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Sample records for adult worm cdna

  1. Worm

    CERN Document Server

    Bowden, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Worm is the gripping story of the 'Conficker' computer virus- which, since its introduction in November 2008, has infected millions of computers around the world - and the cyber security elites who have joined forces in a high-tech game of cops and robbers to find its creators and defeat them. This dramatic cybercrime story travels from the Ukraine to the United States (and all parts in between) to explore the next frontier in terrorism. It is the story of a dazzling battle of wits over the future of the Internet. In Worm, Mark Bowden delivers an unputdownable account of the ongoing and large

  2. Trichuris suis: thiol protease activity from adult worms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, D E; Sakanari, J A

    1997-01-01

    Trichuris suis, the whipworm of swine, causes anemia, weight loss, anorexia, mucohemorrhagic diarrhea, and death in heavy infections. A zinc metalloprotease has been suggested to play a role in the severe enteric pathology associated with infection and the infiltration of opportunistic bacteria into deeper tissues in the swine colon. In this study, a thiol protease from gut extracts of adult T. suis and from excretory/secretory components (E/S) of adult worms was characterized using fluorogenic peptide substrates and protein substrate gels. The protease cleaved the fluorogenic substrate Z-Phe-Arg-AMC, and this cleavage was completely inhibited by the thiol protease inhibitors E-64, leupeptin, Z-Phe-Ala-CH2F, and Z-Phe-Arg-CH2F. Gelatin substrate gels and fluorescence assays using both the gut and the stichosome extracts and E/S revealed enhanced activity when 2 mM dithiothreitol or 5 mM cysteine was included in the incubation buffer, and optimal activity was seen over a pH range of 5.5 to 8.5. Incubation of gut extracts or E/S material with inhibitors of aspartic, serine, or metalloproteases had no effect on the cleavage of Z-Phe-Arg-AMC. Thiol protease activity was found in extracts of gut tissue but not in the extracts of stichocytes of adult worms. N-terminal amino acid sequencing of the protease revealed sequence homologies with cathepsin B-like thiol protease identified from parasitic and free-living nematodes. PMID:9024202

  3. Serological screening of the Schistosoma mansoni adult worm proteome.

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    Fernanda Ludolf

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: New interventions tools are a priority for schistosomiasis control and elimination, as the disease is still highly prevalent. The identification of proteins associated with active infection and protective immune response may constitute the basis for the development of a successful vaccine and could also indicate new diagnostic candidates. In this context, post-genomic technologies have been progressing, resulting in a more rational discovery of new biomarkers of resistance and antigens for diagnosis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Two-dimensional electrophoresed Schistosoma mansoni adult worm protein extracts were probed with pooled sera of infected and non-infected (naturally resistant individuals from a S. mansoni endemic area. A total of 47 different immunoreactive proteins were identified by mass spectrometry. Although the different pooled sera shared most of the immunoreactive protein spots, nine protein spots reacted exclusively with the serum pool of infected individuals, which correspond to annexin, major egg antigen, troponin T, filamin, disulphide-isomerase ER-60 precursor, actin and reticulocalbin. One protein spot, corresponding to eukaryotic translation elongation factor, reacted exclusively with the pooled sera of non-infected individuals living in the endemic area. Western blotting of two selected recombinant proteins, major egg antigen and hemoglobinase, showed a similar recognition pattern of that of the native protein. CONCLUDING/SIGNIFICANCE: Using a serological proteome analysis, a group of antigens related to the different infection status of the endemic area residents was identified and may be related to susceptibility or resistance to infection.

  4. Elimination of Schistosoma mansoni Adult Worms by Rhesus Macaques: Basis for a Therapeutic Vaccine?

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, R. Alan; Langermans, Jan A. M.; van Dam, Govert J.; Vervenne, Richard A.; Hall, Stephanie L.; Borges, William C.; Dillon, Gary P.; Thomas, Alan W.; Patricia S Coulson

    2008-01-01

    Background Among animal models of schistosomiasis, the rhesus macaque is unique in that an infection establishes but egg excretion rapidly diminishes, potentially due to loss of adult worms from the portal system via shunts or death by immune attack. Principal Findings To investigate this, six rhesus macaques were exposed to Schistosoma mansoni cercariae and the infection monitored until portal perfusion at 18 weeks. Despite a wide variation in worm numbers recovered, fecal egg output and cir...

  5. In Vitro Cestocidal Activity of Thymol on Mesocestoides corti Tetrathyridia and Adult Worms

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    M. Maggiore

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nothing is known about the possible effect of thymol or other compounds of essential oils against the adult worms of cestodes. The aim of the present work was to determine in vitro cestodicidal activity of thymol against Mesocestoides corti adult worms. Moreover, the in vitro effect on tetrathyridia was also demonstrated. Tetrathyridia exposed to different concentrations of thymol showed a concentration and time-dependent effect. At lower concentrations, the main change observed was mainly in morphology, with larvae exhibiting an elongation of the body. When tetrathyridia were exposed to higher concentrations, increased surface alterations and damage were detected. The body appeared elongated and flattened, and a complete loss of morphology and microtriches was observed. Thymol was able to kill M. corti tetrathyridia, since following inoculation of treated parasites in mice no parasites could be recovered. The effect on M. corti adult worms was dose and time-dependent. Changes in motility coincide with the tissue damage were observed at the structural and ultrastructural level. Thymol caused severe damages to both developmental stages analyzed. Damages were more significant in fully segmented worms. The data reported in this paper demonstrate a clear in vitro effect of thymol against M. corti tetrathyridia and adult worms.

  6. Ectopic Human Fasciola hepatica Infection by an Adult Worm in the Mesocolon.

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    Kim, Ah Jin; Choi, Chang Hwan; Choi, Sun Keun; Shin, Yong Woon; Park, Yun-Kyu; Kim, Lucia; Choi, Suk Jin; Han, Jee Young; Kim, Joon Mee; Chu, Young Chae; Park, In Suh

    2015-12-01

    We report here an ectopic case of Fasciola hepatica infection confirmed by recovery of an adult worm in the mesocolon. A 56-year-old female was admitted to our hospital with discomfort and pain in the left lower quadrant of the abdomen. Abdominal CT showed 3 abscesses in the left upper quadrant, mesentery, and pelvic cavity. On surgical exploration, abscess pockets were found in the mesocolon of the sigmoid colon and transverse colon. A leaf-like worm found in the abscess pocket of the mesocolon of the left colon was diagnosed as an adult fluke of F. hepatica. Histologically, numerous eggs of F. hepatica were noted with acute and chronic granulomatous inflammations in the subserosa and pericolic adipose tissues. Conclusively, a rare case of ectopic fascioliasis has been confirmed in this study by the adult worm recovery of F. hepatica in the mesocolon. PMID:26797440

  7. In vitro antifilarial effects of three plant species against adult worms of subperiodic Brugia malayi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaridah, M Z; Idid, S Z; Omar, A W; Khozirah, S

    2001-11-01

    Five aqueous extracts from three plant species, i.e., dried husks (HX), dried seeds (SX) and dried leaves (LX) of Xylocarpus granatum (Meliaceae), dried stems (ST) of Tinospora crispa (Menispermaceae) and dried leaves (LA) of Andrographis paniculata (Acanthaceae) were tested in vitro against adult worms of subperiodic Brugia malayi. The relative movability (RM) value of the adult worms over the 24-h observation period was used as a measure of the antifilarial activity of the aqueous extracts. SX extract of X. granatum demonstrated the strongest activity, followed by the LA extract of A. paniculata, ST extract of T. crispa, HX extract and LX extract of X. granatum. PMID:11585692

  8. Moxidectin causes adult worm mortality of human lymphatic filarial parasite Brugia malayi in rodent models.

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    Verma, Meenakshi; Pathak, Manisha; Shahab, Mohd; Singh, Kavita; Mitra, Kalyan; Misra-Bhattacharya, Shailja

    2014-12-01

    Moxidectin is a macrocyclic lactone belonging to milbemycin family closely related to ivermectin and is currently progressing towards Phase III clinical trial against human infection with the filaria Onchocerca volvulus (Leuckart, 1894). There is a single report on the microfilaricidal and embryostatic activity of moxidectin in case of the human lymphatic filarial parasite Brugia malayi (Brug, 1927) in Mastomys coucha (Smith) but without any adulticidal action. In the present study, the in vitro and in vivo antifilarial efficacy of moxidectin was evaluated on, B. malayi. In vitro moxidectin showed 100% reduction in adult female worm motility at 0.6 μM concentration within 7 days with 68% inhibition in the reduction of MTT (3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide dye) (which is used to detect viability of worms). A 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) of moxidectin for adult female parasite was 0.242 μM, for male worm 0.186 μM and for microfilaria IC50 was 0.813 μM. In adult B. malayi-transplanted primary screening model (Meriones unguiculatus Milne-Edwards), moxidectin at a single optimal dose of 20 mg/kg by oral and subcutaneous route was found effective on both adult parasites and microfilariae. In secondary screening (M coucha, subcutaneously inoculated with infective larvae), moxidectin at the same dose by subcutaneous route brought about death of 49% of adult worms besides causing sterilisation in 54% of the recovered live female worms. The treated animals exhibited a continuous and sustained reduction in peripheral blood microfilaraemia throughout the observation period of 90 days. The mechanism of action of moxidectin is suggested to be similar to avermectins. The in silico studies were also designed to explore the interaction of moxidectin with glutamate-gated chloride channels of B. malayi. The docking results revealed a close interaction of moxidectin with various GluCl ligand sites of B. malayi. PMID:25651699

  9. Morphometric study of Schistosoma mansoni adult worms recovered from undernourished infected mice

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    Sheilla A Oliveira

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Some unfavourable effects of malnutrition of the host on Schistosoma mansoni worm biology and structure have been reported based upon brigthfield microscopy. This paper aims to study by morphometric techniques, some morphological parameters in male and female adult worms recovered from undernourished albino mice in comparison with parasites recovered from well-fed infected mice. Undernourished animals were fed a multideficient and essentially low protein diet (RBD diet and compared to well-fed control mice fed with the commercial diet NUVILAB. Seventy-five days post-infection with 80 cercarie (BL strain animals were sacrificed. All adult worms were fixed in 10% formalin and stained with carmine chloride. One hundred male and 60 female specimens from each group (undernourished and control were examined using an image system analysis Leica Quantimet 500C and the Sigma Scan Measurement System. The following morphometrical parameters were studied: body length and width, oral and ventral suckers, number and area of testicular lobes, length and width of ovary and uterine egg. For statistical analysis, the Student's t test for unpaired samples was applied. Significant differences (p < 0.05 were detected in body length and width, in parameters of suckers, uterine egg width, ovary length and area of testicular lobes, with lower values for specimens from undernourished mice. The nutritional status of the host has negative influence on S. mansoni adult worms, probably through unavailability of essential nutrients to the parasites.

  10. Adult filarial worm from the breast aspirate of a young man.

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    Fernandes, Hilda; Thomas, Beena Mary; Putran, Indira

    2016-06-01

    Microfilariae and adult filarial worm have been incidentally detected in fine needle aspirates of various lesions in clinically unsuspected cases. Here we report a male patient who presented with a tender breast nodule and single enlarged lymph node. Fine Needle Aspiration (FNA) yielded 1 ml of yellow coloured fluid and single thread like worm measuring 6 × 0.2 cm. A diagnosis of breast abscess with a worm morphologically consistent with filariasis was offered. A follow up visit after 2 months showed regression of the breast lesion and the lymph node. Filariasis of the breast is an uncommon condition and can cause a diagnostic dilemma at times. FNA cytology appears to be a more convenient and effective diagnostic tool in patients with mass lesions. Demonstration and identification of the parasite in smears helps in avoiding surgical excision and early institution of prompt therapy especially in young patients. PMID:27413335

  11. In-vitro antihelmintic effects of two Kenyan plant extracts against Heamonchus contortus adult worms

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    Patrick Gachoki Kareru

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This study was on evidence based information that Entada leptostachya Harms and Rapanea rhododendroides (Gil Mez were used by the herbalists in Mbeere County, Kenya, for the treatment of gastrointestinal worms. The plants’ aqueous and solvent extracts were tested for their in-vitro antihelmintic activity against Haemonchus contortus adult worms. Of the eight plant extracts investigated, four extracts exhibited adult worm mortality greater than 50% while the other four afforded mortality ranging between 60-77%. E. leptostachya methanol extract was the most active (77%. Albendazole was used as a positive control drug while Goodwin’s physiological solution was used as negative control. Methanol extracts for both plants exhibited the highest anthelmintic activity at the test concentrations of 25mg/ml. Although R. rhododendroides was ranked third in general usage by the herbalists, E. leptostachya was solely used for the treatment of intestinal worms. The present results demonstrated that E. leptostachya and R. rhododendroides plant extracts had antihelmintic agents, and justified their traditional use as alternative drugs for the treatment of heamonchosis in ruminants.

  12. Schistosomicidal evaluation of Zanthoxylum naranjillo and its isolated compounds against Schistosoma mansoni adult worms.

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    Braguine, Caio G; Costa, Eveline S; Magalhães, Lizandra G; Rodrigues, Vanderlei; da Silva Filho, Ademar A; Bastos, Jairo K; Silva, Márcio L A; Cunha, Wilson R; Januário, Ana H; Pauletti, Patrícia M

    2009-01-01

    Chemical investigation of the EtOAc fraction (EF) obtained from the ethanolic extract of Zanthoxylum naranjillo (Rutaceae) leaves (EE) by preparative HPLC resulted in the isolation of protocatechuic acid (1), gallic acid (2), p-hydroxybenzoic acid (3), and 5-O-caffeoylshikimic acid (4). This is the first time that the presence of compounds 1-4 in Z. naranjillo has been reported. Compounds 1-4, the EE, and EF were tested in vitro against Schistosoma mansoni adult worms. The results showed that the S. mansoni daily egg production decreased by 29.8%, 13.5%, 28.4%, 17.7%, 16.3%, and 6.4%, respectively. Compounds 1 and 3 were also able to separate adult worm pairs into male and female. This activity may be correlated with the reduction in egg production, since 1 and 3 showed better inhibitory properties compared with 2 and 4. PMID:20158148

  13. Potential role for mucosal IgA in modulating Haemonchus contortus adult worm infection in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, J N; Hernández, A; Stear, M J; Conde-Felipe, M; Rodríguez, E; Piedrafita, D; González, J F

    2016-06-15

    Haemonchus contortus (H. contortus) is a haematophagous parasite which causes important economic losses in small ruminants. On the island of Gran Canaria, two sheep breeds coexist which differ in their susceptibility to the infection with H. contortus; the resistant Canaria Hair Breed (CHB) sheep and the susceptible Canaria Sheep (CS) breed. The major target of resistance mechanisms in CHB sheep are directed to the adult parasite stage, reducing the worm burden, and decreased length and fecundity of surviving worms. Mucosal IgA (mIgA) has been shown to be an important regulator of immunity in Haemonchus and Teladorsagia infections; through correlations with larval stages where such mechanisms as antibody-dependent cell cytotoxicity and enzyme inhibition may mediate resistance. Here for the first time, we demonstrate a significant negative correlation between mIgA and adult worm length and fecundity only in the resistant CHB sheep. In contrast, and as reported in other sheep breeds, mIgA was only negatively correlated against the larval stage in the more susceptible CS breed. This study suggests mIgA may play a role in resistance to both larval and adult stages. PMID:27198794

  14. Synergy of Omeprazole and Praziquantel In Vitro Treatment against Schistosoma mansoni Adult Worms

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    Anderson, Leticia; Venancio, Thiago M.; Nakaya, Helder I.; Miyasato, Patrícia A.; Rofatto, Henrique K.; Zerlotini, Adhemar; Nakano, Eliana; Oliveira, Guilherme; Verjovski-Almeida, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    Background Treatment and morbidity control of schistosomiasis relies on a single drug, praziquantel (PZQ), and the selection of resistant worms under repeated treatment is a concern. Therefore, there is a pressing need to understand the molecular effects of PZQ on schistosomes and to investigate alternative or synergistic drugs against schistosomiasis. Methodology We used a custom-designed Schistosoma mansoni expression microarray to explore the effects of sublethal doses of PZQ on large-scale gene expression of adult paired males and females and unpaired mature females. We also assessed the efficacy of PZQ, omeprazole (OMP) or their combination against S. mansoni adult worms with a survival in vitro assay. Principal Findings We identified sets of genes that were affected by PZQ in paired and unpaired mature females, however with opposite gene expression patterns (up-regulated in paired and down-regulated in unpaired mature females), indicating that PZQ effects are heavily influenced by the mating status. We also identified genes that were similarly affected by PZQ in males and females. Functional analyses of gene interaction networks were performed with parasite genes that were differentially expressed upon PZQ treatment, searching for proteins encoded by these genes whose human homologs are targets of different drugs used for other diseases. Based on these results, OMP, a widely prescribed proton pump inhibitor known to target the ATP1A2 gene product, was chosen and tested. Sublethal doses of PZQ combined with OMP significantly increased worm mortality in vitro when compared with PZQ or OMP alone, thus evidencing a synergistic effect. Conclusions Functional analysis of gene interaction networks is an important approach that can point to possible novel synergistic drug candidates. We demonstrated the potential of this strategy by showing that PZQ in combination with OMP displayed increased efficiency against S. mansoni adult worms in vitro when compared with

  15. The Immunodominant Brugia malayi Paramyosin as a Marker of Current Infection with Wuchereria bancrofti Adult Worms

    OpenAIRE

    Langy, Sandra; Plichart, Catherine; Luquiaud, Patrick; Williams, Steven A.; Nicolas, Luc

    1998-01-01

    The full-length cDNA sequence encoding Brugia malayi L3 paramyosin has been isolated by immunoscreening a cDNA library with a mouse antiserum raised against Wuchereria bancrofti L3 infective larvae. A recombinant truncated form of paramyosin was expressed as a glutathione S-transferase fusion protein and used to evaluate humoral responses of adults from a W. bancrofti-endemic area in French Polynesia according to their parasitological status. Immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4) preferentially bound to p...

  16. Metagonimus yokogawai: metacercariae survey in fishes and its development to adult worms in various rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ming-Hsien; Huang, Hai-I; Chen, Pei-Lain; Huang, Chiung-Hua; Chen, Yu-Hsuan; Ooi, Hong-Kean

    2013-04-01

    A parasitological survey for Metagonimus yokogawai metacercariae was carried out by examining a total of 321 freshwater fish comprising of 7 species. Of the 321 fish samples examined, 182 (56.7%) were found to be infected with M. yokogawai metacercariae. The prevalence of M. yokogawai metacercariae in Opsariichthys pachycephalus was 93.4% (86/92), Zacco platypus 75.0% (30/40), Distoechodon turmirostris 61.3% (38/62), Varicorhinus barbatulus 56.5% (13/23), Hemibarbus labeo 33.3% (1/3), Acrossocheilus formosanus 15.9% (14/88), and 0% in Sinibrama macrops (0/13), respectively. This is the first record of M. yokogawai infection in Z. platypus, D. turmirostris, V. barbatulus, and H. labeo in Taiwan. The major site of predilection of the metacercariae in the fishes was in the scale, but some metacercariae were also observed in the flesh and fins. The M. yokogawai metacercariae were orally inoculated into mice, rat, gerbil, and golden hamster to study their infectivity and also to obtain the adult worms for taxonomic study. Worm recovery in hamsters was 75.3%, in mice was 70.0%, in rats was 23.3%, and in gerbils was 6.0%, respectively. Moreover, larger worms were recovered from the golden hamster. Golden hamster was thus found to be the most susceptible experimental rodent host for the infectivity study of Metagonimus. Besides M. yokogawai, metacercariae of Centrocestus formosanus was also observed in the fishes examined. PMID:23388732

  17. Effects of Doxycycline on gene expression in Wolbachia and Brugia malayi adult female worms in vivo

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    Rao Ramakrishna U

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most filarial nematodes contain Wolbachia symbionts. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of doxycycline on gene expression in Wolbachia and adult female Brugia malayi. Methods Brugia malayi infected gerbils were treated with doxycycline for 6-weeks. This treatment largely cleared Wolbachia and arrested worm reproduction. RNA recovered from treated and control female worms was labeled by random priming and hybridized to the Version 2- filarial microarray to obtain expression profiles. Results and discussion Results showed significant changes in expression for 200 Wolbachia (29% of Wolbachia genes with expression signals in untreated worms and 546 B. malayi array elements after treatment. These elements correspond to known genes and also to novel genes with unknown biological functions. Most differentially expressed Wolbachia genes were down-regulated after treatment (98.5%. In contrast, doxycycline had a mixed effect on B. malayi gene expression with many more genes being significantly up-regulated after treatment (85% of differentially expressed genes. Genes and processes involved in reproduction (gender-regulated genes, collagen, amino acid metabolism, ribosomal processes, and cytoskeleton were down-regulated after doxycycline while up-regulated genes and pathways suggest adaptations for survival in response to stress (energy metabolism, electron transport, anti-oxidants, nutrient transport, bacterial signaling pathways, and immune evasion. Conclusions Doxycycline reduced Wolbachia and significantly decreased bacterial gene expression. Wolbachia ribosomes are believed to be the primary biological target for doxycycline in filarial worms. B. malayi genes essential for reproduction, growth and development were also down-regulated; these changes are consistent with doxycycline effects on embryo development and reproduction. On the other hand, many B. malayi genes involved in energy production, electron

  18. Antischistosomal activity of a calcium channel antagonist on schistosomula and adult Schistosoma mansoni worms

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    Vanessa Silva-Moraes

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Current schistosomiasis control strategies are largely based on chemotherapeutic agents and a limited number of drugs are available today. Praziquantel (PZQ is the only drug currently used in schistosomiasis control programs. Unfortunately, this drug shows poor efficacy in patients during the earliest infection phases. The effects of PZQ appear to operate on the voltage-operated Ca2+channels, which are located on the external Schistosoma mansoni membrane. Because some Ca2+channels have dihydropyridine drug class (a class that includes nifedipine sensitivity, an in vitro analysis using a calcium channel antagonist (clinically used for cardiovascular hypertension was performed to determine the antischistosomal effects of nifedipine on schistosomula and adult worm cultures. Nifedipine demonstrated antischistosomal activity against schistosomula and significantly reduced viability at all of the concentrations used alone or in combination with PZQ. In contrast, PZQ did not show significant efficacy when used alone. Adult worms were also affected by nifedipine after a 24 h incubation and exhibited impaired motility, several lesions on the tegument and intense contractility. These data support the idea of Ca2+channels subunits as drug targets and favour alternative therapeutic schemes when drug resistance has been reported. In this paper, strong arguments encouraging drug research are presented, with a focus on exploring schistosomal Ca2+channels.

  19. Immunological responses of sheep against adult worm extract antigen of Fasciola gigantica

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    S Widjajanti

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Immunological responses of sheep against adult worm extract antigen of Fasciola gigantica were evaluated in an effort to identify the protein antigen for the candidate of vaccine. In this study the protein antigen from adult worms was extracted, and the extract antigen was then intramuscularly injected into 4 groups of 5 sheep. Two groups received one injection, these included one group injected only with extract antigen and the other group injected with extract antigen emulsified in Quil A adjuvant. The other two groups received two injections with a two week interval, these included one group injected only with extract antigen and the other group injected with extract antigen emulsified in Quil A adjuvant. Three weeks later all of the sheep were challenged with 300 metacercariae of F. gigantica. The antibody titer was monitored every two weeks by using ELISA and the protein profile from each group was compared by using western blotting. Fifteen weeks after challenged all of the sheep were killed and the liver flukes were collected from the liver and counted. The results showed that the antibody titer was higher in the group which received two injections, and the additional of Quil A adjuvant gave much better protection from the infection of F. gigantica (57% and could avoid the death of the sheep than twice injection of antigen without Quil A adjuvant (37%.

  20. Experimental Ascaris suum infection in the pig: protective memory response after three immunizations and effect of intestinal adult worm population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jungersen, Gregers; Eriksen, Lis; Roepstorff, Allan; Lind, Peter; Meeusen, E.N.T.; Rasmussen, Tina; Nansen, P.

    1999-01-01

    The protective immune response to larval migration in pigs, with or without adult intestinal worm populations, 10 weeks after 3 weekly Ascaris suum inoculations, was studied in 45 pigs. Controlled adult worm populations were achieved by oral transfer of 10 adult worms to previously immunized pigs...... after anthelmintic drenching. A significant reduction in larval recovery from lungs on day 7, and small intestine on day 14, was observed in immunized pigs compared with previously uninfected control pigs after challenge inoculation. The strong anamnestic response to larval migration was characterized...... inoculation or on the immune response before or after challenge inoculation could be detected. These results indicate that a significant protective memory immune response to A. suum challenge inoculation can be induced in pigs, and that this protective immunity is not significantly modulated by the presence...

  1. De novo assembly and characterization of the Trichuris trichiura adult worm transcriptome using Ion Torrent sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Leonardo N; Silva, Eduardo S; Santos, André S; De Sá, Pablo H; Ramos, Rommel T; Silva, Artur; Cooper, Philip J; Barreto, Maurício L; Loureiro, Sebastião; Pinheiro, Carina S; Alcantara-Neves, Neuza M; Pacheco, Luis G C

    2016-07-01

    Infection with helminthic parasites, including the soil-transmitted helminth Trichuris trichiura (human whipworm), has been shown to modulate host immune responses and, consequently, to have an impact on the development and manifestation of chronic human inflammatory diseases. De novo derivation of helminth proteomes from sequencing of transcriptomes will provide valuable data to aid identification of parasite proteins that could be evaluated as potential immunotherapeutic molecules in near future. Herein, we characterized the transcriptome of the adult stage of the human whipworm T. trichiura, using next-generation sequencing technology and a de novo assembly strategy. Nearly 17.6 million high-quality clean reads were assembled into 6414 contiguous sequences, with an N50 of 1606bp. In total, 5673 protein-encoding sequences were confidentially identified in the T. trichiura adult worm transcriptome; of these, 1013 sequences represent potential newly discovered proteins for the species, most of which presenting orthologs already annotated in the related species T. suis. A number of transcripts representing probable novel non-coding transcripts for the species T. trichiura were also identified. Among the most abundant transcripts, we found sequences that code for proteins involved in lipid transport, such as vitellogenins, and several chitin-binding proteins. Through a cross-species expression analysis of gene orthologs shared by T. trichiura and the closely related parasites T. suis and T. muris it was possible to find twenty-six protein-encoding genes that are consistently highly expressed in the adult stages of the three helminth species. Additionally, twenty transcripts could be identified that code for proteins previously detected by mass spectrometry analysis of protein fractions of the whipworm somatic extract that present immunomodulatory activities. Five of these transcripts were amongst the most highly expressed protein-encoding sequences in the T

  2. Schistosomicidal Activity of the Essential Oil of Ageratum conyzoides L. (Asteraceae against Adult Schistosoma mansoni Worms

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    Wilson R. Cunha

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The in vitro schistosomicidal effects of the essential oil of Ageratum conyzoides L. (Ac-EO against adult worms of Schistosoma mansoni is reported in this paper. Concerning this activity, Ac-EO was considered to be active, but less effective than the positive control (praziquantel, PZQ in terms of separation of coupled pairs, mortality, decrease in motor activity, and tegumental alterations. However, Ac-EO caused an interesting dose-dependent reduction in the number of eggs of S. mansoni. Precocene I (74.30% and (E-caryophyllene (14.23% were identified as the two major constituents of Ac-EO. These compounds were tested individually and were found to be much less effective than Ac-EO and PZQ. A mixture of the two major compounds in a ratio similar to that found in the Ac-EO was also less effective than Ac-EO, thus revealing that there are no synergistic effects between these components. These results suggest that the essential oil of A. conyzoides is very promising for the development of new schistosomicidal agents.

  3. Expression of actin genes in the arrow worm Paraspadella gotoi (Chaetognatha)

    OpenAIRE

    Yasuda, Etsuko; Goto, Taichiro; Makabe, Kazuhiro W.; Satoh, Noriyuki

    1997-01-01

    Arrow worms (the phylum Chaetognatha), one of the major marine planktonic animals, exhibit features characteristic to both deuterostomes and protostomes, and their ancestry therefore remains unknown. As the first step to elucidate the molecular bases of arrow worm phylogeny, physiology and embryology, we isolated cDNA clones for three different actin genes (PgAct1, PgAct2 and PgAct3) from the benthic species Paraspadella gotoi, and examined their expression patterns in adults and juveniles. T...

  4. Excretory/secretory products from Trichinella spiralis adult worms ameliorate DSS-induced colitis in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaodi Yang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Many evidences show the inverse correlation between helminth infection and allergic or autoimmune diseases. Identification and characterization of the active helminth-derived products responsible for the beneficial effects on allergic or inflammatory diseases will provide another feasible approach to treat these diseases. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Colitis was induced in C57BL/6 mice by giving 3% DSS orally for 7 days. During this period, the mice were treated daily with the excretory/secretory products from T. spiralis adult worms (AES intraperitoneally. The severity of colitis was monitored by measuring body weight, stool consistency or bleeding, colon length and inflammation. To determine the T. spiralis AES product-induced immunological response, Th1, Th2, Th17 and regulatory cytokine profiles were measured in lymphocytes isolated from colon, mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN, and the spleen of treated mice. The CD4+ CD25+ FOXP3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs were also measured in the spleens and MLN of treated mice. Mice treated with AES significantly ameliorated the severity of the DSS-induced colitis indicated by the reduced disease manifestations, improved macroscopic and microscopic inflammation correlated with the up-regulation of Treg response (increased regulatory cytokines IL-10, TGF-beta and regulatory T cells and down-regulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IFN-gamma, IL-6 and IL-17 in the spleens, MLN and colon of treated mice. CONCLUSIONS: Our results provide direct evidences that T. spiralis AES have a therapeutic potential for alleviating inflammatory colitis in mice. This effect is possibly mediated by the immunomodulation of regulatory T cells to produce regulatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines and inhibit pro-inflammatory cytokines.

  5. Chromatographic Fingerprint Analysis and Effects of the Medicinal Plant Species Mitracarpus frigidus on Adult Schistosoma mansoni Worms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabri, Rodrigo Luiz; Aragão, Danielle Maria de Oliveira; Florêncio, Jônatas Rodrigues; Pinto, Nícolas de Castro Campos; Mattos, Ana Carolina Alves; Coelho, Paulo Marcos Zech; Castañon, Maria Christina Marques Nogueira; Vasconcelos, Eveline Gomes; Pinto, Priscila de Faria; Scio, Elita

    2014-01-01

    The aims of this work were to evaluate the in vitro and in vivo schistosomicidal properties of the methanolic extract of the aerial parts of Mitracarpus frigidus (MFM) and to determine its HPLC profile. For the in vitro experiment, four pairs of adult worms, obtained from infected mice, were exposed to different concentrations of MFM (100 to 400 μg/mL) for 24 and 48 h and analyzed under an inverted microscope. For the in vivo experiment, mice were inoculated with cercariae and, 20 days after infection, MFM (100 and 300 mg/kg) was administered orally for the following 25 days. Mice were euthanized after 60 days. MFM showed in vitro schistosomicidal activity, exhibiting the opening of the gynaecophoral canal of some male schistosomes, the presence of contorted muscles, vesicles, and the darkening of the paired worms skin. In vivo experiments showed that MFM treatments significantly reduced total worm count, as praziquantel, showing a decrease in liver and spleen weight. Also, a significant reduction in granuloma density was observed. MFM treatment did not cause alterations in the liver function of either infected or noninfected mice. The HPLC chromatogram profile showed the presence of kaempferol-O-rutinoside, rutin, kaempferol, psychorubrin, and ursolic acid. PMID:24901000

  6. Chromatographic Fingerprint Analysis and Effects of the Medicinal Plant Species Mitracarpus frigidus on Adult Schistosoma mansoni Worms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Luiz Fabri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this work were to evaluate the in vitro and in vivo schistosomicidal properties of the methanolic extract of the aerial parts of Mitracarpus frigidus (MFM and to determine its HPLC profile. For the in vitro experiment, four pairs of adult worms, obtained from infected mice, were exposed to different concentrations of MFM (100 to 400 μg/mL for 24 and 48 h and analyzed under an inverted microscope. For the in vivo experiment, mice were inoculated with cercariae and, 20 days after infection, MFM (100 and 300 mg/kg was administered orally for the following 25 days. Mice were euthanized after 60 days. MFM showed in vitro schistosomicidal activity, exhibiting the opening of the gynaecophoral canal of some male schistosomes, the presence of contorted muscles, vesicles, and the darkening of the paired worms skin. In vivo experiments showed that MFM treatments significantly reduced total worm count, as praziquantel, showing a decrease in liver and spleen weight. Also, a significant reduction in granuloma density was observed. MFM treatment did not cause alterations in the liver function of either infected or noninfected mice. The HPLC chromatogram profile showed the presence of kaempferol-O-rutinoside, rutin, kaempferol, psychorubrin, and ursolic acid.

  7. Nucleic Acid Vaccination with Schistosoma mansoni Antioxidant Enzyme Cytosolic Superoxide Dismutase and the Structural Protein Filamin Confers Protection against the Adult Worm Stage

    OpenAIRE

    Cook, Rosemary M.; Carvalho-Queiroz, Claudia; Wilding, Gregory; Philip T. LoVerde

    2004-01-01

    Schistosomiasis remains a worldwide endemic cause of chronic and debilitating illness. There are two paradigms that exist in schistosome immunology. The first is that the schistosomule stages are the most susceptible to immune killing, and the second is that the adult stage, through evolution of defense mechanisms, can survive in the hostile host environment. One mechanism that seems to aid the adult worm in evading immune killing is the expression of antioxidant enzymes to neutralize the eff...

  8. In vitro and in vivo anthelmintic activity of (-)-6,6'-dinitrohinokinin against schistosomula and juvenile and adult worms of Schistosoma mansoni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Ana C; Silva, Márcio L A E; Souza, Julia Medeiros; Laurentiz, Rosangela S de; Rodrigues, Vanderlei; Januário, Ana H; Pauletti, Patrícia M; Tavares, Denise C; Filho, Ademar A Da Silva; Cunha, Wilson R; Bastos, Jairo K; Magalhães, Lizandra G

    2015-09-01

    The chemotherapy of schistosomiasis relies on the use of praziquantel. However, concerns over drug resistance have encouraged the search for new drug leads. This paper is the first report on the in vitro and in vivo activity of (-)-6,6'-dinitrohinokinin (DNK) against Schistosoma mansoni. In vitro, the lethal concentrations for 50% of parasites (LC50) of DNK against adult worms were 103.9±3.6 and 102.5±4.8μM at 24 and 72h, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy images showed extensive tegumental alterations such as peeling and smaller numbers of tubercles in the spine of adult worms. DNK also elicited high mortality of schistosomula, with LC50 values of 57.4±2.3, 32.5±0.9, and 20.4±1.2μM at 24, 48, and 72h, respectively. DNK displayed moderate activity against the juvenile liver parasite, with an LC50 value of 179.5±2.3 μM at 72h. This compound reduced the total number of eggs by over 83%, and it affected the development of eggs produced by adult worms. The selectivity index showed that at 24h, DNK was 8.5 and 15.4 times more toxic to the adult worms and schistosomula than to Chinese hamster lung fibroblast cells, respectively. Treatment of infected mice with DNK moderately decreased worm burden (33.8-52.3%), egg production (40.7-60.0%), and spleen and liver weights. Together, our results indicated that DNK presents moderate in vitro and in vivo activities against S. mansoni, and it might therefore be interesting to explore the structure-activity relationship of the antischistosomal activity of this compound. PMID:26071648

  9. A stage-specific open reading frame from three-day old adult worms of Trichinella spiralis encodes zinc-finger motifs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu X.P.

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to isolate genes coding for stage-specific antigens of T. spiralis. Such antigens may then be associated with local and systemic immune responses against adult T. spiralis. Recombinant clones were obtained with an adult stage specific probe from a cDNA library of three-day old adult T. spiralis. Several cDNA clones encoding the same peptide were identified and their stage specificity was confirmed by northern blot analysis. Three independent clones were fully sequenced, and the resulting sequence found to code for a 487 amino acid peptide with a deduced molecular weight of ≈ 55 kDa. Sequence analysis showed that the 55 kDa peptide contained putative DNA binding motifs, suggesting that this protein may be involved in transcriptional regulation during the early development of the parasite.

  10. cDNA: 43397 [

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available M. musculus + Mm.30035 Mus musculus adult male corpora quadrigemina cDNA, RIKEN full-length enri ... FOLATE DEHYDROGENASE (EC 1.5.1.6) (10-FTHFDH) (FBP-CI ) homolog [Rattus norvegicus], full insert sequence ...

  11. cDNA: 40711 [

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available M. musculus + Mm.41523 Mus musculus adult male thymus cDNA, RIKEN full-length enriched library, ... lone:5830492N08 product:hypothetical Mitochondrial energy ... transfer proteins (carrier protein) containing pro ...

  12. cDNA: 47991 [

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available M. musculus - Mm.228067 Mus musculus adult male diencephalon cDNA, RIKEN full-length enriched li ... lone:9330189G22 product:hypothetical Mitochondrial energy ... transfer proteins (carrier protein) containing pro ...

  13. cDNA: 36928 [

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available M. musculus - Mm.240850 Mus musculus adult male medulla oblongata cDNA, RIKEN full-length enrich ... MA AMPLIFIED SEQUENCE 1 (NOVEL AMPLIFIED IN BREAST CANCER ... 1) (AMPLIFIED AND OVEREXPRESSED IN BREAST CANCER ) ...

  14. cDNA: 36927 [

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available M. musculus - Mm.240850 Mus musculus adult male stomach cDNA, RIKEN full-length enriched library ... MA AMPLIFIED SEQUENCE 1 (NOVEL AMPLIFIED IN BREAST CANCER ... 1) (AMPLIFIED AND OVEREXPRESSED IN BREAST CANCER ) ...

  15. cDNA: 40220 [

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available M. musculus - Mm.207654 Mus musculus adult male olfactory brain ... cDNA, RIKEN full-length enriched ... library, clone:6430704M03 product:similar to BRAIN ... PROTEIN (FRAGMENT) [Homo sapiens], full insert seq ...

  16. cDNA: 52278 [

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available M. musculus - Mm.275648 Mus musculus adult male tongue cDNA, RIKEN full-length enriched library, ... clone:2310073F10 product:SIMILAR TO ENIGMA ... (LIM DOMAIN PROTEIN) homolog [Homo sapiens], full ...

  17. cDNA: 52276 [

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available M. musculus - Mm.275648 Mus musculus adult male brain cDNA, RIKEN full-length enriched library, ... clone:0710007K04 product:SIMILAR TO ENIGMA ... (LIM DOMAIN PROTEIN) homolog [Homo sapiens], full ...

  18. Purification of a chymotrypsin-like enzyme present on adult Schistosoma mansoni worms from infected mice and its characterization as a host carboxylesterase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igetei, Joseph E; Liddell, Susan; El-Faham, Marwa; Doenhoff, Michael J

    2016-04-01

    A serine protease-like enzyme found in detergent extracts of Schistosoma mansoni adult worms perfused from infected mice has been purified from mouse blood and further characterized. The enzyme is approximately 85 kDa and hydrolyses N-acetyl-DL-phenylalanine β-naphthyl-ester, a chromogenic substrate for chymotrypsin-like enzymes. The enzyme from S. mansoni worms appears to be antigenically and enzymatically similar to a molecule that is present in normal mouse blood and so is seemingly host-derived. The enzyme was partially purified by depleting normal mouse serum of albumin using sodium chloride and cold ethanol, followed by repeated rounds of purification by one-dimensional sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The purified material was subjected to tandem mass spectrometry and its derived peptides found to belong to mouse carboxylesterase 1C. Its ability to hydrolyse α- or β-naphthyl acetates, which are general esterase substrates, has been confirmed. A similar carboxylesterase was purified and characterized from rat blood. Additional evidence to support identification of the enzyme as a carboxylesterase has been provided. Possible roles of the enzyme in the mouse host-parasite relationship could be to ease the passage of worms through the host's blood vessels and/or in immune evasion. PMID:26924446

  19. Effectiveness of hyperbaric oxygen for experimental treatment of schistosomiasis mansoni using praziquantel-free and encapsulated into liposomes: assay in adult worms and oviposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frezza, Tarsila Ferraz; de Souza, Ana Luiza Ribeiro; Prado, César Corat Ribeiro; de Oliveira, Claudineide Nascimento Fernandes; Gremião, Maria Palmira Daflon; Giorgio, Selma; Dolder, Mary Anne Heidi; Joazeiro, Paulo Pinto; Allegretti, Silmara Marques

    2015-10-01

    The treatment of schistosomiasis depends on a single drug: praziquantel (PZQ). However, this treatment presents limitations such as low and/or erratic bioavailability that can contribute to cases of tolerance. Improvements to the available drug are urgently needed and studies with a controlled system of drug release, like liposomes, have been gaining prominence. The present study evaluated the activity and synergy between liposomal-praziquantel (lip.PZQ) and hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBO). Mice received doses of 60 or 100mg/kg PZQ or lip.PZQ, 50 days post-infection, and after the treatment, were exposed to HBO (3 atmosphere absolute - ATA) for 1h. The viability of adult worms and oviposition were analyzed, by necropsy and Kato-Katz examination performed after 15 days of treatment. A concentration of 100mg/kg of lip.PZQ+HBO was more effective (48.0% reduction of worms, 83.3% reduction of eggs/gram of feces) and 100% of the mice had altered of oograms (indicating interruption of oviposition) compared to other treatments and to the Control group (infected and untreated). It is known that PZQ requires participation of the host immune system to complete its antischistosomal activity and that HBO is able to stimulate the immune system. The drug became more available in the body when incorporated into liposomes and, used with HBO, the HBO worked as an adjuvant. This explains the decreases of oviposition and worms recovered form hepatic portal system. PMID:26215128

  20. Morphological aspects of Schistosoma mansoni adult worms isolated from nourished and undernourished mice: a comparative analysis by confocal laser scanning microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neves Renata Heisler

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Malnutrition hampers the course of schistosomiasis mansoni infection just as normal growth of adult worms. A comparative morphometric study on adult specimens (male and female recovered from undernourished (fed with a low protein diet - regional basic diet and nourished (rodent commercial laboratory food, NUVILAB white mice was performed. Tomographic images and morphometric analysis of the oral and ventral suckers, reproductive system and tegument were obtained by means of confocal laser scanning microscopy. Undernourished male specimens presented smaller morphometric values (length and width of the reproductive system (first, third and last testicular lobes and thickness of the tegument than controls. Besides that, it was demonstrated that the dorsal surface of the male worms bears large tubercles unevenly distributed, but kept grouped and flat. At the subtegumental region, vacuolated areas were detected. It was concluded that the inadequate nutritional status of the vertebrate host has a negative influence mainly in the reproductive system and topographical somatic development of male adult Schistosoma mansoni, inducing some alterations on the structure of the parasite.

  1. Reproductive system abnormalities in Schistosoma mansoni adult worms isolated from Nectomys squamipes (Muridae: Sigmodontinae: brightfield and confocal laser scanning microscopy analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neves Renata Heisler

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Schistosoma mansoni adult worms with genital anomalies isolated from Nectomys squamipes (Muridae: Sigmodontinae were studied by confocal laser scanning microscopy under the reflected mode. One male without testicular lobes (testicular agenesia/anorchism and two females, one with an atrophied ovary and another with 17 uterine eggs, were identified. The absence of testicular lobes occurred in a worm presenting otherwise normal male adult characteristics: tegument, tubercles and a gynaecophoric canal with spines. In both female specimens the digestive tube showed a vacuolated appearance, and the specimen with supernumerary uterine eggs exhibited a developing miracidium and an egg with a formed shell. The area of the ventral sucker was similar in both specimens however the tegument thickness, ovary and vitelline glands of the specimen with the atrophied ovary were smaller than those of the one with supernumerary eggs. These reported anomalies in the reproductive system call attention to the need to improve our understanding of genetic regulation and the possible role of environmental influences upon trematode development.

  2. Sm14 gene expression in different stages of the Schistosoma mansoni life cycle and immunolocalization of the Sm14 protein within the adult worm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.F.A. Brito

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Sm14 is a 14-kDa vaccine candidate antigen from Schistosoma mansoni that seems to be involved in cytoplasmic trafficking of fatty acids. Although schistosomes have a high requirement for lipids, they are not able to synthesize fatty acids and sterols de novo. Thus, they must acquire host lipids. In order to determine whether Sm14 is present in different stages of the life cycle of the parasite, we performed RT-PCR. Sm14 mRNA was identified in all stages of the life cycle studied, mainly schistosomulum, adult worm and egg. Additionally, we used a rabbit anti-Sm14 polyclonal antibody in an indirect immunofluorescence assay to localize Sm14 in adult worm sections. The basal lamella of the tegument and the gut epithelium were strongly labeled. These tissues have a high flow of and demand for lipids, a finding that supports the putative role of Sm14 as an intracellular transporter of fatty acids from host cells.

  3. Induction of protective immunity against Schistosoma mansoni infection by antigens purified from PIII, a fraction of adult worm, associated to the downregulation of granuloma formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavson Shauma

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was performed in order to define Schistosoma mansoni antigens able to function as modulator agents in BALB/c mice granulomatous hypersensitivity to parasite egg. The antigens P-24, P-35 and P-97 were purified by affinity chromatography from a fraction of S. mansoni adult worm antigenic preparation, denominated PIII, involved in the inhibition of granulomatous response to eggs. Immunization of mice with these antigens, in the presence of Corynebacterium parvum and Al(OH3 as adjuvant, induced a significant protection degree against challenge infection, as observed by the decrease on worm burden recovered from portal system. In vitro blastogenesis assays revealed that purified antigens were able to induce significant proliferation of spleen cells from S. mansoni-infected mice. This protection was correlated to significant decrease in granuloma size induced by PIII. From these results, we concluded that PIII preparation contains antigens capable of mediating protective anti-parasite immunity and down-regulating granulomatous hypersensitivity to S. mansoni eggs.

  4. cDNA: 53887 [

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available M. musculus + Mm.196480 Mus musculus adult male testis cDNA, RIKEN full-length enriched library, ... uct:DNA Segment, Chr 15 Massachusetts Institute of Technology ... 260, full insert sequence gnl|UG|Mm#S10837764 AK07 ...

  5. cDNA: 53885 [

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available M. musculus + Mm.196480 Mus musculus adult male testis cDNA, RIKEN full-length enriched library, ... uct:DNA Segment, Chr 15 Massachusetts Institute of Technology ... 260, full insert sequence gnl|UG|Mm#S10837547 AK07 ...

  6. cDNA: 39377 [

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available M. musculus + Mm.7091 Mus musculus adult pancreas islet cells cDNA, RIKEN fu ll-length enriched l ... R BETA SUBUNIT) (SSR-BETA) homolog [Homo sapiens], fu ... ... gnl|UG|Mm#S10839939 AK050505 3/6436_39377.png ...

  7. cDNA: 46817 [

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available M. musculus + Mm.30092 Mus musculus adult male cerebellum cDNA, RIKEN fu ll-length enriched libra ... 1 PRECURSOR (EC 3.4.21.-) homolog [Homo sapiens], fu ... ... gnl|UG|Mm#S10838326 AK075719 8/7837_46817.png ...

  8. cDNA: 56670 [

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available M. musculus - Mm.10747 Mus musculus adult male testis cDNA, RIKEN fu ll-length enriched library, ... PONSE FACTOR) (MRF-1) homolog [Rattus norvegicus], fu ... ... gnl|UG|Mm#S9083407 AK006184 17/9809_56670.png ...

  9. cDNA: 56898 [

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available M. musculus - Mm.10747 Mus musculus adult male testis cDNA, RIKEN fu ll-length enriched library, ... PONSE FACTOR) (MRF-1) homolog [Rattus norvegicus], fu ... ... gnl|UG|Mm#S9083407 AK006184 17/9810_56898.png ...

  10. cDNA: 56671 [

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available M. musculus - Mm.10747 Mus musculus adult male testis cDNA, RIKEN fu ll-length enriched library, ... PONSE FACTOR) (MRF-1) homolog [Rattus norvegicus], fu ... ... gnl|UG|Mm#S9083172 AK006562 17/9809_56671.png ...

  11. cDNA: 56677 [

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available M. musculus - Mm.10747 Mus musculus adult male testis cDNA, RIKEN fu ll-length enriched library, ... PONSE FACTOR) (MRF-1) homolog [Rattus norvegicus], fu ... ... gnl|UG|Mm#S9083407 AK006184 17/9809_56677.png ...

  12. cDNA: 56899 [

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available M. musculus - Mm.10747 Mus musculus adult male testis cDNA, RIKEN fu ll-length enriched library, ... PONSE FACTOR) (MRF-1) homolog [Rattus norvegicus], fu ... ... gnl|UG|Mm#S9083172 AK006562 17/9810_56899.png ...

  13. cDNA: 56891 [

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available M. musculus - Mm.10747 Mus musculus adult male testis cDNA, RIKEN fu ll-length enriched library, ... PONSE FACTOR) (MRF-1) homolog [Rattus norvegicus], fu ... ... gnl|UG|Mm#S9083407 AK006184 17/9810_56891.png ...

  14. cDNA: 56678 [

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available M. musculus - Mm.10747 Mus musculus adult male testis cDNA, RIKEN fu ll-length enriched library, ... PONSE FACTOR) (MRF-1) homolog [Rattus norvegicus], fu ... ... gnl|UG|Mm#S9083172 AK006562 17/9809_56678.png ...

  15. cDNA: 41699 [

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available M. musculus + Mm.246636 Mus musculus adult male testis cDNA, RIKEN fu ll-length enriched library, ... e/G-protein beta WD-40 repeats containing protein, fu ... ... gnl|UG|Mm#S9075317 AK016965 5/6970_41699.png ...

  16. cDNA: 56892 [

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available M. musculus - Mm.10747 Mus musculus adult male testis cDNA, RIKEN fu ll-length enriched library, ... PONSE FACTOR) (MRF-1) homolog [Rattus norvegicus], fu ... ... gnl|UG|Mm#S9083172 AK006562 17/9810_56892.png ...

  17. cDNA: 49729 [

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available M. musculus - Mm.286963 Mus musculus 10 days lactation, adult female mammary gland cDNA, RIKEN f ... d library, clone:D730027I09 product:similar to LAK-4P ... [Homo sapiens], full insert sequence gnl|UG|Mm#S10 ...

  18. cDNA: 45098 [

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available M. musculus + Mm.334199 Mus musculus adult male aorta and vein cDNA, RIKEN full-length enriched ... library, clone:A530074J19 product:SA rat hypertension -associated homolog, full insert sequence gnl|UG|Mm ...

  19. The WORM site: worm.csirc.net

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Write One, Run Many (WORM) site (worm.csirc.net) is the on-line home of the WORM language and is hosted by the Criticality Safety Information Resource Center (CSIRC) (www.csirc.net). The purpose of this web site is to create an on-line community for WORM users to gather, share, and archive WORM-related information. WORM is an embedded, functional, programming language designed to facilitate the creation of input decks for computer codes that take standard ASCII text files as input. A functional programming language is one that emphasizes the evaluation of expressions, rather than execution of commands. The simplest and perhaps most common example of a functional language is a spreadsheet such as Microsoft Excel. The spreadsheet user specifies expressions to be evaluated, while the spreadsheet itself determines the commands to execute, as well as the order of execution/evaluation. WORM functions in a similar fashion and, as a result, is very simple to use and easy to learn. WORM improves the efficiency of today's criticality safety analyst by allowing: (1) input decks for parameter studies to be created quickly and easily; (2) calculations and variables to be embedded into any input deck, thus allowing for meaningful parameter specifications; (3) problems to be specified using any combination of units; and (4) complex mathematically defined models to be created. WORM is completely written in Perl. Running on all variants of UNIX, Windows, MS-DOS, MacOS, and many other operating systems, Perl is one of the most portable programming languages available. As such, WORM works on practically any computer platform

  20. Immunization with PIII, a fraction of Schistosoma mansoni soluble adult worm antigenic preparation, affects nitric oxide production by murine spleen cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Magalhães de Oliveira

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Nitric oxide (NO is an important effector molecule involved in immune regulation and defense. NO produced by cytokine-activated macrophages was reported to be cytotoxic against the helminth Schistosoma mansoni. Identification and characterization of S. mansoni antigens that can provide protective immunity is crucial for understanding the complex immunoregulatory events that modulate the immune response in schistosomiasis. It is, then, essential to have available defined, purified parasite antigens. Previous work by our laboratory identified a fraction of S. mansoni soluble adult worm antigenic preparation (SWAP, named PIII, able to elicit significant in vitro cell proliferation and at the same time lower in vitro and in vivo granuloma formation when compared either to SEA (soluble egg antigen or to SWAP. In the present work we report the effect of different in vivo trials with mice on their spleen cells ability to produce NO. We demonstrate that PIII-immunization is able to significantly increase NO production by spleen cells after in vitro stimulation with LPS. These data suggest a possible role for NO on the protective immunity induced by PIII.

  1. Expression of actin genes in the arrow worm Paraspadella gotoi (Chaetognatha).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuda, E; Goto, T; Makabe, K W; Satoh, N

    1997-12-01

    Arrow worms (the phylum Chaetognatha), one of the major marine planktonic animals, exhibit features characteristic to both deuterostomes and protostomes, and their ancestry therefore remains unknown. As the first step to elucidate the molecular bases of arrow worm phylogeny, physiology and embryology, we isolated cDNA clones for three different actin genes (PgAct1, PgAct2 and PgAct3) from the benthic species Paraspadella gotoi, and examined their expression patterns in adults and juveniles. The amino acid sequences of the three actins resembled each other, with identities ranging from 86% to 92%. However, the patterns of the spatial expression of the genes were independent. The PgAct1 gene might encode a cytoplasmic actin and was expressed in oogenic cells, spermatogenic cells, and cells in the ventral ganglion. The PgAct2 and PgAct3 genes encoded actins of divergent types. The former was expressed in well-developed muscle of the head (gnathic) region and trunk muscle cells, whereas the latter was expressed in muscle of the trunk and tail regions and oogenic cells. These results suggest that, similarly to other metazoans, the chaetognath contains multiple forms of actins, which are expressed in various manners in the adult and juvenile arrow worm. PMID:9520638

  2. Screening of early antigen genes of adult-stage Trichinella spiralis using pig serum from different stages of early infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    The goal of this work was to identify novel, early antigens present in Trichinella spiralis. To this end, a cDNA library generated from 3-day old adult worms (Ad3) was immunologically screened using serum from a pig infected with 20,000 muscle larvae. The serum was obtained from multiple, time cours...

  3. WormBase

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — WormBase is an international consortium of biologists and computer scientists dedicated to providing the research community with accurate, current, accessible...

  4. 旋毛虫成虫抗原的免疫保护性研究进展%Advances in study on protective immunity of Trichinella spiralis adult worm antigen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马鸣旺; 申丽洁

    2008-01-01

    The advances in study on protective immunity of Trichinella spiralis adult WOlln antigen were reviewed in this paper.Acording to the comparison of the three antigens of Trichinella spiralis,adult worm anti-gens can produce stronger protective immunity, which may serve as an important candidate of the vaccine a-gainst trichinellosis.With DNA recombination technology to clone the gene of the strong protective antigens of a-duh worm and to express them in vitro are important ways to get the vaccine against trichinellosis.%该文介绍了旋毛虫成虫抗原免疫保护性研究的进展.通过比较三期抗原的免疫保护性,表明旋毛虫成虫抗原具有较强的免疫保护作用,该抗原可能是研制旋毛虫病疫苗的重要候选抗原.利用DNA重组技术将保护性强的成虫抗原的基因克隆并在体外表达,将是获得旋毛虫病疫苗抗原的重要方法.

  5. Cloning of a cDNA encoding a surface antigen of Schistosoma mansoni schistosomula recognized by sera of vassinated mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalton, J.P.; Tom, T.D.; Strand, M.

    1987-06-01

    Spleen cells of mice vaccinated with radiation-attenuated Schistosoma mansoni cercariae were used to produce monoclonal antibodies directed against newly transformed schistosomular surface antigens. One of these monoclonal antibodies recognized a polypeptide of 18 kDa. Binding was measured by radioimmunoassay. This glycoprotein was purified by monoclonal antibody immunoaffinity chromatography and a polyclonal antiserum was prepared against it. Immunofluorescence assays showed that the polyclonal antiserum bound to the surface of newly transformed schistosomula and lung-stage organisms but not to the surface of liver-stage and adult worms. Using this polyclonal antiserum we isolated recombinant clones from an adult worm cDNA expression library constructed in lambdagt11. Clone 654.2 contained an insert of 0.52 kilobase and hybridized to a 1.2-kilobase mRNA species from adult worms. Most importantly, clone 654.2 produced a fusion protein of 125 kDa that was reactive with sera of vaccinated mice that are capable of transferring resistance. This result encourages future vaccination trials with the fusion protein.

  6. Cloning of a cDNA encoding a surface antigen of Schistosoma mansoni schistosomula recognized by sera of vassinated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spleen cells of mice vaccinated with radiation-attenuated Schistosoma mansoni cercariae were used to produce monoclonal antibodies directed against newly transformed schistosomular surface antigens. One of these monoclonal antibodies recognized a polypeptide of 18 kDa. Binding was measured by radioimmunoassay. This glycoprotein was purified by monoclonal antibody immunoaffinity chromatography and a polyclonal antiserum was prepared against it. Immunofluorescence assays showed that the polyclonal antiserum bound to the surface of newly transformed schistosomula and lung-stage organisms but not to the surface of liver-stage and adult worms. Using this polyclonal antiserum we isolated recombinant clones from an adult worm cDNA expression library constructed in λgt11. Clone 654.2 contained an insert of 0.52 kilobase and hybridized to a 1.2-kilobase mRNA species from adult worms. Most importantly, clone 654.2 produced a fusion protein of 125 kDa that was reactive with sera of vaccinated mice that are capable of transferring resistance. This result encourages future vaccination trials with the fusion protein

  7. Worm Infections in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weatherhead, Jill E; Hotez, Peter J

    2015-08-01

    • On the basis of research evidence, worm infections are important global child health conditions causing chronic disability that lasts from childhood into adulthood (Table 1). (2)(3) Evidence Quality: B • On the basis of research evidence, the major worm infections found in developing countries include ascariasis, trichuriasis, hookworm infection, and schistosomiasis; toxocariasis, enterobiasis, and cysticercosis are also found in poor regions of North America and Europe. (4)(9)(13) Evidence Quality: B • On the basis of expert consensus, children and adolescents are often vulnerable to acquiring large numbers of worms, ie, high-intensity infections (Fig 1)(21)(22)(23) Evidence Quality: D • On the basis of expert consensus and research evidence, moderate and heavy worm burdens cause increased morbidity because of growth and intellectual stunting in children and adolescents. Many of these effects may result from helminth-induced malnutrition. (21)(22)(23) Evidence Quality: C • On the basis of expert consensus and research evidence, worm infections are also commonly associated with eosinophilia. (48) (49) Evidence Quality: B • On the basis of research evidence as well as consensus, helminthes can cause inflammation in the lung (asthma), gastrointestinal tract (enteritis and colitis), liver (hepatitis and fibrosis), and urogenital tract. (7)(21)(22)(23)(27)(28)(40)(41)(43) Evidence Quality: B • On the basis of research evidence, microscopy techniques for diagnosis of worm infections in children often exhibit suboptimal sensitivities and specificities, necessitating new or improved diagnostic modalities such as polymerase chain reaction. (54)(55) Evidence Quality: A • On the basis of research evidence and expert consensus, mass drug administration (“preventive chemotherapy”) has becomea standard practice for ministries of health in low- and middle-income countries to control intestinal helminth infections and schistosomiasis. (67)(68) Evidence

  8. cDNA: 57843 [ASTRA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available M. musculus - Mm.1441 Mus musculus adult male testis cDNA, RIKEN full-length enriched library, c ... lone:4930519F16 product:hypothetical Serine proteases , trypsin family/Chymotrypsin serine protease famil ...

  9. cDNA: 55929 [ASTRA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available M. musculus + Mm.244143 Mus musculus adult male small intestine cDNA, RIKEN full-length enriched ... rary, clone:2010001P08 product:hypothetical Serine proteases , trypsin family containing protein, full insert se ...

  10. cDNA: 44740 [ASTRA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available M. musculus - Mm.29756 Mus musculus adult male testis cDNA, RIKEN full-length enriched library, ... 2 product:hypothetical Eukaryotic thiol (cysteine) proteases ... active site containing protein, full insert sequen ...

  11. cDNA: 42035 [ASTRA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available M. musculus - Mm.274255 Mus musculus adult male urinary bladder cDNA, RIKEN full-length enriched ... rary, clone:9530081K03 product:hypothetical Serine proteases , trypsin family containing protein, full insert se ...

  12. cDNA: 54640 [ASTRA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available M. musculus - Mm.212157 Mus musculus adult male kidney cDNA, RIKEN full-length enriched library, ... 1 product:hypothetical Eukaryotic thiol (cysteine) proteases ... active site containing protein, full insert sequen ...

  13. cDNA: 35986 [ASTRA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available M. musculus - Mm.122430 Mus musculus adult male corpora quadrigemina cDNA, RIKEN full-length enr ... 0341B09 product:hypothetical Ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes ... containing protein, full insert sequence gnl|UG|Mm ...

  14. cDNA: 35981 [ASTRA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available M. musculus - Mm.122430 Mus musculus adult retina cDNA, RIKEN full-length enriched library, clon ... 0014I21 product:hypothetical Ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes ... containing protein, full insert sequence gnl|UG|Mm ...

  15. cDNA: 35985 [ASTRA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available M. musculus - Mm.122430 Mus musculus adult male testis cDNA, RIKEN full-length enriched library, ... 0440H19 product:hypothetical Ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes ... containing protein, full insert sequence gnl|UG|Mm ...

  16. Living with Worms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertoni, Filippo

    2016-01-01

    The thesis explores what living together can offer in rethinking political theory and in creating a space in which "politics" is not just a matter between people, but also with nature. These lessons about living together emerge from fieldwork around practices in which worms are central. Thus, the...

  17. Weird and wonderful worms

    OpenAIRE

    Wassink, J.

    2015-01-01

    In the WaterLab, biotechnologist Steef de Valk is carrying out experiments with tubifex worms. These threadlike creatures are capable of reducing by half the quantity of sewage sludge from water treatment. No-one really understands how this works.

  18. Whitefly (Bemisia tabaci genome project: analysis of sequenced clones from egg, instar, and adult (viruliferous and non-viruliferous cDNA libraries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Czosnek Henryk

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The past three decades have witnessed a dramatic increase in interest in the whitefly Bemisia tabaci, owing to its nature as a taxonomically cryptic species, the damage it causes to a large number of herbaceous plants because of its specialized feeding in the phloem, and to its ability to serve as a vector of plant viruses. Among the most important plant viruses to be transmitted by B. tabaci are those in the genus Begomovirus (family, Geminiviridae. Surprisingly, little is known about the genome of this whitefly. The haploid genome size for male B. tabaci has been estimated to be approximately one billion bp by flow cytometry analysis, about five times the size of the fruitfly Drosophila melanogaster. The genes involved in whitefly development, in host range plasticity, and in begomovirus vector specificity and competency, are unknown. Results To address this general shortage of genomic sequence information, we have constructed three cDNA libraries from non-viruliferous whiteflies (eggs, immature instars, and adults and two from adult insects that fed on tomato plants infected by two geminiviruses: Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV and Tomato mottle virus (ToMoV. In total, the sequence of 18,976 clones was determined. After quality control, and removal of 5,542 clones of mitochondrial origin 9,110 sequences remained which included 3,843 singletons and 1,017 contigs. Comparisons with public databases indicated that the libraries contained genes involved in cellular and developmental processes. In addition, approximately 1,000 bases aligned with the genome of the B. tabaci endosymbiotic bacterium Candidatus Portiera aleyrodidarum, originating primarily from the egg and instar libraries. Apart from the mitochondrial sequences, the longest and most abundant sequence encodes vitellogenin, which originated from whitefly adult libraries, indicating that much of the gene expression in this insect is directed toward the production

  19. Intelligent System for Worm Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarek S. Sobh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Worms are on the top of malware threats attacking computer system although of the evolution of worms detectiontechniques. Early detection of unknown worms is still a problem. This paper produce a method for detecting unknown wormsbased on local victim information. The proposed system uses Artificial Neural Network (ANN for classifying worm/ nonwormtraffic and predicting the percentage of infection in the infected network. This prediction can be used to support decisionmaking process for network administrator to respond quickly to worm propagation in an accurate procedure.

  20. Polymorphic Worms Collection in Cloud Computing

    OpenAIRE

    Ashraf A. Shahin

    2014-01-01

    In the past few years, computer worms are seen as one of significant challenges of cloud computing. Worms are rapidly changing and getting more sophisticated to evade detection. One major issue to defend against computer worms is collecting worms' payloads to generate their signature and study their behavior. To collect worms' payloads, we identified challenges for detecting and collecting worms' payloads and proposed high-interactive honeypot to collect payloads of zero-day polymorphic worms...

  1. Task 7c: Worm tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Worm tank has a unique shape. In the seismic design of a worm tank, it is desirable to clear the behavior of the worm tank under the seismic loading. We assumed that there are two phenomena in the seismic behavior of the worm tank same as the behavior of the cylindrical and rectangular tanks. One is a sloshing behavior of the water and another is the dynamic response of the worm tank. In this study, we investigate the dynamic characteristics of the worm tank during the strong earthquakes. We conducted the vibration tests to clarify the seismic behaviors of the worm tanks and obtained the valuable data to verify the analytical method. It was found that the natural frequency can be calculated using the eigenvalue formula of the cylindrical and rectangular tanks. Lower modes of the worm tank are identical with that of the rectangular tank. We can estimate the surface behavior and the impact mode using the data of the rectangular tank. (author)

  2. Drilling-worm unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levkovich, P.Ye.; Bratishcheva, L.L.; Lozovskiy, I.I.; Savich, N.S.

    1982-01-01

    The purpose of the invention is to improve efficiency of oriented well drilling. This goal is achieved because in the drilling worm unit which includes a worm sectional unit which is joined to the drilling crowns, whose main section is equipped with a bracket with device ahead of the drilling crowns for oriented well drilling, the latter is made in the form of two freely rotating wheels arranged on one side from the unit perpendicularly to its longitudinal axis and lying in one horizontal plane with the rotation axes of the drilling crowns, and the distance between the axis of rotation of the drilling crown and the rotation axis of the wheel adjoining it is less than the sum of their radii by a quantity which can be defined by a formula derived from the radius of the drilling crown and the thickness of the bracket. The design of the device for oriented well drilling in the form of two freely rotating wheels arranged on one side from the unit perpendicularly to its longitudinal axis to the drilling crowns lying in one horizontal plane with the rotation axes with distance between the rotation axis of the drilling crown and the rotation axis of the wheel adjoining it is less than the sum of their radii, by a quantity derived from the same parameters, and guarantees interaction of the device for oriented well drilling with the side walls of the previously drilled well. This makes it insensitive to rock collapses from the well roof and permits the static cutter to be eliminated, and consequently, elimination of the deflecting force and reduction in the feed force. All of this will permit improvement in the efficiency of well drilling.

  3. Immunosuppressive PAS-1 is an excretory/secretory protein released by larval and adult worms of the ascarid nematode Ascaris suum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antunes, M F P; Titz, T O; Batista, I F C; Marques-Porto, R; Oliveira, C F; Alves de Araujo, C A; Macedo-Soares, M F

    2015-05-01

    Helminths use several strategies to evade and/or modify the host immune response, including suppression or inactivation of the host antigen-specific response. Several helminth immunomodulatory molecules have been identified. Our studies have focused on immunosuppression induced by the roundworm Ascaris suum and an A. suum-derived protein named protein 1 from A. suum (PAS-1). Here we assessed whether PAS-1 is an excretory/secretory (E/S) protein and whether it can suppress lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation. Larvae from infective eggs were cultured in unsupplemented Dulbecco's modified Eagle medium (DMEM) for 2 weeks. PAS-1 was then measured in the culture supernatants and in adult A. suum body fluid at different time points by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) with the monoclonal antibody MAIP-1. Secreted PAS-1 was detected in both larval culture supernatant and adult body fluid. It suppressed lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced leucocyte migration and pro-inflammatory cytokine production, and stimulated interleukin (IL)-10 secretion, indicating that larval and adult secreted PAS-1 suppresses inflammation in this model. Moreover, the anti-inflammatory activity of PAS-1 was abolished by treatment with MAIP-1, a PAS-1-specific monoclonal antibody, confirming the crucial role of PAS-1 in suppressing LPS-induced inflammation. These findings demonstrate that PAS-1 is an E/S protein with anti-inflammatory properties likely to be attributable to IL-10 production. PMID:24703095

  4. Characterizing Internet Worm Infection Structure

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Qian; Chen, Chao

    2010-01-01

    Internet worm infection continues to be one of top security threats. Moreover, worm infection has been widely used by botnets to recruit new bots and construct P2P-based botnets. In this work, we attempt to characterize the network structure of Internet worm infection and shed light on the micro-level information of "who infects whom." Our work quantifies the infection ability of individual hosts and reveals the key characteristics of the underlying topologies formed by worm infection, i.e., the number of children and the generation of the Internet worm infection family tree. Specifically, we first analyze the infection tree of a wide class of worms, for which a new victim is compromised by each existing infected host with equal probability. We find that the number of children has asymptotically a geometric distribution with parameter 0.5. We also discover that the generation follows closely a Poisson distribution and the average path length of the worm infection family tree increases approximately logarithmi...

  5. 猪带绦虫成虫cDNA质粒文库的构建及EST测序%Construction of the full-length cDNA plasmid library for adult worms of Taenia solium and its ETS sequencing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄江; 胡旭初; 徐劲; 余新炳; 包怀恩; 郎书源; 廖兴江

    2008-01-01

    目的 构建猪带绦虫(Taenia solium)成虫全长cDNA表达文库,为获取猪带绦虫成虫的基因信息,建立基因表达谱,并为筛选疫苗基因和诊断抗原基因奠定基础.方法 提取猪带绦虫成虫mRNA,构建pBluescript II SK全长cDNA质粒文库,测定扩增文库的滴度;用载体克隆位点两端的引物进行PCR扩增,以检测所构建文库的质量.随机挑选质粒文库转化的阳性重组克隆,进行较大规模的5'端测序,归并unigene.结果 文库库容达到1×106 pfu/ml ,插入片段的大小主要在1 000bp以上.获得有效EST序列2 000条,归并为1 171条unigene.结论 已成功获得一高质量的猪带绦虫成虫全长cDNA表达文库,并获得了较丰富的成虫表达基因数据.

  6. cDNA: 34099 [

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available H. sapiens + Hs.15282 Homo sapiens cDNA FLJ44214 fis, clone THYMU3003309, moderately similar to ... Homo sapiens sarcoma antigen (SAGE ) gnl|UG|Hs#S16886502 AK126202 23/5622_34099.png ...

  7. cDNA: 33377 [

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available H. sapiens + Hs.181243 Homo sapiens full open reading frame cDNA clone RZPDo834H102D for gene AT ... F4, activating transcription factor 4 (tax -responsive enhancer element B67); complete cds; wi ...

  8. cDNA: 17527 [

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available H. sapiens + Hs.134229 Homo sapiens cDNA FLJ44146 fis, clone THYMU2027734, weakly similar to Hom ... o sapiens SA hypertension -associated homolog (rat) (SAH) gnl|UG|Hs#S16886570 ...

  9. cDNA: 47992 [

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available M. musculus - Mm.228067 Mus musculus 15 days embryo male testis cDNA, RIKEN full-length enriched ... lone:8030476B22 product:hypothetical Mitochondrial energy ... transfer proteins (carrier protein) containing pro ...

  10. cDNA: 47994 [

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available M. musculus - Mm.228067 Mus musculus 0 day neonate eyeball cDNA, RIKEN full-length enriched libr ... lone:E130118D21 product:hypothetical Mitochondrial energy ... transfer proteins (carrier protein) containing pro ...

  11. cDNA: 52275 [

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available M. musculus - Mm.275648 Mus musculus 11 days embryo head cDNA, RIKEN full-length enriched librar ... y, clone:6230400I01 product:SIMILAR TO ENIGMA ... (LIM DOMAIN PROTEIN) homolog [Homo sapiens], full ...

  12. cDNA: 52277 [

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available M. musculus - Mm.275648 Mus musculus 18-day embryo whole body cDNA, RIKEN full-length enriched l ... ibrary, clone:1110003B01 product:SIMILAR TO ENIGMA ... (LIM DOMAIN PROTEIN) homolog [Homo sapiens], full ...

  13. Internet worm early detection and response mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    In recent years, fast spreading worm has become one of the major threats to the security of the Internet and has an increasingly fierce tendency.In view of the insufficiency that based on Kalman filter worm detection algorithm is sensitive to interval, this article presents a new data collection plan and an improved worm early detection method which has some deferent intervals according to the epidemic worm propagation model, then proposes a worm response mechanism for slowing the wide and fast worm propagation effectively.Simulation results show that our methods are able to detect worms accurately and early.

  14. Cloning, expression and protective immunity evaluation of the full-length cDNA encoding succinate dehydrogenase iron-sulfur protein of Schistosoma japonicum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU JunLong; WANG ShiPing; LI WenKai; DAI Gan; XU ShaoRui; HE Zhuo; PENG XianChu; ZHOU SongHua; LIU XueQin

    2007-01-01

    1071-bp fragment was obtained from the Schistosoma japonicum (Chinese strain) adult cDNA library after the 3' and 5' ends of the incomplete expression sequence tag (EST) of succinate dehydrogenase iron-sulfur protein of Schistosoma japonicum (SjSDISP) were amplified by the anchored PCR with 2pairs of primers designed according to the EST of SjSDISP and the sequence of multiclone sites of the library vector. Sequence analysis indicated that the fragment was a full-length cDNA with a complete open reading frame (ORF), encoding 278 amino acid residues. The fragment was cloned into prokaryotic expression vector pQE30, and subsequently sequenced and expressed in Escherichia coll.SDS-PAGE and Western-blot analyses showed that the recombinant protein was about 32 kD and could be recognized by the polyclonal antisera from rabbits immunized with Schistosoma japonicum adult worm antigen. Compared with the FCA controls, mice vaccinated with rSjSDISP (test) or rSjGST (positive control) all revealed high levels of specific antibody and significant reduction in worm burden, liver eggs per gram (LEPG), fecal eggs per gram (FEPG) and intrauterine eggs. These results suggest that SjSDISP may be a novel and partially protective vaccine candidate against schistosomiasis. In contrast to the worm burden reduction rate, the higher degree of egg reduction rate in the test group also suggested that SjSDISP vaccine may primarily play a role in anti-embryonation or anti-fecundity immunity.

  15. Encounter-based worms: Analysis and Defense

    CERN Document Server

    Tanachaiwiwat, Sapon

    2007-01-01

    Encounter-based network is a frequently-disconnected wireless ad-hoc network requiring immediate neighbors to store and forward aggregated data for information disseminations. Using traditional approaches such as gateways or firewalls for deterring worm propagation in encounter-based networks is inappropriate. We propose the worm interaction approach that relies upon automated beneficial worm generation aiming to alleviate problems of worm propagations in such networks. To understand the dynamic of worm interactions and its performance, we mathematically model worm interactions based on major worm interaction factors including worm interaction types, network characteristics, and node characteristics using ordinary differential equations and analyze their effects on our proposed metrics. We validate our proposed model using extensive synthetic and trace-driven simulations. We find that, all worm interaction factors significantly affect the pattern of worm propagations. For example, immunization linearly decrea...

  16. LUBRICATION BASIS THEORY OF WORM PAIR AND TEMPERATURE DISTRIBUTION ON WORM GEAR SURFACE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    The lubrication basis theory of worm pair is given. The lubrication state of worm gear is analyzed. It is found that the temperature distribution on the tooth surface of worm gear is closely related with the lubrication state and that the temperature on the tooth surface of worm gear is consistent with the characteristic term of mesh and motion of worm pair.

  17. cDNA: 37672 [ASTRA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available M. musculus - Mm.315626 Mus musculus adult male thymus cDNA, RIKEN full-length enriched library, ... 10 product:MODULATOR OF ANTIGEN RECEPTOR SIGNALING MARS , full insert sequence gnl|UG|Mm#S10847064 AK030877 ...

  18. cDNA: 37677 [ASTRA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available M. musculus - Mm.315626 Mus musculus adult retina cDNA, RIKEN full-length enriched library, clon ... 21 product:MODULATOR OF ANTIGEN RECEPTOR SIGNALING MARS , full insert sequence gnl|UG|Mm#S9072626 AK020837 ...

  19. cDNA: 57842 [ASTRA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available M. musculus - Mm.1441 Mus musculus adult male spinal cord cDNA, RIKEN full-length enriched libra ... ry, clone:A330093C04 product:hypothetical Serine proteases , trypsin family/Chymotrypsin serine protease famil ...

  20. cDNA: 12295 [

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available H. sapiens + Hs.267288 Homo sapiens full open reading ... frame cDNA clone RZPDo834G0212D for gene C ... 6orf55, chromosome 6 open reading ... frame 55; complete cds, incl. stopcodon gnl|UG|Hs# ...

  1. cDNA: 16610 [

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available H. sapiens + Hs.62595 Homo sapiens full open reading ... frame cDNA clone RZPDo834H088D for gene C9o ... rf9, chromosome 9 open reading ... frame 9; complete cds, incl. stopcodon gnl|UG|Hs#S ...

  2. cDNA: 3940 [

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available H. sapiens - Hs.7188 Homo sapiens cDNA PSEC0078 fis, clone NT2RP2004036, moderately similar to M ... -Sema F=a factor in neural network ... development. gnl|UG|Hs#S4806431 AK075388 2/887_394 ...

  3. cDNA: 41587 [

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available M. musculus - Mm.30133 Mus musculus 18-day embryo whole body cDNA, RIKEN full-length enriched li ... brary, clone:1110004A14 product:ethanol ... induced 6, full insert sequence gnl|UG|Mm#S9085518 ...

  4. cDNA: 46327 [

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available M. musculus + Mm.292517 Mus musculus 12 days embryo spinal ganglion cDNA, RIKEN fu ll-length enri ... PHA CHAIN) (PHERS) (CML33) homolog [Homo sapiens], fu ... ... gnl|UG|Mm#S10835133 AK084031 8/7824_46327.png ...

  5. cDNA: 36690 [

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available M. musculus + Mm.345070 Mus musculus 16 days embryo head cDNA, RIKEN fu ll-length enriched librar ... SPLICEOSOME ASSOCIATED PROTEIN 49) [Homo sapiens], fu ... ... gnl|UG|Mm#S10835972 AK081584 2/6005_36690.png ...

  6. cDNA: 40377 [

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available M. musculus - Mm.154312 Mus musculus 0 day neonate kidney cDNA, RIKEN full-length enriched libra ... ry, clone:D630023P19 product:HYPERTENSION ... RELATED PROTEIN 1, full insert sequence gnl|UG|Mm# ...

  7. cDNA: 40378 [

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available M. musculus - Mm.154312 Mus musculus 7 days embryo whole body cDNA, RIKEN full-length enriched l ... ibrary, clone:C430046A10 product:HYPERTENSION ... RELATED PROTEIN 1, full insert sequence gnl|UG|Mm# ...

  8. Defense and detection strategies against Internet worms

    CERN Document Server

    Nazario, José

    2004-01-01

    This is the first book focused exclusively on Internet worms, offering you solid worm detection and mitigation strategies for your work in the field. This ground-breaking volume enables you to put rising worm trends into perspective with practical information in detection and defense techniques utilizing data from live networks, real IP addresses, and commercial tools. The book helps you understand the classifications and groupings of worms, and offers a deeper understanding of how they threaten network and system security.

  9. [beta]-hexosaminidase isozymes from cells cotransfected with [alpha] and [beta] cDNA constructs: Analysis of the [alpha]-subunit missense mutation associated with the adult form of Tay-Sachs disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, C.A.; Mahuran, D.J. (Univ. of Toronto (Canada))

    1993-08-01

    In vitro mutagenesis and transient expression in COS cells has been used to associate a missense mutation with a clinical or biochemical phenotype. Mutations affecting the [alpha]-subunit of [beta]-hexosaminidase A ([alpha][beta]) (E.C.3.2.1.52) result in Tay-Sachs disease. Because hexosaminidase A is heterodimeric, analysis of [alpha]-chain mutations is not straightforward. The authors examine three approaches utilizing previously identified mutations affecting [alpha]-chain folding. These involve transfection of (1) the [alpha] cDNA alone; (2) a [beta] cDNA construct encoding a [beta]-subunit substituted at a position homologous to that of the [alpha]-subunit, and (3) both [alpha] and [beta] cDNAs. The latter two procedures amplified residual activity levels over that of patient samples, an effect not previously found with mutations affecting an [open quotes]active[close quotes] [alpha]Arg residue. This effect may help to discriminate between protein-folding and active-site mutations. The authors conclude that, with proper controls, the latter method of cotransfection can be used to evaluate the effects and perhaps to predict the clinical course of some [alpha]-chain mutations. Using this technique, they demonstrate that the adult-onset Tay-Sachs mutation, [alpha]Gly[yields]Ser[sup 269], does not directly affect [alpha][beta] dimerization but exerts an indirect effect on the dimer through destabilizing the folded [alpha]-subunit at physiological temperatures. Two other [alpha] mutations linked to more severe phenotypes appear to inhibit the initial folding of the subunit. 36 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.

  10. New Multi-step Worm Attack Model

    CERN Document Server

    Robiah, Y; Shahrin, S; Faizal, M A; Zaki, M Mohd; Marliza, R

    2010-01-01

    The traditional worms such as Blaster, Code Red, Slammer and Sasser, are still infecting vulnerable machines on the internet. They will remain as significant threats due to their fast spreading nature on the internet. Various traditional worms attack pattern has been analyzed from various logs at different OSI layers such as victim logs, attacker logs and IDS alert log. These worms attack pattern can be abstracted to form worms' attack model which describes the process of worms' infection. For the purpose of this paper, only Blaster variants were used during the experiment. This paper proposes a multi-step worm attack model which can be extended into research areas in alert correlation and computer forensic investigation.

  11. Polyanhydride Nanoparticle Delivery Platform Dramatically Enhances Killing of Filarial Worms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea M Binnebose

    Full Text Available Filarial diseases represent a significant social and economic burden to over 120 million people worldwide and are caused by endoparasites that require the presence of symbiotic bacteria of the genus Wolbachia for fertility and viability of the host parasite. Targeting Wolbachia for elimination is a therapeutic approach that shows promise in the treatment of onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis. Here we demonstrate the use of a biodegradable polyanhydride nanoparticle-based platform for the co-delivery of the antibiotic doxycycline with the antiparasitic drug, ivermectin, to reduce microfilarial burden and rapidly kill adult worms. When doxycycline and ivermectin were co-delivered within polyanhydride nanoparticles, effective killing of adult female Brugia malayi filarial worms was achieved with approximately 4,000-fold reduction in the amount of drug used. Additionally the time to death of the macrofilaria was also significantly reduced (five-fold when the anti-filarial drug cocktail was delivered within polyanhydride nanoparticles. We hypothesize that the mechanism behind this dramatically enhanced killing of the macrofilaria is the ability of the polyanhydride nanoparticles to behave as a Trojan horse and penetrate the cuticle, bypassing excretory pumps of B. malayi, and effectively deliver drug directly to both the worm and Wolbachia at high enough microenvironmental concentrations to cause death. These provocative findings may have significant consequences for the reduction in the amount of drug and the length of treatment required for filarial infections in terms of patient compliance and reduced cost of treatment.

  12. Screw-worm eradication in the Americas - Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Screw-worms (Cochliomyia hominivorax, Coquerel) are found only in the Americas, and are known, therefore, as the New World Screw-worm (NWS). The larval stages of the fly feed on the living flesh of their host. A screw-worm infestation can kill an adult animal in 7-10 days if not treated. All warm-blooded animals are affected including man. Although screw-worms had long been recognised as a severe pest of animals in the southwestern United States, they had never been detected east of the Mississippi River before 1933. In July 1933, screw-worms were transported on infested cattle to Georgia and became established east of the Mississippi River. Screw-worms spread quickly in the southeastern United States and were able to overwinter in southern Florida. Being new to the region, they were quickly recognised as a severe pest with a tremendous economic impact on livestock production. The livestock owners in the southeastern United States immediately noticed an increase in the number of animal deaths and increased costs of insecticides, veterinary medicines, veterinary services, inspection and handling. At the same time, they observed a decrease in animal weights and in milk production. Due to these observations, the livestock industry in the southeastern United States requested help in controlling screw-worms. Because of these requests, the research community became interested in control and eradication measures for this pest. Early work by Crushing and Patton in 1933 recognised that C. hominivorax was an obligatory animal parasite and different from the secondary blowfly, Cochliomyia macellaria. In 1934, the US Department of Agriculture (USDA), Agricultural Research Service (ARS) opened a research station in Valdosa, Georgia, and E.W. Laake and E.F. Knipling were assigned to work there. In September 1935, R.C. Bushland was hired by ARS to do research related to screw-worms at an ARS Research Laboratory in Dallas, Texas. Melvin and Bushland in 1936 developed artificial

  13. Darknet-Based Inference of Internet Worm Temporal Characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Qian; Chen, Zesheng; Chen, Chao

    2010-01-01

    Internet worm attacks pose a significant threat to network security and management. In this work, we coin the term Internet worm tomography as inferring the characteristics of Internet worms from the observations of Darknet or network telescopes that monitor a routable but unused IP address space. Under the framework of Internet worm tomography, we attempt to infer Internet worm temporal behaviors, i.e., the host infection time and the worm infection sequence, and thus pinpoint patient zero o...

  14. ULTRASTRUCTURAL CHANGES IN Schistosoma mansoni MALE WORMS AFTER in vitro INCUBATION WITH THE ESSENTIAL OIL OF Mentha x villosa Huds

    Science.gov (United States)

    MATOS-ROCHA, Thiago José; CAVALCANTI, Marília Gabriela dos Santos; VERAS, Dyana Leal; FEITOSA, Ana Paula Sampaio; GONÇALVES, Gabriel Gazzoni Araújo; PORTELA-JUNIOR, Nairomberg Cavalcanti; LÚCIO, Ana Silvia Suassuna Carneiro; da SILVA, Anekécia Lauro; PADILHA, Rafael José Ribeiro; MARQUES, Márcia Ortiz Mayo; BARBOSA-FILHO, José Maria; ALVES, Luiz Carlos; BRAYNER, Fábio André

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The essential oil Mentha x villosa (MVEO) has a wide range of actions, including antibacterial, antifungal, antiprotozoal and schistosomicidal actions. The present study aimed to investigate the ultrastructural changes of MVEO on the tegument of adult Schistosoma mansoni. Materials and Methods: Different concentrations of MVEO were tested on S. mansoni adult worms in vitro. Ultrastructural changes on the tegument of these adult worms were evaluated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Results: The MVEO caused the death of all worms at 500 μg mL-1 after 24 h. After 24h of 500 μg mL-1 MVEO treatment, bubble lesions were observed over the entire body of worms and they presented loss of tubercles in some regions of the ventral portion. In the evaluation by TEM, S. mansoni adult worms treated with MVEO, 500 μg mL-1, presented changes in the tegument and vacuoles in the syncytial matrix region. Glycogen granules close to the muscle fibers were visible. Conclusion: The ability of MVEO to cause extensive ultrastructural damage to S. mansoni adult worms correlates with its schistosomicidal effects and confirms earlier findings with S. mansoni. PMID:26910448

  15. Tackling the Threats of Internet Worms

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Sakib Khan Pathan

    2012-01-01

    Computer Worm is a kind of malicious program that self-replicates automatically within a computer network. Again, Internet is defined as a network of networks. This is the reason why computer worms do not reside only within one computer or a single network but rather get spread all over the Internet whenever it is possible during computer-to-computer communications. The reality of today’s Internet is that the worms pose a major threat to the Internet infrastructure security. This is also unde...

  16. Viability of developmental stages of Schistosoma mansoni quantified with xCELLigence worm real-time motility assay (xWORM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinaldi, Gabriel; Loukas, Alex; Brindley, Paul J; Irelan, Jeff T; Smout, Michael J

    2015-12-01

    Infection with helminth parasites causes morbidity and mortality in billions of people and livestock worldwide. Where anthelmintic drugs are available, drug resistance is a major problem in livestock parasites, and a looming threat to public health. Monitoring the efficacy of these medicines and screening for new drugs has been hindered by the lack of objective, high-throughput approaches. Several cell monitoring technologies have been adapted for parasitic worms, including video-, fluorescence-, metabolism enzyme- and impedance-based tools that minimize the screening bottleneck. Using the xCELLigence impedance-based system we previously developed a motility-viability assay that is applicable for a range of helminth parasites. Here we have improved substantially the assay by using diverse frequency settings, and have named it the xCELLigence worm real-time motility assay (xWORM). By utilizing strictly standardized mean difference analysis we compared the xWORM output measured with 10, 25 and 50 kHz frequencies to quantify the motility of schistosome adults (human blood flukes) and hatching of schistosome eggs. Furthermore, we have described a novel application of xWORM to monitor movement of schistosome cercariae, the developmental stage that is infectious to humans. For all three stages, 25 kHz was either optimal or near-optimal for monitoring and quantifying schistosome motility. These improvements in methodology sensitivity should enhance the capacity to screen small compound libraries for new drugs both for schistosomes and other helminth pathogens at large. PMID:26288742

  17. Viability of developmental stages of Schistosoma mansoni quantified with xCELLigence worm real-time motility assay (xWORM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Rinaldi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Infection with helminth parasites causes morbidity and mortality in billions of people and livestock worldwide. Where anthelmintic drugs are available, drug resistance is a major problem in livestock parasites, and a looming threat to public health. Monitoring the efficacy of these medicines and screening for new drugs has been hindered by the lack of objective, high-throughput approaches. Several cell monitoring technologies have been adapted for parasitic worms, including video-, fluorescence-, metabolism enzyme- and impedance-based tools that minimize the screening bottleneck. Using the xCELLigence impedance-based system we previously developed a motility-viability assay that is applicable for a range of helminth parasites. Here we have improved substantially the assay by using diverse frequency settings, and have named it the xCELLigence worm real-time motility assay (xWORM. By utilizing strictly standardized mean difference analysis we compared the xWORM output measured with 10, 25 and 50 kHz frequencies to quantify the motility of schistosome adults (human blood flukes and hatching of schistosome eggs. Furthermore, we have described a novel application of xWORM to monitor movement of schistosome cercariae, the developmental stage that is infectious to humans. For all three stages, 25 kHz was either optimal or near-optimal for monitoring and quantifying schistosome motility. These improvements in methodology sensitivity should enhance the capacity to screen small compound libraries for new drugs both for schistosomes and other helminth pathogens at large.

  18. Worm Epidemics in Wireless Adhoc Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Nekovee, Maziar

    2007-01-01

    A dramatic increase in the number of computing devices with wireless communication capability has resulted in the emergence of a new class of computer worms which specifically target such devices. The most striking feature of these worms is that they do not require Internet connectivity for their propagation but can spread directly from device to device using a short-range radio communication technology, such as WiFi or Bluetooth. In this paper, we develop a new model for epidemic spreading of these worms and investigate their spreading in wireless ad hoc networks via extensive Monte Carlo simulations. Our studies show that the threshold behaviour and dynamics of worm epidemics in these networks are greatly affected by a combination of spatial and temporal correlations which characterize these networks, and are significantly different from the previously studied epidemics in the Internet.

  19. Worm epidemics in wireless ad hoc networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nekovee, Maziar

    2007-06-01

    A dramatic increase in the number of computing devices with wireless communication capability has resulted in the emergence of a new class of computer worms which specifically target such devices. The most striking feature of these worms is that they do not require Internet connectivity for their propagation but can spread directly from device to device using a short-range radio communication technology, such as WiFi or Bluetooth. In this paper, we develop a new model for epidemic spreading of these worms and investigate their spreading in wireless ad hoc networks via extensive Monte Carlo simulations. Our studies show that the threshold behaviour and dynamics of worm epidemics in these networks are greatly affected by a combination of spatial and temporal correlations which characterize these networks, and are significantly different from the previously studied epidemics in the Internet.

  20. Detecting Internet Worms Using Data Mining Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muazzam Siddiqui

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Internet worms pose a serious threat to computer security. Traditional approaches using signatures to detect worms pose little danger to the zero day attacks. The focus of malware research is shifting from using signature patterns to identifying the malicious behavior displayed by the malwares. This paper presents a novel idea of extracting variable length instruction sequences that can identify worms from clean programs using data mining techniques. The analysis is facilitated by the program control flow information contained in the instruction sequences. Based upon general statistics gathered from these instruction sequences we formulated the problem as a binary classification problem and built tree based classifiers including decision tree, bagging and random forest. Our approach showed 95.6% detection rate on novel worms whose data was not used in the model building process.

  1. Worm epidemics in wireless ad hoc networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A dramatic increase in the number of computing devices with wireless communication capability has resulted in the emergence of a new class of computer worms which specifically target such devices. The most striking feature of these worms is that they do not require Internet connectivity for their propagation but can spread directly from device to device using a short-range radio communication technology, such as WiFi or Bluetooth. In this paper, we develop a new model for epidemic spreading of these worms and investigate their spreading in wireless ad hoc networks via extensive Monte Carlo simulations. Our studies show that the threshold behaviour and dynamics of worm epidemics in these networks are greatly affected by a combination of spatial and temporal correlations which characterize these networks, and are significantly different from the previously studied epidemics in the Internet

  2. Scenario Based Worm Trace Pattern Identification Technique

    CERN Document Server

    Rahayu, S Siti; Shahrin, S; Zaki, Mohd M; Irda, R; Faizal, M A

    2010-01-01

    The number of malware variants is growing tremendously and the study of malware attacks on the Internet is still a demanding research domain. In this research, various logs from different OSI layer are explore to identify the traces leave on the attacker and victim logs, and the attack worm trace pattern are establish in order to reveal true attacker or victim. For the purpose of this paper, it will only concentrate on cybercrime that caused by malware network intrusion and used the traditional worm namely blaster worm variants. This research creates the concept of trace pattern by fusing the attackers and victims perspective. Therefore, the objective of this paper is to propose on attackers, victims and multistep, attacker or victim, trace patterns by combining both perspectives. These three proposed worm trace patterns can be extended into research areas in alert correlation and computer forensic investigation.

  3. Worming our way closer to the clinic

    OpenAIRE

    Hepworth, Matthew R.; Hartmann, Susanne

    2012-01-01

    In a recent issue of “The International Journal for Parasitology: Drugs and Drug Resistance” Prof. David Pritchard from the University of Nottingham offers his intriguing opinion on the current status of “worm therapy” and outlines future research priorities aimed at bringing this research area closer to the clinic. In this response article we discuss various aspects of the current state of the research field and offer some alternative viewpoints regarding the future of “worm therapy”....

  4. Polyamide worm gear: manufacturing and performance

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandre Luís Gasparin; Leandro Luís Corso; Eduardo Kirinus Tentardini; Regina Célia Reis Nunes; Maria Madalena Camargo Forte; Ricardo Vinicius Bof de Oliveira

    2012-01-01

    The focus of this paper is to establish a characterisation method for seven polyamide (PA) grades to determine the major material to manufacture an automotive worm gear. The composite properties were measured according to the worm gear loadings: tensile strength, Young's modulus, abrasion and impact resistance. They were also correlated to the PA moisture absorption and its glass fibre (GF) reinforcement. The data from mechanical tests were applied in the finite element analysis (FEA) using t...

  5. Research of internet worm warning system based on system identification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tao ZHOU; Guanzhong DAI; Huimin YE

    2006-01-01

    The frequent explosion of Internet worms has been one of the most serious problems in cyberspace security.In this paper, by analyzing the worm's propagation model, we propose a new worm warning system based on the method of system identification, and use recursive least squares algorithm to estimate the worm's infection rate. The simulation result shows the method we adopted is an efficient way to conduct Internet worm warning.

  6. Aquatic worms eat sludge: Mass balances and processing of worm faeces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reduction of the amount of waste sludge from waste water treatment plants (WWTPs) can be achieved with the aquatic worm Lumbriculus variegatus in a new reactor concept. In addition to reducing the amount of waste sludge, further processing of produced worm faeces and released nutrients should also be considered. This study gives the mass balances for sludge consumed by L. variegatus, showing the fate of the consumed organic material, nutrients and heavy metals associated with the sludge. A distinction is made between conversion into worm biomass, release as dissolved metabolites and what remains in the worm faeces. The results showed that 39% of the nitrogen and 12% of the phosphorus in the sludge digested by the worms are used in the formation of new worm biomass, which has potential for reuse. Experiments showed that settling of the worm faeces leads to a factor 2.5 higher solids concentration, compared to settling of waste sludge. This could lead to a 67% reduction of the volumetric load on thickening equipment. The worm reactor is expected to be most interesting for smaller WWTPs where a decrease on the volumetric load on sludge handling operations will have most impact.

  7. Cloning and expression analysis of MBLL cDNA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The mbl (muscleblind) gene of Drosophila encodes a nuclear protein which contains two Cys3His motifs. The mutation of mbl gene will disturb the differentiation of all the Drosophila's photoreceptors. Primers have been designed according to human EST086139, which is highly homologous to mbl gene. Human fetal brain cDNA library has been screened and a novel cDNA clone has been obtained. The 2595 bp cDNA, designated MBLL (muscleblind-like), contains an open reading frame which encodes 255 amino acids and has 4 Cys3His motifs (GenBank Acc. AF061261). The amino acids sequence shares high homology to Drosophila's mbl. The Northern blot and RNA dot blot hybridization of 43 human adult tissues and 7 fetal tissues show that MBLL is a widely expressed gene, but the expression amounts differ in these tissues.

  8. Disulfide-Functionalized Diblock Copolymer Worm Gels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Nicholas J; Rosselgong, Julien; Madsen, Jeppe; Armes, Steven P

    2015-08-10

    Two strategies for introducing disulfide groups at the outer surface of RAFT-synthesized poly(glycerol monomethacrylate)-poly(2-hydroxypropyl methacrylate) (PGMA-PHPMA, or Gx-Hy for brevity) diblock copolymer worms are investigated. The first approach involved statistical copolymerization of GMA with a small amount of disulfide dimethacrylate (DSDMA, or D) comonomer to afford a G54-D0.50 macromolecular chain transfer agent (macro-CTA); this synthesis was conducted in relatively dilute solution in order to ensure mainly intramolecular cyclization and hence the formation of linear chains. Alternatively, a new disulfide-based bifunctional RAFT agent (DSDB) was used to prepare a G45-S-S-G45 (or (G45-S)2) macro-CTA. A binary mixture of a non-functionalized G55 macro-CTA was utilized with each of these two disulfide-based macro-CTAs in turn for the RAFT aqueous dispersion polymerization of 2-hydroxypropyl methacrylate (HPMA). By targeting a PHPMA DP of 130 and systematically varying the molar ratio of the two macro-CTAs, a series of disulfide-functionalized diblock copolymer worm gels were obtained. For both formulations, oscillatory rheology studies confirmed that higher disulfide contents led to stronger gels, presumably as a result of inter-worm covalent bond formation via disulfide/thiol exchange. Using the DSDB-based macro-CTA led to the strongest worm gels, and this formulation also proved to be more effective in suppressing the thermosensitive behavior that is observed for the nondisulfide-functionalized control worm gel. However, macroscopic precipitation occurred when the proportion of DSDB-based macro-CTA was increased to 50 mol %, whereas the DSDMA-based macro-CTA could be utilized at up to 80 mol %. Finally, the worm gel modulus could be reduced to that of a nondisulfide-containing worm gel by reductive cleavage of the inter-worm disulfide bonds using excess tris(2-carboxyethyl)phosphine (TCEP) to yield thiol groups. These new biomimetic worm gels are

  9. Perceptions of a literate community regarding causation, presentation and treatment practices of intestinal worms among children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To find out the perceived common causes of intestinal worms, their presentations and treatment options taken by the respondents, among children. A total of 2000 families responded to a self-administered questionnaire that was designed to obtain the study objectives. A single adult individual from each family was asked to respond to the questionnaire. Families having health care workers or health professionals were excluded. Medical students were properly trained to ensure competence in collecting a reliable data. The majority of the total respondents were females (66.3%) and were between 15-25 years of age (mean age = 25.4 years) with 100% literacy rate. A noticeable number of respondents (31%) revealed that overeating of sugar causes intestinal worms and that they mainly presented as altered eating habits / appetite (51.8%), abdominal pain (40.8%) and generalized weakness (26.3%). Regarding perceptions of drug treatment, nearly 2/3 of the respondents felt that the de-worming agent should be given to suspected child only (p < 0.001), whereas 65% of the participants expected to observe worms after de-worming treatment (p < 0.001). Contrary to the common use of self-medication in most other illnesses, self-treatment of worms on suspicion was declared by only 21.5% of the respondents (p < 0.0001). This study confirms that misconceptions about intestinal worms in children were prevalent within the community. In addition to the issue of environmental sanitation, removal of the mistaken beliefs is a prerequisite for an effective and long-lasting parasitic control among children. (author)

  10. Polyamide worm gear: manufacturing and performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Luís Gasparin

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The focus of this paper is to establish a characterisation method for seven polyamide (PA grades to determine the major material to manufacture an automotive worm gear. The composite properties were measured according to the worm gear loadings: tensile strength, Young's modulus, abrasion and impact resistance. They were also correlated to the PA moisture absorption and its glass fibre (GF reinforcement. The data from mechanical tests were applied in the finite element analysis (FEA using the von Mises stress criterion. Before the rig tests of the PA worm gears, the injection process was evaluated, through the capillary rheometry. A higher difficulty to process PA 6/6 30% GF was found, due to its lower apparent viscosity. In the end, the influence of moisture absorption was as decisive to the gear's material selection as the GF to the pinion. Thus, the PAs with the best performance were: PA 6 with 30% GF (gear and with PA 60% GF (pinion.

  11. WormGender - Open-Source Software for Automatic Caenorhabditis elegans Sex Ratio Measurement.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta K Labocha

    Full Text Available Fast and quantitative analysis of animal phenotypes is one of the major challenges of current biology. Here we report the WormGender open-source software, which is designed for accurate quantification of sex ratio in Caenorhabditis elegans. The software functions include, i automatic recognition and counting of adult hermaphrodites and males, ii a manual inspection feature that enables manual correction of errors, and iii flexibility to use new training images to optimize the software for different imaging conditions. We evaluated the performance of our software by comparing manual and automated assessment of sex ratio. Our data showed that the WormGender software provided overall accurate sex ratio measurements. We further demonstrated the usage of WormGender by quantifying the high incidence of male (him phenotype in 27 mutant strains. Mutants of nine genes (brc-1, C30G12.6, cep-1, coh-3, him-3, him-5, him-8, skr-1, unc-86 showed significant him phenotype. The WormGender is written in Java and can be installed and run on both Windows and Mac platforms. The source code is freely available together with a user manual and sample data at http://www.QuantWorm.org/. The source code and sample data are also available at http://dx.doi.org/10.6084/m9.figshare.1541248.

  12. Filarial worms reduce Plasmodium infectivity in mosquitoes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew T Aliota

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Co-occurrence of malaria and filarial worm parasites has been reported, but little is known about the interaction between filarial worm and malaria parasites with the same Anopheles vector. Herein, we present data evaluating the interaction between Wuchereria bancrofti and Anopheles punctulatus in Papua New Guinea (PNG. Our field studies in PNG demonstrated that An. punctulatus utilizes the melanization immune response as a natural mechanism of filarial worm resistance against invading W. bancrofti microfilariae. We then conducted laboratory studies utilizing the mosquitoes Armigeres subalbatus and Aedes aegypti and the parasites Brugia malayi, Brugia pahangi, Dirofilaria immitis, and Plasmodium gallinaceum to evaluate the hypothesis that immune activation and/or development by filarial worms negatively impact Plasmodium development in co-infected mosquitoes. Ar. subalbatus used in this study are natural vectors of P. gallinaceum and B. pahangi and they are naturally refractory to B. malayi (melanization-based refractoriness. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Mosquitoes were dissected and Plasmodium development was analyzed six days after blood feeding on either P. gallinaceum alone or after taking a bloodmeal containing both P. gallinaceum and B. malayi or a bloodmeal containing both P. gallinaceum and B. pahangi. There was a significant reduction in the prevalence and mean intensity of Plasmodium infections in two species of mosquito that had dual infections as compared to those mosquitoes that were infected with Plasmodium alone, and was independent of whether the mosquito had a melanization immune response to the filarial worm or not. However, there was no reduction in Plasmodium development when filarial worms were present in the bloodmeal (D. immitis but midgut penetration was absent, suggesting that factors associated with penetration of the midgut by filarial worms likely are responsible for the observed reduction in malaria

  13. Parasitic worms in organic laying hens

    OpenAIRE

    Iepema, msc. Goaitske; Wagenaar, msc Jan-Paul; Bestman, msc. Monique

    2006-01-01

    Laying hens in alternative systems run a higher risk for infections with parasitic worms than when kept in a cage system. Organic farmers generally prefer not to use chemical medicines, but at the same time they are afraid to run health or production risks. Our aim was to get an overview of the current situation concerning the prevalence of parasitic worms in organic laying hens and whether it makes a difference when farmers use anthelmintics. We monitored 16 flocks of organic laying hens on ...

  14. Restriction landmark cDNA scanning (RLCS): a novel cDNA display system using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, H; Yaoi, T; Kawai, J; Hara, A; Kuwajima, G; Wantanabe, S

    1996-01-01

    We have developed a new method, designated restriction landmark cDNA scanning (RLCS), which displays many cDNA species quantitatively and simultaneously as two-dimensional gel spots. In this method cDNA species of uniform length were prepared for each mRNA species using restriction enzymes. After the restriction enzyme sites were radiolabeled as landmarks, the labeled fragments were subjected to high resolution two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. In analyses of cDNA samples from adult mouse liver and brain (cerebral cortex, cerebellum and brain stem) we detected approximately 500 and >1000 discrete gel spots respectively of various intensities at a time. The spot patterns of the three brain regions were very similar, although not identical, but were quite different from the pattern for the liver. RNA blot hybridization analysis using several cloned spot DNAs as probes showed that differences in intensity of the spots among RLCS profiles correlated well with expression levels of the corresponding mRNA species in the brain regions. Because the spots and their intensities reflect distinct mRNA species and their expression level respectively, the RLCS is a novel cDNA display system which provides a great deal of information and should be useful for systematic documentation of differentially expressed genes. PMID:8628652

  15. Darknet-Based Inference of Internet Worm Temporal Characteristics

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Qian; Chen, Chao

    2010-01-01

    Internet worm attacks pose a significant threat to network security and management. In this work, we coin the term Internet worm tomography as inferring the characteristics of Internet worms from the observations of Darknet or network telescopes that monitor a routable but unused IP address space. Under the framework of Internet worm tomography, we attempt to infer Internet worm temporal behaviors, i.e., the host infection time and the worm infection sequence, and thus pinpoint patient zero or initially infected hosts. Specifically, we introduce statistical estimation techniques and propose method of moments, maximum likelihood, and linear regression estimators. We show analytically and empirically that our proposed estimators can better infer worm temporal characteristics than a naive estimator that has been used in the previous work. We also demonstrate that our estimators can be applied to worms using different scanning strategies such as random scanning and localized scanning.

  16. Facing Two Rapidly Spreading Internet Worms

    CERN Multimedia

    IT Department

    2009-01-01

    The Internet is currently facing a growing number of computer infections due to two rapidly spreading worms. The "Conficker" and "Downadup" worms have infected an estimated 1.1 million PCs in a 24-hour period, bringing the total number of infected computers to 3.5 million [1]. Via a single USB stick, these worms were also responsible for the infection of about 40 laptops at the last EGEE conference in Istanbul. In order to reduce the impact of these worms on CERN Windows computers, the Computer Security Team has suggested several preventive measures described here. Disabling the Windows AutoRun and AutoPlay Features The Computer Security Team and the IT/IS group have decided to disable the "AutoRun" and "AutoPlay" functionality on all centrally-managed Windows computers at CERN. When inserting CDs, DVDs or USB sticks into a PC, "AutoRun" and "AutoPlay" are responsible for automatically playing music or films stored on these media, or ...

  17. Streptomycetes - food source for enchytraeid worms (Enchytraeidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krištůfek, Václav; Schrempf, H.

    Melbourne: Melbourne Convention Centre, 2003. s. 72. [International Symposium on the Biology of Actinomycetes /13./. 01.12.2003-05.12.2003, Melbourne] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6066911 Keywords : Streptomycetes * food * enchytraeid worms Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  18. An Impulse Dynamic Model for Computer Worms

    OpenAIRE

    Yingjiang Wu; Yun Zhao; Chunming Zhang

    2013-01-01

    A worm spread model concerning impulsive control strategy is proposed and analyzed. We prove that there exists a globally attractive virus-free periodic solution when the vaccination rate is larger than ${\\theta }_{1}$ . Moreover, we show that the system is uniformly persistent if the vaccination rate is less than ${\\theta }_{1}$ . Some numerical simulations are also given to illustrate our main results.

  19. Method of drill-worm coal extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levkovich, P.Ye.; Bratishcheva, L.L.; Savich, N.S.

    1982-09-01

    The purpose of the invention is to increase extraction productivity. This goal is achieved because according to the method of drill-worm coal extraction which includes drilling from one preparatory shaft to the second of wells by paired worm shaft on a guide which is pulled into the drilled well during reverse course of the shaft, and reinforcement of the drilled well, the drilled well is reinforced by a wedge timbering which bulges out during drilling of the next well. According to the proposed method, coal is extracted by drilling wells from the preparatory shaft 1 (a haulage gallery is shown in the example). Drilling of the wells is done with the help of a sectional worm shaft equipped with a drilling crown and guide device, equipped with a cantilever used to attach the guide device to the main section of the worm shaft. The guide device also includes two horizontally installed, freely rotating cylinders located in front of the drilling crowns in the previously drilled well and the guide ski. During drilling of the well in the second preparatory shaft (a ventilation gallery is indicated in the example) on the guide platform sets of wedge timbering are installed connected with the help of flexible ties, for example chain segments. The wedge timbering (including the main set) consists of wedge elements made of inexpensive material, for example slag-concrete.

  20. The uptake in vitro of dyes, monosaccharides and amino acids by the filarial worm Brugia pahangi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The uptake of D-glucose and L-leucine by B. pahangi was demonstrated using autoradiographic and scintillation counting techniques and incorporation into worm tissues was detected. Glucose was found to be readily incorporated in the apical, glycogen-rich areas of the myocytes of worms of all ages studied and in the uterine epithelium of the adult female. In contrast, a lower incorporation of D-glucose was found in the eggs, embryos and vas deferens and especially in the gut. The incorporation of L-leucine occurred throughout the tissue of the worms during a 30 min incubation. Labelling was also located over the surface of the cuticle of the worms, when incubated for a period of 15 to 60 min in L-[3H]leucine. Scintillation counting techniques demonstrated that there was no uptake of 14C-labelled L-glucose or sucrose by B. pahangi. The data presented on the uptake in vitro of nutrients or other compounds by infective larvae and adult stages of B. pahangi did not demonstrate an intestinal route of uptake but indicated that the transcuticular route of uptake may be employed. (author)

  1. Sampling of general correlators in worm-algorithm based simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rindlisbacher, Tobias; Åkerlund, Oscar; de Forcrand, Philippe

    2016-08-01

    Using the complex ϕ4-model as a prototype for a system which is simulated by a worm algorithm, we show that not only the charged correlator , but also more general correlators such as or , as well as condensates like , can be measured at every step of the Monte Carlo evolution of the worm instead of on closed-worm configurations only. The method generalizes straightforwardly to other systems simulated by worms, such as spin or sigma models.

  2. Sampling of General Correlators in Worm Algorithm-based Simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Rindlisbacher, Tobias; de Forcrand, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Using the complex $\\phi^4$-model as a prototype for a system which is simulated by a (bosonic) worm algorithm, we show that not only the charged correlator $$, but also more general correlators such as $$ or $$ as well as condensates like $$ can be measured at every step of the Monte Carlo evolution of the worm instead of on closed-worm configurations only. The method generalizes straightforwardly to other systems simulated by (bosonic) worms, such as spin or sigma models.

  3. Defending Polymorphic Worms in Computer Network using Honeypot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. T. Goswamia

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Polymorphic worms are a major threat to internet infrastructure security. In this mechanism we are using gate-translator, double honeypot, sticky honeypot, internal translator and antivirus of Cloud AV,which attracts polymorphic worms. We are proposing an algorithm to detect and remove polymorphic worms and innocuous traffic related packets.

  4. Defending Polymorphic Worms in Computer Network using Honeypot

    OpenAIRE

    R. T. Goswamia

    2012-01-01

    Polymorphic worms are a major threat to internet infrastructure security. In this mechanism we are using gate-translator, double honeypot, sticky honeypot, internal translator and antivirus of Cloud AV,which attracts polymorphic worms. We are proposing an algorithm to detect and remove polymorphic worms and innocuous traffic related packets.

  5. Worms Propagation Modeling and Analysis in Big Data Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Song He; Can Zhang; Wei Guo; Li-Dong Zhai

    2015-01-01

    The integration of the Internet and Mobile networks results in huge amount of data, as well as security threat. With the fragile capacity of security protection, worms can propagate in the integration network and undermine the stability and integrity of data. The propagation of worm is a great security risk to massive amounts of data in the integration network. We propose a kind of worm propagating in big data environment named BD-Worm. BD-Worm consumes computing resources and gets privacy in...

  6. Critical loop gases and the worm algorithm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janke, Wolfhard [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Universitaet Leipzig, Postfach 100 920, D-04009 Leipzig (Germany); Neuhaus, Thomas [Juelich Supercomputing Centre, Forschungszentrum Juelich, D-52425 Juelich (Germany); Schakel, Adriaan M.J., E-mail: schakel@itp.uni-leipzig.d [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Universitaet Leipzig, Postfach 100 920, D-04009 Leipzig (Germany)

    2010-04-21

    The loop gas approach to lattice field theory provides an alternative, geometrical description in terms of fluctuating loops. Statistical ensembles of random loops can be efficiently generated by Monte Carlo simulations using the worm update algorithm. In this paper, concepts from percolation theory and the theory of self-avoiding random walks are used to describe estimators of physical observables that utilize the nature of the worm algorithm. The fractal structure of the random loops as well as their scaling properties are studied. To support this approach, the O(1) loop model, or high-temperature series expansion of the Ising model, is simulated on a honeycomb lattice, with its known exact results providing valuable benchmarks.

  7. Worms,Your Unlikely Allies etc

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Back in the Stone Age,humans had to put up with all sorts of creepy crawlies.Parasites - organisms that live on or in another organism - lingered inside our bodies,living off of our blood.Because internal parasites go mostly unnoticed,they were able to keep living with humans.People can survive a long time with tiny parasitic worms in their intestines.

  8. TORQUE MEASUREMENT IN WORM AGLOMERATION MACHINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian DUDZIAK

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the operating characteristics of the worm agglomeration machine. The paper indicates the need for continuous monitoring of the value of the torque due to the efficiency of the machine. An original structure of torque meter which is built in the standard drive system of briquetting machine was presented. A number of benefits arising from the application of the proposed solution were presented. Exemplary measurement results obtained by means of this torque meter were presented.

  9. TORQUE MEASUREMENT IN WORM AGLOMERATION MACHINE

    OpenAIRE

    Marian DUDZIAK; Ireneusz MALUJDA; Krzysztof TALAŚKA

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents the operating characteristics of the worm agglomeration machine. The paper indicates the need for continuous monitoring of the value of the torque due to the efficiency of the machine. An original structure of torque meter which is built in the standard drive system of briquetting machine was presented. A number of benefits arising from the application of the proposed solution were presented. Exemplary measurement results obtained by means of this torque meter were presented.

  10. Isolation of full-length putative rat lysophospholipase cDNA using improved methods for mRNA isolation and cDNA cloning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors have cloned a full-length putative rat pancreatic lysophospholipase cDNA by an improved mRNA isolation method and cDNA cloning strategy using [32P]-labelled nucleotides. These new methods allow the construction of a cDNA library from the adult rat pancreas in which the majority of recombinant clones contained complete sequences for the corresponding mRNAs. A previously recognized but unidentified long and relatively rare cDNA clone containing the entire sequence from the cap site at the 5' end to the poly(A) tail at the 3' end of the mRNA was isolated by single-step screening of the library. The size, amino acid composition, and the activity of the protein expressed in heterologous cells strongly suggest this mRNA codes for lysophospholipase

  11. Parametric Analysis of the End Face Engagement Worm Gear

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DENG Xingqiao; WANG Jueling; WANG Jinge; CHEN Shouan; YANG Jie

    2015-01-01

    A novel specific type of worm drive, so-called end face engagement worm gear(EFEWD), is originally presented to minimize or overcome the gear backlash. Different factors, including the three different types, contact curves, tooth profile, lubrication angle and the induced normal curvature are taken into account to investigate the meshing characteristics and create the profile of a novel specific type of worm drive through mathematical models and theoretical analysis. The tooth of the worm wheel is very specific with the sine-shaped tooth which is located at the alveolus of the worm and the tooth profile of a worm is generated by the meshing movement of the worm wheel with the sine-shaped tooth, but just the end face of the worm(with three different typical meshing types) is adapted to meshing, and therefore an extraordinary manufacturing methods is used to generate the profile of the end face engagement worm. The research results indicates that the bearing contacts of the generated conjugate hourglass worm gear set are in line contacts, with certain advantages of no-backlash, high precision and high operating efficiency over other gears and gear systems besides the end face engagement worm gear drive may improve bearing contact, reduce the level of transmission errors and lessen the sensitivity to errors of alignment. Also, the end face engagement worm can be easily made with superior meshing and lubrication performance compared with the conventional techniques. In particular, the meshing and lubrication performance of the end face engagement worm gear by using the end face to meshing can be increased over 10% and 7%, respectively. This investigate is expect to provide a new insight on the design of the future no-backlash worm drive for industry.

  12. Parametric analysis of the end face engagement worm gear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Xingqiao; Wang, Jueling; Wang, Jinge; Chen, Shouan; Yang, Jie

    2015-11-01

    A novel specific type of worm drive, so-called end face engagement worm gear(EFEWD), is originally presented to minimize or overcome the gear backlash. Different factors, including the three different types, contact curves, tooth profile, lubrication angle and the induced normal curvature are taken into account to investigate the meshing characteristics and create the profile of a novel specific type of worm drive through mathematical models and theoretical analysis. The tooth of the worm wheel is very specific with the sine-shaped tooth which is located at the alveolus of the worm and the tooth profile of a worm is generated by the meshing movement of the worm wheel with the sine-shaped tooth, but just the end face of the worm(with three different typical meshing types) is adapted to meshing, and therefore an extraordinary manufacturing methods is used to generate the profile of the end face engagement worm. The research results indicates that the bearing contacts of the generated conjugate hourglass worm gear set are in line contacts, with certain advantages of no-backlash, high precision and high operating efficiency over other gears and gear systems besides the end face engagement worm gear drive may improve bearing contact, reduce the level of transmission errors and lessen the sensitivity to errors of alignment. Also, the end face engagement worm can be easily made with superior meshing and lubrication performance compared with the conventional techniques. In particular, the meshing and lubrication performance of the end face engagement worm gear by using the end face to meshing can be increased over 10% and 7%, respectively. This investigate is expect to provide a new insight on the design of the future no-backlash worm drive for industry.

  13. Running worms: C. elegans self-sorting by electrotaxis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Manière

    Full Text Available The nematode C. elegans displays complex dynamical behaviors that are commonly used to identify relevant phenotypes. Although its maintenance is straightforward, sorting large populations of worms when looking for a behavioral phenotype is difficult, time consuming and hardly quantitative when done manually. Interestingly, when submitted to a moderate electric field, worms move steadily along straight trajectories. Here, we report an inexpensive method to measure worms crawling velocities and sort them within a few minutes by taking advantage of their electrotactic skills. This method allows to quantitatively measure the effect of mutations and aging on worm's crawling velocity. We also show that worms with different locomotory phenotypes can be spatially sorted, fast worms traveling away from slow ones. Group of nematodes with comparable locomotory fitness could then be isolated for further analysis. C. elegans is a growing model for neurodegenerative diseases and using electrotaxis for self-sorting can improve the high-throughput search of therapeutic bio-molecules.

  14. Preparation of Pickering Double Emulsions Using Block Copolymer Worms

    OpenAIRE

    Thompson, Kate L.; Mable, Charlotte J.; Lane, Jacob A.; Derry, Mathew J.; Fielding, Lee A.; Armes, Steven P.

    2015-01-01

    The rational formulation of Pickering double emulsions is described using a judicious combination of hydrophilic and hydrophobic block copolymer worms as highly anisotropic emulsifiers. More specifically, RAFT dispersion polymerization was utilized to prepare poly(lauryl methacrylate)–poly(benzyl methacrylate) worms at 20% w/w solids in n-dodecane and poly(glycerol monomethacrylate)–poly(2-hydroxypropyl methacrylate)–poly(benzyl methacrylate) worms at 13% w/w solids in water by polymerization...

  15. Predicting the Presence of Internet Worms using Novelty Detection

    OpenAIRE

    Marais, E.; Marwala, T.

    2007-01-01

    Internet worms cause billions of dollars in damage yearly, affecting millions of users worldwide. For countermeasures to be deployed timeously, it is necessary to use an automated system to detect the spread of a worm. This paper discusses a method of determining the presence of a worm, based on routing information currently available from Internet routers. An autoencoder, which is a specialized type of neural network, was used to detect anomalies in normal routing behavior. The autoencoder w...

  16. Serological Screening of the Schistosoma mansoni Adult Worm Proteome

    OpenAIRE

    Ludolf, Fernanda; Patrocínio, Paola R.; Corrêa-Oliveira, Rodrigo; Gazzinelli, Andréa; Falcone, Franco H.; Teixeira-Ferreira, André; Perales, Jonas; Guilherme C Oliveira; Silva-Pereira, Rosiane A.

    2014-01-01

    Background New interventions tools are a priority for schistosomiasis control and elimination, as the disease is still highly prevalent. The identification of proteins associated with active infection and protective immune response may constitute the basis for the development of a successful vaccine and could also indicate new diagnostic candidates. In this context, post-genomic technologies have been progressing, resulting in a more rational discovery of new biomarkers of resistance and anti...

  17. Design a Security Network System against Internet Worms

    OpenAIRE

    Rana Dhia'a Abdu-Aljabar

    2012-01-01

    Active worms have posed a major security threat to the Internet, and many research efforts have focused on them. This paper is interested in internet worm that spreads via TCP, which accounts for the majority of internet traffic. It presents an approach that use a hybrid solution between two detection algorithms: behavior base detection and signature base detection to have the features of each of them. The aim of this study is to have a good solution of detecting worm and stealthy worm with t...

  18. WormBook: the online review of Caenorhabditis elegans biology

    OpenAIRE

    Girard, Lisa R.; Fiedler, Tristan J.; Harris, Todd W.; Carvalho, Felicia; Antoshechkin, Igor; Han, Michael; Sternberg, Paul W.; Stein, Lincoln D; Chalfie, Martin

    2007-01-01

    WormBook (www.wormbook.org) is an open-access, online collection of original, peer-reviewed chapters on the biology of Caenorhabditis elegans and related nematodes. Since WormBook was launched in June 2005 with 12 chapters, it has grown to over 100 chapters, covering nearly every aspect of C.elegans research, from Cell Biology and Neurobiology to Evolution and Ecology. WormBook also serves as the text companion to WormBase, the C.elegans model organism database. Objects such as genes, protein...

  19. Predicting the Presence of Internet Worms using Novelty Detection

    CERN Document Server

    Marais, E

    2007-01-01

    Internet worms cause billions of dollars in damage yearly, affecting millions of users worldwide. For countermeasures to be deployed timeously, it is necessary to use an automated system to detect the spread of a worm. This paper discusses a method of determining the presence of a worm, based on routing information currently available from Internet routers. An autoencoder, which is a specialized type of neural network, was used to detect anomalies in normal routing behavior. The autoencoder was trained using information from a single router, and was able to detect both global instability caused by worms as well as localized routing instability.

  20. Chordodes ferox, a new record of horsehair worms (Nematomorpha, Gordiida) from South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt-Rhaesa, Andreas; Perissinotto, Renzo

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Three females and one male specimen of a previously unconfirmed species of horsehair worms (Nematomorpha) from South Africa are described using Scanning Electron Microscopy. The females correspond to the description of Chordodes ferox Camerano, 1897, a species previously described from the Democratic Republic of the Congo (Congo-Kinshasa) and an adjacent, not further specified region of the Republic of Congo (Congo-Brazzaville). Characteristic is the presence of enlarged and elevated simple areoles around the base of a thorn areole, in combination with further cuticular characters. This is the latest of a total of six species of horsehair worms reported from South Africa so far. Two species of praying mantids, Polyspilota aeruginosa (Goeze, 1778) and Sphodromantis gastrica Stål, 1858, have been identified as hosts of Chordodes ferox, while its distribution range in the region and the period of adult emergence from the host remain largely unknown. PMID:27047243

  1. Heavy Worm Burden of Moniliformis in Urban Rats with Histopathological Description

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gh Mowlavi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Due to scarcity of human reports, we took advantage of the heaviest infection of M. moniliformis in rats, to describe histopathological and microanatomical valuable useful keys while confronting human occurrences.Methods: Samples were obtained from captured rats in Tehran, capital of Ira, during two dec­ades. Tissue sections were performed through hematoxylin and eosin staining to describe histopa­thological changes in rat's intestines.Results: Totally, nine rats were found infected with M. moniliformis amongst 272 obtained rats. Heavy infection has been distinguished in 2 individuals with parasite burden of 141and 73 adult worms. Cross sections of worms within the lumen show mucosal thickness, infiltration of eosino­philic leukocyte and increase in goblet cells. Conclusion: Beyond the uncommonness of human infection with M. moniliformis unintended infections should not be ignored. Abundance of rats and roaches as definite and intermediate hosts must be considered particularly in countries with poor hygiene.

  2. Molecular basis for the blue bioluminescence of the Australian glow-worm Arachnocampa richardsae (Diptera: Keroplatidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trowell, Stephen C; Dacres, Helen; Dumancic, Mira M; Leitch, Virginia; Rickards, Rodney W

    2016-09-16

    Bioluminescence is the emission of visible light by living organisms. Here we describe the isolation and characterisation of a cDNA encoding a MW ≈ 59,000 Da luciferase from the Australian glow-worm, Arachnocampa richardsae. The enzyme is a member of the acyl-CoA ligase superfamily and produces blue light on addition of D-luciferin. These results are contrary to earlier reports (Lee, J., Photochem Photobiol 24, 279-285 (1976), Viviani, V. R., Hastings, J. W. & Wilson, T., Photochem Photobiol 75, 22-27 (2002)), which suggested glow-worm luciferase has MW ≈ 36,000 Da and is unreactive with beetle luciferin. There are more than 2000 species of firefly, which all produce emissions from D-luciferin in the green to red regions of the electromagnetic spectrum. Although blue-emitting luciferases are known from marine organisms, they belong to different structural families and use a different substrate. The observation of blue emission from a D-luciferin-using enzyme is therefore unprecedented. PMID:27457804

  3. Schistosoma mansoni: quantitative aspects of the fertility and survival of worms obtained from irradiated cercariae (3 Krad), in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of gamma irradiation on the fertility of female mice, as well as the survival of worms in their portal system, have been observed in four groups of outbred albino mice (Mus musculus), experimentally infected with ca 450 cercariae of Schistosoma mansoni (LE and SJ strains), by transcutaneous route. The cercariae used were a) non-irradiated (control groups), and b) irradiated with 3 Krad of gamma irradiation (Co-60). From the 33rd day on, some stability in the population of surviving worm could be observed. This population remained constant till the end of the observation period (90th day), notedly in relation to the LE strain . Thus, it was concluded that gamma irradiation (at the dose of 3 Krad) is able to hinder the worm egg production in 98.1% of the infected mice. Further, it was observed that the few detected eggs were dead. Females were found to be more resistant to irradiation. The irradiation effect on the mortality of male worms was statistically significant scarcely from the 61st day on. The long period of permanence of the sterile adult irradiated worms in the portal system of mice and their probable involvement in the development of immuno-protection (the so-called concomitant immunity, without the immuno-pathological involvements for the host) are here discussed. (author)

  4. Dual-worm screw compressors; Compresseurs bi-vis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baleydier, J.P. [Bitzer France, 69 - Lyon (France)

    1997-12-31

    Low power worm-screw moto-compressors are used in any king of refrigerating machineries and more and more in air conditioning systems. This paper presents the principle of dual-screw moto-compressors: worm-screw technology, role of oil (lubrication, tightness, cooling), compression, internal pressure, power reduction, lubrication, economizer, operation, model selection and accessories. (J.S.)

  5. Defending Polymorphic Worms in Computer network using Honeynet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Upendra Kumar

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available We propose a defense mechanism in computer network using gate-translator, double honeynet, sticky honeypot and antivirus engine of CloudAV, which attracts polymorphic worms. An algorithm is proposed to detect and remove the polymorphic worms and innocuous traffic related packets. Future antivirus is implemented on logically detached unused system.

  6. Worm plot to diagnose fit in quantile regression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buuren, S. van

    2007-01-01

    The worm plot is a series of detrended Q-Q plots, split by covariate levels. The worm plot is a diagnostic tool for visualizing how well a statistical model fits the data, for finding locations at which the fit can be improved, and for comparing the fit of different models. This paper shows how the

  7. Examination of the relationship between host worm community structure on transmission of the parasite, Myxobolus cerebralis by developing taxon-specific probes for multiplex qPCR to identify worm taxa in stream communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fytilis, N.; Lamb, R.; Kerans, B.; Stevens, L.; Rizzo, D. M.

    2011-12-01

    Fish diseases are often caused by waterborne parasites, making them ideal systems for modeling the non-linear relationships between disease dynamics, stream dwelling oligochaete communities and geochemical features. Myxobolus cerebralis, the causative agent of whirling disease in salmonid fishes, has been a major contributor to the loss of wild rainbow trout populations in numerous streams within the Intermountain West. The parasite alternates between an invertebrate and vertebrate host, being transmitted between the sediment feeding worm Tubifex tubifex (T.tubifex) and salmonid fishes. Worm community biodiversity and abundance are influenced by biogeochemical features and have been linked to disease severity in fish. The worm (T.tubifex) lives in communities with 3-4 other types of worms in stream sediments. Unfortunately, taxonomic identification of oligochaetes is largely dependent on morphological characteristics of sexually mature adults. We have collected and identified ~700 worms from eight sites using molecular genetic probes and a taxonomic key. Additionally, ~1700 worms were identified using only molecular genetic probes. To facilitate distinguishing among tubificids, we developed two multiplex molecular genetic probe-based quantitative polymerase reaction (qPCR) assays to assess tubificid communities in the study area. Similar qPCR techniques specific for M.cerebralis used to determine if individual worms were infected with the parasite. We show how simple Bayesian analysis of the qPCR data can predict the worm community structure and reveal relationships between biodiversity of host communities and host-parasite dynamics. To our knowledge, this is the first study that combines molecular data of both the host and the parasite to examine the effects of host community structure on the transmission of a parasite. Our work can be extended to examine the links between worm community structure and biogeochemical features using molecular genetics and Bayesian

  8. Research and Development of P2P Worms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li You; Zhi-Guang Qin

    2011-01-01

    With the development and the application of many popular peer-to-peer (P2P) systems such as eMule and BitTorrent,worms probably employ the features of these P2P networks to put them at risk.Some features,such as the local routing table and the application routing mechanism,are helpful to quickly distribute the P2P worms into the networks.This paper aims to give a comprehensive survey of P2P worms.The definition and the classification of P2P worms are discussed firstly.Then,the research and development of P2P worms, including experimental analysis,propagation modeling,and defensive approaches,are addressed and analyzed in detail.

  9. Can aquatic worms enhance methane production from waste activated sludge?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, Antonio; Hendrickx, Tim L G; Elissen, Hellen H J; Laarhoven, Bob; Buisman, Cees J N; Temmink, Hardy

    2016-07-01

    Although literature suggests that aquatic worms can help to enhance the methane production from excess activated sludge, clear evidence for this is missing. Therefore, anaerobic digestion tests were performed at 20 and at 30°C with sludge from a high-loaded membrane bioreactor, the aquatic worm Lumbriculus variegatus, feces from these worms and with mixtures of these substrates. A significant synergistic effect of the worms or their feces on methane production from the high-loaded sludge or on its digestion rate was not observed. However, a positive effect on low-loaded activated sludge, which generally has a lower anaerobic biodegradability, cannot be excluded. The results furthermore showed that the high-loaded sludge provides an excellent feed for L. variegatus, which is promising for concepts where worm biomass is considered a resource for technical grade products such as coatings and glues. PMID:26998797

  10. How the velvet worm squirts slime

    CERN Document Server

    Concha, Andrés; Morera-Brenes, Bernal; Costa, Cristiano Sampaio; Mahadevan, L; Monge-Nájera, Julián

    2014-01-01

    The rapid squirt of a proteinaceous slime jet endows the ancient velvet worms (Onychophora) with a unique mechanism for defense from predators and for capturing prey by entangling them in a disordered web that immobilizes their target. However, to date neither qualitative nor quantitative descriptions have been provided for this unique adaptation. Here we investigate the fast oscillatory motion of the oral papillae and the exiting liquid jet that oscillates with frequencies $f\\sim 30-60$ Hz. Using anatomical images, high speed videography, theoretical analysis and a physical simulacrum we show that this fast oscillatory motion is the result of an elastohydrodynamic instability driven by the interplay between the elasticity of oral papillae and the fast unsteady flow during squirting. Our results demonstrate how passive strategies can be cleverly harnessed by organisms, while suggesting future oscillating micro-fluidic devices as well as novel ways for micro and nano fiber production using bioinspired strategi...

  11. cDNA: 27908 [ASTRA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available H. sapiens - Hs.406397 Homo sapiens cDNA FLJ45472 fis, clone BRSTN2016918, highly similar to Gli ... al fibrillary acidic protein, astrocyte ... gnl|UG|Hs#S16883914 AK128790 17/4578_27908.png ...

  12. cDNA: 43675 [ASTRA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available M. musculus + Mm.333219 Mus musculus 8 days embryo whole body cDNA, RIKEN full-length enriched l ... 0 product:hypothetical Eukaryotic thiol (cysteine) proteases ... active site containing protein, full insert sequen ...

  13. cDNA: 53523 [ASTRA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available M. musculus + Mm.277582 Mus musculus 16 days neonate cerebellum cDNA, RIKEN full-length enriched ... rary, clone:9630053E09 product:hypothetical Serine proteases , subtilase family/Leucine-rich repeat containing p ...

  14. cDNA: 43679 [ASTRA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available M. musculus + Mm.333219 Mus musculus 10 days neonate cerebellum cDNA, RIKEN full-length enriched ... 0 product:hypothetical Eukaryotic thiol (cysteine) proteases ... active site containing protein, full insert sequen ...

  15. cDNA: 44744 [ASTRA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available M. musculus - Mm.29756 Mus musculus 0 day neonate thymus cDNA, RIKEN full-length enriched librar ... 1 product:hypothetical Eukaryotic thiol (cysteine) proteases ... active site containing protein, full insert sequen ...

  16. cDNA sequence quality data - Budding yeast cDNA sequencing project | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Budding yeast cDNA sequencing project cDNA sequence quality data Data detail Data name cDNA sequence quality... data Description of data contents Phred's quality score. PHD format, one file to a single cDNA data, and co...ription Download License Update History of This Database Site Policy | Contact Us cDNA sequence quality data - Budding yeast cDNA sequencing project | LSDB Archive ...

  17. Functional brain regeneration in the acoel worm Symsagittifera roscoffensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon G. Sprecher

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The ability of some animals to regrow their head and brain after decapitation provides a striking example of the regenerative capacity within the animal kingdom. The acoel worm Symsagittifera roscoffensis can regrow its head, brain and sensory head organs within only a few weeks after decapitation. How rapidly and to what degree it also reacquires its functionality to control behavior however remains unknown. We provide here a neuroanatomical map of the brain neuropils of the adult S. roscoffensis and show that after decapitation a normal neuroanatomical organization of the brain is restored in the majority of animals. By testing different behaviors we further show that functionality of both sensory perception and the underlying brain architecture are restored within weeks after decapitation. Interestingly not all behaviors are restored at the same speed and to the same extent. While we find that phototaxis recovered rapidly, geotaxis is not restored within 7 weeks. Our findings show that regeneration of the head, sensory organs and brain result in the restoration of directed navigation behavior, suggesting a tight coordination in the regeneration of certain sensory organs with that of their underlying neural circuits. Thus, at least in S. roscoffensis, the regenerative capacity of different sensory modalities follows distinct paths.

  18. Functional brain regeneration in the acoel worm Symsagittifera roscoffensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprecher, Simon G; Bernardo-Garcia, F Javier; van Giesen, Lena; Hartenstein, Volker; Reichert, Heinrich; Neves, Ricardo; Bailly, Xavier; Martinez, Pedro; Brauchle, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The ability of some animals to regrow their head and brain after decapitation provides a striking example of the regenerative capacity within the animal kingdom. The acoel worm Symsagittifera roscoffensis can regrow its head, brain and sensory head organs within only a few weeks after decapitation. How rapidly and to what degree it also reacquires its functionality to control behavior however remains unknown. We provide here a neuroanatomical map of the brain neuropils of the adult S. roscoffensis and show that after decapitation a normal neuroanatomical organization of the brain is restored in the majority of animals. By testing different behaviors we further show that functionality of both sensory perception and the underlying brain architecture are restored within weeks after decapitation. Interestingly not all behaviors are restored at the same speed and to the same extent. While we find that phototaxis recovered rapidly, geotaxis is not restored within 7 weeks. Our findings show that regeneration of the head, sensory organs and brain result in the restoration of directed navigation behavior, suggesting a tight coordination in the regeneration of certain sensory organs with that of their underlying neural circuits. Thus, at least in S. roscoffensis, the regenerative capacity of different sensory modalities follows distinct paths. PMID:26581588

  19. Nuclear techniques in the biochemistry and experimental chemotherapy of filarial worms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is an almost complete lack of biochemical data on filarial worms of medical importance and most of the available information has been obtained from four laboratory-maintained species, Brugia pahangi, Dipetalonema viteae, Litomosoides carinii and Dirofilaria immitis. Several workers have attempted to study the vector-borne stages of filariae, either by an autoradiographic study of the distribution of radioactive substrates introduced to the mosquito by feeding or by micro-injection into the thorax. Comparison of the levels of folate metabolism in uninfected and B. pahangi-infected Aedes aegypti have also been made. Biochemical studies on adult worms have focussed mainly on carbohydrate and folate metabolism. Those species investigated did not possess significant tricarboxylic acid cycle activity and relied upon glycolysis for carbohydrate catabolism and energy production. B. pahangi and D. immitis cannot synthesize dihydrofolate de novo, but are able to utilize 5-methyl tetrahydrofolate for the production of metabolically active tetrahydrofolate cofactors. Information on folate metabolism is reviewed. Filarial nematodes resemble cestodes and schistosomes in possessing a cuticle which is freely permeable to a wide range of low molecular weight substances. The surface of the cuticle is bounded by antigenic proteins which may be shed from the worms in vivo. Data on the immunological and physiological properties of the surface are discussed. The interaction of standard filaricidal compounds, suramin and diethylcarbamazine, with the biochemical pathways of carbohydrate and folate metabolism are described. (author)

  20. Potential Test of Irradiated Vaccine for Haemonchus Contortus Worm and Food Supplement on Sheep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An experiment of vaccines was carried out is one of Nematoda worm present in abomasums or stomach of sheep or goat. The case in the field was high enough, may teach 60% the aim of this study is on observe the effect of gastric worm vaccination irradiated 5000 L3 post challenge wild strain 5000 L3, The parameter of observe were clinic, blood twice description number of adult worms, with 3 treatments as follows; control (K), V2 = twice vaccinations without challenge V1 twice vaccinations with challenge. The result of the study the average of gain (gram); V1=97, V2=91 and K=31.20 (P 6), V1=6.50, V2=5.90 and K=6.10 (P 1=29.30, V2=35.30 and K=27.50 (P 3), V1=9.30, V2=9.00 and K=7.40 (P 1=8.30, V2=9.50 and K=6.20 (P 1 immunity respond of weight gain, erythrocyte and leucocyte to have immunity which is better than the respond of other treatments. (author)

  1. Mouse Peroxisomal Protein cDNA Cloning and Characterization of its Intraclleular Localization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somayeh Tanhaie

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to clone peroxisomal protein (PEP cDNA in a mammalianexpression vector in a chimeric cDNA type, with enhanced green fluorescent protein(EGFP cDNA. To investigate the intracellular localization of PEP protein linked to EGFPmarker, the constructed plasmid was used for transfection into the chinese hamster ovary(CHO cells.Materials and Methods: Total RNA was extracted from the heart tissue of an adult mouse.PEP cDNA was constructed using reverse transcriptase and was amplified with specific primerscovering the entire length of ORF. RT-PCR products containing PEP cDNA were treatedby enzymatic digestion and inserted into the pEGFP-C1 downstream of EGFP cDNA and wereused for transformation into bacterial competent cells. The positive colonies which showedinserted PEP cDNA were selected for plasmid preparations and additional analysis was performedto ensure that PEP cDNA was inserted properly. Finally, to confirm the intracellularlocalization of EGFP-PEP, CHO cells were transfected with the constructed plasmid.Results: Our results confirmed amplification and cloning of the expected product. PEP cDNAencompasses 630 bp which encodes 209 amino acid residues. Bioinformatics analyses haveshown the presence of a fibronectin type III domain (31-114 a.a. and two hydrophobic domains(12-32 a.a. and 152-169 a.a., respectively. Because of the presence of serine, Lysine,leucine (SKI in the C-terminal of the related protein, transfection data showed peroxisomallocalization of PEP as was similar to the catalase.Conclusion: Taken together these data showed that PEP is a peroxisomal protein. Howeverthe importance of its fibronectin type III and two hydrophobic domains should be assessedby further experiments.

  2. The theory and practice of worm gear drives

    CERN Document Server

    Dudás, Ilés

    2005-01-01

    Worm gears are special gears that resemble screws, and can be used to drive other gears. Worm gears, enable two non-touching shafts in a machine to mesh (join) together. This publication, unique in that it combines both theoretical and practical design aspects, including the latest results of research and development, provides detailed treatment of the theory and production of worm drives, as well as the overarching subject of production geometry of helicoidal surfaces.Included are mathematical models for a number of practical applications; a description of dressing equipment r

  3. WormBase: a comprehensive resource for nematode research

    OpenAIRE

    Todd W Harris; Antoshechkin, Igor; Bieri, Tamberlyn; Blasiar, Darin; Chan, Juancarlos; Chen, Wen J.; De La Cruz, Norie; Davis, Paul; Duesbury, Margaret; Fang, Ruihua; Fernandes, Jolene; Han, Michael; Kishore, Ranjana; Lee, Raymond; Müller, Hans-Michael

    2010-01-01

    WormBase (http://www.wormbase.org) is a central data repository for nematode biology. Initially created as a service to the Caenorhabditis elegans research field, WormBase has evolved into a powerful research tool in its own right. In the past 2 years, we expanded WormBase to include the complete genomic sequence, gene predictions and orthology assignments from a range of related nematodes. This comparative data enrich the C. elegans data with improved gene predictions and a better understand...

  4. A worm section of an auger drilling installation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levkovich, P.E.; Kiseleve, E.I.; Krutilin, V.I.; Manzhula, I.T.; Ovsiannikov, P.A.; Savich, N.S.; Tverezyi, Iu.F.

    1981-01-01

    A worm section of an auger drilling installation, comprising columns arranged in parallel and adapters for decreasing the disturbance of the walls of the wells, is characterized in that for the purpose of decreasing the consumption of energy, the adapter for the decrease in the disturbance in the walls of the wells is made in the form of a cylindrical cover with longitudinal windows, arranged on a segment of the length of the worm, with which each cover is positioned rigidly in order to prevent it from shifting lengthwise by means of a support, reinforced on the shaft of the worm. Cylindrical covers are interconnected by a connection element.

  5. MOLECULAR-CLONING AND CHARACTERIZATION OF A CDNA FOR THE BETA-SUBUNIT OF HUMAN ALCOHOL-DEHYDROGENASE

    OpenAIRE

    Duester, G; Hatfield, G.; Buhler, R; Hempel, J; Jornvall, H; Smith, M.

    1984-01-01

    Human alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) is encoded by at least five genes that fall into three classes. The class I ADH genes encode the three closely related alpha, beta, and gamma polypeptides. Molecular genetic analysis of class I ADH genes has been initiated by isolating a cDNA clone from a human adult liver cDNA library. A synthetic oligonucleotide mixture encoding a portion of the beta subunit of ADH was used as an in situ hybridization probe for the cDNA library. One positively hybridizing c...

  6. A study on the worm gear deficiencies in MOV actuators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An MOV(Motor Operated Valve) is a valve system which is operated by an electric motor. The actuator in an MOV is composed of a motor, a worm, a worm gear and bearings. Faults of these components affect the performance of MOVs. Therefore detecting the faults of components before their break will contribute greatly to the safe operation of power plants. However it is very difficult to inspect the components without disassembly. In this paper, we diagnose the worm gear by examining motor torque signature, since the condition of the worm gear is related to the motor torque signature. We tested a worn gear and broken teeth. The rotating parts such as the valve shaft was reviewed and the actuator was checked additionally. For the tests, a simulator was designed and manufactured

  7. Metagenomic Analysis of Microbial Symbionts in a Gutless Worm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woyke, Tanja; Teeling, Hanno; Ivanova, Natalia N.; Hunteman, Marcel; Richter, Michael; Gloeckner, Frank Oliver; Boeffelli, Dario; Barry, Kerrie W.; Shapiro, Harris J.; Anderson, Iain J.; Szeto, Ernest; Kyrpides, Nikos C.; Mussmann, Marc; Amann, Rudolf; Bergin, Claudia; Ruehland, Caroline; Rubin, Edward M.; Dubilier, Nicole

    2006-05-01

    Symbioses between bacteria and eukaryotes are ubiquitous, yet our understanding of the interactions driving these associations is hampered by our inability to cultivate most host-associated microbes. Here we use a metagenomic approach to describe four co-occurring symbionts from the marine oligochaete Olavius algarvensis, a worm lacking a mouth, gut and nephridia. Shotgun sequencing and metabolic pathway reconstruction revealed that the symbionts are sulphur-oxidizing and sulphate-reducing bacteria, all of which are capable of carbon fixation, thus providing the host with multiple sources of nutrition. Molecular evidence for the uptake and recycling of worm waste products by the symbionts suggests how the worm could eliminate its excretory system, an adaptation unique among annelid worms. We propose a model that describes how the versatile metabolism within this symbiotic consortium provides the host with an optimal energy supply as it shuttles between the upper oxic and lower anoxic coastal sediments that it inhabits.

  8. Shrimp aquaculture in low salinity water feeded with worm flavor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenceslao Valenzuela Quiñónez

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Shrimp aquaculture in Sinaloa is one of the top economic enterprises, generating many jobs and earns significant incomes every year. Shrimp feed is an essential part of maintaining healthy production. In this initial approach of shrimp growth in low salinity water, were tested two formulas of animal protein composed of 40% (APL1 and 20% (APL2 worm protein, a commercial diet, and no supplementary feed. Physicochemical parameters did not have a direct influence in shrimpbehavior. After six weeks of experimentation, shrimp fed with commercial diet had a weight gain 20% higher than those feed with worm protein. There were no significantly differences between sizes with respect to 40% animal protein and 20% animal protein with the commercial diet (P  0.05. However, shrimp fed worm protein had lower mortality. The use of worm protein could be an option to maintain a high quantity of shrimp reared in low salinity waters.

  9. Mathematical model for spreading dynamics of social network worms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, a mathematical model for social network worm spreading is presented from the viewpoint of social engineering. This model consists of two submodels. Firstly, a human behavior model based on game theory is suggested for modeling and predicting the expected behaviors of a network user encountering malicious messages. The game situation models the actions of a user under the condition that the system may be infected at the time of opening a malicious message. Secondly, a social network accessing model is proposed to characterize the dynamics of network users, by which the number of online susceptible users can be determined at each time step. Several simulation experiments are carried out on artificial social networks. The results show that (1) the proposed mathematical model can well describe the spreading dynamics of social network worms; (2) weighted network topology greatly affects the spread of worms; (3) worms spread even faster on hybrid social networks

  10. WormBase: methods for data mining and comparative genomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Todd W; Stein, Lincoln D

    2006-01-01

    WormBase is a comprehensive repository for information on Caenorhabditis elegans and related nematodes. Although the primary web-based interface of WormBase (http:// www.wormbase.org/) is familiar to most C. elegans researchers, WormBase also offers powerful data-mining features for addressing questions of comparative genomics, genome structure, and evolution. In this chapter, we focus on data mining at WormBase through the use of flexible web interfaces, custom queries, and scripts. The intended audience includes users wishing to query the database beyond the confines of the web interface or fetch data en masse. No knowledge of programming is necessary or assumed, although users with intermediate skills in the Perl scripting language will be able to utilize additional data-mining approaches. PMID:16988424

  11. Basic definitions for discrete modeling of computer worms epidemics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Guevara

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The information technologies have evolved in such a way that communication between computers or hosts has become common, so much that the worldwide organization (governments and corporations depends on it; what could happen if these computers stop working for a long time is catastrophic. Unfortunately, networks are attacked by malware such as viruses and worms that could collapse the system. This has served as motivation for the formal study of computer worms and epidemics to develop strategies for prevention and protection; this is why in this paper, before analyzing epidemiological models, a set of formal definitions based on set theory and functions is proposed for describing 21 concepts used in the study of worms. These definitions provide a basis for future qualitative research on the behavior of computer worms, and quantitative for the study of their epidemiological models.

  12. Hybrid Epidemics - A Case Study on Computer Worm Conficker

    OpenAIRE

    Changwang Zhang; Shi Zhou; Chain, Benjamin M.

    2014-01-01

    Conficker is a computer worm that erupted on the Internet in 2008. It is unique in combining three different spreading strategies: local probing, neighbourhood probing, and global probing. We propose a mathematical model that combines three modes of spreading: local, neighbourhood, and global, to capture the worm's spreading behaviour. The parameters of the model are inferred directly from network data obtained during the first day of the Conficker epidemic. The model is then used to explore ...

  13. Aquatic worm reactor for improved sludge processing and resource recovery

    OpenAIRE

    Hendrickx, T.L.G.

    2009-01-01

    Municipal waste water treatment is mainly achieved by biological processes. These processes produce huge volumes of waste sludge (up 1.5 million m3/year in the Netherlands). Further processing of the waste sludge involves transportation, thickening and incineration. A decrease in the amount of waste sludge would be both environmentally and economically attractive. Aquatic worms can be used to reduce the amount of waste sludge. After predation by the worms, the amount of final sludge is lower....

  14. Partial purification and characterization of Ascaridia galli diagnostic worm antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel Rahman, Eman H; Khalil, Fathia A M

    2005-08-01

    Partial purification of Ascaridia galli whole worm extract was conducted by Cyanogen bromide Sepharose 4B immunoaffinity column chromatography. The resulted fraction was characterized by sodium dodecyle sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and isoelectric focusing. The fraction was found to be consisted of six bands of 207 KDa, 157 KDa. 110 KDa, 103 KDa, 76 KDa and 41 KDa. This profile was compared with that of whole worm and excretory-secretory antigens. Both antigens were resolved into multiple bands in both high and low molecular weight ranges. The isoelectric focusing of the fraction displayed 8 bands of isoelectric points 7.5, 7.0, 6.8, 6.5, 6.2, 5.8. 5.3 and 4.6. The potency of this fraction in the diagnosis of natural ascaridiosis in chickens was assessed by ELISA compared with that of whole worm and ES antigens. The affinity purified fraction showed higher potentials in the diagnosis of A. galli infection in chickens than whole worm antigen at any sera dilution and than ES antigen at high sera dilutions. While ES antigen of the worms revealed higher diagnostic capabilities than whole worm extract. The current research recommends utilization of the affinity isolated fraction in the diagnosis of natural ascaridiosis in chickens. PMID:16083065

  15. Social behaviour and collective motion in plant-animal worms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franks, Nigel R; Worley, Alan; Grant, Katherine A J; Gorman, Alice R; Vizard, Victoria; Plackett, Harriet; Doran, Carolina; Gamble, Margaret L; Stumpe, Martin C; Sendova-Franks, Ana B

    2016-02-24

    Social behaviour may enable organisms to occupy ecological niches that would otherwise be unavailable to them. Here, we test this major evolutionary principle by demonstrating self-organizing social behaviour in the plant-animal, Symsagittifera roscoffensis. These marine aceol flat worms rely for all of their nutrition on the algae within their bodies: hence their common name. We show that individual worms interact with one another to coordinate their movements so that even at low densities they begin to swim in small polarized groups and at increasing densities such flotillas turn into circular mills. We use computer simulations to: (i) determine if real worms interact socially by comparing them with virtual worms that do not interact and (ii) show that the social phase transitions of the real worms can occur based only on local interactions between and among them. We hypothesize that such social behaviour helps the worms to form the dense biofilms or mats observed on certain sun-exposed sandy beaches in the upper intertidal of the East Atlantic and to become in effect a super-organismic seaweed in a habitat where macro-algal seaweeds cannot anchor themselves. Symsagittifera roscoffensis, a model organism in many other areas in biology (including stem cell regeneration), also seems to be an ideal model for understanding how individual behaviours can lead, through collective movement, to social assemblages. PMID:26911961

  16. A method of obtaining dietary data for slow worms (Anguis fragilis) by means of non-harmful cooling and results from a Danish population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Iben; Jensen, Jan Kjærgaard; Toft, Søren

    2009-01-01

    adults. The regurgitations revealed that the slow worms preyed on small snails, slugs, pill millipedes (Glomeris marginata), earthworms and Lepidoptera larvae. There were seasonal changes in taxon composition of the diet but no ontogenetic or sex-related differences. The food quality of selected prey...

  17. Mosquito infection responses to developing filarial worms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara M Erickson

    Full Text Available Human lymphatic filariasis is a mosquito-vectored disease caused by the nematode parasites Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia malayi and Brugia timori. These are relatively large roundworms that can cause considerable damage in compatible mosquito vectors. In order to assess how mosquitoes respond to infection in compatible mosquito-filarial worm associations, microarray analysis was used to evaluate transcriptome changes in Aedes aegypti at various times during B. malayi development. Changes in transcript abundance in response to the different stages of B. malayi infection were diverse. At the early stages of midgut and thoracic muscle cell penetration, a greater number of genes were repressed compared to those that were induced (20 vs. 8. The non-feeding, intracellular first-stage larvae elicited few differences, with 4 transcripts showing an increased and 9 a decreased abundance relative to controls. Several cecropin transcripts increased in abundance after parasites molted to second-stage larvae. However, the greatest number of transcripts changed in abundance after larvae molted to third-stage larvae and migrated to the head and proboscis (120 induced, 38 repressed, including a large number of putative, immunity-related genes (approximately 13% of genes with predicted functions. To test whether the innate immune system of mosquitoes was capable of modulating permissiveness to the parasite, we activated the Toll and Imd pathway controlled rel family transcription factors Rel1 and Rel2 (by RNA interference knockdown of the pathway's negative regulators Cactus and Caspar during the early stages of infection with B. malayi. The activation of either of these immune signaling pathways, or knockdown of the Toll pathway, did not affect B. malayi in Ae. aegypti. The possibility of LF parasites evading mosquito immune responses during successful development is discussed.

  18. Navigating molecular worms inside chemical labyrinths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haranczyk, M; Sethian, J A

    2009-12-22

    Predicting whether a molecule can traverse chemical labyrinths of channels, tunnels, and buried cavities usually requires performing computationally intensive molecular dynamics simulations. Often one wants to screen molecules to identify ones that can pass through a given chemical labyrinth or screen chemical labyrinths to identify those that allow a given molecule to pass. Because it is impractical to test each molecule/labyrinth pair using computationally expensive methods, faster, approximate methods are used to prune possibilities, "triaging" the ability of a proposed molecule to pass through the given chemical labyrinth. Most pruning methods estimate chemical accessibility solely on geometry, treating atoms or groups of atoms as hard spheres with appropriate radii. Here, we explore geometric configurations for a moving "molecular worm," which replaces spherical probes and is assembled from solid blocks connected by flexible links. The key is to extend the fast marching method, which is an ordered upwind one-pass Dijkstra-like method to compute optimal paths by efficiently solving an associated Eikonal equation for the cost function. First, we build a suitable cost function associated with each possible configuration, and second, we construct an algorithm that works in ensuing high-dimensional configuration space: at least seven dimensions are required to account for translational, rotational, and internal degrees of freedom. We demonstrate the algorithm to study shortest paths, compute accessible volume, and derive information on topology of the accessible part of a chemical labyrinth. As a model example, we consider an alkane molecule in a porous material, which is relevant to designing catalysts for oil processing. PMID:20018716

  19. Characteristics and function of sulfur dioxygenase in Echiuran worm Urechis unicinctus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Litao Zhang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sulfide is a common toxin to animals and is abundant in coastal and aquatic sediments. Sulfur dioxygenase (SDO is thought to be the key enzyme involved in sulfide oxidation in some organisms. The echiuran worm, Urechis unicinctus, inhabits coastal sediment and tolerates high concentrations of sulfide. The SDO is presumably important for sulfide tolerance in U. unicinctus. RESULTS: The full-length cDNA of SDO from the echiuran worm U. unicinctus, proven to be located in the mitochondria, was cloned and the analysis of its sequence suggests that it belongs to the metallo-β-lactamase superfamily. The enzyme was produced using an E. coli expression system and the measured activity is approximately 0.80 U mg protein(-1. Furthermore, the expression of four sub-segments of the U. unicinctus SDO was accomplished leading to preliminary identification of functional domains of the enzyme. The identification of the conserved metal I (H113, H115, H169 and D188, metal II (D117, H118, H169 and H229 as well as the potential glutathione (GSH (R197, Y231, M279 and I283 binding sites was determined by enzyme activity and GSH affinity measurements. The key residues responsible for SDO activity were identified by analysis of simultaneous mutations of residues D117 and H118 located close to the metal II binding site. CONCLUSION: The recombinant SDO from U. unicinctus was produced, purified and characterized. The metal binding sites in the SDO were identified and Y231 recognized as the mostly important amino acid residue for GSH binding. Our results show that SDO is located in the mitochondria where it plays an important role in sulfide detoxification of U. unicinctus.

  20. cDNA: 13750 [ASTRA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available H. sapiens + Hs.183373 Homo sapiens full open reading frame cDNA clone RZPDo834C1012D for gene HIP ... IP-55, src homology 3 domain-containing protein HIP -55; complete cds, incl. stopcodon gnl|UG|Hs#S20347 ...

  1. cDNA: 46042 [ASTRA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available M. musculus + Mm.290868 Mus musculus 12 days embryo spinal ganglion cDNA, RIKEN full-length enri ... , clone:D130020P04 product:target of myb1 homolog (chicken ), full insert sequence gnl|UG|Mm#S10839663 AK05124 ...

  2. cDNA: 37673 [ASTRA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available M. musculus - Mm.315626 Mus musculus 2 days neonate thymus thymic cells cDNA, RIKEN full-length ... 24 product:MODULATOR OF ANTIGEN RECEPTOR SIGNALING MARS , full insert sequence gnl|UG|Mm#S10833741 AK088672 ...

  3. cDNA: 53525 [ASTRA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available M. musculus + Mm.277582 Mus musculus 10 days neonate cerebellum cDNA, RIKEN full-length enriched ... rary, clone:B930059G06 product:hypothetical Serine proteases , subtilase family/Leucine-rich repeat containing p ...

  4. cDNA: 53519 [ASTRA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available M. musculus + Mm.277582 Mus musculus 0 day neonate eyeball cDNA, RIKEN full-length enriched libr ... ary, clone:E130306I01 product:hypothetical Serine proteases , subtilase family/Leucine-rich repeat containing p ...

  5. cDNA: 35980 [ASTRA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available M. musculus - Mm.122430 Mus musculus 0 day neonate cerebellum cDNA, RIKEN full-length enriched l ... 0027A22 product:hypothetical Ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes ... containing protein, full insert sequence gnl|UG|Mm ...

  6. cDNA: 35899 [ASTRA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available M. musculus + Mm.337238 Mus musculus 13 days embryo liver cDNA, RIKEN full-length enriched libra ... 0010F15 product:hypothetical Ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes ... containing protein, full insert sequence gnl|UG|Mm ...

  7. cDNA: 35982 [ASTRA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available M. musculus - Mm.122430 Mus musculus 14 days embryo thymus cDNA, RIKEN full-length enriched libr ... 0401J04 product:hypothetical Ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes ... containing protein, full insert sequence gnl|UG|Mm ...

  8. Histological changes in the testes of gamma irradiated cotton leaf worm Spodoptera Littoralis (Boisd.). Vol. 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Male adults, less than 24 hours, of cotton leaf worm, S. Littoralis (Boisd.) were gamma irradiated with 100, 150 and 200 Gy and mated with normal females. The resulting males of each generation were used for mating normal females throughout three successive generations. Dissection of adult male parents immediately after irradiation showed no histological effects on testes. The volumes of testes of F1, F2 and F3 generations of cotton leaf worm male moths were significantly affected by the radiation doses applied to parental males. The effects on internal anatomy and histology of the male reproductive system confirm that Gy had minimal effect on the volume and the structure of the testes among the three successive generations. Most of the sperm bundles appeared normal and the individual sperm was fully formed indicating normal metamorphosis. However, a dose of 150 Gy showed morphological abnormalities and retardation in sperm maturation. At 200 Gy the volume and structure of the testes were severely affected. Damage in the testes was highest among F1, and was minimized in the other generations. 10 figs., 1 tab

  9. Anthelminthic activity of Daniellia oliveri against Haemonchus contortus worms in Burkina Faso

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the central region of the Burkina Faso, small holders like to use veterinary traditional practice to treat small ruminant gastro-intestinal parasitism. In this part of country, Daniellia oliveri plant is usually used against this disease. Aqueous decoction obtained from the stem barc of Daniellia oliveri was screened to determine his phytochemical composition and in vitro anthelminthic activity agains Haemonchus contortus adult worms. Results showed that the decoction lyophilized obtained is giving to small ruminant (25 kg) at the rate of 242.5 mg per body weight. In vitro anthelminthic revealed that Daniellia oliveri extract has significant effect (P < 0.05) on mortality or the paralysis of the adult worms of Haemonchus contortus compared to the control group. In fact, use of Daniellia oliveri leaves by pastoralist smallholders in traditional therapy against the gastro-intestinal small ruminant parasites is justified in the central region of the Burkina Faso. Therefore, the survey suggests to achieve other studies (phytochemical and toxicity) on Anogeissus leiocarpus leaves studied in order to develop a further drug antiparasitic subsequently

  10. Anthelminthic activity of Anogeissus leiocarpus against Haemonchus contortus worms in Burkina Faso

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Traditional Veterinary practice is current by pastoralist and small holders to treat small ruminant gastro-intestinal parasitism in the central region of the Burkina Faso. To treat these digestive pathologies, Anogeissus leiocarpus is usually used. Ethno-veterinary surveys have been achieved to understand the traditional use of Anogeissus leiocarpus and in vitro test has been carried out to value anthelminthic activity on the adult worms of Haemonchus contortus. Results showed that the plant part used are leaves and by oral way after decoction to obtain aqueous extract which is giving to small ruminant (25 kg) at the rate of 160 mg per body weight. In vitro anthelminthic activity test of aqueous extract of leaves revealed a significant effect (P < 0,05) on mortality or the paralysis of the adult worms of Haemonchus contortus compared to the control group (PBS). In fact, use of Anogeissus leiocarpus leaves by pastoralist and small holders in traditional therapy against the gastro-intestinal small ruminant parasites is justified in the central region of the Burkina Faso. Therefore, the survey suggests to achieve other pharmacologies and parasitologies studies on Anogeissus leiocarpus leaves in order to develop a further drug antiparasitic subsequently

  11. MULTI-AGENT SYSTEM FOR WORM DETECTION AND CONTAINMENT IN METROPOLITAN AREA NETWORKS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Active worms can cause widespread damages at so high a speed that effectively precludes human-directed reaction, and patches for the worms are always available after the damages have been caused, whichhas elevated them selfto a first-class security threat to Metropolitan Area Networks (MAN). Multi-agent sys-tem for Worm Detection and Containment in MAN (MWDCM) is presented to provide a first-class auto-matic reaction mechanism that automatically applies containment strategies to block the propagation of theworms and to protect MAN against worm scan that wastes a lot of network bandwidth and crashes therouters. Its user agent is used to detect the known worms. Worm detection agent and worm detection correla-tion agent use two-stage based decision method to detect unknown worms. They adaptively study the access-ing in the whole network and dynamically change the working parameters to detect the unknown worms.MWDCM confines worm infection within a macro-cell or a micro-cell of the metropolitan area networks, therest of the accesses and hosts continue functioning without disruption. MWDCM integrates Worm DetectionSystem (WDS) and network management system. Reaction measures can be taken by using Simple NetworkManagement Protocol (SNMP) interface to control broadband access server as soon as the WDS detect theactive worm. MWDCM is very effective in blocking random scanning worms. Simulation results indicatethat high worm infection rate of epidemics can be avoided to a degree by MWDCM blocking the propagationof the worms.

  12. A SEM study of the reindeer sinus worm (Linguatula arctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven Nikander

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Pentastomids are a group of peculiar parasitic arthropods, often referred to as tongue worms due to the resemblance of some species to a tongue. Linguatula arctica is the sinus worm of the reindeer (Rangifer tarandus, being the only pentastomid to have a direct life cycle and an ungulate as a definite host. Here, the surface structures and internal anatomy of adult L. arctica are described as seen by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Sinus worms were collected in the winter 1991-92 in Finnish Lapland. Paranasal cavities of about 80 reindeer were examined and 30 sinus worms were found. The sinus worms had typical Linguatula sp. morphology, being paddle-shaped, transparent, pale yellow, dorsoventrally flattened and pseudosegmented with a long tapering end. Present at the anteroventral part of the cephalothorax was an oral opening with a large, conspicuous, head-like papillar structure. Bilaterally, on both sides of this opening, was a pair of strong curved hooks. The cephalothorax and abdomen had a segmented appearance, as they showed distinct annulation. There was a small cup-shaped sensory organ present at the lateral margin on each annula. The posterior edge of each annula was roughened by tiny spines projecting backwards. Throughout the cuticular surface, small, circular depressions that represented the apical portion of chloride cells. The genital opening of the male was located medioventrally between the tips of the posterior pair of hooks, and that of the female posteroventrally and subterminally. In both sexes, the genital opening was bilaterally flanked by papillar (in males or leaf-like (in females structures. One copulating couple was present, with the male attached to the posteroventral part of the female with its anteroventral hooks and papillae. Several structures typical of arthropods and other pentastomids were identified. Because SEM allows only surfaces to be studied, the morphology and especially the sense organs of L. arctica

  13. Two human cDNA molecules coding for the Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) locus are highly homologous

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenthal, A.; Speer, A.; Billwitz, H. (Zentralinstitut fuer Molekularbiologie, Berlin-Buch (Germany Democratic Republic)); Cross, G.S.; Forrest, S.M.; Davies, K.E. (Univ. of Oxford (England))

    1989-07-11

    Recently the complete sequence of the human fetal cDNA coding for the Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) locus was reported and a 3,685 amino acid long, rod-shaped cytoskeletal protein (dystrophin) was predicted as the protein product. Independently, the authors have isolated and sequenced different DMD cDNA molecules from human adult and fetal muscle. The complete 12.5 kb long sequence of all their cDNA clones has now been determined and they report here the nucleotide (nt) and amino acid (aa) differences between the sequences of both groups. The cDNA sequence comprises the whole coding region but lacks the first 110 nt from the 5{prime}-untranslated region and the last 1,417 nt of the 3{prime}-untranslated region. They have found 11 nt differences (approximately 99.9% homology) from which 7 occurred at the aa level.

  14. Annual Survey of Horsehair Worm Cysts in Northern Taiwan, with Notes on a Single Seasonal Infection Peak in Chironomid Larvae (Diptera: Chironomidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Ming-Chung; Huang, Chin-Gi; Wu, Wen-Jer; Shiao, Shiuh-Feng

    2016-06-01

    The life cycle of the freshwater horsehair worm typically includes a free-living phase (adult, egg, larva) and a multiple-host parasitic phase (aquatic paratenic host, terrestrial definitive host). Such a life cycle involving water and land can improve energy flow in riparian ecosystems; however, its temporal dynamics in nature have rarely been investigated. This study examined seasonal infection with cysts in larval Chironominae (Diptera: Chironomidae) in northern Taiwan. In the larval chironomids, cysts of 3 horsehair worm species were identified. The cysts of the dominant species were morphologically similar to those of Chordodes formosanus. Infection with these cysts increased suddenly and peaked 2 mo after the reproductive season of the adult horsehair worms. Although adult C. formosanus emerged several times in a year, only 1 distinct infection peak was detected in September in the chironomid larvae. Compared with the subfamily Chironominae, samples from the subfamilies Tanypodinae and Orthocladiinae were less parasitized. This indicates that the feeding behavior of the chironomid host likely affects horsehair worm cyst infections; however, bioconcentration in predatory chironomids was not detected. PMID:26885875

  15. Research on the Propagation Models and Defense Techniques of Internet Worms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tian-Yun Huang

    2008-01-01

    Internet worm is harmful to network security, and it has become a research hotspot in recent years. A thorough survey on the propagation models and defense techniques of Internet worm is made in this paper. We first give its strict definition and discuss the working mechanism. We then analyze and compare some repre sentative worm propagation models proposed in recent years, such as K-M model, two-factor model, worm-anti worm model (WAW), firewall-based model, quarantine based model and hybrid benign worm-based model, etc. Some typical defense techniques such as virtual honeypot, active worm prevention and agent-oriented worm defense, etc, are also discussed. The future direction of the worm defense system is pointed out.

  16. Lectin cDNA and transgenic plants derived therefrom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raikhel, Natasha V.

    2000-10-03

    Transgenic plants containing cDNA encoding Gramineae lectin are described. The plants preferably contain cDNA coding for barley lectin and store the lectin in the leaves. The transgenic plants, particularly the leaves exhibit insecticidal and fungicidal properties.

  17. Higher throughput high resolution multi-worm tracker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javer, Avelino; Li, Kezhi; Gyenes, Bertalan; Brown, Andre; Behavioural Genomics Team

    2015-03-01

    We have developed a high throughput imaging system for tracking multiple nematode worms at high resolution. The tracker consists of 6 cameras mounted on a motorized gantry so that up to 48 plates (each with approximately 30 worms) can be imaged without user intervention. To deal with the high data rate of the cameras we use real time processing to find worms and only save the immediately surrounding pixels. The system is also equipped with automatic oxygen and carbon dioxide control for observing stimulus response behaviour. We will describe the design and performance of the new system, some of the challenges of truly high throughput behaviour recording, and report preliminary results on inter-individual variation in behaviour as well as a quantitative analysis of C. elegans response to hypoxia, oxygen reperfusion, and carbon dioxide. Funding provided by the Medical Research Council.

  18. Diet of Worms Emended: An Update of Polychaete Feeding Guilds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jumars, Peter A.; Dorgan, Kelly M.; Lindsay, Sara M.

    2015-01-01

    Polychaetes are common in most marine habitats and dominate many infaunal communities. Functional guild classification based on taxonomic identity and morphology has linked community structure to ecological function. The functional guilds now include osmotrophic siboglinids as well as sipunculans, echiurans, and myzostomes, which molecular genetic analyses have placed within Annelida. Advances in understanding of encounter mechanisms explicitly relate motility to feeding mode. New analyses of burrowing mechanics explain the prevalence of bilateral symmetry and blur the boundary between surface and subsurface feeding. The dichotomy between microphagous deposit and suspension feeders and macrophagous carnivores, herbivores, and omnivores is further supported by divergent digestive strategies. Deposit feeding appears to be limited largely to worms longer than 1 cm, with juveniles and small worms in general restricted to ingesting highly digestible organic material and larger, rich food items, blurring the macrophage-microphage dichotomy that applies well to larger worms.

  19. Continuous-time quantum Monte Carlo using worm sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunacker, P.; Wallerberger, M.; Gull, E.; Hausoel, A.; Sangiovanni, G.; Held, K.

    2015-10-01

    We present a worm sampling method for calculating one- and two-particle Green's functions using continuous-time quantum Monte Carlo simulations in the hybridization expansion (CT-HYB). Instead of measuring Green's functions by removing hybridization lines from partition function configurations, as in conventional CT-HYB, the worm algorithm directly samples the Green's function. We show that worm sampling is necessary to obtain general two-particle Green's functions which are not of density-density type and that it improves the sampling efficiency when approaching the atomic limit. Such two-particle Green's functions are needed to compute off-diagonal elements of susceptibilities and occur in diagrammatic extensions of the dynamical mean-field theory and in efficient estimators for the single-particle self-energy.

  20. Ascaris lumbricoides: reinfection in children bearing an established worm burden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fausto E. Lima Pereira

    1991-12-01

    Full Text Available To clarify the existance of reinfection in children bearing an established Ascaris lumbricoides infection, the authors evaluated the weight and the length of worms collected from ten cases of ascaridiasis. The worm burden was greater than 27 worms in nine cases. In seven cases the weight and the length of worms showed little variation, with unimodal distribution of values, suggesting that all the worms in each case belong to the same population, originated from a single brood infection or from successive infections over small time intervals. In three cases there was great variation in worm size indicated by the different values for the means and medians and by the high values for the standard deviation and coefficient of variation. In these three cases there was a bimodal distribution of worm's size suggesting the coexistance of two distinct populations: one, less numerous, composed of mature worms and the other, more numerous, composed ofimmature worms, in two cases, and two distinct populations of immature worms in one case. The existance of worms in different stages of maturation indicates that the less mature population was acquired when the mature worms were established in the gut. These results indicate that the reinfection with Ascaris in children bearing an established infection is not rare and resistance induced by a preexisting infection is not the rule.Para tentar esclarecer a existência de reinfecção em crianças portadoras de ascaridíase já estabelecida, foram avaliados o peso e o comprimento dos vermes colhidos em 10 casosde ascaridíase, em nove dos quais a carga parasitária foi maior do que 27 vermes. Em sete casos o peso e o comprimento dos vermes apresentaram pouca variação, com distribuição unimodal dos valores, sugerindo assim pertencerem todos a uma mesma população originada de uma única infecção ou de infecções repetidas com intervalos muito curtos. Em três casos, o peso e o comprimento dos vermes

  1. Commwarrior worm propagation model for smart phone networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIA Wei; LI Zhao-hui; CHEN Zeng-qiang; YUAN Zhu-zhi

    2008-01-01

    Commwarrior worm is capable of spreading through both Bluetooth and multimedia messaging service (MMS) in smart phone networks. According to the propagation characteristics of Bluetooth and MMS, we built the susceptible- exposed-infected-recovered-dormancy (SEIRD) model for the Bluetooth and MMS hybrid spread mode and performed the stability analysis. The simulation results show good correlation with our theoretical analysis and demonstrate the effectiveness of this dynamic propagation model. On the basis of the SEIRD model, we further discuss at length the influence of the propagation parameters such as user gather density in groups, moving velocity of smart phone, the time for worm to replicate itself, and other interrelated parameters on the propagation of the virus. On the basis of these analytical and simulation results, some feasible control strategies will be proposed to restrain the spread of mobile worm such as commwarrior on smart phone network.

  2. Preparation of Pickering double emulsions using block copolymer worms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Kate L; Mable, Charlotte J; Lane, Jacob A; Derry, Mathew J; Fielding, Lee A; Armes, Steven P

    2015-04-14

    The rational formulation of Pickering double emulsions is described using a judicious combination of hydrophilic and hydrophobic block copolymer worms as highly anisotropic emulsifiers. More specifically, RAFT dispersion polymerization was utilized to prepare poly(lauryl methacrylate)-poly(benzyl methacrylate) worms at 20% w/w solids in n-dodecane and poly(glycerol monomethacrylate)-poly(2-hydroxypropyl methacrylate)-poly(benzyl methacrylate) worms at 13% w/w solids in water by polymerization-induced self-assembly (PISA). Water-in-oil-in-water (w/o/w) double emulsions can be readily prepared with mean droplet diameters ranging from 30 to 80 μm using a two-stage approach. First, a w/o precursor emulsion comprising 25 μm aqueous droplets is prepared using the hydrophobic worms, followed by encapsulation within oil droplets stabilized by the hydrophilic worms. The double emulsion droplet diameter and number of encapsulated water droplets can be readily varied by adjusting the stirring rate employed during the second stage. For each stage, the droplet volume fraction is relatively high at 0.50. The double emulsion nature of the final formulation was confirmed by optical and fluorescence microscopy studies. Such double emulsions are highly stable to coalescence, with little or no change in droplet diameter being detected over storage at 20 °C for 10 weeks as judged by laser diffraction. Preliminary experiments indicate that the complementary o/w/o emulsions can also be prepared using the same pair of worms by changing the order of homogenization, although somewhat lower droplet volume fractions were required in this case. Finally, we demonstrate that triple and even quadruple emulsions can be formulated using these new highly anisotropic Pickering emulsifiers. PMID:25834923

  3. Localization of Waves without Bistability Worms in Nematic Electroconvection

    CERN Document Server

    Riecke, H; Riecke, Hermann; Granzow, Glen D.

    1998-01-01

    A general localization mechanism for waves in dissipative systems is identified that does not require the bistability of the basic state and the nonlinear plane-wave state. The mechanism explains the two-dimensional localized wave structures (`worms') that recently have been observed in experiments on electroconvection in nematic liquid crystals where the transition to extended waves is supercritical. The mechanism accounts for the propagation direction of the worms and certain aspects of their interaction. The dynamics of the localized waves can be steady or irregular.

  4. Age-related worm load and worm fecundity patterns in human populations, as indicated by schistosome circulating antigens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polman Katja

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, our group determined the relationship between serum CAA levels and fecal egg counts in two foci with very intense Schistosoma mansoni transmission: Maniema (Zaire, an area endemic for S. mansoni since several decades, and Ndombo (Senegal, where transmission has only been established since a few years. The objective was to study and compare age-related worm load and worm fecundity patterns in these two different endemic settings. Here, we will summarize the most important findings and conclusions of this study.

  5. Integrating immune mechanisms to model nematode worm burden: an example in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnier, Romain; Grenfell, Bryan T; Nisbet, Alasdair J; Matthews, Jacqueline B; Graham, Andrea L

    2016-06-01

    Gastrointestinal nematodes represent important sources of economic losses in farmed ruminants, and the increasing frequency of anthelmintic resistance requires an increased ability to explore alternative strategies. Theoretical approaches at the crossroads of immunology and epidemiology are valuable tools in that context. In the case of Teladorsagia circumcincta in sheep, the immunological mechanisms important for resistance are increasingly well-characterized. However, despite the existence of a wide range of theoretical models, there is no framework integrating the characteristic features of this immune response into a tractable phenomenological model. Here, we propose to bridge that gap by developing a flexible modelling framework that allows for variability in nematode larval intake which can be used to track the variations in worm burdens. We parameterize this model using data from trickle infection of sheep and show that using simple immunological assumptions, our model can capture the dynamics of both adult worm burdens and nematode fecal egg counts. In addition, our analysis reveals interesting dose-dependent effects on the immune response. Finally, we discuss potential developments of this model and highlight how an improved cross-talk between empiricists and theoreticians would facilitate important advances in the study of infectious diseases. PMID:26283186

  6. SEX PHEROMONE FOR CRANBERRY BLOSSOM WORM, EPIGLAE APIATA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The cranberry blossom worm, Epiglaea apiata (Grote) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is a major pest of cranberries, Vaccinium macrocarpon (Aitan), in New Jersey. The sex pheromone of this insect was identified to be a blend of (Z)-9-hexadecenyl acetate (Z9-16:Ac), (Z)-9-tetradecenyl acetate (Z9-14:Ac), a...

  7. Opinion Dynamics Driven by Leaders, Media, Viruses and Worms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuncay, Çağlar

    A model on the effects of leader, media, viruses, worms, and other agents on the opinion of individuals is developed and utilized to simulate the formation of consensus in society and price in market via excess between supply and demand. The effects of some time varying drives (harmonic and hyperbolic) are also investigated.

  8. Opinion dynamics driven by leaders, media, viruses and worms

    CERN Document Server

    Tuncay, C

    2006-01-01

    A model on the effects of leader, media, viruses, and worms and other agents on the opinion of individuals is developed and utilized to simulate the formation of consensus in society and price in market via excess between supply and demand. Effects of some time varying drives, (harmonic and hyperbolic) are also investigated. Key words: Opinion; Leader; Media; Market; Buyers; Sellers; Excess

  9. The Vicious Worm - A One Health cysticercosis advocacy information tool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saarnak, Christopher; Trevisan, Chiara; Mejer, Helena;

    The Vicious Worm: A computer-based program advocating for prevention and control of Taenia solium cysticercosis – a zoonotic tapeworm disease - widespread and emerging in many low income countries due to increased pork production and bad hygiene. Available at www.theviciousworm.org + Google Play...

  10. Metagenomics of the Methane Ice Worm, Hesiocaeca methanicola

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, K. D.; Edsall, L.; Xin, W.; Head, S. R.; Gelbart, T.; Wood, A. M.; Gaasterland, T.

    2012-12-01

    The methane ice worm (Hesiocaeca methanicola) is a polychaete found on methane hydrate deposits for which there appears to be no publically available genomic or metagenomic data. Methane ice worms were collected in 2009 by the Johnson-Sea-Link submersible (543m depth; N 27:44.7526 W 91:13.3168). Next-generation sequencing (HiSeq2000) was applied to samples of tissue and gut contents. A subset of the assembled data (40M reads, randomly selected) was run through MG-RAST. Preliminary results for the gut content (1,269,153 sequences, average length 202 bp) indicated that 0.1% of the sequences contained ribosomal RNA genes with the majority (67%) classified as Bacteria, a relatively small per cent (1.4%) as Archae, and 31% as Eukaryota. Campylobacterales was the predominant order (14%), with unclassified (7.5%) and Desulfobacterales (4%) being the next dominant. Preliminary results for the worm tissue (2,716,461 sequences, average length 241 bp) indicated that the majority of sequences were Eukaryota (73%), with 256 sequences classified as phylum Annelida and 58% of those belonging to class Polychaeta. For the bacterial sequences obtained from the tissue samples, the predominant order was Actinomycetales (2.7%). For both the tissue and gut content samples, the majority of proteins were classified as clustering-based subsystems. This preliminary analysis will be compared to an assembly consisting of 40M of the highest quality reads.; methane ice worms on methane hydrate

  11. The Worm Process for the Ising Model is Rapidly Mixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collevecchio, Andrea; Garoni, Timothy M.; Hyndman, Timothy; Tokarev, Daniel

    2016-09-01

    We prove rapid mixing of the worm process for the zero-field ferromagnetic Ising model, on all finite connected graphs, and at all temperatures. As a corollary, we obtain a fully-polynomial randomized approximation scheme for the Ising susceptibility, and for a certain restriction of the two-point correlation function.

  12. Making sense of genomes of parasitic worms: Tackling bioinformatic challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korhonen, Pasi K; Young, Neil D; Gasser, Robin B

    2016-01-01

    Billions of people and animals are infected with parasitic worms (helminths). Many of these worms cause diseases that have a major socioeconomic impact worldwide, and are challenging to control because existing treatment methods are often inadequate. There is, therefore, a need to work toward developing new intervention methods, built on a sound understanding of parasitic worms at molecular level, the relationships that they have with their animal hosts and/or the diseases that they cause. Decoding the genomes and transcriptomes of these parasites brings us a step closer to this goal. The key focus of this article is to critically review and discuss bioinformatic tools used for the assembly and annotation of these genomes and transcriptomes, as well as various post-genomic analyses of transcription profiles, biological pathways, synteny, phylogeny, biogeography and the prediction and prioritisation of drug target candidates. Bioinformatic pipelines implemented and established recently provide practical and efficient tools for the assembly and annotation of genomes of parasitic worms, and will be applicable to a wide range of other parasites and eukaryotic organisms. Future research will need to assess the utility of long-read sequence data sets for enhanced genomic assemblies, and develop improved algorithms for gene prediction and post-genomic analyses, to enable comprehensive systems biology explorations of parasitic organisms. PMID:26956711

  13. Round worm in the ear: A clinical rarity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidya Bhushan Rangappa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Foreign body in otolaryngology practice is a common scenario. There have been very few documentations of a worm entering the ear through the Eustachian tube. We hereby report a very interesting such case and also discuss the possible cause postulated for such events.

  14. Construction and identification of subtracted cDNA library in bone marrow cells of radon-exposed mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To construct and identify subtracted cDNA library in bone marrow cells of mice exposed to radon inhalation. Methods: Adult male BALB/c mice, weighing 18-22 g, were placed in a multi- functional radon chamber. One group of mice was exposed to radon up to the accumulative dose of 105 work level month (WLM). The control group of mice was housed in a room with an accumulative dose of 1 WLM. To construct a subtracted cDNA library enriched with differentially expressed genes, the SMART technique and the suppression subtractive hybridization were performed. The obtained forward and reverse cDNA fragments were directly inserted into pMD18-T vector and transformed into E. coli JM109. The inserting cDNA fragments were screened by the blue-and-white blot screening and nested PCR of bacterium liquid. Results: The 244 of 285 white bacteria clones obtained randomly were positive clones contained 100-1100 bp inserted cDNA fragments. Conclusions: The forward and reverse subtracted cDNA library in bone marrow cells of mice exposed to radon inhalation is successfully constructed. (authors)

  15. Performance Analysis of Cell-Phone Worm Spreading in Cellular Networks through Opportunistic Communications

    OpenAIRE

    YAHUI, W.; Deng, S; Huang, H; Deng, Y.

    2012-01-01

    Worms spreading directly between cell-phones over short-range radio (Bluetooth, WiFi, etc.) are increasing rapidly. Communication by these technologies is opportunistic and has very close relation with the social characteristics of the phone carriers. In this paper, we try to evaluate the impact of different characteristics on the spreading performance of worms. On the other hand, the behaviors of worms may have certain impact, too. For example, worms may make phones be completely dysfunc...

  16. WORM: A general-purpose input deck specification language

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using computer codes to perform criticality safety calculations has become common practice in the industry. The vast majority of these codes use simple text-based input decks to represent the geometry, materials, and other parameters that describe the problem. However, the data specified in input files are usually processed results themselves. For example, input decks tend to require the geometry specification in linear dimensions and materials in atom or weight fractions, while the parameter of interest might be mass or concentration. The calculations needed to convert from the item of interest to the required parameter in the input deck are usually performed separately and then incorporated into the input deck. This process of calculating, editing, and renaming files to perform a simple parameter study is tedious at best. In addition, most computer codes require dimensions to be specified in centimeters, while drawings or other materials used to create the input decks might be in other units. This also requires additional calculation or conversion prior to composition of the input deck. These additional calculations, while extremely simple, introduce a source for error in both the calculations and transcriptions. To overcome these difficulties, WORM (Write One, Run Many) was created. It is an easy-to-use programming language to describe input decks and can be used with any computer code that uses standard text files for input. WORM is available, via the Internet, at worm.lanl.gov. A user's guide, tutorials, example models, and other WORM-related materials are also available at this Web site. Questions regarding WORM should be directed to wormatlanl.gov

  17. Production of worm-gear speed reducers for NPP charging machines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Main features and performance of three types of worm-gear speed reducers applied in WWER-1000 charging machines are presented and described. All types of reducers have a single worm; worm gearings in them are clearance free. The reducer design provides for minimal cost of production preparation and requires minimal application of special production equipment

  18. Desenvolupament d'un joc per a dispositius Android: WhackaWorm

    OpenAIRE

    García Solsona, David

    2016-01-01

    Projecte de desenvolupament d'un joc per a Android: WhackaWorm, basat en la famosa màquina de recreatives, Whackamole. Proyecto de desarrollo de un juego para Android: Whack Worm, basado en la famosa máquina de recreativas, Whackamole. Project to develop a game for Android: Worm Whack based on famous arcade machine, Whackamole.

  19. Characteristics of natural infections of the stomach worm, Obeliscoides cuniculi (Graybill), in lagomorphs and woodchucks in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Measures, L N; Anderson, R C

    1983-07-01

    Wild lagomorphs and woodchucks collected predominantly in southern Ontario, Canada were examined for subspecies of Obeliscoides cuniculi (Graybill). Obeliscoides cuniculi multistriatus was found in snowshoe hares (Lepus americanus). Obeliscoides cuniculi cuniculi was found in cottontail rabbits (Sylvilagus floridanus), European hares (Lepus capensis) and woodchucks (Marmota monax). Prevalence of Obeliscoides cuniculi multistriatus in snowshoe hares was 100% and mean intensity (and range of intensity) was 760 (9-4, 198) in Lindsay, Ontario in 1980. Mean intensity in hares varied trimonthly. The highest mean intensity of worms occurred in spring when most worms were adult. Transmission occurred mainly in spring. Most worms present in fall (70%) and winter (54%) were fourth stage. Immature fifth-stage and gravid females were present in hares during fall and winter. Prevalence and mean intensity of O. c. cuniculi in cottontails was 15% and 29 (1-118). Prevalence and mean intensity of O. c. cuniculi in woodchucks was 6% and 56 (16-118). European hares were infected with O. c. cuniculi, prevalence was 10% and mean intensity was 60 (36-83). In Ontario woodchucks and European hares were common in areas frequented by cottontail rabbits and probably acquired sporadic infections of O. c. cuniculi from infected cottontails. PMID:6644920

  20. Construction of cDNA Library from Populus euphratica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Guangjun; Wang Yiqin; Shen Xin

    2003-01-01

    In order to isolate and clone salt-tolerance involved genes of Populus euphratica, we constructed a cDNA library from salt-treated leaves of P. euphratica. In the experiment, double strand cDNA were synthesized by a beads-based method. The syntheses of the first strand and the second strand cDNA, adapter ligation and restriction reaction for releasing cDNA were all conducted on the beads. The double strand cDNA were released from magnetic beads by digestion with NotI, and cDNA fragments smaller than 500 bp and residual adapters were removed through cDNA size fractionation columns. Finally, double strand cDNA were directionally cloned intoλExcell vector. The results show that the primary titer of the cDNA library is 7.46×106 pfu per mL and the packaging efficiency reaches 1.47×107 recombinants per μg DNA. λDNA extracted from two clones of plaque were digested by EcoR I and NotI, both of the clones contained inserts larger than 900 bp. These results show that the cDNA library of salt-treated P. euphratica leaves has been successfully constructed.

  1. Insecticidal Activity of Some Plant Extracts Against Cotton Leaf Worm Spodoptera Littoralis (Boisd.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study aimed to investigate the toxic effect of some plant extracts on cotton leaf worm, Spodoptera littoralis (Boisd.). Petroleum ether was used as a solvent to extract effective components from some plants such as Terminalia arjuna, Erythrine caffra, Taxodium distichum and Melaleuca cajuputi. Treatment of 4th instar larvae with each of the four plant extracts caused clear mortality (25-57). The reduction in F1 progeny (1.5-44.1), elongation of the larval duration, and pupal period at any of the tested concentration were noticed (17-33). There was moderate gradient reduction in the pupation percentage of the different treatments (71) as compared to the control (93.3). Moderate fluctuation was observed among sex ratio (1:2.3). Percentages of adult emergence and growth were inhibited with increasing the concentrations as observed in four plant extracts (1.7) as compared to control (2.9)

  2. QuantWorm: a comprehensive software package for Caenorhabditis elegans phenotypic assays.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang-Kyu Jung

    Full Text Available Phenotypic assays are crucial in genetics; however, traditional methods that rely on human observation are unsuitable for quantitative, large-scale experiments. Furthermore, there is an increasing need for comprehensive analyses of multiple phenotypes to provide multidimensional information. Here we developed an automated, high-throughput computer imaging system for quantifying multiple Caenorhabditis elegans phenotypes. Our imaging system is composed of a microscope equipped with a digital camera and a motorized stage connected to a computer running the QuantWorm software package. Currently, the software package contains one data acquisition module and four image analysis programs: WormLifespan, WormLocomotion, WormLength, and WormEgg. The data acquisition module collects images and videos. The WormLifespan software counts the number of moving worms by using two time-lapse images; the WormLocomotion software computes the velocity of moving worms; the WormLength software measures worm body size; and the WormEgg software counts the number of eggs. To evaluate the performance of our software, we compared the results of our software with manual measurements. We then demonstrated the application of the QuantWorm software in a drug assay and a genetic assay. Overall, the QuantWorm software provided accurate measurements at a high speed. Software source code, executable programs, and sample images are available at www.quantworm.org. Our software package has several advantages over current imaging systems for C. elegans. It is an all-in-one package for quantifying multiple phenotypes. The QuantWorm software is written in Java and its source code is freely available, so it does not require use of commercial software or libraries. It can be run on multiple platforms and easily customized to cope with new methods and requirements.

  3. The Schistosoma mansoni Cytochrome P450 (CYP3050A1 Is Essential for Worm Survival and Egg Development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter D Ziniel

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis affects millions of people in developing countries and is responsible for more than 200,000 deaths annually. Because of toxicity and limited spectrum of activity of alternatives, there is effectively only one drug, praziquantel, available for its treatment. Recent data suggest that drug resistance could soon be a problem. There is therefore the need to identify new drug targets and develop drugs for the treatment of schistosomiasis. Analysis of the Schistosoma mansoni genome sequence for proteins involved in detoxification processes found that it encodes a single cytochrome P450 (CYP450 gene. Here we report that the 1452 bp open reading frame has a characteristic heme-binding region in its catalytic domain with a conserved heme ligating cysteine, a hydrophobic leader sequence present as the membrane interacting region, and overall structural conservation. The highest sequence identity to human CYP450s is 22%. Double stranded RNA (dsRNA silencing of S. mansoni (SmCYP450 in schistosomula results in worm death. Treating larval or adult worms with antifungal azole CYP450 inhibitors results in worm death at low micromolar concentrations. In addition, combinations of SmCYP450-specific dsRNA and miconazole show additive schistosomicidal effects supporting the hypothesis that SmCYP450 is the target of miconazole. Treatment of developing S. mansoni eggs with miconazole results in a dose dependent arrest in embryonic development. Our results indicate that SmCYP450 is essential for worm survival and egg development and validates it as a novel drug target. Preliminary structure-activity relationship suggests that the 1-(2,4-dichlorophenyl-2-(1H-imidazol-1-ylethan-1-ol moiety of miconazole is necessary for activity and that miconazole activity and selectivity could be improved by rational drug design.

  4. The effect of gamma irradiation on the embryonic development of the cotton leaf worm spodoptera littoralis (Biosed.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of gamma irradiation on the embryonic development of the cotton leaf worm studied. Irradiated eggs with 50 Gy gamma rays showed a high percentage of completely developed embryos and low hatch ability. The lowest percentages of embryonic development were obtained from the preparations of (I males)and (1 females)(irradiated males and irradiated females) matings which resulted from survived adults irradiated with 400 Gy (as full grown pupae). In case of eggs resulted from irradiated females mated with irradiated or non-irradiated males, a comparatively high percentages of incomplete embryonic development were noticed

  5. Isolation of an insulin-like growth factor II cDNA with a unique 5' untranslated region from human placenta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Human insulin-like growth factor II (IGF-II) cDNA from a placental library was isolated and sequenced. The 5' untranslated region (5'-UTR) sequence of this cDNA differs completely from that of adult human liver and has considerable base sequence identity to the same region of an IGF-II cDNA of a rat liver cell line, BRL-3A. Human placental poly(A)+ RNA was probed with either the 5'-UTR of the isolated human placental IGF-II cDNA or the 5'-UTR of the IGF-II cDNA obtained from adult human liver. No transcripts were detected by using the 5'-UTR of the adult liver IGF-II as the probe. In contrast, three transcripts of 6.0, 3.2, and 2.2 kilobases were detected by using the 5'-UTR of the placental IGF-II cDNA as the probe or the probe from the coding sequence. A fourth IGF-II transcript of 4.9 kilobases presumably containing a 5'-UTR consisting of a base sequence dissimilar to that of either IGF-II 5'-UTR was apparent. Therefore, IGF-II transcripts detected may be products of alternative splicing as their 5'-UTR sequence is contained within the human IGF-II gene or they may be a consequence of alternative promoter utilization in placenta

  6. Cloning of Drosophila choline acetyltransferase cDNA.

    OpenAIRE

    Itoh, N; Slemmon, J.R.; Hawke, D.H.; Williamson, R.; Morita, E.; Itakura, K; Roberts, E; Shively, J. E.; Crawford, G D; Salvaterra, P M

    1986-01-01

    Choline acetyltransferase (EC 2.3.1.6) is the biosynthetic enzyme for the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. To isolate choline acetyltransferase cDNA clones, a cDNA library was constructed from poly(A)+ RNA of Drosophila melanogaster heads, these being one of the richest known sources of the enzyme. By screening the cDNA library with a mixture of three different monoclonal antibodies to Drosophila choline acetyltransferase, we isolated 14 positive clones. Only 1 of these clones was identified t...

  7. Hop-by-HopWorm Propagation with Carryover Epidemic Model in Mobile Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Won Ho

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In the internet, a worm is usually propagated in a random multi-hop contact manner. However, the attacker will not likely select this random multi-hop propagation approach in a mobile sensor network. This is because multi-hop worm route paths to random vulnerable targets can be often breached due to node mobility, leading to failure of fast worm spread under this strategy. Therefore, an appropriate propagation strategy is needed for mobile sensor worms. To meet this need, we discuss a hop-by-hop worm propagation model in mobile sensor networks. In a hop-by-hop worm propagation model, benign nodes are infected by worm in neighbor-to-neighbor spread manner. Since worm infection occurs in hop-by-hop contact, it is not substantially affected by a route breach incurred by node mobility. We also propose the carryover epidemic model to deal with the worm infection quota deficiency that might occur when employing an epidemic model in a mobile sensor network. We analyze worm infection capability under the carryover epidemic model. Moreover, we simulate hop-by-hop worm propagation with carryover epidemic model by using an ns-2 simulator. The simulation results demonstrate that infection quota carryovers are seldom observed where a node’s maximum speed is no less than 20 m/s.

  8. The Opportunistic Transmission of Wireless Worms between Mobile Devices

    CERN Document Server

    Rhodes, C J

    2008-01-01

    The ubiquity of portable wireless-enabled computing and communications devices has stimulated the emergence of malicious codes (wireless worms) that are capable of spreading between spatially proximal devices. The potential exists for worms to be opportunistically transmitted between devices as they move around, so human mobility patterns will have an impact on epidemic spread. The scenario we address in this paper is proximity attacks from fleetingly in-contact wireless devices with short-range communication range, such as Bluetooth-enabled smart phones. An individual-based model of mobile devices is introduced and the effect of population characteristics and device behaviour on the outbreak dynamics is investigated. We show through extensive simulations that in the above scenario the resulting mass-action epidemic models remain applicable provided the contact rate is derived consistently from the underlying mobility model. The model gives useful analytical expressions against which more refined simulations ...

  9. 5'-end sequences of budding yeast full-length cDNA clones - Budding yeast cDNA sequencing project | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Budding yeast cDNA sequencing project 5'-end sequences of budding yeast full-length cDNA clones Data detail Data name 5'-end sequence...s of budding yeast full-length cDNA clones Description of data contents cDNA sequence...e Update History of This Database Site Policy | Contact Us 5'-end sequences of budding yeast full-length cDNA clones - Budding yeast cDNA sequencing project | LSDB Archive ...

  10. Parasites in Kentucky Thoroughbreds at necropsy: emphasis on stomach worms and tapeworms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, E T; Tolliver, S C; Drudge, J H; Swerczek, T W; Crowe, M W

    1983-05-01

    A total of 363 Thoroughbreds (62 males, 292 females, and 9 geldings), 1 to 26 years of age, were examined at necropsy for internal parasites for about a 12-month period from February 1981 through February 1982. Emphasis was on examining the stomach for nematodes and the small intestine and cecum for tapeworms. Parasites recovered from the stomach and infection rates were: Habronema spp--immature (24%), H muscae--adult (38%), Draschia megastoma--immature (13%), D megastoma--adult (62%), and Trichostrongylus axei--adult (4%); lesions caused by D megastoma were found upon gross observation in 58% of the stomachs. The tapeworm, Anoplocephala perfoliata, was recovered from 54% of the horses; A magna was not found. There was no obvious difference in infection rates of the stomach worms and tapeworms according to age or sex of the horses. Seasonal differences were apparent only for immature Habronema spp and immature D megastoma for which infection rates began increasing in June, peaking in October, and declining thereafter. Presence of 4 additional species of parasites was recorded, but only a cursory examination was made for them. These were the large strongyles, Strongylus vulgaris, S edentatus, and S equinus, from the cecum and a filariid, Setaria spp (probably S equina), from the abdominal cavity, for which recovery rates from the horses were 8%, 8%, 1%, and 7%, respectively. PMID:6869991

  11. Bioaccumulation and biological effects of cigarette litter in marine worms

    OpenAIRE

    Stephanie L. Wright; Darren Rowe; Reid, Malcolm J; Thomas, Kevin V.; Galloway, Tamara S.

    2015-01-01

    Marine debris is a global environmental issue. Smoked cigarette filters are the predominant coastal litter item; 4.5 trillion are littered annually, presenting a source of bioplastic microfibres (cellulose acetate) and harmful toxicants to marine environments. Despite the human health risks associated with smoking, little is known of the hazards cigarette filters present to marine life. Here we studied the impacts of smoked cigarette filter toxicants and microfibres on the polychaete worm Hed...

  12. Shrimp aquaculture in low salinity water feeded with worm flavor

    OpenAIRE

    Wenceslao Valenzuela Quiñónez; Gerardo Rodríguez-Quiroz; Héctor Manuel Esparza Leal; Eusebio Nava Pérez

    2012-01-01

    Shrimp aquaculture in Sinaloa is one of the top economic enterprises, generating many jobs and earns significant incomes every year. Shrimp feed is an essential part of maintaining healthy production. In this initial approach of shrimp growth in low salinity water, were tested two formulas of animal protein composed of 40% (APL1) and 20% (APL2) worm protein, a commercial diet, and no supplementary feed. Physicochemical parameters did not have a direct influence in shrimpbehavior. After six we...

  13. Taxonomy Icon Data: hemichordates (Acorn worm) [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available hemichordates (Acorn worm) Glandiceps hacksi Hemichordata Glandiceps_hacksi_L.png Glandiceps_hack...si_NL.png Glandiceps_hacksi_S.png Glandiceps_hacksi_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_ic...on/icon.cgi?i=Glandiceps+hacksi&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Glandiceps+hacksi&t=NL ...http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Glandiceps+hacksi&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Glandiceps+hacksi&t=NS ...

  14. The morphological diversity of Osedax worm borings (Annelidia: Siboglinidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Higgs, ND; Glover, AG; Dahlgren, TG; Smith, CR; Fujiwara, Y.; Pradillion, F; Johnson, SB; Vrijenhoek, RC; Little, CTS

    2014-01-01

    Marine worms in the genus Osedax, have specialized ‘root’ tissues used to bore into the bones of decomposing vertebrate skeletons and obtain nutrition. We investigated the borings of nine Osedax species, using micro computed tomography to quantitatively describe the morphology of the borings and provide three-dimensional reconstructions of the space occupied by Osedax root tissues inside the bone. Each Osedax species displayed a consistent boring morphology in any given bone, but these differ...

  15. Not whale-fall specialists, Osedax worms also consume fishbones

    OpenAIRE

    Rouse, Greg W.; Goffredi, Shana K.; Johnson, Shannon B.; Vrijenhoek, Robert C.

    2011-01-01

    Marine annelid worms of the genus Osedax exploit sunken vertebrate bones for food. To date, the named species occur on whale or other mammalian bones, and it is argued that Osedax is a whale-fall specialist. To assess whether extant Osedax species could obtain nutrition from non-mammalian resources, we deployed teleost bones and calcified shark cartilage at approximately 1000 m depth for five months. Although the evidence from shark cartilage was inconclusive, the teleost bones hosted three s...

  16. Genetic polymorphism of the beta-tubulin gene of Onchocerca volvulus in ivermectin naive patients from Cameroon, and its relationship with fertility of the worms

    OpenAIRE

    Bourguinat, C.; Pion, Sébastien; Kamgno, J.; Gardon, Jacques; Gardon Wendel, N.; Duke, B.O.L.; Prichard, R. K.; Boussinesq, Michel

    2006-01-01

    Observations of low response of patients infected with Onchocerca volvulus to ivermectin suggest that the parasite may be tinder a selection process toward potential resistance. To limit the extension of this phenomenon, it is crucial to characterize the genes of O. volvulus that are involved. For this, O. volvulus adult worms collected before the introduction of ivermectin in an onchocerciasis endemic area of central Cameroon were genotyped for beta-tubulin. To derive a baseline to investiga...

  17. The Pathogenicity of Bio-Insecticide Protecto to Gamma Irradiated Cotton Leaf Worm Spodoptera littoralis (Boisd.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toxicological study using commercial formulation of Protecto based on the entomopathogenic bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis var kurstaki (B.t) in concentrations ranging from 0.09 to 10% were carried out versus second and fourth larval instar of the cotton leaf worm Spodoptera littoralis (Boisd.). The different pathological and biological aspects as larval and pupal mortality and developmental periods obviously increased by concentration increment, where the maximum mortality percentage, 91.66%, was observed when a concentration of 10% was used against the second instar. The longest developmental period, 29.1 days, was obtained when a concentration of 10% was applied against the second instar while it was 24.88 days when the same concentration was applied against the fourth instar. The pupation percentage, adult emergence percentage, survival percentage and adult longevity almost decreased by concentration increase where the least pupation and adult emergence percentage of second larval instar were observed at a concentration of 10%, it was 18.33 and 45.45% respectively and survival percentage decreased to 8.33, 21.66% at both instars at the concentration of 10%. Also the adult female and male moth longevity decreased by increasing Bacterial concentration. LC50 was calculated for second and fourth instar. Two substerlizing doses of gamma radiation 175 and 125 Gy were applied to full grown male pupae and different mating aspects as mating percentage, fecundity, fertility, average number of spermatophores per mated female were calculated where the fecundity and fertility were significantly decreased among P1 and F1 generations compared to control. The second and fourth larval instar of the F1 generation of the two substerlizing doses were treated with LC50 of protecto and the different mating statuses were studied which indicated a clear decrease in fecundity and a significant decrease in fertility of females mated with treated males among P1 and F1 generations. The

  18. Antigens of worms and eggs showed a differentiated detection of specific IgG according to the time of Schistosoma mansoni infection in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafaella Fortini Queiroz Grenfell

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The correlation between the immunological assay and the antibody titer can offer a tool for the experimental analysis of different phases of the disease. METHODS: Two simple immunological assays for Schistosoma mansoni in mice sera samples based on specific IgG detection for worms soluble antigens and eggs soluble antigens were standardized and evaluated in our laboratory. Fifty mice were used in negative and positive groups and the results obtained by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA assays were compared with the number of worms counted and the IgG titers at different times of infection. RESULTS: Data showed that ELISA using adult worm antigens (ELISA-SWAP presented a satisfactory correlation between the absorbance value of IgG titers and the individual number of worms counted after perfusion technique (R²=0.62. In addition, ELISA-SWAP differentially detected positive samples with 30 and 60 days post infection (p=0.011 and 0.003, respectively, whereas ELISA using egg antigens (ELISA-SEA detected samples after 140 days (p=0.03. CONCLUSIONS: These data show that the use of different antigens in immunological methods can be used as potential tools for the analysis of the chronological evolution of S. mansoni infection in murine schistosomiasis. Correlations with human schistosomiasis are discussed.

  19. The use of FAMACHA in estimation of gastrointestinal nematodes and total worm burden in Damara and Barbados Blackbelly cross sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Konto; Abba, Yusuf; Ramli, Nur Syairah Binti; Marimuthu, Murugaiyah; Omar, Mohammed Ariff; Abdullah, Faez Firdaus Jesse; Sadiq, Muhammad Abubakar; Tijjani, Abdulnasir; Chung, Eric Lim Teik; Lila, Mohammed Azmi Mohammed

    2016-06-01

    The prevalence of gastrointestinal (GI) nematodes and total worm burden of Damara and Barbados Blackbelly cross sheep was investigated among smallholder farms in Salak Tinggi district of Selangor, Malaysia. A total of 50 sheep raised in smallholder farms comprising of 27 Damara cross and 23 Barbados Blackbelly cross were categorized based on their age into young and adults. Fecal samples were collected and examined for strongyle egg count by using modified McMaster technique. Severity of infection was categorized into mild, moderate, and heavy, based on egg per gram (EPG). Five sheep were randomly selected and slaughtered to examine the presence of adult gastrointestinal (GI) nematodes through total worm count (TWC). Faffa Malan Chart (FAMACHA) score was used for investigation of worm load based on the degree of anemia. The study revealed an overall EPG prevalence of 88 %, of which 84.1 % had mild infection. There was a significant difference (p = 0.002) in EPG among the two breeds. Based on age, significant difference (p = 0. 004) in EPG was observed among Barbados Blackbelly cross, but not for Damara cross (p = 0.941). The correlation between severity of infection and the FAMACHA score was significant (r = 0.289; p = 0.042). Haemonchus spp. were the most predominant nematode found in the gastrointestinal tract, followed by Trichostrongylus and Oesophagostomum spps. EPG and TWC for Haemonchus were positively correlated, but not significant (r = 0.85, p = 0.066). From regression analysis, 73 % of the variability in TWC for Haemonchus could be explained by EPG. Thus, it can be concluded that FAMACHA score correlates well with severity of infection of a nematode and can be used to assess the strongyle nematode burden in the different sheep crosses. PMID:27038194

  20. Analysis of Two-Worm Interaction Model in Heterogeneous M2M Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinhua Ma

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid development of M2M (Machine-to-Machine networks, the damages caused by malicious worms are getting more and more serious. By considering the influences of the network heterogeneity on worm spreading, we are the first to study the complex interaction dynamics between benign worms and malicious worms in heterogeneous M2M network. We analyze and compare three worm propagation models based on different immunization schemes. By investigating the local stability of the worm-free equilibrium, we obtain the basic reproduction number R0 . Besides, by using suitable Lyapunov functions, we prove that the worm-free equilibrium is globally asymptotically stable if R0 ≤ 1 , otherwise unstable. The dynamics of worm models is completely determined by R0 . In the absence of birth, death and users’ treatment, we obtain the final size formula of worms. This study shows that the nodes with higher node degree are more susceptible to be infected than those with lower node degree. In addition, the effects of various immunization schemes are studied. Numerical simulations verify our theoretical results. The research results are meaningful for us to further understand the spread of worms in heterogeneous M2M network, and enact effectual control tactics.

  1. Routes of uptake of diclofenac, fluoxetine, and triclosan into sediment-dwelling worms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Maja V; Marshall, Stuart; Gouin, Todd; Boxall, Alistair B A

    2016-04-01

    The present study investigated the route and degree of uptake of 2 ionizable pharmaceuticals (diclofenac and fluoxetine) and 1 ionizable compound used in personal care products (triclosan) into the sediment-dwelling worm Lumbriculus variegatus. Studies were done on complete worms ("feeding") and worms where the head was absent ("nonfeeding") using (14) C-labeled ingredients. Biota sediment accumulation factors (BSAF), based on uptake of (14) C, for feeding worms increased in the order fluoxetine (0.3) triclosan (9), which is correlated with a corresponding increase in log octanol-water partition coefficient. Biota sediment accumulation factor estimates are representative of maximum values because the degree of biotransformation in the worms was not quantified. Although no significant differences were seen between the uptake of diclofenac and that of fluoxetine in feeding and nonfeeding worms, uptake of the more hydrophobic antimicrobial, triclosan, into the feeding worms was significantly greater than that in the nonfeeding worms, with the 48-h BSAF for feeding worms being 36% higher than that for the nonfeeding worms. The results imply that dietary uptake contributes to the uptake of triclosan, which may be a result of the high hydrophobicity of the compound. Models that estimate exposure of ionizable substances may need to consider uptake from both the water column and food, particularly when assessing risks from dynamic exposures to organic contaminants. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:836-842. © 2015 SETAC. PMID:25892588

  2. Molecular cloning of lupin leghemoglobin cDNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Konieczny, A; Jensen, E O; Marcker, K A;

    1987-01-01

    Poly(A)+ RNA isolated from root nodules of yellow lupin (Lupinus luteus, var. Ventus) has been used as a template for the construction of a cDNA library. The ds cDNA was synthesized and inserted into the Hind III site of plasmid pBR 322 using synthetic Hind III linkers. Clones containing sequences...... specific for nodules were selected by differential colony hybridization using 32P-labeled cDNA synthesized either from nodule poly(A)+ RNA or from poly(A)+ RNA of uninfected root as probes. Among the recombinant plasmids, the cDNA gene for leghemoglobin was identified. The protein structure derived from...... its nucleotide sequence was consistent with known amino acid sequence of lupin Lb II. The cloned lupin Lb cDNA hybridized to poly(A)+ RNA from nodules only, which is in accordance with the general concept, that leghemoglobin is expressed exclusively in nodules. Udgivelsesdato: 1987-null...

  3. Identification of cDNA clones expressing immunodiagnostic antigens from Trichinella spiralis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zarlenga, D.; Gamble, H.R.

    1987-05-01

    A cDNA expression library was built in lambda gt11 phage using poly A mRNA isolated from Trichinella spiralis muscle stage larvae. This library was screened with rabbit antibodies to parasite excretory-secretory (ES) products and greater than 180 clones were isolated. Thirteen clones producing highly immunogenic protein antigens were plaque purified and rescreened with pig antisera to T.spiralis, Trichuris suis or Ascaris suum to identify clones producing epitopes specific to T.spiralis ES products, only. Two clones, TsAc-2 and TsAc-8, which displayed strong interactions with pig antisera to T. spiralis were lysogenized in E. coli Y1089 and the protein extracted. Western blots of the crude fusion proteins revealed molecular weights of 133 kD and 129 kD, respectively. Northern blot analysis of total RNA with TSP labelled cDNA:lambda gt11 probes indicated single RNA transcripts for each clone with molecular sizes corresponding to 800-850 nucleotides. dscDNA inserts were estimated by southern blot analysis to be 500 bp and 340 bp, respectively, with no cross-hybridization observed between the cloned sequences. Dot blots using pig sera to screen crude fusion protein preparations, total bacterial protein (negative controls) and crude worm extract or ES products from T.spiralis, T.suis and A.suum (positive controls) corroborated the specificity and sensitivity of these clones as potential diagnostic antigens for swine trichinellosis.

  4. Identification of cDNA clones expressing immunodiagnostic antigens from Trichinella spiralis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A cDNA expression library was built in lambda gt11 phage using poly A mRNA isolated from Trichinella spiralis muscle stage larvae. This library was screened with rabbit antibodies to parasite excretory-secretory (ES) products and greater than 180 clones were isolated. Thirteen clones producing highly immunogenic protein antigens were plaque purified and rescreened with pig antisera to T.spiralis, Trichuris suis or Ascaris suum to identify clones producing epitopes specific to T.spiralis ES products, only. Two clones, TsAc-2 and TsAc-8, which displayed strong interactions with pig antisera to T. spiralis were lysogenized in E. coli Y1089 and the protein extracted. Western blots of the crude fusion proteins revealed molecular weights of 133 kD and 129 kD, respectively. Northern blot analysis of total RNA with 32P labelled cDNA:lambda gt11 probes indicated single RNA transcripts for each clone with molecular sizes corresponding to 800-850 nucleotides. dscDNA inserts were estimated by southern blot analysis to be 500 bp and 340 bp, respectively, with no cross-hybridization observed between the cloned sequences. Dot blots using pig sera to screen crude fusion protein preparations, total bacterial protein (negative controls) and crude worm extract or ES products from T.spiralis, T.suis and A.suum (positive controls) corroborated the specificity and sensitivity of these clones as potential diagnostic antigens for swine trichinellosis

  5. cDNA identification, comparison and phylogenetic aspects of lombricine kinase from two oligochaete species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doumen, Chris

    2010-06-01

    Creatine kinase and arginine kinase are the typical representatives of an eight-member phosphagen kinase family, which play important roles in the cellular energy metabolism of animals. The phylum Annelida underwent a series of evolutionary processes that resulted in rapid divergence and radiation of these enzymes, producing the greatest diversity of the phosphagen kinases within this phylum. Lombricine kinase (EC 2.7.3.5) is one of such enzymes and sequence information is rather limited compared to other phosphagen kinases. This study presents data on the cDNA sequences of lombricine kinase from two oligochaete species, the California blackworm (Lumbriculus variegatus) and the sludge worm (Tubifex tubifex). The deduced amino acid sequences are analyzed and compared with other selected phosphagen kinases, including two additional lombricine kinase sequences extracted from DNA databases and provide further insights in the evolution and position of these enzymes within the phosphagen kinase family. The data confirms the presence of a deleted region within the flexible loop (the GS region) of all six examined lombricine kinases. A phylogenetic analysis of these six lombricine kinases clearly positions the enzymes together in a small subcluster within the larger creatine kinase (EC 2.7.3.2) clade. PMID:20230902

  6. Study on the Faults of the Worm Gear in the Actuator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The actuator of the motor-operated valve (MOV) is the system which transfers the torque from the electrical motor to the stem. It is composed of the spur gear set, the worm-worm gear set, bearings and so on. Among them, the condition of the worm-worm gear set affect most on the performance of the actuator such as the efficiency. Therefore, the diagnosing defects and maintaining the performance of the worm-worm gear set contributes to the safe operation of power plants. However, it is very difficult to inspect it without disassembly. In this paper, non-intrusive diagnostic methods are developed to identify the defects which commonly occur: the wear of the gear teeth, broken teeth and the eccentricity of the assembly. Motor torque signals are used as the basic diagnostic signatures and the methods are verified with the various experiments

  7. Schistosoma mansoni: acquired resistance in mice by implantation of young irradiated worms into the portal system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In two distinct experiments immature S.mansoni worms (LE strain, Belo Horizonte, Brazil), aged 20 days, obtained from the portal system of white outbred mice, were irradiated with 14 and 4 Krad, respectively. Afterwards, the worms were directly inoculated into the portal vein of normal mice. Inoculation was performed with 20 irradiated worms per animal. Fifty days after inoculation, the mice that received 4 and 14 Krad-irradiated worms and their respective controls were infected with S.mansoni cercariae (LE strain), by transcutaneous route. Twenty days after this challenge infection, the animals were sacrificed and perfused for mature irradiated (90-day-old) and immature (20-day-old) worm counts. Analysis of the results showed that statistically significant protection against cercariae occurred in both groups with irradiated worms. (author)

  8. : acquired resistance in mice by implantation of young irradiated worms into the portal system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Marcos Z. Coelho

    1989-02-01

    Full Text Available In two distinct experiments, immature S. mansoni worms (LE strain, Belo Horizonte, Brazil, aged 20 days, obtained from the portal system of white outbred mice, were irradiated with 14 and 4 Krad, respectively. Afterwards, the worms were directly inoculated into the portal vein of normal mice. Inoculation was performed with 20 irradiated worms per animal. Fifty days after inoculation, the mice that received 4 and 14 Krad-irradiated worms and their respective controls were infected with S. mansoni cercariae (LE strain, by transcutaneous route. Twenty days after this challenge infection, the animals were sacrificed and perfused for mature irradiated (90-day-old and immature (20-day-old worm counts. Analysis of the results showed that statistically significant protection against cercariae occurred in both groups with irradiated worms.

  9. Electro-worming: The Behaviors of Caenorhabditis (C.) elegans in DC and AC Electric Fields

    CERN Document Server

    Chuang, Han-Sheng; Dabbish, Nooreen; Bau, Haim

    2010-01-01

    The video showcases how C. elegans worms respond to DC and AC electrical stimulations. Gabel et al (2007) demonstrated that in the presence of DC and low frequency AC fields, worms of stage L2 and larger propel themselves towards the cathode. Rezai et al (2010) have demonstrated that this phenomenon, dubbed electrotaxis, can be used to control the motion of worms. In the video, we reproduce Rezai's experimental results. Furthermore, we show, for the first time, that worms can be trapped with high frequency, nonuniform electric fields. We studied the effect of the electric field on the nematode as a function of field intensity and frequency and identified a range of electric field intensities and frequencies that trap worms without apparent adverse effect on their viability. Worms tethered by dielectrophoresis (DEP) avoid blue light, indicating that at least some of the nervous system functions remain unimpaired in the presence of the electric field. DEP is useful to dynamically confine nematodes for observati...

  10. A NOVEL METHOD FOR NETWORK WORM DETECTION BASED ON WAVELET PACKET ANALYSIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liao Mingtao; Zhang Deyun; Hou Lin

    2006-01-01

    Objective To detect unknown network worm at its early propagation stage. Methods On the basis of characteristics of network worm attack, the concept of failed connection flow (FCT) was defined. Based on wavelet packet analysis of FCT time series, this method computed the energy associated with each wavelet packet of FCT time series, transformed the FCT time series into a series of energy distribution vector on frequency domain, then a trained K-nearest neighbor (KNN) classifier was applied to identify the worm. Results The experiment showed that the method could identify network worm when the worm started to scan. Compared to theoretic value, the identification error ratio was 5.69%. Conclusion The method can detect unknown network worm at its early propagation stage effectively.

  11. THE WORMS COMPOST - EFFECTIVE FERTILIZER FOR IMPROVING DEGRADED SOILS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larisa CREMENEAC

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Management of organic waste is a difficult, complex and intractable in Moldova, according to international standards. Acute problem of organic matter from livestock sector waste is generated by storing them in unauthorized areas. Organic waste management strategies require different methods. One of them is organic waste bio conversion technology by worm’s cultivation. As the main natural wealth of the Republic of Moldova, soil requires a special care. Agriculture, in particular, should pay attention to the soil’s humus and nutrient status – and restore losses of humus and the nutrients used by crops. This requires measures to improve soil fertility. Land use provides, first of all return losses of humus and nutrients used by plants. Therefore measures required to improve soil fertility. The essence of the research was to highlight the role of worms compost improve the soil. To this end, in ETS "Maximovca" was organized an experiment that included three groups (two - experimental, to fund worms compost and one - control the natural background. Observations on soil fertility have been conducted over three years. The soil samples were collected by usual methods determined values of organic matter and humus. The results of the investigations, to determine the values of organic matter and humus samples collected from surface and depth 15 cm exceeded that of the sample control group to 29,7%; 11,4% and 34,3%; 37,1% in experimental group I and 9,3%; 11,6% and 45,5%; 45,5% in experimental group II. Therefore, worms compost embedded in a dose of 3-4 tons / ha during three years, has improved the fertility of the soil

  12. Partial characterization of superoxide dismutase activity in the Barber pole worm-Haemonchus contortus infecting Capra hircus and abomasal tissue extracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sadia Rashid; Malik Irshadullah

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) in the male and female haematophagous caprine worms, Haemonchus contortus infecting Capra hircus, and their E/S products and also to analyse the effect of Haemonchus infection on the level of host SOD. Methods: The SOD activity was analysed by using the pyrogallol autoxidation assay and non-denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis followed by specific enzyme staining by riboflavin-nitroblue tetrazolium method. Results: The adult females were found to have higher enzyme activity than the male worms. Appreciable amount of SOD activity was also detected in the worm culture medium and female worms secreted more SOD in comparison to the male parasites. The SOD activity was negatively correlated to the worm burden. Statistically significant decrease in SOD activity (P Conclusions:Haemonchus contortus is a key model parasite for drug and vaccine discovery. The presences of SOD activity in appreciable amount in the parasite as well as its E/S products indicate that it has a well-developed active antioxidant system to protect itself from the host immune attack. SOD could be the target for vaccine development which is the need of the hour as mass drug administration for parasite control has resulted in anthelmintic resistance across the globe and threatens the viability of sheep and goat industry in many regions of the world. The infection with Haemonchus causes a drastic reduction in SOD activity of the host tissue thus effecting its protective potential. One characteristic SOD band was found in the females which was not present in any other preparations and thus could be exploited for further studies on diagnostic/control measures.

  13. Towards global Guinea worm eradication in 2015: the experience of South Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awofeso, Niyi

    2013-08-01

    For centuries, the Guinea worm parasite (Dracunculus medinensis) has caused disabling misery, infecting people who drink stagnant water contaminated with the worm's larvae. In 2012, there were 542 cases of Guinea worm reported globally, of which 521 (96.1%) were reported in South Sudan. Protracted civil wars, an inadequate workforce, neglect of potable water provision programs, suboptimal Guinea worm surveillance and case containment, and fragmented health systems account for many of the structural and operational factors encumbering South Sudan's Guinea worm eradication efforts. This article reviews the impacts of six established Guinea worm control strategies in South Sudan: (1) surveillance to determine actual caseload distribution and trends in response to control measures; (2) educating community members from whom worms are emerging to avoid immersing affected parts in sources of drinking water; (3) filtering potentially contaminated drinking water using cloth filters or filtered drinking straws; (4) treating potentially contaminated surface water with the copepod larvicide temephos (Abate); (5) providing safe drinking water from boreholes or hand-dug wells; and (6) containment of transmission through voluntary isolation of each patient to prevent contamination of drinking water sources, provision of first aid, and manual extraction of the worm. Surveillance, community education, potable water provision, and case containment remain weak facets of the program. Abate pesticide is not a viable option for Guinea worm control in South Sudan. In light of current case detection and containment trends, as well as capacity building efforts for Guinea worm eradication, South Sudan is more likely to eradicate Guinea worm by 2020, rather than by 2015. The author highlights areas in which substantial improvements are required in South Sudan's Guinea worm eradication program, and suggests improvement strategies. PMID:23623648

  14. Comparative study on presentation of biliary ascariasis with dead and living worms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alam Shahinul

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim: Ascariasis is a common parasitic infestation in Asia and Latin America. The most serious presentation is biliary and pancreatic ascariasis (BPA. The aim of the present study was to compare the clinical presentation of BPA with dead worms with that with living worms. Materials and Methods: We included 138 consecutive cases of BPA that occured during the period January 2005 to July 2009. All the patients had endoscopically proven BPA consisting of living or dead worms. Comparison was done by chi-square and independent t tests. Results: The age (mean ± SD of the patients was 36.8 ± 16.1 years. Prevalence ratio between male and female patients was 1:5. Ninety eight patients contained living worms and 40 had dead worms. Males were more prone to develop dead worm BPA. The commonest presentation was biliary colic (131; 94.9%; others were acute cholangitis (30; 21.7%, obstructive jaundice (19; 13.8%, choledocholithiasis (20; 14.5%, acute pancreatitis (10; 7.2%, acute cholecystitis (6; 4.3%, liver abscess (2; 1.4%, hepatolithiasis (3; 2.2%, stricture of common bile duct (2; 1.4%, pancreatic abscess (1; 0.7% and cirrhosis of liver (1; 0.7%. Choledocholithiasis, hepatolithiasis, liver abscess and cirrhosis were associated only with dead worms. We could successfully remove all the worms with endoscopic interventions, but 5 patients required surgical intervention as there were strictures and stones within the biliary tree or Ascaris were in gallbladder. Recurrences of stone and cholangitis occurred only in those with dead worms. Conclusion: Biliary ascariasis with dead worms is more dangerous than that with living worms. Endoscopic or surgical intervention may be required repeatedly in those with dead worms.

  15. Comparative Study on Presentation of Biliary Ascariasis with Dead and Living Worms

    OpenAIRE

    Alam, Shahinul; Mustafa, Golam; Rahman, Salimur; Kabir, Shamsul A.; Rashid, Harun O.; Khan, Mobin

    2010-01-01

    Background/Aim: Ascariasis is a common parasitic infestation in Asia and Latin America. The most serious presentation is biliary and pancreatic ascariasis (BPA). The aim of the present study was to compare the clinical presentation of BPA with dead worms with that with living worms. Materials and Methods: We included 138 consecutive cases of BPA that occured during the period January 2005 to July 2009. All the patients had endoscopically proven BPA consisting of living or dead worms. Comparis...

  16. Pet roundworms and hookworms: A continuing need for global worming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Traversa Donato

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Ascarids and ancylostomatids are the most important parasites affecting dogs and cats worldwide, in terms of diffusion and risk for animal and human health. Different misconceptions have led the general public and pet owners to minimize the importance of these intestinal worms. A low grade of interest is also registered among veterinary professions, although there is a significant merit in keeping our guard up against these parasites. This article reviews current knowledge of ascarids and ancylostomatids, with a special focus on pathogenicity, epidemiology and control methods in veterinary and human medicine.

  17. Cooperative Automated Worm Response and Detection Immune Algorithm

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Jungwon; Aickelin, Uwe; McLeod, Julie

    2010-01-01

    The role of T-cells within the immune system is to confirm and assess anomalous situations and then either respond to or tolerate the source of the effect. To illustrate how these mechanisms can be harnessed to solve real-world problems, we present the blueprint of a T-cell inspired algorithm for computer security worm detection. We show how the three central T-cell processes, namely T-cell maturation, differentiation and proliferation, naturally map into this domain and further illustrate how such an algorithm fits into a complete immune inspired computer security system and framework.

  18. Self-Propagating Worms in Wireless Sensor Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giannetsos, Thanassis; Dimitriou, Tassos; Prasad, Neeli R.

    2009-01-01

    Malicious code is defined as software designed to execute attacks on software systems. This work demonstrates the possibility of executing malware on wireless sensor nodes that are based on the von Neumann architecture. This is achieved by exploiting a buffer overflow vulnerability to smash...... the call stack, intrude a remote node over the radio channel and, eventually, completely take control of it. Then we show how the malware can be crafted to become a self-replicating worm that broadcasts itself and propagates over the network hop-by-hop, infecting all the nodes....

  19. cDNA cloning and sequencing of ostrich Growth hormone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doosti Abbas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, industrial breeding of ostrich (Struthio camelus has been widely developed in Iran. Growth hormone (GH is a peptide hormone that stimulates growth and cell reproduction in different animals. The aim of this study was to clone and sequence the ostrich growth hormone gene in E. coli, done for the first time in Iran. The cDNA that encodes ostrich growth hormone was isolated from total mRNA of the pituitary gland and amplified by RT-PCR using GH specific PCR primers. Then GH cDNA was cloned by T/A cloning technique and the construct was transformed into E. coli. Finally, GH cDNA sequence was submitted to the GenBank (Accession number: JN559394. The results of present study showed that GH cDNA was successfully cloned in E. coli. Sequencing confirmed that GH cDNA was cloned and that the length of ostrich GH cDNA was 672 bp; BLAST search showed that the sequence of growth hormone cDNA of the ostrich from Iran has 100% homology with other records existing in GenBank.

  20. The research on the modeling of dual-cone double enveloping hourglass worm gear pair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LI Shaoxiang

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Up to now there is no specialized,efficient,general-purpose modeling method of dual-cone double enveloping hourglass worm gear pair.In this paper,based on the spatial meshing theory,a parameterized mathematical model of the dual-cone double enveloping hourglass worm gear pair is established,which is simplified as a digitized modeling method based on six basic parameters of the worm gear pair.Virtual machining modeling plug-in programming is achieved through the solidworks development platform.The results show that this modeling method can make the hourglass worm modeling more convenient,accurate and fast.

  1. Meandering worms: mechanics of undulatory burrowing in muds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorgan, Kelly M; Law, Chris J; Rouse, Greg W

    2013-04-22

    Recent work has shown that muddy sediments are elastic solids through which animals extend burrows by fracture, whereas non-cohesive granular sands fluidize around some burrowers. These different mechanical responses are reflected in the morphologies and behaviours of their respective inhabitants. However, Armandia brevis, a mud-burrowing opheliid polychaete, lacks an expansible anterior consistent with fracturing mud, and instead uses undulatory movements similar to those of sandfish lizards that fluidize desert sands. Here, we show that A. brevis neither fractures nor fluidizes sediments, but instead uses a third mechanism, plastically rearranging sediment grains to create a burrow. The curvature of the undulating body fits meander geometry used to describe rivers, and changes in curvature driven by muscle contraction are similar for swimming and burrowing worms, indicating that the same gait is used in both sediments and water. Large calculated friction forces for undulatory burrowers suggest that sediment mechanics affect undulatory and peristaltic burrowers differently; undulatory burrowing may be more effective for small worms that live in sediments not compacted or cohesive enough to extend burrows by fracture. PMID:23446526

  2. Bio-inspired microfluidics: The case of the velvet worm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concha, Andres; Mellado, Paula; Morera-Brenes, Bernal; Sampaio-Costa, Cristiano; Mahadevan, L.; Monge-Najera, Julian

    The rapid squirt of a proteinaceous slime jet endow velvet worms (Onychophora) with a unique mechanism for defense from predators and for capturing prey by entangling them in a disordered web that immobilizes their target. However, to date neither qualitative nor quantitative descriptions have been provided for this unique adaptation. We have investigated the mechanism that allows velvet worms the fast oscillatory motion of their oral papillae and the exiting liquid jet that oscillates with frequencies f ~ 30 - 60 Hz. Using anatomical images and high speed videography, we show that even without fast muscular action of the papilla, a strong contraction of the slime reservoir and the geometry of the reservoir-papilla system suffices to accelerate the slime to speeds up to v ~ 5 m /s in about Δt ~ 60 ms. A theoretical analysis and a physical simulacrum allow us to infer that this fast oscillatory motion is the result of an elastohydrodynamic instability driven by the interplay between the elasticity of oral papillae and the fast unsteady flow during squirting. We propose several applications that can be implemented using this instability, ranging from high-throughput droplet production, printing, and micro-nanofiber production among others. A.C was partially supported by Fondecyt Grant 11130075.

  3. Parasitic worms: knowledge, attitudes, and practices in Western Cote d'Ivoire with implications for integrated control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinthia A Acka

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In the developing world where parasitic worm infections are pervasive, preventive chemotherapy is the key strategy for morbidity control. However, local knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP of parasitic worms are poorly understood, although such information is required for prevention and sustainable control. METHODS: We carried out KAP surveys in two rural communities of Côte d'Ivoire that were subjected to school-based and community-based research and control activities. We used qualitative and quantitative methods. The former included observations, in-depth interviews with key informants, and focus group discussions with school children and adults. Quantitative methods consisted of a structured questionnaire administered to household heads. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Access to clean water was lacking in both communities and only a quarter of the households had functioning latrines. There was a better understanding of soil-transmitted helminthiasis than intestinal schistosomiasis, but community-based rather than school-based interventions appeared to improve knowledge of schistosomiasis. In the villages with community-based interventions, three-quarters of household interviewees knew about intestinal schistosomiasis compared to 14% in the village where school-based interventions were implemented (P<0.001. Whereas two-thirds of respondents from the community-based intervention village indicated that the research and control project was the main source of information, only a quarter of the respondents cited the project as the main source. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Preventive chemotherapy targeting school-aged children has limitations, as older population segments are neglected, and hence lack knowledge about how to prevent and control parasitic worm infections. Improved access to clean water and sanitation is necessary, along with health education to make a durable impact against helminth infections.

  4. Parasitic Worms: Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices in Western Côte d’Ivoire with Implications for Integrated Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acka, Cinthia A.; Raso, Giovanna; N'Goran, Eliézer K.; Tschannen, Andres B.; Bogoch, Isaac I.; Séraphin, Essane; Tanner, Marcel; Obrist, Brigit; Utzinger, Jürg

    2010-01-01

    Background In the developing world where parasitic worm infections are pervasive, preventive chemotherapy is the key strategy for morbidity control. However, local knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) of parasitic worms are poorly understood, although such information is required for prevention and sustainable control. Methods We carried out KAP surveys in two rural communities of Côte d'Ivoire that were subjected to school-based and community-based research and control activities. We used qualitative and quantitative methods. The former included observations, in-depth interviews with key informants, and focus group discussions with school children and adults. Quantitative methods consisted of a structured questionnaire administered to household heads. Principal Findings Access to clean water was lacking in both communities and only a quarter of the households had functioning latrines. There was a better understanding of soil-transmitted helminthiasis than intestinal schistosomiasis, but community-based rather than school-based interventions appeared to improve knowledge of schistosomiasis. In the villages with community-based interventions, three-quarters of household interviewees knew about intestinal schistosomiasis compared to 14% in the village where school-based interventions were implemented (P<0.001). Whereas two-thirds of respondents from the community-based intervention village indicated that the research and control project was the main source of information, only a quarter of the respondents cited the project as the main source. Conclusions/Significance Preventive chemotherapy targeting school-aged children has limitations, as older population segments are neglected, and hence lack knowledge about how to prevent and control parasitic worm infections. Improved access to clean water and sanitation is necessary, along with health education to make a durable impact against helminth infections. PMID:21200423

  5. Isolation and characterization of a full length cDNA for dentatorubral-pallidoluysian atrophy (DRPLA) gene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oyake, M.; Onodera, O.; Ikeuchi, T. [Niigata Univ. (Japan)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Hereditary dentatorubral-pallidoluysian atrophy (DRPLA) is an autosomal dominant spinocerebellar degeneration characterized by anticipation and variable combination of symptoms including myoclonus, epilepsy, cerebellar ataxia, choleoathetosis, and dementia. Recently, we discovered that DRPLA is caused by unstable expansion of a CAG repeat of a B37 gene on chromosome 12. To characterize functions of the DRPLA gene product, we isolated several cDNA clones for the DRPLA gene from human adult and fetus brain cDNA libraries, using an oligonucleotide flanking the CAG repeat. The cDNA spans 4247 bp in length and there is only an open reading frame coding for 986 amino acids. The CAG repeat, which is expanded in DRPLA, is located 291 bp downstream from the initiation methionine and encodes a polyglutamine tract. The deduced amino acid sequence from amino acids residues 582 to 707 has a high homology to published human hippocampus derived expressed sequence (M78755) located at chromosome 1p (63.8% identity), and 3{prime}-untranslated region of the DRPLA cDNA revealed homology to the mouse small nuclear RNA U7 gene (X54165). Northern blot analysis revealed a 4.7 knt transcript which is widely expressed in various tissues including heart, lung, kidney, placenta, skeletal muscle, and brain. In human adult brain, the transcript was broadly expressed including amygdala, caudate nucleus, corpus callosum, hippocampus, hypothalamus, substantia nigra, subthalamic nucleus and thalamus, and was not specific to the dentatorubral-pallidoluysian system. The availability of a full length cDNA will be highly useful for analyzing the pathogenesis of this unique neurodegenerative disease as well as for analyzing other CAG repeat related neurodegenerative diseases.

  6. Development of insect resistant maize plants expressing a chitinase gene from the cotton leaf worm, Spodoptera littoralis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, Gamal H; Assem, Shireen K; Alreedy, Rasha M; El-Ghareeb, Doaa K; Basry, Mahmoud A; Rastogi, Anshu; Kalaji, Hazem M

    2015-01-01

    Due to the importance of chitinolytic enzymes for insect, nematode and fungal growth, they are receiving attention concerning their development as biopesticides or chemical defense proteins in transgenic plants and as microbial biocontrol agents. Targeting chitin associated with the extracellular matrices or cell wall by insect chitinases may be an effective approach for controlling pest insects and pathogenic fungi. The ability of chitinases to attack and digest chitin in the peritrophic matrix or exoskeleton raises the possibility to use them as insect control method. In this study, an insect chitinase cDNA from cotton leaf worm (Spodoptera littoralis) has been synthesized. Transgenic maize plant system was used to improve its tolerance against insects. Insect chitinase transcripts and proteins were expressed in transgenic maize plants. The functional integrity and expression of chitinase in progenies of the transgenic plants were confirmed by insect bioassays. The bioassays using transgenic corn plants against corn borer (Sesamia cretica) revealed that ~50% of the insects reared on transgenic corn plants died, suggesting that transgenic maize plants have enhanced resistance against S. cretica. PMID:26658494

  7. High-Throughput Plasmid cDNA Library Screening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wan, Kenneth H.; Yu, Charles; George, Reed A.; Carlson, JosephW.; Hoskins, Roger A.; Svirskas, Robert; Stapleton, Mark; Celniker, SusanE.

    2006-05-24

    Libraries of cDNA clones are valuable resources foranalysing the expression, structure, and regulation of genes, as well asfor studying protein functions and interactions. Full-length cDNA clonesprovide information about intron and exon structures, splice junctionsand 5'- and 3'-untranslated regions (UTRs). Open reading frames (ORFs)derived from cDNA clones can be used to generate constructs allowingexpression of native proteins and N- or C-terminally tagged proteins.Thus, obtaining full-length cDNA clones and sequences for most or allgenes in an organism is critical for understanding genome functions.Expressed sequence tag (EST) sequencing samples cDNA libraries at random,which is most useful at the beginning of large-scale screening projects.However, as projects progress towards completion, the probability ofidentifying unique cDNAs via EST sequencing diminishes, resulting in poorrecovery of rare transcripts. We describe an adapted, high-throughputprotocol intended for recovery of specific, full-length clones fromplasmid cDNA libraries in five days.

  8. RECOGNITION OF CDNA MICROARRAY IMAGE USING FEEDFORWARD ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. M. Farouk

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The complementary DNA (cDNA sequence considered th e magic biometric technique for personal identification. Microarray image processing used fo r the concurrent genes identification. In this pape r, we present a new method for cDNA recognition based on the artificial neural network (ANN. We have segmented the location of the spots in a cDNA micro array. Thus, a precise localization and segmenting of a spot are essential to obtain a more exact intensity measurement, leading to a more accurate gene expression measurement. The segmented cDNA microarr ay image resized and used as an input for the proposed artificial neural network. For matching an d recognition, we have trained the artificial neura l network. Recognition results are given for the gall eries of cDNA sequences . The numerical results sho w that, the proposed matching technique is an effecti ve in the cDNA sequences process. The experimental results of our matching approach using different da tabases shows that, the proposed technique is an effective matching performance.

  9. RECOGNITION OF CDNA MICROARRAY IMAGE USING FEEDFORWARD ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. M. Farouk

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The complementary DNA (cDNA sequence considered the magic biometric technique for personal identification. Microarray image processing used for the concurrent genes identification. In this paper, we present a new method for cDNA recognition based on the artificial neural network (ANN. We have segmented the location of the spots in a cDNA microarray. Thus, a precise localization and segmenting of a spot are essential to obtain a more exact intensity measurement, leading to a more accurate gene expression measurement. The segmented cDNA microarray image resized and used as an input for the proposed artificial neural network. For matching and recognition, we have trained the artificial neural network. Recognition results are given for the galleries of cDNA sequences . The numerical results show that, the proposed matching technique is an effective in the cDNA sequences process. The experimental results of our matching approach using different databases shows that, the proposed technique is an effective matching performance.

  10. Performance Analysis of Cell-Phone Worm Spreading in Cellular Networks through Opportunistic Communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YAHUI, W.

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Worms spreading directly between cell-phones over short-range radio (Bluetooth, WiFi, etc. are increasing rapidly. Communication by these technologies is opportunistic and has very close relation with the social characteristics of the phone carriers. In this paper, we try to evaluate the impact of different characteristics on the spreading performance of worms. On the other hand, the behaviors of worms may have certain impact, too. For example, worms may make phones be completely dysfunctional and these phones can be seen as killed. We study the impact of the killing speed. Using the Markov model, we propose some theoretical models to evaluate the spreading performance in different cases. Simulation results show the accuracy of our models. Numerical results show that if users do not believe the data coming from others easily, the worms may bring less damage. Surprisingly, if the users are more willing to install the anti-virus software, the worms may bring bigger damage when the software becomes to be outdated with high probability. Though the worms can bring big damage on the network temporarily by killing phones rapidly, numerical results show that this behavior may decrease the total damage in the long time. Therefore, killing nodes more rapidly may be not optimal for worms.

  11. Worms Expelled With the Urine From a Bosniak Cyst III of the Left Kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jie; Li, Pu; Su, Chuan; Zhang, Jia-Yi; Gu, Min

    2016-07-01

    An old fishman presented with left lumbago and finding worms in his urine. Type-B ultrasonic inspection and computed tomography scan found a Bosniak cyst III, containing several wire-like elements, in the middle of the left kidney. Expelled worms were confirmed to be Dioctophyma renale. After two courses of albendazole, the man was cured. PMID:27015940

  12. Valorization of waste streams, "From food by-products to worm biomass"

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laarhoven, B.; Elissen, H.J.H.; Temmink, B.G.; Buisman, C.J.N.

    2013-01-01

    A new technology is investigated to produce a high quality animal feed source by converting safe industrial food wastes into worm biomass. The freshwater worm Lumbriculus variegatus (common name: blackworm) has been selected for this purpose. This species can be used to reduce and concentrate munici

  13. Transcriptome analysis in primary neural stem cells using a tag cDNA amplification method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wikström Lilian

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neural stem cells (NSCs can be isolated from the adult mammalian brain and expanded in culture, in the form of cellular aggregates called neurospheres. Neurospheres provide an in vitro model for studying NSC behaviour and give information on the factors and mechanisms that govern their proliferation and differentiation. They are also a promising source for cell replacement therapies of the central nervous system. Neurospheres are complex structures consisting of several cell types of varying degrees of differentiation. One way of characterising neurospheres is to analyse their gene expression profiles. The value of such studies is however uncertain since they are heterogeneous structures and different populations of neurospheres may vary significantly in their gene expression. Results To address this issue, we have used cDNA microarrays and a recently reported tag cDNA amplification method to analyse the gene expression profiles of neurospheres originating from separate isolations of the lateral ventricle wall of adult mice and passaged to varying degrees. Separate isolations as well as consecutive passages yield a high variability in gene expression while parallel cultures yield the lowest variability. Conclusions We demonstrate a low technical amplification variability using the employed amplification strategy and conclude that neurospheres from the same isolation and passage are sufficiently similar to be used for comparative gene expression analysis.

  14. Global dynamics of a novel multi-group model for computer worms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, we study worm dynamics in computer networks composed of many autonomous systems. A novel multi-group SIQR (susceptible-infected-quarantined-removed) model is proposed for computer worms by explicitly considering anti-virus measures and the network infrastructure. Then, the basic reproduction number of worm R0 is derived and the global dynamics of the model are established. It is shown that if R0 is less than or equal to 1, the disease-free equilibrium is globally asymptotically stable and the worm dies out eventually, whereas, if R0 is greater than 1, one unique endemic equilibrium exists and it is globally asymptotically stable, thus the worm persists in the network. Finally, numerical simulations are given to illustrate the theoretical results. (general)

  15. A Potential Approach of Internet Worm Propagation Based on P2P

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAO Yu; LUO Xingrui; GAO Fuxiang; YU Ge

    2006-01-01

    Various kinds of active worms have been plunging into the network flows, which make the Internet security problem more serious. Our research on a potential propagation approach of active worms, P2P-based propagation approach, is given in this paper. To measure the propagating performance of our approach, the SEI (Susceptible-Exposed- Infected) propagation model is presented. It proves that with the idea of pure P2P architecture, worms can be hidden in the early stage of propagation, and then infect most of the hosts in a shorter period. By comparing our SEI propagation model with the Simple Epidemic Model, we observe that the size of a worm is a significant parameter which can affect the propagating performance. When the size of the worm becomes large, our approach can still show an excellent propagating performance.

  16. Ethnophysiology and herbal treatments of intestinal worms in Dominica, West Indies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinlan, Marsha B; Quinlan, Robert J; Nolan, Justin M

    2002-04-01

    In rural Dominican ethnophysiology worms reside in a human organ called the 'worm bag'. Unchecked, worms can cause illness by growing in size and number, spreading out of the worm bag and into other organs. In this study of 'bush medicine', we use a measure of cognitive salience in free-listing tasks, which reveals five plants commonly used to treat intestinal worms. These were Ambrosia hispida (Asteraceae), Aristolochia trilobata (Aristlochiaceae), Chenopodium ambrosioides (Chenopodiaceae), Portulaca oleracea (Portulacaceae), and Artemisia absinthium (Asteraceae). Bioactive compounds appear to be present in all of these plants. The cognitive salience of these plant remedies coupled with evidence of biochemical properties suggest that they provide efficacious treatments for controlling intestinal parasite loads. PMID:11891089

  17. Nonvolatile WORM memory devices based on polymethacrylate with azoanthraquinone group

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    A novel polymethacrylate containing azoanthraquinone chromophore in the side chain(PMAzoaq6) was synthesized and characterized.An electronic memory device having the indium-tin oxide(ITO)/PMAzoaq6/Al sandwich structure was fabricated and its electrical bistability was investigated.The as-fabricated device was initially found to be at the OFF state and the switching threshold voltage was 1.5 V.After undergoing the OFF-to-ON transition,the device maintains the high conducting state(ON state) even after turning off the electrical power and applying a reverse bias.The device exhibits a write-once-read-many-times(WORM) memory effect with a high ON/OFF current ratio of up to 105 and a long retention time in both ON and OFF states,which demonstrated that the synthetic azoanthraquinone-containing polymer possesses a high potential to become polymeric memory devices.

  18. Worm-like instability of a vibrated sessile drop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmerle, A.; Froehlicher, G.; Bergeron, V.; Charitat, T.; Farago, J.

    2015-07-01

    We study the effects of vertical sinusoidal vibrations on a liquid droplet with a low surface tension (ethanol) deposited on a solid substrate. In a precise range of amplitudes and frequencies, the drop exhibits a dramatic worm-like shape instability with a strong symmetry breaking, comparable to the one observed by Pucci et al. (Phys. Rev. Lett., 106 (2011) 024503) on a vibrated floating lens. However, the geometry of our system is much simpler since it does not involve the oscillation and deformation of a liquid-liquid-air contact line. We show that the Faraday waves appearing on the surface of the droplet control its shape and we draw a systematic phase diagram of the instability. A simple theoretical model allows us to derive a relation between the elongation of the droplet and the amplitude of the Faraday wave, in good agreement with measurements of both quantities.

  19. Graphical method for profiling hob mill that generate cycloid worms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teodor, V.; Berbinschi, S.; Baroiu, N.; Oancea, N.

    2015-11-01

    The hob mill for generating ordered curls of cycloid surface with non involute profiles may be profiled based on the fundamental theorems of surface enveloping - Olivier - as surface reciprocally enveloping with point like contact. In this paper, is proposed a methodology based on a complementary theorem of the surface enveloping in a graphical expression developed in a graphical design environment - CATIA. The graphical method presented in this paper is developed in two stages: determining of the rack gear model based on the solid model of the surface to be generated, using an original algorithm, following this, based on 3D modelling is determined the solid model of the primary peripheral surface of the hob mill. An application for a cycloid worm is presented - a central screw of helical pumps. In order to prove the quality of method, the analytical and graphical solutions are comparatively presented.

  20. A GENERATIVE CAD MODEL OF A WORM GEAR MESHING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelika WRONKOWICZ

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This article introduces the term of a generative CAD model, its origins and, thus, a need of creating such a type of models. A process of generative model creation as well as specific forms of knowledge recording applied in the implementation phase in various CAD systems are briefly discussed. The example of a worm gear meshing realized by the CATIA software encapsulates the methodology of generative model construction. Sources and types of knowledge for design and construction required for development of the aforementioned model as well as the UML language as a method of formal knowledge recording are presented. The concept of model creation, i.e. assumptions and the structure as well as logic of the model operation are described. Also, the paper addresses selected elements of the project that present the manner in which the model was constructed.

  1. An unusual and unsettling place for a worm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, M I; Taylor, C

    2010-07-01

    A 56-year-old man presented complaining of urinary frequency, passing urine eight times per day, urethral irritation and dysuria. Investigations showed no evidence of urinary tract infection or sexually transmitted infections. Three months later he presented, again complaining of increased urinary frequency and urethral irritation. He brought with him a urine specimen containing a small 'worm', 2 mm in length, identified as a drain fly (or moth fly) larva, of the genus Psychoda (dipterous flies). Psychoda lay eggs in organically polluted water such as sewage plants, sink drains or on decaying vegetables and fruits. Urogenital myiasis may arise from hatching of larvae near the urethral opening and ascending migration along the urethra with consequent urethritis. Following larval identification, ivermectin was prescribed and the man's symptoms improved after six weeks. PMID:20852207

  2. Not whale-fall specialists, Osedax worms also consume fishbones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouse, Greg W; Goffredi, Shana K; Johnson, Shannon B; Vrijenhoek, Robert C

    2011-10-23

    Marine annelid worms of the genus Osedax exploit sunken vertebrate bones for food. To date, the named species occur on whale or other mammalian bones, and it is argued that Osedax is a whale-fall specialist. To assess whether extant Osedax species could obtain nutrition from non-mammalian resources, we deployed teleost bones and calcified shark cartilage at approximately 1000 m depth for five months. Although the evidence from shark cartilage was inconclusive, the teleost bones hosted three species of Osedax, each of which also lives off whalebones. This suggests that rather than being a whale-fall specialist, Osedax has exploited and continues to exploit a variety of food sources. The ability of Osedax to colonize and to grow on fishbone lends credibility to a hypothesis that it might have split from its siboglinid relatives to assume the bone-eating lifestyle during the Cretaceous, well before the origin of marine mammals. PMID:21490008

  3. Integumentary L-histidine transport in a euryhaline polychaete worm: Regulatory roles of calcium and cadmium in the transport event

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahearn, Heather Rae Hammers; Ahearn, Gregory A.; Gomme, Jørgen

    Epithelial transport, integument, polychaete worm, Nereis succinea, Annelida, transport regulation, calcium, cadmium, heavy metal......Epithelial transport, integument, polychaete worm, Nereis succinea, Annelida, transport regulation, calcium, cadmium, heavy metal...

  4. Community perception and role in prevention of Guinea worm disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, M A; Sufi, Q M; Gamba-Osiga, A

    1993-01-01

    In Kitgum district of northern Uganda in 1992, natural group and focus group discussions and key informant interviews were conducted to examine the knowledge, attitudes, practices, and beliefs of the people concerning Guinea Worm disease (GW disease) and its transmission, prevention, and treatment. Most people could describe the cause and treatment of Coo (local name of GW disease). More than 58% thought dirty or bad water was the main cause of Coo. 63.2% believed that drinking contaminated water was the cause. 13.1% did not know the cause of GW disease. Few people clearly understood how GW is transmitted. People received treatment from the nearest health unit (42%), traditional healers (34%), self-medication (16%), and drug shops (8%). 55.3% of key informants believed that Coo cases had increased. The perceived reasons for the increase were drinking dirty water (42.8%), migration (38.1%), no medicine (9.5%), and increased population (4.8%). Suggestions for community action to halt transmission of GW included provision of safe water, educating each other, boiling water, and filtering water. The community perceived that the government and nongovernmental organizations could drill new boreholes, bring in medications, repair broken boreholes, protect water sources, and provide education to stop the spread of GW disease. Water sources were shallow wells, streams, rivers, valley dams, and boreholes. 77.3% of boreholes did not work. Most other water sources were inadequately protected from GW infestation. Some community members perceived boiling water as tedious and difficult. Most people thought that there was nothing or little they could do to prevent contamination of water sources. Few had heard health education messages about Guinea Worm disease. Many people wanted the use of plays, drama, and videos in villages to communicate GW prevention messages. PMID:7516675

  5. Potential effects of warmer worms and vectors on onchocerciasis transmission in West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheke, Robert A; Basáñez, Maria-Gloria; Perry, Malorie; White, Michael T; Garms, Rolf; Obuobie, Emmanuel; Lamberton, Poppy H L; Young, Stephen; Osei-Atweneboana, Mike Y; Intsiful, Joseph; Shen, Mingwang; Boakye, Daniel A; Wilson, Michael D

    2015-04-01

    Development times of eggs, larvae and pupae of vectors of onchocerciasis (Simulium spp.) and of Onchocerca volvulus larvae within the adult females of the vectors decrease with increasing temperature. At and above 25°C, the parasite could reach its infective stage in less than 7 days when vectors could transmit after only two gonotrophic cycles. After incorporating exponential functions for vector development into a novel blackfly population model, it was predicted that fly numbers in Liberia and Ghana would peak at air temperatures of 29°C and 34°C, about 3°C and 7°C above current monthly averages, respectively; parous rates of forest flies (Liberia) would peak at 29°C and of savannah flies (Ghana) at 30°C. Small temperature increases (less than 2°C) might lead to changes in geographical distributions of different vector taxa. When the new model was linked to an existing framework for the population dynamics of onchocerciasis in humans and vectors, transmission rates and worm loads were projected to increase with temperature to at least 33°C. By contrast, analyses of field data on forest flies in Liberia and savannah flies in Ghana, in relation to regional climate change predictions, suggested, on the basis of simple regressions, that 13-41% decreases in fly numbers would be expected between the present and before 2040. Further research is needed to reconcile these conflicting conclusions. PMID:25688018

  6. Can the restrictive harvest period policy conserve mopane worms in Southern Africa? A bio-economic modelling approach

    OpenAIRE

    Wisdom Akpalu; Edwin Muchapondwa; Precious Zikhali

    2007-01-01

    Imbrasia Belina also known as the mopane worm, like other edible insects and caterpillars, is a vital source of protein to Southern African countries. The worms live and graze on mopane trees, which occupy agricultural land. With increasing commercialization of the worm, the management of the worm, which was hitherto organized as a common property resource, has degraded to a near open access. In this paper, a simple bio-economic modeling approach has been taken to show that, for some optimal ...

  7. Combined effect of gamma radiation and some fungal control agents on the greasy cut- worm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The greasy cut worm, Agrotis ipsilon (Lepidoptera- Noctuidae) is widely distributed all over the world, particularly in moderate and subtropical countries of the northern and southern hemispheres (Kononenko ,2003). The greasy cut worm causes damage to vegetables, cucurbitaceous and industrial crops. The greatest damage is caused to cotton, essential-oil cultures, maize, tobacco, sunflower, tomatoes, sugar beet and potato. The pest can strongly harm vegetables, and also damage seedlings of tree species (pine, maple, and nut). This pest has solitary habits. They commonly feed on seedlings at ground level, cutting off the stem and sometimes dragging the plants into their burrows. The continuous use of chemical pesticides against pests, resistance to the action of pesticides had dramatically evolved. Also, the extensive use of these chemicals has given rise to problems such as residual toxicity (pollution) and harmful effects on beneficial insects, which are natural enemies of target or nontarget pest species. Such problems have become a cause of search for safety pesticides including microbial agents as fungi, bacteria and viruses (Rashed, 1993). The use of radiation to induce dominate lethal mutations in the sterile insect technique (SIT) is now as the major component of many large and successful programs for pest suppression and eradication. Adult insects, and their different developmental stages, differ in their sensitivity to the induction of dominate lethal mutation. Care has to be taken to identify the appropriate dose of radiation that produces the required level of sterility without impairing the overall fitness of the released insects.(Sawires, 2005). This technique would be successful control device for suppressing and combating many lepidopteraus insect pests, including A. Ipsilon has been studied (EL- kady et al., 1983, EL-Naggar et al., 1984, Abd El -Hamid 2004 and Gabarty, 2008). Entomopathogenic fungi that infect insects have received considerable

  8. Mesh theory of angle modified dual tori double-enveloping toroidal worm drive

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, the meshing theory of the angle modified hourglass worm drive is enriched and developed. The ordinary condition of the angle modification is derived and the physical significance of the modification is interpreted. A normal section methodology is proposed for meshing analysis, which can be used to compute the normal distance near a singular meshing point of a conjugate surface couple. By means of the method and after analyzing the normal transversals, it is specified that the worm helicoid, the nominal former contact zone and the new contact zone intersect each other along the locus of singular points of the instantaneous contact lines of an angle-modified worm pair. As a result, it is explained clearly that those three osculate each other but the osculations are different in degree. Moreover, the mechanism of removing the twice-contacted zone from the worm gear tooth surface is clarified and the reason of shortening the worm working length is also elucidated. With the help of the theory described in the present paper and the thorough and systematic research on the relevant meshing characteristics, the angle modified dual tori double-enveloping toroidal worm drive has been shown to be an excellent new-fashioned hourglass worm set.

  9. Comparison of sup(115m)Cd accumulation from sediments and sea water by polychaete worms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To know the role played by marine sediments in influencing the fate of discharged metals, (1) the interaction of metals between sediments and deposit-feeder marine worms (Nereis japonica), and (2) uptake and excretion of metals by worms were examined by laboratory experiments using sup(115m)Cd. Worms directly in contact with sup(115m)Cd-sediments accumulated sup(115m)Cd six times more than worms that were not in contact with the sup(115m)Cd sediments during the 8 days of experimentation and 12% of sup(115m)Cd in sediments were noted to be transfered to worms per unit. Comparing the concentration factor of 22 (from sea water) with accumulation from sediments, it was assumed that sup(115m)Cd in sediments would give the effect of 1/200 to the accumulation of sup(115m)Cd by worms in sea water to the accumulation of sup(115m)Cd. Further, to simulate these results close to that occuring in the natural ecosystem, the distribution of sup(115m)Cd in sea water, sediments and alga were also examined by means of a curve analysis of the distribution pattern by a three compartment model. It proved that the activity ratios of sup(115m)Cd were 9 for sediments and 21 for alga, which was similar to 22 for worms. (auth.)

  10. cDNA microarray screening in food safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The cDNA microarray technology and related bioinformatics tools presents a wide range of novel application opportunities. The technology may be productively applied to address food safety. In this mini-review article, we present an update highlighting the late breaking discoveries that demonstrate the vitality of cDNA microarray technology as a tool to analyze food safety with reference to microbial pathogens and genetically modified foods. In order to bring the microarray technology to mainstream food safety, it is important to develop robust user-friendly tools that may be applied in a field setting. In addition, there needs to be a standardized process for regulatory agencies to interpret and act upon microarray-based data. The cDNA microarray approach is an emergent technology in diagnostics. Its values lie in being able to provide complimentary molecular insight when employed in addition to traditional tests for food safety, as part of a more comprehensive battery of tests

  11. Experimental transfer of adult Oesophagostomum dentatum from donor to helminth naive recipient pigs: a methodological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjørn, H; Roepstorff, A; Grøndahl, C; Eriksen, L; Bjerregaard, J; Nansen, P

    1995-12-01

    This study was carried out to compare potential methods of transplanting adult Oesophagostomum dentatum from experimentally infected donor pigs to helminth naive recipient pigs. The following methods were each tested in five pigs: A. Transfer of worms by stomach tube to the gastric ventricle of pigs per os pretreated with 0.5 mg/kg cisapride to increase gastrointestinal peristalsis; B. Transfer by stomach tube to the gastric ventricle of pigs per os pre-treated with cisapride (0.5 mg/kg) and omeprazol 20 mg which blocks hydrochloric acid secretion; C. Surgical transfer of worms to caecum of pigs. Worms for transplantation to pigs were obtained after slaughter of experimentally infected donor pigs and following isolation from the contents of the large intestine, using an agar gel migration technique. A mean of 1054 nematodes were transferred into each recipient pig within 2 hours. Procedures A and B resulted in establishment rates corresponding to only 0.5% and 7.6% of the transferred worms. In contrast, surgical transfer allowed 74.2% of the transplanted worms to be established. In all groups the transplanted worms migrated to the normal predilection site, i.e. the middle part of the large intestine. More female than male worms established in all groups. It was concluded from this study that surgical transfer was the most reliable of the methods tested for experimental establishment of adult O. dentatum in helminth naive pigs. PMID:8583123

  12. Automatic defense against zero-day polymorphic worms in communication networks

    CERN Document Server

    Mohammed, Mohssen

    2013-01-01

    Able to propagate quickly and change their payload with each infection, polymorphic worms have been able to evade even the most advanced intrusion detection systems (IDS). And, because zero-day worms require only seconds to launch flooding attacks on your servers, using traditional methods such as manually creating and storing signatures to defend against these threats is just too slow. Bringing together critical knowledge and research on the subject, Automatic Defense Against Zero-day Polymorphic Worms in Communication Networks details a new approach for generating automated signatures for un

  13. Simulation of worms transmission in computer network based on SIRS fuzzy epidemic model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darti, I.; Suryanto, A.; Yustianingsih, M.

    2015-03-01

    In this paper we study numerically the behavior of worms transmission in a computer network. The model of worms transmission is derived by modifying a SIRS epidemic model. In this case, we consider that the transmission rate, recovery rate and rate of susceptible after recovery follows fuzzy membership functions, rather than constants. To study the transmission of worms in a computer network, we solve the model using the fourth order Runge-Kutta method. Our numerical results show that the fuzzy transmission rate and fuzzy recovery rate may lead to a changing of basic reproduction number which therefore also changes the stability properties of equilibrium points.

  14. How algae influence sessile marine organisms: The tube worms case of study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casoli, Edoardo; Bonifazi, Andrea; Ardizzone, Giandomenico; Gravina, Maria Flavia

    2016-09-01

    Tube worms and phytobenthic assemblages in three infralittoral and shallow circalittoral Mediterranean benthic communities developed between 5 and 35 m depth at Punta del Lazzaretto (Giglio Island, Central Thyrrenian sea) were investigated. Despite being three algae-dominated habitats, these displayed different covering both in terms of algal layers and algal morphologies, reflecting different structural organizations. Twenty-eight serpulid taxa have been reported, increasing both diversity and density values from most photophilic to most sciaphilous habitats. Multivariate analyses showed how algal thalli and tube worm assemblages were strongly correlated; substrata are influenced both physically and biologically, providing different conditions for tube worm settlement.

  15. 日本血吸虫原肌球蛋白cDNA的克隆及其在大肠杆菌中表达%Cloning of cDNA encoding Schistosoma japonicum tropomyosin and its expression in Escherichia coli

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹建平; 刘述先; 宋光承; 徐馀信

    2002-01-01

    Objective To perform cloning of the gene encod ing Chinese Schistosoma japonicum tropomyosin (SjcTM) and its expression in Escherichia coli.Methods SjcTM cDNA fragment, except for 14 amino acids at the amino terminus, was obtained by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) with total RNA extracted from adult worms of S. Japonicum . The RT-PCR product was cloned into T vector and sequenced. The SjcTM cDNA, derived from the constructed TA clone pGEM-SjcTM, was then subcloned into the expressing vector pBV220. After characterization by agarose gel electrophoresis, endonucleases digestion and PCR, the resultant recombinant plasmid was used for expression under the temperature-dependent condition. Results The RT-PCR product, cloned into a Tvector, was sequenced and shown to be 96.5% identical at the nuclei acid level and 98.1 % identical in deduced amino acid sequence to that of S. Mansoni tropomyosi n. The target DNA fragment was then subcloned into a prokaryotic vector pBV220 . Induced expression in E. Coli DH5α cells resulted in a constant level of recombinant protein production. The results of SDS-PAGE and Western blot rev ealed that the molecular weight of non-fusion recombinant protein (rSjcTM) was approximately 32 kDa and could be recognized specifically by a polyclonal antise rum specific for native S. Japonicum tropomyosin (SjcTM). Conclusion The engineering of the cDNA encodingS. Japonicum tropomyosin and its bacterial expression was successfully made.%目的克隆日本血吸虫原肌球蛋白编码基因,并在大肠杆菌中表达.方法抽提日本血吸虫(大陆株)成虫总RNA,经逆转录-聚合酶链反应(RT-PCR)获得编码日本血吸虫原肌球蛋白的cDNA片段,该片段与全序列比较,缺氨基端14个氨基酸.该PCR产物克隆入T 载体并对插入片段进行序列测定后,亚克隆入表达载体pbV220,经琼脂糖凝胶电泳、限制性酶切反应和PCR鉴定后,选择克隆用于温控表达.结果 RT-PCR产物

  16. Effect of gamma rays on nucleic acids content (RNA and DNA) of the cotton leaf worm Spodoptera Littoralis (BOISD). Vol. 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full grown pupae of the cotton leaf worm Spodoptera Littoralis (Boisd) were exposed to exposed to sub sterilizing doses of 100, 200 and 300 Gy gamma radiation. The changes in nucleic acids content (RNA and DNA) of irradiated pupae, after 24 hours from irradiation, and also in 3 days old adults resulting from irradiated pupae were investigated. The total nucleic acids content in either pupae or adults was progressively reduced as the dose was increased. The reduction of both RNA and DNA in females was greater than in males. DNA was more radiosensitive than RNA. The destructive action of irradiation on nucleic acids was more pronounced in adult stage. Irradiation increased the RNA/DNA ratio than control at all treatments for female pupae at 200 Gy. 2 tabs

  17. Progress on the artificial rearing of the army worm, Spodoptera (Laphygma) exigua Hb. and radiation sterilization in the male of this species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The army worm, Spodoptera exigua Hb. was reared for 6 more generations in an artificial medium containing Mung bean as a major component. By improving the rearing temperature and humidity conditions, better rearing results were obtained. The average percentage of development from eggs to pupae, from eggs to adults, and from pupae to adults was 41.7+-4.93, 38.44+-6.32 and 88.1+-1.48 respectively. The pupal weight was also calculated. In sterilization studies, the 3-day-old male pupae were subjected to gamma rays at 0, 5 and 10 krads. Upon emerging into adults, they were mated with non-irradiated female moths. Male moths emerged from pupae subjected to 10 krads of gamma rays could significantly induce infertility in eggs deposited

  18. Identification of Trichinella spiralis early antigens at the pre-adult and adult stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zocevic, Aleksandar; Mace, Pauline; Vallee, Isabelle; Blaga, Radu; Liu, Mingyuan; Lacour, Sandrine A; Boireau, Pascal

    2011-04-01

    Three expression cDNA libraries from Trichinella spiralis worms 14 h, 20 h and 48 h post-infection (p.i.) were screened with serum from pigs experimentally infected with 20,000 T. spiralis muscle larvae. Twenty-nine positive clones were isolated from the 14 h p.i. cDNA library, corresponding to 8 different genes. A putative excretory-secretory protein similar to that of T. pseudospiralis was identified. Three clones corresponded to a T. spiralis serine proteinase inhibitor known to be involved in diverse functions such as blood coagulation and modulation of inflammation. Screening of the 20 h p.i. cDNA library selected 167 positive clones representing 12 different sequences. The clone with the highest redundancy encoded a small polypeptide having no sequence identity with any known proteins from Trichinella or other organisms. Fourteen clones displayed sequence identity with the heat shock protein (HSP) 70. HSPs are produced as an adaptive response of the parasite to the hostile environment encountered in the host intestine but their mechanism of action is not yet well defined. From the 48 h p.i. T. spiralis cDNA library, 91 positive clones were identified representing 7 distinct sequences. Most of the positive clones showed high similarity with a member of a putative T. spiralis serine protease family. This result is consistent with a possible major role for serine proteases during invasive stages of Trichinella infection and host-parasite interactions. PMID:21092349

  19. Monosaccharide transport into hemocytes of a sipunculan worm Themiste dyscrita

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The hemerythrin-containing blood cells, or hemocytes, of the sipunculan worm Themiste dyscrita were found to have a stereospecific and nonconcentrative monosaccharide transport system. The transport system transferred both D-glucose and 3-O-methyl-D-glucose (3-OMG), and transport into cells by this system was rapid, reaching 50% equilibrium in approximately 20 s at 10 degrees C with an initial concentration gradient of 0.1 mM; the contribution to total uptake by simple diffusion was very small. 3-OMG uptake showed saturation kinetics with a low half-saturation constant (Km less than or equal to 0.1 mM). The uptake of labeled 3-OMG by the hemocytes was strongly inhibited by unlabeled 3-OMG, 2-deoxy-D-glucose, alpha- and beta-D-glucose, D-galactose, and D-mannose. It was moderately inhibited by D-xylose, only slightly by alpha-methyl-D-glucoside and D-fructose, and uninhibited by sucrose, L-glucose, or D-sorbitol. Phloretin was more potent than phloridzin in blocking entry of 3-OMG. Cytochalasin B did not bind tightly to the T. dyscrita transporter and was not a potent inhibitor of transport; it half-maximally inhibited 3-OMG transport at 0.1 mM. Therefore, despite some differences the data suggest functional similarities in the mechanism of monosaccharide transport into blood cells of mammals and this invertebrate

  20. Recurrent cholangitis in the tropics: Worm or cast?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jain P

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of biliary casts is very rare, especially in non-liver transplant patients. The etiology of these casts is uncertain but several factors have been proposed which lead to bile stasis and/or gallbladder hypo-contractility and promote cast formation. Here, we report a 54-year-old male, with diabetes and ischemic heart disease, who presented with recurrent attacks of cholangitis. Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography revealed linear T1 hyperintense and T2 hypointense filling defects in the right and left hepatic ducts extending into the common hepatic duct, and a calculus in the lower common bile duct, raising a suspicion of worm in the biliary tree. In view of failed attempts at extraction on endoscopy, patient underwent surgery. At exploration, biliary casts and stones were extracted from the proximal and the second order bile ducts, with the help of intraoperative choledochoscopy and a bilio-enteric anastomosis was accomplished. Although endoscopic retrieval of the biliary cast can be employed as first-line management, surgery should be considered in case it fails.

  1. Bioaccumulation and biological effects of cigarette litter in marine worms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Stephanie L; Rowe, Darren; Reid, Malcolm J; Thomas, Kevin V; Galloway, Tamara S

    2015-01-01

    Marine debris is a global environmental issue. Smoked cigarette filters are the predominant coastal litter item; 4.5 trillion are littered annually, presenting a source of bioplastic microfibres (cellulose acetate) and harmful toxicants to marine environments. Despite the human health risks associated with smoking, little is known of the hazards cigarette filters present to marine life. Here we studied the impacts of smoked cigarette filter toxicants and microfibres on the polychaete worm Hediste diversicolor (ragworm), a widespread inhabitant of coastal sediments. Ragworms exposed to smoked cigarette filter toxicants in seawater at concentrations 60 fold lower than those reported for urban run-off exhibited significantly longer burrowing times, >30% weight loss, and >2-fold increase in DNA damage compared to ragworms maintained in control conditions. In contrast, ragworms exposed to smoked cigarette filter microfibres in marine sediment showed no significant effects. Bioconcentration factors for nicotine were 500 fold higher from seawater than from sediment. Our results illustrate the vulnerability of organisms in the water column to smoking debris and associated toxicants, and highlight the risks posed by smoked cigarette filter debris to aquatic life. PMID:26369692

  2. Methane Ice Worms: Hesiocaeca methanicola Colonizing Fossil Fuel Reserves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, C. R.; MacDonald, I. R.; Sassen, R.; Young, C. M.; Macko, S. A.; Hourdez, S.; Carney, R. S.; Joye, S.; McMullin, E.

    During a research cruise in July 1997 in the Gulf of Mexico we discovered a gas hydrate approximately 1m thick and over 2m in diameter which had recently breached the sea floor at a depth of 540m. The hydrate surface visible from the submarine was considerably greater than that of any other reported hydrate. Two distinct color bands of hydrate were present in the same mound, and the entire exposed surface of the hydrate was infested (2500 individuals/m2) with 2 to 4 cm-long worms, since described as a new species, Hesiocaecamethanicola, in the polychaete family Hesionidae (Desbruyères and Toulmond 1998). H.methanicola tissue stable isotope values are consistent with a chemoautotrophic food source. No evidence of chemoautotrophic symbionts was detected, but geochemical data support the presence of abundant free living bacteria on the hydrate. The activities of the polychaetes, grazing on the hydrate bacteria and supplying oxygen to their habitats, appears to contribute to the dissolution of hydrates in surface sediments.

  3. Development of a cDNA array for chicken gene expression analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burt David

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The application of microarray technology to functional genomic analysis in the chicken has been limited by the lack of arrays containing large numbers of genes. Results We have produced cDNA arrays using chicken EST collections generated by BBSRC, University of Delaware and the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center. From a total of 363,838 chicken ESTs representing 24 different adult or embryonic tissues, a set of 11,447 non-redundant ESTs were selected and added to an existing collection of clones (4,162 from immune tissues and a chicken bursal cell line (DT40. Quality control analysis indicates there are 13,007 useable features on the array, including 160 control spots. The array provides broad coverage of mRNAs expressed in many tissues; in addition, clones with expression unique to various tissues can be detected. Conclusions A chicken multi-tissue cDNA microarray with 13,007 features is now available to academic researchers from genomics@fhcrc.org. Sequence information for all features on the array is in GenBank, and clones can be readily obtained. Targeted users include researchers in comparative and developmental biology, immunology, vaccine and agricultural technology. These arrays will be an important resource for the entire research community using the chicken as a model.

  4. Effect of Worm Predation on Changes in Waste Activated Sludge Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xuefeng; Yuan, Wenyi; Wang, Zhiwei; Zhou, Mingyuan; Guan, Jie

    2016-05-01

    This study explored the effects of worm predation on changes in waste activated sludge properties. Results showed that the rate by which worm predation reduced mixed liquor volatile suspended solids (MLVSS) was approximately 23.7% ± 3.1%. Particle size distribution and extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) analyses indicated that the reduction of fine particles and EPS content in sludge predated by worms mainly increased dewaterability and reduced the ratio of MLVSS/mixed liquor suspended solids. Moreover, both mean particle size and protein/carbohydrate ratio increased. The results of three-dimensional excitation-emission matrix and gel filtration chromatogram analyses demonstrated the varied properties of soluble microbial products and EPS were attributed to the worms' selective predation of low molecular-weight organic matter, which facilitated the hydrolysis of macromolecular organic matter. PMID:27131302

  5. CHRONIC EFFECTS OF THE HERBICIDE DIURON ON FRESHWATER CLADOCERANS,AMPHIPODS,MIDGES,MINNOWS,WORMS, AND SNAILS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The chronic effects of the herbicide diuron on survival and reproduction of Daphnia pulex, and survival and growth of the amphipod Hyalella azteca, the midge Chironomus tentans, juvenile and embro/larval fathead minnows, Pimephales promelas, annelid worms, Lumbriculus variegatus,...

  6. Modeling and Stability Analysis of Worm Propagation in Wireless Sensor Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liping Feng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An improved SIRS model considering communication radius and distributed density of nodes is proposed. The proposed model captures both the spatial and temporal dynamics of worms spread process. Using differential dynamical theories, we investigate dynamics of worm propagation to time in wireless sensor networks (WSNs. Reproductive number which determines global dynamics of worm propagation in WSNs is obtained. Equilibriums and their stabilities are also found. If reproductive number is less than one, the infected fraction of the sensor nodes disappears and if the reproduction number is greater than one, the infected fraction asymptotically stabilizes at the endemic equilibrium. Based on the reproduction number, we discuss the threshold of worm propagation about communication radius and distributed density of nodes in WSNs. Finally, numerical simulations verify the correctness of theoretical analysis.

  7. Ascaris worm in the intercostal drainage bag: inadvertent intercostal tube insertion into jejunum: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Mehta Harshad; Mistry Jitendra H; Mohite Prashant N; Patra BS

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Inadvertent insertion of the intercostal tube into abdomen is not rare. It can present by different ways. In the present case an Ascaris worm crept into the intercostal drainage bag to reveal the false passage of the tube.

  8. Toxicity of metals to a freshwater tubificid worm Tubifex tubifex (Muller)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khangarot, B.S. (Industrial Toxicology Research Centre, Lucknow (India))

    1991-06-01

    Salts of various metals are being released in ever increasing amounts into the aquatic environment from mining operations, metal processing facilities, chemical industries and other similar sources. Although there has been considerable study of the acute and chronic toxicities of metals to freshwater fishes, crustaceans and snails, little information is available on the effects of metals to tubificid worms which are widely distributed in the aquatic environment. Tubificid worms are useful indicators of varying degrees of aquatic pollution. It is suggested that tubificid worms are an important element in the aquatic environment and therefore their use as a bioassay organism is logical one. The present study was undertaken to determine the acute toxicities of various metals to a fresh-water tubificid worm, Tubifex tubifex (Muller), which form an important link in aquatic food chain(s).

  9. The polychaete worm Nereis diversicolor increases mercury lability and methylation in intertidal mudflats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sizmur, Tom; Canário, João; Edmonds, Samuel; Godfrey, Adam; O'Driscoll, Nelson J

    2013-08-01

    The polychaete worm Nereis diversicolor engineers its environment by creating oxygenated burrows in anoxic intertidal sediments. The authors carried out a laboratory microcosm experiment to test the impact of polychaete burrowing and feeding activity on the lability and methylation of mercury in sediments from the Bay of Fundy, Canada. The concentration of labile inorganic mercury and methylmercury in burrow walls was elevated compared to worm-free sediments. Mucus secretions and organic detritus in worm burrows increased labile mercury concentrations. Worms decreased sulfide concentrations, which increased Hg bioavailability to sulfate-reducing bacteria and increased methylmercury concentrations in burrow linings. Because the walls of polychaete burrows have a greater interaction with organisms, and the overlying water, the concentrations of mercury and methylmercury they contain is more toxicologically relevant to the base of a coastal food web than bulk samples. The authors recommend that researchers examining Hg in marine environments account for sediment dwelling invertebrate activity to more fully assess mercury bioavailability. PMID:23633443

  10. Rice8987 g_array: cDNA information: 4866 [

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available g_4866 SS3984 >CELZC13_4(U67953|pid:g1519683) Caenorhabditis elegans cosmid ZC13; weak similarit ... y to EGF-like domain cysteine pattern signature (PS :PS 00022); coded for by C. elegans cDNA yk70d5.3; c ...

  11. cDNA sequence for human erythrocyte ankyrin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The cDNA for human erythrocyte ankyrin has been isolated from a series of overlapping clones obtained from a reticulocyte cDNA library. The composite cDNA sequence has a large open reading frame of 5636 base pairs (bp) with the complete coding sequence for a polypeptide of 1879 amino acids with a predicted molecular mass of 206 kDa. The derived amino acid sequence contained 194 residues that were identical to those obtained by direct amino acid sequencing of 11 ankyrin proteolytic peptides. The primary sequence contained 23 highly homologous repeat units of 33 amino acids within the 90-kDa band 3 binding domain. Two cDNA clones showed evidence of apparent mRNA processing, resulting in the deletions of 486 bp and 135 bp, respectively. The 486-bp deletion resulted in the removal of a 16-kDa highly acidic peptide, and the smaller deletion had the effect of altering the COOH terminus of the molecule. Radiolabeled ankyrin cDNAs recognized two erythroid message sizes by RNA blot analysis, one of which was predominantly associated with early erythroid cell types. An ankyrin message was also observed in RNA from the human cerebellum by the same method. The ankyrin gene is assigned to chromosome 8 using genomic DNA from a panel of sorted human chromosomes

  12. cDNA expression cloning in mammalian cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, B J

    2001-05-01

    This unit contains protocols for expression cloning in mammalian cells. Either calcium phosphate- or liposome-mediated transfection of mammalian cells, or virus infection and liposome-mediated transfection are used to screen pools derived from a cDNA library. cDNA pools are prepared for cloning from library-transformed E. coli grown in liquid culture medium or on antibiotic-containing selection plates. Results of screening assays for expression can be detected using autoradiography of dishes of cultured cells to identify clones, direct visualization of radiolabeled cells on emulsion-coated and developed chamber slides, detection and quantification of gene activity by a functional (transport) assay with scintillation counting, or detection using a filter-based assay for binding of radioligand to membranes or whole cells. The most critical step of any cDNA cloning project is the establishment of the screening protocol. Therefore, the bioassay for the gene product must be established prior to executing any of these protocols, including construction of the cDNA library. PMID:18428491

  13. Hydrolytic Degradation of Poly (ethylene oxide)-block-Polycaprolactone Worm Micelles

    OpenAIRE

    Geng, Yan; Discher, Dennis E.

    2005-01-01

    Spherical micelles and nanoparticles made with degradable polymers have been of great interest for therapeutic application, but degradation induced changes in a spherical morphology can be subtle and mechanism/kinetics appears poorly understood. Here, we report the first preparation of giant and flexible worm micelles self-assembled from degradable copolymer poly (ethylene oxide)-block-polycaprolactone. Such worm micelles spontaneously shorten to generate spherical micelles, triggered by poly...

  14. Dynamics of Infected Snails and Mated Schistosoma Worms within the Human Host

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Besigye-Bafaki

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Male and female worms are independently distributed within a human host each with a Poisson probability distribution mass function. Mating takes place immediately when partners are available. It was found that the mated worm function is non-linear near the origin and becomes almost linear as the worms increase. They increase with increase in the worm load due to aggregation of worms. This also increases the infection of snails which are secondary hosts. On the analysis of the model, three equilibrium states were found, two of which were stable and one unstable. A stable endemic equilibrium within a community is very much undesirable. So the main objective of the model was to have the point O(0,0 as the only equilibrium point. This is a situation where there are no worms within the human host and the environment is free of infected snails. A critical point, above which the disease would be chronic and below which the disease would be eradicated, was found and analyzed. The parameters indicated that to achieve a disease free environment, the death rate of worms within the human host should be much greater than the cercariae that penetrate the human. Also the death rate of infected snails should be much higher than the contact rate between the miracidia and the snails. It was concluded that de-worming and killing of snails should be emphasized for disease control and educating the masses on the modes of disease transmission is quite necessary for prevention of the disease.

  15. Repeated evolution of limblessness and digging heads in worm lizards revealed by DNA from old bones.

    OpenAIRE

    Kearney, Maureen; Bryan L Stuart

    2004-01-01

    The evolutionary relationships of the burrowing amphisbaenians ('worm lizards') have long been controversial for several reasons: the rarity of museum specimens available for study, highly derived morphological conditions that can confound comparative studies and difficulty in obtaining tissues for molecular phylogenetic studies because of their secretive habits in the wild. We present a phylogenetic analysis of two nuclear genes obtained from both fresh tissues and museum specimens of worm l...

  16. Estimating the persistence length of a worm-like chain molecule from force-extension measurements.

    OpenAIRE

    Bouchiat, C.; Wang, M D; Allemand, J; Strick, T; Block, S M; Croquette, V.

    1999-01-01

    We describe a simple computation of the worm-like chain model and obtain the corresponding force-versus-extension curve. We propose an improvement to the Marko and Siggia interpolation formula of Bustamante et al (Science 1994, 265:1599-1600) that is useful for fitting experimental data. We apply it to the experimental elasticity curve of single DNA molecules. Finally, we present a tool to study the agreement between the worm-like chain model and experiments.

  17. Durability Characteristics Analysis of Plastic Worm Wheel with Glass Fiber Reinforced Polyamide

    OpenAIRE

    Tae-Il Seo; Jeong-Won Lee; Gun-Hee Kim

    2013-01-01

    Plastic worm wheel is widely used in the vehicle manufacturing field because it is favorable for weight lightening, vibration and noise reduction, as well as corrosion resistance. However, it is very difficult for general plastics to secure the mechanical properties that are required for vehicle gears. If the plastic resin is reinforced by glass fiber in the fabrication process of plastic worm wheel, it is possible to achieve the mechanical properties of metallic material levels. In this stud...

  18. Worm control practice against gastro-intestinal parasites in Norwegian sheep and goat flocks

    OpenAIRE

    Vatn Synnøve; Leine Nils; Gjerde Bjørn; Chartier Christophe; Domke Atle VM; Østerås Olav; Stuen Snorre

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Anthelmintic treatment is the most common way of controlling nematode infections in ruminants. However, several countries have reported anthelmintic resistance (AR), representing a limitation for sustainable small ruminant production. The knowledge regarding worm control management represents a baseline to develop a guideline for preventing AR. The aim of the present study was therefore to improve our knowledge about the worm control practices in small ruminant flocks in N...

  19. Red worm behavior (Eisenia spp. in vermicomposting systems of organic residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamani-Mamani Gladys

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This work evaluates the behavior of the vermicomposting red worm (Eisenia spp. in two environments (greenhouse and unsheltered and with two solid organic substrates (cow manure=CM and kitchen waste=KW in the zone of Carmen Pampa, Nor Yungas Province, Department of La Paz – Bolivia, using a factorial design with two factors and three repetitions (ANOVA analysis. The largest number of cocoons was found in the greenhouse treatment, with 64 in CM and 41 in KW. Cocoon viability was also greatest in the greenhouse treatment, at 100% for CM and 96% for KW. Similarly, the greatest number of worms hatched from cocoons was in the greenhouse treatment, with 2 immature worms for CM and 3.5 for KW, and the greatest number of immature worms was registered in the greenhouse treatment with 123 individuals in CM and 16 in KW. The lowest mortality rate due to environment was in the greenhouse treatment, with 3.90% mortality with CM and 88.64% with KW. The greatest number of mature worms (with clitella was in the unsheltered treatment, with 15 in CM and 21 in KW. The greatest biomass of immature worms was found in the greenhouse treatment, with 1.41 g of worms for CM and 0.185 g for KW; however, the greatest biomass of mature worms was in the KW treatment, with 7.98 g for the greenhouse treatment and 6.93 g for the unsheltered treatment. The phytotoxicity from CM vermicompost in the two environments was lowest, exhibiting a 66.6% rate of germination, and the opposite was true for KW, which was the most toxic in both environments. Macronutrient content in vermicompost obtained was: nitrogen at 2.45% and 2.31%, phosphorus at 500 mg kg-1 and 220 mg kg-1 and potassium at 27.43 and 2.76 cmol(+ kg-1 of dry substrate in KW and CM respectively.

  20. Infestation of the clam Chione fluctifraga by the burrowing worm Polydora sp. nov. in laboratory conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinoco-Orta, Gissel Dalila; Cáceres-Martínez, Jorge

    2003-07-01

    Burrowing worms that belong to Polydora spp. infest marine mollusks cultured worldwide, causing problems for production and marketing. The clam Chione fluctifraga is semi-cultured in Bahía Falsa, Baja California, NW Mexico, and some clams harbor burrowing worms. The present study was carried out to determine the identity of the worm species infesting the clam, the infesting process by cohabitation of infested and non-infested clams in aquaria with a variety of substrates (fine sand, gross sand, plastic bag used for clam culture, and aquarium without substrate) and turbulence conditions, and the occurrence of architomy phenomena in connection with infestation of the clam. The burrowing worm was considered as a nova species due to its singular limbate neurosetae and notosetae in the setiger 5, hooks in the setiger 6, eyes not present, and general pigmentation, among other characteristics. Infestation was similar in all substrates and turbulence conditions, but it was more abundant on clams previously infested than on those free of worms, showing a preferential settlement of worm infesting stages on pre-infested clams. Regeneration was observed in all segments of the worm: anterior (metastomium), medium, and posterior (prostomium); the complete regeneration time occurred in 40 days. This is the first record of architomy in a species of Polydora and this phenomenon could account for the increase of infestation intensity in pre-infested clams at the end of the study period. Infestation of clams by settling polichaete in the conditions studied, and the architomy process in this worm species, shows its great infesting capacity. PMID:12877826

  1. Uptake of plutonium from seawater and sediment by a marine polychaete worm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of the uptake of plutonium 239 from sediment by a marine polychaete worm Nereis diversicolor is reported in the present paper. A comparison is made of the relative importance of two possible uptake pathways, sediment and seawater by which this worm may obtain its plutonium body-burden. Under the laboratory conditions used for the comparison of those two routes it would appear that Nereis obtained greater than 98% of its body activity from seawater. (auth.)

  2. Zinc and mechanical prowess in the jaws of Nereis, a marine worm

    OpenAIRE

    Lichtenegger, Helga C.; Schöberl, Thomas; Ruokolainen, Janne T.; Cross, Julie O.; Heald, Steve M.; Birkedal, Henrik; Waite, J. Herbert; Stucky, Galen D.

    2003-01-01

    Higher animals typically rely on calcification to harden certain tissues such as bones and teeth. Some notable exceptions can be found in invertebrates: The fangs, teeth, and mandibles of diverse arthropod species have been reported to contain high levels of zinc. Considerable quantities of zinc also occur in the jaws of the marine polychaete worm Nereis sp. High copper levels in the polychaete worm Glycera dibranchiata recently were attributed to a copper-based biomin...

  3. Round worm in common bile duct, a rare pathology: Review of 15 cases

    OpenAIRE

    Biswaranjan Nayak; Rashmi Rani Dash; Biranchi Narayan Mallik

    2014-01-01

    Round worm or Ascaris lumbricoides has a worldwide distribution but is more prevalent in the developing countries like India and other South Asian countries. In human beings, round worms are commonly found in the small intestine, particularly the jejunum. If the pathogen load is very high, it may migrate to other sites and manifest different symptoms. In this paper, we share our experience of biliary ascariasis with regards to its clinical presentation, diagnosis, conservative and surgical ma...

  4. Round worm in common bile duct, a rare pathology: Review of 15 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biswaranjan Nayak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Round worm or Ascaris lumbricoides has a worldwide distribution but is more prevalent in the developing countries like India and other South Asian countries. In human beings, round worms are commonly found in the small intestine, particularly the jejunum. If the pathogen load is very high, it may migrate to other sites and manifest different symptoms. In this paper, we share our experience of biliary ascariasis with regards to its clinical presentation, diagnosis, conservative and surgical management.

  5. Construction of Rat Calcineurin A α cDNA Recombinant Adenovirus Vector and Its Identification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Rat calcineurin (CaN) A α isoform (Ppp3ca) cDNA recombinant adenovirus vector was constructed in order to explore the effect of CaN on the myocardium apoptosis induced by ischemiareperfusion injury. Total RNA was isolated from the heart of the adult Wistar rat, and Ppp3ca CDS segment of approximate 1.59 kb size was amplified by reverse transcriptional PCR method. Ppp3ca cDNA segment was cloned into pMD18-T Simple vector for sequencing, and the right clone was named T-Ppp3ca. Ppp3ca cDNA segment obtained from T-Ppp3ca was ligated with pShuttle2-IRES-EGFP to construct a recombinant plasmid pShuttle2-Ppp3ca-IRES-EGFP. Ppp3ca-IRES-EG-FP expression cassette containing CMV, Ppp3ca-IRES-EGFP and SV40 polyA DNA fragment (3.97 kb) obtained from pShuttle2-Ppp3ca-IRES-EGFP was connected with pAdeno-X backbone sequence to construct a recombinant plasmid pAdeno-Ppp3ca. After being identified by PCR and enzyme digestion, recombinant plasmid pAdeno-Ppp3ca was packaged in HEK293 cells. Supernatant of adenovirus from HEK293 cells was collected after a visible cytopathic effect (CPE) appeared.The DNA of the recombinant adenovirus was extracted with the standard method. The presence of the recombinant adenovirus was verified by PCR. The results showed that sequencing results veri fied that the PCR product of Ppp3ca gene was identical to GenBank. Agarose electrophoresis showed the bands of recombined plasmid pAdeno-Ppp3ca and the recombinant adenovirus identified by enzyme digestion and PCR were in the right range corresponding with expectation. It was concluded that the recombinant adenovirus carrying rat calcineurin A α (Ppp3ca) cDNA as well as a report gene-enhancer green fluorescent protein gene was successfully constructed in this experiment.

  6. Identification of a transformer homolog in the acorn worm, Saccoglossus kowalevskii, and analysis of its activity in insect cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Masataka G; Tochigi, Mayuko; Sakaguchi, Honami; Aoki, Fugaku; Miyamoto, Norio

    2015-06-01

    The transformer (tra) gene is an intermediate component of the sex determination hierarchy in many insect species. The homolog of tra is also found in two branchiopod crustacean species but is not known outside arthropods. We have isolated a tra homolog in the acorn worm, Saccoglossus kowalevskii, which is a hemichordate belonging to the deuterostome superphylum. The full-length complementary DNA (cDNA) of the S. kowalevskii tra homolog (Sktra) has a 3786-bp open reading frame that encodes a 1261-amino acid sequence including a TRA-CAM domain and an arginine/serine (RS)-rich domain, both of which are characteristic of TRA orthologs. Reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) analyses demonstrated that Sktra showed no differences in expression patterns between testes and ovaries, but its expression level was approximately 7.5-fold higher in the testes than in the ovaries. TRA, together with the protein product of the transformer-2 (tra-2) gene, assembles on doublesex (dsx) pre-messenger RNA (mRNA) via the cis-regulatory element, enhancing female-specific splicing of dsx in Drosophila. To understand functional conservation of the SkTRA protein as a dsx-splicing activator, we investigated whether SkTRA is capable of inducing female-specific splicing of the Drosophila dsx. Ectopic expression of Sktra cDNA in insect cultured cells did not induce the female-specific splicing of dsx. On the other hand, forced expression of Sktra-2 (a tra-2 homolog of S. kowalevskii) was able to induce the female-specific dsx splicing. These results demonstrate that the function as a dsx-splicing activator is not conserved in SkTRA even though SkTRA-2 is capable of functionally replacing the Drosophila TRA-2. We have also found a tra homolog in an echinoderm genome. This study provides the first evidence that that tra is conserved not only in arthropods but also in basal species of deuterostoms. PMID:25868907

  7. Influence of ecologic factors on prevalence of meningeal worm (Parelaphostrongylus tenuis) infection in South Dakota, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacques, Christopher N; Jenks, Jonathan A; Grovenburg, Troy W; Klaver, Robert W; Dubay, Shelli A

    2015-04-01

    The meningeal worm (Parelaphostrongylus tenuis) is a nematode parasite that commonly infects white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus; WTD) throughout the deciduous forest biome and deciduous-coniferous ecotone of eastern and central North America; the species is not known to occur west of the grassland biome of central North America. We used county-specific prevalence data to evaluate potential effects of landscape and climatologic factors on the spatial distribution of meningeal worm infection in South Dakota, US. Probability of infection increased 4-fold between eastern and western South Dakota and 1.3-fold for each 1-cm increase in summer precipitation. Sixty-three percent of WTD had only a single worm in the cranium. Expansion of meningeal worm infection across western South Dakota may be inherently low due to the combined effects of arid climate and potential attributes of the Missouri River that limit regional movements by infected WTD. Use of landscape genetic analyses to identify potential relationships between landscape features and population genetic structure of infected deer and parasites may contribute to a greater understanding of regional heterogeneity in meningeal worm infection rates across South Dakota, particularly in counties adjacent to the Missouri River. Future research evaluating heterogeneity in prevalence and intensity of infection between fawn and yearling deer, and the potential role of yearling male deer as dispersal agents of meningeal worms across the Missouri River, also is warranted. PMID:25588013

  8. Functional characterization in Caenorhabditis elegans of transmembrane worm-human orthologs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baillie David L

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The complete genome sequences for human and the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans offer an opportunity to learn more about human gene function through functional characterization of orthologs in the worm. Based on a previous genome-wide analysis of worm-human orthologous transmembrane proteins, we selected seventeen genes to explore experimentally in C. elegans. These genes were selected on the basis that they all have high confidence candidate human orthologs and that their function is unknown. We first analyzed their phylogeny, membrane topology and domain organization. Then gene functions were studied experimentally in the worm by using RNA interference and transcriptional gfp reporter gene fusions. Results The experiments gave functional insights for twelve of the genes studied. For example, C36B1.12, the worm ortholog of three presenilin-like genes, was almost exclusively expressed in head neurons, suggesting an ancient conserved role important to neuronal function. We propose a new transmembrane topology for the presenilin-like protein family. sft-4, the worm ortholog of surfeit locus gene Surf-4, proved to be an essential gene required for development during the larval stages of the worm. R155.1, whose human ortholog is entirely uncharacterized, was implicated in body size control and other developmental processes. Conclusions By combining bioinformatics and C. elegans experiments on orthologs, we provide functional insights on twelve previously uncharacterized human genes.

  9. Comparison of influences of sediments and sea water on accumulation of radionuclides by worms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The accumulation and excretion of radionuclides by marine polychaete worms (Nereis japonica) were examined to learn the influence of contaminated sediments on the contamination of marine organisms. The concentration factors of 60Co, 95Zr-95Nb, 106Ru-106Rh and 137Cs for unfed worms were 6, 4, 6 and 6 respectively, and they were similar to the concentration factors for unfed worms. The biological half lives of 60Co, 95Zr-95Nb and 106Ru-106Rh for fed worms were similar to each other (37, 32 and 35 days, respectively) except that of 137Cs (6 days), and all of them were a little shorter than those for unfed worms. The transfer ratios of radionuclides from sediments to worms were 5 per cent for 60Co, 0.9 for 95Zr-95Nb, 0.6 for 106Ru-106Rh and 17.9 for 137Cs in cpm/g in regard to initial activity in sediments. These figures were compared with the concentration factors to estimate the influence of sediments on the contamination of marine organisms. The obtained figures, which we call the biological factor of the sediments, were 120, 440, 1000 and 30 for 60Co, 95Zr-95Nb, 106Ru-106Rh and 137Cs, respectively. (auth.)

  10. The function analysis of full-length cDNA sequence from IRM-2 mouse cDNA library

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To identify the function of full-length cDNA sequence from IRM-2 mouse cDNA library. Methods: Full-length cDNA products were amplified by PCR from IRM-2 mouse cDNA library according to twenty-one pieces of expressed sequence tag. The expression of full-length cDNAs were detected after mouse embryonic fibroblasts were exposed to 6.5 Gy γ-ray radiation. And the effect on the growth of radiosensitivity cells AT5B1VA transfected with full-length cDNAs was investigated. Results: The expression of No.4, 5 and 2 full-length cDNAs from IRM-2 mouse were higher than that of parental ICR and 615 mouse after mouse embryonic fibroblasts irradiated with γ-ray radiation. And the survival rate of AT5B1VA cells transfected with No.4, 5 and 2 full-length cDNAs was high. Conclusion: No.4, 5 and 2 full-length cDNAs of IRM-2 mouse are of high radioresistance. (authors)

  11. An inconvenient truth: global worming and anthelmintic resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Ray M; Vidyashankar, Anand N

    2012-05-01

    Over the past 10-15 years, we have witnessed a rapid increase in both the prevalence and magnitude of anthelmintic resistance, and this increase appears to be a worldwide phenomenon. Reports of anthelmintic resistance to multiple drugs in individual parasite species, and in multiple parasite species across virtually all livestock hosts, are increasingly common. In addition, since the introduction of ivermectin in 1981, no novel anthelmintic classes were developed and introduced for use in livestock until recently with the launch of monepantel in New Zealand. Thus, livestock producers are often left with few options for effective treatment against many important parasite species. While new anthelmintic classes with novel mechanisms of action could potentially solve this problem, new drugs are extremely expensive to develop, and can be expected to be more expensive than older drugs. Thus, it seems clear that the "Global Worming" approach that has taken hold over the past 40-50 years must change, and livestock producers must develop a new vision for parasite control and sustainability of production. Furthermore, parasitologists must improve methods for study design and data analysis that are used for diagnosing anthelmintic resistance, especially for the fecal egg count reduction test (FECRT). Currently, standards for diagnosis of anthelmintic resistance using FECRT exist only for sheep. Lack of standards in horses and cattle and arbitrarily defined cutoffs for defining resistance, combined with inadequate analysis of the data, mean that errors in assigning resistance status are common. Similarly, the lack of standards makes it difficult to compare data among different studies. This problem needs to be addressed, because as new drugs are introduced now and in the future, the lack of alternative treatments will make early and accurate diagnosis of anthelmintic resistance increasingly important. PMID:22154968

  12. Partial characterization of superoxide dismutase activity in the Barber pole worm-Haemonchus contortus infecting Capra hircus and abomasal tissue extracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sadia; Rashid; Malik; Irshadullah

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To determine the activity of superoxide dismutase(SOD) in the male and female haematophagous caprine worms,Haemonchus contortus infecting Capra hircus,and their E/S products and also to analyse the effect of Haemonchus infection on the level of host SOD.Methods:The SOD activity was analysed by using the pyrogallol autoxidation assay and non-denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis followed by specific enzyme staining by riboflavin-nitroblue tetrazolium method.Results:The adult females were found to have higher enzyme activity than the male worms.Appreciable amount of SOD activity was also detected in the worm culture medium and female worms secreted more SOD in comparison to the male parasites.The SOD activity was negatively correlated to the worm burden.Statistically significant decrease in SOD activity(P<0.05) was observed in the heavily infected host tissue in comparison to the control non-infected host tissue.SOD profile of the crude extracts of both the sexes revealed polymorphism and a fast migrating activity band being characteristic of E/S products.The SOD activities were found highly sensitive to potassium cyanide indicating the Cu/Zn form of SOD.Conclusions:Haemonchus contortus is a key model parasite for drug and vaccine discovery.The presences of SOD activity in appreciable amount in the parasite as well as its E/S products indicate that it has a well-developed active antioxidant system to protect itself from the host immune attack.SOD could be the target for vaccine development which is the need of the hour as mass drug administration for parasite control has resulted in anthelmintic resistance across the globe and threatens the viability of sheep and goat industry in many regions of the world.The infection with Haemonchus causes a drastic reduction in SOD activity of the host tissue thus effecting its protective potential.One characteristic SOD band was found in the females which was not present in any other preparations and thus could

  13. A deep sequencing approach to comparatively analyze the transcriptome of lifecycle stages of the filarial worm, Brugia malayi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Jun Choi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Developing intervention strategies for the control of parasitic nematodes continues to be a significant challenge. Genomic and post-genomic approaches play an increasingly important role for providing fundamental molecular information about these parasites, thus enhancing basic as well as translational research. Here we report a comprehensive genome-wide survey of the developmental transcriptome of the human filarial parasite Brugia malayi. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using deep sequencing, we profiled the transcriptome of eggs and embryos, immature (≤3 days of age and mature microfilariae (MF, third- and fourth-stage larvae (L3 and L4, and adult male and female worms. Comparative analysis across these stages provided a detailed overview of the molecular repertoires that define and differentiate distinct lifecycle stages of the parasite. Genome-wide assessment of the overall transcriptional variability indicated that the cuticle collagen family and those implicated in molting exhibit noticeably dynamic stage-dependent patterns. Of particular interest was the identification of genes displaying sex-biased or germline-enriched profiles due to their potential involvement in reproductive processes. The study also revealed discrete transcriptional changes during larval development, namely those accompanying the maturation of MF and the L3 to L4 transition that are vital in establishing successful infection in mosquito vectors and vertebrate hosts, respectively. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Characterization of the transcriptional program of the parasite's lifecycle is an important step toward understanding the developmental processes required for the infectious cycle. We find that the transcriptional program has a number of stage-specific pathways activated during worm development. In addition to advancing our understanding of transcriptome dynamics, these data will aid in the study of genome structure and organization by facilitating

  14. Human uroporphyrinogen III synthase: Molecular cloning, nucleotide sequence, and expression of a full-length cDNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uroporphyrinogen III synthase, the fourth enzyme in the heme biosynthetic pathway, is responsible for conversion of the linear tetrapyrrole, hydroxymethylbilane, to the cyclic tetrapyrrole, uroporphyrinogen III. The deficient activity of URO-synthase is the enzymatic defect in the autosomal recessive disorder congenital erythropoietic porphyria. To facilitate the isolation of a full-length cDNA for human URO-synthase, the human erythrocyte enzyme was purified to homogeneity and 81 nonoverlapping amino acids were determined by microsequencing the N terminus and four tryptic peptides. Two synthetic oligonucleotide mixtures were used to screen 1.2 x 106 recombinants from a human adult liver cDNA library. Eight clones were positive with both oligonucleotide mixtures. Of these, dideoxy sequencing of the 1.3 kilobase insert from clone pUROS-2 revealed 5' and 3' untranslated sequences of 196 and 284 base pairs, respectively, and an open reading frame of 798 base pairs encoding a protein of 265 amino acids with a predicted molecular mass of 28,607 Da. The isolation and expression of this full-length cDNA for human URO-synthase should facilitate studies of the structure, organization, and chromosomal localization of this heme biosynthetic gene as well as the characterization of the molecular lesions causing congenital erythropoietic porphyria

  15. Human uroporphyrinogen III synthase: Molecular cloning, nucleotide sequence, and expression of a full-length cDNA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsai, Shihfeng; Bishop, D.F.; Desnick, R.J. (Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY (USA))

    1988-10-01

    Uroporphyrinogen III synthase, the fourth enzyme in the heme biosynthetic pathway, is responsible for conversion of the linear tetrapyrrole, hydroxymethylbilane, to the cyclic tetrapyrrole, uroporphyrinogen III. The deficient activity of URO-synthase is the enzymatic defect in the autosomal recessive disorder congenital erythropoietic porphyria. To facilitate the isolation of a full-length cDNA for human URO-synthase, the human erythrocyte enzyme was purified to homogeneity and 81 nonoverlapping amino acids were determined by microsequencing the N terminus and four tryptic peptides. Two synthetic oligonucleotide mixtures were used to screen 1.2 {times} 10{sup 6} recombinants from a human adult liver cDNA library. Eight clones were positive with both oligonucleotide mixtures. Of these, dideoxy sequencing of the 1.3 kilobase insert from clone pUROS-2 revealed 5' and 3' untranslated sequences of 196 and 284 base pairs, respectively, and an open reading frame of 798 base pairs encoding a protein of 265 amino acids with a predicted molecular mass of 28,607 Da. The isolation and expression of this full-length cDNA for human URO-synthase should facilitate studies of the structure, organization, and chromosomal localization of this heme biosynthetic gene as well as the characterization of the molecular lesions causing congenital erythropoietic porphyria.

  16. Deep sequencing of New World screw-worm transcripts to discover genes involved in insecticide resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azeredo-Espin Ana Maria L

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The New World screw-worm (NWS, Cochliomyia hominivorax, is one of the most important myiasis-causing flies, causing severe losses to the livestock industry. In its current geographical distribution, this species has been controlled by the application of insecticides, mainly organophosphate (OP compounds, but a number of lineages have been identified that are resistant to such chemicals. Despite its economic importance, only limited genetic information is available for the NWS. Here, as a part of an effort to characterize the C. hominivorax genome and identify putative genes involved in insecticide resistance, we sampled its transcriptome by deep sequencing of polyadenylated transcripts using the 454 sequencing technology. Results Deep sequencing on the 454 platform of three normalized libraries (larval, adult male and adult female generated a total of 548,940 reads. Eighteen candidate genes coding for three metabolic detoxification enzyme families, cytochrome P450 monooxygenases, glutathione S-transferases and carboxyl/cholinesterases were selected and gene expression levels were measured using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR. Of the investigated candidates, only one gene was expressed differently between control and resistant larvae with, at least, a 10-fold down-regulation in the resistant larvae. The presence of mutations in the acetylcholinesterase (target site and carboxylesterase E3 genes was investigated and all of the resistant flies presented E3 mutations previously associated with insecticide resistance. Conclusions Here, we provided the largest database of NWS expressed sequence tags that is an important resource, not only for further studies on the molecular basis of the OP resistance in NWS fly, but also for functional and comparative studies among Calliphoridae flies. Among our candidates, only one gene was found differentially expressed in resistant individuals, and its role on

  17. Mathematical Model and Geometrical Model of Double Pitch ZN-type Worm Gear Set Based on Generation Mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHU Linsen; CAO Huajun; LI Xianchong; ZHANG Chenglong; LI Yuxia

    2015-01-01

    The current researches on the tooth surface mathematical equations and the theory of gearing malnly pay attention to the ordinary type worm gear set (e.g., ZN, ZA, or ZK). The research of forming mechanism and three-dimensional modeling method for the double pitch worm gear set is not enough. So there are some difficulties in mathematical model deducing and geometry modeling of double pitch ZN-type worm gear set based on generation mechanism. In order to establish the mathematical model and the precise geometric model of double pitch ZN-type worm gear set, the structural characteristics and generation mechanism of the double pitch ZN-type worm gear set are investigated. Mathematical model of the ZN-type worm gear set is derived based on its generation mechanism and the theory of gearing. According to the mathematical model of the worm gear set which has been developed, a geometry modeling method of the double pitch ZN-type worm and worm gear is presented. Furthermore, a geometrical precision calculate method is proposed to evaluate the geometrical quality of the double pitch worm gear set. As a result, the maximum error is less than 6´10–4 mm in magnitude, thus the model of the double pitch ZN-type worm gear set is avallable to meet the requirements of finite element analysis and engineering application. The derived mathematical model and the proposed geometrical modeling method are helpful to guiding the design, manufacture and contact analysis of the worm gear set.

  18. Changes in aliphatic hydrocarbon tracer composition during the digestive process of the marine worm Nereis virens. Preliminary results

    OpenAIRE

    Gilbert, Franck; Stora, Georges; Desrosiers, Gaston; Gagne, Jean-Pierre; Deflandre, Bruno; Bertrand, Jean-Claude

    1998-01-01

    In the laboratory, marine worms were fed with a mixture of algae and several aliphatic hydrocarbons for 15 days. By comparing hydrocarbons in food and in faeces, it appeared that the worm's digestive process led to changes in the distribution of the n-alkanes mixture. These changes were different from those only due to physical processes in the experimental conditions, indicating that marine worm feeding could substantially affect the fate of hydrocarbons in the sedimentary marine ecosystem.

  19. Construction of cDNA representational difference analysis based on two cDNA libraries and identification of garlic inducible expression genes in human gastric cancer cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong Li; Lin Yang; Jian-Tao Cui; Wen-Mei Li; Rui-Fang Guo; You-Yong Lu

    2002-01-01

    AIM: To elucidate molecular mechanism of chemopreventiveefficacies of garlic against human gastric cancer (HGC):METHODS: HGC cell line BGC823 was treated with Allitridi (akind of garlic extract) and Allitridi-treated and parentalBGC823 cDNA librarles were constructed respectively byusing λZAP Ⅱ vector. cDNA Representatinal DifferenceAnalysis (cDNA RDA) was perfonmed using BamH Ⅰ cutting-site and abundant ~DNA messages provided by the Iibrarles.Northern blot analysls was applied to identifythe obtaineddifference prnducts.RESULTS: Two specific cDNA fragments were obtained andcharacterized to be derived from homo sapiens folatereceptorα (FRα) gene and calcyclin gene respectively.Northern blot results showed a 4-fold increase in FRα geneexpression level and 9-fold increase in calcyclin mRNA levelin BGC823 cells after Allilridi treatment for 72 h.CONCLUSION: The method of cDNA RDA based on cDNAlibraries combines the high specificity of cDNA RDA withabundant cDNA messages in cDNA library; this expands theapplication of cDNA library and increases the specificity ofcDNA RDA. Up-regulstion of FRα gene and calcyclin geneexpressions induced by Allitridi provide valuable molecularevidence for theefficacy of garlic in treating HGC as well asother diseases.

  20. Biochemical and mechanical characterization of Nereis worm jaws

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broomell, Christopher C.

    The ultimate goal of biomimetics is to elucidate the design principles governing performance in biological materials and apply them to engineering systems. Successful transfer of these principles will require a thorough understanding of the complex interplay between molecular composition, organization and mechanical properties of the material. This dissertation describes the mechanical and biochemical characterization of jaws from the marine polychaete Nereis virens. Nereid jaws possess remarkable mechanical properties considering their predominantly organic composition. Hardness and stiffness are comparable to human dentin. However, in stark contrast to dentin, in Nereis these properties are achieved without mineralization. The role of metal ions in jaw sclerotization is addressed. In the pristine state, Zn ions are concentrated at the tip and toothed-edge of the jaw and are critical for hardness and modulus; both properties are reduced by ˜70% following Zn removal by treatment with EDTA. Furthermore, metal content in the jaw can be manipulated by soaking Zn-depleted samples in metal solutions; the comparative effects of treatment with alternative transition metals under both dry and hydrated conditions are described. The molecular composition of the jaw is also addressed. Protein comprises ˜90% of the jaw mass; amino acid analysis indicates that histidine is increased in the hardened, Zn-rich tip. The major protein component in Nereid jaw extracts is purified and characterized by partial peptide mapping and isolation of a partial clone from a jaw pulp cDNA library. Nvjp-1 is a 38 kDa glycine- histidine-rich protein and is believed to be the principle structural protein in the hardened jaw tip. The effects of selected environmental factors on Nvjp-1 structure and assembly are described. Transition from low to high pH is accompanied by changes in secondary structure and a significant molecular elongation. Furthermore, exposure to transition metals, notably Zn and

  1. Phagocytes: A Holistic Defense and Protection Against Active P2P Worms

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Ruichuan; Crowcroft, Jon; Tang, Liyong; Chen, Zhong

    2011-01-01

    Active Peer-to-Peer (P2P) worms present serious threats to the global Internet by exploiting popular P2P applications to perform rapid topological self-propagation. Active P2P worms pose more deadly threats than normal scanning worms because they do not exhibit easily detectable anomalies, thus many existing defenses are no longer effective. We propose an immunity system with Phagocytes --- a small subset of elected P2P hosts that are immune with high probability and specialized in finding and "eating" worms in the P2P overlay. The Phagocytes will monitor their managed P2P hosts' connection patterns and traffic volume in an attempt to detect active P2P worm attacks. Once detected, local isolation, alert propagation and software patching will take place for containment. The Phagocytes further provide the access control and filtering mechanisms for communication establishment between the internal P2P overlay and the external hosts. We design a novel adaptive and interaction-based computational puzzle scheme at ...

  2. 浙南猪冠尾线虫病及人患蚴移行症的发现%A study of epidemiology & pathogenesis of swine kidney worm disease and discovery of larva migrans in human beings in South Z hejiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄文德; 余大文; 汤子慧; 张峰山

    2001-01-01

    Objective:To study epidemiology of swine kidney disease(Se phanuriasis) in South Zhejiang and its harmful and disease-producing effect of lar vae of Swine Kidney worms on human beings so as to provide basis for the prevent ion and treatment of the disease.Methods:Examining the eggs swine kidney worms in the urine and worms distribution and pathological conditions; Seperating larvae from the Pige ry and infecting Guinea pigs with infective Larvae. Via mouth or skin; Obseving curative effect of the worm-killing drugs; examining Susceptible Persons and pa tients with dermatitis.Results:Infective rate of kidney worms in femal-Pigs is 50.1%; and 14.12% in flesh-Pigs. Adult worms mainly harbour around the ureter(66.67%) . The disease involves many viscera and the condition is Severe. There are a lo t of larvae of kidney worms(Sephanurus dentatus=S.d.) in the Pigery. Those clean ing th e Pigery bare footed are likely to be infected, resalting in dermatitis or ra shes. T wo larvae of .S.d. were doscovered from the migrant eruption node of the Petient .Conclusion:The Sephanuriasis was distributed. widely in the Sou th-Z hejiang and severely harmed to pigs. Larvae migrans of .S.d. in human was first di scovered. Synthetic prophylax and treatment of Sephanuriasis were employed and d esired effects were achiveved.%目的:了解浙南猪冠尾线虫病流行情况和危害 及其蚴对人的致病性。方法:检测猪尿中肾虫卵及肾虫分布处的病态,从猪舍分离感染性蚴,并经 口、肤感染豚鼠,观察杀虫药疗效。同时以免疫学检测易感人群与皮炎患者。 结果:母猪冠尾线虫感染率为50.1%,肉猪为14.1%,成虫寄生于输尿管周围 占66.7%,猪的多处脏器有病变。猪舍内冠尾线虫蚴较多,清理猪舍者易遭蚴侵袭致皮炎 ,从匐行疹处获蚴。结论:浙南猪冠尾线虫病流行广,危害性大;发现人患该蚴移行症。

  3. Expression pattern of the Brachyury gene in the arrow worm paraspadella gotoi (chaetognatha).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takada, Norio; Goto, Taichiro; Satoh, Nori

    2002-03-01

    Arrow worms (the phylum Chaetognatha), which are among the major marine planktonic animals, are direct developers and exhibit features characteristic of both deuterostomes and protostomes. In particular, the embryonic development of arrow worms appears to be of the deuterostome type. Brachyury functions critically in the formation of the notochord in chordates, whereas the gene is expressed in both the blastopore and stomodeum invagination regions in embryos of hemichordates and echinoderms. Here we analyzed the expression of Brachyury (Pg-Bra) in the arrow worm Paraspadella gotoi and showed that Pg-Bra is expressed in the blastopore region and the stomodeum region in the embryo and then around the mouth opening region at the time of hatching. The expression of Pg-Bra in the embryo resembles that of Brachyury in embryos of hemichordates and echinoderms, whereas that in the mouth opening region in the hatchling appears to be novel. PMID:11892013

  4. Analysis of proteins encoded by full-length cDNA sequence from IRM-2 mouse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To screen and isolate radioresistance-related genes from IRM-2 mouse. Methods: Full-length cDNA products were amplified by PCR from IRM-2 mouse cDNA library according to twenty-one pieces of expressed sequence tags. The property of proteins encoded by full-length cDNA were analyzed by comparing with GenBank database. Results: Five pieces of full-length cDNA which were not the same source as the known mice genes were found out from IRM-2 mouse cDNA library.Amino acid sequence and property of proteins encoded by these five pieces of full-length cDNA were obtained. Conclusion: Proteins encoded by full-length cDNA imply that unknown radioresistance-related genes may exist in IR M-2 mouse. (authors)

  5. Evaluation of existing EPRI and INEL test data to determine the worm to worm gear coefficient of friction in Limitorque actuators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    About the last sizing parameter for motor operated valves which has not been determined by utility or NRC sponsored testing is actuator efficiency. A by-product of EPRI testing for valve factors is the measurement of the actuator efficiencies. Motor sizing in this testing provides efficiency testing for motors running near synchronous speed. INEL testing, sponsored by the NRC, for stem factors and rate of loading provides complimentary data for motors loaded down to zero speed. This paper analyzes the data from these two test programs to determine the coefficient of friction for the worm to worm gear interface. This allowed the development of an algorithm for determining the efficiency of actuators which have not been tested. This paper compares the results of this algorithm to the test data to provide a measure of the accuracy of this method for calculating actuator efficiency

  6. Evaluation of existing EPRI and INEL test data to determine the worm to worm gear coefficient of friction in Limitorque actuators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garza, I.A.

    1996-12-01

    About the last sizing parameter for motor operated valves which has not been determined by utility or NRC sponsored testing is actuator efficiency. A by-product of EPRI testing for valve factors is the measurement of the actuator efficiencies. Motor sizing in this testing provides efficiency testing for motors running near synchronous speed. INEL testing, sponsored by the NRC, for stem factors and rate of loading provides complimentary data for motors loaded down to zero speed. This paper analyzes the data from these two test programs to determine the coefficient of friction for the worm to worm gear interface. This allowed the development of an algorithm for determining the efficiency of actuators which have not been tested. This paper compares the results of this algorithm to the test data to provide a measure of the accuracy of this method for calculating actuator efficiency.

  7. Aqueous worm gels can be reconstituted from freeze-dried diblock copolymer powder

    OpenAIRE

    Kocik, M. K.; Mykhaylyk, O. O.; Armes, S. P.

    2014-01-01

    Worm-like diblock copolymer nanoparticles comprising poly(glycerol monomethacrylate) (PGMA) as a stabilizer block and poly(2-hydroxypropyl methacrylate) (PHPMA) as a core-forming block were readily synthesized at 10% w/w solids via aqueous dispersion polymerization at 70 °C using Reversible Addition-Fragmentation chain Transfer (RAFT) chemistry. On cooling to 20 °C, soft transparent free-standing gels are formed due to multiple inter-worm interactions. These aqueous PGMA-PHPMA diblock copolym...

  8. Distribution, abundance and trail characteristics of acorn worms at Australian continental margins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, T. J.; Przeslawski, R.; Tran, M.

    2011-04-01

    Acorn worms (Enteropneusta), which were previously thought to be a missing link in understanding the evolution of chordates, are an unusual and potentially important component of many deep-sea benthic environments, particularly for nutrient cycling. Very little is known about their distribution, abundance, or behaviour in deep-sea environments around the world, and almost nothing is known about their distribution within Australian waters. In this study, we take advantage of two large-scale deep-sea mapping surveys along the eastern (northern Lord Howe Rise) and western continental margins of Australia to quantify the distribution, abundance and trail-forming behaviour of this highly unusual taxon. This is the first study to quantify the abundance and trail behaviour of acorn worms within Australian waters and provides the first evidence of strong depth-related distributions. Acorn worm densities and trail activity were concentrated between transect-averaged depths of 1600 and 3000 m in both eastern and western continental margins. The shallow limit of their depth distribution was 1600 m. The deeper limit was less well-defined, as individuals were found in small numbers below 3000 down to 4225 m. This distributional pattern may reflect a preference for these depths, possibly due to higher availability of nutrients, rather than a physiological constraint to greater depths. Sediment characteristics alone were poor predictors of acorn worm densities and trail activity. High densities of acorn worms and trails were associated with sandy-mud sediments, but similar sediment characteristics in either shallower or deeper areas did not support similar densities of acorn worms or trails. Trail shapes varied between eastern and western margins, with proportionally more meandering trails recorded in the east, while spiral and meandering trails were both common in the west. Trail shape varied by depth, with spiral-shaped trails dominant in areas of high acorn worm densities

  9. SQL/JavaScript Hybrid Worms As Two-stage Quines

    CERN Document Server

    Orlicki, José I

    2009-01-01

    Delving into present trends and anticipating future malware trends, a hybrid, SQL on the server-side, JavaScript on the client-side, self-replicating worm based on two-stage quines was designed and implemented on an ad-hoc scenario instantiating a very common software pattern. The proof of concept code combines techniques seen in the wild, in the form of SQL injections leading to cross-site scripting JavaScript inclusion, and seen in the laboratory, in the form of SQL quines propa- gated via RFIDs, resulting in a hybrid code injection. General features of hybrid worms are also discussed.

  10. Ontogenetic allometry constrains cranial shape of the head-first burrowing worm lizard Cynisca leucura (Squamata: Amphisbaenidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hipsley, Christy A; Rentinck, Marc-Nicolas; Rödel, Mark-Oliver; Müller, Johannes

    2016-09-01

    Amphisbaenians are fossorial, predominantly limbless squamate reptiles with distinct cranial shapes corresponding to specific burrowing behaviors. Due to their cryptic lifestyles and the scarcity of museum specimens, little is known of their intraspecific variation, particularly regarding cranial osteology. This represents a critical lack of information, because the majority of morphological investigations of squamate relationships are based on cranial characters. We investigated cranial variation in the West African Coast Worm Lizard Cynisca leucura, a round-headed member of the Amphisbaenidae. Using geometric morphometric analyses of three-dimensional computed tomographic scans, we found that cranial osteology of C. leucura is highly conserved, with the majority of shape changes occurring during growth as the cranium becomes more slender and elongate, accompanied by increasing interdigitation among the dermal roofing bones. Elements of the ventral portion of the cranium remain loosely connected in adults, possibly as a protective mechanism against repeated compression and torsion during burrow excavation. Intraspecific variation was strongly correlated with size change from juveniles to adults, indicating a dominant role of ontogenetic allometry in determining cranial shape. We found no evidence of sexual dimorphism, either during growth or among adults. Given the fossorial habits of C. leucura, we hypothesize that cranial allometry is under strong stabilizing selection to maintain adequate proportions for head-first digging, thereby constraining the ability of individuals to respond to differing selection pressures, including sexual selection and variation in diet or microhabitat. For species in which digging imposes less mechanical stress (e.g., in softer sand), allometric associations during growth may be weakened, allowing changes to the ontogenetic trajectory and subsequent morphological traits. Such developmental dissociation between size and shape, known

  11. Adult Olfactory Bulb Neurogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lledo, Pierre-Marie; Valley, Matt

    2016-01-01

    Most organisms use their olfactory system to detect and analyze chemical cues from the external world to guide essential behaviors. From worms to vertebrates, chemicals are detected by odorant receptors expressed by olfactory sensory neurons, which in vertebrates send an axon to the primary processing center called the olfactory bulb (OB). Within the OB, sensory neurons form excitatory synapses with projection neurons and with inhibitory interneurons. Thus, because of complex synaptic interactions, the output of a given projection neuron is determined not only by the sensory input, but also by the activity of local inhibitory interneurons that are regenerated throughout life in the process of adult neurogenesis. Herein, we discuss how it is optimized and why. PMID:27235474

  12. Cloning and prokaryotic expression of HGLP cDNA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A novel cDNA, HGLP, which encodes a G- protein coupled receptor (GPCR) like protein, has been isolated and cloned. The coding region of the human HGLP predicts a 7-transmembrane region protein with motifs of rhodopsin-like GPCR superfamily. Northern blot analysis reveals a 3-kb transcript in various human tissues examined. The N- and C-terminal coding regions of HGLP, which are deduced as non-transmembrane regions, have been amplified by PCR and cloned into pET30a+ vector. Then the recombinant proteins are highly expressed in E. coli.

  13. Molecular cloning of human interferon cDNA.

    OpenAIRE

    Taniguchi, T.; Fujii-Kuriyama, Y; Muramatsu, M

    1980-01-01

    A hybrid plasmid, TpIF319, has been shown to contain the sequence for human fibroblast interferon mRNA [Taniguchi, T., Sakai, M., Fujii-Kuriyama, Y., Muramatsu, M., Kobayashi, S. & Sudo, T. (1979) Proc. Jpn. Acad. 55, Ser. B, 464-469]. This conclusion was confirmed by a hybridization-translation assay, using rabbit globin mRNA and its cDNA-containing plasmid as a control. Plasmid TpIF319 was used as probe and another recombinant plasmid, TpIF319-13, whose cDNA insert consists of about 800 bas...

  14. Molecular cloning of cDNA for human prothymosin alpha.

    OpenAIRE

    Goodall, G J; Dominguez, F.; Horecker, B L

    1986-01-01

    A cDNA library was constructed from human spleen mRNA and screened for clones containing cDNAs coding for prothymosin alpha. A clone containing a 503-base-pair insert including the entire coding sequence for the translated portion of the mRNA was isolated. The deduced amino acid sequence confirms and completes the partial sequence of human prothymosin alpha determined by protein sequencing methods. The presence of an initiator codon immediately preceding the codon for the NH2-terminal serine ...

  15. PAS-1, a protein affinity purified from Ascaris suum worms, maintains the ability to modulate the immune response to a bystander antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshiro, Telma M; Enobe, Cristina S; Araújo, Cláudia A; Macedo, Mahasti S; Macedo-Soares, Maria Fernanda

    2006-04-01

    Helminth infections and parasite components have potent immunomodulatory effects on a host's immune system. In the present study, we investigated the effect of PAS-1, a protein component of Ascaris suum adult worms recognized by a monoclonal antibody (MAIP-1), on humoral and cell-mediated responses to a bystander antigen (ovalbumin [OVA]). MAIP-1 recognized only one of the three polypeptide chains of PAS-1, but neutralized the suppressive effect of the whole worm extract on OVA-specific antibody production. PAS-1 inhibited antibody production against a T-cell-dependent, but not a T-cell-independent, antigen in a dose-dependent way. IgM, IgG1, IgG2b, and also IgE and anaphylactic IgG1 levels were downregulated. In addition, PAS-1 inhibited OVA-specific delayed type hypersensitivity reactions in the footpad of mice, showing a potent immunosuppressive activity on both Th1 and Th2 responses that seems to be mediated by the induction of large amounts of IL-10 and IL-4. Indeed, PAS-1-specific spleen cells secreted sevenfold more IL-10 and threefold more IL-4 than OVA-specific cells in response to in vitro restimulation with the respective antigens. In conclusion, we showed that PAS-1, a single protein component from A. suum, maintains all its immunosuppressive properties. PMID:16519731

  16. Simvastatin and artesunate impact the structural organization of adult Schistosoma mansoni in hypercholesterolemic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alencar, Alba Cristina Miranda de Barros; Santos, Thais da Silva; Neves, Renata Heisler; Lopes Torres, Eduardo José; Nogueira-Neto, José Firmino; Machado-Silva, José Roberto

    2016-08-01

    Experimental data have shown that simvastatin and artesunate possess activity against Schistosoma mansoni worms in mice fed standard chow. However, little is known regarding the roles of these drugs in mice fed high-fat chow. We have extended past studies by measuring the effects of these drugs on the structural organization of adult schistosomes in hypercholesterolemic mice. For this purpose, mice were gavaged with either simvastatin or artesunate at nine weeks post-infection and were euthanized by cervical dislocation at two weeks post-treatment. Adult worms were then collected and examined by conventional light microscopy, morphometry and confocal laser scanning microscopy. Plasma total cholesterol and worm reduction rates were significantly increased in mice fed high-fat chow compared with their respective control groups. Simvastatin and artesunate caused changes in the tegument, tubercles, and reproductive system (testicular lobes, vitelline glands and ovarian cells), particularly when administered to mice fed high-fat chow. In particular, the tegument and tubercles were significantly thinner in artesunate-treated worms in mice fed high-fat chow compared with mice fed standard chow. This study thus demonstrated that simvastatin and artesunate have several novel effects on the structural organization of adult worms. Together, these results show, for the first time, that simvastatin and artesunate display antischistosomal activity in hypercholesterolemic mice. PMID:27228897

  17. Automation of cDNA Synthesis and Labelling Improves Reproducibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Klevebring

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Several technologies, such as in-depth sequencing and microarrays, enable large-scale interrogation of genomes and transcriptomes. In this study, we asses reproducibility and throughput by moving all laboratory procedures to a robotic workstation, capable of handling superparamagnetic beads. Here, we describe a fully automated procedure for cDNA synthesis and labelling for microarrays, where the purification steps prior to and after labelling are based on precipitation of DNA on carboxylic acid-coated paramagnetic beads. Results. The fully automated procedure allows for samples arrayed on a microtiter plate to be processed in parallel without manual intervention and ensuring high reproducibility. We compare our results to a manual sample preparation procedure and, in addition, use a comprehensive reference dataset to show that the protocol described performs better than similar manual procedures. Conclusions. We demonstrate, in an automated gene expression microarray experiment, a reduced variance between replicates, resulting in an increase in the statistical power to detect differentially expressed genes, thus allowing smaller differences between samples to be identified. This protocol can with minor modifications be used to create cDNA libraries for other applications such as in-depth analysis using next-generation sequencing technologies.

  18. A new method of DNA extraction from the ethanol-fixed parasitic worms

    OpenAIRE

    Tkach,Vasyl; Pawlowski, Jan Wojciech

    1999-01-01

    A protocol of the new method of DNA extraction from the ethanol fixed parasitic worms is described. The method is based on the use of the guanidine thiocyanate extraction buffer after evaporation of the ethanol from the tissues of drying. The method has been successfully used on several groups of parasitic Plathyhelminthes and provided higher DNA yield than a conventional phenol-chloroform extraction.

  19. From early lessons to new frontiers: the worm as a treasure trove of small RNA biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youngman, Elaine M; Claycomb, Julie M

    2014-01-01

    In the past 20 years, the tiny soil nematode Caenorhabditis elegans has provided critical insights into our understanding of the breadth of small RNA-mediated gene regulatory activities. The first microRNA was identified in C. elegans in 1993, and the understanding that dsRNA was the driving force behind RNA-mediated gene silencing came from experiments performed in C. elegans in 1998. Likewise, early genetic screens in C. elegans for factors involved in RNA interference pointed to conserved mechanisms for small RNA-mediated gene silencing pathways, placing the worm squarely among the founding fathers of a now extensive field of molecular biology. Today, the worm continues to be at the forefront of ground-breaking insight into small RNA-mediated biology. Recent studies have revealed with increasing mechanistic clarity that C. elegans possesses an extensive nuclear small RNA regulatory network that encompasses not only gene silencing but also gene activating roles. Further, a portrait is emerging whereby small RNA pathways play key roles in integrating responses to environmental stimuli and transmitting epigenetic information about such responses from one generation to the next. Here we discuss endogenous small RNA pathways in C. elegans and the insight worm biology has provided into the mechanisms employed by these pathways. We touch on the increasingly spectacular diversity of small RNA biogenesis and function, and discuss the relevance of lessons learned in the worm for human biology. PMID:25505902

  20. From early lessons to new frontiers: The worm as a treasure trove of small RNA biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine M. Youngman

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In the past twenty years, the tiny soil nematode C. elegans has provided critical insights into our understanding of the breadth of small RNA-mediated gene regulatory activities. The first microRNA was identified in C. elegans in 1993, and the understanding that dsRNA was the driving force behind RNA-mediated gene silencing came from experiments performed in C. elegans in 1998. Likewise, early genetic screens in C. elegans for factors involved in RNAi pointed to conserved mechanisms for small RNA-mediated gene silencing pathways, placing the worm squarely among the founding fathers of a now extensive field of molecular biology. Today, the worm continues to be at the forefront of ground-breaking insight into small RNA-mediated biology. Recent studies have revealed with increasing mechanistic clarity that C. elegans possesses an extensive nuclear small RNA regulatory network that encompasses not only gene silencing but also gene activating roles. Further, a portrait is emerging whereby small RNA pathways play key roles in integrating responses to environmental stimuli and transmitting epigenetic information about such responses from one generation to the next. Here we discuss endogenous small RNA pathways in C. elegans and the insight worm biology has provided into the mechanisms employed by these pathways. We touch on the increasingly spectacular diversity of small RNA biogenesis and function, and discuss the relevance of lessons learned in the worm for human biology.

  1. Ascaris worm in the intercostal drainage bag: inadvertent intercostal tube insertion into jejunum: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehta Harshad

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Inadvertent insertion of the intercostal tube into abdomen is not rare. It can present by different ways. In the present case an Ascaris worm crept into the intercostal drainage bag to reveal the false passage of the tube.

  2. Correlates of Anaemia and Worm Infestation among Rural Pregnant Women: A Cross Sectional Study from Bengal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinjita Dutta, Sita Chatterjee, Debasish Sinha, Bobby Pal, Mausumi Basu, Aparajita Dasgupta

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To find out the preva-lence of worm infestation and anaemia among pregnant women along with their socio-demographic characteristics, dietary habits and state of personal hygiene and elicit the association, if any, with anemia and worm infestation Materials and methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out among pregnant mothers attending the antenatal clinic at Nasibpur Union Health Center. All antenatal mothers who came for antenatal checkup for the first time to the health centre on two prefixed days of the week during the study period were interviewed. The reports of their stool and haemoglobin examination were followed up. Results: 82% of the pregnant women were suffering from anemia.25% of the study population had worm infestation. Age at marriage, green leafy vegetable, fruit and flesh food intake of at least 4 days a week, use of lemon with food most of the time, avoiding the practice of eating last in the family, handwashing with soap and water before eating and use of footwear outside the house were statically significant with hemoglobin concentration. Only religion and handwashing practice with soap and water before eating had statistically significant association with worm infestation. Conclusion: The study showed that certain protective factors like diet and personal hygiene if addressed at the time of antenatal checkup can reduce the number of cases of anemia significantly.

  3. Metallothioneins induction and antioxidative response in aquatic worms Tubifex tubifex (Oligochaeta, Tubificidae) exposed to copper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosleh, Yahia Y; Paris-Palacios, Séverine; Biagianti-Risbourg, Sylvie

    2006-06-01

    Metallothioneins (MTs), are low molecular weight proteins, mainly implicated in metal ion detoxification. Increase in MT contents is considered as a specific biomarker of metal exposure. Recently it has been demonstrated that MTs participate in several cellular functions such as regulation of growth, and antioxidative defences. Tubifex tubifex were exposed to different copper concentrations (50, 100, and 200 microgl(-1)) for 7 and 15 days. MT levels in exposed worms increased significantly (p<0.05) after 7 and 15 days of exposure to different concentrations of copper (maximum +208% for 100 microgl(-1) after 7 days of exposure). Also important perturbation in metal-metallothionein content occurred, along with an increase in total soluble protein content in all treated worms after 7 and 15 days (max. +88.49%). Catalase activities (CAT) in Cu treated-worms were significantly increased, and demonstrated a development of antioxidative defenses. Additionally a reduction of gulathione-S-transferase (GST) was observed in all treated worms after 7 days of exposure to Cu (max. -44.42%). The high induction of MTs observed during T. tubifex exposure to Cu make them potentially useful biomarkers to monitor metal pollution. PMID:16330073

  4. Toxicity of metallic oxides nanoparticle suspensions to a freshwater sludge worm Tubifex tubifex Müller.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Surabhi; Das, Sangita; Khangarot, B S

    2011-02-01

    Toxic effects of selected metallic oxides nanoparticles were studied using the short-term static bioassays. Nanoparticles were more toxic than comparable bulk metallic oxides. Freshwater sludge worm Tubifex tubifex can be used as suitable test model for nanoecotoxicological studies in future studies. PMID:21485877

  5. Sediment-worm interaction: transfer of 65Zn from marine silt by the polychaete, Nereis diversicolor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marine polychaete worms (Nereis diversicolor) accumulated 65Zn sorbed to silty marine sediment for 5 days and were then transferred to nonradioactive sediment in the laboratory and in the sea. The mean biological half-life (T/sub B//2/) for the laboratory worms did not differ greatly from that for worms in the sea. Worms living in small flowing seawater systems containing 16 cm3 of sediment accumulated 65Zn added to each system in the form of radioactive organic detritus. Higher percentage uptake of 65Zn was from radioactive detritus particles 0.2 to 2 mm in diameter resting on the sediment surface or mixed with sediment than from finely-ground (65Zn coprecipitated from fresh water with Fe(OH)3 was accumulated by N. diversicolor when the precipitate was on the sediment surface than when the precipitate was well mixed with the sediment. These experimental results indicate that benthic organisms may take up limited amounts of heavy metals associated with bottom sediments and recycle them to benthic and pelagic food webs

  6. Radiation-induced change in mating and reproductive potential of the cotton leaf worm, Spodoptera Littoralis (Boisd.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Among untreated cotton leaf worm, Spodoptera Littoralis (Boisd.), 5.6% was unmated, 72.5 % mated once or twice and 21.9% mated three or four times. The female fecundity and egg fertility were not significantly affected by the number of matings. Full-grown male pupae were treated with 0-500 Gray of gamma radiation, the resulting adult male paired individually with untreated virgin females. The biological effects were assayed by determining the percentage of mating, number of matings, sperm transfer, female fecundity and egg hatch ability (fertility). Irradiated and unirradiated males were paired with virgin females on days 1-4 after male eclosion to determine the effects of male ageing on mating ability and the effects of delayed mating on female fecundity and egg fertility. Mating ability of the males remained high for the first and second day then gradually decreased. Fecundity of untreated females mated with treated males declined gradually with increasing radiation doses. Fertility of treated males declined almost linearly to reach 0% near 400 Gy

  7. Comparison of cellular and whole-animal bioassays for estimation of radiation effects in the polychaete worm Neanthes arenaceodentata (Polychaeta)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The polychaete worm Neanthes arenaceodentata was used in experiments to determine possible relationships between short-term genotoxicity tests and reproductive and lethal consequences of exposure to ionizing radiation. Groups of juvenile N. arenaceodentata received one of four different radiation doses (2, 4, 8, and 16 Gy) to determine dose-effect estimates for chromosomal aberration induction, and groups of both adult and juveniles received one of seven different radiation doses (1, 4, 8.4, 46, 102, 500, and 1000 Gy) to determine dose-effect estimates for reproduction, mortality, and life span. Effects on reproduction and genetic material were observed at the lowest doses and in the same range; detrimental reproductive effects were observed at 1 to 4 Gy, and the frequency of chromosomal aberrations was significantly increased at 2 Gy. Only high doses resulted in acute mortality (greater than 500 Gy) and decreased life span (greater than 100 Gy). Dose-effect estimates for chromosomal aberration induction were dependent on radiation dose and on the stage of the cell cycle at the time of irradiation. Dose-effect estimates for reproduction were dependent on dose and the potential for repopulation of gonadal tissue. It is concluded that short-term genotoxicity test can be predictive of detrimental reproductive effects in those model systems for which basic cell kinetics and reproductive parameters are well known

  8. Age-related differences of Ascaridia galli egg output and worm burden in chickens following a single dose infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauly, M; Homann, T; Erhardt, G

    2005-03-10

    Ninety white chickens (Lohmann LSL) were reared under helminth-free conditions and divided into five groups. Four groups were artificially infected with 250 embryonated Ascaridia galli eggs at the age of 6, 12, 18 or 24 weeks. Ten birds were kept as uninfected controls. Six and 10 weeks after infection (p.i.), individual faecal egg counts (FEC) were performed. The birds were slaughtered after the second sampling and their gastrointestinal tracts were examined for the presence of adult A. galli. The FEC increased from the first to the second sampling significantly in all the infected groups. The highest increase was shown in the group infected at 12 weeks of age, whereas the increase in the other groups was relatively moderate. However, the total worm burden and mean FEC at the second sampling were highest (p0.05) between any of the groups. Thyroxine (T4) was significantly different between the groups infected at 6 and 18 weeks of age (pgalli infections in layers, whereas a bird's hormonal and immune status, related to laying activity, seems to have a significant negative impact on resistance. PMID:15725544

  9. Cotton Leaf worm: Inherited Effects of Low Doses of Gamma Radiation on The Progeny of Irradiated Males. Vol. 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full grown male pupae of the cotton leaf worm, Spodoptera Littoralis (Boisd.) were gamma irradiated with low doses of 25, 50,75, and 100 Gy. The effects on reproduction, development and sex ratio were the biological aspects studied among P1, F1, F2, F3 generations. Fecundity of normal females mated with F1 or F2 males was significantly reduced for all doses. The F1 males were more sterile than their irradiated parental males, while F2 males were more fertile F1 males. Irradiation of P1 males did not clearly affect neither the percentage of mated females nor the average number of spermatophores per mated females among the individuals of P1, F1, F2, F3 generations. The percent of larvae surviving to the adult stage was gradually decreased by increasing dose to P1 male throughout the first three filial generation. The average larval and pupal durations were not affected among the progeny of P1 males for both males and females. The sex ratio among the progeny of irradiated males was nearly 1:1. 3 tabs

  10. WormSizer: high-throughput analysis of nematode size and shape.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brad T Moore

    Full Text Available The fundamental phenotypes of growth rate, size and morphology are the result of complex interactions between genotype and environment. We developed a high-throughput software application, WormSizer, which computes size and shape of nematodes from brightfield images. Existing methods for estimating volume either coarsely model the nematode as a cylinder or assume the worm shape or opacity is invariant. Our estimate is more robust to changes in morphology or optical density as it only assumes radial symmetry. This open source software is written as a plugin for the well-known image-processing framework Fiji/ImageJ. It may therefore be extended easily. We evaluated the technical performance of this framework, and we used it to analyze growth and shape of several canonical Caenorhabditis elegans mutants in a developmental time series. We confirm quantitatively that a Dumpy (Dpy mutant is short and fat and that a Long (Lon mutant is long and thin. We show that daf-2 insulin-like receptor mutants are larger than wild-type upon hatching but grow slow, and WormSizer can distinguish dauer larvae from normal larvae. We also show that a Small (Sma mutant is actually smaller than wild-type at all stages of larval development. WormSizer works with Uncoordinated (Unc and Roller (Rol mutants as well, indicating that it can be used with mutants despite behavioral phenotypes. We used our complete data set to perform a power analysis, giving users a sense of how many images are needed to detect different effect sizes. Our analysis confirms and extends on existing phenotypic characterization of well-characterized mutants, demonstrating the utility and robustness of WormSizer.

  11. PCB concentrations in intertidal sipunculan (Phylum Sipuncula) marine worms from the Pacific coast of Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Specimens of the sipunculans Phascolosoma perlucens, Antillesoma antillarum, and Sipunculus nudus, were collected for PCB analysis in three coastal embayments of the Pacific coast of Costa Rica in October 2005. After collection the worms were kept in cool sea water and transferred to the laboratory for freeze drying. Half of the specimens of S. nudus were purified in filtered sea water for 72 h before freeze drying. The whole worm sample was ground, using a mortar and pestle prior to being extracted with dichloromethane solvent. The extract was cleaned using a florisil column and analyzed using a 6890 Hewlett-Packard gas chromatograph equipped with a mass selective detector. Recovery efficiencies averaged between 72 and 80 %. Data are not corrected for blank or recovery efficiencies. Concentration data were calculated based on comparison with standards for Arochlor 1221, 1242, 1248 and 1254 (Supelco, Inc.). No worm samples were identified with six of more chlorine atoms. However, the higher chlorinated congeners were identified in the standards. Therefore, the lack of chlorination in the worms was not an analytical artifact. The sum of identifiable PCBs ranged from a barely discernible 0.01 ng/g dry wt in an A. antillarum sample from Bahia de Culebra to 67.71 ng/g dry wt in a P. perlucens sample obtained near the Rio Rincon in the inner Golfo Dulce. S. nudus worm samples from the Cocorocas sand flat in the Golfo de Nicoya had relatively high concentrations of PCBs whether they were purified or not. The samples from Costa Rica are low in PCBs, especially compared to the marine sediment samples measured previously in Costa Rica. This was the first attempt to identify and quantify the presence of PCBs in any marine organisms from the Pacific coast of Costa Rica. (author)

  12. Genetic variation for worm burdens in laying hens naturally infected with gastro-intestinal nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wongrak, K; Daş, G; von Borstel, U König; Gauly, M

    2015-01-01

    1. Genetic parameters were determined for the worm burden of the most common gastro-intestinal nematodes in two chicken genotypes after being exposed to free-range farming conditions for a laying period. 2. Seventeen-week-old hens of 2 brown genotypes, Lohmann Brown (LB) plus (n = 230) and LB classic (n = 230), were reared for a laying period and subjected to post-mortem parasitological examinations at 79 weeks (LB plus) or 88 weeks (LB classic) of age. 3. There was no significant difference in faecal egg counts between the genotypes. Almost all hens (>99%) were infected with at least one nematode species. Species-specific nematode prevalence ranged from 85.8% to 99.1% between the two genotypes. Heterakis gallinarum was the most prevalent nematode (98.5%), followed by Ascaridia galli (96.2%) and Capillaria spp. (86.1%). Capillaria spp. were composed of C. obsignata (79%), C. caudinflata (16%) and C. bursata (5%). 4. All phenotypic and genetic correlations among worm counts of different parasite species were positive in combined genotypes (rP ranged from 0.05 to 0.30 and rG ranged from 0.29 to 0.88). A strong genetic correlation (rG = 0.88 ± 0.34) between counts of A. galli and H. gallinarum was quantified. Heritability for total worm burden for LB plus and LB classic, respectively, were 0.55 ± 0.18 and 0.55 ± 0.34. Across both genotypes, the heritability of total worm burden was 0.56 ± 0.16. 5. In conclusion, there is a high variation attributable to genetic background of chickens in their responses to naturally acquired nematode infections. The high positive genetic correlation between counts of closely related worm species (e.g. A. galli and H. gallinarum) may indicate existence of similar genetically determined mechanism(s) in chickens for controlling these nematodes. PMID:25486507

  13. Molecular cloning and mammalian expression of human beta 2-glycoprotein I cDNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Torsten; Schousboe, Inger; Boel, Espen;

    1991-01-01

    Human β2-glycoprotein (β2gpI) cDNA was isolated from a liver cDNA library and sequenced. The cDNA encoded a 19-residue hydrophobic signal peptide followed by the mature β2gpI of 326 amino acid residues. In liver and in the hepatoma cell line HepG2 there are two mRNA species of about 1.4 and 4.3 k...

  14. Molecular cloning of growth hormone encoding cDNA of Indian major carps by a modified rapid amplification of cDNA ends strategy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    T Venugopal; S Mathavan; T J Pandian

    2002-06-01

    A modified rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) strategy has been developed for cloning highly conserved cDNA sequences. Using this modified method, the growth hormone (GH) encoding cDNA sequences of Labeo rohita, Cirrhina mrigala and Catla catla have been cloned, characterized and overexpressed in Escherichia coli. These sequences show 96–98% homology to each other and are about 85% homologous to that of common carp. Besides, an attempt has been made for the first time to describe a 3-D model of the fish GH protein.

  15. High Throughput Screening Identifies Novel Lead Compounds with Activity against Larval, Juvenile and Adult Schistosoma mansoni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansour, Nuha R; Paveley, Ross; Gardner, J Mark F; Bell, Andrew S; Parkinson, Tanya; Bickle, Quentin

    2016-04-01

    An estimated 600 million people are affected by the helminth disease schistosomiasis caused by parasites of the genus Schistosoma. There is currently only one drug recommended for treating schistosomiasis, praziquantel (PZQ), which is effective against adult worms but not against the juvenile stage. In an attempt to identify improved drugs for treating the disease, we have carried out high throughput screening of a number of small molecule libraries with the aim of identifying lead compounds with balanced activity against all life stages of Schistosoma. A total of almost 300,000 compounds were screened using a high throughput assay based on motility of worm larvae and image analysis of assay plates. Hits were screened against juvenile and adult worms to identify broadly active compounds and against a mammalian cell line to assess cytotoxicity. A number of compounds were identified as promising leads for further chemical optimization. PMID:27128493

  16. Marcadores de riesgo para individuos con altas cargas de Ascaris lumbricoidesen una comunidad rural del Estado Cojedes, Venezuela Risk markers for the high worm burden condition for Ascaris lumbricoides in a rural community of Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Morales

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available A total of 337 individuals from a rural community of Venezuela (Mapurite, Estado Cojedes were studied. Stoll faecal examination was carried out and the total number of A. lumbricoides was recovered after the treatment of the individuals sampled with Pyrantel pamoate at a dose of 10 mg/Kg body weight in children and 15 mg/Kg in adults. A relationship between the high worm burden condition (individuals excreting more than10000 epg of A. lumbricoides and the age of the hosts was found. Resulting with the major values of relative risk index (Rr the 5-9 years old class (Rr= 3.2 t= 3.4. This relationship was not found between high worm burden condition (HWB and the sex of the hosts. The following individuals have the the highest possibilities to become HWB: with blood group A (Rr=3.05 t= 4.08, with haemoglobine type HbA HbS (Rr=1.86 t= 2.13, individuals with the combinations A HbA HbF (Rr= 3.46 t= 2.31 and A HbA HbS (Rr= 3.11 t= 2.78. It was estimated that the selective treatment of the total HWB detected (72 with an effective product, determined a reduction of 95.4% of the environmental contamination with de eggs and 72.3% of the worm burden

  17. Cloning and expression of cDNA for salmon growth hormone in Escherichia coli

    OpenAIRE

    Sekine, Susumu; Mizukami, Tamio; Nishi, Tatsunari; Kuwana, Yoshihisa; Saito, Akiko; Sato, Moriyuki; Itoh, Seiga; Kawauchi, Hiroshi

    1985-01-01

    cDNA clones encoding chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) growth hormone (sGH) have been isolated from a cDNA library prepared from chum salmon pituitary gland poly(A)+ RNA. Synthetic oligodeoxynucleotide mixtures based on amino acid residues 23-28 of sGH were used as hybridization probes to select recombinant plasmids carrying the sGH coding sequence. The complete nucleotide sequence of sGH cDNA has been determined. The cDNA sequence codes for a polypeptide of 210 amino acids, including a putativ...

  18. Sequence analysis of a cDNA coding for a pancreatic precursor to somatostatin.

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, W.L.; Collier, K J; Deschenes, R J; Weith, H L; Dixon, J. E.

    1981-01-01

    A synthetic oligonucleotide having the sequence d(T-T-C-C-A-G-A-A-G-A-A) deduced from the amino acid sequence Phe-Phe-Trp-Lys of somatostatin-14 was used to prime the synthesis of a cDNA from channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) pancreatic poly(A)-RNA. The major product of this reaction was a cDNA fragment of 565 nucleotides. Chemical sequence analysis of the cDNA fragment revealed that it was complementary to a mRNA coding for somatostatin. The 565-nucleotide cDNA hybridizes strongly with a...

  19. A Robust Cross-Linking Strategy for Block Copolymer Worms Prepared via Polymerization-Induced Self-Assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    A poly(glycerol monomethacrylate) (PGMA) chain transfer agent is chain-extended by reversible addition–fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) statistical copolymerization of 2-hydroxypropyl methacrylate (HPMA) with glycidyl methacrylate (GlyMA) in concentrated aqueous solution via polymerization-induced self-assembly (PISA). A series of five free-standing worm gels is prepared by fixing the overall degree of polymerization of the core-forming block at 144 while varying its GlyMA content from 0 to 20 mol %. 1H NMR kinetics indicated that GlyMA is consumed much faster than HPMA, producing a GlyMA-rich sequence close to the PGMA stabilizer block. Temperature-dependent oscillatory rheological studies indicate that increasing the GlyMA content leads to progressively less thermoresponsive worm gels, with no degelation on cooling being observed for worms containing 20 mol % GlyMA. The epoxy groups in the GlyMA residues can be ring-opened using 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) in order to prepare core cross-linked worms via hydrolysis-condensation with the siloxane groups and/or hydroxyl groups on the HPMA residues. Perhaps surprisingly, 1H NMR analysis indicates that the epoxy–amine reaction and the intermolecular cross-linking occur on similar time scales. Cross-linking leads to stiffer worm gels that do not undergo degelation upon cooling. Dynamic light scattering studies and TEM analyses conducted on linear worms exposed to either methanol (a good solvent for both blocks) or anionic surfactant result in immediate worm dissociation. In contrast, cross-linked worms remain intact under such conditions, provided that the worm cores comprise at least 10 mol % GlyMA. PMID:27134311

  20. THE CLONING OF HRNT-1 USING A COMBINATION OF cDNA LIBRARY SCREENING WITH BIOTIN-LABELED PROBE AND RAPID AMPLIFICATION OF cDNA ENDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To clone the human counterpart of rat ZA73, EST cloned from rat tracheal epithelial (RTE) neoplastic transformed cell model induced by (a-particles radiation by using mRNA differential display. Methods: According to the sequence of rat ZA73, a probe was biotin-labeled to screen human cDNA library, and then the gene sequence was extended by RACE (rapid amplification of cDNA ends). Result: Human gene HRNT-1 (GenBank Accession Number: AF223393) is 4.256 kb in length, with an ORF located in the region between 254 and 3013 bp. 5' UTS (untranslated sequences) is 253 bp, 3' UTS is 1243 bp. Conclusion: The combination of cDNA library screening with biotin-labeled probes and RACE is an effective method to clone full-length cDNA, especially for sequences longer than 2 kb.

  1. ESTS from skin and PBMC cDNA subtractive library of alpaca

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: As an effort to map and identify genes and genetic markers that influence the fibre quality in alpacas, cDNA subtractive libraries of Alpaca (Vicugna pacos) were constructed in order to find differentially expressed genes in skin. Skin and blood samples were removed from six adult Alpaca (1.5 year old). Total RNA was extracted using Trizol (Invitrogen) and mRNA was purified using the Gene Elute mRNA purification kit (Sigma). Suppression PCR was used to construct the library using mRNA from skin as a tester and the mRNA from PBMC as a driver. The subtracted PCR products were inserted into the TA cloning vector and the ligation reaction was transformed into TOP10 E. coli cells. Randomly selected clones were sequenced and a total of 2280 high quality 5' end sequences were generated. Clustering analysis using StackPACK version 2.2.0 resulted in 1075 unique transcripts, consisting of 347 consensi and 728 singletons. BLAST analysis of the generated sequences revealed skin associated transcripts such as hair keratin 6A, keratin 10, keratin KA27, keratin 34, wool keratin microfibril type I, and collagen. A total of 27 microsatellite loci were also uncovered. Further work is in progress to generate more sequences in order to build an EST database of differentially expressed genes from Alpaca skin and PBMC, and for the generation of genetic molecular markers such as microsatellites and SNP for Alpaca. (author)

  2. Analysis of expressed sequence tags from a fetal human heart cDNA library

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, D.M.; Fung, Y.W.; Wang, R.X.; Laurenssen, C.M. [Univ. of Toronto, Ontario (Canada)] [and others

    1995-11-20

    Single-pass sequencing of randomly selected cDNA clones to generate expressed sequence tags (ESTs) has been widely used to identify novel genes and to study gene expression in a variety of tissues. We have generated 2244 ESTs from a human fetal heart library (Gen-Bank Accession Nos. R30692-30774 and R56965-58824), which we present in this report. Of these, 51.7% showed no homology to known genes or were similar only to other ESTs, while 48.4% demonstrated homology to known transcripts. A total of 764 ESTs corresponding to known genes were used to study gene expression patterns in the fetal heart and to analyze differences in these patterns from those observed in the adult heart. These analyses demonstrate the utility of ESTs and sequence-tagged clones in comparative studies of gene expression in the cardiovascular system, and they reveal that differential gene expression underlies the structural and functional characteristics of the developing heart. 48 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  3. Cloning, sequencing and expression of cDNA encoding growth hormone from Indian catfish (Heteropneustes fossilis)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Vikas Anathy; Thayanithy Venugopal; Ramanathan Koteeswaran; Thavamani J Pandian; Sinnakaruppan Mathavan

    2001-09-01

    A tissue-specific cDNA library was constructed using polyA+ RNA from pituitary glands of the Indian catfish Heteropneustes fossilis (Bloch) and a cDNA clone encoding growth hormone (GH) was isolated. Using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primers representing the conserved regions of fish GH sequences the 3′ region of catfish GH cDNA (540 bp) was cloned by random amplification of cDNA ends and the clone was used as a probe to isolate recombinant phages carrying the full-length cDNA sequence. The full-length cDNA clone is 1132 bp in length, coding for an open reading frame (ORF) of 603 bp; the reading frame encodes a putative polypeptide of 200 amino acids including the signal sequence of 22 amino acids. The 5′ and 3′ untranslated regions of the cDNA are 58 bp and 456 bp long, respectively. The predicted amino acid sequence of H. fossils GH shared 98% homology with other catfishes. Mature GH protein was efficiently expressed in bacterial and zebrafish systems using appropriate expression vectors. The successful expression of the cloned GH cDNA of catfish confirms the functional viability of the clone.

  4. Cloning, sequencing and expression of cDNA encoding growth hormone from Indian catfish (Heteropneustes fossilis)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Vikas Anathy; Thayanithy Venugopal; Ramanathan Koteeswaran; Thavamani J Pandian; Sinnakaruppan Mathavan

    2013-03-01

    A tissue-specific cDNA library was constructed using polyA+ RNA from pituitary glands of the Indian catfish Heteropneustes fossilis (Bloch) and a cDNA clone encoding growth hormone (GH) was isolated. Using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primers representing the conserved regions of fish GH sequences the 3′ region of catfish GH cDNA (540 bp) was cloned by random amplification of cDNA ends and the clone was used as a probe to isolate recombinant phages carrying the full-length cDNA sequence. The full-length cDNA clone is 1132 bp in length, coding for an open reading frame (ORF) of 603 bp; the reading frame encodes a putative polypeptide of 200 amino acids including the signal sequence of 22 amino acids. The 5′ and 3′ untranslated regions of the cDNA are 58 bp and 456 bp long, respectively. The predicted amino acid sequence of H. fossils GH shared 98% homology with other catfishes. Mature GH protein was efficiently expressed in bacterial and zebrafish systems using appropriate expression vectors. The successful expression of the cloned GH cDNA of catfish confirms the functional viability of the clone.

  5. Cloning and functional expression of a human pancreatic islet glucose-transporter cDNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Previous studies have suggested that pancreatic islet glucose transport is mediated by a high-Km, low-affinity facilitated transporter similar to that expressed in liver. To determine the relationship between islet and liver glucose transporters, liver-type glucose-transporter cDNA clones were isolated from a human liver cDNA library. The liver-type glucose-transporter cDNA clone hybridized to mRNA transcripts of the same size in human liver and pancreatic islet RNA. A cDNA library was prepared from purified human pancreatic islet tissue and screened with human liver-type glucose-transporter cDNA. The authors isolated two overlapping cDNA clones encompassing 2600 base pairs, which encode a pancreatic islet protein identical in sequence to that of the putative liver-type glucose-transporter protein. Xenopus oocytes injected with synthetic mRNA transcribed from a full-length cDNA construct exhibited increased uptake of 2-deoxyglucose, confirming the functional identity of the clone. These cDNA clones can now be used to study regulation of expression of the gene and to assess the role of inherited defects in this gene as a candidate for inherited susceptibility to non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus

  6. Vector sequences - Budding yeast cDNA sequencing project | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Budding yeast cDNA sequencing project Vector sequences Data detail Data name Vector sequences Description of data contents Vector seq...wnload License Update History of This Database Site Policy | Contact Us Vector sequences - Budding yeast cDNA sequencing project | LSDB Archive ... ...uences used for sequencing. Multi FASTA format. 7 entries. Data file File name: vec

  7. Construction and characterization of a normalized whole-life-cycle cDNA library of rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    A cDNA library with genomic complete coverage is a powerful tool for functional genomic studies. For studying the functions of rice genes on a large scale, a normalized whole-life-cycle cDNA library is constructed based on the strategy of saturation hybridization with genomic DNA using rice cultivar Minghui 63, an elite restorer line for a number of rice hybrids that are widely cultivated in China. This library consists of cDNA from 15 directionally cloned cDNA libraries constructed with different tissues from 9 developmental stages. For normalization, the denatured plasmids purified from the 15 directionally cloned libraries are mixed and hybridized with saturated genomic DNA labeled with magnetic beads in two complementary systems. Well-matched plasmids are captured from the hybridized genomic DNA and electroporated into competent DH10B E. coli for construction of the normalized whole-life-cycle cDNA library. This library consists of 62000 clones with an average insert length about 1.4 kb. Inverse Northern blotting shows that this cDNA library included many rarely expressed genes and tissue-specific genes. Sequencing of 10750 cDNA clones of this library reveals 6399 unique ESTs (expressed sequence tags), indicating that the non-redundancy of the library is about 59.5%. This library has been used to make cDNA microarrays for functional genomic studies.

  8. Evaluation of Echinostoma liei worm, metacercaria and redia antigens for schistosomiasis control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Monaem, G; Farid, A; Rabia, I; El-Amir, A

    2015-10-01

    While chemotherepeutic drugs, such as praziquantel, oxamniquine and metrifonate, are currently considered safe and effective drugs for schistosomiasis treatment, reinfection occurs frequently after drug treatment. Thus, a vaccine is sought to provide long-term treatment. Antigens from worm, metacercaria and redia of Echinostoma liei (E. liei) were purified using CNBr-activated Sepharose column, then used for immunization of mice prior to infection with Schistosomiasis mansoni. Worm burden, hepatic and intestinal eggs and oogram count was significantly reduced and that was reflected in normalization of liver architecture. This referred to a significant increase in the tested immunoglobulin level (IgM, IgG1 and IgG2). PMID:26115938

  9. [Chronic disseminated intravascular coagulopathy in a dog with lung worm infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, S; Moritz, A

    2009-06-01

    The clinical and laboratory findings in a 1-year-old male Jack Russel Terrier dog with lung worm induced coagulopathy are described. The diagnosis was based upon history, clinical findings, radiography, endoscopy, cytology and laboratory results. The presenting complaint was chronic cough. Radiographically, a diffuse interstitial to bronchial lung pattern was observed. Blood analysis revealed thrombocytopaenia and prolonged coagulation times. Disseminated intravascular coagulopathy (DIC) was diagnosed based on D-dimer and fibrinogen measurements, and by thrombelastogram results. After stabilisation of the patient, bronchoscopy with a bronchoalveolar lavage was performed, where large amounts of lung worm larvae were found cytologically. After treatment with fresh frozen plasma and fenbendazole, coagulation parameters improved and the cough resolved. PMID:19496048

  10. Biological effects of pyrimethinal on aquatic worms (Tubifex tubifex) under laboratory conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosleh, Yahia Youssef; Mofeed, Jelan; Afifi, Mohamed; Almaghrabi, Omar A

    2014-01-01

    Laboratory studies were conducted to determine the effects of different concentrations of pyrimethinal on protein contents, and some oxidative stress in Tubifex tubifex after an exposure of 2, 4, and 7 days. Residues of the fungicide were followed in water and in the worms. In water, pyrimethinal concentration decreased slowly (maximum -6.4 % ± 0.8 % after 2 days for 25 mg L(-1)). In the worms, it increased after 4 days and decreased thereafter. LC50 values were between 49.2 ± 0.58 and 39.5 ± 0.95 mg L(-1) depending on exposure time. The activity of catalase increased in response to the fungicide after 2 days of exposure to 25 mg L(-1) of pyrimethinal (+90 %). The highest decrease of glutathione-S-transferase activity (-29.7 %) was found after 7 days in the presence of 25 mg L(-1). PMID:24213591

  11. Biological response of the cotton leaf worm, Spodoptera littoralis, towards combination of seed and leaf extracts from red gum Eucalyptus Camaldulensis and/or gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The biological response of the F1 progeny of the cotton leaf worm, Spodoptera Littoralis (Bosid.), (from males irradiated as parental pupae with 75 and 125 Gy gamma radiation) to seed or leaf extracts of Eucalyptus Camaldulensis plant were studied. The fecundity, fertility, and mating potency of F1 adults were employed as assess for response. Analysis of variance indicated that, different treatments with gamma irradiation and/or plant extracts, at most mating crosses and most interactions between all of them, showed significant role in decreasing the fecundity and fertility of F1 adults. In general, the combined treatments of seed or leaf extracts with gamma irradiation. as dependent factors regardless other factors, decreased the emergence of adults compared to the control or single treatments of either seed extract or gamma irradiation. As well, combination treatments of radiation and seed extract decreased significantly the fecundity of moths compared to control or irradiation treatment alone. On the other hand, the combination treatments of either seed or leaf extracts did not have any significant difference in the number of mating per female, as compared to control, while irradiation treatments decreased the number of mating compared to vontrol. The effects of most possible probabilities of interaction between doses, crosses and treatments on reproduction were estimated and discussed and also the effects on development of F1 progeny were included

  12. Worms With a Single Functional Sensory Cilium Generate Proper Neuron-Specific Behavioral Output

    OpenAIRE

    Senti, Gabriele; Ezcurra, Marina; Löbner, Jana; Schafer, William R.; Swoboda, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Studying the development and mechanisms of sensory perception is challenging in organisms with complex neuronal networks. The worm Caenorhabditis elegans possesses a simple neuronal network of 302 neurons that includes 60 ciliated sensory neurons (CSNs) for detecting external sensory input. C. elegans is thus an excellent model in which to study sensory neuron development, function, and behavior. We have generated a genetic rescue system that allows in vivo analyses of isolated CSNs at both c...

  13. Bioavailability of sediment-sorbed naphthalenes to the spiuncluid worm, phascolosoma agassizii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, J.W.; Moore, L.J.; Blaylock, J.W.; Woodruff, D.L.; Kiesser, S.L.

    1976-10-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the accumulation and release parameters of naphthalenes for the burrowing peanut worm, (Sipunculida) Phascolosoma agassizii. So that uptake from sediment could be compared to that from contaminated water, the latter was also briefly investigated. Sediment-oil mixtures were produced and used in two ways to examine the variability that might be produced by different types of actual oil spills.

  14. Prediction of C. elegans Longevity Genes by Human and Worm Longevity Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Robi Tacutu; Shore, David E.; Arie Budovsky; João Pedro de Magalhães; Gary Ruvkun; Fraifeld, Vadim E.; Curran, Sean P.

    2012-01-01

    Intricate and interconnected pathways modulate longevity, but screens to identify the components of these pathways have not been saturating. Because biological processes are often executed by protein complexes and fine-tuned by regulatory factors, the first-order protein-protein interactors of known longevity genes are likely to participate in the regulation of longevity. Data-rich maps of protein interactions have been established for many cardinal organisms such as yeast, worms, and humans....

  15. Glow Worms as a Tourist Attraction in Springbrook National Park: Visitor Attitudes and Economic Issues

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, Clevo; Tisdell, Clement A.; Merritt, David

    2004-01-01

    Insect-based tourism mainly caters to a niche market, but its popularity has been growing in recent years. Despite its popularity this form of tourism has remained under-researched and in a sense its contribution to the tourism industry has gone mostly unnoticed. This paper reports the results of a study undertaken on one form of popular insect-based tourism, namely glow worms. The study was undertaken in Springbrook National Park (Natural Bridge section) southeast Queensland, which has one o...

  16. Response to "Discussion on the systematic position of the Early Cambrian priapulomorph worms"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN Jian; HU Shixue

    2006-01-01

    @@ Due to the combination of complex states of preservation and taphonomies in Chengjiang fossils, Huang et al.[1] expressed different opinions to those of Han et al.[2] on the morphology and systematic position of the fossil priapulomorph worms (Priapulomorpha) based on their additional materials. These diverse opinions are critical in any investigation of the diversity of the Introverta in the Cambrian explosion. However, some of their ideas need to be discussed in further detail.

  17. Comparison between the Nereis diversicolor and Nereis virens marine worms in the transformation of ingested hydrocarbons

    OpenAIRE

    Gilbert, Franck; Desrosiers, Gaston; Hulth, Stefan; Stora, Georges

    2001-01-01

    A feeding experiment was conducted on the marine worm Nereis diversicolor to compare the fate of a hydrocarbon mixture during the gut passage in this species with the hydrocarbon breakdown process demonstrated for Nereis virens. Hydrocarbon dissolution/solubilization processes in the gut of N. diversicolor were found to have similar qualitative and quantitative importance in the hydrocarbon transformation as those observed in N. virens.

  18. Chordodes mizoramensis (Nematomorpha, Gordiida), a new species of horsehair worm from Mizoram, North-East India

    OpenAIRE

    Andreas Schmidt-Rhaesa; Lalramliana

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Chordodes mizoramensis, a new species of freshwater gordiid horsehair worm, is described from Mizoram, NE India on the basis of scanning electron microscopic and morphometric studies. The new species can be distinguished from its congeners in that the apical filaments of the crowned areoles are branched several times, a pattern that has not been observed in other species. An additional distinguishing character is that it has more bulging areoles, which are distributed among simple ar...

  19. Molecular cloning and characterization of duck hepatitis virus cDNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim was to determine the complete nucleotide sequence of duck hepatitis virus (DHV) and compare this sequence with that of the other picornaviruses. The DHV cDNA has been cloned, which will enable us to demonstrate the genome structure of the DHV RNA and the translation mechanisms of the viral protein. Also, we can use the cDNA probes to detect DHV in clinical samples. DHV cDNA has been cloned with a size of the insert fragments of 0.5-0.7 kb. The cDNA clones were authenticated by northern hybridization. The availability of cloned DHV cDNA should make it possible to deduce RNA and amino acid sequences, both for use as a probe of clinical specimens and as to the presence of DHV genome

  20. Cloning and bioinformatics analysis of cDNA encoding cattle Smad4 gene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaohui ZHANG; Shangzhong XU; Xue GAO; Hongyan REN; Jinbao CHEN

    2008-01-01

    The cDNA of cattle Smad4 gene was cloned by RT-PCR, 3' RACE and 5' RACE and got a 3503-bp full-long cDNA sequence. The cloned cattle Smad4 cDNA sequence had been send to GenBank and got an accession number: DQ494856. Cattle Smad4 gene consists of 12 exons and codes 553 amino acids. Cattle Smad4 cDNA shares 99%, 96%, 95%, 91% and 91% similarity in nucleic acid sequences, and 99%, 98%, 98%, 99% and 98% sim-ilarity in amino acid sequences with sheep, pig, human, rat and mouse, respectively. Smad4 cDNA was found in the testes, pancreas, liver, small intestine, ovary, lymph, car-diac muscle, skeleton muscle and thymus gland, which indicated that Smad4 was broadly expressed in cattle.

  1. Murine branched chain alpha-ketoacid dehydrogenase kinase; cDNA cloning, tissue distribution, and temporal expression during embryonic development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doering, C B; Coursey, C; Spangler, W; Danner, D J

    1998-06-01

    These studies were designed to demonstrate the structural and functional similarity of murine branched chain alpha-ketoacid dehydrogenase and its regulation by the complex-specific kinase. Nucleotide sequence and deduced amino acid sequence for the kinase cDNA demonstrate a highly conserved coding sequence between mouse and human. Tissue-specific expression in adult mice parallels that reported in other mammals. Kinase expression in female liver is influenced by circadian rhythm. Of special interest is the fluctuating expression of this kinase during embryonic development against the continuing increase in the catalytic subunits of this mitochondrial complex during development. The need for regulation of the branched chain alpha-ketoacid dehydrogenase complex by kinase expression during embryogenesis is not understood. However, the similarity of murine branched chain alpha-ketoacid dehydrogenase and its kinase to the human enzyme supports the use of this animal as a model for the human system. PMID:9611264

  2. Investigation on application of synthetic nutrients for augmenting worm growth rate in vermicomposting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanimani Thiruganasambadam

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available An investigation was carried out to scan the influence of synthetic nutrients on Vermicomposting. A mixture of six nutrients (Iron, Manganese, Zinc, Copper, Molybdenum and Boron was introduced to augment the growth of worms (Lumbricus rubellus and to ensure the higher digestion rate of the pre-composted bio-degradable organic waste. Initially green waste was collected from the local vegetable market and pre-composted for about three weeks. Then the pre-composted waste was placed in two identical glass vermireactors. Each reactor was loaded with equal volume of waste (0.024 m³ and worms (40 gm. The pre-composted waste was vermicomposted for a period of 21 days by applying nutrients in one reactor and the other was kept as control (without nutrient. The nutrients were applied in liquid form while moistening the reactor beds and the characteristics of the pre-composted waste, vermicasts and vermi growth rate were studied. Results revealed that the reactor added by nutrients performed better by achieving 41.34% higher waste volume reduction and 42% increase in the worm growth rate.

  3. Self-avoiding worm-like chain model for dsDNA loop formation

    CERN Document Server

    Pollak, Yaroslav; Amit, Roee

    2014-01-01

    We compute for the first time the effects of excluded volume on the probability for double-stranded DNA to form a loop. We utilize a Monte-Carlo algorithm for generation of large ensembles of self- avoiding worm-like chains, which are used to compute the J-factor for varying lengthscales. In the entropic regime, we confirm the scaling-theory prediction of a power-law drop off of -1.92, which is significantly stronger than the -1.5 power-law predicted by the non-self-avoiding worm-like chain model. In the elastic regime, we find that the angle-independent end-to-end chain distribution is highly anisotropic. This anisotropy, combined with the excluded volume constraints, lead to an increase in the J-factor of the self-avoiding worm-like chain by about half an order of magnitude relative to its non-self-avoiding counterpart. This increase could partially explain the anomalous results of recent cyclization experiments, in which short dsDNA molecules were found to have an increased propensity to form a loop.

  4. Zinc and mechanical prowess in the jaws of Nereis, a marine worm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lichtenegger, Helga C.; Schoberl, Thomas; Ruokolainen, Janne T.; Cross, Julie O.; Heald, Steve M.; Birkedal, Henrik; Waite, J. Herbert; Stucky, Galen

    2003-08-05

    Higher animals typically rely on calcification to harden certain tissues such as bones and teeth. Some notable exceptions can be found in invertebrates: The fangs, teeth, and mandibles of diverse arthropod species have been reported to contain high levels of zinc. Considerable quantities of zinc also occur in the jaws of the marine polychaete worm Nereis sp. High copper levels in the polychaete worm Glycera dibranchiata recently were attributed to a copper-based biomineral reinforcing the jaws. In the present article, we attempt to unravel the role of zinc in Nereis limbata jaws, using a combination of position-resolved state-of-the-art techniques. It is shown that the local hardness and stiffness of the jaws correlate with the local zinc concentration, pointing toward a structural role for zinc. Zinc always is detected in tight correlation with chlorine, suggesting the presence of a zinc– chlorine compound. No crystalline inorganic phase was found, however, and results from x-ray absorption spectroscopy further exclude the presence of simple inorganic zinc– chlorine compounds in amorphous form. The correlation of local histidine levels in the protein matrix and zinc concentration leads us to hypothesize a direct coordination of zinc and chlorine to the protein. A comparison of the role of the transition metals zinc and copper in the jaws of two polychaete worm species Nereis and Glycera, respectively, is presented.

  5. Zinc and mechanical prowess in the jaws of Nereis, a marine worm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lichtenegger, Helga C.; Schoberl, Thomas; Ruokolainen, Janne T.; Cross, Julie O.; Heald, Steve M.; Birkedal, Henrik; Waite, J. Herbert; Stucky, Galen

    2003-08-05

    Higher animals typically rely on calcification to harden certain tissues such as bones and teeth. Some notable exceptions can be found in invertebrates: The fangs, teeth, and mandibles of diverse arthropod species have been reported to contain high levels of zinc. Considerable quantities of zinc also occur in the jaws of the marine polychaete worm Nereis sp. High copper levels in the polychaete worm Glycera dibranchiata recently were attributed to a copper-based biomineral reinforcing the jaws. In the present article, we attempt to unravel the role of zinc in Nereis limbata jaws, using a combination of position-resolved state-of-the-art techniques. It is shown that the local hardness and stiffness of the jaws correlate with the local zinc concentration, pointing toward a structural role for zinc. Zinc always is detected in tight correlation with chlorine, suggesting the presence of a zinc-chlorine compound. No crystalline inorganic phase was found, however, and results from x-ray absorption spectroscopy further exclude the presence of simple inorganic zinc-chlorine compounds in amorphous form. The correlation of local histidine levels in the protein matrix and zinc concentration leads us to hypothesize a direct coordination of zinc and chlorine to the protein. A comparison of the role of the transition metals zinc and copper in the jaws of two polychaete worm species Nereis and Glycera, respectively, is presented.

  6. cDNA and deduced amino acid sequence of human pulmonary surfactant-associated proteolipid SPL(Phe)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hydrophobic surfactant-associated protein of M/sub r/ 6000-14,000 was isolated from either/ethanol or chloroform/methanol extracts of mammalian pulmonary surfactant. Automated Edman degradation in a gas-phase sequencer showed the major N-terminus of the human low molecular weight protein to be Phe-Pro-Ile-Pro-Leu-Pro-Try-Cys-Trp-Leu-Cys-Arg-Ala-Leu-. Because of the N-terminal phenylalanine, the surfactant protein was designated SPL(Phe). Antiserum generated against hydrophobic surfactant protein(s) from bovine pulmonary surfactant recognized protein of M/sub r/ 6000-14,000 in immunoblot analysis and was used to screen a λgt11 expression library constructed from adult human lung poly(A)+ RNA. This resulted in identification of a 1.4-kilobase cDNA clone that was shown to encode the N-terminus of the surfactant polypeptide SPL(Phe) (Phe-Pro-Ile-Pro-Leu-Pro-) within an open reading frame for a larger protein. Expression of a fused β-galactosidase-SPL (Phe) gene in Escherichia coli yielded an immunoreactive M/sub r/ 34,000 fusion peptide. Hybrid-arrested translation with the cDNA and immunoprecipitation of [35S]methionine-labeled in vitro translation products of human poly(A)+ RNA with a surfactant polyclonal antibody resulted in identification of a M/sub r/ 40,000 precursor protein. Blot hybridization analysis of electrophoretically fractionated RNA from human lung detected a 2.0-kilobase RNA that was more abundant in adult lung than in fetal lung. These proteins, and specifically SPL(Phe), may therefore be useful for synthesis of replacement surfactants for treatment of hyaline membrane disease in newborn infants or of other surfactant-deficient states

  7. The chemosensory protein of Chinese honeybee, Apis cerana cerana: Molecular cloning of cDNA, immunocytochemical localization and expression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI HongLiang; LOU BingGan; CHENG Jia'An; GAO QiKang

    2007-01-01

    Chemosensory proteins (CSPs) are ubiquitous soluble small proteins isolated from sensory organs thought to be involved in chemical communication.Here we report the first cDNA of CSPs,called Ac-ASP3,cloned and characterized from antennas of adult worker bees in Chinese honeybee,Apis cerana cerana.The Ac-ASP3 cDNA comprises 2 exons,with an ORF of 393-bp encoding 130 aa.Protein signature analyses show that the protein consists of four conserved cysteines and a signal peptide with 19 aa in the N-terminal sequence.The deduced protein sequence shares high homology with Am-ASP3 of Apis mellifera and low similarity with other species of insects.Immunocytochemical localization shows that Ac-ASP3 is only specifically expressed on the antenna contact chemosensilla such as sensilla trichodea B and sensilla basiconica,whereas Ac-ASP3 is scarcely expressed on olfactory chemosensilla such as sensilla placodea.Real-time PCR of Ac-ASP3 transcripts shows that Ac-ASP3 is highly expressed on wings and legs,but expression is lower on antenna.Temporal expression patterns suggest that Ac-ASP3 is expressed during the period of pupa and adults from 1-d to 6-d stages when bees act as house bees,cleaning the comb and taking care of the queen and larvae in comb.The above evidence suggests that Ac-ASP3 is unique in species and is generally not involved in olfaction during searching for honey and pollen.Rather,the protein seems to function in recognition of chemosensory substances on bees' cuticle and mechanical movement of antenna.

  8. cDNA and deduced amino acid sequence of human pulmonary surfactant-associated proteolipid SPL(Phe)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glasser, S.W.; Korfhagen, T.R.; Weaver, T.; Pilot-Matias, T.; Fox, J.L.; Whitsett, J.A.

    1987-06-01

    Hydrophobic surfactant-associated protein of M/sub r/ 6000-14,000 was isolated from either/ethanol or chloroform/methanol extracts of mammalian pulmonary surfactant. Automated Edman degradation in a gas-phase sequencer showed the major N-terminus of the human low molecular weight protein to be Phe-Pro-Ile-Pro-Leu-Pro-Try-Cys-Trp-Leu-Cys-Arg-Ala-Leu-. Because of the N-terminal phenylalanine, the surfactant protein was designated SPL(Phe). Antiserum generated against hydrophobic surfactant protein(s) from bovine pulmonary surfactant recognized protein of M/sub r/ 6000-14,000 in immunoblot analysis and was used to screen a lambdagt11 expression library constructed from adult human lung poly(A)/sup +/ RNA. This resulted in identification of a 1.4-kilobase cDNA clone that was shown to encode the N-terminus of the surfactant polypeptide SPL(Phe) (Phe-Pro-Ile-Pro-Leu-Pro-) within an open reading frame for a larger protein. Expression of a fused ..beta..-galactosidase-SPL (Phe) gene in Escherichia coli yielded an immunoreactive M/sub r/ 34,000 fusion peptide. Hybrid-arrested translation with the cDNA and immunoprecipitation of (/sup 35/S)methionine-labeled in vitro translation products of human poly(A)/sup +/ RNA with a surfactant polyclonal antibody resulted in identification of a M/sub r/ 40,000 precursor protein. Blot hybridization analysis of electrophoretically fractionated RNA from human lung detected a 2.0-kilobase RNA that was more abundant in adult lung than in fetal lung. These proteins, and specifically SPL(Phe), may therefore be useful for synthesis of replacement surfactants for treatment of hyaline membrane disease in newborn infants or of other surfactant-deficient states.

  9. Gene expression in retinoic acid-induced neural tube defects A cDNA mieroarray analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaodong Long; Zhong Yang; Yi Zeng; Hongli Li; Yangyun Han; Chao You

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Neural tube defects can be induced by abnormal factors in vivo or in vitro during development. However, the molecular mechanisms of neural tube defect induction, and the related gene expression and regulation are still unknown.OBJECTIVE: To compare the differences in gene expression between normal embryos and those with neural tube defects.DESIGN, TIME AND SETTING: A neural development study was performed at the Department of Neurobiology, Third Military Medical University of Chinese PLA between January 2006 and October 2007.MATERIALS: Among 120 adult Kunming mice, 60 pregnant mice were randomly and evenly divided into a retinoic acid group (n = 30) and a normal control group (n =30). The retinoic acid was produced by Sigma, USA, the gene microarray by the Amersham Pharmacia Company, Hong Kong, and the gene sequence was provided by the Incyte database, USA.METHODS: Retinoic acid was administered to prepare models of neural tube defects, and corn oil was similady administered to the normal control group. Total RNA was extracted from embryonic tissue of the two groups using a Trizol kit, and a cDNA microarray containing 1 100 known genes was used to compare differences in gene expression between the normal control group and the retinoic acid group on embryonic (E) clay 10.5 and 11.5. Several differentially expressed genes were randomly selected from the two groups for Northern blotting, to verify the results of the cDNA microarray.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Morphological changes and differential gene expression between the normal control group and the retinoic acid group.RESULTS: Anatomical microscopy demonstrated that an intact closure of the brain was formed in the normal mouse embryos by days E10.5 and E11.5. The cerebral appearance was full and smooth, and the surface of the spine was intact. However, in the retinoic acid group on days E10.5 and E11.5, there were more dead embryos. Morphological malformations typically included non-closure at the top of

  10. CDNA library from the Latex of Hevea brasiliensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilaiwan Chotigeat

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Latex from Hevea brasiliensis contains 30-50% (w/w of natural rubber (cis-1,4-polyisoprene, the important rawmaterial for many rubber industries. We have constructed a cDNA library from the latex of H. brasiliensis to investigate theexpressed genes and molecular events in the latex. We analyzed 412 expressed sequence tags (ESTs. More than 90% of theEST clones showed homology to previously described sequences in public databases. Functional classification of the ESTsshowed that the largest category were proteins of unknown function (30.1%, 11.4% of ESTs encoded for rubber synthesisrelatedproteins (RS and 8.5% for defense or stress related proteins (DS. Those with no significant homology to knownsequences (NSH accounted for 8.7%, primary metabolism (PM and gene expression and RNA metabolism were 7.8% and6.6%, respectively. Other categories included, protein synthesis-related proteins (6.6%, chromatin and DNA metabolism(CDM 3.9%, energy metabolism (EM 3.4%, cellular transport (CT 3.2%, cell structure (CS 3.2%, signal transduction (ST2.2%, secondary metabolism (SM 1.7%, protein fate (PF 2.2%, and reproductive proteins (RP 0.7%.

  11. Studies on inherited sterility induced in the progeny of gamma irradiated cotton leaf worm, Spodoptera littorals (Boisd.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full - grown pupae of the cotton leaf worm Spodoptera littorals (Boisd.) were gamma - irradiated with low doses of 25,50,75, or 100 Gy for male line and with 50 or 100 Gy for female line . The effects on reproduction, development and sex ratio were the biological aspects studied among P1,F1,F2 and F 3 generations . Also, the effects of dose accumulation applied grown male pupae through two or three filial generations and the retarded influence on their F1,F2,and F 3 progeny were examined. In another trial the histological examinations for ovaries and testes of irradiated parents and for their generation were made . The F1 males were more sterile than irradiated parental males while F1 females were more fertile than their irradiated parental females. Irradiation of P1 males did not clearly affect neither the percentage of mated females nor the average number of spermatophores per mated female among the individuals of P1,F1,F2 and F 3 generations. Irradiation of P1 females did not affect neither the percentage of mated females nor the percentage of inseminated females among P1 and their next three successive generations. The reduction in fecundity was highly correlated with both doses and number of accumulated doses. Males received two accumulated doses of 25 Gy through the two successive generations.(25 + 25 Gy) were more sterile than the males received the same two doses but at once as one acute dose of 50 Gy. The histological observations showed that the damage in the testes and ovaries was correlated with the increasing of the dose applied to the male parents and was the highest among the adults of F1. Also, the damage at any acute dose was less than the damage occurred in the same accumulated dose

  12. Random rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RRACE) allows for cloning of multiple novel human cDNA fragments containing (CAG)n repeats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carney, J P; McKnight, C; VanEpps, S; Kelley, M R

    1995-04-01

    We describe a new technique for isolating cDNA fragments in which (i) either a partial sequence of the cDNA is known or (ii) a repeat sequence is utilized. We have used this technique, termed random rapid amplification of cDNA ends (random RACE), to isolate a number of trinucleotide repeat (CAG)n-containing genes. Using the random RACE (RRACE) technique, we have isolated over a hundred (CAG)n-containing genes. The results of our initial analysis of ten clones indicate that three are identical to previously cloned (CAG)n-containing genes. Three of our clones matched with expressed sequence tags, one of which contained a CA repeat. The remaining four clones did not match with any sequence in GenBank. These results indicate that this approach provides a rapid and efficient method for isolating trinucleotide repeat-containing cDNA fragments. Finally, this technique may be used for purposes other than cloning repeat-containing cDNA fragments. If only a partial sequence of a gene is known, our system, described here, provides a rapid and efficient method for isolating a fragment of the gene of interest. PMID:7536696

  13. XPB mediated retroviral cDNA degradation coincides with entry to the nucleus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Retroviruses must integrate their cDNA to a host chromosome, but a significant fraction of retroviral cDNA is degraded before integration. XPB and XPD are part of the TFIIH complex which mediates basal transcription and DNA nucleotide excision repair. Retroviral infection increases when XPB or XPD are mutant. Here we show that inhibition of mRNA or protein synthesis does not affect HIV cDNA accumulation suggesting that TFIIH transcription activity is not required for degradation. Other host factors implicated in the stability of cDNA are not components of the XPB and XPD degradation pathway. Although an increase of retroviral cDNA in XPB or XPD mutant cells correlates with an increase of integrated provirus, the integration efficiency of pre-integration complexes is unaffected. Finally, HIV and MMLV cDNA degradation appears to coincide with nuclear import. These results suggest that TFIIH mediated cDNA degradation is a nuclear host defense against retroviral infection.

  14. RICD: A rice indica cDNA database resource for rice functional genomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Qifa

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Oryza sativa L. indica subspecies is the most widely cultivated rice. During the last few years, we have collected over 20,000 putative full-length cDNAs and over 40,000 ESTs isolated from various cDNA libraries of two indica varieties Guangluai 4 and Minghui 63. A database of the rice indica cDNAs was therefore built to provide a comprehensive web data source for searching and retrieving the indica cDNA clones. Results Rice Indica cDNA Database (RICD is an online MySQL-PHP driven database with a user-friendly web interface. It allows investigators to query the cDNA clones by keyword, genome position, nucleotide or protein sequence, and putative function. It also provides a series of information, including sequences, protein domain annotations, similarity search results, SNPs and InDels information, and hyperlinks to gene annotation in both The Rice Annotation Project Database (RAP-DB and The TIGR Rice Genome Annotation Resource, expression atlas in RiceGE and variation report in Gramene of each cDNA. Conclusion The online rice indica cDNA database provides cDNA resource with comprehensive information to researchers for functional analysis of indica subspecies and for comparative genomics. The RICD database is available through our website http://www.ncgr.ac.cn/ricd.

  15. Isolation of cDNA clones coding for human tissue factor: primary structure of the protein and cDNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tissue factor is a membrane-bound procoagulant protein that activates the extrinsic pathway of blood coagulation in the presence of factor VII and calcium. λ Phage containing the tissue factor gene were isolated from a human placental cDNA library. The amino acid sequence deduced from the nucleotide sequence of the cDNAs indicates that tissue factor is synthesized as a higher molecular weight precursor with a leader sequence of 32 amino acids, while the mature protein is a single polypeptide chain composed of 263 residues. The derived primary structure of tissue factor has been confirmed by comparison to protein and peptide sequence data. The sequence of the mature protein suggests that there are three distinct domains: extracellular, residues 1-219; hydrophobic, residues 220-242; and cytoplasmic, residues 243-263. Three potential N-linked carbohydrate attachment sites occur in the extracellular domain. The amino acid sequence of tissue factor shows no significant homology with the vitamin K-dependent serine proteases, coagulation cofactors, or any other protein in the National Biomedical Research Foundation sequence data bank (Washington, DC)

  16. Parasiticidal and brine shrimp cytotoxicity potential of crude methanolic extract of rind of Punica granatum Linn against round worms and tape worms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Niaz; Jamil, Ayesha; Shah, Syed Wadood Ali; Shah, Ismail; Ahmed, Ghayour; Junaid, Muhammad; Ahmed, Zahoor

    2015-05-01

    Rind of Punica granatum is traditionally used for anthelmintic purposes. The current work describes the possible anthelmintic activity of crude methanolic extract of Punica granatum (Pg. Cr) against round worms (Ascaridia galli) and the tape worms (Raillietina spiralis). Brine shrimp cytotoxicity is also performed. Brine shrimp cytotoxic activity was tested using different concentrations (1000 μg/mL, 100 μg/mL and 10 μg/mL) of Pg.Cr. In vitro anthelmintic activity of Pg. Cr was determined against the parasites using albendazole and piperazine citrate as standard anthelmintic drugs in concentration 10 mg/ml. LC50 value for Brine shrimp cytotoxicity was 189.44 ±28 μg/mL. In test concentration of 40mg/ml of the Pg. Cr, Raillietina spiralis was paralyzed in 23 minutes. However, for parasiticidal activity (death of the parasite), it took less time (40 minutes) as compared to standard Albendazole. Time taken for death of the parasite Raillietina spiralis, in concentration 40 mg /ml, is 40 min. While standard drugs took more time to kill the Raillietina spiralis. Pg. Cr took 19 minutes to paralyze the Ascaridia galli at concentration 40 mg/ml whereas; it took 48 minutes for to kill the parasite Ascaridia galli. The current work confirms the traditional use of rind of Punica granatum as anthelmintic against Raillietina spiralis and Ascaridia galli. Results of brine shrimp cytotoxicity assay warrant for the isolation of cytotoxic compounds. List of abbreviation- Pg. Cr = Crude methanolic extract of Punica granatum. PMID:26004729

  17. cDNA library Table: phe- [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available phe- NA phe- p50T pheromone gland adult stage D0 female pGCAPI, G-capping, full-len...gth Unknown Sequenced from 5' with T7 primer; Sequenced from 3' with modified pT primer DC544856-DC552314 E_FL_phe-_[number]_F_0 ...

  18. cDNA library Table: NRPG [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NRPG NA NRPG p50 pheromone gland adult stage female pBluescript SK- EcoR1 for 5' Xh...o1for 3' sequenced from T3 primer (5' -> 3') BP182009-BP183529 NRPG[number] p50, Normalized Library ...

  19. Genetic instability of Japanese encephalitis virus cDNA clones propagated in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xuchen; Tong, Wu; Liu, Fei; Liang, Chao; Gao, Fei; Li, Guoxin; Tong, Guangzhi; Zheng, Hao

    2016-04-01

    The genetic instability of Flavivirus cDNA clones in transformed bacteria is a common phenomenon. Herein, a cDNA fragment of the nucleotide (nt) 1-2913 of the genome of a flavivirus, Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), was used to investigate factors that caused the instability of cDNA clones. Several cDNA fragments with different 5'- or 3'-termini of the 2913-nt cDNA were obtained by PCR amplification or restriction enzyme digestion and cloned into a pCR-Blunt II-TOPO vector. All the cDNA fragments were stably propagated at 25 °C. However, the 5'-untranslated region and half of the 3'-E gene could cause the instability of the 2913-nt cDNA at 37 °C. The 5'-terminus sequences of the 2913-nt fragment were subjected to testing of the prokaryotic promoter activity by luciferase assay and Western blot. The sequences of 54-120 nt of the JEV genome exhibited high prokaryotic promoter activity at 37 °C, and the activity declined markedly at 25 °C. These findings revealed that the high prokaryotic promoter activity of the 54-120 nt sequences of the JEV genome together with expression of JEV structural genes determined the instability of a JEV cDNA clone. Growth at room temperature may reduce the prokaryotic promoter activity of 5'-sequences of the JEV genome and could represent an effective way to improve the stability of flavivirus cDNA clones in host bacteria. PMID:26888374

  20. Expression cloning of a cDNA encoding the bovine histamine H1 receptor.

    OpenAIRE

    Yamashita, M; Fukui, H; Sugama, K; Horio, Y; Ito, S.; Mizuguchi, H.; Wada, H

    1991-01-01

    A functional cDNA clone for the histamine H1 receptor was isolated from a cDNA library of bovine adrenal medulla by a combination of molecular cloning in an expression vector and electrophysiological assay in Xenopus oocytes. The H1 receptor cDNA encodes a protein of 491 amino acids (Mr 55,954) with seven putative transmembrane domains, illustrating the similarity to other receptors that couple with guanine nucleotide-binding regulatory proteins (G protein-coupled receptors). The sequence hom...

  1. Recovery of cytopathogenic and noncytopathogenic bovine viral diarrhea viruses from cDNA constructs.

    OpenAIRE

    Meyers, G; Tautz, N.; Becher, P; Thiel, H J; Kümmerer, B M

    1997-01-01

    After cDNA cloning of the genome of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) isolate CP7, a full-length cDNA clone was constructed. RNA transcribed in vitro from this construct was shown to direct the generation of infectious BVDV upon transfection into bovine cells. To confirm the de novo generation of infectious BVDV from cloned cDNA a genetically tagged virus was constructed. In comparison with parental BVDV, the recombinant virus was slightly retarded in growth. The NS2 coding region of the CP7...

  2. Molecular cloning of human interleukin 2 cDNA and its expression in E. coli.

    OpenAIRE

    Devos, René; Plaetinck, Geert; Cheroutre, Hilde; Simons, Guus; Degrave, Wim,; Tavernier, Jan; Remaut, Erik; Fiers, Walter

    1983-01-01

    A recombinant plasmid containing human interleukin 2 (IL2) cDNA was identified in a cDNA library constructed from mRNA derived from PHA-TPA induced splenocytes. Using this cDNA as a hybridization probe, a DNA fragment containing the IL2 gene was isolated from a collection of hybrid phages derived from human genomic DNA. A unique reading frame was identified from the nucleotide sequence derived from these plasmids coding for a polypeptide of 153 amino acids and containing a putative signal seq...

  3. Uroporphyrinogen-III synthase: Molecular cloning, nucleotide sequence, expression of a mouse full-length cDNA, and its localization on mouse chromosome 7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, W.; Desnick, R.J. [Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY (United States); Kozak, C.A. [National Institute of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States)

    1995-04-10

    Uroporphyrinogen-III synthase, the fourth enzyme in the heme biosynthetic pathway, is responsible for the conversion of hydroxymethylbilane to the cyclic tetrapyrrole, uroporphyrinogen III. The deficient activity of URO-S is the enzymatic defect in congenital erythropoietic porphyria (CEP), an autosomal recessive disorder. For the generation of a mouse model of CEP, the human URO-S cDNA was used to screen 2 X 10{sup 6} recombinants from a mouse adult liver cDNA library. Ten positive clones were isolated, and dideoxy sequencing of the entire 1.6-kb insert of clone pmUROS-1 revealed 5{prime} and 3{prime} untranslated sequences of 144 and 623 bp, respectively, and an open reading frame of 798 bp encoding a 265-amino-acid polypeptide with a predicted molecular mass of 28,501 Da. The mouse and human coding sequences had 80.5 and 77.8% nucleotide and amino acid identity, respectively. The authenticity of the mouse cDNA was established by expression of the active monomeric enzyme in Escherichia coli. In addition, the analysis of two multilocus genetic crosses localized the mouse gene on chromosome 7, consistent with the mapping of the human gene to a position of conserved synteny on chromosome 10. The isolation, expression, and chromosomal mapping of this full-length cDNA should facilitate studies of the structure and organization of the mouse genomic sequence and the development of a mouse model of CEP for characterization of the disease pathogenesis and evaluation of gene therapy. 38 refs., 1 tab.

  4. Recall of intestinal helminthiasis by HIV-infected South Africans and avoidance of possible misinterpretation of egg excretion in worm/HIV co-infection analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van der Merwe Lize

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ascariasis and HIV/AIDS are often co-endemic under conditions of poverty in South Africa; and discordant immune responses to the respective infections could theoretically be affecting the epidemic of HIV/AIDS in various ways. It is well-known that sensitisation to helminthic antigens can aggravate or ameliorate several non-helminthic diseases and impair immunisation against cholera, tetanus and tuberculosis. The human genotype can influence immune responses to Ascaris strongly. With these factors in mind, we have started to document the extent of long-term exposure to Ascaris and other helminths in a community where HIV/AIDS is highly prevalent. In more advanced studies, objectives are to analyse relevant immunological variables (e.g. cytokine activity and immunoglobulin levels. We postulate that when Ascaris is hyperendemic, analysis of possible consequences of co-infection by HIV cannot be based primarily on excretion vs non-excretion of eggs. Methods Recall of worms seen in faeces was documented in relation to the age of adult volunteers who were either seropositive (n = 170 or seronegative (n = 65 for HIV. Reasons for HIV testing, deworming treatments used or not used, date and place of birth, and duration of residence in Cape Town, were recorded. Confidence intervals were calculated both for group percentages and the inter-group differences, and were used to make statistical comparisons. Results In both groups, more than 70% of participants were aware of having passed worms, often both when a child and as an adult. Most of the descriptions fitted Ascaris. Evidence for significantly prolonged exposure to helminthic infection in HIV-positives was supported by more recall of deworming treatment in this group (p Conclusion There was a long-term history of ascariasis (and probably other helminthic infections in both of the groups that were studied. In women in the same community, and in children living where housing and

  5. Track-a-worm, an open-source system for quantitative assessment of C. elegans locomotory and bending behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sijie Jason; Wang, Zhao-Wen

    2013-01-01

    A major challenge of neuroscience is to understand the circuit and gene bases of behavior. C. elegans is commonly used as a model system to investigate how various gene products function at specific tissue, cellular, and synaptic foci to produce complicated locomotory and bending behavior. The investigation generally requires quantitative behavioral analyses using an automated single-worm tracker, which constantly records and analyzes the position and body shape of a freely moving worm at a high magnification. Many single-worm trackers have been developed to meet lab-specific needs, but none has been widely implemented for various reasons, such as hardware difficult to assemble, and software lacking sufficient functionality, having closed source code, or using a programming language that is not broadly accessible. The lack of a versatile system convenient for wide implementation makes data comparisons difficult and compels other labs to develop new worm trackers. Here we describe Track-A-Worm, a system rich in functionality, open in source code, and easy to use. The system includes plug-and-play hardware (a stereomicroscope, a digital camera and a motorized stage), custom software written to run with Matlab in Windows 7, and a detailed user manual. Grayscale images are automatically converted to binary images followed by head identification and placement of 13 markers along a deduced spline. The software can extract and quantify a variety of parameters, including distance traveled, average speed, distance/time/speed of forward and backward locomotion, frequency and amplitude of dominant bends, overall bending activities measured as root mean square, and sum of all bends. It also plots worm travel path, bend trace, and bend frequency spectrum. All functionality is performed through graphical user interfaces and data is exported to clearly-annotated and documented Excel files. These features make Track-A-Worm a good candidate for implementation in other labs. PMID

  6. Track-a-worm, an open-source system for quantitative assessment of C. elegans locomotory and bending behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sijie Jason Wang

    Full Text Available A major challenge of neuroscience is to understand the circuit and gene bases of behavior. C. elegans is commonly used as a model system to investigate how various gene products function at specific tissue, cellular, and synaptic foci to produce complicated locomotory and bending behavior. The investigation generally requires quantitative behavioral analyses using an automated single-worm tracker, which constantly records and analyzes the position and body shape of a freely moving worm at a high magnification. Many single-worm trackers have been developed to meet lab-specific needs, but none has been widely implemented for various reasons, such as hardware difficult to assemble, and software lacking sufficient functionality, having closed source code, or using a programming language that is not broadly accessible. The lack of a versatile system convenient for wide implementation makes data comparisons difficult and compels other labs to develop new worm trackers. Here we describe Track-A-Worm, a system rich in functionality, open in source code, and easy to use. The system includes plug-and-play hardware (a stereomicroscope, a digital camera and a motorized stage, custom software written to run with Matlab in Windows 7, and a detailed user manual. Grayscale images are automatically converted to binary images followed by head identification and placement of 13 markers along a deduced spline. The software can extract and quantify a variety of parameters, including distance traveled, average speed, distance/time/speed of forward and backward locomotion, frequency and amplitude of dominant bends, overall bending activities measured as root mean square, and sum of all bends. It also plots worm travel path, bend trace, and bend frequency spectrum. All functionality is performed through graphical user interfaces and data is exported to clearly-annotated and documented Excel files. These features make Track-A-Worm a good candidate for implementation in

  7. The murine biglycan: Complete cDNA cloning, genomic organization, promoter function, and expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wegrowski, Y.; Pillarisetti, J.; Danielson, K.G.; Iozzo, R.V. [Thomas Jefferson Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States); Suzuki, S. [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    1995-11-01

    Biglycan is a ubiquitous chondroitin/dermatan sulfate proteoglycan that belongs to a growing family of proteins harboring leucine-rich repeats. We have cloned and sequenced the cDNA containing the complete murine biglycan, elucidated its genomic organization, and demonstrated functional promoter activity of its 5{prime} flanking region. The deduced biglycan protein core was highly conserved across species. However, the mouse biglycan (Bgn) gene was significantly larger than the human counterpart, primarily because of a large > 4.5-kb intron between exons 1 and 2. The mouse Bgn gene spanned over 9.5 kb of continuous DNA and comprised 8 exons, with a perfectly conserved intron/exon organization vis-a-vis the human counterpart. The promoter region was enriched in GC dinucleotide and contained numerous cis-acting elements including binding sites for SP-1, AP-1, and AP-2 factors. It lacked TATA and CAAT boxes typical of housekeeping genes. In support of this, primer extension analysis showed the existence of multiple transcription start sites. Transient cell transfection assays with a construct comprising the 548 hp upstream of the major transcription start site fused to the chloramphenicol acetyl transferase reporter gene showed functional promoter activity. Internal and 5{prime} deletion constructs showed that the distal promoter of the Bgn gene was required for full transcriptional activity. In contrast to the homologous proteoglycan decorin, the highest expression of biglycan mRNA was observed in lung, liver, and spleen of adult mouse and the lowest in skin, heart, and kidney. These results will be useful for the study of biglycan gene regulation and for the generation of mice with targeted null mutation of the Bgn gene. 56 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Worm peptidomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven J. Husson

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Bioactive peptides are present in all metazoan species where they orchestrate diverse functions. In the last decade, high-throughput approaches based on mass spectrometry helped the identification of endogenously occurring peptides in different species. We here review biochemical strategies to obtain sequence information of natural (non-tryptic peptides in Caenorhabditis elegans and in the related nematodes Caenorhabditis briggsae and Ascaris suum with particular attention for sample preparation and methodology. In addition, we describe seven new C. elegans neuropeptides that we recently discovered by sequencing additional peptides. Finally, we explain how differential peptidomics approaches were used to characterize key neuropeptide processing enzymes.

  9. WormScan: a technique for high-throughput phenotypic analysis of Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark D Mathew

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There are four main phenotypes that are assessed in whole organism studies of Caenorhabditis elegans; mortality, movement, fecundity and size. Procedures have been developed that focus on the digital analysis of some, but not all of these phenotypes and may be limited by expense and limited throughput. We have developed WormScan, an automated image acquisition system that allows quantitative analysis of each of these four phenotypes on standard NGM plates seeded with E. coli. This system is very easy to implement and has the capacity to be used in high-throughput analysis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Our system employs a readily available consumer grade flatbed scanner. The method uses light stimulus from the scanner rather than physical stimulus to induce movement. With two sequential scans it is possible to quantify the induced phototactic response. To demonstrate the utility of the method, we measured the phenotypic response of C. elegans to phosphine gas exposure. We found that stimulation of movement by the light of the scanner was equivalent to physical stimulation for the determination of mortality. WormScan also provided a quantitative assessment of health for the survivors. Habituation from light stimulation of continuous scans was similar to habituation caused by physical stimulus. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: There are existing systems for the automated phenotypic data collection of C. elegans. The specific advantages of our method over existing systems are high-throughput assessment of a greater range of phenotypic endpoints including determination of mortality and quantification of the mobility of survivors. Our system is also inexpensive and very easy to implement. Even though we have focused on demonstrating the usefulness of WormScan in toxicology, it can be used in a wide range of additional C. elegans studies including lifespan determination, development, pathology and behavior. Moreover, we have even adapted the

  10. Targeted selective treatment for worm management--how do we sell rational programs to farmers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wyk, J A; Hoste, H; Kaplan, R M; Besier, R B

    2006-07-31

    Seriously escalating global anthelmintic resistance in gastrointestinal nematodes of small ruminants has spawned a variety of alternatives to anthelmintics for worm management, based on the need for sustainable Integrated Parasite Management (sIPM). Pivotal to the sIPM approach is the concept of refugia, the proportion of a given parasite population that escapes exposure to control measures. By balancing drug applications with the maintenance of refugia, the accumulation of anthelmintic resistance alleles in worm populations can be considerably delayed, while still providing good levels of control. The over-dispersed nature of parasitic infections provides an opportunity to achieve this balance, by targeting treatments to the members of a flock or herd that are least tolerant to nematode infection. However, implementation of this strategy has only recently become feasible, with the development of the FAMACHA((c)) system for clinical evaluation of anaemia due to haemonchosis. Subsequently, the use of milk yields has proven an effective indicator in dairy goats infected predominantly with nematodes other than Haemonchus contortus. In addition, short-term weight changes and perhaps also body condition scoring may provide indices of parasitism, permitting the rapid identification of animals likely to benefit from treatment. However, sIPM and refugia-based approaches are more complex than whole-flock treatments in conventional programs, and adoption by farmers is most likely where the theoretical basis is understood. As close communication with informed advisors is generally limited, there is a danger that sIPM will remain a theoretical concept without alternative modes of communication. The development of computer-based decision support programs, which use epidemiological, seasonal and clinical information to provide recommendations for specific situations, should be accorded high priority in the future development of worm management systems. PMID:16774807

  11. The effects of chronic radiation on reproductive success of the polychaete worm Neanthes arenaceodentata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison, F.L.; Anderson, S.L.

    1988-12-01

    The effects of lifetime exposure to chronic irradiation on reproductive success were assessed for laboratory populations of the polychaete worm Neanthes arenaceodentata. Lifetime exposure was initiated upon the spawning of the P1 female and was terminated upon spawning of the F1 female. Groups of experimental worms received either no radiation (controls) or 0.19, 2.1, or 17 mGy/h. The total dose received by the worms was either background or approximately 0.55, 6.5, or 54 Gy, respectively. The broods from the F1 mated pairs were sacrificed before hatching occurred, and information was obtained on brood size, on the number of normal and abnormal embryos, and on the number of embryos that were living, dying, and dead. The mean number of embryos in the broods from the F1 females exposed to lifetime radiation of 0.19 and 2.1 mGy/h was not significantly different from the mean number of embryos from control females; however, the mean number of embryos was different from those F1 females exposed to 17 mGy/h. There was a significant reduction in the number of live embryos in the broods from the F1 mated pairs that were exposed to the lowest dose rate given, 0.19 mGy/h, as well as those exposed to 2.1 and 17 mGy/h. Also, increased percentages of abnormal embryos were determined in the broods of all the radiation-exposed groups. 39 refs., 10 figs., 15 tabs.

  12. Facile Synthesis of Worm-like Micelles by Visible Light Mediated Dispersion Polymerization Using Photoredox Catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeow, Jonathan; Xu, Jiangtao; Boyer, Cyrille

    2016-01-01

    Presented herein is a protocol for the facile synthesis of worm-like micelles by visible light mediated dispersion polymerization. This approach begins with the synthesis of a hydrophilic poly(oligo(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate) (POEGMA) homopolymer using reversible addition-fragmentation chain-transfer (RAFT) polymerization. Under mild visible light irradiation (λ = 460 nm, 0.7 mW/cm(2)), this macro-chain transfer agent (macro-CTA) in the presence of a ruthenium based photoredox catalyst, Ru(bpy)3Cl2 can be chain extended with a second monomer to form a well-defined block copolymer in a process known as Photoinduced Electron Transfer RAFT (PET-RAFT). When PET-RAFT is used to chain extend POEGMA with benzyl methacrylate (BzMA) in ethanol (EtOH), polymeric nanoparticles with different morphologies are formed in situ according to a polymerization-induced self-assembly (PISA) mechanism. Self-assembly into nanoparticles presenting POEGMA chains at the corona and poly(benzyl methacrylate) (PBzMA) chains in the core occurs in situ due to the growing insolubility of the PBzMA block in ethanol. Interestingly, the formation of highly pure worm-like micelles can be readily monitored by observing the onset of a highly viscous gel in situ due to nanoparticle entanglements occurring during the polymerization. This process thereby allows for a more reproducible synthesis of worm-like micelles simply by monitoring the solution viscosity during the course of the polymerization. In addition, the light stimulus can be intermittently applied in an ON/OFF manner demonstrating temporal control over the nanoparticle morphology. PMID:27340940

  13. Animal-sediment interactions: the effect of ingestion and excretion by worms on mineralogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Needham, S. J.; Worden, R. H.; McIlroy, D.

    2004-09-01

    By controlled experiments that simulate marine depositional environments, it is shown that accelerated weathering and clay mineral authigenesis occur during the combined process of ingestion, digestion and excretion of fine-grained sediment by two species of annelid worms. Previously characterized synthetic mud was created using finely ground, low-grade metamorphic slate (temperature approximately 300°C) containing highly crystalline chlorite and muscovite. This was added to experiment and control tanks along with clean, wind-blown sand. Faecal casts were collected at regular intervals from the experimental tanks and, less frequently, from the control tanks. Over a period of many months the synthetic mud (slate) proved to be unchanged in the control tanks, but was significantly different in faecal casts from the experimental tanks that contained the worms Arenicola marina and Lumbricus terrestris. Chlorite was preferentially destroyed during digestion in the gut of A. marina. Both chlorite and muscovite underwent XRD peak broadening with a skew developing towards higher lattice spacing, characteristic of smectite formation. A neoformed Fe-Mg-rich clay mineral (possibly berthierine) and as-yet undefined clay minerals with very high d-spacing were detected in both A. marina and L. terrestris cast samples. We postulate that a combination of the low pH and bacteria-rich microenvironment in the guts of annelid worms may radically accelerate mineral dissolution and clay mineral precipitation processes during digestion. These results show that macrobiotic activity significantly accelerates weathering and mineral degradation as well as mineral authigenesis. The combined processes of sediment ingestion and digestion thus lead to early diagenetic growth of clay minerals in clastic sediments.

  14. The effects of chronic radiation on reproductive success of the polychaete worm Neanthes arenaceodentata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of lifetime exposure to chronic irradiation on reproductive success were assessed for laboratory populations of the polychaete worm Neanthes arenaceodentata. Lifetime exposure was initiated upon the spawning of the P1 female and was terminated upon spawning of the F1 female. Groups of experimental worms received either no radiation (controls) or 0.19, 2.1, or 17 mGy/h. The total dose received by the worms was either background or approximately 0.55, 6.5, or 54 Gy, respectively. The broods from the F1 mated pairs were sacrificed before hatching occurred, and information was obtained on brood size, on the number of normal and abnormal embryos, and on the number of embryos that were living, dying, and dead. The mean number of embryos in the broods from the F1 females exposed to lifetime radiation of 0.19 and 2.1 mGy/h was not significantly different from the mean number of embryos from control females; however, the mean number of embryos was different from those F1 females exposed to 17 mGy/h. There was a significant reduction in the number of live embryos in the broods from the F1 mated pairs that were exposed to the lowest dose rate given, 0.19 mGy/h, as well as those exposed to 2.1 and 17 mGy/h. Also, increased percentages of abnormal embryos were determined in the broods of all the radiation-exposed groups. 39 refs., 10 figs., 15 tabs

  15. Characterization of the N-glycans of female Angiostrongylus cantonensis worms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veríssimo, Carolina M; Morassutti, Alessandra L; von Itzstein, Mark; Sutov, Grigorij; Hartley-Tassell, Lauren; McAtamney, Sarah; Dell, Anne; Haslam, Stuart M; Graeff-Teixeira, Carlos

    2016-07-01

    Glycoconjugates play a crucial role in the host-parasite relationships of helminthic infections, including angiostrongyliasis. It has previously been shown that the antigenicity of proteins from female Angiostrongylus cantonensis worms may depend on their associated glycan moieties. Here, an N-glycan profile of A. cantonensis is reported. A total soluble extract (TE) was prepared from female A. cantonensis worms and was tested by western blot before and after glycan oxidation or N- and O-glycosidase treatment. The importance of N-glycans for the immunogenicity of A. cantonensis was demonstrated when deglycosylation of the TE with PNGase F completely abrogated IgG recognition. The TE was also fractionated using various lectin columns [Ulex europaeus (UEA), concanavalin A (Con A), Arachis hypogaea (PNA), Triticum vulgaris (WGA) and Lycopersicon esculentum (LEA)], and then each fraction was digested with PNGase F. Released N-glycans were analyzed with matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI)-time-of-flight (TOF)-mass spectrometry (MS) and MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS/MS. Complex-type, high mannose, and truncated glycan structures were identified in all five fractions. Sequential MALDI-TOF-TOF analysis of the major MS peaks identified complex-type structures, with a α1-6 fucosylated core and truncated antennas. Glycoproteins in the TE were labeled with BodipyAF558-SE dye for a lectin microarray analysis. Fluorescent images were analyzed with ProScanArray imaging software followed by statistical analysis. A total of 29 lectins showed positive binding to the TE. Of these, Bandeiraea simplicifolia (BS-I), PNA, and Wisteria floribunda (WFA), which recognize galactose (Gal) and N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc), exhibited high affinity binding. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that female A. cantonensis worms have characteristic helminth N-glycans. PMID:27107931

  16. Epidemiology of the eye worm Thelazia callipaeda in cats from southern Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motta, B; Nägeli, F; Nägeli, C; Solari-Basano, F; Schiessl, B; Deplazes, P; Schnyder, M

    2014-07-14

    Thelazia callipaeda is a spiruroid nematode of dogs, cats and wild carnivores transmitted by zoophilic drosophilid Phortica flies and found in an increasing number of European countries. In cats the disease is diagnosed sporadically. This study presents an epidemiological investigation of feline thelaziosis, performed in southern Ticino, Switzerland, an endemic area for T. callipaeda. Between January 2009 and July 2011 2171 cats, having outdoor access and presenting for various reasons, were examined by in-depth eye examinations, and clinical and anamnestic data were collected. The overall prevalence of T. callipaeda in the study area was 0.8% (17/2171 cats, 95% confidence interval: 0.5-1.3%). Among cats showing ocular illness, the prevalence was 9.2% (11/120, CI: 4.7-15.8%). Cats with eye worms had no international travel history and were significantly more often diagnosed between June and December than during other months. With one exception, one single eye per cat was infested, each harboring between 1 and 10 eye worms (arithmetic mean: 2.8 per cat). One cat presented with conjunctivitis and ulcers, seven with conjunctivitis only and 3 with a mildly increased lacrimation, while 6 cats were asymptomatic. Significantly more male than female cats had eye worms and cats older than one year were overrepresented. No pure-bred cats were infested. This study confirms the establishment of this potentially zoonotic parasite in cats from the study area. Due to the clinical relevance and pain caused by the infestations, increased disease awareness and in depth eye examination for the detection of T. callipaeda in cats are recommended, even in absence of obvious clinical signs, in order to initiate appropriate anthelmintic treatment. PMID:24810375

  17. Radioactive cDNA microarray (II): Gene expression profiling of antidepressant treatment by human cDNA microarray

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ji Hye; Kang, Rhee Hun; Ham, Byung Joo; Lee, Min Su; Shin, Kyung Ho; Choe, Jae Gol; Kim, Meyoung Kon [College of Medicine, Univ. of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-07-01

    Major depressive disorder is a prevalent psychiatric disorder in primary care, associated with impaired patient functioning and well-being. Fluoxetine is a selective serotonin-reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and is a commonly prescribed antidepressant compound. Its action is primarily attributed to selective inhibition of the reuptake of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine) in the central nervous system. Objectives ; the aims of this study were two-fold: (1) to determine the usefulness for investigation of the transcription profiles in depression patients, and (2) to assess the differences in gene expression profiles between positive response group and negative response groups by fluoxetine treatment. This study included 53 patients with major depression (26 in positive response group with antidepressant treatment, 27 in negative response group with antidepressant treatment), and 53 healthy controls. To examine the difference of gene expression profile in depression patients, radioactive complementary DNA microarrays were used to evaluate changes in the expression of 1,152 genes in total. Using 33p-labeled probes, this method provided highly sensitive gene expression profiles including brain receptors, drug metabolism, and cellular signaling. Gene transcription profiles were classified into several categories in accordance with the antidepressant gene-regulation. The gene profiles were significantly up-(22 genes) and down-(16 genes) regulated in the positive response group when compared to the control group. Also, in the negative response group, 35 genes were up-regulated and 8 genes were down-regulated when compared to the control group. Consequently, we demonstrated that radioactive human cDNA microarray is highly likely to be an efficient technology for evaluating the gene regulation of antidepressants, such as selective serotonin-reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), by using high-throughput biotechnology.

  18. Radioactive cDNA microarray (II): Gene expression profiling of antidepressant treatment by human cDNA microarray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Major depressive disorder is a prevalent psychiatric disorder in primary care, associated with impaired patient functioning and well-being. Fluoxetine is a selective serotonin-reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and is a commonly prescribed antidepressant compound. Its action is primarily attributed to selective inhibition of the reuptake of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine) in the central nervous system. Objectives ; the aims of this study were two-fold: (1) to determine the usefulness for investigation of the transcription profiles in depression patients, and (2) to assess the differences in gene expression profiles between positive response group and negative response groups by fluoxetine treatment. This study included 53 patients with major depression (26 in positive response group with antidepressant treatment, 27 in negative response group with antidepressant treatment), and 53 healthy controls. To examine the difference of gene expression profile in depression patients, radioactive complementary DNA microarrays were used to evaluate changes in the expression of 1,152 genes in total. Using 33p-labeled probes, this method provided highly sensitive gene expression profiles including brain receptors, drug metabolism, and cellular signaling. Gene transcription profiles were classified into several categories in accordance with the antidepressant gene-regulation. The gene profiles were significantly up-(22 genes) and down-(16 genes) regulated in the positive response group when compared to the control group. Also, in the negative response group, 35 genes were up-regulated and 8 genes were down-regulated when compared to the control group. Consequently, we demonstrated that radioactive human cDNA microarray is highly likely to be an efficient technology for evaluating the gene regulation of antidepressants, such as selective serotonin-reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), by using high-throughput biotechnology

  19. cDNA cloning and gene expression of ascorbate oxidase in tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, N; Esaka, M

    1996-02-01

    A cDNA clone for ascorbate oxidase (AAO) has been isolated from a cDNA library of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) cells. The identity of the amino acid sequence deduced from tobacco AAO cDNA to that from pumpkin AAO cDNA was 68%, which was much lower than the identity (80%) between pumpkin and cucumber AAO. AAO activity in tobacco cells was much lower than that in pumpkin cells, whereas the immunoreactive protein in tobacco cells was more abundant than that in pumpkin cells. We suppose that AAO protein in tobacco cells may be less active than that in pumpkin cells. Genomic Southern blotting suggested that AAO in tobacco was encoded by a single-copy gene. Nothern blotting revealed that mRNA of AAO was highly expressed in young and growing tissues of tobacco plant. PMID:8624413

  20. Quantitative Transcript Analysis in Plants: Improved First-strand cDNA Synthesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nai-Zhong XIAO; Lei BA; Preben Bach HOLM; Xing-Zhi WANG; Steve BOWRA

    2005-01-01

    The quantity and quality of first-strand cDNA directly influence the accuracy of transcriptional analysis and quantification. Using a plant-derived α-tubulin as a model system, the effect of oligo sequence and DTT on the quality and quantity of first-strand cDNA synthesis was assessed via a combination of semi-quantitative PCR and real-time PCR. The results indicated that anchored oligo dT significantly improved the quantity and quality of α-tubulin cDNA compared to the conventional oligo dT. Similarly, omitting DTT from the first-strand cDNA synthesis also enhanced the levels of transcript. This is the first time that a comparative analysis has been undertaken for a plant system and it shows conclusively that small changes to current protocols can have very significant impact on transcript analysis.

  1. Construction of infectious cDNA clones for RNA viruses: Turnip crinkle virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryabov, Eugene V

    2008-01-01

    Reverse genetic approach is widely used in virology as it makes possible direct identification of viral gene function and uses RNA genomes as vectors. Production of infectious cDNA clones is an essential step in developing a reverse genetic system for an RNA virus. Here, we present rapid method for generation of infectious cDNA clone for Turnip crinkle virus (TCV). The infectious cDNA clone could be used for production of in vitro transcripts with the T7 RNA polymerase which could be used for infection of plants or plant cell protoplasts. The procedure described here includes purification of TCV, viral RNA extraction, reverse transcription, PCR amplification of the full-length cDNA copy of TCV linked to a T7 RNA polymerase promoter, cloning into a plasmid vector, in vitro transcription, and selection of infectious clones. PMID:18370276

  2. Fossils of hydrothermal vent worms from Cretaceous sulfide ores of the Samail ophiolite, Oman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haymon, R.M.; Koski, R.A.; Sinclair, C.

    1984-01-01

    Fossil worm tubes of Cretaceous age preserved in the Bayda massive sulfide deposit of the Samail ophiolite, Oman, are apparently the first documented examples of fossils embedded in massive sulfide deposits from the geologic record. The geologic setting of the Bayda deposit and the distinctive mineralogic and textural features of the fossiliferous samples suggest that the Bayda sulfide deposit and fossil fauna are remnants of a Cretaceous sea-floor hydrothermal vent similar to modern hot springs on the East Pacific Rise and the Juan de Fuca Ridge.

  3. Observations on the ecology and reproductive biology of the sipunculan worm Aspidosiphon muelleri in temperate waters

    OpenAIRE

    Ferrero-Vicente, Luis Miguel; Marco-Méndez, Candela; Loya-Fernández, Angel; Sánchez-Lizaso, José Luis

    2014-01-01

    A population of the sipunculan worm Aspidosiphon muelleri, located in temperate waters of the western Mediterranean Sea, was monitored monthly for a year. Some aspects related to its ecology and reproductive biology are shown in the present work. The sex-ratio for this population was close to 1:1 (54% females vs 46% males), thus indicating a dioecious reproduction, although showing a lack of sexual dimorphism. Oocytes were detected in females from 4–5 mm; this size might be reached by A. muel...

  4. Organophilic worm-like ruthenium nanoparticles catalysts by the modification of CTAB on montmorillonite supports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Limei; Qi, Xiaolong; Jiang, Xiaohui; Zhou, Yafen; Fu, Haiyan; Chen, Hua

    2013-02-15

    A supported Ru catalyst was prepared by using cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) intercalated montmorillonite as the supporting matrix. The as-prepared Ru catalyst was subsequently characterized by XRD, XPS, N(2) sorption, TEM, and dispersibility measurement. The results showed that the Ru nanoparticles were in the modified montmorillonite interlayers, and the morphology of Ru nanoparticle was worm-like. Moreover, this supported Ru catalyst could be well dispersed in organic solvents such as toluene. The catalyst exhibited high activity and selectivity in the hydrogenation of quinoline even without stirring. PMID:23141762

  5. Regularity of the Szeg\\"o projection on model worm domains

    OpenAIRE

    Monguzzi, Alessandro; Peloso, Marco M.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we study the regularity of the Szeg\\"o projection on Lebesgue and Sobolev spaces on the boundary of the unbounded model worm domain $D'_\\beta$. We consider the Hardy space $H^2(D'_\\beta)$. Denoting by $bD'_\\beta$ the boundary of $D'_\\beta$, it is classical that $H^2(D'_\\beta)$ can be identified with the closed subspace of $L^2(bD'_\\beta,d\\sigma)$, denoted by $H^2(bD'_\\beta)$, consisting of the boundary values of functions in $H^2(D'_\\beta)$, where $d\\sigma$ is the induced Lebesg...

  6. Path-integral theory of an axially confined worm-like chain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, D.A. [Randall Centre for Molecular Mechanisms of Cell Function, King' s College London, London (United Kingdom)

    2001-06-01

    A path-integral formulation is developed for the thermodynamic properties of a worm-like chain moving on a surface and laterally confined by a harmonic potential. The free energy of the chain is calculated as a function of its length and boundary conditions at each end. Distribution functions for chain displacements can be constructed by utilizing the Markov property as a function of displacement {phi}(s) and its derivative d{phi}(s)/ds along the path. These quantities are also calculated in the presence of pinning sites which impose fixed positive or negative displacements, foreshadowing their application to a model for the regulation of striated muscle. (author)

  7. Adult Strabismus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Conditions Frequently Asked Questions Español Condiciones Chinese Conditions Adult Strabismus En Español Read in Chinese Can anything be done for adults with strabismus (misaligned eyes)? Yes. Adults can benefit ...

  8. Construction and analysis of full-lengh and normalized cDNA libraries from citrus

    OpenAIRE

    Marqués, M.Carmen; Pérez-Amador, Miguel A.

    2012-01-01

    We have developed an integrated method to generate a normalized cDNA collection enriched in full-length and rare transcripts from citrus, using different species and multiple tissues and developmental stages. Interpretation of ever-increasing raw sequence information generated by modern genome sequencing technologies faces multiple challenges, such as gene function analysis and genome annotation. In this regard, the availability of full-length cDNA clones facilitates functional an...

  9. Cloning and expression of human neuron-specific enolase cDNA in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlov, K A; Gurina, O I; Antonova, O M; Semenova, A V; Chekhonin, V P

    2011-12-01

    cDNA fragment encoding neuron-specific enolase was amplified from the cDNA library of human brain. Then the fragment was cloned for expression in E. coli using the vector pET28-a. High level of neuron-specific enolase expression was confirmed by SDS-PAAG electrophoresis and immunochemical identity by immunoblot analysis. The constructed producer strain is the cheapest source of neuron-specific enolase suitable for the use in diagnostic applications. PMID:22808461

  10. Expression of hepatitis A virus cDNA in Escherichia coli: antigenic VP1 recombinant protein.

    OpenAIRE

    Ostermayr, R; von der Helm, K; Gauss-Müller, V; Winnacker, E L; Deinhardt, F.

    1987-01-01

    The genome of hepatitis A virus (HAV) was reverse transcribed into cDNA and molecularly cloned. cDNA clones coding for the capsid protein VP1 that carries the major HAV antigen were cloned into the expression vector pUR290 and expressed in Escherichia coli. The recombinant fusion protein reacted in an immunoblot with rabbit anti-HAV serum, suggesting that it possesses HAV antigenicity.

  11. Construction and partial characterization of two recombinant cDNA clones for procollagen from chicken cartilage.

    OpenAIRE

    Vuorio, E; Sandell, L; Kravis, D; Sheffield, V C; Vuorio, T; Dorfman, A.; Upholt, W B

    1982-01-01

    Type II procollagen mRNA has been partially purified from embryonic chick sternal cartilage by guanidine hydrochloride extraction, sucrose gradient sedimentation and Sepharose 4B chromatography. Double stranded cDNA was synthesized using AMV reverse transcriptase and E. coli DNA polymerase I, tailed using terminal transferase and inserted into the Pst I site of pBR322. Two putative type II procollagen cDNA clones have been characterized. Both plasmids hybridize to 2 sternal RNA species, a maj...

  12. First characterization of infectious cDNA clones of Olive mild mosaic virus

    OpenAIRE

    Cardoso, Joana M.S.; Félix, M. Rosário; Clara, M.Ivone; Oliveira, Solange

    2012-01-01

    Full-length cDNA clones of an Olive mild mosaic virus (OMMV) isolate were constructed in order to find infectious cDNA clones. The sequencing of three individual full-length clones revealed some differences between them. In vitro transcription of these clones was performed and the effect of spontaneous mutations in the biological behaviour of the in vitro transcripts was evaluated by symptomatology, RNA accumulation and virus replication in inoculated plants. In vitro synthesized RNA from one...

  13. Cloning vectors for expression of cDNA libraries in mammalian cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Murphy, A.J.; Efstratiadis, A

    1987-01-01

    We have constructed a series of compound cloning vectors (lambda ZD vectors), each consisting of phage lambda arms carrying a modified version of the retroviral expression vector pZIP-neoSV (x)1. cDNA, inserted into a cloning site present in the retroviral vector component, is cloned with high efficiency using the lambda system. A cDNA library in plasmids is then released by homologous recombination between the retroviral long terminal repeats. Retroviral transduction is achieved by transient...

  14. Assessment of clone identity and sequence fidelity for 1189 IMAGE cDNA clones

    OpenAIRE

    Halgren, Robert G.; Fielden, Mark R.; Fong, Cora J.; Zacharewski, Timothy R

    2001-01-01

    This report documents the error rate in a commercially distributed subset of the IMAGE Consortium mouse cDNA clone collection. After isolation of plasmid DNA from 1189 bacterial stock cultures, only 62.2% were uncontaminated and contained cDNA inserts that had significant sequence identity to published data for the ordered clones. An agarose gel electrophoresis pre-screening strategy identified 361 stock cultures that appeared to contain two or more plasmid species. Is...

  15. Characterization of Expressed Sequence Tags From a Gallus gallus Pineal Gland cDNA Library

    OpenAIRE

    Stefanie Hartman; Greg Touchton; Jessica Wynn; Tuoyu Geng; Chong, Nelson W.; Ed Smith

    2005-01-01

    The pineal gland is the circadian oscillator in the chicken, regulating diverse functions ranging from egg laying to feeding. Here, we describe the isolation and characterization of expressed sequence tags (ESTs) isolated from a chicken pineal gland cDNA library. A total of 192 unique sequences were analysed and submitted to GenBank; 6% of the ESTs matched neither GenBank cDNA sequences nor the newly assembled chicken genomic DNA sequence, three ESTs aligned with sequences d...

  16. Approach to the resistance of exportation tebo worms when irradiated with gamma ray through a quarantine treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The tebo worms or butterworms (Chilecomadia moorei) are widely used in Chile in fishing, and so are in the international markets although there are some countries, that use these species, to a less extent for preparing food reptiles. Some foreign countries requirements demand, from the exporters, to carry out quarantine treatments related to the sterilization by ionizing energy, however customers need to make sure about their products safety and that is why it is compulsory to establish limits in connection with worms' irradiation resistance. The irradiation effect on a worms sample using doses of 0.3; 0.45; 0.6 and 0.9 kGy was studied macroscopically, after 1 hour, and then 30, 60 and 90 days after the treatment. One of the equipment utilized had a Cobalt 60 source, where as the other one had Cesium 137 irradiators, with a dose rate of 42.7 Gy minute (min)-1 and 37.1 Gy min-1, respectively. The results concluded that tebo worms can resist more than 3 times the doses suggested by the meta countries without reducing the population drastically, nevertheless it is required to increase the number of worms to be analyzed in order to validate the findings. (author)

  17. Partitioning and accumulation rates of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons into polydimethylsiloxane thin films and black worms from aqueous samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Partition equilibriums and extraction rates of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were examined for live biomonitoring with oligochaetes (black worms, Lumbriculus variegatus) and for high surface area chemical passive samplers constructed from polydimethylsiloxane thin film. The goals were to better understand the principles of bioconcentration by aquatic organisms and to aid in the design of a convenient and simple chemical monitoring tool to replace the use of live animals. The worms and films were exposed simultaneously to the contaminated water stream. In the initial extraction stage, similar extracted amount per surface area indicated that thin-film samplers could mimic the behavior of worms for passive sampling. Equilibrium was reached faster by the thin films than by the worms. A good linear relationship between the bioconcentration factors and the film-water partition coefficients of PAHs was found, which demonstrated the feasibility of thin-film sampler for determining the bioavailability of PAHs in water. Compared to the lengthy and inconvenient process of liquid-liquid extraction in worm treatment, thin-film technique simplifies the sample pretreatment procedure by integrating sampling and sample preparation.

  18. Trematocidal Activity of Praziquantel and Artemisinin Derivatives: In Vitro and In Vivo Investigations with Adult Echinostoma caproni

    OpenAIRE

    Keiser, Jennifer; Brun, Reto; Fried, Bernard; Utzinger, Jürg

    2006-01-01

    We examined the effects of praziquantel and the artemisinins on adult Echinostoma caproni. In vitro, both praziquantel and the artemisinins exhibited exposure-response relationships. In vivo, worm burden reductions of 100% were achieved with single oral doses of praziquantel, artesunate, and artemether at 50, 700, and 1,100 mg/kg of body weight, respectively.

  19. [Rapid construction of full-length MnSOD cDNA of chickens by one-step 3'RACE].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bu, You-Quan; Luo, Xu-Gang; Liu, Bin; Li, Su-Fen

    2004-07-01

    RACE (rapid amplification of cDNA ends) is a popular technique to rapidly obtain the full-length cDNA. After obtaining the 3' cDNA and 5' cDNA fragments with a overlapped region by 3' RACE and 5' RACE, the full-length cDNA could be generated by end-to-end PCR or subcloning. In this study, 3' RACE combined with touch-down PCR was successfully used for the rapid construction of full-length MnSOD cDNA of chickens. Compared with the conventional end-to-end PCR or subcloning, this method, called one-step 3' RACE, is fast, economical and highly specific. It especially fits the rapid construction of full-length cDNA by RACE method. PMID:15640053

  20. Trichinella spiralis thymidylate synthase: cDNA cloning and sequencing, and developmental pattern of mRNA expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabrowska, M; Jagielska, E; Cieśla, J; Płucienniczak, A; Kwiatowski, J; Wranicz, M; Boireau, P; Rode, W

    2004-02-01

    The persistent expression of thymidylate synthase activity has previously been demonstrated not only in adult forms, but also in non-developing muscle larvae of Trichinella spiralis and T. pseudospiralis, pointing to an unusual pattern of cell cycle regulation, and prompting further studies on the developmental pattern of T. spiralis thymidylate synthase gene expression. The enzyme cDNA was cloned and sequenced, allowing the characterization of a single open reading frame of 307 amino acids coding for a putative protein of 35,582 Da molecular weight. The amino acid sequence of the parasite enzyme was analysed, the consensus phylogenetic tree built and its stability assessed. The aa sequence identity with thymidylate synthase was confirmed by the enzymatic activity of the recombinant protein expressed in E. coli. As compared with the enzyme purified from muscle larvae, it showed apparently similar Vmax value, but higher Km(app) values desscribing interactions with dUMP (28.8 microM vs. 3.9 microM) and (6RS,alphaS)-N(5,10)-methylenetetrahydrofolate (383 microM vs. 54.7 microM). With the coding region used as a probe, thymidylate synthase mRNA levels, relative to 18S rRNA, were found to be similar in muscle larvae, adult forms and newborn larvae, in agreement with muscle larvae cells being arrested in the cell cycle. PMID:15030008

  1. Localization of Brugia malayi (sub-periodic adults in different organs of Mastomys coucha and its influence on microfilaraemia and host antibody response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Athisaya Mary

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Lymphatic filariasis caused by nematode parasites Wuchereria bancrofti or Brugia malayi is a spectral disease and produces wide range of immune responses and varying levels ofmicrofilaraemia in infected individuals. The relationship between the immune response of host and the developmental stage of the parasite as well as the microfilariae (mf density and specific location of the adult worms is yet to be understood. As an experimental model, B. malayi adapted in the experimental animal Mastomys coucha has been used widely for various studies in filariasis. The present study was to assess microfilaraemia as well as the humoral immune response of M. coucha during various stages of B. malayi development and their localization in different organs. The result showed that the density of mf in the circulating blood of the experimental animal depended upon the number of female worms as well as the location and co-existence of male and female worms. The mf density in the blood increased with the increase in the number of females. The clearance of inoculated infective stage (L3 or single sex infection or segregation of male and female to different organs of infected host resulted in amicrofilaraemic condition. With respect to antibody response, those animals cleared L3 after inoculation and those with adult worm as well as mf showed low antibody levels. But those with developmental fourth stage and/or adult worms without mf showed significantly higher antibody levels.

  2. Identification and characterization of a new autoimmune protein in membranous nephropathy by immunoscreening of a renal cDNA library.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizio Cavazzini

    Full Text Available Membranous Nephropathy (MN represents a large amount of Nephrotic Syndromes in the adult population and its definitive diagnosis is currently carried out through biopsy. An autoimmune condition has been demonstrated in idiopathic MN (iMN in which some kidney structures are targeted by patient autoantibodies. Some candidate antigens have been described and other likely involved target proteins responsible for the disease are not known yet. In this work our aim is to identify these proteins by screening a lambda-phage library with patients' sera. We enrolled four groups of patients: two MN groups of 12 full iMN patients; one control group of 15 patients suffering from other renal diseases; one control group of 15 healthy individuals. A commercial cDNA phagemide library was screened using the above described sera, in order to detect positive signals due to antigen-antibody bond. We detected one phagemide clone expressing a protein which was shown to be targeted by the antibodies of the iMN sera only. Control sera were negative. The sequence analysis of cDNA matched the Synaptonemal Complex protein 65 (SC65 coding sequence. Further proteomic analyses were carried out to validate our results. We provide evidence of an involvement of SC65 protein as an autoimmune target in iMN. Considering the invasiveness and the resulting risk coming from renal biopsy, our ongoing aim is to set a procedure able to diagnose affected patients through a little- or non-invasive method such as blood sampling rather than biopsy.

  3. Modification design method for an enveloping hourglass worm gear with consideration of machining and misalignment errors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Xingqiao; Wang, Jinge; Horstemeyer, Mark F.

    2013-09-01

    The influences of machining and misalignment errors play a very critical role in the performance of the anti-backlash double-roller enveloping hourglass worm gear(ADEHWG). However, a corresponding efficient method for eliminating or reducing these errors on the tooth profile of the ADEHWG is seldom reported. The gear engagement equation and tooth profile equation for considering six different errors that could arise from the machining and gear misalignment are derived from the theories of differential geometry and gear meshing. Also, the tooth contact analysis(TCA) is used to systematically investigate the influence of the machining and misalignment errors on the contact curves and the tooth profile by means of numerical analysis and three-dimensional solid modeling. The research results show that vertical angular misalignment of the worm wheel(Δ β) has the strongest influences while the tooth angle error(Δ α) has the weakest influences on the contact curves and the tooth profile. A novel efficient approach is proposed and used to minimize the effect of the errors in manufacturing by changing the radius of the grinding wheel and the approaching point of contact. The results from the TCA and the experiment demonstrate that this tooth profile design modification method can indeed reduce the machining and misalignment errors. This modification design method is helpful in understanding the manufacturing technology of the ADEHWG.

  4. The landscape of human genes involved in the immune response to parasitic worms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fumagalli Matteo

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background More than 2 billion individuals worldwide suffer from helminth infections. The highest parasite burdens occur in children and helminth infection during pregnancy is a risk factor for preterm delivery and reduced birth weight. Therefore, helminth infections can be regarded as a strong selective pressure. Results Here we propose that candidate susceptibility genes for parasitic worm infections can be identified by searching for SNPs that display a strong correlation with the diversity of helminth species/genera transmitted in different geographic areas. By a genome-wide search we identified 3478 variants that correlate with helminth diversity. These SNPs map to 810 distinct human genes including loci involved in regulatory T cell function and in macrophage activation, as well as leukocyte integrins and co-inhibitory molecules. Analysis of functional relationships among these genes identified complex interaction networks centred around Th2 cytokines. Finally, several genes carrying candidate targets for helminth-driven selective pressure also harbour susceptibility alleles for asthma/allergy or are involved in airway hyper-responsiveness, therefore expanding the known parallelism between these conditions and parasitic infections. Conclusions Our data provide a landscape of human genes that modulate susceptibility to helminths and indicate parasitic worms as one of the major selective forces in humans.

  5. Simulation of the lattice φ4 quantum field theory with the worm algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: In this communication we will present results of Monte Carlo simulations of the φ4 quantum field theory on a (1 + 1) lattice employing the recently-proposed worm algorithm. In Monte Carlo simulations, the efficiency of an algorithm is measured in terms of a dynamical critical exponent z, that is related with the autocorrelation time τ of measurements as τ ∝ Lz, where L is the lattice length. The autocorrelation time provides a measure of the 'memory' of the Monte Carlo updating process. The worm algorithm has a z comparable with the one of a cluster algorithm, but uses local updates only. We present results for the vacuum expectation value (φ) and for the two-point correlation function (φ(x)φ(x')> in the parameter space of the model, defined by the constants λand μ2. We determine the critical line λC, μC2)) that separates the symmetric and spontaneously-broken phases and compare with results of the literature. (author)

  6. Radiation sensitivity and gene expression in Enchytraeus japonensis, a species of earth worm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The importance of radiological protection of the environment based on scientific principles is gaining international recognition as environment issues garner more attention. Earthworm (annelids) is a ubiquitous soil invertebrate known to play an important role in the maintenance of the soil ecosystem and thus selected as one of 12 kinds of reference animals and plants by the ICRP. In the present study, radiation sensitivity and gene expression in a recently described terrestrial oligochaete, Enchytraeus japonensis (E. japonensis) were studied. E. japonensis worms were acutely irradiated at increasing doses of gamma radiation, and the number of worms after 30 days of radiation was examined. The dose effectively inhibiting 50% of proliferation was approximately 22 Gy, which was comparable to the dose required to elicit growth inhibition in other earthworm species. In order to seek other biological endpoints for more sensitive and/or quicker assessment of radiation effects, gene expression profiling in E. japonensis was also performed, and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase I (PARP I) was identified as a radiation-responsive gene. PARP I transcript level increased dose-dependently. (author)

  7. An externally brooding acorn worm (Hemichordata, Enteropneusta, Torquaratoridae) from the Russian arctic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborn, Karen J; Gebruk, Andrey V; Rogacheva, Antonina; Holland, Nicholas D

    2013-10-01

    A single specimen of a previously undescribed acorn worm in the family Torquaratoridae was trawled from a bottom depth of about 350 m in the Kara Sea (Russian Arctic). The new species is the shallowest of the exclusively deep-sea torquaratorids found to date, possibly an example of high-latitude emergence. On the basis of ribosomal DNA sequences and morphology, the worm is described here as the holotype of Coleodesmium karaensis n. gen., n. sp. It is most similar in overall body shape to the previously described enteropneust genus Allapasus, but is uniquely characterized by a tubular component of the proboscis skeleton ensheathing the collar nerve cord. Additionally, within the proboscis, the sparseness of the musculature of C. karaensis clearly distinguishes it from the much more muscular members of Allapasus. The holotype is a female bearing about a dozen embryos on the surface of her pharyngeal region, each recessed within a shallow depression in the dorsal epidermis. The embryos, ranging from late gastrula to an early stage of coelom formation, are a little more than 1 mm in diameter and surrounded by a thin membrane. Each embryo comprises an external ectoderm of monociliated cells (not arranged in obvious ciliated bands) and an internal endo-mesoderm; the blastopore is closed. In the most advanced embryos, the anterior coelom is starting to constrict off from the archenteron. Coleodesmium karaensis is the first enteropneust (and indeed the first hemichordate) found brooding embryos on the surface of the mother's body. PMID:24243964

  8. Distribution and role of trace transition metals in Glycera worm jaws studied with synchrotron microbeam techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A combination of position-resolved synchrotron microbeam techniques was used to explore the distribution and role of trace transition metals in the jaws of Glycera dibranchiata. The mandibles of this marine sediment worm have recently been found to be reinforced by the copper-based biomineral atacamite [Cu2(OH)3Cl]. Here we show that the system is more complex, containing zinc and iron and unmineralized copper compounds as well. X-ray absorption spectroscopy studies showed that a fraction of copper is present in oxidation state, Cu(I), in contrast to the mineral that exclusively contains Cu(II). X-ray fluorescence imaging revealed traces of copper also in the jaw base devoid of mineral. Traces of iron were found as well, but occurred spatially correlated with the copper mineral, suggesting a substitution of copper atoms by iron in the atacamite mineral. Zinc was evenly dispersed throughout the jaw matrix, quite in analogy to zinc in Nereis jaw, a related worm species, where nonmineralized zinc serves to cross-link and harden the proteinaceous matrix

  9. Distribution and role of trace transition metals in Glycera worm jaws studied with synchrotron microbeam techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lichtenegger, Helga C.; Birkedal, Henrik; Casa, Deigo M.; Cross, Julie O.; Heald, Steve M.; Waite, J. Herbert; Stucky, Galen

    2005-05-31

    A combination of position-resolved synchrotron microbeam techniques was used to explore the distribution and role of trace transition metals in the jaws of Glycera dibranchiata. The mandibles of this marine sediment worm have recently been found to be reinforced by the copper-based biomineral atacamite [Cu2(OH)3Cl]. Here we show that the system is more complex, containing zinc and iron and unmineralized copper compounds as well. X-ray absorption spectroscopy studies showed that a fraction of copper is present in oxidation state, Cu(I), in contrast to the mineral that exclusively contains Cu(II). X-ray fluorescence imaging revealed traces of copper also in the jaw base devoid of mineral. Traces of iron were found as well, but occurred spatially correlated with the copper mineral, suggesting a substitution of copper atoms by iron in the atacamite mineral. Zinc was evenly dispersed throughout the jaw matrix, quite in analogy to zinc in Nereis jaw, a related worm species, where nonmineralized zinc serves to cross-link and harden the proteinaceous matrix.

  10. Cloning and expression of isocitrate lyase from human round worm Strongyloides stercoralis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddiqui A.A.

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available A full length cDNA (1463 bp encoding isocitrate lyase (EC 4.1.3.1 of Strongyloides stercoralis is described. The nucleotide sequence of this insert identified a cDNA coding for the isocitrate lyase. The conceptually translated amino acid sequence of the open reading frame for S. stercoralis isocitrate lyase encodes a 450 amino acid residue protein with an apparent molecular weight of 50 kDa and a predicted pl of 6.39. The sequence is 69 % A/T, reflecting a characteristic A/T codon bias of S. stercoralis. The amino acid sequence of S. stercoralis isocitrate lyase is compared with bifunctional glyoxylate cycle protein of Caenorhabditis elegans and isocitrate lyases from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and Myxococcus xanthus. The full length cDNA of S. stercoralis was expressed in pRSET vector and bacteriophage T7 promoter based expression system. S. stercoralis lyase recombinant protein, purified via immobilized metal affinity chromatography, showed a molecular mass of 50 kDa on polyacrylamide gels. The role of isocitrate lyase in the glyoxylate cycle and energy metabolism of S. stercoralis is also discussed.

  11. Preliminary effects of water hardness on triactinomyxon production and development from eastern tubifex worms infected with Myxobolus cerebralis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldrop, Thomas B.; Densmore, Christine; Blazer, Vicki; Smith, Dave; Schill, Bane

    1999-01-01

    Whirling disease is caused by Myxobolus cerebralis and requires an intermediate oligochaete host identified as Tubifex tubifex (Wolf, Markiw, and Hiltunen, 1986). M. cerebralis spores ingested by the tubifex worms develop into triactinomyxons (tams) that are eventually released into the water column to infect salmonid fish. There may be many environmental parameters, biotic or abiotic, that may affect the development of waterborne tams in eastern tubifex worms. This study will focus on one of those environmental parameters, total water hardness. Total water hardness is defined as the concentration of calcium and magnesium in a water sample expressed in milligrams per liter of equivalent CACO3 (Boyd, 1990). This study will address whether different levels of water hardness affect the development and production of tams released by infected tubifex worms.

  12. Disulfide-Based Diblock Copolymer Worm Gels: A Wholly-Synthetic Thermoreversible 3D Matrix for Sheet-Based Cultures

    OpenAIRE

    Simon, Karen Alambra; Warren, Nicholas J.; Mosadegh, Bobak; Mohammady, Marym R.; Whitesides, George McClelland; Armes, Steven P.

    2015-01-01

    It is well-known that 3D in vitro cell cultures provide a much better model than 2D cell cultures for understanding the in vivo microenvironment of cells. However, significant technical challenges in handling and analyzing 3D cell cultures remain, which currently limits their widespread application. Herein, we demonstrate the application of wholly synthetic thermoresponsive block copolymer worms in sheet-based 3D cell culture. These worms form a soft, free-standing gel reversibly at 20–37 °C,...

  13. The effect of column purification on cDNA indirect labelling for microarrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiss John Z

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The success of the microarray reproducibility is dependent upon the performance of standardized procedures. Since the introduction of microarray technology for the analysis of global gene expression, reproducibility of results among different laboratories has been a major problem. Two of the main contributors to this variability are the use of different microarray platforms and different laboratory practices. In this paper, we address the latter question in terms of how variation in one of the steps of a labelling procedure affects the cDNA product prior to microarray hybridization. Results We used a standard procedure to label cDNA for microarray hybridization and employed different types of column chromatography for cDNA purification. After purifying labelled cDNA, we used the Agilent 2100 Bioanalyzer and agarose gel electrophoresis to assess the quality of the labelled cDNA before its hybridization onto a microarray platform. There were major differences in the cDNA profile (i.e. cDNA fragment lengths and abundance as a result of using four different columns for purification. In addition, different columns have different efficiencies to remove rRNA contamination. This study indicates that the appropriate column to use in this type of protocol has to be experimentally determined. Finally, we present new evidence establishing the importance of testing the method of purification used during an indirect labelling procedure. Our results confirm the importance of assessing the quality of the sample in the labelling procedure prior to hybridization onto a microarray platform. Conclusion Standardization of column purification systems to be used in labelling procedures will improve the reproducibility of microarray results among different laboratories. In addition, implementation of a quality control check point of the labelled samples prior to microarray hybridization will prevent hybridizing a poor quality sample to expensive

  14. cDNA2Genome: A tool for mapping and annotating cDNAs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suhai Sandor

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the last years several high-throughput cDNA sequencing projects have been funded worldwide with the aim of identifying and characterizing the structure of complete novel human transcripts. However some of these cDNAs are error prone due to frameshifts and stop codon errors caused by low sequence quality, or to cloning of truncated inserts, among other reasons. Therefore, accurate CDS prediction from these sequences first require the identification of potentially problematic cDNAs in order to speed up the posterior annotation process. Results cDNA2Genome is an application for the automatic high-throughput mapping and characterization of cDNAs. It utilizes current annotation data and the most up to date databases, especially in the case of ESTs and mRNAs in conjunction with a vast number of approaches to gene prediction in order to perform a comprehensive assessment of the cDNA exon-intron structure. The final result of cDNA2Genome is an XML file containing all relevant information obtained in the process. This XML output can easily be used for further analysis such us program pipelines, or the integration of results into databases. The web interface to cDNA2Genome also presents this data in HTML, where the annotation is additionally shown in a graphical form. cDNA2Genome has been implemented under the W3H task framework which allows the combination of bioinformatics tools in tailor-made analysis task flows as well as the sequential or parallel computation of many sequences for large-scale analysis. Conclusions cDNA2Genome represents a new versatile and easily extensible approach to the automated mapping and annotation of human cDNAs. The underlying approach allows sequential or parallel computation of sequences for high-throughput analysis of cDNAs.

  15. cDNA sequencing improves the detection of P53 missense mutations in colorectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently published data showed discrepancies beteween P53 cDNA and DNA sequencing in glioblastomas. We hypothesised that similar discrepancies may be observed in other human cancers. To this end, we analyzed 23 colorectal cancers for P53 mutations and gene expression using both DNA and cDNA sequencing, real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry. We found P53 gene mutations in 16 cases (15 missense and 1 nonsense). Two of the 15 cases with missense mutations showed alterations based only on cDNA, and not DNA sequencing. Moreover, in 6 of the 15 cases with a cDNA mutation those mutations were difficult to detect in the DNA sequencing, so the results of DNA analysis alone could be misinterpreted if the cDNA sequencing results had not also been available. In all those 15 cases, we observed a higher ratio of the mutated to the wild type template by cDNA analysis, but not by the DNA analysis. Interestingly, a similar overexpression of P53 mRNA was present in samples with and without P53 mutations. In terms of colorectal cancer, those discrepancies might be explained under three conditions: 1, overexpression of mutated P53 mRNA in cancer cells as compared with normal cells; 2, a higher content of cells without P53 mutation (normal cells and cells showing K-RAS and/or APC but not P53 mutation) in samples presenting P53 mutation; 3, heterozygous or hemizygous mutations of P53 gene. Additionally, for heterozygous mutations unknown mechanism(s) causing selective overproduction of mutated allele should also be considered. Our data offer new clues for studying discrepancy in P53 cDNA and DNA sequencing analysis

  16. Ultrastructure of an Olfactory Sensillum on the Leg of Thermal and Gamma Irradiated Cotton Leaf Worm Adult Male

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Scanning Electron Microscopy (S.E.M.) was used to study the hind legs of Spodoptera littoralis males, and its sensillae. These investigations revealed the presence of seven types of sensillae distributed among the leg; these are trichoid, chaetica, coeloconica, basiconica, styloconica, auricillica and squamiformia. The distribution and structure of these sensillae were described. Thermal treatment with 33 degree C of full grown male pupae and then gamma irradiated with any of the three substerilizing doses (75, 100 and 150 Gy) showed different malformations in the leg sensilla of the first generation. These treatments effect were dose dependant, as it increased with the increase of the dose of irradiation applied.

  17. Human cDNA mapping using fluorescence in situ hybridization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korenberg, J.R.

    1993-03-04

    Genetic mapping is approached using the techniques of high resolution fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). This technology and the results of its application are designed to rapidly generate whole genome as tool box of expressed sequence to speed the identification of human disease genes. The results of this study are intended to dovetail with and to link the results of existing technologies for creating backbone YAC and genetic maps. In the first eight months, this approach generated 60--80% of the expressed sequence map, the remainder expected to be derived through more long-term, labor-intensive, regional chromosomal gene searches or sequencing. The laboratory has made significant progress in the set-up phase, in mapping fetal and adult brain and other cDNAs, in testing a model system for directly linking genetic and physical maps using FISH with small fragments, in setting up a database, and in establishing the validity and throughput of the system.

  18. 5'-end sequences of budding yeast full-length cDNA clones and quality scores - Budding yeast cDNA sequencing project | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Budding yeast cDNA sequencing project 5'-end sequences of budding yeast full-length cDNA clones and quality ...scores Data detail Data name 5'-end sequences of budding yeast full-length cDNA clones and quality scores De...from the budding yeast full-length cDNA library by the vector-capping method, the sequence quality score gen...s accession only. Sequence 5'-end sequence data of budding yeast full-length cDNA clones. FASTA format. Quality Phred's quality... Update History of This Database Site Policy | Contact Us 5'-end sequences of budding yeast full-length cDNA clones and quality

  19. Adult Education and Adult Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Illeris, Knud

    Kort beskrivelse Bogen, 'Adult Education og Adult Learning', giver et fyldestgørende overblik over forståelsen af voksenuddannelse og læring. Abstract I "Adult Education and Adult Learning' ser Knud Illeris på voksenuddannelse fra to perspektiver. På den ene side beskrives de aktuelle udfordringer...

  20. Digital analysis of cDNA abundance; expression profiling by means of restriction fragment fingerprinting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regenbogen Johannes

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gene expression profiling among different tissues is of paramount interest in various areas of biomedical research. We have developed a novel method (DADA, Digital Analysis of cDNA Abundance, that calculates the relative abundance of genes in cDNA libraries. Results DADA is based upon multiple restriction fragment length analysis of pools of clones from cDNA libraries and the identification of gene-specific restriction fingerprints in the resulting complex fragment mixtures. A specific cDNA cloning vector had to be constructed that governed missing or incomplete cDNA inserts which would generate misleading fingerprints in standard cloning vectors. Double stranded cDNA was synthesized using an anchored oligo dT primer, uni-directionally inserted into the DADA vector and cDNA libraries were constructed in E. coli. The cDNA fingerprints were generated in a PCR-free procedure that allows for parallel plasmid preparation, labeling, restriction digest and fragment separation of pools of 96 colonies each. This multiplexing significantly enhanced the throughput in comparison to sequence-based methods (e.g. EST approach. The data of the fragment mixtures were integrated into a relational database system and queried with fingerprints experimentally produced by analyzing single colonies. Due to limited predictability of the position of DNA fragments on the polyacrylamid gels of a given size, fingerprints derived solely from cDNA sequences were not accurate enough to be used for the analysis. We applied DADA to the analysis of gene expression profiles in a model for impaired wound healing (treatment of mice with dexamethasone. Conclusions The method proved to be capable of identifying pharmacologically relevant target genes that had not been identified by other standard methods routinely used to find differentially expressed genes. Due to the above mentioned limited predictability of the fingerprints, the method was yet tested only with