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Sample records for adult-onset obesity reveals

  1. Adult onset tic disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Chouinard, S; Ford, B.

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Tic disorders presenting during adulthood have infrequently been described in the medical literature. Most reports depict adult onset secondary tic disorders caused by trauma, encephalitis, and other acquired conditions. Only rare reports describe idiopathic adult onset tic disorders, and most of these cases represent recurrent childhood tic disorders.
OBJECTIVE—To describe a large series of patients with tic disorders presenting during adulthood, to compare cl...

  2. Adult-onset tic disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eapen, [No Value; Lees, AJ; Lakke, JPWF; Trimble, MR; Robertson, MM

    2002-01-01

    We report on 8 patients with adult-onset motor tics and vocalisations. Three had compulsive tendencies in childhood and 3 had a family history of tics or obsessive-compulsive behaviour. In comparison with DSM-classified, younger-onset Gilles de la Tourette syndrome, adult-onset tic disorders are mor

  3. Adult onset moyamoya disease: Institutional experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swati Dayanand Chinchure

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Moyamoya disease is a progressive steno-occlusive disease of bilateral carotid forks with the formation of fine collateral vascular network and is an angiographic diagnosis. We analyzed case records of 11 patients with "adult-onset moyamoya disease." Six patients presented with intracranial hemorrhage (intracerebral and/or intraventricular and 5 with focal ischemia. Angiography revealed bilateral Internal carotid artery involvement in 8 patients and unilateral involvement in 3. Posterior cerebral artery involvement was seen in 3 patients. Saccular aneurysm involving posterior circulation was seen in only 1 patient. Although rare, adult-onset moyamoya disease should be considered as one of the causes for intracerebral and intraventricular hemorrhage in adults.

  4. Adult-onset food allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kivity, Shmuel

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of food allergy is increasing in both the pediatric and adult populations. While symptom onset occurs mostly during childhood, there are a considerable number of patients whose symptoms first begin to appear after the age of 18 years. The majority of patients with adult-onset food allergy suffer from the pollen-plant allergy syndromes. Many of them manifest their allergy after exercise and consuming food to which they are allergic. Eosinophilic esophagitis, an eosinophilic inflammation of the esophagus affecting individuals of all ages, recently emerged as another allergic manifestation, with both immediate and late response to the ingested food. This review provides a condensed update of the current data in the literature on adult-onset allergy.

  5. PRENATAL EXPOSURE TO LOW DOSE PFOA INDUCES LOW DEVELOPMENTAL BODY WEIGHT FOLLOWED BY ADULT ONSET OBESITY THAT IS BLUNTED IN OVARIECTOMIZED ANIMALS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Barker hypothesis, or fetal origins of adult disease, proposes that individuals born to mothers who were pregnant during lean times develop a "thrifty" phenotype with a smaller body size and lowered metabolic rates, leading to a propensity for obesity and development of disor...

  6. Adult-onset mitochondrial myopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Sola, J.; Casademont, J.; Grau, J. M.; Graus, F.; Cardellach, F.; Pedrol, E.; Urbano-Marquez, A.

    1992-01-01

    Mitochondrial diseases are polymorphic entities which may affect many organs and systems. Skeletal muscle involvement is frequent in the context of systemic mitochondrial disease, but adult-onset pure mitochondrial myopathy appears to be rare. We report 3 patients with progressive skeletal mitochondrial myopathy starting in adult age. In all cases, the proximal myopathy was the only clinical feature. Mitochondrial pathology was confirmed by evidence of ragged-red fibres in muscle histochemistry, an abnormal mitochondrial morphology in electron microscopy and by exclusion of other underlying diseases. No deletions of mitochondrial DNA were found. We emphasize the need to look for a mitochondrial disorder in some non-specific myopathies starting in adult life. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:1589382

  7. Adult-Onset Acquired Partial Lipodystrophy Accompanied by Rheumatoid Arthritis

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    Yusuke Muto

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Lipodystrophy is a group of metabolic disorders, possibly caused by autoimmune disease. In this report, we describe a case of adult-onset acquired partial lipodystrophy accompanied by rheumatoid arthritis without a family history. Interestingly, immunohistochemical staining revealed dense infiltration of IL-27-producing cells as well as MMP-7- and MMP-28-expressing cells, both of which have been reported to facilitate the development of autoimmune disease. Our present case might suggest possible mechanisms for acquired partial lipodystrophy.

  8. Adult onset sporadic ataxias: a diagnostic challenge

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    Orlando Graziani Povoas Barsottini

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Patients with adult onset non-familial progressive ataxia are classified in sporadic ataxia group. There are several disease categories that may manifest with sporadic ataxia: toxic causes, immune-mediated ataxias, vitamin deficiency, infectious diseases, degenerative disorders and even genetic conditions. Considering heterogeneity in the clinical spectrum of sporadic ataxias, the correct diagnosis remains a clinical challenge. In this review, the different disease categories that lead to sporadic ataxia with adult onset are discussed with special emphasis on their clinical and neuroimaging features, and diagnostic criteria.

  9. Adult-onset opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaas, James P; Ahlskog, J Eric; Pittock, Sean J; Matsumoto, Joseph Y; Aksamit, Allen J; Bartleson, J D; Kumar, Rajeev; McEvoy, Kathleen F; McKeon, Andrew

    2012-12-01

    BACKGROUND Little is known about adult-onset opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome (OMS) outside of individual case reports. OBJECTIVE To describe adult-onset OMS. DESIGN Review of medical records (January 1, 1990, through December 31, 2011), prospective telephone surveillance, and literature review (January 1, 1967, through December 31, 2011). SETTING Department of Neurology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota. PATIENTS Twenty-one Mayo Clinic patients and 116 previously reported patients with adult-onset OMS. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Clinical course and longitudinal outcomes. RESULTS The median age at onset of the 21 OMS patients at the Mayo Clinic was 47 years (range, 27-78 years); 11 were women. Symptoms reported at the first visit included dizziness, 14 patients; balance difficulties, 14; nausea and/or vomiting, 10; vision abnormalities, 6; tremor/tremulousness, 4; and altered speech, 2. Myoclonus distribution was extremities, 15 patients; craniocervical, 8; and trunk, 4. Cancer was detected in 3 patients (breast adenocarcinoma, 2; and small cell lung carcinoma, 1); a parainfectious cause was assumed in the remainder of the patients. Follow-up of 1 month or more was available for 19 patients (median, 43 months; range, 1-187 months). Treatment (median, 6 weeks) consisted of immunotherapy and symptomatic therapy in 16 patients, immunotherapy alone for 2, and clonazepam alone for 1. Of these 19 patients, OMS remitted in 13 and improved in 3; 3 patients died (neurologic decline, 1; cancer, 1; and myocardial infarction, 1). The cause of death was of paraneoplastic origin in 60 of 116 literature review patients, with the most common carcinomas being lung (33 patients) and breast (7); the most common antibody was antineuronal nuclear antibody type 2 (anti-Ri, 15). Other causes were idiopathic in origin, 38 patients; parainfectious, 15 (human immunodeficiency virus, 7); toxic/metabolic, 2; and other autoimmune, 1. Both patients with N -methyl-D-aspartate receptor antibody had

  10. Respiratory Infections Precede Adult-Onset Asthma

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Respiratory infections in early life are associated with an increased risk of developing asthma but there is little evidence on the role of infections for onset of asthma in adults. The objective of this study was to assess the relation of the occurrence of respiratory infections in the past 12 months to adult-onset asthma in a population-based incident case-control study of adults 21-63 years of age. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We recruited all new clinically diagnosed cases of a...

  11. Adult-onset unilateral disabling pansclerotic morphea

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    Adarshlata Singh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Disabling pansclerotic morphea (DPM is a rare, severe, and mutilating form of morphea, involving the dermis, subcutaneous tissue, fat, muscle, and even bone. It is usually seen before the age of 14 years, with the patient complaining of arthralgia and stiffness at the time of onset. We report a case of unilateral adult-onset DPM with sparing of the face. Within a few months of onset, painful contracture deformities of the hand, elbow, and shoulder joints developed, impairing the patient′s normal daily activities. We are reporting this case because of the unusual presentation: DPM in an adult, with history of trauma in childhood and rapid onset of complications, is rare.

  12. Respiratory infections precede adult-onset asthma.

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    Aino Rantala

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Respiratory infections in early life are associated with an increased risk of developing asthma but there is little evidence on the role of infections for onset of asthma in adults. The objective of this study was to assess the relation of the occurrence of respiratory infections in the past 12 months to adult-onset asthma in a population-based incident case-control study of adults 21-63 years of age. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We recruited all new clinically diagnosed cases of asthma (n = 521 during a 2.5-year study period and randomly selected controls (n = 932 in a geographically defined area in South Finland. Information on respiratory infections was collected by a self-administered questionnaire. The diagnosis of asthma was based on symptoms and reversible airflow obstruction in lung function measurements. The risk of asthma onset was strongly increased in subjects who had experienced in the preceding 12 months lower respiratory tract infections (including acute bronchitis and pneumonia with an adjusted odds ratio (OR 7.18 (95% confidence interval [CI] 5.16-9.99, or upper respiratory tract infections (including common cold, sinusitis, tonsillitis, and otitis media with an adjusted OR 2.26 (95% CI 1.72-2.97. Individuals with personal atopy and/or parental atopy were more susceptible to the effects of respiratory infections on asthma onset than non-atopic persons. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study provides new evidence that recently experienced respiratory infections are a strong determinant for adult-onset asthma. Reducing such infections might prevent onset of asthma in adulthood, especially in individuals with atopy or hereditary propensity to it.

  13. An unusual cause of adult onset cerebellar ataxia with hypogonadism

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    Menon Ramshekhar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We report an unusual case of sporadic adult onset cerebellar ataxia with hypogonadism. A 40-year-old unmarried man presented with progressive ataxia and dysarthria along with complaints of non-development of secondary sexual characteristics and erectile dysfunction. There were complaints of intermittent diarrhea. Clinical examination revealed a pan-cerebellar syndrome with features of hypoandrogenism. No eye movement abnormalities were evident. There were signs of malabsorption. Investigations confirmed the presence of auto-antibodies found in celiac disease, and a duodenal biopsy confirmed the same. Hypoandrogenism was postulated to be due to hypergonadotropic hypogonadism which has been mentioned in a few patients of celiac disease. However, the pattern seen in our patient was of a hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. This is probably secondary to an autoimmune hypophysitis seen in some patients in the absence of other clinical manifestations. Autoantibody testing should be a diagnostic necessity in any adult with a sporadic cerebellar ataxia.

  14. Adult-onset Still's disease: Clinical cases

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    G. R. Imametdinova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The annual incidence of adult-onset Still's disease (AOSD worldwide is 0.16 cases per 100,000 persons. Its leading symptoms are joint involvement, fever, skin rash, and neutrophilic leukocytosis in the absence of rheumatoid factor and anticyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies in serum and synovial fluid. In its initial stage, there may be monoarthritis more commonly of the wrist, hip, or knee. Then the lesion assumes the pattern of oligo- or polyarthritis. Musculoskeletal involvement appearing as arthralgia, arthritis, and myalgia is noted in all patients. In the majority of patients, articular involvement progresses and destructive polyarthritis develops. Symmetric involvement of the carpophalangeal and distal interphalangeal joints is frequently detected. Skin lesion manifests itself as maculopapular or roseolous rashes on the chest, back, shoulders, occasionally on the legs, or in the areas of mechanical irritation. A sore throat with the signs of pharyngitis is a characteristic early symptom of the disease. There may be involvements of the liver, cardiovascular system, lung, as well as lymphadenopathy, or splenomegaly. The chronic course of the disease is more frequently noted.The paper describes two cases of AOSD. One case demonstrates that the physician has no experience in diagnosing and managing patients with AOSD, resulting in the misinterpretation of the increase in disease activity when the subclinical doses of methotrexate (MT are used, which has been regarded as a therapeutic complication. The use of the adequate dose of MT could achieve a clinical and laboratory remission and discontinue glucocorticoids (GC.In the other case of recurrent AOSD and mild clinical symptoms, the unreasonable use of high GC doses gave rise to adverse reactions.

  15. Adult-onset Still's disease: Clinical cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. R. Imametdinova

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The annual incidence of adult-onset Still's disease (AOSD worldwide is 0.16 cases per 100,000 persons. Its leading symptoms are joint involvement, fever, skin rash, and neutrophilic leukocytosis in the absence of rheumatoid factor and anticyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies in serum and synovial fluid. In its initial stage, there may be monoarthritis more commonly of the wrist, hip, or knee. Then the lesion assumes the pattern of oligo- or polyarthritis. Musculoskeletal involvement appearing as arthralgia, arthritis, and myalgia is noted in all patients. In the majority of patients, articular involvement progresses and destructive polyarthritis develops. Symmetric involvement of the carpophalangeal and distal interphalangeal joints is frequently detected. Skin lesion manifests itself as maculopapular or roseolous rashes on the chest, back, shoulders, occasionally on the legs, or in the areas of mechanical irritation. A sore throat with the signs of pharyngitis is a characteristic early symptom of the disease. There may be involvements of the liver, cardiovascular system, lung, as well as lymphadenopathy, or splenomegaly. The chronic course of the disease is more frequently noted.The paper describes two cases of AOSD. One case demonstrates that the physician has no experience in diagnosing and managing patients with AOSD, resulting in the misinterpretation of the increase in disease activity when the subclinical doses of methotrexate (MT are used, which has been regarded as a therapeutic complication. The use of the adequate dose of MT could achieve a clinical and laboratory remission and discontinue glucocorticoids (GC.In the other case of recurrent AOSD and mild clinical symptoms, the unreasonable use of high GC doses gave rise to adverse reactions.

  16. Adult-onset Satoyoshi syndrome and response to plasmapheresis

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    Rajeshwari Aghoram

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Satoyoshi syndrome is a rare disease characterized by alopecia, recurrent muscle spasms, diarrhea, and skeletal abnormalities Adult-onset disease is reported only in five patients. Most of the reports have not characterized the nature of muscle spasm in the disease. In this paper, we report the first case of adult-onset Satoyoshi syndrome from India and the clinical and electrophysiological response to plasmapheresis.

  17. Atypical Cutaneous Manifestations in Adult Onset Still’s Disease

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    Champa Nataraja

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Adult Onset Still’s Disease (AOSD, an adult variant of systemic onset juvenile idiopathic arthritis, is a rare systemic inflammatory disorder of unknown aetiology. The rarity of this disease is associated with low index of suspicion and delayed diagnosis in patients suffering from it and in the presence of atypical features the diagnosis can be further challenging. This is a case report on a 24-year-old woman, who was a diagnostic dilemma for 2 years due to the nonspecific symptoms of recurrent fever, generalized maculopapular persistent pruritic and tender rash, and polyarthralgia. She was initially diagnosed as leukocytoclastic vasculitis on a skin biopsy and was managed by a dermatologist with various medications including NSAIDs, hydroxychloroquine, dapsone, colchicine, cyclosporine, and high doses of oral steroids with minimal response. Subsequently, she has had multiple admissions with similar symptoms with raised inflammatory markers and negative septic workup. On one occasion, her iron study revealed hyperferritinaemia which led to the suspicion of AOSD. Once the rheumatic fever and infectious, malignant, autoimmune, and lymphoproliferative disorders were excluded, she was diagnosed as probable AOSD and managed successfully with IL-1 (interleukin-1 receptor antagonist, Anakinra, with remarkable and lasting response both clinically and biochemically.

  18. Adult-onset nemaline myopathy presenting as respiratory failure.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kelly, Emer

    2008-11-01

    Nemaline myopathy is a rare congenital myopathy that generally presents in childhood. We report a case of a 44-year-old man who presented with severe hypoxic hypercapnic respiratory failure as the initial manifestation of nemaline myopathy. After starting noninvasive ventilation, his pulmonary function test results improved substantially, and over the 4 years since diagnosis his respiratory function remained stable. There are few reported cases of respiratory failure in patients with adult-onset nemaline myopathy, and the insidious onset in this case is even more unusual. This case highlights the varied presenting features of adult-onset nemaline myopathy and that noninvasive ventilation improves respiratory function.

  19. Very long chain acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase deficiency with adult onset

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smelt, A H; Poorthuis, B J; Onkenhout, W;

    1998-01-01

    Very long chain acyl-coenzyme A (acyl-CoA) dehydrogenase (VLCAD) deficiency is a severe disorder of mitochondrial beta-oxidation in infants. We report adult onset of attacks of painful rhabdomyolysis. Gas chromatography identified strongly elevated levels of tetradecenoic acid, 14:1(n-9), tetrade......Very long chain acyl-coenzyme A (acyl-CoA) dehydrogenase (VLCAD) deficiency is a severe disorder of mitochondrial beta-oxidation in infants. We report adult onset of attacks of painful rhabdomyolysis. Gas chromatography identified strongly elevated levels of tetradecenoic acid, 14:1(n-9......), tetradecadienoic acid, 14:2(n-6), and hexadecadienoic acid, 16:2(n-6). Palmitoyl-CoA and behenoyl-CoA dehydrogenase in fibroblasts were deficient. Muscle VLCAD activity was very low. DNA analysis revealed compound heterozygosity for two missense mutations in the VLCAD gene. The relatively mild clinical course may...

  20. Unusual sequelae of adult-onset dermatomyositis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naffaa, Mohammad Ebrahim; Bishara, Rema; Braun-Moscovici, Yolanda; Balbir-Gurman, Alexandra

    2014-01-01

    A 44-year-old woman diagnosed with dermatomyositis 5 years ago based on progressive proximal muscle weakness, elevated creatine kinase, typical findings on electromyography and muscle biopsy. Despite the treatment, in contrast to improvement in her muscle symptoms, the heliotrope rash of her eyelids persisted. After several years, the patient developed multiple limited skin retraction lesions with hyperpigmentation on both lower limbs. Palpation of these lesions revealed dry, cold and very firm skin on both thighs and calves, particularly in the distal areas. X-ray and ultrasound imaging of the calves showed multiple subcutaneous calcifications in the distal muscles. PMID:25085949

  1. Association between mental disorders and subsequent adult onset asthma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alonso, Jordi; de Jonge, Peter; Lim, Carmen C. W.; Aguilar-Gaxiola, Sergio; Bruffaerts, Ronny; Caldas-de-Almeida, Jose Miguel; Liu, Zhaorui; O'Neill, Siobhan; Stein, Dan J.; Viana, Maria Carmen; Al-Hamzawi, Ali Obaid; Angermeyer, Matthias C.; Borges, Guilherme; Ciutan, Marius; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Fiestas, Fabian; Maria Haro, Josep; Hu, Chiyi; Kessler, Ronald C.; Lepine, Jean Pierre; Levinson, Daphna; Nakamura, Yosikazu; Posada-Villa, Jose; Wojtyniak, Bogdan J.; Scott, Kate M.

    2014-01-01

    Background and objectives: Associations between asthma and anxiety and mood disorders are well established, but little is known about their temporal sequence. We examined associations between a wide range of DSM-IV mental disorders with adult onset of asthma and whether observed associations remain

  2. Alcohol-Induced Developmental Origins of Adult-Onset Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunde, Emilie R; Washburn, Shannon E; Golding, Michael C; Bake, Shameena; Miranda, Rajesh C; Ramadoss, Jayanth

    2016-07-01

    Fetal alcohol exposure may impair growth, development, and function of multiple organ systems and is encompassed by the term fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). Research has so far focused on the mechanisms, prevention, and diagnosis of FASD, while the risk for adult-onset chronic diseases in individuals exposed to alcohol in utero is not well explored. David Barker's hypothesis on Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD) suggests that insults to the milieu of the developing fetus program it for adult development of chronic diseases. In the 25 years since the introduction of this hypothesis, epidemiological and animal model studies have made significant advancements in identifying in utero developmental origins of chronic adult-onset diseases affecting cardiovascular, endocrine, musculoskeletal, and psychobehavioral systems. Teratogen exposure is an established programming agent for adult diseases, and recent studies suggest that prenatal alcohol exposure correlates with adult onset of neurobehavioral deficits, cardiovascular disease, endocrine dysfunction, and nutrient homeostasis instability, warranting additional investigation of alcohol-induced DOHaD, as well as patient follow-up well into adulthood for affected individuals. In utero epigenetic alterations during critical periods of methylation are a key potential mechanism for programming and susceptibility of adult-onset chronic diseases, with imprinted genes affecting metabolism being critical targets. Additional studies in epidemiology, phenotypic characterization in response to timing, dose, and duration of exposure, as well as elucidation of mechanisms underlying FASD-DOHaD inter relation, are thus needed to clinically define chronic disease associated with prenatal alcohol exposure. These studies are critical to establish interventional strategies that decrease incidence of these adult-onset diseases and promote healthier aging among individuals affected with FASD.

  3. Pesticide methoxychlor promotes the epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of adult-onset disease through the female germline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manikkam, Mohan; Haque, M Muksitul; Guerrero-Bosagna, Carlos; Nilsson, Eric E; Skinner, Michael K

    2014-01-01

    Environmental compounds including fungicides, plastics, pesticides, dioxin and hydrocarbons can promote the epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of adult-onset disease in future generation progeny following ancestral exposure during the critical period of fetal gonadal sex determination. This study examined the actions of the pesticide methoxychlor to promote the epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of adult-onset disease and associated differential DNA methylation regions (i.e. epimutations) in sperm. Gestating F0 generation female rats were transiently exposed to methoxychlor during fetal gonadal development (gestation days 8 to 14) and then adult-onset disease was evaluated in adult F1 and F3 (great-grand offspring) generation progeny for control (vehicle exposed) and methoxychlor lineage offspring. There were increases in the incidence of kidney disease, ovary disease, and obesity in the methoxychlor lineage animals. In females and males the incidence of disease increased in both the F1 and the F3 generations and the incidence of multiple disease increased in the F3 generation. There was increased disease incidence in F4 generation reverse outcross (female) offspring indicating disease transmission was primarily transmitted through the female germline. Analysis of the F3 generation sperm epigenome of the methoxychlor lineage males identified differentially DNA methylated regions (DMR) termed epimutations in a genome-wide gene promoters analysis. These epimutations were found to be methoxychlor exposure specific in comparison with other exposure specific sperm epimutation signatures. Observations indicate that the pesticide methoxychlor has the potential to promote the epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of disease and the sperm epimutations appear to provide exposure specific epigenetic biomarkers for transgenerational disease and ancestral environmental exposures.

  4. Pesticide methoxychlor promotes the epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of adult-onset disease through the female germline.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohan Manikkam

    Full Text Available Environmental compounds including fungicides, plastics, pesticides, dioxin and hydrocarbons can promote the epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of adult-onset disease in future generation progeny following ancestral exposure during the critical period of fetal gonadal sex determination. This study examined the actions of the pesticide methoxychlor to promote the epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of adult-onset disease and associated differential DNA methylation regions (i.e. epimutations in sperm. Gestating F0 generation female rats were transiently exposed to methoxychlor during fetal gonadal development (gestation days 8 to 14 and then adult-onset disease was evaluated in adult F1 and F3 (great-grand offspring generation progeny for control (vehicle exposed and methoxychlor lineage offspring. There were increases in the incidence of kidney disease, ovary disease, and obesity in the methoxychlor lineage animals. In females and males the incidence of disease increased in both the F1 and the F3 generations and the incidence of multiple disease increased in the F3 generation. There was increased disease incidence in F4 generation reverse outcross (female offspring indicating disease transmission was primarily transmitted through the female germline. Analysis of the F3 generation sperm epigenome of the methoxychlor lineage males identified differentially DNA methylated regions (DMR termed epimutations in a genome-wide gene promoters analysis. These epimutations were found to be methoxychlor exposure specific in comparison with other exposure specific sperm epimutation signatures. Observations indicate that the pesticide methoxychlor has the potential to promote the epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of disease and the sperm epimutations appear to provide exposure specific epigenetic biomarkers for transgenerational disease and ancestral environmental exposures.

  5. Adult onset pigmentary orthochromatic leukodystrophy with ovarian dysgenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verghese, J; Weidenheim, K; Malik, S; Rapin, I

    2002-11-01

    Pigmentary type of orthochromatic leukodystrophy (POLD) is an adult-onset leukodystrophy, characterized pathologically by the presence of glial and microglial cytoplasmic pigment inclusions. The complete phenotype, genotype and pathogenetic mechanisms in POLD have not been elucidated. We followed for 18 years a woman with autopsy-proven POLD, who presented with 'frontal' dementia and spasticity. Her further course was marked by progressive mutism, apraxia and seizures. Her sister had died of the same disease after a much more rapidly progressing course. These sisters had primary infertility with pathologic evidence of streak ovaries. Diagnosis was confirmed in both cases by post-mortem examination. POLD is a rare cause of adult-onset leukodystrophy presenting with dementia. Ovarian dysgenesis is extremely rare in the absence of demonstrable chromosomal abnormalities and extends the clinical spectrum of POLD.

  6. Pure Red Cell Aplasia with Adult Onset Still's Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Nicholas Robillard; Paul Nguyen; Robert Wistaff; Mikhael Laskine

    2013-01-01

    Adult Onset Still’s Disease (AOSD) is a rare inflammatory syndrome mostly seen in young adults. Known for its wide range of clinical manifestations, AOSD often presents with nonremitting systemic signs and symptoms. Many rare case associations have been described with AOSD, but only few with pure red cell aplasia (PRCA). We are presenting a fourth known case of a young female adult with AOSD and PRCA in the literature.

  7. Adult-onset Leigh′s disease: A rare entity

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    Shaik Afshan Jabeen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Leigh syndrome (LS is a heterogeneous familial or sporadic neurodegenerative disorder. It is typically seen in infancy or childhood, although rare cases of adult onset have been described. The authors describe a 37-year-old woman who presented with protracted gastrointestinal symptoms followed by acute brain stem syndrome with severe metabolic acidosis and who subsequently showed dramatic clinical and neuroradiological improvement.

  8. Adult onset segmental cavernous hemangioma, varicose veins and limb atrophy (klippel-trenaunay-Weber syndrome variant

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    Sawhney MPS

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available A 22 year-old woman presented with multiple soft, compressible, protuberant, bluish cutaneous lesions as well as firm, non-compressible, subcutaneous masses and varicose veins affecting the right upper limb of three years duration. There was atrophy of soft tissue of forearm by 2.5 cm. X-ray showed soft tissue densities, multiple phleboliths and hypoplastic forearm bones. Histopathological examination from cutaneous lesions revealed cavernous hemangioma. Adult onset cavernous hemangioma involving one upper limb and breast with multiple phleboliths and limb atrophy is a very unusual presentation of Klippel-Trenaunay-Weber syndrome.

  9. Adult-onset idiopathic chondrolysis of the hip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yapp, Liam Z; McClymont, Liusaidh; Beggs, Ian; Gaston, Paul; Salter, Donald M

    2017-05-01

    We report the case of a 23-year-old man diagnosed with adult-onset idiopathic chondrolysis of the hip. Chondrolysis of the hip is a disorder most frequently seen in children who have suffered with slipped capital femoral epiphyses. Idiopathic chondrolysis of the hip is extremely rare and to our knowledge, its onset has never been documented in adults aged over 20. With reference to the available medical literature, we summarise the current clinical management of this unusual but important cause of young adult hip pain.

  10. Clinical and MRI features of supratentorial gliomas with adult-onset epilepsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashimoto, Takahiro; Yamaura, Akira (Chiba Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine); Watanabe, Osamu

    1992-02-01

    Although some patients with supratentorial gliomas develop epilepsy in their clinical course, the details of adult-onset epilepsy with gliomas have not been fully evaluated. This paper reports on 15 cases of supratentorial glioma with the sole symptom of adult-onset epilepsy and characterizes their clinical and MRI features. The patients, 5 males and 10 females, developed the first epilepsy at the mean age of 37 years. Generalized seizure was encountered in all cases and focal seizure alone was never seen. Seizure was satisfactorily controlled with anticonvulsants in all except 2 cases. The tumor was located in the frontal lobe (9 cases) or temporal lobe (6 cases). Histologically, there were 12 astrocytomas, 2 glioblastomas, and 1 oligoastrocytoma. Of these, 12 were benign gliomas. Surprisingly, CT scan and MRI revealed tumors larger than predicted. The abnormal intensity region was delineated most prominently on T[sub 2]-weighted SE image and was broader on T[sub 2]-weighted spin echo image than on T[sub 1]-weighted spin echo and inversion recovery image. The authors conclude that gliomas presenting with epilepsy tend to be histologically benign, are predominantly seen in middle-aged women, and are located in the frontal and temporal lobes. Although a tumor may be large enough to be detected on CT scan or MRI, as in the present study, histological examination is needed to establish the diagnosis. Additionally, gliomas with equivocal abnormalities on CT and MRI do evolve despite further neurological deficits, so meticulous evaluation including stereotactic biopsy is the method of choice. Finally, T[sub 2]-weighted SE image in the coronal plane is advocated for patients with adult-onset epilepsy to achieve accurate diagnosis and to initiate early treatment. (author).

  11. Adult Onset Still's Disease and Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persad, Paul; Patel, Rajendrakumar; Patel, Niki

    2010-01-01

    Adult Still's Disease was first described in 1971 by Bywaters in fourteen adult female patients who presented with symptoms indistinguishable from that of classic childhood Still's Disease (Bywaters, 1971). George Still in 1896 first recognized this triad of quotidian (daily) fevers, evanescent rash, and arthritis in children with what later became known as juvenile inflammatory arthritis (Still, 1990). Adult Onset Still's Disease (AOSD) is an inflammatory condition of unknown etiology characterized by an evanescent rash, quotidian fevers, and arthralgias. Numerous infectious agents have been associated with its presentation. This case is to our knowledge the first presentation of AOSD in the setting of Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever. Although numerous infectious agents have been suggested, the etiology of this disorder remains elusive. Nevertheless, infection may in fact play a role in triggering the onset of symptoms in those with this disorder. Our case presentation is, to our knowledge, the first case of Adult Onset Still's Disease associated with Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF). PMID:20811570

  12. Adult Onset Still's Disease and Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Persad

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Adult Still's Disease was first described in 1971 by Bywaters in fourteen adult female patients who presented with symptoms indistinguishable from that of classic childhood Still's Disease (Bywaters, 1971. George Still in 1896 first recognized this triad of quotidian (daily fevers, evanescent rash, and arthritis in children with what later became known as juvenile inflammatory arthritis (Still, 1990. Adult Onset Still's Disease (AOSD is an inflammatory condition of unknown etiology characterized by an evanescent rash, quotidian fevers, and arthralgias. Numerous infectious agents have been associated with its presentation. This case is to our knowledge the first presentation of AOSD in the setting of Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever. Although numerous infectious agents have been suggested, the etiology of this disorder remains elusive. Nevertheless, infection may in fact play a role in triggering the onset of symptoms in those with this disorder. Our case presentation is, to our knowledge, the first case of Adult Onset Still's Disease associated with Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF.

  13. Adult onset glycogen storage disease type II (adult onset Pompe disease): report and magnetic resonance images of two cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Del Gaizo, Andrew [Emory University School of Medicine, Radiology Resident, Atlanta, GA (United States); Banerjee, Sima [Emory University School of Medicine, Musculoskeletal Radiology Department, Atlanta, GA (United States); Terk, Michael [Emory University School of Medicine, Radiology, Division of Musculoskeletal Imaging, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2009-12-15

    Glycogen storage disease type II (GSDII), also referred to as Pompe disease or acid maltase deficiency, is a rare inherited condition caused by a deficiency in acid alpha-glucosidase (GAA) enzyme activity. The condition is often classified by age of presentation, with infantile and late onset variants (Laforet et al. J Neurology 55:1122-8, 2000). Late onset tends to present with progressive proximal muscle weakness and respiratory insufficiency (Winkel et al. J Neurology 252:875-84, 2005). We report two cases of biopsy confirmed adult onset GSDII, along with key Magnetic Resonance (MR) images. (orig.)

  14. A rare case of adult-onset nesidioblastosis treated successfully with diazoxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arao, Tadashi; Okada, Yosuke; Hirose, Akiko; Tanaka, Yoshiya

    2006-02-01

    A 54-year-old man was admitted to our hospital for evaluation of hypoglycemia. He had frequent episodes of loss of concentration before dinner. The ratio of IRI to plasma glucose (PG) was 0.8-1.0. Abdominal CT revealed no pancreatic tumor, and angiography of splenic artery showed no definite tumor stain within the pancreas. Based on the results of selective arterial calcium stimulation and hepatic venous sampling (ASVS), the provisional diagnosis was a small insulinoma in the pancreatic body. The patient underwent subtotal distal pancreatectomy. However, histopathological and immunohistochemical examinations of the resected tissue showed hypertrophy of islets of Langerhans islands and beta cells around pancreatic ducts. The final diagnosis was adult-onset nesidioblastosis. Postoperatively, the patient continued to exhibit hyperinsulinemia and nighttime hypoglycemia. Octreotide, voglibose and diet therapies failed to improve the nocturnal hypoglycemia. However, treatment with diazoxide at a starting dose of 200 mg/day resulted in immediate amelioration of nocturnal hypoglycemia. This is the first Japanese adult case of nesidioblastosis treated successfully with diazoxide. This case report suggests that diazoxide may be effective for adult-onset nesidioblastosis in a manner similar to that described for pediatric cases.

  15. A Study Of Sporadic Adult Onset Degenerative Cerebellar Ataxias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinha K K

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-four cases of sporadic olivo-ponto-cerebellar atrophy (OPCA of adult onset were studied over a period of two years. Results suggest that this disorder has its usual onset in the 5th and 6th decade of life with a male: female ratio of 2:1. It manifests clinically with gait ataxia in all, dysarthria, other cerebellar signs and autonomic involvement in vast majority. There were features of basal ganglia involvement in some. No known identifiable environmental cause was found and genetically they are quite distinct from the known autosomal dominant spinocerebellar ataxias though sporadic occurrence in recessive inheritance or a de novo mutation could not be ruled out completely, but it is unlikely.

  16. A case of adult onset disseminated juvenile xanthogranuloma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Havva Hilal Ayvaz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Juvenile xanthogranuloma (JX is a rare, benign, non-Langerhans histiocytic proliferative disease that etiology is unknown. It is usually seen in children and infants. JX in adult is very rare. A 41-year-old female patient was admitted to our clinic with papules on her face, torso and extremities. A few lesions had occured 3 years ago on her face, they disseminated all over her body after having a traffic accident one year ago which for she had operations and she also concurrently was diagnosed asdiabetes mellitus (DM. Based on clinical and histopathological findings, the diagnosis of JX was made. There is no systemic involvement of JX detected. JX seen in adults are very rare and usually associated with hematological malignancy. The present case is a rare adult onset disseminated JX case without malignancy

  17. MRI in a case of adult-onset citrullinemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Y.F.; Huang, Y.C.; Liu, H.M. [Dept. of Radiology, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei (Taiwan); Hwu, W.L. [Dept. of Medical Genetics, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei (Taiwan)

    2001-10-01

    A 42-year-old man presented with a history of repeated episodes of consciousness disturbance for 5 years. The MRI showed abnormally high signal intensities on T2-weighted images at bilateral cingulate gyri, temporal lobes and insular regions, mimicking the finding of herpes simplex encephalitis. Hyperammonemia was disclosed. Serial work-up led to the diagnosis of adult-onset citrullinemia, deficiency of argininosuccinate synthetase. The clinical symptoms improved after diet control and medication. Follow-up MRI showed resolution of the abnormal signal intensities. The MRI findings of citrullinemia and other urea-cycle defects might be attributed to hyperammonemic encephalopathy, but the manifestations were varied. Similar distribution of the abnormalities in the MRI could be found in some reported cases and indicates probably vulnerable sites of hyperammonemic brain injury. (orig.)

  18. Limited diagnostic value of procalcitonin in early diagnosis of adult onset Still's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowin, Ewelina; Wysocki, Jacek

    2016-01-01

    A 17-year-old female patient was referred to the Infectious Diseases Ward because of fever lasting for 14 days. On admission to the hospital the patient was in a generally good state, without any abnormalities on physical examination. Laboratory investigation revealed elevated inflammatory markers. Diagnostic imaging comprising chest X-ray, abdominal ultrasonography, and echocardiography showed no abnormalities. During the hospitalization, there occurred episodes of fever with skin rash and musculoskeletal pain of the lower limbs. Procalcitonin concentrations continued to increase. C-reactive protein concentrations decreased during therapy, starting from 191 mg/l. On the 23(rd) day of the disease, edema of the feet, ankles, and knees appeared. On the basis of the clinical picture and after excluding other possible causes of fever, the patient was diagnosed with adult onset Still's disease. The procalcitonin concentration was normalized after 5 days of steroid therapy. The patient was discharged under ambulatory rheumatologic supervision.

  19. Limited diagnostic value of procalcitonin in early diagnosis of adult onset Still’s disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wysocki, Jacek

    2016-01-01

    A 17-year-old female patient was referred to the Infectious Diseases Ward because of fever lasting for 14 days. On admission to the hospital the patient was in a generally good state, without any abnormalities on physical examination. Laboratory investigation revealed elevated inflammatory markers. Diagnostic imaging comprising chest X-ray, abdominal ultrasonography, and echocardiography showed no abnormalities. During the hospitalization, there occurred episodes of fever with skin rash and musculoskeletal pain of the lower limbs. Procalcitonin concentrations continued to increase. C-reactive protein concentrations decreased during therapy, starting from 191 mg/l. On the 23rd day of the disease, edema of the feet, ankles, and knees appeared. On the basis of the clinical picture and after excluding other possible causes of fever, the patient was diagnosed with adult onset Still’s disease. The procalcitonin concentration was normalized after 5 days of steroid therapy. The patient was discharged under ambulatory rheumatologic supervision. PMID:27826176

  20. Warming up Improves Speech Production in Patients with Adult Onset Myotonic Dystrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Swart, B.J.M.; van Engelen, B.G.M.; Maassen, B.A.M.

    2007-01-01

    This investigation was conducted to study whether warming up decreases myotonia (muscle stiffness) during speech production or causes adverse effects due to fatigue or exhaustion caused by intensive speech activity in patients with adult onset myotonic dystrophy. Thirty patients with adult onset myotonic dystrophy (MD) and ten healthy controls…

  1. Adult-Onset Autoimmune Diabetes in Europe Is Prevalent With a Broad Clinical Phenotype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hawa, Mohammed I; Kolb, Hubert; Schloot, Nanette

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVESSpecific autoantibodies characterize type 1 diabetes in childhood but are also found in adult-onset diabetes, even when initially non-insulin requiring, e.g., with latent autoimmune diabetes (LADA). We aimed to characterize adult-onset autoimmune diabetes.RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODSWe c...

  2. [Acute hepatitis in a patient with adult onset Still disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, M; Calvanese, A; Oscuro, F; Gallo, A; Caso, P; Annibale, E; Farinato, N

    1997-04-01

    Liver abnormalities in the course of Adult Onset Still's Disease (AOSD), both in form of hepatomegaly and elevation of hepatic enzymes, have been reported in up to three-quarts of the affected patients. These abnormalities may reflect disease activity or may be induced by drugs. Only in a few of this patients a liver biopsy was performed. However liver histology has shown, generally, non specific abnormalities or even normal pictures. We have recently observed a 47-year-old woman with a febrile illness started five months before, who after pertinent investigation was diagnosed as AOSD (according to criteria of Yamaguchi et al.). Apart from laboratory findings characteristic of an inflammatory disease, in absence of drug therapies the biochemical data showed raised levels of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase and aminoglutamil transferase. Serological tests for either viral hepatitis viruses (HAV, HBV, HCV) or other viruses were negative. Ultrasonographic examination of gallbladder and bile ducts did not find gallstones or other abnormalities. A liver biopsy was performed, which histopathologic examination showed moderate fatty methamorphosis with focal areas of hepatocellular swelling with minimal necrosis, mild Kuppfer cell hyperplasia, portal and sinusoidal infiltrates of mononuclear cells. This picture consisted with the diagnosis of an acute unspecific reactive hepatitis.

  3. Comparing endophenotypes in adult-onset primary torsion dystonia.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Bradley, David

    2012-02-01

    Adult-onset primary torsion dystonia (AOPTD) has an autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance with markedly reduced penetrance; the genetic causes of most forms of AOPTD remain unknown. Endophenotypes, markers of sub-clinical gene carriage, may be of use detecting non-manifesting gene carriers in relatives of AOPTD patients. The aim of this study was to compare the utility of the spatial discrimination threshold (SDT) and temporal discrimination threshold (TDT) as potential endophenotypes in AOPTD. Data on other published candidate endophenotypes are also considered. Both SDT and TDT testing were performed in 24 AOPTD patients and 34 of their unaffected first degree relatives; results were compared with normal values from a control population. Of the 24 AOPTD patients 5 (21%) had abnormal SDTs and 20 (83%) had abnormal TDTs. Of the 34 first degree relatives 17 (50%) had abnormal SDTs and 14 (41%) had abnormal TDTs. Discordant results on SDT and TDT testing were found in 16 (67%) AOPTD patients and 21 (62%) first degree relatives. TDT testing has superior sensitivity compared to SDT testing in AOPTD patients; although false positive TDTs are recognised, the specificity of TDT testing in unaffected relatives is not determinable. The high level of discordance between the two tests probably relates methodological difficulties with SDT testing. The SDT is an unreliable AOPTD endophenotype; TDT testing fulfils criteria for a reliable endophenotype with a high sensitivity.

  4. Efficacy of Anakinra in Refractory Adult-Onset Still's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Sanjuán, Francisco; Blanco, Ricardo; Riancho-Zarrabeitia, Leyre; Castañeda, Santos; Olivé, Alejandro; Riveros, Anne; Velloso-Feijoo, María.L.; Narváez, Javier; Jiménez-Moleón, Inmaculada; Maiz-Alonso, Olga; Ordóñez, Carmen; Bernal, José A.; Hernández, María V.; Sifuentes-Giraldo, Walter A.; Gómez-Arango, Catalina; Galíndez-Agirregoikoa, Eva; Blanco-Madrigal, Juan; Ortiz-Santamaria, Vera; del Blanco-Barnusell, Jordi; De Dios, Juan R.; Moreno, Mireia; Fiter, Jordi; Riscos, Marina de los; Carreira, Patricia; Rodriguez-Valls, María J.; González-Vela, M. Carmen; Calvo-Río, Vanesa; Loricera, Javier; Palmou-Fontana, Natalia; Pina, Trinitario; Llorca, Javier; González-Gay, Miguel A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Adult-onset Still's disease (AOSD) is often refractory to standard therapy. Anakinra (ANK), an interleukin-1 receptor antagonist, has demonstrated efficacy in single cases and small series of AOSD. We assessed the efficacy of ANK in a series of AOSD patients. Multicenter retrospective open-label study. ANK was used due to lack of efficacy to standard synthetic immunosuppressive drugs and in some cases also to at least 1 biologic agent. Forty-one patients (26 women/15 men) were recruited. They had a mean age of 34.4 ± 14 years and a median [interquartile range (IQR)] AOSD duration of 3.5 [2–6] years before ANK onset. At that time the most common clinical features were joint manifestations 87.8%, fever 78%, and cutaneous rash 58.5%. ANK yielded rapid and maintained clinical and laboratory improvement. After 1 year of therapy, the frequency of joint and cutaneous manifestations had decreased to 41.5% and to 7.3% respectively, fever from 78% to 14.6%, anemia from 56.1% to 9.8%, and lymphadenopathy from 26.8% to 4.9%. A dramatic improvement of laboratory parameters was also achieved. The median [IQR] prednisone dose was also reduced from 20 [11.3–47.5] mg/day at ANK onset to 5 [0–10] at 12 months. After a median [IQR] follow-up of 16 [5–50] months, the most important side effects were cutaneous manifestations (n = 8), mild leukopenia (n = 3), myopathy (n = 1), and infections (n = 5). ANK is associated with rapid and maintained clinical and laboratory improvement, even in nonresponders to other biologic agents. However, joint manifestations are more refractory than the systemic manifestations. PMID:26426623

  5. Interleukin 6 SNP rs1800797 associates with the risk of adult-onset asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lajunen, T K; Jaakkola, J J K; Jaakkola, M S

    2016-04-01

    Interleukin 6 (IL6) is an inflammatory cytokine that has been suggested to have an important role in the pathogenesis of asthma. IL6 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been associated with levels of IL6, and with childhood and prevalent adult asthma. A recent study also suggested that IL6 SNPs associate especially with atopic asthma. However, association of IL6 SNPs with adult-onset asthma has not been studied. In a population-based study of 467 incident adult-onset asthma cases and 613 disease-free controls from South Finland, we analyzed association of 6 tagging SNPs of the IL6 locus with the risk of adult-onset asthma and with atopy. Asthma was clinically diagnosed, and atopy was defined based on Phadiatop test. IL6 SNP rs1800797 associated with the risk of adult-onset asthma in a log additive model, with adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 1.31 (95% confidence interval 1.09-1.57), and especially with the risk of atopic adult-onset asthma when compared with non-atopic controls, aOR 1.46 (95% CI 1.12-1.90). This is the first study to show an association of IL6 with adult-onset asthma, and especially with atopic adult-onset asthma.

  6. Distinguishing adult-onset asthma from COPD: a review and a new approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abramson MJ

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Michael J Abramson,1 Jennifer L Perret,2,3 Shyamali C Dharmage,2 Vanessa M McDonald,4 Christine F McDonald3 1School of Public Health and Preventive Medicine, Monash University, 2Centre for Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia; 3Department of Respiratory and Sleep Medicine, Austin Health, Heidelberg, Australia; 4Priority Research Centre for Asthma and Respiratory Disease, University of Newcastle, Newcastle, Australia Abstract: Adult-onset asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD are major public health burdens. This review presents a comprehensive synopsis of their epidemiology, pathophysiology, and clinical presentations; describes how they can be distinguished; and considers both established and proposed new approaches to their management. Both adult-onset asthma and COPD are complex diseases arising from gene–environment interactions. Early life exposures such as childhood infections, smoke, obesity, and allergy influence adult-onset asthma. While the established environmental risk factors for COPD are adult tobacco and biomass smoke, there is emerging evidence that some childhood exposures such as maternal smoking and infections may cause COPD. Asthma has been characterized predominantly by Type 2 helper T cell (Th2 cytokine-mediated eosinophilic airway inflammation associated with airway hyperresponsiveness. In established COPD, the inflammatory cell infiltrate in small airways comprises predominantly neutrophils and cytotoxic T cells (CD8 positive lymphocytes. Parenchymal destruction (emphysema in COPD is associated with loss of lung tissue elasticity, and small airways collapse during exhalation. The precise definition of chronic airflow limitation is affected by age; a fixed cut-off of forced expiratory volume in 1 second/forced vital capacity leads to overdiagnosis of COPD in the elderly. Traditional approaches to distinguishing between asthma and COPD have highlighted age of onset

  7. Adult-onset Still's disease with atypical cutaneous manifestations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narváez Garcia, Francisco Javier; Pascual, María; López de Recalde, Mercè; Juarez, Pablo; Morales-Ivorra, Isabel; Notario, Jaime; Jucglà, Anna; Nolla, Joan M.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The diagnosis of adult-onset Still's disease (AOSD) can be very difficult. There are no specific tests available, and diagnosis is usually based on a symptom complex and the well-described typical evanescent rash seen in the majority of patients. However, in recent years, other atypical cutaneous manifestations of AOSD have been reported. These atypical skin eruptions often present in addition to the typical evanescent rash but may also be the only skin manifestation, resulting in delayed diagnosis because of under-recognition. In this study, we present 3 new cases of AOSD with atypical cutaneous manifestations diagnosed during a 30-year period in our department and review 78 additional cases previously reported (PubMed 1990–2016). These 81 patients form the basis of the present analysis. The overall prevalence of atypical cutaneous manifestations in our AOSD population was 14%. These manifestations may appear at any time over the course of the disease, and usually occur in patients who have persistent and severe disease, with a considerable frequency of clinical complications (23%), including serositis, myopericarditis, lung involvement, abdominal pain, neurologic involvement, and reactive hemophagocytic syndrome. The most representative and frequent lesion among the nonclassical skin rashes is the development of persistent pruritic papules and/or plaques. Interestingly, these lesions show a distinctive histological pattern. Other, less frequently observed lesions include urticaria and urticaria-like eruptions, generalized or widespread non-pruritic persistent erythema, vesiculopustular eruptions, a widespread peau d’orange appearance of the skin, and edema of the eyelids mimicking dermatomyositis without any accompanying skin lesion. The great majority of these patients required medium or high doses of glucocorticoids (including intravenous methylprednisolone pulse therapy in some cases) and, in nearly 40%, a more potent or maintenance immunotherapy

  8. Adult-onset nemaline rods in a patient treated for suspected dermatomyositis: study with two-dimensional electrophoresis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danon, M.J.; Giometti, C.S.; Manaligod, J.R.; Perurena, O.H.; Skosey, J.L.

    1981-12-01

    A 65-year-old woman with progressive muscle weakness and a diffuse rash of three years' duration was examined. Muscle tissue was studied with histochemical techniques, phase-contrast microscopy, electron microscopy, and two-dimensional electrophoresis. Histochemical studies showed numerous nemaline rods, with a normal ratio of types I and II fibers. Two-dimensional electrophoresis revealed abnormalities in the myosin light chain and tropomyosin protein patterns when compared with normal and diseased muscle biopsy samples, including those from two patients with adult-onset dermatomyositis.

  9. Clinical Manifestations and Treatment of Adult-Onset Asthma and Periocular Xanthogranuloma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Cavallazzi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Adult-onset asthma and periocular xanthogranuloma is an uncommon and recently described disease. Little is known about the condition because only a few case reports and series are available.

  10. Dioxin (TCDD) Induces Epigenetic Transgenerational Inheritance of Adult Onset Disease and Sperm Epimutations

    OpenAIRE

    Mohan Manikkam; Rebecca Tracey; Carlos Guerrero-Bosagna; Skinner, Michael K.

    2012-01-01

    Environmental compounds can promote epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of adult-onset disease in subsequent generations following ancestral exposure during fetal gonadal sex determination. The current study examined the ability of dioxin (2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo[p]dioxin, TCDD) to promote epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of disease and DNA methylation epimutations in sperm. Gestating F0 generation females were exposed to dioxin during fetal day 8 to 14 and adult-onset disease...

  11. [Kimura's disease: an unrecognized cause of adult-onset nephrotic syndrome with minimal change disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shehwaro, N; Langlois, A-L; Gueutin, V; Debchi, L; Charlotte, F; Rouvier, P; Rottembourg, J; Izzedine, H

    2014-02-01

    Kimura's disease (KD) is an angiolymphoid proliferative disorder of soft tissue with eosinophilia, with a predilection for head and neck regions in young Oriental men. Kidney disease is thought to be rare in KD. About a case of adult-onset nephrotic syndrome with minimal change disease, we comment Kimura's disease and its associated kidney damage. Kimura disease should be suspected and included in the diagnosis of adult-onset nephrotic syndrome with minimal change disease.

  12. Sporadic adult onset primary torsion dystonia is a genetic disorder by the temporal discrimination test.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kimmich, Okka

    2012-02-01

    Adult-onset primary torsion dystonia is an autosomal dominant disorder with markedly reduced penetrance; patients with sporadic adult-onset primary torsion dystonia are much more prevalent than familial. The temporal discrimination threshold is the shortest time interval at which two stimuli are detected to be asynchronous and has been shown to be abnormal in adult-onset primary torsion dystonia. The aim was to determine the frequency of abnormal temporal discrimination thresholds in patients with sporadic adult-onset primary torsion dystonia and their first-degree relatives. We hypothesized that abnormal temporal discrimination thresholds in first relatives would be compatible with an autosomal dominant endophenotype. Temporal discrimination thresholds were examined in 61 control subjects (39 subjects <50 years of age; 22 subjects >50 years of age), 32 patients with sporadic adult-onset primary torsion dystonia (cervical dystonia n = 30, spasmodic dysphonia n = 1 and Meige\\'s syndrome n = 1) and 73 unaffected first-degree relatives (36 siblings, 36 offspring and one parent) using visual and tactile stimuli. Z-scores were calculated for all subjects; a Z > 2.5 was considered abnormal. Abnormal temporal discrimination thresholds were found in 1\\/61 (2%) control subjects, 27\\/32 (84%) patients with adult-onset primary torsion dystonia and 32\\/73 (44%) unaffected relatives [siblings (20\\/36; 56%), offspring (11\\/36; 31%) and one parent]. When two or more relatives were tested in any one family, 22 of 24 families had at least one first-degree relative with an abnormal temporal discrimination threshold. The frequency of abnormal temporal discrimination thresholds in first-degree relatives of patients with sporadic adult-onset primary torsion dystonia is compatible with an autosomal dominant disorder and supports the hypothesis that apparently sporadic adult-onset primary torsion dystonia is genetic in origin.

  13. Steatogenesis in adult-onset type II citrullinemia is associated with down-regulation of PPARα.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komatsu, Michiharu; Kimura, Takefumi; Yazaki, Masahide; Tanaka, Naoki; Yang, Yang; Nakajima, Takero; Horiuchi, Akira; Fang, Zhong-Ze; Joshita, Satoru; Matsumoto, Akihiro; Umemura, Takeji; Tanaka, Eiji; Gonzalez, Frank J; Ikeda, Shu-Ichi; Aoyama, Toshifumi

    2015-03-01

    SLC25A13 (citrin or aspartate-glutamate carrier 2) is located in the mitochondrial membrane in the liver and its genetic deficiency causes adult-onset type II citrullinemia (CTLN2). CTLN2 is one of the urea cycle disorders characterized by sudden-onset hyperammonemia due to reduced argininosuccinate synthase activity. This disorder is frequently accompanied with hepatosteatosis in the absence of obesity and ethanol consumption. However, the precise mechanism of steatogenesis remains unclear. The expression of genes associated with fatty acid (FA) and triglyceride (TG) metabolism was examined using liver samples obtained from 16 CTLN2 patients and compared with 7 healthy individuals. Although expression of hepatic genes associated with lipogenesis and TG hydrolysis was not changed, the mRNAs encoding enzymes/proteins involved in FA oxidation (carnitine palmitoyl-CoA transferase 1α, medium- and very-long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenases, and acyl-CoA oxidase 1), very-low-density lipoprotein secretion (microsomal TG transfer protein), and FA transport (CD36 and FA-binding protein 1), were markedly suppressed in CTLN2 patients. Serum concentrations of ketone bodies were also decreased in these patients, suggesting reduced mitochondrial β-oxidation activity. Consistent with these findings, the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα), a master regulator of hepatic lipid metabolism, was significantly down-regulated. Hepatic PPARα expression was inversely correlated with severity of steatosis and circulating ammonia and citrulline levels. Additionally, phosphorylation of c-Jun-N-terminal kinase was enhanced in CTLN2 livers, which was likely associated with lower hepatic PPARα. Collectively, down-regulation of PPARα is associated with steatogenesis in CTLN2 patients. These findings provide a novel link between urea cycle disorder, lipid metabolism, and PPARα.

  14. Acute adult-onset still’s disease presenting as pulmonary hemorrhage, urticaria, angioedema and leukemoid reaction: a case report and literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Mora Alfonso, Sergio A; Rodríguez, Daniel M Cuestas; Londoño, John D; Valle-Oñate, Rafael; Quintana, Gerardo

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Adult-onset Still’s disease is a rare systemic inflammatory disorder of unknown aetiology characterized by the classic triad of persistent high spiking fevers, joint pain and a distinctive salmon-colored bumpy rash however, the multiorgan involvement can be present. Case description A 40-year-old woman previously healthy was referred to our hospital with 7 days of high fever and generalized arthralgia, The physical exam revealed angioneurotic edema detected on soles, palms and to...

  15. Novel case of Trevor’s disease: Adult onset and later recurrence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalsa, Amrit S; Kumar, Neil S; Chin, Matthew A; Lackman, Richard D

    2017-01-01

    Dysplasia epiphysealis hemimelica (DEH), or Trevor’s disease, is an osteocartilaginous epiphyseal overgrowth typically occurring in children. The literature reports 6 adult cases and none describe recurrence requiring additional procedures. We present a new-onset proximal tibial DEH in an adult recurring approximately 3 years after open excision. A 39-year-old female presented with a history of right knee pain, swelling, and instability. Physical examination revealed a firm proximal tibial mass. Computed tomography (CT) imaging showed an exophytic, lobulated, sclerotic mass involving the anterolateral margin of the lateral tibial plateau. Magnetic resonance imaging was suggestive of an osteochondroma. The patient underwent curettage of the lesion due to its periarticular location. Histology revealed benign and reactive bone and cartilage consistent with periosteal chondroma. Two and a half years later, the patient presented with a firm, palpable mass larger than the initial lesion. CT revealed a lateral tibial plateau sclerotic mass consistent with recurrent intra-articular DEH. A complete excision was performed and histology showed sclerotic bone with overlying cartilage consistent with exostosis. DEH is a rare epiphyseal osteocartilaginous outgrowth frequently occurring in the long bones of children less than 8 years old. DEH resembles an osteochondroma due to its pediatric presentation and similar histologic appearance. Adult-onset cases comprise less than 1% of reported cases. Recurrence rate after surgical intervention is unknown. Only 1 such case, occurring in a child, has been described. Clinicians contemplating operative treatment for DEH should note the potential for recurrence and consider complete excision. A follow-up period of several years may be warranted to identify recurrent lesions. PMID:28144583

  16. Adult-onset Still's disease and cardiac tamponade: a rare association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrilho-Ferreira, Pedro; Silva, Doroteia; de Jesus Silva, Maria; André, Rui; Varela, Manuel Gato; Diogo, António Nunes

    2015-06-01

    Adult-onset Still's disease is a rare disorder with potentially severe clinical features, including cardiac involvement. This systemic inflammatory disease of unknown origin should be considered in the differential diagnosis of pericarditis, with or without pericardial effusion. Cardiac tamponade is a very rare sequela that requires an invasive approach, such as percutaneous or surgical pericardial drainage, in addition to the usual conservative therapy. The authors describe a case of adult-onset Still's disease rendered more difficult by pericarditis and cardiac tamponade, and they briefly review the literature on this entity.

  17. [Adult onset Still's disease as a diagnostics challenge in case of fever of unknown origin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debski, Marcin; Stepniewski, Piotr; Wróbel, Michał

    2013-01-01

    Fever of unknown origin is often a diagnostic challenge. Here we present a case of 55-year-old woman with a history of a few months fever, progressing weakness and salmon-coloured, macular skin rash. The differential diagnosis included neoplasmatic conditions, infections and connective tissue disorders. Finally adult onset Still's disease was suspected. Glucocorticosteroid treatment was induced. During the therapy a central nervous system infection occurred, which was fatal for the patient. The presented clinical case shows that among many causes of fever of unknown origin, adult onset Still's disease should be taken into account.

  18. Rocuronium as muscle relaxant for electroconvulsive therapy in a patient with adult-onset muscular dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryson, Ethan O; Aloysi, Amy S; Katz, Maya; Popeo, Dennis; Kellner, Charles H

    2011-12-01

    Adult-onset muscular dystrophy is an inherited myopathy characterized by a variable degree of progressive muscle weakness and degeneration. Although not usually fatal, significant muscle weakness results in an up-regulation of acetylcholine receptors on the less responsive postjunctional muscles. The resulting profound potassium release when these receptors are stimulated by the depolarizing muscle relaxant succinylcholine can result in potentially fatal cardiac arrhythmias. We report a case of electroconvulsive therapy safely administered in a 61-year-old man with adult-onset muscular dystrophy requiring muscle relaxation with rocuronium.

  19. Adult-onset Alexander disease with typical "tadpole" brainstem atrophy and unusual bilateral basal ganglia involvement: a case report and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakoe Kumi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alexander disease (ALX is a rare neurological disorder characterized by white matter degeneration and cytoplasmic inclusions in astrocytes called Rosenthal fibers, labeled by antibodies against glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP. Three subtypes are distinguished according to age at onset: infantile (under age 2, juvenile (age 2 to 12 and adult (over age 12. Following the identification of heterozygous mutations in GFAP that cause this disease, cases of adult-onset ALX have been increasingly reported. Case Presentation We present a 60-year-old Japanese man with an unremarkable past and no family history of ALX. After head trauma in a traffic accident at the age of 46, his character changed, and dementia and dysarthria developed, but he remained independent. Spastic paresis and dysphagia were observed at age 57 and 59, respectively, and worsened progressively. Neurological examination at the age of 60 revealed dementia, pseudobulbar palsy, left-side predominant spastic tetraparesis, axial rigidity, bradykinesia and gaze-evoked nystagmus. Brain MRI showed tadpole-like atrophy of the brainstem, caused by marked atrophy of the medulla oblongata, cervical spinal cord and midbrain tegmentum, with an intact pontine base. Analysis of the GFAP gene revealed a heterozygous missense mutation, c.827G>T, p.R276L, which was already shown to be pathogenic in a case of pathologically proven hereditary adult-onset ALX. Conclusion The typical tadpole-like appearance of the brainstem is strongly suggestive of adult-onset ALX, and should lead to a genetic investigation of the GFAP gene. The unusual feature of this patient is the symmetrical involvement of the basal ganglia, which is rarely observed in the adult form of the disease. More patients must be examined to confirm, clinically and neuroradiologically, extrapyramidal involvement of the basal ganglia in adult-onset ALX.

  20. A comparison between nailfold capillaroscopy patterns in adulthood in juvenile and adult-onset systemic sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingegnoli, Francesca; Boracchi, Patrizia; Gualtierotti, Roberta;

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Qualitative capillaroscopy patterns in juvenile- and adult-onset systemic sclerosis (SSc) were studied in adulthood using data from the EULAR Scleroderma Trials and Research (EUSTAR) database. METHODS: Data collected between June 2004 and April 2013 were examined with focus on capillar...

  1. Distal spinal muscular atrophy as a major feature in adult-onset ataxia telangiectasia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiel, J.A.P.; Engelen, B.G.M. van; Weemaes, C.M.R.; Broeks, A.; Verrips, A.; Laak, H.J. ter; Vingerhoets, H.M.; Heuvel, L.P.W.J. van den; Lammens, M.M.Y.; Gabreëls, F.J.M.; Last, J.I.; Taylor, A.M.R.

    2006-01-01

    The authors report four adult-onset ataxia telangiectasia (AT) patients belonging to two families lacking pronounced cerebellar ataxia but displaying distal spinal muscular atrophy. AT was proven by genetic studies showing ATM mutations and a reduced level of ATM. ATM activity, as measured by phosph

  2. Surgical management of adult-onset cystic hygroma in the axilla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca McCaffrey

    2015-01-01

    CONCLUSION: As the incidence of adult-onset cystic hygroma is rare, the nature and reporting of their management is limited. This case report contributes to the body of literature which serves to elucidate the optimal management of this perinatal condition in adults.

  3. Perceived stress and risk of adult-onset asthma and other atopic disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rod, N H; Kristensen, T S; Lange, Peter;

    2012-01-01

    of adult-onset asthma, allergic rhinitis, atopic dermatitis, and asthma/bronchitis medication. METHODS: Participants (n = 9785) from the Copenhagen City Heart Study, Denmark, free of atopic disorders at baseline in 1981-1983 were asked questions on stress intensity and frequency. They were followed...... for first-time asthma hospitalization in nationwide registers until 2010, with...

  4. Myotonia and flaccid dysarthria in patients with adult onset myotonic dystrophy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swart, B.J.M. de; Engelen, B.G.M. van; Kerkhof, J.P. van de; Maassen, B.A.M.

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Myotonia and weakness are the most important components of dysarthric speech in myotonic dystrophy. OBJECTIVE: To specify and quantify possible defects in speech execution in patients with adult onset myotonic dystrophy. METHODS: Studies on speech production were done on 30 mildly affect

  5. Temporal discrimination threshold: VBM evidence for an endophenotype in adult onset primary torsion dystonia.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Bradley, D

    2012-02-01

    Familial adult-onset primary torsion dystonia is an autosomal dominant disorder with markedly reduced penetrance. Most adult-onset primary torsion dystonia patients are sporadic cases. Disordered sensory processing is found in adult-onset primary torsion dystonia patients; if also present in their unaffected relatives this abnormality may indicate non-manifesting gene carriage. Temporal discrimination thresholds (TDTs) are abnormal in adult-onset primary torsion dystonia, but their utility as a possible endophenotype has not been examined. We examined 35 adult-onset primary torsion dystonia patients (17 familial, 18 sporadic), 42 unaffected first-degree relatives of both familial and sporadic adult-onset primary torsion dystonia patients, 32 unaffected second-degree relatives of familial adult-onset primary torsion dystonia (AOPTD) patients and 43 control subjects. TDT was measured using visual and tactile stimuli. In 33 unaffected relatives, voxel-based morphometry was used to compare putaminal volumes between relatives with abnormal and normal TDTs. The mean TDT in 26 control subjects under 50 years of age was 22.85 ms (SD 8.00; 95% CI: 19.62-26.09 ms). The mean TDT in 17 control subjects over 50 years was 30.87 ms (SD 5.48; 95% CI: 28.05-33.69 ms). The upper limit of normal, defined as control mean + 2.5 SD, was 42.86 ms in the under 50 years group and 44.58 ms in the over 50 years group. Thirty out of thirty-five (86%) AOPTD patients had abnormal TDTs with similar frequencies of abnormalities in sporadic and familial patients. Twenty-two out of forty-two (52%) unaffected first-degree relatives had abnormal TDTs with similar frequencies in relatives of sporadic and familial AOPTD patients. Abnormal TDTs were found in 16\\/32 (50%) of second-degree relatives. Voxel-based morphometry analysis comparing 13 unaffected relatives with abnormal TDTs and 20 with normal TDTs demonstrated a bilateral increase in putaminal grey matter in unaffected relatives with abnormal

  6. Suppurative necrotizing granulomatous lymphadenitis in adult-onset Still’s disease: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Assimakopoulos Stelios F

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Lymphadenopathy is found in about 65% of patients with adult-onset Still’s disease and is histologically characterized by an intense, paracortical immunoblastic hyperplasia. Adult-onset Still’s disease has not been previously described as an etiology of suppurative necrotizing granulomatous lymphadenitis. Case presentation We describe a 27-year-old Greek man who manifested prolonged fever, abdominal pain, increased inflammatory markers, episodic skin rash and mesenteric lymphadenopathy histologically characterized by necrotizing granulomatous adenitis with central suppuration. Disease flares were characterized by systemic inflammatory response syndrome with immediate clinico-laboratory response to corticosteroids but the patient required prolonged administration of methylprednisolone at a dose of above 12mg/day for disease control. After an extensive diagnostic work-up, which ruled out any infectious, malignant, rheumatic or autoinflammatory disease the patient was diagnosed as having adult-onset Still’s disease. The patient is currently treated with 4mg of methylprednisolone, 100mg of anakinra daily and methotrexate 7.5mg for two consecutive days per week and exerts full disease remission for six months. Conclusion To the best of our knowledge this is the first report of suppurative necrotizing granulomatous lymphadenitis attributed to adult-onset Still’s disease. This case indicates that the finding of a suppurative necrotizing granulomatous lymphadenitis should not deter the consideration of adult-onset Still’s disease as a potential diagnosis in a compatible clinical context; however, the exclusion of other diagnoses is a prerequisite.

  7. Adult-onset vanishing white matter disease as differential diagnosis of primary progressive multiple sclerosis: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herwerth, Marina; Schwaiger, Benedikt J; Kreiser, Kornelia; Hemmer, Bernhard; Ilg, Rüdiger

    2015-04-01

    We report the case of a 42-year-old woman with a slowly progressive cerebellar syndrome. In contrast to a relatively mild clinical presentation, the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed extensive leukencephalopathy with cystic degeneration. Initially primary progressive multiple sclerosis (PPMS) was suspected. Additional diffusion-weighted imaging revealed restricted diffusion in the white matter lesions with a reduced apparent diffusion coefficient. Genetic testing showed vanishing white matter disease (VWM) with c.260C>T EIF2B3 mutation. In conclusion, in cases with relatively mild symptoms and extensive white matter lesions, adult-onset VWM should be considered as differential diagnosis of PPMS and diffusion-weighted imaging may be helpful to identify suspected cases.

  8. Mapping a gene for adult-onset primary open-angle glaucoma to chromosome 3q

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wirtz, M.K.; Samples, J.R.; Kramer, P.L. [Oregon Health Sciences Univ., Portland, OR (United States)] [and others

    1997-02-01

    Glaucoma is the third-leading cause of blindness in the world, affecting >13.5 million people. Adult-on-set primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) is the most common form of glaucoma in the United States. We present a family in which adult-onset POAG is inherited as an autosomal dominant trait. Twelve affected family members were identified from 44 at-risk individuals. The disease-causing gene was mapped to chromosome 3q21-24, with analysis of recombinant haplotypes suggesting a total inclusion region of 11.1 cM between markers D3S3637 and D3S1744. This is the first report of mapping of an adult-onset POAG gene to chromosome 3q, gene symbol GLC1C. 57 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  9. Adult-onset Still's disease as a mask of Hodgkin lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudziec, Ewa; Pawlak-Buś, Katarzyna; Leszczyński, Piotr

    2015-01-01

    Adult-onset Still's disease is a rare disorder, which creates difficulties in making a proper diagnosis. Ambiguous symptoms and results of auxiliary tests, lack of unequivocal diagnostic tests and the need to exclude other causes of the disease are major problems in clinical practice. A case of a 22-year-old woman with dominated recurrent fever, significantly elevated inflammation markers and arthritis is presented. Based on clinical signs after exclusion of infection, hematological and other reasons, the patient was diagnosed with adult-onset Still's disease. Standard treatment, with high doses of glucocorticoids and a disease-modifying drug, was applied, without the anticipated effects. The diagnostic tests were conducted again due to the lack of clinical improvement, increase of inflammatory markers and unusual response to treatment. A new symptom of significance, i.e. mediastinal lymphadenopathy, was found. After the histopathological examination of lymph nodes, Hodgkin's disease was diagnosed and targeted therapy for hematological malignancy was applied.

  10. Epidemiology of adult-onset hydrocephalus: institutional experience with 2001 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bir, Shyamal C; Patra, Devi Prasad; Maiti, Tanmoy K; Sun, Hai; Guthikonda, Bharat; Notarianni, Christina; Nanda, Anil

    2016-09-01

    OBJECTIVE Adult-onset hydrocephalus is not commonly discussed in the literature, especially regarding its demographic distribution. In contrast to pediatric hydrocephalus, which is related to a primary CSF pathway defect, its development in adults is often secondary to other pathologies. In this study, the authors investigated the epidemiology of adult-onset hydrocephalus as it pertains to different etiologies and in reference to age, sex, and race distributions. METHODS The authors retrospectively reviewed the clinical notes of 2001 patients with adult-onset hydrocephalus who presented to Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center within a 25-year span. Significant differences between the groups were analyzed by a chi-square test; p hydrocephalus in this population was 77 ± 30 per year, with a significant increase in incidence in the past decade (55 ± 3 [1990-2003] vs 102 ± 6 [2004-2015]; p Hydrocephalus in a majority of the patients had a vascular etiology (45.5%) or was a result of a tumor (30.2%). The incidence of hydrocephalus in different age groups varied according to various pathologies. The incidence was significantly higher in males with normal-pressure hydrocephalus (p = 0.03) or head injury (p = 0.01) and higher in females with pseudotumor cerebri (p hydrocephalus was significantly higher in Caucasian patients (p = 0.0002) than in those of any other race. CONCLUSIONS Knowledge of the demographic variations in adult-onset hydrocephalus is helpful in achieving better risk stratification and better managing the disease in patients. For general applicability, these results should be validated in a large-scale meta-analysis based on a national population database.

  11. Niemann-Pick type C: focus on the adolescent/adult onset form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Lazzaro, Vincenzo; Marano, Massimo; Florio, Lucia; De Santis, Stefano

    2016-11-01

    Niemann-Pick disease type C (NP-C) is an inherited sphingolipidosis characterized by progressive neurological deterioration and early mortality. The symptomatology and disease progression of NP-C are markedly affected by the age at onset of neurological manifestations, and categorization into early-infantile, late-infantile, juvenile, adolescent/adult neurological onset forms can aid evaluation of disease course and responses to therapy. Here, we review current information on the detection, diagnosis, monitoring and treatment of NP-C, with a focus on the adolescent/adult-onset form. A recent analysis indicated that the combined incidence of NP-C related to NPC1 gene mutations (NPC1) and NP-C related to NPC2 gene mutations (NPC2) is approximately 1 case in every 89 000 live births. In particular, late-onset phenotypes might well provide a greater contribution to the overall incidence than has previously been reported. Some neuropathological features in NP-C are held in common with other advanced age-onset diseases such as Alzheimer's disease. Visceral symptoms such as splenomegaly are frequently asymptomatic in patients with adolescent/adult-onset NP-C, and are only occasionally detected during routine ultrasound assessments. In contrast, most patients with adolescent/adult-onset exhibit some degree of slowly progressive, non-disease-specific movement disorders (e.g. cerebellar ataxia), and/or more pathognomonic neurological signs such as vertical supranuclear gaze palsy. An increasing number of adolescent/adult-onset cases have been reported following initial recognition of cognitive impairment and/or psychiatric signs. The recent development and implementation of new clinical screening tools (e.g. the NP-C suspicion index) and biomarkers (e.g. plasma oxysterols) should help identify patients who warrant further investigation and possible treatment.

  12. A Case of Adult Onset Still's Disease Misdiagnosed as Septic Arthritis

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Sang Jun; Bae, Dae Kyung; Noh, Jung Ho; Seo, Geon Wook; Nam, Dong Cheol

    2011-01-01

    We present a case of adult onset Still's disease (AOSD) that was misdiagnosed as septic arthritis of the shoulder and knee. A forty-nine-year-old woman was admitted for pain in the left knee. The patient's medical history showed that she had undergone arthroscopic irrigation twice and an open debridement under the diagnosis of septic shoulder at another hospital. The laboratory and joint fluid analysis findings led us to suspect septic knee. Arthroscopic irrigation and antibiotics treatment w...

  13. Predictors of Relapse in Adult-Onset Nephrotic Minimal Change Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hajeong; Yoo, Kyung Don; Oh, Yun Kyu; Kim, Dong Ki; Oh, Kook-Hwan; Joo, Kwon Wook; Kim, Yon Su; Ahn, Curie; Han, Jin Suk; Lim, Chun Soo

    2016-03-01

    Minimal change disease (MCD) is a well-known benign primary glomerulonephritis because of its distinct rare tendency to progress to end-stage renal disease. However, factors associated with relapse in adults are not well known. We aimed to identify predictors of relapse in adult-onset MCD patients.A retrospective cohort of 195 patients with adult-onset primary MCD with nephritic syndrome and disease onset between 1979 and 2013 was followed up for >12 months. The number of relapses was counted and predictors of relapse were analyzed.A total of 195 patients were included. Median age at diagnosis was 38 years (IQR, 23-53 years) and 113 (57.9%) were men. During 81 months (IQR, 44-153 months) of follow-up, 92% of patients achieved remission after initial treatment. However, only 60 (32.8%) did not experience a relapse and 11 patients failed to remit. Among the remaining 124 patients, 65 experienced a relapse once or twice and 59 experienced a relapse more than twice. Younger onset age, increased severity of nephrotic features such as lower serum albumin levels and higher cholesterol level were associated with relapse. Interestingly, the grade of mesangial proliferation was lower in patients who experienced a relapse. Initial combined treatment with corticosteroids (CS) and cyclophosphamide reduced the number of relapses. In addition, patients with shorter treatment duration tended to experience relapse more often. Multivariate analysis showed that younger onset age, combined mesangial proliferation, initial treatment regimen, and treatment duration were independent risk factors for relapse. Progression to end-stage renal disease was developed in only a patient.In conclusion, more than two-thirds of adult-onset nephrotic MCD patients experienced relapse, although their renal progression was rare. Younger onset age, CS without cyclophosphamide treatment, and shorter treatment duration were independent risk factors for relapse in adult-onset MCD patients.

  14. The Need for Improved Detection and Management of Adult-Onset Hearing Loss in Australia

    OpenAIRE

    McMahon, Catherine M.; Bamini Gopinath; Julie Schneider; Jennifer Reath; Louise Hickson; Leeder, Stephen R; Paul Mitchell; Robert Cowan

    2013-01-01

    Adult-onset hearing loss is insidious and typically diagnosed and managed several years after onset. Often, this is after the loss having led to multiple negative consequences including effects on employment, depressive symptoms, and increased risk of mortality. In contrast, the use of hearing aids is associated with reduced depression, longer life expectancy, and retention in the workplace. Despite this, several studies indicate high levels of unmet need for hearing health services in older ...

  15. Urticaria and dermographism in patients with adult-onset Still's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Criado, Paulo Ricardo; de Carvalho, Jozélio Freire; Ayabe, Liliane Akemi; Brandt, Hebert Roberto Clivati; Romiti, Ricardo; Maruta, Celina W

    2012-08-01

    Adult-onset Still's disease (AOSD) patients typically present with arthralgia, fever, lymphadenopathy and a transient salmon maculopapular rash. Only approximately 25 cases of AOSD with urticaria were described in the literature. In this article, the authors report three additional cases of AOSD with urticarial and dermographic lesions who had a good clinical response to glucocorticoid and antihistamines. A review of the literature concerning this issue is also herein written.

  16. Lifetime Increased Risk of Adult Onset Atopic Dermatitis in Adolescent and Adult Patients with Food Allergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsu-Sheng Yu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Food allergy can result in life-threatening anaphylaxis. Atopic dermatitis (AD causes intense itching and impaired quality of life. Previous studies have shown that patients with classical early-onset AD tend to develop food allergy and that 10% of adults with food allergies have concomitant AD. However, it is not known whether late-onset food allergy leads to adult-onset AD, a recently recognized disease entity. Using an initial cohort of one-million subjects, this study retrospectively followed-up 2851 patients with food allergy (age > 12 years for 14 years and compared them with 11,404 matched controls. While 2.8% (81 of the 2851 food allergy patients developed AD, only 2.0% (227 of the 11,404 controls developed AD. Multivariate regression analysis showed that food allergy patients were more likely to develop AD (adjusted hazard ratio = 2.49, p < 0.0001. Controls had a 1.99% risk of developing AD, while food allergy patients had a significantly higher risk (7.18% and 3.46% for patients with ≥3 and <3 food allergy claims, respectively of developing adult-onset AD. This is the first study to describe the chronological and dose-dependent associations between food allergy in adolescence and the development of adult-onset AD.

  17. Clinical Characteristics of Pediatric-Onset and Adult-Onset Multiple Sclerosis in Hispanic Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langille, Megan M; Islam, Talat; Burnett, Margaret; Amezcua, Lilyana

    2016-07-01

    Multiple sclerosis can affect pediatric patients. Our aim was to compare characteristics between pediatric-onset multiple sclerosis and adult-onset multiple sclerosis in Hispanic Americans. This was a cross-sectional analysis of 363 Hispanic American multiple scleroses cases; demographic and clinical characteristics were analyzed. A total of 110 Hispanic patients presented with multiple sclerosis before age 18 and 253 as adult multiple sclerosis. The most common presenting symptoms for both was optic neuritis. Polyfocal symptoms, seizures, and cognitive symptoms at presentation were more prevalent in pediatric-onset multiple sclerosis (P ≤ .001). Transverse myelitis was more frequent in adult-onset multiple sclerosis (P ≤ .001). Using multivariable analysis, pediatric-onset multiple sclerosis (adjusted odds ratio, 0.3OR 95% confidence interval 0.16-0.71, P = .004) and being US born (adjusted odds ratio, 0.553, 95% confidence interval 0.3-1.03, P = .006) were less likely to have severe ambulatory disability. Results suggest that pediatric-onset multiple sclerosis and adult-onset multiple sclerosis in Hispanics have differences that could be important for treatment and prognosis.

  18. Dioxin (TCDD induces epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of adult onset disease and sperm epimutations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohan Manikkam

    Full Text Available Environmental compounds can promote epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of adult-onset disease in subsequent generations following ancestral exposure during fetal gonadal sex determination. The current study examined the ability of dioxin (2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo[p]dioxin, TCDD to promote epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of disease and DNA methylation epimutations in sperm. Gestating F0 generation females were exposed to dioxin during fetal day 8 to 14 and adult-onset disease was evaluated in F1 and F3 generation rats. The incidences of total disease and multiple disease increased in F1 and F3 generations. Prostate disease, ovarian primordial follicle loss and polycystic ovary disease were increased in F1 generation dioxin lineage. Kidney disease in males, pubertal abnormalities in females, ovarian primordial follicle loss and polycystic ovary disease were increased in F3 generation dioxin lineage animals. Analysis of the F3 generation sperm epigenome identified 50 differentially DNA methylated regions (DMR in gene promoters. These DMR provide potential epigenetic biomarkers for transgenerational disease and ancestral environmental exposures. Observations demonstrate dioxin exposure of a gestating female promotes epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of adult onset disease and sperm epimutations.

  19. Dioxin (TCDD) induces epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of adult onset disease and sperm epimutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manikkam, Mohan; Tracey, Rebecca; Guerrero-Bosagna, Carlos; Skinner, Michael K

    2012-01-01

    Environmental compounds can promote epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of adult-onset disease in subsequent generations following ancestral exposure during fetal gonadal sex determination. The current study examined the ability of dioxin (2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo[p]dioxin, TCDD) to promote epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of disease and DNA methylation epimutations in sperm. Gestating F0 generation females were exposed to dioxin during fetal day 8 to 14 and adult-onset disease was evaluated in F1 and F3 generation rats. The incidences of total disease and multiple disease increased in F1 and F3 generations. Prostate disease, ovarian primordial follicle loss and polycystic ovary disease were increased in F1 generation dioxin lineage. Kidney disease in males, pubertal abnormalities in females, ovarian primordial follicle loss and polycystic ovary disease were increased in F3 generation dioxin lineage animals. Analysis of the F3 generation sperm epigenome identified 50 differentially DNA methylated regions (DMR) in gene promoters. These DMR provide potential epigenetic biomarkers for transgenerational disease and ancestral environmental exposures. Observations demonstrate dioxin exposure of a gestating female promotes epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of adult onset disease and sperm epimutations.

  20. The Need for Improved Detection and Management of Adult-Onset Hearing Loss in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine M. McMahon

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Adult-onset hearing loss is insidious and typically diagnosed and managed several years after onset. Often, this is after the loss having led to multiple negative consequences including effects on employment, depressive symptoms, and increased risk of mortality. In contrast, the use of hearing aids is associated with reduced depression, longer life expectancy, and retention in the workplace. Despite this, several studies indicate high levels of unmet need for hearing health services in older adults and poor use of prescribed hearing aids, often leading to their abandonment. In Australia, the largest component of financial cost of hearing loss (excluding the loss of well-being is due to lost workplace productivity. Nonetheless, the Australian public health system does not have an effective and sustainable hearing screening strategy to tackle the problem of poor detection of adult-onset hearing loss. Given the increasing prevalence and disease burden of hearing impairment in adults, two key areas are not adequately met in the Australian healthcare system: (1 early identification of persons with chronic hearing impairment; (2 appropriate and targeted referral of these patients to hearing health service providers. This paper reviews the current literature, including population-based data from the Blue Mountains Hearing Study, and suggests different models for early detection of adult-onset hearing loss.

  1. The need for improved detection and management of adult-onset hearing loss in australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Catherine M; Gopinath, Bamini; Schneider, Julie; Reath, Jennifer; Hickson, Louise; Leeder, Stephen R; Mitchell, Paul; Cowan, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Adult-onset hearing loss is insidious and typically diagnosed and managed several years after onset. Often, this is after the loss having led to multiple negative consequences including effects on employment, depressive symptoms, and increased risk of mortality. In contrast, the use of hearing aids is associated with reduced depression, longer life expectancy, and retention in the workplace. Despite this, several studies indicate high levels of unmet need for hearing health services in older adults and poor use of prescribed hearing aids, often leading to their abandonment. In Australia, the largest component of financial cost of hearing loss (excluding the loss of well-being) is due to lost workplace productivity. Nonetheless, the Australian public health system does not have an effective and sustainable hearing screening strategy to tackle the problem of poor detection of adult-onset hearing loss. Given the increasing prevalence and disease burden of hearing impairment in adults, two key areas are not adequately met in the Australian healthcare system: (1) early identification of persons with chronic hearing impairment; (2) appropriate and targeted referral of these patients to hearing health service providers. This paper reviews the current literature, including population-based data from the Blue Mountains Hearing Study, and suggests different models for early detection of adult-onset hearing loss.

  2. Stroke prevention by direct revascularization for patients with adult-onset moyamoya disease presenting with ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tackeun; Oh, Chang Wan; Kwon, O-Ki; Hwang, Gyojun; Kim, Jeong Eun; Kang, Hyun-Seung; Cho, Won-Sang; Bang, Jae Seung

    2016-06-01

    . CONCLUSIONS Direct or combined revascularization for patients with adult-onset moyamoya disease presenting with ischemia can prevent further stroke.

  3. Limbic encephalitis associated with anti-voltage-gated potassium channel complex antibodies as a cause of adult-onset mesial temporal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyota, Tomoko; Akamatsu, Naoki; Tsuji, Sadatoshi; Nishizawa, Shigeru

    2014-06-01

    Recently, some reports have indicated that limbic encephalitis associated with anti-voltage-gated potassium channel complex antibodies (VGKC-Ab) is a cause of adult-onset mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE). We report a 53-year-old woman who had her first epileptic seizure at the age of 50 years old. Examination by 3-Tesla brain MRI revealed left hippocampal high signal intensity and swelling on fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) and T2-weighted imaging at 2 months after her first seizure. The patient received intravenous methylprednisolone and carbamazepine 300 mg/day. One month later, MRI revealed improvement of her left hippocampal abnormalities. Thereafter, she had no seizures, however, three years after her first seizure, EEG revealed a seizure pattern in the left temporal region. Brain MRI revealed left hippocampal high signal intensity and brain fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography revealed hypermetabolism. Her serum VGKC-Ab levels were 118 pM(normal VGKC-Ab levels decreased to 4.4 pM. Remission of the epileptic seizures was also observed. This MTLE in the middle age was considered as limbic encephalitis associated with anti- VGKC-Ab. In cases of unexplained adult-onset MTLE, limbic encephalitis associated with anti-VGKC-Ab, which responds well to immunotherapy, should be considered in the differential diagnosis.

  4. Adult-onset temporal lobe epilepsy, cognitive decline, multi-antiepileptic drug hypersensitivity, and Hashimoto's encephalopathy: Two case studies ☆

    OpenAIRE

    Sadan, Ofer; Seyman, Estelle; Ash, Elissa L.; Kipervasser, Svetlana; Neufeld, Miri Y.

    2013-01-01

    Hashimoto's encephalopathy is defined by the coexistence of encephalopathy and antithyroid antibodies. We report two cases of adult-onset temporal lobe epilepsy with subacute cognitive decline, high titers of antithyroid antibodies, multi-antiepileptic drug hypersensitivity, and good response to immunomodulatory treatment. The relevance of multidrug hypersensitivity in the setting of adult-onset epilepsy and the importance of searching for autoimmune causes for epilepsy are discussed.

  5. An integrative systems genetics approach reveals potential causal genes and pathways related to obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kogelman, Lisette; Zhernakova, Daria V.; Westra, Harm-Jan

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Obesity is a multi-factorial health problem in which genetic factors play an important role. Limited results have been obtained in single-gene studies using either genomic or transcriptomic data. RNA sequencing technology has shown its potential in gaining accurate knowledge about...... the transcriptome, and may reveal novel genes affecting complex diseases. Integration of genomic and transcriptomic variation (expression quantitative trait loci [eQTL] mapping) has identified causal variants that affect complex diseases. We integrated transcriptomic data from adipose tissue and genomic data from...... a porcine model to investigate the mechanisms involved in obesity using a systems genetics approach. METHODS: Using a selective gene expression profiling approach, we selected 36 animals based on a previously created genomic Obesity Index for RNA sequencing of subcutaneous adipose tissue. Differential...

  6. A Metagenomic Investigation of the Duodenal Microbiota Reveals Links with Obesity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanouil Angelakis

    Full Text Available Few studies have tested the small intestine microbiota in humans, where most nutrient digestion and absorption occur. Here, our objective was to examine the duodenal microbiota between obese and normal volunteers using metagenomic techniques.We tested duodenal samples from five obese and five normal volunteers using 16S rDNA V6 pyrosequencing and Illumina MiSeq deep sequencing. The predominant phyla of the duodenal microbiota were Firmicutes and Actinobacteria, whereas Bacteroidetes were absent. Obese individuals had a significant increase in anaerobic genera (p < 0.001 and a higher abundance of genes encoding Acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (p = 0.0018 compared to the control group. Obese individuals also had a reduced abundance of genes encoding sucrose phosphorylase (p = 0.015 and 1,4-alpha-glucan branching enzyme (p = 0.05. Normal weight people had significantly increased FabK (p = 0.027, and the glycerophospholipid metabolism pathway revealed the presence of phospholipase A1 only in the control group (p = 0.05.The duodenal microbiota of obese individuals exhibit alterations in the fatty acid and sucrose breakdown pathways, probably induced by diet imbalance.

  7. Piriform sinus carcinoma with a paraneoplastic syndrome misdiagnosed as adult onset Still's disease: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Liu; Li, Wen; Du, Jintao

    2015-01-01

    Paraneoplastic syndromes (PS) occur less commonly in association with otolaryngologic neoplasms than other carcinomas such as those of lung or breast. Piriform sinus carcinoma with PS is extremely rare. We here report a case of piriform sinus carcinoma accompanied by PS that was initially misdiagnosed as adult onset Still's disease and describe our diagnosis and treatment. One lesson we have drawn from the experience of this misdiagnosis is that PS symptoms may manifest before the primary tumor is evident and complicate the diagnostic process.

  8. Adult onset primary focal dystonia of the foot: an orthopaedic intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Loretta; Resseque, Barbara; Dontamsetti, Monica Sakshi

    2016-03-30

    A 54-year-old woman presented to a foot centre with a chief symptom of cramping in her toes, which, she believed, was of a secondary cause originating from a bunion. She was treated conservatively; however, she returned a month later as the symptoms had progressed to painful cramping of toes, toe-curling and instability while walking, due to involuntary movement of her toes. It was believed that the patient presented with a rare case of primary adult onset focal foot dystonia. This case report explains dystonia further in detail and delves into the different treatment and management options available today, including the unique orthopaedic intervention provided for this patient.

  9. Adult-onset presentation of a hyperornithinemia-hyperammonemia-homocitrullinuria patient without prior history of neurological complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tezcan, Kamer; Louie, Kristal T; Qu, Yong; Velasquez, Jorge; Zaldivar, Frank; Rioseco-Camacho, Natalia; Camacho, José Angel

    2012-01-01

    The Hyperornithinemia-Hyperammonemia-Homocitrullinuria (HHH) syndrome is a disorder of the urea cycle and ornithine degradation pathway caused by mutations in the mitochondrial ornithine transporter, ORNT1 (SLC25A15). In general, the majority of patients with HHH syndrome come to medical attention during infancy or early school years with symptoms such as learning disabilities, changes in cognitive development, spasticity, or liver dysfunction. In this report, we describe a 35-year-old male of Indian descent who was diagnosed with HHH syndrome after he presented to the emergency room with gastroenteritis, disorientation, and slurred speech. Molecular analysis revealed that this patient was heterozygous for two ORNT1 mutations, p.[Gly220Arg(+)Arg275X] (c.[658G>A(+)823C>T]) that had been previously reported in homozygous probands who presented during the first year of life. Cellular studies revealed that the ORNT1 p.Gly220Arg mutation was nonfunctional but targeted to the mitochondria. Given that this patient was a successful college graduate on a vegetarian diet without a prior history of learning or neurological impairment, additional factors such as gene redundancy, environmental, and epigenetic factors may have contributed to the delay in onset of presentation and lack of any previous symptoms. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of an adult-onset HHH syndrome presentation without a prior history of neurological or cognitive deficiency.

  10. The social behavior of male rats administered an adult-onset calorie restriction regimen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govic, Antonina; Levay, Elizabeth A; Kent, Stephen; Paolini, Antonio G

    2009-03-23

    The behavioral outcomes of a calorie restricted diet are often neglected in favour of a more physiological examination of the consequences of calorie restriction (CR). This is especially the case with social behavior. A few findings within the maternal CR literature suggest that adult male social behavior is altered by this regimen. Despite the paucity of findings within the maternal CR literature, a systematic investigation of the behavioral phenotype of males administered an adult-onset CR is completely lacking and was the focus of the current study. Adult male hooded Wistar rats were administered a three week CR, with one group receiving a 25% CR and another group receiving a 50% CR before male-to-male social behavior was examined and compared with ad libitium fed males. Various behavioral elements were modulated by CR, both the CR25% and 50% group initiated contact sooner and engaged in greater social activity compared to the ad libitum fed controls. The CR25% group also demonstrated less non-social (self-grooming) behavior and a greater frequency of walkovers compared to all groups, indicating a propensity towards dominance. The CR50% group demonstrated greater environmental assessment/exploration, as measured by the frequency of rearing. As with the maternal CR literature, an adult-onset chronic CR induces a more socially active behavioral phenotype and reduces interest in non-social behavior in the moderately CR group. Taken together, the social behavioral phenotype can be modulated by a CR initiated and maintained during adulthood.

  11. Chinese new immigrant mothers' perception about adult-onset non-communicable diseases prevention during childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Linda Dong Ling; Lam, Wendy Wing Tak; Wu, Joseph Tsz Kei; Fielding, Richard

    2015-12-01

    Many non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are largely preventable via behaviour change and healthy lifestyle, which may be best established during childhood. This study sought insights into Chinese new immigrant mothers' perceptions about adult-onset NCDs prevention during childhood. Twenty-three semi-structured interviews were carried out with new immigrant mothers from mainland China who had at least one child aged 14 years or younger living in Hong Kong. Interviews were audio taped, transcribed and analysed using a Grounded Theory approach. The present study identified three major themes: perceived causes of adult NCDs, beliefs about NCDs prevention and everyday health information practices. Unhealthy lifestyle, contaminated food and environment pollution were perceived as the primary causes of adult NCDs. Less than half of the participants recognized that parents had responsibility for helping children establish healthy behaviours from an early age to prevent diseases in later life. Most participants expressed helplessness about chronic diseases prevention due to lack of knowledge of prevention, being perceived as beyond individual control. Many participants experienced barriers to seeking health information, the most common sources of health information being interpersonal conversation and television. Participants' everyday information practice was passive and generally lacked awareness regarding early prevention of adult-onset NCDs. Updated understanding of this issue has notable implications for future health promotion interventions.

  12. A unique case of pica of adult onset with interesting psychosexual aspects

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    Suddhendu Chakraborty

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Pica has been considered as the ingestion of inedible substances or atypical food combinations. Pica has been reported widely in pediatric age group and often found to be co existing with obsessive compulsive or major depressive disorder. Reports of pica in elderly age group are relatively uncommon and rarely does it have an adult onset. In this article we present a case of adult onset pica. A young lady with unusual sensation in her abdomen was found to consume iron nails over years and there was history of dyspareunia since her marriage three months back. On query it was known that the lady is having same sex relationship over years. There unique conglomeration of cultural, psychodynamic and physiological determinants which together is responsible for this unusual habit of this lady. Moreover the onset of the disease at a late age and different psychodynamic issues make the case all the more interesting. Whether the pica is an eating disorder or obsessive compulsive disorder is still controversial. Pica has been mentioned in Diagnostic and Statistical Manual IV TR. The present case report warrants the need to look into this entity more closely with regards to its occurrence and etiology.

  13. Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obesity means having too much body fat. It is different from being overweight, which means weighing too ... what's considered healthy for his or her height. Obesity occurs over time when you eat more calories ...

  14. Adult onset leukodystrophy with neuroaxonal spheroids and pigmented glia: report of a family, historical perspective, and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marotti, Jonathan D; Tobias, Sharon; Fratkin, Jonathan D; Powers, James M; Rhodes, C Harker

    2004-06-01

    We present a two-generation family consisting of a father and two daughters, who had an adult-onset leukodystrophy characterized by widespread destruction of cerebral white matter with neuroaxonal spheroids. The mode of inheritance appears to be autosomal dominant. All three patients presented with a variety of motor and cognitive symptoms, including frontal lobe signs, 4-7 years before death. Each followed a chronic course until death at ages 39, 46, and 51. At autopsy, the white matter loss was widespread but most prominent in the cerebrum with descending corticospinal tract degeneration and relative sparing of subcortical U-fibers. Pigmented glial cells were present, most of which appear to be macrophages, but inconstantly Prussian blue-positive. This disease is consistent with published reports of hereditary diffuse leukoencephalopathy with spheroids (HDLS). However, a review of the literature and a personal review of the neuropathology of the original case of the pigmentary type of orthochromatic leukodystrophy (POLD) reveal overlapping clinical and neuropathologic features between these two previously distinct entities, suggesting a common pathogenetic and perhaps etiological relationship between the two.

  15. A rare case of occult abdominal tuberculosis with Poncet′s disease mimicking Adult onset Still′s disease

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    Isha Sood

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A 50-year-old female presented with fever, symmetrical arthralgias, rash, painful oral ulcerations and alopecia since 8 weeks. Examination showed mild hepatospleenomegaly. Investigations revealed leucocytosis, neutrophilia, elevated sedimentation rate and raised ferritin levels (3850 ng/ml. Computerized tomography (CT abdomen showed hepatospleenomegaly, mild ascitis and mild bilateral pleural-effusion. After ruling out occult infections, tuberculosis, malignancies and autoimmune diseases by appropriate investigations, and due to raised ferritin levels, adult onset stills disease (AOSD was diagnosed. Patient responded to oral steroids initially, but after 7 days developed severe abdominal pain. Repeat CT showed multiple enlarged, necrotic and matted retroperitoneal lymph nodes with caseating granuloma on histopathology suggesting tuberculosis. Patient was given four-drug anti-tubercular treatment and she improved. Thus our patient of occult abdominal tuberculosis with reactive arthritis (Poncet′s disease presented with hyperferritinemia mimicking AOSD. We postulate that extreme hyperferritinemia can be seen in tuberculosis and tuberculosis must be conclusively ruled out before diagnosing AOSD in tropics.

  16. Metabolic impact of adult-onset, isolated, growth hormone deficiency (AOiGHD due to destruction of pituitary somatotropes.

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    Raul M Luque

    Full Text Available Growth hormone (GH inhibits fat accumulation and promotes protein accretion, therefore the fall in GH observed with weight gain and normal aging may contribute to metabolic dysfunction. To directly test this hypothesis a novel mouse model of adult onset-isolated GH deficiency (AOiGHD was generated by cross breeding rat GH promoter-driven Cre recombinase mice (Cre with inducible diphtheria toxin receptor mice (iDTR and treating adult Cre(+/-,iDTR(+/- offspring with DT to selectively destroy the somatotrope population of the anterior pituitary gland, leading to a reduction in circulating GH and IGF-I levels. DT-treated Cre(-/-,iDTR(+/- mice were used as GH-intact controls. AOiGHD improved whole body insulin sensitivity in both low-fat and high-fat fed mice. Consistent with improved insulin sensitivity, indirect calorimetry revealed AOiGHD mice preferentially utilized carbohydrates for energy metabolism, as compared to GH-intact controls. In high-fat, but not low-fat fed AOiGHD mice, fat mass increased, hepatic lipids decreased and glucose clearance and insulin output were impaired. These results suggest the age-related decline in GH helps to preserve systemic insulin sensitivity, and in the context of moderate caloric intake, prevents the deterioration in metabolic function. However, in the context of excess caloric intake, low GH leads to impaired insulin output, and thereby could contribute to the development of diabetes.

  17. Metabolic impact of adult-onset, isolated, growth hormone deficiency (AOiGHD) due to destruction of pituitary somatotropes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luque, Raul M; Lin, Qing; Córdoba-Chacón, José; Subbaiah, Papasani V; Buch, Thorsten; Waisman, Ari; Vankelecom, Hugo; Kineman, Rhonda D

    2011-01-19

    Growth hormone (GH) inhibits fat accumulation and promotes protein accretion, therefore the fall in GH observed with weight gain and normal aging may contribute to metabolic dysfunction. To directly test this hypothesis a novel mouse model of adult onset-isolated GH deficiency (AOiGHD) was generated by cross breeding rat GH promoter-driven Cre recombinase mice (Cre) with inducible diphtheria toxin receptor mice (iDTR) and treating adult Cre(+/-),iDTR(+/-) offspring with DT to selectively destroy the somatotrope population of the anterior pituitary gland, leading to a reduction in circulating GH and IGF-I levels. DT-treated Cre(-/-),iDTR(+/-) mice were used as GH-intact controls. AOiGHD improved whole body insulin sensitivity in both low-fat and high-fat fed mice. Consistent with improved insulin sensitivity, indirect calorimetry revealed AOiGHD mice preferentially utilized carbohydrates for energy metabolism, as compared to GH-intact controls. In high-fat, but not low-fat fed AOiGHD mice, fat mass increased, hepatic lipids decreased and glucose clearance and insulin output were impaired. These results suggest the age-related decline in GH helps to preserve systemic insulin sensitivity, and in the context of moderate caloric intake, prevents the deterioration in metabolic function. However, in the context of excess caloric intake, low GH leads to impaired insulin output, and thereby could contribute to the development of diabetes.

  18. Metabolomic profiling reveals mitochondrial-derived lipid biomarkers that drive obesity-associated inflammation.

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    Brante P Sampey

    Full Text Available Obesity has reached epidemic proportions worldwide. Several animal models of obesity exist, but studies are lacking that compare traditional lard-based high fat diets (HFD to "Cafeteria diets" (CAF consisting of nutrient poor human junk food. Our previous work demonstrated the rapid and severe obesogenic and inflammatory consequences of CAF compared to HFD including rapid weight gain, markers of Metabolic Syndrome, multi-tissue lipid accumulation, and dramatic inflammation. To identify potential mediators of CAF-induced obesity and Metabolic Syndrome, we used metabolomic analysis to profile serum, muscle, and white adipose from rats fed CAF, HFD, or standard control diets. Principle component analysis identified elevations in clusters of fatty acids and acylcarnitines. These increases in metabolites were associated with systemic mitochondrial dysfunction that paralleled weight gain, physiologic measures of Metabolic Syndrome, and tissue inflammation in CAF-fed rats. Spearman pairwise correlations between metabolites, physiologic, and histologic findings revealed strong correlations between elevated markers of inflammation in CAF-fed animals, measured as crown like structures in adipose, and specifically the pro-inflammatory saturated fatty acids and oxidation intermediates laurate and lauroyl carnitine. Treatment of bone marrow-derived macrophages with lauroyl carnitine polarized macrophages towards the M1 pro-inflammatory phenotype through downregulation of AMPK and secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Results presented herein demonstrate that compared to a traditional HFD model, the CAF diet provides a robust model for diet-induced human obesity, which models Metabolic Syndrome-related mitochondrial dysfunction in serum, muscle, and adipose, along with pro-inflammatory metabolite alterations. These data also suggest that modifying the availability or metabolism of saturated fatty acids may limit the inflammation associated with obesity

  19. Metabolomic profiling reveals mitochondrial-derived lipid biomarkers that drive obesity-associated inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampey, Brante P; Freemerman, Alex J; Zhang, Jimmy; Kuan, Pei-Fen; Galanko, Joseph A; O'Connell, Thomas M; Ilkayeva, Olga R; Muehlbauer, Michael J; Stevens, Robert D; Newgard, Christopher B; Brauer, Heather A; Troester, Melissa A; Makowski, Liza

    2012-01-01

    Obesity has reached epidemic proportions worldwide. Several animal models of obesity exist, but studies are lacking that compare traditional lard-based high fat diets (HFD) to "Cafeteria diets" (CAF) consisting of nutrient poor human junk food. Our previous work demonstrated the rapid and severe obesogenic and inflammatory consequences of CAF compared to HFD including rapid weight gain, markers of Metabolic Syndrome, multi-tissue lipid accumulation, and dramatic inflammation. To identify potential mediators of CAF-induced obesity and Metabolic Syndrome, we used metabolomic analysis to profile serum, muscle, and white adipose from rats fed CAF, HFD, or standard control diets. Principle component analysis identified elevations in clusters of fatty acids and acylcarnitines. These increases in metabolites were associated with systemic mitochondrial dysfunction that paralleled weight gain, physiologic measures of Metabolic Syndrome, and tissue inflammation in CAF-fed rats. Spearman pairwise correlations between metabolites, physiologic, and histologic findings revealed strong correlations between elevated markers of inflammation in CAF-fed animals, measured as crown like structures in adipose, and specifically the pro-inflammatory saturated fatty acids and oxidation intermediates laurate and lauroyl carnitine. Treatment of bone marrow-derived macrophages with lauroyl carnitine polarized macrophages towards the M1 pro-inflammatory phenotype through downregulation of AMPK and secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Results presented herein demonstrate that compared to a traditional HFD model, the CAF diet provides a robust model for diet-induced human obesity, which models Metabolic Syndrome-related mitochondrial dysfunction in serum, muscle, and adipose, along with pro-inflammatory metabolite alterations. These data also suggest that modifying the availability or metabolism of saturated fatty acids may limit the inflammation associated with obesity leading to Metabolic

  20. Adult-onset deficiency in growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor-I alters oligodendrocyte turnover in the corpus callosum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Kun; Forbes, M Elizabeth; Lichtenwalner, Robin J; Sonntag, William E; Riddle, David R

    2009-08-01

    Growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) provide trophic support during development and also appear to influence cell structure, function and replacement in the adult brain. Recent studies demonstrated effects of the GH/IGF-I axis on adult neurogenesis, but it is unclear whether the GH/IGF-I axis influences glial turnover in the normal adult brain. In the current study, we used a selective model of adult-onset GH and IGF-I deficiency to evaluate the role of GH and IGF-I in regulating glial proliferation and survival in the adult corpus callosum. GH/IGF-I-deficient dwarf rats of the Lewis strain were made GH/IGF-I replete via twice daily injections of GH starting at postnatal day 28 (P28), approximately the age at which GH pulse amplitude increases in developing rodents. GH/IGF-I deficiency was initiated in adulthood by removing animals from GH treatment. Quantitative analyses revealed that adult-onset GH/IGF-I deficiency decreased cell proliferation in the white matter and decreased the survival of newborn oligodendrocytes. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that aging-related changes in the GH/IGF-I axis produce deficits in ongoing turnover of oligodendrocytes, which may contribute to aging-related cognitive changes and deficits in remyelination after injury.

  1. Adult Onset Still's Disease With Different Antibodies: A Case Report and Review of Literature

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    Maryam Mobini

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available  Adult-onset Still’s disease (AOSD is a rare systemic inflammatory disorder of unknown etiology. There is not currently any specific serological markers for AOSD , and  diagnosis still relying on the exclusion of other likely diagnoses. Yamaguchi’s criteria are used as a diagnostic criterion which contains negative serologic markers for other collagen vascular diseases including systemic lupus erythematosus and rheumatoid arthritis. Here we report a 28-year-old woman with arthralgia, fever, rash, leukocytosis, lymphadenopathy, sore throat, abnormal liver function and negative rheumatoid factor and ANA but  seropositive for anti-CCP, anti-dsDNA, and C-ANCA. It seems that despite AOSD is considered as a seronegativedisorder; it should be remembered in patients with compatible findings who are seropositive.

  2. Hidden in plain sight: macrophage activation syndrome complicating Adult Onset Still's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benitez, Lourdes; Vila, Salvador; Mellado, Robert Hunter

    2010-01-01

    Hemophagocytic Lymphystiocytosis is a rare and fatal complication of rheumatic diseases, particularly Adult Onset Still's Disease (AOSD). It may be precipitated with immunosuppressive drugs and with viral and bacterial infections. A diagnosis depends on a high index of suspicion associated to certain clinical manifestations (fever, rash, Splemomegaly, any cytology blood dyscrasia, hipertrigliceridemia, hiperfibrinogenemia, and others), as well as pathologic evidence of hemophagocitosis from bone marrow biopsy or tissue samples of affected organs. Therapy consists of high dose corticosteroids and immunosuppressive drugs. We present a 42 year old woman with AOSD in remission who developed HLH in spite of receiving therapy with high dose steroids and immunosuppressive drugs. She had 2 negative bone marrow aspirates. Evidence of Hemophagocytosis was detected in both bone marrow biopsies. Timely evaluation and recognition of the signs and symptoms of HLH is crucial for the prompt management and a decrease in the mortality associated with this disease.

  3. Genetic counseling issues in predictive genetic testing for familial adult-onset neurologic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burson, C M; Markey, K R

    2001-09-01

    Genetic counseling is important in any genetic testing situation in order to address the various issues related to obtaining a genetic diagnosis. Presymptomatic testing for adult-onset neurodegenerative disease, in particular, presents a complex counseling scenario. It is imperative to discuss the potential impact of test results on patients' family dynamics, insurability and employability, family planning, and future health in addition to ascertaining a complete understanding of recurrence, inheritance, and testing parameters. The Huntington disease presymptomatic testing protocol is well-defined and has been used for more than 10 years. These guidelines, which protect both patient and provider, can now be applied to other diseases as further presymptomatic testing capabilities are realized.

  4. Does early-onset multiple sclerosis differ from adult-onset form in Iranian people

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    Fereshteh Ashtari

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Few studies have attempted to delineate the clinical profile of multiple Sclerosis (MS among people of Asia. This study sought to identify the characteristics of early-onset Multiple Sclerosis (EOMS comparison to adult-onset form (AOMS in Isfahan, IRAN. Methods: This prospective study was conducted on 104 youths with multiple sclerosis beginning before the age of 16 years and 123 patients with adult-onset multiple sclerosis. Patients were observed for a mean period of 5 years. The common presenting symptoms, MRI finding, course of disease and disability score were compared between the two groups. Results: The mean onset age of disease in youths and adults were 14 ± 1.9 and 27.7 ± 8.06 years, respectively. Female/male ratio was 4.47:1 in EOMS and 3.92:1 in AOMS, this ratio was 7:1 in early childhood MS (≤ 10 year. The most common presenting symptom was optic neuritis in the EOMS group and paresthesia in AOMS. Optic neuritis was common in AOMS too, but brainstem/cerebellar signs were more common in EOMS than AOMS. Seizure occurred more frequently in EOMS than in the AOMS group (12.6% vs. 1.6%, respectively, p < 0.001. MRI showed that brainstem plaques were more prevalent in the EOMS compared with the AOMS group. Conclusions: It was concluded that early-onset MS does not significantly differ from adult form in terms of major clinical manifestation and course of disease, however Seizure is more common in EOMS, and brainstem and cerebellar symptoms as presenting symptom are more common.

  5. Axial mitochondrial myopathy in a patient with rapidly progressive adult-onset scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiniker, Annie; Wong, Lee-Jun; Berven, Sigurd; Truong, Cavatina K; Adesina, Adekunle M; Margeta, Marta

    2014-01-01

    Axial myopathy can be the underlying cause of rapidly progressive adult-onset scoliosis; however, the pathogenesis of this disorder remains poorly understood. Here we present a case of a 69-year old woman with a family history of scoliosis affecting both her mother and her son, who over 4 years developed rapidly progressive scoliosis. The patient had a history of stable scoliosis since adolescence that worsened significantly at age 65, leading to low back pain and radiculopathy. Paraspinal muscle biopsy showed morphologic evidence of a mitochondrial myopathy. Diagnostic deficiencies of electron transport chain enzymes were not detected using standard bioassays, but mitochondrial immunofluorescence demonstrated many muscle fibers totally or partially deficient for complexes I, III, IV-I, and IV-IV. Massively parallel sequencing of paraspinal muscle mtDNA detected multiple deletions as well as a 40.9% heteroplasmic novel m.12293G > A (MT-TL2) variant, which changes a G:C pairing to an A:C mispairing in the anticodon stem of tRNA Leu(CUN). Interestingly, these mitochondrial abnormalities were not detected in the blood of either the patient or her son, suggesting that the patient's rapidly progressive late onset scoliosis was due to the acquired paraspinal mitochondrial myopathy; the cause of non-progressive scoliosis in the other two family members currently remains unexplained. Notably, this case illustrates that isolated mitochondrial myopathy can underlie rapidly-progressive adult-onset scoliosis and should be considered in the differential diagnosis of the primary axial myopathy.

  6. Adult Onset Still’s Disease: A Case Report with a Rare Clinical Manifestation and Pathophysiological Correlations

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    Katerina M. Antoniou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Adult-onset Still’s disease is an inflammatory multisystemic disease of unknown etiology. Pleuritis is the most common pulmonary manifestation and pleural effusions are usually exudates with a predominance of neutrophils. We report a case of an eosinophilic pleural effusion as a novel and hitherto unrecognized manifestation of active adult-onset Still’s disease. We also observed a marked NLRP3 inflammasome activation with increased production of IL-1β which coincided with the development and resolved upon remission of the pleural effusion suggesting a possible novel pathogenetic pathway for the development of pleural effusions in the context of the auto-inflammatory disorders.

  7. Proteomics analysis of human obesity reveals the epigenetic factor HDAC4 as a potential target for obesity.

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    Mohamed Abu-Farha

    Full Text Available Sedentary lifestyle and excessive energy intake are prominent contributors to obesity; a major risk factors for the development of insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Elucidating the molecular mechanisms underlying these chronic conditions is of relevant importance as it might lead to the identification of novel anti-obesity targets. The purpose of the current study is to investigate differentially expressed proteins between lean and obese subjects through a shot-gun quantitative proteomics approach using peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs extracts as well as potential modulation of those proteins by physical exercise. Using this approach, a total of 47 proteins showed at least 1.5 fold change between lean and obese subjects. In obese, the proteomic profiling before and after 3 months of physical exercise showed differential expression of 38 proteins. Thrombospondin 1 (TSP1 was among the proteins that were upregulated in obese subjects and then decreased by physical exercise. Conversely, the histone deacetylase 4 (HDAC4 was downregulated in obese subjects and then induced by physical exercise. The proteomic data was further validated by qRT-PCR, Western blot and immunohistochemistry in both PBMCs and adipose tissue. We also showed that HDAC4 levels correlated positively with maximum oxygen consumption (VO2 Max but negatively with body mass index, percent body fat, and the inflammatory chemokine RANTES. In functional assays, our data indicated that ectopic expression of HDAC4 significantly impaired TNF-α-dependent activation of NF-κB, establishing thus a link between HDAC4 and regulation of the immune system. Together, the expression pattern of HDAC4 in obese subjects before and after physical exercise, its correlation with various physical, clinical and metabolic parameters along with its inhibitory effect on NF-κB are suggestive of a protective role of HDAC4 against obesity. HDAC4 could therefore represent

  8. Arrhythmogenic Right Ventricular Dysplasia/Cardiomyopathy in the Pediatric Population Clinical Characterization and Comparison with Adult-Onset Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Te Riele, Anneline S J M; James, Cynthia A.; Sawant, Abhishek C.; Bhonsale, Aditya; Groeneweg, Judith A.; Mast, Thomas P.; Murray, Brittney; Tichnell, Crystal; Dooijes, Dennis; Van Tintelen, J. Peter; Judge, Daniel P.; van der Heijden, Jeroen F.; Crosson, Jane; Hauer, Richard N W; Calkins, Hugh; Tandri, Harikrishna

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The aims of this study were to determine the clinical characteristics and outcomes of pediatric-onset arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia/cardiomyopathy (ARVD/C) and to compare these with those of adult-onset ARVD/C. Background Improved early detection and increased awareness of AR

  9. Comparison of Glomerular Transcriptome Profiles of Adult-Onset Steroid Sensitive Focal Segmental Glomerulosclerosis and Minimal Change Disease.

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    Jun Tong

    Full Text Available To search for biomarkers to differentiate primary focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS and minimal change disease (MCD.We isolated glomeruli from kidney biopsies of 6 patients with adult-onset steroid sensitiveFSGS and 5 patients with MCD, and compared the profiles of glomerular transcriptomes between the two groups of patients using microarray analysis.Analysis of differential expressed genes (DEGs revealed that up-regulated DEGs in FSGS patients compared with MCD patients were primarily involved in spermatogenesis, gamete generation, regulation of muscle contraction, response to unfolded protein, cell proliferation and skeletal system development. The down-regulated DEGs were primarily related to metabolic process, intracellular transport, oxidation/reduction andestablishment of intracellular localization. We validated the expression of the top 6 up-regulated and top 6 down-regulated DEGs using real-time PCR. Membrane metallo-endopeptidase (MME is a down-regulated gene that was previously identified as a key gene for kidney development. Immunostaining confirmed that the protein expression of MME decreased significantly in FSGS kidneys compared with MCD kidneys.This report was the first study to examine transcriptomes in Chinese patients with various glomerular diseases. Expressions of MME both in RNA and protein level decreased significantly in glomeruli of FSGS kidneys compared with MCD kidneys. Our data suggested that MME might play a role in the normal physiological function of podocytes and a decrease in MME expression might be related to podocyte injury. We also identified genes and pathways specific for FSGS versus MCD, and our data could help identify potential new biomarkers for the differential diagnosis between these two diseases.

  10. A longitudinal study of adult-onset asthma incidence among HMO members

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    Rosiello Richard A

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HMO databases offer an opportunity for community based epidemiologic studies of asthma incidence, etiology and treatment. The incidence of asthma in HMO populations and the utility of HMO data, including use of computerized algorithms and manual review of medical charts for determining etiologic factors has not been fully explored. Methods We identified adult-onset asthma, using computerized record searches in a New England HMO. Monthly, our software applied exclusion and inclusion criteria to identify an "at-risk" population and "potential cases". Electronic and paper medical records from the past year were then reviewed for each potential case. Persons with other respiratory diseases or insignificant treatment for asthma were excluded. Confirmed adult-onset asthma (AOA cases were defined as those potential cases with either new-onset asthma or reactivated mild intermittent asthma that had been quiescent for at least one year. We validated the methods by reviewing charts of selected subjects rejected by the algorithm. Results The algorithm was 93 to 99.3% sensitive and 99.6% specific. Sixty-three percent (n = 469 of potential cases were confirmed as AOA. Two thirds of confirmed cases were women with an average age of 34.8 (SD 11.8, and 45% had no evidence of previous asthma diagnosis. The annualized monthly rate of AOA ranged from 4.1 to 11.4 per 1000 at-risk members. Physicians most commonly attribute asthma to infection (59% and allergy (14%. New-onset cases were more likely attributed to infection, while reactivated cases were more associated with allergies. Medical charts included a discussion of work exposures in relation to asthma in only 32 (7% cases. Twenty-three of these (72% indicated there was an association between asthma and workplace exposures for an overall rate of work-related asthma of 4.9%. Conclusion Computerized HMO records can be successfully used to identify AOA. Manual review of these records is

  11. Adult-Onset Leukoencephalopathy with Axonal Spheroids and Pigmented Glia Caused by a Novel R782G Mutation in CSF1R.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foulds, Nicola; Pengelly, Reuben J; Hammans, Simon R; Nicoll, James A R; Ellison, David W; Ditchfield, Adam; Beck, Sarah; Ennis, Sarah

    2015-05-15

    We report a new family with autosomal dominant inheritance of a late onset rapidly progressive leukodystrophy in which exome sequencing has revealed a novel mutation p.R782G in the Colony-Stimulating Factor 1 Receptor gene (CSF1R). Neuropathology of two affected family members showed cerebral white matter degeneration with axonal swellings and pigmented macrophages. The few recently reported families with CSF1R mutations had been previously labelled "hereditary diffuse leukencephalopathy with axonal spheroids" (HDLS) and "pigmentary orthochromatic leukodystrophy" (POLD), disorders which now appear to form a disease continuum. The term "adult-onset leukoencephalopathy with axonal spheroids and pigmented glia" (ALSP) has been proposed to encompass this spectrum. As CSF1R regulates microglia this mutation implies that dysregulation of microglia is the primary cause of the disease.

  12. Clinical features and prognosis of adult-onset Still's disease: 75 cases from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhenzhen; Lv, Xiaoju; Tang, Guangmin

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the clinical characteristics, treatment outcomes, and complications of patients with adult onset Still's disease (AOSD) in our local Chinese population. Patients with AOSD attending our hospital from 2008 to 2011 were identified and followed up. Their clinical and laboratory features at presentation, as well as their disease progression, treatments, and outcomes were recorded and compared with other reported series. A total of 75 patients with AOSD were identified. Forty-four were female. Thirty-nine had disease onset between 16 and 35 years of age. The most common presenting features were fever (96%), arthritis (57.33%), rash (78.67%), and sore throat (49.3%). The acute phase response was marked in most patients, with elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rates (77.05%) and C-reactive protein levels (84.06%). Hyperferritinemia was present in 74.14% of cases, and serum ferritin (SF) levels declined after treatment in most cases. Liver abnormalities were usually transient, but were more severe in 5 patients. Most patients (92%) required corticosteroid therapy; of these, 33.3% also received disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs or immunosuppressive drugs. Sixty-four and 45.33% patients with AOSD achieved partial and complete remission, respectively, after 2 weeks of treatment, and 92% and 74.67%, respectively, after 1 month. The cumulative relapse rate was 45.3%. Patients with AOSD had complex symptoms with no specific laboratory findings. Reduced SF levels after treatment and liver abnormalities may be used to follow treatment outcome.

  13. Cyclic mood disorder heralding adult-onset autosomal dominant leucodystrophy: a clinical masquerader.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Rajendra S; Prakash, Swayam; Raghavendra, B S; Nagpal, Kadam; Handa, Rahul

    2014-06-01

    Leucodystrophies are a heterogeneous group of progressive white matter diseases which may be inherited in dominant, recessive or X-linked fashion depending on the type. Adrenoleucodystrophy (ALD) and metachromatic leucodystrophy (MLD) are rather commoner forms of leucodystrophies whereas krabbes disease, alexander disease, cannavans disease etc. are of less common type. Adult-onset autosomal dominant leucodystrophy (ADLD) is a lately described rarer form of leucodystrophy with perhaps no case report from India. Various leucodystrophies may have different clinical presentations, ranging from subtle cognitive and psychiatric manifestations to gross motor disabilities, visual impairment and seizure. Psychiatric manifestations in the form of psychoses and frank schizophrenia are commonly described in MLD. Depression though uncommonly reported in MLD, cyclic mood disorders have been rarely described in any form of leucodystrophies. We are reporting an eye opener, a case of ADLD which masqueraded as a rapid cyclic mood disorder for initial four years, later to be followed by progressive neurological signs and symptoms. To the best of our knowledge, this is perhaps the first case report of ADLD presenting as rapid cyclic mood disorder in the world literature.

  14. A rare presentation of adult onset Still’s disease in an elderly patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariya Apostolova

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Adult onset Still’s disease (AOSD is a rare inflammatory disorder of unknown etiology that usually affects young adults. Very few patients older than 70-year-old have been reported. Clinical features include quotidian fevers, arthralgias, arthritis, pharyngitis, lymphadenopathy and an evanescent rash. AOSD should be considered in the differential diagnosis of fever of unknown origin. Early diagnosis is often difficult since it is a diagnosis of exclusion and the presence of infectious, neoplastic and autoimmune conditions needs to be ruled out before the diagnosis is made. No specific laboratory tests are available to aid in the diagnosis of AOSD. As a result, a set of diagnostic criteria that define the clinical features of this condition, termed the Yamaguchi criteria, have been most commonly used to establish the diagnosis. We describe the case of a 72-year-old Caucasian male with past medical history significant for generalized anxiety disorder, depression, BPH, and hypertriglyceridemia, who presented to a tertiary institution complaining of profound generalized weakness and weight loss that started three weeks prior to presentation. Initial laboratory studies showed leukocytosis, elevated ESR, CRP, ferritin and liver dysfunction. Cultures, ANA and rheumatoid factor studies were negative. The patient underwent further extensive workup that excluded the presence of infectious, neoplastic and autoimmune disorders and was subsequently diagnosed with AOSD and new onset diabetes mellitus. For the management of AOSD he was started on prednisone with significant improvement in markers of inflammation, symptoms and level of function.

  15. Adult-onset NREM parasomnia with hypnopompic hallucinatory pain: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantoan, Laura; Eriksson, Sofia H; Nisbet, Angus P; Walker, Matthew C

    2013-02-01

    We report the case of a 43-year-old woman presenting with nocturnal episodes of pain and screaming during sleep starting at age 30. There was no childhood or family history of parasomnia. The events had gradually become more frequent over the years, occurring in the first half of the night within 2 h of sleep onset. There were no triggers, and she had partial amnesia for the events. A diagnosis of adult-onset sleep terrors was made on clinical grounds and supported polysomnographically. Seizures and periodic limb movements were excluded as triggering factors. There was some mild sleep disordered breathing (predominantly non-desaturating hypopnea with a propensity for REM sleep of debatable significance). Imaging of the brain and spine and neurophysiological investigations ruled out lesions, entrapments, or neuropathies as possible causes of pain. Treatment (clonazepam, paroxetine, or gabapentin) was poorly tolerated and made no difference to the nocturnal episodes, while trazodone worsened them. This is the first report of hypnopompic psychic pain in association with a NREM parasomnia. We hypothesize that the pain may represent a sensory hallucination analogous to the more commonly recognized visual NREM parasomnia-associated hypnopompic visual hallucinations and that, as such, it may arise during arousal of the sensory neocortex as confabulatory response.

  16. Macrophage Activation Syndrome Associated with Adult-Onset Still’s Disease Successfully Treated with Anakinra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aswini Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Macrophage activation syndrome (MAS is a potentially fatal complication of Adult-Onset Still’s disease (Still’s disease. Whereas an increasing body of evidence supports interleukin-1 (IL-1 blockade as a promising treatment for Still’s disease, whether it is therapeutic for MAS associated with Still’s disease remains unclear. We report a 34-year-old Caucasian man with one-decade history of TNF-blockade-responsive seronegative arthritis who presented with abrupt onset of fever, serositis, bicytopenia, splenomegaly, hepatitis, and disseminated intravascular coagulation. Striking hyperferritinemia was noted without evidence of infection, malignancy, or hemophagocytosis on bone marrow biopsy. NK cells were undetectable in the peripheral blood, whereas soluble IL-2 receptor was elevated. His multiorgan disease resolved in association with methylprednisolone pulse therapy, Anakinra, and a tapering course of prednisone. This case reinforces the notion that Still’s disease is inherently poised to manifest MAS as one of the clinical phenotypes by shedding light on the role of IL-1 underlying both Still’s disease and related MAS.

  17. Multimodal Image Analysis in Acquired Vitelliform Lesions and Adult-Onset Foveomacular Vitelliform Dystrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Rocha Bastos

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To characterize vitelliform lesions (VLs in adult-onset foveomacular vitelliform dystrophy (AOFVD and acquired vitelliform (AVL patients using multimodal image analysis. Methods. Retrospective study of twenty-eight eyes from nineteen patients diagnosed with AVL or AOFVD. They were evaluated by color fundus photographs, fundus autofluorescence (FAF, fluorescein angiography (FA, and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT. Results. Bilateral VLs were associated with AOFVD (p=0.013. Regular and centered VLs were associated with AOFVD (p=0.004 and p=0.016, whereas irregular and noncentered lesions were more frequent in AVL patients. Visual acuity, greatest linear dimension (GLD, lesion height (LH, and pseudohypopyon were similar between groups. Whereas median LH and GLD in AVL group diminished significantly during follow-up (p=0.009 and p=0.001, AOFVD lesions tended to become larger and thicker. Conclusions. When consulting a patient presenting a VL with unknown age of onset, familial history, or previous retinal diseases, some aspects of multimodal imaging assessment may lead the ophthalmologist to a correct diagnosis.

  18. Occasional detection of thymic epithelial tumor 4 years after diagnosis of adult onset Still disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lococo, Filippo; Bajocchi, Gianluigi; Caruso, Andrea; Valli, Riccardo; Ricchetti, Tommaso; Sgarbi, Giorgio; Salvarani, Carlo

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Thymoma is a T cell neoplasm arising from the thymic epithelium that due to its immunological role, frequently undercover derangements of immunity such a tumors and autoimmune diseases. Methods: Herein, we report, to the best of our knowledge, the first description of an association between thymoma and adult onset Still disease (AOSD) in a 47-year-old man. The first one was occasionally detected 4 years later the diagnosis of AOSD, and surgically removed via right lateral thoracotomy. Histology confirmed an encapsulated thymic tumor (type AB sec. WHO-classification). Results: The AOSD was particularly resistant to the therapy, requiring a combination of immunosuppressant followed by anti-IL1R, that was the only steroids-sparing treatment capable to induce and maintain the remission. The differential diagnosis was particularly challenging because of the severe myasthenic-like symptoms that, with normal laboratory tests, were initially misinterpreted as fibromyalgia. The pathogenic link of this association could be a thymus escape of autoreactive T lymphocytes causing autoimmunity. Conclusion: Clinicians should be always include the possibility of a thymoma in the differential diagnosis of an unusual new onset of weakness and normal laboratories data, in particular once autoimmune disease is present in the medical history. PMID:27603335

  19. Presymptomatic testing for adult onset polycystic kidney disease in at-risk kidney transplant donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannig, V L; Hopkins, J R; Johnson, H K; Phillips, J A; Reeders, S T

    1991-09-15

    Autosomal dominant adult-onset polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is estimated to have an incidence of 1/1,000 and accounts for approximately 10% of all end-stage renal disease in the United States. While relatives are attractive as renal donors due to their availability and the improved transplant success associated with living-related donors, they may coincidentally be at risk for ADPKD. Accurate presymptomatic testing for at-risk potential donors is critical for both the donor and the recipient. We report here 2 families in which presymptomatic testing for ADPKD was accomplished by DNA linkage analysis on several potential renal donors prior to transplant. This resulted in the protection of both donors and recipients by preventing the transplantation of a kidney affected by ADPKD. Thorough counseling prior to DNA analysis (including discussion of accuracy and possible testing outcomes of presymptomatic diagnosis of ADPKD, diagnosis of noncarrier status, false paternity, and non-informative study) was essential to provide informed consent and preserve confidentiality within the family. Confidentiality for potential donors found presymptomatically to be affected (with a 94% or greater probability) was especially difficult to maintain.

  20. Juvenile versus adult-onset ankylosing spondylitis -- clinical, radiographic, and social outcomes. a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadon, Deepak R; Ramanan, Athimalaipet V; Sengupta, Raj

    2013-11-01

    Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) has 2 main modes of onset: juvenile-onset AS (JoAS) and adult-onset AS (AoAS). It is not known whether JoAS is a subtype of AS, or AS modulated by early age of onset and longer disease duration. We performed a systematic review of the literature, identifying 12 articles and 1 abstract directly comparing JoAS and AoAS cohorts, with observational study design. Patients with JoAS appear to have more peripheral joint involvement both clinically and radiographically (especially knees and ankles) and more root joint involvement (hips and shoulders); they are more likely to proceed to hip arthroplasty and often initially present with peripheral rather than axial symptoms. Patients with AoAS appear to have more axial symptoms and radiographic disease, particularly in the lumbar spine, and worse axial metrology. In terms of other characteristics, more evidence is needed to confidently state whether JoAS and AoAS are different.

  1. The anti-obesity drug orlistat reveals anti-viral activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammer, Elisabeth; Nietzsche, Sandor; Rien, Christian; Kühnl, Alexander; Mader, Theresa; Heller, Regine; Sauerbrei, Andreas; Henke, Andreas

    2015-12-01

    The administration of drugs to inhibit metabolic pathways not only reduces the risk of obesity-induced diseases in humans but may also hamper the replication of different viral pathogens. In order to investigate the value of the US Food and Drug Administration-approved anti-obesity drug orlistat in view of its anti-viral activity against different human-pathogenic viruses, several anti-viral studies, electron microscopy analyses as well as fatty acid uptake experiments were performed. The results indicate that administrations of non-cytotoxic concentrations of orlistat reduced the replication of coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) in different cell types significantly. Moreover, orlistat revealed cell protective effects and modified the formation of multi-layered structures in CVB3-infected cells, which are necessary for viral replication. Lowering fatty acid uptake from the extracellular environment by phloretin administrations had only marginal impact on CVB3 replication. Finally, orlistat reduced also the replication of varicella-zoster virus moderately but had no significant influence on the replication of influenza A viruses. The data support further experiments into the value of orlistat as an inhibitor of the fatty acid synthase to develop new anti-viral compounds, which are based on the modulation of cellular metabolic pathways.

  2. Advances in adult-onset Still's disease%成人Still病的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石晶; 聂振华

    2015-01-01

    成人Still病是一种炎症性自身免疫性疾病,其特征是高热、一过性皮疹、关节炎、肝脾肿大、多系统累及和实验室异常,包括中性粒细胞增多和高铁蛋白血症.研究表明,成人Still病患者促炎症细胞因子IL-1β、IL-6、IL-18均有升高,这些细胞因子诱导与维持Th17功能相关联.成人Still病的治疗主要包括非甾体抗炎药、糖皮质激素和抗风湿药物.生物制剂也常用于治疗成人Still病,不仅在治疗方面有应用前景,尚可部分解释该病的发病机制.%Adult-onset Still's disease (AOSD) is an inflammatory autoimmune disorder characterized by high fever,evanescent rash,arthritis,hepatosplenomegaly,multisystemic involvement and laboratory abnormalities including neutrophilic leukocytosis and hyperferritinaemia.It has been shown that some proinflammatory cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-1β,IL-6,and IL-18 are highly expressed in patients with AOSD.These cytokines are associated with the induction and maintenance of function of T helper type 17 (Th17) cells.The treatment of AOSD includes nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs,glucocorticoids and antirheumatic drugs.Further more,biological agents are also usually used to treat AOSD,which not only have a promising prospect in clinical application,but also can partly explain the pathogenesis of this disease.

  3. Parental smoking in pregnancy and the risks of adult-onset hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jonge, Layla L; Harris, Holly R; Rich-Edwards, Janet W; Willett, Walter C; Forman, Michele R; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Michels, Karin B

    2013-02-01

    Fetal exposure to parental smoking may lead to developmental adaptations and promote various diseases in later life. This study evaluated the associations of parental smoking during pregnancy with the risk of hypertension in the daughter in adulthood, and assessed whether these associations are explained by birth weight or body weight throughout life. We used data on 33086 participants of the Nurses' Health Study II and the Nurses' Mothers' Cohort. Cox proportional hazards models were used to examine the associations of maternal and paternal smoking during pregnancy with the nurse daughter, with self-reported physician-diagnosed hypertension from 1989 until 2007. Overall, 8575 (25.9%) mothers and 18874 (57.0%) fathers smoked during pregnancy. During follow-up, 7825 incident cases of adult-onset hypertension were reported. Both maternal and paternal smoking of ≥ 15 cigarettes/d during pregnancy were associated with increased risks of hypertension (rate ratio, 1.19; 95% CI, 1.09-1.29; and rate ratio, 1.18; 95% CI, 1.12-1.25, respectively) in the age-adjusted models. Further adjustment for birth weight did not affect the effect estimates appreciably, whereas additional adjustment for body shape and weight until age 18, or current body mass index, attenuated the associations with both maternal and paternal smoking (rate ratio, 1.07; 95% CI, 0.98-1.16; and rate ratio, 1.06; 95% CI, 1.01-1.12, respectively). The associations of parental smoking during pregnancy with the risk of hypertension in the offspring were largely explained by body weight throughout life, suggesting that these associations may not reflect direct intrauterine mechanisms.

  4. Adult onset asthma and interaction between genes and active tobacco smoking: The GABRIEL consortium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postma, D. S.; Moffatt, M. F.; Jarvis, D.; Ramasamy, A.; Wjst, M.; Omenaas, E. R.; Bouzigon, E.; Demenais, F.; Nadif, R.; Siroux, V.; Polonikov, A. V.; Solodilova, M.; Ivanov, V. P.; Curjuric, I.; Imboden, M.; Kumar, A.; Probst-Hensch, N.; Ogorodova, L. M.; Puzyrev, V. P.; Bragina, E. Yu; Freidin, M. B.; Nolte, I. M.; Farrall, A. M.; Cookson, W. O. C. M.; Strachan, D. P.; Koppelman, G. H.; Boezen, H. M.

    2017-01-01

    Background Genome-wide association studies have identified novel genetic associations for asthma, but without taking into account the role of active tobacco smoking. This study aimed to identify novel genes that interact with ever active tobacco smoking in adult onset asthma. Methods We performed a genome-wide interaction analysis in six studies participating in the GABRIEL consortium following two meta-analyses approaches based on 1) the overall interaction effect and 2) the genetic effect in subjects with and without smoking exposure. We performed a discovery meta-analysis including 4,057 subjects of European descent and replicated our findings in an independent cohort (LifeLines Cohort Study), including 12,475 subjects. Results First approach: 50 SNPs were selected based on an overall interaction effect at p<10−4. The most pronounced interaction effect was observed for rs9969775 on chromosome 9 (discovery meta-analysis: ORint = 0.50, p = 7.63*10−5, replication: ORint = 0.65, p = 0.02). Second approach: 35 SNPs were selected based on the overall genetic effect in exposed subjects (p <10−4). The most pronounced genetic effect was observed for rs5011804 on chromosome 12 (discovery meta-analysis ORint = 1.50, p = 1.21*10−4; replication: ORint = 1.40, p = 0.03). Conclusions Using two genome-wide interaction approaches, we identified novel polymorphisms in non-annotated intergenic regions on chromosomes 9 and 12, that showed suggestive evidence for interaction with active tobacco smoking in the onset of adult asthma. PMID:28253294

  5. Serum calprotectin--a promising diagnostic marker for adult-onset Still's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Qian; Zha, Xicao; Li, Chun; Jia, Yuan; Zhu, Lei; Guo, Jianping; Su, Yin

    2016-01-01

    Calprotectin is a calcium-binding cytosolic protein, mainly expressed in immune cells, such as neutrophils, monocytes, and macrophages. Our study aimed to evaluate the diagnostic value of calprotectin for adult-onset Still's disease (AOSD), by comparing serum calprotectin concentrations in patients with AOSD (n = 46), rheumatoid arthritis (RA, n = 34), primary Sjögren syndrome (pSS, n = 40), systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE, n = 39), osteoarthritis (OA, n = 20), and healthy controls (HCs, n = 49). Calprotectin concentrations were significantly higher in patients with AOSD (55.26 ± 18.00 ng/ml), compared to patients with RA (39.17 ± 18.90 ng/ml), pSS (35.31 ± 19.47 ng/ml), SLE (32.21 ± 25.01 ng/ml), OA (19.24 ± 10.67 ng/ml), and HCs (8.46 ± 5.17 ng/ml). All the differences were highly significant (p calprotectin was defined as 45.488 ng/ml, and its sensitivity and specificity for AOSD diagnosis were 63.0 and 80.1%, respectively. The positive rate of calprotectin was significantly higher in AOSD cases compared to patients with other diseases and healthy controls (p calprotectin was positively correlated with ferritin (r = 0.294, p calprotectin-positive patients compared to negative patients in AOSD (103.49 ± 20.21 g/l vs 115.71 ± 15.59 g/l, t = -2.142, p = 0.038). These findings suggest that serum calprotectin may serve as a promising marker for the diagnosis of AOSD and monitor disease activity to a certain extent.

  6. Difficulties in diagnosis and treatment of adult-onset Still's disease concurrent with pericardial effusion as a leading clinical manifestation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Yu. Myachikova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers a case of adult-onset Still's disease that occurred as acute pericarditis, two-spike hectic fever, and neutrophilic leukocytosis in a young man. It was difficult to establish a correct diagnosis because there were no characteristic clinical symptoms of Still's disease, such as salmon colored rash, arthralgia, and sore throat. The diagnosis of adult-onset Still's disease was verified on the basis of the classification criteria described by M. Yamaguchi et al. The special feature of the clinical case was the development of steroid resistance and the effective use of a combination of the interleukin-6 receptor blocker tocilizumab (8 mg/kg body weight, given intravenously dropwise once every four weeks and methotrexate (15 mg/week orally. During this treatment, a sustained clinical and laboratory response was achieved, which could reduce the dose of glucocorticoids to the maintaining one.

  7. Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... little free time may have less time to exercise. The term eating disorder means a group of medical conditions that have an unhealthy focus on eating, dieting, losing or gaining weight, and body image. A person may be obese, follow an unhealthy ...

  8. Obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morgen, Camilla Schmidt; Sørensen, Thorkild I A

    2014-01-01

    A new report provides compelling evidence of the high prevalence of overweight and obesity throughout the world. The prevalence has increased since 1980, but at different rates across ages, times and locations. Studies exploring the causes of these differences could aid development of effective...

  9. CILAIR-Based Secretome Analysis of Obese Visceral and Subcutaneous Adipose Tissues Reveals Distinctive ECM Remodeling and Inflammation Mediators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roca-Rivada, Arturo; Belen Bravo, Susana; Pérez-Sotelo, Diego; Alonso, Jana; Isabel Castro, Ana; Baamonde, Iván; Baltar, Javier; Casanueva, Felipe F.; Pardo, María

    2015-01-01

    In the context of obesity, strong evidences support a distinctive pathological contribution of adipose tissue depending on its anatomical site of accumulation. Therefore, subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) has been lately considered metabolically benign compared to visceral fat (VAT), whose location is associated to the risk of developing cardiovascular disease, insulin resistance, and other associated comorbidities. Under the above situation, the chronic local inflammation that characterizes obese adipose tissue, has acquired a major role on the pathogenesis of obesity. In this work, we have analyzed for the first time human obese VAT and SAT secretomes using an improved quantitative proteomic approach for the study of tissue secretomes, Comparison of Isotope-Labeled Amino acid Incorporation Rates (CILAIR). The use of double isotope-labeling-CILAIR approach to analyze VAT and SAT secretomes allowed the identification of location-specific secreted proteins and its differential secretion. Additionally to the very high percentage of identified proteins previously implicated in obesity or in its comorbidities, this approach was revealed as a useful tool for the study of the obese adipose tissue microenvironment including extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling and inflammatory status. The results herein presented reinforce the fact that VAT and SAT depots have distinct features and contribute differentially to metabolic disease. PMID:26198096

  10. Obesity.

    OpenAIRE

    Callaway, C W

    1987-01-01

    Obesity is not a single disease, but a variety of conditions resulting from different mechanisms and associated with various types and degrees of risks. To determine who should lose weight, how much weight should be lost, and how to undertake weight loss, the following types of information are needed: personal-demographic data, developmental patterns, family history, energy balance, body composition/fat distribution, psychological/behavioral measures, endocrine/metabolic measures, complicatio...

  11. Early life factors associated with adult onset systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE in women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Gibson Parks

    2016-03-01

    the development of disease, but knowledge on specific risk factors is mostly limited to occupational exposures[1]. The developmental origins hypothesis has been proposed for many adult-onset, chronic inflammatory diseases, including systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE [2-6]. Exposures during and after gestation, including nutritional, infectious, chemical

  12. 18F-FDG PET/CT in patients with adult-onset Still's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Meng-Jie; Wang, Cai-Qin; Zhao, Kui; Wang, Guo-Lin; Sun, Mei-Ling; Liu, Zhen-Feng; Xu, Liqin

    2015-12-01

    (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography ((18)F-FDG PET/CT) has become useful for the detection and diagnosis of inflammatory conditions, including rheumatic diseases, immunoglobulin (Ig) G4-related disease and giant cell arteritis. However, few articles based on small sample sizes (n = 7) diagnosed as adult-onset Still's disease (AOSD) have been published. The study aim was to observe the reliable characteristics and usefulness of (18)F-FDG PET/CT for the evaluation of consecutive patients with AOSD. Eligible patients were selected from among those who had undergone (18)F-FDG PET/CT between May 2007 and June 2014. Twenty-six consecutive AOSD patients were recruited retrospectively according to criteria set by Yamaguchi et al. All patients underwent evaluation by (18)F-FDG PET/CT. The characteristics and usefulness of (18)F-FDG PET/CT for evaluation of consecutive patients with AOSD were evaluated. All 26 patients had (18)F-FDG-avid lesion(s) related to their particular disease. Diffuse and homogeneous accumulation of (18)F-FDG was seen in the bone marrow (26/26; 100 %; maximum standardized uptake (SUVmax), 2.10-6.73) and spleen (25/26; 96.15 %). The SUVmax of affected lymph nodes was 1.3-9.53 (mean ± SD, 4.12 ± 2.24). The SUVmax and size factors (maximum diameter and areas) of affected lymph nodes were significantly different (P = 0.033 and P = 0.012, respectively). (18)F-FDG PET/CT showed the general distribution of (18)F-FDG accumulation. This factor helped to exclude malignant disease and aided the diagnosis of AOSD (42.3 %) in 11 cases when combined with clinical features and aided decisions regarding appropriate biopsy sites, such as the lymph nodes (n = 9) and bone marrow (n = 13). (18)F-FDG PET/CT is a unique imaging method for the assessment of metabolic activity throughout the body in subjects with AOSD. Characteristics or patterns of AOSD observed on (18)F-FDG PET/CT can be used for the

  13. Fructose consumption and moderate zinc deficiency influence growth and adipocyte metabolism in young rats prone to adult-onset obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streiff, Erin L; Stanhope, Kimber L; Graham, James; Havel, Peter J; King, Janet C

    2007-07-01

    The effects of low zinc, high fructose diet on growth and adipocyte metabolism were examined in rats. At 28 days of age, animals were assigned to diets either adequate in zinc (30 ppm) with water (AZW) or fructose solution (AZF), or low in zinc (5 ppm) with water (LZW) or fructose solution (LZF). Body weight and food and fructose solution intake were measured three times a week. Blood samples were collected at baseline, 4 weeks, and 8 weeks, and energy expenditure was measured. The rats were killed at 12 weeks. Adipocytes were cultured in medium containing C14-glucose and physiological insulin concentrations. The animals in the LZF group consumed less energy and gained less weight than the other groups. Serum zinc concentrations were lower in the LZF than the AZF group. Energy expenditure over a 24-h period did not differ between groups; however, the respiratory quotient in the fed state was higher in the groups consuming fructose solution than in those consuming water. The mesenteric adipocytes from the animals in the LZF group utilized more glucose. Thus, the addition of fructose to a LZ diet reduced energy intake and growth and altered adipocyte fuel metabolism in young growing rats.

  14. Microbiome of prebiotic-treated mice reveals novel targets involved in host response during obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everard, Amandine; Lazarevic, Vladimir; Gaïa, Nadia; Johansson, Maria; Ståhlman, Marcus; Backhed, Fredrik; Delzenne, Nathalie M; Schrenzel, Jacques; François, Patrice; Cani, Patrice D

    2014-10-01

    The gut microbiota is involved in metabolic and immune disorders associated with obesity and type 2 diabetes. We previously demonstrated that prebiotic treatment may significantly improve host health by modulating bacterial species related to the improvement of gut endocrine, barrier and immune functions. An analysis of the gut metagenome is needed to determine which bacterial functions and taxa are responsible for beneficial microbiota-host interactions upon nutritional intervention. We subjected mice to prebiotic (Pre) treatment under physiological (control diet: CT) and pathological conditions (high-fat diet: HFD) for 8 weeks and investigated the production of intestinal antimicrobial peptides and the gut microbiome. HFD feeding significantly decreased the expression of regenerating islet-derived 3-gamma (Reg3g) and phospholipase A2 group-II (PLA2g2) in the jejunum. Prebiotic treatment increased Reg3g expression (by ∼50-fold) and improved intestinal homeostasis as suggested by the increase in the expression of intectin, a key protein involved in intestinal epithelial cell turnover. Deep metagenomic sequencing analysis revealed that HFD and prebiotic treatment significantly affected the gut microbiome at different taxonomic levels. Functional analyses based on the occurrence of clusters of orthologous groups (COGs) of proteins also revealed distinct profiles for the HFD, Pre, HFD-Pre and CT groups. Finally, the gut microbiota modulations induced by prebiotics counteracted HFD-induced inflammation and related metabolic disorders. Thus, we identified novel putative taxa and metabolic functions that may contribute to the development of or protection against the metabolic alterations observed during HFD feeding and HFD-Pre feeding.

  15. Solitary, adult-onset, intraosseous myofibroma of the finger: report of a case and review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yihong; Siegal, Gene P; Wei, Shi

    2015-09-01

    Myofibroma is a rare benign neoplasm of myofibroblastic origin. It typically occurs in the skin and subcutaneous tissues of the head and neck in infants and young children as multicentric lesions known as infantile myofibromatosis. Intraosseous myofibromas are very rare and are typically destructive lesions that predominantly affect craniofacial bones in the setting of myofibromatosis. Solitary, intraosseous myofibromas in adults are exceedingly rare. Herein, we report a myofibroma involving the middle phalanx of the right index finger in a 58-year-old man who presented with a pathologic fracture. Twelve other cases of adult-onset, intraosseous myofibroma were compiled from the English language literature and integrated with this report.

  16. Psycho-organic symptoms as early manifestation of adult onset POMT1-related limb girdle muscular dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haberlova, J; Mitrović, Z; Zarković, K; Lovrić, D; Barić, V; Berlengi, L; Bilić, K; Fumić, K; Kranz, K; Huebner, A; von der Hagen, M; Barresi, R; Bushby, K; Straub, V; Barić, I; Lochmüller, H

    2014-11-01

    We report two siblings of Croatian consanguineous healthy parents with a novel homozygous missense mutation in the POMT1 gene, presenting with intellectual disability and psychotic, in particular hallucinatory symptoms and abnormal brain MRIs, preceding classical symptoms of limb-girdle muscular dystrophy by several years. Weakness became apparent in early adulthood and both siblings remained ambulant into the 3rd and 4th decade of life. The muscle biopsy showed reduced α-dystroglycan compatible with the POMT1 defect. This case report extends the phenotypic spectrum of POMT1 associated muscular dystrophies to the adult onset limb girdle muscular dystrophies with psycho-organic deficits.

  17. An integrative systems genetics approach reveals potential causal genes and pathways related to obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kogelman, Lisette; Zhernakova, Daria V.; Westra, Harm-Jan;

    2015-01-01

    expression analysis was performed using the Obesity Index as a continuous variable in a linear model. eQTL mapping was then performed to integrate 60 K porcine SNP chip data with the RNA sequencing data. Results were restricted based on genome-wide significant single nucleotide polymorphisms, detected...... polymorphisms to detect obesity-related genes and pathways. Building a co-expression network using eQTLs resulted in the detection of a module strongly associated with lipid pathways. Furthermore, we detected several obesity candidate genes, for example, ENPP1, CTSL, and ABHD12B. CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge......BACKGROUND: Obesity is a multi-factorial health problem in which genetic factors play an important role. Limited results have been obtained in single-gene studies using either genomic or transcriptomic data. RNA sequencing technology has shown its potential in gaining accurate knowledge about...

  18. Echocardiographic assessment of subclinical left ventricular eccentric hypertrophy in adult-onset GHD patients by geometric remodeling: an observational case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trimarchi Francesco

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most patients with growth hormone deficiency (GHD show high body mass index. Overweight subjects, but GHD patients, were demonstrated to have high left ventricular mass index (LVMi and abnormal LV geometric remodeling. We sought to study these characteristics in a group of GHD patients, in an attempt to establish the BMI-independent role of GHD. Methods Fifty-four patients, 28 F and 26 M, aged 45.9 ± 13.1, with adult-onset GHD (pituitary adenomas 48.2%, empty sella 27.8%, pituitary inflammation 5.5%, cranio-pharyngioma 3.7%, not identified pathogenesis 14.8% were enrolled. To minimize any possible interferences of BMI on the aim of this study, the control group included 20 age- and weight-matched healthy subjects. The LV geometry was identified by the relationship between LVMi (cut-off 125 g/m2 and relative wall thickness (cut-off 0.45 at echocardiography. Results There was no significant between-group difference in resting cardiac morphology and function, nor when considering age-related discrepancy. The majority of patients had normal-low LVM/LVMi, but about one fourth of them showed higher values. These findings correlated to relatively high circulating IGF-1 and systolic blood pressure at rest. The main LV geometric pattern was eccentric hypertrophy in 22% of GHD population (26% of with severe GHD and in 15% of controls (p = NS. Conclusion Though the lack of significant differences in resting LV morphology and function, about 25% of GHD patients showed high LVMi (consisting of eccentric hypertrophy, not dissimilarly to overweight controls. This finding, which prognostic role is well known in obese and hypertensive patients, is worthy to be investigated in GHD patients through wider controlled trials.

  19. Inadvertent Skipping of Steroids in Septic Shock Leads to a Diagnosis of Adult Onset Still’s Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sethuraman, Vinoth K; Balasubramanian, Kavitha; Aghoram, Rajeswari

    2017-01-01

    Adult onset Still’s disease is uncommon in middle-aged and elderly individuals and can rarely present with shock; shock is usually associated with disseminated intravascular coagulation, multiorgan dysfunction syndrome or acute respiratory distress syndrome. We report a post-menopausal woman with arthritis, fever, pneumonitis and hypotension which was managed as septic shock. Steroids were inadvertently missed during the second day of hospitalization in the intensive care unit. Persistence of hypotension on inotropes, with normal renal, hepatic and neurological function and recurrence of fever when steroids were skipped, led to suspicion of an inflammatory disorder. A diagnosis of Still’s disease may be entertained in postmenopausal women with polyarthritis, rash, and fever with leukocytosis. Sepsis is mimicked, and multiple antibiotics use is common before the diagnosis of such an entity is made. Shock is rare in adult onset Still’s disease and is not necessarily associated with disseminated intravascular coagulation, acute respiratory distress syndrome, or multiorgan dysfunction. PMID:28191382

  20. The diagnostic evaluation of patients with potential adult-onset autoinflammatory disorders: our experience and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muscari, Isabella; Iacoponi, Francesca; Cantarini, Luca; Lucherini, Orso Maria; Simonini, Gabriele; Brizi, Maria Giuseppina; Vitale, Antonio; Frediani, Bruno; Cimaz, Rolando; Galeazzi, Mauro

    2012-11-01

    Hereditary periodic fever syndromes (HPFSs) are a group of inherited disorders of the innate immune system caused by mutations of genes involved in the regulation or activation of the inflammatory response, which belong to the category of autoinflammatory disorders. Most HPFs typically have an onset in pediatric age, while a limited number of patients experience disease onset during adulthood. The relative rarity and lack of information on adult-onset autoinflammatory diseases make it likely that genetic testing is often inconclusive. Recently, we have identified a set of variables related to the probability of detecting gene mutations in MEFV, responsible for familial Mediterranean fever, and TNFRSF1A, responsible for tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated periodic syndrome. In addition, we have proposed a diagnostic score for identifying those patients at high risk of carrying mutations in these genes. However, before the score can be recommended for application, further evaluation by means of longitudinal studies on different ethnicities and different populations deriving from other geographical areas is needed in order to definitively verify both its sensitivity and its specificity. The present manuscript offers our suggestions on how to establish a differential diagnosis for adult-onset HPFs, as well as a review of the literature, and we also provide a score revision available online.

  1. The relationship between CAG repeat length and age of onset differs for Huntington's disease patients with juvenile onset or adult onset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andresen, J Michael; Gayán, Javier; Djoussé, Luc; Roberts, Simone; Brocklebank, Denise; Cherny, Stacey S; Cardon, Lon R; Gusella, James F; MacDonald, Marcy E; Myers, Richard H; Housman, David E; Wexler, Nancy S

    2007-05-01

    Age of onset for Huntington's disease (HD) varies inversely with the length of the disease-causing CAG repeat expansion in the HD gene. A simple exponential regression model yielded adjusted R-squared values of 0.728 in a large set of Venezuelan kindreds and 0.642 in a North American, European, and Australian sample (the HD MAPS cohort). We present evidence that a two-segment exponential regression curve provides a significantly better fit than the simple exponential regression. A plot of natural log-transformed age of onset against CAG repeat length reveals this segmental relationship. This two-segment exponential regression on age of onset data increases the adjusted R-squared values by 0.012 in the Venezuelan kindreds and by 0.035 in the HD MAPS cohort. Although the amount of additional variance explained by the segmental regression approach is modest, the two slopes of the two-segment regression are significantly different from each other in both the Venezuelan kindreds [F(2, 439) = 11.13, P= 2 x 10(-5)] and in the HD MAPS cohort [F(2, 688) = 38.27, P= 2 x 10(-16)]. In both populations, the influence of each CAG repeat on age of onset appears to be stronger in the adult-onset range of CAG repeats than in the juvenile-onset range.

  2. Gastric bypass surgery reveals independency of obesity and diabetes melitus type 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fenger, Mogens; Hansen, Dorte Lindqvist; Worm, Dorte

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery is widely applied to ameliorate morbid obesity, including diabetes in people with type 2 diabetes. The latter vanish a few days after surgery for many, but not in all patients before any weight reduction has occurred. The explanation for this change in...

  3. An integrative systems genetics approach reveals potential causal genes and pathways related to obesity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kogelman, Lisette J. A.; Zhernakova, Daria V.; Westra, Harm-Jan; Cirera, Susanna; Fredholm, Merete; Franke, Lude; Kadarmideen, Haja N.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Obesity is a multi-factorial health problem in which genetic factors play an important role. Limited results have been obtained in single-gene studies using either genomic or transcriptomic data. RNA sequencing technology has shown its potential in gaining accurate knowledge about the tr

  4. Resequencing IRS2 reveals rare variants for obesity but not fasting glucose homeostasis in Hispanic children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our objective was to resequence insulin receptor substrate 2 (IRS2) to identify variants associated with obesity- and diabetes-related traits in Hispanic children. Exonic and intronic segments, 5' and 3' flanking regions of IRS2 (approx. 14.5 kb), were bidirectionally sequenced for single nucleotide...

  5. Adult Onset of BRAFV600E-Mutated Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis with Cutaneous Involvement Successfully Diagnosed by Immunohistochemical Staining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tono, Hisayuki; Fujimura, Taku; Kakizaki, Aya; Furudate, Sadanori; Ishibashi, Masaya; Aiba, Setsuya

    2015-01-01

    Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is characterized by the clonal proliferation of Langerhans cells; it is categorized as a single-system disease with single or multifocal lesions, and as a multi-system disease with or without the risk of organ involvement. Although the skin is not categorized as a risk organ, the precise diagnosis of skin lesions is necessary to determine the protocol for the treatment of LCH. In this report, we describe a 28-year-old Japanese man with adult onset of BRAFV600E-mutated LCH with cutaneous involvement successfully diagnosed by immunohistochemical staining. Our report suggests that immunohistochemical staining for the BRAFV600E gene could be a diagnostic tool to determine the clinical type of LCH. PMID:26500535

  6. Adult Onset of BRAFV600E-Mutated Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis with Cutaneous Involvement Successfully Diagnosed by Immunohistochemical Staining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hisayuki Tono

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH is characterized by the clonal proliferation of Langerhans cells; it is categorized as a single-system disease with single or multifocal lesions, and as a multi-system disease with or without the risk of organ involvement. Although the skin is not categorized as a risk organ, the precise diagnosis of skin lesions is necessary to determine the protocol for the treatment of LCH. In this report, we describe a 28-year-old Japanese man with adult onset of BRAFV600E-mutated LCH with cutaneous involvement successfully diagnosed by immunohistochemical staining. Our report suggests that immunohistochemical staining for the BRAFV600E gene could be a diagnostic tool to determine the clinical type of LCH.

  7. Advance in diagnosis and treatment of adult-onset Still's disease%成人Still病诊治进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵丽丹; 张烜; 唐福林

    2008-01-01

    成人Still病(adult-onset Still’s disease,AOSD)是一种病因不清、以发热、一过性红色皮疹、关节炎和多脏器受累为特征的自身免疫性疾病。这些症状与系统型起病的幼年特发性关节炎(systemic-onset juvenile idiopathic arthritis,SoJIA)类似,而后者又被称作幼年Still病。这一疾病在文献中曾被称作变应性亚败血症(subsepsis allergica)、Wissler’s综合征、Wissler-Fanconi综合征等。

  8. A Case of Adult-Onset Acute Rheumatic Fever With Long-Lasting Atrioventricular Block Requiring Permanent Pacemaker Implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oba, Yusuke; Watanabe, Hiroaki; Nishimura, Yoshioki; Ueno, Shuichi; Nagashima, Takao; Imai, Yasushi; Shimpo, Masahisa; Kario, Kazuomi

    2015-01-01

    A 45-year-old hypertensive Japanese woman presented with epigastric pain on inspiration, fever, complete atrioventricular block and polyarthritis. Her antistreptolysin O levels were markedly elevated. A diagnosis of rheumatic fever was made according to the modified Jones criteria. She was prescribed loxoprofen sodium, which was partially effective for her extracardiac clinical symptoms. However, she had syncope due to complete atrioventricular block with asystole longer than 10 seconds. Consequently, we implanted a permanent pacemaker. Although we prescribed prednisolone, the efficacy of which was limited for the patient's conduction disturbance, the complete atrioventricular block persisted. In our systematic review of 12 similar cases, the duration of complete heart block was always transient and there was no case requiring a permanent pacemaker. We thus encountered a very rare case of adult-onset acute rheumatic fever with persistent complete atrioventricular block necessitating permanent pacemaker implantation.

  9. Association of ADAM33 gene polymorphisms with adult-onset asthma and its severity in an Indian adult population

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Priya Tripathi; Shally Awasthi; Rajendra Prasad; Nuzhat Husain; Subramaniam Ganesh

    2011-08-01

    ADAM33, a member of the ADAM (a disintegrin and metalloprotease) gene family, is an asthma susceptibility gene originally identified by positional cloning. In the present study, we investigated the possible association of five single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the ADAM33 (rs511898, rs528557, rs44707, rs597980 and rs2787094) with adult-onset asthma in an Indian population. The study included 175 patients with mild intermittent ($n = 44$), mild persistent ($n = 108$) or moderate persistent ($n = 23$) subgroups of asthma, and 253 nonasthmatic control individuals. SNPs were genotyped with the help of restriction fragment length polymorphism polymerase chain reaction (RFLP-PCR) method, and data were analysed using chi-square test and logistic regression model. Bonferroni’s correction for multiple comparisons was applied for each hypothesis. Genotypes and allele frequencies of SNPs rs511898 and rs528557 were significantly associated with adult-onset asthma ($P = 0.010-\\lt 0.001$). A significant association of the homozygous mutant genotype and mutant alleles of SNPs rs2787094, rs44707 and rs597980 with the asthma was also observed ($P = 0.020-\\lt 0.001$). A positive association between asthma and haplotypes AGCCT, GGCCT, AGACT, GCAGT, GGACT, ACCCC and AGACC were also found ($P = 0.036-\\lt 0.001$, OR $= 2.07-8.49$). Haplotypes AGCGT, GCAGC, ACAGC, ACAGT, GGAGC and GGCGT appear to protect against asthma ($P = 0.013-\\lt 0.0001$, OR $= 0.34-0.10$). Our data suggest that ADAM33 gene polymorphisms serve as genetic risk factors for asthma in Indian adult population.

  10. Temporal discrimination thresholds in adult-onset primary torsion dystonia: an analysis by task type and by dystonia phenotype.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Bradley, D

    2012-01-01

    Adult-onset primary torsion dystonia (AOPTD) is an autosomal dominant disorder with markedly reduced penetrance. Sensory abnormalities are present in AOPTD and also in unaffected relatives, possibly indicating non-manifesting gene carriage (acting as an endophenotype). The temporal discrimination threshold (TDT) is the shortest time interval at which two stimuli are detected to be asynchronous. We aimed to compare the sensitivity and specificity of three different TDT tasks (visual, tactile and mixed\\/visual-tactile). We also aimed to examine the sensitivity of TDTs in different AOPTD phenotypes. To examine tasks, we tested TDT in 41 patients and 51 controls using visual (2 lights), tactile (non-painful electrical stimulation) and mixed (1 light, 1 electrical) stimuli. To investigate phenotypes, we examined 71 AOPTD patients (37 cervical dystonia, 14 writer\\'s cramp, 9 blepharospasm, 11 spasmodic dysphonia) and 8 musician\\'s dystonia patients. The upper limit of normal was defined as control mean +2.5 SD. In dystonia patients, the visual task detected abnormalities in 35\\/41 (85%), the tactile task in 35\\/41 (85%) and the mixed task in 26\\/41 (63%); the mixed task was less sensitive than the other two (p = 0.04). Specificity was 100% for the visual and tactile tasks. Abnormal TDTs were found in 36 of 37 (97.3%) cervical dystonia, 12 of 14 (85.7%) writer\\'s cramp, 8 of 9 (88.8%) blepharospasm, 10 of 11 (90.1%) spasmodic dysphonia patients and 5 of 8 (62.5%) musicians. The visual and tactile tasks were found to be more sensitive than the mixed task. Temporal discrimination threshold results were comparable across common adult-onset primary torsion dystonia phenotypes, with lower sensitivity in the musicians.

  11. CASE OF LEFLUNOMIDE-INDUCED CLINICAL AND MORPHOLOGICAL REGRESSION OF AA-AMYLOIDOSIS AND REMISSION OF ADULT-ONSET STILL'S DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. V. Muravyev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes a long-term observation and discusses the possible mechanism of leflunomide-induced clinical and morphological regression of AA-amyloidosis diagnosed at a nephrotic stage in the presence of adult-onset Still's disease.

  12. N-CAM dysfunction and unexpected accumulation of PSA-NCAM in brain of adult-onset autosomal-dominant leukodystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccinini, Marco; Buccinnà, Barbara; De Marco, Giovanni; Lupino, Elisa; Ramondetti, Cristina; Grifoni, Silvia; Votta, Barbara; Giordana, Maria Teresa; Rinaudo, Maria Teresa

    2010-03-01

    Previously, myelin from cerebral white matter (CWM) of two subjects of a family with orthochromatic adult-onset autosomal-dominant leukodystrophy (ADLD) was disclosed to exhibit defective large isoform of myelin-associated glycoprotein (L-MAG) and patchy distribution only in the elder subject. L-MAG and neural cell adhesion molecule (N-CAM) (N-CAM 180, 140, and 120) are structurally related and concur to myelin/axon interaction. In early developmental stages, in neurons and glia N-CAM is converted into polysialylated (PSA)-NCAM by two sialyltransferases sialyltransferase-X (STX) and polysialyltransferase-1 (PST). Notably, PSA-NCAM disrupts N-CAM adhesive properties and is nearly absent in the adult brain. Here, CWM extracts and myelin of the two subjects were searched for the expression pattern of the N-CAM isoforms and PSA-NCAM, and their CWM was evaluated for N-CAM, STX and PST gene copy number and gene expression as mRNA. Biochemically, we disclosed that in CWM extracts and myelin from both subjects, PSA-NCAM accumulates, N-CAM 180 considerably increases, N-CAM 140 is modestly modified and N-CAM 120 remarkably decreases; duplication of genes encoding N-CAM, STX and PST was not revealed, whereas PST mRNA was clearly increased. Immunohistochemically, in CWM of both subjects, we found an unusually diffuse accumulation of PSA-NCAM without inflammation markers. PSA-NCAM persistence, up-regulated PST mRNA and previously uncovered defective L-MAG may be early pathogenetic events in this ADLD form.

  13. Proteomics analysis of human skeletal muscle reveals novel abnormalities in obesity and type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hwang, Hyonson; Bowen, Benjamin P; Lefort, Natalie;

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE : Insulin resistance in skeletal muscle is an early phenomenon in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes. Studies of insulin resistance usually are highly focused. However, approaches that give a more global picture of abnormalities in insulin resistance are useful in pointing out new...... changes involving the use of proteomics was used here. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Muscle biopsies were obtained basally from lean, obese, and type 2 diabetic volunteers (n = 8 each); glucose clamps were used to assess insulin sensitivity. Muscle protein was subjected to mass spectrometry...... directions for research. In previous studies, gene expression analyses show a coordinated pattern of reduction in nuclear-encoded mitochondrial gene expression in insulin resistance. However, changes in mRNA levels may not predict changes in protein abundance. An approach to identify global protein abundance...

  14. Dominant-Negative Effects of Adult-Onset Huntingtin Mutations Alter the Division of Human Embryonic Stem Cells-Derived Neural Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Carla; Aubert, Sophie; Bourgois-Rocha, Fany; Barnat, Monia; Rego, Ana Cristina; Déglon, Nicole; Perrier, Anselme L; Humbert, Sandrine

    2016-01-01

    Mutations of the huntingtin protein (HTT) gene underlie both adult-onset and juvenile forms of Huntington's disease (HD). HTT modulates mitotic spindle orientation and cell fate in mouse cortical progenitors from the ventricular zone. Using human embryonic stem cells (hESC) characterized as carrying mutations associated with adult-onset disease during pre-implantation genetic diagnosis, we investigated the influence of human HTT and of an adult-onset HD mutation on mitotic spindle orientation in human neural stem cells (NSCs) derived from hESCs. The RNAi-mediated silencing of both HTT alleles in neural stem cells derived from hESCs disrupted spindle orientation and led to the mislocalization of dynein, the p150Glued subunit of dynactin and the large nuclear mitotic apparatus (NuMA) protein. We also investigated the effect of the adult-onset HD mutation on the role of HTT during spindle orientation in NSCs derived from HD-hESCs. By combining SNP-targeting allele-specific silencing and gain-of-function approaches, we showed that a 46-glutamine expansion in human HTT was sufficient for a dominant-negative effect on spindle orientation and changes in the distribution within the spindle pole and the cell cortex of dynein, p150Glued and NuMA in neural cells. Thus, neural derivatives of disease-specific human pluripotent stem cells constitute a relevant biological resource for exploring the impact of adult-onset HD mutations of the HTT gene on the division of neural progenitors, with potential applications in HD drug discovery targeting HTT-dynein-p150Glued complex interactions.

  15. Metagenomic systems biology of the human gut microbiome reveals topological shifts associated with obesity and inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenblum, Sharon; Turnbaugh, Peter J; Borenstein, Elhanan

    2012-01-10

    The human microbiome plays a key role in a wide range of host-related processes and has a profound effect on human health. Comparative analyses of the human microbiome have revealed substantial variation in species and gene composition associated with a variety of disease states but may fall short of providing a comprehensive understanding of the impact of this variation on the community and on the host. Here, we introduce a metagenomic systems biology computational framework, integrating metagenomic data with an in silico systems-level analysis of metabolic networks. Focusing on the gut microbiome, we analyze fecal metagenomic data from 124 unrelated individuals, as well as six monozygotic twin pairs and their mothers, and generate community-level metabolic networks of the microbiome. Placing variations in gene abundance in the context of these networks, we identify both gene-level and network-level topological differences associated with obesity and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). We show that genes associated with either of these host states tend to be located at the periphery of the metabolic network and are enriched for topologically derived metabolic "inputs." These findings may indicate that lean and obese microbiomes differ primarily in their interface with the host and in the way they interact with host metabolism. We further demonstrate that obese microbiomes are less modular, a hallmark of adaptation to low-diversity environments. We additionally link these topological variations to community species composition. The system-level approach presented here lays the foundation for a unique framework for studying the human microbiome, its organization, and its impact on human health.

  16. Recurrent adult-onset hypophyseal Langerhans cell histiocytosis after radiotherapy: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Funk Ryan K

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Langerhans cell histiocytosis is a rare disease within the adult population, with very few cases reported as solitary hypophyseal lesions in adults. Of the reported cases, most have been treated successfully with surgery, radiotherapy, and/or chemotherapy. Radiotherapy has been thought to be curative at the relatively low dose of 20Gy. Here we report a case of recurrent hypophyseal Langerhans cell histiocytosis 9 months after radiotherapy with an interval period of symptomatic and radiographic response to therapy. Case presentation A 50-year-old Caucasian woman who had headaches, memory difficulties, and diabetes insipidus was found to have a 2.5cm suprasellar mass. Langerhans cell histiocytosis was diagnosed following stereotactic brain biopsy. Further workup revealed no other lesions. Initial radiation treatment succeeded in shrinking the tumor and relieving clinical symptoms temporarily; however, growth and recurrence of clinical symptoms was noted at 9 months. Re-irradiation was well tolerated and the patient had no acute side effects. Conclusion Isolated hypophyseal involvement by Langerhans cell histiocytosis in adults is a unique presentation of a rare disease. Although radiotherapy doses as low as 20Gy have been reported to offer control, this case demonstrates that higher doses may be warranted to ensure tumor control. With modern imaging and radiotherapy techniques higher doses should offer little increased more durable risk to surrounding critical structures.

  17. Fatal adult-onset antibody deficiency syndrome in a patient with cartilage hair hypoplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Julia; Schlesier, Michael; Warnatz, Klaus; Prasse, Antje; Superti-Furga, Andrea; Peter, Hans-Hartmut; Salzer, Ulrich

    2010-09-01

    Cartilage hair hypoplasia (CHH) is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in the ribonuclease mitochondrial RNA-processing (RMRP) gene. Although its most constant feature is metaphyseal dysplasia with short stature, CHH is associated with extraskeletal defects such as thin hair, anemia, immunodeficiency, and increased incidence of lymphomas. The spectrum of immunologic phenotypes in CHH translates into clinical severity. Whereas T-cell deficiency may remain subclinical or may result in severe combined immunodeficiency or Omenn syndrome, humoral immunodeficiency has only rarely been noted in these patients. Here we report the diagnosis of CHH in a woman who presented with severe short stature and a full-blown antibody deficiency, clinically resembling common variable immunodeficiency. Sequencing of the RMRP gene revealed compound heterozygosity for two novel mutations (g.68_69delinsTT and g.76C>T). Despite the late onset of immunodeficiency in the patient, its clinical course was severe, and the patient died 3 years after the first diagnosis.

  18. Changes in bone macro- and microstructure in diabetic obese mice revealed by high resolution microfocus X-ray computed tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerckhofs, G.; Durand, M.; Vangoitsenhoven, R.; Marin, C.; van der Schueren, B.; Carmeliet, G.; Luyten, F. P.; Geris, L.; Vandamme, K.

    2016-10-01

    High resolution microfocus X-ray computed tomography (HR-microCT) was employed to characterize the structural alterations of the cortical and trabecular bone in a mouse model of obesity-driven type 2 diabetes (T2DM). C57Bl/6J mice were randomly assigned for 14 weeks to either a control diet-fed (CTRL) or a high fat diet (HFD)-fed group developing obesity, hyperglycaemia and insulin resistance. The HFD group showed an increased trabecular thickness and a decreased trabecular number compared to CTRL animals. Midshaft tibia intracortical porosity was assessed at two spatial image resolutions. At 2 μm scale, no change was observed in the intracortical structure. At 1 μm scale, a decrease in the cortical vascular porosity of the HFD bone was evidenced. The study of a group of 8 week old animals corresponding to animals at the start of the diet challenge revealed that the decreased vascular porosity was T2DM-dependant and not related to the ageing process. Our results offer an unprecedented ultra-characterization of the T2DM compromised skeletal micro-architecture and highlight an unrevealed T2DM-related decrease in the cortical vascular porosity, potentially affecting the bone health and fragility. Additionally, it provides some insights into the technical challenge facing the assessment of the rodent bone structure using HR-microCT imaging.

  19. Adult-onset leukoencephalopathy with axonal spheroids and pigmented glia linked CSF1R mutation: Report of four Korean cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eun-Joo; Shin, Jin-Hong; Lee, Jeong Hee; Kim, Jong Hun; Na, Duk L; Suh, Yeon-Lim; Hwang, Sun Jae; Lee, Jae-Hyeok; Lee, Young Min; Shin, Myung-Jun; Lee, Myung Jun; Kim, Seong-Jang; Yoon, Uicheul; Park, Do Youn; Jung, Dae Soo; Ahn, Jae Woo; Sung, Suk; Huh, Gi Yeong

    2015-02-15

    We describe detailed clinical, biochemical, neuroimaging and neuropathological features in adult-onset leukoencephalopathy with axonal spheroids and pigmented glia (ALSP), encompassing hereditary diffuse leukoencephalopathy with axonal spheroids (HDLS) and pigmentary orthochromatic leukodystrophy (POLD), linked to colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor (CSF1R) mutations in four Korean cases. Clinical, biochemical, neuroimaging and neuropathological findings were obtained by direct evaluation and from previous medical records. The genetic analysis of the CSF1R gene was done in two autopsy-confirmed ALSP cases and two cases where ALSP was suspected based on the clinical and neuroimaging characteristics. We identified two known mutations: c.2342C>T (p.A781V) in one autopsy-proven HDLS and clinically ALSP-suspected case and c.2345G>A (p.R782H) in another autopsy-proven POLD case. We also found a novel mutation (c.2296A>G; p.M766V) in a patient presenting with hand tremor, stuttering and hesitant speech, and abnormal behavior whose father died from a possible diagnosis of spinocerebellar ataxia. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first documented ALSP-linked CSF1R mutation in Korea and supports the suggestion that HDLS and POLD, with pathological characteristics that are somewhat different but which are caused by CSF1R mutations, are the same spectrum of disease, ALSP.

  20. The Phospholipase D2 Knock Out Mouse Has Ectopic Purkinje Cells and Suffers from Early Adult-Onset Anosmia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qifeng; Smethurst, Elizabeth; Segonds-Pichon, Anne; Schrewe, Heinrich; Wakelam, Michael J. O.

    2016-01-01

    Phospholipase D2 (PLD2) is an enzyme that produces phosphatidic acid (PA), a lipid messenger molecule involved in a number of cellular events including, through its membrane curvature properties, endocytosis. The PLD2 knock out (PLD2KO) mouse has been previously reported to be protected from insult in a model of Alzheimer's disease. We have further analysed a PLD2KO mouse using mass spectrophotometry of its lipids and found significant differences in PA species throughout its brain. We have examined the expression pattern of PLD2 which allowed us to define which region of the brain to analyse for defect, notably PLD2 was not detected in glial-rich regions. The expression pattern lead us to specifically examine the mitral cells of olfactory bulbs, the Cornus Amonis (CA) regions of the hippocampus and the Purkinje cells of the cerebellum. We find that the change to longer PA species correlates with subtle architectural defect in the cerebellum, exemplified by ectopic Purkinje cells and an adult-onset deficit of olfaction. These observations draw parallels to defects in the reelin heterozygote as well as the effect of high fat diet on olfaction. PMID:27658289

  1. A series of 22 patients with adult-onset Still's disease presenting with fever of unknown origin. A difficult diagnosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxevanos, Gerasimos; Tzimas, Thomas; Pappas, Georgios; Akritidis, Nikolaos

    2012-01-01

    Adult-onset Still's disease (AOSD) remains a perplexing, difficult to diagnose clinical entity, with clinical characteristics that are often broad and encountered in numerous other clinical entities. This vague clinical presentation is depicted in the commonly used diagnostic criteria, as the ones by Yamaguchi and Fautrel. The authors sought to investigate how diagnostic criteria apply in a series of 22 new cases of AOSD patients presenting with fever of unknown origin (FUO) and diagnosed at the Internal Medicine Department of Hatzikosta General Hospital of Ioannina, Greece. The aims of the study were: (1) to study the incidence of AOSD and (2) to retrospectively apply different classifications to the data of these patients in search of a more efficient way of diagnosing these patients in the future. The annual incidence of AOSD was estimated at two new cases per 10(5). The clinical manifestations of the patients are discussed, with an emphasis on specific manifestations being considered as criteria by Yamaguchi and Fautrel classifications. Four patients exhibited markedly increased serum D: -dimers, a finding of which the potential pathophysiologic implications are discussed. Serum ferritin levels have additive values, both for diagnostic and cost-reduction purposes in cases presenting as FUO; serum ferritin values are not included in any diagnostic set of criteria at present. The finding of high levels of D-dimers in AOSD needs further studies.

  2. Retrospective study of 61 patients with adult-onset Still's disease admitted with fever of unknown origin in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Pei-Dong; Yu, Sheng-Lei; Chen, Shu; Weng, Xin-Hua

    2012-01-01

    Adult-onset Still's disease (AOSD), as a category of connective tissue diseases, has about 5∼9% of fever of unknown origin (FUO) cases. Diagnosis of AOSD was challenging because of its nonspecific characteristics. The present study analyzed clinical manifestations and laboratory findings in a series of patients with AOSD from eastern China. Medical records of 61 patients admitted with FUO and with a discharge diagnosis of AOSD were retrospectively evaluated and analyzed with special focus on clinical manifestations and laboratory findings. Compared with previous reports, most features of our patients had a similar incidence rate. Rash (79%), arthralgia (80%), and sore throat (84%) were the most frequent clinical manifestations in our series. Leukocytosis (80%), elevated ESR (98%) and CRP (100%), negative ANA (90%) and RF (93%), and high ferritin level (94%) were the most sensitive laboratory findings in our patients. AOSD was not a rare reason of FUO in eastern China. Fever, arthralgia, rash, sore throat, leukocytosis, neutrophilia, elevated ESR and CRP, negative ANA and RF, and high ferritin level were the most common clinical features in our series. The lack of highly specific characteristic makes the diagnosis of AOSD difficult compared with other diseases in FUO.

  3. An Unusual Case of Adult-Onset Still’s Disease with Hemophagocytic Syndrome, Necrotic Leukoencephalopathy and Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajaie Namas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Case. A 34-year-old African-American female with a history of adult-onset Still’s disease presented to an outside hospital with oligoarthritis. She experienced a generalized tonic-clonic seizure en route via ambulance, was intubated upon arrival, and transferred to the intensive care unit for treatment of suspected pneumonia and sepsis. She subsequently developed generalized cutaneous desquamation that progressed despite the cessation of antibiotics and other potential offending drugs which required transfer to our hospital’s burn unit. She was suspected to have reactive hemophagocytic syndrome based on her clinical presentation of fever, rash, polyarthritis, elevated liver enzymes, coagulopathy, splenomegaly, normocytic anemia, thrombocytopenia, hypertriglyceridemia, hyperferritinemia, and hemophagocytosis visualized in bone marrow biopsy specimen. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated necrotic demyelination of the deep white matter and corona radiata. The patient developed multiorgan dysfunction and DIC without any other attributable etiology. Despite aggressive broad spectrum therapy and high dose of steroids she progressively deteriorated and eventually expired. Conclusion. Previous publications have highlighted the prevalence of necrotic leukoencephalopathy in children with familial hemophagocytic syndrome. Our patient demonstrated some uncommon features complicating her HLH including DIC and necrotic leukoencephalopathy, which are very rare entities in AOSD.

  4. Congenital posterior pole cataract and adult onset dilating cardiomyopathy: expanding the phenotype of αB-crystallinopathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Smagt, J J; Vink, A; Kirkels, J H; Nelen, M; ter Heide, H; Molenschot, M M C; Weger, R A; Schellekens, P A W; Hoogendijk, J; Dooijes, D

    2014-04-01

    Mutations in the αB-crystallin gene (CRYAB) have been reported in desmin-related myopathies, with or without cardiac involvement. Mutations in this gene have also been documented in large multi-generation families with autosomal dominant congenital posterior pole cataract (CPPC). In these congenital cataract families no cardiac or muscular phenotype was reported. This report describes a family with an unusual read-through mutation in CRYAB, leading to the elongation of the normal αB-crystallin protein with 19 amino acid residues. Affected family members combine a CPPC with an adult onset dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), thereby expanding the αB-crystallinopathy phenotype. Repolarisation abnormalities preceded the onset of cardiomyopathy and were already present in childhood. No skeletal myopathy was observed. This report illustrates that congenital cataract can be a prelude to more severe disease even outside the context of inborn errors of metabolism. The identification of a CRYAB mutation in this family supports the notion that mutations in this gene are a rare cause of genetically determined DCM. The combined congenital cataract/cardiomyopathy phenotype adds to our understanding of the complex phenotypic spectrum of αB-crystallinopathies.

  5. Adult onset Leigh syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pandit Lekha

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Leigh syndrome is a rare progressive mitochondrial disorder of oxidative metabolism. Though it has been reported in infancy and childhood, it is rarely described in adults. The authors describe a patient who had clinical and magnetic resonance imaging features diagnostic of Leigh syndrome, with supportive biochemical and muscle histochemistry evidence.

  6. Liver transplantation versus conservative treatment for adult-onset type II citrullinemia: our experience and a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, N; Kubo, N; Narumi, S; Toyoki, Y; Ishido, K; Kudo, D; Umehara, M; Yakoshi, Y; Hakamada, K

    2013-11-01

    Adult-onset type II citrullinemia (CTLN2), an autosomal recessive disorder caused by a mutation in the SLC25A13 gene, is characterized by increased serum citrulline and ammonia levels. Patients with CTLN2 also display various neuropsychiatric symptoms. Many individuals with CTLN2 are fond of protein-rich and/or lipid-rich foods with an aversion to carbohydrate-rich foods. We herein report two cases of CTLN2 treated with living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) and provide a review of the pertinent literature. Case 1 was a 43-year-old man admitted to our hospital for repetitive episodes of consciousness disturbance. Case 2 was a 37-year-old man admitted to our hospital because of abnormal behavior associated with hyperammonemia. A definitive diagnosis of CTLN2 was accomplished by DNA analysis in both patients, who successfully underwent LDLT using liver segments from donor siblings with confirmed heterozygous gene expression. Case 2 also underwent conservative therapy with arginine and a high-fat, carbohydrate-restricted diet prior to LDLT. Postoperative recovery was uneventful and food was unrestricted in both patients. We also identified 77 cases of CTLN2 in the literature and reviewed them in terms of outcome of both liver transplantation and conservative therapy. The survival rate in patients treated by liver transplantation was 100%, whereas that in patients treated by conservative treatment showed improvement from 39.5% to 76.5% over the years. Liver transplantation is a practical treatment that fundamentally improves patient quality of life after transplantation. However, recent studies have suggested that arginine and sodium pyruvate administration combined with intensive nutritional support is also an effective therapy for CTLN2. Further development of conservative therapy may provide a safer, more affordable alternative to liver transplantation in the near future.

  7. Inhibition of GSK-3 ameliorates Abeta pathology in an adult-onset Drosophila model of Alzheimer's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oyinkan Sofola

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abeta peptide accumulation is thought to be the primary event in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD, with downstream neurotoxic effects including the hyperphosphorylation of tau protein. Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3 is increasingly implicated as playing a pivotal role in this amyloid cascade. We have developed an adult-onset Drosophila model of AD, using an inducible gene expression system to express Arctic mutant Abeta42 specifically in adult neurons, to avoid developmental effects. Abeta42 accumulated with age in these flies and they displayed increased mortality together with progressive neuronal dysfunction, but in the apparent absence of neuronal loss. This fly model can thus be used to examine the role of events during adulthood and early AD aetiology. Expression of Abeta42 in adult neurons increased GSK-3 activity, and inhibition of GSK-3 (either genetically or pharmacologically by lithium treatment rescued Abeta42 toxicity. Abeta42 pathogenesis was also reduced by removal of endogenous fly tau; but, within the limits of detection of available methods, tau phosphorylation did not appear to be altered in flies expressing Abeta42. The GSK-3-mediated effects on Abeta42 toxicity appear to be at least in part mediated by tau-independent mechanisms, because the protective effect of lithium alone was greater than that of the removal of tau alone. Finally, Abeta42 levels were reduced upon GSK-3 inhibition, pointing to a direct role of GSK-3 in the regulation of Abeta42 peptide level, in the absence of APP processing. Our study points to the need both to identify the mechanisms by which GSK-3 modulates Abeta42 levels in the fly and to determine if similar mechanisms are present in mammals, and it supports the potential therapeutic use of GSK-3 inhibitors in AD.

  8. Reduction in IgG galactose in juvenile and adult onset rheumatoid arthritis measured by a lectin binding method and its relation to rheumatoid factor.

    OpenAIRE

    1991-01-01

    Glycosylation changes in patients with juvenile chronic and adult onset rheumatoid arthritis have been studied using a novel binding method. Both these major types of arthritis showed decreased galactosylation of serum IgG, which confirms earlier studies using a different, more complex chemical method. No significant correlation between serum IgG, IgM, and IgA rheumatoid factors and age corrected G(o) (percentage of oligosaccharide chains lacking galactose) was found. The possibility that the...

  9. Reduction in IgG galactose in juvenile and adult onset rheumatoid arthritis measured by a lectin binding method and its relation to rheumatoid factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumar, N; Isenberg, D A; Bodman, K B; Soltys, A; Young, A; Leak, A M; Round, J; Hay, F C; Roitt, I M

    1991-09-01

    Glycosylation changes in patients with juvenile chronic and adult onset rheumatoid arthritis have been studied using a novel binding method. Both these major types of arthritis showed decreased galactosylation of serum IgG, which confirms earlier studies using a different, more complex chemical method. No significant correlation between serum IgG, IgM, and IgA rheumatoid factors and age corrected G(o) (percentage of oligosaccharide chains lacking galactose) was found. The possibility that the less glycosylated IgG is preferentially confined to circulating IgM/IgG immune complexes cannot be excluded, however.

  10. Regular use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs increases the risk of adult-onset asthma: a population-based follow-up study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Simon Francis; Kyvik, Kirsten Ohm; Skadhauge, Lars Rauff;

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Little is known about the relation between regular use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and the risk of asthma at the population level. The aim of this study was to examine a possible association between intake of NSAIDs and risk of adult-onset asthma. METHODS: Using...... data from two multidisciplinary postal questionnaire surveys concerning health and lifestyle, we prospectively studied 19 349 adult twins enrolled in the nationwide Danish Twin Registry. RESULTS: We found a higher prevalence of new-onset asthma in subjects who used NSAIDs (other than aspirin) regularly...

  11. Sequence analysis of three canine adipokine genes revealed an association between TNF polymorphisms and obesity in Labrador dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mankowska, M; Stachowiak, M; Graczyk, A; Ciazynska, P; Gogulski, M; Nizanski, W; Switonski, M

    2016-04-01

    Obesity is an emerging health problem in purebred dogs. Due to their crucial role in energy homeostasis control, genes encoding adipokines are considered candidate genes, and their variants may be associated with predisposition to obesity. Searching for polymorphism was carried out in three adipokine genes (TNF, RETN and IL6). The study was performed on 260 dogs, including lean (n = 109), overweight (n = 88) and obese (n = 63) dogs. The largest cohort was represented by Labrador Retrievers (n = 136). Altogether, 24 novel polymorphisms were identified: 12 in TNF (including one missense SNP), eight in RETN (including one missense SNP) and four in IL6. Distributions of five common SNPs (two in TNF, two in RETN and one in IL6) were further analyzed with regard to body condition score. Two SNPs in the non-coding parts of TNF (c.-40A>C and c.233+14G>A) were associated with obesity in Labrador dogs. The obtained results showed that the studied adipokine genes are highly polymorphic and two polymorphisms in the TNF gene may be considered as markers predisposing Labrador dogs to obesity.

  12. Adult-onset hypothyroidism and the cerebral metabolism of (1,2-13C2) acetate as detected by 13C nuclear magnetic resonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapa, F; Künnecke, B; Calvo, R; Escobar del Rey, F; Morreale de Escobar, G; Cerdán, S

    1995-01-01

    The effects of adult-onset hypothyroidism on the metabolic compartmentation of the cerebral tricarboxylic acid cycle and the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) shunt have been investigated by 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Rats thyroidectomized as adults and age-matched controls were infused in the right jugular vein with unlabeled or (1,2-13C2) acetate solutions for 60 min. At the end of the infusion, the brains were frozen in situ and perchloric acid extracts were prepared and analyzed by 13C nuclear magnetic resonance and reverse-phase HPLC. Thyroidectomized animals showed a decrease in the incorporation of 13C from (1,2-13C2) acetate in cerebral metabolites and an increase in the concentrations of unlabeled glutamate and GABA. Computer-assisted interpretation of the 13C multiplets observed for the carbons of glutamate, glutamine, and GABA indicated that adult-onset hypothyroidism produced 1) a decrease in the contribution of infused (1,2-13C2) acetate to the glial tricarboxylic acid cycle; 2) an increase in the contribution of unlabeled acetyl-CoA to the neuronal tricarboxylic acid cycle; and 3) impairments in the exchange of glutamate, glutamine, and GABA between the neuronal and glial compartments. Despite the fact that the adult brain has often been considered metabolically unresponsive to thyroid hormone status, present results show metabolic alterations in the neuronal and glial compartments that are reversible with substitution therapy.

  13. Congenital encephalomyopathy and adult-onset myopathy and diabetes mellitus: Different phenotypic associations of a new heteroplasmic mtDNA tRNA glutamic acid mutation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanna, M.G.; Nelson, I.; Sweeney, M.G.; Cooper, J.M.; Watkins, P.J.; Morgan-Hughes, J.A.; Harding, A.E. [Kings College Hospital, London (United Kingdom)

    1995-05-01

    We report the clinical, biochemical, and molecular genetic findings in a family with an unusual mitochondrial disease phenotype harboring a novel mtDNA tRNA glutamic acid mutation at position 14709. The proband and his sister presented with congenital myopathy and mental retardation and subsequently developed cerebellar ataxia. Other family members had either adult-onset diabetes mellitus with muscle weakness or adult-onset diabetes mellitus alone. Ragged-red and cytochrome c oxidase (COX)-negative fibers were present in muscle biopsies. Biochemical studies of muscle mitochondria showed reduced complex I and IV activities. The mtDNA mutation was heteroplasmic in blood and muscle in all matrilineal relatives analyzed. Primary myoblast, but not fibroblast, cultures containing high proportions of mutant mtDNA exhibited impaired mitochondrial translation. These observations indicate that mtDNA tRNA point mutations should be considered in the differential diagnosis of congenital myopathy. In addition they illustrate the diversity of phenotypes associated with this mutation in the same family and further highlight the association between mtDNA mutations and diabetes mellitus. 43 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  14. 成人期起病支气管哮喘临床及炎症特点分析%Clinical and inflammatory characteristics of adult-onset asthma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张锋英; 俞烽; 杭晶卿

    2016-01-01

    目的:了解成人期起病支气管哮喘临床特点及相关细胞因子分析。方法根据哮喘起病年龄,分为成人期起病组和儿童期起病组,检测肺功能、外周血总IgE、IL-1、IL-4、IL-6、IL-8、IL-10以及肿瘤坏死因子-α等炎症因子,诱导痰细胞计数及分类,两组进行比较。结果共入选哮喘患者161例,成人期起病患者103例,儿童期起病患者58例。成人期起病组与儿童期起病组有过敏史者分别为71.8%和94.8%( P0.05)。结论无论哮喘起病年龄早晚,过敏仍是哮喘起病主要因素。成人期起病哮喘FEV1%与病程无显著相关。血及诱导痰嗜酸性粒细胞、血清白介素、TNF-α等在不同年龄起病哮喘中无差异。%Objective To understand the clinical and inflammatory characteristics of adult-onset asthma. Methods According to the age of asthma onset, patients were divided into the adult-onset and childhood-onset groups. All patients were given lung function tests. Total IgE, interleukin-1, interleukin-4, interleukin-6, interleu-kin-8, interleukin-10 and tumor necrosis factor alpha in peripheral blood were measured. Cell counting and classify in induced sputum were also analyzed. Results There were 161 patients with asthma, 103 of whom were with adult-on-set asthma and 58 with childhood-onset asthma. 71. 8% patients had a history of allergy in the adult-onset group and 94. 8% in the childhood-onset group, respectively (P0. 05). Conclu-sion Regardless of onset age of asthma, allergy is still a major factor of asthma. The level of FEV1% has no relation with asthma duration, and there is no significant difference in eosinophils in blood and induced sputum, serum IL-1, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10 and TNF-α in different onset age.

  15. A pruritic linear urticarial rash, fever, and systemic inflammatory disease in five adolescents: adult-onset still disease or systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis sine arthritis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prendiville, Julie S; Tucker, Lori B; Cabral, David A; Crawford, Richard I

    2004-01-01

    The characteristic rash of systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis is a transient erythematous eruption associated with a quotidian spiking fever. Usually asymptomatic, it can be pruritic, with dermatographism at sites of scratching or pressure. An illness similar to this entity in adults is designated adult-onset Still disease. The relationship between the pediatric and adult disease is uncertain and differences in case definition have evolved. Specifically, a sustained arthritis for at least 6 weeks is required for a diagnosis of systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis, whereas transient arthritis and arthralgia are accepted criteria in adult-onset Still disease. We describe five patients less than 16 years of age who presented with an acute illness characterized by fever and a distinctive skin eruption. Intense pruritus and linear erythematous lesions flared with a spiking fever, usually in the late afternoon and evening. Periorbital edema/erythema and nonlinear urticarial lesions were also seen. Two children had splinter hemorrhages of the nail beds and one girl developed a fixed, scaling, pigmented, linear eruption. Severe malaise, myalgia, arthralgia, and leukocytosis were present in every patient. Other systemic manifestations included sore throat, transient arthritis, abdominal pain, lymphadenopathy, hepatomegaly, splenomegaly, hyperferritinemia, and hepatic dysfunction. No patient had a sustained arthritis. The course of the disease was variable. One patient, diagnosed with macrophage activation syndrome, recovered on oral naproxen. Two patients responded to systemic corticosteroid therapy. One girl developed status epilepticus and died from aspiration and asphyxia. A boy with severe hepatitis developed renal failure and thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura and was treated with plasmapheresis, dialysis, and systemic corticosteroids; he had recurrent episodes of rash and fever into adult life. These children did not fulfill the case definition of systemic

  16. Differences in B7 and CD28 family gene expression in the peripheral blood between newly diagnosed young-onset and adult-onset type 1 diabetes patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruul, K; Kisand, K; Alnek, K; Metsküla, K; Reimand, K; Heilman, K; Peet, A; Varik, K; Peetsalu, M; Einberg, Ü; Tillmann, V; Uibo, R

    2015-09-05

    Type-1 diabetes (T1D) is a heterogeneous autoimmune disease, and there are pathogenetic differences between young- and adult-onset T1D patients. We hypothesized that the expressions of genes involved in costimulatory immune system pathways in peripheral blood are differently regulated in young- and adult-onset T1D. Study group I consisted of 80 children, adolescents, and young adults (age range 1.4-21.4 y; 31 controls and 49 T1D patients). Study group II consisted of 48 adults (age range 22.0-78.4 y; 30 controls and 18 T1D patients). The mRNA expression levels of CD86, CD28, CD25, CD226, CD40, BTLA, GITR, PDCD1, FoxP3, TGF-β, ICOS, sCTLA4, flCTLA4, and CD80 were measured in peripheral blood. Genetic polymorphisms (HLA haplotypes; rs231806, rs231775, and rs3087243 in CTLA4; rs763361 in CD226; and rs706778 in CD25) and T1D-associated autoantibodies were analyzed. In group I, there was significantly lower expression of CD226 in T1D patients than in the controls. In group II, there were significantly higher expression levels of CD86 and TGF-β in T1D patients than in the controls. In the T1D patients in group I, the upregulated CD80 expression correlated with the expression of both CTLA4 splice variants (sCTLA4 and flCTLA4). In contrast, in group II, upregulated CD86 correlated with TGF-β and CD25. In group I, the inhibitory CD80-CTLA4 pathway was activated, whereas, in group II, the activation CD86-CD28 pathway and TGF-β production were activated. These results emphasize the differences between young-onset and adult-onset T1D in the regulation of costimulatory pathways. These differences should be considered when developing novel treatments for T1D.

  17. Association analysis of the FTO gene with obesity in children of Caucasian and African ancestry reveals a common tagging SNP.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Struan F A Grant

    Full Text Available Recently an association was demonstrated between the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP, rs9939609, within the FTO locus and obesity as a consequence of a genome wide association (GWA study of type 2 diabetes in adults. We examined the effects of two perfect surrogates for this SNP plus 11 other SNPs at this locus with respect to our childhood obesity cohort, consisting of both Caucasians and African Americans (AA. Utilizing data from our ongoing GWA study in our cohort of 418 Caucasian obese children (BMI>or=95th percentile, 2,270 Caucasian controls (BMI<95th percentile, 578 AA obese children and 1,424 AA controls, we investigated the association of the previously reported variation at the FTO locus with the childhood form of this disease in both ethnicities. The minor allele frequencies (MAF of rs8050136 and rs3751812 (perfect surrogates for rs9939609 i.e. both r(2 = 1 in the Caucasian cases were 0.448 and 0.443 respectively while they were 0.391 and 0.386 in Caucasian controls respectively, yielding for both an odds ratio (OR of 1.27 (95% CI 1.08-1.47; P = 0.0022. Furthermore, the MAFs of rs8050136 and rs3751812 in the AA cases were 0.449 and 0.115 respectively while they were 0.436 and 0.090 in AA controls respectively, yielding an OR of 1.05 (95% CI 0.91-1.21; P = 0.49 and of 1.31 (95% CI 1.050-1.643; P = 0.017 respectively. Investigating all 13 SNPs present on the Illumina HumanHap550 BeadChip in this region of linkage disequilibrium, rs3751812 was the only SNP conferring significant risk in AA. We have therefore replicated and refined the association in an AA cohort and distilled a tag-SNP, rs3751812, which captures the ancestral origin of the actual mutation. As such, variants in the FTO gene confer a similar magnitude of risk of obesity to children as to their adult counterparts and appear to have a global impact.

  18. Rearranged anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) gene found for the first time in adult-onset papillary thyroid cancer cases among atomic bomb survivors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamatani, K.; Mukai, M.; Takahashi, K.; Nakachi, K.; Kusunoki, Y. [Radiobiology/Molecular Epidemiology, Radiation Effects Research Foundation, Hiroshima (Japan); Hayashi, Y. [Geriatric Health Service Facility Hidamari, Hiroshima (Japan)

    2012-07-01

    Full text of the publication follows: Thyroid cancer is one of the malignancies most strongly associated with ionizing radiation in humans. Epidemiology studies of atomic bomb (A-bomb) survivors have indicated that excess relative risk of papillary thyroid cancer per Gy was remarkably high in the survivors. We therefore aim to clarify mechanisms linking A-bomb radiation exposure and development of papillary thyroid cancer. Toward this end, we intend to clarify characteristics of gene alterations occurring in radiation-associated adult-onset papillary thyroid cancer from the Life Span Study cohort of A-bomb survivors. We have thus far found that with increased radiation dose, papillary thyroid cancer cases with chromosomal rearrangements (mainly RET/PTC rearrangements) significantly increased and papillary thyroid cancer cases with point mutations (mainly BRAF-V600E) significantly decreased. Papillary thyroid cancer cases with non-detected gene alterations that carried no mutations in RET, NTRK1, BRAF or RAS genes tended to increase with increased radiation dose. In addition, we found that relative frequency of these papillary thyroid cancer cases significantly decreased with time elapsed since exposure. Through analysis of papillary thyroid cancer cases with non-detected gene alterations, we recently discovered a new type of rearrangement for the first time in papillary thyroid cancer, i.e., rearranged anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) gene, although identification of any partner gene(s) is needed. Specifically, rearrangement of ALK was found in 10 of 19 exposed papillary thyroid cancer cases with non-detected gene alterations but not in any of the six non-exposed papillary thyroid cancer cases. Furthermore, papillary thyroid cancer with ALK rearrangement was frequently found in the cases with high radiation dose or with short time elapsed since A-bomb exposure. These results suggest that chromosomal rearrangement, typically of RET and ALK, may play an important

  19. A Dose-Response Strategy Reveals Differences between Normal-Weight and Obese Men in Their Metabolic and Inflammatory Responses to a High-Fat Meal.

    OpenAIRE

    Schwander, Flurina; Kopf-Bolanz, Katrin A.; Buri, Caroline; Portmann, Reto; Egger, Lotti; Chollet, Magali; McTernan, P.G.; Piya, Milan K.; Gijs, Martin A. M.; Vionnet, Nathalie; Pralong, Franc̨ois; Laederach, Kurt; Vergeres, Guy

    2014-01-01

    A dose-response strategy may not only allow investigation of the impact of foods and nutrients on human health but may also reveal differences in the response of individuals to food ingestion based on their metabolic health status. In a randomized crossover study, we challenged 19 normal-weight (BMI: 20-25 kg/m(2)) and 18 obese (BMI: >30 kg/m(2)) men with 500, 1000, and 1500 kcal of a high-fat (HF) meal (60.5% energy from fat). Blood was taken at baseline and up to 6 h postprandially and a...

  20. Clinical Insights on Adult-onset Sporadic Ataxias%成人发病的散发性共济失调症临床诊疗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张颖冬

    2015-01-01

    Adult-onset sporadic ataxias are a group of disorders manifested predominantly with ataxia, due to a variety of the potential causes including intoxication, immune-mediation, vitamins deifciencies, infections, neurodegeneration, and even some hereditary conditions. The clinical spectrum of these disorders is diverse, and their diagnosis remains a challenge. Compared with hereditary ataxias, most ataxias in this group respond the treatment well, that means the signiifcance of timely and correct diagnosis. The advanced biochemical, immune and imaging tools will help the perception and management on those ataxias. Different categories of adult-onset sporadic ataxia were elucidated with the highlight on their clinical features, neuro-imagingand diagnostic criteria.%成人发病的散发性共济失调症是由多种原因所致,临床表现以共济失调为主要的多种疾病。致病原因包括中毒、免疫介导性、维生素缺乏、感染性疾病、变性病以及遗传性疾患等。散发性共济失调临床谱具有明显异质性,临床正确诊断极具挑战性。但相比于遗传性共济失调症,此类疾患多数治疗效果较好,及时、正确诊断尤为重要。现代生化、免疫以及影像学技术有助于此类疾患的认识和诊治。文中综述并讨论可致成人发病的散发性共济失调的不同疾病分类,并着重其临床和神经影像学表现及诊断标准。

  1. 成人原发性噬血细胞综合征一例报告及文献复习%A case report of adult onset of primary hemophagocytic syndrome with literature review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王旖旎; 王昭; 王晓琳

    2012-01-01

    Objective To introduce the clinical manifestations and laboratory tests of adult onset of primary hemophagocytic syndrome ( HPS) , and to investigate the essentials of diagnosis and the genotype characteristics in adult onset patient. Methods The definite diagnosis of HPS was made according to HLH-2004. Exons of PRF1, STX11, UNC13D, SH2D1A and RAB27A genes coding region were amplified using polymerase chain reaction. Results A 48-year-old man was admitted to our hospital because of recurrent fever, pancytopenia and lymph node enlargement. His laboratory test revealed bone marrow hemophagocytosis, elevated ferritin level (2000 μg/L) , reduced level of NK cell activity (20. 13% ) and elevated soluble CD25 level (12277 U/ml). Based on the HLH-2004 diagnostic criteria, the patient was diagnosed as HPS. The patient had viral infection, and no other primary disease was identified that would cause HPS. The patient responded poorly to anti-viral therapy. DNA sequencing was used to confirm that perforin gene mutations might be one of the causes of the patient suffered from primary HPS. Conclusions Although primary HPS usually affects infants and young children, it also occurred in teens and adults. It is essential to perform genetic screenings to patient whose illnesses recur with unknown causes. In addition, detection of molecular genetic alterations can be used to distinguish primary HPS from acquired HPS.%目的 探讨成人原发性噬血细胞综合征(HPS)的诊断要点、成人患者基因表型特点与疾病发生的关系.方法 对1例根据HLH-2004诊断标准确诊的成人HPS患者临床特点进行分析,并采用聚合酶链反应检测穿孔素基因(PRF1)、STX11、UNC13D、SH2D1A和RAB27A基因序列并探讨其发病机制.结果 确诊病例为48岁男性患者,表现为反复发热、全血细胞减少伴淋巴结肿大,骨髓中存在噬血现象、血清铁蛋白升高(2000μg/L)、NK细胞活性下降(20.13%)、可溶性CD25升高(1227.7

  2. Activity-Based Protein Profiling Reveals Mitochondrial Oxidative Enzyme Impairment and Restoration in Diet-Induced Obese Mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadler, Natalie C.; Angel, Thomas E.; Lewis, Michael P.; Pederson, Leeanna M.; Chauvigne-Hines, Lacie M.; Wiedner, Susan D.; Zink, Erika M.; Smith, Richard D.; Wright, Aaron T.

    2012-10-24

    High-fat diet (HFD) induced obesity and concomitant development of insulin resistance (IR) and type 2 diabetes mellitus have been linked to mitochondrial dysfunction. However, it is not clear whether mitochondrial dysfunction is a direct effect of a HFD or if the mitochondrial function is reduced with increased HFD duration. We hypothesized that the function of mitochondrial oxidative and lipid metabolism functions in skeletal muscle mitochondria for HFD mice are similar or elevated relative to standard diet (SD) mice, thereby IR is neither cause nor consequence of mitochondrial dysfunction. We applied a chemical probe approach to identify functionally reactive ATPases and nucleotide-binding proteins in mitochondria isolated from skeletal muscle of C57Bl/6J mice fed HFD or SD chow for 2-, 8-, or 16-weeks; feeding time points known to induce IR. A total of 293 probe-labeled proteins were identified by mass spectrometry-based proteomics, of which 54 differed in abundance between HFD and SD mice. We found proteins associated with the TCA cycle, oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS), and lipid metabolism were altered in function when comparing SD to HFD fed mice at 2-weeks, however by 16-weeks HFD mice had TCA cycle, β-oxidation, and respiratory chain function at levels similar to or higher than SD mice.

  3. Spinocerebellar ataxia type 1 and Machado-Joseph disease: Incidence of CAG expansions among adult-onset ataxia patients from 311 families with dominant, recessive, or sporadic ataxia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ranum, L.P.W.; Gomez, C.; Orr, H.T. [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States)] [and others

    1995-09-01

    The ataxias are a complex group of diseases with both environmental and genetic causes. Among the autosomal dominant forms of ataxia the genes for two, spinocerebellar ataxia type 1 (SCA1) and Machado-Joseph disease (MJD), have been isolated. In both of these disorders the molecular basis of disease is the expansion of an unstable CAG trinucleotide repeat. To assess the frequency of the SCA1 and MJD trinucleotide repeat expansions among individuals diagnosed with ataxia, we have collected DNA from individuals representing 311 families with adult-onset ataxia of unknown etiology and screened these samples for trinucleotide repeat expansions within the SCA1 and MJD genes. Within this group there are 149 families with dominantly inherited ataxia. Of these, 3% have SCA1 trinucleotide repeat expansions, whereas 21% were positive for the MJD trinucleotide expansion. Thus, together SCA1 and MJD represent 24% of the autosomal dominant ataxias in our group, and the frequency of MJD is substantially greater than that of SCA1. For the 57 patients with MJD trinucleotide repeat expansions, a strong inverse correlation between CAG repeat size and age at onset was observed (r = -.838). Among the MJD patients, the normal and affected ranges of CAG repeat size are 14-40 and 68-82 repeats, respectively. For SCA1 the normal and affected ranges are much closer, containing 19-38 and 40-81 CAG repeats, respectively. 30 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  4. Iron Deficiency Anemia in Adult Onset Still's Disease with a Serum Ferritin of 26,387 μg/L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheetal Patel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Serum ferritin rises in the anemia of chronic inflammation reflecting increased iron storage and other changes mediated by inflammation. When iron deficiency coexists, the ferritin may not always decline into the subnormal range. We describe the rare interaction of iron deficiency with the extreme hyperferritinemia characteristic of adult onset Still's disease. The combination has clinical relevance and allows deductions about the presence of serum ferritin at 26,387 μg/L despite obvious iron depletion. The diagnosis of iron deficiency anemia was delayed and became fully obvious when her Still's disease remitted and serum ferritin decreased to 6.5 μg/L. The coexistence of iron deficiency should be considered when evaluating a patient with anemia of chronic inflammation even when the ferritin level is elevated several hundredfold. Further insights on ferritin metabolism in Still's disease are suggested by the likelihood that the patient's massive hyperferritinemia in the acute phase of Still's disease was almost entirely of the iron-free apoferritin form.

  5. Maturity of judgement in decision making for predictive testing for nontreatable adult-onset neurogenetic conditions: a case against predictive testing of minors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, F H

    2006-11-01

    International guidelines developed to minimize harm from predictive testing for adult-onset, nontreatable neurogenetic conditions such as Huntington disease (HD) state that such testing should not be available to minors. Some authors have proposed that predictive testing for these conditions should be available to minors at the request of parents and/or of younger adolescents themselves. They highlight the lack of empirical evidence that predictive testing of minors causes harm and suggest that refusing to test minors may be detrimental. The current study focuses on the context of predictive test requests by adolescents younger than 18 years, and presents arguments and evidence that the risk of potential harm from testing such young people is sufficiently high to justify continued caution in this area. A study based on a model of psychosocial maturity found that the 3 factors involved in maturity of judgement in decision making - responsibility, temperance and perspective - continue to develop into late adolescence. There is also evidence that the prefrontal areas of the brain, which are involved in executive functions such as decision making, are not fully developed until early adulthood. Combined with evidence of adverse long-term effects, from research with adults who have undergone predictive testing, these findings constitute grounds for retaining a minimum age of 18 years for predictive testing for nontreatable conditions. Further research on assessment of maturity will assist with reaching a consensus on this issue.

  6. ALS-linked TDP-43 mutations produce aberrant RNA splicing and adult-onset motor neuron disease without aggregation or loss of nuclear TDP-43.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Eveline S; Ling, Shuo-Chien; Huelga, Stephanie C; Lagier-Tourenne, Clotilde; Polymenidou, Magdalini; Ditsworth, Dara; Kordasiewicz, Holly B; McAlonis-Downes, Melissa; Platoshyn, Oleksandr; Parone, Philippe A; Da Cruz, Sandrine; Clutario, Kevin M; Swing, Debbie; Tessarollo, Lino; Marsala, Martin; Shaw, Christopher E; Yeo, Gene W; Cleveland, Don W

    2013-02-19

    Transactivating response region DNA binding protein (TDP-43) is the major protein component of ubiquitinated inclusions found in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) with ubiquitinated inclusions. Two ALS-causing mutants (TDP-43(Q331K) and TDP-43(M337V)), but not wild-type human TDP-43, are shown here to provoke age-dependent, mutant-dependent, progressive motor axon degeneration and motor neuron death when expressed in mice at levels and in a cell type-selective pattern similar to endogenous TDP-43. Mutant TDP-43-dependent degeneration of lower motor neurons occurs without: (i) loss of TDP-43 from the corresponding nuclei, (ii) accumulation of TDP-43 aggregates, and (iii) accumulation of insoluble TDP-43. Computational analysis using splicing-sensitive microarrays demonstrates alterations of endogenous TDP-43-dependent alternative splicing events conferred by both human wild-type and mutant TDP-43(Q331K), but with high levels of mutant TDP-43 preferentially enhancing exon exclusion of some target pre-mRNAs affecting genes involved in neurological transmission and function. Comparison with splicing alterations following TDP-43 depletion demonstrates that TDP-43(Q331K) enhances normal TDP-43 splicing function for some RNA targets but loss-of-function for others. Thus, adult-onset motor neuron disease does not require aggregation or loss of nuclear TDP-43, with ALS-linked mutants producing loss and gain of splicing function of selected RNA targets at an early disease stage.

  7. Genome-Wide Association Study Reveals Genetic Architecture of Eating Behaviors in Pigs and its Implications for Humans Obesity by Comparative Genome Mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Do, Duy Ngoc; Strathe, Anders Bjerring; Ostersen, Tage;

    2013-01-01

    This study was aimed at identifying genomic regions controlling feeding behaviors inDanish Duroc boars and its potential implications for eating behaviors in humans.Individual daily feed intake (DFI), total daily time spent in feeder (TPD), number of dailyvisits to feeder (NVD), time spent to eat...... chromosome (SSC) 14 was very strongly associated with NVD (p =9.6E-07). Thirty six SNPs were located in genome regions where QTLs havepreviously been reported...... for geneticimprovement of pig feed efficiency. The results of pig-human comparative genemapping revealed some important genomic regions and/or genes on the humangenome that may influence eating behavior in human and consequently affect thedevelopment of obesity and metabolic syndromes. This is the first...

  8. Genome-wide association study reveals genetic architecture of eating behavior in pigs and its implications for humans obesity by comparative mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Do, Duy Ngoc; Strathe, Anders Bjerring; Ostersen, Tage;

    2013-01-01

    are important for genetic improvement of pig feed efficiency. We have also conducted pig-human comparative gene mapping to reveal key genomic regions and/or genes on the human genome that may influence eating behavior in human beings and consequently affect the development of obesity and metabolic syndrome......This study was aimed at identifying genomic regions controlling feeding behavior in Danish Duroc boars and its potential implications for eating behavior in humans. Data regarding individual daily feed intake (DFI), total daily time spent in feeder (TPD), number of daily visits to feeder (NVD......1, PTPN4, MTMR4 and RNGTT) and positive regulation of peptide secretion genes (GHRH, NNAT and TCF7L2) were highly significantly associated with feeding behavior traits. This is the first GWAS to identify genetic variants and biological mechanisms for eating behavior in pigs and these results...

  9. Targeted metabolomic analysis reveals the association between the postprandial change in palmitic acid, branched-chain amino acids and insulin resistance in young obese subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Liyan; Feng, Rennan; Guo, Fuchuan; Li, Ying; Jiao, Jundong; Sun, Changhao

    2015-04-01

    Obesity is the result of a positive energy balance and often leads to difficulties in maintaining normal postprandial metabolism. The changes in postprandial metabolites after an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in young obese Chinese men are unclear. In this work, the aim is to investigate the complex metabolic alterations in obesity provoked by an OGTT using targeted metabolomics. We used gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and ultra high performance liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry to analyze serum fatty acids, amino acids and biogenic amines profiles from 15 control and 15 obese subjects at 0, 30, 60, 90 and 120 min during an OGTT. Metabolite profiles from 30 obese subjects as independent samples were detected in order to validate the change of metabolites. There were the decreased levels of fatty acid, amino acids and biogenic amines after OGTT in obesity. At 120 min, percent change of 20 metabolites in obesity has statistical significance when comparing with the controls. The obese parameters was positively associated with changes in arginine and histidine (Ppalmitic acid (PA), branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) and phenylalanine between 1 and 120 min were positively associated with fasting insulin and HOMA-IR (all P<0.05) in the obese group. The postprandial metabolite of PA and BCAAs may play important role in the development and onset of insulin resistance in obesity. Our findings offer new insights in the complex physiological regulation of the metabolism during an OGTT in obesity.

  10. Joint profiling of miRNAs and mRNAs reveals miRNA mediated gene regulation in the Göttingen minipig obesity model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mentzel, Caroline M. Junker; Alkan, Ferhat; Keinicke, Helle

    2016-01-01

    Obesity and its comorbidities are an increasing challenge for both affected individuals and health care systems, worldwide. In obese individuals, perturbation of expression of both protein-coding genes and microRNAs (miRNA) are seen in obesity-relevant tissues (i.e. adipose tissue, liver and skel......Obesity and its comorbidities are an increasing challenge for both affected individuals and health care systems, worldwide. In obese individuals, perturbation of expression of both protein-coding genes and microRNAs (miRNA) are seen in obesity-relevant tissues (i.e. adipose tissue, liver....... In contrast, pigs are emerging as an excellent animal model for obesity studies, due to their similarities in their metabolism, their digestive tract and their genetics, when compared to humans. The Göttingen minipig is a small sized easy-to-handle pig breed which has been extensively used for modeling human...

  11. Adult Onset Langerhans’ Cell Histiocytosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahime İnci

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Langerhans’ cell histiocytosis (LCH is a group of diseases of unknown cause resulting from abnormal proliferation of bone marrow-originated dendritic cells called histiocytes. The incidence is between 0.5-5.4 per million. More common in childhood, it is extremely rare in adults. In adults, pulmonary involvement with Langerhans’ cell histiocytosis usually occurs as a single-system disease. In this article, the clinical, radiological and histopathological findings of a 51-year-old male patient with both skin, bone and pulmonary involvement were presented and discussed with recent literature.

  12. Adult-onset eosinophilic asthma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, J.C.

    2017-01-01

    In the last decades, it has been recognized that asthma is not a single disease, but comprises several clinical syndromes, which all share respiratory symptoms and lung function abnormalities, associated with different types of airway inflammation. These syndromes are now known as different asthma p

  13. [Adult-onset rare diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfliegler, György; Kovács, Erzsébet; Kovács, György; Urbán, Krisztián; Nagy, Valéria; Brúgós, Boglárka

    2014-03-01

    The present paper is focusing on rare diseases manifesting in late childhood or adulthood. A part of these syndromes are not of genetic origin, such as relatively or absolutely rare infections, autoimmune diseases, tumours, or diseases due to rare environmental toxic agents. In addition, even a large proportion of genetic disorders may develop in adulthood or may have adult forms as well, affecting are almost each medical specialization. Examples are storage disorders (e.g. adult form of Tay-Sachs disease, Gaucher-disease), enzyme deficiencies (e.g. ornithin-transcarbamylase deficiency of the urea cycle disorders), rare thrombophilias (e.g. homozygous factor V. Leiden mutation, antithrombin deficiency), or some rare monogenic disorders such as Huntington-chorea and many others. It is now generally accepted that at least half of the 6-8000 "rare diseases" belong either to the scope of adult-care (e.g. internal medicine, neurology), or to "age-neutral" specialities such as ophtalmology, dermatology etc.).

  14. Adipose tissue gene expression analysis reveals changes in inflammatory, mitochondrial respiratory and lipid metabolic pathways in obese insulin-resistant subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soronen Jarkko

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To get insight into molecular mechanisms underlying insulin resistance, we compared acute in vivo effects of insulin on adipose tissue transcriptional profiles between obese insulin-resistant and lean insulin-sensitive women. Methods Subcutaneous adipose tissue biopsies were obtained before and after 3 and 6 hours of intravenously maintained euglycemic hyperinsulinemia from 9 insulin-resistant and 11 insulin-sensitive females. Gene expression was measured using Affymetrix HG U133 Plus 2 microarrays and qRT-PCR. Microarray data and pathway analyses were performed with Chipster v1.4.2 and by using in-house developed nonparametric pathway analysis software. Results The most prominent difference in gene expression of the insulin-resistant group during hyperinsulinemia was reduced transcription of nuclear genes involved in mitochondrial respiration (mitochondrial respiratory chain, GO:0001934. Inflammatory pathways with complement components (inflammatory response, GO:0006954 and cytokines (chemotaxis, GO:0042330 were strongly up-regulated in insulin-resistant as compared to insulin-sensitive subjects both before and during hyperinsulinemia. Furthermore, differences were observed in genes contributing to fatty acid, cholesterol and triglyceride metabolism (FATP2, ELOVL6, PNPLA3, SREBF1 and in genes involved in regulating lipolysis (ANGPTL4 between the insulin-resistant and -sensitive subjects especially during hyperinsulinemia. Conclusions The major finding of this study was lower expression of mitochondrial respiratory pathway and defective induction of lipid metabolism pathways by insulin in insulin-resistant subjects. Moreover, the study reveals several novel genes whose aberrant regulation is associated with the obese insulin-resistant phenotype.

  15. Kinetic analysis of FTO (fat mass and obesity-associated) reveals that it is unlikely to function as a sensor for 2-oxoglutarate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Marcella; Harding, Heather P; O'Rahilly, Stephen; Ron, David; Yeo, Giles S H

    2012-06-01

    Genomewide-association studies have revealed that SNPs (single nucleotide polymorphisms) in FTO (fat mass and obesity-associated) are robustly associated with BMI (body mass index) and obesity. FTO is an Fe(II) 2-OG (2-oxoglutarate)-dependent dioxygenase that can demethylate 3-meT (3-methylthymine) in single-stranded DNA, as well as 3-meU (3-methyluracil) and N6-methyl adenosine in RNA. In the present paper we describe the development of an RNase-cleavage assay measuring the demethylation activity of FTO on 3-meU. RNase A cleaves at the 3'-end of pyrimidines, including uracil, and a methyl group at position three of uracil inhibits cleavage. An oligonucleotide probe was designed consisting of a DNA stem, an RNA loop containing a single 3-meU as the only RNase A-cleavage site, a fluorescent reporter on one end and a quencher at the other end. FTO demethylation of the unique 3-meU enables RNase A cleavage, releasing the quencher and enabling a fluorescent signal. In the presence of excess RNase A, FTO activity is limiting to the development of fluorescent signal, which can be read continuously and is able to discriminate between wild-type and the catalytically dead R316Q FTO. 2-OG is a co-substrate of FTO and, as a metabolite in the citric acid cycle, is a marker of intracellular nutritional status. The assay described in the present paper was used to measure, for the first time, the K(m) of FTO for 2-OG. The K(m) of 2.88 μM is up to 10-fold lower than the estimated intracellular concentrations of 2-OG, rendering it unlikely that FTO functions as a sensor for 2-OG levels.

  16. Regular inhaled corticosteroids in adult-onset asthma and the risk for future cancer: a population-based cohort study with proper person-time analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kok VC

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Victor C Kok,1,2 Jorng-Tzong Horng,2,3 Hsu-Kai Huang,3 Tsung-Ming Chao,4 Ya-Fang Hong5 1Division of Medical Oncology, Department of Internal Medicine, Kuang Tien General Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan; 2Department of Biomedical Informatics, Asia University Taiwan, Taichung, Taiwan; 3Department of Computer Science and Information Engineering, National Central University, Jhongli, Taiwan; 4Statistics Unit, Department of Applied Geomatics, Chien Hsin University, Jhongli, Taiwan; 5Institute of Molecular Biology, Academia Sinica, Nankang, Taipei, Taiwan Background: Recent studies have shown that inhaled corticosteroids (ICS can exert anti-inflammatory effects for chronic airway diseases, and several observational studies suggest that they play a role as cancer chemopreventive agents, particularly against lung cancer. We aimed to examine whether regular ICS use was associated with a reduced risk for future malignancy in patients with newly diagnosed adult-onset asthma. Methods: We used a population-based cohort study between 2001 and 2008 with appropriate person-time analysis. Participants were followed up until the first incident of cancer, death, or to the end of 2008. The Cox model was used to derive an adjusted hazard ratio (aHR for cancer development. Kaplan–Meier cancer-free survival curves of two groups were compared. Results: The exposed group of 2,117 regular ICS users and the nonexposed group of 17,732 non-ICS users were assembled. After 7,365 (mean, 3.5 years; standard deviation 2.1 and 73,789 (mean, 4.1 years; standard deviation 2.4 person-years of follow-up for the ICS users and the comparator group of non-ICS users, respectively, the aHR for overall cancer was nonsignificantly elevated at 1.33 with 95% confidence interval (CI, 1.00–1.76, P=0.0501. The Kaplan–Meier curves for overall cancer-free proportions of both groups were not significant (log-rank, P=0.065. Synergistic interaction of concurrent presence of regular ICS use was

  17. Adult onset leukoencephalopathy with axonal spheroids and pigmented glia (ALSP) and Nasu-Hakola disease: lesion staging and dynamic changes of axons and microglial subsets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyanagi, Kiyomitsu; Kinoshita, Michiaki; Suzuki-Kouyama, Emi; Inoue, Teruhiko; Nakahara, Asa; Tokiwai, Mika; Arai, Nobutaka; Satoh, Jun-Ichi; Aoki, Naoya; Jinnai, Kenji; Yazawa, Ikuru; Arai, Kimihito; Ishihara, Kenji; Kawamura, Mitsuru; Ishizawa, Keisuke; Hasegawa, Kazuko; Yagisita, Saburo; Amano, Naoji; Yoshida, Kunihiro; Terada, Seishi; Yoshida, Mari; Akiyama, Haruhiko; Mitsuyama, Yoshio; Ikeda, Shu-Ichi

    2016-09-08

    The brains of 10 Japanese patients with adult onset leukoencephalopathy with axonal spheroids and pigmented glia (ALSP) encompassing hereditary diffuse leukoencephalopathy with axonal spheroids (HDLS) and pigmentary orthochromatic leukodystrophy (POLD) and eight Japanese patients with Nasu-Hakola disease (N-HD) and five age-matched Japanese controls were examined neuropathologically with special reference to lesion staging and dynamic changes of microglial subsets. In both diseases, the pathognomonic neuropathological features included spherically swollen axons (spheroids and globules), axon loss and changes of microglia in the white matter. In ALSP, four lesion stages based on the degree of axon loss were discernible: Stage I, patchy axon loss in the cerebral white matter without atrophy; Stage II, large patchy areas of axon loss with slight atrophy of the cerebral white matter and slight dilatation of the lateral ventricles; Stage III, extensive axon loss in the cerebral white matter and dilatation of the lateral and third ventricles without remarkable axon loss in the brainstem and cerebellum; Stage IV, devastated cerebral white matter with marked dilatation of the ventricles and axon loss in the brainstem and/or cerebellum. Internal capsule and pontine base were relatively well preserved in the N-HD, even at Stage IV, and the swollen axons were larger with a higher density in the ALSP. Microglial cells immunopositive for CD68, CD163 or CD204 were far more obvious in ALSP, than in N-HD, and the shape and density of the cells changed in each stage. With progression of the stage, clinical symptoms became worse to apathetic state, and epilepsy was frequently observed in patients at Stages III and IV in both diseases. From these findings, it is concluded that (i) shape, density and subsets of microglia change dynamically along the passage of stages and (ii) increase of IBA-1-, CD68-, CD163- and CD204-immunopositive cells precedes loss of axons in ALSP.

  18. TLR4 Endogenous Ligand S100A8/A9 Levels in Adult-Onset Still’s Disease and Their Association with Disease Activity and Clinical Manifestations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyoun-Ah Kim

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available S100A8/A9 has been suggested as a marker of disease activity in patients with adult-onset Still’s disease (AOSD. We evaluated the clinical significance of S100A8/A9 as a biomarker and its pathogenic role in AOSD. Blood samples were collected prospectively from 20 AOSD patients and 20 healthy controls (HCs. Furthermore, skin and lymph node biopsy specimens of AOSD patients were investigated for S100A8/A9 expression levels via immunohistochemistry. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs of active AOSD patients and HCs were investigated for S100A8/A9 cell signals. S100A8/A9, interleukin-1β (IL-1β, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α levels in active AOSD patients were higher than those of HCs. S100A8/A9 levels correlated positively with IL-1β, TNF-α and C-reactive protein. The inflammatory cells expressing S100A8/A9 were graded from one to three in skin and lymph node biopsies of AOSD patients. The grading for S100A8/A9 was more intense in the skin lesions with karyorrhexis, mucin deposition, and neutrophil infiltration. Like lipopolysaccharide (LPS, S100A8/A9 induced phosphorylation of p38 and c-Jun amino-terminal kinase (JNK in PBMCs, suggesting that S100A8/A9 activates Toll-like receptor 4 signaling pathways. These findings suggest that S100A8/A9 may be involved in the inflammatory response with induction of proinflammatory cytokines and may serve as a clinicopathological marker for disease activity in AOSD.

  19. Mutations in zebrafish lrp2 result in adult-onset ocular pathogenesis that models myopia and other risk factors for glaucoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerry N Veth

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The glaucomas comprise a genetically complex group of retinal neuropathies that typically occur late in life and are characterized by progressive pathology of the optic nerve head and degeneration of retinal ganglion cells. In addition to age and family history, other significant risk factors for glaucoma include elevated intraocular pressure (IOP and myopia. The complexity of glaucoma has made it difficult to model in animals, but also challenging to identify responsible genes. We have used zebrafish to identify a genetically complex, recessive mutant that shows risk factors for glaucoma including adult onset severe myopia, elevated IOP, and progressive retinal ganglion cell pathology. Positional cloning and analysis of a non-complementing allele indicated that non-sense mutations in low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 2 (lrp2 underlie the mutant phenotype. Lrp2, previously named Megalin, functions as an endocytic receptor for a wide-variety of bioactive molecules including Sonic hedgehog, bone morphogenic protein 4, retinol-binding protein, vitamin D-binding protein, and apolipoprotein E, among others. Detailed phenotype analyses indicated that as lrp2 mutant fish age, many individuals--but not all--develop high IOP and severe myopia with obviously enlarged eye globes. This results in retinal stretch and prolonged stress to retinal ganglion cells, which ultimately show signs of pathogenesis. Our studies implicate altered Lrp2-mediated homeostasis as important for myopia and other risk factors for glaucoma in humans and establish a new genetic model for further study of phenotypes associated with this disease.

  20. Doença de Castleman mimetizando doença de Still do adulto Castleman's disease mimicking adult-onset Still's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Diniz Lopes Marques

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available A doença de Castleman (DC é uma doença linfoproliferativa não neoplásica rara, de etiologia desconhecida, que se caracteriza clinicamente por adenomegalias isoladas ou múltiplas, podendo ou não estar associada a sintomas sistêmicos, como febre e perda de peso. Estes sintomas podem levar a um diagnóstico equivocado de doença auto-imune e o diagnóstico diferencial deve ser feito através de exame anatomopatológico do linfonodo acometido, que caracteristicamente, na DC, mostra um padrão de células plasmáticas com infiltrado hialino. Os autores relatam o caso de uma paciente de 24 anos de idade, com apresentação inicial de febre, poliartrite e "rash", sugerindo doença de Still do adulto cujo achado anatomopatológico confirmou o diagnóstico de DC.Castleman's disease (CD is rare nonmalignant lymphoproliferative illness, of unknown etiology, clinically characterized by isolated or multiple adenomegalies, associated or not with systemic symptoms such as fever and weight loss. These symptoms can lead to a wrong diagnosis of autoimmune illness and the differential diagnosis must be made through histological examination of involved lymph nodes, which shows, in the case of CD, a pattern of plasma cells with hyaline infiltration. A case of a woman of 24-year-old, who initially presented fever, polyarthritis and skin rash, suggestive adult-onset Still's disease is reported; the histological examination confirmed the diagnosis of Castleman's disease.

  1. Mass Spectrometry Imaging Reveals Elevated Glomerular ATP/AMP in Diabetes/obesity and Identifies Sphingomyelin as a Possible Mediator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi Miyamoto

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK is suppressed in diabetes and may be due to a high ATP/AMP ratio, however the quantitation of nucleotides in vivo has been extremely difficult. Via matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry imaging (MALDI-MSI to localize renal nucleotides we found that the diabetic kidney had a significant increase in glomerular ATP/AMP ratio. Untargeted MALDI-MSI analysis revealed that a specific sphingomyelin species (SM(d18:1/16:0 accumulated in the glomeruli of diabetic and high-fat diet-fed mice compared with wild-type controls. In vitro studies in mesangial cells revealed that exogenous addition of SM(d18:1/16:0 significantly elevated ATP via increased glucose consumption and lactate production with a consequent reduction of AMPK and PGC1α. Furthermore, inhibition of sphingomyelin synthases reversed these effects. Our findings suggest that AMPK is reduced in the diabetic kidney due to an increase in the ATP/AMP ratio and that SM(d18:1/16:0 could be responsible for the enhanced ATP production via activation of the glycolytic pathway.

  2. Genetics of Childhood Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianhua Zhao

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a major health problem and an immense economic burden on the health care systems both in the United States and the rest of the world. The prevalence of obesity in children and adults in the United States has increased dramatically over the past decade. Besides environmental factors, genetic factors are known to play an important role in the pathogenesis of obesity. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS have revealed strongly associated genomic variants associated with most common disorders; indeed there is general consensus on these findings from generally positive replication outcomes by independent groups. To date, there have been only a few GWAS-related reports for childhood obesity specifically, with studies primarily uncovering loci in the adult setting instead. It is clear that a number of loci previously reported from GWAS analyses of adult BMI and/or obesity also play a role in childhood obesity.

  3. Obesity and diabetes epidemics: cancer repercussions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjartåker, Anette; Langseth, Hilde; Weiderpass, Elisabete

    2008-01-01

    The prevalence of overweight (body mass index, BMI, between 25 and 30 kg/m2) and obesity (BMI of 30 kg/m2 or higher) is increasing rapidly worldwide, especially in developing countries and countries undergoing economic transition to a market economy. One consequence of obesity is an increased risk of developing type II diabetes. Overall, there is considerable evidence that overweight and obesity are associated with risk for some of the most common cancers. There is convincing evidence of a positive association between overweight/obesity and risk for adenocarcinoma of the oesophagus and the gastric cardia, colorectal cancer, postmenopausal breast cancer, endometrial cancer and kidney cancer (renal-cell). Premenopausal breast cancer seems to be inversely related to obesity. For all other cancer sites the evidence of an association between overweight/obesity and cancer is inadequate, although there are studies suggesting an increased risk of cancers of the liver, gallbladder, pancreas, thyroid gland and in lymphoid and haematopoietic tissue. Far less is known about the association between diabetes mellitus type I (also called insulin dependent diabetes mellitus or juvenile diabetes), type II diabetes (called non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus or adult onset diabetes mellitus) and cancer risk. The most common type of diabetes mellitus, type II, seems to be associated with liver and pancreas cancer and probably with colorectal cancer. Some studies suggest an association with endometrial and postmenopausal breast cancer. Studies reporting on the association between type I diabetes mellitus, which is relatively rare in most populations and cancer risk are scanty, but suggest a possible association with endometrial cancer. Overweight and obesity, as well as type II diabetes mellitus are largely preventable through changes in lifestyle. The fundamental causes of the obesity epidemic-and consequently the diabetes type II epidemic-are societal, resulting from an

  4. IL-2 immunotherapy reveals potential for innate beta cell regeneration in the non-obese diabetic mouse model of autoimmune diabetes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaiza Diaz-de-Durana

    Full Text Available Type-1 diabetes (T1D is an autoimmune disease targeting insulin-producing beta cells, resulting in dependence on exogenous insulin. To date, significant efforts have been invested to develop immune-modulatory therapies for T1D treatment. Previously, IL-2 immunotherapy was demonstrated to prevent and reverse T1D at onset in the non-obese diabetic (NOD mouse model, revealing potential as a therapy in early disease stage in humans. In the NOD model, IL-2 deficiency contributes to a loss of regulatory T cell function. This deficiency can be augmented with IL-2 or antibody bound to IL-2 (Ab/IL-2 therapy, resulting in regulatory T cell expansion and potentiation. However, an understanding of the mechanism by which reconstituted regulatory T cell function allows for reversal of diabetes after onset is not clearly understood. Here, we describe that Ab/IL-2 immunotherapy treatment, given at the time of diabetes onset in NOD mice, not only correlated with reversal of diabetes and expansion of Treg cells, but also demonstrated the ability to significantly increase beta cell proliferation. Proliferation appeared specific to Ab/IL-2 immunotherapy, as anti-CD3 therapy did not have a similar effect. Furthermore, to assess the effect of Ab/IL-2 immunotherapy well after the development of diabetes, we tested the effect of delaying treatment for 4 weeks after diabetes onset, when beta cells were virtually absent. At this late stage after diabetes onset, Ab/IL-2 treatment was not sufficient to reverse hyperglycemia. However, it did promote survival in the absence of exogenous insulin. Proliferation of beta cells could not account for this improvement as few beta cells remained. Rather, abnormal insulin and glucagon dual-expressing cells were the only insulin-expressing cells observed in islets from mice with established disease. Thus, these data suggest that in diabetic NOD mice, beta cells have an innate capacity for regeneration both early and late in disease

  5. Asthma and obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulrik, Charlotte S

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Obesity has significant negative impact on asthma control and risk of exacerbations. The purpose of this review is to discuss recent studies evaluating the effects of weight reduction on asthma control in obese adults. RECENT FINDINGS: Clinical studies have shown that weight...... reduction in obese patients is associated with improvements in symptoms, use of controller medication, and asthma-related quality of life together with a reduction in the risk for severe exacerbations. Furthermore, several studies have also revealed improvements in lung function and airway responsiveness...... reduction in obese adults with asthma leads to an overall improvement in asthma control, including airway hyperresponsiveness and inflammation. Weight reduction should be a cornerstone in the management of obese patients with asthma....

  6. Obesity and Asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juel, Caroline Trunk-Black; Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli

    2013-01-01

    Asthma is more prevalent in obese compared with normal weight subjects. Our aim has been to review current knowledge of the impact of obesity on asthma severity, asthma control, and response to therapy.Several studies have shown that overweight and obesity is associated with more severe asthma...... and impaired quality of life compared with normal weight individuals. Furthermore, obesity is associated with poorer asthma control, as assessed by asthma control questionnaires, limitations in daily activities, breathlessness and wheezing, use of rescue medication, unscheduled doctor visits, emergency...... department visits, and hospitalizations for acute asthma. Studies of the impact of a high body mass index (BMI) on response to asthma therapy have, however, revealed conflicting results. Most studies show that overweight and obesity is associated with less favorable response to asthma therapy with regard...

  7. Doença de still do adulto: diagnóstico e evolução Adult-onset still disease: diagnosis and evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Appenzeller

    2003-12-01

    clinical manifestations at disease onset and during follow-up of patients with Adult-Onset Still Disease (AOSD in a tertiary university hospital in Brazil. METHODS: Thirteen cases of AOSD were identified in the Arthritis Outpatients Unit - Unicamp. Their clinical records were reviewed retrospectively in order to determine clinical manifestations regarding disease onset, follow-up and prescription. RESULTS: The prevalence of AOSD was 4.3%. The mean age of disease onset was 30.8 years old with a slight prevalence of men (54.2%. Constitutional symptoms, fever and cutaneous rash were observed in all cases. Hepatic involvement was observed in 11 patients, splenomegaly in 4, hematuria in 4, cardiac involvement in 2 and pleuritis in 2. Poliarticular involvement was observed more frequently, and 50% of them presented carpal ankylosis after 3 years of follow-up. Ferritine was elevated in 9 of 13 patients during active disease. All patients used oral non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, steroids and 7 patients needed methotrexate. CONCLUSIONS: Although AOSD is a rare multisystemic rheumatic disorder, it should always be considered in febrile cases with poliarthritis. Neoplasia and infection should always be excluded. Normally it is characterized by a chronic course and carpal ankylosis as the main disabling feature.

  8. Cultivating childhood obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Greene-Martin, DeCleasha

    2013-01-01

    In recent years the levels of obesity in the United States has risen greatly especially amongst children. Doctors, psychologists, and other scientists have been studying the growing problem for years. Implications for childhood obesity not only have enormous physical consequences but emotional repercussions which can affect the child’s academic and social development. A number of factors have been identified as having an effect on these children; family life reveals the grocery store habits o...

  9. Childhood Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuca, Sevil Ari, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    This book aims to provide readers with a general as well as an advanced overview of the key trends in childhood obesity. Obesity is an illness that occurs due to a combination of genetic, environmental, psychosocial, metabolic and hormonal factors. The prevalence of obesity has shown a great rise both in adults and children in the last 30 years.…

  10. A Dose-Response Strategy Reveals Differences between Normal-Weight and Obese Men in Their Metabolic and Inflammatory Responses to a High-Fat Meal 1 2 3

    OpenAIRE

    Schwander, Flurina; Kopf-Bolanz, Katrin A.; Buri, Caroline; Portmann, Reto; Egger, Lotti; Chollet, Magali; McTernan, Philip G.; Piya, Milan K.; Gijs, Martin A. M.; Vionnet, Nathalie; Pralong, François; Laederach, Kurt; Vergères, Guy

    2014-01-01

    A dose-response strategy may not only allow investigation of the impact of foods and nutrients on human health but may also reveal differences in the response of individuals to food ingestion based on their metabolic health status. In a randomized crossover study, we challenged 19 normal-weight (BMI: 20–25 kg/m2) and 18 obese (BMI: >30 kg/m2) men with 500, 1000, and 1500 kcal of a high-fat (HF) meal (60.5% energy from fat). Blood was taken at baseline and up to 6 h postprandially and analyzed...

  11. [Inequality, poverty and obesity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Vanessa Alves; Silva, Aline Elizabeth; Rodrigues, Chrystiellen Ayana Aparecida; Nunes, Nádia Lúcia Almeida; Vigato, Tássia Cassimiro; Magalhães, Rosana

    2010-06-01

    National studies have been demonstrating the positive relationship among inequality, poverty and obesity revealing the singularities and complexity of the nutritional transition in Brazil. In this direction, the women constitute a vulnerable group to the dynamics of the obesity in the poverty context. Such fact imposes the theoretical deepening and the accomplishment of researches that make possible a larger approach with the phenomenon in subject. In this perspective, the study analyzed the daily life of poor and obese women, users of basic units of health of the city of Diamantina, Vale do Jequitinhonha, Minas Gerais State. The results revealed the complex relationship between feminine obesity and poverty. The cultural and material aspects of life, as well as the different feeding and body conceptions that demonstrated to be fundamental elements for the analysis of the multiple faces of the obesity among the investigated group. Facing these results it is appropriate to encourage public policies that promote equity widening the access of those groups to the main resources for the prevention and combat of obesity.

  12. Childhood obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seth, Anju; Sharma, Rajni

    2013-04-01

    Childhood obesity is an issue of serious medical and social concern. In developing countries including India, it is a phenomenon seen in higher socioeconomic strata due to the adoption of a western lifestyle. Consumption of high calorie food, lack of physical activity and increased screen time are major risk factors for childhood obesity apart from other genetic, prenatal factors and socio-cultural practices. Obese children and adolescents are at increased risk of medical and psychological complications. Insulin resistance is commonly present especially in those with central obesity and manifests as dyslipidemia, type 2 diabetes mellitus, impaired glucose tolerance, hypertension, polycystic ovarian syndrome and metabolic syndrome. Obese children and adolescents often present to general physicians for management. The latter play a key role in prevention and treatment of obesity as it involves lifestyle modification of the entire family. This article aims at discussing the approach to diagnosis and work-up, treatment and preventive strategies for childhood obesity from a general physician's perspective.

  13. Nursing for 1 Case with Adult-onset Still's Disease and Diabetes Treated by Hormone%一例成人斯蒂尔病并激素治疗相关性糖尿病的护理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    向艳

    2015-01-01

    目的:1例成人斯蒂尔病并激素治疗的相关糖尿病护理。方法对该院收治的1例成人斯蒂尔病并激素治疗相关糖尿病患者护理情况进行分析。结果患者治疗完成后,能够较好的提升自身免疫能力以及胰岛素敏感性,因此患者在经过相关的治疗后能够得到较好的治疗效果。结论成人斯蒂尔病临床表现主要为发热体温多高于39℃,关节炎,咽痛,肌痛淋巴结肿大脾肿大,腹痛,胸痛,肝肿大,胸膜炎,心包炎肺炎等可能始终未全部表现。%Objective To analyze the corresponding nursing for 1 case with adult-onset Still's disease and diabetes treated by hormone. Methods The nursing for 1 case with adult-onset Still's disease and diabetes treated by hormone in our hospital was analyzed. Results After treatment, the immune ability and insulin sensitivity of the patients could be improved considerably, so the curative effect of corresponding treatment was good. Conclusion the clinical manifestations of the disease, mainly fever temperature is much higher than 39 ℃, arthritis, sore throat, muscle pain, swollen lymph nodes, splenomegaly, abdominal pain, chest pain, hepatomegaly, pleurisy, cp pneumonia, but not all symptoms develop performance may be in the course of the disease to be months or even years to more fully, could never full performance.

  14. Plastics derived endocrine disruptors (BPA, DEHP and DBP induce epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of obesity, reproductive disease and sperm epimutations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohan Manikkam

    Full Text Available Environmental compounds are known to promote epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of adult onset disease in subsequent generations (F1-F3 following ancestral exposure during fetal gonadal sex determination. The current study was designed to determine if a mixture of plastic derived endocrine disruptor compounds bisphenol-A (BPA, bis(2-ethylhexylphthalate (DEHP and dibutyl phthalate (DBP at two different doses promoted epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of adult onset disease and associated DNA methylation epimutations in sperm. Gestating F0 generation females were exposed to either the "plastics" or "lower dose plastics" mixture during embryonic days 8 to 14 of gonadal sex determination and the incidence of adult onset disease was evaluated in F1 and F3 generation rats. There were significant increases in the incidence of total disease/abnormalities in F1 and F3 generation male and female animals from plastics lineages. Pubertal abnormalities, testis disease, obesity, and ovarian disease (primary ovarian insufficiency and polycystic ovaries were increased in the F3 generation animals. Kidney and prostate disease were only observed in the direct fetally exposed F1 generation plastic lineage animals. Analysis of the plastics lineage F3 generation sperm epigenome previously identified 197 differential DNA methylation regions (DMR in gene promoters, termed epimutations. A number of these transgenerational DMR form a unique direct connection gene network and have previously been shown to correlate with the pathologies identified. Observations demonstrate that a mixture of plastic derived compounds, BPA and phthalates, can promote epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of adult onset disease. The sperm DMR provide potential epigenetic biomarkers for transgenerational disease and/or ancestral environmental exposures.

  15. Obesity, inflammation, and liver cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Beicheng; Karin, Michael

    2012-03-01

    Obesity has become a universal and major public health problem with increasing prevalence in both adults and children in the 21st century, even in developing countries. Extensive epidemiological studies reveal a strong link between obesity and development and progression of various types of cancers. The connection between obesity and liver cancer is particularly strong and obesity often results in liver diseases such as non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and the more severe non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). NASH is characterized by fatty liver inflammation and is believed to cause fibrosis and cirrhosis. The latter is a known liver cancer risk factor. In fact due to its much higher prevalence obesity may be a more substantial contributor to overall hepatocellular carcinoma burden than infection with hepatitis viruses. Here we review and discuss recent advances in elucidation of cellular and molecular alterations and signaling pathways associated with obesity and liver inflammation and their contribution to hepatocarcinogenesis.

  16. Obesity Statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kristy Breuhl; Smith, Michael Seth

    2016-03-01

    Obesity is a chronic disease that is strongly associated with an increase in mortality and morbidity including, certain types of cancer, cardiovascular disease, disability, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, osteoarthritis, and stroke. In adults, overweight is defined as a body mass index (BMI) of 25 kg/m(2) to 29 kg/m(2) and obesity as a BMI of greater than 30 kg/m(2). If current trends continue, it is estimated that, by the year 2030, 38% of the world's adult population will be overweight and another 20% obese. Significant global health strategies must reduce the morbidity and mortality associated with the obesity epidemic.

  17. [Adult-onset case of idiopathic neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation without mutations in the PANK2 and PLA2G6 genes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saiki, Shinji; Sekine, Takeshi; Ueno, Yuji; Yoshino, Hiroyo; Takahashi, Junko; Tani, Yoshihiko; Kambe, Yasunori; Motoi, Yumiko; Hattori, Nobutaka

    2009-08-01

    A 47-year-old man with a 15-year history of bipolar disorder treated with anti-depressants, lithium carbonate or neuroleptics was admitted because of marked difficulty in gait and speech. At the age 45, he was unable to walk without bilateral assists and became a wheel-chair state. There was no family history and his mother, father and younger sister were neurologically free. General physical examinations revealed no abnormalities. Neurologically, he was moderately demented (mini mental state examination: 18/30) and showed bilateral horizontal gaze nystagmus, parkinsonism, cerebellar ataxia, dysarthria and moderate spastic paraparesis. No involuntary movements were noted. Wet blood smear showed acanthocytes, while blood chemistries revealed no abnormalities including levels of serum creatine kinase, hepatic enzymes and blood beta-lipoprotein. Kell antigen expressions of the red blood cells were within normal limit. Western blot analysis with anti-chorein antibody detected normal chorein expression levels of the red blood cells. Cranial MRI showed severe symmetric atrophy of the frontotemporal lobes, caudate nuclei, putamen, and brainstem. Also, MRI-gradient echo showed symmetric iron accumulation in the medial portion of the globus pallidus without surrounding high intensity areas, so called "eye-of-the-tiger sign". Genetic analyses revealed no mutations in the PANK2 and PLA2G6 genes. Therefore, he was diagnosed as idiopathic neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation (NBIA). These findings suggest that NBIA is heterogeneous and other additional genes remain to be found.

  18. Childhood obesity treatment and prevention. Psychological perspectives of clinical approaches

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Catena Quattropani; Teresa Buccheri

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This work focuses on clinical psychologist’ presence within childhood obesity prevention programmes in several countries. Method: The Authors collected articles considering psychological, biological and social aspects linked to childhood obesity. Results: Studies reveal that childhood obesity prevention programmes are based on biological, medical and educational aspects; clinical psychologists up until now have been engaged almost exclusively in the treatment of obesity. Conclusion...

  19. Childhood obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, R

    1999-01-01

    Approximately 10% of children are obese. Twin and adoption studies demonstrate a large genetic component to obesity, especially in adults. However, the increasing prevalence of obesity over the last 20 years can only be explained by environmental factors. In most obese individuals, no measurable differences in metabolism can be detected. Few children engage in regular physical activity. Obese children and adults uniformly underreport the amount of food they eat. Obesity is particularly related to increased consumption of high-fat foods. BMI is a quick and easy way to screen for childhood obesity. Treating childhood obesity relies on positive family support and lifestyle changes involving the whole family. Food preferences are influenced early by parental eating habits, and when developed in childhood, they tend to remain fairly constant into adulthood. Children learn to be active or inactive from their parents. In addition, physical activity (or more commonly, physical inactivity) habits that are established in childhood tend to persist into adulthood. Weight loss is usually followed by changes in appetite and metabolism, predisposing individuals to regain their weight. However, when the right family dynamics exist--a motivated child with supportive parents--long-term success is possible.

  20. Targeted deletion of growth hormone (GH) receptor in macrophage reveals novel osteopontin-mediated effects of GH on glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity in diet-induced obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Chunxia; Kumar, P Anil; Sun, Jinhong; Aggarwal, Anjali; Fan, Yong; Sperling, Mark A; Lumeng, Carey N; Menon, Ram K

    2013-05-31

    We investigated GH action on macrophage (MΦ) by creating a MΦ-specific GH receptor-null mouse model (MacGHR KO). On a normal diet (10% fat), MacGHR KO and littermate controls exhibited similar growth profiles and glucose excursions on intraperitoneal glucose (ipGTT) and insulin tolerance (ITT) tests. However, when challenged with high fat diet (HFD, 45% fat) for 18 weeks, MacGHR KO mice exhibited impaired ipGTT and ITT compared with controls. In MacGHR KO, adipose-tissue (AT) MΦ abundance was increased with skewing toward M1 polarization. Expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL1β, TNF-α, IL6, and osteopontin (OPN)) were increased in MacGHR KO AT stromal vascular fraction (SVF). In MacGHR KO AT, crown-like-structures were increased with decreased insulin-dependent Akt phosphorylation. The abundance of phosphorylated NF-κB and of OPN was increased in SVF and bone-marrow-derived MΦ in MacGHR KO. GH, acting via an NF-κB site in the distal OPN promoter, inhibited the OPN promoter. Thus in diet-induced obesity (DIO), lack of GH action on the MΦ exerts an unexpected deleterious effect on glucose homeostasis by accentuating AT inflammation and NF-κB-dependent activation of OPN expression. These novel results in mice support the possibility that administration of GH could have salutary effects on DIO-associated chronic inflammation and insulin resistance in humans.

  1. Obesity and gastrointestinal neoplasms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabela Binkowska-Borgosz

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Being overweight or obese is a significant public health problem in the 21st century due to its scale, common existence and its cause-effect association with multiple diseases. Excessive accumulation of adipose tissue in humans is regarded as a major risk factor for development of cardiovascular and skeletal diseases. However, data from recent years have revealed that obesity is also strongly associated with increased risk of the majority of cancers in humans, including those originating from the gastrointestinal tract. During the last few year this association has been thoroughly proven and supported by several epidemiological analyses. The authors present i the current state of knowledge regarding key (pathomechanisms that link metabolism of human adipose tissue to development/progression of neoplasms (especially in the gastrointestinal tract, as well as ii the results of selected clinical studies in which the influence of obesity on risk of gastrointestinal cancer development has been addressed.

  2. Gut microbiota and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gérard, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    The human intestine harbors a complex bacterial community called the gut microbiota. This microbiota is specific to each individual despite the existence of several bacterial species shared by the majority of adults. The influence of the gut microbiota in human health and disease has been revealed in the recent years. Particularly, the use of germ-free animals and microbiota transplant showed that the gut microbiota may play a causal role in the development of obesity and associated metabolic disorders, and lead to identification of several mechanisms. In humans, differences in microbiota composition, functional genes and metabolic activities are observed between obese and lean individuals suggesting a contribution of the gut microbiota to these phenotypes. Finally, the evidence linking gut bacteria to host metabolism could allow the development of new therapeutic strategies based on gut microbiota modulation to treat or prevent obesity.

  3. Dietary treatments of obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, W

    1987-01-01

    Dietary treatment of obesity is based on one or another of two premises: that the obese eat too much or that they eat the wrong things. The first is a tautology lacking explanatory power. The second is a meaningful and promising hypothesis but has yet to be effectively applied. At present, virtually all outpatient treatments of obesity, including behavior modification, are based on the first premise and consist of strategies for reducing the subject's caloric intake. Most such interventions produce short-term weight loss. Regain after the end of treatment remains the usual outcome. A survey of studies published in the period 1977-1986 and reporting on dietary or behavioral treatment of obesity reveals that the maximum percentage of body weight lost is, on average, 8.5 percent--no different from the value, 8.9%, in similar studies from 1966-1976, as reviewed by Wing and Jeffery. The principal determinant of success in such programs appears to be the intake weight of the subjects: the higher the intake weight, the more successful the intervention will appear to be. The goals and research methods of studies on dietary treatments for obesity are overdue for ethical as well as scientific reevaluation. The same may be said for the numerous programs providing such treatment outside the context of research.

  4. Obesity & osteoarthritis

    OpenAIRE

    King, Lauren K.; Lyn March; Ananthila Anandacoomarasamy

    2013-01-01

    The most significant impact of obesity on the musculoskeletal system is associated with osteoarthritis (OA), a disabling degenerative joint disorder characterized by pain, decreased mobility and negative impact on quality of life. OA pathogenesis relates to both excessive joint loading and altered biomechanical patterns together with hormonal and cytokine dysregulation. Obesity is associated with the incidence and progression of OA of both weight-bearing and non weight-bearing joints, to rate...

  5. Childhood obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Wilkinson, Justine; Howard, Simon

    2006-01-01

    Childhood obesity has important consequences for health and wellbeing both during childhood and also in later adult life. The rising prevalence of childhood obesity poses a major public health challenge in both developed and developing countries by increasing the burden of chronic non-communicable diseases. Despite the urgent need for effective preventative strategies, there remains disagreement over its definition due to a lack of evidence on the optimal cut-offs linking childhood BMI to dis...

  6. Glomerular volume and renal histology in obese and non-obese living kidney donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rea, D J; Heimbach, J K; Grande, J P; Textor, S C; Taler, S J; Prieto, M; Larson, T S; Cosio, F G; Stegall, M D

    2006-11-01

    The link between obesity and renal disease is unclear, and there is no consensus as to whether obese individuals are at increased risk for kidney disease after living kidney donation if they otherwise meet acceptance criteria. We retrospectively studied time-zero (implantation) biopsies in 49 obese (body mass index (BMI) > or = 30 kg/m2) and 41 non-obese (BMI < 30 kg/m2) renal donors that met acceptance criteria. We found that our obese donor population had higher systolic blood pressure (P < 0.001 vs non-obese) and higher absolute iothalamate clearance (P = 0.001 vs non-obese) before donation. The obese donors had larger glomerular planar surface area compared to non-obese controls (P = 0.017), and this parameter correlated with patient weight and urinary microalbumin excretion. Detailed examination of the biopsies revealed that although most histologic findings were similar between groups, the obese donors had more tubular dilation (P = 0.01), but less tubular vacuolization (P = 0.02) than the non-obese controls. There was also a trend toward more arterial hyalinosis in the obese patients than controls (P = 0.08). From these data, our studies detected subtle differences in donor organs obtained from obese compared to non-obese individuals. Further studies should be carried out to quantify the long-term impact of these findings.

  7. Hormones and Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Balance › Hormones and Obesity Fact Sheet Hormones and Obesity March, 2010 Download PDFs English Espanol Editors Caroline Apovian, MD Judith Korner, MD, PhD What is obesity? Obesity is a chronic (long-term) medical problem ...

  8. Adult-onset acute rheumatic fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakashima, Dainari; Ueda, Kohei; Tsukuda, Kyozo; Utsu, Noriaki; Kohki, Shimazu; Fushimi, Hiroaki; Miyakoshi, Kazuho

    2012-01-01

    A 62-year-old man was hospitalized for acute rheumatic fever. He had previously suffered from rheumatic fever at 15 years of age. The rheumatic fever was complicated by carditis, which caused valve disease that required surgical treatment. The incidence of rheumatic fever has decreased in most developed countries with improvements in sanitary conditions. The low incidence of this disease makes a timely and accurate diagnosis difficult. Due to the fact that both the first occurrence and recurrence of acute rheumatic fever can occur in the elderly and adults, this potential disease should not be overlooked when making a differential diagnosis.

  9. Adult-Onset Metachromatic Leukodystrophy: Two Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaye Eryaşar

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Metachromatic Leukodystrophy(MLD is a lisosomal storage disorder which is characterized with arylsulphatase A deficiency. Enzyme deficiency results with demiyelination and storage of sulphatides in central nervous system.According to onset age;the disease has three major clinical forms as late infantile,juvenile and adult form. It is a rare disorder. For the patients who did not develop neurological findings bone marrow or hematopoietic stem cell transplantation may be effective as treatment.

  10. Obesity and Physical Modalities

    OpenAIRE

    Kokino, Siranuş; Özdemir, Ferda; Zateri, Coşkun

    2006-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity is increasing. It is one of the commonest pathologies in developed countries. In general, obesity is caused by an imbalance between energy obtained by food and energy expended. A sedentary life-style is also associated with obesity and obesity-related chronic diseases. The result of childhood obesity is adult obesity, so obesity should be treated early. Obesity is a complex problem and effective treatment will probably require incorporation of different approaches. I...

  11. Endocannabinoids and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guoxun; Pang, Zhen

    2013-01-01

    A safe and effective antiobesity drug is needed to combat the global obesity epidemic. The discovery of cannabinoids from medicinal herbs has revealed the endocannabinoid system (ECS) in animals and humans, which regulates various physiological activities such as feeding, thermogenesis, and body weight (BW). Although cannabinoid receptors 1 (CB1) antagonists have shown antiobesity efficacies in animal models and in the clinic, they failed to establish as a treatment due to their psychological side effects. Recent studies indicate that CB1 in various peripheral tissues may mediate some of the therapeutic effects of CB1 antagonists, such as improved lipid and glucose homeostasis. It rationalizes the development of compounds with limited brain penetration, for minimizing the side effects while retaining the therapeutic efficacies. A survey of the literature has revealed some controversies about how the ECS affects obesity. This review summarizes the research progresses and discusses some future perspectives.

  12. Animal models in obesity and hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segal-Lieberman, Gabriella; Rosenthal, Talma

    2013-06-01

    Although obesity is a well-known risk factor for hypertension, the mechanisms by which hypertension develops in obese patients are not entirely clear. Animal models of obesity and their different susceptibilities to develop hypertension have revealed some of the mechanisms linking obesity and hypertension. Adipose tissue is an endocrine organ secreting hormones that impact blood pressure, such as elements of the renin-angiotensin system whose role in hypertension have been established. In addition, the appetite-suppressing adipokine leptin activates the sympathetic nervous system via the melanocortin system, and this activation, especially in the kidney, increases blood pressure. Leptin secretion from adipocytes is increased in most models of obesity due to leptin resistance, although the resistance is often selective to the anorexigenic effect, while the susceptibility to the hypertensive effect remains intact. Understanding the pathways by which obesity contributes to increased blood pressure will hopefully pave the way to and better define the appropriate treatment for obesity-induced hypertension.

  13. 甲状腺激素对大鼠额叶乙酰胆碱的影响%Effect of thyroxine on acetylcholine level in the prefrontal cortex of rats with adult-onset hypothyroidism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘俊霞; 朱德发; 王芬; 王取南; 马维青

    2011-01-01

    Objective To study acetylcholine(Ach) level in prefrontal cortex of adult-onset hypothyroidism rats,and the difference of Ach after thyroid hormones treatment. Methods This animal study included control group (η=9) ,Hypothyroidism group (η= 8) and Hypothyroidism treated with T4(6 ug/100g body weight) group (n = 9 ) . The hypothyroidism models were replicated with 6-n-propyl-2-thiouracil ( PTU ). The levels of serum T3, T4 were assayed by radioimmunoassay method, and the level of acetylcholine ( Ach ) in prefrontal cortex was analyzed by the basic hydroxylamine colorimetric method. Results Compared to the control group,serum levels of T3 and T4 were significantly lower in the hypothyroid group (P <0.05)and similar in the T4-6 group and brain Ach level were significantly lower in prefrontal cortex in the hypothyroid than those of the control group ( P < 0. 05 ) and were not significantly different in the T4-6 group. Conclusion The level of Ach in the prefrontal cortex of adult-onset hypothyroidism is lower,Ach may be reversed by thyroid hormones replasement treatment in T4-6 group.%目的 研究成年期甲状腺功能减退症大鼠额叶内乙酰胆碱变化及甲状腺素替代治疗后的情况.方法 26只成年期雄性SD大鼠随机分为三组,用丙基硫氧嘧啶(PTU)建立成年期大鼠甲减模型,采用放射免疫法测定健康对照组、甲减组、甲状腺素替代治疗组(T4-6)大鼠的血清甲状腺激素水平;碱性羟胺比色法测定脑组织乙酰胆碱含量;用单因素方差分析比较三组之间各项指标差异.结果 与健康对照组相比,甲减组大鼠血清T3、T4水平显著减低、TSH水平增加(P<0.05);替代治疗后,血清T3、T4、TSH恢复至正常水平;甲减组大鼠额叶内乙酰胆碱含量降低(P<0.05),替代治疗后乙酰胆碱含量与对照组相比差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).结论 成年期甲减大鼠额叶内乙酰胆碱含量减少,甲状腺素替代治疗后乙酰胆碱含量恢复正常.

  14. [Obesity paradox].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aursulesei, Viviana; Cozma, A; Datcu, M D

    2009-01-01

    Obesity has reached global epidemic proportions and is associated with major cardiovascular diseases and reduced overall survival. This paper reviews the metabolic and vascular consequences of dysfunctional adipocytokines in obesity as well as the pathological effects on blood pressure, cardiovascular structure and function. Despite this adverse association, numerous studies have documented an obesity paradox in which overweight and obese population with established cardiovascular disease have a better prognosis. There are potential explanations offered by literature for these puzzling data. For obese hypertensive patients the paradox is possibly linked to the lower systemic vascular resistance and plasma renin activity. In heart failure the excess body weight may confer some protective effects on mortality, due to a more metabolic reserve, higher levels of arterial pressure compatible with higher doses of cardioprotective medications, and a specific neuroendocrine profile with lower levels of circulating natriuretic atrial peptides, attenuated sympathetic nervous system and renin-angiotensin responses. For coronary heart disease and peripheral arterial disease the mechanisms are still uncertain. There are discussed a lesser severity of coronary lesions and left ventricular dysfunction, or a reduced prevalence of moderate-severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in patients selected for surgery. On the other hand, the constellation of data which supports purposeful weight reduction in the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases, induces a controversial position regarding this new concept.

  15. 成人起病散发性下运动神经元病基因检测的相关研究%Gene test in sporadic adult onset lower motor neuron disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓光; 谢曼青; 刘明生; 崔丽英

    2012-01-01

    Objective The clinical presentation of adult onset lower motor neuron disorders is variable, atypical, may be undistinguished in patients who lack the classic signs of each disease such as spinobulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA; Kennedy disease) , multifocal motor neuropathy and spinal muscular atrophy (SMA). With the identification of genes associated with motor neuron degeneration over the past years, such as superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1), survive motor neuron gene 1 (SMN1) and androgen receptor gene (AR), an accurate molecular diagnosis can be made in some patients with lower motor neuron diseases (LMND). Present study is adopted to screen whether any mutations of SOD1 gene, homozygous deletion of SMN gene and an expansion of AR gene exists in adult-onset LMND. Methods The genomic DNA was extracted from the leukocytes of whole blood samples in 43 patients with adult onset LMND, the region encoding the five exons of the SOD] gene was amplified by a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using five sets of primers previously described. The reaction products were purified and analyzed with an automated DNA sequencer. Exon 7 of SMN1 gene was amplified by PCR and the PCR product was digested by Dral enzyme. Exon 1 of AR gene was amplified by PCR in 31 male LMND patients. The product of each sample was analyzed by electrophoresis on a denaturing polyacrylamide gel. The samples with abnormality findings were analyzed with an automated DNA sequencer. Results There are no mutation among SOD1 gene in 43 LMND cases, while homozygous deletion of SMN1 exon 7 was identified in two cases who were diagnosed as typeⅢ and type Ⅳ SMA respectively. In 31 male LMND cases, three cases with enlarged (CAG) domains in AR exon 1 were identified. The repeat (CAG) numbers are 49. 50,52 respectively, which should be diagnosis as SBMA. Conclusions Identification of one of these genetic abnormalities will allow specific diagnosis for patients and it is meaningful on their prognosis and therapy

  16. Childhood obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heitmann, Berit L; Koplan, Jeffrey; Lissner, Lauren

    2009-01-01

    Despite progress toward assuring the health of today's young population, the 21(st) century began with an epidemic of childhood obesity. There is general agreement that the situation must be addressed by means of primary prevention, but relatively little is known about how to intervene effectively....... The evidence behind the assumption that childhood obesity can be prevented was discussed critically in this roundtable symposium. Overall, there was general agreement that action is needed and that the worldwide epidemic itself is sufficient evidence for action. As the poet, writer, and scholar Wittner Bynner...... (1881-1968) wrote, "The biggest problem in the world could have been solved when it was small"....

  17. New animal models reveal that coenzyme Q2 (Coq2) and placenta-specific 8 (Plac8) are candidate genes for the onset of type 2 diabetes associated with obesity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Daiki; Kotoh, Jun; Watadani, Risa; Matsumoto, Kozo

    2015-12-01

    Obesity is a major risk factor for the onset of type 2 diabetes; however, little is known about the gene(s) involved. Therefore, we developed new animal models of obesity to search for diabetogenic genes associated with obesity. We generated double congenic rat strains with a hyperglycaemic quantitative trait locus (QTL) derived from the Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty rat and a fa/fa (Lepr-/-) locus derived from the Zucker Fatty rat; phenotypic analysis for plasma glucose and insulin levels and RNA and protein levels were determined using reverse transcription quantitative PCR and Western blotting analyses, respectively. The double congenic strain F344-fa-nidd2 (Lepr-/- and Nidd2/of) exhibited significantly higher glucose levels and significantly lower hypoglycaemic response to insulin than the obese control strain F344-fa (Lepr-/-). These phenotypes were clearly observed in the obese strains but not in the lean strains. These results indicate that the Nidd2/of locus harbours a diabetogenic gene associated with obesity. We measured the expression of 60 genes in the Nidd2/of QTL region between the strains and found that the mRNA expression levels of five genes were significantly different between the strains under the condition of obesity. However, three of the five genes were differentially expressed in both obese and lean rats, indicating that these genes are not specific for the condition of obesity. Conversely, the other two genes, coenzyme Q2 (Coq2) and placenta-specific 8 (Plac8), were differentially expressed only in the obese rats, suggesting that these two genes are candidates for the onset of type 2 diabetes associated with obesity in rats.

  18. Childhood Obesity

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-08-06

    In this podcast, Dr. Tom Frieden, CDC Director, discusses the decrease in childhood obesity rates and what strategies have been proven to work to help our children grow up and thrive.  Created: 8/6/2013 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control.   Date Released: 3/6/2014.

  19. Obesity & osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Lauren K; March, Lyn; Anandacoomarasamy, Ananthila

    2013-01-01

    The most significant impact of obesity on the musculoskeletal system is associated with osteoarthritis (OA), a disabling degenerative joint disorder characterized by pain, decreased mobility and negative impact on quality of life. OA pathogenesis relates to both excessive joint loading and altered biomechanical patterns together with hormonal and cytokine dysregulation. Obesity is associated with the incidence and progression of OA of both weight-bearing and non weight-bearing joints, to rate of joint replacements as well as operative complications. Weight loss in OA can impart clinically significant improvements in pain and delay progression of joint structural damage. Further work is required to determine the relative contributions of mechanical and metabolic factors in the pathogenesis of OA.

  20. Obesity & osteoarthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren K King

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The most significant impact of obesity on the musculoskeletal system is associated with osteoarthritis (OA, a disabling degenerative joint disorder characterized by pain, decreased mobility and negative impact on quality of life. OA pathogenesis relates to both excessive joint loading and altered biomechanical patterns together with hormonal and cytokine dysregulation. Obesity is associated with the incidence and progression of OA of both weight-bearing and non weight-bearing joints, to rate of joint replacements as well as operative complications. Weight loss in OA can impart clinically significant improvements in pain and delay progression of joint structural damage. Further work is required to determine the relative contributions of mechanical and metabolic factors in the pathogenesis of OA.

  1. OBESITY IS ASSOCIATED WITH HYPERTENSION IN ADOLESCENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendy Hendy

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Obesity has become a global issue. Previous studies in Bali reveal an increase in the proportionof obesity in adolescents. Obesity causes hypertension; hence there should also be an increase inthe prevalence of hypertension as well in Bali. Hypertension in obese adolescents could be causedby various factors, hence identification of the risks factors is crucial as a preventive approach.The aim of this study was to prove an association between obesity and hypertension in adolescents,and to look for the risk factors. We used an analitical cross sectional design conducted to 12-14years old samples. We took body weight, height, waist circumference, hip circumference, andblood pressure measurements with appropriate devices and asked for information regarding lifestyle and familial history by a questionnare filled in by the samples. The association of obeseadolescents with hypertension and their risk factors was analyzed by Chi-square and multivariatetests. A total of 225 subjects from Santo Yoseph junior high school students, west Denpasar,Bali, met the inclusion criteria. The proportion of obese subjects in this study was 25.7%. Wefound that proportion in familial history of obesity was greater in obese than non-obese subjects(70.7 % vs 41.3%. Logistic regression test revealed that obese subjects with hypertension had abody mass index (BMI > 30 with odds ratio of 7.3 (CI 95% = 1.8 to 28.8 and P = 0.005. Weconcluded that there was an association between obesity and adolescents with hypertension,and BMI > 30 could be a risk factor for obese adolescents with hypertension.

  2. Obesity and Hispanic Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Data > Minority Population Profiles > Hispanic/Latino > Obesity Obesity and Hispanic Americans Among Mexican American women, 77 ... ss6304.pdf [PDF | 3.38MB] HEALTH IMPACT OF OBESITY More than 80 percent of people with type ...

  3. Obesity Hypoventilation Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is Obesity Hypoventilation Syndrome? Obesity hypoventilation (HI-po-ven-tih- ... NHLBI Research Featured in HBO Documentary Series on Obesity Hear people talk about their challenges and successes ...

  4. Obesity and African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Data > Minority Population Profiles > Black/African American > Obesity Obesity and African Americans African American women have the ... ss6304.pdf [PDF | 3.38MB] HEALTH IMPACT OF OBESITY More than 80 percent of people with type ...

  5. Obesity and Asian Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Data > Minority Population Profiles > Asian American > Obesity Obesity and Asian Americans Non-Hispanic whites are 60% ... youthonline . [Accessed 05/25/2016] HEALTH IMPACT OF OBESITY More than 80 percent of people with type ...

  6. Childhood Obesity Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs Childhood Obesity Facts Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On ... Children (WIC) Program, 2000–2014 Prevalence of Childhood Obesity in the United States, 2011-2014 Childhood obesity ...

  7. Impaired decision making among morbidly obese adults.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Brogan, Amy

    2011-02-01

    The Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) measures affective decision making and has revealed decision making impairments across a wide range of eating disorders. This study aimed to investigate affective decision making in severely obese individuals.

  8. [Obesity and the prognosis of heart failure: the obesity paradox, myth or reality?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bounhoure, Jean-Paul; Galinier, Michel; Roncalli, Jerôme; Massabuau, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    Obesity has now reached epidemic proportions worldwide. Obesity is associated with numerous comorbidities, including hypertension, lipid disorders and type II diabetes, and is also a major cause of cardiovascular disease, coronary disease, heart failure, atrial fibrillation, and sudden death. Obesity is the main cause of heart failure in respectively 11% and 14% of cases in men and women. The Framingham study showed that, after correction for other risk factors, each point increase in the body mass index raises the risk of heart failure by 5% in men and 7% in women. Obesity increases the heart workload, causes left ventricular hypertrophy, and impairs both diastolic and systolic function. The most common form of heart failure is diastolic dysfunction, and heart failure in obese individuals is associated with preserved systolic function. Despite these comorbidities and the severity of heart failure, numerous studies have revealed an "obesity paradox" in which overweight and obese individuals with heart failure appear to have a better prognosis than non overweight subjects. This review summarizes the adverse cardiac effects of this nutritional disease, the results of some studies supporting the obesity paradox, the better survival rate of obese patients with heart failure. Potential explanations for these surprising data include the possibility that a number of obese patients may simply not have heart failure, as well as methodological bias, and protective effects of adipose tissue. Further studies of large populations are needed to determine how obesity may improve the prognosis of heart failure.

  9. Obesity Prevalence Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs Adult Obesity Prevalence Maps Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Obesity Prevalence in 2015 Varies Across States and Territories ...

  10. Obesity in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, M N; Chee, S S; Nawawi, H; Yusoff, K; Lim, T O; James, W P T

    2002-08-01

    This study was undertaken to assess the recent data on Malaysian adult body weights and associations of ethnic differences in overweight and obesity with comorbid risk factors, and to examine measures of energy intake, energy expenditure, basal metabolic rate (BMR) and physical activity changes in urban and rural populations of normal weight. Three studies were included (1) a summary of a national health morbidity survey conducted in 1996 on nearly 29 000 adults > or =20 years of age; (2) a study comparing energy intake, BMR and physical activity levels (PALs) in 409 ethnically diverse, healthy adults drawn from a population of 1165 rural and urban subjects 18-60 years of age; and (3) an examination of the prevalence of obesity and comorbid risk factors that predict coronary heart disease and type 2 diabetes in 609 rural Malaysians aged 30-65 years. Overweight and obesity were calculated using body mass index (BMI) measures and World Health Organization (WHO) criteria. Energy intake was assessed using 3-d food records, BMR and PALs were assessed with Douglas bags and activity diaries, while hypertension, hyperlipidaemia and glucose intolerance were specified using standard criteria. The National Health Morbidity Survey data revealed that in adults, 20.7% were overweight and 5.8% obese (0.3% of whom had BMI values of >40.0 kg m(-2)); the prevalence of obesity was clearly greater in women than in men. In women, obesity rates were higher in Indian and Malay women than in Chinese women, while in men the Chinese recorded the highest obesity prevalences followed by the Malay and Indians. Studies on normal healthy subjects indicated that the energy intake of Indians was significantly lower than that of other ethnic groups. In women, Malays recorded a significantly higher energy intake than the other groups. Urban male subjects consumed significantly more energy than their rural counterparts, but this was not the case in women. In both men and women, fat intakes (%) were

  11. Why Obesity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, George A

    2015-01-01

    As Erwin Chargaff observed, "Scientific autobiography belongs to a most awkward literary genre," and mine is no exception. In reviewing my scientific life, I contrast the nutritional influences that would have existed had I been born 100 or 200 years earlier than I actually was. With this background, I trace the influences on my formative years in science beginning in high school and ending as a postdoctoral fellow in Professor E.B. Astwood's laboratory, when my directional sails were set and obesity was the compass heading. With this heading, the need for organized national and international meetings on obesity and the need for a scientific journal dealing with obesity as its subject matter became evident and occupied considerable energy over the next 30 years. The next section of this memoir traces the wanderings of an itinerant academic who moved from Boston to Los Angeles and finally to Baton Rouge. The influence of Sir William Osler's idea that there is a time for education, a time for scholarship, a time for teaching, and time to retire has always been a guide to allocating time ever since I was an intern at Johns Hopkins Hospital. It was in Baton Rouge that the final phase began: I agreed to become the first full-time executive director of the Pennington Biomedical Research Center, a decision that changed my life. The article ends with a quotation from Tennessee Williams that reflects the theater, which has given me so much pleasure over the years: "There is a time for departure even when there's no certain place to go."

  12. Clinical analysis of the relevance between adult-onset Still's disease and macrophage activation syndrome%成人斯蒂尔病与巨噬细胞活化综合征关联性的临床分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱茜; 梁柳琴; 杨岫岩; 许韩师; 詹钟平; 叶玉津; 连帆; 陈冬莹

    2009-01-01

    目的 探讨成人斯蒂尔病(AOSD)与巨噬细胞活化综合征(MAS)的关系.方法 选择AOSD组为78例资料完整的AOSD;MAS组是从26例有组织学证据的噬血细胞综合征的随访治疗中确定11例为风湿免疫疾病相关的噬血细胞综合征.对以上患者的临床表现和实验室资料进行分析.结果 在AOSD组78例中,有9例(占12%)在使用治疗之前可以诊断为MAS,但无噬血组织学依据.在11例有噬血现象的MAS中,AOSD 6例,脂膜炎2例,系统性红斑狼疮、皮肌炎、系统性血管炎各1例.脾脏肿大、白细胞减低、贫血、血小板下降、高甘油三酯是AOSD出现MAS的相关临床指标.结论 AOSD继发MAS的现象比较常见,严重者可以有组织学的噬血表现.AOSD出现脾脏增大、血细胞降低时,需要作MAS的相关检查,包括骨髓检查以及甘油三酯、纤维蛋白原、自然杀伤(NK)细胞活性等,以便及时诊断MAS.%Objective To explore the relationship between Adult-onset Still's disease (AOSD) and macrophage activation syndrome (MAS). Methods A total of 78 patients with AOSD who had completed medical information were included in this study. Eleven patients who were diagnosed as rheumatic disease associated hemophagocytic syndrome among 26 patients who had hemophagocytic syndrome with histological evidence consisted of the MAS group. Clinical and laboratory data were analyzed in 78 patients with AOSD and 11 patients with MAS. Results Among 78 cases of AOSD, 9 patients (12%) could be diagnosed as MAS but didn't have hemophagocytic histological evidence. In the 11 MAS cases with hemophagocytic phenomenon, 6 patients fulfilled the diagnostic criteria of AOSD, 2 cases with panniculitis, 1 case with SLE, 1 case of dermatomyositis and 1 case of systemic vasculitis. Logistic analysis showed that splenomegaly (OR =2.13, 95%CI=1.11-3.42), leukopenia (OR=3.57, 95%CI=2.30~4.86), anaemia (OR=0.85, 95%CI=1.03~2.76), thrombocytopenia (OR=2.98, 95%CI=1

  13. Induction of neuropeptide Y gene expression in the dorsal medial hypothalamic nucleus in two models of the agouti obesity syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesterson, R A; Huszar, D; Lynch, C A; Simerly, R B; Cone, R D

    1997-05-01

    Dominant mutations at the agouti locus induce several phenotypic changes in the mouse including yellow pigmentation (phaeomelanization) of the coat and adult-onset obesity. Nonpigmentary phenotypic changes associated with the agouti locus are due to ectopic expression of the agouti-signaling protein (ASP), and the pheomelanizing effects on coat color are due to ASP antagonism of alpha-MSH binding to the melanocyte MC1 receptor. Recently it has been demonstrated that pharmacological antagonism of hypothalamic melanocortin receptors or genetic deletion of the melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4-R) recapitulates aspects of the agouti obesity syndrome, thus establishing that chronic disruption of central melanocortinergic signaling is the cause of agouti-induced obesity. To learn more about potential downstream effectors involved in these melanocortinergic obesity syndromes, we have examined expression of the orexigenic peptides galanin and neuropeptide Y (NPY), as well as the anorexigenic POMC in lethal yellow (A(y)), MC4-R knockout (MC4-RKO), and leptin-deficient (ob/ob) mice. No significant changes in galanin or POMC gene expression were seen in any of the obese models. In situ hybridizations using an antisense NPY probe demonstrated that in obese A(y) mice, arcuate nucleus NPY mRNA levels were equivalent to that of their C57BL/6J littermates. However, NPY was expressed at high levels in a new site, the dorsal medial hypothalamic nucleus (DMH). Expression of NPY in the DMH was also seen in obese MC4-RKO homozygous (-/-) mice, but not in lean heterozygous (+/-) or wild type (+/+) control mice. This identifies the DMH as a brain region that is functionally altered by the disruption of melanocortinergic signaling and suggests that this nucleus, possibly via elevated NPY expression, may have an etiological role in the melanocortinergic obesity syndrome.

  14. Potentially Useful Biomarkers For Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violeta-Elena Simion

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The mechanism of obesity is a complex one, while in regulating feeding behavior there are other factors that act, among which the hypothalamic centers, the metabolic balance of the internal environment, information’s digestive system, endocrine system or adipose tissue response. The study on a group of cats aimed to evaluate specific biochemical parameters of lipid metabolism – cholesterol, triglicerides, LDL, HDL, including a parameter less assessed in medical veterinary practice – apolipoprotein B (Apo-B. Increased levels of this parameter are found in disorders such as obesity, hiperlipoproteinemia, nephrotic syndrome, diabetes etc. The results revealed significant disorders of lipid metabolism with predisposition to obesity, hyperlipidemia and cardiovascular disease.

  15. The genetics of human obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waalen, Jill

    2014-10-01

    The heritability of obesity has long been appreciated and the genetics of obesity has been the focus of intensive study for decades. Early studies elucidating genetic factors involved in rare monogenic and syndromic forms of extreme obesity focused attention on dysfunction of hypothalamic leptin-related pathways in the control of food intake as a major contributor. Subsequent genome-wide association studies of common genetic variants identified novel loci that are involved in more common forms of obesity across populations of diverse ethnicities and ages. The subsequent search for factors contributing to the heritability of obesity not explained by these 2 approaches ("missing heritability") has revealed additional rare variants, copy number variants, and epigenetic changes that contribute. Although clinical applications of these findings have been limited to date, the increasing understanding of the interplay of these genetic factors with environmental conditions, such as the increased availability of high calorie foods and decreased energy expenditure of sedentary lifestyles, promises to accelerate the translation of genetic findings into more successful preventive and therapeutic interventions.

  16. [Obesity and cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salaün, Hélène; Thariat, Juliette; Vignot, Marina; Merrouche, Yacine; Vignot, Stéphane

    2017-01-01

    The proportion of people affected by obesity is increasing and this finding emphasizes several issues in oncology: obesity as a risk factor for cancer, prognostic value of obesity in cancer patients, nutritional assessment in overweight patients and impact of obesity on treatment management. It is important to remember the common underevaluation of malnutrition in overweight or obese patients. Every caregiver must be especially careful about the management of comorbidities in these patients.

  17. Anesthetizing the obese child

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Anette; Lenz, Katja; Abildstrøm, Hanne

    2011-01-01

    The prevalence of childhood obesity is increasing. The focus of this review is the special anesthetic considerations regarding the perioperative management of obese children. With obesity the risk of comorbidity such as asthma, obstructive sleep apnea, hypertension, and diabetes increases....... The obese child has an increased risk of perioperative complications especially related to airway management and ventilation. There is a significantly increased risk of difficult mask ventilation and perioperative desaturation. Furthermore, obesity has an impact on the pharmacokinetics of most anesthetic...

  18. Childhood obesity treatment and prevention. Psychological perspectives of clinical approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Catena Quattropani

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This work focuses on clinical psychologist’ presence within childhood obesity prevention programmes in several countries. Method: The Authors collected articles considering psychological, biological and social aspects linked to childhood obesity. Results: Studies reveal that childhood obesity prevention programmes are based on biological, medical and educational aspects; clinical psychologists up until now have been engaged almost exclusively in the treatment of obesity. Conclusions: There is a clear need to consider psychological aspects (emotional, cognitive and relational related to the childhood obesity’s causes and involve psychologists in its prevention projects. Keywords: childhood obesity, overweight, multidisciplinary approach, clinical psychology, prevention, treatment

  19. Obesity as a perceived social signal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manasee Mankar

    Full Text Available Fat accumulation has been classically considered as a means of energy storage. Obese people are theorized as metabolically 'thrifty', saving energy during times of food abundance. However, recent research has highlighted many neuro-behavioral and social aspects of obesity, with a suggestion that obesity, abdominal obesity in particular, may have evolved as a social signal. We tested here whether body proportions, and abdominal obesity in particular, are perceived as signals revealing personality traits. Faceless drawings of three male body forms namely lean, muscular and feminine, each with and without abdominal obesity were shown in a randomized order to a group of 222 respondents. A list of 30 different adjectives or short descriptions of personality traits was given to each respondent and they were asked to allocate the most appropriate figure to each of them independently. The traits included those directly related to physique, those related to nature, attitude and moral character and also those related to social status. For 29 out of the 30 adjectives people consistently attributed specific body forms. Based on common choices, the 30 traits could be clustered into distinct 'personalities' which were strongly associated with particular body forms. A centrally obese figure was perceived as "lethargic, greedy, political, money-minded, selfish and rich". The results show that body proportions are perceived to reflect personality traits and this raises the possibility that in addition to energy storage, social selection may have played some role in shaping the biology of obesity.

  20. "Obesity paradox" in coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akin, Ibrahim; Nienaber, Christoph A

    2015-10-26

    Obesity used to be among the more neglected public health problems, but has unfolded as a growing medical and socioeconomic burden of epidemic proportions. Morbid obesity is linked to traditional cardiovascular risk factors like, hypertension, hyperlipidemia and diabetes, and suspected to incur increased morbidity and mortality in the Western and even third world populations. This patient cohort is also at greater risk to develop coronary artery disease. Recent population-based registries revealed that 43% and 24% of all cases of coronary revascularization were carried out in overweight and obese patients, respectively. However, despite evidence of a positive correlation between obesity and increased cardiovascular morbidity, some authors have described a better clinical outcome in overweight and obese patients, a phenomenon they coined "obesity paradoxon". Thus, there is an ongoing debate in light of conflicting data and the possibility of confounding bias causing misconception and challenging the "obesity paradox". In this review article we present the current evidence and throughly discuss the validity of the "obesity paradoxon" in a variety of clinical settings.

  1. Unraveling the genetics of human obesity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M Mutch

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of modern molecular biology tools in deciphering the perturbed biochemistry and physiology underlying the obese state has proven invaluable. Identifying the hypothalamic leptin/melanocortin pathway as critical in many cases of monogenic obesity has permitted targeted, hypothesis-driven experiments to be performed, and has implicated new candidates as causative for previously uncharacterized clinical cases of obesity. Meanwhile, the effects of mutations in the melanocortin-4 receptor gene, for which the obese phenotype varies in the degree of severity among individuals, are now thought to be influenced by one's environmental surroundings. Molecular approaches have revealed that syndromes (Prader-Willi and Bardet-Biedl previously assumed to be controlled by a single gene are, conversely, regulated by multiple elements. Finally, the application of comprehensive profiling technologies coupled with creative statistical analyses has revealed that interactions between genetic and environmental factors are responsible for the common obesity currently challenging many Westernized societies. As such, an improved understanding of the different "types" of obesity not only permits the development of potential therapies, but also proposes novel and often unexpected directions in deciphering the dysfunctional state of obesity.

  2. A social contagious model of the obesity epidemic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, He; Yan, Zhijun; Chen, Yahong; Liu, Fangyan

    2016-11-01

    Obesity has been recognized as a global epidemic by WHO, followed by many empirical evidences to prove its infectiousness. However, the inter-person spreading dynamics of obesity are seldom studied. A distinguishing feature of the obesity epidemic is that it is driven by a social contagion process which cannot be perfectly described by the infectious disease models. In this paper, we propose a novel belief decision model based on the famous Dempster-Shafer theory of evidence to model obesity epidemic as the competing spread of two obesity-related behaviors: physical inactivity and physical activity. The transition of health states is described by an SIS model. Results reveal the existence of obesity epidemic threshold, above which obesity is quickly eradicated. When increasing the fading level of information spread, enlarging the clustering of initial obese seeds, or introducing small-world characteristics into the network topology, the threshold is easily met. Social discrimination against the obese people plays completely different roles in two cases: on one hand, when obesity cannot be eradicated, social discrimination can reduce the number of obese people; on the other hand, when obesity is eradicable, social discrimination may instead cause it breaking out.

  3. [Isotope nephrography in patients with obesity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlakhov, N; Benova, A; Penkova, D

    1989-04-01

    131I-hippuran nephrography conducted in 80 patients aged 26-53 with I and II degree obesity has revealed changes in the excretory phase (36.9 per cent of the patients with I degree obesity) and secretory and excretory and some vascular and metabolic abnormalities were registered in 79.4 per cent of those with II degree obesity. Weight gain had an adverse effect on the condition of such patients. Isotope nephrography enables one to study risk factors (arterial hypertension, atherosclerosis, diabetes mellitus).

  4. Immunometabolism in Obese Asthmatics: Are We There Yet?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa G. Wood

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is now recognised as a worldwide epidemic. The recent International Association for the Study of Obesity/International Obesity Taskforce (IASO/IOTF analysis estimates that approximately 1.0 billion adults are currently overweight and a further 475 million are obese. Obesity has huge psychosocial impact with obese children and adolescents facing discrimination and stigmatization in many areas of their lives leading to body dissatisfaction, low self-esteem and depression. Indeed, obesity is recognised as an important risk factor for the development of several chronic diseases such as hypertension, cancer, asthma and metabolic syndrome. Chronic low grade systemic inflammation is considered as a hallmark of obesity and may possibly explain the link between obesity and chronic disease, in particular the increased incidence, prevalence and severity of asthma in obese individuals. There is now strong evidence for infiltration of immune and inflammatory cells into adipose tissue that drives systemic inflammation and subsequent end organ damage. In addition to adipocytes, the key adipose tissue resident immune cells are macrophages and mast cells. Immunometabolism, as an emerging field of investigation, explores the pivotal role of these immune cells in translating immunological changes to metabolic effects in obesity. Abundance of free fatty acids, along with other inflammatory cytokines shift the balance of metabolic homeostasis to pro-inflammatory status by influencing the development of inflammatory cell lineage, which, further exhibits distinct functional phenotypes. There is emerging evidence for macrophage activation and functional polarization of an anti-inflammatory M2 phenotype towards a pro-inflammatory M1 phenotype of macrophages in obese adipose tissue. Similarly, studies in both obese humans and murine models reveal the pathognomic presence of an increased number of mast cells in visceral adipose tissue. These suggest a possible

  5. [The obesity paradox].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du Pan, Rémi C Martin; Golay, Alain

    2014-06-25

    In general population, cardiovascular (CV) mortality increases in parallel with obesity severity, determined by body mass index (BMI). However in cohorts of patients with coronary diseases or heart failure a decrease of the global mortality has been observed in patients aged more than 65 years old with moderate obesity (BMI = 30-35) compared to normal weight people (BMI = 20-25) and morbid obese (BMI > 35). This "obesity paradox" could result from the selection of obese people with healthy metabolic profile and way of life. BMI does not allow to distinguish lean body mass from fat mass and therefore to evaluate abdominal obesity which is associated with metabolic syndrome and CV risk.

  6. Obesity in Infants to Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is childhood obesity? Overweight in Children BMI in Children Is Childhood Obesity an Issue in Your Home? Addressing your Child's Weight at the Doctor Preventing Childhood Obesity: Tips for Parents and Caretakers Obesity in Infants ...

  7. Oxidative Stress and Periodontal Disease in Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dursun, Erhan; Akalin, Ferda Alev; Genc, Tolga; Cinar, Nese; Erel, Ozcan; Yildiz, Bulent Okan

    2016-03-01

    Periodontal disease is a chronic inflammatory disease of the jaws and is more prevalent in obesity. Local and systemic oxidative stress may be an early link between periodontal disease and obesity. The primary aim of this study was to detect whether increased periodontal disease susceptibility in obese individuals is associated with local and systemic oxidative stress. Accordingly; we analyzed periodontal status and systemic (serum) and local (gingival crevicular fluid [GCF]) oxidative status markers in young obese women in comparison with age-matched lean women.Twenty obese and 20 lean women participated. Periodontal condition was determined by clinical periodontal indices including probing depth, clinical attachment level, gingival index, gingival bleeding index, and plaque index. Anthropometric, hormonal, and metabolic measurements were also performed. Blood and GCF sampling was performed at the same time after an overnight fasting. Serum and GCF total antioxidant capacity (TAOC), and total oxidant status (TOS) levels were determined, and oxidative stress index (OSI) was calculated.Clinical periodontal analyses showed higher gingival index and gingival bleeding index in the obese group (P = 0.001 for both) with no significant difference in probing depth, clinical attachment level, and plaque index between the obese and the lean women. Oxidant status analyses revealed lower GCF and serum TAOC, and higher GCF and serum OSI values in the obese women (P periodontal indices showed significant correlations with body mass index, insulin, and lipid levels, and also oxidant status markers.Our results suggest that young obese, otherwise healthy, women show findings of early periodontal disease (gingival inflammation) compared with age-matched healthy lean women, and that local/periodontal oxidative stress generated by obesity seems to be associated with periodontal disease.

  8. Reducing Childhood Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the NHLBI Obesity Education Initiative. (See accompanying article, " Obesity Research: A New Approach. ") We Can! focuses on three important behaviors: improved food choices, increased physical activity, and reduced recreational screen time. ...

  9. Obesity: Pathophysiology and Intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Zhang

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Obesity presents a major health hazard of the 21st century. It promotes co-morbid diseases such as heart disease, type 2 diabetes, obstructive sleep apnea, certain types of cancer, and osteoarthritis. Excessive energy intake, physical inactivity, and genetic susceptibility are main causal factors for obesity, while gene mutations, endocrine disorders, medication, or psychiatric illnesses may be underlying causes in some cases. The development and maintenance of obesity may involve central pathophysiological mechanisms such as impaired brain circuit regulation and neuroendocrine hormone dysfunction. Dieting and physical exercise offer the mainstays of obesity treatment, and anti-obesity drugs may be taken in conjunction to reduce appetite or fat absorption. Bariatric surgeries may be performed in overtly obese patients to lessen stomach volume and nutrient absorption, and induce faster satiety. This review provides a summary of literature on the pathophysiological studies of obesity and discusses relevant therapeutic strategies for managing obesity.

  10. Endocrine system and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashburn, Doyle D; Reed, Mary Jane

    2010-10-01

    Obesity is associated with significant alterations in endocrine function. An association with type 2 diabetes mellitus and dyslipidemia has been well documented. This article highlights the complexities of treating endocrine system disorders in obese patients.

  11. Obesity and health (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obesity increases a person's risk of illness and death due to diabetes, stroke, heart disease, hypertension, high cholesterol, and kidney and gallbladder disease. Obesity may increase the risk for some types of ...

  12. Obesity and Anesthesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Apnea and Anesthesia Smoking and Anesthesia Outpatient Surgery Obesity and Anesthesia More than one-third of Americans ... Sleep Apnea, a chronic medical problem common with obesity, can present with serious breathing problems before, during, ...

  13. Overweight and Obesity Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the full list of resources ​​. Overweight and Obesity Statistics Page Content About Overweight and Obesity Prevalence of ... adults age 20 and older [ Top ] Physical Activity Statistics Adults Research Findings Research suggests that staying active ...

  14. OSTEOARTHRITIS AND OBESITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Strebkova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The review highlights the impact of obesity on the development, progression, and severity of osteoarthritis (OA and discusses treatments for obesity in this disease. Weight loss in obese patients with OA is shown to lead to a reduction in clinical manifestations. Despite a great deal of performed investigations of the impact of non-drug therapy for obesity (diet, physical activity, their results are contradictory and call for further investigation

  15. Obesity-Related Hypertension

    OpenAIRE

    Re, Richard N.

    2009-01-01

    Obesity-associated arterial hypertension is characterized by activation of the sympathetic nervous system, activation of the renin-angiotensin system, and sodium retention, among other abnormalities. In this review, the following 3 facets of the obesity/hypertension nexus will be discussed: the potential mechanisms by which obesity can lead to elevated arterial pressure, the interaction of obesity with the sequelae of hypertension, and the therapies that are believed to optimally treat obesit...

  16. Asthma and obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juel, Caroline Trunk-Black; Ali, Zarqa; Nilas, Lisbeth

    2012-01-01

    Obesity is a major health problem, and obesity is associated with a high incidence of asthma and poor asthma control. The aim of the present paper is to systematically review the current knowledge of the effect on overall asthma control of weight reduction in overweight and obese adults with asthma....

  17. Obesity, Physical Activity - Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilliam, Thomas B.

    Childhood obesity starts at a very early age, and preventive measures taken early enough may retard the development of fat cells. It appears that physical activity plays an important role in reducing obesity. The activity program must start early, in preschool days. It is felt that screening children for obesity when they first enter school and…

  18. Childhood Obesity: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, John J.

    2007-01-01

    This article reviews recent research evidence, largely from systematic reviews, on a number of aspects of childhood obesity: its definition and prevalence; consequences; causes and prevention. The basis of the body mass index (BMI) as a means of defining obesity in children and adolescents is discussed: a high BMI for age constitutes obesity. In…

  19. Obesity and respiratory diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Zammit

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Christopher Zammit, Helen Liddicoat, Ian Moonsie, Himender MakkerSleep and Ventilation Unit, Department of Respiratory Medicine, North Middlesex University Hospital, London, UKAbstract: The obesity epidemic is a global problem, which is set to increase over time. However, the effects of obesity on the respiratory system are often underappreciated. In this review, we will discuss the mechanical effects of obesity on lung physiology and the function of adipose tissue as an endocrine organ producing systemic inflammation and effecting central respiratory control. Obesity plays a key role in the development of obstructive sleep apnea and obesity hypoventilation syndrome. Asthma is more common and often harder to treat in the obese population, and in this study, we review the effects of obesity on airway inflammation and respiratory mechanics. We also discuss the compounding effects of obesity on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and the paradoxical interaction of body mass index and COPD severity. Many practical challenges exist in caring for obese patients, and we highlight the complications faced by patients undergoing surgical procedures, especially given the increased use of bariatric surgery. Ultimately, a greater understanding of the effects of obesity on the respiratory disease and the provision of adequate health care resources is vital in order to care for this increasingly important patient population.Keywords: obesity, lung function, obstructive sleep apnea, obesity hypoventilation syndrome, anesthesia

  20. Childhood environment and obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    US children are at risk for developing childhood obesity. Currently, 23% of children ages 2–5 are overweight or obese, i.e., at or above the 85th percentile. This prevalence becomes even higher as children age, with 34% of children ages 6–11 being overweight or obese. Ethnic minority children are at...

  1. The Complexity of Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Katti

    2010-01-01

    With Americans fatter and more malnourished than ever--almost two-thirds of the population is considered overweight or obese compared with 56 percent in the late 1980s and early 1990s, and people of color and the poor are the most obese of all--federal and university researchers and outreach workers from various anti-obesity organizations aim to…

  2. Obesity and renal hemodynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosma, R. J.; Krikken, J. A.; van der Heide, J. J. Homan; de Jong, P. E.; Navis, G. J.

    2006-01-01

    Obesity is a risk factor for renal damage in native kidney disease and in renal transplant recipients. Obesity is associated with several renal risk factors such as hypertension and diabetes that may convey renal risk, but obesity is also associated with an unfavorable renal hemodynamic profile inde

  3. An analysis of adult obesity and hypertension in appalachia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herath Bandara, Saman Janaranjana; Brown, Cheryl

    2013-02-22

    Obesity is a major health problem in the United States, and the burden associated is high. Hypertension seems to be the most common obesity-related health problem. Studies show that hypertension is approximately twice as prevalent among the obese as in the non-obese population. This study has two main objectives. First, to examine the association between obesity and hypertension within the context of economic growth in Appalachia, and second to estimate the cost of hypertension linked to obesity in Appalachia. The study uses simultaneous equations and Logit analysis for estimations. Data are from Behavior Risk Factor Surveillance Systems (BRFSS) surveys of 2001 and 2009. Results for simultaneous analysis show that hypertension decreases with decreasing obesity, increasing employment growth, and increasing income. Logit analysis highlights the importance of controlling obesity, income growth, employment growth, education, and exercises in mitigating hypertension in Appalachia. Ageing indicates a high potential of getting hypertension. Total economic cost of hypertension linked to obesity is $9.35 billion, significantly a high cost to Appalachia. Overall, results reveal the impacts of obesity on hypertension and some possible ways of mitigation. Thus, results suggest a comprehensive set of policies to Appalachia which sufficiently improve employment opportunities, educational facilities, and healthcare facilities with adequately addressed to obesity and hypertension.

  4. The first nation-wide multicenter study for adult onset latent autoimmune diabetes (LADA) in China : The outcome and significance of LADA China Study%关于中国成人自身免疫糖尿病的首项全国性多中心研究——LADA China研究的结果与意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    向宇飞; 周智广

    2013-01-01

    LADA China研究是在中国新诊断2型糖尿病患者中首次开展的一项全国多中心调查.该项研究的最新研究成果已在Diabetes杂志(2013)发表.本文介绍LADA China研究的主要成果,并进一步讨论其重要的临床意义.%LADA China Study is the first nation-wide muliicenter study for adult onset latent autoimmune diabetes (LADA) in Chinese.We have published the data on Diabetes in 2013.In this article,we briefly introduce the results and the significance to clinical practice.

  5. Obesity and hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Shu-Zhong; Lu, Wen; Zong, Xue-Feng; Ruan, Hong-Yun; Liu, Yi

    2016-01-01

    The imbalance between energy intake and expenditure is the main cause of excessive overweight and obesity. Technically, obesity is defined as the abnormal accumulation of ≥20% of body fat, over the individual's ideal body weight. The latter constitutes the maximal healthful value for an individual that is calculated based chiefly on the height, age, build and degree of muscular development. However, obesity is diagnosed by measuring the weight in relation to the height of an individual, thereby determining or calculating the body mass index. The National Institutes of Health have defined 30 kg/m2 as the limit over which an individual is qualified as obese. Accordingly, the prevalence of obesity in on the increase in children and adults worldwide, despite World Health Organization warnings. The growth of obesity and the scale of associated health issues induce serious consequences for individuals and governmental health systems. Excessive overweight remains among the most neglected public health issues worldwide, while obesity is associated with increasing risks of disability, illness and death. Cardiovascular diseases, the leading cause of mortality worldwide, particularly hypertension and diabetes, are the main illnesses associated with obesity. Nevertheless, the mechanisms underlying obesity-associated hypertension or other associated metabolic diseases remains to be adequately investigated. In the present review, we addressed the association between obesity and cardiovascular disease, particularly the biological mechanisms linking obesity and hypertension. PMID:27703502

  6. Linking obesity and asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, E Rand

    2014-04-01

    A growing body of literature suggests that obesity has a significant impact on asthma risk, phenotype, and prognosis. Epidemiological studies have clearly demonstrated that asthma is more likely to occur in obese patients, and health status is impaired in obese individuals with asthma, with obese asthmatics experiencing more symptoms, worse quality of life, increased healthcare use, and increased asthma severity. However, obesity has well-described effects on lung function and mechanics that can lead to symptoms of dyspnea without causing the pathophysiologic changes of asthma. Adding to the challenges of evaluating this association, some studies have failed to demonstrate a robust relationship between obesity and traditional biomarkers of airway inflammation in adult asthmatics, leading to the conclusion that obesity does not necessarily worsen airway inflammation in asthma. In this regard, emerging data suggest that nonatopic mechanisms may be relevant in obese asthmatics, and that these mechanisms may have a direct impact on the response of obese asthmatics to asthma therapies, most notably inhaled glucocorticoids. This article will review selected aspects of the contributions of obesity-related airway and systemic inflammation to asthma, with a focus on the impact of obesity as a modifier of risk, prognosis, and therapeutic response in asthma.

  7. Challenges in obesity research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreu Palou

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is the main nutritional problem and one of the most important health problems in developed societies. Central to the challenge of obesity prevention and management is a thoroughly understanding of its determinants. Multiple socio-cultural, socio-economic, behavioural and biological factors -often interrelated and many of them still unknown or poorly understood- can contribute to the establishment and perpetuation of obese phenotypes. Here, we address current research challenges regarding basic aspects of obesity and emerging science for its control, including brown adipose tissue thermogenesis and browning of white fat as possible therapeutic targets for obesity, the influence of the microbioma, and genetics, epigenetics, nutrigenomics and nutrigenetics of obesity. We also highlight hot topics in relation to food and lifestyle as determinants of obesity, including the brain mechanisms underlying environmental motivation to eat, the biological control of spontaneous physical activity, the possible role of concrete foods and food components, and the importance of early life nutrition and environment. Challenges regarding the connections of obesity with other alterations and pathologies are also briefly addressed, as well as social and economical challenges in relation to healthy food production and lifestyle for the prevention of obesity, and technological challenges in obesity research and management. The objective is to give a panoramic of advances accomplished and still ahead relevant to the different stakeholders engaged in understanding and combating obesity.

  8. Challenges in obesity research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palou, Andreu; Bonet, M Luisa

    2013-09-01

    Obesity is the main nutritional problem and one of the most important health problems in developed societies. Central to the challenge of obesity prevention and management is a thoroughly understanding of its determinants. Multiple socio-cultural, socio-economic, behavioural and biological factors--often interrelated and many of them still unknown or poorly understood--can contribute to the establishment and perpetuation of obese phenotypes. Here, we address current research challenges regarding basic aspects of obesity and emerging science for its control, including brown adipose tissue thermogenesis and browning of white fat as possible therapeutic targets for obesity, the influence of the microbioma, and genetics, epigenetics, nutrigenomics and nutrigenetics of obesity. We also highlight hot topics in relation to food and lifestyle as determinants of obesity, including the brain mechanisms underlying environmental motivation to eat, the biological control of spontaneous physical activity, the possible role of concrete foods and food components, and the importance of early life nutrition and environment. Challenges regarding the connections of obesity with other alterations and pathologies are also briefly addressed, as well as social and economical challenges in relation to healthy food production and lifestyle for the prevention of obesity, and technological challenges in obesity research and management. The objective is to give a panoramic of advances accomplished and still ahead relevant to the different stakeholders engaged in understanding and combating obesity.

  9. Obesity and Gastrointestinal Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ai Fujimoto

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of obesity in the Japanese population has been increasing dramatically in step with the Westernization of lifestyles and food ways. Our study demonstrated significant associations between obesity and a number of gastrointestinal disorders in a large sample population in Japan. We demonstrated that reflux esophagitis and hiatal hernia were strongly related to obesity (BMI > 25 in the Japanese. In particular, obesity with young male was a high risk for these diseases. On the other hand, it has been reported that obesity is also associated with Barrett’s esophagus and colorectal adenoma; however, obesity was not a risk factor for these diseases in our study. The difference of ethnicity of our subjects may partly explain why we found no data to implicate obesity as a risk factor for Barrett’s esophagus. Arterial sclerosis associated with advanced age and hyperglycemia was accompanied by an increased risk of colorectal adenoma.

  10. OPEN about obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lissner, L; Troiano, R P; Midthune, D

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Obesity-related under-reporting of usual dietary intake is one of the most persistent sources of bias in nutrition research. The aim of this paper is to characterize obese and non-obese individuals with respect to reporting errors observed with two common dietary instruments, using...... energy and protein recovery biomarkers as reference measures. POPULATION AND METHODS: This report employs data from the Observing Protein and Energy Nutrition (OPEN) study. Analyses are based on stratified samples of 211 (57 obese) men and 179 (50 obese) women who completed 24-h recalls (24HR), food...... frequency questionnaires (FFQ), doubly labelled water (DLW) and urinary nitrogen (UN) assessments. RESULTS: In obese and non-obese subgroups, FFQ yielded lower energy and protein intake estimates than 24HR, although biomarker-based information indicated under-reporting with both dietary instruments. Gender...

  11. Vitamin paradox in obesity: Deficiency or excess?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Shi-Sheng; Li, Da; Chen, Na-Na; Zhou, Yiming

    2015-08-25

    Since synthetic vitamins were used to fortify food and as supplements in the late 1930s, vitamin intake has significantly increased. This has been accompanied by an increased prevalence of obesity, a condition associated with diabetes, hypertension, cardiovascular disease, asthma and cancer. Paradoxically, obesity is often associated with low levels of fasting serum vitamins, such as folate and vitamin D. Recent studies on folic acid fortification have revealed another paradoxical phenomenon: obesity exhibits low fasting serum but high erythrocyte folate concentrations, with high levels of serum folate oxidation products. High erythrocyte folate status is known to reflect long-term excess folic acid intake, while increased folate oxidation products suggest an increased folate degradation because obesity shows an increased activity of cytochrome P450 2E1, a monooxygenase enzyme that can use folic acid as a substrate. There is also evidence that obesity increases niacin degradation, manifested by increased activity/expression of niacin-degrading enzymes and high levels of niacin metabolites. Moreover, obesity most commonly occurs in those with a low excretory reserve capacity (e.g., due to low birth weight/preterm birth) and/or a low sweat gland activity (black race and physical inactivity). These lines of evidence raise the possibility that low fasting serum vitamin status in obesity may be a compensatory response to chronic excess vitamin intake, rather than vitamin deficiency, and that obesity could be one of the manifestations of chronic vitamin poisoning. In this article, we discuss vitamin paradox in obesity from the perspective of vitamin homeostasis.

  12. Obesity and respiratory diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zammit, Christopher; Liddicoat, Helen; Moonsie, Ian; Makker, Himender

    2010-10-20

    The obesity epidemic is a global problem, which is set to increase over time. However, the effects of obesity on the respiratory system are often underappreciated. In this review, we will discuss the mechanical effects of obesity on lung physiology and the function of adipose tissue as an endocrine organ producing systemic inflammation and effecting central respiratory control. Obesity plays a key role in the development of obstructive sleep apnea and obesity hypoventilation syndrome. Asthma is more common and often harder to treat in the obese population, and in this study, we review the effects of obesity on airway inflammation and respiratory mechanics. We also discuss the compounding effects of obesity on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and the paradoxical interaction of body mass index and COPD severity. Many practical challenges exist in caring for obese patients, and we highlight the complications faced by patients undergoing surgical procedures, especially given the increased use of bariatric surgery. Ultimately, a greater understanding of the effects of obesity on the respiratory disease and the provision of adequate health care resources is vital in order to care for this increasingly important patient population.

  13. Asthma and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulet, L-P

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence and incidence of asthma have increased among obese children and adults, particularly among women. Obesity seems to be a predisposing factor for the development of asthma, but the underlying mechanisms of its influence are still uncertain. Various hypotheses have been proposed to explain the link between obesity and asthma such as a common genetic predisposition, developmental changes, altered lung mechanics, the presence of a systemic inflammatory process, and an increased prevalence of associated comorbid conditions. Over-diagnosis of asthma does not seem to be more frequent in obese compared to non-obese subjects, but the added effects of obesity on respiratory symptoms can affect asthma control assessment. Obesity can make asthma more difficult to control and is associated with a reduced beneficial effect of asthma medications. This could be due to a change in asthma phenotype, particularly evidenced as a less eosinophilic type of airway inflammation combined to the added effects of changes in lung mechanics. Weight loss is associated with a universal improvement of asthma and should be part of asthma management in the obese patient. Additional research should be conducted to better determine how obesity influences the development and clinical expression of asthma, establish the optimal management of asthma in this population and determine how obesity affects long-term asthma outcomes in these patients.

  14. Obesity and asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Peter G

    2013-12-01

    There is a global epidemic of asthma and obesity that is concentrated in Westernized and developed countries. A causal association in some people with asthma is suggested by observations that obesity precedes the onset of asthma and that bariatric surgery for morbid obesity can resolve asthma. The obese asthma phenotype features poor asthma control, limited response to corticosteroids, and an exaggeration of the physiological effects of obesity on lung function, which includes a reduction in expiratory reserve volume and airway closure occurring during tidal breathing. Obesity has important implications for asthma treatment. Increasing corticosteroid doses based on poor asthma control, as currently recommended in guidelines, may lead to overtreatment with corticosteroids in obese asthma. Enhanced bronchodilation, particularly of the small airways, may reduce the component of airway closure due to increased bronchomotor tone and suggests that greater emphasis should be placed on long-acting bronchodilators in obese asthma. The societal implications of this are important: with increasing obesity there will be increasing asthma from obesity, and the need to identify successful individual and societal weight-control strategies becomes a key goal.

  15. Childhood obesity stigma: association with television, videogame, and magazine exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latner, Janet D; Rosewall, Juliet K; Simmonds, Murray B

    2007-06-01

    Although the stigmatization of obesity among children is highly prevalent, its origins and relationship to mass media exposure are largely unknown. Ninety boys and 171 girls aged 10-13 years (mean BMI=19.84) were asked to rank, in order of liking, 12 figures of peers depicted both with and without various disabilities or obesity, and to rate their attitudes towards the obese child on visual analogue scales. Weekly time spent watching television, watching videogames, and reading magazines on weekdays and weekends was assessed. Total media use, magazine use, and videogame use were significantly correlated with more negative reactions to obese girls and boys. Regression analyses revealed that greater dislike of obese children relative to their non-overweight peers was uniquely predicted by magazine reading time. Thus, media exposure was associated with stigmatizing attitudes towards obese children. Mass media sources may lead children to devalue and stigmatize peers with above-average body weights.

  16. The Neurocognitive Performance of Visuospatial Attention in Children with Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Chia-Liang; Chen, Fu-Chen; Pan, Chien-Yu; Tseng, Yu-Ting

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigates the behavioral performance and event-related potentials (ERPs) in children with obesity and healthy weight children when performing a visuospatial attention task. Twenty-six children with obesity (obese group) and 26 healthy weight children (control group) were recruited. Their behavioral performance during a variant of the Posner paradigm was measured, and brain ERPs were recorded concurrently. The behavioral data revealed that the obese group responded more slowly, especially in the invalid condition, and exhibited a deficit in attentional inhibition capacity as compared to the control group. In terms of cognitive electrophysiological performance, although the obese group did not show significant differences on P3 latency elicited by the target stimuli when compared to the control group, they exhibited smaller P3 amplitudes when performing the visuospatial attention task. These results broaden previous findings, and indicate that childhood obesity is associated with a reduced ability to modulate the executive function network which supports visuospatial attention.

  17. Canine and feline obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandøe, Peter; Palmer, Clare; Corr, Sandra

    2014-01-01

    Recent years have seen a drastic increase in the rates of overweight and obesity among people living in some developed nations. There has also been increased concern over obesity in companion animals. In the latest article in Veterinary Record's series on One Health, Peter Sandøe and colleagues a...... argue that the relationship between obesity in people and in companion animals is closer and more complex than previously thought, and that obesity should be treated as a One Health problem.......Recent years have seen a drastic increase in the rates of overweight and obesity among people living in some developed nations. There has also been increased concern over obesity in companion animals. In the latest article in Veterinary Record's series on One Health, Peter Sandøe and colleagues...

  18. Obesity in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Chu Chin; Mahmood, Tahir

    2015-04-01

    The prevalence of obesity has reached alarming proportions globally, and continues to rise in both developed and developing countries. Maternal obesity has become one of the most commonly occurring risk factors in obstetric practice. The 2003-2005 report of the Confidential Enquiries into Maternal Deaths in the United Kingdom highlighted obesity as a significant risk for maternal death [1]. More than half of all women who died from direct or indirect causes were either overweight or obese. For the mother, obesity increases the risk of obstetric complications during the antenatal, intrapartum and postnatal period, as well as contributing to technical difficulties with fetal assessment. The offspring of obese mothers also have a higher rate of perinatal morbidity and an increased risk of long-term health problems.

  19. Obesity and pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Kirsten Riis; Andersen, Malene Lundgren; Schantz, Anne Louise

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: As obesity is an increasing problem among fertile women, it is crucial that specialists involved in the treatment of these women be aware of the risks of complications and know how to deal with them. Complications associated with obesity in pregnancy are gestational diabetes mellitus...... for gestational age, late fetal death, and congenital malformations, especially neural tube defects. OBJECTIVE: The aim was to review the potential complications associated with obesity and pregnancy. RESULTS: Obesity is associated with a higher risk of all reviewed complications except small for gestational age......., hypertensive disorders, and thromboembolic complications. Complications associated with obesity in labor are augmentation, early amniotomy, cephalopelvic disproportion, cesarean section, and perioperative morbidity. Complications associated with obesity in children are macrosomia, shoulder dystocia, small...

  20. Maternal obesity in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Devlieger, Roland; Benhalima, Katrien; Damm, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Paralleling the global epidemic of obesity figures in the general population, the incidence of maternal obesity (BMI>30kg/m(2) at the start of pregnancy) has been rising over the last world. While most European countries do not systematically report obesity figures in their pregnant population......, the prevalence of maternal obesity varies from 7 to 25% and seems strongly related to social and educational inequalities. Obesity during pregnancy represents an important preventable risk factor for adverse pregnancy outcomes and is associated with negative long-term health outcomes for both mothers...... and offspring. These effects are often aggravated by the high incidence of abnormal glucose tolerance and excessive gestational weight gain found in this group. The main controversies around the management of the obese pregnant women are related to (1) the value of repeated weighing during pregnancy, (2...

  1. Predisposition to Obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Nanna Julie; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Heitmann, Berit Lilienthal

    2012-01-01

    Obesity prevention should remain a priority, even if there is some suggestion that the epidemic may presently have reached a stable level. However, previous interventions have not been effective in preventing overweight and obesity, and at the same time studies suggest that some subgroups are more...... predisposed to future obesity. The purpose of this paper is to review interventions on obesity prevention published during the past year, and to examine if interventions targeting predisposed groups or individuals seem more efficient in preventing obesity than studies targeting general populations. Among 15...... status. Thus, we may be more successful in preventing obesity when targeting predisposed individuals, but more studies are needed before a firm conclusion can be drawn....

  2. Obesity and asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sivapalan, Pradeesh; Diamant, Zuzana; Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Obesity has significant impact on asthma incidence and manifestations. The purpose of the review is to discuss recent observations regarding the association between obesity and asthma focusing on underlying mechanisms, clinical presentation, response to therapy and effect...... of weight reduction. RECENT FINDINGS: Clinical and epidemiological studies indicate that obese patients with asthma may represent a unique phenotype, which is more difficult to control, less responsive to asthma medications and by that may have higher healthcare utilization. A number of common comorbidities...... have been linked to both obesity and asthma, and may, therefore, contribute to the obese-asthma phenotype. Furthermore, recently published studies indicate that even a modest weight reduction can improve clinical manifestations and outcome of asthma. SUMMARY: Compared with normal-weight patients, obese...

  3. Obesity: A multifactorial disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianna Ntokou

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Obesity represents one of the most serious global health issues with approximately 310 million people presently affected. Main cause of it’s development is the increase of energy intake in regard to energy expenditure.Aim: The aim of the present study was to review the literature about the causes and treatment of obesity, as well as the anthropometrical measurements used for the assessment of obesity. The method οf this study included bibliography research from both the review and the research literature, mainly in the “pub med data base” which referred to the causes and treatment of obesity, as well as the anthropometrical measurements used for the assessment of obesity. Results: The prevalence of obesity has increased markedly, throughout the world. Although the etiology of obesity has not been fully understood yet, however it seems to be a multifactorial disease for which are responsible a great deal of psychological, environmental, genetic and behavioral factors. The most common anthropometrical measurement that is used for assessment of obesity is Body Mass Index (BMI and is calculated by the following equation: ΒΜΙ=Weight/Height2. A value of ΒΜΙ ≥ 30 kg/m2 equals obesity. Another simple test used to measure obesity is Waist to Hip Ratio, which measures abdominal adiposity. Values greater than 0,95 should be treated seriously as they normally indicate body fatness. The majority of studies show that life-style modification in conjunction with a well-balanced nutrition and regular physical exercise consist the cornerstone for the treatment and prevention of obesity.Conclusions: Obesity is a disease that can be preventable through modification of way of living. The development of proper strategy prevention capable to change attitudes, to promote nutrition and physical activity should be the primary goal of every community and government.

  4. Virtual screening against obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markt, P; Herdlinger, S; Schuster, D

    2011-01-01

    The development of novel drugs against obesity is one of the top priorities of worldwide drug research. In recent years, it has been facilitated by the application of virtual screening methods. In this review, we give a short introduction into obesity-related protein targets and computer-aided drug design techniques. Furthermore, we highlight the most successful virtual screening studies, outline their results, and provide suggestions for future anti-obesity drug development.

  5. Current mapping of obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Carmen Pérez Rodrigo

    2013-01-01

    Obesity is a major risk factor for non-communicable diseases (NCDs), such as diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and cancers. The worldwide prevalence of obesity has almost doubled between 1980 and 2008. In some regions, such as Europe, the Eastern Mediterranean and the Americas, more than 50% of women are overweight. Tonga, Nauru and the Cook Islands show the highest prevalence of obesity worldwide, above 60% in men and in women. China and the United States are the countries that experienced ...

  6. Obesity and kidney protection

    OpenAIRE

    Chandra, Aravind; Biersmith, Michael; Tolouian, Ramin

    2014-01-01

    Context: Obesity, both directly and indirectly, increases the risk for a variety of disease conditions including diabetes, hypertension, liver disease, and certain cancers, which in turn, decreases the overall lifespan in both men and women. Though the cardiovascular risks of obesity are widely acknowledged, less often identified is the relationship between obesity and renal function. Evidence Acquisitions: Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ), Google Scholar, PubMed, EBSCO and Web of Sci...

  7. Medical management of obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, S

    2001-10-01

    Obesity has become a major health problem in many countries because of its high prevalence and causal relationship with serious medical complications. Many of the medical complications associated with obesity improve with intentional weight in a dose-dependent fashion, and even a modest weight loss of 50% of initial weight has beneficial effects. This article reviews the nonsurgical approaches for achieving weight loss in obese persons.

  8. [Obesity in Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dávila-Torres, Javier; González-Izquierdo, José Jesús; Barrera-Cruz, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Excess body weight (overweight and obesity) is currently recognized as one of the most important challenges of public health in the world, given its size, speed of growth and the negative effect it has on the health of the population that suffers. Overweight and obesity significantly increases the risk of chronic no communicable diseases, premature mortality and the social cost of health. An estimated 90 % of cases of type 2 diabetes mellitus attributable to overweight and obesity. Today, Mexico is second global prevalence of obesity in the adult population, which is ten times higher than that of countries like Japan and Korea. With regard to children, Mexico ranks fourth worldwide obesity prevalence, behind Greece, USA and Italy. In our country, over 70 % of the adult population, between 30 and 60 years are overweight. The prevalence of overweight is higher in men than females, while the prevalence of obesity is higher in women than men. Until 2012, 26 million Mexican adults are overweight and 22 million obese, which represents a major challenge for the health sector in terms of promoting healthy lifestyles in the population and development of public policies to reverse this scenario epidemiology. Mexico needs to plan and implement strategies and action cost effective for the prevention and control of obesity of children, adolescents and adults. Global experience shows that proper care of obesity and overweight, required to formulate and coordinate multisectoral strategies and efficient for enhancing protective factors to health, particularly to modify individual behavior, family and community.

  9. DBS for Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Ruth; Fonoff, Erich T.; Alvarenga, Pedro; Lopes, Antonio Carlos; Miguel, Euripides C.; Teixeira, Manoel J.; Damiani, Durval; Hamani, Clement

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is a chronic, progressive and prevalent disorder. Morbid obesity, in particular, is associated with numerous comorbidities and early mortality. In patients with morbid obesity, pharmacological and behavioral approaches often have limited results. Bariatric surgery is quite effective but is associated with operative failures and a non-negligible incidence of side effects. In the last decades, deep brain stimulation (DBS) has been investigated as a neurosurgical modality to treat various neuropsychiatric disorders. In this article we review the rationale for selecting different brain targets, surgical results and future perspectives for the use of DBS in medically refractory obesity. PMID:27438859

  10. DBS for Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Franco

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a chronic, progressive and prevalent disorder. Morbid obesity, in particular, is associated with numerous comorbidities and early mortality. In patients with morbid obesity, pharmacological and behavioral approaches often have limited results. Bariatric surgery is quite effective but is associated with operative failures and a non-negligible incidence of side effects. In the last decades, deep brain stimulation (DBS has been investigated as a neurosurgical modality to treat various neuropsychiatric disorders. In this article we review the rationale for selecting different brain targets, surgical results and future perspectives for the use of DBS in medically refractory obesity.

  11. Obesity and Exercise

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is defined as the accumulation of abnormal or excessive fat in fat tissues that substantially disrupt health. The main reasons of obesity are excessive and unbalanced diet and lack of physical activity. Obesity and santral obesity leads to many diseases. Body mass index (weight (kg)/lenght (m2)) has been used extensively to define categories of body weight. All healthy adults aged 18-65 yr need moderate-intensity aerobic physical activity for a minimum of 30 min on five days each week...

  12. Economic Impact of Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spieker, Elena A; Pyzocha, Natasha

    2016-03-01

    Parallel to rising obesity rates is an increase in costs associated with excess weight. Estimates of future direct (medical) and indirect (nonmedical) costs related to obesity suggest rising expenditures that will impose a significant economic burden to individuals and society as a whole. This article reviews research on direct and indirect medical costs and future economic trends associated with obesity and associated comorbidities. Cost disparities associated with subsets of the population experiencing higher than average rates of obesity are explored. Finally, potential solutions with the highest estimated impact are offered, and future directions are proposed.

  13. Controversies in Obesity Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Karandish

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The markedly high prevalence of obesity contributes to the increased incidence of chronic diseases, such as diabetes, hypertension, sleep apnea, and heart disease. Because of high prevalence of obesity in almost all countries, it has been the focus of many researches throughout the world during the recent decades. Along with increasing researches, new concepts and controversies have been emerged. The existing controversies on the topic are so deep that some researches argue on absolutely philosophical questions such as “Is obesity a disease?” or “Is it correct to treat obesity?” These questions are based on a few theories and real data that explain obesity as a biological adaptation and also the final results of weight loss programs. Many people attempt to lose weight by diet therapy, physical activity and lifestyle modifications. Importantly, weight loss strategies in the long term are ineffective and may have unintended consequences including decreasing energy expenditure, complicated appetite control, eating disorders, reducing self-esteem, increasing the plasma and tissue levels of persistent organic pollutants that promote metabolic complications, and consequently, higher risk of repeated cycles of weight loss and weight regain. In this review, major paradoxes and controversies on obesity including classic obesity paradox, pre-obesity; fat-but-fit theory, and healthy obesity are explained. In addition, the relevant strategies like “Health at Every Size” that emphasize on promotion of global health behaviors rather than weight loss programs are explained.

  14. Update on obesity surgery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dan Eisenberg; Andrew J Duffy; Robert L Bell

    2006-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity in the United States has reached epidemic proportions. With more than 30 million Americans clinically obese, the younger population has also been affected. Surgical therapy should be offered to the severely obese patient who is refractory to nonsurgical therapy, as established by the 1991 NIH Consensus Conference on Gastrointestinal Surgery for Severe Obesity. Surgery is currently the most effective therapy for weight loss. It is far more effective than any other treatment modality, both in terms of the amount of weight loss and in terms of durability in maintaining weight loss.

  15. What Are Overweight and Obesity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. Overweight and Obesity Español Also known as adiposity. Overweight and obesity ... more information. Rate This Content: NEXT >> Featured Video Obesity happens one pound at a time. So does ...

  16. Overweight, Obesity, and Weight Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Overweight, obesity, and weight loss fact sheet ePublications Overweight, obesity, and weight loss fact sheet Print this fact sheet Overweight, obesity, and weight loss fact sheet (full version) ( ...

  17. Treating Obesity As a Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Restaurant Deciphering the Menu Ordering Your Meal Eating Fast Food Dining Out Tips by Cuisine Physical Activity Fitness ... Childhood Obesity What is childhood obesity? Overweight in Children BMI in Children Is Childhood Obesity an Issue ...

  18. The relation between childhood obesity and adenotonsillar hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daar, Ghaniya; Sarı, Kamran; Gencer, Zeliha Kapusuz; Ede, Hüseyin; Aydın, Reha; Saydam, Levent

    2016-02-01

    symptoms is prominent especially in children under 7 years of age, but its impact on the development of childhood obesity is still controversial. Our results revealed a possible relation between adenotonsillar hypertrophy and obesity rates. Further studies on larger populations should be planned to better define the real impact of adenotonsillar hypertrophy in obese children.

  19. "Obesity is the New Major Cause of Cancer": Connections Between Obesity and Cancer on Facebook and Twitter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Erin E; Prestin, Abby; Gaysynsky, Anna; Galica, Kasia; Rinker, Robin; Graff, Kaitlin; Chou, Wen-Ying Sylvia

    2016-09-01

    Social media interactions can inform public health risk perceptions. While research has examined the risk relationships between obesity and cancer, public attitudes about their associations remain largely unknown. We explored how these constructs were discussed together on two social media platforms. Publicly accessible Facebook and Twitter posts from a 2-month period in 2012 containing references to obesity ("obese/obesity," "overweight," and "fat") and cancer-related words were extracted (N = 3702 posts). Data cleaning yielded a final set of 1382 posts (Facebook: N = 291; Twitter: N = 1091). Using a mixed-methods approach, themes were inductively generated, and sentiment valence, structural elements, and epistemic stance were coded. Seven relational themes emerged: obesity is associated with cancer (n = 389), additional factors are associated with both obesity and cancer (n = 335), obesity causes cancer (n = 85), cancer causes obesity (n = 6), obesity is not linked to cancer (n = 13), co-occurrence (n = 492), and obesity is valued differently than cancer (n = 60). Fifty-nine percent of posts focused on an associative or causal link between obesity and cancer. Thirty-one percent of posts contained positive and/or negative sentiment. Facebook was more likely to contain any sentiment, but Twitter contained proportionately more negative sentiment. Concurrent qualitative analysis revealed a dominance of individual blame for overweight/obese persons and more support and empathy for cancer survivors. Our study reflects wide recognition of the evidence linking obesity to increased risk of cancer, a diverse set of factors perceived to be dually associated with both conditions and differing attribution of responsibility. We demonstrate that social media monitoring can provide an important gauge of public health risk perception.

  20. Prioritizing obesity in the city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Jennifer Asanin; Elliott, Susan J

    2012-02-01

    A decade ago, the World Health Organization declared obesity to be a global epidemic. Accordingly, there is a growing body of research examining how "obesogenic environments" contribute to the increasing prevalence of obesity. Using the ANGELO Framework, this research explores the role of municipal policies and practices in constructing obesogenic environments in two Southern Ontario cities in order to examine how socio-cultural and political environments shape excess body weight. Data was collected from municipal policy documents, public health websites, and key informants in Hamilton and Mississauga, Ontario, Canada. Results indicate that while the cities took different approaches to dealing with obesity, they both reflected the cities' overall prioritizing of health. Additionally, the findings reveal the pervasiveness of values and attitudes held in the socio-cultural environment in further shaping (and being shaped by) political as well as economic and physical environments in the cities. The importance of explicitly acknowledging the official discourse of the city, which this study demonstrates to be a significant factor in constructing obesogenic environments, is highlighted. Theoretical contributions and policy implications are also discussed.

  1. Adult-onset Mitochondrial Myopathy, Encephalopathy, Lactic Acidosis, and Stroke (MELAS)-like Encephalopathy Diagnosed Based on the Complete Sequencing of Mitochondrial DNA Extracted from Biopsied Muscle without any Myopathic Changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukai, Masako; Nagata, Eiichiro; Mizuma, Atsushi; Yamano, Mitsuhiko; Sugaya, Keizo; Nishino, Ichizo; Goto, Yu-Ichi; Takizawa, Shunya

    The clinical features of mitochondrial myopathy, encephalopathy, lactic acidosis, and stroke-like episodes (MELAS) are not uniform. We herein report a male patient with unusual MELAS-like encephalopathy who had been experiencing isolated recurrent stroke-like episodes since he was 33 years old without any particular family history. Despite an extensive investigation, he had no other signs suggestive of MELAS. Although the muscle pathology showed a normal appearance, a mitochondrial genome sequence analysis of the biopsied muscle revealed a heteroplasmic m.10158T>C mutation in the mitochondrial complex I subunit gene, MT-ND3. To prevented further deterioration of the higher brain function, the early diagnosis and treatment of mitochondrial stroke-like episodes is important.

  2. The Obesity Epidemic

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-07-18

    Learn about obesity and the community initiatives taking place to prevent and reduce this epidemic.  Created: 7/18/2011 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Division of Nutrition, Physical Activity and Obesity.   Date Released: 7/18/2011.

  3. Obesity Treatment Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Ianosi Edith

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a disease with severe health consequences and increased risk of mortality. The most commonly used criteria to assess the presence and the severity of obesity are body mass index, waist circumference, waist-to-height ratio and the presence of the health conditions caused or worsened by obesity. Worldwide obesity has more than doubled in the last 4 decades. Obesity is the second of the leading preventable causes of death worldwide (after smoking. Obesity has a plurifactorial pathogenesis. The central perturbation consists in the imbalance between calories intake and calories consumption (by inappropriate diet and sedentary lifestyle. Identification of all the ethiological factors is important for treatment and prophylaxis. Weight loss benefits are multiple and important: improvement in glicemic control and in plasma lipid levels, blood presure control, obstructiv sleep apneea reduction, improvement in management of daily activities and profesional performances, increase quality of life, reduction in mortality. Overweight or obese patient will complete a diagnostic and a treatment program. Treatment of obesity claims a targeted multidimensional therapy: weight and lifestyle management, diet, sustained physical activity in daily life, exercise, decrease life stressors, smoking cessation, drug therapy, bariatric surgery psichological, familial and social suport. Weight loss program must be carefully planned, adapted to the patient’s abilities and comorbidities and supervised by a nutritionist and a physiotherapist.

  4. Severe childhood obesity matters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slootweg, O.H.

    2014-01-01

    To date, obesity represents a major public health challenge. Obesity is at any age a concern but in pediatric populations it is particularly alarming because of its immediate biomedical and psychosocial consequences and the expectation that it will lead to an increase in morbidity and mortality and

  5. Obesity and pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Kirsten Riis; Andersen, Malene Lundgren; Schantz, Anne Louise

    2004-01-01

    for gestational age, late fetal death, and congenital malformations, especially neural tube defects. OBJECTIVE: The aim was to review the potential complications associated with obesity and pregnancy. RESULTS: Obesity is associated with a higher risk of all reviewed complications except small for gestational age....

  6. Childhood Overweight and Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Prevention and Wellness Food and Nutrition Healthy Food Choices Childhood Overweight and Obesity Childhood Overweight and Obesity Family HealthFood and NutritionHealthy Food ChoicesKids and TeensPrevention and WellnessWeight Loss and Diet ...

  7. Obesity: A Bibliographic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGowan, Beth

    2012-01-01

    The study of obesity is a relatively new interdisciplinary academic field. The community college library shelves should contain two types of resources. First, several kinds of reference materials, and second, a host of broader materials that place the discussion of obesity within a cultural framework. This overview is divided into two major…

  8. Battling the Obesity Epidemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Mark; Moag-Stahlberg, Alicia

    2002-01-01

    Describes causes of overweight and obesity in children; cites research linking good nutrition and a child's capacity to learn; includes six Web-based links to resources to help principals and teachers reduce the serious problem of overweight and obese children. (PKP)

  9. A study of defense mechanism in schizophrenic patients with adolescent onset age or adult onset age%青少年期与成年期起病精神分裂症患者的心理防御机制特点研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晨; 伍建红; 王晓良; 江文庆; 禹顺英

    2009-01-01

    Objective To explore the characteristics of defense mechanism in schizophrenic patients with ado-lescent onset age or adult onset age. Methods A total of 30 schizophrenic patients with adolescent onset age, 30 schizophrenic patients with adult onset age and 30 normal controls were tested with Defense Styles Question-naire (DSQ). Results The factor scores of immature and mediate defense mechanism were significantly higher in patients, compared with normal controls (P<0.05), the factor score of mature defense mechanism was sig-nificantly positively correlated with onset age of schizophrenia (P<0.01). Conclusion Schizophrenic patients tend to use immature and mediate defense mechanism. Mature defense mechanism would be influenced by the onset age of schizophrenia.%目的 探讨不同年龄起病的精神分裂症患者的心理防御机制的特点.方法 应用防御方式问卷对青少年期起病和成年期起病的精神分裂症患者各30名,以及30名健康志愿者进行防御机制的评定并进行比较.结果 青少年期起病及成年期起病精神分裂症患者中不成熟和中间型防御机制因子分均显著高于正常对照组(P<0.05);成熟防御机制与精神分裂症起病年龄呈显著正相关(P<0.01).结论 精神分裂症患者过多地使用不成熟和中间型防御机制,精神分裂症患者的起病年龄影响其成熟机制的发展.

  10. Personalized nutrition and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Lu

    2014-08-01

    The past few decades have witnessed a rapid rise in nutrition-related disorders such as obesity in the United States and over the world. Traditional nutrition research has associated various foods and nutrients with obesity. Recent advances in genomics have led to identification of the genetic variants determining body weight and related dietary factors such as intakes of energy and macronutrients. In addition, compelling evidence has lent support to interactions between genetic variations and dietary factors in relation to obesity and weight change. Moreover, recently emerging data from other 'omics' studies such as epigenomics and metabolomics suggest that more complex interplays between the global features of human body and dietary factors may exist at multiple tiers in affecting individuals' susceptibility to obesity; and a concept of 'personalized nutrition' has been proposed to integrate this novel knowledge with traditional nutrition research, with the hope ultimately to endorse person-centric diet intervention to mitigate obesity and related disorders.

  11. Obesity and craniopharyngioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruzzi Patrizia

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract An epidemic of pediatric obesity has occurred across the world in recent years. There are subgroups within the population at high-risk of becoming obese and especially of having experience of precocious cardiovascular and metabolic co-morbidities of obesity. One of these subgroups comprises patients treated for childhood cancers and namely survivors of craniopharyngioma. The high incidence of obesity in this group makes these patients an important disease model to better understand the metabolic disturbances and the mechanisms of weight gain among cancer survivors. The hypothalamic-pituitary axis damage secondary to cancer therapies or to primary tumor location affect long-term outcomes. Nevertheless, the aetiology of obesity in craniopharyngioma is not yet fully understood. The present review has the aim of summarizing the published data and examining the most accepted mechanisms and main predisposing factors related to weight gain in this particular population.

  12. Obesity and cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brawer, Rickie; Brisbon, Nancy; Plumb, James

    2009-09-01

    Obesity has become the second leading preventable cause of disease and death in the United States, trailing only tobacco use. Weight control, dietary choices, and levels of physical activity are important modifiable determinants of cancer risk. Physicians have a key role in integrating multifactorial approaches to prevention and management into clinical care and advocating for systemic prevention efforts. This article provides an introduction to the epidemiology and magnitude of childhood and adult obesity; the relationship between obesity and cancer and other chronic diseases; potential mechanisms postulated to explain these relationships; a review of recommended obesity treatment and assessment guidelines for adults, adolescents, and children; multilevel prevention strategies; and an approach to obesity management in adults using the Chronic Care Model.

  13. Sexual function and obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, S H; Wagner, G; Heitmann, B L

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To review the literature on the relationship between obesity and sexual function. METHOD: A search in the medical literature from 1966 and onwards was carried out through Medline and Embase for publications on obesity, in combination with Medical Subject Heading words related to sexual...... function and dysfunction. COMMENTS: Four prospective and seven cross-sectional studies were found describing association between obesity and erectile dysfunction (ED). One cross-sectional study was found describing obesity and female sexual dysfunction (FSD). The prospective studies on ED all demonstrated...... activity among both men and women after weight loss intervention. CONCLUSION: Support for the assumption that obesity is associated with ED was found in both prospective and cross-sectional studies. FSD was not adequately described in the literature and prospective studies are needed here. Results from...

  14. Molecular analysis of gut microbiota in obesity among Indian individuals

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Deepak P Patil; Dhiraj P Dhotre; Sachin G Chavan; Armiya Sultan; Dhawal S Jain; Vikram B Lanjekar; Jayshree Gangawani; Poonam S Shah; Jayshree S Todkar; Shashank Shah; Dilip R Ranade; Milind S Patole; Yogesh S Shouche

    2012-09-01

    Obesity is a consequence of a complex interplay between the host genome and the prevalent obesogenic factors among the modern communities. The role of gut microbiota in the pathogenesis of the disorder was recently discovered; however, 16S-rRNA-based surveys revealed compelling but community-specific data. Considering this, despite unique diets, dietary habits and an uprising trend in obesity, the Indian counterparts are poorly studied. Here, we report a comparative analysis and quantification of dominant gut microbiota of lean, normal, obese and surgically treated obese individuals of Indian origin. Representative gut microbial diversity was assessed by sequencing fecal 16S rRNA libraries for each group (n=5) with a total of over 3000 sequences. We detected no evident trend in the distribution of the predominant bacterial phyla, Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes. At the genus level, the bacteria of genus Bacteroides were prominent among the obese individuals, which was further confirmed by qPCR ( > 0.05). In addition, a remarkably high archaeal density with elevated fecal SCFA levels was also noted in the obese group. On the contrary, the treated-obese individuals exhibited comparatively reduced Bacteroides and archaeal counts along with reduced fecal SCFAs. In conclusion, the study successfully identified a representative microbial diversity in the Indian subjects and demonstrated the prominence of certain bacterial groups in obese individuals; nevertheless, further studies are essential to understand their role in obesity.

  15. Prenatal Cocaine Exposure and Childhood Obesity at Nine Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaGasse, Linda L.; Gaskins, Ronnesia B.; Bada, Henrietta S.; Shankaran, Seetha; Liu, Jing; Lester, Barry M.; Bauer, Charles R.; Higgins, Rosemary D.; Das, Abhik; Roberts, Mary

    2010-01-01

    Little is known about the association between prenatal cocaine exposure and obesity. We tested whether prenatal cocaine exposure increases the likelihood of obesity in 561 9-year-old term children from the Maternal Lifestyle Study (MLS). Overall, 21.6% of children met criterion for obesity (body mass index [BMI] ≥ 95th percentile, age and sex-specific). While there was no overall cocaine effect on obesity, multivariate logistic analysis revealed that children exposed to cocaine but not alcohol were 4 times more likely to be obese (OR 4.11, CI 2.04–9.76) than children not exposed to either drug. No increase in obesity prevalence was found in children exposed to alcohol but not cocaine (OR 1.08, CI .59–1.93) or both (OR 1.21, CI 0.66–2.22). Alcohol exposure may attenuate the effect of cocaine exposure on obesity. Increased obesity associated with cocaine but not alcohol exposure was first observed at 7 years. BMI was also elevated from 3 to 9 years in children exposed to cocaine but not alcohol, due to increasing weight but normal height. Prenatal exposure to cocaine may alter the neuroendocrine system and metabolic processes resulting in increased weight gain and childhood obesity. PMID:21109003

  16. Current mapping of obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Pérez Rodrigo

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a major risk factor for non-communicable diseases (NCDs, such as diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and cancers. The worldwide prevalence of obesity has almost doubled between 1980 and 2008. In some regions, such as Europe, the Eastern Mediterranean and the Americas, more than 50% of women are overweight. Tonga, Nauru and the Cook Islands show the highest prevalence of obesity worldwide, above 60% in men and in women. China and the United States are the countries that experienced the largest absolute increase in the number of overweight and obese people between 1980 and 2008, followed by Brazil and Mexico. The regions with the largest increase in the prevalence of female obesity were Central Latin America, Oceania and Southern Latin America. Updated data provide evidence that the progression of the epidemic has effectively slowed for the past ten years in several countries. In low-income countries obesity is generally more prevalent among the better-off, while disadvantaged groups are increasingly affected as countries grow. Many studies have shown an overall socio-economic gradient in obesity in modern industrialized societies. Rates tend to decrease progressively with increasing socio-economic status. Children obesity rates in Spain are amongst the highest in the OECD. One in 3 children aged 13 to 14 are overweight. Overweight in infants and young children is observed in the upper middle-income countries. However, the fastest growth occurs in the group of lower middle-income countries. There is a growing body of evidence for an inverse association between SES and child obesity in developed countries. The prevalence of overweight and obesity is high in all age groups in many countries, but especially worrying in children and adolescents in developed countries and economies in transition.

  17. Current mapping of obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez Rodrigo, Carmen

    2013-09-01

    Obesity is a major risk factor for non-communicable diseases (NCDs), such as diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and cancers. The worldwide prevalence of obesity has almost doubled between 1980 and 2008. In some regions, such as Europe, the Eastern Mediterranean and the Americas, more than 50% of women are overweight. Tonga, Nauru and the Cook Islands show the highest prevalence of obesity worldwide, above 60% in men and in women. China and the United States are the countries that experienced the largest absolute increase in the number of overweight and obese people between 1980 and 2008, followed by Brazil and Mexico. The regions with the largest increase in the prevalence of female obesity were Central Latin America, Oceania and Southern Latin America. Updated data provide evidence that the progression of the epidemic has effectively slowed for the past ten years in several countries. In low-income countries obesity is generally more prevalent among the better-off, while disadvantaged groups are increasingly affected as countries grow. Many studies have shown an overall socio-economic gradient in obesity in modern industrialized societies. Rates tend to decrease progressively with increasing socio-economic status. Children obesity rates in Spain are amongst the highest in the OECD. One in 3 children aged 13 to 14 are overweight. Overweight in infants and young children is observed in the upper middle-income countries. However, the fastest growth occurs in the group of lower middle-income countries. There is a growing body of evidence for an inverse association between SES and child obesity in developed countries. The prevalence of overweight and obesity is high in all age groups in many countries, but especially worrying in children and adolescents in developed countries and economies in transition.

  18. Genetics of obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, Karine; Boutin, Philippe; Froguel, Philippe

    2002-01-01

    Obesity is a typical common multifactorial disease in which environmental and genetic factors interact. In rare cases of severe obesity with childhood onset, a single gene has a major effect in determining the occurrence of obesity, with the environment having only a permissive role in the severity of the phenotype. Exceptional mutations of the leptin gene and its receptor, pro-opiomelanocortine (POMC), prohormone convertase 1 (PC1) and more frequently, mutations in the melanocortin receptor 4 (1 to 4% of very obese cases) have been described. All these obesity genes encode proteins that are strongly connected as part of the same loop of the regulation of food intake. They all involve the leptin axis and one of its hypothalamic targets; the melanocortin pathway. Pathways of bodyweight regulation involved in monogenic forms of obesity might represent targets for future drug development. Successful leptin protein replacement in a leptin-deficient child has contributed to the validation of the usefulness of gene screening in humans. However, the individual variability in response to leptin treatment might be related to genetic variability. The efficiency of leptin itself or of small-molecule agonists of the leptin receptor should be studied in relation with genetic variations in the leptin gene promoter. The most common forms of obesity are polygenic. Two general approaches have been used to date in the search for genes underlying common polygenic obesity in humans. The first approach focuses on selected genes having some plausible role in obesity on the basis of their known or presumed biological role. This approach yielded putative susceptibility genes with only small or uncertain effects. The second approach attempts to map genes purely by position and requires no presumptions on the function of genes. Genome-wide scans identify chromosomal regions showing linkage with obesity in large collections of nuclear families. Genome-wide scans in different ethnic

  19. Contemporary pharmacological obesity treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaszubska Katarzyna

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the last few years, obesity has become a global epidemic. Consequently, worldwide costs associated with managing obesity and obesity-related comorbidities are huge. Numerous studies have focused on discerning the appropriate proper treatment of weight related problems such as overweight and obesity. Moreover, many clinical trials have been conducted for many years in order to introduce effective anti-obesity drugs. The aim of the present review is to provide an overview of current and future pharmacotherapy for obesity, and to provide the reader with a determination of the concentration and composition of long and short term anti-obesity drugs, doing so by placing emphasis on pharmacotherapy and up-to-day solutions. It should be noted that, currently, the worldwide pharmacotherapy is represented by phendimetrazine, benzphetamine and diethylpropion, as well as by orlistat, lorcaserin, phentermine/topiramate, naltrexone/bupropion and liraglutide. In our paper, individual cases of patients’ needs are thoroughly illustrated by way of examples. Medical prescriptions and contraindications are also described.

  20. [Asthma, obesity and diet].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barranco, P; Delgado, J; Gallego, L T; Bobolea, I; Pedrosa, Ma; García de Lorenzo, A; Quirce, S

    2012-01-01

    Asthma and obesity have a considerable impact on public health and their prevalence has increased in recent years. Numerous studies have linked both disorders. Most prospective studies show that obesity is a risk factor for asthma and have found a positive correlation between baseline body mass index (BMI) and the subsequent development of asthma, although these results are not conclusive when studying the association between airway hyperresponsiveness with BMI. Furthermore, several studies suggest that whereas weight gain increases the risk of asthma, weight loss improves the course of the illness. Different factors could explain this association. Obesity is capable of reducing pulmonary compliance, lung volumes and the diameter of peripheral respiratory airways as well as affecting the volume of blood in the lungs and the ventilation-perfusion relationship. Furthermore, the increase in the normal functioning of adipose tissue in obese subjects leads to a systemic proinflammatory state, which produces a rise in the serum concentrations of several cytokines, the soluble fractions of their receptors and chemokines. Many of these mediators are synthesized and secreted by cells from adipose tissue and receive the generic name of adipokines, including IL-6, IL-10, eotaxin, TNF-α, TGF- 1, PCR, leptin y adiponectin. Finally, specific regions of the human genome which are related to both asthma and obesity have been identified. Most studies point out that obesity is capable of increasing the prevalence and incidence of asthma, although this effect appears to be modest. The treatment of obese asthmatics must include a weight control program.

  1. Epigenetics of Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopomo, A; Burgio, E; Migliore, L

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is a metabolic disease, which is becoming an epidemic health problem: it has been recently defined in terms of Global Pandemic. Over the years, the approaches through family, twins and adoption studies led to the identification of some causal genes in monogenic forms of obesity but the origins of the pandemic of obesity cannot be considered essentially due to genetic factors, because human genome is not likely to change in just a few years. Epigenetic studies have offered in recent years valuable tools for the understanding of the worldwide spread of the pandemic of obesity. The involvement of epigenetic modifications-DNA methylation, histone tails, and miRNAs modifications-in the development of obesity is more and more evident. In the epigenetic literature, there are evidences that the entire embryo-fetal and perinatal period of development plays a key role in the programming of all human organs and tissues. Therefore, the molecular mechanisms involved in the epigenetic programming require a new and general pathogenic paradigm, the Developmental Origins of Health and Disease theory, to explain the current epidemiological transition, that is, the worldwide increase of chronic, degenerative, and inflammatory diseases such as obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, neurodegenerative diseases, and cancer. Obesity and its related complications are more and more associated with environmental pollutants (obesogens), gut microbiota modifications and unbalanced food intake, which can induce, through epigenetic mechanisms, weight gain, and altered metabolic consequences.

  2. Obesity and Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serap Ejder Apay

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Obesity; a state of being 20% over one’s normal weight due to excessive fat; that is, it is defined as the accumulation of too much fat in the body. The rate of obesity in the world has elevated. In the last two decades, it is considered that there have been increases in the rates of the obesity with changes in the socio-economic state and nutritional habits in Turkey as well as in modern western countries. The increase of the obesity is a matter of concern but the aspect which is much more matter of concern is in the increase of obesity in women at the reproductive age or gradually increasing rate of being overweight. If the pregnant woman is obese, most of the physiological changes occurring during pregnancy may be various. During their childbearing years, obese women are at an increased risk for pregnancy-induced hypertension, gestational diabetes, labour induction, caesareans births, and failed vaginal birth following to caesarean. Nurses should have the knowledge to adapt the care they provide according to this knowledge and encourage the pregnant women to acquire behaviours which will improve their health. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2009; 8(4.000: 345-350

  3. Factors associated with obesity in Indonesian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Allison E; Pakiz, Bilge; Rock, Cheryl L

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. To investigate adolescent eating, activity, and behavioral patterns, and attitudes and their associations with obesity in selected communities in Indonesia. DESIGN. A cross-sectional questionnaire and physical measurement-based study in three communities of varying modernization levels in Indonesia (Yogyakarta, Kuta, and Jakarta). Subjects. 1758 middle school students (aged 12-15 years) recruited at six different schools: one public and one private school in each of the three target communities. MEASUREMENTS. The questionnaire collected data on demographic characteristics (age, gender, ethnicity, estimated household income); fast food eating habits (frequency, types of food/restaurant, general beliefs about fast foods); television, computer, and Play Station usage; physical activity (hrs/wk of participation in physical activity, transportation means for attending school); and eating habits (frequency of consuming selected foods and beverages). Student's height and weights were obtained, body mass index (BMI: weight [kg]/height [m(2)]) was calculated, and obesity was defined as ≥95%, using the BMI-for-age cut-offs from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) charts. RESULTS. Chi-square analysis revealed associations between obesity and community setting, family income, use of a computer or Play Station, type of transportation to school, and beliefs about fast foods (P<0.01). According to the logistic regression analysis, adolescents from families with incomes over Rp 2 mil were three times as likely to be obese (95% CI 1.9, 4.9) and boys were 2.6 times more likely to be obese (95% CI 1.5, 4.5). CONCLUSION. Greater likelihood of obesity among Indonesian adolescents who spend greater amounts of time using a computer or Play Station suggests that such sedentary activities may be replacing physical activity, promoting an energy imbalance, and subsequently, an increased risk for obesity.

  4. [Obesity and cardiovascular disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poirier, Paul; Després, Jean-Pierre

    2003-10-01

    Available evidence clearly indicates a rapid progression in the prevalence of obesity worldwide. As a consequence, there has also been a marked increase in the prevalence of type 2 diabetes all over the world and this chronic metabolic disease is now considered as a coronary heart disease risk equivalent. However, even in the absence of the hyperglycaemic state which characterizes type 2 diabetic patients, non diabetic individuals with a specific form of obesity, named abdominal obesity, often show clustering metabolic abnormalities which include high triglyceride levels, increased apolipoprotein B, small dense low density lipoproteins and decreased high density lipoproteins-cholesterol levels, a hyperinsulinemic-insulin resistant state, alterations in coagulation factors as well as an inflammatory profile. This agglomeration of abnormalities has been referred to as the metabolic syndrome which can be identified by the presence of three of the five following variables: abdominal obesity, elevated triglyceride concentrations, low HDL-cholesterol levels, increased blood pressure and elevated fasting glucose. Post-mortem analyses of coronary arteries have indicated that obesity (associated with a high accumulation of abdominal fat measured at autopsy) was predictive of earlier and greater extent of large vessels atherosclerosis as well as increase of coronary fatty streaks. Metabolic syndrome linked to abdominal obesity is also predictive of recurrent coronary events both in post-myocardial infarction patients and among coronary artery disease men who underwent a revascularization procedures. It is suggested that until the epidemic progression of obesity is stopped and obesity prevented or at least properly managed, cardiologists will be confronted to an evolving contribution of risk factors where smoking, hypercholesterolemia and hypertension may be relatively less prevalent but at the expense of a much greater contribution of abdominal obesity and related features

  5. Genetic basis, nutritional challenges and adaptive responses in the prenatal origin of obesity and type-2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Bulnes, Antonio; Ovilo, Cristina

    2012-03-01

    Obesity and type-2 diabetes are currently considered global pandemics. A large set of epidemiological evidences are addressing both the importance of a genetic predisposition -starting with the thrifty genotype hypothesis- and the determinant role of the maternal nutrition during pregnancy -starting with longitudinal studies of individuals born during the Dutch famine- on the adult onset of the disease. Compelling evidences suggest that both over- and undernutrition may modify the intrauterine environment of the conceptus and may alter the expression of its genome, predisposing to disease in the adult life. However, the most recent data indicate that the consequences of this phenomenon, termed as prenatal programming, are influenced both by timing, degree and duration of the challenge and by the adaptive response of the mother and the conceptus; thus, the information acquired by interventional studies modifying these parameters is becoming increasingly important. Obviously, interventional research in human beings is limited by ethical issues; hence, investigations need to be conducted on animal models, either rodents or large animals. This review summarizes the results of epidemiological human studies and translational animal research in unraveling the interaction between genome, nutritional status and adaptive response on the establishment of postnatal obesity, insulin resistance and type-2 diabetes.

  6. [Obesity Paradox and Stroke].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgartner, Ralf; Oesch, Lisa; Sarikaya, Hakan

    2016-07-06

    The obesity paradox suggests that overweight and obese patients of older age may have higher survival rates after stroke as compared to normalweight patients. However, the results need a cautious interpretation due to selection bias, treatment bias and different patients’ characteristics. Moreover, randomized studies that prove a benefit of weight reduction are still lacking. As obesity is an independet risk factor for stroke, weight reduction should still be recommended in overweight patients. Randomized-controlled studies are needed to prove the effect of weight reduction on morbidity and mortality after stroke.

  7. Does Inflammation Mediate the Association Between Obesity and Insulin Resistance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adabimohazab, Razieh; Garfinkel, Amanda; Milam, Emily C; Frosch, Olivia; Mangone, Alexander; Convit, Antonio

    2016-06-01

    In adult obesity, low-grade systemic inflammation is considered an important step in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance (IR). The association between obesity and inflammation is less well established in adolescents. Here, we ascertain the importance of inflammation in IR among obese adolescents by utilizing either random forest (RF) classification or mediation analysis approaches. The inflammation balance score, composed of eight pro- and anti-inflammatory makers, as well as most of the individual inflammatory markers differed significantly between lean and overweight/obese. In contrast, adiponectin was the only individual marker selected as a predictor of IR by RF, and the balance score only revealed a medium-to-low importance score. Neither adiponectin nor the inflammation balance score was found to mediate the relationship between obesity and IR. These findings do not support the premise that low-grade systemic inflammation is a key for the expression of IR in the human. Prospective longitudinal studies should confirm these findings.

  8. Muscle Strength and Fitness in Pediatric Obesity: a Systematic Review from the European Childhood Obesity Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thivel, David; Ring-Dimitriou, Susanne; Weghuber, Daniel; Frelut, Marie-Laure; O'Malley, Grace

    2016-01-01

    The increasing prevalence of paediatric obesity and related metabolic complications has been mainly associated with lower aerobic fitness while less is known regarding potential musculoskeletal impairments. The purpose of the present systematic review was to report the evidence regarding muscular fitness in children and adolescents with obesity. A systematic article search was conducted between November 2014 and June 2015 using MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL psycINFO, SPORTDiscus and SocINDEX. Articles published in English and reporting results on muscle strength and muscular fitness in children and adolescents aged 6 to 18 years were eligible. Of 548 identified titles, 36 studies were included for analyses. While laboratory-based studies described higher absolute muscular fitness in youth with obesity compared with their lean peers, these differences are negated when corrected for body weight and lean mass, then supporting field-based investigations. All interventional studies reviewed led to improved muscular fitness in youth with obesity. Children and adolescents with obesity display impaired muscular fitness compared to healthy-weight peers, which seems mainly due to factors such as excessive body weight and increased inertia of the body. Our analysis also points out the lack of information regarding the role of age, maturation or sex in the current literature and reveals that routinely used field tests analysing overall daily muscular fitness in children with obesity provide satisfactory results when compared to laboratory-based data.

  9. Muscle Strength and Fitness in Pediatric Obesity: a Systematic Review from the European Childhood Obesity Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Thivel

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The increasing prevalence of paediatric obesity and related metabolic complications has been mainly associated with lower aerobic fitness while less is known regarding potential musculoskeletal impairments. The purpose of the present systematic review was to report the evidence regarding muscular fitness in children and adolescents with obesity. A systematic article search was conducted between November 2014 and June 2015 using MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL psycINFO, SPORTDiscus and SocINDEX. Articles published in English and reporting results on muscle strength and muscular fitness in children and adolescents aged 6 to 18 years were eligible. Of 548 identified titles, 36 studies were included for analyses. While laboratory-based studies described higher absolute muscular fitness in youth with obesity compared with their lean peers, these differences are negated when corrected for body weight and lean mass, then supporting field-based investigations. All interventional studies reviewed led to improved muscular fitness in youth with obesity. Children and adolescents with obesity display impaired muscular fitness compared to healthy-weight peers, which seems mainly due to factors such as excessive body weight and increased inertia of the body. Our analysis also points out the lack of information regarding the role of age, maturation or sex in the current literature and reveals that routinely used field tests analysing overall daily muscular fitness in children with obesity provide satisfactory results when compared to laboratory-based data.

  10. Diet-induced obesity in zebrafish shares common pathophysiological pathways with mammalian obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shimada Yasuhito

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity is a multifactorial disorder influenced by genetic and environmental factors. Animal models of obesity are required to help us understand the signaling pathways underlying this condition. Zebrafish possess many structural and functional similarities with humans and have been used to model various human diseases, including a genetic model of obesity. The purpose of this study was to establish a zebrafish model of diet-induced obesity (DIO. Results Zebrafish were assigned into two dietary groups. One group of zebrafish was overfed with Artemia (60 mg dry weight/day/fish, a living prey consisting of a relatively high amount of fat. The other group of zebrafish was fed with Artemia sufficient to meet their energy requirements (5 mg dry weight/day/fish. Zebrafish were fed under these dietary protocols for 8 weeks. The zebrafish overfed with Artemia exhibited increased body mass index, which was calculated by dividing the body weight by the square of the body length, hypertriglyceridemia and hepatosteatosis, unlike the control zebrafish. Calorie restriction for 2 weeks was applied to zebrafish after the 8-week overfeeding period. The increased body weight and plasma triglyceride level were improved by calorie restriction. We also performed comparative transcriptome analysis of visceral adipose tissue from DIO zebrafish, DIO rats, DIO mice and obese humans. This analysis revealed that obese zebrafish and mammals share common pathophysiological pathways related to the coagulation cascade and lipid metabolism. Furthermore, several regulators were identified in zebrafish and mammals, including APOH, IL-6 and IL-1β in the coagulation cascade, and SREBF1, PPARα/γ, NR1H3 and LEP in lipid metabolism. Conclusion We established a zebrafish model of DIO that shared common pathophysiological pathways with mammalian obesity. The DIO zebrafish can be used to identify putative pharmacological targets and to test novel drugs for the

  11. Homeostatic theory of obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, David F

    2015-01-01

    Health is regulated by homeostasis, a property of all living things. Homeostasis maintains equilibrium at set-points using feedback loops for optimum functioning of the organism. Imbalances in homeostasis causing overweight and obesity are evident in more than 1 billion people. In a new theory, homeostatic obesity imbalance is attributed to a hypothesized 'Circle of Discontent', a system of feedback loops linking weight gain, body dissatisfaction, negative affect and over-consumption. The Circle of Discontent theory is consistent with an extensive evidence base. A four-armed strategy to halt the obesity epidemic consists of (1) putting a stop to victim-blaming, stigma and discrimination; (2) devalorizing the thin-ideal; (3) reducing consumption of energy-dense, low-nutrient foods and drinks; and (4) improving access to plant-based diets. If fully implemented, interventions designed to restore homeostasis have the potential to halt the obesity epidemic.

  12. Maternal obesity and pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, S R; Kolberg, B H; Varner, M W; Railsback, L D

    1987-05-01

    We examined the risk of maternal obesity in 588 pregnant women weighing at least 113.6 kilograms (250 pounds) during pregnancy. Compared with a control group matched for age and parity, we found a significantly increased risk in the obese patient for gestational diabetes, hypertension, therapeutic induction, prolonged second stage of labor, oxytocin stimulation of labor, shoulder dystocia, infants weighing more than 4,000 grams and delivery after 42 weeks gestation. Certain operative complications were also more common in obese women undergoing cesarean section including estimated blood loss of more than 1,000 milliliters, operating time of more than two hours and wound infection postoperatively. These differences remained significant after controlling for appropriate confounding variables. We conclude that maternal obesity should be considered a high risk factor.

  13. Emotional Toll of Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or the death of a parent or a divorce , and some children routinely overindulge in food. Discrimination There are other obesity-related repercussions that continue well into adolescence and beyond. Heavy teenagers and adults might face ...

  14. Childhood Obesity: Common Misconceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of childhood obesity. Yes, hypothyroidism (a deficit in thyroid secretion) and other rarer and more severe genetic and metabolic disorders (eg, Prader-Willi syndrome, Turner syndrome, Cushing syndrome) ...

  15. Obesity and Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... GS. Inflammatory mechanisms in obesity. Annual Review of Immunology 2011; 29:415-445. [PubMed Abstract] Randi G, Franceschi S, La Vecchia C. Gallbladder cancer worldwide: geographical distribution and risk factors. International Journal ...

  16. Zinc level and obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doaa S.E. Zaky

    2013-01-01

    Conclusion Plasma zinc concentration in obese individuals showed an inverse relationship with the waist circumference and BMI as well as serum low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol and correlated positively with high-density lipoprotein.

  17. Health risks of obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... heart disease and type 2 diabetes. People with "apple-shaped" bodies (waist is bigger than the hips) ... Obesity Browse the Encyclopedia A.D.A.M., Inc. is accredited by URAC, also known as the ...

  18. Obesity in pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nøhr, Ellen Aagaard

    an investigation of the association between maternal obesity and rare, but important outcomes, for which more insight is needed, such as fetal death, subtypes of preterm birth, and neonatal mortality. The low participation rate of 30% to the DNBC may, however, raise new questions related to the validity......, if any, needs to be established in a randomized trial.Study of the selection to the Danish National Birth Cohort: Based on local data collections, independent of the DNBC, we investigated the impact of low participation on estimation of relative risks in a subpopulation of 49,751 eligible women of whom......Background: The obesity epidemic has led to an increase in obese women of childbearing age. This gives cause for concern because prepregnancy obesity is associated with a number of adverse pregnancy outcomes. The newly established Danish National Birth Cohort (DNBC) has a size that permits...

  19. Obesity and asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ali, Zarqa; Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli

    2013-01-01

    Epidemiological data has established increasing adiposity as a risk factor for incident asthma. However, the mechanisms underlying the association between obesity and asthma are incompletely understood. In the present paper, we review current knowledge of possible mechanisms mediating the observed...

  20. Chronobiological Effects on Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, Molly S; Young, Martin E

    2012-03-01

    The development of obesity is the consequence of a multitude of complex interactions between both genetic and environmental factors. It has been suggested that the dramatic increase in the prevalence of obesity over the past 30 years has been the result of environmental changes that have enabled the full realization of genetic susceptibility present in the population. Among the many environmental alterations that have occurred in our recent history is the ever-increasing dyssynchrony between natural cycles of light/dark and altered patterns of sleep/wake and eating behavior associated with our "24-hour" lifestyle. An extensive research literature has established clear links between increased risk for obesity and both sleep deprivation and shift work, and our understanding of the consequences of such dyssynchrony at the molecular level is beginning to emerge. Studies linking alterations in cellular circadian clocks to metabolic dysfunction point to the increasing importance of chronobiology in obesity etiology.

  1. Survey of American food trends and the growing obesity epidemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Qin; Chin, Khew-Voon

    2011-06-01

    The rapid rise in the incidence of obesity has emerged as one of the most pressing global public health issues in recent years. The underlying etiological causes of obesity, whether behavioral, environmental, genetic, or a combination of several of them, have not been completely elucidated. The obesity epidemic has been attributed to the ready availability, abundance, and overconsumption of high-energy content food. We determined here by Pearson's correlation the relationship between food type consumption and rising obesity using the loss-adjusted food availability data from the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Economic Research Services (ERS) as well as the obesity prevalence data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) and the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Our analysis showed that total calorie intake and consumption of high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) did not correlate with rising obesity trends. Intake of other major food types, including chicken, dairy fats, salad and cooking oils, and cheese also did not correlate with obesity trends. However, our results surprisingly revealed that consumption of corn products correlated with rising obesity and was independent of gender and race/ethnicity among population dynamics in the U.S. Therefore, we were able to demonstrate a novel link between the consumption of corn products and rising obesity trends that has not been previously attributed to the obesity epidemic. This correlation coincides with the introduction of bioengineered corns into the human food chain, thus raising a new hypothesis that should be tested in molecular and animal models of obesity.

  2. Obesity and cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Calle, Eugenia E.

    2007-01-01

    Epidemiologic evidence associating obesity and cancer accumulated over last two decades pointing to potentially preventable forms of cancer disease. Observational prospective analyses point to breast and colon cancer as most influenced by obesity-linked lifestyle habits. Other tumor-types can comprise to this group as well (endometrium, esophagus, liver, stomach, thyroid, pancreas, and prostate cancer), according to epidemiological data, but with lesser level of certainty. Randomized studi...

  3. Zinc level and obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Doaa S.E Zaky; Eman A Sultan; Mahmoud F Salim; Rana S Dawod

    2013-01-01

    Background Obesity is a chronic condition that is associated with disturbances in the metabolism of zinc. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between serum zinc level and different clinical and biochemical parameters in obese individuals. Patients and methods Twenty-four individuals with BMI more than 30 kg/m 2 and 14 healthy controls (BMI < 24 kg/m 2 ) were assessed for BMI and waist circumference using anthropometric measurements. Colorimetric tes...

  4. Obesity and Women

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-05-11

    This women's health podcast focuses on obesity in women and girls. It discusses obesity-related health risks and includes tips to help achieve and maintain a healthy weight.  Created: 5/11/2009 by Office of Women’s Health (OWH) and National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 5/11/2009.

  5. Childhood Obesity PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-08-06

    This 60 second public service announcement is based on the August 2013 CDC Vital Signs report. The rate of obesity among low-income preschoolers has declined, but one in eight is still obese. This program briefly discusses what can be done.  Created: 8/6/2013 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 8/6/2013.

  6. Chronobiological Effects on Obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Bray, Molly S.; Young, Martin E.

    2012-01-01

    The development of obesity is the consequence of a multitude of complex interactions between both genetic and environmental factors. It has been suggested that the dramatic increase in the prevalence of obesity over the past 30 years has been the result of environmental changes that have enabled the full realization of genetic susceptibility present in the population. Among the many environmental alterations that have occurred in our recent history is the ever-increasing dyssynchrony between ...

  7. Dietary Polyphenols and Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Meydani

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of overweight and obesity and their associated metabolic disorders are considered a major threat to the public’s health. While several diet and exercise programs are available for weight loss and prevention of weight regain, progress is often slow and disappointing. Recently, natural bioactive phytochemicals present in foods have been discovered for their potential health benefit effects on the prevention of chronic disorders such as cancer, cardiovascular disease, inflammatory and metabolic diseases including obesity.Polyphenols are a class of naturally-occurring phytochemicals, of which some such as catechins, anthocynines, resveratrol and curcumin have been shown to modulate physiological and molecular pathways that are involved in energy metabolism, adiposity, and obesity. The potential in vivo, beneficial effects of these polyphenols on adiposity and obesity as complementary agents in the up-regulation of energy expenditure have emerged by investigating these compounds in cell cultures, animal models of obesity and in some human clinical and epidemiological studies. In this brief review, the efficacy of the above-named polyphenols and their potential efficacy to modulate obesity and some associated disorders are discussed.

  8. [Contraception and obesity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobert, M; Pigeyre, M; Gronier, H; Catteau-Jonard, S; Robin, G

    2015-11-01

    The prevalence of obesity is increasing massively over several decades in industrialized countries. Obese women are sexually active but they use fewer contraceptive methods and are at high risk of unintended pregnancy. In addition, obesity is an important risk factor for venous thromboembolism events and arterial thrombosis (myocardial infarction and ischemic stroke). All of these data are to be considered in choosing a contraceptive method for obese women. Except depot medroxyprogesterone acetate injection, the progestin-only contraceptives (progestin only pills and etonogestrel subdermal implant) and the intra-uterine devices are the preferred contraceptive methods in obese women. The combined estrogen-progestin contraceptives (pill, patch and vaginal ring) may be proposed in very strict conditions (no other associated vascular risk factor). Obesity does not increase the risk of failure of most contraceptive methods. Bariatric surgery is a complex situation. It requires to program a possible pregnancy and contraception is needed for several months. Some bariatric surgical techniques such as by-pass can induce gastrointestinal malabsorption. In this situation, all oral contraceptives are not recommended because of a higher risk of failure.

  9. Contraception in Obese Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merki Feld G

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Today obesity is an epidemic. Within Europe the prevalence of obesity is 20–30% with a tendency to increase further. Obesity is associated with severe complications like diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease increased risk for venous thromboembolism (VTE and metabolic syndrome. Especially availability of efficient methods which do not further enhance the cardiovascular and thromboembolic risk in obese women is an important point. Using contraception to prevent unwanted pregnancies is recommended to all women whatever their weight, as it reduces the risks of unplanned pregnancy, which is higher in women with overweight. Progestin-only contraceptives and IUDs have no or minimal metabolic effects and are first choices options, also it has to be taken in account that oral progestins and the implant might have lower efficacy in very obese women. CHC are associated with a higher risk for VTE in obese women,but should be used if other methods are not acceptable. A long-cycle or use of preparations with 30 mcg EE can contribute to improve efficacy.

  10. Psoriasis and Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Ali Gürer

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, it has been thought that a strong association exists between metabolic syndrome, specifically obesity, and psoriasis. Obesity is a multifactorial disease affected by both genetic and environmental factors. Adipokines (e.g. leptin secreted by the adipose tissue are believed to play a role in the pathogenesis of psoriasis. The main role of leptin is to adjust metabolism by controlling appetite. Serum leptin levels in patients with severe and moderate psoriasis were found to be higher than in normal control groups. In many similar studies, leptin secretion has been found to stimulate keratinocyte proliferation, which is one of the characteristics of psoriasis. Although many studies showed increased prevalence of obesity in psoriasis patients, few others reported development of obesity in psoriasis patients. Additionally, obesity was found to affect treatment responses not only in classical systemic/topical treatment approaches in psoriasis, but also in newer biological treatments. Overall, increasing epidemiological evidence suggests strong association between obesity and psoriasis, increase in serum leptin levels is thought to have a major role, and weight loss may have significant impact on response to treatment.

  11. Prebiotics in obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnahan, S; Balzer, A; Panchal, S K; Brown, L

    2014-06-01

    Obesity was probably rare in ancient times, with the current increase starting in the Industrial Revolution of the eighteenth century, and becoming much more widespread from about 1950, so concurrent with the increased consumption of carbohydrates from cereals in the Green Revolution. However, dietary components such as oligosaccharides from plants including cereals may improve health following fermentation to short-chain carboxylic acids in the intestine by bacteria which constitute of the microbiome. Such non-digestible and fermentable components of diet, called prebiotics, have been part of the human diet since at least Palaeolithic times, and include components of the cereals domesticated in the Neolithic Revolution. If consumption of these cereals has now increased, why is obesity increasing? One reason could be lowered prebiotic intake combined with increased intake of simple sugars, thus changing the bacteria in the microbiome. Processing of food has played an important role in this change of diet composition. Since obesity is a low-grade inflammation, changing the microbiome by increased consumption of simple carbohydrates and saturated fats may lead to obesity via increased systemic inflammation. Conversely, there is now reasonable evidence that increased dietary prebiotic intake decreases inflammation, improves glucose metabolism and decreases obesity. Would widespread increases in prebiotics in the modern diet, so mimicking Palaeolithic or Neolithic nutrition, decrease the incidence and morbidity of obesity in our communities?

  12. The Evaluation of the Relationship Between Obesity and Male Infertility

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    Fikret Erdemir

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available   Infertility, defined as the inability to conceive after one year of unprotected intercourse, affects approximately 15% of couples. Male factor infertility is the sole cause of infertility in approximately 20% of infertile couples, with an additional 30% to 40% secondary to both male and female factors. Thus, male factor infertility is present in approximately half of all infertile couples. Known etiologies of male infertility include cryptorchidism, testicular torsion or trauma, varicocele, seminal tract infections, anti-sperm antibodies, hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, gonadal dysgenesis, and obstruction of the reproductive channels. Recently in some studies, it has been reported that increased body mass index negatively affect on male fertility or semen parameters.Overweight and obesity have become a major public health concern worldwide. The prevalence of male obesity or overweight in the united states was reported to be 71%. This ratio changes between 10% and 60% in the world. Negative effects of obesity on male fertility are postulated to occur through several mechanisms. Obese men have been shown to exhibit higher levels of circulating estradiol. Several studies reveal a direct correlation between a rise in BMI and a decline in both free and total blood testosterone levels. In addition, obesity may cause to oxidative stress. All these changes may affect to semen parameters in obese cases. However, the relationship between male obesity and fertility parameters has not been well established. The aim of this review is to evaluate the relationship between the obesity and male infertility.

  13. Obesity paradox” in coronary artery disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ibrahim; Akin; Christoph; A; Nienaber

    2015-01-01

    Obesity used to be among the more neglected public health problems, but has unfolded as a growing medical and socioeconomic burden of epidemic proportions. Morbid obesity is linked to traditional cardiovascular risk factors like, hypertension, hyperlipidemia and diabetes, and suspected to incur increased morbidity and mortality in the Western and even third world populations. This patient cohort is also at greater risk to develop coronary artery disease. Recent population-based registries revealed that 43% and 24% of all cases of coronary revascularization were carried out in overweight and obese patients, respectively. However, despite evidence of a positive correlation between obesity and increased cardiovascular morbidity, some authors have described a better clinical outcome in overweight and obese patients, a phenomenon they coined "obesity paradoxon". Thus, there is an ongoing debate in light of conflicting data and the possibility of confounding bias causing misconception and challenging the "obesity paradox". In this review article we present the current evidence and throughly discuss the validity of the "obesity paradoxon" in a variety of clinical settings.

  14. Obesity discrimination in the recruitment process: You’re not Hired!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart William Flint

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Previous literature reports that obese persons are discriminated in the workplace. Evidence suggests that obese people are perceived as having less leadership potential, and in comparison to normal weight peers, are expected to be less successful. This study examined whether obese people are discriminated against when applying for employment. Three hypotheses were offered in line with previous research: 1 obese people are less likely to be assessed positively on personnel suitability than normal weight people; 2 obese people in active employment are more likely to be discriminated against than people in non-active employment; and 3 obese women are more likely to be discriminated against than obese men. 181 Participants were sampled from sedentary, standing, manual and heavy manual occupations. Participants rated hypothetical candidates on their suitability for employment. Employees also completed measures of implicit and explicit attitudes towards obesity. MANOVA was conducted to examine if obese candidates were discriminated against during the recruitment procedure. Results demonstrated that participants rated obese candidates as less suitable compared with normal weight candidates and when the weight status of the candidate was not revealed for work across the four workplace groups. Participant gender and weight status also impacted perceptions of candidates’ suitability for work and discrimination towards obese candidates was higher in participants from more physically demanding occupations. The study findings contribute to evidence that obese people are discriminated against in the hiring process and support calls for policy development.

  15. Adult onset Hallervorden-Spatz disease with psychotic symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Valle-López, Pilar; Pérez-García, Rosa; Sanguino-Andrés, Rosa; González-Pablos, Emilio

    2011-01-01

    Hallervorden-Spatz disease is a rare neurological disorder characterized by pyramidal and extrapyramidal manifestations, dysarthria and dementia. Its onset is usually in childhood and most patients have a fatal outcome in few years. A high percentage of cases are hereditary with a recessive autosomal pattern. In the majority of the patients reported, a mutation of the gene that encodes the pantothenate kinase (PANK2) located in the 20p13-p12.3 chromosome that causes iron storage in the basal ganglia of the brain has been found. Its diagnosis is based on clinical symptoms as well as specific MRI imaging findings. The most common psychiatric features are cognitive impairment as well as depressive symptoms. There are few documented cases with psychotic disorders. We present the case of a patient with late onset Hallervorden-Spatz disease and psychotic symptoms that preceded the development of neurological manifestations. The pathophysiology and the treatment of psychotic symptomatology are presented and discussed. Key words: Psicosis, Hallervorden-Spatz, late onset, Basal ganglia.

  16. Adult-Onset Asthma to Coronary Heart Disease and Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asthma has been associated with atherosclerotic disease in several studies with some evidence that this association may be limited to women. However, most previous studies have failed to account for the heterogeneity of asthma subtypes. We previously reported increased carotid intima medial thickne...

  17. ADULT ONSET ACUTE OTITIS MEDIA - A PRELIMINARY REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukta

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Acute otitis media is a common disease of children with typical symptomatology & is not infrequent in adults. Literature available on adult acute otitis media is limited. This study has been carried out to assess the presentation, progression & outcome of disease in adults. 90 patients presenting with signs & symptoms consistent with acute otitis media were examined, evaluated & followed up. Earache was the commonest symptom present in 65 patients. Spontaneous perforation was present in 37 patients. Earache, ear discharge & hearing loss are the commonest symptoms in adults & rate of spontaneous perforation is higher compared to children.

  18. Adult-Onset Asthma Might Raise Heart Risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for 14 years. Researchers led by Dr. Matthew Tattersall published their findings Aug. 24 in the Journal ... and be aggressive in modifying any risk factors," Tattersall said in a journal news release. He is ...

  19. Factors associated with childhood obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz, W

    1991-01-01

    Childhood obesity is associated with host factors that enhance susceptibility and environmental factors that increase food intake and decrease energy expenditure. Obese children underreport food intake and probably consume more food to maintain their weight at increased levels. Prevalence of obesity is related to family variables, including parental obesity, family size and age, and socioeconomic status. Television viewing is strongly associated with the prevalence of obesity through its impact on food intake and activity. How these environmental variables are behaviorally interrelated to the genesis of obesity is unclear.

  20. Public attitudes towards prevention of obesity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Sikorski

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate obesity prevention support in the German general public and to assess determinants of general prevention support as well as support of specific prevention measures. METHODS: This study was a cross-sectional analysis of a telephone based representative German study (3,003 subjects (52.8% women, mean age 51.9, s.d.  = 18.0, range 18-97 years. Likert scale-based questions on general prevention support and support of specific measures were used. Furthermore willingness to take part in preventive programs and willingness to pay were assessed. Stigmatizing attitudes were assessed with the Fat Phobia Scale (FPS. Causation of obesity was differentiated in three dimensions (internal, e.g. lack of exercise; external, e.g. social surroundings; and genetic factors. RESULTS: Obesity prevention was perceived as possible (98.2%, however, almost exclusively lifestyle changes were named. Participants with higher stigmatizing attitudes were less likely to believe obesity prevention is possible. The majority of participants would take part in preventive programs (59.6% and pay at least partially themselves (86.9%. Factor analysis revealed three dimensions of preventive measures: promoting healthy eating, restrictive and financial, governmental prevention efforts. In regard to these, promoting healthy eating was the most supported measure. Higher age, female gender and external causation were associated with higher support for all three dimensions of preventive measures. Only for governmental regulation, higher age was associated with lower support. CONCLUSION: Obesity prevention support in Germany is high. Structural prevention efforts are supported by the majority of the general public in Germany. The vast majority proclaims willingness to pay themselves for programs of weight gain prevention. This could be an indication of higher perceived self-responsibility in the German system but also for risen "fear of fat" in the population due

  1. Obesity and the obesity paradox in heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Pritha P; Fonarow, Gregg C; Horwich, Tamara B

    2015-02-01

    Obesity has reached epidemic proportions in the general population and is associated with an increased risk for the development of new-onset heart failure (HF). However, in acute and chronic HF, overweight and mild to moderate obesity is associated with substantially improved survival compared with normal weight. This phenomenon has been termed the "obesity paradox" in HF. The majority of data pertaining to the obesity paradox identifies obesity with body mass index; however, the reliability of this method has been questioned. Newer studies have explored the use of other measures of body fat and body composition, including waist circumference, waist-to-hip ratio, skinfold thickness, and bioelectrical impedance analysis of body composition. The relationship between the obesity paradox and cardiorespiratory fitness in HF is also discussed in this review, and we explore the various potential explanations for the obesity paradox and summarize the current evidence and guidelines for intentional weight loss treatments for HF in the obese population.

  2. The CD68(+)/H-ferritin(+) cells colonize the lymph nodes of the patients with adult onset Still's disease and are associated with increased extracellular level of H-ferritin in the same tissue: correlation with disease severity and implication for pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruscitti, P; Ciccia, F; Cipriani, P; Guggino, G; Di Benedetto, P; Rizzo, A; Liakouli, V; Berardicurti, O; Carubbi, F; Triolo, G; Giacomelli, R

    2016-03-01

    In this work, we aimed to evaluate the levels of ferritin enriched in H subunits (H-ferritin) and ferritin enriched in L subunits (L-ferritin) and the cells expressing these two molecules in the lymph node (LN) biopsies obtained from adult-onset Still's disease (AOSD) patients, and the possible correlation among these data and the severity of the disease. Ten patients with AOSD underwent LN biopsy. All the samples were stained by immunofluorescence. A statistical analysis was performed to estimate the possible correlation among both H-ferritin and L-ferritin tissue expression and the clinical picture of the disease. Furthermore, the same analysis was performed to evaluate the possible correlation among the number of CD68(+)/H-ferritin(+) or CD68(+)/L-ferritin(+) cells and the clinical picture. Immunofluorescence analysis demonstrated an increased tissue H-ferritin expression in the LNs of AOSD patients. This increased expression correlated with the severity of the disease. An increased number of CD68 macrophages expressing H-ferritin was observed in the LN samples of our patients. Furthermore, we observed that the number of CD68(+)/H-ferritin(+) cells correlated significantly with the severity of the clinical picture. Our data showed an imbalance between the levels of H- and L-ferritin in LNs of AOSD patients and the evidence of an increased number of CD68(+)/H-ferritin(+) cells in the same organs. Furthermore, a correlation among both the tissue H-ferritin levels and the CD68(+)/H-ferritin(+) cells and the clinical picture was observed.

  3. Síndrome de ativação macrofágica após uso de Leflunomida em paciente com doença de Still do adulto: relato de caso Macrophage activation syndrome following the use of Leflunomide in a patient with adult-onset Still disease: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Júnior de Freitas Rosa

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Paciente do sexo feminino, 32 anos de idade, com doença de Still do adulto, após 15 dias da introdução de leflunomida é admitida com quadro de febre persistente e crise convulsiva tônico-clônica generalizada, rapidamente evoluindo com hepatosplenomegalia, distúrbio da função hepática, trombocitopenia, elevação da lactato-desidrogenase, hipertrigliceridemia, hiperferritinemia e insuficiência renal, levando ao diagnóstico de síndrome de ativação macrofágica, uma complicação rara das doenças reumatológicas que resulta de ativação e proliferação incontrolada de linfócitos T e de excessiva ativação de macrófagos. Pode evoluir com coagulação intravascular disseminada, sendo o envolvimento renal raro. A terapêutica deve ser por meio de pulsoterapia com metilpredinisolona e ciclosporina.A 32-year-old white female, with adult-onset Still disease, was admitted following a 15-day course of leflunomide, with persistent fever and a generalized tonic-clonic seizure. She quickly developed liver and spleen enlargement, impairment of liver function, thrombocytopenia, elevation of lactate-dehydrogenase, trylicerides and ferritin, and renal failure, being diagnosed with the macrophage activation syndrome, a rare complication of rheumatic diseases due to activation and uncontrolled proliferation of T lymphocytes and excessive macrophage activation. The syndrome may lead to disseminated intravascular coagulation, renal impairment being a rare event. Pulse therapy with methylprednisolone and cyclosporine are the therapeutic options.

  4. Identifying geographical variations in poverty-obesity relationships: empirical evidence from Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzai-Hung Wen

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available There is an increasing interest in the relationship between area-based disadvantage and obesity but the extent to which the poverty-obesity relationship remains constant across geographical areas remains unclear. We examined geographical variations in the relationship between poverty and obesity in Taiwan using geographically weighted regression (GWR. A representative sample of 27,293 Taiwanese adults (21 to 64 years old from 262 townships was obtained from the 2001 Social Development Trend Survey on Health and Safety (SDSHS in Taiwan. GWR revealed that there were local variations in the poverty-obesity relationship and that poverty was only significantly associated with obesity in less-developed areas. Significant relationship between poverty and obesity was found only in less-developed areas, suggesting that the impact of poverty on obesity is area-specific.

  5. Abdominal obesity status among Arora preschool children (2-5 years of Amritsar

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    N. Kaur

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Abdominal obesity is a state of excessive accumulation of central subcutaneous and visceral fat, has emerged as an important predictor for cardiovascular and metabolic risks in children and adolescents. Waist circumference is a highly sensitive and specific measure of abdominal obesity. Very few studies are available to the prevalence of abdominal obesity. Therefore in the present study an attempt has been made to report the prevalence of abdominal obesity among preschool children of Amritsar (Punjab. This study was undertaken among 1879 (949 boys and 930 girls Arora preschool children aged 2-5 years of Amritsar. Waist circumference was taken on each subjects using standard technique. Abdominal obesity was assessed by using waist circumference criterion of National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Present study revealed that abdominal obese were10.4% and 6.3% among boys and girls, respectively. The percentage prevalence of abdominal obesity was lower in the Amritsar children than other populations.

  6. Mood, food, and obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minati eSingh

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Food is a potent natural reward and food intake is a complex process. Reward and gratification associated with food consumption leads to dopamine (DA production, which in turn activates reward and pleasure centers in the brain. An individual will repeatedly eat a particular food to experience this positive feeling of gratification. This type of repetitive behavior of food intake leads to the activation of brain reward pathways that eventually overrides other signals of satiety and hunger. Thus, a gratification habit through a favorable food leads to overeating and morbid obesity. Overeating and obesity stems from many biological factors engaging both central and peripheral systems in a bi-directional manner involving mood and emotions. Emotional eating and altered mood can also lead to altered food choice and intake leading to overeating and obesity. Research findings from human and animal studies support a two-way link between three concepts, mood, food, and obesity. The focus of this article is to provide an overview of complex nature of food intake where various biological factors link mood, food intake, and brain signaling that engages both peripheral and central nervous system signaling pathways in a bi-directional manner in obesity.

  7. Obesity: epigenetic aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushik, Prashant; Anderson, James T

    2016-06-01

    Epigenetics, defined as inheritable and reversible phenomena that affect gene expression without altering the underlying base pair sequence has been shown to play an important role in the etiopathogenesis of obesity. Obesity is associated with extensive gene expression changes in tissues throughout the body. Epigenetics is emerging as perhaps the most important mechanism through which the lifestyle-choices we make can directly influence the genome. Considerable epidemiological, experimental and clinical data have been amassed showing that the risk of developing disease in later life is dependent on early life conditions, mainly operating within the normative range of developmental exposures. In addition to the 'maternal' interactions, there has been increasing interest in the epigenetic mechanisms through which 'paternal' influences on offspring development can be achieved. Nutrition, among many other environmental factors, is a key player that can induce epigenetic changes not only in the directly exposed organisms but also in subsequent generations through the transgenerational inheritance of epigenetic traits. Overall, significant progress has been made in the field of epigenetics and obesity and the first potential epigenetic markers for obesity that could be detected at birth have been identified. Fortunately, epigenetic phenomena are dynamic and rather quickly reversible with intensive lifestyle changes. This is a very promising and sustainable resolution to the obesity pandemic.

  8. [Childhood obesity and dyslipidemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Díaz, Rita Angélica; Wacher-Rodarte, Niels H

    2014-01-01

    Screening and treatment of plasma lipid abnormalities secondary to obesity are among the interventions that should be implemented in children who are overweight or obese, in order to prevent a cardiovascular event. Dyslipidemias are a group of asymptomatic diseases that are commonly caused by abnormal levels of lipoproteins in blood; they are a comorbidity that is commonly related to obesity, without considering the age of the patient. Among dyslipidemias, hypertriglyceridemia has the highest prevalence. The etiology of the dyslipidemia should be identified; it allows the proper selection of therapy for the patients and their family. The goal is the prevention of cardiovascular complications. Reduced caloric intake and a structured physical activity plan should be considered for initial treatment for all the overweight and obese patients. For adherence to treatment to be successful, the participation of the primary care physician and a multidisciplinary team is required. With treatment, the risks and complications can be reduced. The participation of a specialist in handling the pediatric obese patient with dyslipidemia should be limited to severe cases or those at risk for having pancreatitis.

  9. Familial obesity as a predictor of child obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirilov Jelena

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Studies carried out in various parts of the world indicate that family obesity significantly affects the incidence of obesity in children. This is especially a characteristic of children whose both parents are obese. Material and methods The study was conducted using a polling method. Questionnaires were filled out by parents and brothers and sisters, including their body height and weight. The collected data served as the basis for assessing the family nutritional status. Results Statistical analysis of the results showed that obese children frequently have obese parents, brothers and sisters in regard to normal-weight children. Differences are statistically significant in relation to fathers (r=0.043, i.e. statistically obese schoolchildren have more frequently obese fathers than those of normal nutritional status. Other differences could not be considered significant (p > 0.05. Discussion Obese children have more often obese parents, brothers and sisters than normal-weight children. It was found that the nutritional status of moderately and extremely obese children was quite different from that of normal-weight children and that there was a statistically significant dependence between the nutritional status of children and their fathers. Conclusion This research showed that family obesity is a potential contributing factor to obesity of schoolchildren.

  10. Educational Inequality in Obesity-Related Mortality in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity has been increasing worldwide, which raises concerns about the disease burden associated with obesity. Socioeconomic status (SES) has been suggested to be associated with obesity and obesity related diseases. This study aimed to evaluate the time trend in socioeconomic inequality in obesity-related mortality over the last decade in Korean population. We evaluated the influence of education level, as an indicator of SES, on obesity-related mortality using death data from the Cause of Death Statistics and the Korean Population and Housing Census databases. The rate ratio of the mortality of people at the lowest education level as compared with those at the highest education level (relative index of inequality [RII]) was estimated using Poisson regression analysis. Between 2001 and 2011, RII (95% confidence interval) for overall obesity-related disease mortality increased from 2.10 (2.02–2.19) to 6.50 (6.19–6.82) in men, and from 1.94 (1.79–2.10) to 3.25 (3.05–3.45) in women, respectively. Cause-specifically, the same trend in RII was found for cardiovascular mortality and mortality from diabetes mellitus, whereas the RII of mortality from obesity-related cancers in men did not show the similar trend. Subgroup analysis stratified by age revealed that the RII of obesity-related mortality was much higher in younger people than in older people. In conclusion, there has been persistent socioeconomic inequality in obesity-related mortality in Korea, which was more evident in younger people than in older people and has been deepened over the last decade especially for cardiovascular disease and diabetes. PMID:28145639

  11. Obesity, diabetes, and length of time in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujimoto, Tetsuro; Kajio, Hiroshi; Sugiyama, Takehiro

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Obesity prevalence remains high in the United States (US), and is rising in most other countries. This is a repeated cross-sectional study using a nationally representative sample of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999 to 2012. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were separately performed for adults (n = 37,639) and children/adolescents (n = 28,282) to assess the associations between the length of time in the US, and the prevalences of obesity and diabetes. In foreign-born adults, the prevalences of both obesity and diabetes increased with the length of time in the US, and ≥20 years in the US was associated with significantly higher rates of obesity (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 2.32, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.22–4.40, P = 0.01) and diabetes (aOR 4.22, 95% CI 1.04–17.08, P = 0.04) compared with obesity prevalence was significantly higher in those born in the US than those who had been in the US for obesity prevalence was significantly higher in US-born than in foreign-born adults from 1999 to 2012. On the other hand, the gap in obesity prevalence between US-born and foreign-born children/adolescents decreased from 1999 to 2011 due to a rapid increase in obesity prevalence among the foreign-born population, until there was no significant difference in 2011 to 2012. This study revealed that the risks of obesity and diabetes have increased in foreign-born US residents with time living in the US. However, the obesity gap between US-born and foreign-born populations is closing. PMID:27583867

  12. Functional network analysis of obese and lean Göttingen minipigs elucidates changes in oxidative and inflammatory networks in obese pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boonen, Harrie C. M.; Moesgaard, Sophia G.; Birck, Malene M.;

    2014-01-01

    animals mainly for known physical traits. On the other hand, functional network analysis revealed new co-segregations, particularly in the domain of inflammatory and oxidative stress markers in the obese animals that were not present in the lean. Functional networks of lean or obese minipigs could...

  13. Severe Obesity and Heart Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_161011.html Severe Obesity and Heart Failure Study sees link even without ... 2016 FRIDAY, Sept. 16, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Severe obesity appears to be an independent risk factor for ...

  14. Understanding Adult Overweight and Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... resources ​​. Alternate Language URL Understanding Adult Overweight and Obesity Page Content How can I tell if I ... type 2 diabetes. [ Top ] How are overweight and obesity treated? The best way to control your weight ...

  15. Childhood Obesity for Pediatric Gastroenterologists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jeannie S.; Barlow, Sarah E.; Quiros-Tejeira, Ruben E.; Scheimann, Ann; Skelton, Joseph; Suskind, David; Tsai, Patrika; Uko, Victor; Warolin, Joshua P.; Xanthakos, Stavra A.

    2014-01-01

    Obesity in childhood is one of the major health issues in pediatric health care today. As expected, the prevalence of obesity-related comorbidities has risen in parallel with that of obesity. Consultation regarding these concomitant diseases and subsequent management by subspecialists, including pediatric gastroenterologists, is now common and has resulted in obesity being recognized as a chronic disease requiring coordination of care. Although medications and even surgery may provide effective, though often temporary, treatments for obesity and its comorbidities, behavioral interventions addressing healthy dietary and physical activity habits remain a mainstay in the obesity treatment paradigm. Therefore, the issue of weight management must be addressed by both general practitioner and subspecialist alike. In this report, we review select aspects of pediatric obesity and obesity-related management issues because it relates in particular to the field of pediatric gastroenterology and hepatology. PMID:23282941

  16. Osteoarthritis and obesity: Experimental models

    OpenAIRE

    Gabay, Odile; Hall, David J.; Berenbaum, Francis; Henrotin, Yves; Sanchez, Christelle

    2008-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a multifactorial disease. Different risk factors have been identified such as aging and obesity and different models have been used to study the impact of obesity and overweight in this pathology.

  17. Sleep debt and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayon, Virginie; Leger, Damien; Gomez-Merino, Danielle; Vecchierini, Marie-Françoise; Chennaoui, Mounir

    2014-08-01

    Short sleep duration has been shown to be associated with elevated body mass index (BMI) in many epidemiological studies. Several pathways could link sleep deprivation to weight gain and obesity, including increased food intake, decreased energy expenditure, and changes in levels of appetite-regulating hormones, such as leptin and ghrelin. A relatively new factor that is contributing to sleep deprivation is the use of multimedia (e.g. television viewing, computer, and internet), which may aggravate sedentary behavior and increase caloric intake. In addition, shift-work, long working hours, and increased time commuting to and from work have also been hypothesized to favor weight gain and obesity-related metabolic disorders, because of their strong link to shorter sleep times. This article reviews the epidemiological, biological, and behavioral evidence linking sleep debt and obesity.

  18. Exercise and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okay, Douglas M; Jackson, Paul V; Marcinkiewicz, Marek; Papino, M Novella

    2009-06-01

    Obesity and overweight are linked to a wide range of medical conditions, such as hypertension, diabetes mellitus, osteoarthritis, obstructive sleep apnea, and coronary artery disease. Overweight and obese patients who are unable to lose weight with diet alone can benefit from well-structured exercise. Potentially, an individual exercise prescription can become one of the most important components of an obesity treatment program, along with an appropriate diet. Short-term (exercise combined with appropriate diet and counseling can produce a significant weight loss. No consensus exists on the amount of physical activity necessary to maintain the weight loss achieved during a short-term intervention. Long-term intervention is frequently influenced by weight regain related to complex interactions between physiologic and psychosocial factors.

  19. Medical consequences of obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Victor J; Kopelman, Peter G

    2004-01-01

    The obese are subject to health problems directly relating to the carriage of excess adipose tissue. These problems range from arthritis, aches and pains, sleep disturbance, dyspnea on mild exertion, and excessive sweating to social stigmatization and discrimination, all of which may contribute to low quality of life and depression (Table 1). The most serious medical consequences of obesity are a result of endocrine and metabolic changes, most notably type 2 diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, and increased risk of cancer. Not all obesity comorbidities are fully reversed by weight loss. The degree and duration of weight loss required may not be achievable by an individual patient. Furthermore, "weight cycling" may be more detrimental to both physical and mental health than failure to achieve weight loss targets with medical and lifestyle advice.

  20. Genetic obesity syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstone, Anthony P; Beales, Philip L

    2008-01-01

    There are numerous reports of multi-system genetic disorders with obesity. Many have a characteristic presentation and several, an overlapping phenotype indicating the likelihood of a shared common underlying mechanism or pathway. By understanding the genetic causes and functional perturbations of such syndromes we stand to gain tremendous insight into obesogenic pathways. In this review we focus particularly on Bardet-Biedl syndrome, whose molecular genetics and cell biology has been elucidated recently, and Prader-Willi syndrome, the commonest obesity syndrome due to loss of imprinted genes on 15q11-13. We also discuss highlights of other genetic obesity syndromes including Alstrom syndrome, Cohen syndrome, Albright's hereditary osteodystrophy (pseudohypoparathyroidism), Carpenter syndrome, MOMO syndrome, Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome, cases with deletions of 6q16, 1p36, 2q37 and 9q34, maternal uniparental disomy of chromosome 14, fragile X syndrome and Börjeson-Forssman-Lehman syndrome.

  1. Epigenetics and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campión, Javier; Milagro, Fermin; Martínez, J Alfredo

    2010-01-01

    The etiology of obesity is multifactorial, involving complex interactions among the genetic makeup, neuroendocrine status, fetal programming, and different unhealthy environmental factors, such as sedentarism or inadequate dietary habits. Among the different mechanisms causing obesity, epigenetics, defined as the study of heritable changes in gene expression that occur without a change in the DNA sequence, has emerged as a very important determinant. Experimental evidence concerning dietary factors influencing obesity development through epigenetic mechanisms has been described. Thus, identification of those individuals who present with changes in DNA methylation profiles, certain histone modifications, or other epigenetically related processes could help to predict their susceptibility to gain or lose weight. Indeed, research concerning epigenetic mechanisms affecting weight homeostasis may play a role in the prevention of excessive fat deposition, the prediction of the most appropriate weight reduction plan, and the implementation of newer therapeutic approaches.

  2. Collagen metabolism in obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, M H; Jensen, L T; Andersen, T

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the impact of obesity, fat distribution and weight loss on collagen turnover using serum concentrations of the carboxyterminal propeptide of type I procollagen (S-PICP) and the aminoterminal propeptide of type III pro-collagen (S-PIIINP) as markers for collagen turnover...... (r = 0.37; P = 0.004), height (r = 0.27; P = 0.04), waist circumference (r = 0.35; P = 0.007), as well as with WHR (r = 0.33; P = 0.01) and was inversely correlated to age (r = -0.40; P = 0.002). Compared with randomly selected controls from a large pool of healthy volunteers, the obese patients had...... restriction (P obesity and associated with body fat distribution, suggesting...

  3. [Obesity and hypertension].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonyi, Gábor; Kollár, Réka

    2013-11-01

    The frequency of hypertension and obesity is gradually growing in Hungary. At present 68.5% of men and 78% of women are obese. Hypertension and obesity are the most important risk factors of morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular disease. The relationship between increased sympathetic activity and hypertension is well known. Waist circumference and body fat mass correlate significantly with sympathetic activity, in which hyperlipidemia plays also a role. The increased activity of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system via its vascular and renal effects also contributes to an increase of blood pressure. Increased sympathetic activity with decreasing vagal tone accompanying the imbalance of the autonomous nervous system is independent and significant risk factor of cardiovascular events including sudden cardiac death.

  4. OBESITY : A MODERN DAY PLAGUE

    OpenAIRE

    YADAV, YATENDRA KUMAR

    2002-01-01

    Obesity is the presence of excess body fat. Unfortunately obesity is taken as a mere cosmetic problem and not a medical one. Today obesity is being ‘dealt’ with more by the self-proclaimed fitness experts running the rapidly mushrooming fitness centres rather than by medical professionals. But rather than merely a cosmetic problem, obesity should be viewed as a disease because there are multiple biologic hazards at surprisingly low levels of excess fat With the rapid pace of industrialisation...

  5. Childhood obesity and prevention approaches

    OpenAIRE

    Dilek Yildiz; Berna Eren Fidanci; Derya Suluhan

    2015-01-01

    Childhood obesity has increased dramatically during the past two decades. The growing incidence of childhood obesity is alarming, given the significant short and long term health problems associated with obesity. Being overweight or obese may increase the rate of non-communicable diseases such as type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease in adulthood. It may contribute to shortening life expectancy and adversely affects the quality of life. Therefore, it is important to prevent childhood obe...

  6. Pediatric Obesity: Etiology and Treatment^

    OpenAIRE

    Crocker, Melissa K.; Yanovski, Jack A.

    2011-01-01

    This paper reviews factors that contribute to excessive weight gain in children and outlines current knowledge regarding approaches for treating pediatric obesity. Virtually all of the known genetic causes of obesity primarily increase energy intake. Genes regulating the leptin signaling pathway are particularly important for human energy homeostasis. Obesity is a chronic disorder that requires long-term strategies for management. The foundation for all treatments for pediatric obesity remain...

  7. Obesity and gastric balloon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed I Yasawy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The obesity epidemic, which is among the most common nutritional disorders, is rising rapidly worldwide. It leads to several health problems such as metabolic disorders, stroke, and even cancer. Efforts to control obesity with exercise and diet have a limited value in obese patients and different approaches to do this have been tried. In this paper, we share our experience with bioenteric intragastric balloon (BIB in treating obesity: Its safety, tolerability, and its efficacy in weight reduction. Materials and Methods: From January 2009 to September 2012, a total of 190 gastric balloons was inserted on patients at the endoscopy unit in King Fahd Hospital of the University, Al-Khobar. This is an evaluation of the first 100 patients. All the patients had a body mass index of over 30 kg/m 2 and were within the age range of 17-55 with a mean age of 32 years. After consent, preballoon investigation tests and anesthesia evaluation, BIB was inserted under monitored anesthesia care sedation in the endoscopy suite. The balloon was filled with 500-700 mls of stained saline. All patients′ were given an analgesic and antiemetic for a week and antisecretory proton pump inhibitor′s for 6 months. Diet and the importance of the exercise were part of the preballoon insertion phase and protocol. The balloon was removed after 6-12 months. Results: The weight loss response to BIB in the 100 patients are classified into four groups: In the uncooperative, noncompliant patients - the maximum weight loss was 7 kg, while in the most compliant patients the weight loss reached up to 39 kg. In addition, there was significant improvement into diabetes mellitus, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and fatty liveras. Its safety and tolerability were extremely acceptable. Conclusion: Our data indicates that in well-selected patients, BIB is an effective device, which with minimum complications helps to achieve body weight loss and resolve many obesity related

  8. Early prevention of obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Maffeis

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Childhood obesity is the metabolic disorder with the highest prevalence in both children and adults. Urgency to treat and prevent childhood obesity is based on the clear evidence that obesity tends to track from childhood to adulthood, is associated to morbidity also in childhood and to long-term mortality. Early life, i.e., intrauterine life and the first two years, is a sensitive window for prevention. Anatomical and functional maturation of the hypothalamic structures devoted to regulating energy intake and expenditure and body size mainly occurs in the first 1,000 days of life. Therefore, factors affecting the foetal exposition to maternal metabolic environment and early postnatal nutrition are crucial in modulating the definition of the metabolic programming processes in the brain. Maternal diseases, mainly malnutrition for defect or excess, obesity and diabetes, placental disorders and dysfunctions, maternal use of alcohol and drugs, smoking, affect long term metabolic programming of the foetus with lifelong consequences. Similarly, early nutrition contributes to complete the long-term metabolic regulating framework initiated in the uterus. Breastfeeding, adequate weaning, attention to portion size and diet composition are potential tools for reducing the obesity risk later in childhood. Longitudinal randomized controlled studies are needed for exploring the efficacy of obesity prevention strategies initiated after conception.Proceedings of the 10th International Workshop on Neonatology · Cagliari (Italy · October 22nd-25th, 2014 · The last ten years, the next ten years in Neonatology Guest Editors: Vassilios Fanos, Michele Mussap, Gavino Faa, Apostolos Papageorgiou

  9. Childhood Obesity: Prediction and Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Michael D.

    Obesity in children is a problem both insidious and acute. Childhood obesity has been indicated as a forerunner of adult obesity; it is also an immediate problem for the child. Given the lack of evidence for long term maintenance of any weight loss, this paper investigates the etiology of the disorder as a prelude to prevention. Upon review of the…

  10. Childhood Obesity. Special Reference Briefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winick, Myron

    This reference brief deals with the problem of childhood obesity and how it can lead to obesity in the adult. Eighty-four abstracts are presented of studies on the identification, prevention, and treatment of obesity in children, focusing on diet and psychological attitudes. Subjects of the studies were children ranging in age from infancy through…

  11. Fight Obesity in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bratsis, Michael E.

    2012-01-01

    U.S. health experts declared obesity an epidemic over a decade ago. Schools have tried to implement prevention programs for students, but as budgets shrink, educating students about obesity is increasingly falling to classroom instructors, including science teachers. The good news is that obesity-related classroom activities can be engaging, and…

  12. [Monitoring the prevalence of obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Thorkild I.A.; Due, P.; Hansen, B.;

    2008-01-01

    The Danish Fitness and Nutrition Council has proposed a model to monitor the prevalence of overweight and obesity in Denmark. The model should make it possible to assess whether different initiatives reduce the prevalence of obesity and to gain knowledge on how to prevent obesity. The prevalence...

  13. New Approaches in Obesity Treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.E. de Niet

    2010-01-01

    textabstractObesity has become a global epidemic among all age groups. A number of countries have even experienced a notable shift from under- to over nutrition in youngsters or a double burden of both malnutrition and obesity. The World Health Organization (WHO) defines overweight and obesity as “a

  14. Pregnancy and obesity: Practical implications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.J. Duvekot (Hans)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractObesity is presently the most prevalent health threat in the western world, and its influence on general health is rapidly increasing. Obesity has also developed as a major and frequent risk factor for pregnancy complications. Complications often encountered in obese pregnant women are h

  15. Childhood Obesity: The Caregiver's Role.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haschke, Bernadette

    2003-01-01

    Describes the role caregivers play in helping young children dealing with obesity. Examines: (1) causes of childhood obesity; (2) caregiver's position; (3) learning nutrition concepts; (4) preparing and serving healthy foods; (5) encouraging physical activity; (6) working with parents; and (7) assisting an obese child. (SD)

  16. [Obesity-hypoventilation syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Y; Dong, H; Weng, M

    1996-01-01

    5 cases with obesity-hypoventilaion syndrome were reported. The clinical manifestations were obesity, palpitation, dyspnea, lethargy, cyanosis, distention of cervical vein, edema, enlargement of liver and hypertension. All of them were initially diagnosed as chronic bronchitis or heart diseases. Pulmonary function test showed restrictive ventilative defect and hypercapnia with hypoxemia. Mouth oclusion pressure at 0.1 second was higher than the normal value. The response to CO2 was decreased. Hypertrophy of right heart was shown in ECG and X-ray film improvement in symptoms and blood gases analyses were found to be associated with body weight decrease in a follow up period of one year.

  17. English obesity policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vallgårda, Signild

    2015-01-01

    Problem definitions constitute a crucial part of the policy process. In 2008 the Labour Government presented a plan to reduce the obesity prevalence in England. Only three years later the Conservative-Liberal Government introduced a plan on the same topic, which it presented as new and innovative....... The aim of this study is to analyse the respective governments' problematisations of obesity and to identify similarities and differences. Despite the different hues of the two governments, the programmes are surprisingly similar. They seek to simultaneously govern and not to govern. They adhere...

  18. Dynamic Model Predicting Overweight, Obesity, and Extreme Obesity Prevalence Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Diana M.; Weedermann, Marion; Fuemmeler, Bernard F.; Martin, Corby K.; Dhurandhar, Nikhil V.; Bredlau, Carl; Heymsfield, Steven B.; Ravussin, Eric; Bouchard, Claude

    2013-01-01

    Objective Obesity prevalence in the United States (US) appears to be leveling, but the reasons behind the plateau remain unknown. Mechanistic insights can be provided from a mathematical model. The objective of this study is to model known multiple population parameters associated with changes in body mass index (BMI) classes and to establish conditions under which obesity prevalence will plateau. Design and Methods A differential equation system was developed that predicts population-wide obesity prevalence trends. The model considers both social and non-social influences on weight gain, incorporates other known parameters affecting obesity trends, and allows for country specific population growth. Results The dynamic model predicts that: obesity prevalence is a function of birth rate and the probability of being born in an obesogenic environment; obesity prevalence will plateau independent of current prevention strategies; and the US prevalence of obesity, overweight, and extreme obesity will plateau by about 2030 at 28%, 32%, and 9%, respectively. Conclusions The US prevalence of obesity is stabilizing and will plateau, independent of current preventative strategies. This trend has important implications in accurately evaluating the impact of various anti-obesity strategies aimed at reducing obesity prevalence. PMID:23804487

  19. Causal attributions of obese men and women in genetic testing: implications of genetic/biological attributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilbert, Anja; Dierk, Jan-Michael; Conradt, Matthias; Schlumberger, Pia; Hinney, Anke; Hebebrand, Johannes; Rief, Winfried

    2009-09-01

    The present study sought to investigate genetic/biological attributions of obesity, their associations with a predisposition to obesity and their crossectional and longitudinal implications for weight regulation in obese individuals presenting for genetic testing and counselling. A total of 421 obese men and women underwent psychological and anthropometric assessment and a mutation screen of the melanocortin-4 receptor gene. At study entry, women revealed more genetic/biological attributions than men on the Revised Illness Perception Questionnaire adapted to obesity (86.2% versus 59.7%). Genetic/biological attributions of obesity were associated in both sexes with a family history of obesity, assessed through Stunkard's Figure Rating Scale. In both sexes, genetic/biological attributions were unrelated to weight regulation beliefs and behaviour (i.e. self-efficacy, controllability beliefs, restrained eating and physical activity), assessed through standardised questionnaires or interview at baseline and at six-month follow-up. In addition, causal attributions and weight regulation beliefs and behaviour were not predictive of body mass index at six-month follow-up. Overall, the results indicate that causal attributions of obesity to genetic/biological factors in obese individuals presenting for genetic screening and counselling are crossectionally and longitudinally unrelated to weight regulation and longer-term weight outcome. Those who attribute their obesity to genetic/biological factors likely have a familial obesity risk.

  20. Association of obesity with chronic disease and musculoskeletal factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Minghelli

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available SummaryIntroduction:overweight and obesity in adolescents are major public health problems with particular interest, because of their potential association with risk factors for development of diseases. The study aimed to determine the prevalence of overweight and obesity in adolescents in southern Portugal and investigate the association with risk factors for development of cardiovascular, respiratory and musculoskeletal diseases.Methods:the sample consisted of 966 adolescents aged 10 to 16 years. The calculation of body mass index (BMI, evaluation of blood glucose, total cholesterol and triglycerides, blood pressure, spirometry and application of low back pain (LBP questionnaire were performed.Results:178 (18.4% adolescents were overweight and 52 (5.4% obese. None of the variables revealed a statistically significant association with overweight and obesity. The presence of high blood pressure was observed in 200 (20.7% individuals and hypertension in 158 (16.4% adolescents. Overweight and obese adolescents are 2.3 times more likely to develop signs of pre-hypertension and hypertension. 559 (57.9% students had restrictive respiratory disorders and 23 (2.4% had obstructive disorders. Those who were overweight and obese had 0.64 probability of having restrictive respiratory disorders.Conclusion:there was a high prevalence of overweight and obesity in Portuguese adolescents and these showed a statistically significant relationship with the development of pre-hypertension and hypertension, and restrictive respiratory disorders.

  1. [Prevalence of obesity amount elementary school children in Grenoble].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viguié, M; Fayard, M; Micheletti, P; Boussuges, S

    2002-12-01

    Facing the growing increase of childhood obesity in France, the Grenoble Municipal School Health Service wanted to evaluate the importance of this phenomenon present among elementary school children in the area. A descriptive, cross-sectional and retrospective survey was conducted during the 2000/2001 academic year among a group of 1361 children born in 1990. The Quetelet Index was utilized to measure the level of being overweight, and the breaking point levels for being overweight and obese were defined according to new international standards. The prevalence of obesity is approximately 3% (2.7% in girls and 2.9% in boys) and remains constant from nursery school to elementary school. Nearly 35% of obese children in nursery school remain obese at the end of elementary school. Overweight prevalence is at its highest and increases significantly from nursery school (8.3%) through elementary school (14%). The study further revealed that girls aged 10-12 who did not pass and were held back from the next grade are five times more at risk of obesity than those who pass. The Municipal School Health Service has a critical role to play in the prevention of childhood obesity and its early screening and detection.

  2. Psychological issues in pediatric obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurvinder Kalra

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Pediatric obesity is a major health problem and has reached epidemiological proportions today. The present paper reviews major psychological issues in pediatric obesity from a developmental perspective. Research and literature has shown that a number of developmental, family, maternal and child factors are responsible in the genesis of pediatric obesity. Family food habits, early developmental lifestyle of the child, parenting, early family relationships and harmony all contribute towards the growth and development of a child. The present review focuses on the role of developmental psychological factors in the pathogenesis of pediatric obesity and highlights the developmental factors that must be kept in mind when evaluating a case of pediatric obesity.

  3. Pregnancy risks associated with obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mission, John F; Marshall, Nicole E; Caughey, Aaron B

    2015-06-01

    Obesity has increased dramatically in the United States over the last several decades, with approximately 40% of pregnant women now considered overweight or obese. Obesity has been shown to be associated with numerous poor pregnancy outcomes, including increased rates of preeclampsia, gestational diabetes, fetal macrosomia, stillbirth, postterm pregnancy, and increased rates of cesarean delivery. Many of these complications have been found to increase even further with increasing body mass index in a dose-response fashion. In this review, the association of obesity with maternal, fetal, and pregnancy outcomes is discussed as are the recommendations for caring for the obese gravida.

  4. Obesity in Libya: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafik R. Elmehdawi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a global epidemic resulting in major morbidity and premature death. About 64% of Libyan adults are either overweight or obese, obesity progressively increasing with age, and two times more common among Libyan women than men. Cases of obesity and overweight are increasing in Libya as well as all over the world, with genetic and environmental factors playing a contributory role. With its known significant morbidity and mortality, obesity should draw the attention of the healthcare community, researchers, and policy makers in Libya.

  5. Significant obesity-associated gene expression changes occur in the stomach but not intestines in obese mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jing; Chen, Lihong; Sanseau, Philippe; Freudenberg, Johannes M; Rajpal, Deepak K

    2016-05-01

    The gastrointestinal (GI) tract can have significant impact on the regulation of the whole-body metabolism and may contribute to the development of obesity and diabetes. To systemically elucidate the role of the GI tract in obesity, we performed a transcriptomic analysis in different parts of the GI tract of two obese mouse models: ob/ob and high-fat diet (HFD) fed mice. Compared to their lean controls, significant changes in the gene expression were observed in both obese mouse groups in the stomach (ob/ob: 959; HFD: 542). In addition, these changes were quantitatively much higher than in the intestine. Despite the difference in genetic background, the two mouse models shared 296 similar gene expression changes in the stomach. Among those genes, some had known associations to obesity, diabetes, and insulin resistance. In addition, the gene expression profiles strongly suggested an increased gastric acid secretion in both obese mouse models, probably through an activation of the gastrin pathway. In conclusion, our data reveal a previously unknown dominant connection between the stomach and obesity in murine models extensively used in research.

  6. Chronobiology and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garaulet, Marta; Gómez-Abellán, Purificación

    2013-09-01

    Chronobiology is a word derived from three Greek stems: kronos for time, bios for life and logos for study. From microarrays studies, now it is accepted that 10-30% of the human genome is under the control of circadian molecular clocks. This implies that most behavioral, physiological and biochemical variables display circadian rhythms in their expression. In its simplest form, circadian clocks are composed of a set of proteins that generate self-sustained circadian oscillations. The molecular clock comprises two transcription factors, CLOCK and BMAL1, whereas PERs and CRYs are responsible for the negative limb. One of the most important questions related to the circadian system and obesity, was to elucidate if adipose tissue displayed circadian rhythmicity or whether it had an internal peripheral clock. Our group of research has provided an overall view of the internal temporal order of circadian rhythms in human adipose tissue. A new concept related to illness is Chronodisruption (CD). It is defined as a relevant disturbance of the internal temporal order of physiological and behavioral circadian rhythms. In our modern society, CD may be common in several conditions such as jet lag, shift work, light at night, or social jet lag. In addition clock gene polymorphisms and aging may have also chronodisruptive effects. Our group has also demonstrated that Obesity and CD are also highly interconnected. With the help of chronobiology we can reach a new view of obesity considering not only "what" are the factors involved in obesity, but also "when" these factors are produced.

  7. Victimization of Obese Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Sabrina

    2006-01-01

    Peer victimization of obese adolescents has been associated with low self-esteem, body dissatisfaction, social isolation, marginalization, poor psychosocial adjustment, depression, eating disorders, and suicidal ideation and attempts, not to mention poor academic performance. Weight-based peer victimization is defined as unsolicited bullying and…

  8. Games and childhood obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Videogames can be used to help children change their obesity-related diet and physical activity behaviors. A review of the relevant literature in this special issue of the Games for Health Journal indicated that video games did influence children's adiposity, but only among children who were alread...

  9. Dietary determinants of obesity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huaidong, D.U.; Feskens, E.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Obesity has become a serious public health problem worldwide, and dietary composition can play a role in its prevention and treatment. However, available literature on the impacts of different dietary factors on weight change is inconsistent, or even conflicting. In this review, we briefly summarize

  10. Adiposopathy and Obesity Paradox

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indriyanti Rafi Sukmawati

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Obesity has reached global epidemic proportions in both adults and children and is associated with numerous comorbidities, including hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM, dyslipidemia and major cardiovascular diseases (CVD. CONTENT: Adiposity may cause adipocyte and adipose tissue anatomic and functional abnormalities, termed adiposopathy (adipose-opathy or "sick fat," that result in endocrine and immune derangements. Adiposopathy may directly contribute to CVD through pericardiac and perivascular effects on the myocardium and blood vessels. Adiposopathy may also indirectly contribute to CVD through promoting or worsening major CVD risk factors such as T2DM, high blood pressure, and dyslipidemia. Despite this adverse association, numerous studies have documented an obesity paradox in which overweight and obese people with established CVD, including hypertension, heart failure, coronary heart disease, and peripheral arterial disease, have a better prognosis compared with nonoverweight/nonobese patients. These paradoxical findings are made less paradoxical when the pathogenic potential of excessive body fat is assessed based on adipose tissue dysfunction rather than simply on increased fat mass alone. SUMMARY: Adiposopathy is defined as pathological adipose tissue function that may be promoted and exacerbated by fat accumulation (adiposity and sedentary lifestyle in genetically susceptible patients. Adiposopathy is a root cause of some of the most common metabolic diseases observed in clinical practice, including T2DM, hypertension and dyslipidemia. KEYWORDS: adiposopathy, adiposity, obesity paradox, adipocyte dysfunction, adipose hypertrophy, adipose hyperplasia.

  11. [Urinary incontinence and obesity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legendre, G; Fritel, X; Capmas, P; Pourcelot, A-G; Fernandez, H

    2012-06-01

    Obesity, defined as a body mass index (BMI) more than or equal to 30kg/m(2), promotes pelvic floor disorders such as urinary incontinence (UI) and genital prolapse. Datas from cohort studies found an association between high BMI and the onset of UI. This association seems to be predominant with for mixed UI and stress UI. For the urge UI and overactive bladder syndrome, the analysis of the literature found a weaker association. The weight is therefore the only modifiable risk factor. Thus, the weight loss by a hypocaloric diet associated with pelvic floor muscle training should be the front line treatment in the obese patient suffering from UI. Bariatric surgery can be discussed in the most obese patient, even if the risk/benefit balance should be weighed because of significant morbidity of this surgery. The results of sub urethral sling (by retropubic tension-free vaginal tape or transobturator sling) in obese patients appear to be equivalent to those obtained in patients of normal weight. Datas on per- and postoperative complications for suburethral slings are reassuring.

  12. Obesity and Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Canan Celik

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is defined as the accumulation of abnormal or excessive fat in fat tissues that substantially disrupt health. The main reasons of obesity are excessive and unbalanced diet and lack of physical activity. Obesity and santral obesity leads to many diseases. Body mass index (weight (kg/lenght (m2 has been used extensively to define categories of body weight. All healthy adults aged 18-65 yr need moderate-intensity aerobic physical activity for a minimum of 30 min on five days each week or vigorous-intensity aerobic activitiy for a minimum of 20 min on three days each week. Also combination of these activities can be performed. It is recommended that muscle strengthening and stretching activities are performed for a minimum of two days each week. Activities of daily living that tend to be light intensity should be added. There are many benefits of regular physical activity and aerobic exercise tranning that are associated with a decrease in cardiovascular mortality. Some risks of the exercises may also be taken into account.

  13. Sleep in obese patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalya Victorova Strueva

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of the study was to investigate the influence of duration and individual characteristics of sleep and chronotype on body weight, eating behavior, anxiety, depression, life quality, metabolic and hormonal parameters of obese patients. Materials and methods: 200 patients with primary obesity were studied: 83 men and 117 women at age from 18 to 61 years old, median age 41,5 years [31,0; 50,0]; body weight 107 kg [94; 128,5], waist circumference 112 cm [102; 124]; neck circumference 41 cm [38; 46], body mass index (BMI 36,9 [32,8; 42,3]. Results: We found an association between sleep duration, chronotype and the emotional eating. Significant sleep reduction (to less than 6 hours was associated with high level of anxiety, depression, emotional eating and insomnia. Younger age, early onset and shorter duration of obesity and brisk weight gain during last is connected to the evening chronotype. The emotional eating associated with hypersomnolence in the absence of statistically significant increase of anxiety and depression in individuals with evening chronotype. Sleep duration and chronotype have no significant effect on the body weight, metabolic, hormonal parameters and the dynamics of body. weight after 7±1 months of treatment of obesity.

  14. The psychology of obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swencionis, Charles; Rendell, Sarah Litman

    2012-10-01

    G. Stanley Hall, the first person to earn a Ph.D. in psychology in the United States, did research on eating behaviors in the nineteenth century (Lepore in The New Yorker, 2011). Research on psychological aspects of obesity accelerated in the 1950s and there has been a great deal done at this point. We review areas of considerable activity and relevance.

  15. [Pharmacological treatment of obesity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomis Barbará, R

    2004-01-01

    The pharmacological treatment of obesity should be considered when cannot be achieved a 10% weight loss with diet therapy and physical activity. The drugs effective in obesity treatment may act by different mechanisms such as reduction in food intake, inhibition of fat absorption, increase of thermogenesis and stimulation of adipocyte apoptosis. At present, we only have two marketed drugs for obesity treatment. Sibutramine is an inhibitor of norepinephrine, dopamine and serotonina reuptake which inhibits food intake and increases thermogenesis. Sibutramine administration for a year can induce a weight loss of 4-7%. Its main side effects are hypertension, headache, insomnia and constipation. Orlistat is an inhibitor of pancreatic lipase which is able to block the absorption of 30% of ingested fat. Its administration induces weight loss and reduction of ulterior weight regain. Also, this drug improves hypertension dyslipdaemia and helps to prevent diabetes in 52% of cases when administered over four years. The increase in frequency of stools and interference with vitamin absorption are its main side effects. Glucagon-like peptide 1, which increases insulin sensitivity and satiety, adiponectin and PPAR-gamma agonists which reduce insulin resistance and modulates adipocyte generation are the basis for future therapeutic approaches of obesity. Phosphatase inhibitors induce PPAR-gamma phosphorylation and UCP-1 expression leading to an increase in thermogenesis and reduction in appetite.

  16. Physical activity in obesity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouters, Eveline; Geenen, Rinie

    2011-01-01

    Physical exercise education in overweight and obese patients not only requires knowledge of physical exercise programs, but also knowledge of psychological processes such as cognitions that may hamper adherence to the exercise program and knowledge of social processes, e.g., consciousness of the sti

  17. Physical activity in obesity.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouters, Eveline; Geenen,

    2011-01-01

    Physical exercise education in overweight and obese patients not only requires knowledge of physical exercise programs, but also knowledge of psychological processes such as cognitions that may hamper adherence to the exercise program and knowledge of social processes, e.g., consciousness of the sti

  18. Vitamin paradox in obesity:Deficiency or excess?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shi-Sheng; Zhou; Da; Li; Na-Na; Chen; Yiming; Zhou

    2015-01-01

    Since synthetic vitamins were used to fortify food and as supplements in the late 1930 s, vitamin intake has significantly increased. This has been accompanied by an increased prevalence of obesity, a condition associated with diabetes, hypertension, cardiovascular disease, asthma and cancer. Paradoxically, obesity is often associated with low levels of fasting serum vitamins, such as folate and vitamin D. Recent studies on folic acid fortification have revealed another paradoxical phenomenon: obesity exhibits low fasting serum but high erythrocyte folate concentrations, with high levels of serum folate oxidation products. High erythrocyte folate status is known to reflect long-term excess folic acid intake, while increased folate oxidation products suggest an increased folate degradation because obesity shows an increased activity of cytochrome P450 2E1, a monooxygenase enzyme that can use folic acid as a substrate. There is also evidence that obesity increases niacin degradation, manifested by increased activity/expression of niacin-degrading enzymes and high levels of niacin metabolites. Moreover, obesity most commonly occurs in those with a low excretory reserve capacity(e.g., due to low birth weight/preterm birth) and/or a low sweat gland activity(black race and physical inactivity). These lines of evidence raise the possibility that low fasting serum vitamin status in obesity may be a compensatory response to chronic excess vitamin intake, rather than vitamin deficiency, and that obesity could be one of the manifestations of chronic vitamin poisoning. In this article, we discuss vitamin paradox in obesity from the perspective of vitamin homeostasis.

  19. From obesity genetics to the future of personalized obesity therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sayed Moustafa, Julia S; Froguel, Philippe

    2013-07-01

    Obesity is a disorder characterized by an excess accumulation of body fat resulting from a mismatch between energy intake and expenditure. Incidence of obesity has increased dramatically in the past few years, almost certainly fuelled by a shift in dietary habits owing to the widespread availability of low-cost, hypercaloric foods. However, clear differences exist in obesity susceptibility among individuals exposed to the same obesogenic environment, implicating genetic risk factors. Numerous genes have been shown to be involved in the development of monofactorial forms of obesity. In genome-wide association studies, a large number of common variants have been associated with adiposity levels, each accounting for only a small proportion of the predicted heritability. Although the small effect sizes of obesity variants identified in genome-wide association studies currently preclude their utility in clinical settings, screening for a number of monogenic obesity variants is now possible. Such regular screening will provide more informed prognoses and help in the identification of at-risk individuals who could benefit from early intervention, in evaluation of the outcomes of current obesity treatments, and in personalization of the clinical management of obesity. This Review summarizes current advances in obesity genetics and discusses the future of research in this field and the potential relevance to personalized obesity therapy.

  20. Underweight, overweight and obesity among zaboli adolescents: A comparison between international and Iranians′ national criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Salehi-Abargouei

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions : Almost all definitions revealed coexistence of underweight, overweight, and obesity among Zaboli adolescents. Huge differences exist between different criteria. To understand the best appropriate criteria for Iranian adolescents, future studies should focus on the predictability of obesity-related co-morbidities by these criteria.

  1. Autonomic dysfunction: a possible pathophysiological pathway underlying the association between sleep and obesity in children at-risk for obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrin, Denise C; McGrath, Jennifer J; Poirier, Paul; Quality Cohort Collaborative Group

    2015-02-01

    While mounting evidence suggests that sleep plays an important role in the etiology of obesity, the underlying pathogenic pathways are complex and unresolved. Experimental sleep deprivation studies demonstrate sympathovagal imbalance, indicative of diminished parasympathetic activity and/or heightened sympathetic activity, is consequent to poor sleep. Further, obese children exhibit sympathovagal imbalance, particularly during the night, compared to non-obese children. The question remains whether sympathovagal imbalance is one potential pathophysiological pathway underlying the association between sleep and obesity. The aim of the present study was to examine whether sympathovagal imbalance contributed to the association between sleep and obesity in children. Participants included 564 children aged 10 to 12 years (M = 11.67, SD = 0.95; 43.5% girls) from the QUALITY Cohort, a longitudinal study of children at-risk for the development of obesity. While children were at-risk due to confirmed parental obesity status, 57.7% of children were of normal body mass index (5-85th percentile). Sleep duration, sleep timing, and sleep disturbances were based on child- and parent-report. Anthropometrics were measured for central adiposity (waist circumference) and body composition (body mass index, fat mass index). Sympathovagal imbalance was derived from heart rate variability spectral analyses. Estimated path coefficients revealed that sympathovagal imbalance partially contributed to the association between poor sleep (later bedtimes, sleep-disordered breathing) and obesity. These findings highlight the importance of better understanding sympathovagal imbalance and its role in the etiology and maintenance of obesity. Future research should consider investigating nocturnal sympathovagal balance in youth.

  2. Ambiguity Revealed

    OpenAIRE

    Subir Bose; Matthew Polisson; Ludovic Renou

    2012-01-01

    We derive necessary and suffcient conditions for data sets composed of state-contingent prices and consumption to be consistent with two prominent models of decision making under ambiguity: variational preferences and smooth ambiguity. The revealed preference conditions for the maxmin expected utility and subjective expected utility models are characterized as special cases.

  3. Ambiguity revealed

    OpenAIRE

    Bayer, Ralph-C; Bose, Subir; Polisson, Matthew; Renou, Ludovic

    2013-01-01

    We derive necessary and sufficient conditions for data sets composed of state-contingent prices and consumption to be consistent with two prominent models of decision making under uncertainty: variational preferences and smooth ambiguity. The revealed preference conditions for subjective expected utility, maxmin expected utility, and multiplier preferences are characterised as special cases. We implement our tests on data from a portfolio choice experiment.

  4. General Overview on Childhood Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevil İnal

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Until recently, it has not been put much emphasis on obesity in children and the view of “obese child is healthy” is widely accepted by families. However, understanding that a close relation exists between obesity prevalence and childhood obesity, which increased in recent years both across the world and in our country, and many diseases such as hypertension, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases changed the opinion of both of health care professionals and the society about childhood obesity in Turkey, like it changed the opinion in all around the world. Although there are no studies in our country, which have been conducted to investigate obesity prevalence and affecting factors in children nationwide, it is reported in studies carried out in various cities that rate of overweight children in preschool children is between 4-13%, whereas rate of obese children is between 9-27%. In the literature, a positive correlation was found between the frequency of taking the children to fast-food restaurants, compelling children to eat foods on their dishes, one or two of the parents being obese and obesity of children in Turkey. In this review will focus on the risk factors of childhood obesity in Turkey. (Journal of Current Pediatrics 2013; 11: 27-30

  5. Healthy obese versus unhealthy lean: the obesity paradox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavie, Carl J; De Schutter, Alban; Milani, Richard V

    2015-01-01

    Overweight and obesity have reached epidemic proportions in the USA and most of the rest of the world. Particularly concerning is the very high prevalence of class III obesity (BMI ≥40 kg/m(2)), which has reached ∼3% in the USA. In the past few years, controversy has surrounded the idea that some individuals with obesity can be considered healthy with regards to their metabolic and cardiorespiratory fitness, which has been termed the 'obesity paradox'. These controversies are reviewed in detail here, including discussion of the very favourable prognosis in patients with obesity who have no notable metabolic abnormalities and who have preserved fitness. The article also discusses the suggestion that greater emphasis should be placed on improving fitness rather than weight loss per se in the primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular diseases, at least in patients with overweight and class I obesity (BMI 30-35 kg/m(2)).

  6. Obesity and the obesity paradox in heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Adrienne L; Fonarow, Gregg C; Horwich, Tamara B

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is a growing public health problem in the general population, and significantly increases the risk for the development of new-onset heart failure (HF). However, in the setting of chronic HF, overweight and mild to moderate obesity is associated with substantially improved survival compared to normal-weight patients. Evidence exists for an "obesity paradox" in HF, with the majority of data measuring obesity by body mass index, but also across various less-frequently used measures of body fat (BF) and body composition including waist circumference, waist-hip ratio, skinfold estimates of percent BF, and bioelectrical impedance analysis of body composition. Other emerging areas of investigation such as the relationship of the obesity paradox to cardiorespiratory fitness are also discussed. Finally, this review explores various explanations for the obesity paradox, and summarizes the current evidence for intentional weight loss treatments for HF in context.

  7. Sociodemographic and economic determinants of overweight and obesity for public-school children in Geneva State, Switzerland: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilien Jeannot

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: Overweight and obesity is associated to socioeconomic and sociodemographic factors. The analyzes reveals that children with a low economic status and/or from certain countries are more likely to be overweight or obese than Swiss children. There is an urgent need for action to prevent further increase in overweight or obesity among children.

  8. Hydrotherapy: An innovative treatment for obese Malaysians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noordin, M. Hazim M.; Ahmad, Hartini; Baharin, Shamsuddin

    2015-12-01

    Malaysia is ranked as a country with the most obese population in the Southeast Asia region, and placed sixth in the Asia Pacific. Obesity does not only influence the persons' mobility and quality of health, but could also link to medical leaves and absenteeism affecting the overall workforce productivity and efficiency. Routine physical activity is essential for good health and it is particularly important for those who are trying to lose weight or to maintain a healthy weight. However, it is disheartening to note that only 32.6 percent Malaysians above the age of 15 are involved in physical exercise or vigorous sports. There is an emergence of many types of hydrotherapy system, which are either active or passive and these can be at hospital settings, public places or in individual homes. Such hydrotherapy, if properly programmed can promote the physical activity amongst the obese in Malaysia. Current research on the use of active and passive hydrotherapy for obesity treatment was carried out. Subjects of both sexes and diverse age ranges, immersed themselves in a heated pool within hospital setting and in a bath tubs with high energy turbulent movement of medium temperature water. These hydrotherapy sessions provide a form of physical exercise in water as compared to on the land exercise. The findings of the hydrotherapy sessions have shown encouraging results. Quantitative data was analysed, with the help of descriptive statistics and paired sample t-test. Qualitative data was analysed manually with help of thematic analysis and specialised qualitative assessment software. This study reveals that hydrotherapy has improved patient's mobility, flexibility and exercise capability. Results reveal the reduction in the weight of subjects, with both quantitative and qualitative data results show that Hydrotherapy improved the quality of life in term of body pain reduction and general health improvement. Therefore, it can be concluded that the hydrotherapy can be seen

  9. OBESITY, HOSPITAL SERVICES USE AND COSTS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Folmann, Nana Bro; Bossen, Kristine Skovgaard; Willaing, Ingrid;

    2007-01-01

    . When using WC as an indicator for obesity, mean hospital costs were 33.8% greater among obese women and 45.3% greater among obese men in a 3-year period but the differences were not significant. When using BMI to measure obesity, obese men had significantly greater costs (57.5%) than normal weight men...

  10. Obesity Alters the Microbial Community Profile in Korean Adolescents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hae-Jin Hu

    Full Text Available Obesity is an increasing public health concern worldwide. According to the latest Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD report (2014, the incidence of child obesity in Korea has exceeded the OECD average. To better understand and control this condition, the present study examined the composition of the gut microbial community in normal and obese adolescents. Fecal samples were collected from 67 obese (body mass index [BMI] ≥ 30 kg/m2, or ≥ 99th BMI percentile and 67 normal (BMI < 25 kg/m2 or < 85th BMI percentile Korean adolescents aged 13-16 years and subjected to 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Analysis of bacterial composition according to taxonomic rank (genus, family, and phylum revealed marked differences in the Bacteroides and Prevotella populations in normal and obese samples (p < 0.005 at the genus and family levels; however, there was no difference in the Firmicutes-to-Bacteroidetes (F/B ratio between normal and obese adolescents samples at the phylum level (F/B normal = 0.50 ± 0.53; F/B obese = 0.56 ± 0.86; p = 0.384. Statistical analysis revealed a significant association between the compositions of several bacterial taxa and child obesity. Among these, Bacteroides and Prevotella showed the most significant association with BMI (p < 0.0001 and 0.0001, respectively. We also found that the composition of Bacteroides was negatively associated with triglycerides (TG, total cholesterol, and high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-crp (p = 0.0049, 0.0023, and 0.0038, respectively levels, whereas that of Prevotella was positively associated with TG and hs-crp levels (p = 0.0394 and 0.0150, respectively. We then applied the association rule mining algorithm to generate "rules" to identify the association between the populations of multiple bacterial taxa and obesity; these rules were able to discriminate obese from normal states. Therefore, the present study describes a systemic approach to identify the association

  11. Fetal Programming of Obesity: Maternal Obesity and Excessive Weight Gain

    OpenAIRE

    Seray Kabaran

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity is an increasing health problem throughout the world. Maternal pre-pregnancy weight, maternal nutrition and maternal weight gain are among the factors that can cause childhood obesity. Both maternal obesity and excessive weight gain increase the risks of excessive fetal weight gain and high birth weight. Rapid weight gain during fetal period leads to changes in the newborn body composition. Specifically, the increase in body fat ratio in the early periods is associat...

  12. Biology of Obesity: Lessons from Animal Models of Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keizo Kanasaki

    2011-01-01

    problems, including diabetes, cardiovascular disease, respiratory failure, muscle weakness, and cancer. The precise molecular mechanisms by which obesity induces these health problems are not yet clear. To better understand the pathomechanisms of human disease, good animal models are essential. In this paper, we will analyze animal models of obesity and their use in the research of obesity-associated human health conditions and diseases such as diabetes, cancer, and obstructive sleep apnea syndrome.

  13. Obesity and iron deficiency: a quantitative meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, L; Zhang, X; Shen, Y; Fang, X; Wang, Y; Wang, F

    2015-12-01

    Hypoferraemia (i.e. iron deficiency) was initially reported among obese individuals several decades ago; however, whether obesity and iron deficiency are correlated remains unclear. Here, we evaluated the putative association between obesity and iron deficiency by assessing the concentration of haematological iron markers and the risks associated with iron deficiency in both obese (including overweight) subjects and non-overweight participants. We performed a systematic search in the databases PubMed and Embase for relevant research articles published through December 2014. A total of 26 cross-sectional and case-control studies were analysed, comprising 13,393 overweight/obese individuals and 26,621 non-overweight participants. Weighted or standardized mean differences of blood iron markers and odds ratio (OR) of iron deficiency were compared between the overweight/obese participants and the non-overweight participants using a random-effects model. Compared with the non-overweight participants, the overweight/obese participants had lower serum iron concentrations (weighted mean difference [WMD]: -8.37 μg dL(-1) ; 95% confidence interval [CI]: -11.38 to -5.36 μg dL(-1) ) and lower transferrin saturation percentages (WMD: 2.34%, 95% CI: -3.29% to -1.40%). Consistent with this finding, the overweight/obese participants had a significantly increased risk of iron deficiency (OR: 1.31; 95% CI: 1.01-1.68). Moreover, subgroup analyses revealed that the method used to diagnose iron deficiency can have a critical effect on the results of the association test; specifically, we found a significant correlation between iron deficiency and obesity in studies without a ferritin-based diagnosis, but not in studies that used a ferritin-based diagnosis. Based upon these findings, we concluded that obesity is significantly associated with iron deficiency, and we recommend early monitoring and treatment of iron deficiency in overweight and obese individuals. Future

  14. English obesity policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vallgårda, Signild

    2015-01-01

    to liberal ideals of individual choice and they also suggest initiatives that will lead people to choose certain behaviours. Both governments encourage the food and drink industry to support their policies voluntarily, rather than obliging them to do so, although Labour is somewhat more inclined to use......Problem definitions constitute a crucial part of the policy process. In 2008 the Labour Government presented a plan to reduce the obesity prevalence in England. Only three years later the Conservative-Liberal Government introduced a plan on the same topic, which it presented as new and innovative....... The aim of this study is to analyse the respective governments' problematisations of obesity and to identify similarities and differences. Despite the different hues of the two governments, the programmes are surprisingly similar. They seek to simultaneously govern and not to govern. They adhere...

  15. Food Retailers and Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, Rosemary A

    2015-03-01

    We live in an 'obesogenic environment' where we are constantly bombarded with choices that encourage us to move less and eat more. Many factors influence our dietary choices, including the expert marketers who advise manufacturers on ways to encourage the population to buy more, especially profitable, palatable 'ultra-processed' foods. Supermarkets themselves have become skilled in manipulating buying behaviour, using their layout and specific product placement as well as advertising to maximise purchases of particular foods. Increasingly, supermarkets push their own 'house' brands. Those marketing fast foods also use persuasive tactics to attract customers, especially children who they entice with non-food items such as promotional or collectable toys. There is no mystery to the increase in obesity: our energy intake from foods and drinks has increased over the same period that energy output has decreased. Obesity has a range of relevant factors, but there is little doubt that marketing from supermarkets and fast food retailers has played a role.

  16. Prevalence of educational inequalities in obesity between 1970 and 2003 in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh-Manoux, A; Gourmelen, J; Lajnef, M; Sabia, S; Sitta, R; Menvielle, G; Melchior, M; Nabi, H; Lanoe, J-L; Guéguen, A; Lert, F

    2009-09-01

    This paper examines trends in obesity rates and education-related absolute and relative inequalities in obesity over the last 40 years in France. Data are drawn from the French Decennial Health Surveys of 1970, 1980, 1991 and 2003. The difference in obesity rates between the least- and most-educated, the Slope Index of Inequality, is used to estimate absolute inequalities in obesity. The ratio of the corresponding rates, the Relative Index of Inequality, reveals the relative inequalities in obesity. Obesity rates were similar in men and women, but educational inequalities were greater in women. Obesity rates were similar over the first three surveys but increased for all in the 2003 survey. This increase was accompanied by increases in absolute inequalities in men (P = 0.04) from a Slope Index of Inequality of 4.80% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.27, 7.32) to 8.64% (95% CI = 5.97, 11.32) and women (P = 0.004) from 8.90% (95% CI = 6.18, 11.63) to 14.57% (95% CI = 11.83, 17.32). Relative inequalities in obesity remained stable over the 40 years. Recent increase in obesity rates in France is accompanied by increases in absolute education-related inequalities, while relative inequalities have remained stable; this suggests that obesity rates have increased at a much faster rate in the low-education groups.

  17. Binge eating disorder and obesity: preliminary evidence for distinct cardiovascular and psychological phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klatzkin, Rebecca R; Gaffney, Sierra; Cyrus, Kathryn; Bigus, Elizabeth; Brownley, Kimberly A

    2015-04-01

    This study investigated cardiovascular functioning, mood, and eating-related psychological factors at rest and in response to mental stress in three groups of women: 1) Obese women with binge eating disorder (BED; n=9); 2) obese non-BED women (n=15); and 3) normal weight (NW) non-BED women (n=15). Compared to both obese and NW non-BED women, obese women with BED showed heightened overall blood pressure and reported greater depression symptoms, perceived stress, and eating-related psychopathology. Additionally, obese women with BED reported greater overall negative affect and state anxiety compared to obese non-BED women. The heart rate response to stress was blunted in the obese BED group compared to the other groups, but this effect was no longer significant after controlling for baseline differences in depression. Correlational analyses revealed a positive association between stress-induced changes in hunger and cardiovascular measures only in obese women with BED. Longitudinal studies are needed to determine if stress dysregulation and stress-induced increases in hunger contribute to the onset and/or maintenance of BED. In particular, studies utilizing an additional NW BED control group are warranted in order to further examine the impact of BED above and beyond the impact of obesity on psychophysiological functioning and to inform the growing literature regarding stress-related factors that distinguish the BED and obesity phenotypes.

  18. The Association between Family and Parental Factors and Obesity among Children in Nanchang, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Zhang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: With rapid economic development in China, traditional patterns of health behaviors are changing, concurrent with a rise in childhood obesity. While the home environment and parenting behaviors are modifiable factors that could be targeted for intervention, little is known about their relationship with children’s health behaviors. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between obesity and home and parenting factors in Chinese children. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in Nanchang, China in 2013 with caregivers (N = 470 of a child between the ages of 2-10 years. Regression analyses were conducted to determine risk factors for childhood obesity. Results: Obesity prevalence (21.7% did not differ by demographic variables. Eight physical activity, nutrition, and sedentary variables had significant relationships to obesity status. Logistic regression analysis revealed three significant predictors of obesity: the number of days the family eats meals together (odds ratio = 0.84, 95% CI 0.73-0.96 and parental home computer use time (odds ratio = 0.83, 95% CI 0.72-0.96 were related to lower levels of obesity, while parental television time (odds ratio = 1.25 95% CI 1.07-1.47 was related to higher levels of obesity. Conclusions: The prevalence of obesity among children is high in Nanchang. Family and environmental risk factors are significantly related to obesity.

  19. Gut microbiota and sirtuins in obesity-related inflammation and bowel dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lakhan Shaheen E

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Obesity is a chronic disease characterized by persistent low-grade inflammation with alterations in gut motility. Motor abnormalities suggest that obesity has effects on the enteric nervous system (ENS, which controls virtually all gut functions. Recent studies have revealed that the gut microbiota can affect obesity and increase inflammatory tone by modulating mucosal barrier function. Furthermore, the observation that inflammatory conditions influence the excitability of enteric neurons may add to the gut dysfunction in obesity. In this article, we discuss recent advances in understanding the role of gut microbiota and inflammation in the pathogenesis of obesity and obesity-related gastrointestinal dysfunction. The potential contribution of sirtuins in protecting or regulating the circuitry of the ENS under inflamed states is also considered.

  20. Behavioral Treatment of Obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Butryn, Meghan L.; Webb, Victoria; Thomas A. Wadden

    2011-01-01

    Behavioral treatment should be the first line of intervention for overweight and obese individuals. This paper provides an overview of the structure and principles of behavioral weight loss treatment. The short- and long-term effectiveness of this approach is reviewed. Strategies for improving weight loss maintenance are described, including prolonging contact between patients and providers (either in the clinic or via Internet or telephone), facilitating high amounts of physical activity, an...

  1. Chronobiology and obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Garaulet

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Chronobiology is a word derived from three Greek stems: kronos for time, bios for life and logos for study. From microarrays studies, now it is accepted that 10-30% of the human genome is under the control of circadian molecular clocks. This implies that most behavioral, physiological and biochemical variables display circadian rhythms in their expression. In its simplest form, circadian clocks are composed of a set of proteins that generate self-sustained circadian oscillations. The molecular clock comprises two transcription factors, CLOCK and BMAL1, whereas PERs and CRYs are responsible for the negative limb. One of the most important questions related to the circadian system and obesity, was to elucidate if adipose tissue displayed circadian rhythmicity or whether it had an internal peripheral clock. Our group of research has provided an overall view of the internal temporal order of circadian rhythms in human adipose tissue. A new concept related to illness is Chronodisruption (CD. It is defined as a relevant disturbance of the internal temporal order of physiological and behavioral circadian rhythms. In our modern society, CD may be common in several conditions such as jet lag, shift work, light at night, or social jet lag. In addition clock gene polymorphisms and aging may have also chronodisruptive effects. Our group has also demonstrated that Obesity and CD are also highly interconnected. With the help of chronobiology we can reach a new view of obesity considering not only "what" are the factors involved in obesity, but also "when" these factors are produced.

  2. Secondary obesity. Part 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M B Babarina

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Glucocorticoids, prolactin and growth hormone play an important role in the regulation of metabolic homeostasis. Hypercortisolism, hyperprolactinemia and growth hormone deficiency lead to an increase in body weight due to visceral fat accumulation. Mechanisms of development of obesity in various endocrine diseases are different. Adequate correction of hormonal disorders usually is accompanied by a decrease in body weight and the improvement of metabolic parameters.

  3. [The energetics of obesity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergouignan, Audrey; Blanc, Stéphane

    2006-01-01

    Although there is little argument about the state of energy imbalance that produces weight gain, there is considerable argument about the respective role of genetics, diet and physical activity in achieving obesity. In the USA, obesity has increased in the last decades despite a concomitant decrease in total energy and fat intake suggesting that there has been a dramatic drop in total energy expenditure. In this review, we investigated the respective role of resting metabolic rate, post-prandial thermogenesis, and activity energy expenditure in this lower energy output, and provided evidence that physical inactivity is the major contributor. Based on Jean Mayer original observation (Mayer et al., 1954), we hypothesize that there is a level of physical activity below which mechanisms of body mass regulation are impaired. The increasing prevalence of obesity may reflect the fact the majority of the population has fallen below such a level of physical activity. However, a causal relation between physical inactivity and obesity is still difficult to prove, probably because of the lack of longitudinal models to investigate the physiological consequences of inactivity and because the deleterious consequences of sedentary behaviors are essentially deduced from the benefits of exercise training. By using long term strict bed rest as a unique model of inactivity, we provide evidence that inactivity per se indeed disrupts fuel homeostasis and partitions post-absorptive and post-prandial fat use towards storage, thus promoting weight gain in the long term. More research is needed to investigate mechanisms and to determine the minimal physical activity our body has been engineered for by evolution.

  4. Dopamine, hypertension and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras, F; Fouillioux, C; Bolívar, A; Simonovis, N; Hernández-Hernández, R; Armas-Hernandez, M J; Velasco, M

    2002-03-01

    Dopamine, a neurotransmitter, precursor of noradrenaline, is responsible for cardiovascular and renal actions, such as increase in myocardial contractility and cardiac output, without changes in heart rate, producing passive and active vasodilatation, diuresis and natriuresis. These cardiovascular and renal actions take place through the interaction with dopamine receptors, D(1), D(2), D(3), D(4), and D(5). Recent findings point to the possibility of D(6) and D(7)receptors. Dopamine is known to influence the control of arterial pressure by influencing the central and peripheral nervous system and target organs such as kidneys and adrenal glands, in some types of hypertension. Although dopamine and its derivatives have been shown to have antihypertensive effects, these are still being studied; therefore it is important to explain some physiological and pharmacological aspects of dopamine, its receptors, and the clinical uses it could have in the treatment of arterial hypertension and more recently in obesity, based on evidence proving a clear association between obesity and the decrease in the expression of D(2) receptors in the brain of obese persons.

  5. OBESITY - STRATEGIES FOR THE PREVENTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina-Costina LUCA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The last decades there has been characterizes by a worrying rise in obesity among both adults and in children's services. Obesity is considered disease XXI century. Obesity includes a medical field which accumulates a major issue and objective public health in developed countries, a vital prognosis health problem in medical practice and, not least, an aesthetic problem, psychosocial implications. The word comes from the Latin obese, "obesus" = fat, corpulent. Since ancient times, 2,500 years ago, Hippocrates noticed danger overweight "corpulence is not only a disease itself, but is a risk factor." Subsequently, the Indian surgeon Sushruta (VI century BC noted connection between obesity and heart disease. In Europe in medieval and Renaissance, obesity was considered a sign of wealth and prosperity among senior officials.

  6. Diabetes and obesity in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, David

    2011-02-01

    An epidemic of obesity is affecting growing numbers of women in their childbearing years increasing their risk of obstetric complications including diabetes, hypertension, pre-eclampsia, some malformations, macrosomia and the need for obstetric intervention. There is growing evidence that maternal obesity may increase the risk of obesity and diabetes in the offspring. Obesity and diabetes in pregnancy have independent and additive effects on obstetric complications, and both require management during pregnancy. Management of obesity including weight loss and physical activity prior to pregnancy is likely to be beneficial for mother and baby, although the benefits of bariatric surgery remain unclear at this time. Limiting gestational weight gain to 5-9 kg among pregnant obese women is likely to improve obstetric outcomes, but how to achieve this remains an active area of research. If gestational diabetes develops, there is good evidence that clinical management reduces the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes.

  7. Obesity and pelvic floor dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramalingam, Kalaivani; Monga, Ash

    2015-05-01

    Obesity is associated with a high prevalence of pelvic floor disorders. Patients with obesity present with a range of urinary, bowel and sexual dysfunction problems as well as uterovaginal prolapse. Urinary incontinence, faecal incontinence and sexual dysfunction are more prevalent in patients with obesity. Uterovaginal prolapse is also more common than in the non-obese population. Weight loss by surgical and non-surgical methods plays a major role in the improvement of these symptoms in such patients. The treatment of symptoms leads to an improvement in their quality of life. However, surgical treatment of these symptoms may be accompanied by an increased risk of complications in obese patients. A better understanding of the mechanism of obesity-associated pelvic floor dysfunction is essential.

  8. Obesity and arterial compliance alterations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifalian, Alexander M; Filippatos, Theodosios D; Joshi, Jatin; Mikhailidis, Dimitri P

    2010-03-01

    Obesity is associated with increased cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk, especially when excess body fat is distributed preferentially within the abdominal region. Obese subjects usually have increased arterial stiffness compared with non-obese subjects of similar age. The factors associated with increased arterial stiffness in obesity include endothelial dysfunction (decreased nitric oxide bioavailability), impaired smooth muscle cell function, insulin resistance, as well as elevated cholesterol and C-peptide levels. Furthermore, visceral fat, the adipose tissue-related renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and hyperleptinaemia contribute to the obesity-associated impaired arterial compliance. Weight loss improves CVD risk factors and arterial compliance. Because increased arterial stiffness is a marker of CVD risk these findings support the concept that the presence of obesity has vascular implications.

  9. Factors contributing to adolescent obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Kloub, Manal I; Froelicher, Erika S

    2009-06-01

    Obesity in children is a significant public health concern. The prevalence of overweight and obesity in Jordanian children, and adolescents has increased in the last decade. The consequences of obesity to health in childhood and adulthood have both medical, and economic cost to individuals and society. This paper reviews the factors that contribute to adolescent obesity and emphasizes behavioral and environmental factors. An individual's behaviors such as increased consumption of high caloric foods, increased sedentary activity while decreasing physical activity has been identified as key issues in the development of obesity. Additionally, the current environment in homes, schools, and neighborhoods tend to discourage a healthy lifestyle. A comprehensive approach that involves the whole community is the best strategy for preventing adolescent obesity. Nurses are in a unique position to provide leadership in developing programs for healthier lifestyle choices for adolescents' and adoption of these goals into their daily lives.

  10. Collective behavior in the spatial spreading of obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallos, Lazaros K.; Barttfeld, Pablo; Havlin, Shlomo; Sigman, Mariano; Makse, Hernán A.

    2012-06-01

    Obesity prevalence is increasing in many countries at alarming levels. A difficulty in the conception of policies to reverse these trends is the identification of the drivers behind the obesity epidemics. Here, we implement a spatial spreading analysis to investigate whether obesity shows spatial correlations, revealing the effect of collective and global factors acting above individual choices. We find a regularity in the spatial fluctuations of their prevalence revealed by a pattern of scale-free long-range correlations. The fluctuations are anomalous, deviating in a fundamental way from the weaker correlations found in the underlying population distribution indicating the presence of collective behavior, i.e., individual habits may have negligible influence in shaping the patterns of spreading. Interestingly, we find the same scale-free correlations in economic activities associated with food production. These results motivate future interventions to investigate the causality of this relation providing guidance for the implementation of preventive health policies.

  11. Splanchnic lipolysis in human obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Nielsen, Soren; Guo, ZengKui; Johnson, C. Michael; Hensrud, Donald D.; Jensen, Michael D

    2004-01-01

    Elevated FFA concentrations have been shown to reproduce some of the metabolic abnormalities of obesity. It has been hypothesized that visceral adipose tissue lipolysis releases excess FFAs into the portal vein, exposing the liver to higher FFA concentrations. We used isotope dilution/hepatic vein catheterization techniques to examine whether intra-abdominal fat contributes a greater portion of hepatic FFA delivery in visceral obesity. Obese women (n = 24) and men (n = 20) with a range of obe...

  12. Genetics and epigenetics of obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Blanca M Herrera; Keildson, Sarah; Lindgren, Cecilia M.

    2011-01-01

    Obesity results from interactions between environmental and genetic factors. Despite a relatively high heritability of common, non-syndromic obesity (40–70%), the search for genetic variants contributing to susceptibility has been a challenging task. Genome wide association (GWA) studies have dramatically changed the pace of detection of common genetic susceptibility variants. To date, more than 40 genetic variants have been associated with obesity and fat distribution. However, since these v...

  13. Liver morphology in morbid obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, T; Gluud, C

    1984-01-01

    methods including a computerized survey. Forty-one original articles were included, comprising information on liver morphology in 1515 morbidly obese patients. Liver biopsy was considered normal in 12 per cent of the cases. The most frequent abnormality reported was fatty change, present in 80 per cent...... of obesity, age, sex, alcohol consumption, diabetes mellitus) does not point towards a single causal factor. Co-influence of additional pathogenetic factors are likely in the development of liver changes in morbid obesity....

  14. Chronodisruption and Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Meiliana

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Attempts to understand the causes of obesity and develop new therapeutic strategies have mostly focused on caloric intake and energy expenditure. Recent studies have shown that the circadian clock controls energy homeostasis by regulating circadian expression and/or activity of enzymes, hormones, and transport systems involved in metabolism. Moreover, disruption of circadian rhythms leads to obesity and metabolic disorders. CONTENT:Regularly alternating periods of light and darkness, such as normally occur with the rising and the setting of the sun, are essential for the maintenance of undisturbed circadian rhythms in all organisms including humans. The light-dark environment, as detected by specialized photoreceptors in the retinas, impacts the endogenous circadian clock in the anterior hypothalamus, the suprachiasmatic nuclei. These nuclei, via both neural and humoral signals, communicate with cells throughout the organism to establish regular circadian rhythms. The introduction of artificial sources of light roughly 150 years ago has significantly undermined the naturally occurring light-dark environment and, likewise, has disturbed circadian rhythms since light is now available at unusual times, i.e., at night. Light at night is known to cause circadian disruption and melatonin suppression. Many potentially pathophysiological consequences of these artificial light-mediated changes, include cancer, cardiovascular diseases, insomnia, metabolic syndrome, diabetes, and cognitive disorders may be aggravated by the increased exposure to light at night, which is inevitable in well-developed societies that have undergone extensive electrification. SUMMARY: Therefore, it is plausible that resetting of the circadian clock can be used as a new approach to attenuate obesity. Feeding regimens, such as restricted feeding, calorie restriction and intermittent fasting, provide a time cue and reset the circadian clock and

  15. Bacteria, viruses, and hypothalamic inflammation: Potential new players in obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Wierucka-Rybak

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Being overweight and obese has become an increasingly serious clinical and socioeconomic problem worldwide. The rapidly rising prevalence of obesity has prompted studies on modifiable, causative factors and novel treatment options for this disorder. Recent evidence indicates that excessive weight gain that leads to being overweight and obese may result from alterations in gut microflora. Studies in humans and animals demonstrated that the composition of gut microbiota may differ in lean and obese subjects, suggesting that these differences result in the increased efficiency of caloric extraction from food, enhanced lipogenesis, and impaired central and peripheral regulation of energy balance. Other studies revealed an excessive increase in body weight in a significant percentage of people infected with human adenoviruses SMAM-1 and Ad-36. Dysregulation of adipocyte function by viruses appears to be the most likely cause of excessive fat accumulation in these individuals. Studies on the pathomechanisms related to the pathogenesis of obesity indicated that a high-fat diet triggers the inflammatory response in the hypothalamus, an event that promotes weight gain and further defends elevated body weight through the initiation of central leptin and insulin resistance and impairment of regenerative capacity of hypothalamic neurons. Exposure to a high-calorie diet appears to predispose individuals to obesity not only because of excessive caloric intake but also because of the induction of microbiota- and central inflammatory response-dependent changes that lead to a dysregulation of energy balance.

  16. Income inequality and obesity prevalence among OECD countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Dejun; Esqueda, Omar A; Li, Lifeng; Pagán, José A

    2012-07-01

    Using recent pooled data from the World Health Organization Global Infobase and the World Factbook compiled by the Central Intelligence Agency of the United States, this study assesses the relation between income inequality and obesity prevalence among 31 OECD countries through a series of bivariate and multivariate linear regressions. The United States and Mexico well lead OECD countries in both obesity prevalence and income inequality. A sensitivity analysis suggests that the inclusion or exclusion of these two extreme cases can fundamentally change the findings. When the two countries are included, the results reveal a positive correlation between income inequality and obesity prevalence. This correlation is more salient among females than among males. Income inequality alone is associated with 16% and 35% of the variations in male and female obesity rates, respectively, across OECD countries in 2010. Higher levels of income inequality in the 2005-2010 period were associated with a more rapid increase in obesity prevalence from 2002 to 2010. These associations, however, virtually disappear when the US and Mexico have been excluded from the analysis. Findings from this study underscore the importance of assessing the impact of extreme cases on the relation between income inequality and health outcomes. The potential pathways from income inequality to the alarmingly high rates of obesity in the cases of the US and Mexico warrant further research.

  17. Midkine, a potential link between obesity and insulin resistance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nengguang Fan

    Full Text Available Obesity is associated with increased production of inflammatory mediators in adipose tissue, which contributes to chronic inflammation and insulin resistance. Midkine (MK is a heparin-binding growth factor with potent proinflammatory activities. We aimed to test whether MK is associated with obesity and has a role in insulin resistance. It was found that MK was expressed in adipocytes and regulated by inflammatory modulators (TNF-α and rosiglitazone. In addition, a significant increase in MK levels was observed in adipose tissue of obese ob/ob mice as well as in serum of overweight/obese subjects when compared with their respective controls. In vitro studies further revealed that MK impaired insulin signaling in 3T3-L1 adipocytes, as indicated by reduced phosphorylation of Akt and IRS-1 and decreased translocation of glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4 to the plasma membrane in response to insulin stimulation. Moreover, MK activated the STAT3-suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3 pathway in adipocytes. Thus, MK is a novel adipocyte-secreted factor associated with obesity and inhibition of insulin signaling in adipocytes. It may provide a potential link between obesity and insulin resistance.

  18. [Obesity in adolescents and public policies on nutrition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Lorenna Karen Paiva E; Cunha Júnior, Arnaldo Tenório da; Knackfuss, Maria Irany; Medeiros, Humberto Jefferson de

    2014-06-01

    In recent years, obesity has become a major public health problem and its prevalence is increasing at an alarming pace. Moreover, this problem has affected children and adolescents in marked fashion. Considering this situation, public policies on nutrition were created as strategies to attempt to combat/control the high Brazilian obesity indices. The scope of this study was to conduct a historical analysis of the advances in Brazilian public policies related to nutrition/food and the practice of physical exercise to control obesity among adolescents. In this respect, a review was conducted of the literature in the PubMed and SciELO electronic databases that addresses Brazilian public policies on nutrition in the control of obesity. Official documents of the Ministry of Health, scientific articles, journals and the recommendations of the World Health Organization were also used in the research. The results revealed that public policies on nutrition practiced in Brazil have been implemented in an incipient manner when directed at adolescents with respect to the obesity factor. Therefore, a broader vision seeking policies that attempt to control obesity in adolescents is of paramount importance.

  19. Obesity: A Perspective from Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susic, Dinko; Varagic, Jasmina

    2017-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity-related hypertension is high worldwide and has become a major health issue. The mechanisms by which obesity relates to hypertensive disease are still under intense research scrutiny, and include altered hemodynamics, impaired sodium homeostasis, renal dysfunction, autonomic nervous system imbalance, endocrine alterations, oxidative stress and inflammation, and vascular injury. Most of these contributing factors interact with each other at multiple levels. Thus, as a multifactorial and complex disease, obesity-related hypertension should be recognized as a distinctive form of hypertension, and specific considerations should apply in planning therapeutic approaches to treat obese individuals with high blood pressure.

  20. Altered Respiratory Physiology in Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishnan Parameswaran

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The major respiratory complications of obesity include a heightened demand for ventilation, elevated work of breathing, respiratory muscle inefficiency and diminished respiratory compliance. The decreased functional residual capacity and expiratory reserve volume, with a high closing volume to functional residual capacity ratio of obesity, are associated with the closure of peripheral lung units, ventilation to perfusion ratio abnormalities and hypoxemia, especially in the supine position. Conventional respiratory function tests are only mildly affected by obesity except in extreme cases. The major circulatory complications are increased total and pulmonary blood volume, high cardiac output and elevated left ventricular end-diastolic pressure. Patients with obesity commonly develop hypoventilation and sleep apnea syndromes with attenuated hypoxic and hypercapnic ventilatory responsiveness. The final result is hypoxemia, pulmonary hypertension and progressively worsening disability. Obese patients have increased dyspnea and decreased exercise capacity, which are vital to quality of life. Decreased muscle, increased joint pain and skin friction are important determinants of decreased exercise capacity, in addition to the cardiopulmonary effects of obesity. The effects of obesity on mortality in heart failure and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease have not been definitively resolved. Whether obesity contributes to asthma and airway hyper-responsiveness is uncertain. Weight reduction and physical activity are effective means of reversing the respiratory complications of obesity.

  1. CDC Vital Signs: Progress on Childhood Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Read the MMWR Science Clips Progress on Childhood Obesity Many States Show Declines Language: English Español (Spanish) ... 8 preschoolers is obese in the US. 19 Obesity among low-income preschoolers declined, from 2008 through ...

  2. Obesity and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Population Profiles > Native Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islander > Obesity Obesity and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders Native Hawaiians/Pacific ... youthonline . [Accessed 05/25/2016] HEALTH IMPACT OF OBESITY More than 80 percent of people with type ...

  3. Childhood maltreatment and obesity: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danese, A; Tan, M

    2014-05-01

    Obesity is a prevalent global-health problem associated with substantial morbidity, impairment and economic burden. Because most readily available forms of treatment are ineffective in the long term, it is essential to advance knowledge of obesity prevention by identifying potentially modifiable risk factors. Findings from experimental studies in non-human primates suggest that adverse childhood experiences may influence obesity risk. However, observations from human studies showed heterogeneous results. To address these inconsistencies, we performed Medline, PsycInfo and Embase searches till 1 August 2012 for articles examining the association between childhood maltreatment and obesity. We then conducted a meta-analysis of the identified studies and explored the effects of various possible sources of bias. A meta-analysis of 41 studies (190 285 participants) revealed that childhood maltreatment was associated with elevated risk of developing obesity over the life-course (odds ratio=1.36; 95% confidence interval=1.26-1.47). Results were not explained by publication bias or undue influence of individual studies. Overall, results were not significantly affected by the measures or definitions used for maltreatment or obesity, nor by confounding by childhood or adult socioeconomic status, current smoking, alcohol intake or physical activity. However, the association was not statistically significant in studies of children and adolescents, focusing on emotional neglect, or adjusting for current depression. Furthermore, the association was stronger in samples including more women and whites, but was not influenced by study quality. Child maltreatment is a potentially modifiable risk factor for obesity. Future research should clarify the mechanisms through which child maltreatment affects obesity risk and explore methods to remediate this effect.

  4. Serum Asymmetric Dimethylarginine, and Adiponectin as Predictors of Atherosclerotic Risk among Obese Egyptian Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enas R. Abdel Hameed

    2014-06-01

    CONCLUSIONS: Our results revealed that ADMA, Adiponectin and lipid profile can be considered as predictive biomarkers in prediction and prevention of atherosclerotic risk in the future among overweight and obese Egyptian children.

  5. Pediatric obesity: Causes, symptoms, prevention and treatment

    OpenAIRE

    XU, SHUMEI; Xue, Ying

    2015-01-01

    Pediatric or childhood obesity is the most prevalent nutritional disorder among children and adolescents worldwide. Approximately 43 million individuals are obese, 21–24% children and adolescents are overweight, and 16–18% of individuals have abdominal obesity. The prevalence of obesity is highest among specific ethnic groups. Obesity increases the risk of heart diseases in children and adults. Childhood obesity predisposes the individual to insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes, hypertensio...

  6. Obesity Beige adipocytes-will they beat obesity?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandholt, Camilla H.; Pedersen, Oluf.

    2015-01-01

    The mechanistic link between the FTO locus and risk of obesity has remained elusive. However, a new study presents compelling evidence suggesting that the browning of white adipocytes into beige adipocytes (together with regulation of thermogenesis), might be an important and potentially modifiable...... pathway for development of obesity therapeutics....

  7. Endothelial dysfunction in morbid obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauricio, Maria Dolores; Aldasoro, Martin; Ortega, Joaquin; Vila, José María

    2013-01-01

    Morbid obesity is a chronic multifunctional disease characterized by an accumulation of fat. Epidemiological studies have shown that obesity is associated with cardiovascular and metabolic disorders. Endothelial dysfunction, as defined by an imbalance between relaxing and contractile endothelial factors, plays a central role in the pathogenesis of these cardiometabolic diseases. Diminished bioavailability of nitric oxide (NO) contributes to endothelial dysfunction and impairs endothelium- dependent vasodilatation. But this is not the only mechanism that drives to endothelial dysfunction. Obesity has been associated with a chronic inflammatory process, atherosclerosis, and oxidative stress. Moreover levels of asymmetrical dimethyl-L-arginine (ADMA), an endogenous inhibitor of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), are elevated in obesity. On the other hand, increasing prostanoid-dependent vasoconstriction and decreasing vasodilator prostanoids also lead to endothelial dysfunction in obesity. Other mechanisms related to endothelin-1 (ET-1) or endothelium derived hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF) have been proposed. Bariatric surgery (BS) is a safe and effective means to achieve significant weight loss, but its use is limited only to patients with severe obesity including morbid obesity. BS also proved efficient in endothelial dysfunction reduction improving cardiovascular and metabolic comorbidities associated with morbid obesity such as diabetes, coronary artery disease, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and cancer. This review will provide a brief overview of the mechanisms that link obesity with endothelial dysfunction, and how weight loss is a cornerstone treatment for cardiovascular comorbidities obesity-related. A better understanding of the mechanisms of obesity-induced endothelial dysfunction may help develop new therapeutic strategies to reduce cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.

  8. Childhood obesity: pathophysiology and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klish, W J

    1995-02-01

    Childhood obesity is among the most difficult problems which pediatricians treat. It is frequently ignored by the pediatrician or viewed as a form of social deviancy, and blame for treatment failure placed on the patients or their families. The definition of obesity is difficult. Using total body electrical conductivity (TOBEC) technology, total body fat ranges between 12% and 30% of total body weight in normal children and adolescents. This is influenced not only by age, but also by physical fitness. Anthropometry is the easiest way to define obesity. Children whose weight exceeds 120% of that expected for their height are considered overweight. Skinfold thickness and body mass index are indices of obesity that are more difficult to apply to the child. Childhood obesity is associated with obese parents, a higher socioeconomic status, increased parental education, small family size and a sedentary lifestyle. Genetics also clearly plays a role. Studies have demonstrated that obese and non-obese individuals have similar energy intakes implying that obesity results from very small imbalances of energy intake and expenditure. An excess intake of only 418 kJ per day can result in about 4.5 kg of excess weight gain per year. Small differences in basal metabolic rate or the thermic effects of food may also account for the difference in energy balance between the obese and non-obese. In the Prader Willi Syndrome, there appears to be a link between appetite and body fatness. When placed on growth hormone, lean body mass increases, body fat decreases, sometimes to normal, and appetite becomes more normal.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  9. Perceived weight discrimination and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutin, Angelina R; Terracciano, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Weight discrimination is prevalent in American society. Although associated consistently with psychological and economic outcomes, less is known about whether weight discrimination is associated with longitudinal changes in obesity. The objectives of this research are (1) to test whether weight discrimination is associated with risk of becoming obese (Body Mass Index≥30; BMI) by follow-up among those not obese at baseline, and (2) to test whether weight discrimination is associated with risk of remaining obese at follow-up among those already obese at baseline. Participants were drawn from the Health and Retirement Study, a nationally representative longitudinal survey of community-dwelling US residents. A total of 6,157 participants (58.6% female) completed the discrimination measure and had weight and height available from the 2006 and 2010 assessments. Participants who experienced weight discrimination were approximately 2.5 times more likely to become obese by follow-up (OR = 2.54, 95% CI = 1.58-4.08) and participants who were obese at baseline were three times more likely to remain obese at follow up (OR = 3.20, 95% CI = 2.06-4.97) than those who had not experienced such discrimination. These effects held when controlling for demographic factors (age, sex, ethnicity, education) and when baseline BMI was included as a covariate. These effects were also specific to weight discrimination; other forms of discrimination (e.g., sex, race) were unrelated to risk of obesity at follow-up. The present research demonstrates that, in addition to poorer mental health outcomes, weight discrimination has implications for obesity. Rather than motivating individuals to lose weight, weight discrimination increases risk for obesity.

  10. Update on Obesity and Obesity Paradox in Heart Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavie, Carl J; Sharma, Abhishek; Alpert, Martin A; De Schutter, Alban; Lopez-Jimenez, Francisco; Milani, Richard V; Ventura, Hector O

    2016-01-01

    Obesity has reached epidemic proportions in most of the Westernized world. Overweightness and obesity adversely impact cardiac structure and function, including on both the right and, especially, left sides of the heart, with adverse affects on systolic and, especially, diastolic ventricular function. Therefore, it is not surprising that obesity markedly increases the prevalence of heart failure (HF). Nevertheless, many studies have documented an obesity paradox in large cohorts with HF, where overweight and obese have a better prognosis, at least in the short-term, compared with lean HF patients. Although weight loss clearly improves cardiac structure and function and reduces symptoms in HF, there are no large studies on the impact of weight loss on clinical events in HF, preventing definitive guidelines on optimal body composition in patients with HF.

  11. Neuropeptides and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, B

    2000-10-01

    This review focuses on the expression, content, and release of neuropeptides and on their role in the development of obesity in animal models with single-gene mutations. The balance between neuropeptides that contribute to the control of feeding behavior is profoundly and variously altered in these models, supporting the concept of the existence of several types of obesity. The hypothalamic neuropeptide Y (NPY) and the pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) systems are the networks most studied in relation to energy intake. Both receive information about the nutritional status and the level of energy storage through insulin and leptin signaling mediated by specific receptors located on POMC and NPY neurons present predominantly in the arcuate nucleus (ARC). When leptin signaling is defective, through a defect in either the receptor (Zucker fa/fa rat, cp/cp rat, and db/db mouse) or in the peptide itself (ob/ob mouse), the NPY system is upregulated as shown by mRNA overexpression and increased peptide release, whereas the content and/or release of some inhibitory peptides (neurotensin, cholecystokinin) are diminished. For the POMC system, there is a complex interaction between the tonic inhibition of food intake exerted by alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH) and the Agouti-related protein at the level of the type 4 melanocortin receptor. The latter peptide is coexpressed with NPY in the ARC. Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) is the link between food intake and environmental factors. It not only inhibits food intake and prevents weight gain, likely through hypothalamic effects, but also activates the hypothalamo-pituitary axis and therefore contributes to energy storage in adipose tissue. The factors that prod the CRF system toward the hypothalamic or hypothalamo-pituitary axis system remain to be more clearly defined (comodulators, connections between limbic system and ARC, cellular location, and type of receptors, etc. ). The pathways used by all of these

  12. The genetics of obesity in transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demerath, Ellen W

    2012-12-01

    Recent advances in human genetics have revealed a number of genes influencing the susceptibility to obesity and related conditions, but it is likely that their contribution to disease is contingent on numerous environmental factors. As the obesity epidemic has occurred over a relatively short period of recent history, use of gene-by-year of birth analysis may be a useful approach for quantifying, in aggregate, the interaction between genetic susceptibility to obesity and the numerous known and unknown environmental factors that have changed during nutrition and health transitions globally during this recent increase in obesity rates. Evidence from one family-based longitudinal study set in the United States is showcased, which points to significant increases in the effect of common genetic variants on childhood and adulthood BMI over an 80 year period spanning from 1929 to the present. First, common genetic variants previously known to be associated with age at menarche through genome-wide association analysis were examined in aggregate using a genetic risk score approach. The menarche genetic risk score, composed of 42 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) was significantly associated with peri-pubertal BMI in both boys and girls, but the magnitude of the association was strongly dependent on year of birth, with greater effect as birth year increased. Second, a similar approach was taken using instead a BMI genetic risk score composed of 32 common variants previously found to be associated with BMI. This score was strongly associated with adulthood BMI, waist circumference, and skinfold thickness, as expected, but the magnitude of the association increased with later year of birth. Such gene-environment interactions call for greater focus on the mechanisms by which environmental factors impact the functional output of the human genome, including how epigenetic mechanisms may be altered during social, technological, nutritional, and ecological transitions.

  13. Modelling body weight, dieting and obesity traps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbieri, Paolo Nicola

    2017-02-01

    This paper presents a theoretical investigation into why losing weight is so difficult even in the absence of rational addiction, time-inconsistent preferences or bounded rationality. We add to the existing literature by focusing on the role that individual metabolism has on weight loss. The results from the theoretical model provide multiple steady states and a threshold revealing a situation of "obesity traps" that the individual must surpass in order to successfully lose weight. Any weight-loss efforts that the individual undertakes have to surpass such threshold in order to result in permanent weight loss, otherwise the individual will gradually regain weight and converge to his or her previous body weight.

  14. [Obesity, migration and adolescence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamay-Weber, Catherine; Shehu-Brovina, Shqipe; Narring, Françoise

    2012-06-13

    Weight management interventions during adolescence are challenging. Migration adds complexity to this problem, making migrant families more vulnerable. Teenagers confront families to new values transmitted by the host society: opulence, junk food, video games. Obesity should not be seen as a single issue of calories-excess, but must be considered as being part of a larger problem, which takes into account the context of the familial and societal life of the migrants. The caregivers must have an overall view of the situation to provide appropriate approaches to weight management.

  15. From obesity to diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, U

    2006-07-01

    The prevalence of obesity has been increasing dramatically in the last decades in the whole world, not only in industrialized countries but also in developing areas. A major complication of obesity is insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Diabetes is also rapidly increasing world-wide--reaching a prevalence in adults of approx. 5-6% in Central Europe and in the US, and more than 50% in specific, genetically prone populations. This article reviews pathogenetic mechanisms linking obesity and type 2 diabetes. Emphasis is placed on the observation that excessive amounts of adipocytes are associated with an impairment of insulin sensitivity, a key feature of the "metabolic syndrome". This is a cluster of metabolic abnormalities such as type 2 diabetes, hypertension and dyslipidemia; all of them are enhanced by the presence of visceral (abdominal) obesity and all contribute to the increased cardiovascular risk observed in these patients. Besides release of free fatty acids, adipocytes secrete substances that contribute to peripheral insulin resistance, including adiponectin, resistin, TNF-alpha and interleukin 6. Increased turnover of free fatty acids interferes with intracellular metabolism of glucose in the muscle, and they exert lipotoxic effect on pancreatic beta-cells. The pre-receptor metabolism of cortisol is enhanced in visceral adipose tissue by activation of 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1. A new class of anti-diabetic drugs (thiazolidinediones, or glitazones) bind to peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR-gamma) and lower thereby plasma free fatty acids and cytokine production in adipocytes, in addition to a decrease of resistin and an increase in adiponectin observed in animals, resulting in an overall increase in insulin sensitivity and in an improvement of glucose homeostasis. However, the first step to avoid insulin resistance and prevent the development of diabetes should be a reduction in body weight in overweight subjects, and an

  16. Sociological Factors Affecting Childhood Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forster-Scott, Latisha

    2007-01-01

    According to data from the National Center for Health Statistics, childhood obesity rates are highest among ethnic minorities. It is very helpful to consider the role of culture when attempting to analyze and explain obesity rates in ethnic minority populations. Culture influences the attitudes and beliefs toward exercise, food and nutrition, and…

  17. Obesity in Egyptian School Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa A. Abolfotouh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To investigate the relationship between high blood pressure (HBP and obesity in Egyptian adolescents. Methods. A cross-sectional study of 1500 adolescents (11–19 years in Alexandria, Egypt, was conducted. Resting BP was measured and measurements were categorized using the 2004 fourth report on blood pressure screening recommendations. Additional measures included height, weight, and waist and hip circumferences. Obesity was determined based on BMI, waist circumference (WC and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR, and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR indicators. Crude and adjusted odds ratios were used as measures of association between BP and obesity. Results. Prevalence rates of prehypertension and hypertension were 5.7% and 4.0%, respectively. Obesity was seen in 34.6%, 16.1%, 4.5%, and 16.7% according to BMI, WHR, WC, and WHtR, respectively. Adjusting for confounders, HBP was significantly associated with overall obesity based on BMI (OR=2.18, 95%, CI=1.38-3.44 and central obesity based on WC (OR=3.14, 95%, CI=1.67-5.94. Conclusion. Both overall obesity and central obesity were significant predictors of HBP in Egyptian adolescents.

  18. Probiotics to adolescents with obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gøbel, Rikke Juul; Larsen, Nadja; Jakobsen, Mogens

    2012-01-01

    The connections between gut microbiota, energy homeostasis, and inflammation and its role in the pathogenesis of obesity-related disorders are increasingly recognized. We aimed to investigate the effect of the probiotic strain Lactobacillus salivarius Ls-33 on a series of biomarkers related to in...... to inflammation and the metabolic syndrome (MS) in adolescents with obesity....

  19. Obesity in China: Causes and solutions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    James A. Levine

    2008-01-01

    @@ In the world between 1 and 2 billion people have obesity.1 In the United States, which has the highest obesity rate in the world, one in three people have obesity.2 Obesity rates are increasing in every country in which it has taken hold.1 Obesity rates also affect all ages from the growing elderly-obese population3 to the dramatic increase in pediatric obesity,4,5 for example in the United States it is predicted that by the end of the decade one in two US children will have obesity.Obesity similarly affects all races and both sexes.6 As a consequence of the co-morbidities of obesity and of the associated costs such as days off work, obesity costs the US economy about 100-200 billion dollars per year.7

  20. Childhood obesity, prevalence and prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merchant Anwar T

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Childhood obesity has reached epidemic levels in developed countries. Twenty five percent of children in the US are overweight and 11% are obese. Overweight and obesity in childhood are known to have significant impact on both physical and psychological health. The mechanism of obesity development is not fully understood and it is believed to be a disorder with multiple causes. Environmental factors, lifestyle preferences, and cultural environment play pivotal roles in the rising prevalence of obesity worldwide. In general, overweight and obesity are assumed to be the results of an increase in caloric and fat intake. On the other hand, there are supporting evidence that excessive sugar intake by soft drink, increased portion size, and steady decline in physical activity have been playing major roles in the rising rates of obesity all around the world. Consequently, both over-consumption of calories and reduced physical activity are involved in childhood obesity. Almost all researchers agree that prevention could be the key strategy for controlling the current epidemic of obesity. Prevention may include primary prevention of overweight or obesity, secondary prevention or prevention of weight regains following weight loss, and avoidance of more weight increase in obese persons unable to lose weight. Until now, most approaches have focused on changing the behaviour of individuals in diet and exercise. It seems, however, that these strategies have had little impact on the growing increase of the obesity epidemic. While about 50% of the adults are overweight and obese in many countries, it is difficult to reduce excessive weight once it becomes established. Children should therefore be considered the priority population for intervention strategies. Prevention may be achieved through a variety of interventions targeting built environment, physical activity, and diet. Some of these potential strategies for intervention in children can be