (FA) profiles, triacylglycerol (TG) contents, and cholesterol contents. The pure MF and the adulterated MF samples were discriminated based on the total concentrations of saturated FAs and on the 2 major FAs (oleic acid [C18:1n9c] and linoleic acid [C18:2n6c], TGs [C52 and C54], and cholesterol contents using statistical analysis to compared difference. These bio-markers enabled the detection of as low as 10% adulteration of non-MF into 100% pure MF. The study demonstrated the high potential of GC to rapidly detect MF adulteration with vegetable and animal fats, and discriminate among commercial butter and milk products according to the fat source. These data can be potentially useful in detecting foreign fats in these butter products. Furthermore, it is important to consider that several individual samples should be analyzed before coming to a conclusion about MF authenticity.

  1. 9 CFR 311.1 - Disposal of diseased or otherwise adulterated carcasses and parts; general.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... adulterated carcasses and parts; general. 311.1 Section 311.1 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND... disease or condition: Provided, That no product shall be passed for human food under any such section... for refrigeration are moved for such refrigeration to a freezing facility approved by...

  2. Multivariate statistical analysis treatment of DSC thermal properties for animal fat adulteration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahimi, Omar; Rahim, Alina Abdul; Abdulkarim, S M; Hassan, Mohd Sukri; Hashari, Shazamawati B T Zam; Mashitoh, A Siti; Saadi, Sami

    2014-09-01

    The adulteration of edible fats is a kind of fraud that impairs the physical and chemical features of the original lipid materials. It has been detected in various food, pharmaceutical and cosmeceutical products. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) is the robust thermo-analytical machine that permits to fingerprint the primary crystallisation of triacylglycerols (TAGs) molecules and their transition behaviours. The aims of this study was to assess the cross-contamination caused by lard concentration of 0.5-5% in the mixture systems containing beef tallow (BT) and chicken fat (CF) separately. TAGs species of pure and adulterated lipids in relation to their crystallisation and melting parameters were studied using principal components analysis (PCA). The results showed that by using the heating profiles the discrimination of LD from BT and CF was very clear even at low dose of less than 1%. Same observation was depicted from the crystallisation profiles of BT adulterated by LD doses ranging from 0.1% to 1% and from 2% to 5%, respectively. Furthermore, CF adulterated with LD did not exhibit clear changes on its crystallisation profiles. Consequently, DSC coupled with PCA is one of the techniques that might use to monitor and differentiate the minimum adulteration levels caused by LD in different animal fats.

  3. HPLC/PDA/ESI-MS evaluation of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) adulteration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabatino, Leonardo; Scordino, Monica; Gargano, Maria; Belligno, Adalgisa; Traulo, Pasqualino; Gagliano, Giacomo

    2011-12-01

    The present study evaluated the reliability of the ISO/TS 3632-2 UV-Vis spectrometric method for saffron classification, making experiments on saffron samples to which were added increasing concentrations of common saffron spice adulterants (safflower, marigold and turmeric). The results showed that the ISO/TS 3632-2 method is not able to detect addition of up to 10-20%, w/w, of saffron adulterants. For additions from 20 to 50%, w/w, of the three adulterants, saffron was classified in a wrong category; addition of higher than 50%, w/w, determined variations in the investigated parameters that did not allow identification of the product as "saffron". In all cases, the method did not permit the recognition of the nature of the adulterant. On the contrary, the specificity of the HPLC/PDA/MS technique allowed the unequivocal identification of adulterant characteristic marker molecules that could be recognized by the values of absorbance and mass. The selection of characteristic ions of each marker molecule has revealed concentrations of up to 5%, w/w, for safflower and marigold and up to 2% for turmeric. In addition, the high dyeing power of turmeric allowed the determination of 2%, w/w, addition using exclusively the HPLC/PDA technique.

  4. 75 FR 13555 - Compliance Policy Guide Sec. 540.375 Canned Salmon - Adulteration Involving Decomposition (CPG...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-22

    ... FDA staff relating to decomposition in fish and fishery products, including canned salmon, is provided.... 540.375 Canned Salmon -- Adulteration Involving Decomposition (CPG 7108.10); Withdrawal of Guidance... Administration (FDA) is announcing the withdrawal of Compliance Policy Guide Sec. 540.375 Canned...

  5. Barcoding Melting Curve Analysis for Rapid, Sensitive, and Discriminating Authentication of Saffron (Crocus sativus L. from Its Adulterants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Jiang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Saffron (Crocus sativus L. is one of the most important and expensive medicinal spice products in the world. Because of its high market value and premium price, saffron is often adulterated through the incorporation of other materials, such as Carthamus tinctorius L. and Calendula officinalis L. flowers, Hemerocallis L. petals, Daucus carota L. fleshy root, Curcuma longa L. rhizomes, Zea may L., and Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. stigmas. To develop a straightforward, nonsequencing method for rapid, sensitive, and discriminating detection of these adulterants in traded saffron, we report here the application of a barcoding melting curve analysis method (Bar-MCA that uses the universal chloroplast plant DNA barcoding region trnH-psbA to identify adulterants. When amplified at DNA concentrations and annealing temperatures optimized for the curve analysis, peaks were formed at specific locations for saffron (81.92°C and the adulterants: D. carota (81.60°C, C. tinctorius (80.10°C, C. officinalis (79.92°C, Dendranthema morifolium (Ramat. Tzvel. (79.62°C, N. nucifera (80.58°C, Hemerocallis fulva (L. L. (84.78°C, and Z. mays (84.33°C. The constructed melting curves for saffron and its adulterants have significantly different peak locations or shapes. In conclusion, Bar-MCA could be a faster and more cost-effective method to authenticate saffron and detect its adulterants.

  6. Barcoding melting curve analysis for rapid, sensitive, and discriminating authentication of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) from its adulterants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Chao; Cao, Liang; Yuan, Yuan; Chen, Min; Jin, Yan; Huang, Luqi

    2014-01-01

    Saffron (Crocus sativus L.) is one of the most important and expensive medicinal spice products in the world. Because of its high market value and premium price, saffron is often adulterated through the incorporation of other materials, such as Carthamus tinctorius L. and Calendula officinalis L. flowers, Hemerocallis L. petals, Daucus carota L. fleshy root, Curcuma longa L. rhizomes, Zea may L., and Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. stigmas. To develop a straightforward, nonsequencing method for rapid, sensitive, and discriminating detection of these adulterants in traded saffron, we report here the application of a barcoding melting curve analysis method (Bar-MCA) that uses the universal chloroplast plant DNA barcoding region trnH-psbA to identify adulterants. When amplified at DNA concentrations and annealing temperatures optimized for the curve analysis, peaks were formed at specific locations for saffron (81.92°C) and the adulterants: D. carota (81.60°C), C. tinctorius (80.10°C), C. officinalis (79.92°C), Dendranthema morifolium (Ramat.) Tzvel. (79.62°C), N. nucifera (80.58°C), Hemerocallis fulva (L.) L. (84.78°C), and Z. mays (84.33°C). The constructed melting curves for saffron and its adulterants have significantly different peak locations or shapes. In conclusion, Bar-MCA could be a faster and more cost-effective method to authenticate saffron and detect its adulterants.

  7. Comparison of the phenolic component profiles of skullcap (Scutellaria lateriflora) and germander (Teucrium canadense and T. chamaedrys), a potentially hepatotoxic adulterant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scutellaria laterifora, commonly known as skullcap, is used as an ingredient in numerous herbal products. However, it has been occasionally adulterated with Teucrium canadense and T. chamaedrys, commonly known as germander, which contain potentially hepatotoxic diterpenes. Analytical methodologie...

  8. Adulterated and Counterfeit Male Enhancement Nutraceuticals and Dietary Supplements Pose a Real Threat to the Management of Erectile Dysfunction: A Global Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ElAmrawy, Fatema; ElAgouri, Ghada; Elnoweam, Ola; Aboelazayem, Samar; Farouk, ElMohanad; Nounou, Mohamed I

    2016-11-01

    Erectile dysfunction prevalence globally is noticeably high. This is accompanied by an increase in the use of nutraceuticals for male enhancement. However, the global market is invaded by counterfeit and adulterated nutraceuticals claimed to be of natural origin sold with a therapeutic claim. The objective of this article is to review male enhancement nutraceuticals worldwide with respect to claim, adulterants, and safety. The definition of such products is variable across countries. Thus, the registration procedures differ as well. This facilitates the manipulation of the process, which leads to widespread adulterated and counterfeit products without control. The tele-advertisement and Internet pharmacies aided the widespread sale of male enhancement nutraceuticals, unfortunately, the spurious ones. Finally, based on literature, most of these products were found to be adulterated with active pharmaceutical ingredients (API) and mislabeled as being natural. These products represent a major health hazard for consumers due to lack of clear regulations.

  9. Nanobioprobe for the Determination of Pork Adulteration in Burger Formulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. E. Ali

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the development of a swine-specific hybrid nanobioprobe through a covalent integration of a fluorophore-labeled 27-nucleotide AluI-fragment of swine cytochrome b gene to a 3 nm gold nanoparticle for the determination of pork adulteration in processed meat products. We tested the probe to estimate adulterated pork in ready-to-eat pork-spiked beef burgers. The probe quantitatively detected 1–100% spiked pork in burger formulations with ≥90% accuracy. A plot of observed fluorescence against the known concentration of AluI-digested pork DNA targets generated a concave curve, demonstrating a power relationship (y=2.956x0.509 with a regression coefficient (R2 of 0.986. No cross-species detection was found in a standard set of pork, beef, chicken, mutton, and chevon burgers. The method is suitable for the determination of very short-length nucleic acid targets which cannot be estimated by conventional and real-time PCR but are essential for the determination of microRNA in biodiagnostics and degraded DNA in forensic testing and food analysis.

  10. Identification and Determination of Synthetic 10-Hydroxy-α-decanoic Acid in Adulterated Royal Jelly Products%蜂王浆制品中掺入人工癸烯酸的鉴别和测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘秀红; 徐锦忠

    2016-01-01

    A new method to detect if synthetic 10-hydroxy-α-decanoic acid was added into pure royal jelly/lyophilized royal jelly was proposed. This method was conducted by comparing the HPLC/MS/MS spectrum of pure royal jelly/lyophilized royal jelly with those of adulterated samples in order to detect the differences between both sample groups. The maker was found to be presented in royal jelly/lyophilized royal jelly samples adulterated with synthetic 10-hydroxy-α-decanoic acid while could not be detected in any of pure royal jelly/lyophilized royal jelly samples analyzed. In addition, this method is a great innovation in detecting adulterated samples and the pre-processing approch is very simple. This method allowed the detection of synthetic 10-hydroxy-α-decanoic acid in adulterated royal jelly/lyophilized royal jelly samples in concentrations as low as 40μg/L.%采用高效液相色谱串联三重四级杆质谱为分析手段对蜂王浆/蜂王浆冻干粉中掺入的人工合成癸烯酸进行鉴别和测定。方法通过对比掺入人工合成癸烯酸标准品的阳性样品和天然蜂王浆的LC-MS/MS图谱的差别,发现了人工合成癸烯酸的特征离子峰,该特征离子峰在天然的蜂王浆和蜂王浆冻干粉中是不存在的,而是只存在于掺入了人工合成的癸烯酸的阳性样品中。此外,该方法在掺假食品检测领域具有创新性,前处理简单。该方法对于蜂王浆/蜂王浆冻干粉中掺入的人工合成癸烯酸的检测限可以达到40μg/L。

  11. Non-thermal plasma as preparative technique to evaluate olive oil adulteration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Durme, Jim; Vandamme, Jeroen

    2016-10-01

    In recent years adulteration of pure extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) with other types of vegetable oils has become an important issue. In this study, non-thermal plasma (NTP) is investigated as an innovative preparative analytical technique enabling classification of adulterated olive oil from an ascertained authentic batch of olive oil in a more sensitive manner. Non-thermal plasma discharges are a source of highly oxidative species such as singlet oxygen, and atomic oxygen. It was assumed that NTP-induced oxidation triggers unique lipid oxidation mechanisms depending on the specific composition of the oil matrix and minor constituents. In this work EVOO samples were adulterated with sunflower oil (1-3%) and submitted to NTP treatment. Results showed that while untreated samples could not be classified from the authentic olive oil reference, NTP treatments of 60min (Ar/O2 0.1%) on the oil batches resulted in the formation of a unique set of secondary volatile lipid oxidation products enabling classification of adulterated oil samples.

  12. Identification of different forms of cocaine and substances used in adulteration using near-infrared Raman spectroscopy and infrared absorption spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penido, Ciro A F O; Pacheco, Marcos Tadeu T; Zângaro, Renato A; Silveira, Landulfo

    2015-01-01

    Identification of cocaine and subsequent quantification immediately after seizure are problems for the police in developing countries such as Brazil. This work proposes a comparison between the Raman and FT-IR techniques as methods to identify cocaine, the adulterants used to increase volume, and possible degradation products in samples seized by the police. Near-infrared Raman spectra (785 nm excitation, 10 sec exposure time) and FT-IR-ATR spectra were obtained from different samples of street cocaine and some substances commonly used as adulterants. Freebase powder, hydrochloride powder, and crack rock can be distinguished by both Raman and FT-IR spectroscopies, revealing differences in their chemical structure. Most of the samples showed characteristic peaks of degradation products such as benzoylecgonine and benzoic acid, and some presented evidence of adulteration with aluminum sulfate and sodium carbonate. Raman spectroscopy is better than FT-IR for identifying benzoic acid and inorganic adulterants in cocaine.

  13. FTIR characterization of Mexican honey and its adulteration with sugar syrups by using chemometric methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rios-Corripio, M A; Rojas-Lopez, M; Delgado-Macuil, R [CIBA-Tlaxcala, IPN, Tlaxcala, Tlax. (Mexico); Rios-Leal, E, E-mail: marlonrl@yahoo.com.mx [CINVESTAV, Zacatenco, Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2011-01-01

    A chemometric analysis of adulteration of Mexican honey by sugar syrups such as corn syrup and cane sugar syrup was realized. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) was used to measure the absorption of a group of bee honey samples from central region of Mexico. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to process FTIR spectra to determine the adulteration of bee honey. In addition to that, the content of individual sugars from honey samples: glucose, fructose, sucrose and monosaccharides was determined by using PLS-FTIR analysis validated by HPLC measurements. This analytical methodology which is based in infrared spectroscopy and chemometry can be an alternative technique to characterize and also to determine the purity and authenticity of nutritional products as bee honey and other natural products.

  14. Analisis Adulterasi Jamu Pegal Linu yang Diperoleh dari Pasar di Jakarta dan Sekitarnya (Analysis of Adulterated Jamu Pegal Linu Obtained from the Market in Jakarta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Retno Gitawati

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: “Jamu Pegal Linu” (traditional Indonesian herb for rheumatoid and gouty arthritis is one of the mostpopular jamu products manufactured and widely consumed in the community. Despite the claims that they are made ofnatural herbs, these kinds of jamu are susceptible for being counterfeited and adulterated with drugs that is potentiallyharmful for health. The aim of this study was to identify medicinal adulteration in jamu pegal linu products obtained from the market in Jakarta and surroundings. Method: This study was an experimental laboratory in a cross-sectional design. About 450 samples of jamu pegal linu products were randomly chosen, and the products with different brands wereanalyzed for medicinal adulteration using a thin layer chromatography (TLC method. Product labels of the adulterated jamu were also analyzed for the appropriateness of the product information. Results: Out of the 114 brands of jamu pegal linu analyzed, 52 samples (45.6% were positive for medicinal. The medicinal types detected were paracetamol (30.7%, phenylbutazone (20.4%, piroxicam (7.1% and mefenamic acid (3.5%. Two samples of jamu has been contaminated with molds and found damp. Of the 52 samples positive medicinal, 92.3% include the registration number and only 30.8% include the expiration date in the product labels. About 44.2% include the name of ingredients compositions written incorrectly in the labels. Conclusion: A. limited numbers of Jamu pegal linu products adulterated with medicinal still existed in the market.

  15. Quantitative determination of sibutramine in adulterated herbal slimming formulations by TLC-image analysis method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phattanawasin, Panadda; Sotanaphun, Uthai; Sukwattanasinit, Tasamaporn; Akkarawaranthorn, Jariya; Kitchaiya, Sarunyaporn

    2012-06-10

    A simple thin layer chromatographic (TLC)-image analysis method was developed for rapid determination and quantitation of sibutramine hydrochloride (SH) adulterated in herbal slimming products. Chromatographic separation of SH was achieved on a silica gel 60 F(254) TLC plate, using toluene-n-hexane-diethylamine (9:1:0.3, v/v/v) as the mobile phase and Dragendorff reagent as spot detection. Image analysis of the scanned TLC plate was performed to quantify the amount of SH. The polynomial regression data for the calibration plots showed good linear relationship in the concentration range of 1-6 μg/spot. The limits of detection and quantitation were 190 and 634 ng/spot, respectively. The method gave satisfactory specificity, precision, accuracy, robustness and was applied for determination of SH in herbal formulations. The contents of SH in adulterated samples determined by the TLC-image analysis and TLC-densitometry were also compared.

  16. Detection of pork adulteration by highly-specific PCR assay of mitochondrial D-loop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karabasanavar, Nagappa S; Singh, S P; Kumar, Deepak; Shebannavar, Sunil N

    2014-02-15

    We describe a highly specific PCR assay for the authentic identification of pork. Accurate detection of tissues derived from pig (Sus scrofa) was accomplished by using newly designed primers targeting porcine mitochondrial displacement (D-loop) region that yielded an unique amplicon of 712 base pairs (bp). Possibility of cross-amplification was precluded by testing as many as 24 animal species (mammals, birds, rodent and fish). Suitability of PCR assay was confirmed in raw (n = 20), cooked (60, 80 and 100 °C), autoclaved (121 °C) and micro-oven processed pork. Sensitivity of detection of pork in other species meat using unique pig-specific PCR was established to be at 0.1%; limit of detection (LOD) of pig DNA was 10 pg (pico grams). The technique can be used for the authentication of raw, processed and adulterated pork and products under the circumstances of food adulteration related disputes or forensic detection of origin of pig species.

  17. Discrimination of Dendrobium officinale and Its Common Adulterants by Combination of Normal Light and Fluorescence Microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chu Chu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The stems of Dendrobium officinale Kimura et Migo, named Tie-pi-shi-hu, is one of the most endangered and precious species in China. Because of its various pharmacodynamic effects, D. officinale is widely recognized as a high-quality health food in China and other countries in south and south-east Asia. With the rising interest of D. officinale, its products have a high price due to a limited supply. This high price has led to the proliferation of adulterants in the market. To ensure the safe use of D. officinale, a fast and convenient method combining normal and fluorescence microscopy was applied in the present study to distinguish D. officinale from three commonly used adulterants including Zi-pi-shi-hu (D. devonianum, Shui-cao-shi-hu (D. aphyllum, Guang-jie-shi-hu (D. gratiosissimum. The result demonstrated that D. officinale could be identified by the characteristic “two hat-shaped” vascular bundle sheath observed under the fluorescence microscopy and the distribution of raphides under normal light microscopy. The other three adulterants could be discriminated by the vascular bundle differences and the distribution of raphides under normal light microscopy. This work indicated that combination of normal light and fluorescence microscopy is a fast and efficient technique to scientifically distinguish D. officinale from the commonly confused species.

  18. New psychoactive substances as adulterants of controlled drugs. A worrying phenomenon?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giné, Claudio Vidal; Espinosa, Iván Fornís; Vilamala, Mireia Ventura

    2014-01-01

    The use of new psychoactive substances (NPS) as adulterants has received little attention in the literature. In this paper, results from Energy Control's drug checking service documenting the use of NPS as adulterants of controlled drugs are presented, and some reflections about possible explanations for this new phenomenon, potential risks for users, and challenges that it poses are discussed. From 2009 to 2012, 24 NPS belonging to several chemical classes such as phenethylamines, substituted cathinones, tryptamines, and methoxetamine were identified in 173 samples believed to be MDMA, amphetamine, ketamine, cocaine, mescaline, or methamphetamine. The NPS adulterant most frequently observed was 2-(4-bromo-2,5-dimethoxyphenyl)ethanamine (2C-B) followed by 1-(4-fluorophenyl)propan-2-amine (4-FA). Sixty-nine different combinations of substances were detected: 20 involving a controlled drug combined with an NPS, and 49 involving one or more NPS that substituted the controlled drug. As these combinations could pose substantial risks to users, the need to improve knowledge about toxicity associated with these combinations, and the danger of these substances being incorporated into the products of illegal markets, are highlighted. Drug checking services and the European Union's early-warning system operated by the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (EMCDDA) and Europol can play an important role in reducing the harm associated with this phenomenon.

  19. Discrimination of Dendrobium officinale and its common adulterants by combination of normal light and fluorescence microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Chu; Yin, Huimin; Xia, Li; Cheng, Dongping; Yan, Jizhong; Zhu, Lin

    2014-03-24

    The stems of Dendrobium officinale Kimura et Migo, named Tie-pi-shi-hu, is one of the most endangered and precious species in China. Because of its various pharmacodynamic effects, D. officinale is widely recognized as a high-quality health food in China and other countries in south and south-east Asia. With the rising interest of D. officinale, its products have a high price due to a limited supply. This high price has led to the proliferation of adulterants in the market. To ensure the safe use of D. officinale, a fast and convenient method combining normal and fluorescence microscopy was applied in the present study to distinguish D. officinale from three commonly used adulterants including Zi-pi-shi-hu (D. devonianum), Shui-cao-shi-hu (D. aphyllum), Guang-jie-shi-hu (D. gratiosissimum). The result demonstrated that D. officinale could be identified by the characteristic "two hat-shaped" vascular bundle sheath observed under the fluorescence microscopy and the distribution of raphides under normal light microscopy. The other three adulterants could be discriminated by the vascular bundle differences and the distribution of raphides under normal light microscopy. This work indicated that combination of normal light and fluorescence microscopy is a fast and efficient technique to scientifically distinguish D. officinale from the commonly confused species.

  20. Urinary melamine: proposed parameter of melamine adulteration of food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Nitish; Banerjee, Dibyajyoti; Bhattacharyya, Rajasri

    2014-04-01

    Melamine is widely being reported as a food adulterant. Although its toxicity is currently recognized, melamine adulterations of food items are ongoing for falsely inflating the protein content of the food. Melamine alone or in combination with cyanuric acid or uric acid causes nephrotoxicity, and melamine-induced nephrotoxicity is now a global concern. It has been proven that when consumed, melamine is metabolized at a slower rate and excreted unchanged in urine. There is every possibility that when individuals consume melamine-adulterated food items, the melamine may be excreted unchanged in the urine. Therefore, melamine estimation in urine may be a yardstick to check for melamine adulteration of food items. In the present review, recent literature on this subject is analyzed justifying.

  1. "Adulterated" Androstenedione: What FDA's Action against Andro Means for Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Collins Richard D

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract On March 11, 2004, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA pronounced that dietary supplement products containing androstenedione were adulterated new dietary ingredients under the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act of 1994 (DSHEA. The FDA issued a press release, held a news conference, and sent warning letters to 23 companies that had manufactured, marketed or distributed the products containing androstenedione. In its warning letters, FDA threatened possible enforcement actions for noncompliance. The authors have looked at the warning letters, statutes, regulations, and media reports to analyze the legal grounds and standards upon which FDA acted against androstenedione and question the appropriateness of the action taken. They have also looked at the negative impact that FDA's lack of communication and cooperation with Industry is having upon the fitness nutrition industry and the marketing of dietary supplements containing new dietary ingredients. The authors also suggest what might be done to ameliorate this escalating problem including more cooperation between FDA and Industry and more research into the benefits and use of supplement products.

  2. Supply Chain Issues in China’s Milk Adulteration Incident

    OpenAIRE

    Gale, H. Frederick, Jr.; Hu, Dinghuan

    2009-01-01

    China’s melamine milk adulteration crisis highlights the challenges that arise as large well-capitalized companies procure raw materials from a diffused supply chain of scattered small farmers and milk collection stations. As milk prices climbed sharply in 2007 and companies branched out into new territories, intense competition for raw milk supplies strengthened incentives to water down and adulterate milk. Effective food safety measures must account for incentives, the distribution of marke...

  3. Detection of argan oil adulterated with vegetable oils: new markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ourrach, I.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This work aims to contribute to controlling the authenticity of pure argan oil, a valuable Moroccan product. Fatty acids, hydrocarbon fraction, 3,5-stigmastadiene, the alkyl esters of fatty acids, chlorophyllic pigments and physical properties such as viscosity, density and refractive index were studied in order to detect the adulteration of argan oil with edible vegetable oils. The results found in this study show that 3,5-stigmastadiene, kaurene and pheophytin-a can be used as possible new markers for argan oil blends of up to 5% with refined, sunflower and virgin olive oils. Due to the similarity of the fatty acid compositions of the edible oils studied and argan oil, fatty acids can be employed as markers for the detection of argan oil adulteration at levels higher than 10%. Among the physical properties studied, the refractive index shows significant differences for sunflower oil and its blend at 10% with argan oil.

    El objetivo principal de este trabajo es contribuir al control de la autenticidad del aceite argán, un producto marroquí muy valorado. Con el fin de detectar la adulteración del aceite de argán con aceites vegetales comestibles, se han estudiado los siguientes parámetros: ácidos grasos, fracción de hidrocarburos, 3,5-estigmastadieno, ésteres alquílicos, pigmentos clorofílicos y propiedades físicas como la viscosidad, densidad e índice de refracción. Los resultados de este estudio muestran que el 3,5-estigmastadieno, kaureno y la feofitina-a podrían utilizarse como nuevos marcadores en la detección del aceite de argán adulterado con aceites refinados y aceite oliva virgen al 5%. La composición en ácidos grasos puede emplearse para la detección de la adulteración del aceite de argán a niveles superiores al 10%, debido a la similitud en la composición de los aceites estudiados. Entre las propiedades físicas analizadas, el índice de refracción mostró diferencias significativas entre el aceite de arg

  4. Economically motivated adulteration (EMA) of food: common characteristics of EMA incidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everstine, Karen; Spink, John; Kennedy, Shaun

    2013-04-01

    Economically motivated adulteration (EMA) of food, also known as food fraud, is the intentional adulteration of food for financial advantage. A common form of EMA, undeclared substitution with alternative ingredients, is usually a health concern because of allergen labeling requirements. As demonstrated by the nearly 300,000 illnesses in China from melamine adulteration of infant formula, EMA also has the potential to result in serious public health consequences. Furthermore, EMA incidents reveal gaps in quality assurance testing methodologies that could be exploited for intentional harm. In contrast to foodborne disease outbreaks, EMA incidents present a particular challenge to the food industry and regulators because they are deliberate acts that are intended to evade detection. Large-scale EMA incidents have been described in the scientific literature, but smaller incidents have been documented only in media sources. We reviewed journal articles and media reports of EMA since 1980. We identified 137 unique incidents in 11 food categories: fish and seafood (24 incidents), dairy products (15), fruit juices (12), oils and fats (12), grain products (11), honey and other natural sweeteners (10), spices and extracts (8), wine and other alcoholic beverages (7), infant formula (5), plant-based proteins (5), and other food products (28). We identified common characteristics among the incidents that may help us better evaluate and reduce the risk of EMA. These characteristics reflect the ways in which existing regulatory systems or testing methodologies were inadequate for detecting EMA and how novel detection methods and other deterrence strategies can be deployed. Prevention and detection of EMA cannot depend on traditional food safety strategies. Comprehensive food protection, as outlined by the Food Safety Modernization Act, will require innovative methods for detecting EMA and for targeting crucial resources toward the riskiest food products.

  5. ESTIMATION OF QUALITY OF RAW MILK (OPEN & BRANDED BY MILK ADULTERATION TESTING KIT.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S D Kandpal

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Milk is a compulsory part of daily diet for the expectant mothers as well as growing children. Milk is very important due to its special nutritive value and important role for human and animal health. Adulteration is practised either to substitute cheaper ingredients or to impress the buyer to think the product is more valuable or of better quality. Methods: The present study was conducted by the Department of Community Medicine at HIHT, Dehradun. All the samples of the raw milk (open and branded supplied by the vendors in 5 Km radius of HIHT . The samples of milk were also collected from the Girls and Boys Hostel Mess and canteen. 500ml of each variety of open milk and 500 ml packet of branded milk were purchased from the milk vendors. The specific gravity of the milk was assessed by lactometer and chemically tested by Adulteration Test Kit supplied by NICE Chemicals Pvt. Ltd. ( an ISO 9001 Certified Company. Results: It was observed that out of 60 samples of milk, only 12 samples (20 % had specific gravity of 26 and more which is considered as undiluted milk while 48 (80% had specific gravity of less than 26 clearly indicating the dilution of milk with water. It was also observed that all the milk samples including double toned milk collected from different places showed presence of urea and detergents as common adulterants. Conclusion:The findings of this study highlights the need to implement improved hygiene practices and to apply effective monitoring throughout the production to delivery chain. Training and education is also needed for all persons who deal with milk production, marketing and processing.

  6. Specific PCR Identification between Peucedanum praeruptorum and Angelica decursiva and Identification between Them and Adulterant Using DNA Barcode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Bang-Xing; Yuan, Yuan; Huang, Lu-Qi; Zhao, Qun; Tan, Ling-Ling; Song, Xiang-Wen; He, Xiao-Mei; Xu, Tao; Liu, Feng; Wang, Jian

    2017-01-01

    Background: The traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) Qianhu and Zihuaqianhu are the dried roots of Peucedanum praeruptorum and Angelica decursiva, respectively. Since the plant sources of Qianhu and Zihuaqianhu are more complex, the chemical compositions of P. praeruptorum and A. decursiva are significantly different, and many adulterants exist because of the differences in traditional understanding and medication habits. Therefore, the rapid and accurate identification methods are required. Objective: The aim was to study the feasibility of using DNA barcoding to distinguish between Traditional Chinese medicine Qianhu (Peucedanum praeruptorum), Zihuaqianhu (Angelica decursiva), and common adulterants, based on internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences, as well as specific PCR identification between P. praeruptorum and A. decursiva. Materials and Methods: The ITS sequences of P. praeruptorum, A. decursiva, and adulterant were studied, and a phylogenetic tree was constructed. Based on the ITS barcode, the specific PCR primer pairs QH-CP19s/QH-CP19a and ZHQH-CP3s/ZHQH-CP3a were designed for P. praeruptorum and A. decursiva, respectively. The amplification conditions were optimized, and specific PCR products were obtained. Results: The results showed that the phylogenetic trees constructed using the BI and MP methods were consistent, and P. praeruptorum and A. decursiva sequence haplotypes formed their own monophyly. The experimental results showed that in PCR products, the target bands appeared in the genuine drug and not in the adulterant, which suggests the high specificity of the two primer pairs. Conclusion: The ITS sequence was ideal DNA barcode to identify P. praeruptorum, A. decursiva, and adulterant. The specific PCR is a quick and effective method to distinguish between P. praeruptorum and A. decursiva. SUMMARY Peucedanum praeruptorum and Angelica decursiva sequence haplotypes formed their own monophyly.The ITS sequence was ideal DNA barcode to identify P

  7. High-throughput analysis by SP-LDI-MS for fast identification of adulterations in commercial balsamic vinegars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerreiro, Tatiane Melina; de Oliveira, Diogo Noin; Ferreira, Mônica Siqueira; Catharino, Rodrigo Ramos

    2014-08-01

    Balsamic vinegar (BV) is a typical and valuable Italian product, worldwide appreciated thanks to its characteristic flavors and potential health benefits. Several studies have been conducted to assess physicochemical and microbial compositions of BV, as well as its beneficial properties. Due to highly-disseminated claims of antioxidant, antihypertensive and antiglycemic properties, BV is a known target for frauds and adulterations. For that matter, product authentication, certifying its origin (region or country) and thus the processing conditions, is becoming a growing concern. Striving for fraud reduction as well as quality and safety assurance, reliable analytical strategies to rapidly evaluate BV quality are very interesting, also from an economical point of view. This work employs silica plate laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (SP-LDI-MS) for fast chemical profiling of commercial BV samples with protected geographical indication (PGI) and identification of its adulterated samples with low-priced vinegars, namely apple, alcohol and red/white wines.

  8. Determination of butter adulteration with margarine using Raman spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uysal, Reyhan Selin; Boyaci, Ismail Hakki; Genis, Hüseyin Efe; Tamer, Ugur

    2013-12-15

    In this study, adulteration of butter with margarine was analysed using Raman spectroscopy combined with chemometric methods (principal component analysis (PCA), principal component regression (PCR), partial least squares (PLS)) and artificial neural networks (ANNs). Different butter and margarine samples were mixed at various concentrations ranging from 0% to 100% w/w. PCA analysis was applied for the classification of butters, margarines and mixtures. PCR, PLS and ANN were used for the detection of adulteration ratios of butter. Models were created using a calibration data set and developed models were evaluated using a validation data set. The coefficient of determination (R(2)) values between actual and predicted values obtained for PCR, PLS and ANN for the validation data set were 0.968, 0.987 and 0.978, respectively. In conclusion, a combination of Raman spectroscopy with chemometrics and ANN methods can be applied for testing butter adulteration.

  9. [The problems of food adulteration in the publications of a Warsaw pharmacist Alfons Bukowski (1858-1921)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trojanowska, Anna

    2014-01-01

    In the second half of the 19th century, the economic changes, industrial development and migration of the population from rural to urban areas in Europe, there was an increasing demand for cheap foodstuffs, which contributed to the growth of mass food production, as well as to the increase in adulteration of foodstuffs. In the Kingdom of Poland, the research on this problem was conducted by a Warsaw pharmacist and chemist, Alfons Bukowski (1858-1921), the author of the first Polish textbook on bromatology Podrqcznik do badania pokarmów (1884) ("A manual for food testing"). The methods and results of his research were published in magazines, among others, in "WiadomoSci Farmaceutyczne" ("Pharmasist News"), "Zdrowie" ("The Health") and "Czasopisma Towarzystwa Aptekarskiego" ("Journals of the Pharmasist Association"). He paid attention to the social noxiousness of the adulterations, indicating that it is especially the poor people, who buy the cheapest products that are particularly vulnerable to adulteration of foodstuffs. In this paper, there have been presented selected issues related to adulteratibn of food products, issues to which Bukowski paid particular attention, and which were significantly affected by contemporary development of food chemistry, among other the development of methods of chemical and microscopic analysis and the generation of new surrogates, which replaced the natural food products.

  10. Carbon and nitrogen isotopic signatures and nitrogen profile to identify adulteration in organic fertilizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verenitch, Sergei; Mazumder, Asit

    2012-08-29

    Recently it has been shown that stable isotopes of nitrogen can be used to discriminate between organic and synthetic fertilizers, but the robustness of the approach is questionable. This work developed a comprehensive method that is far more robust in identifying an adulteration of organic nitrogen fertilizers. Organic fertilizers of various types (manures, composts, blood meal, bone meal, fish meal, products of poultry and plant productions, molasses and seaweed based, and others) available on the North American market were analyzed to reveal the most sensitive criteria as well as their quantitative ranges, which can be used in their authentication. Organic nitrogen fertilizers of known origins with a wide δ(15)N range between -0.55 and 28.85‰ (n = 1258) were characterized for C and N content, δ(13)C, δ(15)N, viscosity, pH, and nitrogen profile (urea, ammonia, organic N, water insoluble N, and NO3). A statistically significant data set of characterized unique organic nitrogen fertilizers (n = 335) of various known origins has been assembled. Deliberately adulterated samples of different types of organic fertilizers mixed with synthetic fertilizers at a wide range of proportions have been used to develop the quantitative critical characteristics of organic fertilizers as the key indicators of their adulteration. Statistical analysis based on the discriminant functions of the quantitative critical characteristics of organic nitrogen fertilizers from 14 different source materials revealed a very high average rate of correct classification. The developed methodology has been successfully used as a source identification tool for numerous commercial nitrogen fertilizers available on the North American market.

  11. International multidimensional authenticity specification (IMAS) algorithm for detection of commercial pomegranate juice adulteration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanjun; Krueger, Dana; Durst, Robert; Lee, Rupo; Wang, David; Seeram, Navindra; Heber, David

    2009-03-25

    The pomegranate fruit ( Punica granatum ) has become an international high-value crop for the production of commercial pomegranate juice (PJ). The perceived consumer value of PJ is due in large part to its potential health benefits based on a significant body of medical research conducted with authentic PJ. To establish criteria for authenticating PJ, a new International Multidimensional Authenticity Specifications (IMAS) algorithm was developed through consideration of existing databases and comprehensive chemical characterization of 45 commercial juice samples from 23 different manufacturers in the United States. In addition to analysis of commercial juice samples obtained in the United States, data from other analyses of pomegranate juice and fruits including samples from Iran, Turkey, Azerbaijan, Syria, India, and China were considered in developing this protocol. There is universal agreement that the presence of a highly constant group of six anthocyanins together with punicalagins characterizes polyphenols in PJ. At a total sugar concentration of 16 degrees Brix, PJ contains characteristic sugars including mannitol at >0.3 g/100 mL. Ratios of glucose to mannitol of 4-15 and of glucose to fructose of 0.8-1.0 are also characteristic of PJ. In addition, no sucrose should be present because of isomerase activity during commercial processing. Stable isotope ratio mass spectrometry as > -25 per thousand assures that there is no added corn or cane sugar added to PJ. Sorbitol was present at 25 mg/L is indicative of added grape products. Malic acid at >0.1 g/100 mL indicates adulteration with apple, pear, grape, cherry, plum, or aronia juice. Other adulteration methods include the addition of highly concentrated aronia, blueberry, or blackberry juices or natural grape pigments to poor-quality juices to imitate the color of pomegranate juice, which results in abnormal anthocyanin profiles. To adjust the astringent taste of poor-quality juice or peel extract, addition

  12. A Biomimetic Sensor for the Classification of Honeys of Different Floral Origin and the Detection of Adulteration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maz Jamilah Masnan

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The major compounds in honey are carbohydrates such as monosaccharides and disaccharides. The same compounds are found in cane-sugar concentrates. Unfortunately when sugar concentrate is added to honey, laboratory assessments are found to be ineffective in detecting this adulteration. Unlike tracing heavy metals in honey, sugar adulterated honey is much trickier and harder to detect, and traditionally it has been very challenging to come up with a suitable method to prove the presence of adulterants in honey products. This paper proposes a combination of array sensing and multi-modality sensor fusion that can effectively discriminate the samples not only based on the compounds present in the sample but also mimic the way humans perceive flavours and aromas. Conversely, analytical instruments are based on chemical separations which may alter the properties of the volatiles or flavours of a particular honey. The present work is focused on classifying 18 samples of different honeys, sugar syrups and adulterated samples using data fusion of electronic nose (e-nose and electronic tongue (e-tongue measurements. Each group of samples was evaluated separately by the e-nose and e-tongue. Principal Component Analysis (PCA and Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA were able to separately discriminate monofloral honey from sugar syrup, and polyfloral honey from sugar and adulterated samples using the e-nose and e-tongue. The e-nose was observed to give better separation compared to e-tongue assessment, particularly when LDA was applied. However, when all samples were combined in one classification analysis, neither PCA nor LDA were able to discriminate between honeys of different floral origins, sugar syrup and adulterated samples. By applying a sensor fusion technique, the classification for the 18 different samples was improved. Significant improvement was observed using PCA, while LDA not only improved the discrimination but also gave better classification

  13. [Identification of adulterants in adulterated milks by near infrared spectroscopy combined with non-linear pattern recognition methods].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Li-Jun; Zhong, Lin; Zhang, Xin; Zhang, Li-Guo; Huang, Shi-Xinz

    2014-10-01

    In the present work, two hundred and eighty seven raw milks collected from pastures in Shanghai and surrounding areas of Shanghai were used as true milk samples and divided into three true milk sets. Five hundred and twenty six adulterated milk samples, which contained dextrin (or starch) mixed with melamine (or urea, or ammonium nitrate), were prepared as six different adulterated milk sets. The concentrations of these adulterants in the adulterated milks were designed to be 0.15%~ 0.45% (starch or dextrin), 700-2,100 mg · kg(-1) (ammonium nitrate), 524-1,572 mg · kg(-1) (urea), and 365.5-1,096.5 mg · kg(-1) (melamine) to guarantee the protein content of adulterated milks detected by Kjeldahl method not lower than 3%. All the near infrared spectra (NIR) of the samples should have a pretreatment of normal variable transformation (SNV) before they were used to build discriminating models. The three true milk sets and six adulterated milk sets were combined in different ways in order to build NIR models for discriminating different kinds of adulterants (i. e. , dextrin, starch, melamine, urea and ammonium nitrate) based on simplified K-nearest neighbor classification algorithm (IS-KNN) and an improved and simplified of support vector machine (ν-SVM) method. The relationship between mass concentration of the adulterants and the rate of correct discrimination was also investigated. The results show that the average discrimination accuracy of IS-KNN and ν-SVM for identifying melamine, urea and ammonium nitrate were in the region of 49.55% to 51.01%, 61.78% to 68.79% and 68.25% to 73.51%, respectively. Therefore within the concentration regions designed in this study, it is difficult to distinguish different kinds of pseudo proteins by NIR spectroscopy. However, the average accuracy of IS-KNN and ν-SVM for identifying starch and dextrin are 92.33% and 93.66%, 77.29% and 85.08%, respectively. Most discrimination results of ν-SVM are better than those of IS-KNN. The

  14. A Hybrid Sensing Approach for Pure and Adulterated Honey Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ammar Zakaria

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a comparison between data from single modality and fusion methods to classify Tualang honey as pure or adulterated using Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA and Principal Component Analysis (PCA statistical classification approaches. Ten different brands of certified pure Tualang honey were obtained throughout peninsular Malaysia and Sumatera, Indonesia. Various concentrations of two types of sugar solution (beet and cane sugar were used in this investigation to create honey samples of 20%, 40%, 60% and 80% adulteration concentrations. Honey data extracted from an electronic nose (e-nose and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR were gathered, analyzed and compared based on fusion methods. Visual observation of classification plots revealed that the PCA approach able to distinct pure and adulterated honey samples better than the LDA technique. Overall, the validated classification results based on FTIR data (88.0% gave higher classification accuracy than e-nose data (76.5% using the LDA technique. Honey classification based on normalized low-level and intermediate-level FTIR and e-nose fusion data scored classification accuracies of 92.2% and 88.7%, respectively using the Stepwise LDA method. The results suggested that pure and adulterated honey samples were better classified using FTIR and e-nose fusion data than single modality data.

  15. Limited Cutaneous Vasculitis Associated With Levamisole-Adulterated Cocaine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yachoui, Ralph; Kolasinski, Sharon L; Eid, Hala

    2012-01-01

    Levamisole is among the many contaminants that have been detected in seized cocaine throughout North America and Europe. Little is known about the association between levamisole-adulterated cocaine and vasculitis. Herein we describe a case of limited cutaneous vasculitis manifested as retiform purpura and skin necrosis in a user of cocaine contaminated with levamisole. PMID:23024742

  16. High-throughput analysis by SP-LDI-MS for fast identification of adulterations in commercial balsamic vinegars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerreiro, Tatiane Melina; Oliveira, Diogo Noin de; Ferreira, Mônica Siqueira; Catharino, Rodrigo Ramos, E-mail: rrc@fcm.unicamp.br

    2014-08-01

    Highlights: • Rapid identification of adulteration in balsamic vinegars. • Minimal sample preparation. • No matrix required for assisting laser desorption/ionization. • Fast sample discrimination by multivariate data analysis. - Abstract: Balsamic vinegar (BV) is a typical and valuable Italian product, worldwide appreciated thanks to its characteristic flavors and potential health benefits. Several studies have been conducted to assess physicochemical and microbial compositions of BV, as well as its beneficial properties. Due to highly-disseminated claims of antioxidant, antihypertensive and antiglycemic properties, BV is a known target for frauds and adulterations. For that matter, product authentication, certifying its origin (region or country) and thus the processing conditions, is becoming a growing concern. Striving for fraud reduction as well as quality and safety assurance, reliable analytical strategies to rapidly evaluate BV quality are very interesting, also from an economical point of view. This work employs silica plate laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (SP-LDI-MS) for fast chemical profiling of commercial BV samples with protected geographical indication (PGI) and identification of its adulterated samples with low-priced vinegars, namely apple, alcohol and red/white wines.

  17. Food Adulteration: From Vulnerability Assessment to New Analytical Solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavin, Christophe; Cottenet, Geoffrey; Blancpain, Carine; Bessaire, Thomas; Frank, Nancy; Zbinden, Pascal

    2016-01-01

    Crises related to the presence of melamine in milk or horse meat in beef have been a wake-up call to the whole food industry showing that adulteration of food raw materials is a complex issue. By analysing the situation, it became clear that the risk-based approach applied to ensure the safety related to chemical contaminants in food is not adequate for food fraud. Therefore, a specific approach has been developed to evaluate adulteration vulnerabilities within the food chain. Vulnerabilities will require the development of new analytical solutions. Fingerprinting methodologies can be very powerful in determining the status of a raw material without knowing the identity of each constituent. Milk adulterated by addition of adulterants with very different chemical properties could be detected rapidly by Fourier-transformed mid-infrared spectroscopy (FT-mid-IR) fingerprinting technology. In parallel, a fast and simple multi-analytes liquid-chromatography tandem mass-spectrometry (LC/MS-MS) method has been developed to detect either high levels of nitrogen-rich compounds resulting from adulteration or low levels due to accidental contamination either in milk or in other sensitive food matrices. To verify meat species authenticity, DNA-based methods are preferred for both raw ingredients and processed food. DNA macro-array, and more specifically the Meat LCD Array have showed efficient and reliable meat identification, allowing the simultaneous detection of 32 meat species. While the Meat LCD Array is still a targeted approach, DNA sequencing is a significant step towards an untargeted one.

  18. Detection of adulteration in mulberry pekmez samples added various sugar syrups with ¹³C/¹²C isotope ratio analysis method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosun, Murat

    2014-12-15

    Mulberry pekmez can be adulterated in different ways either during the production process or after production is completed. To identify these adulterations, stable carbon isotope ratio analysis (SCIRA) was performed on the model examples prepared by adding saccharose syrup (SS), glucose syrup (GS) and high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) into two different pure mulberry pekmez samples in the ratios of 0%, 10%, 30% and 50%. The δ(13)C ratio of the pure mulberry pekmez was determined as -26.60‰ on average, the saccharose syrup as -24.80‰, the glucose syrup as -11.20‰ and the high-fructose corn syrup as -11.40‰. In identifying the adulteration made to pekmez, especially with the high-fructose corn syrup, which is obtained from corn starch, and with the glucose syrup, the δ(13)C ratio comes into prominence. However it remains impossible identify the adulterations made with the saccharose, which is obtained from beet sugar, or invert sugar syrups.

  19. Identification and quantification of turkey meat adulteration in fresh, frozen-thawed and cooked minced beef by FT-NIR spectroscopy and chemometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamprese, Cristina; Amigo, José Manuel; Casiraghi, Ernestina; Engelsen, Søren Balling

    2016-11-01

    This work aims at the development of a method based on FT-NIR spectroscopy and multivariate analysis for the identification and quantification of minced beef meat adulteration with turkey meat. Samples were analyzed as raw, frozen-thawed and cooked. Different multivariate regression and class-modeling strategies were evaluated. PLS regression models with R(2) in prediction higher than 0.884 and RMSEP lower than 10.8% were developed. PLS-DA applied to discriminate each type of sample in two classes (adulteration threshold=20%) showed values of sensitivity and specificity in prediction higher than 0.84 and 0.76, respectively. Thus, the study demonstrates that FT-NIR spectroscopy coupled with suitable chemometric strategies is a reliable tool for the identification and quantification of minced beef adulteration with turkey meat not only in fresh products, but also in frozen-thawed and cooked samples. This achievement is of crucial importance in the meat industry due to the increasing number of processed meat products, in which technological treatments can mask a possible inter-species adulteration.

  20. The application of Near-Infrared Reflectance Spectroscopy (NIRS) to detect melamine adulteration of soya bean meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haughey, Simon A; Graham, Stewart F; Cancouët, Emmanuelle; Elliott, Christopher T

    2013-02-15

    Soya bean products are used widely in the animal feed industry as a protein based feed ingredient and have been found to be adulterated with melamine. This was highlighted in the Chinese scandal of 2008. Dehulled soya (GM and non-GM), soya hulls and toasted soya were contaminated with melamine and spectra were generated using Near Infrared Reflectance Spectroscopy (NIRS). By applying chemometrics to the spectral data, excellent calibration models and prediction statistics were obtained. The coefficients of determination (R(2)) were found to be 0.89-0.99 depending on the mathematical algorithm used, the data pre-processing applied and the sample type used. The corresponding values for the root mean square error of calibration and prediction were found to be 0.081-0.276% and 0.134-0.368%, respectively, again depending on the chemometric treatment applied to the data and sample type. In addition, adopting a qualitative approach with the spectral data and applying PCA, it was possible to discriminate between the four samples types and also, by generation of Cooman's plots, possible to distinguish between adulterated and non-adulterated samples.

  1. Nanoparticle-based assay for the detection of virgin argan oil adulteration and its rapid quality evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zougagh, M; Salghi, R; Dhair, S; Rios, A

    2011-03-01

    A new method, based on the formation of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) and spectrophotometric analysis, is proposed to determine total phenolic acids in virgin argan oil samples. These compounds have reducibility due to the presence of the phenol group in their molecular structure, and a redox reaction occurs in the presence of HAuCl(4). The formation of AuNPs as a result of the redox reaction leading to colour changes can be visually observed, resulting in strong light signals that show absorption at 555 nm. As ferulic acid represents more than 95% of the total phenolic acid content of virgin argan oil, this compound was used as an adulteration marker to carry out the screening of samples for the evaluation of the authenticity of virgin argan oils. The analytical features of this screening method also allowed a low precision quantization of the quality of the product. Then, a reference HPLC-DAD/FD method was used to confirm the potential adulterated samples, as well as to provide a detailed quantitative analysis of the most representative phenolic compounds in the samples. The overall screening-confirmation strategy was validated by analysing pure virgin argan oil samples and argan oil samples adulterated with other commercial vegetable oils, demonstrating the reliability of the results. This approach is characterised by its simplicity, low cost, rapid information and responded to practical laboratories needs.

  2. Forensic analysis of Salvia divinorum using multivariate statistical procedures. Part II: association of adulterated samples to S. divinorum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willard, Melissa A Bodnar; McGuffin, Victoria L; Smith, Ruth Waddell

    2012-01-01

    Salvia divinorum is a plant material that is of forensic interest due to the hallucinogenic nature of the active ingredient, salvinorin A. In this study, S. divinorum was extracted and spiked onto four different plant materials (S. divinorum, Salvia officinalis, Cannabis sativa, and Nicotiana tabacum) to simulate an adulterated sample that might be encountered in a forensic laboratory. The adulterated samples were extracted and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and the resulting total ion chromatograms were subjected to a series of pretreatment procedures that were used to minimize non-chemical sources of variance in the data set. The data were then analyzed using principal components analysis (PCA) to investigate association of the adulterated extracts to unadulterated S. divinorum. While association was possible based on visual assessment of the PCA scores plot, additional procedures including Euclidean distance measurement, hierarchical cluster analysis, Student's t tests, Wilcoxon rank-sum tests, and Pearson product moment correlation were also applied to the PCA scores to provide a statistical evaluation of the association observed. The advantages and limitations of each statistical procedure in a forensic context were compared and are presented herein.

  3. Development of QCM Biosensor with Specific Cow Milk Protein Antibody for Candidate Milk Adulteration Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setyawan P. Sakti

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Adulteration of goat milk is usually done using cow’s milk product. Cow milk is used as it is widely available and its price is cheaper compared to goat milk. This paper shows a development of candidate tools for milk adulteration using cow milk. A quartz crystal microbalance immunosensor was developed using commercial crystal resonator and polyclonal antibody specific to cow milk protein. A specific protein at 208 KDa is found only in cow milk and does not exist in goat milk. The existence of this protein can be used as an indicator of cow milk content in a target solution. To detect the PSS 208 kDa protein, antibody specific to the PSS 208 was developed. The purified antibody was immobilized on top of the sensor surface on a polystyrene layer. The fraction of the immobilized antibody on the sensor was found at 1.5% of the given antibody. Using a static reaction cell, the developed immunosensor could detect the specific cow milk protein in buffer solution. The detection limit is 1 ppm. A linear relationship between frequency change and specific protein of cow milk concentration is found from a concentration of 1 ppm to 120 ppm.

  4. Detection and identification of extra virgin olive oil adulteration by GC-MS combined with chemometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Ferro, Miguel Duarte; Cavaco, Isabel; Liang, Yizeng

    2013-04-17

    In this study, an analytical method for the detection and identification of extra virgin olive oil adulteration with four types of oils (corn, peanut, rapeseed, and sunflower oils) was proposed. The variables under evaluation included 22 fatty acids and 6 other significant parameters (the ratio of linoleic/linolenic acid, oleic/linoleic acid, total saturated fatty acids (SFAs), polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs), MUFAs/PUFAs). Univariate analyses followed by multivariate analyses were applied to the adulteration investigation. As a result, the univariate analyses demonstrated that higher contents of eicosanoic acid, docosanoic acid, tetracosanoic acid, and SFAs were the peculiarities of peanut adulteration and higher levels of linolenic acid, 11-eicosenoic acid, erucic acid, and nervonic acid the characteristics of rapeseed adulteration. Then, PLS-LDA made the detection of adulteration effective with a 1% detection limit and 90% prediction ability; a Monte Carlo tree identified the type of adulteration with 85% prediction ability.

  5. Recent Advances in Rapid Identification of Milk Adulteration%乳品掺假快速检测的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓会玲; 万宇平; 贾芳芳; 陶光灿

    2011-01-01

    The identification of milk adulteration is one of the current difficulties for milk quality control in our country and of great significance to ensure the food safety of milk products.This article reviews the current situation of milk adulteration,and focuses on the current domestic detection techniques for milk adulteration,and forecasts future technology development trends for the identification of milk adulteration,with the aim of providing theoretical evidence for further improvement of food safety detection techniques.%乳品掺假鉴别是目前我国乳品质量控制的难题之一,其对保障乳品的食用安全具有重要意义。本文综述乳品掺假的现状,重点阐述目前国内现有的乳品掺假检测技术,并对乳品掺假检测技术的发展趋势进行展望,旨在为进一步完善食品安全检测技术体系提供理论依据。

  6. Rapid screening for the adulterants of Berberis aristata using direct analysis in real-time mass spectrometry and principal component analysis for discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajpai, Vikas; Singh, Awantika; Arya, Kamal Ram; Srivastava, Mukesh; Kumar, Brijesh

    2015-01-01

    Adulteration or substitution of commercial Berberis aristata and its herbal products with inferior-quality substituents is very common. Metabolic profiling of B. aristata, along with its common adulterants/contaminants/substituents such as B. asiatica, Mahonia borealis and Coscinium fenestratum, was rapidly carried out using direct analysis in real-time mass spectrometry (DART MS) to generate the chemical fingerprints for the differentiation of these species. Phytochemical analysis showed the presence of mainly alkaloids. The identified alkaloids were berberrubine, berberine, jatrorrhizine, ketoberberine, palmatine, dihydropalmatine or 7,8-dihydro-8-hydroxyberberine, berbamine and pakistanamine. Berberine, which was mainly reported from the root and stem bark of B. aristata, was also identified in the leaf along with chlorogenic acid. The DART MS data have been subjected to principal component analysis (PCA). The resulting score plots showed clustering and clear differentiation of the species and plant parts. It is thus apparent that the technique of DART MS followed by PCA is a quick and reliable method for the direct profiling of B. aristata and its adulterant plants and plant parts. The study reports the rapid analytical method to identify the possibility of illegal adulteration/contamination/substitution in potential plant materials and herbal extracts.

  7. Detection of cow milk adulteration in yak milk by ELISA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Q R; Zhang, H; Guo, H Y; Jiang, L; Tian, M; Ren, F Z

    2014-10-01

    In the current study, a simple, sensitive, and specific ELISA assay using a high-affinity anti-bovine β-casein monoclonal antibody was developed for the rapid detection of cow milk in adulterated yak milk. The developed ELISA was highly specific and could be applied to detect bovine β-casein (10-8,000 μg/mL) and cow milk (1:1,300 to 1:2 dilution) in yak milk. Cross-reactivity was detection limit was 1% (vol/vol) cow milk in yak milk. Different treatments, including heating, acidification, and rennet addition, did not interfere with the assay. Moreover, the results were highly reproducible (coefficient of variation detected no significant differences between known and estimated values. Therefore, this assay is appropriate for the routine analysis of yak milk adulterated with cow milk.

  8. Application of analytical methods in authentication and adulteration of honey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, Amna Jabbar; Musharraf, Syed Ghulam; Choudhary, M Iqbal; Rahman, Atta-Ur-

    2017-02-15

    Honey is synthesized from flower nectar and it is famous for its tremendous therapeutic potential since ancient times. Many factors influence the basic properties of honey including the nectar-providing plant species, bee species, geographic area, and harvesting conditions. Quality and composition of honey is also affected by many other factors, such as overfeeding of bees with sucrose, harvesting prior to maturity, and adulteration with sugar syrups. Due to the complex nature of honey, it is often challenging to authenticate the purity and quality by using common methods such as physicochemical parameters and more specialized procedures need to be developed. This article reviews the literature (between 2000 and 2016) on the use of analytical techniques, mainly NMR spectroscopy, for authentication of honey, its botanical and geographical origin, and adulteration by sugar syrups. NMR is a powerful technique and can be used as a fingerprinting technique to compare various samples.

  9. Detecção de adulterações em produtos alimentares contendo leite e/ou proteínas lácteas Detection of adulterations in food products containing milk and/or milk proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cristina A. Veloso

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available A critical review of the most relevant analytical methodologies for quality and authenticity control of dairy products and foods containing milk proteins is presented. Chromatographic, electrophoretic and immunological methods are used for: detection of cow's milk in ewe and goat milks, detection of whey added to milk, detection of caseins and/or whey proteins in non-lactic foods and study compounds resulting from milk proteins degradation. Techniques based on polimerase chain reaction are also suitable for detection of cow's milk on cheeses of ewe and goat milks.

  10. Preliminary Discrimination of Butter Adulteration by ATR-FTIR Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucian Cuibus

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The Attenuated Total Reflectance-Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR  was applied for the discrimination of butter samples adulterated with solid fraction of palm oil. For FTIR fingerprinting of butter samples, with or without controlled additions of palm oil as adulterant was firstly obtained, using a Shimatsu Prestige 21 Spectrophotometer, including a horizontal diamond ATR accessory with reflection in the MIR region (3873-690 cm-1.The spiked butter samples including 0 level and seven increasing concentrations of palm fats, up to 50% were fingerprinted and the calibration curve was obtained (n=19. In parallel, the validation was realized using different set of spiked butter samples ranging 1-44.4 % of palm fat (n=7. Finally, an independent set of commercial samples was analized (n=14.Partial least squares (PLS model was used for statistical data processing in accordance with standard method. The value of the correlation coefficient (R2= 0.977 between actual and predicted values was statistically significant (p<0.001, considering the superposition of  "actual vs predicted” curves. This combined FTIR-PLS evaluation revealed that 3 out of  samples of butter were suspected of adulteration with palm oil, presented values 14 ranging 4-12%.In conclusion, ATR-FTIR methodology may offer an rapid evaluation of  butter samples authenticity. The low value for detection limit (3%palm oil in butter and the low limit of quantification (9.8% palm oil in butter confirms that ATR-FTIR spectroscopy  is a sensitive method to identify the adulteration of butter with  palm oil.   

  11. Lanthanide Label Array Method for Identification and Adulteration of Honey and Cacao.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Härmä, Harri; Peltomaa, Riikka; Pihlasalo, Sari

    2015-07-07

    A generic, cost-effective, and simple method has been developed to fingerprint liquids to differentiate food brands and ingredients. The method is based on a label array using nonspecific long lifetime unstable luminescent lanthanide labels. The interaction between the liquid sample and the label is typically detrimental to the luminescence of the unstable chelate leading to a sample-dependent luminescence-intensity array. The label-array method is a unique approach as the array of unstable chelates is extremely inexpensive to produce and possesses high sensitivity due to spectral as well as unstable structural properties of the lanthanide label. The global method has been applied to distinguish commercial honey and cacao brands to demonstrate its feasibility as honey and cacao are among the most adulterated food products.

  12. Targeted and Untargeted Detection of Skim Milk Powder Adulteration by Near-Infrared Spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Capuano, Edoardo; Boerrigter-Eenling, Rita; Koot, Alex; Ruth, van S.M.

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) was explored as a fast and reliable screening method for the detection of adulteration of skim milk powder (SMP). Sixty genuine SMP were adulterated with acid whey (1–25 % w/w), starch (2 and 5 %) and maltodextrin (2 and 5 %) for a total of

  13. [Discrimination of adulterated milk based on Euclidian distances between two-dimensional infrared correlation spectra].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ren-jie; Yang, Yan-rong; Dong, Gui-mei; Du, Yan-hong; Shan, Hui-yong; Zhang, Wei-yu

    2014-08-01

    Based on Euclidian distances between synchronous two-dimensional infrared correlation spectra, in terms of the average Euclidian distances between unknown samples and "extreme samples", and average intra- and inter-Euclidian distances of samples in the calibration set, a new method for the discrimination of adulterated milk was proposed. Sixteen pure milk samples were collected and 16 adulterated milk samples with urea (0.01-0.3 g x L(-1)), and 16 adulterated milk samples with melamine (0.01-0.3 g x L(-1)) samples were prepared, respectively. The IR absorption spectra of all samples were measured at room temperature. The synchronous two-dimensional correlation spectra were generated from concentration-dependent spectral variation of adulterant in milk. The Euclidian distances were calculated between synchronous two-dimensional infrared correlation spectra of all samples. Then, the classification models were built respectively for adulterated milk with urea, and adiulterated milk with melamine. The "extreme samples", average intra- and inter-Euclidian distances were determined. Finally, the unknown samples in prediction set were predicted using constructed models in terms of classification rules of adulterated milk. The classification accuracy rates for pure milk and adulterated milk were 100%. The effectiveness of the proposed method was verified. The results obtained in this study revealed that synchronous two-dimensional infrared correlation spectra in combination with Euclidian distance has a feasible potential to discriminate adulterated milk and pure milk.

  14. Application of FTIR-ATR spectroscopy coupled with multivariate analysis for rapid estimation of butter adulteration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadzlillah, Nurrulhidayah Ahmad; Rohman, Abdul; Ismail, Amin; Mustafa, Shuhaimi; Khatib, Alfi

    2013-01-01

    In dairy product sector, butter is one of the potential sources of fat soluble vitamins, namely vitamin A, D, E, K; consequently, butter is taken into account as high valuable price from other dairy products. This fact has attracted unscrupulous market players to blind butter with other animal fats to gain economic profit. Animal fats like mutton fat (MF) are potential to be mixed with butter due to the similarity in terms of fatty acid composition. This study focused on the application of FTIR-ATR spectroscopy in conjunction with chemometrics for classification and quantification of MF as adulterant in butter. The FTIR spectral region of 3910-710 cm⁻¹ was used for classification between butter and butter blended with MF at various concentrations with the aid of discriminant analysis (DA). DA is able to classify butter and adulterated butter without any mistakenly grouped. For quantitative analysis, partial least square (PLS) regression was used to develop a calibration model at the frequency regions of 3910-710 cm⁻¹. The equation obtained for the relationship between actual value of MF and FTIR predicted values of MF in PLS calibration model was y = 0.998x + 1.033, with the values of coefficient of determination (R²) and root mean square error of calibration are 0.998 and 0.046% (v/v), respectively. The PLS calibration model was subsequently used for the prediction of independent samples containing butter in the binary mixtures with MF. Using 9 principal components, root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) is 1.68% (v/v). The results showed that FTIR spectroscopy can be used for the classification and quantification of MF in butter formulation for verification purposes.

  15. FT-IR Application for the Detection of Pistachio Oil Adulteration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Sheibani

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR is used to identify and detection the adulteration of pistachio oil with cheap edible oils of corn, sunflower and soybean. For this purpose, pistachio oil was blended with cheap oils at concentration level of 10 to 60% (w/w. Then, FT-IR spectra of pure and adulterated pistachio oil samples were obtained. The fingerprints region was found to be useful in investigation of the adulteration of pistachio oil. At this region, the absorbance peaks of FT-IR decreased by increasing the adulterant amount with a linear relation that can be applied for the quality and quantity purposes. The obtained results showed that the proposed method can be considered and used as an alternative method in the detection and semi-quantization of adulteration in pistachio oil.

  16. [Identification of albiziae cortex, albiziae flos and their adulterants using ITS2 barcoding].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Sha; Pang, Xiao-Hui; Song, Jing-Yuan; Chen, Shi-Lin

    2014-06-01

    The ITS2 barcode was used to accurately identify Albiziae Cortex, Albiziae Flos and their adulterants in this study. A total of46 samples from Albiziae Cortex, Albiziae Flos and their adulterants were collected. The ITS2 regions were amplified and sequenced. Sequences were assembled using the CodonCode Aligner. The genetic distances of ITS2 region were calculated using MEGA 5.0. BLAST1, nearest distance and phylogenetic tree (NJ-tree) methods were used to assess the identification efficiency of the ITS2 barcode. The results revealed that the intraspecific genetic distances of Albizia julibrissin were lower than the interspecific genetic distances between A. julibrissin and its adulterants. The identification efficiency of ITS2 barcode using BLAST1 was 100%. The NJ-tree showed that A. julibrissin and their adulterants can be easily differentiated according to their monophyly. The ITS2 barcode is suitable to be as a barcode to identify Albiziae Cortex, Albiziae Flos and their adulterants.

  17. Rapid authentication of adulteration of olive oil by near-infrared spectroscopy using support vector machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jingzhu; Dong, Jingjing; Dong, Wenfei; Chen, Yan; Liu, Cuiling

    2016-10-01

    A classification method of support vector machines with linear kernel was employed to authenticate genuine olive oil based on near-infrared spectroscopy. There were three types of adulteration of olive oil experimented in the study. The adulterated oil was respectively soybean oil, rapeseed oil and the mixture of soybean and rapeseed oil. The average recognition rate of second experiment was more than 90% and that of the third experiment was reach to 100%. The results showed the method had good performance in classifying genuine olive oil and the adulteration with small variation range of adulterated concentration and it was a promising and rapid technique for the detection of oil adulteration and fraud in the food industry.

  18. Detection of adulteration in virgin olive oil using a fiber optic long period grating based sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libish, T. M.; Bobby, M. C.; Linesh, J.; Mathew, S.; Pradeep, C.; Nampoori, V. P. N.; Biswas, P.; Bandyopadhyay, S.; Dasgupta, K.; Radhakrishnan, P.

    2013-04-01

    A fiber optic sensing system for the detection of adulteration of virgin olive oil by less expensive sunflower oil is presented. The fundamental principle of detection is the sensitive dependence of the resonance peaks of a long period grating (LPG) on the changes in the refractive index of the environmental medium surrounding the cladding surface of the grating. The performance of the sensor has been tested by monitoring the amplitude changes of the attenuation bands of the LPG in response to variation of adulteration level. With good repeatability, the detection limit of adulteration is 4% and the sensor sensitivity is around 0.07 dB vol%-1 of adulterant in the measurement range. The developed sensor is user-friendly, reusable and allows instantaneous measurement of the amount of adulteration without involving any reagents.

  19. Adulteration and its detection of black raspberry products

    Science.gov (United States)

    We have continually researched improvements for commercially available cultivars of black raspberry (Rubus occidentalis L.; blackcap). During the past decade, we have analyzed fruit from over 1,000 black raspberry genotypes and cultivars, and found that the anthocyanin content to ranged from 39 to 9...

  20. Quality assessment of the saffron samples using second-order spectrophotometric data assisted by three-way chemometric methods via quantitative analysis of synthetic colorants in adulterated saffron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masoum, Saeed; Gholami, Ali; Hemmesi, Marjan; Abbasi, Saleheh

    2015-09-01

    Saffron is a valuable culinary spice that can be used not only for dyes and cooking, but also for many medical purposes. Due to its high price and restriction of its production, various fraud manners in its production have been growing. Addition of synthetic colorants to saffron is the most common way for adulteration. In this work, chemometric methods are proposed to resolve the three-dimensional absorbance spectra-pH data for simultaneous determination of the two colorants Tartrazin and Sunset yellow, in adulterated saffron. The rank deficiency in the concentration mode impaired the system. Therefore, to extirpate the ambiguity, which results from rank deficiency, three-way variation array V was generated by subtracting the first pH spectrum from each spectrum at each pH. This allows the extraction of extent reaction profile and mixture reaction spectral profiles, as well as the relative concentrations of the analytes.

  1. Rapidly discriminate commercial medicinal Pulsatilla chinensis (Bge.) Regel from its adulterants using ITS2 barcoding and specific PCR-RFLP assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yuhua; Zhao, Mingming; Yao, Hui; Yang, Pei; Xin, Tianyi; Li, Bin; Sun, Wei; Chen, Shilin

    2017-01-01

    Pulsatillae radix is a conventional traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) with common name Baitouweng, and has notable effects on inflammation and dysentery. Pulsatilla chinensis (Bge.) Regel is the only source plant of Baitouweng recorded in Chinese Pharmacopoeia, but its adulteration often occurs in the market that possibly affects medicinal efficacy and safety. We have established an internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) barcode library based on 105 plant samples from 12 Pulsatilla species and 10 common adulterants. Results indicate that ITS2 barcoding can accurately distinguish Pulsatilla species from their adulterants. Pulsatilla chinensis can be discriminated from 11 congeneric species by two stable single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the ITS2 region. Additionally, a quick specific PCR-RFLP identification assay based on the ITS2 barcode was developed. Using specific primers ITS2/PR1 combined with restriction enzyme Bgl I, Pu. chinensis can rapidly be differentiated from other species via simple and low-cost test procedures. Furthermore, 30 commercial Baitouweng products were tested and only two products were derived from authentic Pu. chinensis. Thus, these two molecular approaches provide practical tools for quick identification of commercial Baitouweng products and can help ensure the safe use of this TCM product. PMID:28059130

  2. Assessing saffron (Crocus sativus L.) adulteration with plant-derived adulterants by diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy coupled with chemometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrakis, Eleftherios A; Polissiou, Moschos G

    2017-01-01

    Saffron, the dried red stigmas of the plant Crocus sativus L., is well-known as one of the most important and expensive spices worldwide. It is thus highly susceptible to fraudulent practices that employ, among others, plant-derived adulterants. This study presents an application of diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS) and chemometric techniques for evaluating adulteration of saffron with six characteristic adulterants of plant origin, i.e. C. sativus stamens, calendula, safflower, turmeric, buddleja, and gardenia. The proposed method involved a three-step process for the detection of adulteration as well as for the identification and quantification of adulterants. Partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) was applied to perform authentication of saffron based on mid-infrared fingerprints (4000-600cm(-1)), resulting in 99% correct classification of pure saffron and saffron adulterated at 5-20% (w/w) levels. Adulterant identification in positive samples was performed with high sensitivity and specificity by a six-class PLS-DA model, with spectroscopic data from the region 2000-600cm(-1). Subsequently, partial least squares (PLS) regression models were built for the quantification of each adulterant. By using synergy interval PLS (siPLS) for variable selection, models with improved performance were developed, with detection limits ranging from 1.0% to 3.1% (w/w). The results obtained illustrate that this strategy based on DRIFTS has the potential to complement existing methodologies for the rapid and cost-effective assessment of typical saffron frauds.

  3. Preliminary Discrimination of Cheese Adulteration by FT-IR Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucian Cuibus

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The present work describes a preliminary study to compare some traditional Romanian cheeses and adulterated cheeses using Attenuated Total Reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR. For PLS model calibration (6 concentration levels and validation (5 concentration levels sets were prepared from commercial Dalia Cheese from different manufacturers by spiking it with palm oil at concentrations ranging 2-50 % and 5-40 %, respectively. Fifteen Dalia Cheese were evaluated as external set. The spectra of each sample, after homogenization, were acquired in triplicate using a FTIR Shimatsu Prestige 21 Spectrophotometer, with a horizontal diamond ATR accessory in the MIR region 4000-600 cm-1. Statistical methods as PLS were applied using MVC1 routines written for Matlab R2010a. As first step the optimal condition for PLS model were obtained using cross-validation on the Calibration set. Spectral region in 3873-652 cm-1, and 3 PLS-factors were stated as the best conditions and showed an R2 value of 0.9338 and a relative error in the calibration of 17.2%. Then validation set was evaluated, obtaining good recovery rates (108% and acceptable dispersion of the data (20%. The curve of actual vs. predicted values shows slope near to 1 and origin close to 0, with an R2 of 0.9695. When the external sample set was evaluated, samples F19, F21, F22 and F24, showed detectable levels of palm fats. The results proved that FTIR-PLS is a reliable non-destructive technique for a rapid quantification the level of adulteration in cheese.  The spectroscopic methods could assist the quality control authority, traders and the producers to discriminate the adulterated cheeses with palm oil.

  4. DNA barcoding provides distinction between Radix Astragali and its adulterants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Based on variable nuclear and/or organellar DNA sequences among vastly divergent species as well as morphologically indistinguishable species, DNA barcoding is widely applicable in species identification, biodiversity studies, forensic analyses, and authentication of medicinal plants. The roots of Astragalus membranaceus and A. membranaceus var. mongholica are commonly used as Radix Astragali in several Asian countries, including China, Japan, and Korea. However, in addition to the two species recorded in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia, there are twenty-three species from different genera including Astragalus, Oxytropis, Hedysarum, and Glycyrrhiza, which have been used as adulterants not only in trading markets but also by the herbal medicine industry. Therefore, a simple, reliable, and accurate classification method is important for distinguishing authentic Radix Astragali from its adulterants. In this study, we acquired data for 37 samples from four related genera within the family Fabaceae. Then we compared four candidate DNA barcoding markers using ITS, matK, rbcL, and coxI sequences from nuclear, chloroplast, and mitochondrial genomes, all commonly used for plants to identify genetic variations among genera, intraspecies, and interspecies. We observed higher divergences among genera and interspecies for ITS, which have the average Kimura 2-parameter distances of 4.5% and 14.1%, respectively, whereas matK was found to have sufficient divergence at the intraspecific level. Moreover, two indels detected in the matK sequence are useful for PCR studies in distinguishing Radix Astragali from its adulterants. This study suggests that the combined barcoding regions of ITS and matK are superior barcodes for Radix Astragali and further studies should focus on evaluating the applicability and accuracy of such combined markers for a wide range of traditional Chinese herbs.

  5. Noscapine as an adulterant in illicit heroin samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klemenc, S

    2000-01-24

    In this short report the evidence is given (based on the analyses of 22 case samples) that noscapine can be used as an adulterant in illicit heroin samples. In this context, the appearance of illicit heroin samples characterised by a high noscapine content (up to 61%) and a high noscapine/whole morphine ratio (up to 3.5) is highlighted. All samples discussed in the paper (132) were seized in Slovenia, in the period from 1997 to 1999 and were analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

  6. Levamisole-Adulterated Cocaine Toxicity: Would You Recognize It?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherlopalle, Suneela; Enja, Manasa; Lippmann, Melanie; Lippmann, Steven

    2016-07-14

    Adulteration of cocaine with levamisole is common and can induce serious medical complications. Levamisole is an antihelminthic agent originally approved as an immunomodulator in the treatment of autoimmune disorders and as a chemotherapy adjunct. It was withdrawn from the US market in 2000 but is available in veterinary medicine. Cocaine-using patients may present with nonspecific constitutional symptoms, cutaneous eruptions, leukopenia, vasculitis, and organ damage. Skin manifestations may include severe necrosis, especially of the ear lobes. Here, a case of levamisole toxicity is presented and treatment options are discussed.

  7. Determination of vegetable oils and fats adulterants in diesel oil by high performance liquid chromatography and multivariate methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandão, Luiz Filipe Paiva; Braga, Jez Willian Batista; Suarez, Paulo Anselmo Ziani

    2012-02-17

    The current legislation requires the mandatory addition of biodiesel to all Brazilian road diesel oil A (pure diesel) marketed in the country and bans the addition of vegetable oils for this type of diesel. However, cases of irregular addition of vegetable oils directly to the diesel oil may occur, mainly due to the lower cost of these raw materials compared to the final product, biodiesel. In Brazil, the situation is even more critical once the country is one of the largest producers of oleaginous products in the world, especially soybean, and also it has an extensive road network dependent on diesel. Therefore, alternatives to control the quality of diesel have become increasingly necessary. This study proposes an analytical methodology for quality control of diesel with intention to identify and determine adulterations of oils and even fats of vegetable origin. This methodology is based on detection, identification and quantification of triacylglycerols on diesel (main constituents of vegetable oils and fats) by high performance liquid chromatography in reversed phase with UV detection at 205nm associated with multivariate methods. Six different types of oils and fats were studied (soybean, frying oil, corn, cotton, palm oil and babassu) and two methods were developed for data analysis. The first one, based on principal component analysis (PCA), nearest neighbor classification (KNN) and univariate regression, was used for samples adulterated with a single type of oil or fat. In the second method, partial least square regression (PLS) was used for the cases where the adulterants were mixtures of up to three types of oils or fats. In the first method, the techniques of PCA and KNN were correctly classified as 17 out of 18 validation samples on the type of oil or fat present. The concentrations estimated for adulterants showed good agreement with the reference values, with mean errors of prediction (RMSEP) ranging between 0.10 and 0.22% (v/v). The PLS method was

  8. Quantitative analysis and detection of adulteration in pork using near-infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yuxia; Cheng, Fang; Xie, Lijuan

    2010-04-01

    Authenticity is an important food quality criterion. Rapid methods for confirming authenticity or detecting adulteration are increasingly demanded by food processors and consumers. Near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy has been used to detect economic adulteration in pork . Pork samples were adulterated with liver and chicken in 10% increments. Prediction and quantitative analysis were done using raw data and pretreatment spectra. The optimal prediction result was achieved by partial least aquares(PLS) regression with standard normal variate(SNV) pretreatment for pork adulterated with liver samples, and the correlation coefficient(R value), the root mean square error of calibration(RMSEC) and the root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) were 0.97706, 0.0673 and 0.0732, respectively. The best model for pork meat adulterated with chicken samples was obtained by PLS with the raw spectra, and the correlation coefficient(R value), RMSEP and RMSEC were 0.98614, 0.0525, and 0.122, respectively. The result shows that NIR technology can be successfully used to detect adulteration in pork meat adulterated with liver and chicken.

  9. Multivariate calibration in Fourier transform infrared spectrometry as a tool to detect adulterations in Brazilian gasoline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonardo S.G. Teixeira; Fabio S. Oliveira; Hilda C. dos Santos; Paulo W.L. Cordeiro; Selmo Q. Almeida [Universidade Salvador, Salvador (Brazil)

    2008-03-15

    In the present work, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) in association with multivariate chemometrics classification techniques was employed to identify gasoline samples adulterated with diesel oil, kerosene, turpentine spirit or thinner. Results indicated that partial least squares (PLS) models based on infrared spectra were proven suitable as practical analytical methods for predicting adulterant content in gasoline in the volume fraction range from 0% to 50%. The results obtained by PLS provided prediction errors lower than 2% (v/v) for all adulterant determined. Additionally, Soft Independent Modeling of Class Analogy (SIMCA) was performed using all spectral data (650-3700 cm{sup -1}) for sample classification into adulterant classes defined by training set and the results indicated that undoubted adulteration detection was possible but identification of the adulterant was subject to misclassification errors, specially for kerosene and turpentine adulterated samples, and must be carefully examined. Quality control and police laboratories for gasoline analysis should employ the proposed methods for rapid screening analysis for qualitative monitoring purposes. 22 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  10. [Textual research on adulteration of Chinese materia medica in ancient China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Jin; Wang, De-Qun

    2013-09-01

    By investigating the mainstream works of herbal classics of successive ages, it is found that adulteration of Chinese materia medica appeared early in ancient China. The main methods of adulteration was producing fraud medicines in the Northern-Southern Dynasties, fake medicines began to appear in the Tang Dynasty, and status of adulteration of Chinese materia medica ran unchecked since the Ming and Qing Dynasty. By statistics, there were 76 kinds of adulteration varieties before the Republican period. The main varieties were precious drugs, animal drugs and artifacts. Commonly methods used in the process included forging and adulterating, dealing with 11 kinds and 68 kinds respectively. Adulteration probably lead to the result of imposing the changes of the used medicinal parts of Herba Pogostemonis; Radix Aconiti Lateralis prepared by adding salt, Radix Angelica Sinensis processed by wine, and Radix Astragalis seu Hedysaris processed with bee honey. However, the root cause of adulteration in Chinese materia medica was the dissociation of professional physician and pharmacist, resulting in the ignorance of medical practitioners became unable to recognize Chinese materia medica; and the immorality of medicinal merchants. Besides, rating the quality of materia medica based on its producing areas without differentiating the false from the genuine may also contribute to this result passively.

  11. Development of a Stationary Phase Optimised Selectivity Liquid Chromatography based screening method for adulterations of food supplements for the treatment of pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deconinck, E; Kamugisha, A; Van Campenhout, P; Courselle, P; De Beer, J O

    2015-06-01

    Illegally adulterated dietary supplements are an increasing problem worldwide. One of the important groups of often adulterated products are the dietary supplements, sold for the treatment of pain. These often contain analgesics, a heterogeneous group of molecules, containing both hydrophilic and hydrophobic compounds. The development of a screening method for these components, especially when mass spectrometric detection is not available, necessitates chromatographic separation, difficult to achieve with traditional chromatographic columns. In this paper Stationary Phase Optimised Selectivity Liquid Chromatography was used for the development of a screening method for nine analgesics, codeine and caffeine, often present in this type of dietary supplements. The method shows a good separation of all the compounds, allowing the screening to be performed with diode array detection and is fully compatible with mass spectrometry. The method was validated for its selectivity following the guidelines as described for the screening of pesticide residues and residues of veterinary medicines in food.

  12. Dose-to-dose variations with single packages of counterfeit medicines and adulterated dietary supplements as a potential source of false negatives and inaccurate health risk assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venhuis, B J; Zwaagstra, M E; Keizers, P H J; de Kaste, D

    2014-02-01

    In this report, we show three examples of how the variability in dose units in single packages of counterfeit medicines and adulterated dietary supplements may contribute to a false negative screening result and inaccurate health risk assessments. We describe a counterfeit Viagra 100mg blister pack and a box of an instant coffee both containing dose units with and without an active pharmaceutical ingredient (API). We also describe a purportedly herbal slimming product with capsules that mutually differed in API and impurities. The adulterated dietary supplements contained sibutramine, benzyl-sibutramine, N-desmethyl-sibutramine (DMS), N,N-didesmethyl-sibutramine (DDMS) and several other related impurities. Counterfeit medicines and adulterated dietary supplements are a health risk because their quality is unreliable. Health risks are even greater when such unreliability extends to fundamental differences between dose units in one package. Because dose-to-dose variability for these products is unpredictable, the confidence interval of a sample size is unknown. Consequently, the analyses of a selection of dose units may not be representative for the package. In the worst case, counterfeit or unauthorised medicines are not recognised as such or a health risk is not identified. In order to reduce erroneous results particular care should be taken when analysing a composite of dose units, when finding no API in a dietary supplement and when finding conformity in a suspect counterfeit medicine.

  13. Skeletal Muscle Troponin I (TnI) in Animal Fat Tissues to Be Used as Biomarker for the Identification of Fat Adulteration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Bong-Sup; Oh, Young-Kyoung; Kim, Min-Jin; Shim, Won-Bo

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the existence of skeletal muscle troponin I (smTnI), well-known as a muscle protein in fat tissues, and the utilization of smTnI as a biomarker for the identification of fat adulteration were investigated. A commercial antibody (ab97427) specific to all of animals smTnI was used in this study. Fat and meat samples (cooked and non-cooked) of pork and beef, and chicken considered as representative meats were well minced and extracted by heating and non-heating methods, and the extracts from fat and meat tissues were probed by the antibody used in both enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and immunoblot. The antibody exhibited a strong reaction to all meat and fat extracts in ELISA test. On the other hand, the results of immunoblot analsis revealed a 23 kDa high intensity band corresponding to the molecular weight of smTnI (23786 Da). These results demonstrate that the existence of smTnI in all animal fat tissues. Since there are monoclonal antibodies specific to each species smTnI, smTnI in fat tissues could be used as a biomarker to identify or determine animal species adulterated in meat products. Therefore, an analytical method to identify fraudulent fat adulteration can be developed with an antibody specific to each species smTnI.

  14. [Rapid determination of Sudan dyes adulterated in natural paprika red by FTIR].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei-wei; Liu, Ling-ling; Wu, Yan-wen; Ouyang, Jie; Sun, Su-qin

    2012-04-01

    How to rapidly determine synthesized pigments or dyes adulterated in natural pigments is a difficult problem for food analysts. Natural paprika red is widely used in foods because of its coloration and pharmaceutical effect, but it is sometimes adulterated with Sudan dyes for its poor stability under light or heat treatment. In the present paper, the macro-fingerprint characteristic of infrared spectroscopy was utilized to identify Sudan dyes adulterated in paprika red. The strong peaks at 1 621, 1 500 and 751 cm(-1) in FTIR spectra and at the fingerprint region of 753, 684 and 496 cm(-1) in the secondary deriative FTIR spectra were remarkable characteristics for Sudan dyes adulterated in paprika red, of which the limit of determination was about 1%.

  15. Analysis of Peanut Oil Adulterated with Other Edible Oils by Spectrophotometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SU Rui; WANG Xing-hua; ZHAO Tian-qi; YU Wen-zhi; FENG Xu-dong; ZHANG Han-qi; YU Ai-min

    2012-01-01

    Since peanut oil(PO) is more expensive than other seed oils,some PO is adulterated with other cheap seed oils,such as soybean oil,palm olein,cottonseed oil,corn oil and rapeseed oil.The conventional method for determining whether PO was adulterated is to detect the freezing point of oils.The proposed method for the determination of adulterants in PO was based on monitoring the change of absorbance when the sample was refrigerated.A special spectrophotometer was developed.A total of 10 kinds of POs from different suppliers were chosen and adulterated with other seed oils at the volume fraction levels ranging from 5% to 30%.A total of 150 samples were analyzed by the proposed method and the results were satisfactory.

  16. Novel identification strategy for ground coffee adulteration based on UPLC-HRMS oligosaccharide profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Tie; Ting, Hu; Jin-Lan, Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Coffee is one of the most common and most valuable beverages. According to International Coffee Organization (ICO) reports, the adulteration of coffee for financial reasons is regarded as the most serious threat to the sustainable development of the coffee market. In this work, a novel strategy for adulteration identification in ground coffee was developed based on UPLC-HRMS oligosaccharide profiling. Along with integrated statistical analysis, 17 oligosaccharide composition were identified as markers for the identification of soybeans and rice in ground coffee. This strategy, validated by manual mixtures, optimized both the reliability and authority of adulteration identification. Rice and soybean adulterants present in ground coffee in amounts as low as 5% were identified and evaluated. Some commercial ground coffees were also successfully tested using this strategy.

  17. High Sensitive Electrical Metamaterial Sensor for Fuel Adulteration Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaishali Rawat

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Life of any automobile engine is largely dependent on the purity as well as the optimum ratios of their fuels, viz. petrol, diesel and ethanol. A device working on the electrical metamaterial concept, namely a complementary split ring resonator (CSRR, operating at 2.47 GHz (ISM band, is proposed to detect kerosene adulteration in petrol. Kerosene was varied upto 30 per cent with minimum detection limit as low as 10 per cent. Systematic shifts in the transmission resonance frequency were observed. The sensing was fast and the recovery was instantaneous. The underlying concept of interference of electromagnetic radiation through the CSRR circuit and its further manipulation with the changes in the dielectric ambience is elaborated.

  18. [Detection of Adulteration in Milk Powder with Starch Near Infrared].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ning-ning; Shen, Bing-hui; Guan, Jian-jun; Zhao, Zhong-rui; Zhu, Ye-wei; Zhang, Lu-da; Yan, Yan-lu; Zheng, Yu-yan; Dong, Cheng-yu; Kang, Ding-ming

    2015-08-01

    Three China trademarks of milk powder called Mengniu, Yili, Wandashan were taken as testing samples. Each of them mixed varied amount of starch in different gradient, which were consisted of 32 adulterated milk powder samples mixed with starch, was taken as standard samples for constructing predicted model. To those 32 samples, the reflecting spectrum characteristics in middle wave of near infrared spectrum with Near Infrared Spectrum Analyzer (Micro NIR 1700) produced by JDSU Ltd. USA were collected for five repeats in five different days. The time span was nearly two months. Firstly, we build the model used the reflecting spectrum characteristics of those samples with biomimetic pattern recognition (BPR) arithmetic to do the qualitative analysis. The analysis included the reliability of testing result and stability of the model. When we took ninety percent as the evaluation threshold of testing result of CAR (Correct Acceptance Rate) and CRR (Correct Rejection Rate), the lowest starch content of adulterate milk powder in all tested samples which the tested result were bigger than that abovementioned threshold was designated CAR threshold (CAR-T) and CRR threshold (CRR-T). CAR means the correct rate of accepting a sample which is belong to itself, CRR means correct rate of refusing to accept a sample which is not belong to itself. The results were shown that, when we constructed a model based on the near infrared spectrum data from each of three China trademark milk powders, respectively, if we constructed a model with infrared spectrum data tested in a same day, both the CAR-T and CRR-T of adulterate starch content of a sample can reach 0.1% in predicting the remainder infrared spectrum data tested within a same day. The three China trademarks of milk powder had the same result. In addition, when we ignored the trademarks, put the spectrum data of adulterate milk powder samples mixed with the same content of starch of three China trademarks milk powder together

  19. Astronomy and Existentialism in Albert Camus' ``The Adulterous Woman''

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garwood, D.

    2013-04-01

    Camus' short story “An Adulterous Woman” from his collection Exile and the Kingdom narrates the experience of Janine, wife of a French Algerian cloth-trader, who accompanies her husband on a business trip to the Saharan interior at mid-20th century. The desert landscape and its weather play an integral role in the plot. Blending realism and fantasy that borders on science fiction, the narrator characterizes the sky as an animate cosmological energy whose virility is masked by sunlight during the day. Released after sundown and portrayed as a liberator at the climax of the story, the shaman-like night sky descends upon Janine as a shower of stars that leaves her with an existential sense of self. This paper explores themes of astronomy and existentialism that Camus develops through Janine's “adultery” with a cosmological force, supplemented by visual imagery related to the aesthetic and scientific cultural contexts of the story and Camus' era.

  20. Non-invasive analytical technology for the detection of contamination, adulteration, and authenticity of meat, poultry, and fish: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamruzzaman, Mohammed; Makino, Yoshio; Oshita, Seiichi

    2015-01-01

    The requirement of real-time monitoring of food products has encouraged the development of non-destructive measurement systems. Hyperspectral imaging is a rapid, reagentless, non-destructive analytical technique that integrates traditional spectroscopic and imaging techniques into one system to attain both spectral and spatial information from an object that cannot be achieved with either digital imaging or conventional spectroscopic techniques. Recently, this technique has emerged as one of the most powerful and inspiring techniques for assessing different meat species and building chemical images to show the distribution maps of constituents in a direct and easy manner. After presenting a brief description of the fundamentals of hyperspectral imaging, this paper reviews the potential applications of hyperspectral imaging for detecting the adulteration, contamination, and authenticity of meat, poultry, and fish. These applications envisage that hyperspectral imaging can be considered as a promising non-invasive analytical technique for predicting the contamination, adulteration, and authenticity of meat, poultry, and fish in a real-time mode.

  1. An Approach for Routine Analytical Detection of Beeswax Adulteration Using FTIR-ATR Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svečnjak Lidija

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Although beeswax adulteration represents one of the main beeswax quality issues, there are still no internationally standardised analytical methods for routine quality control. The objective of this study was to establish an analytical procedure suitable for routine detection of beeswax adulteration using FTIR-ATR spectroscopy. For the purpose of this study, reference IR spectra of virgin beeswax, paraffin, and their mixtures containing different proportions of paraffin (5 - 95%, were obtained. Mixtures were used for the establishment of calibration curves. To determine the prediction strength of IR spectral data for the share of paraffin in mixtures, the Partial Least Squares Regression method was used. The same procedure was conducted on beeswax-beef tallow mixtures. The model was validated using comb foundation samples of an unknown chemical background which had been collected from the international market (n = 56. Selected physico-chemical parameters were determined for comparison purposes. Results revealed a strong predictive power (R2 = 0.999 of IR spectra for the paraffin and beef tallow share in beeswax. The results also revealed that the majority of the analysed samples (89% were adulterated with paraffin; only 6 out of 56 (11% samples were identified as virgin beeswax, 28% of the samples exhibited a higher level of paraffin adulteration (>46% of paraffin, while the majority of the analysed samples (50% were found to be adulterated with 5 - 20% of paraffin. These results indicate an urgent need for routine beeswax authenticity control. In this study, we demonstrated that the analytical approach defining the standard curves for particular adulteration levels in beeswax, based on chemometric modelling of specific IR spectral region indicative for adulteration, enables reliable determination of the adulterant proportions in beeswax.

  2. Screening of adulterants in powdered foods and ingredients using line-scan Raman chemical imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Jianwei; Chao, Kuanglin; Kim, Moon S.

    2015-05-01

    A newly developed line-scan Raman imaging system using a 785 nm line laser was used to authenticate powdered foods and ingredients. The system was used to collect hyperspectral Raman images in a wavenumber range of 102-2865 cm-1 from three representative food powders mixed with selected adulterants with a concentration of 0.5%, including milk and melamine, flour and benzoyl peroxide, and starch and maleic anhydride. An acoustic mixer was used to create food adulterant mixtures. All the mixed samples were placed in sample holders with a surface area of 50 mm×50 mm. Spectral and image processing algorithms were developed based on single-band images at unique Raman peaks of the individual adulterants. Chemical images were created to show identification, spatial distribution, and morphological features of the adulterant particles mixed in the food powders. The potential of estimating mass concentrations of the adulterants using the percentages of the adulterant pixels in the chemical images was also demonstrated.

  3. Quantitative evaluation of multiple adulterants in roasted coffee by Diffuse Reflectance Infrared Fourier Transform Spectroscopy (DRIFTS) and chemometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Nádia; Franca, Adriana S; Oliveira, Leandro S

    2013-10-15

    The current study presents an application of Diffuse Reflectance Infrared Fourier Transform Spectroscopy for detection and quantification of fraudulent addition of commonly employed adulterants (spent coffee grounds, coffee husks, roasted corn and roasted barley) to roasted and ground coffee. Roasted coffee samples were intentionally blended with the adulterants (pure and mixed), with total adulteration levels ranging from 1% to 66% w/w. Partial Least Squares Regression (PLS) was used to relate the processed spectra to the mass fraction of adulterants and the model obtained provided reliable predictions of adulterations at levels as low as 1% w/w. A robust methodology was implemented that included the detection of outliers. High correlation coefficients (0.99 for calibration; 0.98 for validation) coupled with low degrees of error (1.23% for calibration; 2.67% for validation) confirmed that DRIFTS can be a valuable analytical tool for detection and quantification of adulteration in ground, roasted coffee.

  4. 基于电子舌的掺假牛乳的快速检测%Rapid Detection of Adulterated Milk Based on Electronic Tongue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范佳利; 韩剑众; 田师一; 邓少平

    2011-01-01

    以掺假牛乳样品为检测对象,利用电子舌结合主成分分析法进行研究,旨在寻求一种能有效监控牛乳品质的快速检测方法.对几种常见的掺假(掺入水、食盐、蔗糖、尿素、大豆油)牛乳样品、复原乳以及纯牛乳样品进行检测和评价.试验结果表明:电子舌可以很好地区分纯牛乳和掺入不同物质的牛乳样品,纯牛乳、纯鲜牛乳、复原乳及其混合乳样品得到有效辨识,同时各种掺假牛乳样品随掺入物质的比例在主成分得分图中呈规律性分布.电子舌可用于掺假牛乳的快速检测.在建立典型标准样品数据库的前提下电子舌可有效监控牛乳品质,其在乳制品的质量控制及评价中具有较大的应用潜力.%To seek a method of rapid monitoring of milk quality, adulterated milk were analyzed by the electronic tongue coupled with principal component analysis (PCA). Milk samples adulterated with water, NaCl, sucrose, urea or bean oil, reconstituted milk and UHT sterilized milk samples were analyzed. The experimental results showed that electronic tongue could discriminate not only between UHT sterilized milk and different kinds of adulterated milk, but also UHT sterilized milk, pasteurized milk, reconstituted milk and their mixed milk. The application of electronic tongue in adulterated milk with different additive proportions showed the similar result, too. The electronic tongue could be used for rapid detection of adulterated milk, and also for effective monitoring of milk quality with a database of typical standard samples. The electronic tongue shows a greater potential in the evaluation of dairy products quality.

  5. Structure elucidation of thioketone analogues of sildenafil detected as adulterants in herbal aphrodisiacs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reepmeyer, John C; d'Avignon, D André

    2009-01-15

    Two analogues of sildenafil were detected in herbal dietary supplements marketed as aphrodisiacs. Both compounds were identified as thioketone analogues of sildenafil in which the carbonyl group in the pyrimidine ring of sildenafil was substituted with a thiocarbonyl group. The first compound was identified as thiosildenafil, a compound that has recently been reported as an adulterant in health supplements. The structure of the second compound was established using LC-MS, UV spectroscopy, ESI-MS(n), NMR and a hydrolytic process. A detailed study of the hydrolysis products of sildenafil, thiosildenafil, and the second unknown compound proved that the second compound, named thiomethisosildenafil, had a structure analogous to sildenafil in which the N-methylpiperazine moiety had been replaced with 2,6-dimethylpiperazine and the oxygen atom of the carbonyl group in the heterocyclic ring had been replaced with a sulfur atom. Under the hydrolytic reaction conditions employed in this study, thioketones hydrolyze to ketones (e.g., thiosildenafil-->sildenafil), making this a valuable technique for the structure elucidation of thiosildenafil analogues. Ten herbal dietary supplements, each as a capsule dosage form, were found to contain 8-151 mg of thiomethisosildenafil per capsule, and one herbal dietary supplement was found to contain 35 mg of thiosildenafil per capsule.

  6. Cutaneous Vasculopathy Associated with Levamisole-Adulterated Cocaine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Huy; Tan, Debbie; Marnejon, Thomas P.

    2013-01-01

    We report a case of cutaneous vasculopathy associated with the use of levamisole-adulterated cocaine. This recently described clinical entity is characterized by a purpuric rash with a predilection for the ears, leukopenia, and anti-neutrophilic cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA) positivity. It is estimated that more than 70% of the current United States cocaine supply is contaminated with levamisole. Levamisole is a widely available, inexpensive, white powder used as a “cutting agent” in cocaine to expand volume and increase profits. It may also increase the euphoric and stimulatory effects of cocaine by increasing brain dopamine levels and producing amphetamine-like metabolites. Our patient exhibited a characteristic rash with involvement of the ears, leukopenia, and cocaine metabolites were detected in serum and urine. The presence of levamisole was confirmed in the urine utilizing gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. ANCA positivity was also present. Punch biopsy of the skin demonstrated vascular thrombosis and necrosis without true vasculitis. We review the literature for reported cases of cocaine-levamisole cutaneous vasculopathy syndrome, highlight the salient immunologic abnormalities, and contrast the features of this entity with idiopathic systemic vasculitis. PMID:22723468

  7. Rapid detection of peanut oil adulteration using low-field nuclear magnetic resonance and chemometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wenran; Wang, Xin; Chen, Lihua

    2017-02-01

    (1)H low-field nuclear magnetic resonance (LF-NMR) and chemometrics were employed to screen the quality changes of peanut oil (PEO) adulterated with soybean oil (SO), rapeseed oil (RO), or palm oil (PAO) in ratios ranging from 0% to 100%. Significant differences in the LF-NMR parameters, single component relaxation time (T2W), and peak area proportion (S21 and S22), were detected between pure and adulterated peanut oil samples. As the ratio of adulteration increased, the T2W, S21, and S22 changed linearly; however, the multicomponent relaxation times (T21 and T22) changed slightly. The established principal component analysis or discriminant analysis models can correctly differentiate authentic PEO from fake and adulterated samples with at least 10% of SO, RO, or PAO. The binary blends of oils can be clearly classified by discriminant analysis when the adulteration ratio is above 30%, illustrating possible applications in screening the oil species in peanut oil blends.

  8. [Remote passive detection of flame temperature of solid propellant adulterating nanoparticles].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li-ming; Zhang, Lin; Li, Yan; Liu, Bing-ping; Wang, Xiao-fei; Wang, Jun-de

    2006-03-01

    The flame temperature of three kinds of solid propellants was measured by passive remote sensing FTIR with the resolution of 1 cm(-1). These three kinds of solid propellants are adulterate nano-scale metal oxide particles, adulterate normal metal oxide particles, and propellant without any adulterations. The main components of the solid propellant are nitrocellulose and nitroglycerin. The metallic oxides, including 6 nm CuO, 56 nm Fe2O3, 16 nm NiO, and correspondingly the normal particles, were adulterated into the solid propellants respectively. The flame temperature was calculated through the fine structure of the emission fundamental band of H2O at 2.75 microm. The results of the flame temperature of the solid propellants adulterating nano-scale CuO, Fe2O3 and NiO are 3089, 3193 and 3183 K, respectively. The temperatures of the three kinds of solid propellants were compared, and it was shown that there is no obvious difference in the flame temperature among the three kinds of solid propellants.

  9. DNA-based identification of Peucedanum ostruthium specimens and detection of common adulterants by high-resolution melting curve analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmiderer, Corinna; Ruzicka, Joana; Novak, Johannes

    2015-12-01

    Masterwort (Peucedanum ostruthium, syn. Imperatoria ostruthium, Apiaceae) is an old economic plant in Alpine countries cultivated as ornamental plant and used for spirits and in folk medicine. P. ostruthium is a species that has often been confused with related Apiaceae species or morphologically similar roots or tubers resulting in products of minor quality. Masterwort can be distinguished from other Apiaceae species by nrDNA (ITS1 and ITS2). The analysed chloroplast markers (trnK 5' intron, trnT-trnL, and psbA-trnH), however, showed no species-specific mutations. With the application of two primer pairs amplifying parts of ITS and developed for high-resolution melting curve analysis (HRM) the target species was distinguishable from the other Peucedanum and Apiaceae species of our reference set. A multiplex PCR/HRM was developed to detect adulterations with Gentiana spp., Aconitum napellus and Veratrum album.

  10. Pharmacokinetics of Maleic Acid as a Food Adulterant Determined by Microdialysis in Rat Blood and Kidney Cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei-Ling Hou

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Maleic acid has been shown to be used as a food adulterant in the production of modified starch by the Taiwan Food and Drug Administration. Due to the potential toxicity of maleic acid to the kidneys, this study aimed to develop an analytical method to investigate the pharmacokinetics of maleic acid in rat blood and kidney cortex. Multiple microdialysis probes were simultaneously inserted into the jugular vein and the kidney cortex for sampling after maleic acid administration (10 or 30 mg/kg, i.v., respectively. The pharmacokinetic results demonstrated that maleic acid produced a linear pharmacokinetic phenomenon within the doses of 10 and 30 mg/kg. The area under concentration versus time curve (AUC of the maleic acid in kidney cortex was 5-fold higher than that in the blood after maleic acid administration (10 and 30 mg/kg, i.v., respectively, indicating that greater accumulation of maleic acid occurred in the rat kidney.

  11. Detection of corn adulteration in Brazilian coffee (Coffea arabica) by tocopherol profiling and near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffee is a high-value commodity that is a target for adulteration, especially after the beans have been roasted and ground. Countries such as Brazil, the second largest coffee producer, have set limits on the allowable amount of coffee contamination and adulteration. Therefore, there is significant...

  12. Synchronous front-face fluorescence spectroscopy for authentication of the adulteration of edible vegetable oil with refined used frying oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Jin; Li, Rong; Jiang, Zi-Tao; Tang, Shu-Hua; Wang, Ying; Shi, Meng; Xiao, Yi-Qian; Jia, Bin; Lu, Tian-Xiang; Wang, Hao

    2017-02-15

    Synchronous front-face fluorescence spectroscopy has been developed for the discrimination of used frying oil (UFO) from edible vegetable oil (EVO), the estimation of the using time of UFO, and the determination of the adulteration of EVO with UFO. Both the heating time of laboratory prepared UFO and the adulteration of EVO with UFO could be determined by partial least squares regression (PLSR). To simulate the EVO adulteration with UFO, for each kind of oil, fifty adulterated samples at the adulterant amounts range of 1-50% were prepared. PLSR was then adopted to build the model and both full (leave-one-out) cross-validation and external validation were performed to evaluate the predictive ability. Under the optimum condition, the plots of observed versus predicted values exhibited high linearity (R(2)>0.96). The root mean square error of cross-validation (RMSECV) and root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) were both lower than 3%.

  13. A comprehensive strategy to detect the fraudulent adulteration of herbs: The oregano approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Connor; Haughey, Simon A; Chevallier, Olivier P; Galvin-King, Pamela; Elliott, Christopher T

    2016-11-01

    Fraud in the global food supply chain is becoming increasingly common due to the huge profits associated with this type of criminal activity. Food commodities and ingredients that are expensive and are part of complex supply chains are particularly vulnerable. Both herbs and spices fit these criteria perfectly and yet strategies to detect fraudulent adulteration are still far from robust. An FT-IR screening method coupled to data analysis using chemometrics and a second method using LC-HRMS were developed, with the latter detecting commonly used adulterants by biomarker identification. The two tier testing strategy was applied to 78 samples obtained from a variety of retail and on-line sources. There was 100% agreement between the two tests that over 24% of all samples tested had some form of adulterants present. The innovative strategy devised could potentially be used for testing the global supply chains for fraud in many different forms of herbs.

  14. The use of the Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy to determine adulterants in raw milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laerte Dagher Cassoli

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to develop calibrations to determine the concentration of some milk adulterants by using the automated methodology of Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR. For construction of calibrations, samples were collected from 100 farms in the states of São Paulo and Minas Gerais. Samples were tainted with three different adulterants commonly used in the adulteration of raw milk: sodium bicarbonate (SB, sodium citrate (SC and cheese whey (W. Each adulterant was used at three different concentrations (SB: 0.05, 0.10 and 0.25%; SC: 0.025, 0.050 and 0.075% and W: 5, 10 and 20%. For validation, 60 samples were collected in other farms, which were not considered at the development stage of calibration. Adulterants were added at the following concentrations: 0.03, 0.06, 0.10 and 0.12% for SB; 0.02, 0.04, 0.06 and 0.08% for SC and 5, 10 and 20% for W. Performance of each calibration was evaluated in terms of accuracy (Se, detection limit (DL and determination coefficient (R². All calibrations presented R² higher than 0.91 with DL of 0.015%; 0.017% and 3.9% for SB, SC and W, respectively. Accuracy was 0.005%, 0.009% and 2.26% for SB, SC and W, respectively. Results show that the FTIR methodology can be used for determining the concentration of sodium bicarbonate, sodium citrate and whey in raw milk. Associated with automated equipment, it is a viable option for monitoring these adulterants, having low operational costs and high analytical performance as additional features.

  15. Determination of non-opioid analgesics in adulterated food and dietary supplements by LC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyung Joo; Lee, Ji Hyun; Park, Hyoung Joon; Kim, Jung-Yeon; Cho, Sooyeul; Kim, Woo Seong

    2014-01-01

    Commercially available non-opioid analgesics such as acetaminophen and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have been used to adulterate some foods and dietary supplements. Considering the rapid growth of the dietary supplement market, it is essential to analyse various analgesics used for adulteration over a time period. Acetaminophen and 16 NSAIDs used to adulterate food and dietary supplements were simultaneously determined by LC-MS/MS. The method was validated by determining the coefficient of determinations, limit of quantification and recovery, and samples were analysed for the determination of analgesics. Consequently, acetaminophen, diclofenac, ibuprofen, indomethacin, naproxen and piroxicam were detected in 53 samples (n = 214). Ibuprofen was the most commonly used adulterant, which was detected in a wide concentration range (1.06-233.40 mg g(-1)) and was present in about one-third of the adulterated samples. Various types of samples, in particular pills and capsules (73.6% of the total positive samples), were found to be adulterated with non-opioid analgesics. Samples containing high concentrations of analgesics can have a deleterious effect on human health, and thus the continued monitoring of adulterated food and dietary supplements is essential to maintain a healthy life.

  16. [Two-Dimensional Hetero-Spectral Near-Infrared and Mid-Infrared Correlation Spectroscopy for Discrimination Adulterated Milk].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ge; Yang, Ren-jie; Lü, Ai-jun; Tan, En-zhong

    2015-08-01

    New approach for discriminant analysis of adulterated milk is proposed based on combining hetero-spectral two-dimensional (2D) near-infrared (NIR) and mid-infrared (IR) correlation spectroscopy along with multi-way partial least squares discriminant analysis (NPLS-DA). Firstly, 36 pure milk samples were collected and 36 adulterated milk with starch samples (0.01 to 1 g · L(-1)) were prepared by adding appropriate mass of starch into pure milk. Then, one-dimensional NIR transmittance spectra and IR attenuated total reflection spectra of pure milk and adulterated milk with starch were measured at room temperature. And the synchronous 2D NIR-IR (4200~4800 vs. 900~1700 cm(-1)) correlation spectra of all samples were calculated. Due to the trace of adulterants, the synchronous 2D IR-NIR correlation spectral differences between adulterated milk with starch and pure milk are very subtle. Consequently, it was impossible to directly distinguish whether the sample was pure milk or adulterated milk. Finally, 2D IR-NIR correlation spectra were to build a discriminant model to classify adulterated milk and pure milk. The classification accuracy rates of samples in calibration set and in prediction set were 95.8% and 100% respectively. Also, the NPLS-DA models were built based on 2D NIR and 2D IR correlation spectra, respectively. The classification accuracy rates of samples in prediction set were 95.8%. Comparison results showed that the NPLS-DA model could provide better results using 2D NIR-IR correlation spectra than using 2D NIR, and 2D IR correlation spectra. The proposed method can not only effectively extract the feature information of adulterants in milk, but also explores a new perspective method for detection of adulterated food.

  17. Simultaneous Determination of Heroin, Amphetamine and their Basic Impurities and Adulterants Using Microemulsion Electrokinetic Chromatography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tao WEN; Xia ZHAO; Guo An LUO; Jian WANG; Yi Ming WANG; Pan LI; Jun ZHU; Zhong Shang YU

    2005-01-01

    Simultaneous separation of 17 species of heroin, amphetamine and their basic impurities and adulterants was conducted within 10 minutes by using capillary microemulsion electrokinetic chromatography. The influences of pH and 1-butanol cosurfactant on the separation were investigated, and 1-butanol was found to be a principal factor to improve separation efficiency.

  18. Finding Self: A Qualitative Study of Transgender, Transitioning, and Adulterated Silicone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Phyllis M.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To describe the development and testing of a theory-based interview guide. To increase awareness of adulterated silicone use among Transgender. Design: A qualitative study based on semi-structured interviews. Setting: Interviews were conducted in Chicago, Illinois, USA. Method: Seven transgender adults aged 18 and over were interviewed…

  19. Spreeta-based biosensor immunoassays to detect fraudulent adulteration in milk and milk powder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haasnoot, W.; Marchesini, G.R.; Koopal, K.

    2006-01-01

    Biacore biosensors (Biacore AB, Uppsala, Sweden) have proven to be robust analytical tools for the automated immunochemical detection of different adulterants and contaminants in milk and milk powder. However, the significant cost of the instruments is a disincentive for their wide application in fo

  20. Detecting adulterated commercial sweet sorghum syrups with ion chromatography oligosaccharide fingerprint profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Some commercial sweet sorghum syrups can be fraudulently or accidently adulterated with inexpensive sugar syrups, particularly high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) or corn syrup, and sold at a relatively low market price or even mis-branded. This undermines the economic stability of the current small-sc...

  1. Efficiency of GC-MS method in detection of beeswax adulterated with paraffin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waś Ewa

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency of the gas chromatography - mass detector (GC-MS technique for the detection of beeswax adulterated with paraffin, was evaluated. For this purpose, beeswax samples with paraffin additions (3, 5, 10, 30, 50% were analysed. Since not enough is known about paraffin compositions, and since it is difficult to detect paraffin in beeswax, the aim of our research was also to compare the hydrocarbon composition of different types of paraffin. The analysis showed that the types of paraffin available on the market, differ qualitatively and quantitatively as far as their hydrocarbon compositions are concerned. In all kinds of paraffin, we found homologous series of n-alkanes that were much longer than those in beeswax. In beeswax, the amount of added paraffin that is possible to detect, differs and depends on the kind of paraffin used for adulteration. In this study, the minimum estimated percent that was detected using the GC-MS technique, was 3%. The adulteration is indicated by the presence of hydrocarbons containing over 35 carbon atoms in the molecule, and by the higher contents of n-alkanes (C20H42 - C35H72, in comparison to the concentration of these compounds determined in pure beeswax. We also presented the results of the quality control of commercial beeswax. Based on our results, it can be stated that beeswax adulteration is currently a problem.

  2. 78 FR 78013 - Focused Mitigation Strategies To Protect Food Against Intentional Adulteration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-24

    ... adulteration in the context of fruits and vegetables that are raw agricultural commodities. Section 420 of the... Sector Intelligence gathered since the attacks on the United States on September 11, 2001, indicates that..., the storage of raw agricultural commodities (other than fruits and vegetables) intended for...

  3. Detection of starch adulteration in onion powder by FT-NIR and FT-IR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohumi, Santosh; Lee, Sangdae; Lee, Wang-Hee; Kim, Moon S; Mo, Changyeun; Bae, Hanhong; Cho, Byoung-Kwan

    2014-09-24

    Adulteration of onion powder with cornstarch was identified by Fourier transform near-infrared (FT-NIR) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. The reflectance spectra of 180 pure and adulterated samples (1-35 wt % starch) were collected and preprocessed to generate calibration and prediction sets. A multivariate calibration model of partial least-squares regression (PLSR) was executed on the pretreated spectra to predict the presence of starch. The PLSR model predicted adulteration with an R(p)2 of 0.98 and a standard error of prediction (SEP) of 1.18% for the FT-NIR data and an R(p)2 of 0.90 and SEP of 3.12% for the FT-IR data. Thus, the FT-NIR data were of greater predictive value than the FT-IR data. Principal component analysis on the preprocessed data identified the onion powder in terms of added starch. The first three principal component loadings and β coefficients of the PLSR model revealed starch-related absorption. These methods can be applied to rapidly detect adulteration in other spices.

  4. Purity and adulterant analysis of some recent drug seizures in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichini, Simona; Busardò, Francesco Paolo; Gregori, Adolfo; Berretta, Paolo; Gentili, Stefano; Pacifici, Roberta

    2016-11-11

    The data collected in this study describe an initial attempt to systematically introduce the qualitative and quantitative analysis of adulterants present in seized street drugs in Italy with the aim of improving surveillance and data sharing and for this purpose, the implementation of validated and standardized procedures are essential.

  5. A rapid screening for adulterants in olive oil using DNA barcodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    A distinctive methodology is developed to trace out the mixing into olive oil, which is marketed every year with 20% or more fraudulent oils. Such adulteration has been difficult to differentiate using fatty acid analysis and other available current techniques, as chemically fatty acids are the same...

  6. Barcode DNA length polymorphisms vs fatty acid profiling for adulteration detection in olive oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uncu, Ali Tevfik; Uncu, Ayse Ozgur; Frary, Anne; Doganlar, Sami

    2017-04-15

    The aim of this study was to compare the performance of a DNA-barcode assay with fatty acid profile analysis to authenticate the botanical origin of olive oil. To achieve this aim, we performed a PCR-capillary electrophoresis (PCR-CE) approach on olive oil: seed oil blends using the plastid trnL (UAA) intron barcode. In parallel to genomic analysis, we subjected the samples to gas chromatography analysis of fatty acid composition. While the PCR-CE assay proved equally efficient as gas chromatography analysis in detecting adulteration with soybean, palm, rapeseed, sunflower, sesame, cottonseed and peanut oils, it was superior to the widely utilized analytical chemistry approach in revealing the adulterant species and detecting small quantities of corn and safflower oils in olive oil. Moreover, the DNA-based test correctly identified all tested olive oil: hazelnut oil blends whereas it was not feasible to detect hazelnut oil adulteration through fatty acid profile analysis. Thus, the present research has shown the feasibility of a PCR-CE barcode assay to detect adulteration in olive oil.

  7. Sudan dyes in adulterated saffron (Crocus sativus L.): Identification and quantification by (1)H NMR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrakis, Eleftherios A; Cagliani, Laura R; Tarantilis, Petros A; Polissiou, Moschos G; Consonni, Roberto

    2017-02-15

    Saffron, the dried red stigmas of Crocus sativus L., is considered as one of the most expensive spices worldwide, and as such, it is prone to adulteration. This study introduces an NMR-based approach to identify and determine the adulteration of saffron with Sudan I-IV dyes. A complete (1)H and (13)C resonance assignment for Sudan I-IV, achieved by two-dimensional homonuclear and heteronuclear NMR experiments, is reported for the first time. Specific different proton signals for the identification of each Sudan dye in adulterated saffron can be utilised for quantitative (1)H NMR (qHNMR), a well-established method for quantitative analysis. The quantification of Sudan III, as a paradigm, was performed in varying levels (0.14-7.1g/kg) by considering the NMR signal occurring at 8.064ppm. The high linearity, accuracy and rapidity of investigation enable high resolution (1)H NMR spectroscopy to be used for evaluation of saffron adulteration with Sudan dyes.

  8. Quantification of MBM adulteration in compound fertilizers and composts by NIRS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han L.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to demonstrate the feasibility of using near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS to determine MBM content in compound fertilizers and composts. One hundred fourty adulterated compound fertilizer samples were prepared in the laboratory by mixing 4 types of compound fertilizers with 3 types of MBM randomly at different levels of 0.1%-10.0% (w/w. One hundred twenty adulterated compost samples were obtained by mixing 41 compost samples with 28 MBM at different levels of 3.0%-24.0% (w/w. NIRS calibration models were developed using the partial least squares (PLS regression method. Results showed that the coefficients of determination for calibration (R2 and validation (r2 were 0.996 and 0.622, 0.988 and 0.722 for adulterated compound fertilizers and composts respectively. The ratios of prediction to deviation (RPD were 8.84 and 1.87 for them respectively. These results indicated that NIRS could be used to quantify the adulteration of banned MBM in compound fertilizers with high prediction accuracy, and be insufficient to determine the content of MBM in composts due to low prediction accuracy.

  9. Detection and confirmation of milk adulteration with cheese whey using proteomic-like sample preparation and liquid chromatography-electrospray-tandem mass spectrometry analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos Motta, T M; Hoff, R B; Barreto, F; Andrade, R B S; Lorenzini, D M; Meneghini, L Z; Pizzolato, T M

    2014-03-01

    Caseinomacropeptide (CMP) is a peptide released by chymosin in cheese production, remaining in whey. Thus, CMP can be used as a biomarker to fluid milk adulteration through whey addition. Commonly, CMP is analyzed by reversed phase (RP-HPLC) or size-exclusion chromatography (SEC). However, some psychrotropic microorganisms - specially Pseudomonas fluorescens - when present in storaged milk, can produce, by enzymatic pathway, a CMP-like peptide generally called pseudo-CMP. These two peptides differ from each other only by one amino acid. RP-HPLC and SEC methods are unable to distinguish these two peptides, which demand development of a confirmatory method with high selectivity. Considering the several degrees of glycosilation and phosphorylation sites in CMP, allied with possible genetic variation (CMP A and CMP B), analytical methods able to differentiate these peptides are extremely complex. In the present work, we developed a proteomic-like technique for separation and characterization of these peptides, using liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry with electrospray ionization able to differentiate and subsequently quantify CMP and pseudo-CMP in milk samples in order to identify adulteration or contamination of these products. The method shows satisfactory precision (<11%) with a detection limit of 1.0 µg mL(-1) and quantification limit of 5.0 µg mL(-1). Specificity, matrix effects and applicability to real samples analysis were also performed and discussed.

  10. Rapid detection of economic adulterants in fresh milk by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abernethy, Grant; Higgs, Kerianne

    2013-05-03

    A method to aid in the detection of the economically driven adulteration of fresh milk with a range of small, nitrogen containing compounds, including melamine, ammeline, ammelide, cyanuric acid, allantoin, thiourea, urea, biuret, triuret, semicarbazide, aminotriazine, 3- and 4-aminotriazole, cyanamide, dicyandiamide, guanidine, choline, hydroxyproline, nitrate, and a range of amino acids, has been developed. (15)N2-Urea is used as an internal standard. The adulteration of milk with exogenous urea has previously been difficult to detect because of the variation in the naturally occurring levels of urea in milk. However, by monitoring the contaminants biuret and triuret, which comprise up to 1% of synthetic urea, the adulteration of milk with urea-based fertilizer can be detected. We estimate that to be economically viable, adulteration of the order of 90-4000ppm of the above adulterants would need to be added to fresh milk. For most of the compounds, an arbitrary detection threshold of 2ppm is therefore more than sufficient. For biuret, a lower detection threshold, better than 0.5ppm, is desirable and the sensitivity for biuret and triuret can be improved by the post-column addition of lithium to create lithium adducts under electrospray ionisation. Sample handling involves a two-step solvent precipitation method that is deployed in a 96-well plate format, and the hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography uses a rapid gradient (1.2min). Three separate injections, to detect the positively charged compounds, the negatively charged compounds and amino acids and finally the lithium adducts, are used. This rapid and qualitative survey method may be deployed as a second tier screening method to quickly reduce sample numbers indicated as irregular by an FTIR based screening system, and to direct analysis to appropriate quantification methods.

  11. Identification of Ginkgo biloba supplements adulteration using high performance thin layer chromatography and ultra high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector-quadrupole time of flight-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avula, Bharathi; Sagi, Satyanarayanaraju; Gafner, Stefan; Upton, Roy; Wang, Yan-Hong; Wang, Mei; Khan, Ikhlas A

    2015-10-01

    Ginkgo biloba is one of the most widely sold herbal supplements and medicines in the world. Its popularity stems from having a positive effect on memory and the circulatory system in clinical studies. As ginkgo popularity increased, non-proprietary extracts were introduced claiming to have a similar phytochemical profile as the clinically tested extracts. The standardized commercial extracts of G. biloba leaf used in ginkgo supplements contain not less than 6% sesquiterpene lactones and 24% flavonol glycosides. While sesquiterpene lactones are unique constituents of ginkgo leaf, the flavonol glycosides are found in many other botanical extracts. Being a high value botanical, low quality ginkgo extracts may be subjected to adulteration with flavonoids to meet the requirement of 24% flavonol glycosides. Chemical analysis by ultra high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry revealed that adulteration of ginkgo leaf extracts in many of these products is common, the naturally flavonol glycoside-rich extract being spiked with pure flavonoids or extracts made from another flavonoid-rich material, such as the fruit/flower of Japanese sophora (Styphnolobium japonicum), which also contains the isoflavone genistein. Recently, genistein has been proposed as an analytical marker for the detection of adulteration of ginkgo extracts with S. japonicum. This study confirms that botanically authenticated G. biloba leaf and extracts made therefrom do not contain genistein, and the presence of which even in trace amounts is suggestive of adulteration. In addition to the mass spectrometric approach, a high performance thin layer chromatography method was developed as a fast and economic method for chemical fingerprint analysis of ginkgo samples.

  12. Screening adulteration of polypropylene bottles with postconsumer recycled plastics for oral drug package by near-infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Lan-Gui; Sun, Hui-Min; Jin, Shao-Hong

    2011-11-14

    Adulteration of pharmaceutical packaging containers with postconsumer recycled plastic materials was considerably difficult to identify due to the similar chemical compositions of virgin and recycled plastics. In the present study, near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy coupled with conformity test was proposed to screen the adulteration of pharmaceutical packaging containers. Two kinds of representative screening models were investigated on polypropylene (PP) bottles for oral drug package. The reliability of the screening models was validated through studying the identification reliability, specificity, and robustness of the methods. The minimum spiking level of two modeled adulterants at the proportion of 20% could be detected, and the unqualified sample from a domestic manufacturer was rejected by this developed method. This strategy represents a rapid and promising analytical method for screening the adulteration of pharmaceutical plastic packaging containers with postconsumer recycled plastics.

  13. Identifying and Quantifying Adulterants in Extra Virgin Olive Oil of the Picual Varietal by Absorption Spectroscopy and Nonlinear Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aroca-Santos, Regina; Cancilla, John C; Matute, Gemma; Torrecilla, José S

    2015-06-17

    In this research, the detection and quantification of adulterants in one of the most common varieties of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) have been successfully carried out. Visible absorption information was collected from binary mixtures of Picual EVOO with one of four adulterants: refined olive oil, orujo olive oil, sunflower oil, and corn oil. The data gathered from the absorption spectra were used as input to create an artificial neural network (ANN) model. The designed mathematical tool was able to detect the type of adulterant with an identification rate of 96% and to quantify the volume percentage of EVOO in the samples with a low mean prediction error of 1.2%. These significant results make ANNs coupled with visible spectroscopy a reliable, inexpensive, user-friendly, and real-time method for difficult tasks, given that the matrices of the different adulterated oils are practically alike.

  14. Detection and quantification of adulteration of sesame oils with vegetable oils using gas chromatography and multivariate data analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Dan; Bi, Yanlan; Ren, Xiaona; Yang, Guolong; Sun, Shangde; Wang, Xuede

    2015-12-01

    This study was performed to develop a hierarchical approach for detection and quantification of adulteration of sesame oil with vegetable oils using gas chromatography (GC). At first, a model was constructed to discriminate the difference between authentic sesame oils and adulterated sesame oils using support vector machine (SVM) algorithm. Then, another SVM-based model is developed to identify the type of adulterant in the mixed oil. At last, prediction models for sesame oil were built for each kind of oil using partial least square method. To validate this approach, 746 samples were prepared by mixing authentic sesame oils with five types of vegetable oil. The prediction results show that the detection limit for authentication is as low as 5% in mixing ratio and the root-mean-square errors for prediction range from 1.19% to 4.29%, meaning that this approach is a valuable tool to detect and quantify the adulteration of sesame oil.

  15. Chemical and functional properties of glycomacropeptide (GMP) and its role in the detection of cheese whey adulteration in milk: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neelima; Sharma, Rajan; Rajput, Yudhishthir Singh; Mann, Bimlesh

    2013-01-01

    Glycomacropeptide (GMP) is a C-terminal part (f 106-169) of kappa-casein which is released in whey during cheese making by the action of chymosin. GMP being a biologically active component has gained much attention in the past decade. It also has unique chemical and functional properties. Many of the biological properties have been ascribed to the carbohydrate moieties attached to the peptide. The unique set of amino acids in GMP makes it a sought-after ingredient with nutraceutical properties. Besides its biological activity, GMP has several interesting techno-functional properties such as wide pH range solubility, emulsifying properties as well as foaming abilities which are shown to be promising for applications in food and nutrition industry. These properties of GMP have given new dimension for the profitable utilization of cheese whey to the dairy industry. A number of protocols for isolation of GMP from cheese whey have been reported. Moreover, its role in detection of sweet/rennet whey adulteration in milk and milk products has also attracted attention of various researchers, and many GMP-specific analytical methods have been proposed. This review discusses the chemico-functional properties of GMP and its role in the detection methods for checking cheese or sweet whey adulteration in milk. Recent concepts used in the isolation of GMP from cheese whey have also been discussed.

  16. Rapid identification of adulterated cow milk by non-linear pattern recognition methods based on near infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li-Guo; Zhang, Xin; Ni, Li-Jun; Xue, Zhi-Bin; Gu, Xin; Huang, Shi-Xin

    2014-02-15

    More than 800 representative milk samples, which consisted of 287 raw cow milk samples from different pastures surrounding Shanghai of China and 526 adulteration milk samples containing different pseudo proteins and thickeners, were collected and designed to demonstrate a method for rapidly discriminating adulterated milks based on near infrared (NIR) spectra. The NIR classification models were built by two non-linear supervised pattern recognition methods of improved support vector machine (I-SVM) and improved and simplified K nearest neighbours (IS-KNN). Uniform design theory was applied to optimize the parameters of SVM and thus the computation amount was reduced 90%. Both two methods exhibit good adaptability in discriminating adulterated milks from raw cow milks. Further investigation showed that the correction ratio for discriminating milk samples increased with the increasing of adulteration solutions' level in the adulterated milk. The concentration of adulterants is an important factor of influencing milk discrimination results of the NIR pattern recognition models. The results demonstrated the usefulness of NIR spectra combined with non-linear pattern recognition methods as an objective and rapid method for the authentication of complicated raw cow milks.

  17. Determination of Common Adulterants in Herbal Medicine and Food Samples using Core-shell Column Coupled to Tandem Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Lawati, Haider A J; Al Busaidi, Idris; Kadavilpparampu, Afsal M; Suliman, FakhrEldin O

    2017-03-01

    High-performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry was used to develop and validate a rapid method to qualitatively and quantitatively analyse 18 common adulterants in herbal medicine and food samples. Initially, the mobile phase composition was optimized in three different columns: core-shell, monolithic and standard 3.5-µm-particle-size columns. The results show that the core-shell column provides the best separation. Moreover, the tandem mass spectrometry was optimized. The linear range for all adulterants was 0.5-500 μg mL-1. Finally, the samples that were supplied by the Public Authority of Customer Protection, Ministry of Health, and those collected from the local market were analysed. The results indicate that 7 of 33 analysed samples contained adulterants. The adulterated samples mainly contain sildenafil, tadalafil or vardenafil. The concentrations of these three adulterants in the samples were 0.18-39 wt%. This study is the first report in the Sultanate of Oman about adulteration in herbal medicine and food samples. The results clearly raise some concern and require proper plan of action to increase public awareness about this serious issue.

  18. Pharmacopeial HPLC identification methods are not sufficient to detect adulterations in commercial bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus) extracts. Anthocyanin profile provides additional clues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindaraghavan, Suresh

    2014-12-01

    Current pharmacopeias provide HPLC anthocyanin profiles to identify commercial bilberry extracts. However, the pharmacopeial identification protocols may not be sufficient enough to distinguish genuine bilberry extracts from adulterated material. This is primarily due to the non-inclusion of literature-reported anthocyanin profile and compositional variations in bilberry when sourced from different geographical regions. Using anthocyanin profiles of both authentic bilberry extracts and literature reports, we attempted to provide appropriate identification protocol for genuine bilberry extracts. We compared HPLC anthocyanin profiles of selected 'suspected' adulterant species and adulterant-spiked bilberry extracts to decipher clues to infer adulteration. The clues include appearance of new anthocyanin peaks and changes in compositional ratios of anthocyanins. In addition, we attempted to provide likely adulterants based on 'economic motivation' and market place information and appropriate clues to identify them in adulterated commercial bilberry extracts.

  19. [DNA molecular identification of Herba Dendrobii and its adulterant species based on ITS sequence analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jing; He, Tao; Chun, Ze

    2009-11-01

    To identify Herba Dendrobii and its adulterant species on molecular level, the rDNA ITS sequences of 17 species of Herba Dendrobii were studied. Genomic DNA of Dendrobium was extracted using the modified cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) method. The PCR products of the rDNA ITS sequences of Dendrobium (32 materials) were purified and then sequenced. The characteristic of the sequences and the genetic distance were compared between Bulbophyllum odoratissimum and Dendrobium, Dendrobium interspecies and different populations. Phylogenetic trees were constructed using the UPGMA method by the biology softwares including BioEdit, MEGA4.0 etc. The PCR products were purified and then sequenced. It was built up that the database of rDNA ITS sequences of 17 species of Herba Dendrobii (32 materials). The ITS1 was 228-234 bp, the GC content accounting for 45.7%-53.0%. Its variable sites were 167, accounting for 67.34%. The Parsim-Informative positions were 106, accounting for 42.74%. The ITS2 was 241-247 bp, the GC accounting for 44.8% - 55.7%. The variable sites were 165, accounting for 66.27%. The Parsim-Informative positions were 115, accounting for 46.18%. The genetic distance between B. odoratissimum and Dendrobium was 0.295. The average genetic distance was 0.142 between Dendrobium species, and there were 2-156 variable nucleotides. The average genetic distance between different populations was 0.002, and there were 2-156 variable nucleotides. The genetic distance between B. odoratissimum and Dendrobium was greater than that of Denrobium interspecies. Meanwhile, the genetic distance between Denrobium species was also greater than that of different populations (varieties). The molecular phylogeny tree was constructed on the database of rDNA ITS the sequences of 17 species of Herba Dendrobii using the biology softwares. Then 10 materials on molecular level were authenticated. It is concluded that using of the whole sequences database of 17 species of Herba Dendrobii

  20. Standardization of UV-visible data in a food adulteration classification problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Anibal, Carolina V; Ruisánchez, Itziar; Fernández, Mailén; Forteza, Rafel; Cerdà, Victor; Pilar Callao, M

    2012-10-15

    This study evaluates the performance of multivariate calibration transfer methods in a classification context. The spectral variation caused by some experimental conditions can worsen the performance of the initial multivariate classification model but this situation can be solved by implementing standardization methods such as Piecewise Direct Standardization (PDS). This study looks at the adulteration of culinary spices with banned dyes such as Sudan I, II, III and IV. The samples are characterised by their UV-visible spectra and Partial Least Squares-Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA) is used to discriminate between unadulterated samples and samples adulterated with any of the four Sudan dyes. Two different datasets that need to be standardised are presented. The standardization process yields positive classification results comparable to those obtained from the initial PLS-DA model, in which high classification performance was achieved.

  1. Raman detection of extra virgin olive oil adulterated with cheaper oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farley, Carlton; Kassu, Aschalew; Mills, Jonathan; Kenney, Brianna; Ruffin, Paul; Sharma, Anup

    2016-09-01

    Pure extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) is mixed with cheaper edible oils and samples are kept inside clear glass containers, while a 785nm Raman system is used to take measurements as Raman probe is placed against glass container. Several types of oils at various concentrations of adulteration are used. Ratios of peak intensities are used to analyze raw data, which allows for quick, easy, and accurate analysis. While conventional Raman measurements of EVOO may take as long as 2 minutes, all measurements reported here are for integration times of 15s. It is found that adulteration of EVOO with cheaper oils is detectable at concentrations as low as 5% for all oils used in this study.

  2. Screening and determination of sibutramine in adulterated herbal slimming supplements by HPTLC-UV densitometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathon, Caroline; Ankli, Anita; Reich, Eike; Bieri, Stefan; Christen, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    The adulteration of herbal supplements is of growing importance, especially when they contain undeclared compounds like sibutramine that are unsafe drugs. Sibutramine was withdrawn from US and European markets in 2010. In this study, an HPTLC-UV densitometric method was developed for the quantification of sibutramine in herbal diet foods. Sample extracts were directly applied onto HPTLC silica gel plates and separated with a mobile phase made of a toluene-methanol mixture. Sibutramine was quantified at 225 nm and its unequivocal identification was confirmed by MS using a TLC-MS interface. During two surveys, 52 weight loss supplements obtained via the Internet were screened. Half of those were adulterated with sibutramine at amounts reaching up to 35 mg per capsule. The results of this validated HPTLC method were compared with those obtained by HPLC-UV and HPLC-MS/MS. The results were not significantly different with the three methods.

  3. Olive oil adulterated with hazelnut oils: simulation to identify possible risks to allergic consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arlorio, M; Coisson, J D; Bordiga, M; Travaglia, F; Garino, C; Zuidmeer, L; Van Ree, R; Giuffrida, M G; Conti, A; Martelli, A

    2010-01-01

    According to European Union Regulation EC 1531/2001, olive oil labelled as "extra-virgin" should be cold-pressed and contain no refined oil or oil from other oleaginous seeds or nuts. Adulteration of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) with hazelnut oil (HAO) is a serious concern both for oil suppliers and consumers. The high degree of similarity between the two fats complicates the detection of low percentages of HAO in EVOO. Many analytical approaches have been developed in recent years to trace HAO in EVOO, principally based on chromatographic analyses, differential scanning calorimetry or nuclear magnetic resonance. In addition adulteration of EVOO with HAO may introduce hazelnut-derived allergens. The aim of this work was to analyse the protein and allergen content of EVOO intentionally spiked with raw cold-pressed HAO or solvent-extracted HAO. SDS-PAGE analysis confirmed the presence of hazelnut proteins in solvent-extracted HAO with molecular masses ranging 10-60 kDa. In contrast, cold-pressed HAO showed no traces of protein. In spiked EVOO, solvent-extracted HAO was still detectable at a 1% contamination level. Several bands on SDS-PAGE migrated at apparent molecular masses coinciding with known allergens, such as Cor a 1 (approximately 17 kDa), Cor a 2 (approximately 14 kDa), Cor a 8 (approximately 12 kDa), oleosin (approximately 17 kDa) and Cor a 9 (approximately 60 kDa). MALDI-TOF MS analysis confirmed the presence of two oleosin isoforms and of Cor a 9. Immunoblotting demonstrated that an allergic patient with known reactivity to Cor a 1 and Cor a 2 recognized a 17-kDa band in solvent-extracted HAO. In conclusion, we have shown that adulteration of extra virgin olive oil with solvent-extracted hazelnut oil can be traced by simple SDS-PAGE analysis, and that adulteration introduces a potential risk for hazelnut allergic patients.

  4. Integrated Analysis for Identifying Radix Astragali and Its Adulterants Based on DNA Barcoding

    OpenAIRE

    Sihao Zheng; Dewang Liu; Weiguang Ren; Juan Fu; Linfang Huang; Shilin Chen

    2014-01-01

    Radix Astragali is a popular herb used in traditional Chinese medicine for its proimmune and antidiabetic properties. However, methods are needed to help distinguish Radix Astragali from its varied adulterants. DNA barcoding is a widely applicable molecular method used to identify medicinal plants. Yet, its use has been hampered by genetic distance, base variation, and limitations of the bio-NJ tree. Herein, we report the validation of an integrated analysis method for plant species identific...

  5. Food Adulteration and Bio-magnification of Environmental Contaminants: A Comprehensive Risk Framework for Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nehreen eMajed

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This article thoroughly investigates the severity of the prevailing environmental conditions and evaluates the resulting threats to food intake and public health in Bangladesh by establishing relationship among different contaminant transfer mechanisms to human. It describes the potential of certain contaminants to get bio-magnified through the food chain. A database was prepared on a number of contaminants in the study area that are responsible for rendering different foods vulnerable to produce long term or short-term health effects. Contaminants that have been identified in the food sources were categorized in a continuum based on their allowable daily intake. A protocol has been developed which will enable the assessment of the potential of a contaminant to bio-magnify through food chain to understand the contribution of a contaminant on different levels of food chain. The study also provides a detailed assessment of the public health risks associated with direct ingestion of adulterated foods and intake of contaminants through food chain or water intake. Their intake to human body was quantified, which provides an indication of the toxicity level of the contaminants and possible impact on human health. The traditional four steps of risk assessment technique have been employed for some model contaminants (including metals, organic contaminants and food adulterants. Additionally, existing rules and regulations of Bangladesh were identified with possible limitations that can play significant role in controlling the food adulteration practices and concentration of contaminants in the environment and human body. Finally, a holistic approach to necessary interventions has been prescribed at policy, treatment and evaluation level to prevent the water pollution and food adulteration. Thus, a much-needed comprehensive framework is prescribed in this study to promote safety in food handling, preserve environment and improve health-based strategies in

  6. Efficiency of GC-MS method in detection of beeswax adulterated with paraffin

    OpenAIRE

    Waś Ewa; Szczęsna Teresa; Rybak-Chmielewska Helena

    2016-01-01

    The efficiency of the gas chromatography - mass detector (GC-MS) technique for the detection of beeswax adulterated with paraffin, was evaluated. For this purpose, beeswax samples with paraffin additions (3, 5, 10, 30, 50%) were analysed. Since not enough is known about paraffin compositions, and since it is difficult to detect paraffin in beeswax, the aim of our research was also to compare the hydrocarbon composition of different types of paraffin. The analysis showed that the types of para...

  7. Integrated Analysis for Identifying Radix Astragali and Its Adulterants Based on DNA Barcoding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sihao Zheng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Radix Astragali is a popular herb used in traditional Chinese medicine for its proimmune and antidiabetic properties. However, methods are needed to help distinguish Radix Astragali from its varied adulterants. DNA barcoding is a widely applicable molecular method used to identify medicinal plants. Yet, its use has been hampered by genetic distance, base variation, and limitations of the bio-NJ tree. Herein, we report the validation of an integrated analysis method for plant species identification using DNA barcoding that focuses on genetic distance, identification efficiency, inter- and intraspecific variation, and barcoding gap. We collected 478 sequences from six candidate DNA barcodes (ITS2, ITS, psbA-trnH, rbcL, matK, and COI from 29 species of Radix Astragali and adulterants. The internal transcribed spacer (ITS sequence was demonstrated as the optimal barcode for identifying Radix Astragali and its adulterants. This new analysis method is helpful in identifying Radix Astragali and expedites the utilization and data mining of DNA barcoding.

  8. Classification and quantification of palm oil adulteration via portable NIR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basri, Katrul Nadia; Hussain, Mutia Nurulhusna; Bakar, Jamilah; Sharif, Zaiton; Khir, Mohd Fared Abdul; Zoolfakar, Ahmad Sabirin

    2017-02-01

    Short wave near infrared spectroscopy (NIR) method was used to detect the presence of lard adulteration in palm oil. MicroNIR was set up in two different scan modes to study the effect of path length to the performance of spectral measurement. Pure and adulterated palm oil sample were classified using soft independent modeling class analogy (SIMCA) algorithm with model accuracy more than 0.95 reported for both transflectance and transmission modes. Additionally, by employing partial least square (PLS) regression, the coefficient of determination (R2) of transflectance and transmission were 0.9987 and 0.9994 with root mean square error of calibration (RMSEC) of 0.5931 and 0.6703 respectively. In order to remove the uninformative variables, variable selection using cumulative adaptive reweighted sampling (CARS) has been performed. The result of R2 and RMSEC after variable selection for transflectance and transmission were improved significantly. Based on the result of classification and quantification analysis, the transmission mode has yield better prediction model compared to the transflectance mode to distinguish the pure and adulterated palm oil.

  9. Pauci-Immune Glomerulonephritis in Individuals With Disease Associated With Levamisole-Adulterated Cocaine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Adam Q.; Tuot, Delphine S.; Jen, Kuang-Yu; Butcher, Brad; Graf, Jonathan; Sam, Ramin; Imboden, John B.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Exposure to levamisole-adulterated cocaine can induce a distinct clinical syndrome characterized by retiform purpura and/or agranulocytosis accompanied by an unusual constellation of serologic abnormalities including antiphospholipid antibodies, lupus anticoagulants, and very high titers of antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies. Two recent case reports suggest that levamisole-adulterated cocaine may also lead to renal disease in the form of pauci-immune glomerulonephritis. To explore this possibility, we reviewed cases of pauci-immune glomerulonephritis between 2010 and 2012 at an inner city safety net hospital where the prevalence of levamisole in the cocaine supply is known to be high. We identified 3 female patients and 1 male patient who had biopsy-proven pauci-immune glomerulonephritis, used cocaine, and had serologic abnormalities characteristic of levamisole-induced autoimmunity. Each also had some other form of clinical disease known to be associated with levamisole, either neutropenia or cutaneous manifestations. One patient had diffuse alveolar hemorrhage. Three of the 4 patients were treated with short courses of prednisone and cyclophosphamide, 2 of whom experienced stable long-term improvement in their renal function despite ongoing cocaine use. The remaining 2 patients developed end-stage renal disease and became dialysis-dependent. This report supports emerging concern of more wide spread organ toxicity associated with the use of levamisole-adulterated cocaine. PMID:25398064

  10. Levamisole-adulterated cocaine: Two fatal case reports and evaluation of possible cocaine toxicity potentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indorato, Francesca; Romano, Guido; Barbera, Nunziata

    2016-08-01

    Levamisole has been identified as a cocaine adulterant in the United States since 2002. Although there is a variation in the percentage of levamisole in cocaine samples between European countries, measurement of levamisole in human samples of cocaine users has become increasingly important. To our best knowledge, only five deaths are reported (one twice) as a result of complications secondary to levamisole-tainted cocaine and none of these cases reports the post-mortem levamisole concentration. In this article, we present the post-mortem levamisole concentrations in fluids and tissues in two young cocaine users, dead after levamisole-adulterated cocaine intake. With the dearth of levamisole reported concentrations in literature, this particular report is of interest to the forensic toxicological and pathological communities. This article aims to be a supplementary alert to aware the risk that may occur using levamisole-adulterated cocaine and an incentive to publication of toxicity reports and new researches involving the combination of levamisole and cocaine.

  11. Talcum induced pneumoconiosis following inhalation of adulterated marijuana, a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scheel Andreas

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Talcosis, a granulomatous inflammation of the lungs caused by inhalation of talcum dust, is a rare form of pneumoconiosis. Besides inhalative occupational exposure, intravenous abuse of adulterated drugs is a major cause for this condition. Minerals such as talcum (magnesium silicate and sand (predominant silicon dioxide are used to increase both volume and weight of illicit substances. In intravenous heroin-abuse, talcosis is a well-known complication. Here we describe a case of talcosis caused by inhalative abuse of adulterated marijuana. Clinical history A 29-year old man presented with persistent fever, dyspnea and cervical emphysema. He admitted consumption of 'cut' marijuana for several years, preferentially by water pipe smoking. Morphologic findings Lung-biopsies showed chronic interstitial lung disease, anthracotic pigments and birefringent material. Energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy revealed silicon-containing particles (1-2 μm and fine aluminum particles ( Conclusions The exacerbated chronic interstitial lung disease in a 29-year old patient could be attributed to his prolonged abuse of talcum-adulterated marjuana by histopathology and x-ray spectroscopy. Since cannabis consumption is widely spread among young adults, it seems to be justified to raise attention to this form of interstitial pulmonary disease. Virtual slides The virtual slide(s for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnomx.eu/vs/krause/html/start.html.

  12. Detection of Butter Adulteration with Lard by Employing (1)H-NMR Spectroscopy and Multivariate Data Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadzillah, Nurrulhidayah Ahmad; Man, Yaakob bin Che; Rohman, Abdul; Rosman, Arieff Salleh; Ismail, Amin; Mustafa, Shuhaimi; Khatib, Alfi

    2015-01-01

    The authentication of food products from the presence of non-allowed components for certain religion like lard is very important. In this study, we used proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance ((1)H-NMR) spectroscopy for the analysis of butter adulterated with lard by simultaneously quantification of all proton bearing compounds, and consequently all relevant sample classes. Since the spectra obtained were too complex to be analyzed visually by the naked eyes, the classification of spectra was carried out.The multivariate calibration of partial least square (PLS) regression was used for modelling the relationship between actual value of lard and predicted value. The model yielded a highest regression coefficient (R(2)) of 0.998 and the lowest root mean square error calibration (RMSEC) of 0.0091% and root mean square error prediction (RMSEP) of 0.0090, respectively. Cross validation testing evaluates the predictive power of the model. PLS model was shown as good models as the intercept of R(2)Y and Q(2)Y were 0.0853 and -0.309, respectively.

  13. Uniaxially aligned electrospun cellulose acetate nanofibers for thin layer chromatographic screening of hydroquinone and retinoic acid adulterated in cosmetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tidjarat, Siripran; Winotapun, Weerapath; Opanasopit, Praneet; Ngawhirunpat, Tanasait; Rojanarata, Theerasak

    2014-11-01

    Uniaxially aligned cellulose acetate (CA) nanofibers were successfully fabricated by electrospinning and applied to use as stationary phase for thin layer chromatography. The control of alignment was achieved by using a drum collector rotating at a high speed of 6000 rpm. Spin time of 6h was used to produce the fiber thickness of about 10 μm which was adequate for good separation. Without any chemical modification after the electrospinning process, CA nanofibers could be readily devised for screening hydroquinone (HQ) and retinoic acid (RA) adulterated in cosmetics using the mobile phase consisting of 65:35:2.5 methanol/water/acetic acid. It was found that the separation run on the aligned nanofibers over a distance of 5 cm took less than 15 min which was two to three times faster than that on the non-aligned ones. On the aligned nanofibers, the masses of HQ and RA which could be visualized were 10 and 25 ng, respectively, which were two times lower than those on the non-aligned CA fibers and five times lower than those on conventional silica plates due to the appearance of darker and sharper of spots on the aligned nanofibers. Furthermore, the proposed method efficiently resolved HQ from RA and ingredients commonly found in cosmetic creams. Due to the satisfactory analytical performance, facile and inexpensive production process, uniaxially aligned electrospun CA nanofibers are promising alternative media for planar chromatography.

  14. Ultra-high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry for the detection of durum wheat contamination or adulteration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Rosita; Cusano, Erica; Perissi, Andrea; Ferron, Francisco; Severino, Valeria; Parente, Augusto; Chambery, Angela

    2014-12-01

    In this work, an ultra-performance liquid chromatography electrospray ionization (UPLC-ESI)-MS/MS methodology based on multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) for the selective and sensitive detection and quantification of durum wheat adulteration has been developed and fully validated. The targeted analysis was performed by monitoring specific transitions at m/z 543.7 > 657.4 and m/z 543.7 > 299.2 of a species-specific marker derived from a tryptic peptide of puroindoline a (Pin-a), a cysteine-rich protein selectively present only in common wheat. In addition, two transitions at m/z 500.4 > 725.4 and m/z 500.4 > 561.9 of a reference peptide belonging to purothionin A-1, present in both species, were also monitored. The calibration curves obtained on binary mixtures with known percentages of common/durum wheat flours showed linearity (coefficient of regression, r ≥ 0.99) over concentrations that ranged between 80 and 1%. The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) for the Pin-a marker in wheat flours were 0.01 and 0.03%, respectively. The identified Pin-a marker was also found to be highly diagnostic for the quantification of common wheat in raw materials (kernels) and processed products (pasta), thus offering new opportunities to assess food authenticity.

  15. Rapid, Sensitive, Enzyme-Immunodotting Assay for Detecting Cow Milk Adulteration in Sheep Milk: A Modern Laboratory Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inda, Luis A.; Razquín, Pedro; Lampreave, Fermín; Alava, María A.; Calvo, Miguel

    1998-12-01

    Specificity, sensitivity, and experimental simplicity make the immunoenzymatic assay suitable for a variety of laboratories dedicated to diverse activities such as research, quality control in food analysis, or clinical biochemistry. In these assays, the antibody that specifically recognizes the antigen is covalently attached to an enzyme. Once the antigen-antibody immunocomplex is formed, the enzymatic reaction gives a colored product that allows the detection of the initial antigen. The aim of this work was the design of a new laboratory project appropriate for use in courses of biochemistry, immunochemistry, or analytical chemistry. The assay described here detects the presence of cow milk in milk of other species. The main application is the detection of cow milk in sheep milk and cheese. Specific proteins, immunoglobulins (IgG) of the fraudulent bovine milk, are specifically recognized and retained by antibodies immobilized on a membrane. The binding of a second antibody covalently attached to horseradish peroxidase (HRP) allows the development of a visible signal. Thus, students can rapidly detect milk adulterations using a specific, sensitive, and safe experimental approach. The experiment allows students to apply their theoretical knowledge, resulting in a stimulating experience of solving a real problem during a 4-hour laboratory period.

  16. Detection and quantification of species authenticity and adulteration in crabmeat using visible and near-infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayo, Javier; Hale, Scott A

    2007-02-01

    Seafood processing often removes morphological properties of seafood species that enable the consumer to distinguish one type of organism from another. For this reason, species substitution is the most common form of economic adulteration in the seafood industry. Visible and near-infrared spectroscopy (Vis/NIR) has been used to detect and quantify species authenticity and adulteration in crabmeat samples. Atlantic blue crabmeat was adulterated with blue swimmer crabmeat in 10% increments. Water absorption bands dominated the main features in the crabmeat spectra, with a decrease in sample absorbance with increasing adulteration percentage. Several data pretreatments, i.e., moving average, combing, first and second derivatives, and multiplicative scatter correction, in addition to the raw data, were investigated for prediction and quantitative data analysis using partial least-squares. In addition, quantitative analysis was done using the full spectrum and a sequential approach in which 50 wavelengths were added sequentially to determine a new model and find an optimal solution. The results suggest that Vis/NIR spectroscopy is a suitable technology that can be applied to detect and quantify species authenticity and adulteration in crabmeat.

  17. 食用油掺假检测方法研究进展%Detection Methods of Edible Oil Adulteration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋玉峰; 王微山; 杨学军; 张继斌; 徐超; 田亮光

    2012-01-01

    Food safety was caused wide concern because of the prevalence of hogwash oil in adulterated edible oil recently. Powerful safety management and rapid alert system for adulteration of edible oil with hogwash oil were hampered for lack of effective detection meth- ods. To save time, money and cost of human resources, international methods for detection of adulterated edible oil would be benefit to deter- mine extra edible oil adulterated with hogwash oil. Therefore, international detection methods of edible oil adulteration were reviewed.%最近地沟油事件再次引起人们对食品安全的担忧。目前由于缺乏有效的食用油中地沟油掺假的检测方法,制约着食品安全的有效监管和预警体系建设。为了节约时间、财力和人力,我国食用油掺假(例如地沟油)的检测需要借鉴国际经验。基于此,本文对国际上食用油掺假的检测方法研究最新进展进行综述。

  18. Adulteration screening of botanical materials by a sensitive and model-free approach using infrared spectroscopic imaging and two-dimensional correlation infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jian-bo; Zhou, Qun; Sun, Su-qin

    2016-11-01

    Infrared (IR) spectroscopy is often used as a simple, fast, and green method for the adulteration screening of botanical materials for foods and herbs. However, the overlapping of absorption signals of various substances significantly decrease the sensitivity and specificity of IR spectroscopy in the detection of adulterated samples. In this research, a model-free approach is proposed for the sensitive and non-targeted screening of botanical materials adulterated by adding other plant materials. First, the spectra of the entities in the test sample are collected by near-infrared spectroscopic imaging and clustered by unsupervised pattern recognition methods. The sample may be adulterated if there are two or more clusters of the entities. Next, the entities of different clusters are characterized by mid-infrared spectroscopy to interpret the chemical compositions to determine the clustering is caused whether by adulteration or other reasons. Second derivative spectroscopy and two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy are often needed to resolve the overlapped bands mathematically or experimentally to find the characteristic signals to identify the authentic and adulterant entities. The feasibility of this approach was proved by the simulated adulterated sample of saffron. In conclusion, botanical materials adulterated by adding other plant materials can be detected by a simple, fast, sensitive, and green screening approach using IR spectroscopic imaging, two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy, and necessary chemometrics techniques.

  19. Application of principal component-radial basis function neural networks (PC-RBFNN) for the detection of water-adulterated bayberry juice by near-infrared spectroscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li-juan XIE; Xing-qian YE; Dong-hong LIU; Yi-bin YING

    2008-01-01

    Near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy combined with chemometrics techniques was used to classify the pure bayberry juice and the one adulterated with 10% (w/w) and 20% (w/w) water. Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to reduce the dimensions of spectral data, give information regarding a potential capability of separation of objects, and provide principal component (PC) scores for radial basis function neural networks (RBFNN). RBFNN was used to detect bayberry juice adulterant. Multiplicative scatter correction (MSC) and standard normal variate (SNV) transformation were used to preprocess spectra. The results demonstrate that PC-RBFNN with optimum parameters can separate pure bayberry juice samples from water-adulterated bayberry at a recognition rate of 97.62%, but cannot clearly detect water levels in the adulterated bayberry juice. We conclude that NIR technology can be successfully applied to detect water-adulterated bayberry juice.

  20. Identification of maca (Lepidium meyenii Walp.) and its adulterants by a DNA-barcoding approach based on the ITS sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jin-Jin; Zhao, Qing-Sheng; Liu, Yi-Lan; Zha, Sheng-Hua; Zhao, Bing

    2015-09-01

    Maca (Lepidium meyenii) is an herbaceous plant that grows in high plateaus and has been used as both food and folk medicine for centuries because of its benefits to human health. In the present study, ITS (internal transcribed spacer) sequences of forty-three maca samples, collected from different regions or vendors, were amplified and analyzed. The ITS sequences of nineteen potential adulterants of maca were also collected and analyzed. The results indicated that the ITS sequence of maca was consistent in all samples and unique when compared with its adulterants. Therefore, this DNA-barcoding approach based on the ITS sequence can be used for the molecular identification of maca and its adulterants.

  1. Rapid detection of authenticity and adulteration of walnut oil by FTIR and fluorescence spectroscopy: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bingning; Wang, Haixia; Zhao, Qiaojiao; Ouyang, Jie; Wu, Yanwen

    2015-08-15

    Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and fluorescence spectroscopy combined with soft independent modeling of class analogies (SIMCA) and partial least square (PLS) were used to detect the authenticity of walnut oil and adulteration amount of soybean oil in walnut oil. A SIMCA model of FTIR spectra could differentiate walnut oil and other oils into separate categories; the classification limit of soybean oil in walnut oil was 10%. Fluorescence spectroscopy could differentiate oil composition by the peak position and intensity of emission spectrum without multivariate analysis. The classification limit of soybean oil adulterated in walnut oil by fluorescence spectroscopy was below 5%. The deviation of the prediction model for fluorescence spectra was lower than that for FTIR spectra. Fluorescence spectroscopy was more applicable than FTIR in the adulteration detection of walnut oil, both from the determination limit and prediction deviation.

  2. Rapid screening for detection and differentiation of detergent powder adulteration in infant milk formula by LC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tay, Manjun; Fang, Guihua; Chia, Poh Ling; Li, Sam Fong Yau

    2013-10-10

    Reports of infant milk formula adulteration by detergent powders as economic frauds and poisoning incidents are common as detergents are readily available and are inexpensive household items. Liquid chromatography (LC)-Qtrap and LC-hybrid quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-QTOF-MS) in combination with chemometrics were effectively employed to detect the presence of detergent powder adulterated in infant milk formula. Partial least square analysis (PLS) regression was also utilized to quantify the amount of detergent powder in adulterated infant milk formula without the need to purchase any standards. Dodecylbenzenesulfonate (C12-LAS) was identified and verified as the marker which existed in detergent powder using LC-QTOF-MS. The amount of C12-LAS present in the admixture was successfully quantified through standard addition method.

  3. 利用近红外光谱技术检测掺假豆浆%Adulteration detection of soymilk based on near-infrared spectroscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李东华; 潘园园; 张卉

    2014-01-01

    In order to rapidly detect the internal nutritive index and discriminate adulteration soymilk, the near infrared transmission spectrometer such as Purespect was used to obtain spectrums for 83 unadulterated and adulterated soymilk samples. The spectral scanning procedure was conducted in dark room, 643.26-954.15 nm wavelength range was chosen, scanning wavelength interval was 1.29 nm. Each soymilk sample was scanned three times. Pure soymilks were made according to the regulations in soymilk products industry standard SB/T 10633-2011. A lot of water, essence, thickening agent, food sunset yellow pigment were added to unadulterated soymilk samples in order to obtain adulterated soymilk samples. In this study, 31 adulteration samples and 62 unadulterated samples were prepared in the processing laboratories. 14 soymilk samples were gathered from the market. All samples were used to scan the spectrum and determining chemical composition. The experimental results indicated that smooth lines and clear spectrogram were obtained using Savitzky-Golay and the second derivative method. Chemometrics method of partial least squares (PLS) was used to the model calibration for protein and total solid content in samples. The correlation coefficient of predicted value and measured value of protein and total solid content for soymilk calibration samples were 0.9756 and 0.9489 respectively. The correction of root mean square error for soymilk calibration samples were 0.186 and 0.175 respectively. 12 and 14 was selected for principal component number respectively. 24 prediction samples were prepared for analyzing predictive capability. The results indicated that the residual values of predicted value and measured value for soymilk prediction samples were small and close to zero. The distribution of residual was uniform for both sides of zero line. The residual sums between predicted and measured protein and total solid content values were -0.074 and -1.191 respectively. The results

  4. Comparison of original and adulterated Oscypek cheese based on volatile and sensory profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Majcher

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. This paper describes a preliminary studies aiming to compare volatile fractions of Oscypek and oscypek-like cheeses with SPME-GC/TOFMS to determine the possibility of applying for future routine investigation of adulteration of Polish PDO cheeses. Material and methods. For sensory and volatiles analysis four different cheeses were compared: Oscypek cheese prepared according to PDO regulations and three oscypek-like cheeses: type “CM industry” – produced from pasteurised cow milk in dairy plant, type “EM-industry” – produced from pasteurised ewe milk in dairy plant and type “CM-shep­herds” – produced from unpasteurised cow milk in shepherds huts. Isolation of volatiles was performed with PDMS/CAR/DVB fiber. Compounds identification was performed using gas chromatography coupled to time of flight mass spectrometry. Results. Headspace SPME-GC/TOFMS method revealed a total of 51 compounds in Oscypek and oscypek-like cheeses representing nine chemical groups such as: free fatty acids, esters, ketones, alcohols, aldehydes, furans and furanones, phenols, sulfur compounds and terpenes. Results showed that original Oscypek, PDO labeled was represented by the largest number of volatiles identified compared to oscypek-like cheeses, which also showed a relationship with sensory analysis where Oscypek has been described as a cheese with mostly developed flavour bouquet. Additionally it could be observed that cheeses made from unpasteurised milk using traditional method of preparation in shepherds huts (Oscypek and CM-shepherds had superior volatile profiles and enhanced aroma compared to cheeses made industrially. Conclusions. The differences showed in volatile fraction of original Oscypek cheese and adulterated ones provide possibility of employing SPME-GC/TOFMS technique to find adulteration in PDO labelled Oscypek.

  5. Differential effects of adulterated versus unadulterated forms of linoleic acid on cardiovascular health

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Stephen D.Anton; Kacey Heekin; Carrah Simkins; Andres Acosta

    2013-01-01

    According to the classic "diet-heart" hypothesis,high dietary intake of saturated fats and cholesterol combined with low intake of polyunsaturated fats can increase levels of serum cholesterol and lead to the development of atherogenic plaques and ultimately cardiovascular diseases.Recently,the beneficial health effects of omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids,particularly linoleic acid (LA),on cardiovascular health have been called into question with some scientists suggesting that consumption of LA should be reduced in Western countries.The focus of this critical review is on the controversy surrounding the effects of dietary intake of LA on cardiovascular health.Specifically,we critically examined the effects of both unadulterated and adulterated forms of LA on cardiovascular health outcomes based on findings from epidemiological studies and randomized controlled trials.Additionally,we address common concerns surrounding dietary intake of LA regarding its relationship with arachidonic acid,the ratio of omega-6 to omega-3 fatty acids,and its relationship with inflammation.Our critical review indicates that unadulterated forms of LA are cardioprotective and should be consumed as part of a healthy diet.In contrast,abundant evidence now indicates that adulterated forms of LA,predominantly hydrogenated vegetable oils,are atherogenic and should not be considered part of a healthy diet.The ability to adulterate the natural omega-6 fatty acid,LA,has contributed to mixed findings regarding the effects of this fatty acid on cardiovascular health.Thus,it is critical that the source of LA be taken into account when drawing conclusions about the physiological effects of this fatty acid.The findings of the present review are in line with current dietary recommendations of the American Heart Association.

  6. Aminorex, a metabolite of the cocaine adulterant levamisole, exerts amphetamine like actions at monoamine transporters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmaier, Tina; Luf, Anton; Seddik, Amir; Stockner, Thomas; Holy, Marion; Freissmuth, Michael; Ecker, Gerhard F; Schmid, Rainer; Sitte, Harald H; Kudlacek, Oliver

    2014-07-01

    Psychostimulants such as amphetamine and cocaine are illicitly used drugs that act on neurotransmitter transporters for dopamine, serotonin or norepinephrine. These drugs can by themselves already cause severe neurotoxicity. However, an additional health threat arises from adulterant substances which are added to the illicit compound without declaration. One of the most frequently added adulterants in street drugs sold as cocaine is the anthelmintic drug levamisole. We tested the effects of levamisole on neurotransmitter transporters heterologously expressed in HEK293 cells. Levamisole was 100 and 300-fold less potent than cocaine in blocking norepinephrine and dopamine uptake, and had only very low affinity for the serotonin transporter. In addition, levamisole did not trigger any appreciable substrate efflux. Because levamisole and cocaine are frequently co-administered, we searched for possible allosteric effects; at 30μM, a concentration at which levamisole displayed already mild effects on norepinephrine transport it did not enhance the inhibitory action of cocaine. Levamisole is metabolized to aminorex, a formerly marketed anorectic drug, which is classified as an amphetamine-like substance. We examined the uptake-inhibitory and efflux-eliciting properties of aminorex and found it to exert strong effects on all three neurotransmitter transporters in a manner similar to amphetamine. We therefore conclude that while the adulterant levamisole itself has only moderate effects on neurotransmitter transporters, its metabolite aminorex may exert distinct psychostimulant effects by itself. Given that the half-time of levamisole and aminorex exceeds that of cocaine, it may be safe to conclude that after the cocaine effect "fades out" the levamisole/aminorex effect "kicks in".

  7. Aminorex, a metabolite of the cocaine adulterant levamisole, exerts amphetamine like actions at monoamine transporters☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmaier, Tina; Luf, Anton; Seddik, Amir; Stockner, Thomas; Holy, Marion; Freissmuth, Michael; Ecker, Gerhard F.; Schmid, Rainer; Sitte, Harald H.; Kudlacek, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    Psychostimulants such as amphetamine and cocaine are illicitly used drugs that act on neurotransmitter transporters for dopamine, serotonin or norepinephrine. These drugs can by themselves already cause severe neurotoxicity. However, an additional health threat arises from adulterant substances which are added to the illicit compound without declaration. One of the most frequently added adulterants in street drugs sold as cocaine is the anthelmintic drug levamisole. We tested the effects of levamisole on neurotransmitter transporters heterologously expressed in HEK293 cells. Levamisole was 100 and 300-fold less potent than cocaine in blocking norepinephrine and dopamine uptake, and had only very low affinity for the serotonin transporter. In addition, levamisole did not trigger any appreciable substrate efflux. Because levamisole and cocaine are frequently co-administered, we searched for possible allosteric effects; at 30 μM, a concentration at which levamisole displayed already mild effects on norepinephrine transport it did not enhance the inhibitory action of cocaine. Levamisole is metabolized to aminorex, a formerly marketed anorectic drug, which is classified as an amphetamine-like substance. We examined the uptake-inhibitory and efflux-eliciting properties of aminorex and found it to exert strong effects on all three neurotransmitter transporters in a manner similar to amphetamine. We therefore conclude that while the adulterant levamisole itself has only moderate effects on neurotransmitter transporters, its metabolite aminorex may exert distinct psychostimulant effects by itself. Given that the half-time of levamisole and aminorex exceeds that of cocaine, it may be safe to conclude that after the cocaine effect “fades out” the levamisole/aminorex effect “kicks in”. PMID:24296074

  8. Can the dietary element content of virgin argan oils really be used for adulteration detection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Faez A E; Bchitou, Rahma; Bouhaouss, Ahmed; Gharby, Saïd; Harhar, Hicham; Guillaume, Dominique; Charrouf, Zoubida

    2013-01-01

    Levels of eight dietary elements were assessed by ICP-AES in virgin edible and beauty argan oil samples prepared from four remote locations of the argan forest, and over a three-year period. The data showed sufficiently little variability to assess that all argan oil samples present, in terms of dietary elements, a similar composition, independently from the tree location within the argan forest. Therefore, adulteration detection by trace element analysis in edible and beauty argan oil is a method that can be generalised.

  9. Necrotizing and crescentic glomerulonephritis with membranous nephropathy in a patient exposed to levamisole-adulterated cocaine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrara, Camillo; Emili, Stefano; Lin, Mercury; Alpers, Charles E

    2016-04-01

    Levamisole is an antihelminthic agent widely used as an adulterant of illicit cocaine recently implicated as a cause of antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated microscopic polyangiitis in cocaine abusers. An isolated case of membranous nephropathy (MN) associated with levamisole exposure has also been reported. We report the first case, to our knowledge, of a patient with both microscopic polyangiitis manifest as a pauci-immune necrotizing and crescentic glomerulonephritis and concurrent MN in the setting of chronic cocaine abuse and presumed levamisole exposure, raising the hypothesis that levamisole was the causative agent in the development of this rare dual glomerulopathy.

  10. Old drug new trick: levamisole-adulterated cocaine causing acute kidney injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammar, Abeer T; Livak, Mark; Witsil, Joanne C

    2015-02-01

    Levamisole is an agent previously used in humans and later withdrawn from the US drug market due to concerns of agranulocytosis.It is currently used as an adulterating agent in cocaine, bringing to light toxicities typically manifested by vasculitis and skin necrosis.We report a case of a 36-year-old crack cocaine user who presented with a purpuric rash on her face and limbs. Levamisole-induced vasculitis was suspected, and she therefore underwent an extensive work-up. In addition to these findings, she also presented with acute kidney injury of unknown etiology, which was later attributed to levamisoleadulterated cocaine.

  11. Levamisole adulterated cocaine and pulmonary vasculitis: Presentation of two lethal cases and brief literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karch, Steven B; Busardò, Francesco Paolo; Vaiano, Fabio; Portelli, Francesca; Zaami, Simona; Bertol, Elisabetta

    2016-08-01

    The first case reports of levamisole-related disease in cocaine users were published in 2010, although levamisole adulteration of cocaine was first recognized several years earlier. Currently, more than 70% of street cocaine seizures, in the US and the EU, contain levamisole, which could potentially be converted to aminorex, though the reasons for this practice still remain obscure. Here we report two fatal cases of isolated pulmonary vasculitis in abusers of levamisole-adulterated cocaine, where a complete autopsy, full toxicological analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) using a previously published method of Karch et al. and histological examination were performed. A control group composed of 11 cases of cocaine related deaths, where the presence of levamisole was excluded in blood, urine and hair, was used. Recent literature on the human pharmacokinetics of levamisole and aminorex is also reviewed. The toxicological analysis revealed positive qualitative and quantitative results for cocaine, benzoylecgonine and levamisole in both cases. In case 1 levamisole was found at the concentration of 13.5 and 61.3mg/L in blood and urine respectively, whereas in case 2 at 17.9 and 70.2mg/L. The histological examination highlighted in case 1 in heart samples microscopic evidence of the typical remodeling changes associated with chronic stimulant abuse, whereas lungs showed numerous lymphocytes surrounding and infiltrating the wall of small pulmonary vessels and a perivascular fibrosis with transforming fibroblasts. In case 2, the myocardial samples showed wide fields of myocardial necrosis characterized by hypercontraction of the myocytes with thickened Z-lines and short sarcomeres, whereas lung samples showed a significant intimal thickening of arteriole walls and lymphocytic infiltration of the wall and edema. Moreover, there were also numerous perivascular lymphocytic infiltrates. Although the pathological cardiac findings have allowed us to establish

  12. Species determination - can we detect and quantify meat adulteration?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ballin, Nicolai Zederkopff; Vogensen, Finn Kvist; Karlsson, Anders H

    2009-01-01

    Proper labelling of meat products is important to help fair-trade, and to enable consumers to make informed choices. However, it has been shown that labelling of species, expressed as weight/weight (w/w), on meat product labels was incorrect in more than 20% of cases. Enforcement of labelling...... regulations requires reliable analytical methods. Analytical methods are often based on protein or DNA measurements, which are not directly comparable to labelled meat expressed as w/w. This review discusses a wide range of analytical methods with focus on their ability to quantify and their limits...... of detection (LOD). In particular, problems associated with a correlation from quantitative DNA based results to meat content (w/w) are discussed. The hope is to make researchers aware of the problems of expressing DNA results as meat content (w/w) in order to find better alternatives. One alternative...

  13. Proving the adulteration of ewe and goat cheeses with cow milk using the reference method of isoelectric focusing of γ-casein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataša Mikulec

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to introduce a reference method for the detection of cow milk in ewe and goat cheeses (EC 273/08 in order to protect manufacturers and consumers from adulterations and imitations, and to ensure alignment with the demands of domestic and EU markets. The method includes isolation of casein from cheese, isoelectric focusing of γ2- and γ3-casein originating from the hydrolysis of β-casein by plasmin, the detection and quantitative determination of γ-casein in cow, ewe and goat cheese by densitometry. Ewe or goat cheese products with a minimum of 1 % of cow milk are considered to be adulterated. For the quantitative determination of cow, ewe and goat milk in cheeses, standard mixtures of cow-ewe and cow-goat milk were made by adding 0; 0.5; 1; 2; 5; 10; 25; 50; 75 and 100 % (v/v of cow milk. The quantification was performed by determining the peak area ratio of cow γ-casein in comparison to ewe/goat casein in prepared standard cheeses. The calibration curves were calculated based on the relation of the peak area ratio of cow γ-caseins (calculated as the percentage of total γ-caseins in contrast to the relative content (% of cow milk in the mixture. The method proved to be adequate for the detection of raw and heat-treated cow milk in fresh and ripened cheeses made from ewe or goat milk, or a mixture of ewe and goat milk.

  14. Detection of pork adulteration in processed meat by species-specific PCR-QIAxcel procedure based on D-loop and cytb genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barakat, Hassan; El-Garhy, Hoda A S; Moustafa, Mahmoud M A

    2014-12-01

    Detection of pork meat adulteration in "halal" meat products is a crucial issue in the fields of modern food inspection according to implementation of very strict procedures for halal food labelling. Present study aims at detecting and quantifying pork adulteration in both raw and cooked manufactured sausages. This is by applying an optimized species-specific PCR procedure followed by QIAxcel capillary electrophoresis system. Manufacturing experiment was designed by incorporating pork with beef meat at 0.01 to 10 % substitution levels beside beef and pork sausages as negative and positive controls, respectively. Subsequently, sausages were divided into raw and cooked sausages then subjected to DNA extraction. Results indicated that PCR amplifications of mitochondrial D-loop and cytochrome b (cytb) genes by porcine-specific primers produced 185 and 117 bp pork-specific DNA fragments in sausages, respectively. No DNA fragments were detected when PCR was applied on beef sausage DNA confirming primers specificity. For internal control, a 141-bp DNA fragment of eukaryotic 18S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene was amplified from pork and beef DNA templates. Although PCR followed by either QIAxcel or agarose techniques were efficient for targeted DNA fragments differentiation even as low as 0.01 % (pork/meat: w/w). For proficiency, adequacy, and performance, PCR-QIA procedure is highly sensitive, a time-saver, electronically documented, mutagenic-reagent free, of little manual errors, accurate in measuring PCR fragments length, and quantitative data supplier. In conclusion, it can be suggested that optimized PCR-QAI is considered as a rapid and sensitive method for routine pork detection and quantification in raw or processed meat.

  15. Detection of adulteration of milk powder by near infrared spectroscopy%近红外光谱法检测奶粉掺假

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐玲玲; 李卫群; 朱慧; 汪涓涓

    2016-01-01

    Objective To establish a method for detection of the soybean protein and urea adulterated in milk powder rapidly by near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) combined with Adulterant Screen algorithm.MethodsThe spectroscopic curves of unknown milk powder samples were obtained by means of NIRS, and then the main ingredients and the adulterated ingredients from the acquired spectroscopic curves were analyzed based on the Adulterant Screen algorithm, the full database milk powder model and the established adulterated ingredients model. ResultsThe method was able to identify the soybean protein and urea adulterated milk powder with a certain concentration. The adulteration detection limits of this method were 0.3 g/100 g and 0.2 g/100 g, and the adulterated ingredient correct recognization limits were 0.5 g/100g and 0.8 g/100 g for soybean protein and urea, respectively. ConclusionThe method can rapidly recognize the adulteration of the soybean protein and urea in milk powder by NIRS combined with Adulterant Screen algorithm.%目的:建立近红外光谱法结合Adulterant Screen算法快速鉴别奶粉中大豆蛋白和尿素掺假的方法。方法采用近红外光谱仪获得奶粉未知样的光谱曲线,再用Adulterant Screen算法以及全数据库奶粉分类模型和既定类型的掺假物模型对曲线主要成分和掺假成分进行分析。结果该方法对一定浓度大豆蛋白和尿素掺假奶粉样可以实现掺假鉴别,大豆蛋白和尿素掺假奶粉样的掺假判别限分别为0.3 g/100g和0.2 g/100g,掺假物正确识别限分别为0.5 g/100g和0.8 g/100g。结论利用近红外光谱法结合Adulterant Screen算法可以快速鉴别奶粉中大豆蛋白和尿素的掺假。

  16. Detection of adulteration of milk powder by near infrared spectroscopy%近红外光谱法检测奶粉掺假

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐玲玲; 李卫群; 朱慧; 汪涓涓

    2016-01-01

    目的:建立近红外光谱法结合Adulterant Screen算法快速鉴别奶粉中大豆蛋白和尿素掺假的方法。方法采用近红外光谱仪获得奶粉未知样的光谱曲线,再用Adulterant Screen算法以及全数据库奶粉分类模型和既定类型的掺假物模型对曲线主要成分和掺假成分进行分析。结果该方法对一定浓度大豆蛋白和尿素掺假奶粉样可以实现掺假鉴别,大豆蛋白和尿素掺假奶粉样的掺假判别限分别为0.3 g/100g和0.2 g/100g,掺假物正确识别限分别为0.5 g/100g和0.8 g/100g。结论利用近红外光谱法结合Adulterant Screen算法可以快速鉴别奶粉中大豆蛋白和尿素的掺假。%Objective To establish a method for detection of the soybean protein and urea adulterated in milk powder rapidly by near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) combined with Adulterant Screen algorithm. Methods The spectroscopic curves of unknown milk powder samples were obtained by means of NIRS, and then the main ingredients and the adulterated ingredients from the acquired spectroscopic curves were analyzed based on the Adulterant Screen algorithm, the full database milk powder model and the established adulterated ingredients model. Results The method was able to identify the soybean protein and urea adulterated milk powder with a certain concentration. The adulteration detection limits of this method were 0.3 g/100 g and 0.2 g/100 g, and the adulterated ingredient correct recognization limits were 0.5 g/100g and 0.8 g/100 g for soybean protein and urea, respectively. Conclusion The method can rapidly recognize the adulteration of the soybean protein and urea in milk powder by NIRS combined with Adulterant Screen algorithm.

  17. Gold Nanoparticle Sensor for the Visual Detection of Pork Adulteration in Meatball Formulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. E. Ali

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We visually identify pork adulteration in beef and chicken meatball preparations using 20 nm gold nanoparticles (GNPs as colorimetric sensors. Meatball is a popular food in certain Asian and European countries. Verification of pork adulteration in meatball is necessary to meet the Halal and Kosher food standards. Twenty nm GNPs change color from pinkish-red to gray-purple, and their absorption peak at 525 nm is red-shifted by 30–50 nm in 3 mM phosphate buffer saline (PBS. Adsorption of single-stranded DNA protects the particles against salt-induced aggregation. Mixing and annealing of a 25-nucleotide (nt single-stranded (ss DNA probe with denatured DNA of different meatballs differentiated well between perfectly matched and mismatch hybridization at a critical annealing temperature. The probes become available in nonpork DNA containing vials due to mismatches and interact with GNPs to protect them from salt-induced aggregation. Whereas, all the pork containing vials, either in pure and mixed forms, consumed the probes totally by perfect hybridization and turned into grey, indicating aggregation. This is clearly reflected by a well-defined red-shift of the absorption peak and significantly increased absorbance in 550–800 nm regimes. This label-free low-cost assay should find applications in food analysis, genetic screening, and homology studies.

  18. Evaluation of Taurine by HPTLC Reveals the Mask of Adulterated Edible Bird’s Nest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peishan Teo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Detection of amino acid is an effective and common method to determine adulteration in edible bird’s nest. Therefore, a simple and sensitive method was developed to detect taurine for determining adulteration in edible bird’s nest in the future. Sample was separated on precoated silica gel GF254 high-performance thin layer chromatographic plates. Separation of taurine was performed by n-propyl alcohol : ethanol : water : glacial acetic acid (5.2 : 0.8 : 2 : 2, v : v : v : v. Densitometric analysis of taurine was carried out in the absorbance mode at 485 nm. The method was validated for precision, intra- and interday variation, and recovery. This study proved that high-performance thin layer chromatography is a simple, rapid, precise, and selective method for qualitative and quantitative analysis of taurine in edible bird’s nest.

  19. Composition of tocopherols in sesame seed oil: an indicative of adulteration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gastaldo Badolato, Elza S.

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to verify how the composition of tocopherols can help to reveal adulteration in samples of sesame seed oils commercialized in Brazil. Five samples have been analyzed. One sample presented the composition of fatty acids, tocopherols and desmethylsterols of authentic sesame oil. Another one presented only non complying parameters. Three other samples showed the fatty acid composition of pure sesame oil, but the tocopherol and desmethylsterol profiles did not comply with those for sesame seed oil. The results indicate that samples could be adulterated by other vegetable oils like soybean, lauric and corn oils.Este trabajo examina la importancia de los tocoferoles en la detección de la adulteración del aceite de sésamo comercializado en Brasil. Se analizaron cinco muestras a las que se le determinaron su composición en ácidos grasos, esteroles y tocoferoles. Una de las muestras se reveló puro aceite de semilla de sésamo; en otra, todos los parámetros estaban en desacuerdo. En las demás, el perfil de ácidos grasos caracterizaba el aceite de sésamo, sin embargo los tocoferoles y esteroles permanecieron en desacuerdo. Los resultados indican adulteración con otros aceites vegetales como soja, aceites láuricos y maíz.

  20. Untargeted LC-Q-TOF mass spectrometry method for the detection of adulterations in skimmed-milk powder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cordewener, J.H.G.; Luykx, D.M.A.M.; Frankhuizen, R.; Bremer, M.G.E.G.; Hooijerink, H.; America, A.H.P.

    2009-01-01

    A nontargeted protein identification method was developed to screen for adulterations in skimmed-milk powder (SMP). There are indications of falsified SMP content due to the addition of plant proteins. To demonstrate the reliability and accuracy of the developed comparative LC-MS method using a quad

  1. Rapid on-site TLC-SERS detection of four antidiabetes drugs used as adulterants in botanical dietary supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Qingxia; Cao, Yongbing; Cao, Yingying; Chai, Yifeng; Lu, Feng

    2014-03-01

    A novel facile method has been established for rapid on-site detection of antidiabetes chemicals used to adulterate botanical dietary supplements (BDS) for diabetes. Analytes and components of pharmaceutical matrices were separated by thin-layer chromatography (TLC) then surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) was used for qualitative identification of trace substances on the HPTLC plate. Optimization and standardization of the experimental conditions, for example the method used for preparation of silver colloids, the mobile phase, and the concentration of colloidal silver, resulted in a very robust and highly sensitive method which enabled successful detection when the amount of adulteration was as low as 0.001 % (w/w). The method was also highly selective, enabling successful identification of some chemicals in extremely complex herbal matrices. The established TLC-SERS method was used for analysis of real BDS used to treat diabetes, and the results obtained were verified by liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS). The study showed that TLC-SERS could be used for effective separation and detection of four chemicals used to adulterate BDS, and would have good prospects for on-site qualitative screening of BDS for adulterants.

  2. Evaluation of turmeric powder adulterated with metanil yellow using FT-Raman and FT-IR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turmeric powder (Curcuma longa L.) is valued both for its medicinal properties and for its popular culinary use such as being a component in curry powder. Due to its high demand in international trade, turmeric powder has been subject to economically driven, hazardous chemical adulteration. This stu...

  3. Analysis of volatile compounds of Ilex paraguariensis A. St. - Hil. and its main adulterating species Ilex theizans Mart. ex Reissek and Ilex dumosa Reissek Análise de compostos voláteis de Ilex paraguariensis A. St. - Hil. e suas principais espécies adulterantes Ilex theizans Mart. ex Reissek e Ilex dumosa Reissek

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Marcos Dallago

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The adulteration of the product Ilex paraguariensis with other Ilex species is a mAjor problem for maté tea producers. In this work, three species of Ilex were evaluated for their volatile composition by headspace solid phase microextraction coupled to gas chromatography and mass spectrum detector (HS-SPME/GC-MS. The adulterating species I. dumnosa and I. theizans Mart. ex Reissek presented a different profile of volatile organic compounds when compared to I. paraguariensis. Aldehydes methyl-butanal, pentanal, hexanal, heptanal and nonanal were detected only in the adulterating species. This result suggests that such compounds are potential chemical markers for identification of adulteration and quality analysis of products based on Ilex paraguariensis.A adulteração do produto Ilex paraguariensis com outras espécies de Ilex é um dos principais problemas dos produtores de erva-mate. Neste trabalho, três espécies de Ilex foram avaliadas quanto à sua composição volátil por microextração em fase sólida acoplada à cromatografia gasosa e detector de espectro de massas (HS-SPME/GC-MS. As espécies adulterantes I. dumnosa e I. theizans Mart. ex Reissek apresentaram um perfil diferente de compostos orgânicos voláteis, quando comparadas com a I. paraguariensis. Os aldeídos metil-butanal, pentanal, hexanal, heptanal e nonanal foram detectados apenas nas espécies adulterantes. Esse resultado sugere que esses compostos químicos são marcadores potenciais para a identificação de adulteração e análise da qualidade dos produtos à base de Ilex paraguariensis.

  4. Detection of pasteurized milk adulteration through official methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Mareze

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The quality of milk consumed is a constant concern of dairy industry and healthcare-related authorities, technicians as well as consumers. The most serious problems are the various frauds which cause economic losses, risks to consumer health and, sometimes, problems for industries, such as the decrease in industrial output. Many foods are subject to fraud, but milk is one of the most commonly spoofed. The purpose of this study was to determine the presence of fraudulent substances and assess the physico-chemical properties of pasteurized milk produced in dairies from the North region of Paraná. Eighty samples were evaluated in the period from March to June 2014 and carried out specific methods for detection of restoratives: starch, alcohol, chloride and sucrose; neutralizers: bicarbonate and sodium hydroxide; preservatives: chlorine, sodium hypochlorite, hydrogen peroxide and formaldehyde. The evaluation of physico-chemical characteristics was carried out through the following analyses: density at 15° C, cryoscopic index, Dornic titratable acidity, 72 alizarol stability, pH, alkaline phosphatase, peroxidase, fat, total solids, non-fat solids, urea, protein and lactose. Non-standard samples were observed for the following analyses: fat (12.5%, non-fat solids (5%, density (1.25%, cryoscopy (3.75%, pH (48.75%, urea (1.25%. Frauds were observed by addition of water and sucrose (3.75%, presence of hypochlorite (5% and occurrence of skim milk (12.5%. The evidence together can assist in detecting fraud most commonly performed in pasteurized milk, but does not show in which thread might have occurred. However, if not detected, the quality of the product cannot be assured since many frauds have been carried out in a balanced way hindering its detection.

  5. Adulteration determination of the anhydrous ethanol fuels samples with methanol; Determinacao de adulteracao por metanol em amostras de alcool etilico anidro combustivel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campos, Eduardo; Mota, Claudio J.A. [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica]. E-mail: eduardoc@dh.com.br; cmota@iq.ufrj.br

    2003-07-01

    A fast test made to evidence an adulteration of anhydrous ethanol with methanol consist in mixing the alcohol with gasoline. A pink coloration indicates the adulteration by methanol. Samples of gasoline A, ethanol and high purity methanol were mixed at different proportions, but no color change was observed. On the other hand, samples of gasoline A, ethanol and formaldehyde 40% showed the characteristic pink coloration, for methanol adulteration. This result indicates that the test is sensible to the presence of formaldehyde, probably presence as impurity or formed by oxidation of the methanol. A lower detection limit of 4.8% of formaldehyde in the alcohol was determined. (author)

  6. Milk adulteration: Detection of bovine milk in bulk goat milk produced by smallholders in northeastern Brazil by a duplex PCR assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, N P A; Givisiez, P E N; Queiroga, R C R E; Azevedo, P S; Gebreyes, W A; Oliveira, C J B

    2012-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the adulteration of goat milk produced by smallholders in semiarid northeastern Brazil with bovine milk as an adulterant. The study was requested by the association of smallholder producers in the region to investigate and to inhibit adulteration practices as a need to ensure the quality and safety of goat milk. A duplex PCR assay has been developed and standardized. Further validation was performed in 160 fresh bulk goat milk samples. The detection limit of the duplex PCR was 0.5% bovine milk in goat milk and the results indicated that 41.2% of the goat milk presented to market was positive for bovine milk. Making the test available to the association of producers, together with extension activities, have been applied to reduce adulteration in goat milk sold to small-scale dairy plants and to ensure the species origin for goat milk in the state of Paraíba.

  7. Adequacy of the measurement capability of fatty acid compositions and sterol profiles to determine authenticity of milk fat through formulation of adulterated butter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soha, Sahel; Mortazavian, Amir M.; Piravi-Vanak, Zahra

    2015-01-01

    In this research a comparison has been made between the fatty acid and sterol compositions of Iranian pure butter and three samples of adulterated butter. These samples were formulated using edible vegetable fats/oils with similar milk fat structures including palm olein, palm kernel and coconut...... oil to determine the authenticity of milk fat. The amount of vegetable fats/oils used in the formulation of the adulterated butter was 10%. The adulterated samples were formulated so that their fatty acid profiles were comforted with acceptable levels of pure butter as specified by the Iranian...... butter (B1), and 97.61%, 98.48% and 97.98% of the total sterols in the samples adulterated with palm olein, palm kernel and coconut oil (B2, B3, and B4), respectively. Contents of the main phytosterol profiles such as β-sitosterol, stigmasterol and campesterol were also determined. The β...

  8. 从外观性状识别酸枣仁伪品%Morphological identification by appearance for adulterant of spine date seed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄德耀

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the morphological identification of spine date seed and its common adulterants, in order to ensure safe and effective drug use. The appearance characteristics of spine date seed and its common adulterants were compared and analyzed. There were obvious differences between the appearance characteristics of spine date seed and its common adulterants. Morphological identification can effectively identify spine date seed and its adulterants.%探讨酸枣仁及其常见伪品的性状鉴别,确保临床用药的安全、有效。取酸枣仁及其常见伪品,对外观性状进行比对讨论发现酸枣仁及其伪品在外观性状有明显区别。性状鉴别方法能有效地识别酸枣仁及其伪品。

  9. Based on the Analysis of Detection Methods of Edible Oil Adulteration%基于食用油掺假检测方法分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄秋娜; 续颖; 陈金体

    2016-01-01

    文章就现阶段大部分食用油的分类和掺杂油的种类作为切入点,浅要论述食用油掺假的主要检测方法,并提出食用油掺假检测的发展,以期促进我国食用油掺假检测方法的优化和完善。%This stage most edible oil classification and adulterated oil type as the breakthrough, this paper shallowly discussed the edible oil adulteration detection method, and putted forward the development of the edible oil adulteration detection, with a view to promoting our country and adulteration detection method for optimization and perfection.

  10. IDENTIFICATION OF ADULTERANT AND ALCOHOL ROUTE IN BIODIESEL USING MID-INFRARED ABSORPTION SPECTROSCOPY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryleide Ventura da Silva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mid-infrared absorption spectroscopy was used to analyze soybean oil, ethylic and methylic soybean biodiesel, and blends prepared with soybean oil mixed with biodiesel, in order to evaluate this method as an alternative to assess oil as impurities or adulterant in biodiesel. We also aimed to determine whether the biodiesel was prepared by the ethyl or methyl routes, by inspecting the infrared spectra. The C-O functional groups between 1100 and 1200 cm-1 are different for oil and biodiesel, which allows them to be used to distinguish impurities (residual oil in biofuel. The peak C-O-C at 1017 cm-1 is characteristic for methylic biodiesel, and the peak O-C-C at 1035 cm-1 for ethylic biodiesel. These vibrational modes can therefore be used to indicate the route used to prepare the biofuel. Results indicated that infrared spectroscopy is appropriate for monitoring the quality of biofuel for commercial sale.

  11. Identification of a new tadalafil analogue in an adulterated dietary supplement: trans-Bisprehomotadalafil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ji Hyun; Kim, Hyung Joo; Mandava, Suresh; Hwang, Jungjoong; Park, Hyoung Joon; Cho, Sooyeul; Baek, Sun Young; Lee, Jongkook

    2015-11-10

    A new tadalafil analogue was identified along with homotadalafil during routine screening of an adulterated dietary supplement using HPLC-DAD. The UV spectrum of this analogue was almost identical with that of tadalafil. This compound was isolated from the supplement by using semi-preparative HPLC and its structure was subsequently elucidated by performing Q-TOF/MS/MS and NMR spectroscopic experiments. The spectral data indicate that this tadalafil analogue is a dimeric compound that consists of an ethylamino group and two pretadalafil moieties. NOE experiments and comparison with (1)H NMR spectra of tadalafil and trans-tadalafil suggested the trans-relationship between the substituents on piperidine rings in the pretadalafil moieties.

  12. Development of ITS sequence based molecular marker to distinguish, Tribulus terrestris L. (Zygophyllaceae) from its adulterants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramani, Subramani Paranthaman; Murugan, Ramar; Ravikumar, Kaliamoorthy; Venkatasubramanian, Padma

    2010-09-01

    Tribulus terrestris L. (Zygophyllaceae) is one of the highly traded raw drugs and also used as a stimulative food additive in Europe and USA. While, Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India recognizes T. terrestris as Goksura, Tribulus lanuginosus and T. subramanyamii are also traded by the same name raising issues of quality control. The nuclear ribosomal RNA genes and ITS (internal transcribed spacer) sequence were used to develop species-specific DNA markers. The species-specific markers efficiently amplified 295bp for T. terrestris (TT1F and TT1R), 300bp for T. lanuginosus (TL1F and TL1R) and 214bp for T. subramanyamii (TS1F and TS1R). These DNA markers can be used to distinguish T. terrestris from its adulterants.

  13. Levamisole-Induced Vasculitis: A Characteristic Cutaneous Vasculitis Associated With Levamisole-Adulterated Cocaine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Jordan A; Chévez-Barrios, Patricia

    2015-08-01

    Levamisole-induced vasculitis is a characteristic cutaneous vasculitis syndrome associated with the use of levamisole-adulterated cocaine. Patients will typically present with a painful, purpuric rash in a retiform or stellate pattern with or without central necrosis involving the extremities, trunk, nasal tip, digits, cheeks, and/or ears. A history of cocaine abuse can be elicited. Histologic features include microvascular thrombi and/or leukocytoclastic vasculitis involving small vessels of the superficial and deep dermis. Epidermal involvement is variably seen. Laboratory findings include leukopenia, neutropenia (including agranulocytosis), elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate, normal coagulation studies, and positive autoantibodies including perinuclear and cytoplasmic antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies, antinuclear antibody, and lupus anticoagulant. Differential diagnosis includes other microscopic vasculitides, and clinical and laboratory correlation with histologic findings is essential. Lesions typically resolve with the cessation of cocaine use. Because of the treatment implications and rising incidence of this entity, rapid and accurate diagnosis is essential.

  14. Extensive Necrotic Purpura in Levamisole-Adulterated Cocaine Abuse - A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Garff, Erwan; Tournel, Gilles; Becquart, Coralie; Cottencin, Olivier; Dupin, Nicolas; Delaporte, Emmanuel; Hedouin, Valéry

    2016-11-01

    Levamisole, which is used as an adulterated compound of cocaine, is currently being seen year after year in cocaine intoxication. For a few cases in the last decade, necrotic purpura and neutropenia after levamisole/cocaine intoxication have been described in the medical community. Herein, we present an original case of levamisole intoxication of a 40-year-old woman who smoked heroin and cocaine few during a month. She rapidly presented an extensive necrotic purpura of the nose, cheeks and extremities (lower and upper), and immunologic reactions (positive anti-MPO and anti-HNE). Levamisole was detected on hairs with ultra-high performance liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry. The case reports also a probable cocaine supplier deceit, which bring pure drug for hospital investigation after the intoxication of his client. The intoxicated woman had survived with several skin and chronic pain complications. That case recalls the knowledge about levamisole with a short review of the forensic literature.

  15. Isoelectric focusing and ELISA for detecting adulteration of donkey milk with cow milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzano, Rosa; Salimei, Elisabetta

    2014-06-25

    Donkey milk has been recently revalued intensely due to its nutritional properties. Moreover, donkey milk has been proposed as an effective alternative food for some infants with cow milk allergy. Two fast analytical methods were proposed to detect the fraudulent practice of blending cow milk to donkey milk. Detection of cow αs1-casein bands along the profiles of experimental donkey-cow milk mixtures analyzed by isoelectric focusing was adequate to estimate cow milk used as adulterant of donkey milk starting from 5% (v/v). An ELISA-based method using the antipeptide antibodies raised against the 1-28 sequence stretch of cow β-casein was also developed for an accurate definition of composition of donkey-cow milk mixtures. The presence of cow milk at levels as low as 0.5% (v/v) was detected in donkey-cow milk mixtures prepared at laboratory scale and assayed by ELISA.

  16. Relationship Between Milk Adulterated With Melamine and the Appearance of Renal Stones in a Childhood Population: A Review of the Literature of the Cases That Occurred in the People’s Republic of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmina Bordón-González

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Melamine is a chemical substance used in the production of resins. When melamine is added to milk, nitrogen concentration increases, which suggest an increase the amount of false proteins and consequently causing kidney diseases in some population subgroups. The objective of this study is to document the possible connection in between adulterated industrial milk with melamine and the appearance of kidney stones in children under 12 years old by reviewing cases occurred in the People’s Republic of China.Material and methods: A literature review was carried out on articles published on dated between 2005-2010, and an extensive analysis was made on the results found.Results: A total of 20 articles were reviewed, of which 11 met the criteria for inclusion, There were 9 cross-sectional studies, one follow-up study and a case-control study. Four studies calculated odds ratio (OR in their analysis to evaluate the relative risk of having stones in those children exposed to melamine formula. In the case-control study, children exposed to melamine formula were 5.17 times as likely to have kidney stones as children exposed to a non-melamine formula (95% confidence interval, 3.28-8.14; P<.001.Conclusions: Melamine adulteration in milk is a preventable public health issue which suggests the establishing of greater control measures and the implementation of food regulations by the food industry and Health and Food Institutions.

  17. Surgical Management of Levamisole-Adulterated Cocaine Induced Soft Tissue Necrosis: Case Study and Treatment Algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcevenue, Giancarlo; Brichacek, Michael; Logsetty, Sarvesh; Shahrokhi, Shar

    2016-08-18

    Levamisole is an increasingly common cocaine adulterant that can cause severe and rapid onset cutaneous vasculitis in humans. While most cases may be managed conservatively, we describe a series of patients in whom the extent of skin and soft tissue necrosis mandated surgical intervention. A retrospective review of all patients admitted to one of two regional burn centers between 2006 and 2016 for soft tissue necrosis after exposure to levamisole-adulterated cocaine was included in our study. Ten patients, majority female (9/10) with an average age of 43.4 years (range 31-57), were included. Cocaine usage before presentation averaged 6 days (range 1-14). Presenting complaints consisted of arthralgia (5/10), fever (7/10), and purpuric lesions (10/10). Average TBSA involvement was 23.5% (range 4-70). Immunological testing revealed pANCA+ in 8 of 10 and cANCA+ in 4 of 8 patients. Operative intervention occurred by postadmission day 11.6 (range 3-30). The mean number of operations required was 3 (range 2-6); length of stay averaged 46.8 days (range 14-120); and survival to discharge was 100% (10/10). To our knowledge, this is the largest case study detailing the surgical management of levamisole-associated skin necrosis. Additionally, we describe the most extensive case of this disease process at 70% TBSA involvement. Based on our experience, we recommend waiting for purpuric rash resolution and soft tissue necrosis to be fully demarcated before fascial debridement and then staged skin grafting with allograft followed by autograft.

  18. Identification of authentic and adulterated Aquilariae Lignum Resinatum by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and two-dimensional correlation analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Lei; Chen, Jian-bo; Zhou, Qun; Zhang, Gui-jun; Sun, Su-qin; Guo, Yi-zhen

    2016-11-01

    As a kind of expensive perfume and valuable herb, the commercial Aquilariae Lignum Resinatum (ALR) is often adulterated for economic motivations. In this research, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and two-dimensional (2D) correlation analysis are employed to establish a simple and quick identification method for the authentic and adulterated ALR. In the conventional infrared spectra, the standard ALR has a strong peak at 1658 cm-1 referring to the conjugated carbonyl of resin, while this peak is absent in the adulterated samples. The position, intensity, and shape of the auto-peaks and cross-peaks of the authentic and adulterated ALR are much different in the synchronous 2D correlation spectra with thermal perturbation. In the range of 1700-1500 cm-1, the standard ALR has four obvious auto-peaks, while the strongest one is at 1659 cm-1. The adulterated sample w-1 has three obvious auto-peaks and the strongest one is at 1647 cm-1. The adulterated sample w-2 has three obvious auto-peaks and the strongest one is at 1519 cm-1. The adulterated sample w-3 has four obvious auto-peaks and the strongest one is at 1690 cm-1. The above auto-peaks confirm that the standard ALR contains a certain content of resin compounds, while the three counterfeits contain little or different resins. The results show the potential of FT-IR spectroscopy and 2D correlation analysis in the simple and quick identification of authentic and adulterated ALR.

  19. Chemical profiling and adulteration screening of Aquilariae Lignum Resinatum by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and two-dimensional correlation infrared (2D-IR) spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Lei; Chen, Jian-bo; Zhang, Gui-Jun; Sun, Su-qin; Zheng, Jing

    2017-03-01

    As a kind of expensive perfume and valuable herb, Aquilariae Lignum Resinatum (ALR) is often adulterated for economic motivations. In this research, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy is employed to establish a simple and quick method for the adulteration screening of ALR. First, the principal chemical constituents of ALR are characterized by FT-IR spectroscopy at room temperature and two-dimensional correlation infrared (2D-IR) spectroscopy with thermal perturbation. Besides the common cellulose and lignin compounds, a certain amount of resin is the characteristic constituent of ALR. Synchronous and asynchronous 2D-IR spectra indicate that the resin (an unstable secondary metabolite) is more sensitive than cellulose and lignin (stable structural constituents) to the thermal perturbation. Using a certified ALR sample as the reference, the infrared spectral correlation threshold is determined by 30 authentic samples and 6 adulterated samples. The spectral correlation coefficient of an authentic ALR sample to the standard reference should be not less than 0.9886 (p = 0.01). Three commercial adulterated ALR samples are identified by the correlation threshold. Further interpretation of the infrared spectra of the adulterated samples indicates the common adulterating methods - counterfeiting with other kind of wood, adding ingredient such as sand to increase the weight, and adding the cheap resin such as rosin to increase the content of resin compounds. Results of this research prove that FT-IR spectroscopy can be used as a simple and accurate quality control method of ALR.

  20. Chemical profiling and adulteration screening of Aquilariae Lignum Resinatum by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and two-dimensional correlation infrared (2D-IR) spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Lei; Chen, Jian-Bo; Zhang, Gui-Jun; Sun, Su-Qin; Zheng, Jing

    2017-03-05

    As a kind of expensive perfume and valuable herb, Aquilariae Lignum Resinatum (ALR) is often adulterated for economic motivations. In this research, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy is employed to establish a simple and quick method for the adulteration screening of ALR. First, the principal chemical constituents of ALR are characterized by FT-IR spectroscopy at room temperature and two-dimensional correlation infrared (2D-IR) spectroscopy with thermal perturbation. Besides the common cellulose and lignin compounds, a certain amount of resin is the characteristic constituent of ALR. Synchronous and asynchronous 2D-IR spectra indicate that the resin (an unstable secondary metabolite) is more sensitive than cellulose and lignin (stable structural constituents) to the thermal perturbation. Using a certified ALR sample as the reference, the infrared spectral correlation threshold is determined by 30 authentic samples and 6 adulterated samples. The spectral correlation coefficient of an authentic ALR sample to the standard reference should be not less than 0.9886 (p=0.01). Three commercial adulterated ALR samples are identified by the correlation threshold. Further interpretation of the infrared spectra of the adulterated samples indicates the common adulterating methods - counterfeiting with other kind of wood, adding ingredient such as sand to increase the weight, and adding the cheap resin such as rosin to increase the content of resin compounds. Results of this research prove that FT-IR spectroscopy can be used as a simple and accurate quality control method of ALR.

  1. The effect of thermal treatment on the enhancement of detection of adulteration in extra virgin olive oils by synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy and chemometric analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabood, F.; Boqué, R.; Folcarelli, R.; Busto, O.; Jabeen, F.; Al-Harrasi, Ahmed; Hussain, J.

    2016-05-01

    In this study the effect of thermal treatment on the enhancement of synchronous fluorescence spectroscopic method for discrimination and quantification of pure extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) samples from EVOO samples adulterated with refined oil was investigated. Two groups of samples were used. One group was analyzed at room temperature (25 °C) and the other group was thermally treated in a thermostatic water bath at 75 °C for 8 h, in contact with air and with light exposure, to favor oxidation. All the samples were then measured with synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy. Synchronous fluorescence spectra were acquired by varying the wavelength in the region from 250 to 720 nm at 20 nm wavelength differential interval of excitation and emission. Pure and adulterated olive oils were discriminated by using partial least-squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA). It was found that the best PLS-DA models were those built with the difference spectra (75 °C-25 °C), which were able to discriminate pure from adulterated oils at a 2% level of adulteration of refined olive oils. Furthermore, PLS regression models were also built to quantify the level of adulteration. Again, the best model was the one built with the difference spectra, with a prediction error of 3.18% of adulteration.

  2. Detection of melamine adulteration in milk by near-infrared spectroscopy and one-class partial least squares

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hui; Tan, Chao; Lin, Zan; Wu, Tong

    2017-02-01

    Melamine is a noxious nitrogen-rich substance and has been illegally adulterated in milk to boost the protein content. The present work investigated the feasibility of using near-infrared (NIR) spectrum and one-class partial least squares (OCPLS) for detecting the adulteration of melamine. A total of 102 liquor milks were prepared for experiment. A special variable importance (VI) index was defined to select 40 most significant variables. Thirty-two pure milk samples constitute the training set for constructing a one-class model and the other samples were used for the test set. The results showed that on the independent test set, it can achieve an acceptable performance, i.e., the total accuracy of 89%, the sensitivity of 90%, and the specificity of 88%. It seems that the combination of NIR spectroscopy and OCPLS classifier can serve as a potential tool for rapid and on-site screening melamine in milk samples.

  3. Detection of argan oil adulteration with vegetable oils by high-performance liquid chromatography-evaporative light scattering detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salghi, Rachid; Armbruster, Wolfgang; Schwack, Wolfgang

    2014-06-15

    Triacylglycerol profiles were selected as indicator of adulteration of argan oils to carry out a rapid screening of samples for the evaluation of authenticity. Triacylglycerols were separated by high-performance liquid chromatography-evaporative light scattering detection. Different peak area ratios were defined to sensitively detect adulteration of argan oil with vegetable oils such as sunflower, soy bean, and olive oil up to the level of 5%. Based on four reference argan oils, mean limits of detection and quantitation were calculated to approximately 0.4% and 1.3%, respectively. Additionally, 19 more argan oil reference samples were analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography-refractive index detection, resulting in highly comparative results. The overall strategy demonstrated a good applicability in practise, and hence a high potential to be transferred to routine laboratories.

  4. Rapid determination of alpha tocopherol in olive oil adulterated with sunflower oil by reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakre, S M; Gadmale, D K; Toche, R B; Gaikwad, V B

    2015-05-01

    A new method is developed to determine the presence of sunflower oil in olive oil. α-tocopherol is selected as discriminating parameter for detecting sunflower oil adulterant in olive oil. Admixtures of olive oil and sunflower oil (5 %, 10 %, 15 % and 20 % sunflower oil in olive oil) are prepared. These admixtures are analysed by reversed phase high pressure liquid chromatography coupled with fluorescence detector. The sample preparation does not require saponification or addition of antioxidant. The chromatographic system consists of a C18 column with methanol: acetonitrile (50:50) mobile phase. Fluorescence detector excitation wavelength is set at 290 nm and emission wavelength is set at 330 nm. The α tocopherol concentration increases linearly in olive oil adulterated with sunflower oil. The method is simple, selective, sensitive and is precise (RSD = 2.65 %) for α tocopherol. The present method can precisely detect 5 % sunflower oil in olive oil.

  5. Molecular identification of the traditional herbal medicines, Arisaematis Rhizoma and Pinelliae Tuber, and common adulterants via universal DNA barcode sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, B C; Kim, W J; Ji, Y; Lee, Y M; Kang, Y M; Choi, G

    2016-02-19

    Methods to identify Pinelliae Tuber and Arisaematis Rhizoma are required because of frequent reciprocal substitution between these two herbal medicines and the existence of several closely related plant materials. As a result of the morphological similarity of dried tubers, correct discrimination of authentic herbal medicines is difficult by conventional methods. Therefore, we analyzed DNA barcode sequences to identify each herbal medicine and the common adulterants at a species level. To verify the identity of these herbal medicines, we collected five authentic species (Pinellia ternata for Pinelliae Tuber, and Arisaema amurense, A. amurense var. serratum, A. erubescens, and A. heterophyllum for Arisaematis Rhizoma) and six common adulterant plant species. Maturase K (matK) and ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase large subunit (rbcL) genes were then amplified using universal primers. In comparative analyses of two DNA barcode sequences, we obtained 45 species-specific nucleotides sufficient to identify each species (except A. erubescens with matK) and 28 marker nucleotides for each species (except P. pedatisecta with rbcL). Sequence differences at corresponding positions of the two combined DNA barcodes provided genetic marker nucleotides that could be used to identify specimens of the correct species among the analyzed medicinal plants. Furthermore, we generated a phylogenetic tree showing nine distinct groups depending on the species. These results can be used to authenticate Pinelliae Tuber and Arisaematis Rhizoma from their adulterants and to identify each species. Thus, comparative analyses of plant DNA barcode sequences identified useful genetic markers for the authentication of Pinelliae Tuber and Arisaematis Rhizoma from several adulterant herbal materials.

  6. MALDI-TOF-MS Platform for Integrated Proteomic and Peptidomic Profiling of Milk Samples Allows Rapid Detection of Food Adulterations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sassi, Mauro; Arena, Simona; Scaloni, Andrea

    2015-07-15

    Adulteration of ovine, caprine, and buffalo milks with more common bovine material occurs for economic reasons and seasonal availability. Frauds are also associated with the use of powdered milk instead of declared, fresh material. In this context, various analytical methods have been adapted to dairy science applications with the aim to evaluate adulteration of milk samples, although time-consuming, suitable only for speciation or thermal treatment analysis, or useful for a specific fraud type. An integrated MALDI-TOF-MS platform for the combined peptidomic and proteomic profiling of milk samples is here presented, which allows rapid detection of illegal adulterations due to the addition of either nondeclared bovine material to water buffalo, goat, and ovine milks or of powdered bovine milk to the fresh counterpart. Peptide and protein markers of each animal milk were identified after direct analysis of a large number of diluted skimmed and/or enriched diluted skimmed filtrate samples. In parallel, markers of thermal treatment were characterized in different types of commercial milks. Principal components scores of ad hoc prepared species- or thermal treatment-associated adulterated milk samples were subjected to partial least-squares regression, permitting a fast accurate estimate of the fraud extents in test samples at either protein and peptide level. With respect to previous reports on MALDI-TOF-MS protein profiling methodologies for milk speciation, this study extends that approach to the analysis of the thermal treatment and introduces an independent, complementary peptide profiling measurement, which integrates protein data with additional information on peptides, validating final results and ultimately broadening the method applicability.

  7. Application of Gas Chromatography with the Mass Detector (GC-MS) Technique for Detection of Beeswax Adulteration with Paraffin

    OpenAIRE

    Waś Ewa; Szczęsna Teresa; Rybak-Chmielewska Helena

    2015-01-01

    To detect beeswax adulteration with hydrocarbons of alien origin (e.g. paraffin), gas chromatography with mass detector (GC-MS) technique was used. The method has been verified here on beeswax samples with different addition (3, 5, 10, 30, and 50%) of paraffin and validated under the conditions of repeatability and within - laboratory reproducibility. The addition of paraffin to beeswax can already be detected on the basis of an analysis of the chromatograms. The intensity of individual alkan...

  8. Discriminant analysis of the common adulterated Chinese medicine%常见中药掺假的辨别分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付蔷

    2013-01-01

    Objective To introduce the identification methods for common Chinese medicine,and to provide effective analytical and determination methods for adulterated Chinese medicine. Methods Several kinds of Chinese medicine,such as pangolin,honeysuckle,tuckahoe,etc.were bought and compared with the corresponding adulterated Chinese medcine,their features were summarized and its corresponding determination methods were recorded. Results This study identified approximately ten kinds of common adulterated Chinese medcine and optimized its corresponding determination methods,it provided valid references for Chinese medicine identification. Conclusion The determination methods for common adulterated Chinese medcine in this study has the characteristics of simple,convenient and efficient, also has a high practical application value.%目的:介绍常见中药的识别方法,为中药掺假提供有效的分析鉴别方法。方法购买多种常见中药如穿山甲、银花、茯苓等并与相应的掺假的中药进行对照,将两者的特性进行总结归纳,并记录相应的鉴别方法。结果本研究对近10种常见掺假中药进行鉴别,并对其相应的鉴别方法进行优化,为中药的鉴别提供了有效的参考。结论本研究提供的常见中药掺假的鉴别方法,具有简便、高效的特点,具有较强的实际应用价值。

  9. Investigation of adulteration of sunflower oil with thermally deteriorated oil using Fourier transform mid-infrared spectroscopy and chemometrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana Vilela

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy based on attenuated total reflectance sampling technique, combined with multivariate analysis methods was used to monitor the adulteration of pure sunflower oil (SO with thermally deteriorated oil (TDO. Contrary to published research, in this work, SO was thermally deteriorated in the absence of foodstuff. SO samples were exposed to temperatures between 125 and 225°C from 6 to 24 h. Quantification of adulteration of SO with TDO, based on principal components regression (PCR, partial least squares regression (PLS-R, and linear discriminant analysis (LDA applied to mid-infrared spectra and to their first and second derivatives is reported for the first time. Infrared frequencies associated with the biochemical differences between TDO samples deteriorated in different conditions were investigated by principal component analysis (PCA. LDA was effective in the twofold classification presence/absence of TDO in adulterated SO (with 5% V/V of less of TDO. It provided 93.7% correct classification for the calibration set and 91.3% correct classification when cross-validated. A detection limit of 1% V/V of TDO in SO was determined. Investigation of an external set of samples allowed the evaluation of the predictability of the models. The regression coefficient (R2 for prediction was 0.95 and 0.96 and the RMSE was 2.1 and 1.9% V/V when using the PCR or PLS-R models, respectively, and the first derivative of spectra. To the best of our knowledge, no investigation of adulteration of SO with TDO based on PCR, PLS-R, and LDA has been reported so far.

  10. [Discriminant analysis of near infrared diffuse reflectance spectra to detect adulteration of non-ruminant meat and bone meal].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiong-Fei; Yang, Zeng-Ling; Han, Lu-Jia

    2008-03-01

    In order to study the feasibility of using near infrared (NIR) diffuse reflectance spectroscopy to discriminate adultera tion of non-ruminant meat and bone meal (MBM) with ruminant MBM, a total of 39 MBM samples made up of 15 from pig, 15 from poultry, 5 from cattle and 4 from sheep produced in different areas in China were chosen. The MBM samples were ground with 0. 5 mm sieve. 252 specimens were prepared by non-ruminant MBM deliberately adulterated with different proportion of ruminant MBM. The specimens were scanned by FOSS NIRSystem 6500. A calibration set of 180 specimens and an independent validation set of 72 specimens were randomly selected by the WINISI software. Discriminant analysis model was developed by partial least squares (PLS) on the calibration set and validated with independent validation set. The best discriminant model was obtained using standard normal variate and detrend (SNVD) and second derivative for spectrum pretreatment; this model had a coefficient of determination (R2(CV)) of 0.83 and a standard error of cross-validation (SECV) of 0. 147 1. For the independent validation set, the correct classification rate is 90%. There were a false negative specimen (0.5%) and two uncertain specimens (1%, 1.5%) in validation set. Results showed that it is feasible to use NIR diffuse reflectance spectroscopy to discriminate adulteration of non-ruminant MBM with ruminant MBM, but for specimens adulterated with ruminant MBM at less than 2%, the accuracy of calibration model needs to be improved. NIR was a rapid and non-destructive approach to discriminating adulteration of non-ruminant MBM with ruminant MIBM.

  11. A copper interdigitated electrode and chemometrical tools used for the discrimination of the adulteration of ethanol fuel with water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bueno, Lígia; Paixão, Thiago R L C

    2011-12-15

    A new approach for the discrimination of the adulteration process of ethanol fuel with water is reported using a copper interdigitated electrode and chemometrical tools. The sensor was constructed using copper sheets with non-chemical modification of the electrode surface. The discrimination process was performed using capacitance values recorded at different frequencies (1,000 Hz to 0.1 MHz) as the input data for non-supervised pattern recognition methods (PCA: principal component analysis and HCA: hierarchical cluster analysis). The relative standard deviation for the capacitance signals obtained from ten independent interdigitated sensors was below 5.0%. The ability of the device to differentiate non-adulterated ethanol samples from those adulterated with water was demonstrated. In all analysed cases, there was good separation between the different samples in the score plots and the dendrograms obtained from PCA and hierarchical cluster analyses, respectively. Furthermore, the water content was quantified using a PCA approach. The results were consistent with those obtained using the Karl-Fischer method at a 95% confidence level, as measured using Student's t-test.

  12. Capillary zone electrophoresis for fatty acids with chemometrics for the determination of milk adulteration by whey addition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira Mendes, Thiago; Porto, Brenda Lee Simas; Bell, Maria José Valenzuela; Perrone, Ítalo Tuler; de Oliveira, Marcone Augusto Leal

    2016-12-15

    Adulteration of milk with whey is difficult to detect because these two have similar physical and chemical characteristics. The traditional methodologies to monitor this fraud are based on the analysis of caseinomacropeptide. The present study proposes a new approach to detect and quantify this fraud using the fatty acid profiles of milk and whey. Fatty acids C14:0, C16:0, C18:0, C18:1, C18:2 and C18:3 were selected by gas chromatography associated with discriminant analysis to differentiate milk and whey, as they are present in quite different amounts. These six fatty acids were quantified within a short time by capillary zone electrophoresis in a set of adulterated milk samples. The correlation coefficient between the true values of whey addition and the experimental values obtained by this technique was 0.973. The technique is thus useful for the evaluation of milk adulteration with whey, contributing to the quality control of milk in the dairy industry.

  13. Two-dimensional hetero-spectral mid-infrared and near-infrared correlation spectroscopy for discrimination adulterated milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Renjie; Liu, Rong; Dong, Guimei; Xu, Kexin; Yang, Yanrong; Zhang, Weiyu

    2016-03-15

    A new approach for discriminant analysis of adulterated milk is proposed based on two-dimensional (2D) hetero-spectral near-infrared (NIR) and mid-infrared (IR) correlation spectroscopy along with multi-way partial least squares discriminant analysis (NPLS-DA). NIR transmittance spectra and IR attenuated total reflection spectra of pure milk and adulterated milk with level of melamine varying from 0.03 to 3 g·L(-1) were collected at room temperature. The synchronous 2D hetero-spectral IR/NIR correlation spectra of all samples were calculated to build a discriminant model to classify adulterated milk and pure milk. Also, the NPLS-DA models were built based on synchronous 2D homo-spectral NIR/NIR and IR/IR correlation spectra, respectively. Comparison results showed that the NPLS-DA model could provide better results using 2D hetero-spectral IR/NIR correlation spectra than using 2D homo-spectral NIR/NIR and 2D IR/IR correlation spectra.

  14. Two-dimensional hetero-spectral mid-infrared and near-infrared correlation spectroscopy for discrimination adulterated milk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Renjie; Liu, Rong; Dong, Guimei; Xu, Kexin; Yang, Yanrong; Zhang, Weiyu

    2016-03-01

    A new approach for discriminant analysis of adulterated milk is proposed based on two-dimensional (2D) hetero-spectral near-infrared (NIR) and mid-infrared (IR) correlation spectroscopy along with multi-way partial least squares discriminant analysis (NPLS-DA). NIR transmittance spectra and IR attenuated total reflection spectra of pure milk and adulterated milk with level of melamine varying from 0.03 to 3 g·L- 1 were collected at room temperature. The synchronous 2D hetero-spectral IR/NIR correlation spectra of all samples were calculated to build a discriminant model to classify adulterated milk and pure milk. Also, the NPLS-DA models were built based on synchronous 2D homo-spectral NIR/NIR and IR/IR correlation spectra, respectively. Comparison results showed that the NPLS-DA model could provide better results using 2D hetero-spectral IR/NIR correlation spectra than using 2D homo-spectral NIR/NIR and 2D IR/IR correlation spectra.

  15. Comparison of FT-NIR Spectroscopy and ELISA for Detection of Adulteration of Goat Cheeses with Cow's Milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvorak, Lukas; Mlcek, Jiri; Sustova, Kvetoslava

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the ability of two methods to detect adulteration of goat cheeses via the addition of cow's milk, with a negligible effect on the raw materials. Cheeses were produced from a mixture of goat's and cow's milk and were then analyzed by Fourier transform near-IR (FT-NIR) spectroscopy and competitive ELISA. The cheese spectra were scanned in the spectroscope in reflectance mode on an integrating sphere at 80 scans and a resolution of 4 cm(-1). The spectra were evaluated via discriminant analysis, and a calibration was created via a partial least-squares algorithm to quantify the cow's milk admixture. A correlation coefficient of R = 0.999 was reached with a standard error of calibration of 0.0407. The results were statistically processed to a median value via a t-test. Adulteration detection by the ELISA method was performed using a commercial Milk Fraud/Bovine ELISA kit. It was found that the FT-NIR spectroscopy method is capable of detecting an admixture of cow's milk in goat cheese as small as 1%. The ELISA method did not return satisfactory results for the detection of adulteration with cow's milk.

  16. Pauci-immune glomerulonephritis in individuals with disease associated with levamisole-adulterated cocaine: a series of 4 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Adam Q; Tuot, Delphine S; Jen, Kuang-Yu; Butcher, Brad; Graf, Jonathan; Sam, Ramin; Imboden, John B

    2014-10-01

    Exposure to levamisole-adulterated cocaine can induce a distinct clinical syndrome characterized by retiform purpura and/or agranulocytosis accompanied by an unusual constellation of serologic abnormalities including antiphospholipid antibodies, lupus anticoagulants, and very high titers of antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies. Two recent case reports suggest that levamisole-adulterated cocaine may also lead to renal disease in the form of pauci-immune glomerulonephritis. To explore this possibility, we reviewed cases of pauci-immune glomerulonephritis between 2010 and 2012 at an inner city safety net hospital where the prevalence of levamisole in the cocaine supply is known to be high. We identified 3 female patients and 1 male patient who had biopsy-proven pauci-immune glomerulonephritis, used cocaine, and had serologic abnormalities characteristic of levamisole-induced autoimmunity. Each also had some other form of clinical disease known to be associated with levamisole, either neutropenia or cutaneous manifestations. One patient had diffuse alveolar hemorrhage. Three of the 4 patients were treated with short courses of prednisone and cyclophosphamide, 2 of whom experienced stable long-term improvement in their renal function despite ongoing cocaine use. The remaining 2 patients developed end-stage renal disease and became dialysis-dependent. This report supports emerging concern of more wide spread organ toxicity associated with the use of levamisole-adulterated cocaine.

  17. 枸杞子掺伪检测方法的研究进展%Research progress on adulteration detection of dried fruits of wolfberry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田晓静; 马忠仁; 王彩霞

    2015-01-01

    As for its medicinal and high nutritional value, dried fruits of wolfberry are highly popular by consumers, and widely used in food industry and health care products. However, malicious doping and adulteration of dried fruits of wolfberry are increasingly serious, which affected the quality of dried fruits of wolfberry, infringed the health, rights and interests of consumers and disrupted normal operating of market. The demands for methods to identify the dried fruits of wolfberry are been more concern to consumers. The adulteration of dried fruits of wolfberry and methods used to detect the adulteration of dried fruits of wolfberry were reviewed in this paper. For origin traceability and species identification of dried fruits of wolfberry, the application of morphological identification, microscopic identification, chemical composition analysis, biochemistry methods and fast detection method based on infrared spectroscopy, near infrared spectroscopy, and raman spectroscopy, machine vision and electronic tongue were introduced and compared, providing theoretical basis for the authenticity of dried fruits of wolfberry and method basis for market supervision.%枸杞子以其药用价值和营养品质深受消费者的青睐,广泛应用于食品和保健品行业。但是市场上枸杞子恶意掺杂、掺假现象日益严重,此行为严重影响枸杞子品质、危害消费者健康、损害消费者权益、扰乱市场正常秩序,如何正确鉴别枸杞子真伪成为广大消费者普遍关注的问题。本文对枸杞子的主要掺伪现象进行了综述,并介绍了性状鉴别、显微鉴别、化学成分分析鉴别、分子生物学技术鉴别和基于红外光谱、近红外光谱和拉曼光谱法、机器视觉和电子舌等技术的快速检测方法在枸杞子品种和产地掺伪检测中的应用情况,对不同检测方法的优缺点进行对比分析。通过对枸杞子掺伪主要检测方法的比较,为市场监督枸

  18. 76 FR 23823 - Guidance for Industry on Fish and Fishery Products Hazards and Controls, Fourth Edition...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-28

    ... principles of HACCP. Fish and fishery products are adulterated under section 402(a)(4) of the Federal Food... chapter has been added containing guidance for the control of pathogen survival through processes designed... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Guidance for Industry on Fish and Fishery Products...

  19. 原料乳中铵盐掺假检测方法%Raw milk adulteration detection method of ammonium salt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺俊英; 贺月恩; 王丹慧; 刘美霞; 李梅

    2012-01-01

    Research in raw milk adulteration ammonium salt material qualitative detection method, through to the raw milk which artificial add quantitative ammonium salt test reagent, found through experiments, and the results show that this method is mainly used in the detection of raw milk of ammonium salt mass fraction in more than 0.025% have good maneuverability, and at the same time, methods the operation is simple, the result for observation, suitable for breeding, acquisitions, dairy products enterprise of raw milk quality acceptance inspection.%通过向原料乳中人为添加定量铵盐测试试剂,研究原料乳中铵盐掺假物质定性检测的方法。实验结果表明,该方法用于检测原料乳中铵盐质量分数在0.025%以上,具有良好的可操作性,同时方法操作简单,结果便于观察,适用于在养殖、收购、乳制品企业等进行原料乳质量验收检验。

  20. A new mixed mode solid phase extraction strategy for opioids, cocaines, amphetamines and adulterants in human blood with hybrid liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowling, Geraldine; Regan, Liam

    2011-04-05

    A rapid method has been developed to analyse morphine, codeine, 6-monoacetylmorphine, cocaine, benzoylecgonine, dihydrocodeine, cocaethylene, 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine, ketamine, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, pseudoephedrine, lignocaine, benzylpiperazine, methamphetamine, amphetamine, methadone, phenethylamine and levamisole in human blood. Blood samples were cleaned up using mixed mode solid phase extraction using Evolute™ CX solid phase extraction cartridges and the sample aliquots were analysed by hybrid triple quadrupole linear ion trap (QTRAP) mass spectrometry with a runtime of 12.5 min. Multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) as survey scan and an enhanced product ion (EPI) scan as dependent scan were performed in an information-dependent acquisition (IDA) experiment. Finally, drug identification and confirmation was carried out by library search with a developed in-house MS/MS library based on EPI spectra at a collision energy spread of 35 ± 15 in positive mode and MRM ratios. The method was validated in blood, according to the criteria defined in Commission Decision 2002/657/EC. At least two MRM transitions for each substance were monitored in addition to EPI spectra. Deuterated analogues of analytes were used as internal standards for quantitation where possible. The method proved to be simple and time efficient and was implemented as an analytical strategy for the illicit drug monitoring of opioids, cocaines, amphetamines and adulterants in forensic cases of crime offenders, abusers or victims in the Republic of Ireland.

  1. An improved method to discover adulteration of Styrian pumpkin seed oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenzl, Thomas; Prettner, Elke; Schweiger, Klaus; Wagner, Franz S

    2002-01-01

    Pumpkin seed oil is rather expensive compared to other vegetable oils. Therefore, it is often adulterated by the addition of cheaper oils. In contrast to other edible oils, the content of Delta 5-sterols is very low, while Delta 7-sterols are dominating. The determination of Delta 5-sterols, especially beta-sitosterol has proven to be a good possibility to detect admixture of cheap vegetable oils to a level below which the economic profit is not significant any more. The presented method is a variant of an analysis concept, which has been published previously in European Food Research and Technology by Mandl et al. [Eur. Food Res. Technol. 209 (1999) 400. ]. It includes saponification of the triglycerides as a first step followed by separation of the potassium salts of the fatty acids from the unsaponifiable fraction by adsorption chromatography. In order to enhance gas chromatographic properties of the analytes, the hydroxyl function of the sterols is derivatized with N-Methyl-N-(trimethylsilyl)trifluoroacetamide (MSTFA) to the trimethylsilylether. Finally, the analytes are separated on a capillary column of medium polarity (HP 35 MS) in a temperature programmed run within 18 min. Detection of the analytes was done by flame ionization. Special attention was set onto the precision and repeatability of the method.

  2. Thin layer chromatography coupled to paper spray ionization mass spectrometry for cocaine and its adulterants analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Carvalho, Thays C; Tosato, Flavia; Souza, Lindamara M; Santos, Heloa; Merlo, Bianca B; Ortiz, Rafael S; Rodrigues, Rayza R T; Filgueiras, Paulo R; França, Hildegardo S; Augusti, Rodinei; Romão, Wanderson; Vaz, Boniek G

    2016-05-01

    Thin layer chromatography (TLC) is a simple and inexpensive type of chromatography that is extensively used in forensic laboratories for drugs of abuse analysis. In this work, TLC is optimized to analyze cocaine and its adulterants (caffeine, benzocaine, lidocaine and phenacetin) in which the sensitivity (visual determination of LOD from 0.5 to 14mgmL(-1)) and the selectivity (from the study of three different eluents: CHCl3:CH3OH:HCOOHglacial (75:20:5v%), (C2H5)2O:CHCl3 (50:50v%) and CH3OH:NH4OH (100:1.5v%)) were evaluated. Aiming to improve these figures of merit, the TLC spots were identified and quantified (linearity with R(2)>0.98) by the paper spray ionization mass spectrometry (PS-MS), reaching now lower LOD values (>1.0μgmL(-1)). The method developed in this work open up perspective of enhancing the reliability of traditional and routine TLC analysis employed in the criminal expertise units. Higher sensitivity, selectivity and rapidity can be provided in forensic reports, besides the possibility of quantitative analysis. Due to the great simplicity, the PS(+)-MS technique can also be coupled directly to other separation techniques such as the paper chromatography and can still be used in analyses of LSD blotter, documents and synthetic drugs.

  3. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR for MUN analysis in normal and adulterated Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.C.P.P. Oliveira

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the CombiScope FTIR equipment based on Fourier Transform Infrared methodology (FTIR, to assess the content of milk urea nitrogen (MUN in Brazil. Repeatability and reproducibility of CombiScopeTM FTIR (Delta Instruments, and comparison with an enzymatic automated method (Chemspec® 150; Bentley Instruments were tested to measure raw milk urea nitrogen (MUN. Additionally, MUN levels stability after storage of raw milk samples at 4ºC, and 20ºC for up to 15 days, and capability and precision to detect extraneous urea added as an adulterant to the milk were evaluated by FTIR equipment. There was a high correlation coefficient for the analysis of MUN by FTIR equipment, when compared with the automated enzymatic method, with no significant difference between both. MUN concentration in raw milk remained stable at temperatures of 4ºC for up to 15 days of storage, but after 3 days of storage at 20ºC there was an increase in the MUN levels. The CombiScope FTIR equipment proved to be a reliable method for analysis of MUN content in raw milk. However, results for MUN were not linear with the amount of extraneous urea added to raw milk, having a significant difference for samples when 40mg/dL of urea was added to milk.

  4. Distinguishing Foeniculum vulgare fruit from two adulterants by combination of microscopy and GC-MS analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiao-Dong; Mao, Wen-Wen; Zhou, Ping; Li, Ping; Li, Hui-Jun

    2015-07-01

    Foeniculum vulgare fruit (FVF) is a widely used traditional medicine. However, two adulterants, namely Anethum graveolens fruit (AGF) and Cuminum cyminum fruit (CCF), have been found in use as FVF in China owing to similar appearance and odor. For the purpose of accurate differentiation of the three herbal medicines, extensive anatomical examination and chemical profiling were conducted. Using light microscopy and fluorescence microscopy, the macroscopic and microscopic features of the three species were compared. It was found that some microscopic characteristics, including transverse shape of mericarp, presence or absence of reticulate cells and non-glandular hairs, as well as fluorescence of endocarp, were of diagnostic significance. Moreover, essential oils were qualitatively and semi-quantitatively analyzed using GC-MS. The analytical results indicated significant chemical variations in different species: in FVF, trans-anethole (83.20%) was the predominant volatile compound followed by estragole (5.03%) and limonene (3.45%), while in AGF, the first, second and third compounds with highest content were carvone (42.58%), apiol (20.76%) and limonene (20.32%), and in CCF were cuminlaldehyde (36.00%), 2-caren-10-al (23.25%) and γ-terpinene (9.65%), respectively. In conclusion, the proposed light microscopy coupled with fluorescence microscopy and/or GC-MS analysis allowed successful distinguishing FVF from AGF and CCF.

  5. Unmasking of Olive Oil Adulteration Via a Multi-Sensor Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Santonico

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Methods for the chemical and sensorial evaluation of olive oil are frequently changed and tuned to oppose the increasingly sophisticated frauds. Although a plethora of promising alternatives has been developed, chromatographic techniques remain the more reliable yet, even at the expense of their related execution time and costs. In perspective of a continuous increment in the number of the analyses as a result of the global market, more rapid and effective methods to guarantee the safety of the olive oil trade are required. In this study, a novel artificial sensorial system, based on gas and liquid analysis, has been employed to deal with olive oil genuineness and authenticity issues. Despite these sensors having been widely used in the field of food science, the innovative electronic interface of the device is able to provide a higher reproducibility and sensitivity of the analysis. The multi-parametric platform demonstrated the capability to evaluate the organoleptic properties of extra-virgin olive oils as well as to highlight the presence of adulterants at blending concentrations usually not detectable through other methods.

  6. Unmasking of Olive Oil Adulteration Via a Multi-Sensor Platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santonico, Marco; Grasso, Simone; Genova, Francesco; Zompanti, Alessandro; Parente, Francesca Romana; Pennazza, Giorgio

    2015-08-31

    Methods for the chemical and sensorial evaluation of olive oil are frequently changed and tuned to oppose the increasingly sophisticated frauds. Although a plethora of promising alternatives has been developed, chromatographic techniques remain the more reliable yet, even at the expense of their related execution time and costs. In perspective of a continuous increment in the number of the analyses as a result of the global market, more rapid and effective methods to guarantee the safety of the olive oil trade are required. In this study, a novel artificial sensorial system, based on gas and liquid analysis, has been employed to deal with olive oil genuineness and authenticity issues. Despite these sensors having been widely used in the field of food science, the innovative electronic interface of the device is able to provide a higher reproducibility and sensitivity of the analysis. The multi-parametric platform demonstrated the capability to evaluate the organoleptic properties of extra-virgin olive oils as well as to highlight the presence of adulterants at blending concentrations usually not detectable through other methods.

  7. Levamisole-adulterated cocaine induced skin necrosis of nose, ears, and extremities: Case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiron, Jose L.; Lin, Ho-Sheng; Folbe, Adam J.

    2014-01-01

    Levamisole is an immunomodulatory and antihelminthic drug, previously removed from the United States market, and now estimated to be present in the vast majority of cocaine distributed in the United States. Levamisole-adulterated cocaine (LAC) exposure can result in neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, and vasculitis with a predilection for subsites of the face. The objective of this review is to increase awareness among otolaryngologists of the manifestations of LAC exposure. We present the case of a 33-year-old woman with a history of cocaine use, consulted for purpuric, necrotic lesions of the nose, cheeks, and ears, with accompanying leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, and positive antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA). The effects of levamisole are immune mediated, with antibodies directed against neutrophils causing neutropenia, and vasculitis caused by antibody deposition or secondary to induction of antiphospholipid antibodies causing thrombosis. LAC exposure can be differentiated from other similar appearing pathologies by evaluating serology for specific ANCA. The most important treatment is cessation of cocaine use, which most often results in complete resolution of symptoms. Awareness of the presentation, complications, and treatment of LAC exposure may be especially important for otolaryngologists, who may be one of the firsts to evaluate an affected patient. PMID:25565048

  8. MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry for the monitoring of she-donkey's milk contamination or adulteration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunsolo, Vincenzo; Muccilli, Vera; Saletti, Rosaria; Foti, Salvatore

    2013-02-01

    Donkey's milk (DM), representing a safe and alternative food in both IgE-mediated and non-IgE-mediated cow's milk protein allergy, can be categorized as precious pharma-food. Moreover, an economically relevant interest for the use of DM in cosmetology is also developing. The detection of adulterations and contaminations of DM is a matter of fundamental importance from both an economic and allergenic standpoint, and, to this aim, fast and efficient analytical approaches to assess the authenticity of this precious nutrient are desirable. Here, a rapid matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS)-based method aimed to the detection of bovine or caprine milk in raw DM is reported. The presence of the extraneous milks was revealed by monitoring the protein profiles of the most abundant whey proteins, α-lactalbumin (α-LA) and β-lactoglobulin, used as molecular markers. The possibility of obtaining a quantitative analysis of the level of cow or goat milk in DM based on the MALDI-TOF peak areas of α-LAs was also explored. The results showed that the experimental quantitative values were in good agreement with the real composition of each mixture. As pretreatment of the milk samples is not required, and owing to the speed and the high sensitivity of MALDI-MS, the protocol here reported could represent a reliable method for routine analyses aimed to assess the absence of contamination in raw fresh DM samples.

  9. Fibre optic sensor for the detection of adulterant traces in coconut oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheeba, M.; Rajesh, M.; Vallabhan, C. P. G.; Nampoori, V. P. N.; Radhakrishnan, P.

    2005-11-01

    The design and development of a fibre optic evanescent wave refractometer for the detection of trace amounts of paraffin oil and palm oil in coconut oil is presented. This sensor is based on a side-polished plastic optical fibre. At the sensing region, the cladding and a small portion of the core are removed and the fibre nicely polished. The sensing region is fabricated in such a manner that it sits perfectly within a bent mould. This bending of the sensing region enhances its sensitivity. The oil mixture of different mix ratios is introduced into the sensing region and we observed a sharp decrease in the output intensity. The observed variation in the intensity is found to be linear and the detection limit is 2% (by volume) paraffin oil/palm oil in coconut oil. The resolution of this refractometric sensor is of the order of 10-3. Since coconut oil is consumed in large volumes as edible oil in south India, this fibre optic sensor finds great relevance for the detection of adulterants such as paraffin oil or palm oil which are readily miscible in coconut oil. The advantage of this type of sensor is that it is inexpensive and easy to set up. Another attraction of the side-polished fibre is that only a very small amount of analyte is needed and its response time is only 7 s.

  10. Rapid screening and quantification of residual pesticides and illegal adulterants in red wine by direct analysis in real time mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Tianyang; Fang, Pingping; Jiang, Juanjuan; Zhang, Feng; Yong, Wei; Liu, Jiahui; Dong, Yiyang

    2016-11-04

    A rapid method to screen and quantify multi-class analytic targets in red wine has been developed by direct analysis in real time (DART) coupled with triple quadruple tandem mass spectrometry (QqQ-MS). A modified QuEChERS (Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged, and Safe) procedure was used for increasing analytical speed and reducing matrix effect, and the multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) in DART-MS/MS ensured accurate analysis. One bottle of wine containing 50 pesticides and 12 adulterants, i.e., preservatives, antioxidant, sweeteners, and azo dyes, could be totally determined less than 12min. This method exhibited proper linearity (R(2)≥0.99) in the range of 1-1000ng/mL for pesticides and 10-5000ng/mL for adulterants. The limits of detection (LODs) were obtained in a 0.5-50ng/mL range for pesticides and 5-50ng/mL range for adulterants, and the limits of quantification (LOQs) were in a 1-100ng/mL range for pesticides and 10-250ng/mL range for adulterants. Three spiked levels for each analyte in wine were evaluated, and the recoveries were in a scope of 75-120%. The results demonstrated DART-MS/MS was a rapid and simple method, and could be applied to rapid analyze residual pesticides and illegal adulterants in a large quantities of red wine.

  11. Detection of olive oil adulteration by low-field NMR relaxometry and UV-Vis spectroscopy upon mixing olive oil with various edible oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ok

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Adulteration of olive oil using unhealthy substitutes is considered a threat for public health. Low-field (LF proton (1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR relaxometry and ultra-violet (UV visible spectroscopy are used to detect adulteration of olive oil. Three different olive oil with different oleoyl acyl contents were mixed with almond, castor, corn, and sesame oils with three volumetric ratios, respectively. In addition, Arbequina olive oil was mixed with canola, flax, grape seed, peanut, soybean, and sunflower seed oils with three volumetric ratios. Transverse magnetization relaxation time (T2 curves were fitted with bi-exponential decaying functions. T2 times of each mixture of olive oils and castor oils, and olive oils and corn oils changed systematically as a function of volumetric ratio. To detect the adulteration in the mixtures with almond and sesame oils, both LF 1H NMR relaxometry and UV-Vis spectroscopy were needed, where UV-Vis-spectroscopy detected the adulteration qualitatively. In the mixtures of Arbequina olive oil and flax, peanut, soybean, and sunflower seed oils, both T21 and T22 values became longer systematically as the content of the olive oil was decreased. The unique UV-Vis maximum absorbance of flax oil at 320.0 nm shows the adulteration of olive oil qualitatively.

  12. The Feasibility of Using Near-Infrared Spectroscopy and Chemometrics for Untargeted Detection of Protein Adulteration in Yogurt: Removing Unwanted Variations in Pure Yogurt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Xu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Untargeted detection of protein adulteration in Chinese yogurt was performed using near-infrared (NIR spectroscopy and chemometrics class modelling techniques. sixty yogurt samples were prepared with pure and fresh milk from local market, and 197 adulterated yogurt samples were prepared by blending the pure yogurt objects with different levels of edible gelatin, industrial gelatin, and soy protein powder, which have been frequently used for yogurt adulteration. A recently proposed one-class partial least squares (OCPLS model was used to model the NIR spectra of pure yogurt objects and analyze those of future objects. To improve the raw spectra, orthogonal projection (OP of raw spectra onto the spectrum of pure water and standard normal variate (SNV transformation were used to remove unwanted spectral variations. The best model was obtained with OP preprocessing with sensitivity of 0.900 and specificity of 0.949. Moreover, adulterations of yogurt with 1% (w/w edible gelatin, 2% (w/w industrial gelatin, and 2% (w/w soy protein powder can be safely detected by the proposed method. This study demonstrates the potential of combining NIR spectroscopy and OCPLS as an untargeted detection tool for protein adulteration in yogurt.

  13. Analytical strategies for the early quality and safety assurance in the global feed chain. Approaches for nitrogen adulterants in soybean meal and mineral and transformer oils in vegetable oils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, de Jacob; Lopez Sanchez, Patricia; Mol, Hans

    2016-01-01

    In the past decade, several major food safety crises originated from problems with feed. Consequently, there is an urgent need for early detection of fraudulent adulteration and contamination in the feed chain. Strategies are presented for two specific cases, viz. adulterations of (i) soybean mea

  14. Determination of cottonseed oil and soybean oil adulteration in edible peanut oil%花生油中掺杂棉籽油、大豆油的鉴定方法概述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高丽萍

    2013-01-01

    Edible peanut oil is often adulterated with soybean oil and cottonseed oil. Identification of adulterate d oil in edible peanut oil was researched in this paper. The sample was obtained by adulterating the peanut oil with the cotton-seed oil and soybean oil. By Belier experiment and gas chromatography (GC) method, different turbid temperature and fatty acid composition of adulterating were determined to identify the adulterated oil in edible peanut oil.%花生油中掺杂棉籽油、大豆油的现象比较普遍。主要以掺入这两种油的花生油为样品,通过伯利哀试验和气润色谱法测定不同掺入量的混浊温度和脂肪酸组成,从而对花生油的掺杂进行鉴定。

  15. Detecting and quantifying sunflower oil adulteration in extra virgin olive oils from the eastern mediterranean by visible and near-infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downey, Gerard; McIntyre, Peter; Davies, Antony N

    2002-09-25

    One hundred and thirty-eight oil samples have been analyzed by visible and near-infrared transflectance spectroscopy. These comprised 46 pure extra virgin olive oils and the same oils adulterated with 1% (w/w) and 5% (w/w) sunflower oil. A number of multivariate mathematical approaches were investigated to detect and quantify the sunflower oil adulterant. These included hierarchical cluster analysis, soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA method), and partial least squares regression (PLS). A number of wavelength ranges and data pretreatments were explored. The accuracy of these mathematical models was compared, and the most successful models were identified. Complete classification accuracy was achieved using 1st derivative spectral data in the 400-2498 nm range. Prediction of adulterant content was possible with a standard error equal to 0.8% using 1st derivative data between 1100 and 2498 nm. Spectral features and chemical literature were studied to isolate the structural basis for these models.

  16. 橄榄油掺假检测技术的研究进展%Progress in detection of olive oil adulteration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张欣; 于瑞祥; 方晓明; 丁卓平

    2013-01-01

    橄榄油具有很高的营养价值和保健功效,因其价格昂贵,掺假现象屡屡发生.综述了橄榄油的掺假检测方法,包括色谱法、波谱法、差示扫描量热法、电子鼻、基因检测、DNA条形码技术在橄榄油掺假鉴别中的应用,并对橄榄油掺假检测技术进行了展望.%Olive oil has high nutritional value and health function. Because of its high price, adulteration happens continuously. The analytical methods applied to the detection of olive oil adulteration were reviewed, including chromatography, spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, electronic nose, genetic detection and DNA barcodes. The technique for the detection of olive oil adulteration was also prospected.

  17. Rapid on-site detection of ephedrine and its analogues used as adulterants in slimming dietary supplements by TLC-SERS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Diya; Cao, Yan; Lou, Ziyang; Li, Shujin; Chen, Xiaofei; Chai, Yifeng; Lu, Feng

    2015-02-01

    Ephedrine and its analogues are in the list of prohibited substance in adulteration to botanical dietary supplements (BDS) for their uncontrollable stimulating side effects. However, they were always adulterated illegally in BDS to promote losing weight. In order to avoid detection, various kinds of ephedrine analogues were added rather than ephedrine itself. This has brought about great difficulties in authentication of BDS. In this study, we put forward for the first time a method which combined thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) to directly identify trace adulterant. Ephedrine, pseudoephedrine, methylephedrine, and norephedrine were mixed and used in this method to develop an analytical model. As a result, the four analogues were separated efficiently in TLC analysis, and trace-components and low-background SERS detection was realized. The limit of detection (LOD) of the four analogues was 0.01 mg/mL. Eight common Raman peaks (△υ = 620, 1003, 1030, 1159, 1181, 1205, 1454, 1603 cm(-1)) were extracted experimentally and statistically to characterize the common feature of ephedrine analogues. A TLC-SERS method coupled with common-peak model was adopted to examine nine practical samples, two of which were found to be adulterated with ephedrine analogues. Identification results were then confirmed by UPLC-QTOF/MS analysis. The proposed method was simple, rapid, and accurate and can also be employed to trace adulterant identification even when there are no available reference derivatives on-site or unknown types of ephedrine analogues are adulterated.

  18. Isolation and characterization of quinine from Polygonatum verticillatum: A new marker approach to identify substitution and adulteration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaswinder Kaur Virk

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Polygonatum verticillatum (Mahameda is an important ingredient of Ashtawarga and Ayurvedic formulations. Nowadays, it comes under the category of endangered plants due to large scale and indiscriminate collection of wild material. To overcome the scarcity, substitutes of Mahameda are also commonly used in market. These additives are different from the authentic plant by Ayurvedic and pharmacological theory of drug action, thereby resulting in substitution/adulteration. Substitution is a critical issue in isolation and quantification of the therapeutically active ingredients that can be used as markers in the identification of substitution/adulteration. Methanolic extract of the rhizomes of P. verticillatum was subjected to preliminary phytochemical screening for the detection of phytoconstituents, followed by column chromatography for isolation of the marker. The column was first eluted with pure hexane, and polarity of the solvent was gradually increased. A total of 1180 fractions were collected and pooled on the basis of thin-layer chromatography profile. The single compound was isolated and confirmed by chemical test, melting point, spectral analysis, and comparison with literature. Phytochemical screening of the extract shows the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, carbohydrates, terpenoids, and phenolics. A pure white crystalline powder was isolated by column chromatography which was characterized as (6-methoxyquinolin-4-yl-8-vinylquinuclidin-2-yl methanol, i.e. Quinine. The isolated compound, Quinine, was identified as a novel compound in Mahameda as it has not been reported in the genus Polygonatum, till now. It can be used as a marker for the identification of substitution/adulteration and standardization of P. verticillatum.

  19. Proton NMR for detection, identification and quantification of adulterants in 160 herbal food supplements marketed for weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hachem, Rabab; Assemat, Gaëtan; Martins, Nathalie; Balayssac, Stéphane; Gilard, Véronique; Martino, Robert; Malet-Martino, Myriam

    2016-05-30

    One hundred and sixty food supplements (FS) marketed for weight loss and mainly purchased on the Internet were analyzed. All the FS were claimed as 100% natural containing only natural compounds, plant extracts and/or vitamins and the presence of an active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) was never mentioned. (1)H NMR spectroscopy was used for detecting the presence of adulterants and for their identification and quantification. Mass spectrometry was used as a complementary method for supporting their identification. Among the 164 samples considered because capsules from 5 different blisters of the same FS were analyzed, 56% were tainted with six API. Forty three contained sibutramine as single adulterant (26%), 9 phenolphthalein (6%) and 23 a mixture of these API (14%) that were both withdrawn from the market several years ago because of toxicity concerns. Sildenafil was found in 12 samples, either as a single adulterant (n=5) or in combination with sibutramine (n=3), phenolphthalein (n=3) and both sibutramine and phenolphthalein (n=1). Fluoxetine was present in 4 formulations, alone (n=3) or in combination with sibutramine and orlistat (n=1). At last, lorcaserine was detected in one FS. The content of sibutramine per dosage unit was comprised between 0.1 and 22 mg and that of phenolphthalein between 0.05 and 56 mg. The study also highlights poor manufacturing practices as evidenced for instance by the variability of API in capsules from different blisters of the same box. This paper demonstrates the need for more effective quality control of weight loss FS and the efficiency of (1)H NMR spectroscopy for the detection of tainted FS.

  20. Isolation and characterization of quinine from Polygonatum verticillatum: A new marker approach to identify substitution and adulteration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virk, Jaswinder Kaur; Kumar, Sanjiv; Singh, Ranjit; Tripathi, Avinash C.; Saraf, Shailendra K.; Gupta, Vikas; Bansal, Parveen

    2016-01-01

    Polygonatum verticillatum (Mahameda) is an important ingredient of Ashtawarga and Ayurvedic formulations. Nowadays, it comes under the category of endangered plants due to large scale and indiscriminate collection of wild material. To overcome the scarcity, substitutes of Mahameda are also commonly used in market. These additives are different from the authentic plant by Ayurvedic and pharmacological theory of drug action, thereby resulting in substitution/adulteration. Substitution is a critical issue in isolation and quantification of the therapeutically active ingredients that can be used as markers in the identification of substitution/adulteration. Methanolic extract of the rhizomes of P. verticillatum was subjected to preliminary phytochemical screening for the detection of phytoconstituents, followed by column chromatography for isolation of the marker. The column was first eluted with pure hexane, and polarity of the solvent was gradually increased. A total of 1180 fractions were collected and pooled on the basis of thin-layer chromatography profile. The single compound was isolated and confirmed by chemical test, melting point, spectral analysis, and comparison with literature. Phytochemical screening of the extract shows the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, carbohydrates, terpenoids, and phenolics. A pure white crystalline powder was isolated by column chromatography which was characterized as (6-methoxyquinolin-4-yl-8-vinylquinuclidin-2-yl) methanol, i.e. Quinine. The isolated compound, Quinine, was identified as a novel compound in Mahameda as it has not been reported in the genus Polygonatum, till now. It can be used as a marker for the identification of substitution/adulteration and standardization of P. verticillatum. PMID:27833896

  1. Application of Partial Least Square (PLS) Analysis on Fluorescence Data of 8-Anilinonaphthalene-1-Sulfonic Acid, a Polarity Dye, for Monitoring Water Adulteration in Ethanol Fuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Keshav; Mishra, Ashok Kumar

    2015-07-01

    Fluorescence characteristic of 8-anilinonaphthalene-1-sulfonic acid (ANS) in ethanol-water mixture in combination with partial least square (PLS) analysis was used to propose a simple and sensitive analytical procedure for monitoring the adulteration of ethanol by water. The proposed analytical procedure was found to be capable of detecting even small adulteration level of ethanol by water. The robustness of the procedure is evident from the statistical parameters such as square of correlation coefficient (R(2)), root mean square of calibration (RMSEC) and root mean square of prediction (RMSEP) that were found to be well with in the acceptable limits.

  2. Determination of five abused drugs in nitrite-adulterated urine by immunoassays and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, S C; ElSohly, M A; Dubrovsky, T; Twarowska, B; Towt, J; Salamone, S J

    1998-10-01

    The adulteration of urine specimens with nitrite ion hasseen shown to mask the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) confirmation testing of marijuana use. This study was designed to further investigate the effect of nitrite adulteration on the detection of five commonly abused drugs by immunoassay screening and GC-MS analysis. The drugs tested are cocaine metabolite (benzoylecgonine), morphine, 11-nor-delta-tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid (THCCOOH), amphetamine, and phencyclidine. The immunoassays evaluated included the instrument-based Abuscreen ONLINE assays, the on-site Abuscreen ONTRAK assays, and the one-step ONTRAK TESTCUP-5 assay. Multianalyte standards containing various levels of drugs were used to test the influence of both potassium and sodium nitrite. In the ONLINE immunoassays, the presence of up to 1.0M nitrite in the multianalyte standards had no significant effect for benzoylecgonine, morphine, and phencyclidine assays. With a high concentration of nitrite, ONLINE became more sensitive for amphetamine (detected more drug than what was expected) and less sensitive for THCCOOH (detected less drug than what was expected). No effects of nitrite were observed on the results of the Abuscreen ONTRAK assays. Similarly, no effects were observed on the absolute qualitative results of the TESTCUP-5 when testing the nitrite-adulterated standards. However, the produced intensities of the signals that indicate the negative test results were slightly lowered in the THC and phencyclidine assays. The presence of 1.0M of nitrite did not show dramatic interference with the GC-MS analysis of benzoylecgonine, morphine, amphetamine, and phencyclidine. In contrast, nitrite ion significantly interfered with the detection of THCCOOH by GC-MS. The presence of 0.03M of nitrite ion resulted in significant loss in the recovery of THCCOOH and its internal standard by GC-MS. The problem of nitrite adulteration could be alleviated by sodium bisulfite treatment even

  3. 77 FR 31975 - Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli in Certain Raw Beef Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-31

    ... Service 9 CFR Parts 416, 417, and 430 Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli in Certain Raw Beef Products... toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC), in addition to E. coli O157:H7, in raw beef manufacturing... toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, and O145 are adulterated within...

  4. [Rapid detection of four antipertensive chemicals adulterated in traditional Chinese medicine for hypertension using TLC-SERS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Qing-Xia; Cao, Yong-Bing; Cao, Ying-Ying; Lu, Feng

    2014-04-01

    A novel facile method for on-site detection of antipertensive chemicals (e. g. nicardipine hydrochloride, doxazosin mesylate, propranolol hydrochloride, and hydrochlorothiazide) adulterated in traditional Chinese medicine for hypertension using thin layer chromatography (TLC) combined with surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) was reported in the present paper. Analytes and pharmaceutical matrices was separated by TLC, then SERS method was used to complete qualitative identification of trace substances on TLC plate. By optimizing colloidal silver concentration and developing solvent, as well as exploring the optimal limits of detection (LOD), the initially established TLC-SERS method was used to detect real hypertension Chinese pharmaceuticals. The results showed that this method had good specificity for the four chemicals and high sensitivity with a limit of detection as lower as to 0.005 microg. Finally, two of the ten antipertensive drugs were detected to be adulterated with chemicals. This simple and fast method can realize rapid detection of chemicals illegally for doping in antipertensive Chinese pharmaceuticals, and would have good prospects in on-site detection of chemicals for doping in Chinese pharmaceuticals.

  5. Molecular authentication of the medicinal herb Ruta graveolens (Rutaceae) and an adulterant using nuclear and chloroplast DNA markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Qurainy, F; Khan, S; Tarroum, M; Al-Hemaid, F M; Ali, M A

    2011-11-10

    Dried parts of different plant species often look alike, especially in powdered form, making them very difficult to identify. Ruta graveolens, sold as a dried medicinal herb, can be adulterated with Euphorbia dracunculoides. The genomic DNA was isolated from the leaf powder (100 mg each) using the modified CTAB method. Internal transcribed spacer sequences of nuclear ribosomal DNA (nrDNA-ITS), and chloroplast spacer sequences (rpoB and rpoC1) are regarded as potential genes for plant DNA barcoding. We amplified and sequenced these spacer sequences and confirmed the sequences with a BLAST search. Sequence alignment was performed using ClustalX to look for differences in the sequences. A DNA marker was developed based on rpoB and rpoC1 of the nrDNA-ITS for the identification of the adulterant E. dracunculoides in samples of R. graveolens that are sold in local herbal markets. Sequence-characterized amplified region markers of 289 and 264 bp for R. graveolens and 424 bp for E. dracunculoides were developed from dissimilar sequences of this nrDNA-ITS to speed up the authentication process. This marker successfully distinguished these species in extracted samples with as little as 5 ng DNA/μL extract.

  6. Application of Gas Chromatography with the Mass Detector (GC-MS Technique for Detection of Beeswax Adulteration with Paraffin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waś Ewa

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available To detect beeswax adulteration with hydrocarbons of alien origin (e.g. paraffin, gas chromatography with mass detector (GC-MS technique was used. The method has been verified here on beeswax samples with different addition (3, 5, 10, 30, and 50% of paraffin and validated under the conditions of repeatability and within - laboratory reproducibility. The addition of paraffin to beeswax can already be detected on the basis of an analysis of the chromatograms. The intensity of individual alkane peaks increased with the increase of the amount of paraffin added to the beeswax. This increase was the mostly visible for the alkanes with even numbers of carbon atoms in the molecule: C24H50, C26H54, C28H58, C30H62, C32H66, and C34H70. These observations have also been proven by quantitative analysis performed using the internal standard method. Adding paraffin to beeswax resulted in an increase in the total contents of n-alkanes as well as individual alkanes, and in particular, of the even-numbered alkanes. The addition of paraffin to beeswax also resulted in the appearance of alkanes containing over 35 carbon atoms in the molecule, which were not detected in beeswax. The method for determination of beeswax hydrocarbons with the GC-MS technique is characterised by satisfactory repeatability and within-laboratory reproducibility. This method can be used for the detection of beeswax adulteration with hydrocarbons of alien origin (e.g. paraffin.

  7. Classification and identification of Rhodobryum roseum Limpr. and its adulterants based on fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and chemometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Zhen; Wang, Zhenjie; Shang, Zhonglin; Zhao, Jiancheng

    2017-01-01

    Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) with the attenuated total reflectance technique was used to identify Rhodobryum roseum from its four adulterants. The FTIR spectra of six samples in the range from 4000 cm-1 to 600 cm-1 were obtained. The second-derivative transformation test was used to identify the small and nearby absorption peaks. A cluster analysis was performed to classify the spectra in a dendrogram based on the spectral similarity. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to classify the species of six moss samples. A cluster analysis with PCA was used to identify different genera. However, some species of the same genus exhibited highly similar chemical components and FTIR spectra. Fourier self-deconvolution and discrete wavelet transform (DWT) were used to enhance the differences among the species with similar chemical components and FTIR spectra. Three scales were selected as the feature-extracting space in the DWT domain. The results show that FTIR spectroscopy with chemometrics is suitable for identifying Rhodobryum roseum and its adulterants.

  8. Novel quantitative real-time PCR approach to determine safflower (Carthamus tinctorius) adulteration in saffron (Crocus sativus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villa, Caterina; Costa, Joana; Oliveira, M Beatriz P P; Mafra, Isabel

    2017-08-15

    This work intended to develop DNA-based methods to detect and quantify safflower as an adulterant in saffron. Species-specific PCR and real-time PCR with EvaGreen dye targeting the ITS region of Carthamus tinctorius L. (safflower) were successfully proposed. The assays allowed absolute and relative sensitivities of 2pg of safflower DNA (∼1.4 DNA copies) and 0.1% of safflower in saffron (Crocus sativus L.), respectively. A normalised real-time PCR approach was also proposed in the range of 0.1-20% (w/w) of safflower in saffron, which was successfully validated and applied to commercial saffron samples (stigmas, powders and seasonings). From 19 samples, three were positive to safflower, though at levels below the limit of detection, suggesting cross-contamination rather than adulteration. In this work, specific, sensitive and accurate tools were proposed to authenticate saffron. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first successful attempt to quantify safflower by a DNA-based approach.

  9. Simultaneous determination of capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin for vegetable oil adulteration by immunoaffinity chromatography cleanup coupled with LC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Fei; Yang, Qingqing; Matthäus, Bertrand; Li, Peiwu; Zhang, Qi; Zhang, Liangxiao

    2016-05-15

    Capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin were selected as adulteration markers to authenticate vegetable oils. In this study, a method of immunoaffinity chromatography (IAC) combined with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was established for the determination of capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin in vegetable oils. In this method, immunosorbents were obtained by covalently coupling highly specific capsaicinoid polyclonal antibodieswith CNBr-activated Sepharose 4B, and then packed into a polyethylene column. In this paper, the major parameters affecting IAC extraction efficiency, including loading, washing and eluting conditions, were also investigated. The IAC column displayed high selectivity for capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin with the maximum capacity of 240ng. The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) for capsaicin were calculated as 0.02 and 0.08μgkg(-1), and for dihydrocapsaicin were 0.03 and 0.10μgkg(-1). The recoveries of capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin in oil samples were in the range of 87.3-95.2% with the relative standard deviation (RSD) of less than 6.1%. The results indicated that capsaicinoid compounds could not be found in edible vegetable oils. Therefore, the proposed method is simple, reliable and adequate for routine monitoring of capsaicinoid compounds in vegetable oils and has an excellent potential for detection of adulteration with inedible waste oil.

  10. A Rapid Method to Detect Milk Adulteration Using Selective Fluoride-electrode%氟离子选择电极法快速检测鲜奶掺假

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫瑞霞; 李胜利; 何玲; 李彦国; 田印荣

    2012-01-01

    采用氟离子选择电极法测定鲜奶中氟含量的变化,判断鲜奶是否掺假,进而探讨快速检验鲜牛奶掺假的一种新型方法.具体做法是按一定比例在纯鲜奶中分别兑入掺假物:奶牛场水、纯净水、食盐及淀粉,配成掺假奶.用氟离子选择电极法分别测量样品奶的电位值,观察掺假奶样品与纯鲜奶之间电位值差的变化,用以判断鲜奶是否掺假.%A novel and easy way, selective fluoride-electrode, was introduced in this paper to milk adulteration. Raw milk was proportionally adulterated with dairy effluent, purified water, salt and starch, thus the adulterated milk was grouped into Group 1 , Group 2, Group 3 and Group 4. By using selective fluoride-electrode method, the potential value of the sample milk was measured to observe the variation of its difference between the adulterated milk and the raw milk.

  11. A novel, direct, reagent-free method for the detection of beeswax adulteration by single-reflection attenuated total reflectance mid-infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia, Miguel; Barros, Ana I R N A; Nunes, Fernando M

    2013-03-30

    In this work, a novel, direct, reagent-free method for the detection of beeswax adulteration by paraffin, microcrystalline wax, tallow and stearic acid using single-reflection attenuated total reflectance mid-infrared spectroscopy was developed. The use of the absorbance ratios of [Formula: see text] , [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] allows a minimum of 5% paraffin/microcrystalline wax and tallow adulteration and 0.5% stearic acid adulteration of beeswax to be detected. The upper and lower critical limits for beeswax authenticity were established from the analysis of virgin beeswax and were validated by independent analysis of real sheet and comb beeswax samples using high-temperature gas chromatography with flame-ionization detection. In addition to its simplicity with respect to sample handling, the amount of sample and the time needed are far less than those required in previously described methods, which are based on chemical analysis and chromatographic techniques. These advantages result in time and cost savings, an increase in the number of samples that can be analyzed, and, most importantly, the detection of the main beeswax adulterants using a single method.

  12. Adulterants and diluents in heroin, amphetamine, and cocaine found on the illicit drug market in Aarhus, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Mette Findal; Lindholst, Christian; Kaa, Elisabet

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the composition of heroin, amphetamine, and cocaine seized in the police district of Aarhus, the second largest city in Denmark, during a 2-year period. The purity of the active substance was measured together with the frequency and purity of adulte......The aim of the present study was to investigate the composition of heroin, amphetamine, and cocaine seized in the police district of Aarhus, the second largest city in Denmark, during a 2-year period. The purity of the active substance was measured together with the frequency and purity...... of adulterants and diluents present in the drugs. Results are compared with a similar study conducted ten years earlier. The concentrations of the active substances in illicit heroin, amphetamine, and cocaine samples have decreased significantly over a 10-year period. This finding shows that the "cutting...

  13. Detection of virgin coconut oil adulteration with animal fats using quantitative cholesterol by GC × GC-TOF/MS analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Baocheng; Li, Peiwu; Ma, Fei; Wang, Xiuping; Matthäus, Bertrand; Chen, Ran; Yang, Qingqing; Zhang, Wen; Zhang, Qi

    2015-07-01

    A new method based on the cholesterol level was developed to detect the presence of animal fats in virgin coconut oil (VCO). In this study, the sterols in VCO and animal fats was separated using conventional one-dimensional gas chromatography (1D GC) and comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC×GC). Compared with 1D GC, the GC×GC system could obtain a complete baseline separation of the sterol trimethylsilyl ethers derived from cholesterol and cholestanol, so that the cholesterol content in pure VCO and false VCO adulterated with animal fats could be accurately determined. Cholesterol, a main sterol found in animal fats, represented less than 5mg/kg of VCO. The study demonstrated that the determination of the cholesterol level in VCO could be used for reliable detection of the presence of lard, chicken fat, mutton tallow, beef tallow, or their mixture in VCO at a level as little as 0.25%.

  14. Adequacy of the Measurement Capability of Fatty Acid Compositions and Sterol Profiles to Determine Authenticity of Milk Fat Through Formulation of Adulterated Butter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soha, Sahel; Mortazavian, Amir M; Piravi-Vanak, Zahra; Mohammadifar, Mohammad A; Sahafar, Hamed; Nanvazadeh, Sara

    2015-01-01

    In this research a comparison has been made between the fatty acid and sterol compositions of Iranian pure butter and three samples of adulterated butter. These samples were formulated using edible vegetable fats/oils with similar milk fat structures including palm olein, palm kernel and coconut oil to determine the authenticity of milk fat. The amount of vegetable fats/oils used in the formulation of the adulterated butter was 10%. The adulterated samples were formulated so that their fatty acid profiles were comforted with acceptable levels of pure butter as specified by the Iranian national standard. Based on the type of the vegetable oil/fat, fatty acids such as C4:0, C12:0 and C18:2 were used as indicators for the adulterated formulations. According to the standard method of ISO, the analysis was performed using gas chromatography. The cholesterol contents were 99.71% in pure butter (B1), and 97.61%, 98.48% and 97.98% of the total sterols in the samples adulterated with palm olein, palm kernel and coconut oil (B2, B3 and B4), respectively. Contents of the main phytosterol profiles such as β-sitosterol, stigmasterol and campesterol were also determined. The β-sitosterol content, as an indicator of phytosterols, was 0% in pure butter, and 1.81%, 1.67% and 2.16%, of the total sterols in the adulterated samples (B2, B3 and B4), respectively. Our findings indicate that fatty acid profiles are not an efficient indicator for butter authentication. Despite the increase in phytosterols and the reduction in cholesterol and with regard to the conformity of the sterol profiles of the edible fats/oils used in the formulations with Codex standards, lower cholesterol and higher phytosterols contents should have been observed. It can therefore be concluded that sterol measurement is insufficient to verify the authenticity of the milk fat in butter. It can therefore be concluded that sterol measurement is insufficient in verifying the authenticity of milk fat.

  15. 蜂蜜掺假鉴别技术研究进展%Review of identification techniques of adulteration in honey

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李水芳; 朱向荣; 单扬

    2009-01-01

    This paper viewed all kinds of techniques used in identification of adulteration of honey at present, including sensory analysis, pollen analysis, physico- chemical analysis, isotope ratio- mass spectra, chromatography, spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance techniques. The prospect of identification of adulteration in honey was also discussed.%综述了目前国内外蜂蜜掺假的鉴别技术,简要介绍了感官分析、花粉分析、理化指标分析及同位素率质谱、色谱、光谱、核磁共振技术在蜂蜜掺假鉴别上的应用及研究概况,并对蜂蜜掺假鉴别今后的研究方向进行了展望.

  16. Analysis of herbal dietary supplements for sexual performance enhancement: first characterization of propoxyphenyl-thiohydroxyhomosildenafil and identification of sildenafil, thiosildenafil, phentolamine and tetrahydropalmatine as adulterants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balayssac, Stéphane; Gilard, Véronique; Zedde, Chantal; Martino, Robert; Malet-Martino, Myriam

    2012-04-07

    Nine herbal dietary supplements intended to be beverages for enhancing sexual performance were analyzed before their possible launch on the market. Four of them contained a sildenafil analog reported for the first time as an adulterant. After isolation and characterization using NMR, MS, IR and UV, this analog was named propoxyphenyl-thiohydroxyhomosildenafil as the ethoxy chain on the phenyl ring of the already known analog thiohydroxyhomosildenafil was replaced by a propoxy moiety. One formulation was tainted with thiosildenafil, another unapproved PDE-5 inhibitor. Sildenafil along with the natural alkaloid tetrahydropalmatine that has no documented effect for enhancing erectile dysfunction were identified in two formulations. Another formulation was adulterated with phentolamine, a drug that is not approved for boosting male sexual performance when taken orally. The last formulation containing osthole, a bioactive natural coumarine improving sexual dysfunction, is most probably truly natural.

  17. Fourier transform infrared-attenuated total reflectance (FTIR-ATR spectroscopy and chemometric techniques for the determination of adulteration in petrodiesel/biodiesel blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando Guerrero Peña

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available We propose an analytical method based on fourier transform infrared-attenuated total reflectance (FTIR-ATR spectroscopy to detect the adulteration of petrodiesel and petrodiesel/palm biodiesel blends with African crude palm oil. The infrared spectral fingerprints from the sample analysis were used to perform principal components analysis (PCA and to construct a prediction model using partial least squares (PLS regression. The PCA results separated the samples into three groups, allowing identification of those subjected to adulteration with palm oil. The obtained model shows a good predictive capacity for determining the concentration of palm oil in petrodiesel/biodiesel blends. Advantages of the proposed method include cost-effectiveness and speed; it is also environmentally friendly.

  18. Development and analytical validation of a screening method for simultaneous detection of five adulterants in raw milk using mid-infrared spectroscopy and PLS-DA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botelho, Bruno G; Reis, Nádia; Oliveira, Leandro S; Sena, Marcelo M

    2015-08-15

    This paper proposed a new screening method for the simultaneous detection of five common adulterants in raw cow milk by using attenuated total reflectance (ATR) mid infrared spectroscopy and multivariate supervised classification (partial least squares discrimination analysis - PLSDA). The method was able to detect the presence of the adulterants water, starch, sodium citrate, formaldehyde and sucrose in milk samples containing from one up to five of these analytes, in the range of 0.5-10% w/v. A multivariate qualitative validation was performed, estimating specific figures of merit, such as false positive and false negative rates, selectivity, specificity and efficiency rates, accordance and concordance. The proposed method does not need any sample pretreatment, requires a small amount of sample (30 μL), is fast and simple, being suitable for the control of raw milk in a dairy industry or for the quality inspection of commercialized milk.

  19. Detection of plant oil DNA using high resolution melting (HRM) post PCR analysis: a tool for disclosure of olive oil adulteration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vietina, Michelangelo; Agrimonti, Caterina; Marmiroli, Nelson

    2013-12-15

    Extra virgin olive oil is frequently subjected to adulterations with addition of oils obtained from plants other than olive. DNA analysis is a fast and economic tool to identify plant components in oils. Extraction and amplification of DNA by PCR was tested in olives, in milled seeds and in oils, to investigate its use in olive oil traceability. DNA was extracted from different oils made of hazelnut, maize, sunflower, peanut, sesame, soybean, rice and pumpkin. Comparing the DNA melting profiles in reference plant materials and in the oils, it was possible to identify any plant components in oils and mixtures of oils. Real-Time PCR (RT-PCR) platform has been added of the new methodology of high resolution melting (HRM), both were used to analyse olive oils mixed with different percentage of other oils. Results showed HRM a cost effective method for efficient detection of adulterations in olive oils.

  20. Is it possible to screen for milk or whey protein adulteration with melamine, urea and ammonium sulphate, combining Kjeldahl and classical spectrophotometric methods?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finete, Virgínia de Lourdes Mendes; Gouvêa, Marcos Martins; Marques, Flávia Ferreira de Carvalho; Netto, Annibal Duarte Pereira

    2013-12-15

    The Kjeldahl method and four classic spectrophotometric methods (Biuret, Lowry, Bradford and Markwell) were applied to evaluate the protein content of samples of UHT whole milk deliberately adulterated with melamine, ammonium sulphate or urea, which can be used to defraud milk protein and whey contents. Compared with the Kjeldahl method, the response of the spectrophotometric methods was unaffected by the addition of the nitrogen compounds to milk or whey. The methods of Bradford and Markwell were most robust and did not exhibit interference subject to composition. However, the simultaneous interpretation of results obtained using these methods with those obtained using the Kjeldahl method indicated the addition of nitrogen-rich compounds to milk and/or whey. Therefore, this work suggests a combination of results of Kjeldahl and spectrophotometric methods should be used to screen for milk adulteration by these compounds.

  1. KOPLS-DA在掺杂牛奶判别中的应用%Application of Kernel Orthogonal Projection to Latent Structure Discriminant Analysis in the Discrimination of Adulterated Milk

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘蓉; 杨仁杰; 苗静; 徐可欣

    2013-01-01

    Based on the method of kernet Orthogonal Projection to Latent Structure Discriminant Analysis,discrimination models for adulterated milk were established in the present paper.Forty adulterated milk samples with melamine(0.01~3 g · L-1)and 40 adulterated milk samples with urea (1 ~20 g · L-1)were prepared,respectively.Then the near-infrared absorption spectra of all samples were measured.The spectra in the range of 4 200~4 800 cm 1 were selected to construct the KOPLS-DA models for milk adulterated with melamine,milk adulterated with urea and milk adulterated with both melamine and urea The results showed that,compared with PLS-DA and OPLS-DA models,KOPLS-DA model had better discriminant ability for the adulterated milk,and its classification accuracy rate (CAR) for milk adulterated with melamine,milk adulterated with urea and milk adulterated with both melamine and urea were 95%,100% and 97.5%,respectively.%运用核隐变量正交投影(kernel orthogonal projection to latent structure,KOPLS)方法,建立掺杂牛奶与纯牛奶的判别模型.分别配置含有三聚氰胺牛奶(0.01~3g·L-1)和尿素牛奶(1~20 g·L-1)样品各40个,采集纯牛奶及掺杂牛奶样品的近红外光谱.选择4 200~4 800 em-1为建模区间,采用KOPLS分别建立掺杂三聚氰胺、掺杂尿素、两种掺杂牛奶与纯牛奶的判别模型,并利用这些模型对未知样品进行判别.研究结果表明:与偏最小二乘判别(partial least squares discriminant analysis,PLS-DA)和隐变量正交投影判别(orthogonal projections to latent structures discriminant analysis,OPLS-DA)建模方法相比,KOPLS-DA具有更强的掺杂判别能力,对掺杂三聚氰胺、掺杂尿素牛奶和两种掺杂牛奶的判别正确率分别为95%,100%和97.5%.

  2. A survey of adulterants used to cut cocaine in samples seized in the Espírito Santo State by GC-MS allied to chemometric tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Lindamara M; Rodrigues, Rayza R T; Santos, Heloá; Costa, Helber B; Merlo, Bianca B; Filgueiras, Paulo R; Poppi, Ronei J; Vaz, Boniek G; Romão, Wanderson

    2016-03-01

    Cocaine is a stimulant drug of the central nervous system (CNS) extracted from the leaves of Erytroxylum coca. It is defined as a tropane alkaloid containing 1R-(exo,exo)-3-(benzoyloxy)-8-methyl-8-azabicyclo[3.2.1]octane-2-carboxylic acid methyl esther. However, despite its defined composition, a wide variety of chemical additives are present in cocaine found in the illicit market, such as benzocaine, lidocaine, caffeine, procaine and phenacetin. In this work, 512 cocaine samples seized by the Civil Police of Espirito Santo state (PC-ES, Brazil) were analyzed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) allied to principal component analysis (PCA) in order to classify the samples as a function of seizure year (2008, 2009, 2010, 2011 and 2012) and location (metropolitan, north, south and central). The cocaine content (wt.%) and its adulterants were also estimated. Analyzing the samples seized between 2008 and 2011, three sample sets are clearly grouped according to the degree of adulteration with caffeine and lidocaine: 100-50 wt.% of cocaine; 50-20 wt.% of cocaine; and 20-80 wt.% of lidocaine and 60-80 wt.% of caffeine, simultaneously. The last group is formed by samples seized between 2008 and 2009, which proves the higher degree of adulteration during this period. In 2012, higher cocaine content was observed for the 191 analyzed samples than in samples from previous years. The PCA data also suggests that the metropolitan region samples had a higher degree of adulteration than the state countryside samples.

  3. Adulteration of butterfat: validity of Reichert-Meissl, Polenske and iodine values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youness, N. A.

    1991-08-01

    Full Text Available Buffaloe's milkfat was obtained during the winter and the summer seasons. The beef tallow (Heart fat was purchased from the local market. Beef tallow was added to the summer milkfat in the ratios 5%, 10%, 15% and 50% w/w. Thin layer chromatography was applied to obtain the triglycerides fraction of each sample obtained. Gas chromatography was used to identify the fatty acid content of the winter, summer and the admixtures. Reichert-Meissl (RM, Polenske (P and Iodine values were also determined for each sample. It was concluded that the (RM of the winter and the summer milkfat were 25.52±0.511 and 28.74±0.568, respectively. The (P and iodine values were 1.94±0.162, 2.53±0.146 and 42.1±0.85, 30.33±0.839 in the same respect. The addition of beef tallow to the milkfat in the ratios 5% and 10% did not affect the (RM and (P values of the resultant admixtures. The presence of 15% beef tallow in milkfat slightly affected the (RM, (P and iodine values. The addition of 50% beef tallow to the milkfat got the values of (RM and (P out of the normal range. The iodine values was still within the normal range of milkfat. It was also observed that the addition of beef tallow in the ratios 5%, 10% and 15% to summer milkfat, improved the fatty acid pattern of the milk fat, while the 50% beef tallow in milkfat, decreased all the short chain fatty acids. The determination of the (RM, (P and iodine values to detect the beef tallow as an adulterant in pure milkfat is not sufficient at 5% and 10% beef tallow in milkfat.

    Durante las estaciones de invierno y verano se obtuvo grasa de leche de búfalo. Sebo de vaca (grasa del corazón se adquirió del mercado local. El sebo de vaca se añadió a la grasa de leche de verano en las relaciones 5%, 10%, 15% y 50% w/w. Se aplicó la cromatografía en capa fina para obtener la fracción de triglicéridos de cada muestra obtenida. La cromatografía gaseosa se usó para identificar el contenido en ácidos grasos de

  4. STUDY ON ADULTERATION IN MILK USING MILKOSCAN FT 120%应用Milkoscan FT120对牛奶掺假的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张丽萍; 李慧源

    2011-01-01

    Milkoscan FT 120 infrared spectra was scanner used to test row milk index such as fat, protein, dry matter, lactose, citric acid specific gravity, freezing point, carbohydrate, total sugar, free fatty acids and so on. The row milk spectral database was established. The creamer was added to rew milk to simulated adulteration of milk. The adulteration module was applied to identify whether the row milk was adulterated.%采用红外扫描乳品测定仪对原料乳中脂肪、蛋白、干物质、乳糖、柠檬酸密度、冰点、碳水化合物、全糖、游离脂肪酸等成分参数的检测建立原料乳光谱数据库,在具有代表性原料乳中加入植脂末模拟牛奶掺假,通过应用掺假模块鉴别生鲜牛奶是否掺假.

  5. A Simple and Effective Mass Spectrometric Approach to Identify the Adulteration of the Mediterranean Diet Component Extra-Virgin Olive Oil with Corn Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Di Girolamo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Extra virgin olive oil (EVOO with its nutraceutical characteristics substantially contributes as a major nutrient to the health benefit of the Mediterranean diet. Unfortunately, the adulteration of EVOO with less expensive oils (e.g., peanut and corn oils, has become one of the biggest source of agricultural fraud in the European Union, with important health implications for consumers, mainly due to the introduction of seed oil-derived allergens causing, especially in children, severe food allergy phenomena. In this regard, revealing adulterations of EVOO is of fundamental importance for health care and prevention reasons, especially in children. To this aim, effective analytical methods to assess EVOO purity are necessary. Here, we propose a simple, rapid, robust and very sensitive method for non-specialized mass spectrometric laboratory, based on the matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS coupled to unsupervised hierarchical clustering (UHC, principal component (PCA and Pearson’s correlation analyses, to reveal corn oil (CO adulterations in EVOO at very low levels (down to 0.5%.

  6. A Simple and Effective Mass Spectrometric Approach to Identify the Adulteration of the Mediterranean Diet Component Extra-Virgin Olive Oil with Corn Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Girolamo, Francesco; Masotti, Andrea; Lante, Isabella; Scapaticci, Margherita; Calvano, Cosima Damiana; Zambonin, Carlo; Muraca, Maurizio; Putignani, Lorenza

    2015-09-01

    Extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) with its nutraceutical characteristics substantially contributes as a major nutrient to the health benefit of the Mediterranean diet. Unfortunately, the adulteration of EVOO with less expensive oils (e.g., peanut and corn oils), has become one of the biggest source of agricultural fraud in the European Union, with important health implications for consumers, mainly due to the introduction of seed oil-derived allergens causing, especially in children, severe food allergy phenomena. In this regard, revealing adulterations of EVOO is of fundamental importance for health care and prevention reasons, especially in children. To this aim, effective analytical methods to assess EVOO purity are necessary. Here, we propose a simple, rapid, robust and very sensitive method for non-specialized mass spectrometric laboratory, based on the matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) coupled to unsupervised hierarchical clustering (UHC), principal component (PCA) and Pearson's correlation analyses, to reveal corn oil (CO) adulterations in EVOO at very low levels (down to 0.5%).

  7. New method for the discovery of adulterated cognacs and brandies based on solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography - mass spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darya Mozhayeva

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The article represents new method for discovery of adulterated cognacs and brandies based on solidphase microextraction (SPME in combination with gas chromatography – mass spectrometry (GC-MS. The work comprised optimization of SPME parameters (extraction temperature and time, concentration of added salt with subsequent analysis of authentic samples and comparison of the obtained chromatograms using principal component analysis (PCA. According to the obtained results, increase of extraction temperature resulted in an increase of response of the most volatile brandy constituents. To avoid chemical transformations and/or degradation of the samples, the extraction temperature must be limited to 30!C. Increase of the extraction time lead to higher total peak area, but longer extraction times (>10 min for 100 µm polydimethylsiloxane and >2 min for divinylbenzene/Carboxen/polydimethylsiloxane fibers caused displacement of analytes. Salt addition increased total response of analytes, but caused problems with reproducibility. The developed method was successfully applied for discovery of adulterated samples of brandy, cognac, whisky and whiskey sold in Kazakhstan. The obtained data was analyzed applying principal component analysis (PCA. Five adulterated brandy and whisky samples were discovered and confirmed. The developed method is recommended for application in forensic laboratories.

  8. 典型掺假蜂蜜的电子鼻信息变化特征及判别能力%Information variation feature and discriminant capabilities of electronic nose for typical adulteration honey identification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    裴高璞; 史波林; 赵镭; 高海燕; 尹京苑; 汪厚银; 支瑞聪

    2015-01-01

    To establish a method for rapid detection of honey adulteration,in this paper, Acacia honey, Jing nectar, Date honey of market liquidity greatly and rape honey, rice syrup of typical adulterated substances were studied, the electronic nose (e-nose) information of natural honey and adulterated honey that was made by incorporation 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50%, 60%, 70%rape honey and rice syrup were collected by FOX4000 e-nose. The data processing method of principal component analysis (PCA) was employed to study information variation characteristics of the electronic nose of natural honey and adulterated honey, and the minimum amount added that adulterated substances cause honey aroma system changes. On the basis of information variation characteristics of the electronic nose was as the guidance, the pattern recognition algorithm of Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) was employed to study the ability of qualitative recognition of electronic nose for adulterated honey. The results showed that there was a linear relationship between e-nose signals and the level of adulteration. Adulterated honey samples array from right to left with the increase in the content of adulteration in the direction of the principal component 1, adulterated samples of incorporation rape honey and rice syrup both located on the left side of pure acacia honey and arrayed from right to left in the direction of the principal component 1. The linear relationship of adulterated information was not affected by nectar, and the adulterated samples of date honey, Jing nectar, acacia honey had the same regular pattern, and the linear relationship of adulterated information had universality in honey. The minimum amount to be added of rape honey and rice syrup as adulterated substances that can cause honey aroma system changes were 2% and 1%, respectively. Honey aroma system can easily be changed by added substances. This showed that the electronic nose had a strong discriminable ability for honey adulteration

  9. Adulteration Detection of Urea in Milk by Mid-Infrared Spectroscopy%基于中红外光谱检测牛奶中掺杂的尿素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨仁杰; 刘蓉; 徐可欣

    2011-01-01

    In the present study, a technique of mid-infrared spectroscopy for detection of urea in milk was put forward. Eighteen adulterated milk samples with added different content of urea (1~18 g · L-1) were prepared. The mid-infrared spectra of these milk samples were measured. The infrared characteristics of pure milk and adulterated milk were studied, and analysis and comparisons of the differences were carried out The absorption peak area (Al 562) of 1562 cm-1, which was assigned to the C-N stretching vibration for urea, and the absorption peak area (Al 464) of 1464 cm-1, which was assigned to the C-O stretching vibration for amide Ⅲ', were calculated by origin. Linear fitting of relation was made between A\\ 562 /Al 464 and urea concentration in milk. The results show that the Al 562/Al 464 is linear with urea concentration in milk, with a regression coefficient of 0. 96. The study is important to improving quality of dairy products and protecting the benefit of consumers, and takes on crucial social significance and application prospect%采用中红外光谱技术对牛奶中掺杂尿素目标物进行检测.配置含有尿素浓度范围为1~18 g·L-1之间18个牛奶样品,分别研究了纯牛奶和掺杂尿素牛奶的红外光谱特性,并进行了对比分析.利用尿素1 562 cm-1处酰胺Ⅲ带C=O伸缩振动吸收峰面积A1 562与1 464 cm-1处C-N伸缩振动吸收峰面积A1464的比值A1 562/A1464对牛奶中尿素浓度进行线性拟合,研究结果表明A1 562 /A1464与牛奶中含有尿素浓度具有一定的线性关系,其相关系数达到0.96以上.该研究对提高乳制品的质量,保护消费者利益具有重要的社会意义和应用前景.

  10. Advances on detection of meat adulteration%肉类掺假检测技术研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王宽; 刘树柏; 张晓梅; 张鸿伟; 崔淑华; 王凤美; 鲍蕾

    2014-01-01

    Meat is one kind of food consumed widely in China. However, events of adulteration often occurred, which not only hurt the consumers' economic interests, but also affected human health. So the detection of meat adulteration is very important. The application and characteristics of various meat adulteration detection technologies were reviewed and their development trends were discussed in this paper. The most used detection methods commonly include PCR technology, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), near infrared spectroscopy (NIR) and chromatography. Detection technology based on PCR including amplified fragment length polymorphism PCR, random amplified polymorphic PCR and real-time PCR are the most developed and used widely. Near infrared spectrum (NIR) technology detects fast, but the accuracy still need to be improved. The ELISA methods have had commercial kits, but its application is limited due to the protein activity. Chromatographic analysis in recent years have a further research, the peptide identification with high resolution mass spectrometry will be a new research direction. With the development of science and technology,multiple technologies combining will make the detection more quickly and accurately.%肉类是我国居民消费最大的食品之一,然而掺假事件时有发生,这不仅对消费者的经济利益造成损害,更有甚者会对人类身体健康造成影响,因此对肉类掺假进行检测鉴别显得十分重要。本文综述了各种肉类掺假检测技术的应用和特点,并探讨其发展趋势。目前,国内外最常用的检测方法有 PCR 检测技术、酶联免疫法(ELISA)、近红外光谱技术、色谱技术等。在这些技术中,以PCR为主的检测技术包括长度多态性PCR、随机扩增多态性PCR以及实时PCR等最为成熟,应用得也最为广泛。近红外光谱检测虽然检测速度比较快,但是准确度方面还有待改进。ELISA 方法虽然已有商品化

  11. Hybrid analysis (barcode-high resolution melting) for authentication of Thai herbal products, Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f.) Wall.ex Nees

    OpenAIRE

    Maslin Osathanunkul; Chatmongkon Suwannapoom; Nuttaluck Khamyong; Danupol Pintakum; Santisuk Na Lamphun; Kanokporn Triwitayakorn; Kitisak Osathanunkul; Panagiotis Madesis

    2016-01-01

    Background: Andrographis paniculata Nees is a medicinal plant with multiple pharmacological properties. It has been used over many centuries as a household remedy. A. paniculata products sold on the markets are in processed forms so it is difficult to authenticate. Therefore buying the herbal products poses a high-risk of acquiring counterfeited, substituted and/or adulterated products. Due to these issues, a reliable method to authenticate products is needed. Materials and Methods: High reso...

  12. 基于单片机的食用油掺假探测器的设计%Design of edible oil adulterated detector based on MCU

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏国丰; 任忠先; 董荣杰

    2016-01-01

    食用油是人们日常生活中的必需品。为了获取更高利润,不法分子所做的食用油掺假行为已经严重侵害消费者利益并损害其身体健康。因此,开展简便、快速检测食用油掺假情况仪器设计非常有现实意义。基于电导率测量法原理,利用NE555定时器构成检测电路和STC12C5A60S2单片机构成显示电路,检测食用油电导率变化情况,快速判断食用油是否掺假以及掺假程度。结果表明该设计具有线路简单、成本低、使用方便和工作稳定可靠等特点,可用于食用油掺假的检测初筛阶段。%Edible oil is necessary in people’s daily life .In order to obtain higher profits ,the criminal actions of edible oil adulteration have harmed the benefits of consumers and damaged the health of their bodies seriously .Therefore ,it has very practical significance to design the instrument for simple and rapid detection of edible oil adulterated . In this paper , based on the principle of electric conductivity measurement ,a timer NE555 of detection circuit and STC12C5A60S2 micro control unit display circuit are used to detect the changes of edible oil electric conductivity and quickly determine the edible oil adulteration and degree of adulteration .Results show that the designed circuit is simple with low cost , easy to use ,stable and reliable work ,which can be used for edible oil adulteration detection in the initial screening stage .

  13. / production

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    François Arleo; Pol-Bernard Gossiaux; Thierry Gousset; Jörg Aichelin

    2003-04-01

    For more than 25 years /Ψ production has helped to sharpen our understanding of QCD. In proton induced reaction some observations are rather well understood while others are still unclear. The current status of the theory of /Ψ production will be sketched, paying special attention to the issues of formation time and /Ψ re-interaction in a nuclear medium.

  14. [Determination of arsanilic acid and sulfanilic acid as adulterant in feed additives by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jinping; He, Heng; Xu, Mengyi; Qu, Yanhua

    2010-02-01

    A reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatographic (RP-HPLC) method was established for the determination of arsanilic acid and sulfanilic acid as adulterant in the feed additives. The separation was carried out on a Waters Bondapak C18 column, and methanol-water (pH 2.9 adjusted by 0.01 mol/L phosphoric acid) (1 : 4, v/v) was used as the mobile phase with a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. A diode array detector was used at 244 nm as the detection wavelength. Arsanilic acid and sulfanilic acid were separated within 3 min. The linear ranges all were 5 - 200 mg/L and the detection limits (S/N = 3) were 0.20 and 0.15 mg/L for arsanilic acid and sulfanilic acid, respectively. This method is simple and rapid, and suitable for the simultaneous determination of arsanilic acid and sulfanilic acid in feed additives.

  15. Using near-infrared overtone regions to determine biodiesel content and adulteration of diesel/biodiesel blends with vegetable oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vasconcelos, Fernanda Vera Cruz; de Souza, Paulo Fernandes Barbosa; Pimentel, Maria Fernanda; Pontes, Márcio José Coelho; Pereira, Claudete Fernandes

    2012-02-24

    This work evaluates the use of near-infrared (NIR) overtone regions to determine biodiesel content, as well potential adulteration with vegetable oil, in diesel/biodiesel blends. For this purpose, NIR spectra (12,000-6300 cm(-1)) were obtained using three different optical path lengths: 10 mm, 20 mm and 50 mm. Two strategies of regression with variable selection were evaluated: partial least squares (PLS) with significant regression coefficients selected by Jack-Knife algorithm (PLS/JK) and multiple linear regression (MLR) with wavenumber selection by successive projections algorithm (MLR/SPA). For comparison, the results obtained by using PLS full-spectrum models are also presented. In addition, the performance of models using NIR (1.0 mm optical path length, 9000-4000 cm(-1)) and MIR (UATR - universal attenuated total reflectance, 4000-650 cm(-1)) spectral regions was also investigated. The results demonstrated the potential of overtone regions with MLR/SPA regression strategy to determine biodiesel content in diesel/biodiesel blends, considering the possible presence of raw oil as a contaminant. This strategy is simple, fast and uses a fewer number of spectral variables. Considering this, the overtone regions can be useful to develop low cost instruments for quality control of diesel/biodiesel blends, considering the lower cost of optical components for this spectral region.

  16. A Rapid Method for Detection of Refined Olive Oil as Adulterant in Extra Virgin Olive Oil by Differential Scanning Calorimetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Karbasian

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Extra virgin olive oil (EVOO is expensive oil, due to unique specification and its high quality among other edible oils; it might be mixed with other oils. The aim of this research was to identify the added refined olive oil (ROO to extra virgin olive oil. One sample of each oil was analyzed, admixtures of EVOO: ROO were prepared at different ratios (50:50 ,60:40, 70:30, 80:20, 90:10 and 95:5 w/w. To identify this adulteration, exothermic and endothermic thermograms were investigated. The results indicated that by increasing refined olive oil, onset temperature (Ton was increased from -61.08 to -56.16 °C; also, offset temperature (Toff decreased from 19.09 to 12.57 °C. Also results showed that when the ROO ratio increased then the enthalpy average values of both exothermic and endothermic curves were declined. Chemical tests were performed in parallel to better understanding these changes in curves.

  17. Screening analysis to detect adulteration in diesel/biodiesel blends using near infrared spectrometry and multivariate classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontes, Márcio José Coelho; Pereira, Claudete Fernandes; Pimentel, Maria Fernanda; Vasconcelos, Fernanda Vera Cruz; Silva, Alinne Girlaine Brito

    2011-09-30

    This paper proposes an analytical method to detect adulteration of diesel/biodiesel blends based on near infrared (NIR) spectrometry and supervised pattern recognition methods. For this purpose, partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA) coupled with the successive projections algorithm (SPA) have been employed to build screening models using three different optical paths and the following spectra ranges: 1.0mm (8814-3799 cm(-1)), 10mm (11,329-5944 cm(-1) and 5531-4490 cm(-1)) and 20mm (11,688-5952 cm(-1) and 5381-4679 cm(-1)). The method is validated in a case study involving the classification of 140 diesel/biodiesel blend samples, which were divided into four different classes, namely: diesel free of biodiesel and raw vegetal oil (D), blends containing diesel, biodiesel and raw oils (OBD), blends of diesel and raw oils (OD), and blends containing a fraction of 5% (v/v) of biodiesel in diesel (B5). LDA-SPA models were found to be the best method to classify the spectral data obtained with optical paths of 1.0 and 20mm. Otherwise, PLS-DA shows the best results for classification of 10mm cell data, which achieved a correct prediction rate of 100% in the test set.

  18. ANCA-positive vasculitis induced by levamisole-adulterated cocaine and nephrotic syndrome: The kidney as an unusual target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez Díaz, Hortensia; Marińo Callejo, Ana Isabel; García Rodríguez, José Francisco; Rodríguez Pazos, Laura; Gómez Buela, Inmaculada; Bermejo Barrera, Ana María

    2013-01-01

    Patient: Male, 36 Final Diagnosis: Levamisole-induced vasculopathy Symptoms: Purpuric skin lesions Medication: Levamisole Clinical Procedure: — Specialty: Internal Medicine Objective: Unusual clinical course Background: Levamisole has been detected in seized cocaine samples and a levamisole-induced vasculopathy (LIV) has been described, mainly focused on skin. Case Report: A 36-year-old Caucasian man with history of antibodies to hepatitis C infection (negative hepatitis C virus RNA and negative HIV serology), smoking, and intravenous use of cocaine and brown heroin, presented to the hospital with purpuric skin lesions on extremities and earlobes. One month before the current presentation, a skin punch biopsy of one of these lesions was performed, showing histopathologic findings suggestive of mixed cryoglobulinemia. Laboratory testing revealed leukopenia, renal failure, and nephrotic syndrome. Antimyeloperoxidase antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (MPO-ANCA) were positive. The previous skin punch biopsy was revised and demonstrated pathologic findings consistent with leukocytoclastic vasculitis. An analysis of a cocaine sample for personal use, provided by the patient, was performed using mass spectrometry-gas chromatography and levamisole was detected. Three boluses of intravenous methylprednisolone were administered, followed by oral prednisone 1 mg/Kg per day. Skin lesions and renal function improved. Conclusions: To our knowledge, this is the first report of nephrotic syndrome induced by levamisole-adulterated cocaine, proven by cocaine sample toxicology. Lack of renal biopsy is a limitation of this report. PMID:24478818

  19. NIR techniques and chemometrics data analysis applied to food adulteration detection

    OpenAIRE

    Fluvià Sabio, Sergi

    2015-01-01

    With the current growing need for low production costs and high efficiency, the food industry is faced with a number of challenges, including maintenance of high-quality standards and assurance of food safety while avoiding liability issues. Meeting these challenges has become crucial in regards to grading food products for different markets. Food companies and suppliers need efficient, low-cost, and non-invasive quality and safety inspection technologies to enable them to satisfy different m...

  20. Adulteration Determining of Pharmaceutical Forms of Ginkgo biloba Extracts from Different International Manufacturers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Ömür Demirezer

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, Ginkgo biloba products used for the same purpose, but licensed to varying authorities were analyzed in point of similarity to each other. A group of these products were licensed from health authorities as herbal medicinal product (HMP, while the other groups of products were licensed as the food supplement (FS. The evaluation of their phytoequivalence was carried out comparing the chromatographic fingerprint profiles. Furthermore, ginkgolides (ginkgolides GA, GB, GC, and GJ and flavonoid aglycones (quercetin, kaempferol, and isorhamnetin were quantitatively analyzed by using liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC-MS and HPLC-diode Array detector (HPLC-DAD assays. All six herbal medicinal products and two food supplements were found to be phytoequivalent to each other, but five of the seven food supplements did not possess similar content as herbal medicinal products, and the quantity of ginkgolides and flavonoid aglycones per tablet/capsule was found to be lower than declared on the labels. In addition, food supplements were found to be adultered with rutin to reach expected total flavonoid glycosides amount.

  1. 基于近红外光谱技术的蜂蜜掺假识别%Adulteration detection of honey based on near-infrared spectroscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    屠振华; 朱大洲; 籍保平; 陈红茜; 庆兆珅

    2011-01-01

    为了实现蜂蜜掺假的快速识别,应用近红外光谱结合模式识别方法对蜂蜜掺假现象进行了识别分析.该研究收集了中国不同品种、不同地域的典型天然蜂蜜样品,根据目前市场上常见的蜂蜜掺假手段,掺假物质及相对含量情况配制了掺假蜂蜜样品,利用傅立叶近红外光谱仪采集其透反射近红外光谱,分别采用偏最小二乘判别分析(PLS-DA),独立软模式法(SIMCA),误差反向传播神经网络(BP-ANN)和最小二乘支持向量机(LS-SVM)等模式识别方法,进行蜂蜜掺假识别研究.研究结果表明:利用这4种方法在蜂蜜中掺入果葡糖浆和果葡糖水的情况下均能很好地识别出掺假蜂蜜样品,其中对于掺入果葡糖浆的掺假情况,校正集的正确判别率均达到95%以上,验证集的正确判别率均达到87%以上,对于掺入果葡糖水的掺假蜂蜜校正集的正确判别率均达到93%以上,验证集的正确判别率均达到84%以上.通过比较4种不同的识别算法,发现采用LS-SVM时,对两种掺假情况下校正集和验证集的正确判别率均达到了100%,表明基于近红外光谱的蜂蜜掺假快速准确识别是可行的.%Near infrared spectroscopy combined with pattern recognition methods was used to discriminate the unadulterated and adulterated honey samples. Various crude honey samples from different area in China were collected, and the adulterated honey were prepared according to typical adulteration method, adulteration substance and construction in the market. FT-NIR spectrometer was used to measure the trans-reflectance spectra of honey. The differentiation models for adulteration of honey were constructed by four kinds of pattern recognition methods, including partial least squares discriminate analysis (PLS-DA), soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA), error back propagation network (BP-ANN), least-squares support vector machine (LS-SVM). The results showed that four

  2. 利用近红外光谱技术同时检测奶粉中的多个掺假成分%Discrimination of milk powder with multi-adulteration by near infrared spectroscopy technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭攀; 林慧; 杜如虚

    2011-01-01

    利用近红外光谱技术对奶粉中含有多种掺假物的情况进行了定性判别分析.样本集除12个纯正奶粉样品外,146个掺假奶粉样品中分别加入了植脂末,天然大豆分离蛋白粉和麦芽糊精中的1~3种,掺假物的总含量范围在1.96%~35.9%之间.用Thermo Scientific Antaris MX型近红外光谱仪测量样本近红外光谱,采用非线性迭代偏最小二乘法(NIPALS)提取主成分,然后利用马氏距离进行线性判别分析,建立了1个8类判别模型.在138个样本集的交叉验证中,判别准确率达99.28%,20个测试样本的判别准确率达100%.另一方面,将3种掺假物中的1种作为未知干扰掺假物,用不含未知干扰物的样本建立了定性判别模型,然后用含有未知干扰物的样本进行验证.在植脂末作为未知干扰的情况下,判断奶粉是否掺假的准确率有100%,判断大豆分离蛋白粉和麦芽糊精是否掺入的准确度分别为78.94%和88.42%;而使用麦芽糊精作为未知干扰物时,调用模型判别奶粉是否掺假,准确率依然有100%,但判断植脂末和大豆蛋白粉掺入情况的准确率只有34.74%和32.63%.研究表明近红外光谱技术可以对奶粉中的掺假情况和掺假物种类进行快速判断;当掺假物定性判别模型遇到未知干扰时,使用该方法虽然可以对奶粉是否存在掺假进行判断,但对掺假物种类难以进行正确判别,因此建模样本集应包含尽可能多类型的掺假物.%Near Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS) was used to discriminate the adulterate milk powder with adulterations such as vegetal creamer, bean albumen powder and maltodextrin. We got a set of 158 samples. 12 samples was pure milk powder without adulteration, the other 146 samples contained one or more adulterations above whose total contents were from 1.9% to 35.9% .The samples were divided into the modeling set of 138 samples and the validation set of 20 samples. Thermo Scientific Antaris MX FT

  3. 脂肪酸在饲料原料油脂掺假辨析中的应用%Applications of fatty acids in the analysis of adulterated feedstuffs-oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙伟健; 聂灿军

    2011-01-01

    样品选用氢氧化钾-甲醇快速酯化法进行前处理,采用毛细管气相色谱法测定深海鱼油、大豆油、菜籽油、鸡油、猪油中特征脂肪酸,并对深海鱼油进行部分掺假试验,探讨了掺假鱼油中脂肪酸的变化趋势.掺假实验表明,掺假后鱼油脂肪酸含量随掺入油脂特征不同有不同的变化.当掺假量在10%以上时,EPA+DHA等特征指标变化趋势较明显,可作为油脂掺假鉴别的依据.%We pretreated the materials by potassium hydroxide-methanol rapid esterification method, and determined the characteristic patterns of fatty acid in deep-sea fish oil, soybean oil, rapeseed oil, chicken fat and lard oil using capillary gas chromatography, and discussed the variation trend of fatty acids in adulterated fish oil through part of deep-sea fish oil for the adulteration test. The adulteration experiments showed that fatty acids in fish oil after adulteration changed with different characteristics of mixing oil. When the amount of adulteration was more than 10%, the variation trends of EPA/DHA and other indicators were more obvious, which could be identified as the basis for oil adulteration.

  4. Study of Lemon Yellow and Sunset Yellow in Adulterated Rhizoma Belamcandae%射干伪品中柠檬黄与日落黄的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王祥红; 谢培山

    2012-01-01

    Objective; To identify and assay of watersoluble dyestuff-lemon yellow and sunset yellow in Adulterated Rhizoma Belamcandae. Method; Use TLC for iddentification and HPLC-DAD for iddentification and assay lemon yellow and sunset yellow. Result; Both TLC and HPLC-DAD can identify lemon yellow and sunset yellow in Adulterated Rhizoma Belamcandae, and HPLC detection indicate the content of lemon yellow between 0. 11-0. 37 g·kg-1, and sunset yellow between 0. 04-0. 11 g·kg-1. Conclusion; Staining Iridis kectori khizoma or other adulterants with lemon yellow and sunset yellow as Rhizoma Belamcandae for sales is not only unnecessary, but also increase unsafe factors in clinic. It is necessary to pay attention to about this by relative medicine researcher and manufactory.%目的:鉴别并测定伪品射干中水溶性色素柠檬黄与日落黄.方法:采用薄层色谱法和高效液相色谱法二极管陈列检测鉴别并定量测定样品中的柠檬黄与日落黄.结果:伪品射干中可检出柠檬黄与日落黄,HPLC法测定柠檬黄含量为0.11 ~0.37 g·kg-1,日落黄含量为0.04 ~0.11 g·kg-1.结论:以川射干或其他伪品用柠檬黄与日落黄染色作为射干销售,即无必要,又曾加临床使用不安全因素,值得相关药品研究与生产单位注意.

  5. 山茶油掺伪的鉴别%Study on the Identification of the Camellia Oil Adulteration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈悦娇; 陈海光; 白卫东; 欧阳楚杰

    2012-01-01

    In order to explore the distinguishing indexes of the Camellia oil between the purity and the adultera- tion, the sensory and fatty acid composition of the Camellia oil were studied in this paper. At the same time, the same indexes of peanut oil, rapeseed oil, corn oil, sunflower oil which the Camellia oil which maybe adulterated with were analyzed and compared. Then the Camellia oil was mixed with four kinds of oil by different ratio, and characteristics changes were studied. The sensory evaluation results indicated that the purity of Camellia oil appeared as light yellow with a little green, with a little tea aroma. It was not sticky. Analyzing by GC-MS, the results indicated that the main component of fatty acids was oleic acid, its composition was upon to 80% , and a small amount of hexadecanoic acid, linoleic acid, stearie acid and trace 11-eicosenoic acid. The characteristic indexes changed with different proportion of four kinds of oil mixed. The results could be applied to identify the adulteration of Camellia oil from the market.%为探求山茶油掺伪的鉴别指标,研究了山茶油的感官性状及脂肪酸组成。同时对可能掺混的几种植物油包括花生油、菜籽油、玉米油、葵花籽油的上述相关指标进行分析,并将这几种植物油以不同比例掺混入山茶油中,总结其感官性状及脂肪酸组成的变化规律。感官评价结果表明:纯山茶油色泽呈浅黄色稍带点绿,无异味微茶香,清亮不黏;气相色谱-质谱联用分析表明,山茶油脂肪酸组成主要为油酸,含量高达80%以上,不饱和脂肪酸(油酸和亚油酸)的含量在87.67%~89.02%,同时含有少量的棕榈酸和硬脂酸及微量的11-二十碳烯酸。山茶油中掺入不同比例的其他油类,其感官性状及脂肪酸组成呈现一定的变化规律。这个规律可实际应用于市售山茶油掺伪情况的鉴别。

  6. Proving the adulteration of ewe and goat cheeses with cow milk using the reference method of isoelectric focusing of γ-casein

    OpenAIRE

    Nataša Mikulec; Dijana Plavljanić; Jasminka Špoljarić; Biljana Radeljević; Jasmina Havranek; Neven Antunac

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to introduce a reference method for the detection of cow milk in ewe and goat cheeses (EC 273/08) in order to protect manufacturers and consumers from adulterations and imitations, and to ensure alignment with the demands of domestic and EU markets. The method includes isolation of casein from cheese, isoelectric focusing of γ2- and γ3-casein originating from the hydrolysis of β-casein by plasmin, the detection and quantitative determination of γ-casein in cow, ewe a...

  7. Detection of Gelatin Adulteration in Traditional Chinese Medicine: Analysis of Deer-Horn Glue by Rapid-Resolution Liquid Chromatography-Triple Quadrupole Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Simultaneous identification of donkey-hide gelatin and bovine-hide gelatin in deer-horn glue was established by rapid-resolution liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry. Water containing 1% NH4HCO3 was used for sample dissolution and trypsin was used for hydrolysis of the gelatins. After separation by a SB-C18 reversed-phase analytical column, collagen marker peptides were detected by mass spectrometry in positive electrospray ionization mode with multiple reaction monitoring. The method was specific, precise and reliable, and suitable for detection of adulterants derived from donkey-hide gelatin and bovine-hide gelatin in deer-horn glue.

  8. Use of fluorometry for determination of skim milk powder adulteration in fresh milk

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUAN Rong-fa; LIU Dong-hong; YE Xing-qian; YANG Kai

    2005-01-01

    A FAST (fluorescence of advanced Maillard products and Soluble Tryptophan) method for identification of reconstituted milk made from skim milk powder in the fresh milk was developed. Considering milk and skim milk powders variations from different seasons and countries, milk was collected from different dairy farms in different seasons and skim milk powders were collected from different countries to measure the Tryptophan (Trp), advanced Maillard products (AMP) fluorescence values.The results showed that there were differences (P<0.01) between raw and reconstituted milk. The plot of values in each mixed level of raw and reconstituted milk had a correlation coefficient >0.97. The FAST method is a simple, rapid, low-cost and sensitive method enabling the detection of 5% reconstituted milk in fresh milk. The measurement of the Trp, AMP fluorescence values and calculation of the FAST index is a suitable method for large-scale monitoring of fresh milk samples.

  9. Levamisole and cocaine synergism: a prevalent adulterant enhances cocaine's action in vivo

    OpenAIRE

    Tallarida, Christopher S.; Egan, Erin; Alejo, Gissel D.; Raffa, Robert; Tallarida, Ronald J.; Rawls, Scott M.

    2014-01-01

    Levamisole is estimated by the Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA) to be present in about 80% of cocaine seized in the United States and linked to debilitating, and sometimes fatal, immunologic effects in cocaine abusers. One explanation for the addition of levamisole to cocaine is that it increases the amount of product and enhances profits. An alternative possibility, and one investigated here, is that levamisole alters cocaine's action in vivo. We specifically investigated effects of levamisole ...

  10. Rapid detection of melamine adulteration in dairy milk by SB-ATR-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jawaid, Sana; Talpur, Farah N; Sherazi, S T H; Nizamani, Shafi M; Khaskheli, Abid A

    2013-12-01

    Melamine is a nitrogenous chemical substance used principally as a starting material for the manufacture of synthetic resins. Due to its very high proportion of nitrogen melamine has been added illegitimately to foods and feeds to increase the measured protein content, which determines the value of the product. These issues prompted private as well as governmental laboratories to develop methods for the analysis of melamine in a wide variety of food products and ingredients. Owing to this fact present study is aimed to use single bounce attenuated total reflectance (SB-ATR) Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) method as an effective rapid tool for the detection and quantification of melamine in milk (liquid and powder). Partial least-squares (PLS) models were established for correlating spectral data to melamine concentration with R(2)>0.99, and RMSEC 0.370. Linear calibration curves were obtained over the calibration range of 25-0.0625%. The LOD and LOQ of the method was 0.00025% (2.5 ppm) and 0.0015% (15 ppm) respectively. Proposed SB-ATR-FTIR method requires little or no sample preparation with an assay time of 1-2 min.

  11. Microbiological Analysis, Detection of Adulterants and Contaminants in Raw Milk at Farms in Central Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe Ștețca

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Raw milk hygiene strongly depends on the compliance with basic principles of food safety, starting with staff responsibility, farmer, products traceability, sanitation of the entire flow, from farm to consumer. There were studied 800 samples of raw cow milk purchased from the collection centers. The parameters considered here were number of germ cells, somatic cell count, added water and antibiotics residues. Number of germs cells recorded values up to 70 times out of the regulation limit -100000 TNG/mL. There were 48 samples exceeding the value of 400000 SCC/mL, and only 3 of them had improper hygienic conditions due to the value of TNG higher than 100000/mL. No antibiotics or added water was registered.

  12. Rapid Identification of Officinal Akebiae Caulis and Its Toxic Adulterant Aristolochiae Manshuriensis Caulis (Aristolochia manshuriensis) by Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lan; Wang, Bo; Zhao, Mingming; Liu, Wei; Zhang, Peng; Shi, Yuhua; Xiong, Chao; Wang, Ping; Sun, Wei; Chen, Shilin

    2016-01-01

    Mu-tong (Akebiae Caulis) is a traditional Chinese medicine commonly used as a diuretic and antiphlogistic. A common adulterant of Mu-tong is Guan-mu-tong (Aristolochiae Manshuriensis Caulis), which is derived from the stem of Aristolochia manshuriensis Komarov, and contains carcinogenic aristolochic acids. We used an alternative technique, loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP), to differentiate Mu-tong from Guan-mu-tong because LAMP is quick, highly sensitive, and specific. We designed a set of four common primers (G-F3, G-B3, G-FIP, and G-BIP) and a loop primer (G-LB) for LAMP based on the internal transcribed spacer 2 sequence of Ar. manshuriensis. We successfully amplified the LAMP assays and visual detection occurred within 60 min at isothermal conditions of 65°C. The LAMP reaction exhibited a tenfold increase in detection (4.22 pg/μl DNA) over conventional polymerase chain reaction demonstrating that LAMP is a useful technique to detect Guan-mu-tong. We conclude that the LAMP technique is a potentially valuable safety control method for simple and efficient discrimination of Mu-tong from its adulterant Guan-mu-tong.

  13. Authentication of Punica granatum L.: Development of SCAR markers for the detection of 10 fruits potentially used in economically motivated adulteration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marieschi, Matteo; Torelli, Anna; Beghé, Deborah; Bruni, Renato

    2016-07-01

    The large commercial success of pomegranate increase the likelihood of economically motivated adulteration (EMA), which has been gradually spotted with the undeclared addition of anthocyanin-rich plants or cheaper fruit juices used as bulking and diluting agents. A method based on Sequence-Characterized Amplified Regions (SCARs) was developed to detect the presence of Aristotelia chilensis, Aronia melanocarpa, Dioscorea alata, Euterpe oleracea, Malus×domestica, Morus nigra, Sambucus nigra, Vaccinium macrocarpon, Vaccinium myrtillus, Vitis vinifera as bulking agents in Punica granatum. The method enabled the unequivocal detection of up to 1% of each adulterant, allowing the preemptive rejection of suspect samples. The recourse to such method may reduce the number of samples to be subjected to further phytochemical analyses when multiple batches have to be evaluated in a short time. Vice versa, it allows the cross-check of suspect batches previously tested only for their anthocyanin profile. The dimension of the amplicons is suitable for the analysis of degraded DNA obtained from stored and processed commercial material. Proper SCAR markers may represent a fast, sensitive, reliable and low-cost screening method for the authentication of processed commercial pomegranate material.

  14. Simultaneous determination of isoflavones and resveratrols for adulteration detection of soybean and peanut oils by mixed-mode SPE LC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xin; Ma, Fei; Li, Peiwu; Li, Guangming; Zhang, Liangxiao; Zhang, Qi; Zhang, Wen; Wang, Xiupin

    2015-06-01

    To ensure authenticity of vegetable oils, isoflavones (genistein, genistin, daidzein and daidzin) and resveratrols (cis-resveratrol and trans-resveratrol) were selected as the putative markers for adulteration of soybean and peanut oils. Firstly, mixed mode solid-phase extraction coupled with liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (mixed-mode SPE LC-MS/MS) method was developed to analyze isoflavones and resveratrols in vegetable oils. The concentration of marker compounds in vegetable oils were 0.08-1.47mgkg(-1) for daidzein, ND-78.9μgkg(-1) for daidzin, 0.40-5.89mgkg(-1) for genistein, 1.2-114.9μgkg(-1) for genistin, 3.1-85.0μgkg(-1) for trans-resveratrol and 1.9-51.0μgkg(-1) for cis-resveratrol, which are compatible with the raw materials for oil press. Additionally, the applicability of this method has been successfully tested in thirteen vegetable oils from the market. Mixed-mode SPE LC-MS/MS method can simultaneously detect isoflavones and resveratrols in vegetable oils and assess adulteration and quality of soybean and peanut oils.

  15. 基于氨基酸模式的牛奶蛋白掺假分析%Adulteration analysis of milk protein based on amino acid pattern

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赖玉婷; 董芷呈; 陈挺强; 王培坚; 李明芬; 柳春红

    2013-01-01

    以市售合格牛奶及奶粉为材料,采用面粉及淀粉对其进行模拟掺假,通过柱前衍生化-高效液相色谱法(HPLC)对样品中的色氨酸(Trp)、苏氨酸(Thr)、缬氨酸(Val)、赖氨酸(Lys)进行检测,建立判别牛奶蛋白掺假的氨基酸简洁模式.结果表明,建立的牛奶氨基酸模式为:色氨酸∶苏氨酸∶缬氨酸∶赖氨酸=1.0∶2.7∶3.5∶5.4,与世界卫生组织(WHO)提出的牛乳标准氨基酸模式吻合;奶粉氨基酸模式为:色氨酸∶苏氨酸∶缬氨酸∶赖氨酸=1.0∶3.0∶4.5∶5.4;掺假牛奶、奶粉的氨基酸模式与上述氨基酸模式相比有明显差异.利用柱前衍生化-高效液相色谱法建立牛奶及奶粉的氨基酸简洁模式可有效判别出牛奶及奶粉的蛋白掺假,能满足常规检测及乳品的安全控制需要.%To establish a method for identifying of milk protein adulteration based on amino acid pattern. With on sale qualified milk and milk powder as material,flour and starch were used to simulate adulteration. Tryptophan (Trp),threonine(Thr),valine(Val) and lysine(Lys) of the samples were determined by pre-column derivation-high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to establish amino acid concise patterns for identifying milk protein adulteration. The result indicated that the amino acid pattern of qualified milk was Trp:Thr:Val:Lys = 1.0:2.7:3.5:5.4,which was highly anastomosed with the standard one proposed by World Health Organization (WHO). And the amino acid pattern of qualified milk powder was Trp:Thr:Val:Lys = 1.0:3.0:4.5:5.4. The amino acid patterns of adulterate milk and milk powder were significantly different from these of qualified ones. In conclusion, it was feasible to apply amino acid concise patterns of milk and milk powder to analyze milk protein adulteration,and this method could meet the requirements of routine determination and food safety control of dairy.

  16. Levamisole and cocaine synergism: a prevalent adulterant enhances cocaine's action in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tallarida, Christopher S; Egan, Erin; Alejo, Gissel D; Raffa, Robert; Tallarida, Ronald J; Rawls, Scott M

    2014-04-01

    Levamisole is estimated by the Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA) to be present in about 80% of cocaine seized in the United States and linked to debilitating, and sometimes fatal, immunologic effects in cocaine abusers. One explanation for the addition of levamisole to cocaine is that it increases the amount of product and enhances profits. An alternative possibility, and one investigated here, is that levamisole alters cocaine's action in vivo. We specifically investigated effects of levamisole on cocaine's stereotypical and place-conditioning effects in an established invertebrate (planarian) assay. Acute exposure to levamisole or cocaine produced concentration-dependent increases in stereotyped movements. For combined administration of the two agents, isobolographic analysis revealed that the observed stereotypical response was enhanced relative to the predicted effect, indicating synergism for the interaction. In conditioned place preference (CPP) experiments, cocaine produced a significant preference shift; in contrast, levamisole was ineffective at all concentrations tested. For combination experiments, a submaximal concentration of cocaine produced CPP that was enhanced by inactive concentrations of levamisole, indicating synergism. The present results provide the first experimental evidence that levamisole enhances cocaine's action in vivo. Most important is the identification of synergism for the levamisole/cocaine interaction, which now requires further study in mammals.

  17. Levamisole and cocaine synergism: a prevalent adulterant enhances cocaine's action in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tallarida, Christopher S.; Egan, Erin; Alejo, Gissel D.; Raffa, Robert; Tallarida, Ronald J.; Rawls, Scott M.

    2014-01-01

    Levamisole is estimated by the Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA) to be present in about 80% of cocaine seized in the United States and linked to debilitating, and sometimes fatal, immunologic effects in cocaine abusers. One explanation for the addition of levamisole to cocaine is that it increases the amount of product and enhances profits. An alternative possibility, and one investigated here, is that levamisole alters cocaine's action in vivo. We specifically investigated effects of levamisole on cocaine's stereotypical and place-conditioning effects in an established invertebrate (planarian) assay. Acute exposure to levamisole or cocaine produced concentration-dependent increases in stereotyped movements. For combined administration of the two agents, isobolographic analysis revealed that the observed stereotypical response was enhanced relative to the predicted effect, indicating synergism for the interaction. In conditioned place preference (CPP) experiments, cocaine produced a significant preference shift; in contrast, levamisole was ineffective at all concentrations tested. For combination experiments, a submaximal concentration of cocaine produced CPP that was enhanced by inactive concentrations of levamisole, indicating synergism. The present results provide the first experimental evidence that levamisole enhances cocaine's action in vivo. Most important is the identification of synergism for the levamisole/cocaine interaction, which now requires further study in mammals. PMID:24440755

  18. Detection of adulterated honey produced by honeybee (Apis mellifera L.) colonies fed with different levels of commercial industrial sugar (C₃ and C₄ plants) syrups by the carbon isotope ratio analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guler, Ahmet; Kocaokutgen, Hasan; Garipoglu, Ali V; Onder, Hasan; Ekinci, Deniz; Biyik, Selim

    2014-07-15

    In the present study, one hundred pure and adulterated honey samples obtained from feeding honeybee colonies with different levels (5, 20 and 100 L/colony) of various commercial sugar syrups including High Fructose Corn Syrup 85 (HFCS-85), High Fructose Corn Syrup 55 (HFCS-55), Bee Feeding Syrup (BFS), Glucose Monohydrate Sugar (GMS) and Sucrose Sugar (SS) were evaluated in terms of the δ(13)C value of honey and its protein, difference between the δ(13)C value of protein and honey (Δδ(13)C), and C4% sugar ratio. Sugar type, sugar level and the sugar type*sugar level interaction were found to be significant (Phoney, Δδ(13)C (protein-honey), and C4% sugar ratio were used as criteria according to the AOAC standards. However, it was possible to detect the adulteration by using the same criteria in the honeys taken from the 20 and 100 L/colony of HFCS-85 and the 100L/colony of HFCS-55. Adulteration at low syrup level (20 L/colony) was more easily detected when the fructose content of HFCS syrup increased. As a result, the official methods (AOAC, 978.17, 1995; AOAC, 991.41, 1995; AOAC 998.12, 2005) and Internal Standard Carbon Isotope Ratio Analysis could not efficiently detect the indirect adulteration of honey obtained by feeding the bee colonies with the syrups produced from C3 plants such as sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) and wheat (Triticium vulgare). For this reason, it is strongly needed to develop novel methods and standards that can detect the presence and the level of indirect adulterations.

  19. Determination of the Authenticity of Dairy Products on the Basis of Fatty Acids and Triacylglycerols Content using GC Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jung-Min; Kim, Na-Kyeong; Yang, Cheul-Young; Moon, Kyong-Whan; Kim, Jin-Man

    2014-01-01

    Milk fat is an important food component, and plays a significant role in the economics, functional nutrition, and chemical properties of dairy products. Dairy products also contain nutritional resources and essential fatty acids (FAs). Because of the increasing demand for dairy products, milk fat is a common target in economic fraud. Specifically, milk fat is often replaced with cheaper or readily available vegetable oils or animal fats. In this study, a method for the discrimination of milk fat was developed, using FAs profiles, and triacylglycerols (TGs) profiles. A total of 11 samples were evaluated: four milk fats (MK), four vegetable oils (VG), two pork lards (PL), and one beef tallow (BT). Gas chromathgraphy analysis were performed, to monitor the FAs content and TGs composition in MK, VG, PL, and BT. The result showed that qualitative determination of the MK of samples adulterated with different vegetable oils and animal fats was possible by a visual comparision of FAs, using C14:0, C16:0, C18:1n9c, C18:0, and C18:2n6c, and of TGs, using C36, C38, C40, C50, C52, and C54 profiles. Overall, the objective of this study was to evaluate the potential of the use of FAs and TGs in the detection of adulterated milk fat, and accordingly characterize the samples by the adulterant oil source, and level of adulteration. Also, based on this preliminary investigation, the usefulness of this approach could be tested for other oils in the future.

  20. 原料乳中糊精掺假鉴别的研究%Study on the Adulteration of Dextrin in Raw Milk

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙燕.; 许卓望

    2011-01-01

    本文通过利用FOSS120红外光谱仪,对哈尔滨市区及其周边县原料乳的相关项目进行测定,建立了原料乳标准数据模型。应用此数据模型对原料乳中掺入的有害成分进行鉴别,可以对原料乳中使用糊精造假行为进行预判。%By using FOSS 120 infrared spectrometer, the relevant components of the raw milk in Harbin city and its surrounding counties were determined to establish the standard data model for raw milk. This data model was applied to the identification of the raw milk mixed with harmful components. It can be used in the pre-judgement of dextrin adulteration.

  1. Research of quality characteristics and adulteration tests in vegetable oil%植物油品质特性和掺伪检验技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛雅琳; 龙伶俐; 史文青; 马榕; 皇甫志鹏; 沈媛

    2012-01-01

    根据所列举植物油不同品种固有的特征成分的差异,论述采用光谱、色谱、质谱以及电子鼻等分析技术,研究植物油的真实性成分,从而建立科学合理的综合掺伪检验方法,规范市场,促进植物油行业健康发展。%According to the differences of the inherent characteristic components among different vegetable oils ,the authentic component of vegetable oil was studied by the spectrum, chromatography and mass spectrum analysis technology and electronic nose. The scientific comprehensive method of adulteration detection was established in order to regulate the market, and promote the healthy development of vegetable oil industry.

  2. Adulteration Identification of Commercial Honey with the C-4 Sugar Content of Negative Values by an Elemental Analyzer and Liquid Chromatography Coupled to Isotope Ratio Mass Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Hao; Luo, Donghui; Xian, Yanping; Luo, Haiying; Guo, Xindong; Li, Chao; Zhao, Mouming

    2016-04-27

    According to the AOAC 998.12 method, honey is considered to contain significant C-4 sugars with a C-4 sugar content of >7%, which are naturally identified as the adulteration. However, the authenticity of honey with a C-4 sugar content of sugars (sucrose, glucose, and fructose), δ(2)H and δ(18)O values, sucrose content, and reducing sugar content of honey using an elemental analyzer and liquid chromatography coupled to isotope ratio mass spectroscopy, was first developed to demonstrate the authenticity of honey with a C-4 sugar content of sugar content (%) sugar content (%) sugar content (%) sugars as well. A very strong correlation is also observed between δ(13)C honey values and δ(13)C protein values of both honey groups. For the δ(18)O value, the C-4 sugar content (%) sugar content (%) sugar content of sugar content of <0%.

  3. Determination of trigonelline in seeds and vegetable oils by capillary electrophoresis as a novel marker for the detection of adulterations in olive oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Hernández, Laura; Puchalska, Patrycja; García-Ruiz, Carmen; Crego, Antonio L; Marina, Maria Luisa

    2010-07-14

    A capillary electrophoresis method with UV detection was developed for the first time for the determination of the pyridine betaine trigonelline (N-methylnicotinic acid) in seeds and vegetable oils. Analytical characteristics of the method showed its good performance in terms of linearity (r > 0.999), precision (relative standard deviations oils). The developed method was applied to the analysis of soy and sunflower seeds, three varieties of olives, and sunflower, soy, and extra virgin olive oils. Trigonelline was determined in soy and sunflower seeds and their respective oils, whereas it was not detected in olives or olive oils. Different mixtures of extra virgin olive oil with seed oils were analyzed, detecting up to 10% of soy oil in olive oil. As a consequence, trigonelline is proposed in this work as a novel marker for the detection of adulterations of olive oils with other vegetable oils such as soy and sunflower oils.

  4. Quality control of saffron (Crocus sativus L.): development of SCAR markers for the detection of plant adulterants used as bulking agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marieschi, Matteo; Torelli, Anna; Bruni, Renato

    2012-11-07

    A method based on sequence-characterized amplified regions (SCARs) was developed from random amplified polymorphic DNA markers (RAPDs) specific for Arnica montana L., Bixa orellana L., Calendula officinalis L., Carthamus tinctorius L., Crocus vernus L. (Hill), Curcuma longa L., and Hemerocallis sp. to detect these common bulking agents in commercial saffron (Crocus sativus). The method enabled the unequivocal detection of low amounts (up to 1%) of each adulterant, allowing the preemptive rejection of suspect samples. Its enforcement limits the number of samples to be subjected to further evaluation with pharmacognostic or phytochemical analyses, especially when multiple batches have to be evaluated in a short time. The dimension of the amplicons is suitable for the analysis of degraded DNA obtained from dried, stored, processed, and finely ground commercial material. Proper SCAR markers may represent a fast, sensitive, reliable, and low-cost screening method for the authentication of dried commercial saffron material.

  5. 食用植物油掺杂鉴定方法综述%Summarization of Identifying Methods for Adulterate Edible Vegetable Oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钭培明; 柴振林; 朱杰丽; 杨柳

    2012-01-01

    阐述了在食用植物油中掺入非食用植物油的种类、危害性及检测方法,综述了在食用植物油中掺入其他食用植物油的各种检测方法,例如理化法、光度法、色谱法.%The author expounded the kind and harmfulness of non - edible vegetable oil and the identifying methods of edible vegetable oil mixed with non - edible vegetable oil, and summarized several detection methods of edible vegetable oil adulterated with other edible vegetable oil, including physicochemical method, photometry and chromatography.

  6. Identification of mutton adulteration by multiplex fluorescent PCR%多重荧光PCR鉴别羊肉掺假

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨冬燕; 韦梅霞; 杨永存; 李浩; 邓平建

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT:Objective To establish multiplex fluorescent polymerase chain reaction (PCR) system, and simultaneously detect pig, horse, cattle and duck meat mixed in mutton. Methods Mutton samples were mixed with 17%~45% pig, horse, cattle and duck meat. The specific species genes were selected with good specificity and sensitivity to form random duplex and triplex fluorescent PCR detection system for pig, cattle, horse and duck. ResultsThe duplex fluorescent PCR system could identify single added component as low as 7% for 100% accuracy. The triplex fluorescent PCR system could identify 8%~15% pig,cattle, horse and 5%~10% duck in any combination for 100% accuracy.Conclusion The established multiplex fluorescent PCR system can detect pig, horse, cattle and duck meat mixed in prepared mutton samples accurately. It can be further researched to application in market meat and processed meat adulteration detection.%目的:建立可同时检测掺入羊肉中的猪、马、牛、鸭成分的多重荧光PCR检测体系。方法配制掺入猪、马、牛、鸭源性成分的模拟羊肉掺假样品,掺假比例17%~45%。筛选特异性强、敏感度高的猪、马、牛、鸭物种特异性基因,优化反应体系,建立了针对猪、牛、马、鸭两两配对的两重荧光PCR检测体系和其中3个任意组合的三重荧光PCR检测体系。结果模拟羊肉掺假样品两重荧光PCR检测结果显示,包括单个成分掺入比例低至7%的样品,其检测准确率为100%。而三重荧光PCR检测同时检测猪、牛、马、鸭四种肉品中的3种,其中猪肉、牛肉和马肉的掺假比例均为8%~15%;鸭牛肉掺假比例为5%~10%。三重荧光PCR检测结果显示,所有掺假样品中的各种掺假组分都被准确检出。结论本研究建立的多重荧光 PCR 检测体系能准确检出配制的模拟掺假羊肉制品中的猪、马、牛、鸭成分,可进一步研究以应用于市场肉制品及加工肉制品掺假的检测。

  7. Identification of Adulterants in Adulterated Milks by Near Infrared Spectroscopy Combined with Non-Linear Pattern Recognition Methods%近红外光谱结合非线性模式识别方法进行牛奶中掺假物质的判别

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪力军; 钟霖; 张鑫; 张立国; 黄士新

    2014-01-01

    collected from pastures in Shanghai and surrounding ar-eas of Shanghai were used as true milk samples and divided into three true milk sets .Five hundred and twenty six adulterated milk samples ,which contained dextrin (or starch) mixed with melamine (or urea ,or ammonium nitrate) ,were prepared as six different adulterated milk sets .The concentrations of these adulterants in the adulterated milks were designed to be 0.15% ~0.45% (starch or dextrin) ,700~2 100 mg · kg -1 (ammonium nitrate) ,524~1 572 mg · kg -1 (urea) ,and 365.5~1 096.5 mg · kg -1 (melamine) to guarantee the protein content of adulterated milks detected by Kjeldahl method not lower than 3% .All the near infrared spectra (NIR) of the samples should have a pretreatment of normal variable transformation (SNV) before they were used to build discriminating models .The three true milk sets and six adulterated milk sets were combined in different ways in order to build NIR models for discriminating different kinds of adulterants (i .e .,dextrin ,starch ,melamine ,urea and ammo-nium nitrate) based on simplified K-nearest neighbor classification algorithm (IS-KNN) and an improved and simplified of sup-port vector machine (ν-SVM ) method .The relationship between mass concentration of the adulterants and the rate of correct discrimination was also investigated .The results show that the average discrimination accuracy of IS-KNN andν-SVM for identi-fying melamine ,urea and ammonium nitrate were in the region of 49.55% to 51.01% ,61.78% to 68.79% and 68.25% to 73.51% ,respectively .Therefore within the concentration regions designed in this study ,it is difficult to distinguish different kinds of pseudo proteins by NIR spectroscopy .However ,the average accuracy of IS-KNN andν-SVM for identifying starch and dextrin are 92.33% and 93.66% ,77.29% and 85.08% ,respectively .Most discrimination results of ν-SVM are better than those of IS-KNN .The correlative analysis between the discrimination accuracy rate and

  8. Chemostimuli for guanylyl cyclase-D-expressing olfactory sensory neurons promote the acquisition of preferences for foods adulterated with the rodenticide warfarin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Robert Kelliher

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Many animals have the ability to acquire food preferences from conspecifics via social signals. For example, the coincident detection of a food odor by canonical olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs and agonists of the specialized OSNs expressing the receptor guanylyl cyclase GC-D (GC-D+ OSNs will promote a preference in recipient rodents for similarly odored foods. It has been hypothesized that these preferences are acquired and maintained regardless of the palatability or quality of the food. We assessed whether mice could acquire and maintain preferences for food that had been adulterated with the anticoagulant rodenticide warfarin. After olfactory investigation of a saline droplet containing either cocoa (2%, w/w or cinnamon (1%, w/w along with a GC-D+ OSN-specific chemostimulus (either of the guanylin-family peptides uroguanylin and guanylin; 1–50 nM, C57BL/6J mice exhibited robust preferences for unadulterated food containing the demonstrated odor. The peptide-dependent preference was observed even when the food contained warfarin (0.025% w/w. Repeated ingestion of warfarin-containing food over four days did not disrupt the preference, even though mice were not re-exposed to the peptide stimulus. Surprisingly, mice continued to prefer warfarin-adulterated food containing the demonstrated odor when presented with a choice of warfarin-free food containing a novel odor. Our results indicate that olfactory-mediated food preferences can be acquired and maintained for warfarin-containing foods and suggest that guanylin peptides may be effective stimuli for promoting the ingestion of foods or other edibles with low palatability or potential toxicity.

  9. Use of SDS-PAGE in Detecting Bovine Milk Content in Adulterated Xinjiang Non-bovine Milk%SDS-PAGE电泳在鉴别用牛乳掺伪的新疆特种乳中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阿力木·吾布力; 杨洁; 苏力坦·阿巴百克力

    2016-01-01

    Objective] The aim was to use SDS-PAGE to detect adulterated non-bovine milk and measure bovine milk content and confirm the lowest adulteration ratio.[Method]By using different ratio of(1∶1, 1∶4, 1∶10, 1∶20, 1∶100, 1∶200 and 1∶400(Vbovine milk/Vnon-bo-vine milk) )adulterated non-bovine milk, whey protein was isolated and SDS-PAGE was conducted to locate the indicating protein then use gray analysis to detect adulteration and calculate bovine milk content.[Result] The SDS-PAGE can efficiently separate each animal’s whey protein as well as bovine whey protein from adulterated whey.[Conclusion] The lowest adulterating ratio can be detected with SDS-PAGE as 1∶10 (Vbovine milk/Vnon-bovine milk).%[目的]采用十二烷基磺酸钠-聚丙烯酰胺凝胶电泳( SDS-PAGE)鉴别一定比例掺伪的特种乳中所含的牛乳成分及确定最低检测掺伪比例。[方法]按一定的比例(1∶1、1∶4、1∶10、1∶20、1∶100、1∶200和1∶400(V牛乳/V特种乳))掺伪,离心分离乳清蛋白,SDS-PAGE电泳,确定掺伪差异性蛋白并进行灰度分析。[结果] SDS-PAGE可以快速、有效地分离各乳乳清蛋白以及掺伪的牛乳乳清蛋白。[结论] SDS-PAGE鉴别掺伪的最低比例为1∶10(V牛乳/V特种乳)。

  10. 基于COI基因的水蛭及其混伪品的DNA条形码研究%DNA barcodes of Shuizhi (Hirudo) and its adulterants studied based on COI gene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晓帆; 刘春生; 杨瑶珺; 白贞芳; 吴立洁; 徐佳; 刘杰; 戴代

    2013-01-01

    目的 利用COI基因对水蛭、蚂蟥、柳叶蚂蟥及常见混伪品进行分子鉴定,探讨快速、准确鉴定水蛭及其混伪品的方法.方法 在全国范围内收集水蛭、蚂蟥、柳叶蚂蝗的正品及其混伪品5种,共12份样品,提取DNA,得到其COI序列.用ContigExpress、DNAMAN、DNA STAR、MEGA5等软件进行变异位点分析,并构建正品水蛭及其混伪品的系统聚类树图.结果 水蛭的正品来源蚂蟥、水蛭、柳叶蚂蟥与其混伪品种间存在较多变异位点.由所构建的系统聚类树图可以看出,同属聚在一起,且各物种又形成相对独立的支.结论 基于COI序列的DNA条形码技术可以很好地鉴定水蛭及其混伪品.%Objective To give the molecular identification to Shuizhi (Hirudo), Mahuang ( Whitmania pigra) , Liuyemahuang {Whitmania acranulata Whitman) and common adulterants by applying COI sequences, and investigate a rapid and accurate method for identifying Shuizhi ( Hirudo) and its adulterants. Methods Qualified Shuizhi, Mahuang, Liuyemahuang and five kinds of adulterants were collected from the whole county (12 samples), and the DNA was extracted for obtaining COI sequences. The softwares of ContigExpress, DNAMAN, EDIT SEQUENCE and MEGA 5 were used to analyze variable sites and build up N-J trees of qualified Shuizhi and its adulterants. Results There were many variable sites between qualified sources of Shuizhi ( Mahuang, Shuizhi and Liuyemahuang) and its adulterants. The N-J trees showed that congeneric species got together and different species formed relative independent branches. Conclusion The technology of DNA barcodes based on COI sequences can be used for identifying Shuizhi and its adulterants excellently.

  11. DNA Markers for Food Products Authentication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daria Scarano

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Media constantly refer of unscrupulous producers that adulterate, alter or replace premium products in food chains with the goal to maximize illegally profits. Food traceability is a central issue for the identification of improper labeling of processed food and feed and there are rules aimed to protect consumers and producers against fraudulent substitution of quality products in food chain, but the tools available are not always appropriate. DNA-based markers proved very effective for fresh and processed food molecular authentication. In this review, we illustrate potential and limits of different DNA markers focusing on low, medium and high-throughput markers, in order to monitor the genetic identity of food components in meat, fish and plants net-chains.

  12. Rapid Determination of Sudan Dyes Adulterated in Natural Paprika Red by FTIR%食用天然辣椒红色素中掺杂苏丹红的红外光谱快速识别

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张玮玮; 刘玲玲; 武彦文; 欧阳杰; 孙素琴

    2012-01-01

    如何快速检测天然色素中是否掺杂合成色素或者工业染料是食品分析检测中的一个难题.天然辣椒红色素因兼具着色和药理功效而被广泛用于食品中,但又因其稳定性较差而被不法商贩掺杂苏丹红来获利.本文利用红外光谱技术的宏观指纹特性,对掺杂于天然辣椒红色素中苏丹红的1 621,1 500和751 cm-1处的强峰,再通过二阶导数图谱分析将谱图信息放大,辅以指纹区684和496 cm-1处的谱峰的佐证,可以快速识别辣椒红中是否添加有苏丹红,检测限量可以达到1%.%How to rapidly determine synthesized pigments or dyes adulterated in natural pigments is a difficult problem for food analysts. Natural paprika red is widely used in foods because of its coloration and pharmaceutical effect, but it is sometimes adulterated with Sudan dyes for its poor stability under light or heat treatment. In the present paper, the macro-fingerprint characteristic of infrared spectroscopy was utilized to identify Sudan dyes adulterated in paprika red. The strong peaks at 1 621, 1 500 and 751 cm-1 in FTIR spectra and at the fingerprint region of 753, 684 and 496 cm-1 in the secondary deriative FTIR spectra were remarkable characteristics for Sudan dyes adulterated in paprika red, of which the limit of determination was about 1%.

  13. [On the need to improve the system for the prevention of falsification of food products in the Eurasian Economic Union].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnautov, O V; Bagryantseva, O V; Bessonov, V V

    2016-01-01

    Adulteration of food is misleading consumers about the composition of foods in order to obtain economic benefits. Olive oil, wine and other alcoholic beverages, spices, tea, fish, honey, milk and dairy products, meat products, cereal products, beverages based on fruit juices, spices, coffee are falsified with the highest frequency. In addition, sufficient data on the frequency of adulterated food products are missing not only in Russia but also in the developed countries. This is because the purpose of the manufacturer and distributors of such products is primarily an economic advantage. Therefore, the majority of incidents of falsification of food products remained undetected since their production, generally had not led to the risk of food safety, and consumers often did not notice the reduction in quality of foodstuffs. The analysis of international data and data of the Eurasian Economic Union (EAEU) has shown that, in order to improve the quality of food products and to reduce sales of adulterated food the following steps should be done: introduce the definition of falsificated food products into legislation of the EAEU; expand the list of methods for confirming the authenticity of the food and detecting the presence of substances which are not permitted for usage in the food industry; consolidate the principle of the responsibility of all participants in the treatment of food that does not comply with the mandatory requirements at the legislative level; introduce the indicators of the quality of foodstuffs in the technical regulations of the EAEU; return to the mandatory requirements for the quality of foods given in the interstate and state standards.

  14. 两种豆科药材及其混伪品的可溶性蛋白质电泳鉴别%Electrophoresis identification of two leguminosae Chinese drugs and the ir adulterants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马晓莉; 史超群

    2001-01-01

    目的:对赤小豆、决明子及其混伪品进行电泳鉴别,并考察考马 斯亮蓝G-250的染色效果。方法:可溶性蛋白质凝胶电泳。 结果:赤小豆、决明子及其混伪品的电泳图谱存在显著差异。结论:电泳图谱可作为赤小豆、决明子及其混伪品的鉴别依据,考马斯亮蓝G-250可用于电泳 鉴别。%OBJECTIVE:To identify two leguminosae Chinese drugs,semen phaseoli,semen cassiae,and their adulterants by electrophoresis and to study the dyeing effect of coomassie brilliant blue G-250.METHOD:Gel electrophoresis of soluble protein was used.RESULTS:The elect rophoretograms of semen phaseoli,semen cassiae and their adulterants are used d ifferent.CONCLUSION:The electrophoretograms can be used to different iate semen phaseoli and semen cassiae from their adulterants.Coomassie brilliant blue G-250 can be used in the electrophoresis identification.

  15. 几味常用中药材非药用部位或混淆品入药现象分析%Analysis of Non-medicinal Parts and Adulterant of Chinese Herbal Medicine Used as Medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李勇

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:To analyze the phenomenon of non-medicinal parts and adulterant of Chinese herbal medicine used as medicine.METHODS:The property,physicochemical property and pesticide effects were indentified in authentic and fake Uncaria tomentosa,Polygala tenuifolia,Cryptotympana pustulata,Rubia cordifolia and the thorn of Gleditsia sinensis.RESULTS:Pesticide effects of non-medicinal parts were worse than authentic medicine or opposite to authentic medicine,and adulterant had no pesticide effects even had toxic effects.CONCLUSIONS:Non-medicinal parts and adulterant has a severe impact on pesticide effects of Chinese herbal medicine.%目的:防止中药材非药用部位或混淆品入药.方法:对钩藤、远志、蝉蜕、茜草、皂荚刺的正伪品性状、理化性状及药效进行鉴别.结果:非药用部位的药效差于正品或者药效相反,混淆品一般无药用价值甚至有毒副作用.结论:非药用部位或混淆品入药会严重影响中药的药效,甚至危害患者.

  16. 基于蛋白质差异鉴别蜂蜜真伪的研究进展%Advance in identifying honey adulteration based on the protein differentiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周厚报; 邓建军; 胡苗苗; 丰凡; 曹炜

    2013-01-01

    Protein which is an important internal standard substance in honey can be used for identifying honey adulteration.It mainly comes from the bees and honey plants.Some differences exist in proteins obtained from different honeys,which is the basis of whether it' s adulterated honey or not.This paper reviewed and evaluated some detection methods of honey adulteration.%蜂蜜蛋白主要来自蜜蜂和蜜源植物,是蜂蜜真伪鉴别的重要内标物.不同来源的蜂蜜,其蛋白之间存在一定的差异,这些差异可以作为蜂蜜是否掺假和真伪鉴别的依据.文中从蛋白质差异方面对蜂蜜真伪鉴别的方法作了综述,并对各种方法进行了分析评价.

  17. Early development of the tradition of the self-confesed adulterer in Islam. An Isnād and Matn analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlovitch, Pavel

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This article applies isnād and matn criticism to traditions relating to the punishment of the self-confessed adulterer in Islam. Above all, it attempts to trace the relevant traditions to their earliest source, who, in the autthor’s view, is Ibn Shihāb al-Zuhrī. The article goes on to discuss the possible contents of this original source, which was apparentlly void of references to the personal name of the adulterer and provisions for his sanity and iḥṣān. The role of ‘Abd al-Razzāq al-Ṣan‘ānī in the elaboration of the matn comes under scrutiny. Later regional and personal variants of the original ḥadīṯ are analyzed in some detail. In its concluding section the article studies the provision for a fourfold confession by the adulterer. The author cites sources attesting to a controversy between ‘Abd al-Razzāq and Abū Dāwūd al-Ṭayālisī concerning the number of confessions needeed for the infliction of rajm.

    Este artículo aplica la crítica del isnād y el matn a las tradiciones relacionadas con el castigo del adúltero confeso en el Islam. Ante todo, intenta seguir la pista de las tradiciones relevantes hasta su fuente más temprana que es, en opinión del autor, Ibn Šhihāb al-Zuhrī. A continuación, el artículo trata de averiguar los posibles contenidos de esta primera versión, que aparentemente carecía de referencias al nombre personal del adúltero o de alguna comprobación en cuanto a su estado mental e iḥṣān. Se examina el papel de ‘Abd al-Razzāq al-Ṣan‘ānī en la elaboración del matn y se analizan en detalle algunas versiones posteriores, tanto regionales como personales, del ḥadīṯ original. En su parte final, el artículo estudia el requisito de la necesidad de una confesión cuádruple por parte del adúltero. El autor aporta fuentes que dan fe de una controversia entre ‘Abd al-Razzāq y Abū D

  18. Dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction based on solidification of floating organic drop and high-performance liquid chromatography to the analysis of cocaine's major adulterants in human urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sena, Laís Cristina Santana; Matos, Humberto Reis; Dórea, Haroldo Silveira; Pimentel, Maria Fernanda; de Santana, Danielle Cristine Almeida Silva; de Santana, Fernando José Malagueño

    2017-02-01

    A simple method has been proposed for the determination of cocaine's major adulterants (caffeine, levamisole, lidocaine, phenacetin, diltiazem, and hydroxyzine) in human urine by dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction based on solidification of floating organic drop (DLLME-SFO) in combination with high-performance liquid chromatography - photodiode array detector (HPLC-PDA). The reversed-phase chromatographic separation was obtained with a column C18 extended (250×4.6mm; 5μm; 80Å) in gradient elution mode using acetonitrile-trifluoroacetic acid 0.026% (v,v) (pH=2.5) at 1mLmin(-1) as mobile phase, at 25°C, and detection at 235nm. The analysis time was 25min. This condition had the best resolution factors (>1.15), retention factors (>0.68), number of plates (>2094.9), and separation factors (>1.05) for all targets, indicating a good separation. The kind of extraction and dispersive solvent were investigated for unifactorial design. The buffer pH, the volume of extraction and disperser solvent, and the amount of salt were optimized for full factorial design. Under optimum conditions, human urine samples were alkalized with 0.5M sodium phosphate buffer (pH 10) and added to sodium chloride (20%m/v). Acetonitrile (150μL) and 1-dodecanol (30μL) were used as dispersive and extraction solvent, respectively. The method presented linear range of 312.5-3125ngmL(-1) to caffeine and levamisole and 187.5-1875ngmL(-1) to lidocaine, phenacetin, diltiazem, and hydroxyzine. The limit of quantification was 187.5ngmL(-1) to lidocaine, phenacetin, diltiazem, and hydroxyzine and 312.5ngmL(-1) for caffeine and levamisole. The recovery mean values were between 6.0 and 42.6%. The method showed good precision and accuracy, with within- and between-run relative standard deviation and relative error less than 15%. The samples were stable after freeze-thaw cycle and short-term room temperature stability tests. Besides, this method was satisfactorily applied in urine of cocaine users. It

  19. Identification of Adulterated Honey Based on Three-Dimensional Fluorescence Spectra Technology%基于三维荧光光谱技术对掺假蜂蜜无损鉴别研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵杰文; 韩小燕; 陈全胜; 欧阳琴

    2013-01-01

    A new method was put forward to identify rice syrup adulteration in honey using three-dimensional fluorescence spectra technology combined with chemometric methods.The information of the three-dimensional fluorescence spectra was compressed and extracted using characteristic parameters method and the principal component analysis.Then,it can analyze honey adulteration combined with linear discriminant analysis (LDA) and the error back propagation neural network (BP-ANN) methods.The results showed that the prediction recognition rate of the LDA model was 94.44%,but that of the BP-ANN model can reach 100% when the number of principal components were four in the recognition experiment of adulterated honey,indicating that the BP-ANN model was more suitable for honey adulteration identification.This work demonstrated that the three-dimensional fluorescence spectroscopy combined with the BP-ANN model can be rapid,nondestructive,and accurate in identifying adulterated honey.%提出了一种应用三维荧光谱技术结合化学计量学方法快速无损鉴别蜂蜜中大米糖浆掺假的新方法.利用特征参量法和主成分分析法对三维荧光光谱信息量进行压缩提取,并结合线性判别分析法(LDA)和误差反向传播神经网络法(BP-ANN)对蜂蜜掺假进行分析.结果显示,在掺假蜂蜜判别试验中,采用4个主成分时,模型对预测集样本的识别率最佳,LDA模型识别率为94.44%,BP-ANN模型识别率为100%,说明非线性的BP-ANN模型更适合蜂蜜掺假识别.研究表明,三维荧光光谱结合BP-ANN判别模型可以快速、无损、准确地鉴别蜂蜜中大米糖浆掺假.

  20. Characterization of DNA Fingerprint of Cultivated Panax ginseng and Its Adulterants%栽培参及其伪品的脱氧核糖核酸指纹特征研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王慧; 王帅; 李明成; 张丽华; 王淼

    2013-01-01

      目的探讨人参及其伪品的基因组特异性片段特征,建立人参与伪品的脱氧核糖核酸(DNA)指纹鉴定方法.方法采用CTAB-SDS结合法提取人参及伪品基因组DNA,紫外分光光度计检测DNA纯度,设计特异性引物,并使用该引物对人参及其伪品DNA进行PCR扩增.结果人参与伪品提取出的基因组DNA大于23 kb,其纯度为1.70±0.19,并且人参能扩增出194 bp大小的片段,而其伪品未能扩增出相应片段.结论人参DNA片段具有特异性指纹特征,可作为人参与其伪品鉴定的有效方法,方法简便,结果可靠.%Objective To explore the characterization of specific genome fragment of Panax ginseng C.A.Mey and its adulterants,and to establish an identification method of Panax ginseng C.A.Mey and its adulterants with DNA fingerprint.Method The CTAB-SDS method was used to extract genomic DNA from Panax ginseng C.A. Mey and its adulterants,the purity of DNA was detected by UV spectrophotometer ,the specific PCR primers were designed,and the DNA was amplified by utilizing the primer with PCR technique .Results All DNAs obtained from the samples were greater than 23 Kb,the purity was 1.70 ±0.19,a fragment with 194 bp could be amplified only from Panax ginseng C.A.Mey,but not from its adulterants.Conclusion DNA fragment of Panax ginseng C.A.Mey could show a specific fingerprint characteristic ,suggesting that it can be used to identify Panax ginseng C.A.Mey from its adulterants.The method should be effective,simple,rapid and reliable.

  1. Estudo de adulteração em méis brasileiros através de razão isotópica do carbono A study of adulteration in brazilian honeys by carbon isotope ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cibele Regina de Souza-Kruliski

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho, objetivou-se analisar isotopicamente méis comercializados nas regiões Sul e Sudeste do Brasil, para a detecção de fraude. Foram colhidas amostras comerciais com registro no Serviço de Inspeção Federal, Estadual ou Municipal. As amostras foram submetidas à combustão no Analisador Elementar EA 1108 CHN e analisadas no espectrômetro de massas de razão isotópica DELTA-S (Finningan Mat. Os valores isotópicos (δ13C dos méis in natura foram comparados aos de suas respectivas proteínas (padrão interno. Foram consideradas adulteradas as amostras cuja diferença entre o valor isotópico da proteína e do mel foi igual ou inferior a -1‰. As amostras consideradas adulteradas pela análise isotópica foram submetidas a testes químicos qualitativos que não foram capazes de indicar adulteração para algumas delas. Das 61 amostras analisadas, 18,0% encontram-se adulteradas, sendo 11,5% na Região Sudeste e 6,5% na Região Sul. Ao contrário dos testes químicos, a análise isotópica mostrou-se eficaz em identificar e quantificar a adulteração de méis comerciais.The aim of this study was the isotopic evaluation of honey traded in the Southern and Southeastern Brazilian regions, to detect fraud. Commercial samples, registered in the municipal, State or Federal Inspection Service, were collected and submitted to combustion in the EA 1108 CHN Elemental Analyzer and analyzed in the DELTA-S (Finningan Mat. isotope ratio mass spectrometer. The isotopic values (δ13C of in natura honey were compared to their respective proteins (internal standard. Samples whose difference between the isotopic value of protein and honey was equal or inferior to -1‰ were considered adulterated. The samples considered adulterated were submitted to qualitative chemical tests which were unable to show adulteration for some of them. Among the 61 samples analyzed, 18.0% were adulterated; 11.5% in the Southeastern and 6.5% in the Southern region

  2. Research progress in carbohydrates quality control of raw milk and milk products%原料乳与乳制品中碳水化合物质量控制研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨自洁; 龚吉军; 任国谱; 邓放明

    2012-01-01

    Carbohydrates of raw milk and milk products have significant nutritional value for human body.Adulteration,however,that is a common phenomenon at present.This review mainly focused on detection technology of the real and adulterated carbohydrates in raw milk and milk products,in order to provide theoretical guidances on quality control and adulteration detection of carbohydrates in raw milk and milk products.%原料乳与乳制品中碳水化合物具有极高的营养价值,对人体健康具有重要作用,但其掺伪现象较普遍,严重影响了原料乳与乳制品的品质。文章综述了原料乳与乳制品中碳水化合物及其掺伪物质检测技术研究进展,旨在为做好原料乳与乳制品中碳水化合物质量控制提供科学依据。

  3. Combined NIR/MIR analysis: a novel method for the classification of complex substances such as Illicium verum Hook. F. and its adulterants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yong; Mei, Minghua; Ni, Yongnian; Kokot, Serge

    2014-09-15

    A novel combined near- and mid-infrared (NIR and MIR) spectroscopic method has been researched and developed for the analysis of complex substances such as the Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), Illicium verum Hook. F. (IVHF), and its noxious adulterant, Iuicium lanceolatum A.C. Smith (ILACS). Three types of spectral matrix were submitted for classification with the use of the linear discriminant analysis (LDA) method. The data were pretreated with either the successive projections algorithm (SPA) or the discrete wavelet transform (DWT) method. The SPA method performed somewhat better, principally because it required less spectral features for its pretreatment model. Thus, NIR or MIR matrix as well as the combined NIR/MIR one, were pretreated by the SPA method, and then analysed by LDA. This approach enabled the prediction and classification of the IVHF, ILACS and mixed samples. The MIR spectral data produced somewhat better classification rates than the NIR data. However, the best results were obtained from the combined NIR/MIR data matrix with 95-100% correct classifications for calibration, validation and prediction. Principal component analysis (PCA) of the three types of spectral data supported the results obtained with the LDA classification method.

  4. Molecular identification of Foeniculum vulgare and its adulterants by ITS2 sequence%ITS2序列鉴定小茴香及其常见混伪品

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘义梅; 罗焜; 陈科力; 陈士林

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨基于ITS2序列鉴定小茴香及其混伪品的新方法.方法 对小茴香4份样品的ITS2序列进行PCR扩增和测序,同时从GenBank上下载小茴香及其常见混伪品共6个物种42个样本.用MEGA4.1计算其种间、种内的K-2-P距离,并分析各物种间ITS2序列二级结构的差异,最后利用ITS2序列构建其系统发育树.结果 小茴香种内最大K-2-P距离为0.0307,与混伪品的种间最小K-2-P距离为0.0405;小茴香及其混伪品的ITS2二级结构存在明显差异;构建的系统发育树显示小茴香的不同来源样本聚在一支,能很好与混伪品区分.结论 ITS2序列能够成功鉴定小茴香及其易混伪品,可以作为小茴香及其混伪品的分子鉴定方法.%Objective To explore the new method of discriminating Foeniculum vulgare from its adulterants by using ITS2 sequence. Method DNA samples were extracted from Foeniculum vulgare.ITS2 sequence was amplified by PCR and sequenced hidirectionally. Sequences were assembled hy CodonCode Aligner. The intra-specific and inter-specific K-2P distances of Foeniculum vulgare ancl its adulterants were calculated. and NJ tree was constructed by MEGA V 4. 1. ITS2 and secondary structure were predicted by the web tool established by Schultz etc. Results The maximum intra-specific K-2P distance was0. 0307 . while the minimum inter-specific K-2P distance was 0. 0405. Different samples of Foeniculum vulgare were gathered together and could be distinguished from its adulterants by NJ tree. And Foeniculum vulgare could he differentiated obviously from its adulterants by their ITS2 secondary structure. Conclusion Our study shows that ITS2 sequence is able to identify Foeniculum vulgare from its adulterants successfully and is an efficient molecular identification method for Foeniculum vulgare and its adulterants.

  5. 傅里叶变换红外光谱法在橄榄油掺假鉴别中的应用%Application of Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy to Olive Oil Adulteration Identification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄秀丽; 黄飞; 曾宪远; 宁焕焱; 唐丽娜; 奉夏平

    2014-01-01

    Fourier transform infrared spectrometer was used to detect the infrared information of olive oil, sunflower oil, peanut oil, corn oil, soybean oil, rapeseed oil and palm oil. The results showed that the position and absorbance of olive oil in the infrared spectra absorption peaks were different from other vegetable oils, with the absorption peak at 3005-3009 cm-1 and 1117-1121 cm-1 as the species distinction. Simulation of adulteration, the absorbance and adulteration ratio showed a linear relationship at 3005 cm-1 and 1097 cm-1. When 7 kinds of edible vegetable oil were heated up to 180℃for 2 h, absorption peak of olive oil at 1097 cm-1 and 968 cm-1 rose while that of other kinds of vegetable oil decreased. As to adulterated olive oils, 3005 cm-1 absorbance was still linear with adulteration ratio from 5%to 80%, in the meantime, 3400-3650 cm-1 region showed a great increase even the adulteration ratio was reduced to 5%, which provided a rapid and efficient method for identification of olive oil adulteration.%采用傅里叶变换红外光谱仪对橄榄油、葵花籽油、花生油、玉米油、大豆油、菜籽油、棕榈油7种食用植物油的红外光谱信息进行分析。结果表明,橄榄油的红外吸收光谱在吸收峰的位置及吸光度上均与其他种类的植物油有区别,以3005~3009 cm-1、1117~1121 cm-1处的吸收峰作为种类区分。模拟掺假过程,向橄榄油中掺入其他6种不同比例的低价值植物油后,发现1097、3005 cm-1处吸收峰的峰面积与掺假百分比呈线性关系。此外,对7种食用植物油180℃加热2 h后的红外光谱图进行分析,发现968、1097 cm-1处的吸收峰变化趋势有差异,橄榄油呈上升趋势而其他种类的植物油则呈现下降趋势。掺假橄榄油加热后谱图分析发现3005 cm-1处的峰面积有所降低,但与掺假百分比仍呈线性关系,掺入5%低价油,3400~3650 cm-1区域呈明显增加趋势,据

  6. 傅里叶变换红外光谱法对掺假橄榄油的快速鉴别%Rapid Discrimination of Adulteration of Olive Oil by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrophotometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王志嘉; 赵延华

    2012-01-01

    FT-IRS with attenuated total reflection (ATR) was applied to the rapid discrimination of adulteration of olive oil. Samples of olive oil mixed with transgenic and non-transgenic, soybean oil, peanut oil, corn oil, sunflower oil or blended oil were heated at 160 ℃ for 8 h, on the base of the difference in absorption peaks at 988 em-1 shown in the 2nd derivative spectra obtained before and after heating, adulteration of olive oil was determined. The proposed method has the special features of simple and easy in pre-treatment without using organic reagents, and feasible for use in rapid discrimination of adulterated olive oil on market.%利用衰减全反射傅里叶红外光谱法对掺假橄榄油进行了快速鉴别研究。对掺入转基因大豆油、非转基因大豆油、花生油、玉米油、葵花籽油、调和油等的橄榄油采用160℃高温加热8h处理,通过观察样品加热前、后二阶导数光谱在988cm叫处特征吸收峰的吸光度变化,准确鉴别橄榄油是否掺假。该方法操作简便、前处理无需有机试剂,可作为市场筛查掺假橄榄油的快速鉴别方法。

  7. 市售西红花药材掺伪染色检测方法的实验研究%Experimental research on the detection methods of Croci Stigma adulteration on the markets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付凌燕; 闵春艳; 汪祺; 鲁静

    2012-01-01

    目的:确认西红花药材中违法染色的色素或染料成分,建立相应的染色成分分析方法.方法:采用液相色谱-质谱联用以及对照试剂对照的方法,对染色成分进行鉴定;薄层色谱和高效液相色谱法检测染色物成分.结果:西红花药材掺伪染色的主要成分为柠檬黄、胭脂红、金胺O和新品红;对43批市售西红花药材进行了检测,其中32批检测出含有上述4种染色物,存在染色情况.结论:建立的检测方法可快速进行西红花药材中掺伪染色的定性检测.%Objective;To identify the pigments or dyes,and establish analysis method for Croci Stigma adulteration. Methods: Using LC - MS method and comparing with the reference regents, to identify the main pigments and dyes. TLC and HPLC analytical methods were used for analysis of Croci Stigma adulteration. Results: Tartrazine, brilliant ponceau, auramine 0 and new fuchsin were identified as the main pigments and dyes. The results show that the above 4 pigments and dyes could be detected in 32 of totally 43 samples. Conclusion: The established method is able to detect the Croci Stigma adulteration quickly and effectively.

  8. Preparation of Nickle-adulterated Foam Ceramics and Nickle-coated on its Surface%Al2O3泡沫金属复合陶瓷的制备及表面包镍处理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨少锋; 晏彬彬; 吴阳; 李恺

    2013-01-01

    采用有机泡沫前驱体浸渍工艺制备Al2O3泡沫金属复合陶瓷.通过涂覆处理获得缺陷较少、结构均匀的泡沫金属复合陶瓷;采用Ni(NO3)2·6H2O液相包覆+氢气热还原技术对泡沫金属复合陶瓷体表面进行金属化处理.采用SEM、EDS研究了含镍泡沫陶瓷体的结构及金属化处理后的表面形貌.结果表明,镍颗粒均匀地分布在泡沫陶瓷骨架内部,骨架中心宏观孔保持通孔;经包覆处理后,金属层较均匀地附着于陶瓷表面.%The open cell Nickle-adulterated alumina foam ceramics were prepared by impregnating a polymeric sponge with aqueous ceramic slurry. The Nickle-adulterated alumina foam ceramics with a very u-niform macrostructure and few flaws were produced by recoating process. A nickelousnitrate liquid-phase coating and deoxidized by hydrogen method was used to deposit Ni on the surface of Ni-adulterated alumina foams. Coating morphology and microstructure of the foam ceramics were observed by SEM (scanning electron microscope) and EDS (energy dispersed spectrometer). The results indicate that Ni particles are distributed uniformly in the foam skeleton and pores in the sintered body exhibit interconnected. Furthermore, Ni is successfully coated on alumina foams surface after coating process.

  9. Determinação de ácido acéttico em amostra de vinagre adulterada com ácido clorídrico - um experimento integrado de titulação potenciométrica e condutométrica Determination of acetic acid in vinegar adulterated sample with cloridric acid - an experiment integrated of potentiometric and conductometric titrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Vinicius Martins

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The determination of acetic acid in vinegar adulterated sample using simultaneous potentiometric and condutometric titrations was used as an example of integrated experiment in instrumental analysis. An Excel® spreadsheet, which allows the entry of simultaneous data and the construction of the superimposed experimental curves (condutometric, potentiometric, first and second derivative potentiometric curve and, distribution diagrama of the acetic species as function of pH, was used as powerful tool to discuss the fundamental concepts involved in each technique and choose the best of them to quantify, without mutual interference, H3CCOOH and HCl in vinegar adulterated sample.

  10. Identification of adulterants in a Chinese herbal medicine by LC-HRMS and LC-MS-SPE/NMR and comparative in vivo study with standards in a hypertensive rat model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kesting, Julie Regitze; Huang, JingQi; Sørensen, Dan

    2010-01-01

    Based on anecdotal evidence of anti-hypertensive effect of Gold Nine Soft Capsules, an in vivo study of this complex Chinese "herbal-based" medicine was initiated. Dosage of the content of Gold Nine capsules in spontaneous hypertensive rats showed a remarkably good effect. This led to further...... of a combination of commercially purchased standards was shown to be equivalent to that of the capsule content. Adulteration of herbal remedies and dietary supplements with synthetic drugs is an increasing problem that may lead to serious adverse effects. LC-MS-SPE/NMR as a method for the rapid identification...

  11. 基于二维红外相关谱欧氏距离判别掺杂牛奶%Discrimination of Adulterated Milk Based on Euclidian Distances between Two-Dimensional Infrared Correlation Spectra

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨仁杰; 杨延荣; 董桂梅; 杜艳红; 单慧勇; 张伟玉

    2014-01-01

    Based on Euclidian distances between synchronous two-dimensional infrared correlation spectra,in terms of the aver-age Euclidian distances between unknown samples and “extreme samples”,and average intra- and inter- Euclidian distances of samples in the calibration set,a new method for the discrimination of adulterated milk was proposed.Sixteen pure milk samples were collected and 16 adulterated milk samples with urea (0. 01~0. 3 g·L-1 ),and 16 adulterated milk samples with melamine (0. 01~0. 3 g·L-1 )samples were prepared,respectively.The IR absorption spectra of all samples were measured at room tem-perature.The synchronous two-dimensional correlation spectra were generated from concentration-dependent spectral variation of adulterant in milk.The Euclidian distances were calculated between synchronous two-dimensional infrared correlation spectra of all samples.Then,the classification models were built respectively for adulterated milk with urea,and adulterated milk with melamine.The “extreme samples”,average intra- and inter- Euclidian distances were determined.Finally,the unknown samples in prediction set were predicted using constructed models in terms of classification rules of adulterated milk.The classification accuracy rates for pure milk and adulterated milk were 100%.The effectiveness of the proposed method was verified.The re-sults obtained in this study revealed that synchronous two-dimensional infrared correlation spectra in combination with Euclidian distance has a feasible potential to discriminate adulterated milk and pure milk.%基于纯牛奶、掺杂牛奶样品间二维红外相关谱欧氏距离,依据未知样品与校正集中“极值样品”欧氏距离平均值、组内、组间样品欧氏距离平均值,提出了一种掺杂牛奶判别的新方法。分别配置掺杂尿素牛奶(0.01~0.3 g·L-1)和掺杂三聚氰胺牛奶(0.01~0.3 g·L-1)样品各16个,采集纯牛奶及掺杂牛奶样品的红外

  12. Early excision and grafting, an alternative approach to the surgical management of large body surface area levamisole-adulterated cocaine induced skin necrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miner, Jason; Gruber, Paul; Perry, Travis L

    2015-05-01

    Levamisole-adulterated cocaine as a cause of retiform purpura progressing to full-thickness skin necrosis was first documented in 2003 and currently comprises over 200 reported cases. Whereas, its presentation, pathophysiology, and diagnostic workup have been reasonably well-defined, only one publication has significantly detailed its surgical management. For this reason there exists a relative absence of data in comparison to its reported incidence to suggest a preferred treatment strategy. In the case mentioned, treatment emphasized delayed surgical intervention while awaiting lesion demarcation and the monitoring of autoantibodies. At our institution we offer an alternative approach and present the case of a 34 year old female who presented with 49% TBSA, levamisole-induced skin necrosis managed with early surgical excision and skin grafting. The patient presented three days following cocaine exposure with painful, purpura involving the ears, nose, buttocks, and bilateral lower extremities which quickly progressed to areas of full-thickness necrosis. Lab analysis demonstrated elevated p-ANCA and c-ANCA, as well as leukopenia, decreased C4 complement, and urinalysis positive for levamisole, corroborating the diagnosis. Contrasting the most thoroughly documented case in which the patient underwent first surgical excision on hospital day 36 and underwent 18 total excisions, our patient underwent first excision on hospital day 10 and received only one primary excision prior to definitive autografting. To our knowledge, this is the largest surface area surgically treated that did not result in surgical amputation or autoamputation of limbs or appendages, respectively. We contend that early excision and grafting provides optimal surgical management of this syndrome while avoiding the morbidity seen with delayed intervention.

  13. Mercury Toxicity and Contamination of Households from the Use of Skin Creams Adulterated with Mercurous Chloride (Calomel).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copan, Lori; Fowles, Jeff; Barreau, Tracy; McGee, Nancy

    2015-09-02

    Inorganic mercury, in the form of mercurous chloride, or calomel, is intentionally added to some cosmetic products sold through informal channels in Mexico and the US for skin lightening and acne treatment. These products have led to multiple cases of mercury poisoning but few investigations have addressed the contamination of cream users' homes. We report on several cases of mercury poisoning among three Mexican-American families in California from use of mercury-containing skin creams. Each case resulted in widespread household contamination and secondary contamination of family members. Urine mercury levels in cream users ranged from 37 to 482 µg/g creatinine and in non-users from non-detectable to 107 µg/g creatinine. Air concentrations of up to 8 µg/m³ of mercury within homes exceeded the USEPA/ATSDR health-based guidance and action level of <1.0 μg/m³. Mercury contamination of cream users' homes presented a multi-pathway exposure environment to residents. Homes required extensive decontamination, including disposal of most household items, to achieve acceptable air levels. The acceptable air levels used were not designed to consider multi-pathway exposure scenarios. These findings support that the calomel is able to change valence form to elemental mercury and volatilize once exposed to the skin or surfaces in the indoor environment.

  14. Mercury Toxicity and Contamination of Households from the Use of Skin Creams Adulterated with Mercurous Chloride (Calomel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lori Copan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Inorganic mercury, in the form of mercurous chloride, or calomel, is intentionally added to some cosmetic products sold through informal channels in Mexico and the US for skin lightening and acne treatment. These products have led to multiple cases of mercury poisoning but few investigations have addressed the contamination of cream users’ homes. We report on several cases of mercury poisoning among three Mexican-American families in California from use of mercury-containing skin creams. Each case resulted in widespread household contamination and secondary contamination of family members. Urine mercury levels in cream users ranged from 37 to 482 µg/g creatinine and in non-users from non-detectable to 107 µg/g creatinine. Air concentrations of up to 8 µg/m3 of mercury within homes exceeded the USEPA/ATSDR health-based guidance and action level of <1.0 μg/m3. Mercury contamination of cream users’ homes presented a multi-pathway exposure environment to residents. Homes required extensive decontamination, including disposal of most household items, to achieve acceptable air levels. The acceptable air levels used were not designed to consider multi-pathway exposure scenarios. These findings support that the calomel is able to change valence form to elemental mercury and volatilize once exposed to the skin or surfaces in the indoor environment.

  15. Mercury Toxicity and Contamination of Households from the Use of Skin Creams Adulterated with Mercurous Chloride (Calomel)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copan, Lori; Fowles, Jeff; Barreau, Tracy; McGee, Nancy

    2015-01-01

    Inorganic mercury, in the form of mercurous chloride, or calomel, is intentionally added to some cosmetic products sold through informal channels in Mexico and the US for skin lightening and acne treatment. These products have led to multiple cases of mercury poisoning but few investigations have addressed the contamination of cream users’ homes. We report on several cases of mercury poisoning among three Mexican-American families in California from use of mercury-containing skin creams. Each case resulted in widespread household contamination and secondary contamination of family members. Urine mercury levels in cream users ranged from 37 to 482 µg/g creatinine and in non-users from non-detectable to 107 µg/g creatinine. Air concentrations of up to 8 µg/m3 of mercury within homes exceeded the USEPA/ATSDR health-based guidance and action level of <1.0 μg/m3. Mercury contamination of cream users’ homes presented a multi-pathway exposure environment to residents. Homes required extensive decontamination, including disposal of most household items, to achieve acceptable air levels. The acceptable air levels used were not designed to consider multi-pathway exposure scenarios. These findings support that the calomel is able to change valence form to elemental mercury and volatilize once exposed to the skin or surfaces in the indoor environment. PMID:26364641

  16. Adulteration Detection of Cocoa Powder by Clustering Analysis of Polysaccharide Components%多糖组分色谱指纹图谱聚类分析可可粉的掺假鉴别

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡明华; 王琴; 戴军; 陈尚卫; 朱松

    2012-01-01

    In order to establish cocoa adulterhting detection methods, polysaccharide contained in cocoa powder was extracted by Ultrasound assisted method, then hydrolyzed with sulfuric acid solution, and finally derivatized with 1- phenyl-3 - methyl -5 - pyrazolone (PMP) to get cocoa polysaccharide fingerprints by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). According to the relative peaks areas of the common peaks, adulteration detection of cocoa powder was attempted successfully by system clustering analysis (HCA) method. The results showed that cocoa powder adulterated with more than 15% cocoa shell could be identified by this method.%为了建立可可粉掺假检测方法,采用超声辅助提取可可粉中多糖组分,利用硫酸水解及柱前PMP(1-苯基-3-甲基一吡唑啉酮)衍生化高效液相色谱法(HPLC)分析得到可可粉多糖组分的指纹图谱,根据共有特征峰的相对峰面积,应用系统聚类分析(HCA)法进行可可粉掺假鉴别试验。结果表明,掺入15%及以上可可壳的可可粉可以通过此方法予以鉴别。

  17. 基于近红外光谱技术实现掺假山羊奶的定性和定量检测%Study on Qualitative and Quantitative Discrimination of Adulteration Goat's Milk by Near Infrared Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    褚莹; 丁武; 齐强强

    2011-01-01

    以近红外光谱(NIRS)技术为基础,实现掺假山羊奶的快速、无损检测.采用主成分分析结合神经网络以及偏最小二乘法(PLS)分别对纯山羊奶和掺有奶油、还原奶的两类掺假山羊奶进行定性和定量研究.结果表明,将主成分分析与多层感知器(Multilayer Perceptron,MLP)神经网络相结合建立的定性判别模型对样品建模集和预测集的正确判别率都达到100%.光谱经预处理、优选波段和主成分维数后,利用PLS分别建立两类掺假奶的定量校正模型.其中掺奶油山羊奶定量校正模型的决定系数(R2)为98.54%,交叉验证均方根差(RMSECV)为0.379;掺还原奶山羊奶定量校正模型的R2为96.38%,RMSECV为6.20.同时运用马氏距离和二审剔除法判断和剔除异常样本后,两类掺假奶模型的R2分别提高到98.85%和97.06%,RM-SECV分别降低到0.333和5.61.外部验证得到预测值与真值的相关系数(R2)分别为0.989和0.982,预测效果满意.所得结论表明,近红外光谱技术结合化学计量学方法可以实现掺假山羊奶的定性和定量检测.%The study attempted to achieve the quick and nondestructive detection of adulteration goat's milk by near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). Pure goat's milk and milk adulterated with margarine and reconstituted milk were studied by the combination of component analysis and Multilayer Perceptron (MLP) artificial neural network artificial neural network and the partial least squares (PLS) method qualitatively and quantitatively. The results indicated that the correct classification rate of qualitative discriminant model which was made by component analysis combined with MLP artificial neural network to discriminating modeling and validation set samples were all 100%. Then the calibration models were proposed by PLS method with the precondition, selection of wavelength range and rank. The coefficient of determination (R2) and the root mean standard errors of cross

  18. Optimization and application of methods of triacylglycerol evaluation for characterization of olive oil adulteration by soybean oil with HPLC-APCI-MS-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasciotti, Maíra; Pereira Netto, Annibal D

    2010-05-15

    solutions and principal component analysis (PCA). Argentinean olive oils were clustered in a different area of the principal components plot (PC2 xP C1) in comparison with European olive oils. The commercial blend containing 15% (w/w) of olive oil in soybean oil appeared in a completely different area of the graphic, showing the potential of this method to screen out for olive oil adulterations.

  19. Global harmonization of food safety regulation from the perspective of Korea and a novel fast automatic product recall system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Mun-Gi; Oh, Sangsuk

    2014-08-01

    Efforts have been made for global harmonization of food safety regulations among countries through international organizations such as WTO and WHO/FAO. Global harmonization of food safety regulations is becoming increasingly important for Korean consumers because more than half of food and agricultural products are imported and consumed. Through recent reorganization of the Korean government, a consolidated national food safety authority-the Ministry of Food and Drug Safety (MFDS)-has been established for more efficient food safety control and better communication with consumers. The Automatic Sales Blocking System (ASBS), which blocks the sales of the recalled food products at the point of sale, has been implemented at over 40,000 retail food stores around the nation using state-of-the art information and communication technology (ICT) for faster recall of adulterated food products, and the e-Food Safety Control System has been developed for more efficient monitoring of national food safety surveillance situations. The National Food Safety Information Service was also established for monitoring and collecting food safety information and incidents worldwide, and shares relevant information with all stakeholders. The new approaches adopted by the Korean Food Safety Authority are expected to enhance public trust with regard to food safety issues and expedite the recall process of adulterated products from the market.

  20. Two-Dimensional Hetero-Spectral Near-Inf rared and Mid-Inf rared Correlation Spectroscopy for Discrimination Adulterated Milk%基于异谱二维NIR-IR相关判别掺杂牛奶

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于舸; 杨仁杰; 吕爱君; 谭恩忠

    2015-01-01

    New approach for discriminant analysis of adulterated milk is proposed based on combining hetero‐spectral two‐dimen‐sional (2D) near‐infrared (NIR) and mid‐infrared (IR) correlation spectroscopy along with multi‐way partial least squares dis‐criminant analysis (NPLS‐DA) .Firstly ,36 pure milk samples were collected and 36 adulterated milk with starch samples (0.01 to 1 g · L -1 ) were prepared by adding appropriate mass of starch into pure milk .Then ,one‐dimensional NIR transmittance spectra and IR attenuated total reflection spectra of pure milk and adulterated milk with starch were measured at room tempera‐ture .And the synchronous 2D NIR‐IR (4 200~4 800 vs .900~1 700 cm -1 ) correlation spectra of all samples were calculated . Due to the trace of adulterants ,the synchronous 2D IR‐NIR correlation spectral differences between adulterated milk with starch and pure milk are very subtle .Consequently ,it was impossible to directly distinguish whether the sample was pure milk or adul‐terated milk .Finally ,2D IR‐NIR correlation spectra were to build a discriminant model to classify adulterated milk and pure milk .The classification accuracy rates of samples in calibration set and in prediction set were 95.8% and 100% respectively .Al‐so ,the NPLS‐DA models were built based on 2D NIR and 2D IR correlation spectra ,respectively .The classification accuracy rates of samples in prediction set were 95.8% .Comparison results showed that the NPLS‐DA model could provide better results using 2D NIR‐IR correlation spectra than using 2D NIR ,and 2D IR correlation spectra .The proposed method can not only effec‐tively extract the feature information of adulterants in milk ,but also explores a new perspective method for detection of adultera‐ted food .%为更快、更准确的判别掺杂牛奶和纯牛奶,将二维异谱 N IR‐IR相关谱与多维偏最小二乘判别(NPLS‐DA)相结合,建立了掺杂牛奶与纯牛奶 NPLS

  1. The Primary Research of Stable Carbon Isotope Ratio Techniques in The Detection of Adulteration of Apple Vinegar%稳定碳同位素技术在苹果醋饮料掺假鉴别中的应用初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟其顶; 王道兵; 李国辉

    2016-01-01

    Stable isotopic techniques play am important role in food authenticity evaluation. In this paper,the stable carbon isotope technologies (δ13CVPDB)were used to detect the adulteration of apple vinegar. On the based of δ13CVPDB character of sugar of apple,the distribution of δ13CVPDB value of acetic acid of apple vinegar was put forward. Results showed that,apple tree was a classic C3 plant with sugar δ13CVPDB value ranges from -27.11‰~-23.75‰ for the limited samples,and the δ13CVPDB value of acetic acid showed a positive correlation while pure acetic acid derived from fermentation of corn. 20 commercial apple vinegar samples were collected,and δ13CVPDB value of acetic acid indicated that 6 samples were adulterated with the illegal addition of corn acetic acid. This paper demonstrated a new method to discriminate real apple vinegar from fraud products. This finding and its possible application is a great significance for upgrading the technical level of China National Standard of vinegar and affiliate the imports and exports of vinegar.%稳定同位素技术在食品真实鉴别中具有重要应用价值,本文借助稳定碳同位素技术研究了苹果醋饮料的掺假检测方法。基于苹果的糖中碳同位素啄13CVPDB数据,提出了苹果醋饮料的乙酸啄13CVPDB值范围。研究表明,苹果具有典型的C3植物的碳同位素分布特征,苹果醋中掺入玉米原料生产的冰乙酸后乙酸啄13CVPDB值与冰乙酸掺入量呈线性正相关关系。采集了20个市售苹果醋饮料,检出6个掺有玉米原料冰乙酸的阳性样品。该技术可用于苹果醋的真假鉴别,填补了稳定同位素技术在我国果醋饮料真伪鉴别中的应用空白,对实现我国果醋标准与国际接轨、促进果醋的进出口和保护消费者合法权益具有重要意义。

  2. 基于Bayes分类的原料乳中植物奶油掺假监测研究%Determination on Bayes classification used in plant cream adulterated in raw milk

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋珍菊; 王雁; 王玺

    2012-01-01

    对原料乳中氢化植物油和植脂末掺假进行监测。通过GC测定正常原料乳甲酯化脂肪酸,建立正常原料乳甲酯化脂肪酸数据库,用Bayes分类模型建立原料乳和氢化植物油和植脂末掺假奶的判别模型,模型所需估计的参数少、算法简单、对缺失数据不太敏感,可在SAS软件的DISCRIM过程中进行快速自动识别。建立了Bayes分类模型用于原料乳中氢化植物油和植脂末掺假奶掺假监测,得出概率判别公式为通过验证,该公式对氢化植物油和植脂末判别最低检出限分别为0.8%和0.1%。基于Bayes分类的原料乳中植物奶油掺假监测简单可行,成本低,速度快。%The aim was to study on the monitoring in plant cream adulterated into raw milk. The content of methyl fatty acid in normal raw milk determined by GC, and normal raw milk of methyl fatty acid database was established. On the bases of database the Bayes classification model was built for distinguish the raw milk, hydrogenated plant cream and the fat grain adulterated into milk. The model has the advantage of less parameters, simple algorithm and insensitive missing data. So the distinguished result could be fast and automatic in the process of SAS software. Bayes classification model was established for the quality monitoring of raw milk, the probability that a discrimination formula is R(α k│ X)= min ^R( αk│ X) i=1,...,c. The limit of hydrogenated plant cream and the fat grain was distinguished is 0.8% and 0.1%, respectively. Bayes classification used in the monitoring of plant oil adulterated into raw milk is simple and feasible, low cost and fast.

  3. 近红外光谱法用于掺假羊奶的快速无损鉴别%Rapid and nondestructive identification of adulteration Goat's milk by near infrared Spectroscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    褚莹; 丁武; 丁丁

    2012-01-01

    利用近红外光谱技术结合多种化学计量学方法,研究了快速鉴别掺假羊奶的方法.将淀粉溶液,含尿素的淀粉溶液,含尿素和奶油的淀粉溶液按不同比例掺入纯羊奶中,进行近红外光谱采集.分别采用偏最小二乘差别分析(PLS-DA),fisher线性判别和多层感知器(MLP)神经网络法建立校正模型并进行检验验证.结果表明,MLP神经网络的鉴别效果最好,其校正模型的正判率达到99.4%,验证集的正判率达到100%.说明采用近红外光谱技术结合适当的化学计量学方法可以实现羊奶掺假检测的快速无损鉴别.%Rapid and nondestructive identification of adulteration goat's milk was studied by the the combination of near infrared spectroscopy and chemometric methods. Adulteration samples of starch solution, starch solution contained urea, starch solution contained urea and margarine were collected and scanned by near infrared spectrograph. Using Partial least squares difference analysis (PLS-DA), fisher's linear discriminator and Multilayer Perceptron (MLP) artificial neural network to built calibration models, then the models were verified. The results showed that the highest rate of correct discriminant of the models built by MLP artificial neural network was 99.4%, and the prediction accuracy was 100% .All of these showed that the near infrared spectrum technique combined with chemometric methods could be used for the rapid and nondestructive identification of adulteration goat's milk.

  4. Identification and Quantification of Common Adulterants of Saffron (Crocus sativus) by HPLC-DAD%西红花常见伪品的HPLC-DAD鉴别和掺伪量测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    安慧景; 张继; 孙兰; 南垚; 武佳; 周立东

    2012-01-01

    目的:建立HPLC-DAD方法,一次性鉴别西红花常见伪品红花、菊花,并测定其掺伪量.方法:采用高效液相色谱法,流动相为乙腈-0.3%磷酸水;波长范围200~410 nm;羟基红花黄色素A检测波长402 nm,绿原酸检测波长327 nm;梯度洗脱.结果:通过HPLC分析,确定羟基红花黄色素A、绿原酸分别为红花、菊花的特征成分,测定样品含量,可鉴别出样品中是否掺入了红花、菊花,并确定伪品掺入量.羟基红花黄色素A 0.005~0.25 mg·mL-1,绿原酸0.001~0.05 mg·mL-1范围内线性关系良好,方法回收率高,重复性好.结论:此方法能一次性鉴别西红花常见伪品红花、菊花,并测定其掺伪量,对其它药材的相关研究也有参考价值.%This study was aimed to develop a method to identify and quantify common adulterants of saffron by simultaneously determining specific constituents by HPLC-DAD. The separation was achieved using a C18 column and CH3CN-0.3%H3PO4 solution as a mobile phase with gradient elution. Hydroxysafflor yellow A and chloro-genic acid, used as specific constituents, were detected at 402 nm and 327 nm, respectively. By detecting specific constituents, we can find out if samples were adulterated with safflower and/or chrysanthemum and calculate the percentage. The method was validated in terms of linearity, precision, accuracy and recovery. And results were found to be satisfactory. This method is simple, sensitive and operational in the identification and quantification of common adulterants of saffron.

  5. Adulteration detection of cocoa powder by clustering analysis of lipid%基于脂质聚类分析的可可粉掺假检测方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王琴; 胡明华; 戴军; 陈尚卫; 朱松; 詹晟

    2012-01-01

    为从脂质指纹分析角度建立可可粉掺假检测方法,用索氏提取法提取可可粉中的可可脂,通过反相高效液相色谱(RP- HPLC)分离-蒸发光散射检测器(ELSD)检测,构建可可粉的脂质色谱指纹图谱,根据其共有特征峰的相对峰面积,应用系统聚类分析(HCA)法,对模拟分别掺入板栗壳粉与桂圆壳粉且分别掺入代可可脂和棕榈油的可可粉掺假样品进行脂质指纹分析和掺假鉴别试验.结果表明:该方法对掺入1.2%(占样品质量的百分含量)及以上代可可脂或棕榈油的掺假可可粉样品可以予以鉴别.该方法较简便、灵敏且重复性好,可用于掺入不合脂质或低脂质类杂质的伪劣样品的检测.%For development of the adulterating detection method of cocoa powder, the lipids in cocoa powder samples made from cacao of 11 different country and area were extracted by Soxhlet extractor, and then was analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography ( HPLC ) coupled with evaporative light - scattering detector (ELSD), and chromatographic fingerprint of lipid was obtained. According to relative peak area of the common peak, simulated cocoa powder samples adulterated respectively with chestnut shell powder/ cocoa butter replacer(CBR) and longan shell powder/palm oil were i-dentified by system clustering analysis method (HCA). The result showed that cocoa powder which was adulterated with more than 1.2% CBR or palm oil can be identified. Relative standard deviations of relative retention time and relative peak area of 1 4 common peaks of chromatographic fingerprint in this method were less than 3%.

  6. Origin of haloacetic acids in milk and dairy products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardador, Maria Jose; Gallego, Mercedes

    2016-04-01

    Haloacetic acids (HAAs) are formed during the process of water disinfection. Therefore their presence in foods can be correlated with the addition of or contact with treated water. To determine the origin of HAAs in milk and dairy products, firstly a chromatographic method was developed for their determination. The sample treatment involves deproteination of milk followed by derivatization/extraction of the HAAs in the supernatant. About 20% of the foods analyzed contained two HAAs - which in no case exceeded 2 μg L(-1), that can be ascribed to contamination from sanitizers usually employed in the dairy industry. The process of boiling tap water (containing HAAs) for the preparation of powdered infant formula did not remove them; therefore it would be advisable to prepare this type of milk with mineral water (free of HAAs). In addition, it is possible to establish if the milk has been adulterated with treated water through the determination of HAAs.

  7. Rapid detection of the addition of soybean proteins to cheese and other dairy products by reversed-phase perfusion chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, M C; Marina, M L

    2006-04-01

    The undeclared addition of soybean proteins to milk products is forbidden and a method is needed for food control and enforcement. This paper reports the development of a chromatographic method for routine analysis enabling the detection of the addition of soybean proteins to dairy products. A perfusion chromatography column and a linear binary gradient of acetonitrile-water-0.1% (v/v) trifluoroacetic acid at a temperature of 60 degrees C were used. A very simple sample treatment consisting of mixing the sample with a suitable solvent (Milli-Q water or bicarbonate buffer (pH=11)) and centrifuging was used. The method enabled the separation of soybean proteins from milk proteins in less than 4 min (at a flow-rate of 3 ml/min). The method has been successfully applied to the detection of soybean proteins in milk, cheese, yogurt, and enteral formula. The correct quantitation of these vegetable proteins has also been possible in milk adulterated at origin with known sources of soybean proteins. The application of the method to samples adulterated at origin also leads to interesting conclusions as to the effect of the processing conditions used for the preparation of each dairy product on the determination of soybean proteins.

  8. 基于二维相关近红外谱参数化及BP神经网络的掺杂牛奶鉴别%Identification of Adulterated Milk Based on Two-Dimensional Correlation Near-Infrared Spectra Parameterization and BP Neural Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苗静; 曹玉珍; 杨仁杰; 刘蓉; 孙惠丽; 徐可欣

    2013-01-01

    Discriminant models of adulterated milk and pure milk were established using BP neural network combined with two-dimensional (2D) correlation near-infrared spectra parameterization .Forty pure milk samples ,40 adulterated milk samples with urea (1~20 g · L -1 ) and 40 adulterated milk samples with melamine (0.01~3 g · L -1 ) were prepared respectively .Based on the characteristics of 2D correlation near-infrared spectra of pure milk and adulterated milk ,5 apparent statistic parameters were calculated based on the parameterization theory .Using 5 characteristic parameters ,discriminant models of urea adulterated milk , melamine adulterated milk and two types of adulterated milk were built by BP neural network .The prediction rate of unknown samples were 95% ,100% and 96.7% ,respectively .The results show that this method can extract effectively feature informa-tion of adulterant ,reduce the input dimensions of BP neural network ,and better realize qualitative analysis of adulterant in milk .%将二维相关近红外谱参数化方法与BP神经网络结合,建立掺杂牛奶与纯牛奶的判别模型。分别配制含有尿素牛奶(1~20g·L -1)和三聚氰胺牛奶(0.01~3g·L -1)样品各40个。研究了纯牛奶、掺杂牛奶的二维相关近红外谱特性,在此基础上,分别提取了各样品二维相关同步谱的5个特征参数。将这5个特征参数作为BP神经网络的输入,分别建立掺杂尿素、掺杂三聚氰胺、两种掺杂牛奶与纯牛奶的判别模型,采用这些模型对未知样品进行预测,其预测正确率分别为95%,100%和96.7%。研究结果表明:该方法有效地提取了牛奶中掺杂目标物的特征光谱信息,同时又减少了BP神经网络输入变量的维数,实现了掺杂牛奶与纯牛奶的鉴别。

  9. Análise da adulteração de méis por açúcares comerciais utilizando-se a composição isotópica de carbono Honey adulteration analysis by commercial sugars additions using the stable carbon isotope composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nádia F. ROSSI

    1999-05-01

    Full Text Available O mel é um alimento apreciado por seu sabor característico e pelo seu considerável valor nutritivo. Devido a oferta do produto ser menor que a procura, seu preço é relativamente alto, incentivando sua adulteração. Geralmente, a adulteração do mel é feita através da adição de açúcares comerciais, derivados de cana-de-açúcar e milho. Como essas plantas têm uma composição isotópica do carbono distinta das plantas utilizadas pelas abelhas como fonte de néctar (flores silvestres, citros e eucaliptos, é possível utilizar a composição isotópica do carbono de amostras de mel para se avaliar a adulteração desse produto por açúcares comerciais oriundos da cana e do milho. Foram analisadas amostras de plantas pertencentes ao ciclo fotos-sintético C3, subprodutos de plantas C4 (açúcares comerciais e 61 amostras de mel obtidas no mercado. As plantas C3 analisadas apresentaram valores de d13C de -28,9±1,1‰ (n=8, enquanto os açúcares apresentaram valores de -11,1±0,7‰ (n=3. Das 61 amostras de mel analisadas, cerca de 8% (5 amostras tiveram sinais claros de adulteração. A amostra de número 34 teve um valor igual a -12,9‰, indicando que açúcar puro de cana-de-açúcar ou milho estaria sendo comercializado como mel. As amostras 13, 14, 33 e 54 apresentaram valores iguais a -21,0; -19,9; -21,9 e -17,6‰, respectivamente. Esses valores indicam também adição de açúcares de cana-de-açúcar ou milho, no entanto em menor proporção. A metodologia testada neste trabalho foi aprovada como um método simples, confiável e complementar aos métodos químicos e físicos convencionais visando detectar adulteração de mel.Honey is a known product for its nutritional value. Considering that offer is smaller than the market demand, honey is relatively expensive. This fact contribute to the incentive of its adulteration by commercial sugars derived from sugar cane and corn. As these plants have a distinct stable carbon

  10. Identification of Adulterated Milk Using Two-dimensional Infrared Correlation Spectroscopy and PARAFACᅳMLR%二维相关红外谱结合PARAFACᅳMLR判别掺杂牛奶

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔彩路; 杨仁杰; 朱文碧; 杨延荣; 董桂梅; 张伟玉

    2015-01-01

    The discriminant models of adulterated milk and pure milk were constructed using two-dimensional (2D) infrared correlation spectroscopy by PARAFAC and multivariable linear regression (MLR). First, a total of 96 samples including 48 pure milk samples and three types of adulterated milk (16 melamine-tainted milk, 16 urea-tainted milk, and 16 tetracycline-tainted milk) were prepared. The concentration ranges of all adulterants were 0.01~0.30 g⋅L-1. The mid-infrared spectra of all samples were measured in the regions of 900~1 700 cm-1. Then, the synchronous 2D correlation spectra of all samples were calculated in the region between 900~1 200 cm-1 and 1 200~1 700 cm-1. The 2D correlation spectra of all samples were analyzed based on trilinear decomposition using PARAFAC. Finally, the discriminant models for melamine-tainted milk, urea-tainted milk and tetracycline-tainted milk were constructed combined score matrix extracted from 2D correlation spectra using PARAFAC with MLR. The unknown samples were predicted using the constructed models in prediction set. The results show that using a combination of 2D IR correlation spectra and PARAFAC-MLR is an effective analytical method for the classification of adulterated milk and pure milk.%将二维相关红外谱与平行因子、多元线性回归方法相结合,建立了掺杂牛奶与纯牛奶的判别模型。采集48个合格牛奶样品,配置浓度范围均为0.01~0.30 g/L的掺杂三聚氰胺牛奶、掺杂尿素牛奶和掺杂四环素牛奶各16个,并在900~1700 cm-1采集各样品的常规一维谱。对各样品在900~1200 cm-1与1200~1700 cm-1进行同步二维相关计算,构建了纯牛奶与掺杂牛奶的二维红外相关谱。采用平行因子算法对所有样品二维相关谱构成的三维矩阵进行三线性分解,得到其得分矩阵。在此基础上,将其得分矩阵与多元线性回归方法相结合,分别建立了掺杂三聚氰胺牛奶、掺杂尿素牛奶、掺

  11. Fluorescence Visual Detection of Herbal Product Substitutions at Terminal Herbal Markets by CCP-based FRET technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Chao; Yuan, Yuan; Yang, Guang; Jin, Yan; Liu, Libing; Zhao, Yuyang; Huang, Luqi

    2016-01-01

    Inaccurate labeling of materials used in herbal products may compromise the therapeutic efficacy and may pose a threat to medicinal safety. In this paper, a rapid (within 3 h), sensitive and visual colorimetric method for identifying substitutions in terminal market products was developed using cationic conjugated polymer-based fluorescence resonance energy transfer (CCP-based FRET). Chinese medicinal materials with similar morphology and chemical composition were clearly distinguished by the single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping method. Assays using CCP-based FRET technology showed a high frequency of adulterants in Lu-Rong (52.83%) and Chuan-Bei-Mu (67.8%) decoction pieces, and patented Chinese drugs (71.4%, 5/7) containing Chuan-Bei-Mu ingredients were detected in the terminal herbal market. In comparison with DNA sequencing, this protocol simplifies procedures by eliminating the cumbersome workups and sophisticated instruments, and only a trace amount of DNA is required. The CCP-based method is particularly attractive because it can detect adulterants in admixture samples with high sensitivity. Therefore, the CCP-based detection system shows great potential for routine terminal market checks and drug safety controls. PMID:27765955

  12. LS-SVM: uma nova ferramenta quimiométrica para regressão multivariada. Comparação de modelos de regressão LS-SVM e PLS na quantificação de adulterantes em leite em pó empregando NIR LS-SVM: a new chemometric tool for multivariate regression. Comparison of LS-SVM and pls regression for determination of common adulterants in powdered milk by nir spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco F. Ferrão

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Least-squares support vector machines (LS-SVM were used as an alternative multivariate calibration method for the simultaneous quantification of some common adulterants found in powdered milk samples, using near-infrared spectroscopy. Excellent models were built using LS-SVM for determining R², RMSECV and RMSEP values. LS-SVMs show superior performance for quantifying starch, whey and sucrose in powdered milk samples in relation to PLSR. This study shows that it is possible to determine precisely the amount of one and two common adulterants simultaneously in powdered milk samples using LS-SVM and NIR spectra.

  13. 植物油中甾醇含量、存在形式及其在掺伪检验中的作用%Existing Forms and Content of Sterols as Possible Markers for Detection of Adulteration in Vegetable Oils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金俊; 张俊辉; 金青哲; 马晓军

    2013-01-01

    植物油掺伪对食用油品质和使用价值的不利影响与日俱增.甾醇作为食用油内源性成分之一,具有在各植物油料中分布专一性的特点,因而测定油样中甾醇的含量和组成,可方便地检出某些植物油是否掺伪.综述了常见植物油中甾醇的组成、含量和存在形式,分析了其在精炼过程中的变化,并介绍了典型植物油掺伪鉴定中特征甾醇的作用.%There are increasing negative effects caused by the adulteration in vegetable oils.As an endogenous component,sterols distribute distinguishingly in various vegetable oils,therefore,the content and constituents of sterols can provide information on conveniently identifying adulteration in vegetable oils.This article reviews sterols' existing forms and content and their change during refining processes,meanwhile,it presents the characteristic sterols in vegetable oils as possible markers for detection of adulteration.

  14. Characterization of fruit products by capillary zone electrophoresis and liquid chromatography using the compositional profiles of polyphenols: application to authentication of natural extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Meritxell; Núñez, Oscar; Saurina, Javier; Hernández-Cassou, Santiago; Puignou, Lluis

    2014-02-01

    Capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) were applied to the authentication of fruit products based on the compositional profiles of polyphenols. Various sample treatments were used to maximize the overall recovery of polyphenols or specific fractions, such as phenolic acids or anthocyanins. The resulting CZE and HPLC data were treated with Principal Component Analysis (PCA) showing that samples were mainly clustered according to the fruit of origin, with cranberry- and grape-based products clearly separated in groups. A possible adulterated cranberry extract was analyzed more deeply by high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) in order to identify the presence of A-type proanthocyanidins, which are characteristic and more abundant in cranberry-based products. In accordance with PCA interpretation, HRMS results indicated that the suspicious sample was not a cranberry-based product, allowing us to validate and demonstrate the suitability of both CZE- and HPLC-proposed methods for the characterization of fruit-based products.

  15. Nutritional supplement products: does the label information influence purchasing decisions for the physically active?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The increase in sales of nutritional supplement globally can be attributed, in part, to aggressive marketing by manufacturers, rather than because the nutritional supplements have become more effective. Furthermore, the accuracy of the labelling often goes unchallenged. Therefore, any effects of the supplement, may be due to contaminants or adulterants in these products not reflected on the label. Methods A self-administered questionnaire was used to determine how consumers of nutritional supplements acquired information to assist their decision-making processes, when purchasing a product. The study was approved by the University of Cape Town, Faculty of Health Sciences Human Research Ethics Committee. The questionnaire consisted of seven, closed and open-ended questions. The participants were asked to respond to the questions according to a defined list of statements. A total of 259 participants completed and returned questionnaires. The data and processing of the returned questionnaires was captured using Windows-based Microsoft® Office Excel 2003 SP 1 (Excel © 1985–2003 Microsoft Corporation). Statistica Version 10 (copyright © Stat Soft, Inc. 1984–2011) was used to calculate the descriptive statistics. Results The main finding of the study was that nearly 70% of the respondents who purchased supplements were strongly influenced by container label information that stipulated that the nutritional supplement product is free of banned substances. The second finding was that just over 50% of the respondents attached importance to the quality of the nutritional supplement product information on the container label. The third finding was that about 40% of the respondents were strongly influenced by the ingredients on the labels when they purchased nutritional supplements. Conclusion This study, (i) identifies short-comings in current labelling information practices, (ii) provides opportunities to improve label and non-label information and

  16. 近红外光谱-BP神经网络-PLS法用于橄榄油掺杂分析%Discriminating and Quantifying Potential Adulteration in Virgin Olive Oil by Near Infrared Spectroscopy with BP-ANN and PLS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翁欣欣; 陆峰; 王传现; 亓云鹏

    2009-01-01

    橄榄油兼有食用和保健的作用,价值与价格远远高于其他食用油,所以橄榄油中以劣充好的现象十分普遍.可采用近红外光谱法测定初榨橄榄油中掺杂芝麻油、大豆油和葵花籽油的光谱数据,运用改进的BP算法--Levenberg-Marquardt方法,建立PCA-BP人工神经网络方法对其进行定性判别.同时采用偏最小二乘法(PIS)建立了初榨橄榄油中芝麻油、大豆油、葵花籽油含量的近红外光谱定标模型,用交瓦验证法进行验证.结果表明,BP人工神经网络有很好的定性鉴别能力,PLS建立的芝麻油、大豆油、葵花籽油定标模型的相关系数分别为98.77,99.37,99.44,交叉验证的均方根误差分别为1.3,1.1,1.04.该方法无损、快速、简便,为橄榄油掺杂的检测提供了一种新的途径.%In the present paper, the use of near infrared spectroscopy (NLR) as a rapid and cost-effective classification and quan-tification techniques for the authentication of virgin olive oil were preliminarily investigated. NIR spectra in the range of 12 000-3 700 cm~(-1) were recorded for pure virgin olive oil and virgin olive oil samples adulterated with varying concentrations of sesame oil, soybean oil and sunflower oil (5%-50% adulterations in the weight of virgin olive oil). The spectral range from 12 000 to 5 390 cm~(-1) was adopted to set up an analysis model In order to handle these data efficiently, after pretreatment, firstly,princi-pal component analysis (PCA) was used to compress thousands of spectral data into several variables and to describe the body of the spectra,and the analysis suggested that the cumulate reliabilities of the first six components was more than 99.999%. Then ANN-BP was chosen as further research method. The six components were secondly applied as ANN-BP inputs. The experiment took a total of 100 samples as original model examples and left 52 samples as unknown samples to predict. Finally, the resultsshowed that the 52 test

  17. Rapid Discrimination of Adulteration of Honey by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometry%傅里叶变换红外光谱法快速鉴别掺假蜂蜜

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵延华; 刘成雁; 韩旭; 姚琳; 谭佳昱; 张素艳

    2012-01-01

    FT-IRS with attenuated total reflection (ATR) was applied to the rapid discrimination of adulteration of honey. Characteristic absorption peaks of honey mixed with various amounts of sucrose or glucose were compared and on the base of the difference in absorption peaks, adulteration of honey was determined. As treating the IR spectra of samples of honey mixed with various amounts of high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) by the calculation software, two absorption peaks at 1 054 cm 1 and 817 cm-1 shown on the 2nd derivative spectra obtained were taken as the basis to judge accurately the amount of HFCS admixed. Values of detection limit of 3 admixtures, i. e. , sucrose, glucose and HFCS were found same as 10%. The proposed method has the special features of requring less sample, simple and easy in operation, checking and supervision. speedy analysis and feasible for use in large-scale randon%利用衰减全反射傅里叶红外光谱法对三种掺假蜂蜜进行了快速鉴别。对掺入的蔗糖、葡萄糖的蜂蜜的特征吸收峰进行了多峰位的比较,判定是否为掺假蜂蜜。对掺入不同含量果葡糖浆的蜂蜜红外图谱,进行计算软件处理后通过二阶导数图谱在1054cm^-1、817cm^-1两处的吸收峰,可以准确的判定掺入蜂蜜中果葡糖浆的含量。对掺入蜂蜜中的三种物质蔗糖、葡萄糖、果葡糖浆的最小检出限量为10%。该方法样品用量少、操作简便、无需前处理、分析速度快,可作为市场筛查掺假蜂蜜的快速检测方法。

  18. Discrimination of Milk Adulteration with Urea Based on Near Infrared Spectroscopy%基于近红外光谱对牛奶中掺杂尿素的判别分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨仁杰; 刘蓉; 徐可欣

    2012-01-01

    采集40个合格的纯牛奶样品,并配制含有尿素为1~20g/L的40个牛奶样品,研究掺杂尿素牛奶的二维相关近红外特性,在此基础上选择波数4200~4800cm-1为建模区间,采用偏最小二乘法建立定性、定量模型。结果指出通过判别偏最小二乘法可以实现纯牛奶及掺杂尿素牛奶的定性鉴别,判别正确率为100%;掺杂牛奶校正集相关系数R为0.999,交叉验证均方差为0.242,对未知样品集预测相关系数R达到0.999,预测标准偏差为0.57,这表明所建模型具有较好的预测效果。%Forty eligible pure milk samples were collected and 40 adulterated milk samples were prepared by adding urea with various concentrations (1 - 20 g/L). Two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy was calculated under the perturbation of adulteration. Based on the 2D correlation infrared spectroscopic characteristics, the spectra in the range of 4200 -- 4800 cm-1 were selected for quantitative and qualitative by partial least squares. There results showed that a 100% recognition rate of samples was achieved by partial least square-discriminate analysis (PLS-DA). The correlation coefficient (R) of calibration sets was 0.999, and the root mean square errors of cross validation (RMSECV) were 0.242. The R between the predicted values and actual values was 0.999, and the root mean square errors of prediction (RMSEP) were 0.57. Therefore, the developed models have good prediction capacity.

  19. Rapid detection of adulterated olive oil by portable laser Raman spectroscopy%便携式激光拉曼光谱法快速鉴别橄榄油掺假

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张朝晖; 严华; 顾强; 崔凤云; 田玲; 刘旭辉; 畅晓辉; 别玮

    2015-01-01

    目的:采用便携式激光拉曼光谱仪,建立激光拉曼光谱对橄榄油进行快速鉴别的方法。方法对橄榄油样品进行光谱扫描及基线校正后,以1440 cm-1作为参考波数,对拉曼光谱数据进行归一化处理。结果对80余份橄榄油样品进行统计分析,发现75%的样品在1265 cm-1的拉曼光谱强度值低于540。特级初榨橄榄油中掺加果渣油,会使1265 cm-1和1650 cm-1的特征峰增强,1525 cm-1处的精细结构变小直至消失。结论拉曼光谱具有便捷、快速、无损分析的特点,可作为橄榄油真伪鉴别在线初步筛查的工具。%ABSTRACT:Objective To establish a rapid method for the determination of adulterated olive oil by Raman spectroscopy using portable laser Raman spectrometry.Methods The Raman spectrum of olive oil samples were obtained after baseline subtracting. The peak at 1440 cm-1 was exploited as an internal standard band, and the spectrum was normalized.ResultsBy the statistical analysis of more than 80 olive oil samples, 75% of the sam-ples were lower than 540 at 1265 cm-1. When the olive-pomace oil was added to virgin olive oil, the intensity of peaks at 1265 cm-1 and 1650 cm-1 increased, meanwhile the peak at 1525 cm-1 disappeared.Conclusion The Raman spectrometry is portable, rapid, and nondestructive, which can be used as an on-site detection tool for olive oil adulteration determination.

  20. Study on principles of vinegar nonlinear fingerprint for vinegar adulteration identification%食醋非线性化学指纹图谱掺伪鉴别原理的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨代明; 方宣启; 冯敏; 唐小兰; 毛鹏飞; 张泰铭

    2012-01-01

    Vinegar nonlinear fingerprint was studied for the problem of vinegar Adulteration. Optimum conditions of vinegar nonlinear fingerprint construction, and the effects of total acid, salt, Oscillation mechanism of " NaBrOs + MnSO4 + H2 SO4 + CH3 COCH3 " and components of vinegar were analyzed and then vinegar nonlinear fingerprint was studied. Orthogonal experiment was applied to find the preservatives were studied. It shows that salt and sorbic acid has great influence, so the salt in the vinegar must be removed pre experiment. The components of the oscillation system and their concentrations, electrode type, temperature, stirring rate and the amount of vinegar added. Vinegar nonlinear fingerprint is a general characteris-tic of the concentration profiles o f different chemical compounds of vinegar not only one or several components, it can reflect the real quality of vinegar, proving a new method for vinegar adulteration I-dentification and quality evaluation.%针对食醋掺伪问题对食醋非线性化学指纹图谱进行研究.通过对“溴酸钠-硫酸锰-硫酸-丙酮”体系的振荡机理的分析及食醋成分分析探讨食醋非线性化学指纹图谱的原理.通过正交试验考察建立食醋非线性化学指纹图谱的条件,并考察总酸、食盐、防腐剂对食醋非线性化学的影响.结果表明,食盐、山梨酸对食醋非线性化学指纹图谱影响较大,应在试验前去除食醋样品中的盐分;在检测过程中,应严格控制振荡体系中物种及其浓度、电极类型、温度、搅拌速率、食醋用量.食醋非线性化学指纹图谱是食醋众多成分的整体表征,而不是一种或几种物质的体现,能表达食醋的真正质量,为食醋的掺伪鉴别和质量评价提供一种新的方法.

  1. 基于拉曼光谱和最小二乘支持向量机的橄榄油掺伪检测方法研究%Research on Detection Method of Adulterated Olive Oil by Raman Spectroscopy and Least Squares Support Vector Machine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    章颖强; 董伟; 张冰; 王晓萍

    2012-01-01

    为实现橄榄油中掺伪油类型的识别和掺伪量预测,对掺入葵花籽油、大豆油、玉米油的橄榄油共117个样品进行拉曼光谱检测,并用基于多重迭代优化的最小二乘支持向量机模型对掺入油的类型进行识别,综合识别率为97%.同时分别采用最小二乘支持向量机、人工神经网络模型、偏最小二乘回归建立橄榄油中葵花籽油、大豆油、玉米油含量的拉曼光谱定标模型,结果显示最小二乘支持向量机具有最优的预测效果,其预测均方根误差(RMSEP)在0.0074~0.0142之间.拉曼光谱结合最小二乘支持向量机可为橄榄油掺伪检测提供一种精确、快速、简便、无损的方法.%For the purpose of the authentication of sorts as well as the prediction of contents of the oils which were adulterated into olive oil, 117 olive oil samples adulterated with sunflower seed oil, soybean oil and corn oil were detected by Raman spectroscopy, and least squares support vector machine (LS-SVM) based on multiple iterative optimization was used to identify the type of the adulterant oil, and the composite recognition rate was 97%. In addition, methods such as LS-SVM, ANNs and PLSR were used to build the Raman spectra calibration model of the adulterant oil (sunflower seed oil, soybean oil and corn oil) contents respectively, the results indicated that LS-SVM had the best predictive performance, and the root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) ranged from 0.007 4 to 0. 014 2. Research results showed the method based on Raman spectroscopy and LS-SVM was accurate, fast, simple and non-destructive for adulterated olive oil detection.

  2. Applying Attenuated Total Reflection-Mid-Infrared (ATR-MIR) Spectroscopy to Detect Hairtail Surimi in Mixed Surimi and Their Surimi Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Zhao-hong; Liu, Zi-hao; Gong, Chao-yong; Yang, Xiao-ling; Cheng, Fang

    2015-10-01

    ATR-MIR spectroscopic analysis was used to classify sliver carp surimi and surimi products adulterated with different levels of hairtail surimi. Five chemometric methods, including SIMCA (soft independent modeling class of analogies), KNN (K-nearest neighbor), SVR (support vector machines regression), PLSDA (partial least squares discriminate analysis) and ID3 (interative dicremiser version 3) Decision tree were used to build the classifying models. And the performances of the models were compared. Results showed that for both cooked and uncooked mixed surimi samples, better classifications were obtained using SIMCA model, the percentage of the correct classification reached 96.59% and 96.43%, and the corresponding RMSECV were 0.185 7 and 0.189 8, r value were 0.988 0 and 0.994 1 respectively. The results of this study demonstrated for the first time that ATR-MIR spectroscopy combined with chemometrics method can be used to classify sliver carp surimi and surimi products adulterated with different levels of hairtail surimi.

  3. MilkoscanFT120对原料乳中掺入尿素快速预判的研究%Study on Quick Predicting Methods of Adulteration in Raw Milk by Milkoscan FT 120

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪剑; 马占峰

    2011-01-01

    利用MilkoscanFr120红外光谱仪,采用主成分分析(PCA)回归方法,以本地区具有代表性原料乳样品为基础建立标准数据模型,在原料乳中加入尿素模拟牛奶掺假。通过总结原料乳成分数据的变化规律及调整控制因素以达到预判原料乳掺假和确定掺假物质的检出限的目的。结果表明该方法具有快速、准确的特点。%A standard data model was established on the basis of representative sample from raw milk in Harbin city, using principal component analysis(PCA) by IR of Milkoscan FT120. It can simulate milk adulteration by adding urea in raw milk. In order to predict the aduheration in raw milk and determine the detection limit of aduherated substances, researchers summed up the changes of data of raw milk composition. Results showed that this method was quick and accurate.

  4. 仿生电子鼻在芝麻油掺伪检测中的应用研究%Detection of adulteration in sesame oil by bionic electronic nose

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲁小利; 王俊

    2016-01-01

    研究并设计了一套电子鼻系统,并将基于生物嗅觉的模糊神经网络作为其模式识别算法。将该仿生电子鼻系统应用于芝麻油掺伪的检测中。实验结果显示,该系统在预测精度、收敛速度及运行时间上都取得了较好的效果,可为芝麻油以及其他农产品的在线动态监测及保真提供快速、有效的手段。%An bionic electronic nose was developed and fuzzy neural network basedon biological olfaction was used as pattern recognition algorithms. The system was applied in the detectionof adulteration in sesameoil. The results showed that the bionic electronic nose had good prediction precision,highconvergent speed and less running time,and it was a fast andcredible method in monitoring and dynamic detectionof sesameoilorother productsonline.

  5. The Typical Teaching Case of"Acceptance of Raw Milk--Detection of Adulteration"%“原料乳验收--掺假检测”典型教学案例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张露娟; 王爱军

    2014-01-01

    原料乳的质量一直是乳品企业关注的问题之一,其中,掺假是原料乳验收的必检项目之一。文章以三大牧场向企业缴奶,企业品控部经理布置原料乳验收任务为情境,通过角色扮演使检测任务和要求具体化,顺利完成了教学目标。%The quality of raw milk has been one of the concerns in dairy companies, and detection of adulteration is one of the de-tection items among the acceptance of raw milk. This paper fin-ished the teaching goals successfully by making the detection task and requirement specific based on the situation that three ranches paid milk to enterprise and director of quality control de-partement arranged acceptance of raw milk by role playing.

  6. 快速鉴别掺伪橄榄油的拉曼光谱-聚类分析方法%Raman spectrum-cluster analysis for rapid discerning of adulterated olive oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓平建; 耿艺介; 梁裕; 杨冬燕; 李浩; 杨永存

    2015-01-01

    Raman spectrum-cluster analysis method was developed for rapid discerning of adulterated ol-ive oil using multiple batches of olive oil, soybean oil, corn oil, rapeseed oil, palm oil, cottonseed oil and refined swill-cooked dirty oil with various origins and brands as samples. Raman spectrum patterns of olive oil, low-price edible vegetable oil and refined swill-cooked dirty oil were studied under the conditions of 780 nm and 532 nm laser sources with common gratings and 532 nm laser source with extend-ed grating. Then the adulterated olive oil was discerned by cluster analysis method. The results indicated that the extended and first-order derivative Raman spectra showed abundant information and significantly different spectrum patterns among olive oil, low -price edible vegetable oil and refined swill-cooked dirty oil in 532 nm laser source. The cluster analysis model established on full-range spectrum informa-tion could discern olive oil as well as kinds of adulterated olive oils. The discriminant rates were 100% for 30 olive oils, 105 low-price edible vegetable oils, 38 refined swill-cooked dirty oils and 75 olive oils mixed with at least 5% refined swill-cooked dirty oil. Besides, the discriminant rates were above 94%and 88% respectively for 180 olive oils mixed with at least 5% low-price edible vegetable oil and 72 vegetable oils mixed with at least 5% refined swill-cooked dirty oil. The measurement process required no sample preparation or chemical reagent consumption, and the time cost was 5 min for each sample, therefore the discerning of adulterated ol-ive oil was rapid, non-destructive and accurate.%以不同产地、不同品牌的多批次橄榄油、大豆油、玉米油、菜籽油、葵花籽油、棕榈油、棉籽油及精炼地沟油为样品,探索建立快速鉴别掺伪橄榄油的拉曼光谱-聚类分析方法。在780、532 nm激光光源普通光栅、532 nm激光光源扩展光栅条件下,研究了橄榄油、低价食用植物油

  7. 米糠毛油掺伪食用植物油的低场核磁共振检测%Discrimination of Edible Vegetable Oil Adulterated with Rice Bran Crude Oil by Low-field Nuclear Magnetic Resonance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周凝; 刘宝林; 王欣; 汪宏志; 杨培强; 周航

    2011-01-01

    应用低场核磁共振方法分别测定了米糠毛油和3种食用植物油(花生油、橄榄油和葵花籽油)的弛豫图谱,发现在10 ms左右米糠毛油弛豫图谱中出现了-明显特征峰,而其他3种纯油品均未检出,且随着米糠毛油掺入量的增多,该峰面积的比例也随之增大.结果表明,通过测定该特征峰面积比例可定量测出米糠毛油掺伪量.%The relaxation maps of three edible vegetable oils (peanut oil, sunflower seed oil and sunflower seed oil) and rice bran crude oil were detected by low - field nuclear magnetic resonance technology (NMR). An obvious characteristic peak has been determined in the relaxation maps of rice bran crude oil at 10ms, which can not be detected in the other three kinds of pure edible oil. And the area proportion increased with the increase of rice bran crude oil content. Therefore, the detecting of the characteristic peak area can judge the vegetable oil adulterated with rice bran crude oil.

  8. Application of Visible and Near Infrared Spectroscopy for Rapid and Non-Invasive Quantification of Adulterants in Fish Oil%可见-近红外光谱分析技术对鱼油掺假定量快速无损检测方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张瑜; 谈黎虹; 曹芳; 何勇

    2013-01-01

    对掺入不同含量大豆油和菜籽油的鱼油进行鱼油掺假含量的可见-近红外光谱(Vis-NIR)研究.向3个不同品牌鱼油中分别掺入不同比例的大豆油,另外3个不同品牌中分别掺入不同比例的菜籽油,共获得300个样本.对所采集样本的光谱数据分别采用原始光谱,以及平滑,变量标准化(SNV),多元散射校正(MSC),一阶求导和二阶求导等预处理算法进行处理后,建立偏最小二乘回归(PLSR)模型.基于全波段光谱的鱼油中大豆油和菜籽油掺假含量预测的最优模型分别为全波段PLSR模型和MSC-PLSR模型,其预测相关系数(Rp)分别达到0.938 6和0.959 3.进一步采用连续投影算法(SPA)分析鱼油中大豆油和菜籽油掺假样品的光谱,并分别获得了11个和15个光谱特征波长变量.基于特征变量的PLSR模型的Rp分别为0.941 2和0.932 6.试验研究表明,可以采用Vis-NIR技术实现对鱼油掺假物含量的检测.%Visible and near infrared (Vis-NIR) spectroscopy was used to accomplish a rapid and noninvasive quantification of the two common adulterants,soybean oil and rapeseed oil,in fish oil Different contents of soybean oil were added into fish oil of three brands and different contents of rapeseed oil were added into fish oil of another three brands,the Vis-NIR spectra of adulterated samples were collected,pretreated by five spectral preprocessing algorithms (smoothing,standard normal variate (SNV),multiplicative scatter correction (MSC),1st-derivative,and 2nd-derivative),and used to establish partial least square regression (PLSR) models.The correlation coefficients for prediction (Rp) of 0.938 6 and 0.959 3 were obtained for the adulterant detection of soybean oil and rapeseed oil respectively,and their optimal models were full range spectral PLSR model and MSC-PLSR model.Successive projections algorithm (SPA) was then used to analyze the full range spectra of fish oil samples adulterated with soybean oil and rapeseed

  9. Assessment of Small-scale Buffalo Milk Dairy Production-A Premise for a Durable Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian MIHAIU

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Buffalo husbandry is an important source of income for a number of small-scale producers in Romania that is why an assessment of its products quality is much needed for improvement and evaluation of their vulnerability to international competition. In order to ascertain possible developments in the buffalo dairy sector and to broadly identify areas of intervention that favor small-scale dairy producers, the study examined the potential to improve buffalo milk production by evaluating its authenticity and hygienic quality. The methods used involved the molecular testing (PCR-technique for identifying cow, sheep or goat DNA in the dairy products samples collected from the small-scale producers market. The hygienic quality of these samples was determined through classical microbiology methods, highly developed techniques (Trek System and PCR for bacterial species confirmation. The results showed that a high percent (65%, from the products found were adulterated with other species milk, mostly cow milk. The most commonly falsified buffalo dairy products were the cheese and the traditional product telemea. The prevalence of the bacterial species identified belonged to Listeria innocua and Listeria welshmeri. The conclusion of this study is the need of a durable development system in this particular dairy chain to improve and assure the authenticity and quality of the small-scale producers products and their reliability for the consumers.

  10. Characterization and quantitation of yohimbine and its analogs in botanicals and dietary supplements using LC/QTOF-MS and LC/QQQ-MS for determination of the presence of bark extract and yohimbine adulteration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Derick; Neal-Kababick, James; Zweigenbaum, Jerry

    2015-01-01

    The compound yohimbine HCl has been restricted in Australia and categorized as a scheduled prescription drug in other parts of the world, including the United States where it is monographed as a drug in the U. S. Pharmacopeia. However, the bark of the yohimbe plant and its extract is considered a botanical that can be used as a dietary supplement in some parts of the world. For these reasons, methods to characterize the indole alkaloids of the bark and quantify yohimbine and its analogs are presented using accurate mass LC/quadrupole time-of-flight (QTOF)-MS and triple quadrupole LC/MS, respectively. Samples were extracted with a QuEChERS (Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged, and Safe) method to characterize and quantify the indole alkaloids. With the LC/QTOF-MS in auto MS/MS mode the indole alkaloids were identified, and the isomeric response of each could be used to determine whether the actual bark or extract was in samples of dietary supplements and not adulteration with yohimbine HCl. Analogs were identified and include yohimbic acid, methyl yohimbine, and hydroxyl yohimbine. Many isomers of each were also detected, but identified only by the number of chromatographic peaks. Quantification of yohimbine and ajmalicine spiked extracts showed recoveries of 99 to 103% with RSD of 3.6% or lower and LODs of less than 100 ppt. Calibration of the two standards gave r(2) = 0.9999 in a range from 0.1 to 100 ppb. Dietary supplements quantified for these two compounds showed a range from not detected to 3x the amounts found in the bark.

  11. 植物油种类及掺杂的荧光光谱鉴别研究%Study of the application of fluorescence spectroscopy analytical technological in identification of adulterated edible oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙荣梅; 陈斌; 田萍; 冉桂梅

    2015-01-01

    目的:探索荧光光谱法在食用植物油种类和掺杂鉴别中的可行性。方法采用荧光分析方法对棕榈油、芝麻油和菜籽油的掺杂进行鉴别。结果由于棕榈油、芝麻油和菜籽油的荧光光谱差异性明显,可以很好地区分棕榈油、芝麻油和菜籽油3种纯植物油。结论通过分析荧光光谱随掺杂浓度改变而产生的变换规律,达到对食用植物油的品质进行快速、准确的分析。荧光光谱法在食用植物油种类和掺杂鉴别中具有可行性。%Objective This study was to assess the feasibility of fluorescence spectroscopy for analysis in identification of palm oil,sesame oil and rapeseed oil. Methods Using fluorescence spectroscopy identified palm oil,sesame oil and rapeseed oil. Results The difference of fluorescence spectrum in palm oil,sesame oil and rapeseed oil is obvious,it can be easy to distinguish the three kinds of pure vegetable oil. Conclusion The quality of the edible vegetable oil was judged for rapid and accurate analysis by using fluorescence spectroscopy analysis with doping concentration change. Fluorescence spectroscopy analytical technological had feasibility in identification of adulterated edible vegetable oil.

  12. Detection of Adulteration in Milk Powder with Starch Near Infrared%近红外光谱分析技术识别奶粉中淀粉掺假的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王宁宁; 康定明; 申兵辉; 关建军; 赵中瑞; 朱业伟; 张录达; 严衍录; 郑煜焱; 董成玉

    2015-01-01

    Three China trademarks of milk powder called Mengniu ,Yili ,Wandashan were taken as testing samples .Each of them mixed varied amount of starch in different gradient ,which were consisted of 32 adulterated milk powder samples mixed with starch ,was taken as standard samples for constructing predicted model .To those 32 samples ,the reflecting spectrum char‐acteristics in middle wave of near infrared spectrum with Near Infrared Spectrum Analyzer (Micro NIR 1700) produced by JDSU Ltd .USA were collected for five repeats in five different days .The time span was nearly two months .Firstly ,we build the model used the reflecting spectrum characteristics of those samples with biomimetic pattern recognition (BPR) arithmetic to do the qualitative analysis .The analysis included the reliability of testing result and stability of the model .When we took ninety percent as the evaluation threshold of testing result of CAR(Correct Acceptance Rate)and CRR (Correct Rejection Rate) ,the lowest starch content of adulterate milk powder in all tested samples which the tested result were bigger than that abovemen‐tioned threshold was designated CAR threshold (CAR‐T) and CRR threshold (CRR‐T) .CAR means the correct rate of accep‐ting a sample which is belong to itself ,CRR means correct rate of refusing to accept a sample which is not belong to itself .The results were shown that ,when we constructed a model based on the near infrared spectrum data from each of three China trade‐mark milk powders ,respectively ,if we constructed a model with infrared spectrum data tested in a same day ,both the CAR‐T and CRR‐T of adulterate starch content of a sample can reach 0 .1% in predicting the remainder infrared spectrum data tested within a same day .The three China trademarks of milk powder had the same result .In addition ,when we ignored the trade‐marks ,put the spectrum data of adulterate milk powder samples mixed with the same content of starch of three China trade

  13. Gel chromatography coupled with post-column derivation to quickly identify orange juice adulteration%凝胶色谱分离-柱后染色法快速鉴别橙汁掺假

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛灿杰; 陈小珍; 张慧; 王展华; 马千里; 徐生坚

    2015-01-01

    Gel chromatography (GFC) coupled with post-column derivation was first used to detect the soluble protein in different regions of the orange juice.The protein fingerprint of orange juice has been established.Results showed that the fingerprint has four main characteristic peaks,the molecular weight was 7.5 × 104 Da and 0.5 × 104 Da-1.0 × 104Da.The protein fingerprint of other fruit juice and blending fruit are different from pure orange juice.The method has fewdisturbances and provides the references for orange juice adulteration identification and juice quality evaluation.%采用凝胶色谱(GFC)分离柱后复合考马斯亮蓝染色法,研究了不同地区橙汁中的可溶性蛋白质,建立了橙汁蛋白质按分子量分布的特征指纹图谱.结果表明:橙汁中可溶性蛋白质的凝胶过滤色谱指纹图谱具有4个主要特征峰,分子质量位于7.5×104Da及0.5×104~1.0×104Da.其他果汁及勾兑假果汁的蛋白质图谱不同于纯正橙汁的特征峰图谱,可用于橙汁掺假快速鉴别.该方法干扰少,检测快速,可用于浓缩还原橙汁掺假鉴别.

  14. Study on the PCR method specific for muraenesox cinereus surimi adulteration detection technology%基于物种特异性PCR对海鳗鱼糜掺假检测技术的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘海云; 赵文秀; 汪之和; 施文正; 赵勇

    2012-01-01

    In order to carry out qualitative research on muraenesox cinereus surimi adulteration,from the GenBank database download muraenesox cinereus and other species of mitochondrial 12S rRNA,then through the BioEdit 7.0 software base sequence of the gene for comparison. On this basis,consider revising the principle of primer design to design specific primers for muraenesox cinereus. Primer specificity,sensitivity and the main process of the experimental results showed that the designed primers for DNA moray had a strong specificity, sensitivity reached 0.1%,and the process did not affect the detection process,still competent for the muraenesox cinereus identification requirements.%为了对海鳗鱼糜掺假进行定性研究,从GenBank数据库下载海鳗及其他物种的线粒体12SrRNA,并通过BioEdit7.0软件对该基因碱基序列进行比对。在此基础上,综合考虑引物设计原则,设计出关于海鳗的特异性引物。对引物的特异性、灵敏性以及主要加工过程进行实验,结果表明所设计的引物对海鳗DNA具有很强的特异性,灵敏性达到0.1%,加工过程也不影响检测过程.从而满足了对于海鳗鱼糜掺假的检测要求。

  15. Determinação da diferença entre o valor real e o teórico do triglicerídeo ECN 42 para a detecção de adulteração em azeites de oliva comercializados no Brasil Calculation of the difference between the actual and theoretical ECN 42 triacylglyceride content to detect adulteration in olive oil samples commercialized in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabria Aued-Pimentel

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The difference between the actual ECN 42 triacylglyceride content in vegetable oils, obtained by HPLC analysis, and the theoretical value calculated from the fatty acid composition was applied to detect the addition of seed oils with high contents of linoleic acid to olive oils commercialized in Brazil. The results indicate that samples analyzed were probably adulterated with low commercial value seed oils, rich in linoleic acid, like soybean, sunflower or corn.

  16. Assessment of Small-scale Buffalo Milk Dairy Production-A Premise for a Durable Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian MIHAIU

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Buffalo husbandry is an important source of income for a number of small-scale producers in Romania that is why an assessment of its� product�s quality is much needed for improvement and evaluation of their vulnerability to international competition. In order to ascertain possible developments in the buffalo dairy sector and to broadly identify areas of intervention that favor small-scale dairy producers, the study examined the potential to improve buffalo milk production by evaluating its authenticity and hygienic quality. The methods used involved the molecular testing (PCR-technique for identifying cow, sheep or goat DNA in the dairy products� samples collected from the small-scale producers market. The hygienic quality of these samples was determined through classical microbiology methods, highly developed techniques (Trek System and PCR for bacterial species confirmation. The results showed that a high percent (65%, from the products found were adulterated with other species milk, mostly cow milk. The most commonly falsified buffalo dairy products were the cheese and the traditional product �telemea�. The prevalence of the bacterial species identified belonged to Listeria innocua and Listeria welshmeri. The conclusion of this study is the need of a durable development system in this particular dairy chain to improve and assure the authenticity and quality of the small-scale producers� products and their reliability for the consumers.

  17. TaqMan探针荧光定量PCR检测花生油中掺入棕榈油的研究%Determination of palm oil adulterated in peanut oil with the TaqMan probe -based RT- PCR method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周慧; 梁宇斌; 吴苏喜; 李晓明; 裴伟; 杨涛

    2011-01-01

    The method of Real - time fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction ( RT - PCR) with TaqMan fluorescent probe was chosen to fast detect the amount of palm oil mixed in peanut oil. MT3 - B gene of palm was selected as target gene to detect palm oil from peanut oil. The primers of MT3 - B and TaqMan probe were designed, MT3 - B gene reconstructed plasmid was built as absolute quantitative criteria for quantitative RT - PCR to establish standard curve. Peanut oil blended with 1% -40% concentration gradient palm oil was extracted DNA to test palm content by RT - PCR. The result showed that the correlation coefficient (R1) of standard curve with logarithmic linear regression analysis was 0.996. When the adulteration of palm oil in peanut oil reached 5% volume, MT3 - B gene of 17.431 copies per milli-liter of mixed oil could be detected . The method showed good sensitivity, specificity and repeatability.%根据棕榈内源基因MT3 -B设计引物和TaqMan探针,采用基因重组技术构建用于检测棕榈基因MT3 -B的重组质粒作为绝对定量标准品,建立标准曲线,对花生油中掺入棕榈油1% ~40%梯度混合油品提取DNA进行棕榈成分定量检测.结果表明,重组质粒标准品荧光定量标准曲线对数线性回归分析相关系数(R2)为0.996;花生油中掺入棕榈油达到5%时,可检出每亳升混合油品中棕榈MT3 -B基因17.431 copies,检测的重复性和特异性好.

  18. Digital imaging based classification and authentication of granular food products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, R. M.; Yan, Y.; Tomlins, K.

    2006-02-01

    In the food industry there are many types of product that are in the form of particles, granules or grains. Consistent material size and quality within any given sample is an important requirement that is well known in industry. In addition it is possible that samples of material may be of unknown type or have been subject to adulteration, thus making material authentication a real requirement. The present work implements an advanced, but cost-effective, digital imaging and image processing technique to characterize granular foodstuffs either in real time process control or in an off-line, sample-based, manner. The imaging approach not only provides cost-effective and rugged hardware when compared with other approaches but also allows precise characterization of individual grains of material. In this paper the imaging system is briefly described and the parameters it measures are discussed. Both cluster and discriminant analyses are performed to establish the suitability of the measured parameters for authenticity study and a simple fuzzy logic is implemented based on the findings. Tests are performed, using rice as an example, to evaluate the performance of the system for authenticity testing, and encouraging results are achieved.

  19. Safety of botanical ingredients in personal care products/cosmetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antignac, Eric; Nohynek, Gerhard J; Re, Thomas; Clouzeau, Jacques; Toutain, Hervé

    2011-02-01

    The key issue of the safety assessment of botanical ingredients in personal care products (PCP) is the phytochemical characterisation of the plant source, data on contamination, adulteration and hazardous residues. The comparative approach used in the safety assessment of GM-plants may be applied to novel botanical PCP ingredients. Comparator(s) are the parent plant or varieties of the same species. Chemical grouping includes definition of chemical groups suitable for a read-across approach; it allows the estimation of toxicological endpoints on the basis of data from related substances (congeneric groups) with physical/chemical properties producing similar toxicities. The Threshold of Toxicological Concern (TTC) and Dermal Sensitisation Threshold (DST) are tools for the assessment of trace substances or minor ingredients. The evaluation of skin penetration of substances present in human food is unnecessary, whereas mixtures may be assessed on the basis of physical/chemical properties of individual substances. Adverse dermal effects of botanicals include irritation, sensitisation, phototoxicity and immediate-type allergy. The experience from dietary supplements or herbal medicines showed that being natural is not equivalent to being safe. Pragmatic approaches for quality and safety standards of botanical ingredients are needed; consumer safety should be the first objective of conventional and botanical PCP ingredients.

  20. Rapid detection of adulterated peanut oil by Raman spectrum-cluster analysis%拉曼光谱-聚类分析法快速鉴别掺伪花生油

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓平建; 李浩; 杨冬燕; 杨永存; 梁裕; 耿艺介

    2014-01-01

    目的:建立快速鉴别掺伪花生油的拉曼光谱-聚类分析方法。方法以不同产地、不同品牌的多批次花生油、大豆油、玉米油、菜籽油、葵花籽油、精炼棕榈油、精炼棉籽油及精炼地沟油为样品,在780 nm和532 nm激光光源下,扫描和比较其普通、扩展及导数拉曼光谱的形态。结果在532 nm激光光源的扩展光谱及一阶导数光谱中,花生油与低价植物油及精炼地沟油光谱的信息量最大,样品间光谱形态的差异显著,谱峰得到有效分离。基于此全波段光谱信息和形态建立的多步聚类分析模型及鉴别程序对36份不同花生油、105份不同低价植物油、30份仿冒花生油和38份不同精炼地沟油的判别正确率均为100%,对180份5%及以上的掺假花生油的判别正确率达86%以上,对75份5%及以上的掺杂花生油的判别正确率为92%,对72份5%及以上的掺杂植物油的判别正确率达92%以上。样品测量时无需制备样品及消耗化学试剂,测量和分析一份样品仅耗时5 min左右。结论所建立的拉曼光谱-聚类分析模型既可准确鉴定花生油,还可准确鉴定各种类型的掺伪花生油,可实现对掺伪花生油的快速、无损和准确鉴别。%Objective To establish a Raman spectrum-cluster analysis for rapid detection of adulterated peanut oil. Methods The shapes of ordinary, extended and the 1st derivative Raman spectra were scanned and compared, based on the multiple batches of peanut oil, soybean oil, corn oil, rape seed oil, sunflower seed oil, refined palm oil, refined cotton seed oil and refined bio-waste oil with various producing locations and brands, under both 780 nm and 532 nm laser sources. Results The extended and the 1st derivative Raman spectra under 532 nm showed the most abundant spectral information and significantly distinct patterns among peanut oil, low-price vegetable oil and bio-waste oil. A multi-step model and

  1. Rapid detection of adulterated sesame oil by Raman spectrum-cluster analysis%拉曼光谱-聚类分析快速鉴别掺伪芝麻油

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓平建; 梁裕; 杨冬燕; 杨永存; 李浩; 耿艺介

    2015-01-01

    目的:建立快速鉴别掺伪芝麻油的拉曼光谱-聚类分析方法。方法以不同产地、不同品牌的多批次芝麻油、大豆油、玉米油、菜籽油、精炼棕榈油、精炼棉籽油及精炼地沟油为样品,在780 nm和532 nm激光光源下,扫描和比较其普通、扩展及导数拉曼光谱的形态。结果在532 nm激光光源的扩展光谱及一阶导数光谱中,芝麻油与低价植物油及精炼地沟油光谱的信息量最大,样品间光谱形态的差异显著。基于此全波段光谱信息和形态建立的多步聚类分析模型对芝麻油、低价植物油、仿冒芝麻油和精炼地沟油的判别正确率均为100%;对5%、10%、20%、30%和50%掺假芝麻油的判别正确率分别为72%、92%、100%、100%和100%;对5%、10%和20%掺杂芝麻油的判别正确率分别为97%、100%和100%;对5%、10%和20%掺杂植物油的判别正确率分别为94%、100%和100%。样品测量时无需制备样品及消耗化学试剂,测量和分析一份样品仅耗时5 min左右。结论所建立的拉曼光谱-聚类分析模型既可准确鉴定芝麻油,还可准确鉴定各种类型的掺伪芝麻油,可实现对掺伪芝麻油的快速、无损和准确鉴别。%ABSTRACT:Objective To establish a Raman spectrum cluster analysis method for rapid detection of adulterated sesame oil.Methods The shapes of full-range, extended-range and the 1st derivative Raman spectra were scanned and compared, based on the multiple batches of sesame oil, soybean oil, corn oil, rape seed oil, refined palm oil, refined cotton seed oil and refined bio-waste oil with various producing areas and brands, under both 780 nm and 532 nm laser sources. ResultsThe extended-range and the 1st derivative Raman spectra under 532 nm showed the most abundant information and significantly distinct patterns among sesame oil, low-price vegetable oil and bio-waste oil. A multi-steps identification model of Raman spectrum cluster analysis

  2. 基于近红外光谱检测技术鉴别洋槐蜜中掺入大米糖浆的可行性研究%Discrimination of Rice Syrup Adulterant of Acacia Honey Based Using Near-Infrared Spectroscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张妍楠; 陈兰珍; 薛晓锋; 吴黎明; 李熠; 杨娟

    2015-01-01

    At present,the rice syrup as a low price of the sweeteners was often adulterated into acacia honey and the adulterated honeys were sold in honey markets,while there is no suitable and fast method to identify honey adulterated with rice syrup.In this study,Near infrared spectroscopy (NIR)combined with chemometric methods were used to discriminate authenticity of hon-ey.20 unprocessed acacia honey samples from the different honey producing areas,mixed?with different proportion of rice syr-up,were prepared of seven different concentration gradient?including 121 samples.The near infrared spectrum (NIR)instru-ment and spectrum processing software have been applied in the?spectrum?scanning and data conversion on adulterant sam-ples,respectively.Then it was analyzed by Principal component analysis (PCA)and canonical discriminant analysis methods in order to discriminating adulterated honey ,The results showed that after principal components analysis,the first two principal components accounted for 97.23% of total variation,but the regionalism of the score plot of the first two PCs was not obvious, so the canonical discriminant analysis was used to make the further discrimination,all samples had been discriminated correctly, the first two discriminant functions accounted for 91.6% among the six canonical discriminant functions,Then the different con-centration of adulterant samples can be discriminated correctly,it illustrate that canonical discriminant analysis method combined with NIR spectroscopy is not only feasible but also practical for rapid and effective discriminate of the rice syrup adulterant of acacia honey.%利用近红外光谱技术(near infrared spectroscopy,NIR)并结合化学计量学方法鉴别洋槐蜜中掺入大米糖浆的可行性研究。以来自不同蜂场的20个洋槐原料蜜样品与大米糖浆混合成7个不同浓度梯度(10∶0,9∶1,7∶3,1∶1,3∶7,1∶9,0∶10 g·g-1)共121个样品为研究对象,利用

  3. Health impact assessment of quality wine production in Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adám, Balázs; Molnár, Agnes; Bárdos, Helga; Adány, Róza

    2009-12-01

    Alcohol-related health outcomes show strikingly high incidence in Hungary. The effects of alcohol consumption are influenced not only by the quantity, but also the quality of drinks; therefore, wine production can have an important effect on public health outcomes. Nevertheless, the Hungarian wine sector faces several vital problems and challenges influenced by the country's accession to the European Union and by the need for restructuring. A comprehensive health impact assessment (HIA) based on the evaluation of the Hungarian legislation related to the wine sector has been carried out, aiming to assess the impact of the production of quality wine versus that of table wine, using a range of public health and epidemiological research methods and data as well as HIA guidelines. The study finds that the toxic effects of alcohol can be reduced with an increased supply of quality wine and with decreased overall consumption due to higher cost, although this might drive some people to seek illegal sources. Quality wine production allows for improved use of land, creates employment opportunities and increases the incomes of producers and local communities; however, capital-scarce producers unable to manage restructuring may lose their source of subsistence. The supply of quality wine can promote social relations, contribute to a healthy lifestyle and reduce criminality related to alcohol's influence and adulteration. In general, the production and supply of quality wine can have an overall positive impact on health. Nevertheless, because of the several possible negative effects expected without purposeful restructuring, recommendations for the maximization of favourable outcomes and suggestions for monitoring the success of the analysis have been provided.

  4. Comparison between Mt-DNA D-Loop and Cyt B primers for porcine DNA detection in meat products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamzah, Azhana; Mutalib, Sahilah Abd.; Babji, Abdul Salam

    2013-11-01

    This study was conducted to detect the presence of porcine DNA in meat products in the market using conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and commercial PCR-southern hybridization analysis. Porcine DNA detection in meat products was tested due to some issues associated with the adulteration of food products in Malaysia. This is an important issue especially for Halal authentication which is required for some religious practices such as in Islam and Hinduisms. Many techniques have been developed for determining the Halal status of food products. In this paper, mt-DNA D-loop primer and cytochrome (cyt) b were used to detect the presence of porcine DNA in meat products. Positive and negative controls were always present for each batch of extraction. DNA of raw pork meat was used as a positive control while nucleus free water is used as negative control. A pair of oligonucleotide primer was used namely Pork1 and Pork2 which produced amplicon of 531 base pair (bp) in size. While, PCR-southern hybridization was conducted using primers readily supplied by commercial PCR-Southern hybridization and produced amplicon with 276 bp in size. In the present study, demonstrated that none of the samples were contaminated with porcine residuals but selected samples with pork meat were positive. The species-specific PCR amplification yielded excellent results for identification of pork derivatives in food products and it is a potentially reliable and suitable technique in routine food analysis for Halal certification.

  5. Hybrid analysis (barcode-high resolution melting) for authentication of Thai herbal products, Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f.) Wall.ex Nees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osathanunkul, Maslin; Suwannapoom, Chatmongkon; Khamyong, Nuttaluck; Pintakum, Danupol; Lamphun, Santisuk Na; Triwitayakorn, Kanokporn; Osathanunkul, Kitisak; Madesis, Panagiotis

    2016-01-01

    Background: Andrographis paniculata Nees is a medicinal plant with multiple pharmacological properties. It has been used over many centuries as a household remedy. A. paniculata products sold on the markets are in processed forms so it is difficult to authenticate. Therefore buying the herbal products poses a high-risk of acquiring counterfeited, substituted and/or adulterated products. Due to these issues, a reliable method to authenticate products is needed. Materials and Methods: High resolution melting analysis coupled with DNA barcoding (Bar-HRM) was applied to detect adulteration in commercial herbal products. The rbcL barcode was selected to use in primers design for HRM analysis to produce standard melting profile of A. paniculata species. DNA of the tested commercial products was isolated and their melting profiles were then generated and compared with the standard A. paniculata. Results: The melting profiles of the rbcL amplicons of the three closely related herbal species (A. paniculata, Acanthus ebracteatus and Rhinacanthus nasutus) are clearly separated so that they can be distinguished by the developed method. The method was then used to authenticate commercial herbal products. HRM curves of all 10 samples tested are similar to A. paniculata which indicated that all tested products were contained the correct species as labeled. Conclusion: The method described in this study has been proved to be useful in aiding identification and/or authenticating A. paniculata. This Bar-HRM analysis has allowed us easily to determine the A. paniculata species in herbal products on the markets even they are in processed forms. SUMMARY We propose the use of DNA barcoding combined with High Resolution Melting analysis for authenticating of Andrographis paniculata products.The developed method can be used regardless of the type of the DNA template (fresh or dried tissue, leaf, and stem).rbcL region was chosen for the analysis and work well with our samplesWe can easily

  6. 基于最小二乘支持向量机的橄榄油掺杂拉曼快速鉴别方法%Fast Discrimination of Olive Oil Adulteration Based on Raman Spectra Using Least Squares Support Vector Machine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周秀军; 戴连奎

    2013-01-01

    提出了一种基于最小二乘支持向量机(LS-SVM)的橄榄油掺杂拉曼快速鉴别方法.首先,收集若干已知类别的橄榄油样作为训练样本,获取其拉曼谱图,并对其谱图进行预处理和波段选择,进而构建LSSVM分类器;对于未知类别的油样,获取其拉曼谱图,并进行相应的预处理和波段选择,由LSSVM分类器获得鉴别结果.实验以7种已知的特级初榨橄榄油为基础,分别掺入4种其它植物油(大豆油、菜籽油、玉米油、葵花籽油),获得112个掺杂油样.将全部样本随机分成训练集和测试集,对测试集样本的预测实验结果表明,本文方法能有效鉴别橄榄油掺杂,且掺杂量最低检测限为5%.与其它分类方法相比,LSSVM分类法具有最佳的分类性能.该方法快速、简便,为橄榄油掺杂鉴别提供了一种全新的方法.%A fast discrimination method to olive oil adulteration based on Raman spectra using least squares support vector machine LSSVM was presented.Firstly,some known class olive oil samples were chosen randomly as training samples and their original Raman spectra were obtained,then a pretreatment and band selection were made for those spectra,and then,the LSSVM classifier was built.Secondly,for the Raman spectra of unknown test samples,the same pretreatment and band selection were used.Finally,the discrimination results were attained through the LSSVM classifier.The experiment was based on seven known Extra virgin olive oil and 112 adulterated samples were acquired by mixing four other vegetable oils (soybean,rapeseed,corn and sunflower oil) into the basic oils.The whole samples were divided into training test and testing test randomly,the test result shows that this method was able to discriminate olive oil adulteration and the lowest detection limit of the doping amount was 5 %.Compared with other classification methods,LSSVM classifier has the best classification performance.The above method provided a new

  7. Honey adulteration detection using liquid chromatography/ elemental analysis-isotope ratio mass spectrometry%液相色谱/元素分析-同位素比值质谱联用法鉴定蜂蜜掺假

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    费晓庆; 吴斌; 沈崇钰; 丁涛; 李丽花; 路颖

    2011-01-01

    A new method for honey adulteration detection using liquid chromatography/elemental analysis-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (LC/EA-IRMS) was developed. Based on the individual δ13C values detected for 38 authentic honey samples, the limits for the authentic honey samples were proposed: the δ13 C difference between protein and honey ( Δδ13 Cp-H ) should be higher or equal to than -0.95‰, the δ13C difference between fructose and glucose ( Δδ13 CF-G ) should be from -0. 64‰ to 0. 53‰, and the maximum difference of δ13C values between all the components ( Δδ13Cmax ) should be lower than 2.09‰. Based on the above criteria, the 58 positive samples spiked with C4 or C3 plant sugar syrup were confirmed by LC/EA-IRMS method from 150 commercial honey samples, while only 7 samples spiked with C4 plant sugar syrup were confirmed by the official EA-IRMS method. The proposed method represents a significant improvement in comparing with the official EA-IRMS method.%采用液相色谱/元素分析-同位素比值质谱联用法(LC/EA-IRMS)对国内蜂蜜掺假情况进行了研究.基于测定得到的38个纯正蜂蜜样品的碳同位素δ13C值数据,提出了纯正蜂蜜样品的δ13C值要求:蛋白质和蜂蜜的δ13C差值(Δδ13CP-H)≥-0.95‰,果糖和葡萄糖的δ13C差值(Δδ13CF-G)在-0.64‰至0.53‰范围内,各个组分间的δ13C最大差值(Δδ13Cmax)<2.09‰.对150个日常检测样品、蜂农和蜂蜜供应商的蜂蜜样品分别采用本文建立的LC/EA-IRMS和国家标准方法(EA-IRMS)进行鉴定,LC/EA-IRMS方法检出58个掺有C3或C4植物糖浆的阳性样品,而EA-IRMS方法仅检出7个掺有C4植物糖浆的阳性样品,可见新方法大大提高了对蜂蜜掺假的鉴别能力.

  8. Detection of Melamine Residue in Raw Milk and Milk Related Products by UV spectrophotometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.ANANTHAKUMAR

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Melamine is a toxic triazine used as an adulterant in milk & milk related products to increase the protein content. Spectrophotometric method has been developed using 0.1M sodium hydroxide as solvent to detect the melamine residue in raw milk and milk related products. As the amount of melamine residue present in samples would be of nanogram level which is beyond detection by UV spectrophotometer, standard addition method was adopted. The melamine was extracted by precipitation of milk protein at its isoelectric point with dilute acids. Samples were purified by using membrane filter of 0.45μm pore size, a known concentration of melamine standard solution was added to this filtrate and the absorbance was measured spectrophotometrically. The linearity curve was constructed for the concentration of melamine ranging from 3 - 8μg/ml.The correlation coefficient was found to be 0.9926. In this study 31 milk samples (raw milk and milk related product were analysed by standard addition method. It was observed that all the 31samples were found to contain melamine residue. This is the first study to confirm the existence of melamine residue in pasteurized milk marketed in Tamilnadu.

  9. Production of Modularised Product Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Peter

    2004-01-01

    Abstract: To day, more and more products are customized. Trends are not only to sell a product to the customer, but to sell a product system. The system can either be a combination of physical products or physical products together with some kind of service. Customers get in this way not a product...... but a solution. Modularisation is one tool used in designing the products. Designing and controlling a production system making customized products in an economical way is not an easy task. In order to fulfil the Lean and Agile manufacturing philosophies the production is often carried out in networks. Here...... the decoupling point has a central role. The scope for this article is therefore to analyse the possibilities for using modularisation in designing and controlling a production system. How will the development of modularised product systems influence the production system? In the paper, a case will be used...

  10. Detection of porcine DNA in gelatine and gelatine-containing processed food products-Halal/Kosher authentication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirhan, Yasemin; Ulca, Pelin; Senyuva, Hamide Z

    2012-03-01

    A commercially available real-time PCR, based on a multi-copy target cytochrome b (cyt b) using porcine specific primers, has been validated for the Halal/Kosher authentication of gelatine. Extraction and purification of DNA from gelatine were successfully achieved using the SureFood® PREP Animal system, and real-time PCR was carried out using SureFood® Animal ID Pork Sens kit. The minimum level of adulteration that could be detected was 1.0% w/w for marshmallows and gum drops. A small survey was undertaken of processed food products such as gum drops, marshmallows and Turkish delight, believed to contain gelatine. Of fourteen food products from Germany, two samples were found to contain porcine gelatine, whereas of twenty-nine samples from Turkey twenty-eight were negative. However, one product from Turkey contained porcine DNA and thus was not Halal, and neither was the use of porcine gelatine indicated on the product label.

  11. Product Customization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvam, Lars; Mortensen, Niels Henrik; Riis, Jesper

    For the majority of industrial companies, customizing products and services is among the most critical means to deliver true customer value and achieve superior competitive advantage. The challenge is not to customize products and services in itself – but to do it in a profitable way...... from more than 40 product configuration projects in companies providing customer tailored products and services........ The implementation of a product configuration system is among the most powerful ways of achieving this in practice, offering a reduction of the lead time for products and quotations, faster and more qualified responses to customer inquiries, fewer transfers of responsibility and fewer specification mistakes...

  12. Fat products

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandrov, Alexei

    2006-01-01

    The economics literature generally considers products as points in some characteristics space. Starting with Hotelling, this served as a convenient assumption, yet with more products being flexible or self-customizable to some degree it makes sense to think that products have positive measure. I develop a model where ?rms can o¤er interval long 'fat' products in the spatial model of differentiation. Contrary to the standard results pro?ts of the firms can decrease with increased differentiati...

  13. DNA sequence analyses of blended herbal products including synthetic cannabinoids as designer drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogata, Jun; Uchiyama, Nahoko; Kikura-Hanajiri, Ruri; Goda, Yukihiro

    2013-04-10

    In recent years, various herbal products adulterated with synthetic cannabinoids have been distributed worldwide via the Internet. These herbal products are mostly sold as incense, and advertised as not for human consumption. Although their labels indicate that they contain mixtures of several potentially psychoactive plants, and numerous studies have reported that they contain a variety of synthetic cannabinoids, their exact botanical contents are not always clear. In this study, we investigated the origins of botanical materials in 62 Spice-like herbal products distributed on the illegal drug market in Japan, by DNA sequence analyses and BLAST searches. The nucleotide sequences of four regions were analyzed to identify the origins of each plant species in the herbal mixtures. The sequences of "Damiana" (Turnera diffusa) and Lamiaceae herbs (Mellissa, Mentha and Thymus) were frequently detected in a number of products. However, the sequences of other plant species indicated on the packaging labels were not detected. In a few products, DNA fragments of potent psychotropic plants were found, including marijuana (Cannabis sativa), "Diviner's Sage" (Salvia divinorum) and "Kratom" (Mitragyna speciosa). Their active constituents were also confirmed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS), although these plant names were never indicated on the labels. Most plant species identified in the products were different from the plants indicated on the labels. The plant materials would be used mainly as diluents for the psychoactive synthetic compounds, because no reliable psychoactive effects have been reported for most of the identified plants, with the exception of the psychotropic plants named above.

  14. Product Attachment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mugge, R.

    2007-01-01

    The topic of this doctoral research is the concept of product attachment for ordinary consumer durables. Product attachment is defined as the strength of the emotional bond a consumer experiences with a specific product. Specifically, the research investigated how this bond develops over time and th

  15. Bar-HRM for Authentication of Plant-Based Medicines: Evaluation of Three Medicinal Products Derived from Acanthaceae Species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maslin Osathanunkul

    Full Text Available Medicinal plants are used as a popular alternative to synthetic drugs, both in developed and developing countries. The economic importance of the herbal and natural supplement industry is increasing every year. As the herbal industry grows, consumer safety is one issue that cannot be overlooked. Herbal products in Thai local markets are commonly sold without packaging or labels. Plant powders are stored in large bags or boxes, and therefore buying local herbal products poses a high risk of acquiring counterfeited, substituted and/or adulterated products. Due to these issues, a reliable method to authenticate products is needed. Here DNA barcoding was used in combination with High Resolution Melting analysis (Bar-HRM to authenticate three medicinal Acanthaceae species (Acanthus ebracteatus, Andrographis paniculata and Rhinacanthus nasutus commonly used in Thailand. The rbcL barcode was selected for use in primers design for HRM analysis to produce standard melting profiles of the selected species. Melting data from the HRM assay using the designed rbcL primers showed that the three chosen species could be distinguished from each other. HRM curves of all fifteen test samples indicated that three of tested products did not contain the indicated species. Two closely related species (A. paniculata and R. nasutus, which have a high level of morphological similarity, were interchanged with one another in three tested products. Incorrect information on packaging and labels of the tested herbal products was the cause of the results shown here. Morphological similarity among the species of interest also hindered the collection process. The Bar-HRM method developed here proved useful in aiding in the identification and authentication of herbal species in processed samples. In the future, species authentication through Bar-HRM could be used to promote consumer trust, as well as raising the quality of herbal products.

  16. Swine production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plain, Ronald L; Lawrence, John D

    2003-07-01

    The US swine industry is large and growing. The quantity of pork desired by consumers of US pork is growing at the rate of 1.5%/y. New production systems and new technology have enabled production per sow to grow at a rate of 4% annually in recent years. Consequently, the number of sows in the United States is declining. Because productivity growth is outpacing demand growth, the deflated price of hogs and pork is declining. Hog production and prices continue to exhibit strong seasonal and cyclic patterns. Pork production is usually lowest in the summer and highest in the fall. Production and prices tend to follow 4-year patterns. The US swine industry continues to evolve toward fewer and larger producers who rely on contracts for both hog production and marketing. In 2000, over half of the hogs marketed were from approximately 156 firms marketing more than 50,000 head annually. These producers finished 60% of their production in contract facilities. Over 90% of their marketings were under contract or were owned by a packer. These producers expressed a high level of satisfaction with hog production. Both they and their contract growers were satisfied with production contracts. These large producers were satisfied with their marketing contracts and planned to continue them in the future. The hog industry has changed a great deal in the last decade. There is little reason to believe this rapid rate of change will not continue. This swine industry is highly competitive and profit driven. Profit margins are too small to allow producers the luxury of ignoring new technology and innovative production systems. Consequently, hog production will continue its rapid evolution from traditional agriculture to typical industry.

  17. Generalized product

    OpenAIRE

    Greco,Salvatore; Mesiar, Radko; Rindone, Fabio

    2014-01-01

    Aggregation functions on [0,1] with annihilator 0 can be seen as a generalized product on [0,1]. We study the generalized product on the bipolar scale [–1,1], stressing the axiomatic point of view. Based on newly introduced bipolar properties, such as the bipolar increasingness, bipolar unit element, bipolar idempotent element, several kinds of generalized bipolar product are introduced and studied. A special stress is put on bipolar semicopulas, bipolar quasi-copulas and bipolar copulas.

  18. Hydrogen Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2014-09-01

    This 2-page fact sheet provides a brief introduction to hydrogen production technologies. Intended for a non-technical audience, it explains how different resources and processes can be used to produce hydrogen. It includes an overview of research goals as well as “quick facts” about hydrogen energy resources and production technologies.

  19. Tensor Product of Massey Products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qi Bing ZHENG

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we interpret Massey products in terms of realizations (twitsting cochains)of certain differential graded coalgebras with values in differential graded algebras. In the case where the target algebra is the cobar construction of a differential graded commutative Hopf algebra, we construct the tensor product of realizations and show that the tensor product is strictly associative,and commutative up to homotopy.

  20. Product Classification

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This database contains medical device names and associated information developed by the Center. It includes a three letter device product code and a Device Class...

  1. Marketplace Products

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Office of Enterprise Data and Analytics, within the Centers for Medicare aqnd Medicaid Services (CMS), has developed a set of information products and analytics...

  2. Production models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensson, Carsten

    2002-01-01

    The Project is co-financed with Nilpeter A/S and investigates the industrialization of build to order production. Project content: - Enterprise engineering - Specification processes - Mass Customization/ Build To Order - Knowledge/information management - Configuration - Supply Chain Management...

  3. 指纹图谱技术在乳制品质量控制中的应斥%Application of fingerprint technology in dairy production quality control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊萍; 张人明; 贺武明; 肖莲蓉; 任国谱

    2012-01-01

    The technology of fingerprint is an effective means to analyze the complex components and products. The characteristics,the research methods and the construction theory of the fingerprint technology were introduced briefly. Application of fingerprint technology in dairy production was discussed emphatically, including flavor characterization ,adulteration identification,and quality control of processing and monitoring of microbiology. Fingerprint Technology will be a new development for dairy production quality control.%指纹图谱技术是一种分析复杂组分或成品的有效、全面的分析方法。简要地介绍了指纹图谱技术的特点、研究方法以及指纹图谱的构建。重点概述了指纹图谱技术在乳制品领域中的应用,包括特征鉴定、掺假识别、质量过程控制以及微生物监测四个方面。指纹图谱技术将成为乳制品质量控制新的发展方向.

  4. Near infrared spectroscopy in animal science production: principles and applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Riovanto

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Near infrared (NIR is one of the techniques belonging to vibrational spectroscopy. Its radiation (750 to 2500nm interacts with organic matter, and the absorption spectrum is rich in chemical and physical information of organic molecules. In order to extract valuable information on the chemical properties of samples, it is necessary to mathematically process spectral data by chemometric tools. The most important part in the development of an NIR method is building the predicting model generally called calibration. NIR spectroscopy has several advantages over other analytical techniques: rapidity of analysis, no use of chemicals, minimal or no samples preparation, easily applicable in different work environments (on/in/at line applications. On the other hand, NIR spectroscopy has some disadvantages: low ability to predict compounds at low concentration (<0.1%, necessity of accurate analysis as reference, development of calibration models required high trained personnel, need of a large and up-to-date calibration data set (often difficult to obtain, difficulties to transfer calibration among instruments, initial high financial investments. In the feed industry, NIR spectroscopy is used for: feed composition, digestibility (in vivo, in vitro, in situ, traceability assessment (to avoid possible frauds. As far as animal products are concerned, NIR spectroscopy has been used to determine the main composition of meat, milk, fish, cheese, eggs. Furthermore, it was also used to predict some physical properties (tenderness, WHC (Water Holding Capacity, drip loss, colour and pH in meat; coagulation ability in milk; freshness, flavour and other sensorial parameters in cheese. Interesting applications of NIR spectroscopy regard issues like: determination of animal products’ authenticity and the detection of adulteration (in order to prevent frauds, discrimination PDO (Protected Designation of Origin and PGI (Protected Geographical Indication from other non

  5. Use of a hydrolytic procedure and spectrometric methods in the structure elucidation of a thiocarbonyl analogue of sildenafil detected as an adulterant in an over-the-counter herbal aphrodisiac.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reepmeyer, John C; D'Avignon, D André

    2009-01-01

    A sildenafil-related compound was detected in an herbal dietary supplement marketed as an aphrodisiac. The compound was identified as an analogue of sildenafil in which the carbonyl group in the pyrimidine ring of sildenafil was substituted with a thiocarbonyl group, and the methyl group on the piperazine ring was substituted with a hydroxyethyl group. Based on this structure, the compound was named thiohydroxyhomosildenafil. The structure of the compound was established using HPLCIMS, UV spectrometry, electrospray ionization-MS/MS, NMR spectrometry, and a hydrolytic process. One key product of hydrolysis was 1-(2-hydroxyethyl)-piperazine; the identification of this product defined the amine portion of the compound. Another key product of hydrolysis was hydroxyhomosildenafil, generated by hydrolysis of the thiocarbonyl group to a carbonyl group (C = S --> C = O). Hydroxyhomosildenafil was detected as a minor component in the dietary supplement.

  6. Bottom production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baines, J.; Baranov, S.P.; Bartalini, P.; Bay, A.; Bouhova, E.; Cacciari, M.; Caner, A.; Coadou, Y.; Corti, G.; Damet, J.; Dell-Orso, R.; De Mello Neto, J.R.T.; Domenech, J.L.; Drollinger, V.; Eerola, P.; Ellis, N.; Epp, B.; Frixione, S.; Gadomski, S.; Gavrilenko, I.; Gennai, S.; George, S.; Ghete, V.M.; Guy, L.; Hasegawa, Y.; Iengo, P.; Jacholkowska, A.; Jones, R.; Kharchilava, A.; Kneringer, E.; Koppenburg, P.; Korsmo, H.; Kramer, M.; Labanca, N.; Lehto, M.; Maltoni, F.; Mangano, M.L.; Mele, S.; Nairz, A.M.; Nakada, T.; Nikitin, N.; Nisati, A.; Norrbin, E.; Palla, F.; Rizatdinova, F.; Robins, S.; Rousseau, D.; Sanchis-Lozano, M.A.; Shapiro, M.; Sherwood, P.; Smirnova, L.; Smizanska, M.; Starodumov, A.; Stepanov, N.; Vogt, R.

    2000-03-15

    In the context of the LHC experiments, the physics of bottom flavoured hadrons enters in different contexts. It can be used for QCD tests, it affects the possibilities of B decays studies, and it is an important source of background for several processes of interest. The physics of b production at hadron colliders has a rather long story, dating back to its first observation in the UA1 experiment. Subsequently, b production has been studied at the Tevatron. Besides the transverse momentum spectrum of a single b, it has also become possible, in recent time, to study correlations in the production characteristics of the b and the b. At the LHC new opportunities will be offered by the high statistics and the high energy reach. One expects to be able to study the transverse momentum spectrum at higher transverse momenta, and also to exploit the large statistics to perform more accurate studies of correlations.

  7. Cordless Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    Apollo-era technology spurred the development of cordless products that we take for granted everyday. In the 1960s, NASA asked Black Decker to develop a special drill that would be powerful enough to cut through hard layers of the lunar surface and be lightweight, compact, and operate under its own power source, allowing Apollo astronauts to collect lunar samples further away from the Lunar Experiment Module. In response, Black Decker developed a computer program that analyzed and optimized drill motor operations. From their analysis, engineers were able to design a motor that was powerful yet required minimal battery power to operate. Since those first days of cordless products, Black Decker has continued to refine this technology and they now sell their rechargeable products worldwide (i.e. the Dustbuster, cordless tools for home and industrial use, and medical tools.)

  8. Product customization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lueg, Rainer

    2015-01-01

    This case study deals with the extension, customization, and profitability of two new product lines of a bicycle manufacturer. It can serve both as a discussion basis in class as well as an exam for advanced Master students in management, marketing, and ccounting. The case illustrates how variance...... analysis and Activity-based Costing help managers to better understand the different profitability of customized product lines. The rather open questions at the end of the case study allow for an adjustment to the level of knowledge of the students. Students will need to reflect on how a mechanical...

  9. 红外光谱在牛奶生产和检测方面的研究进展%Research advances in milk production and detection by infrared spectroscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨晋辉; 郑楠; 杨永新; 张养东; 李松励

    2016-01-01

    红外光谱不仅可以反应物质的结构组成,还能够随着成分含量变化形成不同响应值,红外技术也被广泛应用于畜产品的化学成分含量检测和质量评估。牛奶是人类膳食结构中的重要组成部分,对其营养成分和质量的准确评估有着非常重要的生产意义。该文介绍了红外光谱技术牛奶生产中各个环节中的应用,通过测定牛奶成分的含量,红外技术被用于产品定价和品质评价;掺假物质在牛奶中会引起光谱的变化,定性和定量模型的建立为牛奶质量快速鉴别诊断提供了便捷途径;牧场生产中,光谱被用于诊断奶牛酮病、机体能量状态。该文对近年来国外利用红外光谱技术在牛奶成分和凝集性能预测、掺假和质量检测、奶牛健康养殖等方面文献进行综述,重点介绍乳蛋白成分、脂肪酸、凝集性能等牛奶性状红外光谱模型以及牛奶光谱特征,对不同研究中模型性能进行比较,以较为全面的评估光谱技术在牛奶性状、质量和奶牛养殖等方面的应用,并为今后的检测和研究发展提供参考。%Infrared spectrum (IR) reflects the molecular structure of unknown material, and responds with varied chemical bonds. So it is used to determine chemical composition contents and evaluate product quality in livestock products extensively. Milk is a key part in human nutrition intake. And the exact determination of nutrients and the proper evaluation of quality have important significance for milk production. This paper introduced the application of IR in each link of milk production. Fat and protein contents in milk vary in different dairy farms, and many factors affect milk quality, which contribute to the final price of raw milk in acquisition. Milk composition determination using IR is likely to give a quick and comprehensive evaluation for milk quality. Unknown and undeclared adulterants of milk threaten

  10. Primary productivity

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Verlecar, X.N.; Parulekar, A.H.

    in the west coast of India and Somali region are responsible to keep the productivity high in the Arabian Sea. Sharp peaks of chlorophyll a) observed in Arabian Sea, from satellite imageries could be related to phytoplankton blooms due to upwelling. Turbidity...

  11. Novolak Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiba, Hiroshi

    Novolak resins are produced by reacting formaldehyde (30-55% concentration) with phenol under acidic conditions, with oxalic acid as the preferred catalyst and in special conditions, sulfuric acid. Depending on the batch size, all raw material components can be introduced into the reactor, or when there is an increase in the batch size as well as in the reactor volume, the reaction exotherm is controlled by a gradual addition of formaldehyde. Modern novolak production facilities are automated and programmed for reduced operational cost. A flow diagram of a general production line for the manufacture of novolak is shown. Recovery of the novolak is accomplished by the removal of water and devolatilization of crude novolak to molten, low-free phenol novolak resin which can be isolated as flake or pastille or dissolved in appropriate solvents. Novolak is stored either in a solid flake or pastille form or in solution. Most production is conducted under atmospheric conditions, but there are some recent, novel activities such as pressure in a hermetically-closed reactor reaching 0.1-10 MPa by using the heat of reaction without reflux to shorten reaction time, accelerating dehydration time by flash distillation, and providing economic benefit in the cost of novolak production.

  12. Television Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hird, John R.; Balzarini, Steven

    This document is a course of study to provide high school students with an introduction to television production skills and techniques and to provide a framework for developing critical television viewing skills. The nine units of the course introduce students to storyboards, camera operations, lighting, audio, video recording, graphics,…

  13. Transplant production

    Science.gov (United States)

    For field pepper (Capsicum spp.) production, plants can be established from direct seed or transplants depending on the location and cultural practices for the specific pepper type grown. Direct seeding can result in slow, variable, and reduced plant stands due to variations in soil temperature, wat...

  14. 乳与乳制品中L-羟脯氨酸检测技术的研究进展%Advances in detection technologies of L-hydroxyproline in the milk and dairy products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘思洁; 郭良友; 李青; 郭金芝; 姜楠

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, some enterprises have made adulteration in milk and dairy products to reduce production cost. This kind of behavior seriously affect the quality of dairy products, and also caused serious damage to health of consumers. Among various kinds of adulterated milk and dairy products method, the common method is adding protein adulteration objects such as protein hydrolysate. L-hydroxyproline is a hydrolyzed protein, but milk protein does not include L-hydroxyproline. Detection of L-hydroxyproline is one of important methods to identify whether the addition of animal protein in milk and dairy products. In this paper, several methods to detect the L-hydroxyproline, including spectrophotometry, high performance liquid chromatography, automatic amino acid analyzer and high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry were reviewed. In addition, the trends of related methods to detect L-hydroxyproline in milk and dairy products were predicted.%近几年来由于一些企业为降低生产成本,常常会在乳与乳制品中掺假,这种行为严重影响了乳品加工企业的产品质量,同时也对消费者的身体健康造成了严重损害。在各种乳与乳制品掺假方法中,添加蛋白类掺假物如水解蛋白是比较常见的方法。L-羟脯氨酸是水解蛋白特有的氨基酸,而乳蛋白质中是不含L-羟脯氨酸的,因此检测乳与乳制品中是否含有L-羟脯氨酸是判断乳与乳制品是否掺假的一个重要手段之一。目前,针对L-羟脯氨酸的检测方法主要有分光光度法、液相色谱法、氨基酸分析仪法、液相色谱质谱法等。本文综述了近几年来国内外乳与乳制品中 L-羟脯氨酸的检测技术及其研究进展,对上述几种检测方法各自的优缺点进行了详细的分析,同时对未来的L-羟脯氨酸检测技术发展进行了展望。

  15. Product Configuration Systems and Productivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jørgen Lindgaard; Edwards, Kasper

    2004-01-01

    Twelve companies have been interviewed with the purpose to get information about technical, economic and organisational matters in respect of Product Configuration Systems (PCS).Combinations of qualitative interviews and quantitative scoring have been used in ranking expected and realized results...... from implementing PCS. The three highest aggregated scoring expected benefits are: 1)improved quality in specifications, 2)lower turnaround time, 3)less resource intensity.......Twelve companies have been interviewed with the purpose to get information about technical, economic and organisational matters in respect of Product Configuration Systems (PCS).Combinations of qualitative interviews and quantitative scoring have been used in ranking expected and realized results...

  16. Lepton Production

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    *Participation in Soft Photon Study .ce HELIOS Collaboration This experiment aims to settle open questions in the hadronic production of electrons, muons and neutrinos. Prominent among these are e/@m universality, the contribution of charm decay to lepton pair production, and the ``anomalous'' low mass pairs.\\\\ \\\\ The experimental design aims to optimize the combination of: .point begin electron identification .point muon identification .point missing energy measurement for neutrinos .point vertex identification (for @t @= @t^c^h^a^r^m). .point end \\\\ \\\\ The major components of the apparatus are shown in the figure. In the vertex region a proton beam of transverse size @=50~@m impinges on a beryllium target of diameter 50~@m, and high precision tracking in the vertex region is achieved by silicon strip detectors. Charged particle momenta are measured using a dipole magnet and high resolution drift chambers. Electrons are identified by the combination of the transition radiation detector and the finely segment...

  17. Tequila production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cedeño, M

    1995-01-01

    Tequila is obtained from the distillation of fermented juice of agave plant, Agave tequilana, to which up to 49% (w/v) of an adjunct sugar, mainly from cane or corn, could be added. Agave plants require from 8 to 12 years to mature and during all this time cleaning, pest control, and slacken of land are required to produce an initial raw material with the appropriate chemical composition for tequila production. Production process comprises four steps: cooking to hydrolyze inulin into fructose, milling to extract the sugars, fermentation with a strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to convert the sugars into ethanol and organoleptic compounds, and, finally, a two-step distillation process. Maturation, if needed, is carried out in white oak barrels to obtain rested or aged tequila in 2 or 12 months, respectively.

  18. Diboson production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evans D.L.

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of diboson production cross sections in pp collisions at the LHC at a centre of mass energy √s = 7 and 8 TeV, and in pp̅ collisions at the Tevatron at √s = 1.96 TeV are reviewed and compared with standard model predictions. Limits on charged and neutral anomalous triple gauge couplings extracted from the selected diboson event samples are also compared.

  19. Product design - Molecules, devices, functional products, and formulated products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gani, Rafiqul; Ng, Ka M.

    2015-01-01

    Chemical product design is a multidisciplinary and diverse subject. This article provides an overview of product design while focusing on product conceptualization. Four product types are considered - molecular products, formulated products, devices and functional products. For molecular products......, computer-aided design tools are used to predict the physicochemical properties of single molecules and blends. For formulated products, an integrated experiment-modeling approach is used to generate the formula with the specified product attributes. For devices and functional products, conceptual product...... design is carried out by modeling the product based on thermodynamics, kinetics and transport processes, by performing experiments, and by decision making based on rule-based methods The results are product specifications in terms of the type of ingredients, composition, and the structure, form, shape...

  20. Types of fraud in meat and meat products: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Espinoza T.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Affects the food control. The globalization, increased imports and exports and free trade agreements have led to greater sharing and access to food worldwide; along with it, the problems associated with fraud such as adulteration, substitution, intentionality, and counterfeiting have been increased. Therefore, there are various tasks associated with food fraud, which in most reviews published only new identification techniques have been discussed. However, a discussion about the types of fraud and its impact on society, bioterrorism and religion, has been little commented. This review focuses primarily on describing the types of fraud that has as objective to obtain economic benefit or cause terrorism. Also, latest techniques available for detecting meat adulteration are mentioned.

  1. production lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingshan Li

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, serial production lines with finished goods buffers operating in the pull regime are considered. The machines are assumed to obey Bernoulli reliability model. The problem of satisfying customers demand is addressed. The level of demand satisfaction is quantified by the due-time performance (DTP, which is defined as the probability to ship to the customer a required number of parts during a fixed time interval. Within this scenario, the definitions of DTP bottlenecks are introduced and a method for their identification is developed.

  2. New product development and product launch strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Filiz Bozkurt Bekoğlu; Ahu Ergen

    2016-01-01

    In today’s highly competitive environment, a balanced product portfolio, success in new product development and product launch are important factors for the sustainability of organizations. The aim of the study is to reveal the right product launch steps for the companies through theory and case study. In the study, new product development and product launch strategies are first investigated theoretically. Afterwards, a successful product series launch case from cosmetics sector is analyzed. ...

  3. Bottom Production

    CERN Document Server

    Nason, P; Schneider, O; Tartarelli, F; Vikas, P; Baines, J T M; Baranov, S P; Bartalini, P; Bay, A; Bouhova-Thacker, E; Cacciari, M; Caner, A; Coadou, Y; Corti, G; Damet, J; Dell'Orso, R; De Mello-Neto, J R T; Domenech, J L; Drollinger, V; Eerola, Paule Anna Mari; Ellis, Nick; Epp, B; Frixione, Stefano; Gadomski, S; Gavrilenko, I; Gennai, Simone; George, S; Ghete, V M; Guy, L P; Hasegawa, Y; Iengo, R; Jacholkowska, A; Jones, R; Kharchilava, A I; Kneringer, E; Koppenburg, P; Korsmo, M; Krämer, M; Labanca, N; Lehto, M H; Maltoni, F; Mangano, Michelangelo L; Mele, S; Nairz, A; Nakada, Tatsuya; Nikitin, N V; Nisati, A; Norrbin, E; Palla, Fabrizio; Rizatdinova, F K; Robins, S A; Rousseau, D; Sanchis-Lozano, M A; Shapiro, M; Sherwood, P; Smirnova, L; Smizanska, M; Starodumov, Andrei; Stepanov, N; Voft, R

    2000-01-01

    We review the prospects for bottom production physics at the LHC. Members of the working group who has contributed to this document are: J. Baines, S.P. Baranov, P. Bartalini, A. Bay, E. Bouhova, M. Cacciari, A. Caner, Y. Coadou, G. Corti, J. Damet, R. Dell'Orso, J.R.T. De Mello Neto, J.L. Domenech, V. Drollinger, P. Eerola, N. Ellis, B. Epp, S. Frixione, S. Gadomski, I. Gavrilenko, S. Gennai, S. George, V.M. Ghete, L. Guy, Y. Hasegawa, P. Iengo, A. Jacholkowska, R. Jones, A. Kharchilava, E. Kneringer, P. Koppenburg, H. Korsmo, M. Kraemer, N. Labanca, M. Lehto, F. Maltoni, M.L. Mangano, S. Mele, A.M. Nairz, T. Nakada, N. Nikitin, A. Nisati, E. Norrbin, F. Palla, F. Rizatdinova, S. Robins, D. Rousseau, M.A. Sanchis-Lozano, M. Shapiro, P. Sherwood, L. Smirnova, M. Smizanska, A. Starodumov, N. Stepanov, R. Vogt

  4. Adulteration of raw milk in the qualitative determination of zinc salts%试剂盒法检测低乳糖牛奶中乳糖质量分数的方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘美霞; 张河霞; 朱炜; 王丹慧; 李梅

    2011-01-01

    In order to improve the speed test,Reduce inspection costs,Special kit to existing law to develop lactose,To meet production,. Needs testo Lactose content of low lactose milk is relatively low because, With the existing national standard titration method can not be detected, The chromatography to be equipped with liquid chromatography, High cost, And the detection of more slowly, Test the original study of lactose improved detection kit, Based on their individual details of the revised, So that the original method is more refined, To rapid detection of low-lactose milk lactose content,, The detection limit was 3 g/kgo The results show that, The method is sensitive, ease of clinical, low system cost, system accuracy, To meet the needs of online production and R. & D.%为了提高检验速度,降低检验成本,特对现有乳糖试剂盒法进行开发,以满足生产、检验的需求.低乳糖牛奶由于乳糖质量分数比较低,用现有的国标滴定法无法进行检测[1],而色谱法需配备液相色谱仪,成本较高,且检测速度比较慢,试验对原有乳糖检测试剂盒进行研究改进,在其基础上针对个别细节进行了修订,使原有方法更细化,从而快速检测低乳糖牛乳中乳糖质量分数[2].本研究检出限为3 g/kg.结果表明,该方法灵敏度高,操作简单,成本低廉,结果准确,能够满足在线生产及研发需求[3].

  5. 基于NCBI核酸数据库的紫荆皮混淆品种华中五味子的DNA鉴定研究%DNA identification of Zijingpi's adulterant species Schisandra sphenanthera based on NCBI nucleotide database analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程小丽; 廖彩丽; 刘春生; 白贞芳; 杨瑶珺; 郑健; 张继

    2012-01-01

    目的:探讨利用NCBI核酸数据库中ITS序列鉴定紫荆皮商品药材,为保证紫荆皮药材质量提供依据.方法:从紫荆皮药材中提取DNA,以ITS序列通用引物进行PCR扩增,扩增产物经纯化后直接双向测序,利用ITS序列相似度和系统发育树进行鉴定.结果:获得了紫荆皮商品药材的ITS序列信息.结论:经DNA鉴定,发现市场上流通的紫荆皮主流商品来源于木兰科五味子属植物华中五味子,药用部位为茎皮.%Objective: To provide basis for quality control of Zijingpi, DNA identification was used based on NCBI nucleotide database analysis. Method; Firstly, total DNA of Zijingpi was extracted. Secondly, the ITS sequence was amplified by PCR with universal primer of ITS and PCR products was directly sequenced after purification. Finally, ITS sequence similarity and phylogenetic tree were used for identification. Result; The ITS sequence information of the mainstream commercial drugs of Zijingpi was obtained. Conclusion : It is firstly reported that the mainstream commercial drugs of Zijingpi was the bark of Schisandra sphenanthera.

  6. Método eletroforético rápido para detecção da adulteração do leite caprino com leite bovino Fast electrophoretic detection method of adulteration of caprine milk by bovine milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.S. Egito

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se os métodos de eletroforese em gel de poliacrilamida (PAGE em presença de uréia (uréia-PAGE e dodecil sulfato de sódio (SDS-PAGE para identificar a adulteração do leite de cabra pela adição do leite de vaca. Um método foi otimizado para preparação do caseinato de sódio em poucos minutos para análise eletroforética. Uréia-PAGE foi o método mais apropriado para identificação desse tipo de fraude, em decorrência da presença da caseína alfas1 com migração mais rápida no leite bovino. A presença da alfas1-caseína bovina foi detectada a partir da adição de 2,5% de leite de vaca utilizando uréia-PAGE. O limite de detecção, a repetibilidade, o tempo para execução indicaram que esse método pode ser aplicado como rotina no controle de qualidade do leite de cabra recebido pelas indústrias de processamento.Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE in presence of urea (urea-PAGE or sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS-PAGE was evaluated to detect the presence of cow milk added to goat milk. A method was optimized to prepare sodium caseinate from milk in few minutes. After that, the sodium caseinate was analyzed by PAGE. The urea-PAGE was the most appropriated method to identify adulteration as caprine and bovine alphas1-caseins displayed different migration rates. When cow milk was added to goat milk at different proportions, the presence of bovine alphas1-casein was detected in the mixture by urea-PAGE for a minimal proportion of 2.5% of cow milk added to goat milk. The good sensitivity, the repeatability and the short time for execution indicate that the described method will be able to be routinely applied for the quality control of goat milk in dairy industry.

  7. Optimization of Food Safety Regulatory System and Implementation Logic:Based on a Case Study of Mutton Adulteration of Shanghai%食品安全监管制度的优化及其实现逻辑--基于上海羊肉掺假的个案分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张浒; 陈刚

    2014-01-01

    Food safety regulatory system is the norms and behavior patterns combined of government and other stakeholders. The main function of the system is to coordinate actions between different parts,to achieve the common interests,and thus the government to take communication,joint,inter-active way to balance the relationship with each other,to prevent chaotic state. However,China’s food safety regulatory system has been in change among the frequent occurrences of food safety. Under the existing environment system,it is difficult to achieve harmonization of food safety objectives. Tak-ing Shanghai lamb adulteration incident as a case,we analyzed their root causes and internal mecha-nism from individual behavior analytic hierarchy levels and institutional order of events,and in“Su-per-Ministry system”reform of the premise,through system optimization constraints,incentives to reg-ulate food security and the strategic behavior of each stakeholder.%食品安全监管制度是政府及其相关者行为规范和行为模式的总和。制度的主要作用是协调不同主体之间的行为,最终实现彼此间的共同利益,因而政府采取沟通、联合、互动的方式平衡彼此之间的关系,防止食品安全监管出现混乱无序的状态。但我国食品安全监管制度一直处于变迁之中,食品安全事故屡见不鲜,在现有的制度环境之下,难以协调一致来实现食品安全的目标。以上海羊肉掺假事件为个案,从个体行为层次与体制秩序层次分析事件的内在机理及其产生根源,并在“大部制”改革的前提下,通过制度优化来约束、激励、规范食品安全各利益主体的策略行为。

  8. Adulteration and Quality Analysis of Olive Oil by Near-Infrared Spectrometry and Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry%近红外光谱和气相色谱-质谱联用技术对橄榄油掺杂及品质分析研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    分别采用近红外光谱技术及气相色谱-质谱联用技术对橄榄油样品进行分析。采用透射方式采集橄榄油样品的近红外光谱比漫反射方式可以获得更好的重现性;通过直观分析、二阶求导以及主成分分析可快速判别橄榄油与掺杂橄榄油。0.10 g橄榄油样品经过10 mL的KOH-甲醇溶液甲酯化处理后,加入10 mL正己烷和10 mL水进行液液萃取,并对正己烷提取液进行气相色谱-质谱分析,对39种橄榄油脂肪酸甲酯含量的分析结果与近红外光谱的主成分分析图对比得出,油酸和亚油酸是影响橄榄油近红外光谱扫描结果的主要成分。%Olive oil was analyzed by near-infrared spectrometry and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.The reproducibility of near-infrared spectrum acquired through transmission is better than that acquired through diffuse reflection.The adulteration of olive oil was differentiated rapidly by visual analysis,derivation of two order analysis and principal component analysis(PCA).0.10 g of olive oil was added 10 mL of KOH-methanol to methyl-etherification.Then 10 mL of n-hexane and 10 mL of water were added to liquid-liquid extraction.The extracts of n-hexane were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and the fatty acid methyl ester(FAME) of 39 olive oil samples were compared with the PCA of near-infrared spectrometry.The results indicated that oleic acid and linoleic acid were major impact components to the near-infrared spectrums of olive oil.

  9. Identification of the botanical origin of pine nuts found in food products by gas-liquid chromatography analysis of fatty acid profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Destaillats, Frédéric; Cruz-Hernandez, Cristina; Giuffrida, Francesca; Dionisi, Fabiola

    2010-02-24

    Pine nuts are traditionally used in various part of the world for the preparation of desserts or sauces or in salads. Local production is not sufficient to cope with the high demand of pine nuts around the world, and countries such as China or Pakistan are exporting much of their production to Western countries. Almost all the nuts that are traditionally consumed belong to the Pinus genus, but over the past years, the number of consumer complaints following consumption of commercial pine nuts increased. Some consumers experienced taste disturbance lasting for up to two weeks after consumption. Food safety agencies raised some concerns regarding pine nuts imported from Asia and their association with taste disturbance. However, even though a formal association has not been found to date, the Pinus genus comprises species that are not classified as edible and could be eventually used to adulterate edible species. Pinus spp. seed lipids are known to contain very specific polyunsaturated fatty acids know as Delta5-olefinic acids. Seed fatty acid profile of conifers had been used in the past as a taxonomic marker, and in the present study to identify the botanical origin of pine nut in nine commercial products. Fast gas-liquid chromatography (GLC) was used to resolve the complete fatty acid profile of Pinus spp. samples in less than 5 min. A diagnostic index based on the relative levels of the main fatty acids including distinctive Delta5-olefinic acids was used to identify botanical origins. Results revealed the occurrence of the following Pinus spp. in commercial products: P. pinea, P. koraiensis, P. gerardiana, P. armandii and P. massoniana. The later two species, known as Chinese white pine and Chinese red pine, are only cultivated in China and are not listed as common source of edible pine nuts by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). The present study shows that the botanical origin of pine nuts can be identified in products based on the fatty acid profile.

  10. Tobacco Products Production and Operations Reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Treasury — Monthly statistical reports on tobacco products production and operations. Data for Tobacco Statistical Release is derived directly from the Report – Manufacturer of...

  11. Innovation in Product Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McAloone, Tim C.; Restrepo-Giraldo, John Dairo

    2005-01-01

    The course on Innovation in Product Development attempts to identify and understand the nature of innovation and product development and their important factors. The course takes both a theoretical and a practical approach and employs a mix of lectures, project work and group discussion. Format...... insight. Course content The following aspects of innovation in product development are considered: - Humans and products - Needs and products - Product life - Teams creating products - Products creating business - Product development models - Organising product development - Product development tools...... - The future of product development....

  12. SaferProducts API

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Consumer Product Safety Commission — On March 11, 2011, the U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission launched SaferProducts.gov. This site hosts the agency's new Publicly Available Consumer Product...

  13. Productivity Enhancement through Production Monitoring System

    OpenAIRE

    Prasad, Shiva H C; Rao, Potti Srinivasa; Gopalkrishna, B; Ahluwalia, Aakash

    2017-01-01

    A production monitoring system uses the real-time data while production is online. The real-time production monitoring systems are designed as means of auto data to the collection and monitoring the data via display boards. This study focuses on analysing the real-time production monitoring systems through trend analysis in production and over consumption of raw material controlling the over consumptions in a pen manufacturing industry. The methodology followed is through process flow diagram...

  14. From Product Models to Product State Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Michael Holm

    1999-01-01

    A well-known technology designed to handle product data is Product Models. Product Models are in their current form not able to handle all types of product state information. Hence, the concept of a Product State Model (PSM) is proposed. The PSM and in particular how to model a PSM is the Research...... Object for this project. In the presentation, benefits and challenges of the PSM will be presented as a basis for the discussion....

  15. Product Service Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Departing from Product Development models based on physical artefacts. Moving towards integrated Product Development and System Operations models suited Product/Service-systems......Departing from Product Development models based on physical artefacts. Moving towards integrated Product Development and System Operations models suited Product/Service-systems...

  16. Micro Products - Product Development and Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Hans Nørgaard

    2003-01-01

    -disciplinary competences. One example is sensors for chemical analysis of fluids, where chemistry, biology and flow mechanics all influence the design of the product and thereby the industrial fabrication of the product [1]. On the technological side the development has moved very fast, primarily driven by the need...... of the electronics industry to create still smaller chips with still larger capacity. Therefore the manufacturing technologies connected with micro/nano products in silicon are relatively highly developed compared to the technologies used for manufacturing micro products in metals, polymers and ceramics. For all...... technologies, however, it is a continuously increasing challenge to create the operational basis for an industrial production of micro products. As the products through product development processes are made applicable to a large number of customers, the pressure in regard to developing production technologies...

  17. Product Family Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvist, Morten

    product this will in time lead to a patchwork of product variants, features, parts, and process technologies – i.e. a product family so complex that it becomes a burden in the companies’ daily operation. As a consequence there has been an increase in the number of companies that are beginning to change...... their focus from single products to entire product families and try to incorporate the development of product variety into a future product family. The key is to create fit between the product design and production setup. The challenge of understanding this fit and modelling dispositional relations between...... the existing product design and the production setup with an eye re-design the products and/or the production setup is the main topic for this research project. This research contributes with a visual modelling formalism which has its basis in the Product Family Master Plan (PFMP) presented in the work of Ulf...

  18. Production monitoring system for understanding product robustness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boorla, Srinivasa Murthy; Howard, Thomas J.

    2016-01-01

    In the current quality paradigm, the performance of a product is kept within specification by ensuring that its parts are within specification. Product performance is then validated after final assembly. However, this does not control how robust the product performance is, i.e. how much...... it will vary between the specification limits. In this paper, a model for predicting product performance is proposed, taking into account design, assembly and process parameters live from production. This empowers production to maintain final product performance, instead of part quality. The PRECI‐IN case...... study is used to demonstrate how the monitoring system can be used to efficiently guide corrective action to improve product performance. It is claimed that the monitoring system can be used to dramatically cut the time taken to identify, planand execute corrective action related to typical quality...

  19. Adulteration and Contamination of Commercial Sap of Hymenaea Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katyuce de Souza Farias

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Hymenaea stigonocarpa and Hymenaea martiana species, commonly known as “jatobá,” produce a sap which is extracted by perforation of the trunk and is commonly used in folk medicine as a tonic. For this study, the authenticity of commercial samples of jatobá was verified by the identification of the main compounds and multivariate analysis and contamination by microbial presence analysis. The acute toxicity of the authentic jatobá sap was also evaluated. The metabolites composition and multivariate analysis revealed that none of the commercial samples were authentic. In the microbiological contamination analysis, five of the six commercial samples showed positive cultures within the range of 1,700–100,000 CFU/mL and the authentic sap produced no signs of toxicity, and from a histological point of view, there was the maintenance of tissue integrity. In brief, the commercial samples were deemed inappropriate for consumption and represent a danger to the population.

  20. ADULTEROUS BEHAVIOUR WITHIN THE CAR-OWNER COUPLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francis PAPON

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper was to analyse two activities: who rents a car and why? Which households share the driving of their cars? In order to do that, the Parc-Auto (Car-Fleet database, built from annual postal surveys conducted with a panel of 10,000 French households, has been processed. Among approximately one hundred questions in the survey, two key questions have been crossed against many social, economic, demographic, geographic or time variables. KQ1: “During the last 12 months, did you — or another person from your home — rent a car in France for personal purposes?” KQ2: “Is this car occasionally used by other persons?” Here are the main findings. Renting households are mainly working, high income households, living in the core of big cities, and in particular in Paris. Most of them have two wage-sheets and two cars, one of which is generally a recent, high power, high quality car. Car rental is mainly an occasional practice. Yet for a minority of renters, it is a sustained habit. Households with more licence holders than cars share the most: about three quarters of them share their cars. On the contrary, single driver-single car households have less opportunity to share: only 15% share. Household car sharing shed light on the gender role within households: while 58% of the main users of the shared cars are male, 55% of secondary users are female. Household car sharing is mainly a regular practice. Finally, without diminishing the merits of innovative transport solutions proposed here and there, it is not a waste of time to give some insight on self established behaviour within households. This reveals that complex patterns have been built over time by the people themselves, to cope with diverse situations that cannot be easily handled by straightforward classifications. The car cannot be reduced to a personal object. Household car sharing also carries strong links with the issue of car dependency. Sifting car availability and choice universes may be useful for fitting disaggregated models of sharing.

  1. Adulteration and Contamination of Commercial Sap of Hymenaea Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farias, Katyuce de Souza; Auharek, Sarah Alves; Cunha-Laura, Andréa Luiza; de Souza, Jeana Mara Escher; Damasceno-Junior, Geraldo Alves; Toffoli-Kadri, Mônica Cristina; de Oliveira Filiú, Wander Fernando; dos Santos, Edson dos Anjos; Chang, Marilene Rodrigues

    2017-01-01

    The Hymenaea stigonocarpa and Hymenaea martiana species, commonly known as “jatobá,” produce a sap which is extracted by perforation of the trunk and is commonly used in folk medicine as a tonic. For this study, the authenticity of commercial samples of jatobá was verified by the identification of the main compounds and multivariate analysis and contamination by microbial presence analysis. The acute toxicity of the authentic jatobá sap was also evaluated. The metabolites composition and multivariate analysis revealed that none of the commercial samples were authentic. In the microbiological contamination analysis, five of the six commercial samples showed positive cultures within the range of 1,700–100,000 CFU/mL and the authentic sap produced no signs of toxicity, and from a histological point of view, there was the maintenance of tissue integrity. In brief, the commercial samples were deemed inappropriate for consumption and represent a danger to the population. PMID:28303155

  2. Presymmetry in the Standard Model with adulterated Dirac neutrinos

    CERN Document Server

    Matute, Ernesto A

    2015-01-01

    Recently we proposed a model for light Dirac neutrinos in which two right-handed (RH) neutrinos per generation are added to the particles of the Standard Model (SM), implemented with the symmetry of fermionic contents. The ordinary one is decoupled via the high scale type-I seesaw mechanism, while the extra pairs off with its left-handed (LH) partner. The symmetry of lepton and quark contents was merely used as a guideline to the choice of parameters because it is not a proper symmetry. Here we argue that the underlying symmetry to take for this correspondence is presymmetry, the hidden electroweak symmetry of the SM extended with RH neutrinos defined by transformations which exchange lepton and quark bare states with the same electroweak charges and no Majorana mass terms in the underlying Lagrangian. It gives a topological character to fractional charges, relates the number of families to the number of quark colors, and now guarantees the great disparity between the couplings of the two RH neutrinos. Thus, ...

  3. The structuring of products and product programmes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Mogens myrup; Hansen, Claus thorp; Mortensen, Niels henrik

    1996-01-01

    members may be created by variation.The structuring of products and product families is a complex design task. This article aims at classifying the many structuring types, which are built into a product. The fact that different structures are superimposed in the final product, makes the design synthesis...... complex and raises a need for aids.Among aids for structuring computer support seems feasible. The need for modelling the product and its structural aspects is eluciated. A modelling framework is proposed, and the need for modelling different structure types by use of an enhanced modelling is shown...

  4. Extracting Product Features from Chinese Product Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yahui Xi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available With the great development of e-commerce, the number of product reviews grows rapidly on the e-commerce websites. Review mining has recently received a lot of attention, which aims to discover the valuable information from the massive product reviews. Product feature extraction is one of the basic tasks of product review mining. Its effectiveness can influence significantly the performance of subsequent jobs. Double Propagation is a state-of-the-art technique in product feature extraction. In this paper, we apply the Double Propagation to the product feature exaction from Chinese product reviews and adopt some techniques to improve the precision and recall. First, indirect relations and verb product features are introduced to increase the recall. Second, when ranking candidate product features by using HITS, we expand the number of hubs by means of the dependency relation patterns between product features and opinion words to improve the precision. Finally, the Normalized Pattern Relevance is employed to filter the exacted product features. Experiments on diverse real-life datasets show promising results

  5. Product Structure, the Heart of Product Definition

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeHoog, C., Jr.

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes the LMMSS Product Definition System (PDS) philosophy and approach were the use of each item parts document or software can be traced to a specific end item (EI) serial/tail number of the product. It explains why a part-oriented approach to data organization and configuration management is required. The definition of part-oriented is that all appropriate product definition data products will be collected. Referenced and managed by their linkage/relationship to parts/items, The paper will touch upon how LMMSS store/controls product definition information under each project's top product designator in a two tiered approach. One tier for each product end item and another tier which contain/controls listings of drawings, documents. Specifications and standards that are required for hardware item definition.

  6. A Product Safety Primer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Mary Anne Symons

    1975-01-01

    The article offers an overview of the product safety issue and offers ideas for helping students develop product safety awareness. The role of the Consumer Product Safety Commission and safety legislation are discussed. (MW)

  7. COTTAGE CHEESE PRODUCTS FUNCTIONALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Golubeva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cottage cheese products holds a significant place among the dairy and milk-containing products. The range of products includes cheese: cheese, pastes, creams, cakes, etc. Such diversity can be attributed to their popularity among the population and benefit brought by the body from regular use. Curd protein is much better and easier to digest by the body than protein fish, meat or milk. Rich curd products lysine and methionine. Minerals contained in cheese products have a positive effect on bone formation and structure of tissues. The composition of curd products, in addition to cheese and dairy ingredients may include non-dairy ingredients origin. Today, for the production of cheese products use the most advanced technologies to further enrich its structure and significantly improve the nutritional value. Pine nut is widely used in the manufacture of many dairy products. But, in most cases, the production of dairy products as a filler used pine nut cake, which deprives the finished product valuable cedar oil. The authors proposed a technology for producing curd product with the addition of pine nuts and honey (pine nuts and fructose. Compatible with cream cheese filling insertion determined sensory organoleptic point scale. he optimum dosage of components: pine nuts – 5 %, honey – 10 % fructose – 7 %. Technological process of cottage cheese product is different from the traditional operations training components and their introduction into the finished cheese. Identify indicators of quality of the new product. Production of curd products thus expanding the range of dairy products functional orientation.

  8. PDT (Product Data Technology), Production and Society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vesterager, Johan

    1997-01-01

    Information and communication technology (ICT) constitute a genuine technical revolution by enabling a dynamic and flexible support or automation of knowledge and information work. Bearing in mind that products are frozen knowledge, ICT as known will change the way we produce products dramatically....... The use of ICT in engineering of products constitutes product data technology (PDT).This paper presents a a basic platform for an understanding the ongoing revolution with focus on the PDT-area taking outset in the fundamental elements of knowledge and information work: creation, transformation...

  9. STRATEGIES FOR INCREASING PRODUCTIVITY IN PRODUCTION SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Pacheco

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this article is to point a set of practical strategies that can be adopted to increase the capacity of constraints resources on production systems, when the constraint is inside the factory and not is in the market. To serve this purpose will be presented strategies based on best practices of the Theory of Constraints, Lean Manufacturing and Total Productive Maintenance. This article also presents the mains tools for the deployment of these methodologies. The survey results have provided an objective set of practical strategy that can be used to increase the capacity and productivity of production systems according to the needs of each manufacturing system.

  10. Product Structuring, an overview

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tichem, Marcel; Storm, Ton; Andreasen, Mogens Myrup;

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents the highlights of two WDK Workshops on Product Structuring. Product structuring plays an important role in creating products which have good functional and life-cycle related properties, in design process management, and in several other company functions like production control...

  11. Successful product realization strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peeples, John; Boulton, William R.

    1995-02-01

    Product realization is the process of defining, designing, developing, and delivering products to the market. While the main thrust of this JTEC panel was to conduct a complete investigation of the state of Japanese low-cost electronic packaging technologies, it is very difficult to totally separate the development of technology and products from the product realization process. Japan's electronics firms adhere to a product realization strategy based on a strong customer focus, a consistent commitment to excellence in design, and a cost-effective approach to technology commercialization. The Japanese product-pull strategy has been a successful driver and influencing factor in every aspect of the product development cycle.

  12. Probiotic fermented dairy products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnan Tamime

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Fermented dairy products are the most popular vehicle used in theindustry for the implantation of the probiotic microflora in humans. Therefore this paper provides an overview of new knowledge on probiotic fermented dairy products. It involves historical developments, commercial probiotic microorganisms and products, and their therapeutic properties, possibilities of quality improvement of different types of newly developed fermented dairy products together with fermented goat’s milk products.

  13. Production Function Geometry with "Knightian" Total Product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truett, Dale B.; Truett, Lila J.

    2007-01-01

    Authors of principles and price theory textbooks generally illustrate short-run production using a total product curve that displays first increasing and then diminishing marginal returns to employment of the variable input(s). Although it seems reasonable that a temporary range of increasing returns to variable inputs will likely occur as…

  14. Productive or re-productive learning?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordentoft, Helle Merete; Olesen, Birgitte Ravn

    .e. differences such as level of education, gender, ethnic background and knowledge. However, after analyses of the data we wonder if the learning was more re-productive than productive. Our analysis shows how the majority voice, represented by Danish female participants, with its cultural preferences...

  15. Designing Product Families

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Per Erik Elgård; Miller, Thomas Dedenroth

    1998-01-01

    Manufacturing companies that operate with products aimed at different market segments and applications are experiencing an increasing demand from customers who expect products to be tailored to their exact needs rather than accepting general products based on average customer needs. This trend ha...... led to a new business paradigm, "mass customization", where companies strive to provide highly customized products while still maintaining the efficiency of the classical mass production enterprise. One of the key factors in mass customization has been efficient use of product platforms...... as a foundation for the customization process, whereby the customized products become variants of a product family with a high degree of reuse and utilization of kinship between the individual variants.With this paper, we will discuss the development of platform based product families from three points of view...

  16. Powder detergents production plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanković Mirjana S.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The IGPC Engineering Department designed basic projects for powder detergent production plant, using technology developed in the IGPC laboratories, in 1998. - 2000. Several projects were completed: technological, machine, electrical, automation. On the basis of these projects, a production plant with a capacity of 25,000 t/y was manufactured, at "Delta In", Zrenjanin, in 2000.This technology was an innovation, because new approach in mixing a powder materials was used, as well as introducing a new type of dryer in detergent production. The product meets all quality demands for detergents with high specific weight (1000 g/l, as well as environmental regulations. The detergent production process is fully automatized, and the product has uniform quality. There is no waste material in detergent zeolite production, because all products with unsatisfactory quality are returned to the process. The production process can be controlled manually, which is necessary during start-up, and repairs.

  17. Product Platform Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Rasmus

    on the notion that reuse and encapsulation of platform elements are fundamental characteristics of a product platform. Reuse covers the desire to reuse and share certain assets across a family of products and/or across generations of products. Product design solutions and principles are often regarded...... as important assets in a product platform, yet activities, working patterns, processes and knowledge can also be reused in a platform approach. Encapsulation is seen as a process in which the different elements of a platform are grouped into well defined and self-contained units which are decoupled from each......This PhD thesis has the title Product Platform Modelling. The thesis is about product platforms and visual product platform modelling. Product platforms have gained an increasing attention in industry and academia in the past decade. The reasons are many, yet the increasing globalisation...

  18. 辣椒制品质量风险分析%Risk analysis on potential quality problems of pepper products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何攀; 邓洁红; 吴海智; 周丛; 林源; 肖泳

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT:This article analyzed the quality risk of pepper products from 7 aspects, including the food addi-tives exceeding the standard (preservatives, sweeteners, sulfur dioxide), microbial contamination (total bacteria, Salmonella,Staphylococcus aureus), adulterant (corn bran, tomato peel, persimmon peel, wheat bran, even brick powder, sawdust,etc), adding non food substances (tonyred, rhodamine B, alkaline yellow, orange, orange II, acid alkaline acid), pesticide residues, heavy metals pollution (cadmium, mercury) and plasticizer pollution, and proposed corresponding measures for quality control. It will provide references to avoid the risk of quality in pepper products industry, promote the healthy development of the industry, establish scientific producing technology, product safety standards and quality control system of pepper products, and improve the corporate self controlled system.%本文从食品添加剂超标(防腐剂、甜味剂、二氧化硫)、微生物污染(菌落总数、沙门氏菌、金黄色葡萄球菌)、掺假掺杂(玉米皮、蕃茄皮、柿子皮、麦麸,甚至红砖粉、锯木屑等)、添加非食用物质(苏丹红、罗丹明B、碱性嫩黄、碱性橙、酸性橙Ⅱ、酸性金黄)、农药残留、重金属(镉、汞)污染及塑化剂污染等7个方面对辣椒制品存在的质量风险进行分析,并分别提出相应质量控制对策,为辣椒制品行业规避质量风险、促进行业健康发展、建立辣椒制品科学生产工艺、产品安全标准和质量控制检测体系和完善企业自检自控等体系提供重要参考依据。

  19. Making Product Customization Profitable

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Niels Henrik; Hvam, Lars; Haug, Anders

    2010-01-01

    The main result presented in this paper is the Framework for Product Family Master Plan. This framework supports the identification of a product architecture for companies that customize products and services. The framework has five coherent aspects, the market, product assortment, supply-production......, organization and work processes. One of the unique results is that these aspects are linked, which make it possible to make explicit recommendations for an architecture (the way a product family should be structured with clear interfaces), architecture elements and consequences. By means of a case study...

  20. BRAND - PRODUCT INTERDEPENDENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tudor NISTORESCU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we conceptually discussed the brands’ role in the society, the dimensions of branding and the relationship between the brand and the products. We adhere to the main ideas expressed in the literature, that the brand is more than a product. However the product is needed to render the brand tangible. The product is the magic box that delivers the brand experience. Without the product, the brand meaning would have difficulties in attracting customers. More studies are needed to investigate the brand-product relationship.

  1. Play as productionproduction as game?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eichberg, Henning

    2015-01-01

    Play-related products and their export have through recent decades contributed to a certain Danish image on the world level – with Lego bricks at the commercial end and adventure playgrounds at the pedagogical end. The phenomena of toy production and play exports challenge our understanding of what...... “play” and “game” are, and of their social as well as political significance. At the municipal level, the city of Odense – “city of Hans Christian Andersen” – is branding itself as “city of play”. On the international level, Danish play-related products have expanded on the world market. In the field...... for the play foray of market and state. These empirical phenomena lead to some more theoretical questions. One question concerns the connection between play and Danishness. How are patterns of play and cultural identity related to each other? Other questions concern the relation between play and production...

  2. Problems Digesting Dairy Products?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Problems Digesting Dairy Products? Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... the natural sugar found in milk and other dairy products. People who cannot digest lactose have a ...

  3. Consumer Product Category Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Chemical and Product Categories database (CPCat) catalogs the use of over 40,000 chemicals and their presence in different consumer products. The chemical use...

  4. Other Fluoride Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Water Fluoridation Journal Articles for Community Water Fluoridation Other Fluoride Products Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... Use the information listed below to compare the other fluoride products that may lower the risk for ...

  5. Antibacterials in Household Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... residue-producing ). Common examples of this group are triclosan, triclocarban, and benzalkonium chloride. Did you know that over 1000 commercial products contain triclosan or other biocide agents? Antibacterials in household products ...

  6. Food Product Dating

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... For meat, poultry, and egg products under the jurisdiction of the Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS), ... the door. [ Top of Page ] Bar Codes A Universal Product Code (UPC) is a type of barcode ...

  7. Pesticide Product Label System

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Pesticide Product Label System (PPLS) provides a collection of pesticide product labels (Adobe PDF format) that have been approved by EPA under Section 3 of the...

  8. Advances in production technology

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    This edited volume contains the selected papers presented at the scientific board meeting of the German Cluster of Excellence on “Integrative Production Technology for High-Wage Countries”,  held in November 2014. The topical structure of the book is clustered in six sessions: Integrative Production Technology, Individualised Production, Virtual Production Systems, Integrated Technologies, Self-Optimising Production Systems and Human Factors in Production Technology. The Aachen perspective on a holistic theory of production is complemented by conference papers from external leading researchers in the fields of production, materials science and bordering disciplines. The target audience primarily comprises research experts and practitioners in the field but the book may also be beneficial for graduate students.

  9. Human productivity program definition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, D. B.

    1985-01-01

    The optimization of human productivity on the space station within the existing resources and operational constraints is the aim of the Human Productivity Program. The conceptual objectives of the program are as follows: (1) to identify long lead technology; (2) to identify responsibility for work elements; (3) to coordinate the development of crew facilities and activities; and (4) to lay the foundation for a cost effective approach to improving human productivity. Human productivity work elements are also described and examples are presented.

  10. Warped product rigidity

    CERN Document Server

    He, Chenxu; Wylie, William

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we study the space of solutions to an overdetermined linear system involving the Hessian of functions. We show that if the solution space has dimension greater than one, then the underlying manifold has a very rigid warped product structure. This warped product structure will be used to study warped product Einstein structures in our paper "The space of virtual solutions to the warped product Einstein equation".

  11. Speech production, Psychology of

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schriefers, H.J.; Vigliocco, G.

    2015-01-01

    Research on speech production investigates the cognitive processes involved in transforming thoughts into speech. This article starts with a discussion of the methodological issues inherent to research in speech production that illustrates how empirical approaches to speech production must differ fr

  12. Age, Wage and Productivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ours, J.C.; Stoeldraijer, L.

    2010-01-01

    Previous empirical studies on the effect of age on productivity and wages find contradicting results. Some studies find that if workers grow older there is an increasing gap between productivity and wages, i.e. wages increase with age while productivity does not or does not increase at the same pace

  13. Pomegranate production and marketing

    Science.gov (United States)

    This book is relatively short, with 134 pages, 15 chapters, 52 figures, and 20 tables. It ranges from cultivar descriptions, production, biotic and abiotic challenges to production, to postharvest, aril and juice production, health benefits, and international trade. It contains great information and...

  14. Scenario based product design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tideman, M.

    2008-01-01

    Creating good products is not an easy thing to do. There are usually many different people who have an interest in the product. People such as the user, of course, but also marketing managers, production engineers, maintenance workers, recycling specialists, and government representatives, just to n

  15. Coal production 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-11-29

    Coal Production 1989 provides comprehensive information about US coal production, the number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, reserves, and stocks to a wide audience including Congress, federal and state agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. 7 figs., 43 tabs.

  16. Milk Production in Tibet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiumei Ji; Tsam You; Zhang Oiang

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes milk production and livestock production in Tibet.Some information of market demand has also been presented.There has been very little information published in Tibetan journals on production and nutrition of cattle.This review provides a brief introduction to feeding systems and feeding resources.Many studies on milk production have been done in isolation,and do not go beyond the basic and practical level.Compared with dairy cattle research in other parts of China,large gaps in knowledge still exist in cattle production science,particularly related to nutrition,and systems approaches for the development of a dairy industry.

  17. Evolving production network structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunow, Martin; Gunther, H.O.; Burdenik, H.

    2007-01-01

    When deciding about future production network configurations, the current structures have to be taken into account. Further, core issues such as the maturity of the products and the capacity requirements for test runs and ramp-ups must be incorporated. Our approach is based on optimization...... modelling and assigns products and capacity expansions to production sites under the above constraints. It also considers the production complexity at the individual sites and the flexibility of the network. Our implementation results for a large manufacturing network reveal substantial possible cost...

  18. Authenticity analyses of Phyllanthus amarus using barcoding coupled with HRM analysis to control its quality for medicinal plant product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buddhachat, Kittisak; Osathanunkul, Maslin; Madesis, Panagiotis; Chomdej, Siriwadee; Ongchai, Siriwan

    2015-11-15

    The Phyllanthus genus, a plant used in traditional Thai medicine, has according to several pharmacopeias hepatoprotective properties. Not only is the anatomical morphology of these species relatively similar but they also share the Thai common names Look-Tai-Bai (ลูกใต้ใบ) and Yah-Tai-Bai (หญ้าใต้ใบ), which might cause confusion for laypersons. This study attempted to develop a method for accurate identification of Phyllanthus species, especially Phyllanthus amarus, and to detect contaminants in P. amarus products by using DNA barcoding coupled with high resolution melting (HRM) analysis (bar-HRM). Two plastid loci (rbcL and trnL) were chosen for DNA barcoding to generate a suitable primer for distinguishing Phyllanthus species by HRM analysis. The five species of Phyllanthus were subjected to amplification for testing the specificity and discrimination power of the designed primers derived from rbcL and trnL regions. Sensitivity of the method (DNA barcoding conjugated with HRM) to detect adulterant in P. amarus samples was evaluated. The commercial P. amarus products obtained from a local market were authenticated. The primer pair derived from trnL DNA barcoding (PhylltrnL) had more specificity and power of discrimination for Phyllanthus species than that derived from rbcL DNA barcoding (PhyllrbcL). The result showed that Tm of P. amarus, Phyllanthus urinaria, Phyllanthus debilis, Phyllanthus airy-shawii, and Phyllanthus virgatus was 74.3±0.08, 73.04±0.07, 73.36±0.05, 72.21±0.06, 72.77±0.15°C, respectively. This method proved to be a very sensitive tool that can be used for rapid detection of contamination as low as 1% of other Phyllanthus species in P. amarus admixtures. All commercial products of P. amarus obtained from a local market in Thailand were found to contain pure raw materials of P. amarus without any substitution or contamination. Our results indicated that the use of DNA barcoding coupled with HRM was an

  19. Low income product innovation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cecília Sobral

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available At affluent markets, the literature on product development management tells us to aggregate value and technology, to differentiate products and to launch fast. And at the low-income markets? This exploratory research defines a popular product, characterizes and measures their markets in Brazil, and identifies innovation strategies for them. The results suggest that the effective strategic orientation differs from affluent markets. It includes: to enhance the auto service component; to identify and service the key functionalities to the targeted public; to standardize products and increase the production scale; to extend the product life cycle; to use convenient distribution and marketing channels; to build product images that have appeal in the popular market; to offer longer financing horizons with befittingly lower installments. Data came from market researches and general demographic census. General media published stories were used to identify companies and their strategies. And a few case studies allowed the authors a deeper exploration of the relevant themes.

  20. Suomi Npp Products Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, L.

    2014-12-01

    A suite of Sensor Data Records (SDRs) and Environment Data Records (EDRs) is generated from the Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS) operational environmental satellite system. The products include atmospheric, ocean, land surface and cryospheric products from the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS); atmospheric sounding products from the Cross-track Infrared Sounder (CrIS) and the Advance Technology Microwave Sounder (ATMS); and ozone products from the Ozone Mapping and Profiler Suite (OMPS). These EDRs undergo a rigorous validation process and algorithm updates to achieve a product maturity needed for end user applications. Since the successful launch of Suomi National Polar Partnership (SNPP) satellite in October 2011, significant progresses have been made on calibration and validation of the SNPP data products. By far all products were publicly available and most products were ready for operational evaluation. Most products also are expected to meet requirements and work is underway to reach validated maturity status and fully operational use. Further developments and improvements of the algorithms for J1 have been planned based on the JPSS requirements and lessons learned from SNPP. Sensitivity and impact studies are performed as sensor test data become available. For the majority of data products, no significant changes in sensor input and corresponding sensor degradation are expected. However, the J1 products will undergo the same rigorous calibration and validation process as the S-NPP products once the on-orbit data are available. The schedule for the maturity of the J1 data products however is expected to be accelerated compared to that for S-NPP as lessons learned from the S-NPP mission will be applied to the J1 satellite data. In the presentation, we will provide an overview of the latest SNPP data products' quality status and the plan forward for JPSS-1 algorithm updates.