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Sample records for adult wistar rats

  1. Strain differences in baroceptor reflex in adult Wistar Kyoto rats

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    Vitor E. Valenti

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: A subset of normotensive Sprague-Dawley rats show lower baroreflex sensitivity; however, no previous study investigated whether there are differences in baroreflex sensitivity within this subset. Our study compared baroreflex sensitivity among conscious rats of this specific subtype. METHODS: Male Wistar Kyoto (WKY rats (16 weeks old were studied. Cannulas were inserted into the abdominal aortic artery through the right femoral artery to measure mean arterial pressure (MAP and heart rate (HR. Baroreflex gain was calculated as the ratio between change in HR and MAP variation (ΔHR/ΔMAP in response to a depressor dose of sodium nitroprusside (SNP, 50 µg/kg, i.v. and a pressor dose of phenylephrine (PE, 8 µg/kg, i.v.. Rats were divided into four groups: 1 low bradycardic baroreflex (LB, baroreflex gain (BG between -1 and -2 bpm/mmHg tested with PE; 2 high bradycardic baroreflex (HB, BG < -2 bpm/mmHg tested with PE; 3 low tachycardic baroreflex (LT, BG between -1 and -2 bpm/mmHg tested with SNP and; 4 high tachycardic baroreflex (HT, BG < -2 bpm/mmHg tested with SNP. Significant differences were considered for p < 0.05. RESULTS: Approximately 37% of the rats showed a reduced bradycardic peak, bradycardic reflex and decreased bradycardic gain of baroreflex while roughly 23% had a decreased basal HR, tachycardic peak, tachycardic reflex and reduced sympathetic baroreflex gain. No significant alterations were noted with regard to basal MAP. CONCLUSION: There is variability regarding baroreflex sensitivity among WKY rats from the same laboratory.

  2. HISTOLOGICAL STUDIES OF THE EFFECTS OF RED PEPPER ON THE STOMACH OF ADULT WISTAR RATS

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    Josiah O. Adjene

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Histological effects of red pepper commonly used as spice in food on the stomach of adult wistar rats were carefully investigated. The rats of both sexes (n=24, average weight of 200g were randomly assigned into two treatments (n=16 and control (n=6 groups. The rats in the treatments groups received 1g and 2g of red pepper thoroughly mixed with 20g of their feeds for 7 and 14 days, while the control rats received equal amounts of feeds without the red pepper added. The rats were fed with grower's mash purchased from Edo feeds and flour mill Ltd, Ewu, Edo State and were given water liberally. The rats were sacrificed on day eight and fifteen of the experiment respectively.The stomach was carefully dissected out and quickly fixed in 10% formol saline for routine histological procedure after H & E method.The histological findings after H&E methods indicated that the treated sections of the stomach showed some level of cellular hypertrophy, congestion of blood vessels degenerative changes disruption and distortion of the cytoarchitecture of the stomach.These findings indicate that red pepper may have some deleterious effects on the microanatomy of the stomach of adult wistar rat at higher doses. It is recommended that further studies aimed at corroborating these findings be carried out.

  3. HISTOLOGICAL STUDIES OF THE EFFECTS OF MONOSODIUM GLUTAMATE ON THE INFERIOR COLLICULUS OF ADULT WISTAR RATS.

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    A.O. Eweka.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Histological effects of Monosodium glutamate (MSG commonly used as food additive on the inferior colliculus (IC of adult Wistar rats were carefully studied. The rats of both sexes (n=24, average weight of 185g were randomly assigned into two treatments (n=16 and control (n=8 groups. The rats in the treatment groups received 3g and 6g of MSG thoroughly mixed with their feeds for fourteen days, while the control rats received equal amounts of feeds without MSG added. The rats were fed with growers' mash purchased from Edo Feeds and Flour Mill Ltd, Ewu, Edo State and were given water liberally. The rats were sacrificed on day fifteen of the experiment. The inferior colliculus was carefully dissected out and quickly fixed in 10% formal saline for routine histological study after H&E method.The histological findings after H&E methods indicated that the treated sections of the inferior colliculus showed some cellular degenerative changes, cellular hypertrophy, and autophagic vacuoles with some intercellular vacuolations appearing in the stroma, and some degree of neuronal hypertrophy when compared to the control sections.These findings indicate that MSG consumption may have a deleterious effect on the neurons of the inferior colliculus (IC. MSG may probably have adverse effects on the auditory sensibilities by its deleterious effects on the nerve cells of the IC of adult Wistar rats. It is recommended that further studies aimed at corroborating these observations be carried out.

  4. HISTOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF CHRONIC CONSUMPTION OF NUTMEG ON THE LATERAL GENICULATE BODY OF ADULT WISTAR RATS.

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    J.O. Adjene

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of chronic consumption of nutmeg commonly used as a spice in various dishes, as components of teas and soft drinks or mixed in milk and alcohol on the lateral geniculate body of adult wistar rats was studied.The rats of both sexes, with average weight of 200g were randomly assigned into treatment and control groups. The rats in the treatment group (n=8 received 2g of nutmeg thoroughly mixed with the feeds on a daily basis for thirty-two days. The control group (n=8 received equal amount of feeds daily without nutmeg added for thirty-two days. The growers mash feeds was obtained from Edo Feeds and Flour Mill Limited, Ewu, Edo State, Nigeria and the rats were given water liberally. The rats were sacrificed on the thirty-three day of the experiment. The lateral geniculate body was carefully dissected out and quickly fixed in 10% formal saline for histological study.The findings indicate that rats in the treated group showed some cellular degenerative changes like sparse cellular population, pyknotic nuclei with some microcystic changes, edema and vacuolations in the stroma of the treated lateral geniculate body as compared to that of the control group.Chronic consumption of nutmeg may therefore have an adverse effect on the visual sensibilities by affecting the microanatomy of the lateral geniculate body of adult wistar rats. It is recommended for further studies aimed at corroborating these observations.

  5. Effect of artemether on hematological parameters of healthy and uninfected adult Wistar rats

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    Osonuga IO; Osonuga OA; Osonuga A; Onadeko AA; Osonuga AA

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effect of short term artemether administration on some blood parameters in adult male Wistar rats. Methods: Sixty five albino rats with body weight of 190-220 g were used for the four-phased study. The animals were randomly divided into five groups. The first-four groups of 15 rats were further divided into 3 subgroups of 5 rats. The drug was administered orally at sub-optimal, therapeutic, and high doses of 25, 50 and 75 mg/kg bw, respectively to the rats for 1 day, 2 days and 3 days. Blood samples were collected by cardio-puncture from the rats for hematology at the end of each phase. The last group served as control, and they were given water ad libitum. Results:Artemether caused significant reduction (P<0.05) of the hematological profile of the animals in a dose dependent manner. Discontinuation of the drug use however showed gradual recovery of the depressed indices of the blood parameters. Conclusions:The results suggest that artemether can induce reversible changes in hematological profiles of rats by extension man. This can probably aggravate anemia when artemether is administered to malaria patients. Hence, the study supports the use of the drug with caution especially in patients prone to anemic tendencies.

  6. Renoprotective effects of moringa oleifera leaf extract on the kidneys of adult wistar rats

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    Ezejindu D. N

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Moringa oleifera is one of several nutritional supplements giving wide spread popularity in Nigeria and many other countries of the world. The leaves and flowers are being used by the population with great dietary importance. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of oral administration of Moringa oleifera leaf extract on the kidneys of adult wistar rats. 24 apparently healthy adult wistar rats weighing between190- 230kg were divided into four groups of six animals each. Group A served as the control and received 0.3ml of distilled water orally. The experimental groups B, C & D received 0.5ml, 0.6ml &0.7ml of Moringa oleifera extract orally respectively. The administration lasted for twenty one days. The animals were weighed, sacrificed using chloroform vapour. The kidney tissue were removed, weighed and trimmed down for histological studies. Result of this study showed non-distortion of the kidney cells. The findings of this study suggest that chronic Moringa oleifera consumption may not put the kidneys at risk of adverse histopathological conditions.

  7. Body and Testicular Weight Changes in Adult Wistar Rats Following Oral Administration of Artesunate

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    al-hassan m. izunya

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was designed to study the effects on the body and testicular weights of adult wistar rats that recieved an oral administration of normal and double normal doses of artesunate. The rats were divided into three groups (A, B and C of five rats each. A and B served as the treatment groups, while C served as the control group. Group A rats were given 4mg.kg-1 b.w of artesunate daily for 3 days followed by 2mg.kg-1 b.w daily for next for 4 days. Group B rats were given 8mg.kg-1 b.w of artesunate daily for 3 days followed by 4mg.kg-1 b.w daily for next 4 days, while group C rats were given only distilled water. The rats were fed with grower's mash purchased from Edo feeds and Flour Mill Ltd, Ewu, Edo state and were given w ater ad libitum. On day eight of the experiment, the rats were weighed and sacrificed. The testes w ere carefully dissected out, freed from adherent tissues and weighed to the nearest 0.001 g. The results showed no changes in body weight of rats in groups A, B and C. There was also no significant change in testicular weight of rats in group A. However a significant increase in testicular weight was observed in group C. Our results suggest that artesunate at normal and double normal doses, has no effect on body weight of rats but may be toxic to the testes at higher doses. It is uncertain however if these changes are reversible. It is recommended therefore, that further studies aimed at corroborating these observations be carried out.

  8. Monosodium Glutamate Dietary Consumption Decreases Pancreatic β-Cell Mass in Adult Wistar Rats.

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    Piyanard Boonnate

    Full Text Available The amount of dietary monosodium glutamate (MSG is increasing worldwide, in parallel with the epidemics of metabolic syndrome. Parenteral administration of MSG to rodents induces obesity, hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes. However, the impact of dietary MSG is still being debated. We investigated the morphological and functional effects of prolonged MSG consumption on rat glucose metabolism and on pancreatic islet histology.Eighty adult male Wistar rats were randomly subdivided into 4 groups, and test rats in each group were supplemented with MSG for a different duration (1, 3, 6, or 9 months, n=20 for each group. All rats were fed ad libitum with a standard rat chow and water. Ten test rats in each group were provided MSG 2 mg/g body weight/day in drinking water and the 10 remaining rats in each group served as non-MSG treated controls. Oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTT were performed and serum insulin measured at 9 months. Animals were sacrificed at 1, 3, 6, or 9 months to examine the histopathology of pancreatic islets.MSG-treated rats had significantly lower pancreatic β-cell mass at 1, 6 and 9 months of study. Islet hemorrhages increased with age in all groups and fibrosis was significantly more frequent in MSG-treated rats at 1 and 3 months. Serum insulin levels and glucose tolerance in MSG-treated and untreated rats were similar at all time points we investigated.Daily MSG dietary consumption was associated with reduced pancreatic β-cell mass and enhanced hemorrhages and fibrosis, but did not affect glucose homeostasis. We speculate that high dietary MSG intake may exert a negative effect on the pancreas and such effect might become functionally significant in the presence or susceptibility to diabetes or NaCl; future experiments will take these crucial cofactors into account.

  9. The effect of calabash chalk on some hematological parameters in female adult Wistar rats

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    Amabe Otoabasi Akpantah

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Calabash chalk is a naturally occurring mineral consumed among the Nigerian community for pleasure and commonly by pregnant women as a remedy for morning sickness. Reports have shown that it contains different toxic substances, with lead being the most abundant. This study was therefore undertaken to ascertain the effect of two commonly available preparations of this chalk on some hematological parameters.Materials and Methods: Twenty-four adult female Wistar rats with average weight of 100 g were assigned into three groups (1, 2, 3. Group 1 served as the control and the animals received distilled water, while Groups 2 and 3 were treated by oral gavage with 40 mg/kg of non-salted (NSCC and salted calabash chalk (SCC, respectively, for 14 days.Results: The hemoglobin (Hb concentration and red blood cell (RBC count were significantly (p<0.05, 0.001 respectively lower in the NSCC group, while erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR was significantly (p<0.05 higher in the NSCC group compared to the control. There were no significant differences in packed cell volume (PCV, white blood cell (WBC and platelet (Pl counts compared to the control. The SCC group presented no significant difference in all blood count parameters compared to the control.Conclusion: This infers that calabash chalk, particularly the non-salted form, alters the normal concentration of Hb, RBC and Pl counts, and ESR, as observed in the female Wistar rats studied.

  10. Investigation of liver tissue and biochemical parameters of adult wistar rats treated with Arctium lappa L.

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    Fabrícia Souza Predes

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to evaluate the effects of Arctium lappa L. (burdock on the liver of adult male Wistar rats as measured by light microscopy and biochemical parameters. The rats received the extract in water bottles at doses of 10 or 20 g/L daily for 40 days. There were no significant changes in the plasma levels of albumin, aspartate transaminase (AST, alanine transaminase (ALT, gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT, total protein, total cholesterol, urea, uric acid, triacylglycerol, calcium, phosphorus, chlorine and direct bilirubin. The morphological analysis did not reveal histopathological alterations in liver tissue. Both biochemical and morphological data did not indicate A. lappa toxicity.A bardana (Arctium lappa L é uma planta trazida do Japão e aclimatada no Brasil, e é extensamente utilizada na medicina popular em todo mundo. Este estudo foi realizado para avaliar os possíveis efeitos da A. lappa no fígado e nos parâmetros bioquímicos plasmáticos em ratos Wistar adultos. Estes receberam a infusão de bardana nas doses de 10 ou 20 g de folhas secas /L de água, por 40 dias. Não houve alteração significativa nos níveis plasmáticos de albumina, aspartato transaminase (AST, alanina transaminase (ALT, gamma glutamil transferase (GGT, proteínas totais, colesterol total, uréia, ácido úrico, triglicérides, cálcio, fósforo, bilirrubina direta e cloro. A análise morfológica não revelou alterações histopatológicas no fígado. Os dados bioquímicos e morfológicos não indicaram a toxicidade da bardana.

  11. Ethidium bromide-induced demyelination of the sciatic nerve of adult Wistar rats

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    Riet-Correa G.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Peripheral nerve ultrastructure was assessed after single or multiple local injections of the intercalating dye ethidium bromide. Thirty-four adult Wistar rats of both sexes were divided into five groups and maintained in a controlled environment with rat chow and water ad libitum throughout the experiment. The experimental animals were injected with 1 µl of 0.1% ethidium bromide in 0.9% saline into the central third of the left sciatic nerve 1 (group 1, 2 (group 2, 4 (group 3, 6 (group 4 or 8 (group 5 times. In groups 2 to 5 the injections were made at 28-day intervals. Control animals received the same amount of 0.9% saline. The animals were killed at different times after injection: group 1 at 7 days (2 rats and 15 days (2 rats; for groups 2, 3, 4 and 5, all rats were killed 10 days after the last injection and the lesions were investigated by light and transmission electron microscopy. In the acute lesions, intoxicated Schwann cells showed a vacuolated cytoplasm and separation of the sheaths from the axon. Myelin sheaths underwent progressive vesiculation and subsequent segmental demyelination. Myelin debris were withdrawn by macrophages and remyelination by Schwann cells was prominent. With the increase in the number of injections collagen fibers also increased in number and progressively enveloped smaller numbers of remyelinated axons composing new fascicles. Wallerian degeneration of fibers apparently not affected by ethidium bromide was more intense in the nerves from groups 4 and 5. The peripheral nerve repairs itself after demyelinating challenges with a profusion of collagen fibers and new fasciculations. This experimental model is valid to mimic recurrent demyelinating neuropathies.

  12. Resveratrol increases antioxidant defenses and decreases proinflammatory cytokines in hippocampal astrocyte cultures from newborn, adult and aged Wistar rats.

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    Bellaver, Bruna; Souza, Débora Guerini; Souza, Diogo Onofre; Quincozes-Santos, André

    2014-06-01

    Astrocytes are responsible for modulating neurotransmitter systems and synaptic information processing, ionic homeostasis, energy metabolism, maintenance of the blood-brain barrier, and antioxidant and inflammatory responses. Our group recently published a culture model of cortical astrocytes obtained from adult Wistar rats. In this study, we established an in vitro model for hippocampal astrocyte cultures from adult (90 days old) and aged (180 days old) Wistar rats. Resveratrol, a polyphenol found in grapes and red wine, exhibits antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-aging and neuroprotective effects that modulate glial functions. Here, we evaluated the effects of resveratrol on GSH content, GS activity, TNF-α and IL-1β levels in hippocampal astrocytes from newborn, adult and aged Wistar rats. We observed a decrease in antioxidant defenses and an increase in the inflammatory response in hippocampal astrocytes from adult and aged rats compared to classical astrocyte cultures from newborn rats. Resveratrol prevented these effects. These findings reinforce the neuroprotective effects of resveratrol, which are mainly associated with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities.

  13. Histological studies of the effects of monosodium glutamate of the Fallopian tubes of adult female Wistar rats

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    Andrew Osayame Eweka

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The effect of monosodium glutamate used as food additive on the fallopian tubes of adult Wistar rat was investigated. Material and Methods: Adult female Wistar rats (n=24 of average weight of 230g were randomly assigned into three groups A, B and C in each group (n=8. The treatment groups (A & B were given 0.04mg/kg and 0.08mg/kg of monosodium glutamate thoroughly mixed with the growers′ mash, respectively on a daily basis. The control group (C received equal amount of feeds (Growers′ mash without monosodium glutamate added for fourteen days. The growers′ mash was obtained from Edo Feeds and Flour Mill Ltd, Ewu, Edo State and the rats were given water liberally. The rats were sacrificed on day fifteen of the experiment. The fallopian tubes were carefully dissected out and quickly fixed in 10% buffered formaldehyde for routine histological procedures. Result: The histological findings in the treated groups showed evidence of cellular hypertrophy, degenerative and atrophic changes, and lysed red blood cells in lumen with the group that received 0.08mg/kg of monosodium glutamate more severe. Conclusion: MSG may have some deleterious effects on the fallopian tubes of adult female Wistar rats at higher doses and by extension may contribute to the causes of female infertility. It is recommended that further studies aimed at corroborating these findings be carried out.

  14. Histology, Hyperglycemia and Dyslipidemia Evaluations of Aqueous Extract of Moringa oleifera Leaves on Adult Wistar Rat.

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    Oboma, Yibala .I

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Chronic hyperglycemia is an indicator of diabetes mellitus and chronic dyslipidemia a risk factor cardiovascular disease. OBJECTIVE: We aim at evaluating the effect of Moringa oleifera on glucose level, lipid profile, cardiac markers, liver enzymes, proteins and histology of the heart and liver. METHODOLOGY: Twenty six male (26 adult Wistar rats were enrolled for the study. Acclimatized and randomly divided into four groups (A, B, C&-D, n=6 and controls. They rat were given intraperitoneal injection of aqueous Moringa oleifera leaf extract. Sacrifice was carried out on 24hrs, 7days, 14days, and 28days respectively. Tissues collected were prepared for histology using heamatoxylin and eosin staining techniques while serum lipid profile, glucose level, creatine kinase, malondialdehyde (MDA and liver enzymes were analyze using Selectra and micro Elisa. RESULT: High doses (500mg/kg and prolonged exposure to the extract resulted in spectrum effects. Prolonged and increase concentration of extract administration causes increase in body weight and is statistically significant at P<0.05, t=35 and df=8, decrease in lipid profile, creatine kinase (CK-MB, malondialdehyde (MDA, liver enzymes and glucose at both higher and lower doses of 500mg/kg and 300mg/kg respectively. Photomicrograph with magnification of x400, show normal histology of the heart and liver. CONCLUSION: Aqueous leaf extract of Moringa oleifera show a potential anti-hyperglycemia and antilipidemic properties with no notable hepatotoxicity and cardiac injury. This study supports the popular sayings about the tradomedicinal use of Moringa oleifera in the treatment of diabetes mellitus and hypertension.

  15. HISTOLOGICAL STUDIES OF THE EFFECTS OF MONOSODIUM GLUTAMATE ON THE MEDIAL GENICULATE BODY OF ADULT WISTAR RATS

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    A.O.Eweka

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Histological effects of Monosodium glutamate (MSG commonly used as food additive on the medial geniculate body (MGB of adult wistar rats were carefully studied. The rats of both sexes (n=24, average weight of 185g were randomly assigned into two treatments (n=16 and control (n=8 groups.The rats in the treatment groups received 3g and 6g of MSG thoroughly mixed with their feeds for fourteen days, while the control rats received equal amounts of feeds without MSG added. The rats were fed with grower's mash purchased from Edo Feeds and Flour Mill Ltd, Ewu, Edo State and were given water liberally. The rats were sacrificed on day fifteen of the experiment. The medial geniculate body was carefully dissected out and quickly fixed in 10% formal saline for routine histological study after H&E method.The histological findings after H&E methods indicated that the treated sections of the medial geniculate body showed some cellular degenerative changes, autophagic vacuoles with some vacuolations appearing in the stroma, and some degree of neuronal hypertrophy when compared to the control sections. These findings indicate that MSG consumption may have a deleterious effect on the neurons of the medial geniculate body (MGB. MSG may probably have adverse effects on the auditory sensibilities by its deleterious effects on the nerve cells of the MGB of adult wistar rats. It is recommended that further studies aimed at corroborating these observations be carried out.

  16. Dissociable effects of ethanol consumption during the light and dark phase in adolescent and adult Wistar rats.

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    Walker, Brendan M; Walker, Jennifer L; Ehlers, Cindy L

    2008-03-01

    In adolescence, high levels of drinking over short episodes (binge drinking) is commonly seen in a proportion of the population. Because adolescence is an important neurodevelopmental period, the effects of binge drinking on brain and behavior has become a significant health concern. However, robust animal models of binge drinking in rats are still being developed and therefore further efforts are needed to optimize paradigms for inducing maximal self-administration of alcohol. In the present experiment, 1-h limited-access self-administration sessions were instituted to model excessive drinking behavior in adolescent and adult Wistar rats. In addition to age, the involvement of sex and phase within the light/dark cycle (i.e., drinking in the light or dark) on sweetened 5% ethanol intake were also evaluated over 14 limited-access sessions using a between-groups design. The results of the experiment showed that over 14 limited-access sessions, sweetened ethanol intake (g/kg) was significantly higher for adolescents compared to adults. Females were also found to drink more sweetened ethanol as compared to males. Additionally, drinking in the light produced a robust increase in sweetened ethanol intake (g/kg) in adolescents, as compared to adults during the light phase and as compared to both adolescent and adult rats drinking in the dark. Furthermore, the increase in ethanol consumption observed in adolescents drinking during the light phase was dissociable from sweetened solution intake patterns. These results identify that age, sex, and time of day all significantly influence consumption of sweetened ethanol in Wistar rats. Knowledge of these parameters should be useful for future experiments attempting to evaluate the effects of self-administered ethanol exposure in adult and adolescent rats.

  17. The effects of sildenafil ciltrate on the lateral geniculate body of adult Wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus- A histological study

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    Andrew Osayame Eweka

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The histological effect of oral administration of sildenafil citrate (Viagra, commonly used as an aphrodisiac and for the treatment of erectile dysfunction on one of the visual relay centres namely the lateral geniculate body (LGB of adult Wistar rat was carefully studied. The rats of both sexes (n=24, average weight of 202g were randomly assigned into three treatment (n=18 and control (n=6 groups. The rats in the treatment groups ‘A’, ‘B’ and ‘C’ received respectively, 0.25mg/kg, 0.70mg/kg and 1.43mg/kg body weight of sildenafil citrate base dissolved in distilled water daily for 30 days, through orogastric feeding tube, while that of the control group D, received equal volume of distilled water daily during the period of the experiment. The rats were fed with growers’ mash obtained from Edo Feeds and Flour Mill Ltd, Ewu, Edo State, Nigeria and were given water liberally. The rats were sacrificed on day thirty-one of the experiment. The lateral geniculate body (LGB was carefully dissected out and quickly fixed in 10% formal saline for histological studies. The histological findings after H&E method indicated that the treated section of the lateral geniculate body (LGB showed some varying degree of reduced cellular population based on its sparse distribution, degenerative changes, cellular hypertrophy, and intercellular vacuolations appearing in the stroma. Varying dosage and long administration of sildenafil citrate may have some deleterious effects on the neurons of the intracranial visual relay centre and this may probably have some adverse effects on visual sensibilities by its deleterious effects on the cells of the lateral geniculate body (LGB of adult Wistar rats. It is therefore recommended that further studies aimed at corroborating these observations be carried out.

  18. MORPHOMETRIC EFFECTS OF COLA NITIDA EXTRACT ON THE STOMACH OF ADULT MALE WISTAR RATS

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    Ojo Gideon B

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Cola nut was investigated for possible harmful effect on the morphology of the stomach, considering its wide consumption and documented antioxidant properties.Twenty-five Adult male Wistar rats with average weight of 167.6 g and randomly divided into five groups A, B, C, D and E each containing five animals. Care of the animal according to the Rules and Guidelines of the Animal Right Committee of the Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria was adopted. The rats in group A (control were given distilled water while animals in experimental groups B, C, D and E were each given 600 mg/kg body weight of crude extract of Cola nitida by oral intubation for consecutive three, five, seven and nine days respectively and sacrificed. The stomach was excised, quickly fixed in 10% formal saline and processed histologically, using routine haematoxylin and eosin (H and E stain. The stained sections were subjected to morphometrics analysis at a magnification of sign 40 using the eye piece micrometer procedure.The result revealed a significant reduction in the epithelia thickness of the experimental animals, (Groups A=218.40 µm ± 144.61 vs. B=117.00 µm ± 34.88, C=124.80 µm ± 87.01, D=96.60 µm ± 60.04 and E=108.57 µm ± 122.16 (t=3.04, 2.48, 3.57 and 2.58 respectively, p 0.05 and (A=148.20 µm ± 50.56 vs. B=109.20 µm ± 22.27, C=117.00 µm ± 11.07, D=124.80 µm ± 71.67, E=162.86 µm ± 112.35 (t=1.58, 1.35, 0.60, and 0.46 respectively, p<0.05.The thickness of the muscularis mucosa and muscularis externa were significantly increased by the extract, (Groups A=140.40 µm ± 95.84 vs. B=358.80 µm ± 323.07, C=260.00 µm ± 32.89, D=306.80 µm ± 148.90, E=374.83 µm ± 175.44 (t=7.16, 6.36, 3.83, and 2.89 respectively, p<0.05 and (140.4 µm ± 47.94 vs. B=358.80 µm ±161.53, C=260.00 µm ± 16.44, D=306.80 µm ± 74.44, E=374.83 µm ± 87.72 (t=2.90, 5.22, 4.20, and 5.22 respectively, p<0.05.It is therefore evident that the consumption of cola nut

  19. Protective effect of Livactine against CCl4 and paracetamol induced hepatotoxicity in adult Wistar rats

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    Candasamy Mayuren

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Liver disease has become one of the serious health problems as it is exposed to many kinds of xenobiotics and therapeutic agents. Moreover the rapidly growing morbidity and mortality from liver disease are attributable to the increasing number of chemical compounds and environmental pollution. Unfortunately, so far, in the modern era of medicine there is no specific treatment to counter the menacing impact of these dreaded diseases. Many polyherbal formulations are used widely to treat these disorders. Livactine is a polyherbal formulation and is claimed to be useful in jaundice and biliary dysfunctions. Most of these formulations do not have standard and approved reports stating their pharmacological action or therapeutic efficacy. Therefore, there is a need for experimental confirmation of the pharmacological effects of this formulation. The rationale behind the selection of carbon tetrachloride is due to its free radical mechanism based liver injury, and paracetamol is consumed widely by the human population and it is also a potential liver hazard. Aim: To evaluate the anti-hepatotoxic activity of Livactine against carbon tetrachloride & paracetamol induced toxicity in rats. Material and Methods: Albino rats of Wistar strain were used to evaluate the hepatoprotective activity of Livactine against carbon tetrachloride & paracetamol induced toxicity. Liver damage was assessed by estimating various biochemical parameters such as serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase, serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase, lactate dehydrogenase, alkaline phosphatase, acid phosphatase, total bilirubin, and total protein. The results of the rats treated with Livactine were compared with that of Liv-52.Results: Livactine showed significant dose dependent hepatoprotective effect by reducing elevated serum enzyme levels when compared to that of Liv-52.Conclusion: Our findings confirm that the formulation was found to be effective pharmacologically at

  20. Protective effect of Livactine against CCl4 and paracetamol induced hepatotoxicity in adult Wistar rats

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    Candasamy Mayuren.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Liver disease has become one of the serious health problems as it is exposed to many kinds of xenobiotics and therapeutic agents. Moreover the rapidly growing morbidity and mortality from liver disease are attributable to the increasing number of chemical compounds and environmental pollution. Unfortunately, so far, in the modern era of medicine there is no specific treatment to counter the menacing impact of these dreaded diseases. Many polyherbal formulations are used widely to treat these disorders. Livactine is a polyherbal formulation and is claimed to be useful in jaundice and biliary dysfunctions. Most of these formulations do not have standard and approved reports stating their pharmacological action or therapeutic efficacy. Therefore, there is a need for experimental confirmation of the pharmacological effects of this formulation. The rationale behind the selection of carbon tetrachloride is due to its free radical mechanism based liver injury, and paracetamol is consumed widely by the human population and it is also a potential liver hazard. Aim: To evaluate the anti-hepatotoxic activity of Livactine against carbon tetrachloride & paracetamol induced toxicity in rats. Material and Methods: Albino rats of Wistar strain were used to evaluate the hepatoprotective activity of Livactine against carbon tetrachloride & paracetamol induced toxicity. Liver damage was assessed by estimating various biochemical parameters such as serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase, serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase, lactate dehydrogenase, alkaline phosphatase, acid phosphatase, total bilirubin, and total protein. The results of the rats treated with Livactine were compared with that of Liv-52. Results: Livactine showed significant dose dependent hepatoprotective effect by reducing elevated serum enzyme levels when compared to that of Liv-52. Conclusion: Our findings confirm that the formulation was found to be effective pharmacologically

  1. Comparison of apoptosis between adult worms of Schistosoma japonicum from susceptible (BALB/c mice) and less-susceptible (Wistar rats) hosts.

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    Wang, Tao; Guo, Xiaoyong; Hong, Yang; Han, Hongxiao; Cao, Xiaodan; Han, Yanhui; Zhang, Min; Wu, Miaoli; Fu, Zhiqiang; Lu, Ke; Li, Hao; Zhao, Zhixin; Lin, Jiaojiao

    2016-10-30

    Schistosomiasis remains a serious public health concern in China. BALB/c mice are susceptible to Schistosoma japonicum infection, whereas the Wistar rats are less susceptible. Apoptosis phenomenon was observed in 42d adult worms of S. japonicum from both rats and mice at the morphologic, DNA, cellular, and gene levels by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), fluorometric terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) analysis, fluorescein isothiocyanate-annexin-V/propidium iodide staining flow cytometry (FCM) analysis, and real-time PCR. The results showed that the apoptotic state in worms from two different susceptible hosts was diverse. Several classical hallmarks of apoptosis, including cell shrinkage, chromatin condensation and lunate marginalization, splitting of the nucleoli, nuclear shrinkage and apoptotic body formation were observed by TEM. TUNEL analysis showed that there were much more apoptosis spots in adult worms from rats than those from mice. Statistical analysis revealed that the degree of apoptosis and percentage of necrotic cells in adult worms from Wistar rats were significantly greater (Pworms from Wistar rats, as compared to those from BALB/c mice. The results obtained in this study collectively demonstrated that differential development of adult S. japonicum in less-susceptible rats and susceptible mice was significantly associated with apoptosis in the worm, and provided valuable information to guide further investigations of the mechanisms governing apoptosis and host interactions in schistosome infection.

  2. Histological effects of long term consumption of nutmeg on the medial geniculate body of adult Wistar rats

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    Josiah Obaghwarhievwo Adjene

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Nutmeg is commonly used as a spice in various dishes, as components of teas and soft drinks or mixed in milk and alcohol. The effect of chronic consumption of nutmeg on the medial geniculate body of adult Wistar rats was carefully studied. Aim : The objective is to observe any possible histological changes. Materials and Methods : Rats of both sexes (n = 24, with average weight of 200g were equally and randomly assigned into two treatment groups [A] and [B]; and untreated Control group [C] of (n = 8 per group. The rats in the treatment groups [A] and [B] were respectively given 1g and 2g of nutmeg thoroughly mixed with the feeds on a daily basis for thirty-two days. The control group received equal amount of feeds daily without nutmeg added for the thirty-two days period. All rats were fed with grower′s mash and given water liberally. The rats were sacrificed by cervical dislocation method on day thirty-three of the experiment, medial geniculate body was carefully dissected out from the brain and quickly fixed in 10% formol-saline for histological study. Results : The findings indicate that rats in the treated groups (A & B showed some cellular degenerative changes like hypertrophy, sparse cellular population, pyknotic nuclei with some microcystic changes, and vacuolation in the stroma of the treated medial geniculate body relative to those in the control group. Conclusion : Long term consumption of nutmeg may have adverse effect on microanatomy of medial geniculate body, which could negatively impact on the auditory sensibilities. Further research, including human observational studies, aimed at corroborating these observations is recommended.

  3. Histological effects of long term consumption of nutmeg on the medial geniculate body of adult Wistar rats

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    Josiah Obaghwarhievwo Adjene

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nutmeg is commonly used as a spice in various dishes, as components of teas and soft drinks or mixed in milk and alcohol. The effect of chronic consumption of nutmeg on the medial geniculate body of adult Wistar rats was carefully studied. Aim: The objective is to observe any possible histological changes. Materials and Methods: Rats of both sexes (n = 24, with average weight of 200g were equally and randomly assigned into two treatment groups [A] and [B]; and untreated Control group [C] of (n = 8 per group. The rats in the treatment groups [A] and [B] were respectively given 1g and 2g of nutmeg thoroughly mixed with the feeds on a daily basis for thirty-two days. The control group received equal amount of feeds daily without nutmeg added for the thirty-two days period. All rats were fed with grower’s mash and given water liberally. The rats were sacrificed by cervical dislocation method on day thirty-three of the experiment, medial geniculate body was carefully dissected out from the brain and quickly fixed in 10% formol-saline for histological study. Results: The findings indicate that rats in the treated groups (A & B showed some cellular degenerative changes like hypertrophy, sparse cellular population, pyknotic nuclei with some microcystic changes, and vacuolation in the stroma of the treated medial geniculate body relative to those in the control group. Conclusion: Long term consumption of nutmeg may have adverse effect on microanatomy of medial geniculate body, which could negatively impact on the auditory sensibilities. Further research, including human observational studies, aimed at corroborating these observations is recommended.

  4. Nanoparticles of Zinc Oxide Reduces Acute Somatic Pain in Adult Female Wistar Rats

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    Mahnaz Kesmati

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: With appearance of nano particles as an important component in modern medicine, and considering to new properties of these components, study of their effects on human health is essential. Since zinc components influences mechanisms of nociception, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of nano zinc oxide as a new source of zinc and important components in pharmaceutical and hygienic cosmetic production on nociception in adult female rats. Materials and Methods: Female rats were divided into groups: control (receiving saline 0.9% and receiving nano ZnO (0.5, 1, and 5 mg/kg. Hot plate and tail flick tests as models of somatic acute pain were used for evaluation of the pain. The mean of latency time in paw licking and tail withdrawal respectively recorded as nociception indexes in each test for every animal. The animal numbers in each group was seven. Results: In tail flick test, nano ZnO (0.5, 1 mg/kg and in the hot plate test in dose of 0.5 mg/kg, induces significant analgesia (p<0.05 and with increasing of dose reduced its analgesic effect. Conclusion: It seems nano ZnO inhibit the nociception mechanisms and these analgesic properties are more efficient in the low doses. Probably by increasing dose of nano particles aggregation phenomenon prevent of anti-nociception effects of nano ZnO.

  5. EFFECTS OF CHRONIC ADMINISTRATION OF EFAVIRENZ ON THE BRAIN AND INFERIOR COLLICULUS WEIGHTS OF ADULT WISTAR RATS

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    J. O. Adjene

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of chronic administration of Efavirenz commonly used as part of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART for the treatment of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV type-1 on the weight of the brain and inferior colliculus of adult wistar rats was carefully studied. The rats of both sexes (n=16, with an average weight of 200g were randomly assigned into treatment (n=8 and control (n=8 groups. The rats in the treatment group received 600 mg/70 kg body weight of Efavirenz dissolved in distilled water daily for 30 days (thirty days through the orogastric tube. The control group received equal volume of distilled water daily for 30 days through the same route. The rats were fed with grower's mash obtained from Edo Feeds and Flour Mill Limited, Ewu, Edo state, Nigeria and given water liberally. The rats were sacrificed by cervical dislocation method on the thirty-first day of the experiment and the brains were carefully dissected out, dried, weighed and recorded using the Mettler Toledo weighing balance. The findings indicate that there was a significant decrease (P < 0.05 in the dry brain weight and an increase in the relative dry brain weight of the treatment group as compared with the control group in this experiment. There was also a significant increase (P < 0.05 in the weight of the dry inferior colliculus per total dry brain weight in the treatment group when compared with the control group. However, the relative dry inferior colliculus weight was significantly higher (P < 0.05 in the treatment group also than that of the control group in this experiment

  6. Ginkgo Biloba Ameliorates Subfertility Induced by Testicular Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury in Adult Wistar Rats: A Possible New Mitochondrial Mechanism

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    Asmaa Ibrahim Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Testicular torsion, a surgical emergency, could affect the endocrine and exocrine testicular functions. This study demonstrates histopathological and physiological effects of testicular ischemia/perfusion (I/R injury and the possible protective effects of Ginkgo biloba treatment. Fifty adult male Wistar rats, 180–200 gm, were randomly divided into sham-operated, Gingko biloba supplemented, ischemia only, I/R, and Gingko biloba treated I/R groups. Overnight fasted rats were anaesthetized by Pentobarbital; I/R was performed by left testis 720° rotation in I/R and treated I/R groups. Orchiectomy was performed for histopathological studies and detection of mitochondrial NAD+. Determination of free testosterone, FSH, TNF-α, and IL1-β in plasma was performed. Plasma-free testosterone was significantly decreased, while plasma FSH, TNF-α, IL-1β, and testicular mitochondrial NAD+ were significantly increased in I/R group compared to control group. These parameters were reversed in Gingko biloba treated I/R group compared to I/R group. I/R caused marked testicular damage and increased APAF-1 in the apoptotic cells which were reversed by Ginkgo biloba treatment. It could be concluded that I/R caused subfertility induced by apoptosis and oxidative stress manifested by the elevated testicular mitochondrial NAD+, which is considered a new possible mechanism. Also, testicular injury could be reduced by Gingko biloba administration alone.

  7. Ginkgo Biloba Ameliorates Subfertility Induced by Testicular Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury in Adult Wistar Rats: A Possible New Mitochondrial Mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Asmaa Ibrahim; El-Zawahry, Khaled Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    Testicular torsion, a surgical emergency, could affect the endocrine and exocrine testicular functions. This study demonstrates histopathological and physiological effects of testicular ischemia/perfusion (I/R) injury and the possible protective effects of Ginkgo biloba treatment. Fifty adult male Wistar rats, 180–200 gm, were randomly divided into sham-operated, Gingko biloba supplemented, ischemia only, I/R, and Gingko biloba treated I/R groups. Overnight fasted rats were anaesthetized by Pentobarbital; I/R was performed by left testis 720° rotation in I/R and treated I/R groups. Orchiectomy was performed for histopathological studies and detection of mitochondrial NAD+. Determination of free testosterone, FSH, TNF-α, and IL1-β in plasma was performed. Plasma-free testosterone was significantly decreased, while plasma FSH, TNF-α, IL-1β, and testicular mitochondrial NAD+ were significantly increased in I/R group compared to control group. These parameters were reversed in Gingko biloba treated I/R group compared to I/R group. I/R caused marked testicular damage and increased APAF-1 in the apoptotic cells which were reversed by Ginkgo biloba treatment. It could be concluded that I/R caused subfertility induced by apoptosis and oxidative stress manifested by the elevated testicular mitochondrial NAD+, which is considered a new possible mechanism. Also, testicular injury could be reduced by Gingko biloba administration alone. PMID:28101298

  8. Histopathological effects of sub-chronic lamivudine-artesunate co-administration on the liver of diseased adult Wistar rats

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    Temidayo Olutoyin Olurishe

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lamivudine and artesunate are sometimes co administered in HIV-malaria co morbidity. Both drugs are used concurrently in presumptive malaria treatment and simultaneous HIV post exposure prophylaxis. Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of lamivudine-artesunate co administration on the histology of the liver of diseased adult Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: Five groups of rats of both sexes were used for the study and placed on feed and water ad libitum. Disease state consisted of immunosuppression with cyclophosphamide, and infection with Plasmodium berghei. Group 1 animals served as vehicle control, while group 2 were the diseased controls. Group 3 animals received 20 mg/kg lamivudine for three weeks, while group 4 similarly received 20 mg/kg Lamivudine but also received 10 mg/kg artesunate from day 12. Animals in group 5 received 10 mg/kg artesunate from day 12. All drugs were administered intraperitoneally. The animals were treated for twenty-one days, at the end of which they were sacrificed and their livers fixed in 10% formalin for histological studies. Result: Results from the study show the presence of regions of focal necrosis and perivascular cuffing with animals that received artesunate. Hemosiderosis was a common feature in all the parasitized groups, while fatty degeneration was observed in the group that received artesunate alone. Conclusion: Concurrent lamivudine-artesunate administration resulted in some histopathological changes in the liver. This study suggests there may be considerable histological changes with repeated occurrence of malaria and immunosuppression that may warrant intermittent lamivudine-artesunate administration, and may require evaluation as well as monitoring of liver function during such therapeutic interventions.

  9. Health Status of Male Adult Wistar Rats from Two Experimental Animal Houses of UFMG: Leukocyte Counts, Feces and Lung Histological Exams

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    Andrade Bruno Horta

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to compare health status of male adult Wistar rats from two Experimental Animal Houses of UFMG with literature data of SPF (free from specific pathogens and conventional rats. The animals were divided into two groups: Group I (n=10, rats from the experimental animal houses of FAFICH and Group II (n=10 from ICB and following aspects were studied: a evident clinical signs (behavior modification, hair loss (alopecia, b leukocyte counts, c feces exam and d histological study of the lungs. The rats did not show clinical signs. However, when compared with SPF and conventional rats, both the groups showed a significant increase (p<0,05 of leukocyte count. On feces exam we detected some parasites and on lung histological exam we observed fungus (Group I and bacteria (Group II. These results showed that the health status of the rats was not satisfactory and required improvements in the conditions of the animal houses.

  10. Hepatoprotective effect of Arctium lappa root extract on cadmium toxicity in adult Wistar rats.

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    de Souza Predes, Fabricia; da Silva Diamante, Maria Aparecida; Foglio, Mary Ann; Camargo, Camila de Andrade; Camargo, Camila Almeida; Aoyama, Hiroshi; Miranda, Silvio Cesar; Cruz, Bread; Gomes Marcondes, Maria Cristina Cintra; Dolder, Heidi

    2014-08-01

    This study was performed to determine the effects of Arctium lappa (Al) to protect against cadmium damage in the rat liver. Male rats received a single i.p. dose of CdCl2 (1.2 mg/kg body weight (BW)) with or without Al extract administered daily by gavage (300 mg/kg BW) for 7 or 56 days. After 7 days, Al caused plasma transaminase activity to diminish in groups Al (glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT) and glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT)) and CdAl (GPT). After 56 days, GOT and GPT plasma activities were reduced in the Cd group. No alteration in plasma levels of creatinine, total bilirubin, and total protein were observed. GOT liver activity increased in the Cd group. No alteration was observed in superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), and malondialdehyde (MDA) dosage. In the Cd group, hepatocyte proportion decreased and sinusoid capillary proportion increased. In the Al and CdAl groups, the nuclear proportion increased and the cytoplasmic proportion decreased. The hepatocyte nucleus density reduced in Cd and increased in the Al group. After 56 days, there was no alteration in the Cd group. In Al and CdAl groups, the nuclear proportion increased without cytoplasmic proportion variation, but the sinusoid capillary proportion was reduced. The hepatocyte nucleus density decreased in the Cd group and increased in the Al and CdAl groups. In conclusion, the liver function indicators showed that A. lappa protected the liver against cadmium toxicity damage.

  11. Histopathology of the Liver Following Administration of Artesunate in Adult Wistar Rats

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    Felix Monday Onyije

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Summary In must of the developing countries especially in Africa antimalaria drugs are taken regularly either to treat or prevent malaria. The rats were randomly divided into 3 groups of 5 each and tested as follows: - Group O- control (water, Group A – 2mg/kg and Group B - 6mg/kg. The animals were sacrificed after the 7th day. There was no mortality caused by the drug but dizziness in the animals. In the group administered with 2mg/kg of oral artesunate where was no form of distortion in the tissue architecture of the liver, but in the group administered with 6mg/kg of artesunate, artesunate caused sinusoidal congestion, infiltration of inflammatory cells and there was loss of tissue architecture. Drugs are produce to combat illnesses but may turn out be harmful when administered wrongly. In must of the developing countries especially in Africa antimalaria drugs are taken regularly either to treat or prevent malaria. They are taken such that one could even imaging if it is a food supplement. [J Interdiscipl Histopathol 2012; 1(1.000: 26-29

  12. Study of Spermatogenesis in Wistar Adult Rats Administrated to Long Term of Ruta Graveolens

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    Bazrafkan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background In Iranian folk medicine Ruta graveolens has been used for female and male contraceptive. There are few studies about the effect of this plant on spermatogenesis. Objectives In this study the effect of long term administration of aqueous extract of RG on spermatogenesis has been investigated. Materials and Methods Animals were allocated into 1 control: which did not receive anything, 2 vehicle which received only normal saline and 3 experiment: which received Ruta extract (300 mg/kg administered by gavage once a day for 100 days. A day after last gavage all the individuals were killed by euthanasia. The right testes and epididymis were extruded. The sperm motility was assessed and classified as progressive, no progressive. Results There was a significant decrease in the number of spermatogonia (P 0.05.The fertilization capacity of sperm of rats in experimental group was significantly lower than other groups (P > 0.05. Conclusions It is concluded that the aqueous extract of Ruta graveolens diminishes the reproductive system activity and might be a useful substance for birth control process.

  13. The Perinatal Effects of Lithium Carbonate on Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Gonadal in Adult Female Wistar Rats

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    ebrahim hosseini

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objectives: Lithium is the metal used in bipolar disorder treatment.  As for the prevalence of the disorder infertility (childbearing age and the use of lithium, this study aimed at studying the effects of drugs on histological changes, and the ovarian function in the first generation of adult female offspring was performed. Materials & Methods: In this experimental study, 40 pregnant mice were divided into 5 groups of 8, including a control group. The control and the experimental groups consumed three dosages of 60, 120, and 180 mg/kg lithium carbonate for 21 days. At the end of the sixth week postpartum, 10 mice were randomly selected from the offspring in each group and were then phlebotomized in order to measure the estrogen, progesterone, FSH, and LH hormones. Their ovaries were removed, and after preparing and staining the tissue sections, the types of follicles were counted. The results were analyzed using SPSS-18 software and ANOVA and Tukey's tests. Finally, the significant difference of data P  0/05 was considered. Results: The results showed that lithium caused a significant increase in the number of atresia follicles and a reduction in primordial, primary, and secondary follicles, graph and corpus luteum, estrogen, progesterone, FSH, and LH hormones in the first generation offspring at P≤ 0/05. Conclusion: Using lithium during pregnancy led to an increase in the atresia follicle and a decrease in other follicles in the first generation offspring; moreover, the sex hormone levels also decreased probably due to the reduction in the follicle and corpus luteum.

  14. Neuroprotective Effect of Melatonin Against PCBs Induced Behavioural, Molecular and Histological Changes in Cerebral Cortex of Adult Male Wistar Rats.

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    Bavithra, S; Selvakumar, K; Sundareswaran, L; Arunakaran, J

    2017-02-01

    There is ample evidence stating Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) as neurotoxins. In the current study, we have analyzed the behavioural impact of PCBs exposure in adult rats and assessed the simultaneous effect of antioxidant melatonin against the PCBs action. The rats were grouped into four and treated intraperitoneally with vehicle, PCBs, PCBs + melatonin and melatonin alone for 30 days, respectively. After the treatment period the rats were tested for locomotor activity and anxiety behaviour analysis. We confirmed the neuronal damage in the cerebral cortex by molecular and histological analysis. Our data indicates that there is impairment in locomotor activity and behaviour of PCBs treated rats compared to control. The simultaneous melatonin treated rat shows increased motor coordination and less anxiety like behaviour compared to PCBs treated rats. Molecular and histological analysis supports that, the impaired motor coordination in PCBs treated rats is due to neurodegeneration in motor cortex region. The results proved that melatonin treatment improved the motor co-ordination and reduced anxiety behaviour, prevented neurodegeneration in the cerebral cortex of PCBs-exposed adult male rats.

  15. Effects of stress and corticosterone in two post-training periods, on spatial memory consolidation in adult male Wistar rats.

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    Jeimmy Marcela Cerón

    2015-04-01

    final product of HPA axis activity. These hormones act on specialized receptors located within all body cells; upon activation by ligand binding, these receptors interact with specific regions of DNA, thereby regulating gene expression (Tsigos & Chrousos, 2002. The lipidic nature of glucocorticoids allows them to cross the blood-brain barrier and enter the brain, which may influence cognitive function. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of stress (movement restriction or the stress hormone corticosterone (intraperitoneal injection of corticosterone, on spatial memory consolidation in adult male Wistar rats in two different post-training time windows (immediately or 3 hours after training involved in memory consolidation. Rats were trained in a spatial memory task in the Barnes maze and a memory retention test was performed twenty-four hours after training. The results showed that both stress and corticosterone were able to enhance memory consolidation when they were administered immediately after training. However, when the same treatments were administered three hours after training, there was not a significant change in the performance during the test carried out after twenty-four hours. These results suggest, on the one hand, that memory consolidation process can be improved using treatments that modulate cellular gene expression programs, as stress and corticosterone, when they are applied during the first window of memory consolidation. Additionally, although the second period of memory consolidation is also related to a particular gene expression and protein synthesis program, the treatments used in the present study were not able to modulate memory consolidation when administered during this period. As the molecular events involved in the second window of memory consolidation may be different from those involved in the first one, it is possible that the molecular changes generated by stress and corticosterone do not interact with them in a way

  16. Saccharin and aspartame, compared with sucrose, induce greater weight gain in adult Wistar rats, at similar total caloric intake levels.

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    Feijó, Fernanda de Matos; Ballard, Cíntia Reis; Foletto, Kelly Carraro; Batista, Bruna Aparecida Melo; Neves, Alice Magagnin; Ribeiro, Maria Flávia Marques; Bertoluci, Marcello Casaccia

    2013-01-01

    It has been suggested that the use of nonnutritive sweeteners (NNSs) can lead to weight gain, but evidence regarding their real effect in body weight and satiety is still inconclusive. Using a rat model, the present study compares the effect of saccharin and aspartame to sucrose in body weight gain and in caloric intake. Twenty-nine male Wistar rats received plain yogurt sweetened with 20% sucrose, 0.3% sodium saccharin or 0.4% aspartame, in addition to chow and water ad libitum, while physical activity was restrained. Measurements of cumulative body weight gain, total caloric intake, caloric intake of chow and caloric intake of sweetened yogurt were performed weekly for 12 weeks. Results showed that addition of either saccharin or aspartame to yogurt resulted in increased weight gain compared to addition of sucrose, however total caloric intake was similar among groups. In conclusion, greater weight gain was promoted by the use of saccharin or aspartame, compared with sucrose, and this weight gain was unrelated to caloric intake. We speculate that a decrease in energy expenditure or increase in fluid retention might be involved.

  17. Protective Effect of the Persian Gulf brittle star Ophiocoma Erinaceus extract on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 induced liver damage in adult male Wistar rats

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    Aida Soheili

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim:  Brittle star possess  bioactive compounds which confer the wound healing capacity and regenerative potency of damaged  arms and organisms to this creature. The aim of the current study was to assess the   protective  effect  of  the  star extract on liver damages induced by carbon tetrachloride in adult male Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 32 adult male rats were randomly divided into 4 equal groups: control, Sham exposed, experimental 1 (treated with %25 extract and experimental 2 (treated with %50 extract of star Ophiocoma Erinaceus. The control group received no treatment. The sham exposed groups received carbon tetrachloride .(50% in olive oil .0.5 ml/kg for 7 days. The experimental groups firstly received carbon tetrachloride, then received %25, %50 brittle star extract as intragastric for 7 days. Finally, the animals were sacrificed, and their bodies and livers were weighed. Then, the livers sections were prepared and were examined by means of light microscope. Finally, the obtained  quantitative data was analyzed using SPSS (V; 20, Mini Tab software, ANOVA, and Tukey. at the significant level of P<0.001. Results: Carbon tetrachloride significantly decreased the rats’ body weight, but it increased their livers weight (P<0.001. Histopathological evaluations showed .extensive liver damage. On the other hand, treatment with brittle star extract .ncreased liver weight, reduced. body weight and significantly altered other induced changes by carbon tetrachloride on liver structure such as hepatocytes number, Kupffer cells, and arteritis, which indicated  the improvement of damaged liver tissue (P<0.001. Conclusion: It was found that brittle star extract can exert protective effects on  liver damages induced by carbon tetrachloride on male Wistar rat.

  18. Defective renal dopamine function and sodium-sensitive hypertension in adult ovariectomized Wistar rats: role of the cytochrome P-450 pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Ciano, Luis A; Azurmendi, Pablo J; Colombero, Cecilia; Levin, Gloria; Oddo, Elisabet M; Arrizurieta, Elvira E; Nowicki, Susana; Ibarra, Fernando R

    2015-06-15

    We have previously shown that ovariectomy in adult Wistar rats under normal sodium (NS) intake results in an overexpression of the total Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase (NKA) α1-subunit (Di Ciano LA, Azurmendi PJ, Toledo JE, Oddo EM, Zotta E, Ochoa F, Arrizurieta EE, Ibarra FR. Clin Exp Hypertens 35: 475-483, 2013). Upon high sodium (HS) intake, ovariectomized (oVx) rats developed defective NKA phosphorylation, a decrease in sodium excretion, and an increment in mean blood pressure (MBP). Since NKA phosphorylation is modulated by dopamine (DA), the aim of this study was to compare the intracellular response of the renal DA system leading to NKA phosphorylation upon sodium challenge in intact female (IF) and oVx rats. In IF rats, HS caused an increase in urinary DA and sodium, in NKA phosphorylation state, in cytochrome P-4504A (CYP4A) expression, and in 20-HETE production, while MBP kept normal. Blockade of the D1 receptor (D1R) with the D1-like receptor antagonist SCH 23390 in IFHS rats shifted NKA into a more dephosphorylated state, decreased sodium excretion by 50%, and increased MBP. In oVxNS rats, D1R expression was reduced and D3R expression was increased, and under HS intake sodium excretion was lower and MBP higher than in IFHS rats (both P < 0.05), NKA was more dephosphorylated than in IFHS, and CYP4A expression or 20-HETE production did not change. Blockade of D1R in oVxHS rats changed neither NKA phosphorylation state nor sodium excretion or MBP. D2R and PKCα expression did not vary among groups. The alteration of the renal DA system produced by ovariectomy could account for the defective NKA phosphorylation, the inefficient excretion of sodium load, and the development of salt-sensitive hypertension.

  19. Anxiolytic-like effect of hydroalcoholic extract of ripe pistachio hulls in adult female Wistar rats and its possible mechanisms

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    Rostampour, Mohammad; Hadipour, Elham; Oryan, Shahrbano; Soltani, Bahram; Saadat, Farshid

    2016-01-01

    The present study was designed to study the preventive effect of hydroalcoholic extract of ripe pistachio hulls (RPH) in the elevated plus maze model of anxiety. One hundred twenty female wistar rats in their estrous cycle were divided into 15 groups of 8 each and received various concentrations of hydroalcoholic extract of RPH except the control groups. Elevated plus maze was used to measure the level of anxiety. Percentage of time spent in the open arms (%OAT), percentage of the number of entries into the open arms (%OAE), locomotor activity, and time spent in the closed arms (CAT), and the number of entries in to the closed arms (CAE) were measured and compared. Dose-response experiments showed that only 10 mg/kg dose of RPH extract significantly increased %OAT (P < 0.001) and %OAE (P < 0.05) compared to the control group, indicating anti-anxiety effects of the extract. Also, pentylenetetrazol and an estrogen receptor antagonist (ERA) tamoxifen could block anti-anxiety effects of the extract (P < 0.001). It was also noticed that tamoxifen was able to significantly reduce locomotor activity. As the RPH extract showed a preventive effect in experimental model of anxiety, it might be concomitantly administered with other anxiolytic medications. PMID:28003838

  20. Early high-sodium solid diet does not affect sodium intake, sodium preference, blood volume and blood pressure in adult Wistar-Kyoto rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ufnal, Marcin; Drapala, Adrian; Sikora, Mariusz; Zera, Tymoteusz

    2011-07-01

    A high-Na diet may lead to the development of hypertension in both humans and rats; however, the causes of Na intake in amounts greater than physiologically needed as well as the mechanisms whereby high-Na food elevates blood pressure are not clear. Therefore, we decided to test the hypothesis that a high-Na diet introduced after suckling affects Na intake, food preference, resting blood pressure and blood volume in adult rats. Male Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats, 4 weeks old, were divided into three groups and placed on either a high-Na (3.28%), a medium-Na (0.82%) or a regular diet (0.22%) with the same energy content for 8 weeks. Subsequently, food preference, resting arterial blood pressure, blood volume, plasma osmolality and Na blood level were evaluated. When offered a choice of diets, all the groups preferred the regular chow, and there was no significant difference in total Na intake between the groups. When the rats experienced the change from their initial chow to a new one with different Na content, they continued to eat the same amount of food. Body weight, resting arterial blood pressure, blood volume, plasma osmolality and Na blood level were comparable between the groups. In conclusion, the results show that a high-Na diet introduced immediately after suckling does not affect Na preference and Na intake in adult WKY rats. Furthermore, the findings provide evidence that both blood volume and arterial blood pressure are highly protected in normotensive rats on a high-Na diet.

  1. Characterization of the myenteric neuronal population and subpopulation of the duodenum of adult wistar rat fed with hypoproteic chow

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    Débora M.G. Sant'Ana

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The effects of severe protein malnutrition (4% on myenteric neurons of Wistar rat duodenum, in relation to a standard 22%-protein diet for rodents, were assessed in this study. Segments of the duodenum from 10 rats from each nutritional group were submitted to the elaboration of whole mounts - 5 stained with Giemsa to determine the total population of myenteric neurons and the others stained by a histochemical method to detect nervous cells through the NADPH-diaphorase enzyme activity for studying the subpopulation of nitrergic neurons. The area of 100 neurons per animal, totalizing 2,000 neurons, were randomly measured by using the Image Pro-Plus®software. Malnourished rats presented 34.38% lower body weight and 10.60% duodenum length reduction when compared to the control group. Quantitative analysis demonstrated no significant differences between control and malnourished group by using Giemsa; however, as the organ reduction was not followed by an increase inversely proportional to the density of neurons, the condition imposed suggests the loss of neurons from the total population. Nevertheless, through NADPH-d histochemistry, there was a neuronal density increase for the malnourished group. There was no significant difference between the groups for both techniques with respect to the morphometric analysis of the body cell.Objetivou-se avaliar os efeitos da desnutrição protéica severa (4% sobre os neurônios mientéricos do duodeno de ratos Wistar, comparando-se a uma dieta padrão para roedores de 22% de proteína. Para este estudo, segmentos do duodeno de 10 ratos de cada grupo nutricional foram submetidos à elaboração de preparados de membrana, sendo cinco corados pelo método de Giemsa, para estimar a população mientérica total e os demais corados pelo método histoquímico de evidenciação de células nervosas, por meio da atividade da enzima NADPH-diaforase para estudo da subpopulação de neurônios nitr

  2. Neurobehavioral toxicity of a repeated exposure (14 days to the airborne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon fluorene in adult Wistar male rats.

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    Julie Peiffer

    Full Text Available Fluorene is one of the most abundant polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in air and may contribute to the neurobehavioral alterations induced by the environmental exposure of humans to PAHs. Since no data are available on fluorene neurotoxicity, this study was conducted in adult rats to assess the behavioral toxicity of repeated fluorene inhalation exposure. Male rats (n = 18/group were exposed nose-only to 1.5 or 150 ppb of fluorene 6 hours/day for 14 consecutive days, whereas the control animals were exposed to non-contaminated air. At the end of the exposure, animals were tested for activity and anxiety in an open-field and in an elevated-plus maze, for short-term memory in a Y-maze, and for spatial learning in an eight-arm maze. The results showed that the locomotor activity and the learning performances of the animals were unaffected by fluorene. In parallel, the fluorene-exposed rats showed a lower level of anxiety than controls in the open-field, but not in the elevated-plus maze, which is probably due to a possible difference in the aversive feature of the two mazes. In the same animals, increasing blood and brain levels of fluorene monohydroxylated metabolites (especially the 2-OH fluorene were detected at both concentrations (1.5 and 150 ppb, demonstrating the exposure of the animals to the pollutant and showing the ability of this compound to be metabolized and to reach the cerebral compartment. The present study highlights the possibility for a 14-day fluorene exposure to induce some specific anxiety-related behavioral disturbances, and argues in favor of the susceptibility of the adult brain when exposed to volatile fluorene.

  3. Ethanol during adolescence decreased the BDNF levels in the hippocampus in adult male Wistar rats, but did not alter aggressive and anxiety-like behaviors

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    Letícia Scheidt

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective:To investigate the effects of ethanol exposure in adolescent rats during adulthood by assesssing aggression and anxiety-like behaviors and measuring the levels of inflammatory markers.Methods:Groups of male Wistar rats (mean weight 81.4 g, n = 36 were housed in groups of four until postnatal day (PND 60. From PNDs 30 to 46, rats received one of three treatments: 3 g/kg of ethanol (15% w/v, orally, n = 16, 1.5 g/kg of ethanol (12.5% w/v, PO, n = 12, or water (n = 12 every 48 hours. Animals were assessed for aggressive behavior (resident x intruder test and anxiety-like behaviors (elevated plus maze during adulthood.Results:Animals that received low doses of alcohol showed reduced levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF in the hippocampus as compared to the control group. No significant difference was found in prefrontal cortex.Conclusions:Intermittent exposure to alcohol during adolescence is associated with lower levels of BDNF in the hippocampus, probably due the episodic administration of alcohol, but alcohol use did not alter the level agression toward a male intruder or anxiety-like behaviors during the adult phase.

  4. Periodontal disease induced by Porphyromonas gingivalis and Fusobacterium nucleatum in Wistar rats

    OpenAIRE

    Storrer, Carmen Mueller; Aun, Juliana Cleaver; Pustiglioni, Francisco E.; Romito,Giuseppe Alexandre

    2016-01-01

    Prior studies have shown that it is necessary to place ligatures around molars to study periodontal destruction in rats. The present research aims to examine a periodontal disease model in which specific pathogen-free Wistar rats are orally exposed to Porphyromonas gingivalis associated with Fusobacterium nucleatum. Periodontitis was induced by specific infection with P. gingivalis and F. nucleatum. Twenty adult male Wistar rats were divided into two groups. The control animals were not infec...

  5. Ro 04-6790-induced cognitive enhancement: no effect in trace conditioning and novel object recognition procedures in adult male Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thur, K E; Nelson, A J D; Cassaday, H J

    2014-12-01

    The evidence for cognitively enhancing effects of 5-hydroxytryptamine6 (5-HT6) receptor antagonists such as Ro 04-6790 is inconsistent and seems to depend on the behavioral test variant in use. Trace conditioning holds promise as a behavioral assay for hippocampus-dependent working memory function. Accordingly, Experiment 1 assessed the effect of Ro 04-6790 (5 and 10mg/kg i.p.) on associating a noise conditioned stimulus paired with foot shock (unconditioned stimulus) at a 3 or 30s trace interval in adult male Wistar rats. Contextual conditioning was measured as suppression to the contextual cues provided by the experimental chambers and as suppression to a temporally extended light background stimulus which provided an experimental context. Experiment 2 assessed the effect of Ro 04-6790 (5 and 10mg/kg i.p.) on recognition memory as tested by the exploration of novel relative to familiar objects in an open arena. In Experiment 1, Ro 04-6790 (5 and 10mg/kg) was without effect on trace and contextual conditioning. In Experiment 2, there was no indication of the expected improvement under Ro 04-6790 at the same doses previously found to enhance recognition memory as measured in tests of novel object exploration. Thus, there was no evidence that treatment with the 5-HT6 receptor antagonist Ro 04-6790 acted as a cognitive enhancer in either trace conditioning or object recognition procedures. We cannot exclude the possibility that the experimental procedures used in the present study would have been sensitive to the cognitive enhancing effects of Ro 04-6790 in a different dose range, behavioral test variant, or in a different strain of rat. Nonetheless the drug treatment was not ineffective in that object exploration was reduced under 10mg/kg Ro 04-6790.

  6. Moderate exercise during pregnancy in Wistar rats alters bone and body composition of the adult offspring in a sex-dependent manner.

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    Brielle V Rosa

    Full Text Available Exercise during pregnancy may have long-lasting effects on offspring health. Musculoskeletal growth and development, metabolism, and later-life disease risk can all be impacted by the maternal environment during pregnancy. The skeleton influences glucose handling through the actions of the bone-derived hormone osteocalcin. The purpose of this study was to test the effects of moderate maternal exercise during pregnancy on the bone and body composition of the offspring in adult life, and to investigate the role of osteocalcin in these effects. Groups of pregnant Wistar rats either performed bipedal standing exercise to obtain food/water throughout gestation but not lactation, or were fed conventionally. Litters were reduced to 8/dam and pups were raised to maturity under control conditions. Whole body dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, and ex vivo peripheral quantitative computed tomography scans of the right tibia were performed. At study termination blood and tissue samples were collected. Serum concentrations of fully and undercarboxylated osteocalcin were measured, and the relative expression levels of osteocalcin, insulin receptor, Forkhead box transcription factor O1, and osteotesticular protein tyrosine phosphatase mRNA were quantified. Body mass did not differ between the offspring of exercised and control dams, but the male offspring of exercised dams had a greater % fat and lower % lean than controls (p=0.001 and p=0.0008, respectively. At the mid-tibial diaphysis, offspring of exercised dams had a lower volumetric bone mineral density than controls (p=0.01 and in the male offspring of exercised dams the bone: muscle relationship was fundamentally altered. Serum concentrations of undercarboxylated osteocalcin were significantly greater in the male offspring of exercised dams than in controls (p=0.02; however, the relative expression of the measured genes did not differ between groups. These results suggest that moderate exercise during

  7. Moderate exercise during pregnancy in Wistar rats alters bone and body composition of the adult offspring in a sex-dependent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Brielle V; Blair, Hugh T; Vickers, Mark H; Dittmer, Keren E; Morel, Patrick C H; Knight, Cameron G; Firth, Elwyn C

    2013-01-01

    Exercise during pregnancy may have long-lasting effects on offspring health. Musculoskeletal growth and development, metabolism, and later-life disease risk can all be impacted by the maternal environment during pregnancy. The skeleton influences glucose handling through the actions of the bone-derived hormone osteocalcin. The purpose of this study was to test the effects of moderate maternal exercise during pregnancy on the bone and body composition of the offspring in adult life, and to investigate the role of osteocalcin in these effects. Groups of pregnant Wistar rats either performed bipedal standing exercise to obtain food/water throughout gestation but not lactation, or were fed conventionally. Litters were reduced to 8/dam and pups were raised to maturity under control conditions. Whole body dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, and ex vivo peripheral quantitative computed tomography scans of the right tibia were performed. At study termination blood and tissue samples were collected. Serum concentrations of fully and undercarboxylated osteocalcin were measured, and the relative expression levels of osteocalcin, insulin receptor, Forkhead box transcription factor O1, and osteotesticular protein tyrosine phosphatase mRNA were quantified. Body mass did not differ between the offspring of exercised and control dams, but the male offspring of exercised dams had a greater % fat and lower % lean than controls (p=0.001 and p=0.0008, respectively). At the mid-tibial diaphysis, offspring of exercised dams had a lower volumetric bone mineral density than controls (p=0.01) and in the male offspring of exercised dams the bone: muscle relationship was fundamentally altered. Serum concentrations of undercarboxylated osteocalcin were significantly greater in the male offspring of exercised dams than in controls (p=0.02); however, the relative expression of the measured genes did not differ between groups. These results suggest that moderate exercise during pregnancy can

  8. Effects of Arctium lappa on Cadmium-Induced Damage to the Testis and Epididymis of Adult Wistar Rats.

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    Predes, Fabricia de Souza; Diamante, M A S; Foglio, M A; Dolder, H

    2016-10-01

    The protective role of Arctium lappa (AL) on the testes of rats acutely exposed to cadmium (Cd) was tested. The rats were randomly divided into a control group (C-group) and three major experimental groups, which were further subdivided into minor groups (n = 6) according to the experimental period (7 or 56 days). The C-group was subdivided into C-7 and C-56 [receiving a single saline solution, intraperitoneal (i.p.), on the first day]; the AL-group, AL-7, and AL-56, received AL extract (300 mg/kg/daily); the Cd group, Cd-7 and Cd-56, received a single i.p. dose of CdCl2 (1.2 mg/kg body weight (BW)) on the first day; the CdAL group, CdAL-7 and CdAL-56, received the same Cd dose, followed by AL extract. Water or AL extract was administered daily by gavage. After either 7 or 56 days, the testis and accessory glands were removed after whole-body perfusion. Exposure to Cd and CdAL decreased the weight of the testis and epididymis, the gonadosomatic index, seminiferous tubular (ST) diameter, and ST volumetric proportion, and increased the volumetric proportion of interstitium after 56 days. In the epididymis caput, the tubular volumetric proportion decreased along with an increase of interstitial volumetric proportion and epithelium height after 56 days. The alterations observed were less severe only after 7 days. A progressive testicular damage resulted mainly in tubules lined only by Sertoli cells. The sperm number and cell debris decreased in the epididymis. We demonstrated that the testicular damage induced by single acute i.p. exposure to Cd occurred despite the daily oral intake of AL extract.

  9. Wistar Kyoto and Wistar rats differ in the affective and locomotor effects of nicotine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauhut, Anthony S; Zentner, Isaac J; Mardekian, Stacey K; Tanenbaum, Jason B

    2008-01-28

    Anhedonia is a characteristic of clinical depression and has been associated with dysfunction of the mesolimbic dopaminergic system, a system also involved in mediating nicotine reward. To further examine the relationship between anhedonia, clinical depression and nicotine reward, the present experiment determined if Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats, an animal model of clinical depression, differed from Wistar rats in nicotine conditioned place preference (CPP). Strain differences in nicotine-induced changes in locomotor activity also were determined simultaneously. To determine if strain differences were specific to reward-based learning, nicotine or lithium chloride (LiCl) conditioned taste avoidance (CTA) experiments were conducted. Rats received vehicle or nicotine (0.4 or 0.8 mg/kg) during a multi-trial, biased CPP training procedure or received vehicle, nicotine (0.2, 0.4 or 0.8 mg/kg) or lithium chloride (LiCl; 0.0375, 0.075 or 0.15 M) during a multi-trial CTA training procedure. Whereas both nicotine doses (0.4 and 0.8 mg/kg) initially induced hypoactivity, only the moderate nicotine dose (0.4 mg/kg) induced hyperactivity with repeated administration and produced a CPP in Wistar rats. Both nicotine doses failed to alter locomotor activity or produce a CPP in WKY rats. WKY rats also acquired a LiCl CTA more slowly and less robustly compared to Wistar rats. In contrast, nicotine dose-dependently produced a CTA in both strains and WKY rats were more sensitive to the avoidance effects of nicotine compared to Wistar rats. Collectively, these results suggest that WKY rats show deficits in nicotine reward and specific aversive drug stimuli compared to Wistar rats.

  10. Dietary sodium intake induced myenteric neuron hypertrophy in Wistar rats

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    De Souza R.R.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study we investigated the effect of salt intake on myenteric neuron size of the colon of adult male Wistar rats. The animals were placed on either a high-salt (HS; 8%; 12 animals or a low-salt diet (LS; 0.15%; 12 animals for 15 or 52 weeks and blood pressure was measured. The sizes of myenteric neurons of the distal colon from both groups were measured. No difference in neuron size was observed between the HS and LS groups after 15 weeks. After 52 weeks on HS, neuron size was increased (P<0.005 when compared with the LS group. The rats also presented hypertension, which was significantly different at 52 weeks (142 ± 11 vs 119 ± 7 mmHg. These results suggest that a long time on an HS diet can significantly increase myenteric nerve cell size.

  11. Differential Effect of the Dopamine D3 Agonist (±-7-Hydroxy-2-(N,N-di-n-propylamino Tetralin (7-OH-DPAT on Motor Activity between Adult Wistar and Sprague-Dawley Rats after a Neonatal Ventral Hippocampus Lesion

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    Sonia Guzmán-Velázquez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The neonatal ventral hippocampal lesion (nVHL has been widely used as an animal model for schizophrenia. Rats with an nVHL show several delayed behavioral alterations that mimic some symptoms of schizophrenia. Sprague-Dawley (SD rats with an nVHL have a decrease in D3 receptors in limbic areas, but the expression of D3 receptors in Wistar (W rats with an nVHL is unknown. The 7-Hydroxy-2-(N,N-di-n-propylamino tetralin (7-OH-DPAT has been reported as a D3-preferring agonist. Thus, we investigated the effect of (±-7-OH-DPAT (0.25 mg/kg on the motor activity in male adult W and SD rats after an nVHL. The 7-OH-DPAT caused a decrease in locomotion of W rats with an nVHL, but it did not change the locomotion of SD rats with this lesion. Our results suggest that the differential effect of 7-OH-DPAT between W and SD rats with an nVHL could be caused by a different expression of the D3 receptors. These results may have implications for modeling interactions of genetic and environmental factors involved in schizophrenia.

  12. Erythropoietin-Like Effects of Dihydroartemisinin in Wistar Albino Rats

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    Utoh-Nedosa U. Anastasia

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Artemisinin drugs were active during the intra-erythrocytic stage of malaria parasite infection. The activity of artemisinin and synthetic endoperoxides was related to their interaction with heme. The electrophillic intermediate formed from artemisinin in the presence of heme alkylates the protein portion of hemoglobin preferentially to the heme portion. Problem statement: Since there might be an interaction between artemisinin and the heme of the blood, we studied the effects of 5-day and 7-day oral Dihydroartemisinin (DHA treatments with 5 dosage regimens of dihydroartemisinin on the blood and six vital organs of Wistar albino rats. Approach: The dosages of DHA tested on 5 test adult Wistar albino rats (weight = 106-140 grams were 1, 2, 60 or 80 mg Kg-1 rat weight of DHA by oral intubation for 5 or 7 days. Four rats of similar weight which served as controls in each experiment were given distilled water equivalents of the administered doses of DHA. Another group of 5 test rats and four control rats (weight 75-90 gms were given 1 mg kg-1 rat weight of DHA or distilled water for 5 or 7 days and were allowed to rest for one week after which the treatment was repeated. Results: The findings of the study showed that Dihydroartemisinin (DHA had erythropoietin-like properties. In the study DHA produced dose, repetition and time dependent statistically significant increases in the Packed Cell Volume (PCV (PConclusion: This result suggested that the administered DHA inhibited its own stimulated statistically significant increases in the PCV and the WBC of the treated rats through an inhibitory (negative feed-back effect. The structure and composition of the blood cell types like the presence of large numbers of reticlocytes and left-shifted neutrophils in the blood samples of 5-day DHA -treated rats but not in those of 7-day DHA treated rats indicated that new haemopoiesis was actively going on in the first 5 days of DHA treatment but had slowed down

  13. Zinc deficient diet consequences for pregnancy andoffsprings of Wistar rats

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    Dirceu Solé

    Full Text Available Adult female Wistar rats (90 days old; weight 180 to 220 grams were submitted to different zinc deficient diets (Zn; severe = 2.6 ppm; mild = 9.0 ppm and normal diet = 81.6 ppm, during 6 weeks. After this time they were coupled with normal male Wistar rats. No differences regarding fecundity and sterility were observed between the groups. During pregnancy, part of the animals from severe and mild Zn deficient groups received the same diet and the others received normal diet. The animals from the group receiving normal diet, were divided into other 3: the first received severe, the second mild Zn deficient diet and the third normal diet. During the study we observed that animals submitted to a Zn deficient diet (acute or chronic had tendency to lower weight gain, lower weight of the offspring, lower serum levels of Zn in maternal and newborn (pool blood. A significant reduction in the number of alive newborns was observed in the group of animals submitted to severe Zn deficiency. These data reinforces that Zn is a very important trace element overall during pregnancy.

  14. Elemental concentration analysis in brain structures from young, adult and old Wistar rats by total reflection X-ray fluorescence with synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serpa, R.F.B. [Federal University of Rio de Janeiro/COPPE, Nuclear Instrumentation Laboratory, P.O. Box: 68509, Zip Code: 21941-972, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)]. E-mail: renata@lin.ufrj.br; Jesus, E.F.O. de [Federal University of Rio de Janeiro/COPPE, Nuclear Instrumentation Laboratory, P.O. Box: 68509, Zip Code: 21941-972, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Anjos, M.J. [Federal University of Rio de Janeiro/COPPE, Nuclear Instrumentation Laboratory, P.O. Box: 68509, Zip Code: 21941-972, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); University of Rio de Janeiro State, Physics Institute, RJ (Brazil); Carmo, M.G.T. do [Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Nutrition Institute, RJ (Brazil); Moreira, S. [University of Campinas State, Civil Engineering Department, SP (Brazil); Rocha, M.S. [Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Department of Basics and Clinic Pharmacy, RJ (Brazil); Martinez, A.M.B. [Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Department of Histology and Embryology, RJ (Brazil); Lopes, R.T. [Federal University of Rio de Janeiro/COPPE, Nuclear Instrumentation Laboratory, P.O. Box: 68509, Zip Code: 21941-972, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2006-11-15

    The knowledge of the spatial distribution and the local concentration of trace elements in tissues are of great importance since trace elements are involved in a number of metabolic and physiological processes in the human body, and their deficiency and excess may lead to different metabolic disorders. In this way, the main goal of this work is to compare the elemental concentration in different brain structures, namely temporal cortex, entorhinal cortex, visual cortex and hippocampus, from Wistar female rats (n = 15) with different ages: 2, 8 and 48 weeks. The measurements were performed at the Synchrotron Light Brazilian Laboratory, Campinas, Sao Paulo, Brazil. In the entorhinal cortex, the following elements decreased with age: Zn, S, Cl, K, Ca and Br. In the temporal cortex, Ca, Fe and Br levels increased with aging and on the other hand, P, S, Cl, K and Rb levels decreased with aging. In the visual cortex almost all the elements decreased with aging: Cl, Ca, Fe, Ni and Zn. In the hippocampus, in turn, most of the elements identified, increased with aging: Al, P, S, K, Fe, Cu, Zn and Rb. The increase of Fe with aging in the hippocampus is an important fact that will be studied, since it is involved in oxidative stress. It is believed that oxidative stress is the one of the main causes responsible for neuronal death in Parkinson's disease.

  15. Probiotic Cheese Attenuates Exercise-induced Immune Suppression In Wistar Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Lollo P.C.B.; Cruz A.G.; Morato P.N.; Moura C.S.; Carvalho-Silva L.B.; Oliveira C.A.F.; Faria J.A.F.; Amaya-Farfan J.

    2012-01-01

    Intense physical activity results in a substantial volume of stress and hence a significant probability of immunosuppression in athletes, with milk proteins being, perhaps, the most recommended protein supplements. Consumption of a probiotic cheese can attenuate immune suppression induced by exhausting exercise in rats. A popular Brazilian fresh cheese (Minas Frescal cheese) containing Lactobacillus acidophilus LA14 and Bifidobacterium longum BL05 was fed for 2 wk to adult Wistar rats, which ...

  16. Development of Wistar rat model of insulin resistance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing Ai; Ning Wang; Mei Yang; Zhi-Min Du; Yong-Chun Zhang; Bao-Feng Yang

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To establish a simplified and reliable animal model of insulin resistance with low cost in Wistar rats. METHODS: Wistar rats were treated with a high fat emulsion by ig for 10 d. Changes of the diets, drinking and body weight were monitored every day and insulin resistance was evaluated by hyperinsulinemic-euglycemicclamp techniques and short insulin tolerance test using capillary blood glucose. Morphologic changes of liver, fat, skeletal muscles, and pancreatic islets were assessed under light microscope. mRNA expressions of GLUT2 and α-glucosidase in small intestine epithelium, GLUT4 in skeletal muscles and Kir6.2 in beta cell of islets were determined by in situ hybridization.RESULTS: KITT was smaller in treated animals (4.5±0.9)than in untreated control Wistar rats (6.8±1.5), and so was glucose injection rate. Both adipocyte hypertrophy and large pancreatic islets were seen in high fat fed rats,but no changes of skeletal muscles and livers wereobserved. mRNA levels of GLUT2, α-glucosidase in small intestinal epithelium and Kir6.2 mRNA in beta cells of islets increased, whereas that of GLUT4 in skeletal muscles decreased in high fat fed group compared with normal control group.CONCLUSION: An insulin resistance animal model in Wistar rats is established by ig special fat emulsion.

  17. Craniofacial form is altered by chronic adult exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD in Han/Wistar and Long–Evans rats with different aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR structures

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    Sabrina B. Sholts

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mammalian bone has shown a variety of responses to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD exposure in experimental and wildlife studies. Although many responses have been well characterized in the postcranial skeleton, dioxin-induced effects on the cranium are largely unknown. In this study, we investigated the effects of chronic adult exposure to TCDD on cranial size and shape in dioxin-resistant Han/Wistar (H/W and dioxin-sensitive Long–Evans (L–E rat strains. Three-dimensional landmark configurations for the face, vault, and base of the cranium were recorded and analyzed using geometric morphometrics (GM and dose–response modeling. The strongest effects were shown by L–E and H/W rats with daily exposures of 100 and 1000 ng TCDD/kg bw/day, respectively, resulting in significant reductions in centroid size (CS in all three cranial modules for both strains except for the vault in H/W rats. Consistent with previous evidence of intraspecific variation in TCDD resistance, the benchmark doses (CEDs for cranial size reduction in L–E rats were roughly 10-fold lower than those for H/W rats. For both strains, the face showed the greatest size reduction from the highest doses of TCDD (i.e., 3.6 and 6.3% decreases in H/W and L–E rats, respectively, most likely related to dose-dependent reductions in limb bone size and body weight gain. However, intrinsic morphological differences between strains were also observed: although the control groups of H/W and L–E rats had vaults and bases of comparable size, the face was 6.4% larger in L–E rats. Thus, although H/W rats possess an altered aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR that appears to mediate and provides some resistance to TCDD exposure, their smaller reductions in facial size may also relate to strain-specific patterns of cranial development and growth. Future research will be aimed at understanding how ontogenetic factors may modulate toxic effects of prenatal and lactational exposure on

  18. Effects of perinatal ethinyl estradiol exposure in male and female Wistar rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mandrup, Karen; Jacobsen, Pernille Rosenskjold; Isling, Louise Krag

    2013-01-01

    Perinatal exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals with estrogenic activity can adversely affect reproductive development, but few studies evaluating estrogen-sensitive endpoints have been performed in Wistar rats. Therefore, time-mated Wistar rats (n=10) were gavaged during gestation and lacta......Perinatal exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals with estrogenic activity can adversely affect reproductive development, but few studies evaluating estrogen-sensitive endpoints have been performed in Wistar rats. Therefore, time-mated Wistar rats (n=10) were gavaged during gestation...

  19. Morphological changes induced by testosterone in the mammary glands of female Wistar rats

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    Chambô-Filho A.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Increased levels of androgens in postmenopausal women are considered to be a risk factor for breast cancer. Testosterone, alone or in combination with estrogen, induces epithelial dysplasia and mammary tumors in Noble rats. Since this model of hormone-induced neoplasia has not been reported in other rat strains, we studied the effect of testosterone on the mammary gland morphology of female Wistar rats. Sixty adult, non-castrated, female Wistar rats were implanted in the dorsum midline with a silicone tube containing 50 mg testosterone (testosterone propionate in 30 animals and non-esterified testosterone in the remaining 30 animals and 20 additional animals were implanted with empty tubes and used as control. Five animals per group were killed 30, 60, 90, 120, 150, and 180 days after implantation, and the mammary glands were dissected, fixed and embedded in paraffin. Histological sections were then stained with hematoxylin and eosin and picrosyrius red for collagen visualization. Morphological and morphometric analysis demonstrated ductal proliferation and acinotubular differentiation with secretory activity in all treated animals, peaking at 90 days of androgen exposure. After 90 days the proliferation of acinar epithelial cells was evident, but there was a progressive reduction of secretory differentiation and an increase in intralobular collagen fibers. There was no morphological evidence of dysplastic changes or other pre-neoplastic lesions. Testosterone treatment applied to adult, non-castrated female Wistar rats induced a mammary gland hyperplasia resembling the lactating differentiation, with progressive reduction in secretory differentiation.

  20. [Individual sensitivity of Wistar rats to piracetam].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikol'skaia, K A; Kondrashevskaia, M V; Eremina, L V

    2007-11-01

    Effects of repeated piracetam (PIR) injections in a dose of 40 and 250 mg/kg/day on the learning in Water rats were studied. It has been found that character of the effects depends on typological features of the animals. Rats with strong predominance of excitation (choleric type) showed low sensitivity to PIR. Small dose of PIR provoked clear negative effect in rats with relative balance of the basic nervous processes: excitation and inhibition (sanguine and phlegmatic types). Despite of expressed activation of associative process, it complicated integrative activity. Small dose of PIR showed anxiolytic and psycho-stimulant actions only in initially unlearned rats characterized by high level of fear. Large dose of PIR had negative influence on the learning process in all animals, irrespective of typological features. Thus, the results of this study allow to suppose that the individual sensitivity of an animal to action of a pharmacological medication is caused by morpho-functional and neurochemical intraspecific heterogeneity.

  1. MOMORDICA CHARANTIA PROTECTS AGAINST CARDIAC DAMAGE IN STREPTOZOTOCIN-INDUCED DIABETIC WISTAR RATS

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    O. A Komolafe

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus is one of the most important world health problems, especially in developing countries where prevalence and incidence rates are highest. Diabetic patients are particularly prone to cardiovascular diseases including hypertension, atherosclerosis, diabetic cardiomyopathy, congestive heart failure and cardiac autonomic neuropathy. The present study investigated the effects of Momordica charantia (M. charantia on histological changes of the left ventricle of the heart in streptozotocin-induced diabetic Wistar rats. Forty healthy adult Wistar rats of both sexes were randomly assigned into five groups A, B, C, D and E of eight rats each. Group A were the control (normal rats; B were the experimentally-induced diabetic rats; C were diabetic rats treated with methanolic extracts of M. charantia for two weeks (withdrawal group; D were diabetic rats treated with methanolic extracts of M. charantia for four weeks. E was diabetic rats treated with glimepiride for four weeks. Tissues were harvested, processed routinely in paraffin wax and stained with routine and special stains. Histological studies revealed disorganization of myofibril in the left ventricle of diabetic rats. Histochemical analysis also revealed abnormal deposition of glycogen in left ventricle of diabetic rats. M. charantia and glimperide attenuated the morphological alterations and reduced the glycogen deposits.

  2. Histological study of the effects of oral administration of datura metel on the visual system of male wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibiyeye Yetunde Rukayat

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out in order to elucidate some of the effects of oral administration of Cannabis sativa on the visual system of male Wistar rats as marker of toxicity using neurohistochemical study. 12 adult male Wistar rats were used for this study. The rats were distributed into two groups (A and B. The rats in group A served as the treatment group and were administered with 300 mg/kg body weight of Cannabis sativa while the rats in group B which served as the control were administered with equal volume of phosphate buffered saline. The duration of administration was for 14d. The rats were sacrificed using cervical dislocation 24 hrs after the last administration. The brains were excised from the skulls of the animals and were completely fixed in 10% formol calcium. 72 hours after fixation, right occipital cortex, right lateral geniculate nucleus and right superior colliculus were excised separately for histological (H&E processing. Microscopic observations made from the permanent photomicrographs revealed alterations in the histoarchitecture of the visual system of the rats in the treated group compared with the rats in the treated group with preserved histological outline. Oral administration of Cannabis sativa on the visual system of male Wistar rats caused neurodegeneration of the occipital cortex, right lateral geniculate nucleus and right superior colliculus of Wistar rats.

  3. Effects of Xylopia aethiopica (Annonaceae) fruit methanol extract on gamma-radiation-induced oxidative stress in brain of adult male Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adaramoye, O A; Popoola, Bosede O; Farombi, E O

    2010-09-01

    Xylopia aethiopica (XA) (Annonaceae) possesses great nutritional and medicinal values. This study was designed to investigate the effects of XA fruit methanol extract on oxidative stress in brain of rats exposed to whole body gamma-radiation (5 Gy). Vitamin C (VC) served as standard antioxidant. Forty-four rats were divided into 4 groups of 11 rats each. One group served as control, two different groups were treated with XA and VC (250 mg/kg), 6 weeks before and 8 weeks after irradiation, and fourth group was only irradiated. Rats were sacrificed 1 and 8 weeks after irradiation. The antioxidant status, viz. Lipid peroxidation (LPO), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione-s-transferase (GST) and glutathione (GSH) were estimated. Results indicate a significant increase (p < 0.05) in levels of brain LPO after irradiation. LPO increased by 90% and 151%, after 1 and 8 weeks of irradiation, respectively. Irradiation caused significant (p < 0.05) decreases in levels of GSH and GST by 61% and 43% after 1 week and, 75% and 73%, respectively, after 8 weeks of exposure. CAT and SOD levels were decreased by 62% and 68%, respectively, after 8 weeks of irradiation. Treatment with XA and VC ameliorated the radiation-induced decreases in antioxidant status of the animals. These suggest that XA could have beneficial effect by inhibiting oxidative damage in brain of exposed rats.

  4. Rapid avoidance acquisition in Wistar-Kyoto rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Servatius, R J; Jiao, X; Beck, K D; Pang, K C H; Minor, T R

    2008-10-10

    The relationship between trait stress-sensitivity, avoidance acquisition and perseveration of avoidance was examined using male Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) and Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. Behavior in an open field was measured prior to escape/avoidance (E/A) acquisition and extinction. E/A was assessed in a discrete trial lever-press protocol. The signal-shock interval was 60s with subsequent shocks delivered every 3s until a lever-press occurred. A 3-min flashing light safety signal was delivered contingent upon a lever-press (or failure to respond in 5 min). WKY rats displayed phenotypic low open field activity, but were clearly superior to SD rats in E/A performance. As avoidance responses were acquired and reached asymptotic performance, SD rats exhibited "warm up", that is, SD rats rarely made avoidance responses on the initial trial of a session, even though later trials were consistently accompanied with avoidance responses. In contrast, WKY rats did not show the "warm up" pattern and avoided on nearly all trials of a session including the initial trial. In addition to the superior acquisition of E/A, WKY rats demonstrated several other avoidance features that were different from SD rats. Although the rates of nonreinforced intertrial responses (ITRs) were relatively low and selective to the early safety period, WKY displayed more ITRs than SD rats. With removal of the shocks extinction was delayed in WKY rats, likely reflecting their nearly perfect avoidance performance. Even after extensive extinction, first trial avoidance and ITRs were evident in WKY rats. Thus, WKY rats have a unique combination of trait behavioral inhibition (low open field activity and stress sensitivity) and superior avoidance acquisition and response perseveration making this strain a good model to understand anxiety disorders.

  5. Elemental concentration analysis in brain of young, adult and old wistar rats by X-ray total reflection fluorescence with synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serpa, Renata F.B.; Jesus, Edgar F.O. de; Lopes, Ricardo T. [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia. Lab. de Instrumentacao Nuclear]. E-mail: renata@lin.ufrj.br; Anjos, Marcelino J. dos [Universidade do Estado, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica]. E-mail: marcelin@lin.ufrj.br; Carmo, Maria da Graca T. do [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Nutricao]. E-mail: tcarmo@editema.com.br; Rocha, Monica S. [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Farmacologia]. E-mail: mrocha@farmaco.ufrj.br; Moreira, Silvana [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Civil]. E-mail: silvana@fec.unicamp.br; Martinez, Ana Maria B. [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Histologia]. E-mail: martinez@histo.ufrj.br

    2005-07-01

    The mainly goal of this work is to compare the elemental concentrations with different postnatal ages (2, 8, 20, 48 and 72 weeks) at three different regions of the rat brain, namely temporal cortex, entorhinal cortex and hippocampus by X-Ray Total Reflection Fluorescence with Synchrotron Radiation (SR-TXRF). The advantages for this analytical multielemental technique are: low background, linear relation in the quantification analysis and low detection limit (ngg{sup -1}). The fluorescence measurements were carried out at XRF beamline at the Brazilian Light Synchrotron Laboratory (Campinas, Brazil). It was possible to determine the following elements: Ti, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Br, Rb and Sr (at trace level) and P, S, Cl, K and Ca (at major levels) were determined in the brain. In general, Fe levels were more pronounced in entorhinal cortex. There was also observed that the hippocampus of the old female rat presented the highest concentrations for Al, P, S, K, and Zn. In contrast to this, the hippocampus and entorhinal cortex presented the less levels for Al and K in the young animals. On the other hand, Cl levels were more conspicuous in the entorhinal cortex of the oldest male animal studied. (author)

  6. Activation of autophagy improves neuron injury after the restoration of spontaneous circulation from ventricular fibrillation in wistar rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾小云

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of activation of autophagy on cerebral injury after cardiopulmonary resuscitation(CPR)in Wistar rats.Methods At first 36healthy adult male Wistar rats were induced to suffer ventricular fibrillation(VF)by an external transthoracic alternating electricity current shock for 7 minutes and then received CPR.Before VF(0)and at 1 h,2 h,4 h,8 h and 12 hours after the restoration of spontaneous circulation(ROSC)from VF,cerebral cortex were harvested to

  7. Proteomics analysis of cerebral cortex in Wistar rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaofeng ZHAO; Jingrong WEN; Shu WANG; Xuemin SHI

    2008-01-01

    To analyze the protein expression pattern of the cerebral cortex in Wistar rats using the proteomics approach, proteins were separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, stained with Coomassie brilliant blue and digested with trypsin. Then, we analyzed the peptide section using a matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) and identified the protein by indexing special database (SwissProt) according to the finger printing of the peptide quality. Eighty-four protein spots were identified, includ-ing metabolic enzymes, skeleton proteins, heat shock pro-teins, antioxidant proteins, signaling proteins, proteasome related proteins, neuron and glial specific proteins and serum associated proteins. The result of this study enriches the database of the proteome in the cerebral cortex of rats and lays a foundation for further research of neurological disorders in rat models.

  8. Safety of Moxifloxacin following repeated intramuscular administration in Wistar rats

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    K.A. Sadariya

    Full Text Available Moxifloxacin is a novel fourth generation fluoroquinolone with broad spectrum of antibacterial activity. The study was conducted to evaluate the safety of Moxifloxacin (5.0 mg/kg after repeated intramuscular administration at 24 h interval for 14 days in male and female wistar rats. Hematological (Haemoglobin, RBC, WBC, MCV, MCH, MCHC, HCT and DLC, blood biochemical parameters (AST, ALT, ALP, Total Bilirubin, Total Serum Protein, Serum Albumin, Globulin, Serum Creatinine, Urea, Uric acid and Blood glucose and histopathological examination of various tissues were carried out in the present study. Male and female animals of any group did not reveal any clinical symptoms and mortality attributable to the 14 days intramuscular administration of Moxifloxacin. The data were compared by unpaired two tail `t` test using Graph Pad Prism (Version 4.00. All above hematological and blood biochemical parameters were found to fluctuate within normal range during treatment period and the mean values were not significantly differ (p < 0.05 from corresponding control values. Moreover, no gross or microscopic changes were found in the liver, kidney, heart, spleen, stomach, intestine and joint cartilages of the treated wistar rats. Results indicate that daily administration of Moxifloxacin for 14 days seems to be safe and well tolerated in rats. [Veterinary World 2010; 3(10.000: 449-452

  9. Toxicity, distribution, and accumulation of silver nanoparticles in Wistar rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Espinosa-Cristobal, L. F.; Martinez-Castanon, G. A., E-mail: mtzcastanon@fciencias.uaslp.mx; Loyola-Rodriguez, J. P.; Patino-Marin, N. [UASLP, Doctorado Institucional en Ingenieria y Ciencia de los Materiales (Mexico); Reyes-Macias, J. F. [Facultad de Estomatologia de la Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi, Maestria y Doctorado en Ciencias Odontologicas en el Area de Odontologia Integral Avanzada (Mexico); Vargas-Morales, J. M. [Av. Salvador Nava s/n, Zona Universitaria, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas de la Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi (Mexico); Ruiz, Facundo [Facultad de Ciencias de la Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi (Mexico)

    2013-06-15

    The bactericidal effect of silver nanoparticles (SNP) has lead to their application in several products mainly in the medicine field. This study analyzed the distribution, accumulation, and toxicity in principal organs of Wistar rats exposed to SNP suspensions by oral administration. Two sizes of washed SNP (14 and 36 nm) were prepared, characterized, and redispersed in deionized water. Each suspension was administrated to Wistar rats by oral way for 55 days; after finishing this treatment time, rats were sacrificed by anesthesia overdose. Organs were collected, processed, and prepared; then, accumulation and concentrations of SNP were obtained using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Toxicity was determined by clinical chemistry and hematology from blood samples in three different periods; light microscopy (LM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were applied to evaluate histopathology in tissues. Silver concentrations were higher in small intestine, followed by kidney, liver, and brain. Clinical chemistry and hematology showed altered values in blood urea nitrogen, total proteins, and mean corpuscular hemoglobin, concentration values had statistical difference in both groups (14 and 36 nm) (p < 0.05). LM, SEM, ICP-MS, clinical chemistry, and hematology tests suggest that the administration way, concentration, shape, size, presentation, administration time of SNP used in this study, do not change significantly these values.

  10. Experimental model of intervertebral disc degeneration by needle puncture in Wistar rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Issy, A.C.; Castania, V.; Castania, M. [Departamento de Morfologia, Fisiologia e Patologia Básica, Faculdade de Odontologia de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Salmon, C.E.G. [Departamento de Física, Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciências e Letras de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Nogueira-Barbosa, M.H. [Divisão de Radiologia, Departamento de Clínica Médica, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Bel, E. Del [Departamento de Morfologia, Fisiologia e Patologia Básica, Faculdade de Odontologia de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Defino, H.L.A. [Departamento de Biomecânica, Medicina e Reabilitação do Sistema Locomotor, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil)

    2013-03-15

    Animal models of intervertebral disc degeneration play an important role in clarifying the physiopathological mechanisms and testing novel therapeutic strategies. The objective of the present study is to describe a simple animal model of disc degeneration involving Wistar rats to be used for research studies. Disc degeneration was confirmed and classified by radiography, magnetic resonance and histological evaluation. Adult male Wistar rats were anesthetized and submitted to percutaneous disc puncture with a 20-gauge needle on levels 6-7 and 8-9 of the coccygeal vertebrae. The needle was inserted into the discs guided by fluoroscopy and its tip was positioned crossing the nucleus pulposus up to the contralateral annulus fibrosus, rotated 360° twice, and held for 30 s. To grade the severity of intervertebral disc degeneration, we measured the intervertebral disc height from radiographic images 7 and 30 days after the injury, and the signal intensity T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging. Histological analysis was performed with hematoxylin-eosin and collagen fiber orientation using picrosirius red staining and polarized light microscopy. Imaging and histological score analyses revealed significant disc degeneration both 7 and 30 days after the lesion, without deaths or systemic complications. Interobserver histological evaluation showed significant agreement. There was a significant positive correlation between histological score and intervertebral disc height 7 and 30 days after the lesion. We conclude that the tail disc puncture method using Wistar rats is a simple, cost-effective and reproducible model for inducing disc degeneration.

  11. [Occurrence and structure of accessory adrenal glands in Wistar rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwabedal, P E; Partenheimer, U

    1983-01-01

    In complete series of histological sections through the entire abdomen of one normal Wistar-rat, one untreated and two bilaterally adrenalectomized, spontaneously hypertensive Wistar-rats accessory suprarenal glands were found in each case. The detailed findings in the various groups of animals investigated were as follows: (1) In the normal animal 10 accessory suprarenal glands were present. They consisted of tiny aggregates of cortical cells and were surrounded by a thin layer of collageneous fibers. The diameters of the accessory suprarenal complexes were in the order of 0.3 mm. (2) In the untreated, spontaneously hypertensive rat three accessory suprarenal glands were found. However, in contrast to what was seen in the normal rat, these complexes were larger and had diameters of up to 1 mm. Some of these accessory suprarenal glands consisted almost exclusively of small, chromophobe cells, whereas in others a rim of such cells was seen to surround a central core of larger and more acidophile cortical cells. There were few and collapsed capillaries. (3) In the bilaterally adrenalectomized, spontaneously hypertensive rats three, respectively four, accessory suprarenal glands were found. They were situated in the retroperitoneum and partly within the adipose capsule of the kidney but never in the place of the exstirpated main suprarenal glands. In one case an accessory gland was found within the fibrous capsule of the kidney and seen to compress the renal parenchyma. In the bilaterally adrenalectomized animals the average diameters of the accessory glands were larger than in the other groups reaching values of up to 5 mm. At least in both animals one of the accessory glands had a diameter comparable to that of the normal suprarenal gland of an untreated animal. The capillaries were dilated and their number was increased in comparison to what was seen in the other groups. In certain regions the cortical tissue of the accessory glands had an appearance resembling

  12. Total lymphoid irradiation in the Wistar rat: technique and dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoogenhout, J.; Kazem, I.; de Jong, J.

    1983-01-01

    The technical and dosimetric aspects of total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) in the Wistar rat were evaluated as part of a set-up to develop a new model for tumor xenotransplantation. Information obtained from anatomical dissections, radionuclide imaging of the spleen, lymphography and chromolymphography was used to standardize the localization portals cut out in a lead plate. The two portals encompassed the lymphoid tissue above and below the diaphragm. A specially designed masonite phantom was used to measure the dose distribution in the simulated target volumes. Ionization chamber dosimetery, thermoluminescence dosimetry and film densitometry were used for measuring exposure and absorbed dose. Irradiation was performed with 250 kV X rays (HVL 3.1 mm Cu). The dose rate was regulated by adjusting the treatment distance. The dose inhomogeneity measured in the target volumes varied between 80-100%. The side scatter dose to non target tissues under the shielded area between the two portals ranged between 20-30%. The technique and dosimetry of total lymphoid irradiation in Wistar rats are now standardized and validated and pave the way for tumor xenotransplantation experiments.

  13. Study of corpus callosum in experimental hydrocephalic wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lopes Luiza da Silva

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Hydrocephalus causes countless cerebral damages, especially on the structures around the ventricles. Hydrocephalic children present deficiencies in the nonverbal skills more than in the verbal skills, and not always revertible with an early treatment. As the corpus callosum has an important role in the nonverbal acquisition it is possible that the injuries in this structure are responsible for the cognitive dysfunctions of these children. This present study tries to establish the alterations caused by hydrocephalus on the corpus callosum of developing Wistar rats, induced by intracisternal injection of kaolin. METHODS : Seven, fourteen and twenty one days after the injection, the animals were killed, and the corpus callosum was dissected and prepared for the study of the axonal fibers. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The seven-day old rats in hydrocephalus development presented a delay in myelination in relation to the control rats. With the fourteen-day old rats in hydrocephalus development the corpus callosum showed a recovery of myelin, but with the twenty one-day old rats in hydrocephalus development the axonal fibers were damaged and reduced in number.

  14. Analysis of mitochondrial DNA somatic mutations in OXYS and Wistar strain rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotskaya, U N; Rogozin, I B; Vasyunina, E A; Kolosova, N G; Malyarchuk, B A; Nevinsky, G A; Sinitsyna, O I

    2009-04-01

    Rats of the OXYS strain are sensitive to oxidative stress and serve as a biological model of premature aging. We have compared spectra of somatic mutations in a control region of mtDNA from the liver of the OXYS rat strain and of Wistar rats as a control. The majority of nucleotide substitutions in the mutation spectra were represented by transitions: 94 and 97% in the OXYS and Wistar rats, respectively. It was shown that 40% of somatic mutations in the control region of mtDNA from Wistar rats were significantly consistent with the model of dislocation mutagenesis. No statistical support for this model was found for mutations in the control region of mtDNA from OXYS rats. The mutation frequency in the ETAS section was higher in the OXYS strain rats than in Wistar rats. These results suggest different mechanisms of mutagenesis in the two rat strains under study.

  15. Effects of ligature-induced periodontitis in pregnant Wistar rats Efeito da doença periodontal induzida por ligadura na prenhez de ratas Wistar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariane Ponzio de Azevedo Galvão

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of ligature-induced periodontal disease in pregnant rats on their newborn's health parameters. Twenty-four female adult Wistar rats were divided into two groups: the control group (G1 and the group that was submitted to dental ligatures around second upper molars (G2. After the four week period of development of periodontitis, the female animals were mated with male adult Wistar rats. There were no differences in the body weight of females between the two groups during mating and pregnancy. No differences were observed among the groups in relation to the viable newborn index. However, there were differences in newborn birth weight, explained by the diverse size of the litters. In this study, ligature-induced periodontal disease did not promote changes during pregnancy that resulted in low birth weight in newborn Wistar rats.O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar a influência da periodontite induzida por ligadura em ratas prenhes sobre parâmetros de saúde geral de seus filhotes. Vinte e quatro ratas Wistar de idade adulta foram divididas em dois grupos: grupo controle (G1 e grupo experimental, que recebeu ligaduras ao redor dos segundos molares superiores (G2. Após o período de indução de periodontite (quatro semanas, as ratas foram colocadas para cruzamento com ratos Wistar machos, adultos. Não houve diferença no peso corporal das fêmeas durante os períodos de cruzamento e prenhez. Também não foram observadas diferenças entre os grupos quanto à taxa de recém-nascidos viáveis. No entanto, houve diferença quanto ao peso dos recém-nascidos, sendo tal diferença explicada pela variação no tamanho das ninhadas. No presente estudo, doença periodontal induzida por ligadura não promoveu mudanças durante a prenhez que resultassem em baixo peso ao nascer dos filhotes Wistar.

  16. A Multidimensional Magnetic Resonance Histology Atlas of the Wistar Rat Brain

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, G. Allan; Calabrese, Evan; Badea, Alexandra; PAXINOS, GEORGE; Watson, Charles

    2012-01-01

    We have produced a multidimensional atlas of the adult Wistar rat brain based on magnetic resonance histology (MRH). This MR atlas has been carefully aligned with the widely used Paxinos-Watson atlas based on optical sections to allow comparisons between histochemical and immuno-marker data, and the use of the Paxinos-Watson abbreviation set. Our MR atlas attempts to make a seamless connection with the advantageous features of the Paxinos-Watson atlas, and to extend the utility of the data th...

  17. [Comparative analysis of imipramine intake reactions in catatonic and wistar rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alekhina, T A; Palchikova, N A; Igonina, T N; Kuznetsova, N V

    2015-03-01

    Chronic imipramine intake (7.5 mg/kg) leads to the stable decrease of excitable reactions to sound stimulant in Wistar rats and induced phase behavioral response in catatonic GC rats. Increased noradrenaline level in frontal cortex and striatum in Wistar animals was shown, whereas it didn't reveal noradrenaline level differences in any brain structures in GC rats. The higher blood corticosterone concentration was decreased under antidepressant reaction in GC rats. Differences between intact GC animals were found out: reduced triglyceride level, lesser body weight, and greater weight index of adrenals in comparison with Wistar rats. Various mechanisms of imipramine action in two rat strains were shown: influence on adrenergic brain system, taking part in the control of exiting behavior in Wistar rats and reaction in adrenals in GC rats.

  18. Maternal age, reproduction and chromosomal aberrations in Wistar derived rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niggeschulze, A; Kast, A

    1994-01-01

    The fertility of rats ranges from one to 18 months. In standard teratogenicity testing young, mature females are used which may not reflect the situation in women above 35 years old. Reproduction among different age groups of Wistar ats (strain Chbb: THOM) was compared at 3, 6, 9, 12, 15 and 18 months. At least 20 virgin females were inseminated per age group. The copulation rate did not differ between the groups. From the maternal age of 12 months, the pregnancy rate was significantly decreased, from the age of 9 months, the litter values were significantly lowered and the resorption rates were increased. Maternal age did not influence the incidence of fetal variations and malformations. Additionally, the chromosomal aberration rate in the bone marrow was evaluated in male and female rats. Twelve animals of each sex were scheduled per group, and studied at the age of 1, 3, 6, 12, 15, 18, 21 or 24 months. In males, the aberration rate increased continuously from 0.18 through 3%, while in females the increase continued from 0.33 to 2.29% at 15 months old when a plateau was reached. When testing new compounds for embryotoxicity or genotoxicity in female rats, the animals should be of comparable age to man in order to avoid a misinterpretation of spontaneous abnormalities. From these studies, however, it was concluded that the use of higher age groups of female rats in teratogenicity studies would not improve the risk assessment.

  19. Syzygium Cumini (L. Seeds Extract Ameliorates Cisplatin Induced Hepatotoxicity in Male Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.Maheswari

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The discovery of cisplatin, cis-[Pt(II(NH(3(2Cl(2] ([PtCl2(NH32] or CDDP, was a corner stone which triggered the interest in platinum(II-and other metal-containing compounds as potential anticancer drugs. Cisplatin, is one of the most potent chemotherapy drugs widely used for cancer treatment. In our present study, an attempt has been made to study the effect of Cisplatin on biochemical and histopathological parameters and ameliorating effects of the Syzygium cumini (L. aqueous seeds extract or Eugena Jambolana in male wistar rats. Adult male wistar rats were divided into four different groups. Group I Served as vehicle treated normal saline (Control, Group II Rats received single intra-peritoneal (Ip injection of cisplatin (7mg/kg bw, Group III received Syzygium cumini (L. aqueous seeds extract 400mg/kg/bw orally for 7 days beginning one day prior to cisplatin (CP injection. Group IV Rats received alone Syzygium cumini (L. aqueous seeds extract (400mg/kg bw treated. Cisplatin exposure leads to adverse effects on hematological, hepatotoxic parameters including Erythrocytes (RBCs. Cisplatin induction leads to reduction in the levels of Enzymic and Non-Enzymic antioxidants levels. However, on treatment with Syzygium cumini (L. aqueous seeds extract normalized the levels of all the biochemical and hematological parameters. These findings highlight the efficacy of Syzygium cumini (L. aqueous seeds extract as protective effects Cisplatin induced hepatotoxicity.

  20. Acetaminophen Induced Hepatotoxicity in Wistar Rats--A Proteomic Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilavenil, Soundharrajan; Al-Dhabi, Naif Abdullah; Srigopalram, Srisesharam; Ock Kim, Young; Agastian, Paul; Baru, Rajasekhar; Choi, Ki Choon; Valan Arasu, Mariadhas

    2016-01-28

    Understanding the mechanism of chemical toxicity, which is essential for cross-species and dose extrapolations, is a major challenge for toxicologists. Standard mechanistic studies in animals for examining the toxic and pathological changes associated with the chemical exposure have often been limited to the single end point or pathways. Toxicoproteomics represents a potential aid to the toxicologist to understand the multiple pathways involved in the mechanism of toxicity and also determine the biomarkers that are possible to predictive the toxicological response. We performed an acute toxicity study in Wistar rats with the prototype liver toxin; the acetaminophen (APAP) effects on protein profiles in the liver and its correlation with the plasma biochemical markers for liver injury were analyzed. Three separate groups--control, nontoxic (150 mg/kg) and toxic dose (1500 mg/kg) of APAP--were studied. The proteins extracted from the liver were separated by 2-DE and analyzed by MALDI-TOF. The differential proteins in the gels were analyzed by BIORAD's PDQuest software and identified by feeding the peptide mass fingerprint data to various public domain programs like Mascot and MS-Fit. The identified proteins in toxicity-induced rats were classified based on their putative protein functions, which are oxidative stress (31%), immunity (14%), neurological related (12%) and transporter proteins (2%), whereas in non-toxic dose-induced rats they were oxidative stress (9%), immunity (6%), neurological (14%) and transporter proteins (9%). It is evident that the percentages of oxidative stress and immunity-related proteins were up-regulated in toxicity-induced rats as compared with nontoxic and control rats. Some of the liver drug metabolizing and detoxifying enzymes were depleted under toxic conditions compared with non-toxic rats. Several other proteins were identified as a first step in developing an in-house rodent liver toxicoproteomics database.

  1. Splenotoxic effect of radiographic developer effluent on Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony C. Ugwu

    2016-05-01

    Results: Normal spleen histology was observed in the control group. In contrast, tissue degeneration and necrosis; lymphocytic infiltration as well as reduction of splenic follicles were observed in some of the test groups (IIA, IIB and IIIA. Interestingly, the toxic effects of the developer effluent on group IIIB administered with higher dose for a longer period of 28 days were not as severe as observed in the other test groups. Conclusions: The present study which indicated adverse effects of exposures to sub-lethal doses of developer effluent on Wistar rats' spleen tissues suggests the need for proper management and disposal of radiographic effluents. [Int J Res Med Sci 2016; 4(5.000: 1625-1631

  2. Low ethanol consumption increases insulin sensitivity in Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.T. Furuya

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Several human studies suggest that light-to-moderate alcohol consumption is associated with enhanced insulin sensitivity, but these studies are not free of conflicting results. To determine if ethanol-enhanced insulin sensitivity could be demonstrated in an animal model, male Wistar rats were fed a standard chow diet and received drinking water without (control or with different ethanol concentrations (0.5, 1.5, 3, 4.5 and 7%, v/v for 4 weeks ad libitum. Then, an intravenous insulin tolerance test (IVITT was performed to determine insulin sensitivity. Among the ethanol groups, only the 3% ethanol group showed an increase in insulin sensitivity based on the increase of the plasma glucose disappearance rate in the IVITT (30%, P<0.05. In addition, an intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT was performed in control and 3% ethanol animals. Insulin sensitivity was confirmed in 3% ethanol rats based on the reduction of insulin secretion in the IVGTT (35%, P<0.05, despite the same glucose profile. Additionally, the 3% ethanol treatment did not impair body weight gain or plasma aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase activities. Thus, the present study established that 3% ethanol in the drinking water for 4 weeks in normal rats is a model of increased insulin sensitivity, which can be used for further investigations of the mechanisms involved.

  3. Atrophic cardiac remodeling induced by taurine deficiency in Wistar rats.

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    Mariele Castilho Pansani

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Micronutrient deficiency is observed in heart failure patients. Taurine, for example, represents 50% of total free amino acids in the heart, and in vivo studies have linked taurine deficiency with cardiomyopathy. METHODS: Thirty-four male Wistar rats (body weight = 100 g were weighed and randomly assigned to one of two groups: Control (C or taurine-deficient (T (-. Beta-alanine at a concentration of 3% was added to the animals' water to induce taurine deficiency in the T (- group. On day 30, the rats were individually submitted to echocardiography; morphometrical and histopathological evaluation and metalloproteinase activity, oxidative stress and inflammation evaluation were performed. Tissue samples were collected to determine the taurine concentration in the heart. RESULTS: Taurine deficiency led to decreases in: ventricular wall thickness, left ventricle dry weight, myocyte sectional area, left ventricle posterior wall thickness and ventricular geometry. With regard to heart function, the velocity of the A wave, the ratio between the E and A wave, the ejection fraction, fractional shortening and cardiac output values were decreased in T (- rats, suggesting abnormal diastolic and systolic function. Increased fibrosis, inflammation and increased activation of metalloproteinases were not observed. Oxidative stress was increased in deficient animals. CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that taurine deficiency promotes structural and functional cardiac alterations with unique characteristics.

  4. Sensitization and cross-sensitization after chronic treatment with methylphenidate in adolescent Wistar rats.

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    Valvassori, Samira S; Frey, Benício N; Martins, Márcio R; Réus, Gislaine Z; Schimidtz, Filipe; Inácio, Cecília G; Kapczinski, Flávio; Quevedo, João

    2007-05-01

    An increasing debate exists about the potential of early exposure to methylphenidate to increase the risk for drug abuse. In addition, little is known about the neurobiological effects of early exposure to methylphenidate. This study was designed to investigate whether chronic treatment with methylphenidate induces behavioral sensitization to subsequent methylphenidate and D-amphetamine challenge in adolescent Wistar rats. Young Wistar rats (P25) were treated with either methylphenidate (1, 2, or 10 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) or saline for 28 days. After 14 days of washout, animals were challenged with methylphenidate 2.5 mg/kg intraperitoneally or D-amphetamine 2 mg/kg intraperitoneally (P67). Locomotor behavior was assessed using the open field test. Rats chronically treated with methylphenidate in the adolescent period showed augmented locomotor sensitization to D-amphetamine but not to methylphenidate in the adult phase. These findings suggest that early exposure do methylphenidate might increase the risk for subsequent D-amphetamine abuse. Further studies focusing on the neurobiological effects of early exposure to methylphenidate are warranted.

  5. Cannabidiol reduces host immune response and prevents cognitive impairments in Wistar rats submitted to pneumococcal meningitis.

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    Barichello, Tatiana; Ceretta, Renan A; Generoso, Jaqueline S; Moreira, Ana Paula; Simões, Lutiana R; Comim, Clarissa M; Quevedo, João; Vilela, Márcia Carvalho; Zuardi, Antonio Waldo; Crippa, José A; Teixeira, Antônio Lucio

    2012-12-15

    Pneumococcal meningitis is a life-threatening disease characterized by an acute infection affecting the pia matter, arachnoid and subarachnoid space. The intense inflammatory response is associated with a significant mortality rate and neurologic sequelae, such as, seizures, sensory-motor deficits and impairment of learning and memory. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of acute and extended administration of cannabidiol on pro-inflammatory cytokines and behavioral parameters in adult Wistar rats submitted to pneumococcal meningitis. Male Wistar rats underwent a cisterna magna tap and received either 10μl of sterile saline as a placebo or an equivalent volume of S. pneumoniae suspension. Rats subjected to meningitis were treated by intraperitoneal injection with cannabidiol (2.5, 5, or 10mg/kg once or daily for 9 days after meningitis induction) or a placebo. Six hours after meningitis induction, the rats that received one dose were killed and the hippocampus and frontal cortex were obtained to assess cytokines/chemokine and brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels. On the 10th day, the rats were submitted to the inhibitory avoidance task. After the task, the animals were killed and samples from the hippocampus and frontal cortex were obtained. The extended administration of cannabidiol at different doses reduced the TNF-α level in frontal cortex. Prolonged treatment with canabidiol, 10mg/kg, prevented memory impairment in rats with pneumococcal meningitis. Although descriptive, our results demonstrate that cannabidiol has anti-inflammatory effects in pneumococcal meningitis and prevents cognitive sequel.

  6. Nitric Oxide-Induced Polycystic Ovaries in The Wistar Rat

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    Fatemeh Hassani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nitric oxide (NO involves in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS, a causeof infertility in women during the reproductive age. The PCOS is now categorized as aninflammatory phenomenon. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of NO, a proinflammatoryagent, in this syndrome at histological and biochemical levels.Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, animals were female Wistar rats(weighing 200-250 g kept under standard conditions. L-Arginine (50-200 mg/kg, a precursorof NO, was injected intra-peritoneally (i.p. through a period ranging from 9 to14 days/once a day. The rats' estrous cycle was studied using Papanicolaou test; those showing phaseof Diestrous were grouped into experimental and control groups. The control group solelyreceived saline (1 ml/kg, i.p. throughout all experiments. To evaluate the inflammatory effectof NO, the rats were treated an anti-inflammatory agent, naloxone hydrochloride (0.4 mg/kg,i.p., prior to L-arginine. At the end of the treatment period all animals’ ovaries were assessedfor histopathological and histochemical investigations. Also, activation of NO synthase (NOSin the experiments was studied using NADPH-diaphorase technique.Results: The ovaries of rats treated with L-arginine showed polycystic characteristics incontrast to those collected from control or naloxone pretreated groups, based on image analysis.A difference in enzyme activation was also shown in the sections that belonged to thegroups that received L-arginine when compared with the pre-naloxone and control groups.Conclusion: Based on these results, we believe that NO may play a major role in thepathophysiology of PCOS.

  7. Effect of Phyllanthus amarus on serum biochemical changes in azaserine induced pancreatic cancer in Wistar rats

    OpenAIRE

    Prajapati, Ankit S.; Raval, Sunant K; Suprita Sinha; Varia, Tapan N.; Mashiyava, Parimal H.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The present study was performed to investigate the effect of Phyllanthus amarus extracts on serum biochemical changes in azaserine induced pancreatic cancer in Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: Pancreatic cancer was developed in Wistar rats by intraperitoneal administration of azaserine (cancer inducer) for 21 days at the concentration of 5 mg/kg body weight. Aqueous and alcoholic extracts were given to rats of different groups as per protocol. Results: The results data revealed that o...

  8. Reproductive assessment of hydroalcohol extract of Calendula officinalis L. in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Erick J R; Costa-Silva, João H; Evêncio, Liriane B; Fraga, Maria do Carmo C A; Coelho, Maria Cristina O C; Wanderley, Almir G

    2009-10-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the effects of the administration of a hydroalcohol extract of Calendula officinalis L. flowers (HAE) on the reproductive function of Wistar rats. Four groups of adult male rats were treated orally with HAE at doses of 0, 0.25, 0.5 and 1.0 g/kg for 60 consecutive days. From day 53 to 60 of treatment, rats were mated with untreated and fertile female rats. Reproductive parameters including testicular morphology, reproductive organ weights, fertility index and offspring viability were evaluated. In another protocol, groups of pregnant rats were treated orally with the same doses of HAE from days 1 to 6 (preimplantation period), 7 to 14 (organogenic period) or 15 to 19 (fetal period) of pregnancy. On day 20 of pregnancy, rats were killed for evaluation of maternal and fetal parameters. The results showed that the treatment with HAE did not affect male reproductive parameters. Besides, it was non-toxic in the preimplantation and organogenic periods of pregnancy. However, the HAE induced a decrease of the maternal weight gain when administered during the fetal period. In conclusion, the HAE did not affect male fertility nor had toxic effects in early and middle periods of pregnancy. However, the HAE caused maternal toxicity when administered during the fetal period of pregnancy.

  9. Leptin Induces an Inflammatory Phenotype in Lean Wistar Rats

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    Monique Allman

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study addressed the hypothesis that leptin promotes leukocyte trafficking into adipose tissue. Accordingly, male Wistar rats were treated with saline or recombinant rat leptin (1 mg/kg via the tail vein. Leukocyte trafficking in mesenteric venules was quantified by intravital microscopy. Treatment with leptin resulted in a 3- and 5-fold increases in rolling and firm adhesion, respectively. Compared to vehicle controls, leptin enhanced mRNA levels of IL-6 (8-fold and MCP-1 (5-fold in mesenteric adipose tissue (MAT. Similar increases in these markers were observed in mesenteric venules and in liver. Finally, the direct effect of leptin was assessed in C3A hepatocytes treated with leptin for 24 hours (7.8 ng/mL–125 ng/mL. Consistent with observations in vivo, production of ICAM-1, MCP-1, and IL-6 by hepatocytes was increased significantly. These findings support the hypothesis that leptin directly initiates inflammation in the local environment of mesenteric adipose tissue as well as systemically.

  10. Can Urtica dioica supplementation attenuate mercury intoxication in Wistar rats?

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    Wafa Siouda

    2015-12-01

    supplemented rats. Conclusion: Nettle leaves have not only played a clear protective role during Hg intoxication, but it also enhanced hepatic, renal and testicular GSH level of Wistar rats.

  11. Cerebellar Structure and Function in Male Wistar-Kyoto Hyperactive Rats

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    Thanellou, Alexandra; Green, John T.

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has suggested that the Wistar-Kyoto Hyperactive (WKHA) rat strain may model some of the behavioral features associated with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We have shown that, in cerebellar-dependent eyeblink conditioning, WKHA emit eyeblink CRs with shortened onset latencies. To further characterize the shortened CR onset latencies seen in WKHA rats, we examined 750-ms delay conditioning with either a tone CS or a light CS, we extended acquisition training, and we included Wistar rats as an additional, outbred control strain. Our results indicated that WKHAs learned more quickly and showed a shortened CR onset latency to a tone CS compared to both Wistar-Kyoto Hypertensive (WKHT) and Wistars. WKHAs and Wistars show a lengthening of CR onset latency over conditioning with a tone CS and an increasing confinement of CRs to the later part of the tone CS (inhibition of delay). WKHAs learned more quickly to a light CS only in comparison to WKHTs and showed a shortened CR onset latency only in comparison to Wistars. Wistars showed an increasing confinement of CRs to the late part of the light CS over conditioning. We used unbiased stereology to estimate the number of Purkinje and granule cells in the cerebellar cortex of the three strains. Our results indicated that WKHAs have more granule cells than Wistars and WKHTs and more Purkinje cells than Wistars. Results are discussed in terms of CS processing and cerebellar cortical contributions to EBC. PMID:23398437

  12. Strain differences in toxic effects of long-lasting isoflurane anaesthesia between Wistar rats and Sprague Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siller-Matula, J M; Jilma, B

    2008-11-01

    We investigated if long-lasting (5 h) anaesthesia with isoflurane has different pharmacological effects in two different rat strains: Wistar and Sprague Dawley. The mean blood pressure was 34% higher in Sprague Dawley rats as compared to the Wistar rats (p = 0.04). In Wistar rats, the pH value decreased to 7.1, lactate increased by 53%, creatinine increased 2.7-fold, alanine amino transferase and aspartate amino transferase increased more than 4-fold and lactate dehydrogenase increased 9-fold (p ketamin/xylazine in the described study design.

  13. Mentha piperita effects on wistar rats plasma lipids

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    Sandra Maria Barbalho

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to demonstrate the effects of Mentha piperita juice and tea on plasma lipids of Wistar rats. The animals were divided in control group (CG and four treated groups: TG1 treated with tea and TG2 treated with juice (both receiving commercial rat chow; TG3 and TG4 were fed with supplemented fat chow (with hydrogenated fat and soybean oil and treated respectively with tea and juice. Both tea and juice were administered by intra-gastric route (gavage two times a day for 30 days. TG2 and TG4 animals showed significant decrease in triacylglycerols and increase in HDL-c levels. TG1 and TG2 also showed lower cholesterol values. The levels of LDL-c increased in CG but decreased in the treated groups. Animals of TG1, TG2 and TG4 showed substantial reduction in food intake and in percentage of weight gain. TG3 increased food intake but did not increase the percentage of weight gain.Os efeitos hipolipidêmicos de algumas plantas medicinais já foram demonstrados, mas muitas plantas que são comumente utilizadas pela população precisam ser estudadas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar o efeito da Mentha piperita no perfil lipídico de ratos machos Wistar. Os animais foram divididos em grupo controle (CG e quatro grupos experimentais: TG1 e TG2 receberam ração comercial normal, sendo que TG1 foi tratado com chá e TG2 com suco de M. piperita; TG3 e TG4 receberam ração enriquecida (com gordura hidrogenada e óleo de soja, sendo que TG3 foi tratado com chá e TG4 com suco. O tratamento foi feito por via intragástrica duas vezes ao dia durante 30 dias. Os animais de TG2 e TG4 tiveram diminuição significativa nos níveis de triacilglicerídeos e aumento nos níveis de HDL-c. Houve aumento nos níveis de LDL-c em CG, mas nos demais grupos houve diminuição. TG1, TG2 e TG4 tiveram redução significativa no consumo alimentar e na porcentagem de ganho de peso. TG3 aumentou o consumo alimentar, mas não aumentou a porcentagem de

  14. Antidepressant behavior in thyroidectomized Wistar rats is induced by hippocampal hypothyroidism.

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    da Conceição, Rodrigo Rodrigues; Laureano-Melo, Roberto; Oliveira, Kelen Carneiro; de Carvalho Melo, Maria Clara; Kasamatsu, Tereza Sayoko; de Barros Maciel, Rui Monteiro; de Souza, Janaina Sena; Giannocco, Gisele

    2016-04-01

    Thyroidectomy is a surgical procedure indicated in cases of several maligned or benign thyroid diseases, thus, the aim of our study was to verify how the hypothyroidism induced by thyroidectomy influences behavioral parameters and its relation to thyroid hormones metabolism and neurogenesis at hippocampus. For this purpose, Adult male Wistar rats underwent to thyroidectomy to induce hypothyroidism. Behavioral tests, the thyroid profile and hippocampal gene expression were evaluated in control and in thyroidectomized animals. It was observed that thyroidectomized group had a significant increasing in serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and a decreasing in thyroxine (T4) levels as well as in triiodothyronine (T3) serum level. It was also observed reduction of the monocarboxylate transporter 8 (Mct8), thyroid hormone receptor alfa (Trα1), deiodinase type 2 (Dio2), ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase 2 (Enpp2) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (Bdnf) mRNA expression in hippocampus of thyroidectomized animals. In the forced swimming test, it was verified that thyroidectomy promotes a decrease in time of immobility and climbing when compared with the control group. In summary, we demonstrated that antidepressant behavior in thyroidectomized Wistar rats is induced by hippocampal hypothyroidism. This effect could be associated to an impaired neuronal activity in acute stress response as it is observed in forced swimming paradigm.

  15. Alcohol drinking during adolescence increases consumptive responses to alcohol in adulthood in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amodeo, Leslie R; Kneiber, Diana; Wills, Derek N; Ehlers, Cindy L

    2017-03-01

    Binge drinking and the onset of alcohol-use disorders usually peak during the transition between late adolescence and early adulthood, and early adolescent onset of alcohol consumption has been demonstrated to increase the risk for alcohol dependence in adulthood. In the present study, we describe an animal model of early adolescent alcohol consumption where animals drink unsweetened and unflavored ethanol in high concentrations (20%). Using this model, we investigated the influence of drinking on alcohol-related appetitive behavior and alcohol consumption levels in early adulthood. Further, we also sought to investigate whether differences in alcohol-related drinking behaviors were specific to exposure in adolescence versus exposure in adulthood. Male Wistar rats were given a 2-bottle choice between 20% ethanol and water in one group and between two water bottles in another group during their adolescence (Postnatal Day [PD] 26-59) to model voluntary drinking in adolescent humans. As young adults (PD85), rats were trained in a paradigm that provided free access to 20% alcohol for 25 min after completing up to a fixed-ratio (FR) 16 lever press response. A set of young adult male Wistar rats was exposed to the same paradigm using the same time course, beginning at PD92. The results indicate that adolescent exposure to alcohol increased consumption of alcohol in adulthood. Furthermore, when investigating differences between adolescent high and low drinkers in adulthood, high consumers continued to drink more alcohol, had fewer FR failures, and faster completion of FR schedules in adulthood, whereas the low consumers were no different from controls. Rats exposed to ethanol in young adulthood also increased future intake, but there were no differences in any other components of drinking behavior. Both adolescent- and adult-exposed rats did not exhibit an increase in lever pressing during the appetitive challenge session. These data indicate that adolescent and early

  16. Environmental and dam effects on cannibalism in Wistar rat litters

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    Graziela Tarôco

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The factors related to cannibalistic behavior of dams in a Wistar rat colony are identified and analyzed. The maternal genetic effects were tested as a random effect by the method of generalized linear models. The season at parturition, the dam´s age at parturition and the density of the room at parturition were tested as fixed effects, whereas the litter size at birth was tested as a co-variable. The genetic effect of the dam was significant for the number of cannibalized pups. Although the season at parturition, the dam´s age and room density on the day of parturition were not individually significant (p > 0.05, most of the interactions between the variation sources were significant (p < 0.05. Cannibalism occurred mostly in dams aged over 241 days, with parturition during spring. So that occurrences of cannibalism could be avoided, dams with the smallest number of cannibalized pups should be selected, coupled to dams younger than 241 days, breeding during spring. The above strategies may reduce the number of couples in the vivarium and increase their production efficiency.

  17. Acute and subchronic toxicity of hydroxylammonium nitrate in Wistar rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    An Hui; Liu Jinyi; Yang Lujun; Liu Shengxue; Zhou Yanhong; Yang Huan; Jia Qingjun; Cui Zhihong; Cao Jia

    2008-01-01

    Hydroxylammonium nitrate (HAN) is a major constituent in a class of liquid monopropellants and is extensively used in nuclear industry and space propulsion. Previous toxicological studies have focused on oral, inhalation and dermal routes of exposure to HAN-based propellant blends. In this study, acute and subchronic toxicity of HAN in Wistar rats by intraperitoneal injections were evaluated. In this acute study, doses of HAN at 115, 125, 135, 147, 160 or 174 mg/kg were administered. No adverse effects were observed during a 14-day period and at gross histopathological examination. In the subchronic study, HAN at 7, 14 or 28 mg/kg were administered for 13 weeks. The treatment with HAN caused significant changes in the weight of spleen, in the level of hematological parameters, total bilirubin, direct bilirubin, uric acid and carbondioxidecombining power and histopathological damages of the lung, liver, spleen and kidney. Overall, the study suggests that 13-week HAN treatment caused abnormal hematological changes and tissue lesions, and the risk of toxicity to mammals is not negligible.

  18. Subacute toxicopathological studies of methotrexate in Wistar rats

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    N. N. Patel

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim: A toxico-pathological study was undertaken to assess the effects of Methotrexate administration in Wistar rats by performing the hematology, serum biochemical analysis and associated histopathological changes in visceral organs. Materials and Methods: Rats in 4 treatment groups with 6 male and 6 female rats each were administered methotrexate (Group II to IV at the dose rate of 0.062, 0.125 and 0.250 mg/kg body weight respectively and distilled water (Group I as vehicle control for 28 days. Hematological parameters viz., total erythrocyte count, haemoglobin, packed cell volume, MCV, MCH and MCHC, total leukocyte count and differential leukocyte count and serum biochemical parameters viz., aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, total protein, albumin, globulin (Calculated were estimated after 28 days. Necropsy examination was performed in all sacrificed animals and gross lesions were recorded. Tissue samples (lung, liver, kidney, intestine, testes and heart were collected in 10% formalin solution for histo-pathological examination. Results: The dose dependent reduction in body weight, feed consumption, RBCs count, packed cell volume, haemoglobin, total leucocyte count, neutrophil count, total protein and albumin was observed in animals of group II, III and IV along with significant increase in lymphocyte count, AST, ALT, AKP, creatinine and BUN in animals of methotrexate treated group IV followed by group III. No significant change in monocyte, eosinophil and basophil counts were observed in any treatment groups. All the rats exposed to methotrexate at three different dose levels revealed dose dependent pathological changes characterized by degeneration, necrosis, congestion, haemorrhage and vascular changes. The main target organs affected were liver, kidney, lungs and testes. Conclusion: It can be concluded from this study that sub-acute exposure to methotrexate

  19. Wound healing activity of Abroma augusta in Wistar rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shanbhag T; Dattachaudhuri A; Shenoy S; Bairy KL

    2009-01-01

    Objective:The study was undertaken to evaluate the wound healing profile of alcoholic extract of Abroma au-gusta and its effect on dexamethasone suppressed wound healing in Wistar rats.Methods:An alcoholic extract of Abroma augusta was prepared.Three models were used -incision,excision and dead space wound models. Four groups of animals were used for each model.They were administered 2% gum acacia (orally),alcoholic extract of Abroma augusta (orally),dexamethasone (intramuscularly)and combination of Abroma augusta (o-rally)with dexamethasone (intramuscularly)respectively.The parameters studied included breaking strength of incision wound,period of epithelization and wound contraction rate in the excision wound,breaking strength,dry weight and hydroxyproline content of granulation tissue in dead space wound.Results:The breaking strength of incision wound of Abroma augusta treated group was significantly increased (P <0.001) while that of dexamethasone treated animals was significantly decreased (P <0.001)as compared to control. Coadministration of dexamethasone and Abroma augusta significantly reversed the dexamethasone suppressed wound healing in incision wound model (P <0.001).Animals treated with both dexamethasone and Abroma augusta also showed significant (P <0.004)increase in the breaking strength of granulation tissue in the dead space wound and a significant (P <0.011)reduction in the period of epithelization in the excision wound as compared to rats treated with dexamethasone alone.The rate of wound contraction was not significantly altered in any of the groups.Conclusion:The alcoholic extract of Abroma augusta was found to reverse dexametha-sone suppressed wound healing.

  20. Safety evaluation of Sapindus laurifolius leaf extract in Wistar rats

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    C. N. Santhosh Kumar

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives:The present work was aimed to study the phytochemical composition of the Sapindus laurifolius leaves andtoxicological effect of the Sapindus laurifolius leaf extract in a systematic way using Wistar albino rats as a model animal.Materials and Methods :The identification of phytoconstituents present in the leaf extract was performed using Highperformance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC. In toxicity studies, the acute oral toxicity study was conducted as per theguidelines of Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD 423 Acute Toxic Class Method for testingof chemicals. In repeated dose 28-day oral toxicity study (OECD 407, methanolic leaf extract administered at the dose of 50,200 and 800 mg/kg BWand limit dose of 1000 mg/kg BW.Results: Saponins, flavanoids, glycosides and bitter principles were the major phytoconstituents identified. In acute toxicitystudy, the LD cut-off values were found to be more than 2g/kg in leaf extract. In repeated dose 28-day oral toxicity, significant 50(P<0.05 increase in AST, ALT, BUN and creatinine, significant (P<0.05 increase in total protein was noticed. Thehistopathological changes confined to liver, kidney and intestine, revealed mild to moderate hepatotoxicity, severenephrotoxicity and increased goblet cell activity. The changes were found to correlate with increased dose of leaf extract.Conclusion:The phytochemical analysis of Sapindus laurifolius revealed the presence of saponins, glycosides, flavonoidsand bitter principles.The acute oral toxicity study of S. laurifolius methanolic leaf extract in rats resulted in no toxicity even atthe highest dose, but in repeated 28-day oral toxicity study revealed mild to moderate hepatotoxicity, severe nephrotoxicityand intestinal damage.

  1. Myofibroblasts and colonic anastomosis healing in Wistar rats

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    Vasiliadou Kalliopi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The myofibroblasts play a central role in wound healing throughout the body. The process of wound healing in the colon was evaluated with emphasis on the role of myofibroblasts. Methods One hundred male Wistar rats weighing 274 ± 9.1 g (mean age: 3.5 months were used. A left colonic segment was transected and the colon was re-anastomosed. Animals were randomly divided into two groups. The first group experimental animals (n = 50 were sacrificed on postoperative day 3, while the second group rats (n = 50 were sacrificed on postoperative day 7. Healing of colonic anastomosis was studied in terms of anastomotic bursting pressure, as well as myofibroblastic reaction and expression of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA, adhesion formation, inflammatory reaction and neovascularization. Results The mean anastomotic bursting pressure increased from 20.6 ± 3.5 mmHg on the 3rd postoperative day to 148.8 ± 9.6 Hg on the 7th postoperative day. Adhesion formation was increased on the 7th day, as compared to the 3rd day. In addition, the myofibroblastic reaction was more profound on the 7th postoperative day in comparison with the 3rd postoperative day. The staining intensity for α-SMA was progressive from the 3rd to the 7th postoperative day. On the 7th day the α-SMA staining in the myofibroblats reached the level of muscular layer cells. Conclusions Our study emphasizes the pivotal role of myofibroblasts in the process of colonic anastomosis healing. The findings provide an explanation for the reduction in the incidence of wound dehiscence after the 7th postoperative day.

  2. Crocin reduced acrylamide-induced neurotoxicity in Wistar rat through inhibition of oxidative stress

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    Soghra Mehri

    2015-09-01

    Conclusion: The administration of crocin markedly improved behavioral and histopathological damages in Wistar rats exposed to ACR. Reduction of oxidative stress can be considered as an important mechanism of neuroprotective effects of crocin against ACR-induced toxicity.

  3. Evaluating Oxidative Stress Factors Induced by Chlorpyrifos Poisoning in Plasma of Wistar Rat

    OpenAIRE

    Saberi, M.; A Zare’i Mahmoudabadi; M Fasihi Ramandi; A Kazemi; J Rasouli Vani

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Chlorpyrifos (CPF) is a broad-spectrum organophosphorus insecticide that has been used abundantly over the globe during the past 40 years. Chemical pesticides may induce oxidative stress via generating free radicals and altering antioxidant levels of the free radical scavenging enzyme activity. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the toxicity of Chlorpyrifos-induced oxidative stress in the plasma samples of Wistar rat. Methods: Twenty-four male Wistar rats were selected r...

  4. Chronic imipramine treatment differentially alters the brain and plasma amino acid metabolism in Wistar and Wistar Kyoto rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagasawa, Mao; Otsuka, Tsuyoshi; Yasuo, Shinobu; Furuse, Mitsuhiro

    2015-09-05

    In the present study, the amino acids which have the possibility for the therapeutic efficacy of imipramine were explored and compared between Wistar Kyoto rats, an animal model of depression, and Wistar rats as a normal model. The antidepressant-like effect caused by chronic imipramine treatment was confirmed by decreased immobility in the forced swimming test. Chronic imipramine administration altered the amino acid dynamics in the brain. In the striatum, the concentrations of asparagine, glutamine and methionine were significantly increased by chronic imipramine administration. In the thalamus and hypothalamus, chronic imipramine administration significantly decreased the valine concentration. On the other hand, no amino acid was altered by chronic imipramine administration in the hippocampus, brain stem and cerebellum. In addition, lower concentration of asparagine in the prefrontal cortex of WKY rats was improved by chronic imipramine administration. This amelioration only in WKY rats may be a specific effect of chronic imipramine administration under the depressive state. In conclusion, chronic imipramine administration altered the several amino acid dynamics in the brain. Modification of the amino acid metabolism in the brain may provide a new strategy in the development of therapeutic treatment of major depression.

  5. Genetic architecture of Wistar-Kyoto rat and spontaneously hypertensive rat substrains from different sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang-James, Yanli; Middleton, Frank A; Faraone, Stephen V

    2013-07-02

    The spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) has been widely used as a model for studies of hypertension and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. The inbred Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rat, derived from the same ancestral outbred Wistar rat as the SHR, are normotensive and have been used as the closest genetic control for the SHR, although the WKY has also been used as a model for depression. Notably, however, substantial behavioral and genetic differences among the WKY substrains, usually from the different vendors and breeders, have been observed. These differences have often been overlooked in prior studies, leading to inconsistent and even contradictory findings. The complicated breeding history of the SHR and WKY rats and the lack of a comprehensive understanding of the genetic background of different commercial substrains make the selection of control rats a daunting task, even for researchers who are mindful of their genetic heterogeneity. In this study, we examined the genetic relationship of 16 commonly used WKY and SHR rat substrains using genome-wide SNP genotyping data. Our results confirmed a large genetic divergence and complex relationships among the SHR and WKY substrains. This understanding, although incomplete without the genome sequence, provides useful guidance in selecting substrains and helps to interpret previous reports when the source of the animals was known. Moreover, we found two closely related, yet distinct WKY substrains that may provide novel opportunities in modeling psychiatric disorders.

  6. A multidimensional magnetic resonance histology atlas of the Wistar rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, G Allan; Calabrese, Evan; Badea, Alexandra; Paxinos, George; Watson, Charles

    2012-09-01

    We have produced a multidimensional atlas of the adult Wistar rat brain based on magnetic resonance histology (MRH). This MR atlas has been carefully aligned with the widely used Paxinos-Watson atlas based on optical sections to allow comparisons between histochemical and immuno-marker data, and the use of the Paxinos-Watson abbreviation set. Our MR atlas attempts to make a seamless connection with the advantageous features of the Paxinos-Watson atlas, and to extend the utility of the data through the unique capabilities of MR histology: a) ability to view the brain in the skull with limited distortion from shrinkage or sectioning; b) isotropic spatial resolution, which permits sectioning along any arbitrary axis without loss of detail; c) three-dimensional (3D) images preserving spatial relationships; and d) widely varied contrast dependent on the unique properties of water protons. 3D diffusion tensor images (DTI) at what we believe to be the highest resolution ever attained in the rat provide unique insight into white matter structures and connectivity. The 3D isotropic data allow registration of multiple data sets into a common reference space to provide average atlases not possible with conventional histology. The resulting multidimensional atlas that combines Paxinos-Watson with multidimensional MRH images from multiple specimens provides a new, comprehensive view of the neuroanatomy of the rat and offers a collaborative platform for future rat brain studies.

  7. Radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation from cell phone causes defective testicular function in male Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyewopo, A O; Olaniyi, S K; Oyewopo, C I; Jimoh, A T

    2017-03-06

    Cell phones have become an integral part of everyday life. As cell phone usage has become more widespread, concerns have increased regarding the harmful effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation from these devices. The current study was undertaken to investigate the effects of the emitted radiation by cell phones on testicular histomorphometry and biochemical analyses. Adult male Wistar rats weighing 180-200 g were randomly allotted to control, group A (switched off mode exposure), group B (1-hr exposure), group C (2-hr exposure) and group D (3-hr exposure). The animals were exposed to radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation of cell phone for a period of 28 days. Histomorphometry, biochemical and histological investigations were carried out. The histomorphometric parameters showed no significant change (p electromagnetic radiation of cell phone leads to defective testicular function that is associated with increased oxidative stress and decreased gonadotropic hormonal profile.

  8. Beneficial effects of low dose Musa paradisiaca on the semen quality of male Wistar rats

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    A S Alabi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study aimed at determining the effects of administration of mature green fruits of Musa paradisiaca on the semen quality of adult male Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: The animals used for the study were grouped into three: the control group, given 2 ml of double distilled water, a low dose group given 500 mg/kg/day and a high dose group given 1000 mg/kg/day of the plantain fruits, which was made into flour, and dissolved in 2 ml of double distilled water for easy oral administration. Results: Significant increment in the semen parameters was noticed in animals that received a lower dose of the plantain flour, but those animals who received the high dose had marked and very significant reduction in sperm cell concentration and percentage of morphologically normal spermatozoa. Conclusion: Musa paradisiaca should be consumed in moderate quantities in order to derive its beneficial effects of enhancing male reproductive functions.

  9. The 9LLUC/Wistar rat glioma model is not suitable for immunotherapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liping Yang; Jingxiang Zhao; Guihong Zhou; Yunfang Wang; Lusi Li; Hongfeng Yuan; Xue Nan; Lidong Guan; Xuetao Pei

    2012-01-01

    The availability of a well-characterized animal brain tumor model will play an important role in identifying treatments for human brain tumors. Wistar rats bearing 9L glioma cells can develop solid, well-circumcised tumors, and may be a useful animal model for the evaluation of various therapeutic approaches for gliosarcomas. In this study, the 9L/Wistar rat glioma model was produced by intracerebral implantation of 9LLUC glioma cells syngenic to Fischer 344 (F344) rats. Bioluminescence imaging showed that tumors progressively grew from day 7 to day 21 in 9LLUC/F344 rats, and tumor regression was found in some 9LLUC/Wistar rats. Hematoxylin-eosin staining verified that intracranial tumors were gliomas. Immunohistochemistry results demonstrated that no CD4- and CD8-positive cells were found in the syngeneic 9LLUC/F344 model. However, many infiltrating CD4- and CD8-positive cells were observed within the tumors of the 9LLUC/Wistar model. Our data suggests that compared with 9L/F344 rats, 9L glioma Wistar rats may not be suitable for evaluating brain glioma immunotherapies, even though the model induced an immune response and exhibited tumor regression.

  10. Decreased adipose tissue zinc content is associated with metabolic parameters in high fat fed Wistar rats

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    Alexey A. Tinkov

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. Limited data on adipose tissue zinc content in obesity exist. At the same time, the association between adipose tissue zinc content and metabolic parameters in dietary-induced obesity is poorly studied. Therefore, the primary objective of this study is to assess adipose tissue zinc content and its association  with morphometric parameters, adipokine spectrum, proinflammatory cytokines, and apolipoprotein profile in high fat fed Wistar rats. Material and methods. A total of 48 adult female Wistar rats were used in the present study. Rats were fed either control (10% of fat or high fat diet (31.6% of fat. Adipose tissue zinc content was assessed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Rats’ serum was examined for adiponectin, leptin, insulin, interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits. Serum glucose and apolipoprotein spectrum were also evaluated. Results. High fat feeding resulted in a significant 34% decrease in adipose tissue zinc content in comparison to the control values. Fat pad zinc levels were significantly inversely associated with morphometric param- eters, circulating leptin, insulin, tumor necrosis factor-α levels and HOMA-IR values. At the same time,      a significant correlation with apolipoprotein A1 concentration was observed. Conclusion. Generally, the obtained data indicate that (1 high fat feeding results in decreased adipose tis- sue zinc content; (2 adipose tissue zinc content is tightly associated with excessive adiposity, inflammation, insulin resistance and potentially atherogenic changes.

  11. Safety evaluation studies on Garden cress (Lepidium sativum L. seeds in Wistar rats

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    P K Datta

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Garden cress (Lepidium sativum L.  leaves and seeds are used in India as  food supplement and also in traditional medicine. We have assessed the safety of Garden cress (GC seeds by conducting acute and subchronic toxicity studies in adult Wistar rats. For the acute toxicity study, 0.5 –5.0 g/kg body weight of the GC seed powder was administered through diet to rats and obvious symptoms of toxicity and mortality were monitored for 72 h . Acute doses of GC seed powder did not induce any symptoms of toxicity or mortality of  rats. In subchronic toxicity study, 1.0 – 10.0% of the GC powder was administered to rats through diet for 14 weeks. Dietary feeding of GC seed powder did not produce any mortality, no significant changes in food intake, gain in body weight, relative weight of  organs, hematological parameters, macroscopic and microscopic changes in vital organs, were observed between  experimental and control groups.  Clinical enzymes viz., LDH, SGPT were within normal levels, however, the serum ALP and SGOT were significantly increased in male rats receiving 5.0 and 10 % of GC seeds. The results showed that acute and subchronic feeding of GC seed for 14 weeks did not produce any toxic effects in male and female rats and thus can be considered non-toxic and safe.   Industrial relevance: Herbal medicines are very popular and extensively used in the developing countries. Garden cress seeds and leaves are used in food preparations.  GC seeds are given to pregnant and lactating women as natural food supplement to increase milk secretion.  GC seeds are used in herbal based medicinal preparations. The data on the acute and subchronic toxicity studies on medicinal plants are essential to assess its safety to humans, particularly for its use in pharmaceutical preparations.

  12. Effects of ethanolic leaf extract of Spondias mombin on the pituitary-gonadal axis of female Wistar rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Asuquo OR; Oko OOK; Brownson ES; Umoetuk GB; Utin IS

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To determine the effects of ethanolic leaf extract of Spondias mombin (S. mombin) on the histology of the anterior pituitary, ovary and uterus; and on the serum sex hormones of adult female Wistar rats. Methods: Twenty-four female Wistar rats were randomly assigned into four groups of six rats per group. The animals in the treatment groups were administered orally ethanolic extract of S. mombin leaves at the doses of 250, 350 and 500 mg/kg body weight daily for fourteen days. Rats in the control group received distilled water. The body weights of the rats were determined at the beginning and end of the experiment. Histological analysis of pituitary, ovary and uterus was carried out. Hormonal assay for estrogen, progesterone, FSH and LH were done using Enzyme-Linked Immunoabsorbent Assay (ELISA). Results: There was significant (P<0.05) decrease in relative organ weights of extract-treated rats compared to the control. Pituitary showed accumulation and aggregation of cells in experimental animals. Uteri of treated groups showed thickening of endometrial lining and presence of cysts, ovarian tissues were damaged. Furthermore, the extract caused reduction in serum concentration of sex hormones of the treated animals relative to the control. Conclusion: This study suggests that ethanolic extract of S. mombin leaf may have antifertility property, confirming its use as a local contraceptive.

  13. Neurobehavioral, reflexological and physical development of Wistar rat offspring exposed to ayahuasca during pregnancy and lactation

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    Carolina Dizioli Rodrigues de Oliveira

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Ayahuasca is a hallucinogenic beverage prepared by the decoction of plants native to the Amazon Basin region. The beverage has been used throughout the world by members of some syncretic religious movements. Despite the recent legalization of ayahuasca in Brazil for religious purposes, there is little pre-clinical and clinical information attesting to its safety, particularly in relation to the use during pregnancy. The aim of the current work was to determine the effects of perinatal exposure to ayahuasca (from the 6th day of pregnancy to the 10th day of lactation on physical, reflexology and neurobehavioral parameters of the Wistar rat offspring. The offspring showed no statistically significant changes in the physical and reflexology parameters evaluated. However, in adult rats, perinatally exposed to ayahuasca, an increase in frequency of entries in open arms in elevated plus-maze test, a decrease in total time of interaction in social interaction test, a decrease in time of latency for the animal to start swimming and a decrease of the minimum convulsant dose induced by pentylenetetrazol were observed. In conclusion, our results showed that the use of ayahuasca by mothers during pregnancy and lactation reduced the general anxiety and social motivation of the rat offspring. Besides, it promoted a higher sensitivity for initiation and spread of seizure activity.

  14. Effects of Acrylamide Toxicity on Growth Performance and Serobiochemisty of Wistar Rats

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    Almoeiz Y. Hammad

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to obtain information on the effects of various dietary doses of the Acrylamide on Wistar rats. Emphasis was put on changes on growth and serobiochemical constituents of treated rats. Extra pure Acrylamide was fed to Wistar rats at 10, 30, 60 and 90 mg/kg, respectively of the standard diet for 6 weeks. Acrylamide was then withdrawn from the diet for four weeks. Incorporation in diet of the doses 10, 30, 60 and 90 mg/kg acrylamide was toxic to Wistar rats, but fatal only to those of group 5 fed on 90 mg/kg, where five rats (62.5% died on day 18 of the experimental period. Depression in growth was observed in rats that had been fed on the experimental doses for 6 weeks. Neurotoxicity was observed only in the rats fed on acrylamide at 10 (Group 2 and 60 mg/kg (Group 4. These findings were accompanied by alterations in serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alanine aminotransferase (ALT and alkaline phosphatase (ALP activities and albumin, globulin and cholesterol concentrations. The alteration on enzymes activities, urea and cholesterol remained even after the 4 weeks withdrawal of acrylamide, whereas, total protein, albumin, globulins and electrolytes concentration returned to their normal values. Acrylamide is considered neurotoxic at dietary levels of 10 and 60 mg/kg and enterohepatonephrotoxic to Wistar rats at dietary level of 10, 30, 60 and 90 mg/kg and fatal at the treatment dose of 90 mg/kg.

  15. Achilles tendon of wistar rats treated with laser therapy and eccentric exercise

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    Maria Verônica de Souza

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTIntroduction:Both laser therapy and eccentric exercises are used in tendon injuries. However, the association of these physiotherapeutic modalities is yet little investigated.Objective:To evaluate the effect of low-level laser therapy associated to eccentric exercise (downhill walking on Achilles tendinopathy of Wistar rats.Method:Eighteen Achilles tendon from 15 adult male Wistar rats were used. Tendons were distributed in six groups (laser, eccentric exercise, laser and eccentric exercise, rest, contralateral tendon, and healthy tendon. Unilateral tendinopathy was surgically induced by transversal compression followed by scarification of tendon fibers. The treatments laser therapy (904 nm, 3J/cm² and/or eccentric exercise (downhill walking; 12 m/min; 50 min/day; 15o inclination treadmill began 24 hours after surgery and remained for 20 days. Clinical and biomechanical analyzes were conducted. Achilles tendon was macroscopically evaluated and the transversal diameter measured. Euthanasia was performed 21 days after lesion induction. Tendons of both limbs were collected and frozen at -20°C until biomechanical analysis, on which the characteristic of maximum load (N, stress at ultimate (MPa and maximum extension (mm were analyzed.Results:Swelling was observed within 72 hours postoperative. No fibrous adhesions were observed nor increase in transversal diameter of tendons. Animals with the exercised tendons, but not treated with laser therapy, presented lower (p=0.0000 locomotor capacity. No difference occurred be-tween groups for the biomechanical characteristics maximum load (p=0.4379, stress at ultimate (p=0.4605 and maximum extension (p=0.3820 evaluated, even considering healthy and contralateral tendons.Conclusion:The concomitant use of low-level laser and the eccentric exercise of downhill walking, starting 24 hours after surgically induced tendinopathy, do not result in a tendon with the same biomechanical resistance or elasticity

  16. Repercussions of mild diabetes on pregnancy in Wistar rats and on the fetal development

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    Saito Felipe H

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Experimental models are necessary to elucidate diabetes pathophysiological mechanisms not yet understood in humans. Objective: To evaluate the repercussions of the mild diabetes, considering two methodologies, on the pregnancy of Wistar rats and on the development of their offspring. Methods In the 1st induction, female offspring were distributed into two experimental groups: Group streptozotocin (STZ, n = 67: received the β-cytotoxic agent (100 mg STZ/kg body weight - sc on the 1st day of the life; and Non-diabetic Group (ND, n = 14: received the vehicle in a similar time period. In the adult life, the animals were mated. After a positive diagnosis of pregnancy (0, female rats from group STZ presenting with lower glycemia than 120 mg/dL received more 20 mg STZ/kg (ip at day 7 of pregnancy (2nd induction. The female rats with glycemia higher than 120 mg/dL were discarded because they reproduced results already found in the literature. In the mornings of days 0, 7, 14 and 21 of the pregnancy glycemia was determined. At day 21 of pregnancy (at term, the female rats were anesthetized and killed for maternal reproductive performance and fetal development analysis. The data were analyzed using Student-Newman-Keuls, Chi-square and Zero-inflated Poisson (ZIP Tests (p Results STZ rats presented increased rates of pre (STZ = 22.0%; ND = 5.1% and post-implantation losses (STZ = 26.1%; ND = 5.7%, reduced rates of fetuses with appropriate weight for gestational age (STZ = 66%; ND = 93% and reduced degree of development (ossification sites. Conclusion Mild diabetes led a negative impact on maternal reproductive performance and caused intrauterine growth restriction and impaired fetal development.

  17. Effect of mesenchymal stem cells transplantation on glycaemic profile & their localization in streptozotocin induced diabetic Wistar rats

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    Shobhit Bhansali

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Bone marrow is a rich source of adult stem cells that can differentiate into various cell types. Administration of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs in irradiated diabetic rat model has transiently shown to decrease blood glucose level. This study examines the effect of high dose and multiple injections of MSCs on glycemic profile, their localization and regeneration of islet in diabetic Wistar rat. Methods: The study was carried out in male Wistar rats categorized into three groups (n=6, in each group: Group 1 as control, group 2 streptozotocin (STZ (50 mg/kg induced diabetic group and group 3 experimental group; 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU labelled allogenic MSCs were injected in the non-irradiated diabetic rat of the experimental group through tail vein. The blood glucose profile was subsequently monitored at regular intervals. Rats were sacrificed on day 45 and pancreas was examined for localization of BrdU labelled stem cells by immunofluorescence and islet-neogenesis by immunohistochemistry . Results: There was a significant reduction in blood glucose level after administration of MSCs in the experimental group (P<0.001. The presence of BrdU labelled MSCs in islet suggested their localization in the pancreas. Co-expression of anti-BrdU and anti-insulin antibody indicated trans-differentiation / fusion into insulin producing cells evidenced by significant increase in total number of islet (P=0.004 and insulin positive cells ( P<0.0001 in experimental group. Interpretation & conclusions: Our results showed that the MSCs administration in non-irradiated diabetic Wistar rat reduced hyperglycaemia and was accompanied by increased islet-neogengesis, possibly through trans- differentiation/fusion.

  18. Moringa oleifera Supplemented Diets Prevented Nickel-Induced Nephrotoxicity in Wistar Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Adeyemi, O. S.; Elebiyo, T. C.

    2014-01-01

    Background. The Moringa oleifera plant has been implicated for several therapeutic potentials. Objective. To evaluate whether addition of M. oleifera to diet has protective effect against nickel-induced nephrotoxicity in rats. Methodology. Male Wistar rats were assigned into six groups of five. The rats were given oral exposure to 20 mg/kg nickel sulphate (NiSO4) in normal saline and sustained on either normal diet or diets supplemented with Moringa oleifera at different concentrations for 21...

  19. Experimental model of pulmonary carcinogenesis in Wistar rats Modelo experimental de carcinogênese pulmonar em ratos Wistar

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    Baldomero Antonio Kato da Silva

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To elaborate an experimental model of pulmonary carcinogenesis in Wistar rats. METHODS: Male Rattus norvegicus albinus, Wistar lineage was carried through an intra-pulmonary instillation of the Benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P dilution in alcohol 70%, a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon widely known by its power of tumoral induction. Three experimental groups had been formed with 08 animals each: Control Group (Alcohol 70%; B[a]P Group 10 mg/kg; e B[a]P Group 20mg/kg, submitted to euthanasia 08, 10, 12 and 14 weeks after the experimental procedure. The pulmonary sections had been colored by hematoxilin-eosin (HE and submitted to the morphometrical analysis to describe the tissue alterations. RESULTS: The presence of diffuse inflammatory alterations was observed in all groups, however, at the analysis of the pulmonary tissue of the experimental groups, it had been observed hyperplasic alterations (BALT hyperplasia, and in one of the animals of the experimental group 20mg/kg (12 weeks, it was noticed the presence of cellular epithelial tracheal pleomorphism, suggesting the adenocarcinoma formation in situ. CONCLUSION: The main secondary alterations to the intra-pulmonary instillation of B[a]P in Wistar rats were: cellular proliferation, inflammatory alterations of several degrees and nodular lymphoid hyperplasias. The association of an activator agent of the pulmonary metabolic reply is necessary to establish the ideal reply-dose to the development of the lung cancer.OBJETIVO: Elaborar um modelo experimental de carcinogênese pulmonar em ratos wistar. MÉTODOS: Rattus norvegicus albinus, linhagem Wistar foram submetidos a instilação intra-pulmonar da diluição em álcool 70% de Benzo[a]pireno (B[a]P, um hidrocarboneto aromático policíclico amplamente conhecido por seu poder de indução tumoral. Foram formados três grupos experimentais com 08 animais cada: Grupo Controle (álcool 70%; Grupo B[a]P 10 mg/kg; e Grupo B[a]P 20mg/kg, submetidos a

  20. Assessment of the toxicity of cyclohexanone administered intravenously to Wistar and Gunn rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greener, Y; Martis, L; Indacochea-Redmond, N

    1982-09-01

    The toxicity of cyclohexanone, used as a solvent cement in polyvinyl chloride medical devices, was assessed in Wistar and Gunn rats. The Gunn rat was used because it has a negligible activity of UDP glucuronosyltransferase toward bilirubin and certain other aglycones. Cyclohexanone was administered iv for 28 consecutive days to Wistar and Gunn rats in two doses (50 and 100 mg/kg), using solutions containing 0.25 and 0.50 g per 100 ml, respectively, at a constant volume of 20 mg/kg. Saline (0.9% NaCl) was used as the control. Daily observations for signs of toxicity showed no adverse effects in Wistar or Gunn rats injected with either dose. Daily weight changes of control and test animals were similar. Ophthalmologic examinations revealed no treatment-related structural lesions. No adverse effects were noted when the data from the hemogram or clinical chemistry parameters were evaluated. Gross pathological and histopathologic assessment showed no alterations due to cyclohexanone treatment. Urinary excretions of total and glucuronide conjugates of cyclohexanol were similar for Wistar and Gunn rats; less than 1% was excreted as free cyclohexanone and cyclohexanol. It is concluded that the Gunn rat is capable of forming glucuronides of cyclohexanol and that cyclohexanone at these doses has a negligible toxic potential.

  1. Effect of recombinant human growth hormone administration on body composition and vascular function and structure in old male Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Carmen; Cruzado, Mar; Ariznavarreta, Carmen; Gil-Loyzaga, Pablo; Lahera, Vicente; Cachofeiro, Victoria; Tresguerres, Jesús A F

    2005-01-01

    The process of ageing affects negatively both cardiovascular system and body composition. On the other hand, the hormones of the somatotrophic axis, growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), whose production is reduced by age, are involved in the regulation of the cardiovascular system. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of GH on body composition, vascular function and structure in old male rats. Old (20 months) and adult (4 months) male Wistar rats were used. One group of old animals was treated with GH for 4 weeks. Periepididimary fat weight, Specific Gravity Index (SGI), dose responses to Acetylcholine (ACh), Isoproterenol (Iso), Phenylephrine (Phe) and ACh in the presence of NG-nitro-L: -arginine metylester (L-NAME; ACh + L-NAME), as well as vascular morphology in aortic rings, were studied. Old rats showed increased fat weight and decreased SGI as compared to adult animals. GH increased SGI and tended to reduce fat weight. Old rats showed an impairment in the vasodilator response to ACh and Iso; GH significantly improved the vasodilatation induced by Iso, whereas the response to ACh was not significantly enhanced by GH treatment. There were no significant differences between adult and old rats in the contractile response to Phe, and GH did not show any effect. Contraction induced by ACh + L-NAME was higher in old rats as compared to adults, and treatment with GH significantly reduced this response. Aortic media area was increased in old rats, and GH administration reduced this parameter. In conclusion, GH shows beneficial effects on body composition, as well as on vascular function and morphology in old male rats.

  2. Effect of one session endurance exhausting exercise on some coagulation markers of mature and immature wistar rats

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    Shadmehr MirdarHarijani

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The incidence of thrombosis is lower in children and prepubertal period than adults. But its incidence increases in adolescence.The aim of this study was comparing the effect of one session of endurance exhaustive exercise in different times on some of coagulation systems markers in pre and after maturation wistar rats. Material and Methods: 27mature male wistar rats with 241±5 grams mean weight and 27 immature male rats with 97±5 grams mean weight which were 14 and 5 weeks old, respectively, after two weeks getting accustomed to the new environment and treadmill, were divided into one control and two exercising groups. Then, sampling was performed immediately and after 24 hours after exercise. Exhausting endurance exercise program involved increasing the speed of treadmill until getting exhausted. Fibrinogen, APTT, and PT were measured with the Clause and coagulation methods. The analysis was performed by using independent t-test, one-way variance analysis and tukey test. Significance level was assigned for all statistical analysis (p≤0.050. Results: Results in immature and mature rats groups indicated that amounts of fibrinogen has had significant reduction immediately after exercise (p=0.004, p=0.047, and 24 hours after exercise were significantly increased only in mature rats (p=0.000. Also, APTT in all groups decreased immediately and 24 hours after exercise but it was significant just 24 hours after exercise. Conclusion: Due to the increased fibrinogen and decreased APTT at 24 hours after exhaustive endurance exercise in mature and immature rats, it seems that performing such activities in children and inactive adults must be accompanied with special considerations.

  3. Concentration dependent toxicity of approximately 20 nm anatase titanium dioxide nanoparticles--an in vivo study on Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unnithan, Jyotisree; Rehman, Muneeb U; Ahmad, Farhan J; Samim, M

    2011-02-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) is one of the most widely used nanoparticles. Synthesized TiO2 nanoparticles (approximately 20 nm) at a concentration of 42 mg/kg bw induced biochemical perturbations in Wistar rats. TiO2 nanoparticles exhibited hepatic and renal toxicity in Wistar rats.

  4. Acute toxicity of the aqueous-methanolic Moringa oleifera (Lam leaf extract on female Wistar albino rats

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    Mitchel O. Okumu

    2016-10-01

    Conclusions: Based on these results, the LD50 of the AQ-ME MO leaf extract was found to be >2000 mg/kg in female wistar albino rats. Keywords: Moringa oleifera, Aqueous-methanol, Wistar rats, OECD 425, Biochemical assays, Liver [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2016; 5(5.000: 1856-1861

  5. Dobutamine stress echocardiography in healthy adult male rats

    OpenAIRE

    Couet Jacques; Roussel Élise; Drolet Marie-Claude; Lachance Dominic; Plante Eric; Arsenault Marie

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Background Dobutamine stress echocardiography is used to investigate a wide variety of heart diseases in humans. Dobutamine stress echocardiography has also been used in animal models of heart disease despite the facts that the normal response of healthy rat hearts to this type of pharmacological stress testing is unknown. This study was performed to assess this normal response. Methods 15 normal adult male Wistar rats were evaluated. Increasing doses of dobutamine were infused intra...

  6. Livolin Forte Ameliorates Cadmium-Induced Kidney Injury in Wistar Rats

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    Akomolafe Rufus O.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The kidney, which is an integral part of the drug excretion system, was reported as one of the targets of cadmium toxicity. Early events of cadmium toxicity in the cell include a decrease in cell membrane fluidity, breakdown of its integrity, and impairment of its repair mechanisms. Phosphatidylcholine and vitamin E have a marked fluidizing effect on cellular membranes. We hypothesized that Livolin forte (LIV could attenuate kidney damage induced by cadmium in rats. Twenty-five adult male Wistar rats were divided into five groups of five rats each: group I (control group received 0.3 ml/kg/day of propylene glycol for six weeks; group II was given 5 mg/kg/day of cadmium (Cd i.p for 5 consecutive days; group III rats were treated in a similar way as group II but were allowed a recovery period of 4 weeks; group IV was treated with LIV (5.2 mg/kg/day for a period of 4 weeks after inducing renal injury with Cd similarly to group II; and group V was allowed a recovery period of 2 weeks after a 4-week LIV treatment (5.2 mg/kg/day following Cd administration. A significant increase in plasma creatinine, urea, uric acid, and TBARS were observed in groups II and III compared to the control rats. Significant reductions in total protein, glucose, and GSH activity were also recorded. The urine concentrations of creatinine, urea, and uric acid in groups II and III were significantly lower than the control group. Th is finding was accompanied by a significant decrease in creatinine and urea clearance. Post-treatment with LIV caused significant decreases in plasma creatinine, urea, uric acid, and TBARS. Significant increases in total protein, glucose, and GSH activity of groups IV and V were observed compared to group II. A significant increase in urine concentrations of creatinine, urea, and uric acid and significant decreases in total protein, glucose, and GSH activity were observed in groups IV and V compared to group II. Photomicrographs of the rat kidneys

  7. Detecting DNA synthesis of neointimal formation after catheter balloon injury in GK and in Wistar rats: using 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine

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    Guo Jingsheng

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neointimal formation plays an important role in the pathogenesis of coronary restenosis after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI, especially in patients with diabetes mellitus. Recently, some studies have shown that 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine (EdU incorporation can serve as a novel alternative to the 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU antibody detection method for detection of DNA synthesis in regenerating avian cochlea, chick embryo and the adult nervous system. However, few studies have been performed to assess the suitability of EdU for detecting DNA synthesis in vascular neointima. Methods The carotid artery balloon injury model was established in Goto-Kakizaki (GK and Wistar rats. A Cell-LightTM EdU Kit was used to detect EdU-labeled cell nuclei of common carotid arteries at day 7 after catheter balloon injury. Different methods of injecting EdU were tested. The protein levels of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA and p-Akt (Ser473, as well as the mRNA levels of PCNA were evaluated by Western blotting and quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR, respectively. Immunohistochemical staining was also employed to visualize PCNA-positive cells. Results At day 7 after catheter balloon injury, far more EdU-positive and PCNA-positive cells were observed in GK rats. When comparing groups that received different EdU doses, it was found that the percentage of EdU-positive cells at a dose of 100 mg/kg body weight was than at doses of 25 mg/kg and 50 mg/kg. The number of positive cells was significantly higher in the repeated injection group compared to the single injection group. Further, after balloon injury DNA synthesis in GK rats was more notable than in Wistar rats. Neointimal formation in GK rats was more obvious than in Wistar rats. The protein levels of PCNA and p-Akt (Ser473 and the mRNA levels of PCNA were increased in injured rats as compared to uninjured rats, and were significantly higher in GK rats than in Wistar rats

  8. Effect of Hydroalcoholic Extract of Cydonia oblonga Miller (Quince) on Sexual Behaviour of Wistar Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslam, Muhammad; Sial, Ali Akbar

    2014-01-01

    Cydonia oblonga Miller (quince) is regarded as a potent libido invigorator in Tib-e-Nabvi and Unani System of Medicine. This study was carried out to evaluate the aphrodisiac activity of the hydroalcoholic extract of the fruits of Cydonia oblonga Miller (quince) in Wistar rats. The extract was administered orally by gavage in the dose of 500 mg/kg and 800 mg/kg body weight per day as a single dose for 28 days. The observed parameters were mounting frequency, assessment of mating performance, and orientation activities towards females, towards the environment, and towards self. The results showed that after administration of the extract mounting frequency and the mating performance of the rats increased highly significantly (P < 0.01). The extract also influenced the behaviour of treated animals in comparison to nontreated rats in a remarkable manner, making them more attracted to females. These effects were observed in sexually active male Wistar rats.

  9. Effect of Hydroalcoholic Extract of Cydonia oblonga Miller (Quince on Sexual Behaviour of Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Aslam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cydonia oblonga Miller (quince is regarded as a potent libido invigorator in Tib-e-Nabvi and Unani System of Medicine. This study was carried out to evaluate the aphrodisiac activity of the hydroalcoholic extract of the fruits of Cydonia oblonga Miller (quince in Wistar rats. The extract was administered orally by gavage in the dose of 500 mg/kg and 800 mg/kg body weight per day as a single dose for 28 days. The observed parameters were mounting frequency, assessment of mating performance, and orientation activities towards females, towards the environment, and towards self. The results showed that after administration of the extract mounting frequency and the mating performance of the rats increased highly significantly P<0.01. The extract also influenced the behaviour of treated animals in comparison to nontreated rats in a remarkable manner, making them more attracted to females. These effects were observed in sexually active male Wistar rats.

  10. Further evidence of benzene carcinogenicity. Results on Wistar rats and Swiss mice treated by ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maltoni, C; Conti, B; Perino, G; Di Maio, V

    1988-01-01

    Wistar rats and Swiss mice were treated by ingestion (stomach tube) with benzene in olive oil at a dose of 500 and 0 mg/kg b.w. once daily, 4-5 days weekly, for 104 weeks (rats) or for 78 weeks (mice). In Wistar rats, benzene caused Zymbal gland carcinomas, carcinomas of the oral cavity, and carcinomas of the nasal cavities, and an increase in the incidence of total malignant tumors. In Swiss mice, benzene produced Zymbal gland carcinomas and dysplasias and an increase in the incidence of mammary carcinomas (in females), lung tumors, and total malignant tumors. These experiments further confirm that benzene is a multipotential carcinogen as was shown before by long-term bioassays performed on Sprague-Dawley rats in the same Experimental Unit.

  11. Effects of acupuncture on behavioral, cardiovascular and hormonal responses in restraint-stressed Wistar rats

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    Guimarães C.M.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Stress is a well-known entity and may be defined as a threat to the homeostasis of a being. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of acupuncture on the physiological responses induced by restraint stress. Acupuncture is an ancient therapeutic technique which is used in the treatment and prevention of diseases. Its proposed mechanisms of action are based on the principle of homeostasis. Adult male Wistar EPM-1 rats were divided into four groups: group I (N = 12, unrestrained rats with cannulas previously implanted into their femoral arteries for blood pressure and heart rate measurements; group II (N = 12, rats that were also cannulated and were submitted to 60-min immobilization; group III (N = 12, same as group II but with acupuncture needles implanted at points SP6, S36, REN17, P6 and DU20 during the immobilization period; group IV (N = 14, same as group III but with needles implanted at points not related to acupuncture (non-acupoints. During the 60-min immobilization period animals were assessed for stress-related behaviors, heart rate, blood pressure and plasma corticosterone, noradrenaline and adrenaline levels. Group III animals showed a significant reduction (60% on average, P<0.02 in restraint-induced behaviors when compared to groups II and IV. Data from cardiovascular and hormonal assessments indicated no differences between group III and group II and IV animals, but tended to be lower (50% reduction on average in group I animals. We hypothesize that acupuncture at points SP6, S36, REN17, P6 and DU20 has an anxiolytic effect on restraint-induced stress that is not due to a sedative action

  12. Antibiotic treatment affects intestinal permeability and gut microbial composition in Wistar rats dependent on antibiotic class

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tulstrup, Monica Vera-Lise; Christensen, Ellen Gerd; Carvalho, Vera

    2015-01-01

    potentially leading to dysbiosis. We hypothesized that modulation of community composition and function induced by antibiotics affects intestinal integrity depending on the antibiotic administered. To address this a total of 60 Wistar rats (n=12 per group) were dosed by oral gavage with either amoxicillin...

  13. The Effect of Hypericum Perforarum on Anxiety and Depressant Activity in Wistar Rats Exposed to Phenol

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    M Modhej

    2015-02-01

    Results: The statistic findings indicated that there were no significant differences between behavior tests with respect to the treatments (P> 0.05. Conclusion: The study results proposed that the used levels of Hypericum Perforarum extract did not show any significant effects on reduction of anxious and depressant behaviors in phenol exposed Wistar rats.

  14. Endocrine effects of hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) in a one-generation reproduction study in Wistar rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ven, van der L.T.M.; Kuil, van de T.; Leonards, P.E.G.; Slob, W.; Lilienthal, H.; Litens, S.; Herlin, M.; Hakansson, H.; Canton, R.F.; Berg, M.; Visser, T.J.; Loveren, van H.; Vos, J.G.; Piersma, A.H.

    2009-01-01

    The brominated flame retardant (BFR) hexabromocyclododecane was tested in a one-generation reproduction assay in Wistar rats, enhanced for endocrine parameters. A solution of the compound in corn oil was mixed in the feed, targeting at dietary exposure of 0-0.1-0.3-1-3-10-30-100 mg/kg body weight/da

  15. Endocrine effects of hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) in a one-generation reproduction study in Wistar rats.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Ven, L.T.; van de Kuil, T.; Leonards, P.E.; Slob, W.; Lilienthal, H.; Litens, S.; Herlin, M.; Hakansson, H.; Canton, R.F.; van den Berg, M.; Visser, T.J.; van Loveren, H.; Vos, J.G.; Piersma, A.H.

    2009-01-01

    The brominated flame retardant (BFR) hexabromocyclododecane was tested in a one-generation reproduction assay in Wistar rats, enhanced for endocrine parameters. A solution of the compound in corn oil was mixed in the feed, targeting at dietary exposure of 0-0.1-0.3-1-3-10-30-100 mg/kg body weight/da

  16. Histopathology of a spontaneously developing mast cell sarcoma in a Wistar rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baselmans, A.H.C.; Kuijpers, M.H.M.; Dijk, J.E. van

    1996-01-01

    A case report is given of a very rare spontaneous mast cell tumor in the eyelid of the left eye of a female Wistar rat used in a long-term oral toxicity study. Metastasis of the tumor had occurred in the mandibular lymph nodes and in the liver. Clinically, the animal showed blepharospasm, dacryorrho

  17. Protein and energy metabolism of young male Wistar rats fed conjugated linoleic acid as structured triacylglycerol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, H.; Hansen, C. H.; Mu, Huiling;

    2010-01-01

    Twelve 4-week-old male Wistar rats weighing 100 g were fed diets semi-ad libitum for 22 d containing either 1.5% conjugated linoleic acid (CLA-diet) or high oleic sunflower oil (Control-diet). The CLA was structured triacylglycerol with predominantly cis-9, trans-11 and trans-10, cis-12 fatty acid...

  18. The acute effects of mono(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (MEHP) on testes of prepubertal Wistar rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard, M.; Nellemann, Christine Lydia; Lam, Henrik Rye;

    2001-01-01

    A single oral dose of 400 mg/kg body weight of mono(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (MEHP), the testis toxic metabolite of di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate. was given to 28-day-old male Wistar rats and the testis toxic effects were investigated 3, 6. and 12 h after exposure. Detachment and sloughing of germ cell...

  19. Pharmacological dose of alpha-tocopherol induces cardiotoxicity in Wistar rats determined by echocardiography and histology

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effect of pharmacological dose of alpha-tocopherol on heart health was determined in Wistar rats. Animals were randomly assigned to either C (control, n = 11) or E (alpha-tocopherol, n = 11) group. Animals received corn oil (C) or alpha-tocopherol dissolved in corn oil (250 mg alpha-tocopherol/[...

  20. Carbonated soft drinks alter hepatic cytochrome P450 isoform expression in Wistar rats

    OpenAIRE

    Alkhedaide, Adel; SOLIMAN, MOHAMED MOHAMED; IBRAHIM, ZEIN SHABAN

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to examine the effects of chronic consumption of soft drinks (SDs) on hepatic oxidative stress and cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYPs) expression in the livers of Wistar rats. For 3 consecutive months, the rats had free access to three different soft drinks, Coca-Cola, Pepsi-Cola and 7-UP. The rats were subsequently compared with control group rats that had consumed water. Blood and hepatic tissue samples were assayed for the changes in antioxidants, liver function...

  1. Regulation effect of Aspirin Eugenol Ester on blood lipids in Wistar rats with hyperlipidemia

    OpenAIRE

    Karam, Isam; Ma, Ning; Liu, Xi-Wang; Li, Shi-Hong; Kong, Xiao-Jun; Li, Jian-Yong; Yang, Ya-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Background Aspirin eugenol ester (AEE) is a promising drug candidate for treatment of inflammation, pain and fever and prevention of cardiovascular diseases with less side effects. The experiment will be conducted to investigate the efficacy of AEE on curing hyperlipidemia in Wistar rats. The rats were fed with high fat diet (HFD) for 8 weeks to induce hyperlipidemia. Results Compared with the model group, the results showed that AEE at 54 mg/kg dosage could significantly decrease the hyperli...

  2. Differences in voluntary ethanol consumption in Wistar rats from five different suppliers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palm, Sara; Roman, Erika; Nylander, Ingrid

    2011-09-01

    Understanding the mechanism of action of ethanol and the neurobiological substrates for alcohol use disorders is challenging. In search of this knowledge, it is imperative to use valid animal experimental models. The Wistar rat is one example of a commonly used strain that also exert foundation stock for several rat lines selectively bred for high and low voluntary ethanol intake. Different studies report varying ethanol intake in Wistar rats posing the question of whether this is because of the methodological differences or the rat strain. The purpose of this study was therefore to compare voluntary ethanol intake in Wistar rats from five different suppliers. Rats from B&K Universal, UK (BK); Charles River, Germany; Harlan Laboratories, IN (Hsd); Harlan Laboratories, The Netherlands (RccHan™); and Taconic, Denmark were exposed to a three-bottle free-choice paradigm with intermittent 24 h access to 5 and 20% ethanol and water three times per week for 6 weeks. A general finding was that the RccHan™ rats differed significantly from the other groups. At the end of the experiment, the RccHan™ group had the highest median ethanol intake of 3.85 g/kg/24 h, whereas the BK rats had the lowest intake of 1.84 g/kg/24 h. The preference for ethanol was also different throughout the experiment. At the end of the experiment, the RccHan™ rats had the highest preference of approximately 80%, whereas the BK rats had the lowest preference around 25%. During the 6-week drinking period, only the Hsd rats increased their ethanol intake, as evidenced by a significant increase of 5% ethanol intake. Although all rats are of Wistar origin, they display profound differences in voluntary ethanol consumption depending on the supplier. The choice of Wistar can therefore have implications for the outcome and make comparisons between studies difficult. The present findings highlight the supplier as an important parameter to consider when planning and performing preclinical animal studies

  3. Phenotypic characterization of type II collagen-induced arthritis in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Hou-Pan; Li, Xin; Yu, Rong; Zeng, Guang; Yuan, Zhen-Yi; Wang, Wei; Huang, Hui-Yong; Cai, Xiong

    2015-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine a more specific, efficient and simple method for the induction of collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) in rats. Different strains of rats were injected at the base of the tail with bovine type II collagen (CII) emulsified in incomplete Freund's adjuvant (IFA). The onset and severity of arthritis were evaluated by clinical assessment. The established CIA model was analyzed using a comprehensive examination of clinical, hematological, histological and radiological parameters. The results demonstrated that Wistar rats were the most susceptible strain to CIA followed by Wistar Furth rats, with Sprague Dawley rats being the least susceptible. Following primary and booster immunization, female Wistar rats developed severe arthritis, with an incidence of >83% and low variability in clinical signs. The development of arthritis was accompanied by a significantly elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate compared with that in the control rats. The radiographic examination revealed bone matrix resorption, considerable soft tissue swelling, periosteal new bone formation and bone erosion in the arthritic joints of the CIA rats. Histopathologically, the synovial joints of CIA rats were characterized by synovial hyperplasia, pannus formation, marked cellular infiltration, bone and cartilage erosion and narrowing of the joint space. The administration of an intradermal injection of only 200 µg bovine CII emulsified in IFA at the base of the tail therefore leads to the successful development of a CIA rat model. This well-characterized CIA rat model could be specifically used to study the pathophysiology of human rheumatoid arthritis as well as to test and develop anti-arthritic agents for humans.

  4. Developmental immunotoxicity of Diazepam in prenatally exposed weanling Wistar rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loveren H van; Piersma AH; Jong WH de; Waal EJ de; LPI; LEO; LGM

    1999-01-01

    A prenatal developmental toxicity study was conducted in rats receiving the pharmaceutical Diazepam from gestation days 14 to 20. Reports from the literature claim that Diazepam has impaired the immune function in the offspring of rats receiving treatment during the third trimester of gestation. Dia

  5. Evaluation of chronic chlorpyrifos-induced reproductive toxicity in male Wistar rat: protective effects of vitamin C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed M. Sulaiman

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of vitamin C on reproductive toxicity, induced by chronic chlorpyrifos (CPF exposure in male Wistar rats. Twenty adult male Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups of 5 animals in each group. Group I received soya oil (2 ml/kg; group II was given vitamin C only (100 mg/kg; group III was administered CPF only (10.6 mg/kg; ~1/8th LD50, while group IV was pretreated with vitamin C and then exposed to CPF, 30 min later. The regimens were administered by gavage once daily for 15 weeks. At the end of the treatment period, the animals were sacrificed by jugular venesection after light chloroform anesthesia, and sera obtained from the blood samples were analyzed for follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH, luteinizing hormone (LH and testosterone concentrations. Pituitary gland and the testicular tissues of each rat were quickly dissected, removed and assayed for the levels of glycogen and acetylcholinesterase (AChE activity. The right caudal epididymis was evaluated for spermatozoa concentrations. The results showed that decrease in concentrations of spermatozoa, luteinizing and follicle-stimulating hormones, testosterone, testicular glycogen, and inhibition of pituitary gland and testicular AChE activities caused by CPF were ameliorated by vitamin C. [J Exp Integr Med 2013; 3(1: 23-30

  6. Insulin inhibits glucagon-induced glycogenolysis normally in perivenous hepatocytes of Wistar fatty rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikezawa, Yoshihiro; Yamatani, Keiichi; Ohnuma, Hiroshi; Daimon, Makoto; Manaka, Hideo; Sasaki, Hideo

    2005-08-01

    Wistar fatty (WF) rats are obese, hyperinsulinemic and hyperglycemic, and thus a model of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Since we have found that insulin specifically inhibits glucagon-induced glycogenolysis in perivenous hepatocytes (PVH) from normal rats, we examined the inhibitory effect of insulin on glucagon-induced glycogenolysis in PVH of hyperinsulinemic WF rats. Basal glucose release was 64.0+/-4.1 nmol/mgprotein/30 min from PVH of lean littermates (WL rats) and 137.0+/-19.3 nmol/mgprotein/30 min from that of WF rats (pglycogenolysis in PVH similarly between WL and WF rats, to 56.7+/-13.3% and to 46.1+/-7.5%, respectively. Thus, the antagonizing effect of insulin on glucagon-induced increase in glycogenolysis was preserved in PVH of hyperinsulinemic and hyperglycemic WF rats.

  7. HISTOMORPHOLOGIC ALTERATIONS OF THE CEREBELLUM OF WISTAR RATS FOLLOWING AMODIAQUINE PLUS ARTESUNATE ADMINISTRATION

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    Mr. M. B. Ekong

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Amodiaquine and artesunate are two antimalarial drugs sold in combination as Larimal®. This drug is a very effective artemisinin-base combination. This study was to access the effects of amodiaquine and artesunate combination on the histology of the cerebellum. Twenty adult Wistar rats weighing between 150-180g were divided into four groups (A, B, C and D of five animals each. Group A served as the control and the animals received distilled water, while group B received 8.75+2.86mg/kg of amodiaquine and artesunate combination for three days, group C received 8.75+2.86mg/kg of amodiaquine and artesunate combination for six days and group D received 17.50+5.71mg/kg of amodiaquine and artesunate combination for three days. Histological sections showed destruction of the Purkinje cortical layers in group B, with increased destructions in groups C and D compared to the control. These results reveal that amodiaquine and artesunate combination causes histological alterations, which were dose and time dependent and these may result in cerebellar dysfunction.

  8. Experimental tuberculosis in the Wistar rat: a model for protective immunity and control of infection.

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    Amit Singhal

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Despite the availability of many animal models for tuberculosis (TB research, there still exists a need for better understanding of the quiescent stage of disease observed in many humans. Here, we explored the use of the Wistar rat model for the study of protective immunity and control of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb infection. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The kinetics of bacillary growth, evaluated by the colony stimulating assay (CFU and the extent of lung pathology in Mtb infected Wistar rats were dependent on the virulence of the strains and the size of the infecting inoculums. Bacillary growth control was associated with induction of T helper type 1 (Th1 activation, the magnitude of which was also Mtb strain and dose dependent. Histopathology analysis of the infected lungs demonstrated the formation of well organized granulomas comprising epithelioid cells, multinucleated giant cells and foamy macrophages surrounded by large numbers of lymphocytes. The late stage subclinical form of disease was reactivated by immunosuppression leading to increased lung CFU. CONCLUSION: The Wistar rat is a valuable model for better understanding host-pathogen interactions that result in control of Mtb infection and potentially establishment of latent TB. These properties together with the ease of manipulation, relatively low cost and well established use of rats in toxicology and pharmacokinetic analyses make the rat a good animal model for TB drug discovery.

  9. The Establishment of Metabolic Syndrome Model by Induction of Fructose Drinking Water in Male Wistar Rats

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    Norshalizah Mamikutty

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Metabolic syndrome can be caused by modification of diet by means of consumption of high carbohydrate and high fat diet such as fructose. Aims. To develop a metabolic syndrome rat model by induction of fructose drinking water (FDW in male Wistar rats. Methods. Eighteen male Wistar rats were fed with FDW 20% and FDW 25% for a duration of eight weeks. The physiological changes with regard to food and fluid intake, as well as calorie intake, were measured. The metabolic changes such as obesity, dyslipidaemia, hypertension, and hyperglycaemia were determined. Data was presented in mean ± SEM subjected to one-way ANOVA. Results. Male Wistar rats fed with FDW 20% for eight weeks developed significant higher obesity parameters compared to those fed with FDW 25%. There was hypertrophy of adipocytes in F20 and F25. There were also systolic hypertension, hypertriglyceridemia, and hyperglycemia in both groups. Conclusion. We conclude that the metabolic syndrome rat model is best established with the induction of FDW 20% for eight weeks. This was evident in the form of higher obesity parameter which caused the development of the metabolic syndrome.

  10. Imaging of spontaneous ventriculomegaly and vascular malformations in Wistar rats: implications for preclinical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Tsang-Wei; Turtzo, L Christine; Williams, Rashida A; Lescher, Jacob D; Dean, Dana D; Frank, Joseph A

    2014-12-01

    Wistar rats are widely used in biomedical research and commonly serve as a model organism in neuroscience studies. In most cases when noninvasive imaging is not used, studies assume a consistent baseline condition in rats that lack visible differences. While performing a series of traumatic brain injury studies, we discovered mild spontaneous ventriculomegaly in 70 (43.2%) of 162 Wistar rats that had been obtained from 2 different vendors. Advanced magnetic resonance (MR) imaging techniques, including MR angiography and diffusion tensor imaging, were used to evaluate the rats. Multiple neuropathologic abnormalities, including presumed arteriovenous malformations, aneurysms, cysts, white matter lesions, and astrogliosis were found in association with ventriculomegaly. Postmortem microcomputed tomography and immunohistochemical staining confirmed the presence of aneurysms and arteriovenous malformations. Diffusion tensor imaging showed significant decreases in fractional anisotropy and increases in mean diffusivity, axial diffusivity, and radial diffusivity in multiple white matter tracts (p ventriculomegaly. We suggest the use of baseline imaging to prevent the inadvertent introduction of a high degree of variability in preclinical studies of neurologic disease or injury in Wistar rats.

  11. Citrus aurantifolia impairs fertility facilitators and indices in male albino wistar rats

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    Uduak Akpan Okon

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The ability to reproduce is one of lifes essential functions; therefore factors that affect this ability are of vital importance to mankind. We therefore designed this study to assess the effect of various dosages of C. aurantifolia treatment on fertility promoters and indices in male albino wistar rats. Methods: Toxicity studies showed no lethality at 5000 mg/kg. Eighteen male albino wistar rats weighing between 220 and 240 g were used. They were randomly assigned into three groups of six rats each. Group one served as control and was gavaged 5 ml of normal saline, groups two and three were gavaged 1000 mg/kg and 1500 mg/kg body weight as medium and high dose respectively twice daily for 21 days. On the 22nd day, the rats were sacrificed and blood samples were obtained by cardiac puncture; following standard procedure, the serum was obtained for hormonal (FSH, LH, prolactin and testosterone assay using microplate immunoenzymometric assay. The testes were harvested for semen analysis. Results: LH level was significantly lower in medium dose (P Citrus aurantifolia possess antifertility potentials in male albino wistar rats. Excessive intake should be with caution in males with fertility challenges. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2014; 3(3.000: 640-645

  12. Beneficiary effect of Tinospora cordifolia against high-fructose diet induced abnormalities in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, S Sreenivasa; Ramatholisamma, P; Ramesh, B; Baskar, R; Saralakumari, D

    2009-10-01

    High intake of dietary fructose has been shown to exert a number of adverse metabolic eff ects in humans and experimental animals. The present study was designed to investigate the eff ect of the aqueous extract of Tinospora cordifolia stem (TCAE) on the adverse eff ects of fructose loading toward carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in rats. Adult male Wistar rats of body weight around 200 g were divided into four groups, two of which were fed with starch diet and the other two with high fructose (66 %) diet. Plant extract of TC (400 mg/kg/day) was administered orally to each group of the starch fed rats and the highfructose fed rats. At the end of 60 days of experimental period, biochemical parameters related to carbohydrate and lipid metabolism were assayed. Hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, hypertriglyceridemia, insulin resistance, and elevated levels of hepatic total lipids, cholesterol, triglycerides, and free fatty acids (p TCAE treatment. Alterations in the activities of enzymes of glucose metabolism (hexokinase, phosphofructokinase, pyruvate kinase, glucose-6-phosphatase, fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase, and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase) and lipid metabolism (fatty acid synthetase, lipoprotein lipase, and malic enzyme) as observed in the high fructose-fed rats were prevented with TCAE administration. In conclusion, our fi ndings indicate improvement of glucose and lipid metabolism in high-fructose fed rats by treatment with Tinospora cordifolia, and suggest that the plant can be used as an adjuvant for the prevention and/or management of insulin resistance and disorders related to it.

  13. Anxiety- and depressive-like profiles during early- and mid-adolescence in the female Wistar Kyoto rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Souza, Deepthi; Sadananda, Monika

    2017-02-01

    Approaches for the development of preclinical models of depression extensively use adult and male animals owing to the discrepancies arising out of the hormonal flux in adult females and adolescents during attainment of puberty. Thus the increased vulnerability of females towards clinical depression and anxiety-related disorders remains incompletely understood. Development of clinical models of depression in adolescent females is essential in order to evolve effective treatment strategies for adolescent depression. In the present study, we have examined the anxiety and depressive-like profiles in a putative animal model of childhood depression, the Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rat, during early adolescence (∼postnatal day 30) and mid-adolescence (∼postnatal day 40). Female adolescent WKY rats, tested on a series of behavioural tests modelling anxiety- and depressive-like behaviours with age-matched Wistars as controls, demonstrated marked differences during early adolescence in a strain- and age-specific manner. Anxiety indices were obtained from exposure to the elevated plus maze, where social communication vide 50-kHz ultrasonic vocalizations was also assessed, while immobility and other parameters in the forced swim test were screened for depressive-like profiles. Sucrose preference, used as a measure of anhedonia in animals, was lower in WKYs at both ages tested and decreased with age. Anxiety-related behaviours were prominent in WKY rats only during early adolescence. WKY female rats are anxious during early adolescence and exhibit anhedonia as a core symptom of depression during early- and mid-adolescence, thus indicating that inclusion of female animals in preclinical trials is essential and will contribute to gender-based approaches to diagnosis and treatment of adolescent depression in females.

  14. Pharmacological dose of {alpha}-tocopherol induces cardiotoxicity in Wistar rats determined by echocardiography and histology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, Maria Carolina M O; Matsubara, Beatriz B; Matsubara, Luiz S; Correa, Camila R; Pereira, Elenize J; Moreira, Priscila L; Carvalho, Flavio A; Burini, Caio H; Padovani, Carlos R; Yeum, Kyung-Jin; Ferreira, Ana Lucia A

    2011-10-01

    The effect of pharmacological dose of α-tocopherol on heart health was determined in Wistar rats. Animals were randomly assigned to either C (control, n = 11) or E (α-tocopherol, n = 11) group. Animals received corn oil (C) or α-tocopherol dissolved in corn oil (250 mg α-tocopherol/[kg body wt/day]) (E) by gavage for a 7-week period. Rats underwent echocardiogram and were analyzed for cardiomyocyte histology and cardiac α-tocopherol absorption at the end of the study period. As compared to the C group, α-tocopherol-supplemented group showed significantly (p rats.

  15. Ameliorative Effect of Ocimum Sanctum on Meloxicam Induced Toxicity in Wistar Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Mahaprabhu, R.; Bhandarkar, A. G.; Jangir, Babu Lal; Rahangadale, S. P.; Kurkure, N. V.

    2011-01-01

    An ameliorating effect of Ocimum sanctum on the toxic effect of meloxicam, a new non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug was studied by evaluating haemato-biochemical parameters, oxidative stress, gross and histopathological changes in various organs of Wistar rats. A total of thirty-six male rats were divided in six experimental groups each comprising of six rats and numbered from G1 to G6. Meloxicam toxicity was induced by oral feeding of meloxicam at 1.2 mg/kg and 2.4 mg/kg body weight in G2 ...

  16. ANTI CANCER ACTIVITY OF PHYLLANTHUS AMARUS IN AZASERINE INDUCED PANCREATIC CANCER OF WISTAR RATS

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    Ankit Prajapati

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Pancreatic cancer is a malignant neoplasm originating from transformed cells arising in tissues forming the pancreas. The most common type of pancreatic cancer is adeno-carcinoma. The present experiment was carried out to study histopathological changes occur in pancreas in different groups of azaserine induced pancreatic cancer in Wistar rats with and without the treatment of aqueous and alcoholic extract of Phyllanthus amarus at different doses. Histopathological examination of pancreas of untreated group of rats showed hyperplasia of pancreatic duct, necrosis, fatty changes, haemorrhages between pancreatic cells. The rats treated with Phyllanthus amarus extracts showed no pathological lesions.

  17. Effect of the Hydroalcoholic Extract of Heracleum persicum (Golpar on Folliculogenesis in Female Wistar Rats

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    Saeed Irian

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Medicinal plants are widely used throughout the world. Since these plants are known to have minimal side effects, many people embrace them. The golpar plant, scientifically known as Heracleum persicum (H. persicum, is a common Asian and Iranian medicinal plant. The use of golpar is recommended in traditional medicine as a contraceptivemedication for females; however, no scientifically documented evidence has been reported. This study investigates the effects of the golpar plant on ovarian tissue and folliculogenesis.Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, H. persicum hydroalcoholic extract (HPHE was used at 400 mg/kg and 1600 mg/kg doses. Adult female rats were divided into three groups: control, sham, and experimental(I, II. The control group did not receive any injection, the sham group received saline solution, and the experimental group received IP injections of HPHE for 21 days, once every other day, during the sexual cycle. At the end of the injection period, ovarian samples were harvested for histological studies. The FSH assay was performed according to the chemiluminescence immunoassay(CLIA method. Data were statistically analyzed by the Instat3 program and one-way ANOVA. A p value of <0.05 was considered significant.Results: In the experimental group the numbers of primordial and primary follicles increased(p<0.001, while the number of preantral and antral follicles decreased (p<0.01. The atretic follicles decreased in the experimental group, but this decrease was not significant.There was no statistical difference in FSH concentration when compared with the control group.Conclusion: This report gives primary information on the in vivo effects of the HPHE on the ovarian follicles of the female Wistar rat. The results suggest that administrationof HPHE may have inhibitory effects on folliculogenesis and cause infertility in females.

  18. Physical exercise versus fluoxetine: antagonistic effects on cortical spreading depression in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirelle Costa Monteiro, Heloísa; Lima Barreto-Silva, Nathália; Elizabete Dos Santos, Gracyelle; de Santana Santos, Amanda; Séfora Bezerra Sousa, Mariana; Amâncio-Dos-Santos, Ângela

    2015-09-05

    The antidepressant fluoxetine and physical exercise exert similar effects on the serotoninergic system by increasing brain serotonin availability, and both show antagonistic action on cortical excitability. Here we provide the first assessment of the interaction of the two together on cortical spreading depression (CSD) in young adult rats. Wistar rats (40-60 days of life) received fluoxetine (10mg/kg/d, orogastrically) or an equivalent volume of water. Half of the animals from each condition were assigned to perform physical exercise in a treadmill, and the other half formed the sedentary (non-treadmill) control groups. Body parameters (Lee index and thoracic and abdominal circumferences) and the velocity of CSD propagation were investigated. Fluoxetine+exercise animals had less weight gain (78.68±3.19g) than either the fluoxetine-only (93.34±4.77g) or exercise-only group (97.04±3.48g), but body parameters did not differ among them. The velocity of CSD propagation was reduced in the fluoxetine-only and exercise-only groups compared to sedentary water controls (3.24±0.39mm/min). For the fluoxetine+exercise group, CSD velocity values were significantly lower (2.92±0.22mm/min) than for fluoxetine only (3.03±0.35mm/min); however, they were similar to values for the exercise-only group (2.96±0.23mm/min). These findings confirm the similar effects of fluoxetine and exercise and suggest a greater effect of physical exercise in reducing brain excitability.

  19. Sex Differences in Physiological Acclimatization after Transfer in Wistar Rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arts, J.W.M.; Kramer, K.; Arndt, Saskia; Ohl, Frauke

    2014-01-01

    Simple Summary: This study in laboratory rodents shows a sex specific effect of breeder to research facility transfer on several physiological parameters, such as heart rate and blood pressure. We recommend at least 8 days of acclimatization time after transfer in male rats and at least two weeks in

  20. Behavioral, Ventilatory and Thermoregulatory Responses to Hypercapnia and Hypoxia in the Wistar Audiogenic Rat (WAR Strain.

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    Érica Maria Granjeiro

    Full Text Available We investigated the behavioral, respiratory, and thermoregulatory responses elicited by acute exposure to both hypercapnic and hypoxic environments in Wistar audiogenic rats (WARs. The WAR strain represents a genetic animal model of epilepsy.Behavioral analyses were performed using neuroethological methods, and flowcharts were constructed to illustrate behavioral findings. The body plethysmography method was used to obtain pulmonary ventilation (VE measurements, and body temperature (Tb measurements were taken via temperature sensors implanted in the abdominal cavities of the animals.No significant difference was observed between the WAR and Wistar control group with respect to the thermoregulatory response elicited by exposure to both acute hypercapnia and acute hypoxia (p>0.05. However, we found that the VE of WARs was attenuated relative to that of Wistar control animals during exposure to both hypercapnic (WAR: 133 ± 11% vs. Wistar: 243 ± 23%, p<0.01 and hypoxic conditions (WAR: 138 ± 8% vs. Wistar: 177 ± 8%; p<0.01. In addition, we noted that this ventilatory attenuation was followed by alterations in the behavioral responses of these animals.Our results indicate that WARs, a genetic model of epilepsy, have important alterations in their ability to compensate for changes in levels of various arterial blood gasses. WARs present an attenuated ventilatory response to an increased PaCO2 or decreased PaO2, coupled to behavioral changes, which make them a suitable model to further study respiratory risks associated to epilepsy.

  1. Baroreflex sensitivity differs among same strain Wistar rats from the same laboratory

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    Celso Ferreira

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies evidenced that a portion of normotensive Sprague–Dawley rats spontaneously exhibit lower baroreflex sensitivity, however, it was no yet investigated in Wistar rats. We aimed to compare baroreflex sensitivity among rats from the same strain and the same laboratory. Male Wistar normotensive rats (300-400g were studied. Cannulas were inserted into the abdominal aortic artery through the right femoral artery to measure mean arterial pressure and heart rate. Baroreflex was calculated as the derivative of the variation of heart rate in function of the mean arterial pressure variation (ΔHR/ΔMAP tested with a depressor dose of sodium nitroprusside (50 μg/kg and with a pressor dose of phenylephrine (8μg/kg in the right femoral venous approach through an inserted cannula. We divided the rats into four groups: i high bradycardic baroreflex, baroreflex gain less than -2 tested with phenylephrine; ii low bradycardic baroreflex, baroreflex gain between -1 and -2 tested with phenylephrine; iii high tachycardic baroreflex, baroreflex gain less than -3 tested with sodium nitroprusside; and iv low tachycardic baroreflex, baroreflex gain between -1 and -3 tested with sodium nitroprusside. Approximately 71% of the rats presented a decrease in bradycardic reflex while around half showed an increase in tachycardic reflex. No significant changes in basal mean arterial pressure and heart rate, tachycardic and bradycardic peak and heart rate range were observed. There was a significant change in baroreflex sensitivity among rats from the same strain and the same laboratory.

  2. The protective role of Gongronema latifolium in acetaminophen induced hepatic toxicity in Wistar rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nnodim Johnkennedy; Emejulu Adamma

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the protective effect of leaf extract of Gongronema latifolium (G. latifolium) against acute acetaminophen induced hepatic toxicity in Wistar rats. Methods:Thirty six Wistar rats were divided into 6 groups with 6 rats in each group. Animals in group 1 and 2 were administered with 600 mg/kg b.w. of acetaminophen only and acetaminophen plus 100 mg/kg b.w. of caffeine by oral gavages, respectively. Experimental groups 3 and 4 were treated as in group 1 but in addition received 200 and 400 mg/kg b.w., respectively of the leaf extract of G. latifolium by oral gavages. The experimental groups 5 and 6 were treated as in group 2 and in addition received 200 and 400 mg/kg b.w. of leaf extract of G. latifolium, respectively. The treatment lasted for 14 days. Results: The results obtained showed that the serum glutamic-oxalacetic transaminease (AST), glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) levels had a greater increase in group 2 than in group 1 but dropped marginally in groups 3 and 4. However, in groups 5 and 6, AST, ALT and ALP were significantly reduced (P<0.05). Similarly, serum protein levels were significantly increased in groups 3, 4, 5 and 6 when compared with group 1 and 2. Conclusions: It can be concluded that extract of G. latifolium offers protection against acetaminophen and caffeinated acetaminophen toxicity in Wistar rats.

  3. Histomorphometry of the tibia and mandible of healthy female Wistar rats at different stages of growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nenda, María M; Lewicki, Marianela; Mandalunis, Patricia M

    2016-05-20

    Female Wistar rats are frequently used in experimental models to study hormone and bone pathologies and treatments. Most experimental studies involving histomorphometric evaluation assessed long bones, and few reports also studied mandibular bone. The aim of this work was to clarify and distinguish the age-related histomorphometric changes that occur in the tibia (subchondral bone) and in the mandible (interradicular bone), and thus obtain reference histomorphometric data of healthy female Wistar rats at different growth stages. Three groups of 8 healthy female Wistar rats were euthanized at 6 (GI), 10 (GII), and 14 (GIII) weeks. The tibiae and mandible were resected and histologically processed to obtain H&E stained sections of the tibia and the lower first molar to analyze the following histomorphometric parameters: Bone volume, trabecular width, trabecular number (Th.N)(1/mm), growth cartilage width, hypertrophic cartilage width and number of osteoclasts per area in the tibiae, and bone volume and number of osteoclasts per area N.Oc/mm(2) in the interradicular bone of the first lower molar. A significant decrease in subchondral bone volume as a result of a decrease in trabecular number and growth cartilage width was observed in 14-week-old rats. Conversely, interradicular bone volume was found to increase with age. The results highlight the importance of analyzing both types of bone to better understand the response of two different trabecular bones, contributing in turn to decision making regarding treatment strategies and disease management.

  4. Aerosol Infection Model of Tuberculosis in Wistar Rats

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    Sheshagiri Gaonkar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We explored suitability of a rat tuberculosis aerosol infection model for investigating the pharmacodynamics of new antimycobacterial agents. Infection of rats via the aerosol route led to a reproducible course of M. tuberculosis infection in the lungs. The pulmonary bacterial load increased logarithmically during the first six weeks, thereafter, the infection stabilized for the next 12 weeks. We observed macroscopically visible granulomas in the lungs with demonstrable acid-fast bacilli and associated histopathology. Rifampicin (RIF at a dose range of 30 to 270 mg/kg exhibited a sharp dose response while isoniazid (INH at a dose range of 10 to 90 mg/kg and ethambutol (EMB at 100 to 1000 mg/kg showed shallow dose responses. Pyrazinamide (PZA had no dose response between 300 and 1000 mg/kg dose range. In a separate time kill study at fixed drug doses (RIF 90 mg/kg, INH 30 mg/kg, EMB 300 mg/kg, and PZA 300 mg/kg the bactericidal effect of all the four drugs increased with longer duration of treatment from two weeks to four weeks. The observed infection profile and therapeutic outcomes in this rat model suggest that it can be used as an additional, pharmacologically relevant efficacy model to develop novel antitubercular compounds at the interface of discovery and development.

  5. Aerosol infection model of tuberculosis in wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaonkar, Sheshagiri; Bharath, Sowmya; Kumar, Naveen; Balasubramanian, V; Shandil, Radha K

    2010-01-01

    We explored suitability of a rat tuberculosis aerosol infection model for investigating the pharmacodynamics of new antimycobacterial agents. Infection of rats via the aerosol route led to a reproducible course of M. tuberculosis infection in the lungs. The pulmonary bacterial load increased logarithmically during the first six weeks, thereafter, the infection stabilized for the next 12 weeks. We observed macroscopically visible granulomas in the lungs with demonstrable acid-fast bacilli and associated histopathology. Rifampicin (RIF) at a dose range of 30 to 270 mg/kg exhibited a sharp dose response while isoniazid (INH) at a dose range of 10 to 90 mg/kg and ethambutol (EMB) at 100 to 1000 mg/kg showed shallow dose responses. Pyrazinamide (PZA) had no dose response between 300 and 1000 mg/kg dose range. In a separate time kill study at fixed drug doses (RIF 90 mg/kg, INH 30 mg/kg, EMB 300 mg/kg, and PZA 300 mg/kg) the bactericidal effect of all the four drugs increased with longer duration of treatment from two weeks to four weeks. The observed infection profile and therapeutic outcomes in this rat model suggest that it can be used as an additional, pharmacologically relevant efficacy model to develop novel antitubercular compounds at the interface of discovery and development.

  6. Gastro-protective effect of Crossopteryx febrifuga in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeola, Salawu Oluwakanyinsola; Yahaya, Tijani Adeniyi; Hafsatu, Babayi; Chinwe, Nwaeze Angela; Maryjane, Ezeonu Chidimma; Sunday, Igwe; Adanna, Ndukuba Mary

    2011-01-01

    Preparations of Crossopteryx febrifuga (Afzel.) Benth. (Rubiaceae) are widely used in Northern Nigeria in the therapeutic management of trypanosomiasis, malaria and painful inflammatory disorders. Previous studies have shown that the methanolic stem bark extract of Crossopteryx febrifuga possesses significant analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties possibly mediated via Non-selective inhibition of cyclo-oxygenase pathways. In the present study, the methanolic stem bark extract of Crossopteryx febrifuga was evaluated against ethanol- and piroxicam-induced ulceration in rats. Histopathological studies of the rat stomach tissues were also carried out in order to determine its safety profile on the gastrointestinal tract (git). The extract (25, 50 and100 mg extract/kg body weight) significantly (P<0.05) and dose-dependently reduced ulcer index induced by ethanol (24 - 92%) and piroxicam (81.81- 98.60%). Histopathology of the rat stomach tissues from control and extract-treated groups at 25 mg/kg body weight extract showed mild inflammation characterized by infiltration of inflammatory cells, while the extract treated groups at 50 and 100mg/kg body weight and 200 mg misoprostol/kg body weight group showed no obvious lesions. These results showed that the extract had no deleterious effects and was cytoprotective on the gastrointestinal tract (git). It can thus be developed as a safe alternative to conventional non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) for the management of painful inflammatory disorders.

  7. Evaluation of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in the Wistar Audiogenic Rat (WAR Strain.

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    Rubens Fazan

    Full Text Available Risk factors for life-threatening cardiovascular events were evaluated in an experimental model of epilepsy, the Wistar Audiogenic Rat (WAR strain.We used long-term ECG recordings in conscious, one year old, WAR and Wistar control counterparts to evaluate spontaneous arrhythmias and heart rate variability, a tool to assess autonomic cardiac control. Ventricular function was also evaluated using the pressure-volume conductance system in anesthetized rats.Basal RR interval (RRi was similar between WAR and Wistar rats (188 ± 5 vs 199 ± 6 ms. RRi variability strongly suggests that WAR present an autonomic imbalance with sympathetic overactivity, which is an isolated risk factor for cardiovascular events. Anesthetized WAR showed lower arterial pressure (92 ± 3 vs 115 ± 5 mmHg and exhibited indices of systolic dysfunction, such as higher ventricle end-diastolic pressure (9.2 ± 0.6 vs 5.6 ± 1 mmHg and volume (137 ± 9 vs 68 ± 9 μL as well as lower rate of increase in ventricular pressure (5266 ± 602 vs 7320 ± 538 mmHg.s-1. Indices of diastolic cardiac function, such as lower rate of decrease in ventricular pressure (-5014 ± 780 vs -7766 ± 998 mmHg.s-1 and a higher slope of the linear relationship between end-diastolic pressure and volume (0.078 ± 0.011 vs 0.036 ± 0.011 mmHg.μL, were also found in WAR as compared to Wistar control rats. Moreover, Wistar rats had 3 to 6 ventricular ectopic beats, whereas WAR showed 15 to 30 ectopic beats out of the 20,000 beats analyzed in each rat.The autonomic imbalance observed previously at younger age is also present in aged WAR and, additionally, a cardiac dysfunction was also observed in the rats. These findings make this experimental model of epilepsy a valuable tool to study risk factors for cardiovascular events in epilepsy.

  8. TGF-mediated oscillations in the proximal intratubular pressure: differences between spontaneously hypertensive rats and Wistar-Kyoto rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holstein-Rathlou, N H; Leyssac, P P

    1986-01-01

    A highly sensitive oscillatory tubulo-glomerular feedback (TGF) response has previously been demonstrated in normotensive Sprague-Dawley rats. The purpose of the present study was to examine whether such as oscillating TGF-response could be elicited in Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY) and genetically...... hypertensive rats (SHR) and furthermore if any differences in the TGF-response characteristics between SHR and WKY rats could be detected. The closed loop function of the TGF-system was studied. In 12-18-week-old WKY rats regular oscillations in the intratubular pressure occurred spontaneously. The median...... fluid (ATF). When furosemide was added to the ATF in a concentration of 0.1 mM, the oscillations were abolished in both strains of rats. It is concluded that, in both strains of rats the oscillatory phenomena depend upon TGF activity. It is suggested that the irregular pattern of the oscillations...

  9. Histomorphometric analysis of the Achilles tendon of Wistar rats treated with laser therapy and eccentric exercise

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    Maria V. de Souza

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Low-level laser therapy is recommended for the treatment of tendinopathies despite the contradictory results related to the ideal dose of energy, wavelength and time of application. This study aimed to assess the effects of laser therapy and eccentric exercise on tendinopathy of the Achilles tendon of Wistar rats. Forty-eight adult male rats were randomly distributed into four groups (L= laser; E= eccentric exercise; LE = laser and eccentric exercise; and R= rest. Laser therapy (904nm/3J/cm2 and/or eccentric exercise (downhill walking; 15o incline treadmill; 12m/min; 50min/day was started 24h after induction of unilateral tendinopathy and remained for 20 days. At 3, 7, 14 and 21 days after lesion induction, three rats from each group were euthanized and the tendons were collected for histological and morphometric analyses. There was no difference among groups or among times for the characteristics hemorrhage (p=0.4154, fibrinous adhesion formation (p=0.0712, and organization of collagen fibers (p=0.2583 and of the connective tissue (p=0.1046. For these groups, regardless of the time, eccentric exercise led to epitenon thickening (p=0.0204, which was lower in the group treated with laser therapy. Histological analysis revealed differences (p=0.0032 in the number of inflammatory cells over time. They were more numerous in the group that only exercised. This result was confirmed by morphometric analysis, which showed a significant interaction (groups x time for this characteristic. Eccentric exercise increased (p=0.0014 the inflammatory infiltrate over time (3 and 21 days. However, association with laser therapy reduced inflammatory reaction. On the other hand, the combination of the treatments increased angiogenesis in morphometric (p=0.0000 and histological (p=0.0006 analyses compared with the other groups, while the isolated application of low-level laser reduced this characteristic over time. Animals maintained at rest presented the

  10. Effects of catuaba cristal® on the testis of wistar rats

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    Karine Moura de Freitas

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible beneficial effects of Catuaba Cristal® (CC, an alcoholic drink made from wine and Erythroxylum catuaba Ar. Cam on testis. Wistar rats either received CC solution (n=8 or water (n=9. Results showed significant body weight reduction within the CC group, although, no weight changes were observed for liver, kidney, testis, epididymis, seminal vesicle and prostate. The volumetric proportion and volume of interstitial tissue and lymphatic space were reduced in the treated group. In the CC group, although the nuclear volume of Leydig cells (LC decreased, the number of LC per testis increased. These results suggested that CC had no beneficial effect on spermatogenesis of Wistar rats.

  11. Antihyperglycaemic, antilipid peroxidative and antioxidant effects of gallic acid on streptozotocin induced diabetic Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punithavathi, Vilapakkam Ranganathan; Prince, Ponnian Stanely Mainzen; Kumar, Ramesh; Selvakumari, Jemmi

    2011-01-10

    The present study aims to evaluate the antihyperglycaemic, antilipid peroxidative and antioxidant effects of gallic acid on streptozotocin induced diabetic male Wistar rats. To induce diabetes mellitus, rats were injected with streptozotocin intraperitoneally at a single dose of 40mg/kg. Streptozotocin induced diabetic rats showed significant (Pacid reactive substances and lipid hydroperoxides were significantly (Pgallic acid (10 and 20mg/kg) daily for a period of 21days showed significant (Pgallic acid in diabetic rats. In vitro study also revealed the potent antioxidant effect of gallic acid. Thus, the study shows the antihyperglycaemic, antilipid peroxidative and antioxidant effects of gallic acid on streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. The effect exerted by 20mg/kg body weight of gallic acid was more effective than 10mg/kg body weight of gallic acid.

  12. Effect of mannitol on the pharmacokinetics of amikacin in wistar rats

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    Hugo Juárez Olguín

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The study analyzed the effect of mannitol on the pharmacokinetics (PK of amikacin. Adult Wistar rats were treated as follows: Group 1 (G1 received mannitol for three days, Group 2 (G2 received mannitol plus 10 mg/kg of amikacin simultaneously, and Group 3 only amikacin. The PK study was conducted on the 4th day. For which, blood samples were drawn at fixed times during 24 h and immunoenzymatically analyzed. Results revealed significant differences (pO estudo analisa o efeito do manitol na farmacocinética (PK da amicacina . Ratos adultos Wistar foram tratadas da seguinte maneira: o grupo 1 (G1 recebeu manitol durante três días. Ao grupo 2 (G2 se administrou manitol e 10 mg/kg de amicacina, ao mesmo tempo. Finalmente, o grupo 3 (G3 recebeu somente amicacina. No quarto día se realizou o estudo de PK nos três grupos. Para isso, foram retiradas amostras de sangue, em tempos pre-determinados, durante 24 horas, que foram analisadas por métodos imunoenzimáticos. Os resultados mostraram diferencas significativas (p < 0.05 entre os grupos. Po exemplo, os valores obtidos de Cmax foram 62.26 ± 15.75 µg/ml para G1, 72.63 ± 24.80 µg/ml para G2 e 68.61 ± 27.40 µg/ml para o Grupo 3. A AUC foi também diferente entre os três grupos: a maior para G2, com, 222.52 ± 47.30 µg/ml/h, e a menor para G1, com um valor de 135.59 ± 39.00 µg/ml/h. A alteraçäo dos parámetros de PK entre os grupos debe ser considerada quando se administram os dois farmacos simultaneamente. No entanto, é necessario realizar estudos em seres humanos para confirmar os nossos resultados.

  13. Effect of Flunixin on Ovarian Cancer Induced by DMBA in Female Wistar Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Kayvan Keramati; mehri mehran poor; Abolfazl Babakhani; Gholam Hasan Vaezi; Fahimeh Habibi

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Ovary cancer is one of the commonest cancers among the women. With regard to role of cyclooxygnase(COX) enzyme and production of prostaglandin type E2 in causing tumor damages in ovary cancer, application of compounds to inhibit cyclooxygnase can be effective in preventing ovary cancer. Thus, the present study was carried out to evaluate flunixin as nonselective inhibitor of Cyclooxygenase enzymes in developing ovary cancer in female Wistar rats. Methods: In this experimental re...

  14. Benign and malignant mammary tumors induced by DMBA in female Wistar rats

    OpenAIRE

    Dias, M.; Cabrita, S; Sousa, E.; França, B; Patrício, J; Oliveira, CF

    1999-01-01

    This study pretends to characterize 7, 12-dimetylbenz[a]anthracene-induced benign and malignant tumors. One hundred and twenty female Wistar rats were randomly allocated to two groups: Control Group and Induction Group; IG animals were given a single dose of DMBA and killed 24 weeks after. Other tumors besides breast tumors were diagnosed, mainly tumors of the salivary glands and ovarian benign epithelial tumors. Incidence of breast disorders was about 60%. Macroscopic mammary tumors varied i...

  15. Effect of vitamin D on atorvastatin induced blood sugar changes in Wistar albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Arunkumar

    2014-04-01

    Conclusions: This study has demonstrated that chronic use of atorvastatin 2 and 4 mg may lead to fasting hyperglycemia and it could be prevented by co-administration of 200 IU of vitamin D, in male Wistar albino rats. Randomized control studies in humans are further required to recommend routine use of vitamin D in patients receiving atorvastatin. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2014; 3(2.000: 359-364

  16. Decreased adipose tissue zinc content is associated with metabolic parameters in high fat fed Wistar rats

    OpenAIRE

    Alexey A. Tinkov; Elizaveta V. Popova; Evgenia R. Gatiatulina; Anastasia A. Skalnaya; Elena N. Yakovenko; Irina B. Alchinova; Mikhail Y. Karganov; Anatoly V. Skalny; Nikonorov, Alexandr A.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Limited data on adipose tissue zinc content in obesity exist. At the same time, the association between adipose tissue zinc content and metabolic parameters in dietary-induced obesity is poorly studied. Therefore, the primary objective of this study is to assess adipose tissue zinc content and its association  with morphometric parameters, adipokine spectrum, proinflammatory cytokines, and apolipoprotein profile in high fat fed Wistar rats. Material and method...

  17. ANTI CANCER ACTIVITY OF PHYLLANTHUS AMARUS IN AZASERINE INDUCED PANCREATIC CANCER OF WISTAR RATS

    OpenAIRE

    Ankit Prajapati; Sunant Raval; TapanVaria

    2015-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is a malignant neoplasm originating from transformed cells arising in tissues forming the pancreas. The most common type of pancreatic cancer is adeno-carcinoma. The present experiment was carried out to study histopathological changes occur in pancreas in different groups of azaserine induced pancreatic cancer in Wistar rats with and without the treatment of aqueous and alcoholic extract of Phyllanthus amarus at different doses. Histopathological examination of ...

  18. Spontaneous lesions in endocrine glands of experimental Wistar rats and beagle dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nataraju, G J; Ranvir, Ramchandra K; Kothule, Viren R; Kadam, Shekhar B; Ravichandra, B V; Bhatnagar, Upendra; Jain, Mukul R

    2016-01-01

    A retrospective analysis was undertaken at Zydus Research Centre to understand the incidences of spontaneous lesions in endocrine glands of Wistar rats and beagle dogs. The data from a total of 841 Wistar rats (418 males and 423 females) and 144 beagle dogs (72 males and 72 females) was used from placebo/vehicle treated control group of different non-clinical toxicity studies. The lesions in various endocrine glands were classified according to the species and age of the animals at termination of study. Among the endocrine glands, the highest numbers (types) of spontaneous lesions were observed in adrenal glands followed in descending order by pituitary, thyroid, endocrine pancreas and parathyroid glands in Wistar rats. In beagle dogs, highest numbers (types) of spontaneous lesions were seen in adrenals followed by thyroid, endocrine pancreas, pituitary and parathyroid gland. In adrenal glands of Wistar rats, the incidences of cortical cell vacuolation, hemorrhages and hemangiectasis/peliosis were increased with age. Incidence of peliosis at ∼110 weeks of age was higher in female rats. Among the proliferative lesions in rats, higher incidences of cortical cell hyperplasia was observed followed by medullary hyperplasia, complex pheochromocytoma, cortical cell adenoma and cortical adenocarcinoma. In beagle dogs, the incidences of hemangiectasis and cortical cell vacuolation in adrenal glands were higher in 18-21 months aged dogs in both the sexes as compared to 10-12 months of age. In pituitary gland, the incidences of cystic changes were higher in older rats and dogs and the incidences were more in beagles as compared to rats. In thyroid glands, C-cell (parafollicular cells) hyperplasia/complex was observed more frequently in both the species. Few incidences of cystic changes were observed in parathyroid of 18-21 months aged beagle dogs. In endocrine pancreas, few incidences of islet-cell vacuolation, atrophy and hyperplasia were observed in both the species. The

  19. Adolescent social isolation influences cognitive function in adult rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng Shao; Xiao Han; Shuang Shao; Weiwen Wang

    2013-01-01

    Adolescence is a critical period for neurodevelopment. Evidence from animal studies suggests that isolated rearing can exert negative effects on behavioral and brain development. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of adolescent social isolation on latent inhibition and brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels in the forebrain of adult rats. Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into adolescent isolation (isolated housing, 38–51 days of age) and social groups. Latent inhibition was tested at adulthood. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels were measured in the medial prefrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Adolescent social isolation impaired latent inhibition and increased brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels in the medial prefrontal cortex of young adult rats. These data suggest that adolescent social isolation has a profound effect on cognitive function and neurotrophin levels in adult rats and may be used as an animal model of neurodevelopmental disorders.

  20. Acute social defeat does not alter cerebral 5-HT2A receptor binding in male Wistar rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Visser, Anniek K D; Meerlo, Peter; Ettrup, Anders;

    2014-01-01

    of stress on this receptor subtype. In this study, we therefore assessed acute and long-term changes in 5HT2A R binding after social defeat stress in rats. Male Wistar rats were subjected to social defeat by placing them in the home cage of an aggressive, dominant Long Evans rat. Acute social defeat...

  1. Antiarthritic activity of a polyherbal formulation against Freund's complete adjuvant induced arthritis in Female Wistar rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petchi, R. Ramesh; Parasuraman, S.; Vijaya, C.; Gopala Krishna, S. V.; Kumar, M. Kiran

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To formulate a polyherbal formulation and evaluate its antiarthritic activity against Freund's complete adjuvant induced arthritis in Female Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: Glycosmis pentaphylla, Tridax procumbens, and Mangifera indica are well-known plants available throughout India and they are commonly used for the treatment of various diseases including arthritis. The polyherbal formulation was formulated using the ethanol extracts of the stem bark of G. pentaphylla, whole plant of T. procumbens, and leaves of M. indica. The polyherbal formulation contains the ethanol extracts of G. pentaphylla, T. procumbens, and M. indica in the ratio of 2:2:1. The quality of the finished product was evaluated as per the World Health Organization's guidelines for the quality control of herbal materials. Arthritis was induced in female Wistar rats using Freund's complete adjuvant (FCA), and the antiarthritic effect of polyherbal formulation was studied at doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg. The effects were compared with those of indomethacin (10 mg/kg). At the end of the study, blood samples were collected for biochemical and hematological analysis. The radiological examination was carried out before terminating the study. Results: Polyherbal formulation showed significant antiarthritic activity at 250 and 500 mg/kg, respectively, and this effect was comparable with that of indomethacin. The antiarthritic activity of polyherbal formulation is supported by biochemical and hematological analysis. Conclusion: The polyherbal formulation showed signinicant antiarthritic activity against FCA-induced arthritis in female Wistar rats. PMID:26229343

  2. Nuclear phenotype evaluation in skeletal muscle from Wistar rats exposed to low-level lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, L. G.; Sergio, L. P. S.; Vicentini, S. C.; Mencalha, A. L.; Paoli, F.; Fonseca, A. S.

    2017-03-01

    Low-level laser therapy includes devices emitting red and near-infrared radiation with output power below 100 mW. These devices are successfully used for the treatment of injuries and to improve exercise performance based on their biomodulatory effect. Despite the wide use of clinical protocols based on these lasers, the laser-induced effects on DNA are still disputed. Thus, the objective of this study was to investigate chromatin organization, ploidy degrees, and DNA fragmentation in skeletal muscle tissue from Wistar rats exposed to low-level red and infrared lasers. Wistar rats were exposed to low-level red and infrared lasers (25, 50, and 100 J cm‑2, 100 mW, continuous-wave emission mode) and, after 24h, samples of this tissue were withdrawn for the analysis of chromatin organization, ploidy degrees, and DNA fragmentation by Feulgen reaction detection of micronucleus, and apoptosis by TUNEL assay. Data obtained show that low-level red and infrared lasers alter geometric and densitometric parameters as well ploidy degree in muscle nuclei from Wistar rats, but do not induce DNA fragmentation, chromatin loss, and apoptosis at fluences taken out from clinical protocols.

  3. Shortened Conditioned Eyeblink Response Latency in Male but not Female Wistar-Kyoto Hyperactive Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanellou, Alexandra; Schachinger, Kira M.; Green, John T.

    2014-01-01

    Reductions in the volume of the cerebellum and impairments in cerebellar-dependent eyeblink conditioning have been observed in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Recently, it was reported that subjects with ADHD as well as male spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), a strain that is frequently employed as an animal model in the study of ADHD, exhibit a parallel pattern of timing deficits in eyeblink conditioning. One criticism that has been posed regarding the validity of the SHR strain as an animal model for the study of ADHD is that SHRs are not only hyperactive but also hypertensive. It is conceivable that many of the behavioral characteristics seen in SHRs that seem to parallel the behavioral symptoms of ADHD are not solely due to hyperactivity but instead are the net outcome of the interaction between hyperactivity and hypertension. We used Wistar-Kyoto Hyperactive (WKHA) and Wistar-Kyoto Hypertensive (WKHT) rats (males and females), strains generated from recombinant inbreeding of SHRs and their progenitor strain, Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats, to compare eyeblink conditioning in strains that are exclusively hyperactive or hypertensive. We used a long-delay eyeblink conditioning task in which a tone conditioned stimulus was paired with a periorbital stimulation unconditioned stimulus (750-ms delay paradigm). Our results showed that WKHA and WKHT rats exhibited similar rates of conditioned response (CR) acquisition. However, WKHA males displayed shortened CR latencies (early onset and peak latency) in comparison to WKHT males. In contrast, female WKHAs and WKHTs did not differ. In subsequent extinction training, WKHA rats extinguished at similar rates in comparison to WKHT rats. The current results support the hypothesis of a relationship between cerebellar abnormalities and ADHD in an animal model of ADHD-like symptoms that does not also exhibit hypertension, and suggest that cerebellar-related timing deficits are specific to males. PMID:19485572

  4. Estrogenic activity of a hydro-alcoholic extract of Bambusa arundinaceae leaves on female wistar rats

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    Talha Jawaid

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To study the estrogenic activity of the hydro-alcoholic extract of Bambusa arundinaceae leaves (HEBA in female Wistar rats. The dried powdered leaves were extracted with hydroalcoholic mixture (60%, and the resultant extract was subjected for phytochemical analyses to identify different phytoconstituents. HEBA were administered to ovariectomized rats for 7 days at three different doses (viz., 200, 300, 400 mg/kg body weight, p.o. and their estrogenic activity were compared with each of daily treatment with 0.2 mg/kg body weight, i.p. conjugated equine estrogen as a positive control or olive oil as a negative control. Estrogenic activity was evaluated by doing uterotropic assay, vaginal cytology and measurement of vaginal opening in female Wistar rats. Oral administration of HEBA in ovariectomized immature and mature female Wistar rats in a dose of 400 mg/kg b.w. resulted in significant increase in the uterine wet weight (in mg (224.82 ± 7.01 and (912.25 ± 27.22 when compared with ovariectomized control rats (111.52 ± 3.17 and (506.67 ± 21.39. HEBA (400 mg/kg b.w., p.o. treated rats, showing only cornified epithelial cells which was an indication of the presence of the estrogen and also showed 100% vaginal opening. It was observed that HEBA possess significant estrogenic activity at 400 mg/kg b.w., p.o. which was evident by uterotropic assay, measurement of vaginal opening, and histopathological changes.

  5. Effects of n–3 Supplementation on Plasma and Liver Phospholipid Fatty Acids Profile in Aged Wistar Rats

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    The effects of fish oil supplementation in Wistar rats are focused on cardiovascular, endocrine, metabolic and antioxidant status changes. We determined plasma and liver phospholipid fatty acids (FAs) status and plasma lipid concentrations in aged Wistar rats. Our results showed differences in plasma and liver FAs profiles as well as plasma chlolesterol (CHOL), triglicerides (TG), high density lipoproteins (HDL), low density lipoproteins (LDL), CHOL/HDL ratio (risk factor for ...

  6. The effects of gallic acid on pain and memory following transient global ischemia/reperfusion in Wistar rats

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    Yaghoob Farbood

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: It is generally agreed that most of the phenomena observed during brain ischemia and reperfusion can be explained by the damage to membrane structure. Oxidative stress is resulted in an imbalance between high consumption of oxygen and low levels of endogenous antioxidants. It is known that gallic acid (GA is a strong antioxidant. The present study was carried out to evaluate the effect of GA on ischemia/reperfusion (I/R-induced brain injury in rats.  Materials and Methods: Wistar adult male rats weighing 200–250 g were divided into six groups as sham operated (Sh, ischemia/reperfusion (I/R received normal saline (I+Veh, I/R groups treated with gallic acid (I+GA, 50, 100, or 200 mg/kg, orally, respectively, or with 100 mg /kg phenytoin (I+Phen. The global cerebral I/R injury was induced by occluding bilateral common carotid arteries (BCCA for 20 min, followed by 5 days reperfusion in adult male rats. Results: It was found that administration of 100 mg/kg GA for 5 days before and 5 days after I/R induction reversed gait performance, sensorimotor disorders (p

  7. Effects of post-weaning social isolation and environment al enrichment on exploratory behavior and ankiety in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaś, Łukasz; Ostaszewski, Paweł; Iwan, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Adverse early experience is generally regarded as a risk factor for both externalizing and internalizing behavioral disorders in humans. It can be modeled in rats by a post-weaning social isolation procedure. Effects of social isolation might possibly be ameliorated by environmental enrichment. In the current study, 24 male Wistar rats were divided post-weaning into four rearing conditions: control, environmental enrichment (EE), social isolation (SI) and a combination of the two experimental conditions; (EE+SI). Two observations of the effects of rearing conditions on the rate of social and object interactions were conducted during the juvenile and post-pubertal stages of development. The SI condition led to a marked increase of social interactions during the juvenile phase, but did not affect object interactions. The EE condition increased the level of social interactions during both the juvenile and post-pubertal measurements. The effects of early rearing conditions on adult exploratory behavior were less clear, with a significant difference between the groups obtained in one of three behavioral tests. Results suggest a general robustness in the development of adult exploratory behavior and anxiety when rats were exposed to early social isolation and provided brief opportunities for social play during the juvenile period. Further studies, aimed at distinguishing play-related protective factors serving against long-term adverse effects of juvenile social isolation, are suggested.

  8. Chronic morphine drinking establishes morphine tolerance, but not addiction in Wistar rats*

    OpenAIRE

    Binsack, Ralf; Zheng, Ming-lan; Zhang, Zhan-Sai; Yang, Liu; Zhu, Yong-ping

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Some animal models apply morphine in the drinking water to generate addiction, but related reports are not free of conflicting results. Accordingly, this study aimed to figure out if chronic consumption of morphine in the drinking water can induce morphine addiction in Wistar rats. Methods: For 3 weeks, the animals received a daily morphine dose of 35 mg/kg by offering a calculated volume of sugar water (5% sucrose) with morphine (0.1 mg/ml) to each rat; animals receiving just suga...

  9. 3-Hydroxybutyrate coinfused with noradrenaline decreases resulting plasma levels of noradrenaline in Wistar rats

    OpenAIRE

    Cañas, X.; Sanchis, D.; Gómez, G.; Casanovas, J.M.; Artigas Pérez, Francesc; Fernández López, José Antonio; Remesar Betlloch, Xavier; Alemany, Marià

    1997-01-01

    Pentobarbital-anaesthetized male Wistar rats were infused with 6microgkg-1min-1 of noradrenaline. The infusion was supplemented with 8.5 mgkg-1min-1 of D-3-hydroxybutyrate (3-OHB) for 15 min in order to determine its effect on the adrenergic response of the rat. Plasma levels of noradrenaline rose to a plateau of approximately 50 nmoll-1 with infusion. In the group infused with noradrenaline alone, noradrenaline levels were maintained for 1h. Supplementation with 3-OHB induced a decrease in p...

  10. 3-Hydroxybutyrate co-infused with noradrenaline decreases resulting plasma levels of noradrenaline in Wistar rats

    OpenAIRE

    Cañas, Xavier; Sanchís, Daniel; Gómez, Gloria; Casanovas, Josep M.; Artigas, Francesc; Fernández-López, José Antonio; Remesar, Xavier; Alemany, Marià

    1997-01-01

    Pentobarbital-anaesthetized male Wistar rats were infused with 6microgkg-1min-1 of noradrenaline. The infusion was supplemented with 8.5 mgkg-1min-1 of D-3-hydroxybutyrate (3-OHB) for 15 min in order to determine its effect on the adrenergic response of the rat. Plasma levels of noradrenaline rose to a plateau of approximately 50 nmoll-1 with infusion. In the group infused with noradrenaline alone, noradrenaline levels were maintained for 1h. Supplementation with 3-OHB induced a decrease in p...

  11. Evaluation of hepatotoxicity and clastogenicity of carbofuran in male Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gbadegesin, Michael A; Owumi, Solomon E; Akinseye, Victor; Odunola, Oyeronke A

    2014-03-01

    Carbofuran based pesticides have gained wide usage in Nigeria recently. Consequently, animals and human populations are exposed to them in the environment. Information on in vivo toxicity of carbofuran in experimental models is scanty. The present study therefore examined the hepatotoxicity and clastogenic effects of carbofuran in rats. Male Wistar rats were exposed to carbofuran (p.o) at 0-5mg/kg bw for 5weeks. Carbofuran induced significant (prats. It therefore may constitute an environmental health risks in individuals so exposed.

  12. Development of T Lymphocytes in the Nasal-associated Lymphoid Tissue (NALT from Growing Wistar Rats

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    Gustavo A. Sosa

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present report was to study the development of several T-lymphocyte subsets in the nasal-associated lymphoid tissue (NALT of growing Wistar rats. CD5+ and CD4+ lymphocytes gradually increased with age. A predominance of CD8α+ over CD4+ T cells was found from 7 to 45 days but from 45 to 60 days of age T helper cells outnumbered the cytotoxic subpopulation. The majority of CD8+ T lymphocytes expressed the heterodimeric isoform. The most relevant findings by immunohistochemistry are: (1 the predominance of TCRγδ+ and CD8α+ cells at 7 days postpartum over all the other T-cell subpopulations; and (2 that TCRγβ+ outnumbered TCRαβ+ T cells from 7 to 45 days postpartum whereas αβ T cells predominated in 45- and 60-day-old rats. Besides, cytometric studies have shown that the percentages of TCRγ+, CD8+, as well as the population coexpressing both phenotypes (TCRγδ+CD8α+, were significantly higher in rats at 7 days postpartum when compared to 60 day-old rats. In the present study, the finding of a high number of γδ+ and CD8+ T cells early in NALT development may indicate the importance of these subpopulations in the protection of the nasal mucosa in suckling and weaning Wistar rats.

  13. Extra-Bone Marrow Sites of Haemopoeisis: Dihydroartemisinin Effects in Wistar Albino Rats

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    Nedosa U. Anastasia

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Iron is present in ferritin, the storage form of iron in the tissues; in the respiratory cytochrome enzymes; in hemoglobin of the blood and in the myoglobin of muscle Dihydroartemisinin (DHA has been shown to interact with heme groups in vivo and in vitro. This study investigated the effects of 5 day and 7day oral dihydroartemisinin treatments on the blood and tissues of the lungs, the heart, the liver, the intestines, the spleen and the kidney of Wistar albino rats. The dosage regimens of dihydroartemisinin employed in the study were: A single dosage regimen of 1 mg kg-1; a repeated dosage regimen of 1; 2; 60 and 80 mg kg-1. Approach: The results of the study showed that dihydroartemisinin interacted with the hemoglobin of the blood and the myoglobin of muscle to stimulate new haemopoesis in a concentration, repetition and time dependent manner in the tissues of the lungs, liver, spleen, intestine, heart and kidney of Wistar albino rats which was absent in the control rats. Results: Statistically significant increases were observed in the Packed Cell Volume (PCV (PConclusion: These haemopoetic effects of DHA were greater and of longer duration in 5 day DHA-treatment rats than in those of the 7 day DHA-treatment rats.

  14. Carbonated soft drinks alter hepatic cytochrome P450 isoform expression in Wistar rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkhedaide, Adel; Soliman, Mohamed Mohamed; Ibrahim, Zein Shaban

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to examine the effects of chronic consumption of soft drinks (SDs) on hepatic oxidative stress and cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYPs) expression in the livers of Wistar rats. For 3 consecutive months, the rats had free access to three different soft drinks, Coca-Cola, Pepsi-Cola and 7-UP. The rats were subsequently compared with control group rats that had consumed water. Blood and hepatic tissue samples were assayed for the changes in antioxidants, liver function biomarkers and hepatic gene expression for different isoforms of hepatic CYP. The results indicated that SD consumption (SDC) decreased serum antioxidant levels and increased malondialdehyde secretion, and increased liver biomarkers (glutamate pyruvate transaminase and glutamate oxaloacetate). SD induced alterations in mRNA expression of hepatic antioxidants and cytochrome isoforms. The expression of peroxidase, catalase, CYP1A2, CYP3A2 and CYP2C11 in the liver were upregulated following SDC. By contrast, CYP2B1 was downregulated after 3 months of SDC in liver tissue samples. Thus, the present findings indicate that SDs induced oxidative stress in the liver of Wistar rats and for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, indicate that SDC disrupts hepatic CYP enzymes that may affect drug metabolism. Therefore, drug-dosing programs should be carefully designed to take these novel findings into consideration for the treatment of diseases. PMID:27882225

  15. Ultrasound method applied to characterize healthy femoral diaphysis of Wistar rats in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fontes-Pereira, A.; Matusin, D.P.; Rosa, P. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Programa de Engenharia Biomédica, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brasil, Programa de Engenharia Biomédica, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Schanaider, A. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Escola de Medicina, Departamento de Cirurgia, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brasil, Departamento de Cirurgia, Escola de Medicina, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Krüger, M.A. von; Pereira, W.C.A. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Programa de Engenharia Biomédica, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brasil, Programa de Engenharia Biomédica, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2014-04-04

    A simple experimental protocol applying a quantitative ultrasound (QUS) pulse-echo technique was used to measure the acoustic parameters of healthy femoral diaphyses of Wistar rats in vivo. Five quantitative parameters [apparent integrated backscatter (AIB), frequency slope of apparent backscatter (FSAB), time slope of apparent backscatter (TSAB), integrated reflection coefficient (IRC), and frequency slope of integrated reflection (FSIR)] were calculated using the echoes from cortical and trabecular bone in the femurs of 14 Wistar rats. Signal acquisition was performed three times in each rat, with the ultrasound signal acquired along the femur's central region from three positions 1 mm apart from each other. The parameters estimated for the three positions were averaged to represent the femur diaphysis. The results showed that AIB, FSAB, TSAB, and IRC values were statistically similar, but the FSIR values from Experiments 1 and 3 were different. Furthermore, Pearson's correlation coefficient showed, in general, strong correlations among the parameters. The proposed protocol and calculated parameters demonstrated the potential to characterize the femur diaphysis of rats in vivo. The results are relevant because rats have a bone structure very similar to humans, and thus are an important step toward preclinical trials and subsequent application of QUS in humans.

  16. Pathological research on acute hepatic and renal tissue damage in Wistar rats induced by cocoa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chiedozie Onyejiaka Ibegbulem; Paul Chidoka Chikezie; Ezeikel Chinemerem Dike

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To ascertain the functional integrity of renal and hepatic tissues of Wistar rats fed with processed cocoa bean-based beverages and raw cocoa bean products-containing diets by using biochemical and histological methods. Methods: Thirty Wistar rats were designated on the basis of experimental diets which were given for 28 days. At the end of the feeding period, blood samples were drawn, and renal and hepatic tissues were excised from the experimental rat groups for functional tests and histological examinations, respectively. Results: Serum alanine aminotransferase activities of the experimental rat groups showed no significant difference (P > 0.05) and were within a relatively narrow range of (32.17 ± 4.98) IU/L to (41.00 ± 10.85) IU/L, whereas serum aspartate aminotransferase activities gave wide variation within the range of (15.67 ± 2.13) IU/L to (34.83 ± 8.31) IU/L with P Conclusions: The pattern of alanine aminotransferase activity being more active than aspartate aminotransferase one in serum appeared to correlate with the extent of disar-rangement of hepatic tissue architecture. The experimental rat groups exhibited no hyperbilirubinemia. Also, diets containing processed cocoa bean and raw cocoa bean products did not substantially interfere with the capacity of the hepatocytes to bio-synthesize plasma proteins and the functionality of renal tissues.

  17. Acute effect of aspartame-induced oxidative stress in Wistar albino rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashok, Iyaswamy; Sheeladevi, Rathinasamy; Wankhar, Dapkupar

    2015-09-01

    The present study was carried out to investigate the acute effect of aspartame on oxidative stress in the Wistar albino rat brain. We sought to investigate whether acute administration of aspartame (75 mg/kg) could release methanol and induce oxidative stress in the rat brain 24 hours after administration. To mimic human methanol metabolism, methotrexate treated rats were used to study aspartame effects. Wistar strain male albino rats were administered with aspartame orally as a single dose and studied along with controls and methotrexate treated controls. Blood methanol and formate level were estimated after 24 hours and rats were sacrificed and free radical changes were observed in discrete regions by assessing the scavenging enzymes, reduce dglutathione (GSH), lipid peroxidation and protein thiol levels. There was a significant increase in lipid peroxidation levels, superoxide dismutase activity (SOD), glutathione peroxidase levels (GPx), and catalase activity (CAT) with a significant decrease in GSH and protein thiol. Aspartame exposure resulted in detectable methanol even after 24 hours. Methanol and its metabolites may be responsible for the generation of oxidative stress in brain regions. The observed alteration in aspartame fed animals may be due to its metabolite methanol and elevated formate. The elevated free radicals due to methanol induced oxidative stress.

  18. Cypermethrin induced reproductive toxicity in male Wistar rats: protective role of Tribulus terrestris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Poonam; Huq, Amir Ul; Singh, Rambir

    2013-09-01

    The present study was designed to investigate role of ethanolic extract of Tribulus terrestris (EETT) against alpha-cypermethrin induced reproductive toxicity in male Wistar rats. 24 male Wistar rats weighing about 250-300g were divided in four groups. Group-I was control. alpha-cypermethrin (3.38 mg kg-1b.wt.) was given to group-IlI for 28 days. In Group-Ill, alpha-cypermethrin and EETT (100 mg kg -1b.wt.) were administered in combination for 28 days. Rats in group-IV were given EETT for 28 days. At the end of the experiment, rats were sacrificed, testes and epididymis were removed and sperm characteristics, sex hormones and various biochemical parameters were studied. Decrease in weight of testes and epididymis, testicular sperm head count, sperm motility, live sperm count, serum testosterone (T), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), leutinizing hormone (LH), catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione S transferase (GST), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), total protein content and increase in sperm abnormalities and lipid peroxidation (LPO) level was observed in rats exposed to cypermethrin. In combination group-Ill, EETT treatment ameliorated alpha-cypermethrin induced damage. EETT treatment in group-IV increased testes and epididymis weight, sperm head counts, sperm motility, live sperm counts, testosterone, FSH, LH, GSH, CAT, SOD, GST, GR, GPx and total protein content. The study suggested that Tribulus terrestris plant possess reproductive system enhancement and antioxidant activity.

  19. Carbonated soft drinks alter hepatic cytochrome P450 isoform expression in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkhedaide, Adel; Soliman, Mohamed Mohamed; Ibrahim, Zein Shaban

    2016-11-01

    The aim of the current study was to examine the effects of chronic consumption of soft drinks (SDs) on hepatic oxidative stress and cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYPs) expression in the livers of Wistar rats. For 3 consecutive months, the rats had free access to three different soft drinks, Coca-Cola, Pepsi-Cola and 7-UP. The rats were subsequently compared with control group rats that had consumed water. Blood and hepatic tissue samples were assayed for the changes in antioxidants, liver function biomarkers and hepatic gene expression for different isoforms of hepatic CYP. The results indicated that SD consumption (SDC) decreased serum antioxidant levels and increased malondialdehyde secretion, and increased liver biomarkers (glutamate pyruvate transaminase and glutamate oxaloacetate). SD induced alterations in mRNA expression of hepatic antioxidants and cytochrome isoforms. The expression of peroxidase, catalase, CYP1A2, CYP3A2 and CYP2C11 in the liver were upregulated following SDC. By contrast, CYP2B1 was downregulated after 3 months of SDC in liver tissue samples. Thus, the present findings indicate that SDs induced oxidative stress in the liver of Wistar rats and for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, indicate that SDC disrupts hepatic CYP enzymes that may affect drug metabolism. Therefore, drug-dosing programs should be carefully designed to take these novel findings into consideration for the treatment of diseases.

  20. Chronic effect of antidopaminergic drugs or estrogen on male Wistar rat lactotrophs and somatotrophs

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    M.C. Oliveira

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of antidopaminergic agents on the somatotrophs in the presence of hyperprolactinemia. Adult male Wistar rats were divided into 6 groups: a control group and five groups chronically treated (60 days with haloperidol, fluphenazine, sulpiride, metoclopramide or estrogen. Somatotrophs and lactotrophs were identified by immunohistochemistry and the data are reported as percent of total anterior pituitary cells counted. The drugs significantly increased the percentage of lactotrophs: control (mean ± SD 21.3 ± 4.4, haloperidol 27.8 ± 2.2, fluphenazine 34.5 ± 3.6, sulpiride 32.7 ± 3.5, metoclopramide 33.4 ± 5.5 and estrogen 42.4 ± 2.8. A significant reduction in somatotrophs was observed in animals treated with haloperidol (23.1 ± 3.0, fluphenazine (22.1 ± 1.1 and metoclopramide (24.2 ± 3.0 compared to control (27.3 ± 3.8, whereas no difference was observed in the groups treated with sulpiride (25.0 ± 2.2 and estrogen (27.1 ± 2.8. In the groups in which a reduction occurred, this may have simply been due to dilution, secondary to lactotroph hyperplasia. In view of the duplication of the percentage of prolactin-secreting cells, when estrogen was applied, the absence of a reduction in the percent of somatotrophs suggests a replication effect on this cell population. These data provide additional information about the direct or indirect effect of drugs which, in addition to interfering with the dopaminergic system, may act on other pituitary cells as well as on the lactotrophs.

  1. Antidiarrhoeal Activity of Musa paradisiaca Sap in Wistar Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakubu, Musa T; Nurudeen, Quadri O; Salimon, Saoban S; Yakubu, Monsurat O; Jimoh, Rukayat O; Nafiu, Mikhail O; Akanji, Musbau A; Oladiji, Adenike T; Williams, Felicia E

    2015-01-01

    The folkloric claim of Musa paradisiaca sap in the management of diarrhoea is yet to be substantiated or refuted with scientific data. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to screen the sap of M. paradisiaca for both its secondary metabolites and antidiarrhoeal activity at 0.25, 0.50, and 1.00 mL in rats. Secondary metabolites were screened using standard methods while the antidiarrhoeal activity was done by adopting the castor oil-induced diarrhoeal, castor oil-induced enteropooling, and gastrointestinal motility models. The sap contained flavonoids, phenolics, saponins, alkaloids, tannins, and steroids while cardiac glycosides, anthraquinones, triterpenes, cardenolides, and dienolides were not detected. In the castor oil-induced diarrhoeal model, the sap significantly (P sap were accompanied by increase in inhibition of intestinal fluid content in the enteropooling model. The sap decreased the charcoal meal transit in the gastrointestinal motility model. In all the models, the 1.00 mL of the sap produced changes that compared well with the reference drugs. Overall, the antidiarrhoeal activity of Musa paradisiaca sap attributed to the presence of alkaloids, phenolics, flavonoids, and/or saponins which may involve, among others, enhancing fluid and electrolyte absorption through de novo synthesis of the sodium potassium ATPase and/or reduced nitric oxide levels.

  2. Immunomodulatory Effect of Red Onion (Allium cepa Linn Scale Extract on Experimentally Induced Atypical Prostatic Hyperplasia in Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed A. Elberry

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Red onion scales (ROS contain large amounts of flavonoids that are responsible for the reported antioxidant activity, immune enhancement, and anticancer property. Atypical prostatic hyperplasia (APH was induced in adult castrated Wistar rats by both s.c. injection of testosterone (0.5 mg/rat/day and by smearing citral on shaved skin once every 3 days for 30 days. Saw palmetto (100 mg/kg as a positive control and ROS suspension at doses of 75, 150, and 300 mg/kg/day were given orally every day for 30 days. All medications were started 7 days after castration and along with testosterone and citral. The HPLC profile of ROS methanolic extract displayed two major peaks identified as quercetin and quercetin-4′-β-O-D-glucoside. Histopathological examination of APH-induced prostatic rats revealed evidence of hyperplasia and inflammation with cellular proliferation and reduced apoptosis Immunohistochemistry showed increased tissue expressions of IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α, IGF-1, and clusterin, while TGF-β1 was decreased, which correlates with the presence of inflammation. Both saw palmetto and RO scale treatment have ameliorated these changes. These ameliorative effects were more evident in RO scale groups and were dose dependent. In conclusion, methanolic extract of ROS showed a protective effect against APH induced rats that may be attributed to potential anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects.

  3. Repeated Acute Oral Exposure to Cannabis sativa Impaired Neurocognitive Behaviours and Cortico-hippocampal Architectonics in Wistar Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imam, A; Ajao, M S; Akinola, O B; Ajibola, M I; Ibrahim, A; Amin, A; Abdulmajeed, W I; Lawal, Z A; Ali-Oluwafuyi, A

    2017-03-06

    The most abused illicit drug in both the developing and the developed world is Cannabis disposing users to varying forms of personality disorders. However, the effects of cannabis on cortico-hippocampal architecture and cognitive behaviours still remain elusive.  The present study investigated the neuro-cognitive implications of oral cannabis use in rats. Eighteen adult Wistar rats were randomly grouped to three. Saline was administered to the control rats, cannabis (20 mg/kg) to the experimental group I, while Scopolamine (1 mg/kg. ip) was administered to the last group as a standard measure for the cannabis induced cognitive impairment. All treatments lasted for seven consecutive days. Open Field Test (OFT) was used to assess locomotor activities, Elevated Plus Maze (EPM) for anxiety-like behaviour, and Y maze paradigm for spatial memory and data subjected to ANOVA and T test respectively. Thereafter, rats were sacrificed and brains removed for histopathological studies. Cannabis significantly reduced rearing frequencies in the OFT and EPM, and increased freezing period in the OFT. It also reduced percentage alternation similar to scopolamine in the Y maze, and these effects were coupled with alterations in the cortico-hippocampal neuronal architectures. These results point to the detrimental impacts of cannabis on cortico-hippocampal neuronal architecture and morphology, and consequently cognitive deficits.

  4. Different effects of diazepam in Fischer rats and two stocks of Wistar rats in tests of anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bert, B; Fink, H; Sohr, R; Rex, A

    2001-01-01

    The behaviour of animals in tests of anxiety varies between strains, even in identical tests and surroundings. To evaluate the results obtained, a more detailed knowledge of the behaviour of different rat strains is indispensable. Identically raised Fischer 344 rats and two stocks of Wistar rats were examined in two animal tests of anxiety: the X-maze and a modified open-field test following diazepam treatment (0.5-4.0 mg/kg). Harlan-Wistar rats were the least 'anxious' when the behaviour of vehicle treated controls was compared. The largest effect of the anxiolytic diazepam, however, was observed in Harlan-Fischer rats. To determine possible reasons for strain and stock differences, plasma concentrations of diazepam and metabolites and concentrations of serotonin (5-HT) in the CNS were measured. Plasma concentrations of diazepam and metabolites differed between the strains with the Harlan-Fischer rats showing higher diazepam concentrations. 5-HT levels in discrete brain regions varied with Harlan-Fischer rats having higher 5-HT concentrations. Strain differences influence the anxiety-associated behaviour of untreated animals and the effect of anxiolytics.

  5. A program of moderate physical training for Wistar rats based on maximal oxygen consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leandro, Carol Góis; Levada, Adriana Cristina; Hirabara, Sandro Massao; Manhães-de-Castro, Raul; De-Castro, Célia Barbosa; Curi, Rui; Pithon-Curi, Tânia Cristina

    2007-08-01

    Moderate physical training is often associated with improved cardiorespiratory fitness in athletes and the general population. In animals, studies are designed to investigate basic physiology that could be invasive and uncomfortable for humans. The standardization of an exercise training protocol for rats based on maximal consumption of oxygen (VO(2)max) is needed. This study validated a program of moderate physical training for Wistar rats based on VO(2)max determined once a week. A 10-stage treadmill running test was developed to measure VO(2)max through an indirect, open circuit calorimeter. Thirty male Wistar rats (210-226 g) were randomly assigned to either a nontrained group or a trained group. The animals were evaluated weekly to follow their VO(2)max during 8 weeks of moderate training and to adjust the intensity of the protocol of training. The soleus muscle was removed for determination of citrate synthase activity. Trained animals maintained their values of VO(2)max during a moderate running training and showed a significant less body weight gain. An increase of 42% in citrate synthase activity of the soleus muscle from trained rats was found after the training program. Our study presents a protocol of moderate physical training for Wistar rats based on VO(2)max. Peripheral adaptations such as the values of citrate synthase activity also responded to the moderate training program imposed as observed for VO(2)max. Other studies can use our protocol of moderate training to study the physiologic adaptations underlying this specific intensity of training. It will provide support for study with humans.

  6. Supplier-dependent differences in intermittent voluntary alcohol intake and response to naltrexone in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momeni, Shima; Segerström, Lova; Roman, Erika

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol use disorder (AUD) is a worldwide public health problem and a polygenetic disorder displaying substantial individual variation. This work aimed to study individual differences in behavior and its association to voluntary alcohol intake and subsequent response to naltrexone in a seamless heterogenic group of animals. Thus, by this approach the aim was to more accurately recapitulate the existing heterogeneity within the human population. Male Wistar rats from three different suppliers (Harlan Laboratories B.V., RccHan™:WI; Taconic Farms A/S, HanTac:WH; and Charles River GmbH, Crl:WI) were used to create a heterogenic group for studies of individual differences in behavior, associations to intermittent voluntary alcohol intake and subsequent response to naltrexone. The rats were tested in the open field prior to the Y-maze and then given voluntary intermittent access to alcohol or water in the home cage for 6 weeks, where after, naltrexone in three different doses or saline was administered in a Latin square design over 4 weeks and alcohol intake and preference was measured. However, supplier-dependent differences and concomitant skew subgroup formations, primarily in open field behavior and intermittent alcohol intake, resulted in a shifted focus to instead study voluntary alcohol intake and preference, and the ensuing response to naltrexone in Wistar rats from three different suppliers. The results showed that outbred Wistar rats are diverse with regard to voluntary alcohol intake and preference in a supplier-dependent manner; higher in RccHan™:WI relative to HanTac:WH and Crl:WI. The results also revealed supplier-dependent differences in the effect of naltrexone that were dose- and time-dependent; evident differences in high-drinking RccHan™:WI rats relative to HanTac:WH and Crl:WI rats. Overall these findings render RccHan™:WI rats more suitable for studies of individual differences in voluntary alcohol intake and response to naltrexone and

  7. Antidiarrhoeal Activity of Musa paradisiaca Sap in Wistar Rats

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    Musa T. Yakubu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The folkloric claim of Musa paradisiaca sap in the management of diarrhoea is yet to be substantiated or refuted with scientific data. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to screen the sap of M. paradisiaca for both its secondary metabolites and antidiarrhoeal activity at 0.25, 0.50, and 1.00 mL in rats. Secondary metabolites were screened using standard methods while the antidiarrhoeal activity was done by adopting the castor oil-induced diarrhoeal, castor oil-induced enteropooling, and gastrointestinal motility models. The sap contained flavonoids, phenolics, saponins, alkaloids, tannins, and steroids while cardiac glycosides, anthraquinones, triterpenes, cardenolides, and dienolides were not detected. In the castor oil-induced diarrhoeal model, the sap significantly (P<0.05 prolonged the onset time of diarrhoea, decreased the number, fresh weight, and water content of feaces, and increased the inhibition of defecations. Na+-K+-ATPase activity in the small intestine increased significantly whereas nitric oxide content decreased. The decreases in the masses and volumes of intestinal fluid by the sap were accompanied by increase in inhibition of intestinal fluid content in the enteropooling model. The sap decreased the charcoal meal transit in the gastrointestinal motility model. In all the models, the 1.00 mL of the sap produced changes that compared well with the reference drugs. Overall, the antidiarrhoeal activity of Musa paradisiaca sap attributed to the presence of alkaloids, phenolics, flavonoids, and/or saponins which may involve, among others, enhancing fluid and electrolyte absorption through de novo synthesis of the sodium potassium ATPase and/or reduced nitric oxide levels.

  8. Influence of enrichment on behavioral and neurogenic effects of antidepressants in Wistar rats submitted to repeated forced swim test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Possamai, Fernanda; dos Santos, Juliano; Walber, Thais; Marcon, Juliana C; dos Santos, Tiago Souza; Lino de Oliveira, Cilene

    2015-04-01

    Repeated forced swimming test (rFST) may detect gradual effects of antidepressants in adult rats. Antidepressants, as enrichment, affected behavior and neurogenesis in rats. However, the influence of enrichment on behavioral and neurogenic effects of antidepressants is unknown. Here, effects of antidepressants on rFST and hippocampal neurogenesis were investigated in rats under enriched conditions. Behaviors of male Wistar rats, housed from weaning in standard (SE) or enriched environment (EE), were registered during rFST. The rFST consisted of 15min of swimming (pretest) followed by 5min of swimming in the first (test), seventh (retest 1) and fourteenth (retest 2) days after pretest. One hour before the test, rats received an intraperitoneal injection of saline (1ml/kg), fluoxetine (2.5mg/kg) or imipramine (2.5 or 5mg/kg). These treatments were performed daily until the day of the retest 2. After retest 2, rats were euthanized for the identification of markers for neurogenesis in the hippocampus. Fluoxetine or imipramine decreased immobility in retests 1 and 2, as compared to saline. EE abolished these differences. In EE, fluoxetine or imipramine (5mg/kg) reduced immobility time in retest 2, as compared to the test. Independent of the housing conditions, fluoxetine and imipramine (5mg/kg) increased the ratio of immature neurons per progenitor cell in the hippocampus. In summary, antidepressants or enrichment counteracted the high immobility in rFST. Enrichment changed the effects of antidepressants in rFST depending on the type, and the dose of a substance but failed to change neurogenesis in control or antidepressant treated-rats. Effects of antidepressants and enrichment on rFST seemed neurogenesis-independent.

  9. Ontogeny and adolescent alcohol exposure in Wistar rats: open field conflict, light/dark box and forced swim test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desikan, Anita; Wills, Derek N; Ehlers, Cindy L

    2014-07-01

    Epidemiological studies have demonstrated that heavy drinking and alcohol abuse and dependence peak during the transition between late adolescence and early adulthood. Studies in animal models have demonstrated that alcohol exposure during adolescence can cause a modification in some aspects of behavioral development, causing the "adolescent phenotype" to be retained into adulthood. However, the "adolescent phenotype" has not been studied for a number of behavioral tests. The objective of the present study was to investigate the ontogeny of behaviors over adolescence/young adulthood in the light/dark box, open field conflict and forced swim test in male Wistar rats. These data were compared to previously published data from rats that received intermittent alcohol vapor exposure during adolescence (AIE) to test whether they retained the "adolescent phenotype" in these behavioral tests. Three age groups of rats were tested (post-natal day (PD) 34-42; PD55-63; PD69-77). In the light/dark box test, younger rats escaped the light box faster than older adults, whereas AIE rats returned to the light box faster and exhibited more rears in the light than controls. In the open field conflict test, both younger and AIE rats had shorter times to first enter the center, spent more time in the center of the field, were closer to the food, and consumed more food than controls. In the forced swim test no clear developmental pattern emerged. The results of the light/dark box and the forced swim test do not support the hypothesis that adolescent ethanol vapor exposure can "lock-in" all adolescent phenotypes. However, data from the open field conflict test suggest that the adolescent and the AIE rats both engaged in more "disinhibited" and food motivated behaviors. These data suggest that, in some behavioral tests, AIE may result in a similar form of behavioral disinhibition to what is seen in adolescence.

  10. Effect of Oyster mushroom in Paracetamol Induced Toxicity of Liver in Wistar albino Rats

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    Afroza Khanam Sumy

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Backgroud: Liver is an important metabolic organ. It has wide range of functions including detoxification, storage of glycogen, vitamins A, D and B12, production of several coagulation factors, growth factors such as insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1, angiotensinogen, and biochemicals necessary for digestion (bile. Its damage occurs due to its multidimensional functions, various xenobiotics and oxidative stress leading to distortion of all of its functions. Oyster mushroom which is excellently edible and nutritious has got free radical scavenging activity, and so may be considered as a hepatoprotective agent. Objective: To observe the hepatoprotective effect of Oyster mushroom (Pleurotus florida against paracetamol induced liver damage in Wistar albino rats. Materials and Methods: This experimental study was carried out in the Department of Physiology, Sir Salimullah Medical College (SSMC, Dhaka from 1st July 2009 to 30th June 2010. Thirty four Wistar albino rats, aged 90 to 120 days, weighing between 150 to 210 grams were used for the study. After acclimatization for 14 days, they were divided into two groups –– control group (Group A and experimental group (Group B, mushroom-pretreated and paracetamol-treated group. Control group was again subdivided into Group A1 (baseline control group and Group A2 (paracetamol-treated control group. Animals of all groups received basal diet for 30 consecutive days. In addition, Group A1 rats received propylene glycol (2 mL/kg body weight orally only on 30th day, Group A2 rats received single dose of paracetamol suspension (750 mg/kg body weight orally only on 30th day and Group B rats received mushroom extract (200 mg/kg body weight orally for 30 consecutive days and paracetamol suspension (750 mg/kg body weight orally only on 30th day. All the animals were sacrificed on 31st day. Then liver specimens were collected. Histology of liver was done by using standard laboratory procedure. Statistical

  11. Responding by exclusion in Wistar rats in a simultaneous visual discrimination task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felipe de Souza, Matheus; Schmidt, Andréia

    2014-11-01

    Responding by exclusion is to select a correct alternative by rejecting other potential alternatives. Studies describe this ability in some mammals and birds. However, this type of performance has not been reported in rodents. The aim of this study was to verify the occurrence of responding by exclusion in Wistar rats after a baseline of simple simultaneous visual discrimination. Six male Wistar learned nose-poking tunnels displaying visual stimuli (projected geometric shapes) in an operant chamber. After establishing the simultaneous discrimination baseline, three probe sessions were conducted. In each session, there was a novelty-control probe (a new stimulus was presented together with a stimulus trained as the S(+)) and an exclusion probe (a second new stimulus was presented simultaneously with a stimulus trained as the S(-)). Only one rat responded to the new stimulus in one of the three novelty probe trials. Four rats responded to the three new stimuli and one responded to the new stimulus in two of the three exclusion probes. One subject responded to the S(-) in all the exclusion probes. Five of the six subjects were therefore able to choose the new stimulus, rejecting stimuli trained as the S(-). This is the first experimental evidence for performance by exclusion in rats.

  12. Serum pharmacokinetics and coagulation aberration induced by sodium dehydroacetate in male and female Wistar rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yumei; Ying, Donglai; Liu, Hao; Yu, Zengrong; Han, Lingling; Xie, Jiayu; Xie, Yang

    2017-01-01

    Sodium dehydroacetate (Na-DHA) is used as a preservative in food, animal feeds and cosmetics. Severe haemorrhage in organs and prolongation of coagulation factors in Sprague–Dawley rats has been reported upon oral administration of Na-DHA. We investigated alterations in coagulation parameters and serum pharmacokinetics upon Na-DHA administration. Wistar rats were administered Na-DHA (50–200 mg/kg, p.o.). Weight gain, food consumption, prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), serum levels of Vitamin k (Vk)1, and serum levels of Na-DHA were measured, and histopathology undertaken. Significant reductions in body weight, food consumption and serum levels of Vk1, as well as prolonged PT and APTT, were observed. Females were significantly different from males in terms of serum Na-DHA concentration. Congestion in hepatic sinusoids, renal tubules and spleen, as well as haemorrhage in lung alveoli, gastric mucosa, intestinal mucosa and cardiac muscle cells, were observed by histopathological analyses. Correlation of serum Na-DHA via PT and APTT, as well as serum Vk1 via PT and APTT, in females was better than that in males. Female rats are more sensitive than males to Na-DHA. Hence, Na-DHA can induce coagulation aberration in Wistar rats, with higher sensitivity seen in females than males. PMID:28387309

  13. Chronic morphine drinking establishes morphine tolerance, but not addiction in Wistar rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BINSACK Ralf; ZHENG Ming-lan; ZHANG Zhan-sai; YANG Liu; ZHU Yong-ping

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Some animal models apply morphine in the drinking water to generate addiction, but related reports are not free of conflicting results. Accordingly, this study aimed to figure out if chronic consumption of morphine in the drinking water can induce morphine addiction in Wistar rats. Methods: For 3 weeks, the animals received a daily morphine dose of 35 mg/kg by offering a calculated volume of sugar water (5% sucrose) with morphine (0.1 mg/ml) to each rat; animals receiving just sugar water served as controls. Immediately after the treatment phase, the tail immersion test was used to check for morphine tolerance,and all animals were then kept on tap water for one week (withdrawal phase). Afterwards, all rats were allowed to choose their drinking source by offering two bottles, containing sugar water without and with morphine, simultaneously for two days (preference phase). Results: While the chronic consumption of morphine led to a reduction in body weight and to morphine tolerance,the morphine-treated Wistar rats did not show any preference for the opiate-containing sugar water. Conclusion: Body weight loss and tolerance do not reveal a condition of drug craving, and current animal models should be re-evaluated regarding their potential to establish morphine addicted animals.

  14. Male Wistar rats show individual differences in an animal model of conformity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolles, Jolle W; de Visser, Leonie; van den Bos, Ruud

    2011-09-01

    Conformity refers to the act of changing one's behaviour to match that of others. Recent studies in humans have shown that individual differences exist in conformity and that these differences are related to differences in neuronal activity. To understand the neuronal mechanisms in more detail, animal tests to assess conformity are needed. Here, we used a test of conformity in rats that has previously been evaluated in female, but not male, rats and assessed the nature of individual differences in conformity. Male Wistar rats were given the opportunity to learn that two diets differed in palatability. They were subsequently exposed to a demonstrator that had consumed the less palatable food. Thereafter, they were exposed to the same diets again. Just like female rats, male rats decreased their preference for the more palatable food after interaction with demonstrator rats that had eaten the less palatable food. Individual differences existed for this shift, which were only weakly related to an interaction between their own initial preference and the amount consumed by the demonstrator rat. The data show that this conformity test in rats is a promising tool to study the neurobiology of conformity.

  15. Alleviation of metabolic abnormalities induced by excessive fructose administration in Wistar rats by Spirulina maxima

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarouliya, Urmila; Anish, Zacharia J.; Kumar, Pravin; Bisen, P.S.; Prasad, G.B.K.S.

    2012-01-01

    Background & objectives: Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder characterized by hyperglycaemia. Several natural products have been isolated and identified to restore the complications of diabetes. Spirulina maxima is naturally occurring fresh water cyanobacterium, enriched with proteins and essential nutrients. The aim of the study was to determine whether S. maxima could serve as a therapeutic agent to correct metabolic abnormalities induced by excessive fructose administration in Wistar rats. Methods: Oral administration of 10 per cent fructose solution to Wistar rats (n=5 in each group) for 30 days resulted in hyperglycaemia and hyperlipidaemia. Aqueous suspension of S. maxima (5 or 10%) was also administered orally once daily for 30 days. The therapeutic potential of the preparation with reference to metformin (500 mg/kg) was assessed by monitoring various biochemical parameters at 10 day intervals during the course of therapy and at the end of 30 days S. maxima administration. Results: Significant (P<0.001) reductions in blood glucose, lipid profile (triglycerides, cholesterol and LDL, VLDL) and liver function markers (SGPT and SGOT) were recorded along with elevated level of HDL-C at the end of 30 days therapy of 5 or 10 per cent S. maxima aquous extract. Co-administration of S. maxima extract (5 or 10% aqueous) with 10 per cent fructose solution offered a significant protection against fructose induced metabolic abnormalities in Wistar rats. Interpretation & Conclusions: The present findings showed that S. maxima exhibited anti-hyperglycaemic, anti-hyperlipidaemic and hepatoprotective activity in rats fed with fructose. Further studies are needed to understand the mechanisms. PMID:22561632

  16. Expression of UCP2 in Wistar rats varies according to age and the severity of obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pheiffer, Carmen; Jacobs, Carvern; Patel, Oelfah; Ghoor, Samira; Muller, Christo; Louw, Johan

    2016-03-01

    Obesity, a complex metabolic disorder, is characterized by mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress. Increased expression of uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2) during obesity is an adaptive response to suppress the production of reactive oxygen species. The aims of this study were to compare the expression of UCP2 in diet-induced obese Wistar rats that differed according to age and their severity of obesity, and to compare UCP2 expression in the liver and muscle of these rats. UCP2 messenger RNA and protein expression was increased 4.6-fold (p obese rats. Total protein content was increased (2.3-fold, p obesity and supports the widely held notion that increased UCP2 expression is an adaptive response to increased fatty acid β-oxidation and reactive oxygen species production that occurs during obesity. An understanding of metabolic adaptation is imperative to gain insight into the underlying causes of disease, thus facilitating intervention strategies to combat disease progression.

  17. Carcinogenicity study of the emulsifier TOSOM and the release agent TOS in Wistar rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Otto A.; KRISTIANSEN, E.; GRY, J.;

    1993-01-01

    Groups of 60 Wistar rats of each sex were fed diets containing 3, 6 or 12% of the margarine emulsifier TOSOM (thermally oxidized soybean oil interacted with mono- and diglycerides of fatty acids) for 2.5 yr. In addition, three groups of 60 rats of each sex were fed two products of the release agent...... TOS (thermally oxidized soybean oil) in dietary levels of 1.2% TOS(G) (TOS from Grindsted Product A/S, Denmark) and 0.3 and 1.2% TOS(N) (TOS from Nexus Aps, Denmark), respectively for 2.5 yr. 120 rats of each sex fed a diet containing mono- and diglycerides served as controls. The diets given to all...... groups were isocaloric. Clinical appearance, food consumption, body weight and weight gain, survival, haematology, and clinical chemistry parameters were examined. Gross and histopathological examinations, including neoplastic and non-neoplastic lesions, were performed on all groups. Time to occurrence...

  18. Platelet-rich plasma in bone repair of irradiated tibiae of Wistar rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gumieiro, Emne Hammoud; Abrahao, Marcio; Jahn, Ricardo Schmitutz, E-mail: gumieiro@uol.com.b [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP-EPM), SP (Brazil). Dept. of Otorhinolaringology and Head and Neck Surgery; Segretto, Helena [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP-EPM), SP (Brazil). Dept. of Oncology; Alves, Maria Tereza de Seixas [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP-EPM), SP (Brazil). Dept. of Patology; Nannmark, Ulf [The Sahlgrenska Academy of Goeteborg Univ. (Sweden). Inst. for Clinical Sciences. Dept. of Anatomy and Cell Biology; Granstroem, Goesta [Goeteborg Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery; Dib, Luciano Lauria [Universidade Paulista (UNIP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Faculty of Dentistry. Dept. of Stomatology

    2010-05-15

    Purpose: to evaluate the influence of PRP addition on bone repair of circular defects created in irradiated tibiae of rats by histometric analysis. Methods: sixty male Wistar rats had the right tibiae irradiated with 30 Gy. After 30 days monocortical defects were created and platelet-rich plasma as applied in 30 rats. In the control group defects were created but not filled. The animals were sacrificed after 4, 7, 14, 21, 56 and 84 days and the tibiae removed for histological processing. Results: there was a tendency in the PRP group to increased bone neoformation from 14-days to 84-days; in the control group increased bone neoformation was not seen after 21 days or later. Conclusion: the addition of platelet-rich plasma had a beneficial effect in the initial cellular regeneration period and enhanced bone formation in later periods when compared to control. (author)

  19. Hypoglycemic effect of Chlorella vulgaris intake in type 2 diabetic Goto-Kakizaki and normal Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Hyejin; Kwon, Hye Jin; Kim, Mi Kyung

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the hypoglycemic effect of chlorella in 6 week-old type 2 diabetic Goto-Kakizaki (GK, n=30) rats and 6 week-old normal Wistar (n=30) rats. Animals were randomly assigned to 3 groups respectively, and were fed three different experimental diets containing 0%, 3% or 5% (w/w) chlorella for 8 weeks. In diabetic GK rats, the insulinogenic-indices were not significantly different among the groups. The concentrations of fasting plasma glucagon and hepatic triglyceride, and the insulin/glucagon ratios of the GK-3% chlorella and GK-5% chlorella groups were significantly lower than those of the GK-control group. The HOMA-index and the concentrations of fasting blood glucose and plasma insulin of the GK-3% chlorella and GK-5% chlorella groups were slightly lower than those of the GK-control group. In normal Wistar rats, the insulinogenic-indices were not significantly different among the normal groups, but that of the Wistar-5% chlorella group was slightly higher than the other groups. The concentrations of fasting blood glucose and plasma insulin, and the HOMA-index of the Wistar-5% chlorella group were a little higher, and the fasting plasma glucagon concentration and the insulin/glucagon ratio of the Wistar-5% chlorella group were significantly higher than those of the Wistar-control and Wistar-3% chlorella groups. In conclusion, this study shows that the glucose-stimulated insulin secretion was not affected by the intake of chlorella, which could be beneficial, however, in improving insulin sensitivity in type 2 diabetic GK and normal Wistar rats.

  20. Effect of Iron Enriched Bread Intake on the Oxidative Stress Indices in Male Wistar Rats

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    Sharareh Heidari

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Contrary to the proven benefits of iron, few concerns in producing the oxidative stress is remained problematic. Objectives The aim of the study was to evaluate the oxidative stress in the male Wistar rats fed bread supplemented with iron in different doses i.e., 35 (basic, 70 (two fold, 140 (four fold, and 210 mg/kg (six fold with or without NaHCO3 (250 mg/kg. Methods In this experimental study Iron, ceruloplasmin, ferritin, total iron binding capacity (TIBC, albumin, total protein, uric acid and plasma superoxide dismutase (SOD, glutathione peroxidase (GPX, catalase (CAT, malondialdehyde (MDA, and total antioxidant capacity (TAC, were evaluated in 30 rats at the first and last day of the experiment (day 30. In addition, phytic acid levels were detected in all baked breads. The data were analyzed by ANOVA and t test procedure though SPSS statistical software version 20. Results Serum iron level in rats that received basic level of iron plus NaHCO3 decreased significantly in the last day of the trial. Higher level of serum iron was seen in rats that received iron twofold, fourfold and sixfold and rats that received iron fourfold plus NaHCO3. Serum ceruloplasmin and ferritin in groups of rats that received fourfold level of iron plus NaHCO3 and rats that received iron sixfold showed a significant increase (P ≤ 0.05. Serum total protein and uric acid in rats that received basic level of iron plus NaHCO3 and rats that received twofold level of iron showed a significant decrease. Serum total protein levels in rats that received fourfold level of iron showed a significant decrease. Bread with NaHCO3 showed higher phytic acid levels than other groups. Conclusions These results indicate that oxidative stress was not induced, whereas some antioxidant activities were significantly changed in rats that received iron-enriched bread.

  1. Exercise and spirulina control non-alcoholic hepatic steatosis and lipid profile in diabetic Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva Gláucio A

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diabetes mellitus is associated with metabolic dysfunctions, including alterations in circulating lipid levels and fat tissue accumulation, which causes, among other pathologies, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD. Aim of the study The objective of this study was to analyse the effects of physical exercise and spirulina intake on the control of NAFLD in diabetic Wistar rats. Methods Diabetes was induced in the animals through intravenous administration of alloxan. The rats were divided into four groups: Diabetic Control (DC - diabetic rats fed with a control diet and no physical exercise; Diabetic Spirulina (DS - diabetic rats fed with a diet that included spirulina; Diabetic Spirulina and Exercise (DSE - diabetic rats fed with a diet that included Spirulina and that exercised; and Diabetic Exercise (DE - diabetic rats fed with a control diet and that exercised. Results The groups DS, DSE, and DE presented lower plasma concentrations of LDL cholesterol than DC, as well as lower levels of total liver lipids in groups DS, DSE, and DE in comparison to DC. Conclusion Thus, spirulina appears to be effective in reducing total circulating levels of LDL-cholesterol and hepatic lipids, alone or in conjunction with physical exercise in diabetic rats.

  2. Exercise and spirulina control non-alcoholic hepatic steatosis and lipid profile in diabetic Wistar rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Diabetes mellitus is associated with metabolic dysfunctions, including alterations in circulating lipid levels and fat tissue accumulation, which causes, among other pathologies, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Aim of the study The objective of this study was to analyse the effects of physical exercise and spirulina intake on the control of NAFLD in diabetic Wistar rats. Methods Diabetes was induced in the animals through intravenous administration of alloxan. The rats were divided into four groups: Diabetic Control (DC) - diabetic rats fed with a control diet and no physical exercise; Diabetic Spirulina (DS) - diabetic rats fed with a diet that included spirulina; Diabetic Spirulina and Exercise (DSE) - diabetic rats fed with a diet that included Spirulina and that exercised; and Diabetic Exercise (DE) - diabetic rats fed with a control diet and that exercised. Results The groups DS, DSE, and DE presented lower plasma concentrations of LDL cholesterol than DC, as well as lower levels of total liver lipids in groups DS, DSE, and DE in comparison to DC. Conclusion Thus, spirulina appears to be effective in reducing total circulating levels of LDL-cholesterol and hepatic lipids, alone or in conjunction with physical exercise in diabetic rats. PMID:21569626

  3. Antihyperlipidemic effect of D-pinitol on streptozotocin-induced diabetic Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geethan, P K M Anu; Prince, P Stanely Mainzen

    2008-01-01

    D-pinitol (3-O-methyl-chiroinositol), an active principle of the traditional antidiabetic plant, Bougainvillea spectabilis, is claimed to exert insulin-like effects. This study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of D-pinitol on lipids and lipoproteins in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic Wistar rats. Rats were made type II diabetic by single intraperitoneal injection of STZ at a dose of 40 mg/kg body weight. STZ-induced diabetic rats showed significant (p < 0.05) increase in the levels of blood glucose and total cholesterol, triglycerides, free fatty acids, and phospholipids in serum, liver, kidney, heart, and brain. The levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) cholesterol were significantly increased, and the level of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol was significantly decreased in diabetic rats Oral administration of D-pinitol to STZ-induced diabetic rats showed significant (p < 0.05) decrease in the levels of blood glucose and total cholesterol, triglycerides, free fatty acids, and phospholipids in serum, liver, kidney, heart, and brain. The D-pinitol also lowered significantly (p < 0.05) LDL and VLDL cholesterol levels and increased significantly (p < 0.05) HDL cholesterol levels in the serum of diabetic rats. Thus, the present study clearly showed the antihyperlipidemic effect of D-pinitol in STZ-induced type II diabetic rats.

  4. Radionecrosis attenuation in wistar rats with cutaneous application of quercetin; Atenuacao da radionecrose em ratos Wistar com aplicacao cutanea de quercetina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves, Nelson Mendes

    2016-11-01

    The increased incidence of cancer has been significant in recent decades in the world population, as confirmed by national and international institutions in the health area. The emergence of cancer is influenced, predominantly by genetic and environmental factors, being manifested more in the adult population. The main modalities for cancer treatment (radiotherapy, chemotherapy and surgery) may be used separately or in combination, depending on the type of cancer. Among the methods mentioned, radiation therapy is the one more broadly used for the treatment of patients, having an associated side effect called radiodermatitis, which has degrees of severity ranging from simple erythema to radionecrosis. The manifestation of radiodermatitis may occur during the treatment or after the radiotherapy sessions: both situations have great relevance in the patient's quality of life and social costs. One of the studied alternative therapies for attenuating the radionecrosis is the quercetin cutaneous application. One of the alternative therapies, studied to mitigate or eliminate the radionecrosis, is based on the topical application of quercetin. To evaluate the effectiveness of this mitigation, an animal model of radionecrosis was developed, to be used in Wistar rats. After in vitro studies, the quercetin concentrations and time of application were determined, reducing the number of animals, when in vivo experiments are carried out. With the topical application of 250 μ mol/L of quercetin, one hour prior to gamma irradiation, at a dose of 85 Gy, the side effects of radiation were minimized, avoiding the formation of radionecrosis. There was, also, a tendency to attenuate the wound area in the studied animals, compared to the irradiated animals without the quercetin application. (author)

  5. The effect of aqueous extract of Euphorbia drupifera on the physiology of wistar rat

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    Rachael Ununuma Akpiri

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The plant Euphorbia came from Mount Atlas region of present-day Morocco and was probably the resin Spurge. This local herb is used by traditional herbalists for treatment of hypertension, diabetes and several other ailments. The aim of this study is to investigate the toxic effect of aqueous extract of Euphorbia drupifera on the physiology of wistar rats. Considering objectives such as: determining the efficacy of Eupholobia drupifera in rat and determining if the extract is dose and time-dependent. Twenty  five (25 normal wistar rats were used for this study. They were acclimatized and randomly distributed into groups A-D and control. They were given, oral administration of Euphorbia extracts twice daily. Doses of 0.056ml/g, 0.118ml/g, 0.174ml/g and 0.254ml/g were given to groups A,B,C and D respectively. The higher the dosage, the shorter the time of death. The animals were observed for morphological changes afterwards. Five rats, one from each group were examined after death. The results obtained recorded a 100% mortality rate in the test groups of rats. Tissue observation showed swollen intestine. Behavioural observation showed continuous itching immediately after feeding with extract,  reduced activity, loss of appetite, drowsiness, and swollen jaws. E. drupifera  was found to have a severe toxic effect on the physiology of rats as 100% mortality was observed in all test groups(Group A, 144hrs; Group B, 96hrs; Group C, 48hrs; and Group D, 36hrs. Thus, caution should be taken in handling and general usage of the plant. No death occurred in the control group without the extract. 

  6. Impairments in testicular function indices in male wistar rats: a possible mechanism for infertility induction by Xylopia aethiopica fruit extract

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    Ologhaguo Macstephen Adienbo

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: The accumulating evidence about alterations in male fertility necessitates the need to screen more medicinal plants for their effect on male reproductive functions. This study is aimed at evaluating the effects of fruit extract of Xylopia aethiopica on testicular functions in males using wistar rats as models. Methods: Forty eight adult male rats, randomly divided into four groups of 12 each, were used for the study. Group 1 (control, while groups 2, 3 and 4 (test groups. Daily oral doses of 0.5, 2.0 and 10.0 mg/kg b.w. of hydro-methanol extract were given to the test groups for 30 days followed by 30 days withdrawal. From each group, 6 animals were sacrificed on days 31 and 61 of the study and samples collected: Testes and epididymis were each weighed; blood was assayed for serum testosterone; testes processed for tissue biochemical studies. Results: Results show significant (P <0.05 reductions in the weight of reproductive organs, serum testosterone; testicular glycogen, cholesterol, protein and malondialdehyde; while testicular superoxide dismutaase increased. Conclusions: It was concluded that Xylopia aethiopica impairs testicular functions in rats and therefore fertility in males. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2015; 4(1.000: 71-75

  7. Clinico-pathology, diagnosis and management of Cysticercus fasciolaris and Hymenolepis diminuta co-infection in wistar rats

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    Y. Damodar Singh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was undertaken to study the pathology and control of sudden unexplained mortality in wistar rats. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted in a colony of 25 male wistar rats where there was mortality of nine rats. The dead rats were subjected to thorough post-mortem examination and necropsy samples were processed for hematoxylin and eosin staining for histopathological studies. Faecal samples of live rats were studied for the presence of parasitic eggs. Treatment with anthelmintics was given to manage the mortality and infections. Results: The investigation revealed a natural co-infection of Cysticercus fasciolaris and Hymenolepis diminuta in wistar rats, which were pathogenic enough to cause mortality. Typical lesions associated with the parasites were found in the dead rats. The mortality and infection were managed with common anthelmintics. Conclusion: C. fasciolaris and H. diminuta infection can cause mortality in wistar rats even when individually they cause asymptomatic infection. The mortality and infection can be managed with common anthelmintics.

  8. Clinico-pathology, diagnosis and management of Cysticercus fasciolaris and Hymenolepis diminuta co-infection in wistar rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Y. Damodar; Arya, Rahul Singh

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The present study was undertaken to study the pathology and control of sudden unexplained mortality in wistar rats. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted in a colony of 25 male wistar rats where there was mortality of nine rats. The dead rats were subjected to thorough post-mortem examination and necropsy samples were processed for hematoxylin and eosin staining for histopathological studies. Faecal samples of live rats were studied for the presence of parasitic eggs. Treatment with anthelmintics was given to manage the mortality and infections. Results: The investigation revealed a natural co-infection of Cysticercus fasciolaris and Hymenolepis diminuta in wistar rats, which were pathogenic enough to cause mortality. Typical lesions associated with the parasites were found in the dead rats. The mortality and infection were managed with common anthelmintics. Conclusion: C. fasciolaris and H. diminuta infection can cause mortality in wistar rats even when individually they cause asymptomatic infection. The mortality and infection can be managed with common anthelmintics. PMID:27047007

  9. Effect of oral arginine supplementation on GH secretion and lipid metabolism in Wistar trained rats

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    E. Luciano

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The Oral Arginine Supplementation (OAS and exercise are able to modify the secretion of the Growth Hormone (GH that stimulates the lipid metabolism. The aim of the study was to verify the effect of the OAS, the aerobic exercise and the combination of the OAS with the aerobic exercise on the GH secretion and lipid metabolism in rats. The sample was composted for 40 male wistar rats, divided in four groups: Sedentary control (SC, sedentary arginine (SA, trained control (TC and trained arginine (TA. The AS and AT received the oral supplementation in alternated days and the groups CT and AT realized swimming exercise for 1hour/day with overload equivalent to 5% of body mass five days per week during 4 weeks. The concentrations of GH were significantly difference between the sedentary groups (SC and AS and (TC and AT and the lipid metabolism did not change throughout all groups. In conclusions, aerobic physical training did not modify the lipid metabolism and diminishes the values of GH concentration and the OAS did not modify the concentration of GH in Wistar rats.

  10. Citrinin and endosulfan induced maternal toxicity in pregnant Wistar rats: pathomorphological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Nittin D; Sharma, Anil K; Dwivedi, Prabhaker; Patil, Rajendra D; Kumar, Manoj

    2007-01-01

    Dietary exposures to environmental food pollutants such as mycotoxin(s) or pesticide(s) have gained immense significance due to their adverse effects on production and reproduction in animal and human populations. The present investigation was conducted to evaluate the maternal toxicity of citrinin (CIT) and endosulfan administered per os either alone or in combination in pregnant rats during gestational days 6-20. CIT (group I, 10 mg kg(-1) feed, through diet) and endosulfan (group II, 1 mg kg(-1) body weight, by oral intubation) when administered either alone or in combination (group III) in Wistar rats caused clinical signs of toxicity and pathomorphological changes in all the toxin treated groups, the severity being more pronounced in the combination treatment compared with that observed in the control (group IV). The rate of fetal resorptions was highest (22.22%) in the combination treatment followed by endosulfan (16.48%) and CIT (12.50%) treatment groups compared with the control group (3.86%). The histopathological changes such as engorged vasculature, vacuolar degeneration and karyomegaly in liver; congestion, tubular degeneration and cast formation in kidneys; vascular changes and hemosiderosis in uterus and lymphocytic depletion and apoptosis in the lymphoid organs were recorded in the animals of the toxin treated groups. The lesions were consistent and more severe in the combination treatment group compared with the individual treatment groups, suggesting an additive interaction of CIT and endosulfan in inducing maternal toxicity in Wistar rats.

  11. Khaya senegalensis inhibits piroxicam mediated gastro-toxicity in wistar rats

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    Fatima Nnawodu Ishaq

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective:The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of piroxicam co-administration with ethanolic stem-bark extract of Khaya senegalensis on biomarkers of oxidative stress and gastro-toxicity in Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: Thirty healthy male and female Albino Wistar rats (190-220 g were grouped into six (n = 5 with designated treatments including: Normal saline, piroxicam (20 mg/kg, extract (200 and 400 mg/kg alone and both doses of the extract co-administered with piroxicam. The drugs were administered orally to all the rats for fourteen consecutive days and on the fifteenth day, they were euthanized with chloroform inhalation. Blood samples and the stomachs were isolated for evaluation of the oxidative stress biomarkers and gastro integrity, respectively. Results: The results of the study revealed that the levels of oxidative stress markers didn’t differ significantly between the groups receiving the extract alone, the extract in combination or piroxicam alone. Gross and histological observations of the stomach showed gastric mucosal changes and mild atrophic lesions in the piroxicam group only. Conclusion: This study illustrates the interaction of Khaya senegalensis and piroxicam results in the gastro-protective beneficial effects. The extract’s outcome on various prostaglandin levels and synthesis is being considered towards possible elucidation regarding the exact mechanism of cytoprotection.  

  12. The Effect of Parathion on Red Blood Cell Acetylcholinesterase in the Wistar Rat

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    Naofumi Bunya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Organophosphorus (OP pesticide poisoning is a significant problem worldwide. Research into new antidotes for these acetylcholinesterase inhibitors, and even optimal doses for current therapies, is hindered by a lack of standardized animal models. In this study, we sought to characterize the effects of the OP pesticide parathion on acetylcholinesterase in a Wistar rat model that included comprehensive medical care. Methods. Male Wistar rats were intubated and mechanically ventilated and then poisoned with between 20 mg/kg and 60 mg/kg of intravenous parathion. Upon developing signs of poisoning, the rats were treated with standard critical care, including atropine, pralidoxime chloride, and midazolam, for up to 48 hours. Acetylcholinesterase activity was determined serially for up to 8 days after poisoning. Results. At all doses of parathion, maximal depression of acetylcholinesterase occurred at 3 hours after poisoning. Acetylcholinesterase recovered to nearly 50% of baseline activity by day 4 in the 20 mg/kg cohort and by day 5 in the 40 and 60 mg/kg cohorts. At day 8, most rats’ acetylcholinesterase had recovered to roughly 70% of baseline. These data should be useful in developing rodent models of acute OP pesticide poisoning.

  13. PUNARNAVA MANDUR: TOXICITY STUDY OF CLASSICAL AYURVEDIC FORMULATION IN WISTAR RATS

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    P. S. Jamadagni

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Punarnava Mandur is an iron containing classical Ayurvedic formulation which was studied for repeated dose oral toxicity study in Wistar rats for 90 days. Total 48 Wistar rats (24 male and 24 female were selected based on the body weight and were randomly distributed into four groups followed by administration of Punarnava Mandur at the dose of 0, 90, 450, 900 mg/kg body weight for 90 consecutive days. Body weight, Weekly Feed and Water consumption, Clinical Chemistry, Hematology, Differential leukocyte Count, Reticulocyte count and Organ weights were recorded and analyzed statistically. At termination, rats were sacrificed, examined for gross pathological changes, organs were collected, weighed and processed for histopathological evaluation. There was no effect on body weights and feed consumption, no abnormal findings in the histopathological evaluation of high dose group animals but there was significant increase in weight of liver in females of high dose group as compared to control. Hence, the dose level 450 mg/kg of Punarnava Mandur was found as NOAEL (No Observable Adverse Effect Level. However, the NOEL (No Observed Effect Level could not be established. It was suggested to carry out a toxicity study at possible higher doses so as to establish target organ of toxicity.

  14. The Effect of Pistacia khynjuk on Humoral Immune System of Wistar Rats

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    A Hadinia

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Plants from the genus Pistacia family such as Pistacia atlantica, Pistacia vera and Pistacia khynjuk are considered as herbal medicines. Antibacterial and anti-inflammatory effects of these plants have been confirmed. The aim of the current study was to find the effect of Pistacia khynjuk on humoral immune system of Wistar rats. Materials & Methods: This is an experimental study which was conducted at Yasuj University of Medical Sciences in 2009. Forty male Wistar rats were randomly allocated into four groups of ten animals and orally received 10 mg/kg of the extract of nucleus, cutin and fruit of Pistacia khynjuk respectively, every day for two weeks. The control group received only placebo. Immuno-reactivity was induced using BCG vaccine (IP with Freund‘s complete adjuvant (CFA. The titer of IgG and IgM were measured after the treatment using ELISA method. Moreover, the cervical lymph nodes and spleen of animals were excised and the volume and density of the primary and secondary follicle was evaluated by steriology. The collected data were analyzed by the SPSS using one-way ANOVA. Results: The differences in the mean level of IgG and IgM between the treated and the control animals were not significant (p>.05. Also, the mean volume of the spleen and cervical lymph nodes of the first three groups in comparison with the control animals were not significant (p>.05. Conclusion: Findings of this study showed that the Pistacia khynjuk did not have any direct effect on the activity of humoral immune system and the increasing of antibody level among Wistar rats.

  15. Behavioural and neurotoxic effects of ayahuasca infusion (Banisteriopsis caapi and Psychotria viridis) in female Wistar rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pic-Taylor, Aline; da Motta, Luciana Gueiros; de Morais, Juliana Alves; Junior, Willian Melo; Santos, Alana de Fátima Andrade; Campos, Leandro Ambrósio; Mortari, Marcia Renata; von Zuben, Marcus Vinicius; Caldas, Eloisa Dutra

    2015-09-01

    Ayahuasca, a psychoactive beverage used by indigenous and religious groups, is generally prepared by the coction of Psychotria viridis and Banisteriopsis caapi plants containing N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT) and β-carboline alkaloids, respectively. To investigate the acute toxicity of ayahuasca, the infusion was administered by gavage to female Wistar rats at doses of 30X and 50X the dose taken during a religious ritual, and the animals observed for 14 days. Behavioural functions were investigated one hour after dosing at 15X and 30X using the open field, elevated plus maze, and forced swimming tests. Neuronal activation (c-fos marked neurons) and toxicity (Fluoro-Jade B and Nissl/Cresyl staining) were investigated in the dorsal raphe nuclei (DRN), amygdaloid nucleus, and hippocampal formation brain areas of rats treated with a 30X ayahuasca dose. The actual lethal oral dose in female Wistar rats could not be determined in this study, but was shown to be higher than the 50X (which corresponds to 15.1mg/kg bw DMT). The ayahuasca and fluoxetine treated groups showed a significant decrease in locomotion in the open field and elevated plus-maze tests compared to controls. In the forced swimming test, ayahuasca treated animals swam more than controls, a behaviour that was not significant in the fluoxetine group. Treated animals showed higher neuronal activation in all brain areas involved in serotoninergic neurotransmission. Although this led to some brain injury, no permanent damage was detected. These results suggest that ayahuasca has antidepressant properties in Wistar female at high doses, an effect that should be further investigated.

  16. Effect of Imatinib on the Oogenesis and Pituitary -Ovary Hormonal Axis in Female Wistar Rat

    OpenAIRE

    Parichehreh Yaghmaei; Kazem Parivar; Fatemeh Jalalvand

    2009-01-01

    Background: Imatinib mesylate, a small-molecular analog of adenosine triphosphate (ATP)that potently inhibits tyrosine kinase activities of Bcr–Abl, PDGFR-β, PDGFR-α, c-Fms, Argand c-kit, is one of the novel molecularly targeted drugs being introduced into cancer therapy.We tested the effect of imatinib on the ovarian histological structure and the concentration ofestrogen and progesterone, luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH)in the serum of female Wistar rats.Mater...

  17. Hepatoprotective and antioxidant activities of Hibiscus sabdariffa petal extracts in Wistar rats

    OpenAIRE

    Abba P. Obouayeba; Lydie Boyvin; Gervais M. M'Boh; Sekou Diabat and eacute;; Tanoh H. Kouakou; Allico J. Djaman; Jean D. N'Guessan

    2014-01-01

    Background: Hibiscus sabdariffa is a medicinal plant rich in phytochemical compounds, which is the source of its biological properties. This study on the aqueous extract of H. sabdariffa (AEHS) was conducted to assess its hepatoprotective and antioxidant properties. Methods: It was carried out with 25 Wistar rats divided into five groups. Two groups were treated with a solution of NaCl 0.9%. One group was treated with silymarin at a dose of 25 mg/kg body weight (BW). Two other groups were ...

  18. Low-dose developmental exposure to bisphenol A alters the femoral bone geometry in wistar rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lejonklou, M. H.; Christiansen, Sofie; Orberg, J.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Bisphenol A (BPA) is a chemical produced in large volumes for use in manufacturing of consumer products and industrial applications, and an endocrine disruptor known to affect several hormonal systems. Bone produces hormones and is additionally a sensitive hormone target tissue......, and is thus potentially sensitive to low doses of endocrine disruptors such as BPA, especially during development.Methods: 110 pregnant Wistar rats were gavaged with 0; 25 mu g; 250 mu g; 5000 mu g or 50,000 mu g BPA/kg bodyweight (bw)/day from gestational day 7 until weaning at postnatal day 22. The three...

  19. Catalase in testes and epididymidis of wistar rats fed zinc deficient diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedwal, S; Prasad, S; Nair, N; Saini, M R; Bedwal, R S

    2009-01-01

    Catalase activities have been evaluated in testes and caput and cauda epididymis of Wistar rats fed on zinc deficient diet for 2 and 4 weeks. The enzyme activity has been measured as chromic acetate formed by heating of dichromate (in acetic acid) in presence of H(2) O(2) with perchromic acid as an unstable intermediate. Observed non-significant increase in catalase activity in testes as well as in caput and cauda epididymis of 2 weeks experiments has been related to low levels of H(2) O(2) produced in two organs whereas significant (Pspermatozoa in epididymis. Thus, zinc deficiency increases catalase activity in testes and epididymis.

  20. SPELEOTHERAPY EFFECTS ON WISTAR RATS REFLECTED BY PULMONARY AND DERMAL FIBROBLASTS CULTURES 

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    Munteanu Constantin

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Speleotherapy – a special kind of climatotherapy, uses the certain conditions of caves and salt mines to cure several diseases, especially respiratory and skin diseases. Atmospheric dust could cause allergic reactions or asthmatic attacks.The cave air is very low on dust. This fact reduces any kind of irritation. In this way, the symptoms of the diseases are reduced or eliminated completely, while the patient is in the cave. But that does not explain how it should have a longer lasting effect. Curing asthma involves spending 2-3 hours a day underground in subterranean caves or salt mines over a 1-2 month period. An old study describes a speleotherapy course, which was 4 hours a day for 6-8 weeks, with 100 COPD (Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease and asthma patients and reported improvement that lasted 6 months to 7 years (Skulimowski, 1965. Our objectives were to explore the effects of speleotherapy on cellular morphology and physiology of pulmonary and dermal fibroblasts obtained from tissues of Wistar rats, in normal and Ovalbumin challenged, “asthmatic” conditions. 60 Wistar rats of 75-100 g weight were divided in two lots: control and ovalbumin challenged animals. Ten animals of each lot were send to Cacica, Turda and Dej Salt Mine for 14 days and maintained in the salt mine medium, as in speleotherapy treatment. Pulmonary and dermal fibroblasts cultures were prepared from Wistar rat lung and respectively dermal tissue. Trying to identify the biological mechanisms of speleotherapy, our experimental design was made for cell morphology, physiology and biochemical evaluation of cells in cultures obtained from animals that were treated by speleotherapy. The complex picture of results was analysed and explained through biological mechanisms comparing to the control cell cultures obtained from healthy, untreated Wistar rats. In this article we describe the supposed biological mechanisms that explain the protective effects of

  1. Perinatal ethinyl oestradiol alters mammary gland development in male and female Wistar rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mandrup, Karen; Hass, Ulla; Christiansen, Sofie;

    2012-01-01

    Increased attention is being paid to human mammary gland development because of concerns for environmental influences on puberty onset and breast cancer development. Studies in rodents have showed a variety of changes in the mammary glands after perinatal exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals...... exposures may alter mammary gland development, disrupt lactation and alter susceptibility to breast cancer......., indicating progressed development of mammary glands when exposed to oestrogens early in life. However, laboratories use different parameters to evaluate the development of mammary glands, making studies difficult to compare. Moreover, studies of whole mounts in Wistar rats are lacking. In the present study...

  2. Catalase in testes and epididymidis of wistar rats fed zinc deficient diet

    OpenAIRE

    Bedwal S; Prasad S; Nair N; Saini M; Bedwal R

    2009-01-01

    Catalase activities have been evaluated in testes and caput and cauda epididymis of Wistar rats fed on zinc deficient diet for 2 and 4 weeks. The enzyme activity has been measured as chromic acetate formed by heating of dichromate (in acetic acid) in presence of H 2 O 2 with perchromic acid as an unstable intermediate. Observed non-significant increase in catalase activity in testes as well as in caput and cauda epididymis of 2 weeks experiments has been related to low levels of H 2 O 2 pro...

  3. Ranitidine treatment inducing methemoglobinemia in male Wistar rats Metemoglobinemia induzida pela ranitidina em ratos

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson Roberto Malfará; Ana Maria de Souza; Regina Helena Costa Queiroz

    2005-01-01

    Drug idiosyncrasy is an adverse event of unknown etiology that occurs in a small fraction of people taking a drug. The histamine-2 (H2)-receptor antagonist ranitidine causes idiosyncratic reactions in patients. To investigate the hypothesis that ranitidine could induce hematological toxic effects, the drug was administered intraperitoneally (ip) to two of six groups of 200-220 g male Wistar rats (n=6). Group I received as single dose of saline solution (NaCl, 200 µL) Group II received 2...

  4. Uranium deposition in bones of Wistar rats associated with skeleton development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, G; Arruda-Neto, J D T; Pereira, R M R; Kleeb, S R; Geraldo, L P; Primi, M C; Takayama, L; Rodrigues, T E; Cavalcante, G T; Genofre, G C; Semmler, R; Nogueira, G P; Fontes, E M

    2013-12-01

    Sixty female Wistar rats were submitted to a daily intake of ration doped with uranium from weaning to adulthood. Uranium in bone was quantified by the SSNTD (solid state nuclear track detection) technique, and bone mineral density (BMD) analysis performed. Uranium concentration as a function of age exhibited a sharp rise during the first week of the experiment and a drastic drop of 70% in the following weeks. Data interpretation indicates that uranium mimics calcium. Results from BMD suggest that radiation emitted by the incorporated Uranium could induce death of bone cells.

  5. Two-year carcinogenicity study of acrylamide in Wistar Han rats with in utero exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maronpot, R R; Thoolen, R J M M; Hansen, B

    2015-02-01

    Acrylamide is an important chemical with widespread industrial and other uses in addition to generalized population exposure from certain cooked foods. Previous rat studies to assess the carcinogenic potential of acrylamide have been carried out exclusively in the Fischer 344 rat with identification of a number of tumors amongst which mesotheliomas of the tunica vaginalis is an important tumor endpoint in the classification of acrylamide as a 'probably human carcinogen. In a rat carcinogenicity study to determine the human relevance of mesotheliomas Wistar Han rats were exposed to 0, 0.5, 1.5, or 3.0mg acrylamide/kg body weight/day in drinking water starting at gestation day 6. At the end of two years, mammary gland fibroadenomas in females and thyroid follicular cell tumors in both sexes were the only tumors increased in acrylamide treated rats. These tumor endpoints have rat-specific modes of action suggesting less likelihood of human cancer risk than previously estimated. This study demonstrates that tunica vaginalis mesotheliomas are strain specific and not likely of genotoxic origin.

  6. [The Manifestation of the Anxiety during Fear Conditioning in Wistar Rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlova, I V; Rysakova, M P

    2015-01-01

    In order to identify the correlation between anxiety and conditioned fear, the behavior of the same male Wistar rats was compared in three anxiety tests (open field, light-dark box and elevated plus-maze) and in Pavlovian auditory fear conditioning paradigm using correlation, factor and variance analyses. The correlation between anxiety/bravery and locomotion indexes in different tests was not revealed. Positive correlations between grooming, urinations and defecations, rearing in three tests were revealed. These data suggest that animals reacted to various tests differently, resulting, apparently in the emergence of different anxiety levels, specific for each test. Vegetative reactions, inclination to exploration and substituting behavior were more stable characteristics of rats. Anxiety behavior in elevated plus-maze correlated to freezing response to context after fear conditioning, while high-anxiety rats had higher level of freezing to context than low-anxiety rats. The higher freezing response to sound after fear conditioning was found in rats with middle locomotor activity in open field. Conditioned fear to the context and to the sound was associated with different forms of rat anxiety during different tests.

  7. Less of insulin desensitization in sympathetic nerve terminals from wistar rats with insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, T C; Liu, I M; Cheng, J T

    2000-04-12

    In an attempt to determine the effect of hyperinsulinemia on sympathetic function, release of norepinephrine (NE) from isolated aorta by insulin was measured in Wistar rats with insulin resistance. Insulin resistance was produced when the hypoglycemic action of glibenclamide at a dose of 10 mg/kg was almost abolished in rats that received daily injections of long-acting insulin for 15 days. Moreover, the stimulatory effect of insulin on glucose uptake was markedly reduced in both skeletal muscle strips and white adipocytes obtained from these rats with insulin resistance. However, the stimulatory effects of insulin at concentrations from 5 to 15 U/l on the release of NE from the aortic strip of insulin-resistant rats were not modified in the same manner but only slightly reduced compared with that of normal rats. These results suggest that insulin desensitization was produced later in sympathetic nerve terminals than in other organs in insulin-resistant rats and this may be helpful to explain the sympathetic hyperactivity associated with diabetes in clinics.

  8. Effect of herbal preparation on heavy metal (cadmium) induced antioxidant system in female Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dailiah Roopha, P; Padmalatha, C

    2012-06-01

    Cadmium is one of the elements found to damage antioxidant systems in mammals. To ameliorate cadmium toxicity and to prevent oxidative stress, natural products may be useful. In Indian ethnobotanical practice, a mixture of 17 herbal products is used to fortify the reproductive system of women after parturition and to reverse ovarian oxidative stress. Oral administration of this extract to rats exposed to cadmium was useful in reversing oxidative stress. Two different doses of cadmium (50 ppm and 200 ppm) were given to Wistar rats aged 45 and 65 days. An herbal extract derived from 17 plants was administered orally every day at a dose level of 200 mg/kg of body weight to the rats exposed to cadmium. A battery of enzymes involved in antioxidant activity in the ovary, including superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione-s-transferase (GST) were measured in the control, cadmium-exposed rats without treatment and in the cadmium-exposed rats treated with herbal extract. The reduction in SOD, catalase, GPx and GST activity after cadmium exposure improved significantly in the rats treated with the herbal extract (p antioxidant enzymes due to cadmium exposure was reversed significantly with herbal extract administration. The synergistic effect of each bioactive compound in different herbal extracts requires further study.

  9. The Effect of Ovariectomy and Orchiectomy on Orthodontic Tooth Movement and Root Resorption in Wistar Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifi, Massoud; Ezzati, Baharak; Saedi, Sara; Hedayati, Mehdi

    2015-01-01

    Statement of the Problem Root resorption (RR) after orthodontic tooth movement (OTM) is known as a multifactorial complication of orthodontic treatments. Hormonal deficiencies and their effect on bone turnover are reported to have influences on the rate of tooth movement and root resorption. Purpose This study was designed to evaluate the effect of female and male steroid sex hormones on tooth movement and root resorption. Materials and Method Orthodontic appliances were placed on the right maxillary first molars of 10 ovariectomized female and 10 orchiectomized male Wistar rats as experimental groups and 10 female and 10 male healthy Wistar rats as control groups. NiTi closed-coil springs (9mm, Medium, 011"×.030", Ortho Technology®; Tampa, Florida) were placed between the right incisors and the first right maxillary molars to induce tipping movement in the first molars with the application of a 60g force. After 21 days, the rats were sacrificed and tooth movement was measured by using a digital caliper (Guanglu, China). Orthodontic induced root resorption (OIRR) was assessed by histomorphometric analysis after hematoxylin and eosin staining of sections of the mesial root. Results The rate of tooth movement was significantly higher in all female rats, with the root resorption being lower in the experimental group. The rate of tooth movement in experimental male rats was significantly higher than the control group (p= 0.001) and the rate of root resorption was significantly lower in the experimental group (p= 0.001). Conclusion It seems that alterations in plasma levels of estrogen, progesterone, and testosterone hormones can influence the rate of OTM and RR. The acceleration in tooth movement increased OTM and decreased RR. PMID:26636117

  10. Learned helplessness and social avoidance in the Wistar-Kyoto rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyungwoo eNam

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The Wistar-Kyoto (WKY rat is an established depression model characterized by elevated anxiety- and depression-like behavior across a variety of tests. Here we further characterized specific behavioral and functional domains relevant to depression that are altered in WKY rats. Moreover, since early-life experience potently shapes emotional behavior, we also determined whether aspects of WKYs’ phenotype were modifiable by early-life factors using neonatal handling or maternal separation. We first compared WKYs’ behavior to that of Sprague-Dawley (SD, Wistar, and Spontaneously Hypertensive (SHR rats in: the open field test, elevated plus maze, novelty-suppressed feeding test, a social interaction test, and the forced swim test (FST. WKYs exhibited high baseline immobility in the FST and were the only strain to show increased immobility on FST Day 2 vs. Day 1 (an indicator of learned helplessness. WKYs also showed greater social avoidance, along with enlarged adrenal glands and hearts relative to other strains. We next tested whether neonatal handling or early-life maternal separation stress influenced WKYs’ behavior. Neither manipulation affected their anxiety- and depressive-like behaviors, likely due to a strong genetic underpinning of their phenotype. Our findings indicate that WKY rats are a useful model that captures specific functional domains relevant to clinical depression including: psychomotor retardation, behavioral inhibition, learned helplessness, social withdrawal, and physiological dysfunction. WKY rats appear to be resistant to early-life manipulations (i.e. neonatal handling that are therapeutic in other strains, and may be a useful model for the development of personalized anti-depressant therapies for treatment resistant depression.

  11. Disposition and kinetics of tetrabromobisphenol A in female Wistar Han rats

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    Gabriel A. Knudsen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA is the brominated flame retardant with the largest production volume worldwide. NTP 2-year bioassays found TBBPA dose-dependent increases in uterine tumors in female Wistar Han rats; evidence of reproductive tissues carcinogenicity was equivocal in male rats. To explain this apparent sex-dependence, the disposition and toxicokinetic profile of TBBPA were investigated using female Wistar Han rats, as no data were available for female rats. In these studies, the primary route of elimination following [14C]-TBBPA administration (25, 250 or 1000 mg/kg was in feces; recoveries in 72 h were 95.7 ± 3.5%, 94.3 ± 3.6% and 98.8 ± 2.2%, respectively (urine: 0.2–2%; tissues: <0.1. TBBPA was conjugated to mono-glucuronide and -sulfate metabolites and eliminated in the bile. Plasma toxicokinetic parameters for a 250 mg/kg dose were estimated based on free TBBPA, as determined by UV/radiometric-HPLC analyses. Oral dosing by gavage (250 mg/kg resulted in a rapid absorption of compound into the systemic circulation with an observed Cmax at 1.5 h post-dose followed by a prolonged terminal phase. TBBPA concentrations in plasma decreased rapidly after an IV dose (25 mg/kg followed by a long elimination phase. These results indicate low systemic bioavailability (F < 0.05, similar to previous reports using male rats. Elimination pathways appeared to become saturated leading to delayed excretion after a single oral administration of the highest dose (1000 mg/kg; no such saturation or delay was detected at lower doses. Chronic high exposures to TBBPA may result in competition for metabolism with endogenous substrates in extrahepatic tissues (e.g., SULT1E1 estrogen sulfation resulting in endocrine disruption.

  12. Induction of UDP-glucuronosyltransferase activities in Gunn, heterozygous, and Wistar rat livers by pregnenolone-16 alpha-carbonitrile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, J B; Klaassen, C D

    1982-01-01

    The effect of pregnenolone-16 alpha-carbonitrile (PCN) on UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UDP-GT) activity was comprehensively examined in Wistar (JJ), heterozygous (Jj) and Gunn (jj) rats with eleven different acceptors for glucuronic acid. UDP-GT activity after 3-methylcholanthrene (3-MC) and phenobarbital (PB) treatment was studied in additional rats for comparative purposes. Conjugation of group-1 aglycones (1-naphthol and p-nitrophenol) was much lower in Gunn than in Wistar rats. PCN did not alter UDP-GT conjugation of these acceptors. UDP-GT activity toward group-1 aglycones was increased by 3-MC in Wistar and heterozygous rats but was not enhanced in Gunn rats by any inducer. Activity toward group-2 aglycones (morphine, chloramphenicol, valproic acid) was similar in control rats of all genotypes. PCN increased chloramphenicol conjugation, whereas PB enhanced the glucuronidation of all group-2 aglycones in Wistar, heterozygous, and Gunn rats. Conjugation of group-3 acceptors (bilirubin and digitoxigenin monodigitoxoside, DIG) was deficient in Gunn rats and was not inducible. PCN increased glucuronidation of bilirubin and DIG in Wistar and heterozygous rats. The concentration of UDP-glucuronic acid (UDPGA) in liver was similar in control animals of all genotypes and was increased in rats treated with 3-MC. The other inducers did not affect hepatic UDPGA levels. Thus, 3-MC, PB, and PCN induce UDP-GT activities toward different groups of acceptors of glucuronic acid. The results support the hypothesis that PCN induces a form of UDP-GT that preferentially conjugates the group-3 acceptors, bilirubin and DIG.

  13. α-Mangostin Mediated Pharmacological Modulation of Hepatic Carbohydrate Metabolism in Diabetes Induced Wistar Rat

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    Vikas Kumar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Garcinia mangostana L. (Fruit has been commonly used as folklore drug in the treatment of various types of diseases. The present experiment was designed to evaluate the potential effect of α-mangostin mediated pharmacological modulation of hepatic carbohydrate metabolism in streptozotocin (STZ induced diabetic rats. Oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT was performed in normoglycemic rats. Single intraperitoneal injection of STZ (60 mg/kg, body weight was used for induction the diabetes in Swiss albino (Wistar strain rats. The rats were divided into different groups. Blood glucose level, body weight, insulin, glycated hemoglobin and hemoglobin levels were recorded at regular intervals. Biochemical parameters, liver enzymes, lipid profile, antioxidant parameters and inflammatory cytokine mediators were also scrutinized. Histopathology study of kidney, pancreas and liver were performed. The result of OGTT study depicted the better utilization of glucose in experimental rats. STZ induced diabetic rats treated with α-mangostin (25, 50 and 100 mg/kg, p.o. and glibenclamide depicted the decline in the level of blood glucose; enhanced body weight and showed the better utilization of glucose by different organs. STZ induced diabetic rats treated with α-mangostin illustrated the increased level of plasma insulin, hemoglobin, hexokinase, HDL, total protein, SOD, CAT, GSH and declined level of glycated hemoglobin, fructose-1-6-biphosphatase, glucose-6-Phosphatase, TC, TG, LDL, VLDL, CRE, BUN, SGOT, SGPT, ALP and LPO at effective dose dependent manners. Histological study showed the inflamed blood vessels in diabetic kidney, which was less in α-mangostin treated rats; diabetic pancreatic showed the complete damage of β cells, islets, aciini and producing necrosis, but all damage was less obvious in α-mangostin treating group rats; diabetic liver showed the damage of hepatocytes as well as central vein but was less in treated groups. Considering the

  14. Efeito das drogas anti-retrovirais sobre as taxas de fertilidade de ratas Wistar Effects of antiretroviral drugs on fertility of Wistar rats

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    Ernesto Antonio Figueiró Filho

    2002-12-01

    írus da imunodeficiência humana.PURPOSE: to evaluate experimentally the effects of antiretroviral drugs used alone and in association upon the fertility of pregnant Wistar rats and the perinatal effects on the offspring. METHODS: adult female pregnant Wistar rats weighing 200-230 g were used. The antiretroviral drugs zidovudine (AZT, lamivudine (3TC and nelfinavir (NFV were used alone and in association at daily doses of ten times the dose normally used in pregnant women, proportionally to the animal's body weight. Seven groups were studied, including the control one. The experiment started on day 0 and the pregnant animals were sacrificed on day 21. The alive and dead fetuses, the total implantation sites and the total numbers of corporea lutea were used to calculate the fertility values. The statistical analysis was performed by Student's t test and by the Mann-Whitney test. RESULTS: there were no significant statistical differences regarding preimplantation loss and implantation efficiency values of the rats treated with isolated and associated antiretroviral drugs. There was a significant increase in the postimplantation loss values (control group: 7.6%; drug groups variation: 20.2-26.7%, a decrease in the fetal viability values (control group: 92.4%, drug groups variation: 73.3-79.8%, and a decreasing number of fetuses per animal (control group: 14.7; drug groups variation: 11.1-12.7. There was a significant weight reduction of the female rats and of the offspring of animals treated with 3TC, AZT + 3TC and AZT + 3TC + NFV. CONCLUSION: with the administration of high antiretroviral doses, important fertility effects could be observed, which showed that less histotoxic antiretroviral drugs must be studied in order to warrant the safety of using these medicines in pregnant HIV-1 - infected women.

  15. Model of septic arthritis by intravenous inoculation of Staphylococcus aureus in Wistar rats Modelo de artrite séptica por inoculação de Staphylococcus aureus em ratos Wistar

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    Flamarion dos Santos Batista

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available An experimental model of septic arthritis by monobacterial inoculation of Staphylococcus aureus 10.9 in Wistar rats dorsal penis vein is describred.Descrição de um modelo experimental de artrite séptica por inoculação monobacteriana de Staphylococcus aureus na veia dorsal do pênis de ratos Wistar.

  16. NEUROPEPTIDE Y (NPY) SUPPRESSES ETHANOL DRINKING IN ETHANOL-ABSTINENT, BUT NOT NON-ETHANOL-ABSTINENT, WISTAR RATS

    OpenAIRE

    Gilpin, N.W.; Stewart, R B; Badia-Elder, N.E.

    2008-01-01

    In outbred rats, increases in brain neuropeptide Y (NPY) activity suppress ethanol consumption in a variety of access conditions, but only following a history of ethanol dependence. NPY reliably suppresses ethanol drinking in alcohol-preferring (P) rats and this effect is augmented following a period of ethanol abstinence. The purpose of this experiment was to examine the effects of NPY on 2-bottle choice ethanol drinking and feeding in Wistar rats that had undergone chronic ethanol vapor exp...

  17. Cardioprotective Effect of Saffron Extract and Safranal in Isoproterenol-Induced Myocardial Infarction in Wistar Rats

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    Roya Mehdizadeh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s:This study was designed to evaluate the cardioprotective effect of Crocus sativus L. (saffronaqueous extract and safranal, the major constituent of the essential oil of saffron, on lipid peroxidation, biochemical parameters and histopathological findings in isoproterenol (ISO-induced myocardial infarction in Wistar rats. Materials and Methods:The saffron extract (20, 40, 80 and 160 mg/kg/day IP or control were administered for 9 days along with ISO (85 mg/kg, SC, at 24 hr interval on 8th and 9th day in rats. Activities of creatine kinase-muscle, brain (CK-MB and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH were measured using standard commercial kits. The level of malondialdehyde in heart tissue was estimated with thiobarbituric acid reactive species test. For histopathological examination, hematoxylin and eosin (H&E staining was used. Results:ISO administration induced a statistically significant increase          (P

  18. Toxicity evaluation of earthworm powder (Eudrillus euginae) in wistar male rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jaganathan Anitha; Indira A. Jayraaj

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the acute toxicity effects of earthworm powder (EWP) obtained from Eudrillus euginae on wistar male rats. Methods: The animals are treated orally with EWP at the doses of 100 mg/kg, 200 mg/kg and 300 mg/kg bodyweight daily for 12 days. Results: There was no significant mortality and changes in body weight noticed at all the doses tested. No gross significant changes observed in the hematological indices (HB, RBC and WBC), Hepatic, serum markers (AST, ALT, ALP, and protein) and renal indices (Urea, Uric acid and Creatinine). The EWP did not show any significant effects in the clinical signs, behavioral changes and examined toxicological endpoints in experimental animals. The histopathological studies provide supports to the safety data of above parameter of EWP dosing. Conclusions: Thus, it can be inferred from the present study that EWP (Eudrillus euginae) is devoid of toxic effects in rats and suggested to utilize the EWP as novel medicine.

  19. Comparative study on the effect of energy drinks on haematopoietic system in Wistar albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khayyat, Latifa I; Essawy, Amina E; Al Rawy, Maisaa M; Sorour, Jehan M

    2014-09-01

    Energy drinks have become popularized and the market value for these drinks is continually growing. Therefore, the present study aimed to evaluate the effect of three popular kinds of energy drinks (Power Horse, Red Bull and Code Red) on certain hematological parameters and on the ultrastructure of blood cells in male Wistar albino rats. Animals were treated orally with Power Horse, Red Bull and Code Red respectively for 4 weeks. Blood samples were taken after two and four weeks for determination of haematological indices. Ultrastructure examination of blood cells was carried only after 4 weeks of treatment. The results indicated significant reduction (P energy drinks have serious detrimental impacts on haematopoietic system of male rats.

  20. Haemato-biochemical alterations induced by lead acetate toxicity in wistar rats

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    S. G. Suradkar

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to study the haemato-biochemical alterations induced by lead acetate toxicity in 48 Wistar rats of either sex, divided uniformly into four different groups. The rats of group I received only deionised water as control while, group II, III and IV were given lead acetate @ 1 PPM, 100 PPM and 1000 PPM, in drinking deionised water respectively for 28 days. In group III and IV dose dependant significant (P<0.05 reductions in TEC, Hb, PCV and TLC were observed. No significant change was observed in neutrophil, eosinophil, basophil and monocyte count in any treatment groups, whereas the lymphocyte count decreased significantly (P<0.05 in group III and IV. A dose dependant significant (P<0.05 increase in AST, ALP, AKP, GGT, BUN and creatinine was experiential while TP and albumin levels were decreased in group III and IV. [Vet World 2009; 2(11.000: 429-431

  1. Experimentally induced intestinal metaplasia in Wistar rats by x-ray irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, H.

    1978-11-01

    The gastric region of 5-week-old female Wistar rats was irradiated daily with 500 rad of x-ray up to a total of six times. Goblet cells and marker enzymes of the small intestine, such as lactase, trehalase, and maltase, appeared in the pyloric region of the glandular stomach of the rats from the 1st week after final irradiation. Intestinal type crypt without Paneth cells was observed from the 8th week. Sucrase activity appeared from the 26th week. Intestinal metaplasia with Paneth cells appeared from the 71st week. The number of goblet cells, intestinal type crypts, and Paneth cells increased with age. Gastric adenocarcinoma did not develop after irradiation.

  2. Tumor xenotransplantation in Wistar rats after treatment with cyclophosphamide and total lymphoid irradiation. [X-ray

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoogenhout, J. (St. Radbond Academic Hospital, Nijmegen, Netherlands); Kazem, I.; Jerusalem, C.R.; Bakkeren, J.A.J.; de Jong, J.; Kal, H.B.; van Munster, P.J.J.

    1982-10-01

    Three-month-old male Wistar rats were treated with cyclophosphamide and total lymphoid irradiation, and C22LR mouse osteosarcoma was transplanted into the rats. The effects of immunosuppression were monitored by lymphocyte counts, serum IgG determinations, phytohemagglutinin (PHA) and concanavalin A (Con A) responses, measurement of the proportion of B cells, and histopathological studies of the lymphoid organs. At eight days after treatment, the lymphocyte counts, IgG levels, and PHA and Con A values were decreased. Mitotic activity started in the depleted B and T cell areas of the peripheral lymphatic organs two weeks after treatment. There was a 94% graft take of the osteosarcoma. It was determined that the optimum time for tumor xenograft transplantation is 4 days after treatment. The duration of growth was 11 days, and this was followed by regression up to day 21.

  3. Tumor xenotransplantation in Wistar rats after treatment with cyclophosphamide and total lymphoid irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoogenhout, J.; Kazem, I.; Jerusalem, C.R.; Bakkeren, J.A.; de Jong, J.; Kal, H.B.; van Munster, P.J.

    1982-10-01

    Three-month-old male Wistar rats were treated with cyclophosphamide and total lymphoid irradiation, and C22LR mouse osteosarcoma was transplanted into the rats. The effects of immunosuppression were monitored by lymphocyte counts, serum IgG determinations, phytohemagglutinin (PHA) and concanavalin A (Con A) responses, measurement of the proportion of B cells, and histopathological studies of the lymphoid organs. At eight days after treatment, the lymphocyte counts, IgG levels, and PHA and Con A values were decreased. Mitotic activity started in the depleted B and T cell areas of the peripheral lymphatic organs two weeks after treatment. There was a 94% graft take of the osteosarcoma. It was determined that the optimum time for tumor xenograft transplantation is 4 days after treatment. The duration of growth was 11 days, and this was followed by regression up to day 21.

  4. Effect of feeding graded doses of Citrinin on clinical and teratology in female Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, N D; Sharma, A K; Patil, R D; Rahman, S; Leishangthem, G D; Kumar, M

    2014-02-01

    Citrinin is the one of the well-known mycotoxins, which is possibly spread all over the world. The graded doses of citrinin (1, 3 and 5 ppm CIT in feed) in female Wistar rats 10 weeks prior to mating, during mating and during organogenesis resulted in resorptions and post implantation losses, decreased fetal body weights and crown-rump lengths in fetuses of all groups. Various developmental anomalies recorded in fetuses of treated rats included gross (wrist drop, curled tail, stretched forelimb, subcutaneous haematoma), skeletal (incomplete ossification of skull bones, incomplete fusion of vertebral bodies, complete and partial agenesis of sternaebrae, metacarpals, metatarsals and phalanges, fused ribs and swing out ribs) and visceral (internal and external hydrocephalus, cerebellar hypoplasia, microphthalmia, roundening of heart, contracted kidneys, dilated renal pelvis and cryptorchid testes). The results suggest that CIT has adverse effects on fetal development which may be due to the longer bioavailability of citrinin in the animals.

  5. GASTROPROTECTIVE EFFECTS OF FRUITS OF TRIBULUS TERRESTRIS L. IN PYLORUS-LIGATED WISTAR RAT MODEL

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    Sanjay Jain*, Rakesh Barik, Nidhi Yadav and Shivpal Singh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Tribulus terrestris L. (TT; Zygophyllaceae is employed in the folk medicine against sexual impotence, oedemas, abdominal distention and cardiovascular diseases. Gastroprotective (i.e. antiulcer and anti-secretory potential of methanolic extract of TT fruits was evaluated in pylorus-ligated rat model of Wistar rat. The methanolic extract of TT was tested orally at the doses of 150, 300 & 600 mg/kg, on gastric ulcerations experimentally induced by pylorus ligation. Preliminary phytochemical screening of the methanol extract of TT showed the presence of alkaloids, carbohydrates, cardiac glycosides, flavonoids, saponins, tannins and proteins. The methanolic extract at the doses of 300 & 600 mg/kg produced more significant inhibition when gastric ulcerations were induced by pylorus ligation respectively. The methanol extract of the fruits of Tribulus terrestris L. possess gastroprotective i.e. antiulcer and anti-secretory effect.

  6. The Effects of a Moderate Exercise Program on Knee Osteoarthritis in Male Wistar Rats

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    Mohammad Fallah Mohammadi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available   Objective(s: Osteoarthritis (OA or degenerative joint disease is the commonest form of arthritis and can lead to joint pain, decrease in joint’s range of motion, loss of function, and ultimately disability. Exercise is considered as one of the non-pharmacological treatments of OA. But the effects of exercise on knee joint cartilage remain ambiguous. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of a four-week moderate treadmill exercise on rats’ knee osteoarthritis.   Materials and Methods: Eighteen male Wistar rats (173 ± 1 g, 8 weeks old were randomly divided into three groups (n = 6: Intact control, monosodium iodoacetate (MIA only (OA, and training. The osteoarthritis model was induced by intra-articular injection of monosodium iodoacetate (MIA. Subjects followed a moderate-intensity exercise program for 28 days. Rats were killed after 28 days and histological assessment was done on their knee joints. One-way ANOVA (P

  7. AMELIORATIVE EFFECT OF PUNICA GRANATUM ETHANOLIC EXTRACT IN CYCLOPHOSPHAMIDE INDUCED TESTICULAR TOXICITY IN MALE WISTAR RATS

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    Divya Bhargavan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To explore the potential role of Punica granatum ethanolic extract (PGEE in Cyclophosphamide (CP induced testicular toxicity. Methods: Healthy male Wistar rats were allotted to 4 groups (N=6, each Group I: Control, Group II: CP 15mg/kg twice a week, Group III: PGEE 100mg/kg, Group IV: CP and PGEE for 28 days. At the end of the treatment period, organ weight, body weight, epididymal sperm count, motility, morphology, SOD, catalase, GSH, ACP & testosterone level in the testis were evaluated. Results: The CP treated rats showed toxicity evidenced by decreased organ and body weight, decreased sperm quality and testosterone level also increase in MDA and decrease in antioxidants SOD, GSH indicating oxidative stress. In contrast PGEE co-treatment with CP resulted in significant restoration of the above mentioned parameters. Conclusion: These results indicate that PGEE attenuates CP induced testicular toxicity through its ROS scavenging activity.

  8. Wound healing activity of methanolic stem extract of Musa paradisiaca Linn. (Banana) in Wistar albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amutha, Kuppusamy; Selvakumari, Ulagesan

    2016-10-01

    This study is designed to explore the phytochemical, antibacterial and wound healing activity of methanolic stem extract of Musa paradisiaca Linn. (Banana). The phytochemical analysis was performed for the methanolic stem extract of Musa paradisiaca Linn. Results indicates that the Musa paradisiaca Linn. was rich in glucosides, tannins and alkaloids, saponins, flavonoids and phenols were present in moderate quantities. The extract shows antibacterial activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus with the zone of inhibition of Pseudomonas aeruginosa was 21 mm and Staphylococcus aureus was 19 mm at concentration of 500 µg/disc. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was also evaluated for the extract. Wistar albino rats were selected for wound healing activity. The burn wound was created by using red hot steel rod from above the hind limb region. The methanolic extract was applied on the wound and the progressive changes were monitored every day. The wound contraction rate was absorbed based on the histopathological examination. It was concluded that the methanolic extract of Musa paradisiaca Linn. showed greater healing activity compared to control in Wistar albino rats.

  9. Effect of the fractions of Tamarindus indica L. (Caesalpiniaceae on experimentally induced hyperglycaemic wistar rats

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    Yerima Musa

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: World Health Organization defines diabetes mellitus as “a metabolic disorder of multiple etiologies, characterized by chronic hyperglycaemia with disturbances of carbohydrate, fat and protein metabolism resulting from defects in insulin secretion, insulin action, or both.Objective: The stem-bark extract of Tamarindus indica L. was investigated for its hypoglycaemic action on experimentally induced hyperglycaemic Wistar rats.Methodology: A single dose of alloxan (150 mg/kg IP and fructose (10% w/v ad libitum for 20 days. LD50 and phytochemical screening were conducted using Lorke’s method 1983 and Trease and Evans 1989 respectively.Results: The oral LD50 of the extract was found to be 3,800 mg/kg. The fractions of the extract lowered the elevated blood glucose significantly with the 1000 mg/kg dose at the 8th, 16th, and 24th hours. The 500 mg/kg dose also lowered the glucose level throughout the study but only significantly at the 1st, 16th, and 24th hours. The ethyl acetate fraction also lowered the elevated blood glucose with all the doses used. The 250 mg/kg dose did not show significant decrease in the blood sugar concentration.Conclusion: The fractions of the stem-bark extract of T. indica L. significantly lowered elevated blood glucose concentration (BGL in alloxan and fructose-induced hyperglycaemic Wistar rats.

  10. Impact on behavioral changes due to chronic use of sertraline in Wistar albino rats

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    Shatavisa Mukherjee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Despite having better tolerability and a wide range of clinical applications over other antidepressants, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs are also known to be associated with serious adverse effects like suicidal ideation on chronic use. The present study had explored the impact of the chronic use of sertraline, an SSRI, on the behavioral changes in Wistar albino rats. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on 30 Wistar albino rats of either sex; divided into five groups. Four groups were subjected to chronic mild stress induced by using various stressors randomly scheduled in a week and continued for a period of 3 weeks. The stressed rodents were subjected to sertraline treatment for 9 weeks in different human therapeutic doses extrapolated to animal doses. Behavioral changes were monitored, assessed, and evaluated throughout the treatment phase with the help of tests such as locomotor activity test, forced swim test, tail suspension test, antianxiety test, and sucrose preference test (SPT. Results: All tests except SPT, demonstrated significant (P < 0.05 reduction in depressive-like activity in the stressed rodents by the mid-treatment phase, followed by an abrupt onset of the depressive state by the end of the treatment phase. SPT showed a significant (P < 0.05 increase in sucrose consumption throughout the treatment phase. Conclusion: Behavioral changes following chronic sertraline administration conferred gradual remission of depression state on initial treatment phase, followed by a reversal of effect on chronic use.

  11. Myristic Acid Produces Anxiolytic-Like Effects in Wistar Rats in the Elevated Plus Maze

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    Carlos M. Contreras

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A mixture of eight fatty acids (linoleic, palmitic, stearic, myristic, elaidic, lauric, oleic, and palmitoleic acids at similar concentrations identified in human amniotic fluid produces anxiolytic-like effects comparable to diazepam in Wistar rats. However, individual effects of each fatty acid remain unexplored. In Wistar rats, we evaluated the separate action of each fatty acid at the corresponding concentrations previously found in human amniotic fluid on anxiety-like behaviour. Individual effects were compared with vehicle, an artificial mixture of the same eight fatty acids, and a reference anxiolytic drug (diazepam, 2 mg/kg. Myristic acid, the fatty acid mixture, and diazepam increased the time spent in the open arms of the elevated plus maze and reduced the anxiety index compared with vehicle, without altering general locomotor activity. The other fatty acids had no effect on anxiety-like behaviour, but oleic acid reduced locomotor activity. Additionally, myristic acid produced anxiolytic-like effects only when the concentration corresponded to the one identified in human amniotic fluid (30 g/mL but did not alter locomotor activity. We conclude that of the eight fatty acids contained in the fatty acid mixture, only myristic acid produces anxiolytic-like effects when administered individually at a similar concentration detected in human amniotic fluid.

  12. Differential gene expression profile in ischemic myocardium of Wistar rats with acute myocardial infarction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO ChunYu; YIN HuiJun; JIANG YueRong; XUE Mei; SHI DaZhuo

    2008-01-01

    To determine the differential genes in ischemic myocardium of Wistar rats with acute myocardial in-farction (AMI),we constructed two differential gone expression profiles.AMI model was generated by ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery in Wistar rats.Total RNA was extracted from the normal and the ischemic heart tissues under the ligation point at the 8th day after the operation.Dif-ferential gone expression profiles of the two samples were constructed by using long serial analysis of gone expression (LongSAGE).Real time fluorescence quantitative PCR (Q-PCR) was used to confirm the expression changes of partial target genes.The main results were as follows:a total of 15966 tags were screened from the normal and the ischemic LongSAGE maps,and 9646 tags in the normal tissue and 9563 tags in the ischemic tissue were obtained.Among them,7665 novel tags were identified by NCBI BLAST search.In the ischemic tissue,142 genes significantly changed compared to those in the normal tissue (P<0.05).These differentially expressed genes may play important roles in the pathways of oxidation and phosphoryiation,ATP synthesis and glycolysis and so on.Partial genes identified by the LongSAGE were confirmed by Q-PCR.The results show that AMI causes a series of gone expres-sion changes in the regulation of the pathways related to energy metabolism.

  13. The Effects of Subacute Exposure of Peracetic Acid on Hematological Indices in Wistar Rats

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    Abbas Ali Keshtkar

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was done to determine the effects of subacute exposure of Peracetic acid on Hematological indices in Wistar rats. In this study 18 male Wistar rats divided to two experimental and one control groups. PAA with 99% purity purchased. Then 0.2 and 2 mL of PAA dissolved in 100 mL drinking water. Animals in Treatment Group 1 and 2 received 0.2% PAA daily for 4 weeks and 2% PAA daily for 4 weeks, respectively. After the animals had been sacrificed hematological parameters examined. Experimental results concerning this study were evaluated using SPSS v.11.5 and expressed as Mean SD p<0.05 was considered significant. Mean SD of WBC of groups 1 (2.45 0.77 and 2 (3.63 0.23 decreased significantly as compared with control group (5.3 0.57. RBC in control and 1, 2 groups were 8.34 0.39, 7.48 0.11 and 7.61 0.46, respectively. Also HCT and PLT decreased significantly in groups 1 and 2 as compared with control group. This study showed that oral consumption of Peracetic acid with concentration 0.2, 2% for 4 weeks can cause decrease hematological parameter in animal model.

  14. Evaluation of antioxidant activity of Manihot esculenta Crantz in wistar rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahekar, Satish Eknath; Kale, Ranjana Sushil

    2016-01-01

    Aims: The study aimed to explore the antioxidant activity of ethanolic leaf extract of Manihot esculenta Crantz leaves (MEC) in wistar rats. Materials and Methods: Ethanolic extract of MEC leaves in the doses of 50 mg/kg, 100 mg/kg, and 200 mg/kg were used in wistar rats of either sex. The oxidative stress was produced by overdose of acetaminophen and estimation of serum concentration of various enzymes such as malonaldehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), reduced glutathione (GSH), and catalase (CAT) were measured by standard biochemical methods. Silymarin (100 mg/kg) was used as a standard drug for assessment of antioxidant status. Statistical Analysis Used: Results were analyzed by one-way analysis of variance followed by Student's unpaired t-test. Results: When compared with the standard antioxidant silymarin, MEC extract did not exhibit antioxidant activity in terms of MDA level reduction. However, it significantly increased serum levels of the antioxidant enzymes (SOD, GSH, and CAT) exerting a potent antioxidant effect in a graded manner. Conclusions: The observed results suggest that MEC could be a potential source of antioxidants. However, further studies are required to explore this therapeutic property of plant. PMID:27134463

  15. Linalool as a neuroprotective agent against acrylamide-induced neurotoxicity in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehri, Soghra; Meshki, Mohammad Ali; Hosseinzadeh, Hossein

    2015-04-01

    Acrylamide (ACR) is a water-soluble monomer which has broad application in different industries and also can form in food during heating process. This monomer is a potent neurotoxic and damages the central and the peripheral nervous system in human and animals. Oxidative stress has been mentioned as an important pathway in ACR neurotoxicity, therefore the purpose of the current study was evaluation of possible effects of linalool which is a naturally enantiomer monoterpene compound. Linalool has shown antioxidant properties in several studies. Male Wistar rats were treated with ACR (50 mg/kg ip) alone or with linalool (12.5, 25, 50 and 100 mg/kg ip) for 11 days. In another 2 groups rats were treated with linalool (12.5 mg/kg ip) 3 days after and before ACR administration. Then behavior index (gait score) was examined for rats. After that, rats were sacrified and molondialdehyde (MDA) as a marker of lipid peroxidation and glutathione (GSH) content were determined in brain tissue. Exposure to ACR led to severe gait abnormalities and treatment with linalool significantly reduced abnormalities. ACR reduced GSH content and increased level of MDA in cerebral cortex. Linalool increased GSH content while decreased ACR-induced lipid peroxidation in rat brain tissue and the best protocols were initiation of supplementation before or simultaneous with ACR administration.

  16. Pharmacological profiling of Argemone mexicana for its aphrodisiac potentials in male Wistar rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Asuntha G; Prasanna Raju Y; Harini Chowdary V; Vandana KR; Arun Rasheed; Prasad KVSRG

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To study the aphrodisiac potentials of ethanol extract of Argemone mexicana L. (A. mexicana) of Papaveraceae family in sexually sluggish male Wistar rats. Methods:The sexually inactive male rats were divided into two groups of 8 rats each. The test group animals were treated with ethanol extract of A. mexicana (EEAM) at 1 g/kg daily oral dose for 28 days. Other group animals were treated with sildenafil citrate at an oral dose of 5 mg/kg. The latencies of mount, intromission, ejaculation;post ejaculatory pause and frequencies of mount, intromission, and ejaculation were measured on 0, 7th, 14th, 21st and 28th days. Serum testosterone levels were estimated using ELISA. Results: The EEAM was nonlethal even at dose of 4.0 g/kg. The oral dosing of EEAM has significantly enhanced the orientation of males towards female by increase in ano-genital investigatory behavior, frequencies of mount, intromission, and ejaculation (P< 0.01). The latencies of mount, intromission and ejaculation were significantly decreased (P<0.05). The EEAM has produced marked variation in sexual behavior characteristics and was able to elevate the serum testosterone levels (P<0.01) on par to that of sildenafil citrate. Conclusion: The EEAM has elevated sexual dysfunctions in male rats. These potentials may be related to protopine alkaloids and flavanols by means of physiological stimulus for penile vasculature. Thus, results support the use of EEAM in enhancing sexual behavior in sluggish male rats.

  17. Identification of potential antioxidant indices by biogenic gold nanoparticles in hyperglycemic Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengani, Manimegalai; V, Devi Rajeswari

    2017-03-01

    Oxidative stress is a crucial factor in diabetes, where the abnormal metabolic ambience leads to hyperglycemia resulting in the onset of several vascular complications. Under homeostasis, innate antioxidants efficiently inhibit the oxidative stress, thereby restrain further progression of diabetes. In the present study, a potential antioxidant marker was identified from hepatic tissue of diabetic Wistar rats after oral administration of biogenic gold nanoparticles (GNPs). Diabetic animals treated with GNPs showed increase in insulin level and subsequently reduced the concentration of blood glucose level to normal. Further, GNPs favoured to retain the hepatic enzymatic markers, serum lipid levels and followed by renal biochemical profile in the rats. In addition, GNPs treated rats displayed an elevated level of lipid peroxidation, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and catalase enzymatic activity. Consequently, GNPs treated rats showed diminished level of histological injury in the hepatic, renal, and pancreatic tissues. Taken together, these results suggested that among the several antioxidant enzymes, catalase elucidated the highest area under curve (AUC) with 0.80 accomplished by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. Collectively, our findings enlighten that GNPs treated rat able to alleviate the hyperglycemic condition due to the enzymatic activity of catalase.

  18. Effect of COX-2 inhibitor after TNBS-induced colitis in Wistar rats.

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    Paiotti, Ana Paula Ribeiro; Miszputen, Sender Jankiel; Oshima, Celina Tizuko Fujiyama; de Oliveira Costa, Henrique; Ribeiro, Daniel Araki; Franco, Marcello

    2009-08-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a common chronic gastrointestinal disorder characterized by alternating periods of remission and active intestinal inflammation. Some studies suggest that antiinflammatory drugs are a promising alternative for treatment of the disease. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the effect of lumiracoxib, a selective-cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor, on 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced experimental colitis. Wistar rats (n = 25) were randomized into four groups, as follows: Group (1) Sham group: sham induced-colitis rats; Group (2) TNBS group: nontreated induced-colitis rats; Group (3) Lumiracoxib control group; and Group (4) Lumiracoxib-treated induced-colitis rats. Our results showed that rats from groups 2 and 4 presented similar histopathological damage and macroscopic injury in the distal colon as depicted by significant statistically differences (P TNBS-induced experimental colitis. Thus, the use of COX-2 inhibitors for treating IBD should be considered with caution and warrants further experimental investigation to elucidate their applicability.

  19. Insulin sensitivity and hemodynamic responses to insulin in Wistar-Kyoto and spontaneously hypertensive rats.

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    Pître, M; Nadeau, A; Bachelard, H

    1996-10-01

    The insulin-mediated vasodilator effect has been proposed as an important physiological determinant of insulin action on glucose disposal in normotensive humans. The present study was designed to further examine the acute regional hemodynamic effects of insulin in different vascular beds and to explore the relationships between insulin vascular effects and insulin sensitivity during euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamps in conscious normotensive Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). The rats were instrumented with intravascular catheters and pulsed Doppler flow probes to measure blood pressure, heart rate, and regional blood flows. In WKY rats, the euglycemic infusion of insulin (4 and 16 mU.kg-1.min-1) causes vasodilations in renal and hindquarter vascular beds but no changes in mean blood pressure, heart rate, or superior mesenteric vascular conductance. In contrast, in SHR, the same doses of insulin produce vasoconstrictions in superior mesenteric and hindquarter vascular beds and, at high doses, increase blood pressure. Moreover, at the lower dose of insulin tested, we found a reduction in the insulin sensitivity index in the SHR compared with the WKY rats. The present findings provide further evidence for an association between insulin sensitivity and insulin-mediated hemodynamic responses.

  20. Even a Chronic Mild Hyperglycemia Affects Membrane Fluidity and Lipoperoxidation in Placental Mitochondria in Wistar Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa-García, María del Consuelo; Espinosa-García, María Teresa; Martinez-Montes, Federico; Palomar-Morales, Martín; Mejía-Zepeda, Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    It is known the deleterious effects of diabetes on embryos, but the effects of diabetes on placenta and its mitochondria are still not well known. In this work we generated a mild hyperglycemia model in female wistar rats by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin in 48 hours-old rats. The sexual maturity onset of the female rats was delayed around 6-7 weeks and at 16 weeks-old they were mated, and sacrificed at day 19th of pregnancy. In placental total tissue and isolated mitochondria, the fatty acids composition was analyzed by gas chromatography, and lipoperoxidation was measured by thiobarbituric acid reactive substances. Membrane fluidity in mitochondria was measured with the excimer forming probe dipyrenylpropane and mitochondrial function was measured with a Clark-type electrode. The results show that even a chronic mild hyperglycemia increases lipoperoxidation and decreases mitochondrial function in placenta. Simultaneously, placental fatty acids metabolism in total tissue is modified but in a different way than in placental mitochondria. Whereas the chronic mild hyperglycemia induced a decrease in unsaturated to saturated fatty acids ratio (U/S) in placental total tissue, the ratio increased in placental mitochondria. The measurements of membrane fluidity showed that fluidity of placenta mitochondrial membranes increased with hyperglycemia, showing consistency with the fatty acids composition through the U/S index. The thermotropic characteristics of mitochondrial membranes were changed, showing lower transition temperature and activation energies. All of these data together demonstrate that even a chronic mild hyperglycemia during pregnancy of early reproductive Wistar rats, generates an increment of lipoperoxidation, an increase of placental mitochondrial membrane fluidity apparently derived from changes in fatty acids composition and consequently, mitochondrial malfunction.

  1. Even a Chronic Mild Hyperglycemia Affects Membrane Fluidity and Lipoperoxidation in Placental Mitochondria in Wistar Rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Consuelo Figueroa-García

    Full Text Available It is known the deleterious effects of diabetes on embryos, but the effects of diabetes on placenta and its mitochondria are still not well known. In this work we generated a mild hyperglycemia model in female wistar rats by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin in 48 hours-old rats. The sexual maturity onset of the female rats was delayed around 6-7 weeks and at 16 weeks-old they were mated, and sacrificed at day 19th of pregnancy. In placental total tissue and isolated mitochondria, the fatty acids composition was analyzed by gas chromatography, and lipoperoxidation was measured by thiobarbituric acid reactive substances. Membrane fluidity in mitochondria was measured with the excimer forming probe dipyrenylpropane and mitochondrial function was measured with a Clark-type electrode. The results show that even a chronic mild hyperglycemia increases lipoperoxidation and decreases mitochondrial function in placenta. Simultaneously, placental fatty acids metabolism in total tissue is modified but in a different way than in placental mitochondria. Whereas the chronic mild hyperglycemia induced a decrease in unsaturated to saturated fatty acids ratio (U/S in placental total tissue, the ratio increased in placental mitochondria. The measurements of membrane fluidity showed that fluidity of placenta mitochondrial membranes increased with hyperglycemia, showing consistency with the fatty acids composition through the U/S index. The thermotropic characteristics of mitochondrial membranes were changed, showing lower transition temperature and activation energies. All of these data together demonstrate that even a chronic mild hyperglycemia during pregnancy of early reproductive Wistar rats, generates an increment of lipoperoxidation, an increase of placental mitochondrial membrane fluidity apparently derived from changes in fatty acids composition and consequently, mitochondrial malfunction.

  2. Effect of regular aerobic exercise with ozone exposure on peripheral leukocyte populations in Wistar male rats

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    Afshar Jafari

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available

    • BACKGROUND: The immune system in endurance athletes may be at risk for deleterious effects of gasous pollutants such as ambient ozone. Therefore, this study was performed to assess the effect of regular aerobic exercise with ozone exposure on peripheral leukocytes populations in male Wistar rats.
    • METHODS: Twenty eight 8 weeks old rats were selected and randomly divided into four groups of ozone-unexposed anduntrained (control or group 1, n = 6, ozone-exposed and untrained (group 2, n = 6, ozone-unexposed and trained (group 3, n = 8, ozone-exposed and trained (group 4, n = 8. All animals in groups 3 and 4 were regularly running (20 m/min, 30 min/day on a treadmill for 7 weeks (5 day/week. After the last ozone exposure [0.3 ppm, 30 min per sessions], blood samples were obtained from the cardiac puncture and hematological parameters as well as blood lactate were measured using automatic analyzers. Data were expressed as means (± SD and analyzed by ANOVA and Pearson's correlation tests at p < 0.05.
    • RESULTS: All the hematological parameters differences (except RBC and hemoglobin rate were significantly higher in the trained groups (p < 0.001. However, ozone-induced leukocytosis in the trained (but not in the sedentary rats was statistically higher than in the counterpart groups.
    • CONCLUSIONS: Repeated acute ozone exposure has more additive effect on peripheral leukocyte counts in active animals. But, more researches are needed to identify effects of ozone exposure on other components of the immune system in athletes and non-athletes.
    • KEYWORDS: Moderate Aerobic Exercise, Ozone Exposure,  eukocytosis, Wistar Rats.

  3. Hematologic and immunological indicators are altered by chronic intake of flaxseed in Wistar rats Indicadores hematológicos e inmunológicos alterados por el consumo crónico de linaza en ratas Wistar

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    L. Ferreira Medeiros de França Cardozo

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This work sought to evaluate the effects of chronic intake of flaxseed upon hematologic parameters and immunological findings on body development of Wistar rats. Female Wistar rats were used after gestation. They were randomly assigned into two groups during lactation period: Control group (CG, fed with casein based diet, made up of 17% protein and flaxseed group (FG, fed with casein based diet with the addition of 25% flaxseed. At weaning, 12 male pups of each group continued to receive the experimental diets of their mothers (with only 10% of protein until adult age, when they were killed at 250 days of life aiming at blood collection. At 250 days old FG presented significant reduction in body mass (p Este trabajo pretendía evaluar el efecto de la ingestión crónica de linaza sobre parámetros hematológicos y hallazgos inmunológicos del desarrollo corporal de ratas Wistar. Se emplearon ratas hembra Wistar tras la gestación. Se las distribuyó al azar en dos grupos durante el período de lactancia: grupo control (GC, alimentado con una dieta basada en caseína, con un 17% de proteína y el grupo linaza (GF, alimentado con una dieta basada en caseína con la adición de un 25% de linaza. En el destete, 12 ratas macho continuaron recibiendo las dietas experimentales consumidas por sus madres (con sólo el 10% de proteína hasta la edad adulta, en que fueron sacrificados a los 250 días de vida para la recogida de las muestras. A los 250 días de edad, el GF presentaba una reducción significativa de la masa corporal (p < 0,000 y mayores concentraciones de hemoglobina (p = 0,019 y albúmina (p = 0,030 que el GC. Se observó un menor porcentaje de linfocitos segmentados (p = 0,016 en las ratas del GF y un mayor porcentaje de leucocitos segmentados (p = 0,023 en comparación con el GC. El consumo crónico de linaza alteró los indicadores hematológicos e inmunológicos en las ratas Wistar adultas. La suplementación con linaza parece ser

  4. Evaluation of protein undernourishment on the condylar process of the Wistar rat mandible correlation with insulin receptor expression

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    Marcelo Arthur CAVALLI

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The mandible condylar process cartilage (CP of Wistar rats is a secondary cartilage and acts as a mandibular growth site. This phenomenon depends on adequate proteins intake and hormone actions, including insulin. Objectives The present study evaluated the morphological aspects and the expression of the insulin receptor (IR in the cartilage of the condylar process (CP of rats subjected to protein undernourishment. Material and Methods The nourished group received a 20% casein diet, while the undernourished group (U received a 5% casein diet. The re-nourished groups, R and RR, were used to assess the effects of re-nutrition during puberty and adulthood, respectively. CPs were processed and stained with picro-sirius red, safranin-O and azocarmine. Scanning electron microscopy and immunohistochemistry were also performed. Results The area of the CP cartilage and the number of cells in the chondroblastic layer decreased in the U group, as did the thickness of the CP layer in the joint and hypertrophic layer. Renourishment during the pubertal stage, but not during the adult phase, restored these parameters. The cell number was restored when re-nutrition occurred in the pubertal stage, but not in the adult phase. The extracellular matrix also decreased in the U group, but was restored by re-nutrition during the pubertal stage and further increased in the adult phase. IR expression was observed in all CPs, being higher in the chondroblastic and hypertrophic cartilage layers. The lowest expression was found in the U and RR groups. Conclusions Protein malnutrition altered the cellularity, the area, and the fibrous cartilage complex, as well as the expression of the IRs.

  5. Efficacy of vitamin C and ethanolic extract of Sesamum indicum in promoting fertility in male Wistar rats

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    E A Ashamu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: This study investigates the efficacy of ethanolic extract of Sesamum indicum (EES, vitamin C (VC, and EES + VC in promoting fertility and finding a possible link between their profertility effects and their antioxidant activities. Materials and Methods: Forty adult male Wistar rats [Body weight (BW 186.56 ± 0.465 g] were randomly analyzed into four groups of ten rats each: Control, EES G (EES only, VC G (vitamin C only, and EES + VC G (EES in conjunction with vitamin C. Control was given 5 ml/kg BW/day of normal saline orally; EES G was administered 0.3 g/kg BW/day of EES; VC G was administered 15 mg/kg BW/ day of VC; while EES + VC G was administered both 0.3 g/kg BW/day of EES and 15 mg/kg BW/day of VC. All treatments were for 10 weeks. Statistical Analysis Used: Independent-sample T test was used to analyze the obtained results. Results: The results obtained showed that EES, VC, and more importantly EES + VC are capable of significantly increasing BW gain, seminal parameters, testosterone level, and body antioxidant activities. Conclusions: These findings lead to the conclusion that EES + VC as well as ESS and VC promote fertility due to both their testosterone-increasing effects and their antioxidant effects.

  6. Fetal and neonatal nicotine exposure in Wistar rats causes progressive pancreatic mitochondrial damage and beta cell dysfunction.

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    Jennifer E Bruin

    Full Text Available Nicotine replacement therapy (NRT is currently recommended as a safe smoking cessation aid for pregnant women. However, fetal and neonatal nicotine exposure in rats causes mitochondrial-mediated beta cell apoptosis at weaning, and adult-onset dysglycemia, which we hypothesize is related to progressive mitochondrial dysfunction in the pancreas. Therefore in this study we examined the effect of fetal and neonatal exposure to nicotine on pancreatic mitochondrial structure and function during postnatal development. Female Wistar rats were given saline (vehicle control or nicotine bitartrate (1 mg/kg/d via subcutaneous injection for 2 weeks prior to mating until weaning. At 3-4, 15 and 26 weeks of age, oral glucose tolerance tests were performed, and pancreas tissue was collected for electron microscopy, enzyme activity assays and islet isolation. Following nicotine exposure mitochondrial structural abnormalities were observed beginning at 3 weeks and worsened with advancing age. Importantly the appearance of these structural defects in nicotine-exposed animals preceded the onset of glucose intolerance. Nicotine exposure also resulted in significantly reduced pancreatic respiratory chain enzyme activity, degranulation of beta cells, elevated islet oxidative stress and impaired glucose-stimulated insulin secretion compared to saline controls at 26 weeks of age. Taken together, these data suggest that maternal nicotine use during pregnancy results in postnatal mitochondrial dysfunction that may explain, in part, the dysglycemia observed in the offspring from this animal model. These results clearly indicate that further investigation into the safety of NRT use during pregnancy is warranted.

  7. Chronic effects of soft drink consumption on the health state of Wistar rats: A biochemical, genetic and histopathological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkhedaide, Adel; Soliman, Mohamed Mohamed; Salah-Eldin, Alaa-Eldin; Ismail, Tamer Ahmed; Alshehiri, Zafer Saad; Attia, Hossam Fouad

    2016-06-01

    The present study was performed to examine the effects of chronic soft drink consumption (SDC) on oxidative stress, biochemical alterations, gene biomarkers and histopathology of bone, liver and kidney. Free drinking water of adult male Wistar rats was substituted with three different soft drinks: Coca‑Cola, Pepsi and 7‑Up, for three consecutive months. The serum and organs were collected for examining the biochemical parameters associated with bone, liver and kidney functions. Semi‑quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction was used to observe the changes in the expression of genes in the liver and kidney, which are associated with oxidative stress resistance. Histopathological investigations were performed to determine the changes in bone, liver and kidney tissues using hematoxylin and eosin stains. SDC affected liver, kidney and bone function biomarkers. Soft drinks increased oxidative stress, which is represented by an increase in malondialdehyde and a decrease in antioxidant levels. SDC affected serum mineral levels, particularly calcium and phosphorus. Soft drinks downregulated the expression levels of glutathione‑S‑transferase and super oxide dismutase in the liver compared with that of control rats. Rats administered Coca‑Cola exhibited a hepatic decrease in the mRNA expression of α2‑macroglobulin compared with rats administered Pepsi and 7‑Up. On the other hand, SDC increased the mRNA expression of α1‑acid glycoprotein. The present renal studies revealed that Coca‑Cola increased the mRNA expression levels of desmin, angiotensinogen and angiotensinogen receptor compared with the other groups, together with mild congestion in renal histopathology. Deleterious histopathological changes were reported predominantly in the bone and liver of the Coca‑Cola and Pepsi groups. In conclusion, a very strict caution must be considered with SDC due to the increase in oxidative stress biomarkers and disruption in the expression

  8. Chronic effects of soft drink consumption on the health state of Wistar rats: A biochemical, genetic and histopathological study

    Science.gov (United States)

    ALKHEDAIDE, ADEL; SOLIMAN, MOHAMED MOHAMED; SALAH-ELDIN, ALAA-ELDIN; ISMAIL, TAMER AHMED; ALSHEHIRI, ZAFER SAAD; ATTIA, HOSSAM FOUAD

    2016-01-01

    The present study was performed to examine the effects of chronic soft drink consumption (SDC) on oxidative stress, biochemical alterations, gene biomarkers and histopathology of bone, liver and kidney. Free drinking water of adult male Wistar rats was substituted with three different soft drinks: Coca-Cola, Pepsi and 7-Up, for three consecutive months. The serum and organs were collected for examining the biochemical parameters associated with bone, liver and kidney functions. Semi-quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction was used to observe the changes in the expression of genes in the liver and kidney, which are associated with oxidative stress resistance. Histopathological investigations were performed to determine the changes in bone, liver and kidney tissues using hematoxylin and eosin stains. SDC affected liver, kidney and bone function biomarkers. Soft drinks increased oxidative stress, which is represented by an increase in malondialdehyde and a decrease in antioxidant levels. SDC affected serum mineral levels, particularly calcium and phosphorus. Soft drinks downregulated the expression levels of glutathione-S-transferase and super oxide dismutase in the liver compared with that of control rats. Rats administered Coca-Cola exhibited a hepatic decrease in the mRNA expression of α2-macroglobulin compared with rats administered Pepsi and 7-Up. On the other hand, SDC increased the mRNA expression of α1-acid glycoprotein. The present renal studies revealed that Coca-Cola increased the mRNA expression levels of desmin, angiotensinogen and angiotensinogen receptor compared with the other groups, together with mild congestion in renal histopathology. Deleterious histopathological changes were reported predominantly in the bone and liver of the Coca-Cola and Pepsi groups. In conclusion, a very strict caution must be considered with SDC due to the increase in oxidative stress biomarkers and disruption in the expression of certain genes

  9. Decreased reward sensitivity in rats from the Fischer344 strain compared to Wistar rats is paralleled by differences in endocannabinoid signaling.

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    Theresa Brand

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The aim of the present study was to examine if differences in the endocannabinoid (ECB system might be linked to strain specific variations in reward-related behavior in Fischer344 (Fischer and Wistar rats. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Two rat strains, the Fischer and the Wistar strain, were tested for different aspects of reward sensitivity for a palatable food reward (sweetened condensed milk, SCM in a limited-access intake test, a progressive ratio (PR schedule and the pleasure-attenuated startle (PAS paradigm. Additionally, basic differences in the ECB system and cannabinoid pharmacology were examined in both rat strains. Fischer rats were found to express lower reward sensitivity towards SCM compared to Wistar rats. These differences were observed for consummatory, motivational and hedonic aspects of the palatable food reward. Western blot analysis for the CB1 receptor and the ECB degrading enzyme fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH revealed a lower expression of both proteins in the hippocampus (HPC of Fischer rats compared to the Wistar strain. Furthermore, increased cannabinoid-stimulated extracellular-regulated kinase (ERK phosphorylation was detected in Wistar rats compared to the Fischer strain, indicating alterations in ECB signaling. These findings were further supported by the pharmacological results, where Fischer rats were found to be less sensitive towards the effects of the CB1 receptor antagonist/inverse agonist SR141716 and the cannabinoid agonist WIN 55,212-2. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our present findings indicate differences in the expression of the CB1 receptor and FAAH, as well as the activation of ECB signaling pathways between Fischer and Wistar rats. These basic differences in the ECB system might contribute to the pronounced differences observed in reward sensitivity between both rat strains.

  10. Chemprevention of Colorecta Cancer Induced By Dimethylhydrazine in Wistar Rats by Tea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XudongJia; ChiHan

    2001-01-01

    Objective:The present study was designed to investigate the chemopreventive effects of green tea and tea pigmetns on 1,2-dimthylhydrazine(DMH)-induced rat colorectal carcinogenesis.Methods:A total of 168 male weaned Wistar rats were randomly divided into four goups Rats in the positive group were given s.c.injection of DMH,once a week for ten weeks Rats in tea-treated groups,in addition to the same DMH treatment as in the positive group,received 2% green volume of saline as DMH in the positive group Animals were necropsied at the end of week 16 and week 32 after the first DMH treatemtn.Results:Aberrant crytp foci(ACF) were formed in animals in DMH-treated groups at the end of week 16,Compared to the DMH group,green tea and tea pigments groups had less ACF(P<0.01),At the end of week 32,all rats in DMH group developed intestinal tumors.The average number of intestinal tumors and the mean tumor volume were reduced in tea treated groups(P<0.01).The results also showed that DMH increased labeling index(LI) of proliferating cell nuclear antigen(PCNA) of intestinal mucosa and the expression of ras-p21.However,in the tea treated groups,PCNA-LI and ras-p21 expression were significantly reduced as compared with the positive control group(P<0.01),Futhermore,green tea and tea pigments inhibited the expression of Bcl-2 protein and induced the expression of Bax protien(P<0.05 or P<0.01).Conclusion.Tea Drinking inhibited ACF and intestinal tumors formation in rats,which showed that tea had a significant chemopreventive effects on DMH-induced colorectal carcinogenesis in rats,Such effects may be due to suppression of cell proliferation and induction of apoptosis in the intesinal cyrpts.

  11. Preliminary assessment of Rosmarinus officinalis toxicity on male Wistar rats' organs and reproductive system Avaliação preliminar da toxicidade de Rosmarinus officinalis no sistema reprodutor e em órgãos de ratos Wistar

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    Rita de Cássia da Silveira e Sá

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L. - Lamiaceae is a shrub used in the treatment of hepatic, intestinal, renal and respiratory affections. Its toxicity was assessed in female rats and an anti-implantation effect was reported after treatment with this plant. This work analyzes the effect of the short-term administration of R. officinalis extract on vital organs, on the organs of the reproductive system and sperm production of mature male Wistar rats. Adult Wistar rats were treated with 1 mL of R. officinalis aqueous extract at a dose level of 291.2 mg and 582.4 mg/kg of body weight for five days. Body and organs weights, sperm production and food consumption were evaluated. The results showed that the lower dose administration of R. officinalis extract did not significantly alter body and organs weight nor did it interfere with gamete production. However, animals treated with the higher dose showed significant weight increase of the seminal vesicle but no significant alteration of the other variables. Food intake was not affected by the treatments.Alecrim (Rosmarinus officinalis L. - Lamiaceae é uma planta utilizada no tratamento de afecções hepática, intestinal, renal e respiratória. Sua toxicidade foi investigada em ratas e seu efeito antiimplantação foi relatado em estudos prévios. Este trabalho analisa o efeito da administração aguda do extrato de R. officinalis em órgãos vitais, em órgãos do sistema reprodutor e na produção de espermatozóides de ratos Wistar adultos. Ratos Wistar foram tratados com 1 mL do extrato aquoso de R. officinalis na dose de 291,2 mg e 582,4 mg/kg de peso corporal por cinco dias. O peso corporal e de órgãos, a produção de espermatozóides e o consumo de ração foram avaliados. Os resultados mostraram que a administração da dose menor do extrato de R. officinalis não alterou significativamente o peso corporal e de órgãos e nem interferiu com a produção de gametas. Entretanto, os animais

  12. Immune Modulating Capability of Two Exopolysaccharide-Producing Bifidobacterium Strains in a Wistar Rat Model

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    Nuria Salazar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Fermented dairy products are the usual carriers for the delivery of probiotics to humans, Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus being the most frequently used bacteria. In this work, the strains Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis IPLA R1 and Bifidobacterium longum IPLA E44 were tested for their capability to modulate immune response and the insulin-dependent glucose homeostasis using male Wistar rats fed with a standard diet. Three intervention groups were fed daily for 24 days with 10% skimmed milk, or with 109 cfu of the corresponding strain suspended in the same vehicle. A significant increase of the suppressor-regulatory TGF-β cytokine occurred with both strains in comparison with a control (no intervention group of rats; the highest levels were reached in rats fed IPLA R1. This strain presented an immune protective profile, as it was able to reduce the production of the proinflammatory IL-6. Moreover, phosphorylated Akt kinase decreased in gastroctemius muscle of rats fed the strain IPLA R1, without affecting the glucose, insulin, and HOMA index in blood, or levels of Glut-4 located in the membrane of muscle and adipose tissue cells. Therefore, the strain B. animalis subsp. lactis IPLA R1 is a probiotic candidate to be tested in mild grade inflammation animal models.

  13. Hepatoprotective effect of Origanum vulgare in Wistar rats against carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikander, Mohammad; Malik, Shabnam; Parveen, Kehkashan; Ahmad, Maqsood; Yadav, Deepak; Hafeez, Zubair Bin; Bansal, Manish

    2013-04-01

    The effect of an aqueous extract of Origanum vulgare (OV) leaves extract on CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity was investigated in normal and hepatotoxic rats. To evaluate the hepatoprotective activity of OV, rats were divided into six groups: control group, O. vulgare group, carbon tetrachloride (CCl4; 2 ml/kg body weight) group, and three treatment groups that received CCl4 and OV at doses of 50, 100, 150 mg/kg body weight orally for 15 days. Alanine amino transferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and aspartate amino transferase (AST) in serum, lipid peroxide (LPO), GST, CAT, SOD, GPx, GR, and GSH in liver tissue were estimated to assess liver function. CCl4 administration led to pathological and biochemical evidence of liver injury as compared to controls. OV administration led to significant protection against CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity in dose-dependent manner, maximum activity was found in CCl4 + OV3 (150 mg/kg body weight) groups and changes in the hepatocytes were confirmed through histopathological analysis of liver tissues. It was also associated with significantly lower serum ALT, ALP, and AST levels, higher GST, CAT, SOD, GPx, GR, and GSH level in liver tissue. The level of LPO also decreases significantly after the administration of OV leaves extract. The biochemical observations were supplemented with histopathological examination of rat liver sections. Thus, the study suggests O. vulgare showed protective activity against CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity in Wistar rats and might be beneficial for the liver toxicity.

  14. Moringa oleifera Supplemented Diets Prevented Nickel-Induced Nephrotoxicity in Wistar Rats.

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    Adeyemi, O S; Elebiyo, T C

    2014-01-01

    Background. The Moringa oleifera plant has been implicated for several therapeutic potentials. Objective. To evaluate whether addition of M. oleifera to diet has protective effect against nickel-induced nephrotoxicity in rats. Methodology. Male Wistar rats were assigned into six groups of five. The rats were given oral exposure to 20 mg/kg nickel sulphate (NiSO4) in normal saline and sustained on either normal diet or diets supplemented with Moringa oleifera at different concentrations for 21 days. 24 hours after cessation of treatments, all animals were sacrificed under slight anesthesia. The blood and kidney samples were collected for biochemical and histopathology analyses, respectively. Results. NiSO4 exposure reduced the kidney-to-body weight ratio in rats and caused significant elevation in the levels of plasma creatinine, urea, and potassium. Also, the plasma level of sodium was decreased by NiSO4 exposure. However, addition of M. oleifera to diets averted the nickel-induced alteration to the level of creatinine and urea. The histopathology revealed damaged renal tubules and glomerular walls caused by NiSO4 exposure. In contrast, the damages were ameliorated by the M. oleifera supplemented diets. Conclusion. The addition of M. oleifera to diet afforded significant protection against nickel-induced nephrotoxicity.

  15. Moringa oleifera Supplemented Diets Prevented Nickel-Induced Nephrotoxicity in Wistar Rats

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    O. S. Adeyemi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The Moringa oleifera plant has been implicated for several therapeutic potentials. Objective. To evaluate whether addition of M. oleifera to diet has protective effect against nickel-induced nephrotoxicity in rats. Methodology. Male Wistar rats were assigned into six groups of five. The rats were given oral exposure to 20 mg/kg nickel sulphate (NiSO4 in normal saline and sustained on either normal diet or diets supplemented with Moringa oleifera at different concentrations for 21 days. 24 hours after cessation of treatments, all animals were sacrificed under slight anesthesia. The blood and kidney samples were collected for biochemical and histopathology analyses, respectively. Results. NiSO4 exposure reduced the kidney-to-body weight ratio in rats and caused significant elevation in the levels of plasma creatinine, urea, and potassium. Also, the plasma level of sodium was decreased by NiSO4 exposure. However, addition of M. oleifera to diets averted the nickel-induced alteration to the level of creatinine and urea. The histopathology revealed damaged renal tubules and glomerular walls caused by NiSO4 exposure. In contrast, the damages were ameliorated by the M. oleifera supplemented diets. Conclusion. The addition of M. oleifera to diet afforded significant protection against nickel-induced nephrotoxicity.

  16. Evaluation of the subchronic toxicity of kefir by oral administration in Wistar rats

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    Damiana Diniz Rosa

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Kefir is obtained by fermentation of milk with complex microbial populations present in kefir grains. Several health-promoting benefits have been attributed to kefir consumption. Objective: The objective of this work was to conduct a subchronic toxicity study, offering the rats normal or high-doses of kefir and evaluating growth, hematology and blood chemistry, as well as assessing bacterial translocation and the integrity of the intestinal mucosa of animals. Methods: Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups (n = 6/group: control group received 0.7 mL of water, kefir group received 0.7 mL/day of kefir, (normodose, and Hkefir group received 3.5 mL/day of kefir (fivefold higher dose. Feeding was carried out by gavage. The animals were housed in individual cages and maintained under standard conditions for 4 weeks. Results: The normodose and high-dose of kefir supplementation did not harm the animals since growth, hematology and blood chemistry in rats, as well as the potential pathogenicity in tissues were within normal limits, demonstrating that consumption of normodose and highdose of kefir are safe. In addition, administration of the normodose of kefir reduced cholesterol levels and improved the intestinal mucosa of the rats. Conclusion: These results demonstrate that the consumption of kefir is safe. Importantly, while damages are not seen for the high-dose, the normodose consumption is recommended due to the pronounced beneficial effects, as safety is concerned.

  17. Evaluation of antidiabetic, antioxidant effect and safety profile of gomutra ark in Wistar albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachdev, Devender O; Gosavi, Devesh D; Salwe, Kartik J

    2012-01-01

    The effect of Gomutra ark (GoA) on experimental alloxan-induced diabetes in rats was studied. For this purpose, Wistar albino rats of either sex weighing 200-250 g were used. The biochemical parameters like blood sugar, vitamin C, and malondialdehyde release were measured. The safety profile of GoA was evaluated using acute and chronic toxicity studies. GoA significantly lowers blood glucose in diabetic rats although the observed effect was found to be less than glibenclamide. It significantly lowers the level of malondialdehyde and vitamin C in diabetic rats. No toxicity was observed even when cow urine was given 32 times of the study dose in acute toxicity and no significant changes were seen when it was used chronically, which suggests that cow urine is having a very high therapeutic index. This study supports the traditional use of GoA in diabetes and is having a high therapeutic index and is safe for chronic use. However, further studies are needed to elucidate the mechanism of action of Gomutra ark.

  18. Long-term exposure to incense smoke alters metabolism in Wistar albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alokail, Majed S; Al-Daghri, Nasser M; Alarifi, Saud A; Draz, Hossam M; Hussain, Tajamul; Yakout, Sobhy M

    2011-03-01

    The burning of incense is an important source of indoor air pollution in Asia. We assessed the effect of long-term exposure to incense smoke on the body weight and levels of circulating glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, insulin, adiponectin and leptin in Wistar albino rats. Two groups of rats were used. First group (n = 12) was exposed daily to incense smoke for 4 months at the rate of 4 g day(-1) in the exposure chamber. Another group of rats (n = 12), was used as non-exposed control. Blood samples were collected from all animals after 4, 8, 12 and 16 weeks of exposure. Serum glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol and HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol insulin, adiponectin and leptin were measured. Our results showed that incense smoke exposure was associated with decreased weight gain and the adverse metabolic changes of increased triglycerides and decreased HDL-cholesterol concentrations. Exposure to incense was also associated with a transient increase of leptin levels. Taken together, these data suggest that incense smoke influences metabolism adversely in rats. The effect of incense smoke on human health and the underlying mechanisms need to be studied further.

  19. Two generation reproduction and teratogenicity studies of feeding cyadox in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xu; Fang, Gui-Jie; Wang, Yu-Lian; Ihsan, Awais; Huang, Ling-Li; Zhou, Wen; Liu, Zhen-Li; Yuan, Zong-Hui

    2011-05-01

    To investigate the teratogenic potential and reproductive toxicity of cyadox, a growth promoting agent, Wistar rats (F(0)) were fed with diets containing cyadox (0, 50, 150 and 2500 mg/kg) or olaquindox (150 mg/kg), approximately equivalent to cyadox 5, 15, 250 or olaquindox 15 mg/kg b.w./day across two generations. Half of the pregnant rats (F(0), F(1b)) were subjected to caesarean section on gestational day 20 for teratogenic examination and the other half produced pups F(1a) and F(2a), respectively. At the 250 mg/kg b.w./day cyadox group, body weights of F(1b) pregnant rats and F(2a) on day 21 after birth decreased; fetal body lengths and tail lengths decreased; the number of fetal resorptions increased significantly; litter weights, number of viable fetuses decreased; number of embryo resorptions increased significantly; number of liveborn F(1a), F(1b) and F(2a) decreased. No macroscopic or microscopic change of any significance was found in the reproductive organs. Significant increases in the incidence of cervical ribs or lumbar ribs in F(2a) pups and significant increases of relative organ weight of testis and epididymis in F(1b) were observed at the 250 mg/kg b.w./day cyadox group. The NOAEL for reproduction/development of cyadox for rats was estimated to be 150 mg/kg diet, which was equivalent to approximately 15 mg/kg b.w./day.

  20. Two generation reproduction and teratogenicity studies of feeding quinocetone fed to Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xu; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Yu-Lian; Ihsan, Awais; Dai, Meng-Hong; Huang, Ling-Li; Chen, Dong-Mei; Tao, Yan-Fei; Peng, Da-Peng; Liu, Zhen-Li; Yuan, Zong-Hui

    2012-05-01

    To investigate the reproductive toxicity and teratogenic potential of quinocetone, a growth promoting agent, Wistar rats were fed different diets containing 0, 50, 300 and 1800 mg/kg quinocetone or 300 mg/kg olaquindox. Groups of 15 males and 30 females (F(0)) were fed through a 10-week prebreed period as well as during mating, gestation, parturition and lactation. At weaning, 12 males and 24 females of F(1) generation weanlings per group were selected randomly as parents for F(2) generation. Selected F(1) weanlings were exposed to the same diet and treatment as their parents. At the highest quinocetone group, body weights in F(0) and F(1) rats, fetal body weight on day 21 after birth and number of viable fetuses in F(0) and F(1) generation significantly decreased. In teratogenicity study, groups of 12 males and 24 females were fed with the same diets through a 12-week prebreed period and matting periods. Pregnant rats were subjected to cesarean section on GD 20 for teratogenic examination. At the highest quinocetone group, body weights and feed efficiency, fetal body lengths, tail lengths, litter weights and number of viable fetuses significantly decreased. The NOAEL for reproduction/development of quinocetone for rats was estimated to be 300 mg/kg diet.

  1. Fish oil increases atherosclerosis and hepatic steatosis, although decreases serum cholesterol in Wistar rat

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    Minoo M-Shirazi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: It is known that fish oil consumption decreases incidence of cardiovascular disease. However, some studies showed that it increases atherosclerosis as it does not get completely metabolized by the liver. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of fish oil on aortic atherosclerosis, hepatic steatosis and serum lipids in rats. Methods: Twenty pregnant Wistar rats were fed with a fish oil-containing diet or standard diet (containing soy bean oil during pregnancy and lactation and the pups were weaned onto the same diet. Fasting blood samples, hepatic and aortic specimens were taken from pups on day 70 postnatal. Data were analyzed with SPSS software, using t-test, Mann-Whitney test and Spearman correlation coefficient. Values of p < 0.05 were considered significant. Results: Medians for fatty streak in aorta of fish oil fed and soy bean oil fed pups were 1.00 and 0.00, respectively, and P value was 0.042. Also, medians for ductular cell hyperplasia of liver in fish oil fed and soy bean oil fed pups were 1.00 and 0.00, respectively, and P value was 0.014. Total cholesterol in pups fed with fish oil was 52.20 mg/dl and in pups fed with soy bean oil was 83.90 mg/dl (p < 0.00 and for low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C values were 8.79 mg/dl and 13.16 mg/dl, respectively (p = 0.031. Conclusions: According to the results of the present study, a diet which provided 15.9% of energy from fish oil as the only source of dietary fat, induced aortic atherosclerosis as well as hepatic steatosis in Wistar rat, although it decreased total cholesterol and LDL-C.

  2. Methods to evaluate functional nerve recovery in adult rats : walking track analysis, video analysis and the withdrawal reflex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, [No Value; Meek, MF; Robinson, PH; Gramsbergen, A

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare different methods for the evaluation of functional nerve recovery. Three groups of adult male Wistar rats were studied. In group A, a 12-mm gap between nerve ends was bridged by an autologous nerve graft; in rats of group B we performed a crush lesion of the scia

  3. Effects of Oral Administration of Moringa oleifera Lam on Glucose Tolerance in Goto-Kakizaki and Wistar Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndong, Moussa; Uehara, Mariko; Katsumata, Shin-Ichi; Suzuki, Kazuharu

    2007-05-01

    Medicinal plants constitute an important source of potential therapeutic agents for diabetes. In the present study, we investigated the effects of Moringa oleifera (MO) Lam, Moringacea, on glucose tolerance in Wistar rats and Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats, modeled type 2 diabetes. Major polyphenols in MO powder were quercetin glucosides, rutin, kaempferol glycosides and chlorogenic acids by HPLC analysis. As the results of glucose tolerance test, MO significantly decreased the blood glucose at 20, 30, 45and 60 min for GK rats and at 10, 30 and 45 min for Wistar rats (p<0.05) compared to the both controls after glucose administration. The area under the curve of changes in the blood glucose was significantly higher in the GK control group than in the GK plus MO group (p<0.05) in the periods 30-60 min and 60-120 min. Furthermore, MO significantly decreased stomach emptying in GK rats (p<0.05). The results indicated that MO has an ameliorating effect for glucose intolerance, and the effect might be mediated by quercetin-3-glucoside and fiber contents in MO leaf powder. The action of MO was greater in GK rats than in Wistar rats.

  4. Indatraline: Synthesis and Effect on the Motor Activity of Wistar Rats

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    Luiz F. Silva, Jr.

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available A new approach for the synthesis of indatraline was developed using as the key step an iodine(III-mediated ring contraction of a 1,2-dihydronaphthalene derivative. Behavioral tests were conducted to evaluate the effect of indatraline and of its precursor indanamide on the motor activity of Wistar rats. Specific indexes for ambulation, raising and stereotypy were computed one, two and three hours after i.p. drug administration. Indatraline effects on motor activity lasted for at least three hours. On the other hand, no significant differences in motor activity were observed using indanamide. The results suggest that indatraline has a long lasting effect on motor activity and add evidence in favor of the potential use of that compound as a substitute in cocaine addiction.

  5. Anticancer effects on leiomyosarcoma-bearing Wistar rats after electromagnetic radiation of resonant radiofrequencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avdikos, Antonios; Karkabounas, Spyridon; Metsios, Apostolos; Kostoula, Olga; Havelas, Konstantinos; Binolis, Jayne; Verginadis, Ioannis; Hatziaivazis, George; Simos, Ioannis; Evangelou, Angelos

    2007-01-01

    In the present study, the effects of a resonant low intensity static electromagnetic field (EMF), causing no thermal effects, on Wistar rats have been investigated. Sarcoma cell lines were isolated from leiomyosarcoma tumors induced in Wistar rats by the subcutaneous (s.c) injection of 3,4-benzopyrene. Furthermore, smooth muscle cells (SMC) were isolated from the aorta of Wistar rats and cultivated. Either leiomyosarcoma cells (LSC) or SMC were used to record a number of characteristic resonant radiofrequencies, in order to determine the specific electromagnetic fingerprint spectrum for each cell line. These spectra were used to compose an appropriate algorithm, which transforms the recorded radiofrequencies to emitted ones. The isolated LSC were cultured and then exposed to a resonant low intensity radiofrequency EMF (RF-EMF), at frequencies between 10 kHz to 120 kHz of the radiowave spectrum. The exposure lasted 45 consecutive minutes daily, for two consecutive days. Three months old female Wistar rats were inoculated with exposed and non-exposed to EMF LSC (4 x 10(6) LCS for animal). Inoculated with non-exposed to EMF cells animals were then randomly separated into three Groups. The first Group was sham exposed to the resonant EMF (control Group-CG), the second Group after the inoculation of LSC and appearance of a palpable tumor mass, was exposed to a non-resonant EMF radiation pattern, for 5 h per day till death of all animals (experimental control Group-ECG). The third Group of animals after inoculation of LSC and the appearance of a palpable tumor mass, was exposed to the resonant EMF radiation for 5 h per day, for a maximum of 60 days (experimental Group-I, EG-I). A fourth Group of animals was inoculated with LSC exposed to EMF irradiation and were not further exposed to irradiation (experimental Group-II, EG-II). Tumor induction was 100% in all Groups studied and all tumors were histologically identified as leiomyosarcomas. In the case of the EG-I, a

  6. Toxicology and immunology of Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides in Kunming mice and Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianjun; Gao, Xia; Pan, Yaogang; Xu, Nuo; Jia, Le

    2016-04-01

    In the present work, the toxicology and immunology of polysaccharides from fruiting body of Ganoderma lucidum (GPs) were investigated. No abnormal clinical-symptoms or deaths and no significant difference in body weight and food in-taking rate were found in Wistar rats during the 30-day feeding administration. No significant differences were found in each hematology value, clinical chemistry value and organ/body weight ratio, either. It had no mutagenicity due to the negative experimental results of Ames test, micronucleus test of polychromatic erythrocyte, sperm abnormality test, and chromosome aberration test in Kunming mice, respectively. The immune experiments indicated that high-dose GPs had immune effects in increasing the degree of toe swelling and enhancing the primary immune response to SRBC (P<0.01). But no-significant influence of GPs on the phagocytic function of mononuclear macrophages (MΦ) could be obtained.

  7. Catalase in testes and epididymidis of wistar rats fed zinc deficient diet

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    Bedwal S

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Catalase activities have been evaluated in testes and caput and cauda epididymis of Wistar rats fed on zinc deficient diet for 2 and 4 weeks. The enzyme activity has been measured as chromic acetate formed by heating of dichromate (in acetic acid in presence of H 2 O 2 with perchromic acid as an unstable intermediate. Observed non-significant increase in catalase activity in testes as well as in caput and cauda epididymis of 2 weeks experiments has been related to low levels of H 2 O 2 produced in two organs whereas significant (P< 0.01/0.001 increase in catalase activity in 4-weeks experiments indicate for increased oxidative stress due to phagocytotic activity of Sertoli cells in testes and damaged spermatozoa in epididymis. Thus, zinc deficiency increases catalase activity in testes and epididymis.

  8. Effect of plumbagin free alcohol extract ofPlumbago zeylanica Linn. root on reproductive system of female Wistar rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gupta Sandeep; Ahirwar Dheeraj; Sharma Neeraj Kumar; Jhade Deenanath; Ahirwar Bharti

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To assess the effect of plumbagin-free alcohol extract (PFAE) ofPlumbago zeylanica Linn. (Plumbaginaceae) (P. zeylanica) root, on female reproductive system and fertility of adult female wistar rats.Methods: After the oral acute toxicity study, thePFAE was administered at two dose levels to perform the estrous cycle study, anti-implantation and abortifacient activity and hormonal analysis. However, the estrogenic/antiestrogenic activity was evaluated at only one most effective dose.Results:LD50cut-off was5 000 mg/kg body weight. The extract exhibited significant anti-implantation and abortifacient activity at the tested dose levels (300 and500 mg/kg,p.o.) (P<0.01). The extract dose-dependently decreased the levels of serum progesterone, follicle stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone, while a dose-dependent increase was observed in the concentration of serum prolactin. The extract did not show any significant changes in structure and function of uterus when given alone, but when given along with ethinyl estradiol, it exhibited significant antiestrogenic activity in immature overiectomized female rats(P<0.001). Biochemical parameters in the serum/blood and haematological parameters did not show appreciable changes throughout and after the course of investigation. However, all the altered parameters returned to normalcy within30 days following withdrawal of treatment. Conclusions: All findings suggest that the antifertility activity of extract could possibly be through the changes in the implantation site, altered hormonal levels, prolonged estrous cycle and anti-estrogenic activity. Hence, the extract possesses reversible antifertility activity without adverse toxicity in female rats.

  9. Lack of histological cerebellar changes in Wistar rats given pulegone for 28 days. Comparison of immersion and perfusion tissue fixation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mølck, Anne-Marie; Poulsen, Morten; Lauridsen, Søren Tindgard

    1998-01-01

    Pulegone was given orally by gavage to groups of 28 SPF Wistar rats at dosage levels of 0 or 160 mg/kg body weight per day for 28 days. Clinically treated animals showed slackness, depression, decreased food consumption, and body weight. The loss of body weight was accompanied by a marked decrease...

  10. Toxicity and Safety Profiles of Methanolic Extract of Pistacia integerrima J. L. Stewart ex Brandis (PI for Wistar Rats

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    Gotmi Sharwan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The goals of this research were to evaluate acute (single-dose and sub-acute (repeated-dose toxicity profiles of methanolic extract of Pistacia integerrima J. L. Stewart ex Brandis (PI for Wistar rats and to assess the safety profile of PI by observing physiological changes, mortality, changes in body weight

  11. Toxicological evaluation and oral glucose tolerance test of ethanolic leaf extract of Barleria cristata L. in wistar albino rats

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    R. Narmadha

    2013-12-01

    Conclusion: EtBc was revealed the non-toxic nature used for acute toxicity studies and among various doses of this extract, 400 mg/kg brought an effective hypoglycemic activity in wistar albino rats. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2013; 2(6.000: 742-746

  12. Perturbation of Neonatal Microbial Gut Community by Peripartum Antibiotics in Wistar Rats Lead to Decreased Weight Gain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tulstrup, Monica Vera-Lise; Roager, Henrik Munch; Licht, Tine Rask

    , potentially leading to dysbiosis. We hypothesized that modulation of community composition and function induced by peripartum antibiotics affects intestinal microbial composition and general health of the offspring. To address this, 33 pregnant Wistar rats were dosed by oral gavage with either amoxicillin...

  13. Polyethylene glycol-g-polyvinyl alcohol grafted copolymer: reproductive toxicity study in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heuschmid, Franziska F; Schneider, Steffen; Schuster, Paul; Lauer, Birthe; van Ravenzwaay, Bennard

    2013-07-01

    Polyethylene glycol-g-polyvinyl alcohol (PEG-PVA) grafted copolymer was administered by gavage to groups of 25 male and 25 female young Wistar rats at doses of 0 (vehicle control), 100, 300, or 1000 mg/kg bw/day for one generation (F0). The study followed the treated F0 generation through mating, gestation, lactation, and weaning of the F1 generation. F1 animals were mated and followed to gestation day (GD) 15-17 at which time F2 implants were evaluated. There were no indications from the various clinical and gross pathological examinations that the oral administration of PEG-PVA grafted copolymer to the F0-parental rats produced any signs of general, reproductive, or developmental toxicity in the F0 or F1 animals or F2 implants. Based on the lack of any dose-related or biologically relevant effects on fertility, reproduction, development, and overall health of rats gavaged with PEG-PVA grafted copolymer and their progeny, the no-observed-adverse effect level (NOAEL) was determined to be the highest dose tested of 1000 mg/kg bw/day.

  14. Toxicopathological Evaluation of Hydroethanol Extract of Dianthus basuticus in Wistar Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashafa, Anofi Omotayo Tom; Kazeem, Mutiu Idowu

    2015-01-01

    Background. Dianthus basuticus is a commonly used medicinal plant in Basotho traditional medicine for the treatment of diabetes, but there is no report on its safety or toxicity. Therefore, we evaluated the toxicity profile of the hydroethanol whole plant extract of Dianthus basuticus in Wistar rats. Methods. Acute toxicity test was performed with single oral administration of 100-3200 mg/kg body weight of D. basuticus extract to rats and the animals were observed for 14 days for signs of toxicity. The subacute toxicity experiment was conducted by oral administration of graded doses (200, 400, and 800 mg/kg) of D. basuticus extract daily for 28 days. Behavioural changes as well as haematological, biochemical, and histological parameters were then evaluated. Results. There was no observable sign of toxicity in the acute toxicity test. There were significant decreases (P < 0.05) in the feed and water intake as well as total cholesterol and triglycerides of the D. basuticus extract-treated rats in subacute toxicity study. There were no treatment related differences in the haematological, biochemical, and histopathological evaluations. Conclusions. Administration of hydroethanol extract of D. basuticus may be safe at the dosages tested in this study but its continuous usage can cause anorexia.

  15. Toxicopathological Evaluation of Hydroethanol Extract of Dianthus basuticus in Wistar Rats

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    Anofi Omotayo Tom Ashafa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Dianthus basuticus is a commonly used medicinal plant in Basotho traditional medicine for the treatment of diabetes, but there is no report on its safety or toxicity. Therefore, we evaluated the toxicity profile of the hydroethanol whole plant extract of Dianthus basuticus in Wistar rats. Methods. Acute toxicity test was performed with single oral administration of 100–3200 mg/kg body weight of D. basuticus extract to rats and the animals were observed for 14 days for signs of toxicity. The subacute toxicity experiment was conducted by oral administration of graded doses (200, 400, and 800 mg/kg of D. basuticus extract daily for 28 days. Behavioural changes as well as haematological, biochemical, and histological parameters were then evaluated. Results. There was no observable sign of toxicity in the acute toxicity test. There were significant decreases (P<0.05 in the feed and water intake as well as total cholesterol and triglycerides of the D. basuticus extract-treated rats in subacute toxicity study. There were no treatment related differences in the haematological, biochemical, and histopathological evaluations. Conclusions. Administration of hydroethanol extract of D. basuticus may be safe at the dosages tested in this study but its continuous usage can cause anorexia.

  16. Neuroprotective effect of thymoquinone in acrylamide-induced neurotoxicity in Wistar rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehri, Soghra; Shahi, Mehran; Razavi, Bibi Marjan; Hassani, Faezeh Vahdati; Hosseinzadeh, Hossein

    2014-01-01

    Objective(s): Acrylamide (ACR) has broad applications in different industries. It also forms in food during heating process. Oxidative stress has a critical role in ACR-induced neurotoxicity in both in vitro and in vivo models; therefore, the aim of the current study was the evaluation of effects of thymoquinone, the main constituent of volatile oil from Nigella sativa seeds in ACR-induced neurotoxicity. Materials and Methods: Male Wistar rats were treated with ACR (50 mg/kg IP) alone or with thymoquinone (TQ) (2.5, 5, 10 mg/kg IP) for 11 days. Two protocols were used in this study, A: in this one TQ and ACR were used simultaneously, B: Administration of TQ was started 1 week before ACR treatment and continued during exposure to ACR. At the end of the treatment, behavioral index (gait score) was examined for rats. After that, rats were sacrificed and molondialdehyde (MDA) as a marker of lipid peroxidation and glutathione (GSH) content were determined in cerebral cortex. Results: Exposure to ACR led to severe gait abnormalities and treatment with TQ significantly decreased abnormalities. Level of MDA was elevated in cerebral cortex after exposure to ACR while TQ treatment significantly and in a dose-dependent manner reduced lipid peroxidation. Results clearly showed that there is no significant difference between two protocols of administration of TQ. Conclusion: It suggests the neuroprotective effect of TQ in this model in part, may be because of due the antioxidant activity of this natural compound. PMID:25859305

  17. Effect of zinc supplementation on type 2 diabetes parameters and liver metallothionein expressions in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xue; Li, Hongyan; Fan, Zhe; Liu, Ya

    2012-12-01

    Zinc is a trace metal and acts as an active component of various enzymes. Zinc deficiency has been suggested to be associated with the development of diabetes. The present study investigated the role of zinc supplementation on prevention of diabetic conditions. A double-disease model mimicking hyperlipidemia and type 2 diabetes was created by applying high-fat diet and streptozotocin (STZ) to Wistar rats. We demonstrated that zinc supplementation improved symptoms of diabetes such as polydipsia and increased serum level of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, indicating that zinc supplementation has a potential beneficial effect on diabetic conditions. The level of maldondialdehyde (MDA), an oxidative stress marker, was reduced in liver by zinc supplementation in high fat-fed rats with or without STZ injection. Meanwhile, we observed an increase in the expression of metallothioneins (MTs) in liver of rats treated with zinc. This suggests that the induction of MTs in liver, which has been shown to be important in scavenging free radicals, could be one of the underlying mechanisms of zinc supplementation on reducing MDA levels in liver. Finally, we found that zinc levels in liver were increased while there was no change in serum zinc levels, indicating that local zinc level might be a critical factor for the induction of MTs. Also, the level of MTs could potentially be an index of zinc bioavailability. Taken together, these results suggest that both zinc and MT could play an important role in balancing nutrition and metabolism to prevent diabetic development.

  18. Occurrence of Pineal Gland Tumors in Combined Chronic Toxicity/Carcinogenicity Studies in Wistar Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treumann, Silke; Buesen, Roland; Gröters, Sibylle; Eichler, Jens-Olaf; van Ravenzwaay, Bennard

    2015-08-01

    Pineal gland tumors are very rare brain lesions in rats as well as in other species including humans. A total of 8 (out of 1,360 examined) Wistar rats from 3 different combined chronic toxicity/carcinogenicity or mere carcinogenicity studies revealed pineal gland tumors. The tumors were regarded to be spontaneous and unrelated to treatment. The morphology and immunohistochemical evaluation led to the diagnosis malignant pinealoma. The main characteristics that were variably developed within the tumors were the following: cellular atypia, high mitotic index, giant cells, necrosis, Homer Wright rosettes, Flexner-Wintersteiner rosettes and pseudorosettes, positive immunohistochemical reaction for synaptophysin, and neuron-specific enolase. The pineal gland is not a protocol organ for histopathological examination in carcinogenicity studies. Nevertheless, the pineal gland can occasionally be encountered on the routine brain section or if it is the origin of a tumor protruding into the brain, the finding will be recorded. Therefore, although known to be a rare tumor in rats, pineal neoplasms should be included in the list of possible differential diagnoses for brain tumors, especially when the tumor is located in the region of the pineal body.

  19. Spirulina as a protein source in the nutritional recovery of Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidiane Muniz Moreira

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed at evaluating the effects of Spirulina (Arthrospira as a protein source in the nutritional recovery of rats subjected to protein malnutrition. In order to understand such effects, responses of the developing body, serum biochemical profile, and blood count of animals were analyzed. A total of, 23 Wistar Rattus norvegicus were given a proteic diet (AIN-93G adapted in malnutrition phase (phase I for 10 days. After this period, the rats were separated into four groups according to the protein source (recovery phase: Control (C, casein 12%; Spirulina level I (S1, Spirulina 8.8% + casein 5.0%; Spirulina level II (S2, Spirulina 17.6% + casein 0.15%, and Spirulina level III (S3, Spirulina 26.4%. Recovery phase (phase II lasted 30 days. In both the phases, the consumption and body weight of the rats were monitored daily and weekly, respectively. The S1 treatment showed the highest values of Feed Efficiency Ratio (FER and Quotient of Protein Efficiency Ratio (QPE (p<0.05. Significant differences among the treatments were found mainly in the levels of serum lipids, and S2 diet caused an increase in such responses (p<0.05. These results demonstrated that the nutritional recovery of animals was enabled by different concentrations of Spirulina.

  20. [Gymnema sylvestre leaf extract: a 52-week dietary toxicity study in Wistar rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Yukio; Sekita, Kiyoshi; Umemura, Takashi; Saito, Minoru; Ono, Atsushi; Kawasaki, Yasushi; Uchida, Osayuki; Matsushima, Yuko; Inoue, Tohru; Kanno, Jun

    2004-02-01

    A 52-week study of oral-repeated-dose toxicity for the extraction powder of Gymnema sylvestre (GS), Indian-native genus, Metaplexis japonica, was conducted in both genders of Wistar rats. The rats were administered a graded dose of GS at 0.01, 0.10 and 1.00% of basal powder diet, along with a group fed solely with the basal powder diet without GS, for 52 weeks. General conditions were recorded daily. Body weights and food consumptions were recorded weekly up to 12 weeks, and thereafter at longer intervals. At 26 weeks, for an intermediate examination, and 52 weeks, for the final examination, animals were subjected to hematology, serum chemistry, and pathological examination. None of the animals died in the period up to 52 weeks. No exposure-related changes in body-weight, in the food consumption, in the hematological examinations, or in the serum biochemical examinations were recognized. No histopathological alterations were seen. Thus, it was concluded that there was no toxic effect in rats treated with GS at up to 1.00% in the diet for 52 weeks. The no-observable-effect level from this study is 1.00% GS, i.e., 504 mg/kg/day for male and 563 mg/kg/day for female as mean daily intake, for 52 weeks.

  1. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic drug interactions of carbamazepine and glibenclamide in healthy albino Wistar rats

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    S Prashanth

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: To find out the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic drug interaction of carbamazepine, a protype drug used to treat painful diabetic neuropathy with glibenclamide in healthy albino Wistar rats following single and multiple dosage treatment. Materials and Methods: Therapeutic doses (TD of glibenclamide and TD of carbamazepine were administered to the animals. The blood glucose levels were estimated by GOD/POD method and the plasma glibenclamide concentrations were estimated by a sensitive RP HPLC method to calculate pharmacokinetic parameters. Results: In single dose study the percentage reduction of blood glucose levels and glibenclamide concentrations of rats treated with both carbamazepine and glibenclamide were significantly increased when compared with glibenclamide alone treated rats and the mechanism behind this interaction may be due to inhibition of P-glycoprotein mediated transport of glibenclamide by carbamazepine, but in multiple dose study the percentage reduction of blood glucose levels and glibenclamide concentrations were reduced and it may be due to inhibition of P-glycoprotein mediated transport and induction of CYP2C9, the enzyme through which glibenclamide is metabolised. Conclusions: In the present study there is a pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic interaction between carbamazepine and glibenclamide was observed. The possible interaction involves both P-gp and CYP enzymes. To investigate this type of interactions pre-clinically are helpful to avoid drug-drug interactions in clinical situation.

  2. The effects of acute gasoline vapour inhalation on some haematological indices of albino Wistar rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chukwudi Onyeka John Okonkwo; Ailende Daniel Ehileboh; Eddy Nwobodo; Charles Chijioke Dike

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To find out if Gasoline vapour has some effects on haematological indices when inhaled by experimental rats. Methods: The standard method for laboratory operating procedure recommended by World Health Organization was used in all the analysis done. Forty two albino Wistar rats comprising twenty one males (160–220 g) and twenty one females (140–190 g) were sampled into six groups consisting of four test groups and two control groups. The test groups were exposed to gasoline vapour for twenty one days. Test group one were exposed to gasoline for 30 min while test group two were exposed to gasoline vapour for 1 h daily. At the end of twenty one days of exposure, blood samples were collected from the rats and their haematological parameters were estimated. Statistical analysis was done using windows SPSS version 16. Results: The results showed a significant decrease (P Conclusions: The results obtained suggest that inhalation exposure to gasoline may result in pancytopaenia and a significant fluctuation in the red blood cell-dependent haematological indices.

  3. Evaluating the Ameliorative Potential of Quercetin against the Bleomycin-Induced Pulmonary Fibrosis in Wistar Rats

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    Ramesh Verma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The current study deals with the effect of a dietary flavanoid quercetin on fibrotic lung tissue in rats. Bleomycin was administered by single intratracheal instillation to Wistar rats to induce lung fibrosis. The pathologies associated with this included significantly reduced antioxidant capacity, ultimately leading to protracted inflammation of the lung tissue. The hallmark of this induced fibrosis condition was an excessive collagen deposition in peribronchial and perialveolar regions of the lung. Oral quercetin treatment over a period of twenty days resulted in significant reversal of the pathologies. The antioxidant defense in lung tissue was revived. Moreover, activity of the collagenase MMP-7, which was high in fibrotic tissue, was seen restored after quercetin administration. Trichome staining of lung tissue sections showed high collagen deposition in fibrotic rats, which may be a direct result of increased mobilization of collagen by MMP-7. This was appreciably reduced in quercetin treated animals. These results point towards an important protective role of quercetin against idiopathic lung fibrosis, which remains a widely prevalent yet incurable condition in the present times.

  4. Ameliorative potential of Tephrosia purpurea extract against arsenic induced toxicity in wistar rats

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    Birendra kumar Roy

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present investigation has been conducted to evaluate the protective activity of Tephrosia purpurea extract (TPE against arsenic induced toxicity. Materials and Methods: For this study, twenty four wistar albino rats were taken. Control group, group – I rats were given sodium arsenite @ 10 mg/kg and group – II rats were treated with TPE @ 500 mg/kg along with sodium arsenite @ 10 mg/kg (daily oral for 28 days. On 29th day animals were slaughtered and various parameters were determined. Serum biomarkers, haematological parameter analysis and histomorphological examination are carried out with estimation of arsenic concentration in tissues. Results: Oral administration of sodium arsenite @ 10 mg/kg for 28 days resulted in a significant decrease in Hb%, TEC and TLC, significant increase of serum glucose, cholesterol, calcium and significant increase in arsenic accumulation in tissues. Histopathological results of intestine revealed haemorrhagic enteritis along with loss of villi. Treatment with Tephrosia purpurea @ 500 mg/kg significantly decreased the elevated glucose, LDH levels, along with significant increase haematological levels towards normal. There was reduced haemorrhagic enteritis and presence of intact villi, as compared to arsenic treated group. But there was no significant difference in serum calcium, serum cholesterol and arsenic concentration in tissues, when compared with arsenic treated group. Conclusion: The study conclude that supplementation of TPE (500 mg/kg daily oral for 28 days has shown protection against arsenic induced toxicity by its protective effect. [Vet World 2013; 6(8.000: 493-496

  5. Toxicity assessment of ethanol extract of Solanum villosum (Mill on wistar albino rats.

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    Venkatesh R

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To evaluate the potential toxicity of ethanol extract of the medicinal plant Solanum villosum (Mill. Methods: Ethanol extract of S. villosum administered orally at ranges of doses 100, 200, 400, 600 and 800 mg/kg/bw to assess its impact on biochemical indices of Wistar albino rats. Hematological profile, biochemical assays, antioxidant and lipid peroxidation assays were compared between control and experimental animals. An acute toxicity test was performed in rats at different concentration of ethanol extract of S. villosum in order to establish the approximate oral lethal dose (LD 50. Results: No mortality occurred during the two weeks experimental period, in both control and experimental groups. The changes in biochemical parameters were statistically insignificant at p<0.05 levels. The treated rats showed that very less toxic symptoms only after 800 mg/kg/bw. These observations were supported by hematological and liver function markers. Conclusions: The medicinal plant Solanum villosum can be administered orally at a dose range of 200 mg/kg/bw was very effective and without any side effects. Ethanol extract of S. villosum is not toxic and therefore it may be used safely in clinical trials. It is the first documented report about the plant Solanum villosum (Mill in the toxicity assessment study.

  6. Amelioration of ferric nitrilotriacetate-induced hepatotoxicity in Wistar rats by diallylsulfide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansar, S; Iqbal, M

    2016-03-01

    Garlic contains diallylsulfide (DAS) and other structurally related compounds that are widely believed to be active agents in preventing cancer. This study shows the effect of DAS (a phenolic antioxidant used in foods, cosmetics, and pharmaceutical products) on ferric nitrilotriacetate (Fe-NTA)-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Male albino rats of Wistar strain weighing 125-150 g were given a single dose of Fe-NTA (9 mg kg(-1) body weight, intraperitoneally) after 1 week of treatment with 100 and 200 mg kg(-1) DAS in corn oil respectively administered through the gavage. Fe-NTA administration led to 2.5-fold increase in the values of both alanine transaminase and aspartate aminotransferase, respectively, and 3.2-fold increase in the activity of lactate dehydrogenase, microsomal lipid peroxidation to approximately 2.0-fold compared to saline-treated control. The activities of glutathione (GSH) and other antioxidant enzymes decreased to a range of 2.2-2.5-fold. These changes were reversed significantly (p induced tissue injury and hepatotoxicity in rats.

  7. Gene expression profiling and pathway analysis of hepatotoxicity induced by triptolide in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiaying; Jiang, Zhenzhou; Ji, Jinzi; Wang, Xinzhi; Wang, Tao; Zhang, Yun; Tai, Ting; Chen, Mi; Sun, Lixin; Li, Xia; Zhang, Luyong

    2013-08-01

    Triptolide (TP), a major component of TWHF, is widely used to treat rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, nephritis and leprosy. However, its clinical use is limited by hepatotoxicity. To further elucidate the underlying mechanism of its hepatotoxic effects, hepatic gene expression profiles were analyzed. TP (1000 and 300 μg/kg) was orally administered to Wistar rats for 14 days. Current study indicated that female rats were more sensitive to TP-induced hepatotoxicity than males. Genome-wide microarray analyses identified 3329 differentially expressed genes in liver of female rats. Analyses of these genes identified over-represented functions associated with insulin signaling pathway, glucose metabolism, cell cycle, oxidative stress and apoptosis, which were consistent with the results of significant increase of Caspase-3 activity and reduction of serum glucose, GSH/GSSG ratio, glucose-6-phosphatase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase activities, liver glycogen. In addition, it was observed for the first time that glucocorticoids and IGF1 might get involved in TP-induced hepatotoxicity. These data suggest that TP treatment could alter the hepatic redox status, reduce serum glucose and induce hepatocyte apoptosis, consistent with the differential expression of genes involved in insulin signaling pathway, glucose metabolism pathway and cell stress pathway, all of which might contribute to the overall TP-induced hepatotoxicity.

  8. Hepatoprotective Activity of Cassia fistula root against Carbon tetrachloride-Induced Hepatic Injury in rats (Wistar

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    SAGAR DAWADA

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The protective effects of the alcoholic extract of Cassia fistula root; against CCl4 induced hepatic failure in male albino rats (wistar strain was investigated. For acute and massive invasion of hepatopathy, CCl4 (s.c injection of CCl4+Olive Oil in 1:1 ratio; 2ml/kg was used and the insidious intoxication was evidenced bysignificant turmoil of various biochemical parameters followed by significant (p<0.001 weight loss in toxic control group. The administration of alcoholic root extract (200mg/kg and 100mg/kg of body weight for 7 days, elicited protective action since the elevated levels of marker enzymes (SGOT, SGPT, ALP of liver functionswere found to be decreasing progressively in a dose dependent manner. The final body weight was also significantly (p<0.001 increased when compared with the toxic control group. The serum total protein and theserum albumin were also approaching normal values. The results found in alcoholic extract 200mg/kg treated rat were quite promising and were comparable with a standard drug Silymarin. In the alcoholic extract 200mg/kg treated rat group all the marker enzymes were analyzed to be decreasing significantly. The statistically processed results support the conclusion, that the alcoholic root extract of Cassia fistula root (200mg/kg and 100mg/kg possesses dose dependent, significant protective activity against CCl4 induced hepatotoxicity.

  9. Health and nutritional status of Wistar rats following subchronic exposure to CV127 soybeans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chukwudebe, Amechi; Privalle, Laura; Reed, Andrew; Wandelt, Christine; Contri, Daniela; Dammann, Martina; Groeters, Sibylle; Kaspers, Uwe; Strauss, Volker; van Ravenzwaay, Bennard

    2012-03-01

    This subchronic duration feeding study evaluated the nutritional and health status of rats fed diets containing CV127 at incorporation levels of 11% and 33%. For control comparisons, rats were also exposed to similar incorporation levels of the near isogenic conventional soybean variety (Conquista) and two other conventional soybean varieties (Monsoy, Coodetec). In spite of phenotypic differences among these four soybean varieties, there were no quantitative differences in their respective proximate and other compositional properties, including proteins, amino acids, antinutrients and nutritional cofactors. All diets were prepared by blending the respective processed soybean meal with ground Kliba maintenance meal at high (33%) and low (11%) incorporation levels, and the blended diets were fed to Wistar rats for about 91 days. Although there were some isolated parameters indicating statistically significant changes, these lacked consistency and a plausible mechanism and were thus assessed to be incidental. The totality of results demonstrate that CV127 soybeans are similar with respect to their nutritional value and systemic effects as its near isogenic conventional counterpart, as well as other conventional soybean varieties. Hence, introduction of AHAS gene into soybeans does not substantially alter its compositional properties, nor adversely affect its nutritional or safety status to mammals.

  10. Effect of Chlorella vulgaris on lipid metabolism in Wistar rats fed high fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hee Sun; Park, Hoon Jung; Kim, Mi Kyung

    2008-01-01

    This study was performed to investigate effects of Chlorella vulgaris on lipid metabolism in rats fed high fat diet. Sixty 6-week-old male Wistar rats were divided into two groups; normal diet group and high fat diet group, then the rats in each group were further divided into three subgroups and fed 0%, 5% and 10% (w/w) chlorella-containing diets, respectively, and raised for 9 weeks. Serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activity and total protein and albumin concentration were not different among groups. Serum total lipids and liver TG concentration were significantly lower in 5% and 10% chlorella groups than 0% chlorella group in high fat diet groups (pchlorella groups than 0% chlorella group in high fat diet groups (pchlorella groups than 0% chlorella groups in normal diet and high fat diet groups, respectively (pChlorella vulgaris is effective for prevention of dyslipidemia which may be due to the modulation of lipid metabolism and increased fecal excretion of lipid.

  11. Repeated dose oral toxicity of inorganic mercury in wistar rats: biochemical and morphological alterations

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    M. D. Jegoda

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The study was conducted to find out the possible toxic effect of mercuric chloride (HgCl2 at the histological, biochemical, and haematological levels in the wistar rats for 28 days. Materials and Methods: The biochemical and hematological alteration were estimated in four groups of rat (each group contain ten animals, which were treated with 0 (control, 2, 4, and 8 mg/kg body weight of HgCl2 through oral gavage. At the end of study all rats were sacrificed and subjected for histopathology. Result: A significantly (P < 0.05 higher level of serum alanine amino transferase (ALT, gamma Glutamyle Transferase, and creatinine were recorded in treatment groups, while the level of alkaline phosphtase (ALP was significantly decreased as compared to the control group. The toxic effect on hematoclogical parameter was characterized by significant decrease in hemoglobin, packed cell volume, total erythrocytes count, and total leukocyte count. Gross morphological changes include congestion, severe haemorrhage, necrosis, degenerative changes in kidneys, depletion of lymphocyte in spleen, decrease in concentration of mature spermatocyte, and edema in testis. It was notable that kidney was the most affected organ. Conclusion: Mercuric chloride (HgCl caused dose-dependent toxic effects on blood parameters and kidney. [Vet World 2013; 6(8.000: 563-567

  12. Elemental distribution in brain of wistar rats by X-ray microfluorescence with synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serpa, Renata F.B.; Jesus, Edgar F.O. de; Lopes, Ricardo T. [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia. Lab. de Instrumentacao Nuclear]. E-mail: renata@lin.ufrj.br; Anjos, Marcelino J. dos; Oliveira, Luis F. de [Universidade do Estado, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica]. E-mail: marcelin@lin.ufrj.br; Carmo, Maria da Graca T. do [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Nutricao]. E-mail: tcarmo@editema.com.br; Rocha, Monica S. [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Farmacologia]. E-mail: mrocha@farmaco.ufrj.br; Moreira, Silvana [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Civil]. E-mail: silvana@fec.unicamp.br; Correa Junior, Jose D.; Martinez, Ana Maria B. [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Histologia]. E-mail: martinez@histo.ufrj.br

    2005-07-01

    The main goal of this research is to study the changes in the elemental distribution in brain rats, due the knowledge of the spatial distribution and the local concentration of trace elements in tissues have great importance since trace elements are involved in many biological functions of living organisms. For perform this research, Wistar rats with different ages (3, 48 and 72 weeks) were used. The microfluorescence measurements were carried out in a standard geometry of 45 deg/45 deg, exciting with a white beam and using a conventional system collimation (orthogonal slits) in the XRF beamline at the Synchrotron Light National Laboratory (Campinas, Brazil). The following elements were studied: P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Fe, and Zn. Among these elements, Fe and Zn are related with Parkinson and Alzheimer diseases, respectively. By the elemental maps, we can observe that the distribution of zinc was more pronounced in the hippocampus area, the distribution of iron was more conspicuous in the cortical region and bellows the thalamus and, moreover potassium and chlorine distributions were more present in the cortical area. Although, the small statistic, we can view that almost all measured elements are present in lower intensity in brains of rats with 3 weeks, and are usually the same for the other ages studied. (author)

  13. Decreased catecholamine secretion from the adrenal medullae of chronically diabetic BB-Wistar rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilke, R. A.; Riley, D. A.; Lelkes, P. I.; Hillard, C. J.

    1993-01-01

    Many humans with IDDM eventually lose the capacity to secrete epinephrine from their adrenal medullae. The mechanism for this pathological change is unknown. We hypothesized that this abnormality is attributable to neuropathic changes in the greater splanchnic nerves or in the chromaffin cells that they innervate. To study this hypothesis, we isolated rat adrenal glands, perfused them ex vivo, and measured the epinephrine content of the perfusate under various conditions of stimulation. We used transmural electrical stimulation (20-80 V, at 10 Hz) to induce epinephrine secretion indirectly by selectively activating residual splanchnic nerve terminals within the isolated glands. Under these conditions, epinephrine secretion was severely attenuated in glands from female BB-Wistar rats with diabetes of 4 mo duration compared with their age-matched, nondiabetic controls. These perfused diabetic adrenal medullae also demonstrated decreased catecholamine release in response to direct chromaffin cell depolarization with 20 mM K+, evidence that a functional alteration exists within the chromaffin cells themselves. Nonetheless, total catecholamine content of adrenal medullae from these diabetic rats was not significantly different from controls, indicating that the secretory defect was not simply attributable to a difference in the amount of catecholamines stored and available for release. Herein, we also provide histological evidence of degenerative changes within the cholinergic nerve terminals that innervate these glands.

  14. Cartap and carbofuran induced alterations in serum lipid profile of Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Devendra K; Rai, Prashant Kumar; Gupta, Aradhna; Watal, Geeta; Sharma, Bechan

    2009-04-01

    Wistar rats of 6-8 weeks in age weighing between 120-150 g were exposed to the fixed doses of each of the carbamate pesticides such as cartap (50% LD(50)) and carbofuran (50% LD(50)) as well as a combination of these two with 25% LD(50) of each for one week. The effect of treatments was studied in terms of serum lipid parameters such as high-density lipoprotein, total cholesterol, triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein and very low-density lipoprotein. Treatment with individual doses of carbofuran (50% LD(50)) and cartap (50 % LD(50)) caused significant alterations in the levels of serum lipid parameters. The pesticides treatment resulted in marked decrease in the level of serum high-density lipoprotein where as that of other lipids got significantly elevated. Further, the rats exhibited relatively higher impact of pesticides when treated with the compounds in combination (25 % LD(50) of each). The results indicated that these compounds when used together may exert enhanced effect on the levels of serum lipids in rat.

  15. Toxicity of Dietary Hibiscus sabdariffa Linn (Malvaceae Seed to Wistar Rats

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    Amgad A. H. Al Bahi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In Sudan Hibiscus sabdariffa seeds after fermentation are commonly known as Furundu with high quality proteins consumed as substitute to meat mainly in the Western part of the country. The raw seed, 10, 15 and 20 % of the standard diet was fed to Wister rats for periods up to 12 weeks. These doses were found to be non-toxic but not lethal to the treated rats. There was no evidence of carcinogenic effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa seed on any of the vital organs, but the main features were depression of growth and diverse pathological changes on the liver, kidneys and intestines which were correlated with highly significant (P<0.001 elevation of serum Aspartate aminotransferase (AST, Alanine aminotransferase (ALT and Alkaline phosphatase (ALP activities and bilirubin (P<0.01 concentration in addition to a significant decrease (P<0.01 in cholesterol concentration. No change was observed in the total protein, globulin and urea concentrations of the test groups and albumin concentration in Groups 1 and 2 fed on diet containing 10 and 15% H. sabdarrifa seed. These findings were accompanied by leukocytosis and significantly lower red blood cells and haemoglobin concentration. Due to the elevated Mean corpuscular volume (MCV and the normal values of the mean corpuscular Haemoglobin concentration (MCHC in all the treatment groups the toxicity of H. Sabdariffa seed to Wistar rats resulted in macrocytic normochromic type of anaemia.

  16. Dysfunction in fatty acid amide hydrolase is associated with depressive-like behavior in Wistar Kyoto rats.

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    K Yaragudri Vinod

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: While the etiology of depression is not clearly understood at the present time, this mental disorder is thought be a complex and multifactorial trait with important genetic and environmental contributing factors. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The role of the endocannabinoid (eCB system in depressive behavior was examined in Wistar Kyoto (WKY rat strain, a genetic model of depression. Our findings revealed selective abnormalities in the eCB system in the brains of WKY rats compared to Wistar (WIS rats. Immunoblot analysis indicated significantly higher levels of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH in frontal cortex and hippocampus of WKY rats with no alteration in the level of N-arachidonyl phosphatidyl ethanolamine specific phospholipase-D (NAPE-PLD. Significantly higher levels of CB1 receptor-mediated G-protein coupling and lower levels of anandamide (AEA were found in frontal cortex and hippocampus of WKY rats. While the levels of brain derived neurotropic factor (BDNF were significantly lower in frontal cortex and hippocampus of WKY rats compared to WIS rats, pharmacological inhibition of FAAH elevated BDNF levels in WKY rats. Inhibition of FAAH enzyme also significantly increased sucrose consumption and decreased immobility in the forced swim test in WKY rats. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These findings suggest a critical role for the eCB system and BDNF in the genetic predisposition to depressive-like behavior in WKY rats and point to the potential therapeutic utility of eCB enhancing agents in depressive disorder.

  17. Pharmacological investigation of Polyherbal formulation on Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4-induced liver damage in wistar rats

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    Hardik Soni

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate effect of Polyherbal formulation on Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4-induced liver damage in wistar rats. Methods: Wistar albino rats weighing 180-230 g either sex were used. The selected animals were divided in to four groups where each group consisted of six animals. Experimentally liver damage was produced by intra-peritoneal administration of CCl4 and olive oil mixture (1:1 v/v (1 mL/kg, once daily, i.p. for 7 days. Test Drug, Polyherbal formulation was administered orally for 7 consecutive days at 3 mL/kg, once daily. On 8th day, Blood samples were collected to evaluate different serum biochemical parameters like Aspartate aminotransferase (AST, Alanine aminotransferase (ALT, Alkaline phosphatase (ALP, Total bilirubin and Total protein. Liver from animals of each group was dissected out for histopathological examination. Statistical analysis: Statistical calculation were done by analysis of variance (ANOVA followed by post hoc Dunnett’s test, with significant level of p<0.05. Results and dDiscussion: Polyherbal formulation showed significant effect on activity levels of serum AST, ALT, ALP and total bilirubin level while comparing test group to disease control group. It also showed significant elevation in decreased level of serum total protein. Pre-treatment of Polyherbal formulation restored the hepatic architecture and protected the liver tissue from fatty degenerative changes by preventing the toxic chemical reaction induced by CCl4. Conclusion: Finding of this study concludes that Polyherbal formulation (Vasuliv Syrup has promising hepatoprotective activity against CCl4-induced liver damage. It can be employed as safe and effective treatment for hepato-toxicity or liver damage.

  18. Mechanisms in the PVN mediating local and central sodium-induced hypertension in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabor, Alexander; Leenen, Frans H H

    2009-03-01

    Sympathoexcitatory and hypertensive responses to central infusion of Na(+)-rich artificial cerebrospinal fluid (aCSF) are enhanced by aldosterone and mediated by mineralocorticoid receptors (MRs) and benzamil-blockable Na(+) influx, leading to "ouabain" release and ANG II type 1 (AT(1)) receptor stimulation. The present study evaluated the functional role of these mechanisms in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN). In conscious Wistar rats, Na(+)-rich aCSF was infused either directly into the PVN or intracerebroventricularly preceded by aldosterone and blockers. Infusion of Na(+)-rich aCSF in the PVN caused gradual increases in blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR). Aldosterone and a subpressor dose of ouabain in the PVN alone did not affect BP and HR but enhanced responses to Na(+). Eplerenone, benzamil, and "ouabain"-binding Fab fragments only blocked the enhancement by aldosterone, whereas losartan blocked all responses to Na(+)-rich aCSF in the PVN. Increases in BP and HR by intracerebroventricular infusion of Na(+)-rich aCSF were enhanced by aldosterone infused intracerebroventricularly, but not in the PVN. Telmisartan in the PVN again blocked all responses. In contrast, both eplerenone and benzamil in the PVN did not change the pressor responses to intracerebroventricular infusion of aldosterone and Na(+)-rich aCSF. These findings indicate that AT(1) receptors in the PVN mediate the responses to Na(+)-rich aCSF and their enhancement by aldosterone, both locally in the PVN or in the general CSF. MRs, benzamil-blockable Na(+) channels or transporters, and "ouabain" can be functionally active in the PVN, but in Wistar rats appear not to contribute to the pressor responses to short-term increases in CSF [Na(+)].

  19. Tinospora crispa Ameliorates Insulin Resistance Induced by High Fat Diet in Wistar Rats

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    Mohd Nazri Abu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The antidiabetic properties of Tinospora crispa, a local herb that has been used in traditional Malay medicine and rich in antioxidant, were explored based on obesity-linked insulin resistance condition. Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups, namely, the normal control (NC which received standard rodent diet, the high fat diet (HFD which received high fat diet only, the high fat diet treated with T. crispa (HFDTC, and the high fat diet treated with orlistat (HFDO. After sixteen weeks of treatment, blood and organs were harvested for analyses. Results showed that T. crispa significantly (p < 0.05 reduced the body weight (41.14 ± 1.40%, adiposity index serum levels (4.910 ± 0.80%, aspartate aminotransferase (AST: 161 ± 4.71 U/L, alanine aminotransferase (ALT: 100.95 ± 3.10 U/L, total cholesterol (TC: 18.55 ± 0.26 mmol/L, triglycerides (TG: 3.70 ± 0.11 mmol/L, blood glucose (8.50 ± 0.30 mmo/L, resistin (0.74 ± 0.20 ng/mL, and leptin (17.428 ± 1.50 ng/mL hormones in HFDTC group. The insulin (1.65 ± 0.07 pg/mL and C-peptide (136.48 pmol/L hormones were slightly decreased but within normal range. The histological results showed unharmed and intact liver tissues in HFDTC group. As a conclusion, T. crispa ameliorates insulin resistance-associated with obesity in Wistar rats fed with high fat diet.

  20. Toxicity profile of ethanolic extract of Azadirachta indica stem bark in male Wistar rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Anofi Omotayo Tom Ashafa; Latifat Olubukola Orekoya; Musa Toyin Yakubu

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the toxic implications of ethanolic stem bark extract of Azadirachtaindica (A. indica) at 50, 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg body weight in Wistar rats. Methods: Fifty male rats of Wistar strains were randomly grouped into five (A-E) of ten animals each. Animals in Group A (control) were orally administered 1 mL of distilled water on daily basis for 21 days while those in Groups B-E received same volume of the extract corresponding to 50, 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg body weight. Results: The extract did not significantly (P>0.05) alter the levels of albumin, total protein, red blood cells and factors relating to it whereas the white blood cell, platelets, serum triacylglycerol and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol decreased significantly (P<0.05). In contrast, the final body weights, absolute weights of the liver, kidney, lungs and heart as well as their organ-body weight ratios, serum globulins, total and conjugated bilirubin, serum cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and computed atherogenic index increased significantly. The spleen-body weight ratio, alkaline phosphatase, alanine and aspartate transaminases, sodium, potassium, calcium, feed and water intake were altered at specific doses. Conclusions: Overall, the alterations in the biochemical parameters of toxicity have consequential effects on the normal functioning of the organs of the animals. Therefore, the ethanolic extract of A. indica stem bark at the doses of 50, 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg body weight may not be completely safe as an oral remedy and should be taken with caution if absolutely necessary.

  1. Iron-rich drinking water and ascorbic acid supplementation improved hemolytic anemia in experimental Wistar rats.

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    Chaturvedi, Richa; Chattopadhyay, Pronobesh; Banerjee, Saumen; Bhattacharjee, Chira R; Raul, Prasanta; Borah, Kusum; Singh, Lokendra; Veer, Vijay

    2014-11-01

    Anemia is a frequent problem in both the primary and secondary health care programs. In contrast, most areas of northeast India are vulnerable to iron toxicity. In the present study, we documented the effect of administration of iron rich water on hemolytic anemia in a Wistar rats' animal model. Hemolytic anemia was induced by phenyl hydrazine through intraperitoneal route and diagnosed by the lowering of blood hemoglobin. After inducing the hemolytic anemia, 24 Wistar rats (n = 6 in four groups) were randomly assigned to 1 mg/l, 5 mg/l, and 10 mg/l ferric oxide iron along with 1 mg/ml ascorbic acid administered through drinking water; a control group was treated with iron-free water. The hematological and biochemical parameters, iron levels in liver, spleen, and kidney were estimated after 30 d of treatment. In the group treated with 5 mg/l iron and ascorbic acid, a significant increase of serum iron and ferritin, and a decrease of TIBC (total iron binding capacity) were observed without changes in other biochemical parameters and histopathological findings. However, in the group treated with 10 mg/l iron and ascorbic acid, hematological changes with significantly higher values for white blood cell count, serum glutamic phospho transaminase, serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, glucose, splenic, and liver iron content, indicate potential toxicity at this supplementation level. Data suggest that the optimum concentration of iron (5 mg/l) and ascorbic acid solution may improve anemic conditions and may be therapeutically beneficial in the treatment of iron deficiency anemia without any negative impact, while 10 mg/l in drinking water seems to be the threshold for the initiation of toxicity.

  2. Toxicity profile of ethanolic extract of Azadirachta indica stem bark in male Wistar rats

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    Anofi; Omotayo; Tom; Ashafal; Latifat; Olubukola; Orekoya; Musa; Toyin; Yakubu

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the loxic implications of ethanolic stem bark extract of Azadirachta indica(A-indica)at 50,100,200 and 300 mg/kg body weight in Wistar rats.Methods:Fifty male rats of Wistar strains were randomly grouped into five(A-F.)of ten animals each.Animals in Group A(control)were orally administered 1 mL of distilled water on daily basis for 21 days while those in Groups B-E received same volume of the extract corresponding to 50,100,200 and 300mg/kg body weight.Results:The extract did not significantly(P>0.05)alter the levels of albumin,total protein,red blood cells and factors relating to it whereas the white blood cell,platelets,serum triacylglycerol and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol decreased significantly(P<0.05).In contrast,the final body weights,absolute weights of the liver,kidney,lungs and heart as well as their organ-body weight ratios,serum globulins,total and conjugated bilirubin,serum cholesterol,low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and computed atherogenic index increased significantly.The spleen-body weight ratio,alkaline phosphatase,alanine and aspartate transaminases,sodium,potassium,calcium,feed and water intake were altered at specific doses.Conclusions:Overall,the alterations in the biochemical parameters of toxicity have consequential effects on the normal functioning of the organs of the animals.Therefore,the ethanolic extract of A.indica stem bark at the doses of 50,100,200 and 300 mg/kg body weight may not be completely safe as an oral remedy and should be taken with caution if absolutely necessary.

  3. A toxicity study of simultaneous administration of Tamoxifen and Diazepam to female Wistar rats.

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    D'Mello, D; Mehta, D; Pereira, J; Rao, C V

    1999-11-01

    Tamoxifen (TAM) is used in the treatment of breast cancer and decreases the incidence of breast cancer when given to healthy women for different therapeutic purposes. This expansion of its use calls for further studies of its own potential side effects and those in combination with other prescription drugs. Diazepam (DP) is one such drug normally administered to patients who are under cancer treatment and those who suffer from insomnia. The present study examines the effect of individual and simultaneous administration of TAM and DP at therapeutic dose level of 0.8 mg/Kg/day of TAM and 0.3 mg/Kg/day of DP to normal female Wistar rats for a period of 12 weeks. The drugs were administered orally by mixing it in pellet made by wheat dough. There was no significant change in the terminal body weight and liver weights of animals. The ovary weights in TAM + DP treated animals were significantly decreased. The serum succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) levels were significantly lower in TAM, DP and TAM + DP treated rats and comparatively were lowest in TAM and TAM + DP treated animal groups. Serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT) and glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT), acid and alkaline phosphatase (ACP & ALP) levels were significantly higher in the three treated groups, but comparatively lower in TAM + DP treated animals when compared to TAM or DP alone treated rats. There was marked increase in liver triglyceride and cholesterol levels in the three treated groups but remarkable decrease in liver glycogen. Total serum cholesterol levels were significantly high in DP and TAM + DP treated rats and total serum triglyceride levels were significantly high only in TAM treated rats. As a whole it can be concluded that DP does not enhance TAM toxicity on simultaneous administration, but on its own when administered individually brings about perturbation in lipid storage and metabolism.

  4. Immature rats show ovulatory defects similar to those in adult rats lacking prostaglandin and progesterone actions

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    Sanchez-Criado Jose E

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Gonadotropin-primed immature rats (GPIR constitute a widely used model for the study of ovulation. Although the equivalence between the ovulatory process in immature and adult rats is generally assumed, the morphological and functional characteristics of ovulation in immature rats have been scarcely considered. We describe herein the morphological aspects of the ovulatory process in GPIR and their response to classical ovulation inhibitors, such as the inhibitor of prostaglandin (PG synthesis indomethacin (INDO and a progesterone (P receptor (PR antagonist (RU486. Immature Wistar rats were primed with equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG at 21, 23 or 25 days of age, injected with human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG 48 h later, and sacrificed 16 h after hCG treatment, to assess follicle rupture and ovulation. Surprisingly, GPIR showed age-related ovulatory defects close similar to those in adult rats lacking P and PG actions. Rats primed with eCG at 21 or 23 days of age showed abnormally ruptured corpora lutea in which the cumulus-oocyte complex (COC was trapped or had been released to the ovarian interstitum, invading the ovarian stroma and blood and lymphatic vessels. Supplementation of immature rats with exogenous P and/or PG of the E series did not significantly inhibit abnormal follicle rupture. Otherwise, ovulatory defects were practically absent in rats primed with eCG at 25 days of age. GPIR treated with INDO showed the same ovulatory alterations than vehicle-treated ones, although affecting to a higher proportion of follicles. Blocking P actions with RU486 increased the number of COC trapped inside corpora lutea and decreased ovulation. The presence of ovulatory defects in GPIR, suggests that the capacity of the immature ovary to undergo the coordinate changes leading to effective ovulation is not fully established in Wistar rats primed with eCG before 25 days of age.

  5. Hydroxyapatite combined with hyaluronic acid metronidazole gel increased the quantity of osteoblasts in the alveolar bone wistar rat

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    Ernie Maduratna Setiawatie

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bone graft material have been used extensively in bone healing and periodontal treatment. Alloplast such as hydroxyapatite are frequently used to repair and reconstruct bone defects. By merely applying hydroxyapatite for the treatment of bone is not fully effective yet to produce new bone regeneration. Locally applied high molecular hyaluronic acid (HA has been shown to stimulate differentiation and migration of mesenchymal cells. Recent studies on regenerative surgical procedures indicate that reduction of bacterial burden at the wound site may improve the clinical outcome of regenerative therapy. Metronidazole has the greatest bacteriostatic effect. A clinical application of HA metronidazole gels during the surgical therapy may reduce the bacterial contamination of surgical wound site. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of combination hydroxyapatite and HA metronidazole gel 1% on osteoblast cell number after wound healing process in the wistar rats incisor tooth extraction socket. Method: Twenty seven wistar rats were divided randomly into 3 groups. The first group consisted of wistar rats given hydroxyapatite were subjected to the mandibular incisor extraction socket. The second group were given hydroxyapatite combined with HA metronidazole gel 1%. The control group were filled with blood. Wistar rats were euthanized on day 14 and then preparation for histological examination was stained using hematoxylin-eosin and then the numbers of the osteoblasts were calculated. Result: The differences in each group were tested by one way Anova test (α=0.05. The numbers of osteoblasts in each group had a significant difference (p<0.05: the highest numbers of osteoblasts were found in the group that was given hydroxyapatite combined with HA metronidazole, followed by the lower numbers of osteoblasts in the hydroxyapa ite group and the lowest numbers of osteoblasts were found in the control group. Conclusion

  6. Effects of uterine cervix constriction on Wistar rats Efeitos da constrição do cérvix uterino em ratos Wistar

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    Cassio Eduardo Raposo-Amaral

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To verify if uterine cerclage can induce craniosynostosis or any cranial deformity in new born Wistar rats. METHODS: One pregnant female Wistar rat underwent laparotomy on day 18 of gestation and the uterus cervix was closed with a 3-0 nylon suture to avoid delivery, that occurs normally on the 21 day. The suture was released after 48 hours beyond the normal gestation period. The female rat delivered 11 pups. Six surviving rats from the delivery (group A - constrained group. Two rats were born from another mother and in the same age were used as control group (group B - 2 nonconstrained controls were allowed to grow. They were sacrificed 1.2 years after their birth all the eight animals. Linear measurement, routine histology and computed tomography of the skull were performed at the time of their death to evaluate the cranial asymmetries by mesurements of the anatomical landmarks of the craniofacial skeleton of the rats on the two groups and compared then. RESULTS: We did not observe statistically significant differences in any of the compared measurements (p>0.05 obtained through the morphologic and radiologic methods. Histologic examinations did not reveal any sign of premature fusion or suture imbrications. Critical decrease in longitudinal body size was noticed as the limbs too in all the animals of group A. CONCLUSION: Constriction of uterine cervix leads to fetus suffering, even death for a few animals, associated to small body size, but not to craniosynostosis.OBJETIVO: Verificar se a cerclagem intra-uterina pode induzir, ao nascimento de ratos Wistar, craniossinostose ou qualquer outra deformidade craniana. MÉTODOS: Uma rata Wistar prenhe foi submetida à laparotomia no 18º dia de gestação e o cérvix uterino foi suturado com 3-0 nylon, impedindo o parto normal que normalmente ocorre no 21º dia de gestação. A sutura foi liberada 48 horas após o período gestacional normal. A rata gestante deu à luz 11 animais. Seis

  7. Motor behavioral abnormalities and histopathological findings of Wistar rats inoculated with HTLV-1-infected MT2 cells

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    C.C. Câmara

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to describe motor behavioral changes in association with histopathological and hematological findings in Wistar rats inoculated intravenously with human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1-infected MT2 cells. Twenty-five 4-month-old male rats were inoculated with HTLV-1-infected MT2 cells and 13 control rats were inoculated with normal human lymphocytes. The behavior of the rats was observed before and 5, 10, 15, and 20 months after inoculation during a 30-min/rat testing time for 5 consecutive days. During each of 4 periods, a subset of rats was randomly chosen to be sacrificed in order to harvest the spinal cord for histopathological analysis and to obtain blood for serological and molecular studies. Behavioral analyses of the HTLV-1-inoculated rats showed a significant decrease of climbing, walking and freezing, and an increase of scratching, sniffing, biting, licking, and resting/sleeping. Two of the 25 HTLV-1-inoculated rats (8% developed spastic paraparesis as a major behavioral change. The histopathological changes were few and mild, but in some cases there was diffuse lymphocyte infiltration. The minor and major behavioral changes occurred after 10-20 months of evolution. The long-term observation of Wistar rats inoculated with HTLV-1-infected MT2 cells showed major (spastic paraparesis and minor motor abnormalities in association with the degree of HTLV-1-induced myelopathy.

  8. Acute effects of ketamine in the holeboard, the elevated-plus maze, and the social interaction test in Wistar rats.

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    Silvestre, J S; Nadal, R; Pallarés, M; Ferré, N

    1997-01-01

    Although noncompetitive NMDA receptor antagonists have shown an anxiolyticlike profile in several studies, such effects have not been observed consistently. Previous studies with ketamine, a noncompetitive NMDA antagonist, have employed only shock tests of anxiety based on conflict procedures. In the present experiment, the effect of an acute low dose of ketamine (7 mg/kg) was examined in adult male Wistar rats tested in three nonconflict tests: holeboard, social interaction, and elevated plus-maze paradigms. The results showed that ketamine decreased time spent in active social interaction and the number of rearings and central activity in the social interaction test. It also decreased the number of entries into the percentage of time spent in open arms and the total number of entries in the elevated plus-maze. No significant effect was observed in head dipping in the holeboard test, although the number of crossings did increase. These results suggest an anxiogeniclike effect of ketamine in contrast with results previously described for noncompetitive NMDA receptor antagonists. These effects of ketamine are more similar to those described for stimulant drugs such as caffeine, cocaine, or amphetamine in anxiety tests.

  9. Effects of silver nanoparticle on lactate dehydrogenase activity and histological changes of heart tissue in male wistar rats

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    Noushin Naghsh

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objective: The silver nanoparticles are important in many applications of nanoparticles on human health . The toxicity of silver nanoparticles are not well documented yet. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of silver nanoparticles on lactate dehydrogenase activity and histological changes in heart tissue.   Materials &Methods: In this study, 40 adult male wistar rats of 220±20gr were divided in to five groups including control and four experimental groups. The latter groups were injected intraperitoneally spherical nano silver particles of 50, 100, 200 and 400 ppm respectively for five consecutive days. Then three, eight and twelve days after the last injection, blood samples were collected and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH activity was assayed . Also, tissue samples from the heart muscle were prepared and studied after staining with Hematoxiline-Eosine. Data of LDH activity was analyzed by One way- ANOVA- test and P-value of ≤ 0.05 were considered as significant.   Results : The result showed that different concentrations of silver nanoparticles have no significant effect on the lactate dehydrogenase (p=0.192 . T he histological study of the tissue after exposure to 400 ppm concentration of silver nanoparticles showed the start of primary apoptosis in heart tissue.   Conclusion: The LDH activity was not changed significantly after exposure to different concentration of silver nanoparticles, which shows the safety of these particles on LDH activity.

  10. Effect of the acupoints ST-36 (Zusanli and SP-6 (Sanyinjiao on intestinal myoelectric activity of Wistar rats

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    Tabosa A.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite its ancient use as a therapeutic tool to treat several ailments, acupuncture still faces the challenge of scrutiny by Western science both in terms of its efficacy and in terms of the characterization of its effects and mechanisms of actions underlying these effects. We investigated under well-controlled and carefully characterized conditions the influence of electrical stimulation of acupuncture points ST-36 (Zusanli and SP-6 (Sanyinjiao on the myoelectric activity of the small intestine of 38 adult male Wistar rats. Electrical recordings obtained by means of four electrodes chronically implanted in the small intestine were used to assess the effects of acupuncture (electroacupuncture stimulation set at 2 Hz, intermittent stimulation, 1 V, for 30 min. Immobilization of the animals was associated with a consistent decrease (-8 ± 7% in the myoelectric activity of the small intestine as measured by means of the root mean square. Conversely, acupuncture was able to significantly increase (overshoot this activity compared to baseline (+44 ± 7%. In contrast, immobilized animals subjected to sham acupuncture had only modest (nonsignificant increases in myoelectric activity (+9 ± 6%. Using carefully controlled conditions we confirmed previous noncontrolled studies on the ability of acupuncture to alter intestinal motility. The characterization of the topographic and temporal profiles of the effects observed here represents a basis for future dissection of the physiological and pharmacological systems underlying these effects.

  11. Brief Social Isolation in the Adolescent Wistar-Kyoto Rat Model of Endogenous Depression Alters Corticosterone and Regional Monoamine Concentrations.

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    Shetty, Reshma A; Sadananda, Monika

    2017-02-24

    The Wistar-Kyoto rat (WKY) model has been suggested as a model of adult and adolescent depression though face, predictive and construct validities of the model to depression remain equivocal. The suitability of the WKY as a diathesis model that tests the double-hit hypothesis, particularly during critical periods of brain and behavioural development remains to be established. Here, effects of post-weaning social isolation were assessed during early adolescence (~30pnd) on behavioural despair and learned helplessness in the forced swim test (FST), plasma corticosterone levels and tissue monoamine concentrations in brain areas critically involved in depression, such as prefrontal cortex, nucleus accumbens, striatum and hippocampus. Significantly increased immobility in the FST was observed in socially-isolated, adolescent WKY with a concomitant increase in corticosterone levels over and above the FST-induced stress. WKY also demonstrated a significantly increased release and utilization of dopamine, as manifested by levels of metabolites 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid and homovanillic acid in nucleus accumbens, indicating that the large dopamine storage pool evident during adolescence induces greater dopamine release when stimulated. The serotonin metabolite 5-hydroxy-indoleacetic acid was also significantly increased in nucleus accumbens, indicating increased utilization of serotonin, along with norepinephrine levels which were also signficantly elevated in socially-isolated adolescent WKY. Differences in neurochemistry suggest that social or environmental stimuli during critical periods of brain and behavioural development can determine the developmental trajectories of implicated pathways.

  12. Effect of obesity on alveolar bone loss in experimental periodontitis in Wistar rats

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    Giliano Nicolini Verzeletti

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Obesity has been linked to higher inflammatory status and periodontal breakdown. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of obesity on alveolar bone loss in experimental periodontitis in rats. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twenty-four female Wistar rats were randomly divided into two groups: obese (n=13, which were fed with "cafeteria diet" (CAF diet - high amounts of sucrose and fat for 90 days in order to gain weight, and non-obese (n=11 regularly fed rats. Ligature-induced experimental periodontitis was created in all animals. Body weight differed statistically between obese and non-obese groups (277.59 and 223.35 g, respectively at the moment of the ligature placement. Morphometric registration of alveolar bone loss was carried out after 30 days of ligature placement to determine the effect of obesity on the progression of experimental periodontitis. RESULTS: Intra-group comparisons showed significantly higher alveolar bone loss mean values in maxillary teeth with ligature (P<0.05. Alveolar bone loss [mean (SD, mm] was not statistically different between obese and non-obese groups [0.71 (0.09 and 0.65 (0.07 mm, respectively]. However, when palatal sides are analyzed separately, obese group presented significantly higher alveolar bone loss (P<0.05 as compared to non-obese [0.68 (0.12 and 0.53 (0.13 mm, respectively]. CONCLUSIONS: In spite of the weak differences, it is possible to conclude that the progression of alveolar bone loss in ligature-induced periodontitis can be potentially influenced by body weight in rats.

  13. Silymarin induces insulin resistance through an increase of phosphatase and tensin homolog in Wistar rats.

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    Kai-Chun Cheng

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN is a phosphoinositide phosphatase that regulates crucial cellular functions, including insulin signaling, lipid and glucose metabolism, as well as survival and apoptosis. Silymarin is the active ingredient in milk thistle and exerts numerous effects through the activation of PTEN. However, the effect of silymarin on the development of insulin resistance remains unknown. METHODS: Wistar rats fed fructose-rich chow or normal chow were administered oral silymarin to identify the development of insulin resistance using the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemic- euglycemic clamping. Changes in PTEN expression in skeletal muscle and liver were compared using western blotting analysis. Further investigation was performed in L6 cells to check the expression of PTEN and insulin-related signals. PTEN deletion in L6 cells was achieved by small interfering ribonucleic acid transfection. RESULTS: Oral administration of silymarin at a dose of 200 mg/kg once daily induced insulin resistance in normal rats and enhanced insulin resistance in fructose-rich chow-fed rats. An increase of PTEN expression was observed in the skeletal muscle and liver of rats with insulin resistance. A decrease in the phosphorylation of Akt in L6 myotube cells, which was maintained in a high-glucose condition, was also observed. Treatment with silymarin aggravated high-glucose-induced insulin resistance. Deletion of PTEN in L6 cells reversed silymarin-induced impaired insulin signaling and glucose uptake. CONCLUSIONS: Silymarin has the ability to disrupt insulin signaling through increased PTEN expression. Therefore, silymarin should be used carefully in type-2 diabetic patients.

  14. Omega-3 fatty acids have antidepressant activity in forced swimming test in Wistar rats.

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    Lakhwani, Lalit; Tongia, Sudheer K; Pal, Veerendra S; Agrawal, Rajendra P; Nyati, Prem; Phadnis, Pradeep

    2007-01-01

    Forced swimming test is used to induce a characteristic behavior of immobility in rats, which resembles depression in humans to some extent. We evaluated the effect of omega-3 fatty acids alone as well as compared it with the standard antidepressant therapy with fluoxetine in both acute and chronic studies. In both the studies, rats were divided into 4 groups and subjected to the following drug interventions - Group 1- control: Group 2- fluoxetine in dose of 10 mg/kg subcutaneously 23.5, 5 and 1 h before the test: Group 3- omega-3 fatty acids in dose of 500 mg/kg orally; Group 4- fluoxetine plus omega-3 fatty acids both. In acute study, omega-3 fatty acids were given in single dose 2 h prior to the test while in chronic study omega-3 fatty acids were given daily for a period of 28 days. All animals were subjected to a 15-min pretest followed 24 h later by a 5-min test. A time sampling method was used to score the behavioral activity in each group. The results revealed that in acute study, omega-3 fatty acids do not have any significant effect in forced swimming test. However, in chronic study, omega-3 fatty acids affect the immobility and swimming behavior significantly when compared with control (p climbing behavior and the efficacy of combination of omega-3 fatty acids and fluoxetine is significantly more than that of fluoxetine alone in changing the behavioral activity of rats in forced swimming test. It leads to the conclusion that omega-3 fatty acids have antidepressant activity per se, and the combination of fluoxetine and omega-3 fatty acids has more antidepressant efficacy than fluoxetine alone in forced swimming test in Wistar rats.

  15. Fenitrothion action at the endocannabinoid system leading to spermatotoxicity in Wistar rats

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    Ito, Yuki, E-mail: yukey@med.nagoya-cu.ac.jp [Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya 467-8601 (Japan); Tomizawa, Motohiro [Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya 467-8601 (Japan); Faculty of Applied Bioscience, Tokyo University of Agriculture, Tokyo 156-8502 (Japan); Suzuki, Himiko [Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya 467-8601 (Japan); Okamura, Ai [Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya 466-8550 (Japan); Ohtani, Katsumi [National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health, Kanagawa 214-8585 (Japan); Nunome, Mari; Noro, Yuki [Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya 467-8601 (Japan); Wang, Dong; Nakajima, Tamie [Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya 466-8550 (Japan); Kamijima, Michihiro, E-mail: kamijima@med.nagoya-cu.ac.jp [Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya 467-8601 (Japan)

    2014-09-15

    Organophosphate (OP) compounds as anticholinesterase agents may secondarily act on diverse serine hydrolase targets, revealing unfavorable physiological effects including male reproductive toxicity. The present investigation proposes that fenitrothion (FNT, a major OP compound) acts on the endocannabinoid signaling system in male reproductive organs, thereby leading to spermatotoxicity (sperm deformity, underdevelopment, and reduced motility) in rats. FNT oxon (bioactive metabolite of FNT) preferentially inhibited the fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), an endocannabinoid anandamide (AEA) hydrolase, in the rat cellular membrane preparation from the testis in vitro. Subsequently, male Wistar rats were treated orally with 5 or 10 mg/kg FNT for 9 weeks and the subchronic exposure unambiguously deteriorated sperm motility and morphology. The activity-based protein profiling analysis with a phosphonofluoridate fluorescent probe revealed that FAAH was selectively inhibited among the FNT-treated cellular membrane proteome in testis. Intriguingly, testicular AEA (endogenous substrate of FAAH) levels were elevated along with the FAAH inhibition caused by the subchronic exposure. More importantly, linear regression analyses for the FNT-elicited spermatotoxicity reveal a good correlation between the testicular FAAH activity and morphological indices or sperm motility. Accordingly, the present study proposes that the FNT-elicited spermatotoxicity appears to be related to inhibition of FAAH leading to overstimulation of the endocannabinoid signaling system, which plays crucial roles in spermatogenesis and sperm motility acquirement. - Highlights: • Subchronic exposure to fenitrothion induces spermatotoxicity in rats. • The fatty acid amide hydrolase is a potential target for the spermatotoxicity. • Overstimulation of the endocannabinoid signal possibly leads to the spermatotoxicity.

  16. Calcium, zinc and vitamin E ameliorate cadmium-induced renal oxidative damage in albino Wistar rats

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    Pradeepkiran Jangampalli Adi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed to examine the protective effects of supplementation with calcium + zinc (Ca + Zn or vitamin E (Vit-E on Cd-induced renal oxidative damage. Young albino Wistar rats (180 ± 10 g (n = 6 control rats, Cd, Cd + Ca + Zn, and Cd + Vit-E experimental groups and the experimental period was 30 days. Rats were exposed to Cd (20 mg/kg body weight alone treated as Cd treated group and the absence or presence of Ca + Zn (2 mg/kg each or Vit-E (20 mg/kg body weight supplementation treated as two separate groups. The activities of the stress marker enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, glutathione reductase (GR, glutathione peroxidase (GPx, glutathione-S-transferase (GST and lipid peroxidase (LPx were determined in renal mitochondrial fractions of experimental rats. We observed quantitative changes in SOD isoenzymatic patterns by non-denaturing PAGE analysis, and quantified band densities. These results showed that Cd exposure leads to decreases in SOD, CAT, GR, and GPx activities and a concomitant increase in LPx and GST activities. Ca + Zn and Vit-E administration with Cd significantly reversed Cd-induced perturbations in oxidative stress marker enzymes. However, Vit-E showed more inhibitory activity against Cd than did Ca + Zn, and it protected against Cd-induced nephrotoxicity.

  17. Evaluation of wound healing property of Terminalia catappa on excision wound models in Wistar rats.

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    Khan, A A; Kumar, V; Singh, B K; Singh, R

    2014-05-01

    Wound is defined as the loss of breaking cellular and functional continuity of the living tissues. Management of wounds is frequently encountered with different problems. Drug resistance and toxicity hindered the development of synthetic antimicrobial agents with wound healing activity. Many plants with potent pharmacological activities may offer better treatment options viz. Terminalia chebula, Terminalia bellirica and Phyllanthus emblica formulations have shown healing activities on wounds.The present study was planned to investigate the wound healing activity of Terminalia catappa on excision wound model in rats. Ointment was prepared by using bark extract of Terminalia catappa in soft paraffin and preservative. Wistar albino rats (200-250 gm) of either sex were used in the present study. A circular wound of 2 cm in diameter was made on the depilated dorsal thoracic region of the rats under ether anesthesia in aseptic conditions. The ointment was applied for 18 days and percent wound closure observed along with the parameters viz. Epithelization, granuloma weight and scar formation. Animals were observed on 3rd, 6th, 9th, 12th, 15th and 18th post-wounding day.Wound healing activity was compared with that of control and Betadine ointment as standard drug. Animals treated with Terminalia catappa ointment exhibited 97% reduction in wound area as compared to the control animals (81%). Ointment treated wounds were found to induce epithelization faster compared to the control. In conclusion, Terminalia catappa ointment promotes significant wound healing in rats and further evaluation of this activity in humans is suggested.

  18. Characterization of troponin responses in isoproterenol-induced cardiac injury in the Hanover Wistar rat.

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    York, Malcolm; Scudamore, Cheryl; Brady, Sally; Chen, Christabelle; Wilson, Sharon; Curtis, Mark; Evans, Gareth; Griffiths, William; Whayman, Matthew; Williams, Thomas; Turton, John

    2007-06-01

    The investigations aimed to evaluate the usefulness of cardiac troponins as biomarkers of acute myocardial injury in the rat. Serum from female Hanover Wistar rats treated with a single intraperitoneal (IP) injection of isoproterenol (ISO) was assayed for cardiac troponin I (cTnI) (ACS: 180SE, Bayer), cTnI (Immulite 2000, Diagnostic Products Corporation) and cardiac troponin T (cTnT) (Elecsys 2010, Roche). In a time-course study (50.0 mg/kg ISO), serum cTnI (ACS:180SE) and cTnT increased above control levels at 1 hour postdosing, peaking at 2 hours (cTnI, 4.30 microg/L; cTnT, 1.79 microg/L), and declined to baseline by 48 hours, with histologic cardiac lesions first seen at 4 hours postdosing. The Immulite 2000 assay gave minimal cTnI signals, indicating poor immunoreactivity towards rat cTnI. In a dose-response study (0.25 to 20.0 mg/kg ISO), there was a trend for increasing cTnI (ACS:180SE) values with increasing ISO dose levels at 2 hours postdosing. By 24 hours, cTnI levels returned to baseline although chronic cardiac myodegeneration was present. We conclude that serum cTnI and cTnT levels are sensitive and specific biomarkers for detecting ISO induced myocardial injury in the rat. Serum troponin values reflect the development of histopathologic lesions; however peak troponin levels precede maximal lesion severity.

  19. Phosphide residue exposure as the cause of serum vitamin depletion in female Wistar rats

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    Ayobola Abolape Iyanda

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Synthetic chemical preservatives have received much negative publicity in recent time, some of which include insect resistance and misapplication of fumigants as well as a myriad of clinical conditions that have been associated with grain consumption. Aluminum phosphide is widely employed for the fumigation of grains meant for both international and local markets. Although its manufacturers have discouraged contamination of grains with spent or unspent phosphide residue, contamination still does occur especially among many illiterate cowpea merchants. The objective of this study is to determine the impact of phosphide residue contaminated cowpea on serum vitamin levels. Methods: Female Wistar rats were divided into 3 experimental groups with each group consisting of 6 rats. They were fed unfumigated (control, fumigated-contaminated (group 1 and fumigated but uncontaminated (group 2 cowpea. Results: Vitamin analysis using high performance liquid chromatography technique showed significant differences in the levels of niacin, folic acid, thiamine, riboflavin, and vitamins A, C, D and E; but pantothenic acid and pyridoxine were not significantly different in group 1 rats compared with control. Moreover, compared with control none of the vitamins were significantly different in rats in group 2. Conclusion: Cowpea is a source of many vitamins among the teeming poor in many part of the developing world; therefore there is need to ensure its proper fumigation. The results of this study suggest that although proper phosphide fumigation of cowpea may not alter serum vitamin levels but improper handling of the fumigation process may result in vitamin depletion. [J Exp Integr Med 2013; 3(2.000: 159-163

  20. Interleukin-6 modulates colonic transepithelial ion transport in the stress-sensitive Wistar Kyoto rat.

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    Dervla eO'Malley

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Immunological challenge stimulates secretion of the pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL-6, resulting in variety of biological responses. In the gastrointestinal (GI tract, IL-6 modulates the excitability of sub-mucosal neurons and stimulates secretion into the colonic lumen. When considered in the context of the functional bowel disorder, irritable bowel syndrome (IBS, where plasma levels of IL-6 are elevated, this may reflect an important molecular mechanism contributing to symptom flares, particularly in the diarrhoea-predominant phenotype. In these studies, colonic ion transport, an indicator of absorption and secretion, was assessed in the stress-sensitive Wistar Kyoto (WKY rat model of IBS. Mucosa-submucosal colonic preparations from WKY and control Sprague Dawley (SD rats were mounted in Ussing chambers and the basal short circuit current (ISC was electrophysiologically recorded and compared between the strains. Exposure to IL-6 (1nM stimulated a secretory current of greater amplitude in WKY as compared to SD samples. Furthermore, the observed IL-6-mediated potentiation of secretory currents evoked by veratridine and capsaicin in SD rats was blunted in WKY rats. Exposure to IL-6 also stimulated an increase in trans-epithelial resistance in both SD and WKY colonic tissue. These studies demonstrate that the neuroexcitatory effects of IL-6 on submucosal plexi have functional consequences with alterations in both colonic secretory activity and permeability. The IL-6-induced increase in colonic secretory activity appears to neurally-mediated. Thus, local increases in IL-6 levels and subsequent activation of enteric neurons may underlie alterations in absorpto-secretory function in the WKY model of IBS.

  1. A preliminary study in Wistar rats with enniatin A contaminated feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manyes, Lara; Escrivá, Laura; Serrano, Ana Belén; Rodríguez-Carrasco, Yelko; Tolosa, Josefa; Meca, Giuseppe; Font, Guillermina

    2014-03-01

    A 28-day repeated dose preliminary assay, using enniatin A naturally contaminated feed through microbial fermentation by a Fusarium tricinctum strain, was carried out employing 2-month-old female Wistar rats as in vivo experimental model. In order to simulate a physiological test of a toxic compound naturally produced by fungi, five treated animals were fed during 28 days with fermented feed. As control group, five rats were fed with standard feed. At the 28th day, blood samples were collected for biochemical analysis and the gastrointestinal tract, liver and kidneys were removed from each rat for enniatin A detection and quantitation. Digesta were collected from stomach, duodenum, jejunum, ileum and colon. Enniatin A present in organs and in biological fluids was analyzed by liquid chromatography-diode array detector (LC-DAD) and confirmed by LC-mass spectrometry linear ion trap (MS-LIT); also several serum biochemical parameters and a histological analysis of the duodenal tract were performed. No adverse effects were found in any treated rat at the enniatin A concentration (20.91 mg/kg bw/day) tested during the 28-day experiment. Enniatin A quantitation in biological fluids ranged from 1.50 to 9.00 mg/kg, whereas in the gastrointestinal organs the enniatin A concentration ranged from 2.50 to 23.00 mg/kg. The high enniatin A concentration found in jejunum liquid and tissue points to them as an absorption area. Finally, two enniatin A degradation products were identified in duodenum, jejunum and colon content, probably produced by gut microflora.

  2. ANALGESIC ACTIVITY OF AQUEOUS EXTRACT OF CURCUMA AMADA (MANGO - GINGER IN MALE ALBINO WISTAR RATS

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    Kumari Bai

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mango ginger ( Curcuma amada Roxb. has morphological resemblance with ginger, but imparts mango flavour. According to Ayurveda and Unani medicinal systems , the biological activities include antioxidant, antibacterial, antifungal, anti - inflammatory, antiallergic, CNS depressant and analgesic activity. Hence curcuma amada aqueous extract for analgesic activity was evaluated in pain animal models. Pain is a most common complaint of many medical conditions, and pain control is one of t he most important therapeutic priorities. Curcuma Amada suppresses the inflammatory mediators associated with pain. However there is no scientific data suggestive of its analgesic activity. Hence this study was carried out to evaluate its role in central a nd peripheral models of pain. OBJECTIVE: To Evaluate rhizomes of Curcuma Amada for analgesic activity in male albino wistar rats . MATERIALS AND METHODS: Albino rats, the proven models for analgesic studies. They were obtained from the animal house of DR.B. R. Ambedkar Medical College. Animals were maintained as per CPCSEA guidelines . The aqueous extract of curcuma amada was used.4x2 groups of 6 Rats were used to ensure that results obtained were statistically significant using ANOVA test. Analgesic activity was assessed with the help of following screening methods . Acetic Acid Writhing Method using Acetic Acid . Tail Flick Method using the Analgesiometer . Tail Immersion Method using Hot Water (55 0 C . Hot Plate method using Hot Plate . RESULT S: Aqueous extract of curcuma amada significantly suppressed the 1% acetic acid induced writhing response in rats when compared to control group (Gum acacia. In Tail flick test and Hot plate test Curcuma Amada increases the latency period of pain (reaction time. In Tail im mersion test the test drug significantly (P < 0.001 reduces pain at 30 min when compared to control group at 60 min of oral administration. CONCLUSION : The present findings indicate that

  3. Transthoracic echocardiography in rats. Evalution of commonly used indices of left ventricular dimensions, contractile performance, and hypertrophy in a genetic model of hypertrophic heart failure (SHHF-Mcc-facp-Rats) in comparison with Wistar rats during aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reffelmann, Thorsten; Kloner, Robert A

    2003-09-01

    Two-weekly echocardiographic examinations were conducted in nine SHHF-Mc-fa(cp) rats in comparison with eight age-matched Wistar rats. In the SHHF-rats, characterized by progressive LV-dilation and decreasing contractile function between 77-87 weeks of age, left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy was most sensitively demonstrated by increased LV-mass-index (p rats.

  4. Mechanisms of relaxation induced by flavonoid ayanin in isolated aorta rings from Wistar rats

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    Rosalía Carrón

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: This study shows the relaxant effect induced by ayanin in aorta rings from Wistar rats linked to nitric oxide/cyclic-GMP pathway.  This flavonoid is the prevalent compound obtained from Croton schiedeanus Schlecht (Euphorbiaceae, specie used in Colombian folk medicine for the treatment of arterial hypertension. Objectives: To identify possible action mechanisms of vascular relaxation induced by ayanin (quercetin 3,4',7-trimethyl ether. Methodology: Isolated aorta rings from Wistar rats obtained at the Animal House of the University of Salamanca were contracted with KCl (80 mM or phenylephrine (PE, 10-6 M and exposed to ayanin (10-6-10-4 M.  Then, the effect of ayanin was assessed in deendothelized rings contracted with PE and in intact rings contracted with PE previously incubated with: ODQ (10-6 M, L-NAME (10-4 M, L-NAME plus D- and L-arginine (10-4 M, indomethacin (5x10-6 M, dipyridamole (3x10-7 M, glibenclamide (10-6 M, propranolol (10-6 M, verapamil (10-7 M or atropine (3x10-5 M.  In addition, the relaxant effect of acetylcholine (Ach, 10-8-3x10-4 M, and sodium nitroprusside (SNP, 10-9-3x10-5 M was assessed in the presence and absence of ayanin (10-6 M. Results: Ayanin induced a greater concentration-dependent relaxation in vessels contracted with phenylephrine (pEC50: 5.84±0.05, an effect significantly reduced by deendothelization and by both ODQ and L-NAME.  L-arginine was able to reverse the effect of L-NAME.  Indomethacin weakly inhibited ayanin response.  Dipyridamole, glibenclamide, propranolol, verapamil, and atropine did not affect ayanin relaxation.  Ayanin did not have any effect on the relaxation elicited by acetylcholine (ACh, while weakly decreasing the relaxation induced by sodium nitroprusside (SNP. Conclusion: Ayanin induces endothelium-dependent relaxation in the rat aorta mainly related to nitric oxide/cGMP pathway, according to the response observed in the presence of L-NAME, L-arginine and ODQ.

  5. Protective Effect of Acacia nilotica (L. against Acetaminophen-Induced Hepatocellular Damage in Wistar Rats

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    Narayanan Kannan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The potential biological functions of A. nilotica have long been described in traditional system of medicine. However, the protective effect of A. nilotica on acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity is still unknown. The present study attempted to investigate the protective effect of A. nilotica against acetaminophen-induced hepatic damage in Wistar rats. The biochemical liver functional tests Alanine transaminase (ALT, Aspartate transaminase (AST, Alkaline phosphatase (ALP, total bilirubin, total protein, oxidative stress test (Lipid peroxidation, antioxidant parameter glutathione (GSH, and histopathological changes were examined. Our results show that the pretreatment with A. nilotica (250 mg/kg·bw orally revealed attenuation of serum activities of ALT, AST, ALP, liver weight, and total bilirubin levels that were enhanced by administration of acetaminophen. Further, pretreatment with extract elevated the total protein and GSH level and decreased the level of LPO. Histopathological analysis confirmed the alleviation of liver damage and reduced lesions caused by acetaminophen. The present study undoubtedly provides a proof that hepatoprotective action of A. nilotica extract may rely on its effect on reducing the oxidative stress in acetaminophen-induced hepatic damage in rat model.

  6. Effect of Imatinib on the Oogenesis and Pituitary -Ovary Hormonal Axis in Female Wistar Rat

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    Parichehreh Yaghmaei

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Imatinib mesylate, a small-molecular analog of adenosine triphosphate (ATPthat potently inhibits tyrosine kinase activities of Bcr–Abl, PDGFR-β, PDGFR-α, c-Fms, Argand c-kit, is one of the novel molecularly targeted drugs being introduced into cancer therapy.We tested the effect of imatinib on the ovarian histological structure and the concentration ofestrogen and progesterone, luteinizing hormone (LH and follicle stimulating hormone (FSHin the serum of female Wistar rats.Materials and Methods: Two groups of rats (180 ± 15 grams were gavaged with doses of 50and 100 mg/kg body weight imatinib dissolved in distilled water for 14 days. The control groupreceived sterile water. On day 7, after termination of the treatment, blood serum concentrationwas measured with the radioimmunoassay (RIA method. Also, sections (5 μm thick of ovariesstained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E were investigated histologically.Results: Progesterone concentration in the experimental groups was increased (p<0.001,estrogen and FSH concentrations were decreased (p<0.01, and the LH concentration decreasedbut was not statistically different in comparison with the control group. The weight of ovaries andnumber of atretic follicles in the experimental groups was increased compared with the controlgroup (p<0.05. The diameter of corpus lutea were increased but the number of corpus luteadecreased in both experimental groups (p<0.01.Conclusion: These findings suggest that administration of imatinib may have profound effects onfemale fertility.

  7. Ursolic acid attenuates oxidative stress-mediated hepatocellular carcinoma induction by diethylnitrosamine in male Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayathri, Renganathan; Priya, D Kalpana Deepa; Gunassekaran, G R; Sakthisekaran, Dhanapal

    2009-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma is the most common primary cancer of the liver in Asian countries. For more than a decade natural dietary agents including fruits, vegetables and spices have drawn a great deal of attention in the prevention of diseases, preferably cancer. Ursolic acid is a natural triterpenoid widely found in food, medicinal herbs, apple peel and other products it has been extensively studied for its anticancer and antioxidant properties. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of ursolic acid in diethylnitrosamine (DEN) induced and phenobarbital promoted hepatocarcinogenesis in male Wistar rats. Antioxidant status was assessed by alterations in level of lipid peroxides and protein carbonyls. Damage to plasma membranes was assessed by levels of membrane and tissue ATPases. Liver tissue was homogenized and utilized for estimation of lipid peroxides, protein carbonyls and glycoproteins. Anticoagulated blood was utilized for erythrocyte membrane isolation. Oral administration of UA 20 mg/kg bodyweight for 6 weeks decreased the levels of lipid peroxides and protein carbonyls at a significance of p< 0.05. Activities of membrane and tissue ATPases returned to normal after UA administration. Levels of glycoproteins were also restored after treatment. Histopathological observations were recorded. The findings from the above study suggest the effectiveness of UA in reducing the oxidative stress mediated changes in liver of rats. Since UA has been found to be a potent antioxidant, it can be suggested as an excellent chemopreventive agent in overcoming diseases like cancer which are mediated by free radicals.

  8. Coconut oil increases HDL-c and decreases triglycerides in wistar rats

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    Lidiani Figueiredo Santana

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Changes in body composition and serum lipid profile in rats, supplemented with coconut oil, are evaluated and compared to other lipid sources. Female Wistar rats received by gavage 1 mL kg-1 of saline, soybean oil, lard or coconut oil during 21 days. At the end of the study period, body composition, food intake, feces, urine, organ weight and serum lipid profile were assessed. No statistical differences between the groups were found in body composition, food intake, fecal and urinary analysis, and organ weight. In the case or plasma lipid concentrations, coconut oil and lard raised total cholesterol levels, without changes in LDL levels. On the other hand there was no change in total cholesterol levels in the soybean oil group. HDL fraction increased in all groups when compared to that in the saline group; this increase was more significant in the coconut oil group. There was significant reduction of serum triglycerides only in the coconut oil group when compared to the saline group. Supplementation with coconut oil did not interfere in weight and body composition of the animals used in current study, but revealed significant effect on the increase of HDL-c levels and decrease of serum triglycerides.

  9. Evaluation of acute and sub-acute toxicity of Pinus eldarica bark extract in Wistar rats

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    Akram Ghadirkhomi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Pinus eldarica (P. eldarica is one of the most common pines in Iran which has various bioactive constituents and different uses in traditional medicine. Since there is no documented evidence for P. eldarica safety, the acute and sub-acute oral toxicities of hydroalcoholic extract of P. eldarica bark were investigated in male and female Wistar rats in this study. Materials and Methods: In the acute study, a single dose of extract (2000 mg/kg was orally administered and animals were monitored for 7 days. In the sub-acute study, repeated doses (125, 250 and 500 mg/kg/day of the extract were administered for 28 days and biochemical, hematological and histopathological parameters were evaluated. Results: Our results showed no sign of toxicity and no mortality after single or repeated administration of P. eldarica. The median lethal dose (LD50 of P. eldarica was determined to be higher than 2000 mg/kg. The mean body weight and most of the biochemical and hematological parameters showed normal levels.  There were only significant decreases in serum triglyceride levels at the doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg of the extract in male rats (pConclusion: Oral administration of the hydroalcoholic extract of P. eldarica bark may be considered as relatively non-toxic particularly at the doses of 125 and 250 mg/kg.

  10. Immunological Effect of PM2.5 on Cytokine Production in Female Wistar Rats1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NING-HUA HUANG; QIN WANG; DONG-QUN XU

    2008-01-01

    Objective To investigate the immunological effect of PM2.5 on cytokine production in female Wistar rats.Methods Female Wistzr rats were given 0.3 mg,0.75 mg,2 mg,5 mg of PM2.5 per 0.5mL saline,respectively.Saline was used as the negative control.TNF-α and IL-6 levels in the branchoalveolar lavage were measured by ELISA,and mRNA expression leveIs in lung tissue were detected bv RT-PCR.Alveolar macrophages were collected for testing phogacytic function. Results Exposure to PM2.5 stimulated TNF-α production in a dose-dependent manner(P<0.05),However,no statistically significant difference was found.No time-dependent change in TNF-α and IL-6 production Was found.TNF-α and IL-6 mRNA expressions were induced by PM2.5-exposure.The phagocytic rate(PR)was significantly decreased by PM2.5 treatment.Conclusion PM2.5 exposure increases inflammation response of the lung in a dose-dependent mauuer.Moreover,tissue injury induced by PM2.5 may be related to altered production of cytokines.PM2.5 may impair the phagocytic activity of alveolar macrophages.

  11. Hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity evaluation in Wistar albino rats exposed to Morinda lucida leaf extract

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    Taofeeq Oduola

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Aqueous extract of Morinda lucida benth leaf is consumed in Southern Nigeria in the treatment of malaria without any regard for its safety. Aim: The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of ingestion of the ethanolic leaf extract of the plant on liver and kidney functions in Wistar albino rats. Materials and Methods: Acute oral toxicity test was performed to determine the LD50; sub-chronic toxicity study was then carried out by oral administration of different doses of the extract on daily basis to different groups of rats for 42 days. The animals were subsequently sacrificed, and liver and kidney functions assessed biochemically using standard techniques. Results: The acute oral toxicity result, LD50, revealed Morinda lucida leaf extract to be non-lethal at 6400mg/kg body weight. The results obtained for liver and kidney function parameters indicated that ingestion of Morinda lucida leaf extract has no toxic effect on liver and kidney functions. Conclusion: The results can form the basis for clinical trials in humans.

  12. Hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity evaluation in Wistar albino rats exposed to Morinda lucida leaf extract

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    Taofeeq Oduola

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Aqueous extract of Morinda lucida benth leaf is consumed in Southern Nigeria in the treatment of malaria without any regard for its safety. Aim: The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of ingestion of the ethanolic leaf extract of the plant on liver and kidney functions in Wistar albino rats. Materials and Methods: Acute oral toxicity test was performed to determine the LD 50 ; sub-chronic toxicity study was then carried out by oral administration of different doses of the extract on daily basis to different groups of rats for 42 days. The animals were subsequently sacrificed, and liver and kidney functions assessed biochemically using standard techniques. Results: The acute oral toxicity result, LD 50, revealed Morinda lucida leaf extract to be non-lethal at 6400mg/kg body weight. The results obtained for liver and kidney function parameters indicated that ingestion of Morinda lucida leaf extract has no toxic effect on liver and kidney functions. Conclusion: The results can form the basis for clinical trials in humans.

  13. Carvacrol attenuates N-nitrosodiethylamine induced liver injury in experimental Wistar rats

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    Balan Rajan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Carvacrol is a main constituent in the essential oils of countless aromatic plants including Origanum Vulgare and Thymus vulgari, which has been assessed for substantial pharmacological properties. In recent years, notable research has been embarked on to establish the biological actions of Carvacrol for its promising use in clinical applications. The present study is an attempt to reveal the protective role of Carvacrol against N-Nitrosodiethylamine (DEN induced hepatic injury in male Wistar albino rats. DEN is an egregious toxin, present in numerous environmental factors, which enhances chemical driven liver damage by inducing oxidative stress and cellular injury. Administration of DEN (200 mg/kg bodyweight, I.P to rats results in elevated marker enzymes (in both serum and tissue. Carvacrol (15 mg/kg body weight suppressed the elevation of marker enzymes (in both serum and tissue and augmented the antioxidants levels. The hoisted activities of Phase I enzymes and inferior activities of Phase II enzymes were observed in DEN-administered animals, whereas Carvacrol treated animals showed improved near normal activity. Histological observations also support the protective role of Carvacrol against DEN induced liver damage. Final outcome from our findings intimate that Carvacrol might be beneficial in attenuating toxin induced liver damage.

  14. Effect of dolomite oral exposure in Wistar rats during organogenesis period of pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagarto, Alicia; Bellma, Addis; Tillán, Juana; Gabilondo, Tatiana; Guerra, Isbel; Ocanto, Zuleira; Couret, Micaela; González, Ricardo

    2008-09-01

    The potential of oral exposure to dolomite, a natural product that contains calcium and magnesium, to initiate teratogenesis was analyzed in Wistar rats. Animals received dolomite oral dosages of 500 and 1500mg/kg during the period of gestation from day 6-15 post conceptionem (p.c.). Maternal, embryo and fetal toxicity were evaluated. Dolomite exposure did not produce maternal toxicity assessed by clinical observations, body weight gain, hematology parameters and relative organs weight. Signs of embryo-fetal toxicity were not observed. Skeletal malformations and visceral variations were similar in control and dolomite-treated groups. On the other hand, slight increase was observed in fetal body weight in the dolomite-treated group. Treatment with dolomite resulted in significantly decreased incidences of unossified xiphisternum, incomplete ossification of xiphisternum and sternebrae. These effects could be caused by a beneficial influence of calcium and magnesium salts present in dolomite on ossification process. In conclusion, in this study we found that the oral exposure to rats of up to 1500mg/kg of dolomite during organogenesis did not induce significant maternal and embryo-fetal toxicity.

  15. Protective effect of alpha-lipoic acid on cypermethrin-induced oxidative stress in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mignini, F; Nasuti, C; Fedeli, D; Mattioli, L; Cosenza, M; Artico, M; Gabbianelli, R

    2013-01-01

    Cypermethrin (CY), a class II pyrethroid pesticide, is globally used to control insects in the household and in agriculture. Despite beneficial roles, its uncontrolled and repetitive application leads to unintended effects in non-target organisms. In light of the relevant anti-oxidant properties of alpha-lipoic acid (ALA), in the work described herein we tested the effect of a commercially available ALA formulation on cypermethrin CY)-induced oxidative stress in Wistar rats. The rats were orally administered with 53.14 mg/kg of ALA and 35.71 mg/kg of CY for 60 days. The treatment with CY did not induce changes in either locomotor activities or in body weight. Differences were observed on superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and lipid peroxidation that were re-established by ALA treatment at similar levels of the placebo group. Furthermore, ALA formulation increased glutathione (GSH) level and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity. Because of the widespread use of CY, higher amounts of pesticide residues are present in food, and a diet supplementation with ALA could be an active free radical scavenger protecting against diseases associated with oxidative stress.

  16. Effects of immobilization and remobilization on the ankle joint in Wistar rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunz, R.I. [Laboratório de Biologia Estrutural e Funcional, Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Paraná, Cascavel, PR (Brazil); Coradini, J.G.; Silva, L.I.; Bertolini, G.R.F. [Laboratório do Estudo das Lesões e Recursos Fisioterapêuticos, Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Paraná, Cascavel, PR (Brazil); Brancalhão, R.M.C.; Ribeiro, L.F.C. [Laboratório de Biologia Estrutural e Funcional, Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Paraná, Cascavel, PR (Brazil)

    2014-08-15

    A sprained ankle is a common musculoskeletal sports injury and it is often treated by immobilization of the joint. Despite the beneficial effects of this therapeutic measure, the high prevalence of residual symptoms affects the quality of life, and remobilization of the joint can reverse this situation. The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of immobilization and remobilization on the ankle joint of Wistar rats. Eighteen male rats had their right hindlimb immobilized for 15 days, and were divided into the following groups: G1, immobilized; G2, remobilized freely for 14 days; and G3, remobilized by swimming and jumping in water for 14 days, performed on alternate days, with progression of time and a series of exercises. The contralateral limb was the control. After the experimental period, the ankle joints were processed for microscopic analysis. Histomorphometry did not show any significant differences between the control and immobilized/remobilized groups and members, in terms of number of chondrocytes and thickness of the articular cartilage of the tibia and talus. Morphological analysis of animals from G1 showed significant degenerative lesions in the talus, such as exposure of the subchondral bone, flocculation, and cracks between the anterior and mid-regions of the articular cartilage and the synovial membrane. Remobilization by therapeutic exercise in water led to recovery in the articular cartilage and synovial membrane of the ankle joint when compared with free remobilization, and it was shown to be an effective therapeutic measure in the recovery of the ankle joint.

  17. Minyak ikan Lemuru (Sardinella longicep menurunkan apoptosis osteoblas pada tulang alveolaris tikus wistar (Fish oil of Lemuru (Sardinella longicep reduced the osteoblast apoptosis in wistar rat alveolar bone

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    Didin Erma Indahyani

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Periodontal disease is caused by periodontopatogen bacteria resulting the alveolar bone damage. The decrease of osteoblasts and the increased of osteoclasts can cause bone destruction. The decrease of osteoblasts, due to a disturbance of differentiation, proliferation and apoptosis. Inflammatory mediators are prostaglandin E2 (PGE2, interleukin-1 (IL-1, IL-6 also tumor necrosis alpha (TNF-α stimulates osteoblast apoptosis through gene expression, signaling molecules and receptor-forming osteoblasts. Fish oil of Lemuru, which is widely encountered in Indonesian coast, containing n-3 poly unsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs are quite high. Consumption of fish oil shown to reduce the expression of PGE2, IL-1, IL-6 and TNF-α. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of Lemuru (Sardinella longicep fish oil on osteoblast apoptosis of rat alveolar bone induced periodontal infection. Methods: Thirty Wistar rats, male, age 5 days, divided into 3 groups: group I rats induced with normal saline, group II rats induced by LPS, and group III rats induced with lemuru fish oil and LPS. Each group was divided into 2 sub-groups that would be sacrified at 13 days and 21 days of age. Fish oil was given at a dose 1ml/300-350 grams. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS induced with the purpose to cause periodontal infection in the maxillary buccal fold molar region with dose 5μl LPS/PBS 0.03 ml. After decapitation and decalcification, the maxilla was cut in 5μm thickness. Apoptosis was analyzed on DNA and detected by TUNEL reaction (transferase-mediated digoxigenin-deoxy-UTP nick end labeling. Results: The results showed that apoptosis of osteoblast cells was significantly smaller in rats induced by Lemuru fish oil. Conclusion: The study showed that Lemuru fish oil reduced the osteoblast apoptosis of rats alveolar bone induced periodontal infection by LPS.Latar belakang: Penyakit periodontal akibat bakteri peridontopatogen, menyebabkan

  18. Levels of Pesticides and Their Metabolites in Wistar Rat Amniotic Fluids and Maternal Urine upon Gestational Exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bossi, Rossana; Vinggaard, Anne Marie; Taxvig, Camilla;

    2013-01-01

    Concentrations of pesticides and selected metabolites in rat urine and amniotic fluid were determined as biomarker upon oral administration of Wistar rats to two pesticide mixtures consisting of three to five pesticides (bitertanol, propiconazole, cypermethrin, malathion, and terbuthylazine......). The pesticides and their metabolites were found in rat amniotic fluid and urine, generally in dose-response concentrations in relation to dosage. The measurement of the substances in the amniotic fluid indicated that the fetus was exposed to the pesticides as well as their metabolites. Moreover, the pesticides...

  19. Embryotoxicity and teratogenicity studies of poly (DL-lactide-co-glycolide) microspheres incorporated tetanus toxoid in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasekaran, R; Giri, D K; Chaudhury, M R

    1996-04-01

    Tetanus Toxoid loaded biodegradable microspheres (MTT) (poly (DL-Lactide-co-Glycolide) were administered intramuscularly to pregnant Wistar rats from Days 6 to 15 of gestation, at 1, 5 and 10-times the human equivalent dose of TT. Developmental defects in relation to soft tissues and skeleton, weight and sex of live pups and early fetal deaths from treated and control rats were analysed. The findings in treatment groups were comparable to those in the controls. These observations show that MTT was safe for pregnant rats and developing pups.

  20. Healing Potentials of Oral Moringa Oleifera Leaves Extract and Tetracycline on Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus Infected Wounds of Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyarefe, Oghenemega D; Idowu, Aderayo; Afolabi, Jeremiah M

    2015-12-20

    The effects of oral dose of aqueous extract of Moringa oleifera and tetracycline antibiotics on cutaneous wounds infected with Staphylococcus aureus were studied in eighteen adult wistar rats (159±31.5g) randomized into three groups: Group A, n = 6, Moringa oleifera-(300 mg/kg). Group B, n = 6, tetracycline (9.4 mg/kg) and Group C, n = 6, Sterile water (control). Six millimetres diameter nape wound, created on each rat under 2% xylazine (5 mg/kg) and 5% ketamine (35 mg/kg), was contaminated with Staphylococcus aureus (108 Colony Forming Unit (CFU). Following infection, treatment was commenced with daily oral dose of test preparations and the wounds were evaluated every other day i.e., day 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 13 and 15 for wetness (wound exudation), wound edge oedema, hyperaemia, granulation tissues and contraction (diameter). Severe wound exudation existed in all the groups between days 0-3 (p = 1.00). A significantly less wound exudation was observed at days 3-5 (p = 0.000) and 5-9 (p = 0.003) (ControlMoringa). Wound edge oedema was significantly less on days 5-9 (p = 0.000) and 9-15 (p = 0.001) (ControlMoringaMoringa Moringa> Tetracycline). Differences in wound diameter was not significant except at days 5-9 (p = 0.013) (Control> Moringa >Tetracycline). Oral doses of Moringa oleifera extract (300mg/kg) and tetracycline (9.4mg/kg) are not effective as antimicrobial or immune-boosting agents to enhance healing of wounds infected with Staphylococcus aureus and hence not recommended for rapid clearance of Staphylococcus aureus infected wounds.

  1. Características ultra-estruturais do nó sinoatrial de rato Wistar Superstructural features of the wistar strain male rats' sinoatrial node (SAN

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    Carlos Alberto Mandarim de Lacerda

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available As características ultra-estruturais do nó sinoatrial (NSA de 5 ratos machos da variedade Wistar, com 3 meses de idade, foram estudadas por meio de microscopia eletrônica de transmissão (MET. Fragmento pequeno, contendo a região do NSA e área adjacente do átrio direito do coração, foi retirado e fixado em glutaraldeído 2,5% e processado de acordo com técnica convencional para MET. A morfologia do nó sinoatrial de ratos é semelhante a de outros mamíferos. O NSA é uma estrutura anatômica independente do miocárdio atrial, constituído por células típicas (miócitos nodais, células de transição e, principalmente, células nodais imersos em matriz extracelular, na qual predominam fibras colágenas, fibroblastos e nervosThe superstructural features of five Wistar strain male rats' sinoatrial node (SAN at 3-mo-old were studied through transmission electron microscopy (TEM. Small fragments with the regions containing the SAN were cut off, fixed in glutaraldehyde 2.5% and processed according to the conventional technique for TEM. The morphology of the sinoatrial node of the rats is similar as found in other mammals. The SAN is an independent anatomic structure of the atrial myocardial, constituted of typical cells (nodal myocytes, transition cells and nodal cells principally immersed in the extra cellular matrix where collagen fibers, fibroblasts and nerve predominate

  2. Ketoprofen and antinociception in hypo-oestrogenic Wistar rats fed on a high sucrose diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaramillo-Morales, Osmar Antonio; Espinosa-Juárez, Josué Vidal; García-Martínez, Betzabeth Anali; López-Muñoz, Francisco Javier

    2016-10-05

    Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs such as ketoprofen are the most commonly used analgesics for the treatment of pain. However, no studies have evaluated the analgesic response to ketoprofen in conditions of obesity. The aim of this study was to analyse the time course of nociceptive pain in Wistar rats with and without hypo-oestrogenism on a high sucrose diet and to compare the antinociceptive response using ketoprofen. Hypo-oestrogenic and naïve rats received a hyper caloric diet (30% sucrose) or water ad libitum for 17 weeks, the thermal nociception ("plantar test" method) and body weight were tested during this period. A biphasic response was observed: thermal latency decreased in the 4th week (hyperalgesia), while from 12th to 17th week, thermal latency increased (hypoalgesia) in hypo-oestrogenic rats fed with high sucrose diet compared with the hypo-oestrogenic control group. At 4th and 17th weeks, different doses of ketoprofen (1.8-100mg/kg p.o.), were evaluated in all groups. The administration of ketoprofen at 4th and 17th weeks showed dose-dependent effects in the all groups; however, a greater pharmacological efficacy was observed in the 4th week in the hypo-oestrogenic animals that received sucrose. Nevertheless, in all the groups significantly diminish the antinociceptive effects in the 17th week. Our data showed that nociception was altered in the hypo-oestrogenic animals that were fed sucrose (hyperalgesia and hypoalgesia). Ketoprofen showed a dose-dependent antinociceptive effect at both time points. However, hypo-oestrogenism plus high-sucrose diet modifies the antinociceptive effect of ketoprofen.

  3. Gene expression profiling reveals potential key pathways involved in pyrazinamide-mediated hepatotoxicity in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yun; Jiang, Zhenzhou; Su, Yijing; Chen, Mi; Li, Fu; Liu, Li; Sun, Lixin; Wang, Yun; Zhang, Shuang; Zhang, Luyong

    2013-08-01

    Pyrazinamide (PZA) is an important sterilizing prodrug that shortens the duration of tuberculosis therapy. However, hepatotoxicity has been reported during clinical trials investigating PZA. To determine the hepatotoxic effects of PZA in vivo and to further investigate the underlying cellular mechanism, we profiled the gene expression patterns of PZA-treated rat livers by microarray analysis. Wistar rats of both sexes were orally administered PZA at doses of 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 g kg(-1) for 28 days. Body weight, absolute and relative liver weight, biochemical analysis, histopathology, oxidative stress parameters in liver homogenates and changes in global transcriptomic expression were evaluated to study the hepatotoxic effects of PZA. Our results confirm the dose-dependent and sex-related hepatotoxicity of PZA. Female rats were more sensitive to PZA-induced hepatotoxicity than males. Furthermore, changes in the activity of major antioxidant enzymes and nonenzymatic antioxidants (superoxide dismutase, total antioxidant capacity, glutathione and malondialdehyde), indicating the development of oxidative stress, were more significant in the PZA-treated group. PZA-induced gene expression changes were related to pathways involved in drug metabolism, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) signaling, oxidative stress and apoptosis. Real-time polymerase chain reaction confirmed the regulation of selected genes involved in PZA-hepatotoxicity (Ephx1, Cyp2b1, Gstm1, Gstp1, Fabp7, Acaa1, Cpt-1b, Cyp8b1, Hmox1 and Ntrk1). We observed for the first time that these genes have effects on PZA-induced hepatotoxicity. In addition, drug metabolism and PPAR signaling pathways may play an important role in PZA hepatotoxicity. Taken together, these findings will be useful for future PZA hepatotoxicity studies.

  4. Aphrodisiac activity of aqueous extract of Anthonotha macrophylla P. Beauv. leaves in female Wistar rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Musa Toyin Yakubu; Abdulquadri Funmbi Olutoye

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:This study investigated the aphrodisiac activity of aqueous extract ofAnthonotha macrophylaleaves (AEAML) in female Wistar rats. METHODS:Thirty female rats were assigned into fi ve groups of six animals each, such that rats in groups A, B, C, D and E received oraly 1 mL of distiled water only, 5.7 mg/kg body weight (BW) of Exus Ginseng (a polyherbal formulation), 25, 50 and 100 mg/kg BW of AEAML, respectively. After 1 h of treatment, female sexual behaviour parameters were monitored for 30 min. Luteinizing hormone (LH), folicle stimulating hormone (FSH), estradiol (E) and testosterone were also determined using standard methods. RESULTS:Six secondary metabolites were detected in AEAML with alkaloids (13.00 mg/L) being the highest. AEAML at 25 and 50 mg/kg BW signifi cantly (P0.05). The 100 mg/kg BW of AEAML did not alter (P>0.05) the sexual behaviour parameters, serum FSH, LH and E contents, whereas testosterone content increased signifi cantly. The ovarian histology of the animals treated with Exus Ginseng, AEAML at 25 and 50 mg/kg BW revealed developing and ruptured folicles with numerous corpora lutea in the stroma, whereas the 100 mg/kg BW of AEAML produced fewer folicles and corpora lutea. CONCLUSION:The enhanced proceptive, receptive and orientation components of the female sexual behaviour by the 25 and 50 mg/kg BW of AEAML confers sexual invigorating potential on the plant. This study thus justifi es the folkloric claim of the plant as a female aphrodisiac.

  5. Relationships between fetal body weight of Wistar rats at term and the extent of skeletal ossification

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    I. Chahoud

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the relationship between fetal body weight at term (pregnancy day 21 and the extent of ossification of sternum, metacarpus, metatarsus, phalanges (proximal, medial and distal of fore- and hindlimbs and cervical and coccygeal vertebrae in Wistar rats. The relationships between fetal body weight and sex, intrauterine position, uterine horn, horn size, and litter size were determined using historical control data (7594 fetuses; 769 litters of untreated rats. Relationships between body weight and degree of ossification were examined in a subset of 1484 historical control fetuses (154 litters which were subsequently cleared and stained with alizarin red S. Fetal weight was independent of horn size, uterine horn side (left or right or intrauterine position. Males were heavier than females and fetal weight decreased with increasing litter size. Evaluation of the skeleton showed that ossification of sternum, metacarpus and metatarsus was extensively complete and independent of fetal weight on pregnancy day 21. In contrast, the extent of ossification of fore- and hindlimb phalanges and of cervical and sacrococcygeal vertebrae was dependent on fetal body weight. The strongest correlation between body weight and degree of ossification was found for hindlimb, medial and proximal phalanges. Our data therefore suggest that, in full-term rat fetuses (day 21, reduced ossification of sternum, metacarpus and metatarsus results from a localized impairment of bone calcification (i.e., a malformation or variation rather than from general growth retardation and that ossification of hindlimb (medial and proximal phalanges is a good indicator of treatment-induced fetal growth retardation.

  6. Pamidronate for the treatment of osteoporosis secondary to chronic cholestatic liver disease in Wistar rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, F.A. [Departamento de Clínica Médica, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Mattar, R. [1Departamento de Clínica Médica, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Facincani, I. [Departamento de Pediatria e Neonatologia, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Defino, H.L.A. [Departamento de Biomecânica, Medicina e Reabilitação do Aparelho Locomotor, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Ramalho, L.N.Z. [Departamento de Patologia, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Jorgetti, V. [Departamento de Nefrologia, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Volpon, J.B. [Departamento de Biomecânica, Medicina e Reabilitação do Aparelho Locomotor, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Paula, F.J.A. de [Departamento de Clínica Médica, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil)

    2012-09-14

    Osteoporosis is a major complication of chronic cholestatic liver disease (CCLD). We evaluated the efficacy of using disodium pamidronate (1.0 mg/kg body weight) for the prevention (Pr) or treatment (Tr) of cholestasis-induced osteoporosis in male Wistar rats: sham-operated (Sham = 12); bile duct-ligated (Bi = 15); bile duct-ligated animals previously treated with pamidronate before and 1 month after surgery (Pr = 9); bile duct-ligated animals treated with pamidronate 1 month after surgery (Tr = 9). Rats were sacrificed 8 weeks after surgery. Immunohistochemical expression of IGF-I and GH receptor was determined in the proximal growth plate cartilage of the left tibia. Histomorphometric analysis was performed in the right tibia and the right femur was used for biomechanical analysis. Bone material volume over tissue volume (BV/TV) was significantly affected by CCLD (Sham = 18.1 ± 3.2 vs Bi = 10.6 ± 2.2%) and pamidronate successfully increased bone volume. However, pamidronate administered in a preventive regimen presented no additional benefit on bone volume compared to secondary treatment (BV/TV: Pr = 39.4 ± 12.0; Tr = 41.2 ± 12.7%). Moreover, the force on the momentum of fracture was significantly reduced in Pr rats (Sham = 116.6 ± 23.0; Bi = 94.6 ± 33.8; Pr = 82.9 ± 22.8; Tr = 92.5 ± 29.5 N; P < 0.05, Sham vs Pr). Thus, CCLD had a significant impact on bone histomorphometric parameters and pamidronate was highly effective in increasing bone mass in CCLD; however, preventive therapy with pamidronate has no advantage regarding bone fragility.

  7. Evaluation of acute and sub-acute toxicity of Pinus eldarica bark extract in Wistar rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghadirkhomi, Akram; Safaeian, Leila; Zolfaghari, Behzad; Agha Ghazvini, Mohammad Reza; Rezaei, Parisa

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Pinus eldarica (P. eldarica) is one of the most common pines in Iran which has various bioactive constituents and different uses in traditional medicine. Since there is no documented evidence for P. eldarica safety, the acute and sub-acute oral toxicities of hydroalcoholic extract of P. eldarica bark were investigated in male and female Wistar rats in this study. Materials and Methods: In the acute study, a single dose of extract (2000 mg/kg) was orally administered and animals were monitored for 7 days. In the sub-acute study, repeated doses (125, 250 and 500 mg/kg/day) of the extract were administered for 28 days and biochemical, hematological and histopathological parameters were evaluated. Results: Our results showed no sign of toxicity and no mortality after single or repeated administration of P. eldarica. The median lethal dose (LD50) of P. eldarica was determined to be higher than 2000 mg/kg. The mean body weight and most of the biochemical and hematological parameters showed normal levels. There were only significant decreases in serum triglyceride levels at the doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg of the extract in male rats (p<0.05 and p<0.01, respectively) and in monocyte counts at the highest dose of the extract in both male and female rats (p<0.05). Mild inflammation was also found in histological examination of kidney and liver tissues at the highest dose of extract. Conclusion: Oral administration of the hydroalcoholic extract of P. eldarica bark may be considered as relatively non-toxic particularly at the doses of 125 and 250 mg/kg. PMID:27761426

  8. Hepatoprotective effect of Ficus religiosa latex on cisplatin induced liver injury in Wistar rats

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    Yogesh C. Yadav

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available AbstractFicus religiosa L., Moraceae, is widely planted in the tropics. The chemical constituents of F. religiosa include tannin, saponin gluanol acetate, β-sitosterol, leucoanthocyanidin, and leucoanthocyanin. These are used for the treatment of pain, inflammation, impotence, menstrual disturbances, and urine related problems, and as uterine tonic. The present study aimed to evaluate hepatoprotective effects of F. religiosa latex on cisplatin induced liver injury in Wistar rats. In experimental protocol contained five groups of rats (n = 6. In which, group I (control was administered acacia (2%, w/v of 5 ml/kg throughout the experiment for 16 days. The group II (cisplatin treated was administered single dose of cisplatin (7.5 mg/kg i.p. on 1st day. Group III (extract control was administered 300 mg/kg p.o. of extract for 1stto 10th day. Group IV (Protective was administered extract (300 mg/kg p.o. of F. religiosa latex for 1st to 10th day and administered single dose of cisplatin (7.5 mg/kg i.p. on 11th day and group V (Curative received single dose of cisplatin (7.5 mg/kg i.p. on day 1st, and administered extract (300 mg/kg p.o. from 7th to 16thdays. On the 6th day in cisplatin treated, 10th day in extract control and 16th day in control, protective and curative, blood withdrawn from retro-orbital sinus of rats for biochemical estimation for serum and dissected out the livers for estimation of antioxidant enzymes and histopathological works. The cisplatin-treated group 2 showed a significant increase in serum alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase and hepatocytes cells degeneration inflammatory infiltrate and necrosis it's were significantly (**p < 0.01 alleviates by protective groups.

  9. Two-generation reproduction and teratology studies of feeding aditoprim in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xu; Tan, Ziqiang; Cheng, Guyue; Awais, Ihsan; Huang, Lingli; Chen, Dongmei; Pan, Yuanhu; Liu, Zhenli; Yuan, Zonghui

    2015-12-01

    Aditoprim, a new bacteriostatic agent that belongs to diaminopyrimidines, has a broad antimicrobial spectrum, good antibacterial activity and excellent pharmacokinetics. To evaluate the reproductive toxicity and teratogenic potential of aditoprim, different concentrations of aditoprim were administered to Wistar rats by feeding diets containing 0, 20, 100 and 1000 mg kg(-1) , respectively. Each group consisting of 18 males and 25 females (F0 ) was treated with different concentrations of aditoprim through a 13-week period before mating and during mating, gestation, parturition and lactation. At weaning, 20 males and 25 females of the F1 generation weanlings per group were selected randomly as parents for the F2 generation. Selected F1 weanlings were exposed to the same diet and treatment as their parents. At 1000 mg kg(-1) dose group, body weights in F0 and F1 rats, fetal body weight on day 21 (0, 4 and 21) after birth and number of viable fetuses in the F0 and F1 generation significantly decreased. Teratogenicity study was performed in combination with the F1 generation of a two-generation reproduction study. F1 parents of the reproduction study were mated after weaning of the F2a pups. Pregnant female rats were subjected to cesarean section on gestational day 20 for teratogenic examination. At 1000 mg kg(-1) group, body weights, fetal body lengths, tail lengths, litter weights and number of viable fetuses were significantly decreased. No obvious external, skeletal or visceral malformations in fetuses were noted in any groups in the teratogenic test. The no-observed-adverse-effect level for reproduction/development toxicity of aditoprim was 100 mg kg(-1) diet (about 7.89-9.25 mg kg(-1) body weight day(-1) ).

  10. Effect of Alstonia Scholaris bark extract on testicular function of Wistar rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    R·S·Gupta; RakhiSharma

    2002-01-01

    Aim:To evaluate the antifertility effect of Alstonia scholaris bark extract in male rats.Methods:In male Wistar rats Alstonia scholaris bark extract was given by oral route at a dose of 200mg/day for60days,The fertility and testicular function were assessed by mating tests,sperm motility,sperm concentration,biochemical indices and testicular cell population dynamics.Results:Oral feeding with the extract at a dose of 200mg/day for the period of 60days did not cause body weight loss,while the weights of testes,epididymides,seminal vesicle and ventral prostate were significantly reduced.The production of step-19 spermatids was reduced by 79.6%in treated rats.The popu-lation of preleptotene and pachytene spermatocytes were decrased by61.9%and60.1%,respectively.Spematogo-nia and Sertoli cell population were also affected.The seminiferous tubule and Leydig cell nuclear area were reduced significantly(P<0.01)when compared to the controls..Reduced sperm count and motility yesulted in a total supprs-sion of fertility.A significant fall in the protein and sialic acid content of the testes,epididymides,seminal vesicle and ventral prostate as well as glycogen content of testes were also noticed.The fructose content in the seminal vesicle was lowered whereas the testicular cholesterol was elevated as compared with the controls.The following com-pounds were obtained from the extract with chromatographic separation over Si-gel column;α-amyrin,β-amyrin,lupiol acetate,venenative,rhazine and yohimbine,Conclusion:At the dose level employed,Alstonia scholaris bark extract has a significant antifertility effect in male rast;the primary site of action may be post meiotic germ cells(Step19spermatids).

  11. Anabolic and androgenic activities of Bulbine natalensis stem in male Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakubu, Musa T; Afolayan, Anthony J

    2010-05-01

    Aqueous extract of Bulbine natalensis Baker (Asphodelaceae) stem at 25, 50 and 100 mg/kg body weight was investigated for anabolic and androgenic effects in male Wistar rats. Sixty male rats were grouped into four (A-D) consisting of 15 each. Group A (control) was orally treated with 0.5 mL of distilled water for 14 days while groups B, C and D were treated like the control except they received 0.5 mL containing 25, 50, and 100 mg/kg body weight of the extract respectively. All the doses of the extract increased (P 0.05) with the controls for glycogen and cholesterol. The testicular and serum testosterone concentration were increased except in the 100 mg/kg body weight where the effect on the tissue and serum hormone did not manifest until after the first and seven daily doses respectively. Testicular acid phosphatase activity, serum follicle stimulating and luteinizing hormone concentrations also increased at all the doses except in the 100 mg/kg body weight where the effect on the enzyme and the hormone did not manifest until after seven days. The increases were most pronounced in the 50 mg/kg body weight extract treated animals. The results indicate anabolic and androgenic activities of Bulbine natalensis stem in male rat testes with the 50 mg/kg body weight of the extract exhibiting the highest anabolizing and androgenic activities. These activities further support the folkloric use of the plant most especially at 50 mg/kg body weight in the management of male sexual dysfunction in South Africa.

  12. Antifertility activity of methanolic bark extract of Aegle marmelos (l. in male wistar rats

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    Agrawal Shyam S

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aegle marmelos leaf, seed and fruit from earlier studies is known to affect male fertility in reversible manner. However they had delayed onset and recovery was found to be prolonged. The present study was undertaken with an aim to evaluate the effect of Aegle marmelos bark extract on rats as the extract is found to be a rich source of marmin and fagarine known for reducing male fertility. Three different concentration of methanolic bark extracts of Aegle marmelos (L. were evaluated for male antifertility activity on albino wistar rats. Methanolic bark extract of Aegle marmelos at the dose of 200, 400, and 600 mg/Kg b.w was administered orally for 60 days. Treatments were stopped thereafter and animals were sacrificed after a recovery period of 30 days. Control animal were administered vehicle (0.5% CMC for 60 days. Lonidamine was used as standard drug to compare the effect of extract. Results Methanolic extract causes a dose & duration dependent infertility via reducing reproductive organ weight and serum testosterone levels. Sperm analysis results showed reduction in sperm density, motility, viability and sperm acrosomal integrity without interfering libido and vital organ body weight. Histopathological studies of testes revealed exfoliation of elongated spermatids, nuclear chromatin condensation, degeneration and prominent spaces detected within the germinal epithelium signifying testicular cytotoxicity and necrosis. Time dependent complete infertility was observed in all dose levels. Animals after the withdrawal from treatment, for 30 days showed restoration of the morphological as well as physiological parameters in extract treated rats. Methanolic extract showed lipid lowering activity compared to control, suggestive good candidature of this plant for further studies. Conclusions Our studies suggested Aegle marmelos barks methanolic extract as strong candidate for male contraceptive via its ability to produce complete

  13. Antifertility Activity of Methanolic Bark Extract of Aegle Marmelos (l. in Male Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyam S Agrawal

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Aegle marmelos leaf, seed and fruit from earlier studies is known to affect male fertility in reversible manner. However they had delayed onset and recovery was found to be prolonged. The present study was undertaken with an aim to evaluate the effect of Aegle marmelos bark extract on rats as the extract is found to be arich source of marmin and fagarine known for reducing male fertility. Three different concentration of methanolic bark extracts of Aegle marmelos (L. were evaluated for male antifertility activity on albino wistar rats. Methanolic bark extract of Aegle marmelos at the dose of 200, 400, and 600 mg/Kg b.w was administered orally for 60 days.Treatments were stopped thereafter and animals were sacrificed after a recovery period of 30 days. Control animalwere administered vehicle (0.5% CMC for 60 days. Lonidamine was used as standard drug to compare the effect of extract.Results: Methanolic extract causes a dose & duration dependent infertility via reducing reproductive organ weight and serum testosterone levels. Sperm analysis results showed reduction in sperm density, motility, viability and sperm acrosomal integrity without interfering libido and vital organ body weight. Histopathological studies of testes revealed exfoliation of elongated spermatids, nuclear chromatin condensation, degeneration and prominentspaces detected within the germinal epithelium signifying testicular cytotoxicity and necrosis. Time dependent complete infertility was observed in all dose levels. Animals after the withdrawal from treatment, for 30 days showed restoration of the morphological as well as physiological parameters in extract treated rats. Methanolicextract showed lipid lowering activity compared to control,uggestive good candidature of this plant for further studies.Conclusions: Our studies suggested Aegle marmelos barks methanolic extract as strong candidate for male contraceptive via its ability to produce complete inhibition of

  14. Fagraea racemosa leaf extract inhibits oxidative stress-induced liver damage in Wistar rats

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    Eva Rachmi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Latar belakang: Kemampuan hati mengatasi stres oksidatif dapat ditingkatkan dengan konsumsi antioksidan eksogen yang berasal dari alam. Penelitian ini ditujukan untuk mempelajari kemampuan hepatoprotektif dari ekstrak metanol  daun  Fagraea racemosa, dengan menggunakan CCL4 sebagai model sumber radikal bebas. Metode: Tiga kelompok perlakuan tikus Wistar  (enam ekor per  kelompok, masing-masing diberi dosis ekstrak berturut-turut 50, 100, 200 mg/kg bb per oral, sekali perhari selama 30 hari. CCl4 diinjeksikan intraperitoneal kepada ketiga kelompok , dua kali per minggu (1,5 ml/kg bb.  Sebagai pembanding, digunakan dua kelompok kontrol, yaitu kontrol normal dan kontrol CCl4.  Pada hari ke-30, tikus dibunuh dan hati diwarnai dengan hematoksilin-eosin. Perubahan histopatologi ditentukan berdasar derajat steatosis, degenerasi hidropik, dan inflamasi. Data dianalisis dengan Anova dan uji post hoc LSD (p≤0.05 menggunakan SPSS versi 13.0 Hasil: Hasil menunjukkan perbaikan derajat degenerasi hidropik dan inflamasi (p≤0,05 pada ketiga kelompok perlakuan bila dibanding dengan kelompok kontrol CCl4. Tetapi, derajat steatosis meningkat pada kelompok perlakuan dosis  50 dan 100 mg/kg bb, dan kemudian menurun secara bermakna pada perlakuan 200 mg/kg bb. Kesimpulan : Ekstrak methanol daun Fagraea racemosa  mampu melindungi hati dari radikal bebas yang dihasilkan dari CCl4. Hasil ini mengindikasikan bahwa Fagraea racemosa menjanjikan untuk dikembangkan sebagai suplemen antioksidan. (Health Science Indones 2011;2:46-51   Abstract Background: The ability of the liver in dealing with oxidative stress can be enhanced by consumption of exogenous antioxidants derived from nature. This study aimed to explore the hepatoprotective ability of Fagraea racemosa leaves methanolic extract against CCl4 exposure as a model of free radicals source. Methods: Three different doses (50, 100, 200 mg/kg bw were administered orally to three treatment groups of Wistar rats

  15. Microwave radiation (2.45 GHz)-induced oxidative stress: Whole-body exposure effect on histopathology of Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, Parul; Verma, H N; Sisodia, Rashmi; Kesari, Kavindra Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Man-made microwave and radiofrequency (RF) radiation technologies have been steadily increasing with the growing demand of electronic appliances such as microwave oven and cell phones. These appliances affect biological systems by increasing free radicals, thus leading to oxidative damage. The aim of this study was to explore the effect of 2.45 GHz microwave radiation on histology and the level of lipid peroxide (LPO) in Wistar rats. Sixty-day-old male Wistar rats with 180 ± 10 g body weight were used for this study. Animals were divided into two groups: sham exposed (control) and microwave exposed. These animals were exposed for 2 h a day for 35 d to 2.45 GHz microwave radiation (power density, 0.2 mW/cm(2)). The whole-body specific absorption rate (SAR) was estimated to be 0.14 W/kg. After completion of the exposure period, rats were sacrificed, and brain, liver, kidney, testis and spleen were stored/preserved for determination of LPO and histological parameters. Significantly high level of LPO was observed in the liver (p microwave radiation. Also histological changes were observed in the brain, liver, testis, kidney and spleen after whole-body microwave exposure, compared to the control group. Based on the results obtained in this study, we conclude that exposure to microwave radiation 2 h a day for 35 d can potentially cause histopathology and oxidative changes in Wistar rats. These results indicate possible implications of such exposure on human health.

  16. PROTECTIVE EFFECTS OF PROPOLIS ON GAMMA- IRRADIATED NIGELLA SATIVA EXTRACT INDUCED BLOOD AND IMMUNE CHANGES IN WISTAR RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osama Moseilhy Saleh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study conducted to test the effect of Nigella Sativa (NS, 5 mg kg-1 of body weight, or γ-irradiated Nigella Sativa (GRNS on the changes of blood component profiles, liver, kidney functions and immune cytokines secretion in male Wistar rats. Moreover, the possible protection by propolis (200 mg kg-1 B. W. on the changes induced by NS and GRNS was examined. Results revealed that both NS and GRNS administration for two weeks induced changes in blood, GPT, GOT and urea levels and co-administration with propolis significantly ameliorated such changes. Also, liver histology showed numerous vacuolar degeneration and fatty changes in γ-irradiated groups which disappeared in presence of propolis. Kidney histology of NS administered rats showed less lymphocytic infiltration, while GRNS groups showed desquamation in the cytoplasm of the renal tubules, hemorrhage in the renal corpuscle and lymphocytic infiltration which disappeared when propolis given together with GRNS. Finally propolis induced protective effect on the changes induced in TNF-α and IL-10 secretion by either NS or GRNS in Wistar rats. In conclusion, the findings of present study clarified the protective effect of propolis on changes induced by γ-irradiated NS on blood, liver, kidney and cytokines changes in Wistar rats.

  17. Effect of an avocado oil-enhanced diet (Persea americana on sucrose-induced insulin resistance in Wistar rats

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    Mario Del Toro-Equihua

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A number of studies have been conducted to evaluate the effects of vegetable oils with varying percentages of monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids on insulin resistance. However, there is no report on the effect of avocado oil on this pathologic condition. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of avocado oil on sucrose-induced insulin resistance in Wistar rats. An experimental study was carried out on Wistar rats that were randomly assigned into six groups. Each group received a different diet over an 8-week period (n = 11 in each group: the control group was given a standard diet, and the other five groups were given the standard feed plus sucrose with the addition of avocado oil at 0%, 5%, 10%, 20%, and 30%, respectively. Variables were compared using Student t test and analysis of variance. Statistically significant difference was considered when p < 0.05. Rats that were given diets with 10% and 20% avocado oil showed lower insulin resistance (p = 0.022 and p = 0.024, respectively. Similar insulin resistance responses were observed in the control and 30% avocado oil addition groups (p = 0.85. Addition of 5–30% avocado oil lowered high sucrose diet-induced body weight gain in Wistar rats. It was thus concluded that glucose tolerance and insulin resistance induced by high sucrose diet in Wistar rats can be reduced by the dietary addition of 5–20% avocado oil.

  18. Maternal and fetal toxicity of Wistar rats exposed to herbicide metolachlor

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    Kátia Cristina de Melo Tavares Vieira

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Metolachlor is a selective pre-emergent herbicide widely used in agriculture to control weeds. The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible effects of metolachlor on reproductive performance of adult rats, as well as its teratogenic potential when administered during the period of organogenesis. Pregnant adult female rats were allocated into 4 experimental groups (n = 10 group-1, that received 0 (control; 150 (TA; 300 (TB; or 1000 mg kg-1 bw day-1 (TC of metolachlor, by gavage, from the 6th to 15th gestational day (GD. There is reduction in the weight gain of the animals from TB and TC groups compared to the control group. Liver and placenta weights were reduced in TB and TC groups, respectively, while the percentage of post-implantation loss was increased in the TC group. There were no external malformations in either rat of the control or treated groups. However, an increased incidence of skeletal anomalies and visceral anomalies (especially in the urogenital system was observed in TC group. These results demonstrate that exposure of pregnant rats to metolachlor can lead to signs of general toxicity, late embryonic losses and congenital anomalies.

  19. Toxicity Induced after Subchronic Administration of the Synthetic Food Dye Tartrazine in Adult Rats, Role of Oxidative Stress

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    Narges El Golli; Ines Bini-Dhouib; Aicha Jrad; Imene Boudali; Basma Nasri; Nadia Belhadjhmida; Saloua El Fazaa

    2016-01-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the toxic potential of tartrazine, a food color, in different tissues in adult rat: blood, liver, kidneys, and spleen. Tartrazine was administered orally at a dose of 300 mg/kg of body weight to adult male Wistar rats during a period of 30 days. Tartrazine treatment led to an increase in platelets count, a reduction in peripheral lymphocytes and in spleen T CD8-lymphocytes. Furthermore, tartrazine increased the activities of hepatocellular enzymes a...

  20. Ketoconazole- and fluconazole-induced embryotoxicity and skeletal anomalies in wistar rats: a comparative study

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    Vanessa Cristiane de Santana Amaral

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Ketoconazole and fluconazole are two broad-spectrum azole antifungals used for the treatment of superficial and systemic mycoses. Embryotoxicity and teratogenicity have been reported in some studies when those drugs are administered at high doses to pregnant rats. The aim of this study was to present a comparative study of embryotoxic effects as well as the skeletal anomalies in fetuses of Wistar rats which received ketoconazole and fluconazole at teratogenic doses on gestational days (GD 6 through 15 (organogenesis period. On gestational day (GD 21, the dams were euthanized and examined for standard parameters of reproductive outcome. Fetuses were stained with alizarin red and the bones of the head, trunk, forelimb and hindlimb were examined for detection of skeletal anomalies. The frequency of skeletal anomalies in the ketoconazole-treated group was significant when compared to the fluconazole and the control group.O cetoconazol e o fluconazol são dois antifúngicos azólicos, de amplo espectro, utilizados no tratamento de micoses superficiais e sistêmicas. Alguns estudos relatam a embriotoxicidade e teratogenicidade induzidas por estes fármacos quando os mesmos são administrados em altas doses a ratas prenhes. O objetivo deste trabalho foi apresentar um estudo comparativo dos efeitos embriotóxicos e das anomalias esqueléticas em fetos de ratas Wistar que receberam cetoconazol e fluconazol em doses teratogênicas do 6º ao 15º dia gestacional (GD (período da organogênese. No 21º GD as ratas foram eutanaziadas e examinadas quanto aos parâmetros padrões de performance reprodutiva. Os fetos foram corados com vermelho de alizarina e os ossos da cabeça, do tronco e dos membros anteriores e posteriores foram examinados para a verificação de anomalias esqueléticas. A freqüência de anomalias esqueléticas no grupo tratado com cetoconazol foi significante quando comparada à dos grupos fluconazol e controle.

  1. The Effects of Crude Methanol Seed Extract of Brassica juncea on Haematological Parameters in Wistar Rats

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    S.A. Ufelle

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Brassica juncea, (B. juncea also known as Indian Oriental or Brown Mustard is widely used as a medicinal crop, oil seed, condiment and vegetable and much hematological effects have not been recorded on B. juncea. Thirty (30 male wistar rats aged 2-3 months, weighing 100-200 g were obtained and housed at the Animal House of College of Medicine, University of Nigeria Enugu Campus for this study. The rats were divided into five (5 groups of six (6 rats per group, labeled A to E and were acclimatized for two (2 weeks and were fed with commercially available rat feed. They had access to water and feed ad libitum. Groups A to D were orally administered with graded doses of the crude seed extract (50, 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg body weight respectively daily for 30 days while group E which served as control received no extract. Blood samples (2.0 mL were collected from each rat through the retro orbital plexus of the median canthus into K3- EDTA containers for analysis using standard operative procedures. The results obtained, revealed that the mean Hemoglobin (Hb values of groups C and D (C = 12.6±0.57 and D = 11.1±1.4 g/dL were significantly decreased (p<0.05 when compared with control (E = 14.2±0.74 g/dL. The mean Hematocrit (PCV values of groups C and D (C = 0.38±0.02, and D = 0.34±0.04 L/L were also significantly decreased (p<0.05 compared with control (E = 0.43±0.02 L/L. The mean Total WBC values of all the treated groups were significantly increased (A = 6.45±0.3, B = 6.23±0.83, C = 6.0±0.34, and D = 6.05±0.41 x 109/L when compared with control E = 4.28±0.17×109/L (p<0.05. The mean platelet values were significantly decreased in all the treated groups (A = 30.00±4.1, B = 30.00±5.8, C = 46.25±7.5 and D = 33.75±2.5 x 109/L when compared with control E = 86.25±4.8×109/L. This study revealed that crude methanol seed extract of Brassica juncea affects some hematological parameters when orally administered at different concentrations.

  2. Effect of forced swim stress on wistar albino rats in various behavioral parameters

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    Ambareesha Kondam, Nilesh N Kate, Gaja Lakshmi, Suresh M, Chandrashekar M.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Stress is an important factor of depression that causes the changes in various body systems. The forced swim test is a commonly used stressor test where rats are forced to swim in specially constructed tanks for a particular period where there is behavioral activation characterized by vigorous swimming and diving to search for alternate routes of escape. Animal health including human has been shown to be affected by the stressful events of life inducing situation which alters cognition, learning memory and emotional responses, causing mental disorders like depression and anxiety and stress in rats. Methods: The experiment was carried out with 12 healthy albino Wistar female rats weighing about 150-180gms. The animals were randomly divided into two groups of six animals each. Group – I (control, Group – II (Stressed Group. Group –II rats are placed in plastic tanks for 45minutes for15 days. Temperature of water was maintained at 20˚C. During stress phase, the animals will be trained for forced swim test, behavioral changes observed by open field apparatus for emotions, and eight arm maze for memory & leaning, elevated plus maze for anxiety. Results: Forced swim stress causes to a significant change (p<0.05 on cognitive functions: motivation, learning and memory. Forced swim stress is the factor damaging the hippocampus causes repeated immobilization and produce atrophy of dendrites of pyramidal neurons and neuroendocrinological disturbances, controlled by the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA. Repeated stress in the form of forced swimming activates the free radical processes leading to an increase in lipid peroxidation in many tissues. Conclusion: This study reveals the effect of repeated forced swim stress causes wide range of adaptive changes in the central nervous system including the elevation of serotonin (5-HT metabolism and an increased susceptibility to affective disorders. The earlier findings have reported

  3. Padronização da lesão de medula espinal em ratos Wistar Standardization of spinal cord injury in Wistar rats

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    Nilson Rodnei Rodrigues

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Padronizar um modelo experimental de lesão de medula espinal em ratos Wistar, utilizaram-se um equipamento computadorizado para impacto por queda de peso e os parâmetros determinados pelo Multicenter Animal Spinal Cord Injury Study - MASCIS. MÉTODOS: Avaliaram-se 30 ratos, com idade variando entre 20 e 25 semanas de vida. O peso variou de 200 a 300 g, para as fêmeas, e de 232 a 430 g para os machos. Realizaram-se impactos com pesos de 10 g de 12,5; 25 e 50 mm de altura, controlando-se a velocidade de impacto e o coeficiente de compressão. O impacto ocorreu sobre a superfície da medula espinal na altura da décima vértebra torácica, após laminectomia. Monitoraram-se os sinais vitais e realizaram-se gasometrias previamente e posteriormente à lesão da medula. O volume de lesão foi avaliado pela análise quantitativa dos íons de sódio e potássio. RESULTADOS: Verificaram-se correlações estatisticamente significantes entre o volume de lesão e os parâmetros mecânicos. O volume de lesão provocado por queda de 50 mm de altura foi superior aos de 12,5 e 25 mm, que não diferiram entre si. CONCLUSÃO: O modelo demonstrou-se eficaz e capaz de gerar lesões medulares padronizadas em ratos Wistar.OBJECTIVE: To standardize an experimental model of spinal cord injury in Wistar rats, computerized weight fall impact equipment were used and the parameters were used determined by the multicenter animal spinal cord injury study - MASCIS. METHODS: Thirty rats were used, with age varying between 20 and 25 weeks, and weight ranging from 200 to 300g for females, and from 232 to 430g for males. The impacts were done with weights of 10g starting from 12.5, 25 and 50 mm of height, and the impact speed and compression coefficient were obtained. The impact occurred on the surface of the spinal cord at the level of the tenth thoracic vertebra after laminectomy. Vital signs were monitored and gas analysis was made before and after the spinal cord

  4. Assessment of changes in energy metabolism parameters provoked by carbon tetrachloride in Wistar rats and the protective effect of white grape juice

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    Tatiane Gabardo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of organic and conventional grape juices consumption on the behavior of rats and their neuroprotective effect on the activity of brain energy metabolism enzymes in different brain areas of adult rats on the experimental model of hepatic encephalopathy. Male Wistar rats (90-days-old were treated once a day with conventional or organic white grape juice by gavage for 14 days (7 μL/g. On the 15th day the rats received carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 in a single dose of 3.0 mL/kg. Cerebral cortex, hippocampus and cerebellum were dissected to measure the activity of creatine kinase (CK and pyruvate kinase (PK. No changes in feeding behavior were observed after the treatment with the grapes juices. However, there was an increase in grooming behavior in the open field test provoked by both juices. CCl4 inhibited CK activity in cerebral cortex and hippocampus of the rats and CCl4 also reduced PK activity in all brain structures studied. Furthermore, both white grape juices prevented the decrease in the activity of CK and PK. Therefore, we can suggest that organic and conventional white grape juices could restore the activity of enzymes with a central role in brain energy metabolism.

  5. Preventive effect of phytic acid on lysosomal hydrolases in normal and isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarction in Wistar rats.

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    Brindha, E; Rajasekapandiyan, M

    2015-02-01

    This study was aimed to evaluate the preventive role of phytic acid on lysosomal enzymes in isoproterenol (ISO)-induced myocardial infarction (MI) in male Wistar rats. Rats subcutaneously injected with ISO (85 mg/kg) at an interval of 24 h for two days showed a significant increase in the activities of lysosomal enzymes (glucuronidase, N-acetyl glucosaminidase, galactosidase, cathepsin-B and cathepsin-D) were increased significantly in serum and the heart of ISO-induced rats, but the activities of glucuronidase and cathepsin-D were decreased significantly in the lysosomal fraction of the heart. Pretreatment with phytic acid (25 and 50 mg/kg) daily for a period of 56 d positively altered activities of lysosomal hydrolases in ISO-induced rats. Thus, phytic acid possesses a cardioprotective effect in ISO-induced MI in rats.

  6. Curcumin alters motor coordination but not total number of Purkinje cells in the cerebellum of adolescent male Wistar rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ginus Partadiredja; Sutarman; Taufik Nur Yahya; Christiana Tri Nuryana; Rina Susilowati

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:The present study aimed at investigating the effects of curcumin on the motor coordination and the estimate of the total number of cerebellar Purkinje cells of adolescent Wistar rats exposed to ethanol.METHODS:The total of 21 male Wistar rats aged 37 d old were divided into three groups,namely ethanol,ethanol-curcumin,and control groups.The ethanol group received 1.5 g/kg ethanol injected intraperitoneally and water given per oral; the ethanol-curcumin group received 1.5 g/kg ethanol injected intraperitoneally and curcumin extract given per oral; the control group received saline injection and oral water.The treatment was carried out daily for one month,after which the motor coordination performance of the rats was examined using revolving drum apparatus at test days 1,8,and 15.The rats were finally sacrificed and the cerebellum of the rats was further processed for stereological analysis.The estimate of the total number of Purkinje cells was calculated using physical fractionator method.RESULTS:The ethanol-curcumin group performed better than both ethanol and control groups in the motor coordination ability at day 8 of testing (P< 0.01).No Purkinje cell loss was observed as a result of one month intraperitoneal injection of ethanol.CONCLUSION:Curcumin may exert beneficial effects on the motor coordination of adolescent rats exposed to ethanol via undetermined hormetic mechanisms.

  7. Pharmacological validation of the free-exploratory paradigm in male Wistar rats: A proposed test of trait anxiety.

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    Almeida-Souza, Thiago Henrique; Goes, Tiago Costa; Teixeira-Silva, Flavia

    2015-08-01

    The free-exploratory paradigm (FEP) has been proposed as a model of trait anxiety for both mice and rats. However, its pharmacological validation has only been carried out for the mice. Thus, the aim of the present study was to pharmacologically validate FEP for Wistar rats, by testing the effects of clinically established anxiolytic and anxiogenic drugs, in four different experiments. In all experiments, male Wistar rats were first tested in FEP to be categorized according to their levels of trait anxiety (high, medium and low). Then, only medium trait anxiety rats were selected to be tested again in FEP, two weeks later, after being pharmacologically treated, according to each experiment as follows: Experiment I: 0.5mg/kg of diazepam (DZP) or vehicle; Experiment II: 20mg/kg of pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) or vehicle; Experiment III: 5mg/kg of fluoxetine (FLX5) or vehicle: and Experiment IV: 0.5mg/kg of fluoxetine (FLX0.5) or vehicle. As a group, the results showed that PTZ and FLX5 increased levels of trait anxiety and reduced locomotor activity, whereas DZP and FLX0.5 decreased levels of trait anxiety, without impairing locomotor activity. These results demonstrate that FEP for rats is able to predict clinical anxiolytic and anxiogenic activities of different drugs, including fluoxetine, which is believed to present a dual effect on anxiety. Therefore, this paradigm can be proposed as an effective method for testing potential trait anxiety-reducing drugs, in rats.

  8. Experimental evidences of methanolic extraction of Cressa cretica Linn. on alloxan induced hyperglycemic Wistar rats

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    B. Lalitha Kumari

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the physico-metabolic parameters measured were: serum insulin, serum lipid profile, serum biomarker enzymes and anti-oxidant enzymes, total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL cholesterol, VLDL cholesterol, total proteins, alanine transaminase (ALT, aspartate transaminase (AST, creatinine, insulin assay (RIA, for in vivo anti-oxidant activity of MECC was measured in liver tissue homogenate (LTH by malondialdehyde (MDA, glutathione (GSH, superoxide dismutase (SOD enzymes and histopathological examination of pancreas were also observed. Previously, the methonolic extract of Cressa cretica Linn. effect on alloxan induced hyperglycemic Wistar rats was proved by taking the parameters like body weight, blood glucose, glycogen content in liver and muscle. Oral administration of MECC (200 mg/kg, 400 mg/kg for 28 days exhibited a significant reduction in blood glucose, serum ALT, AST, CR, lipid profile and hepatic MDA levels. The improvement of hepatic enzymes such as GSH, serum TP, HDL, insulin levels were also observed. The results of this work also suggest that MECC may possess anti-hyperglycemic and anti-oxidant property.

  9. Comparing the Behavioural Effects of Exogenous Growth Hormone and Melatonin in Young and Old Wistar Rats

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    Nicolau, Cristina; Gamundí, Antoni; Fiol, Maria A.; Tresguerres, Jesús A. F.; Akaârir, Mourad; Rial, Rubén V.

    2016-01-01

    Growth hormone (GH) and melatonin are two hormones with quite different physiological effects. Curiously, their secretion shows parallel and severe age-related reductions. This has promoted many reports for studying the therapeutic supplementation of both hormones in an attempt to avoid or delay the physical, physiological, and psychological decay observed in aged humans and in experimental animals. Interestingly, the effects of the external administration of low doses of GH and of melatonin were surprisingly similar, as both hormones caused significant improvements in the functional capabilities of aged subjects. The present report aims at discerning the eventual difference between cognitive and motor effects of the two hormones when administered to young and aged Wistar rats. The effects were tested in the radial maze, a test highly sensitive to the age-related impairments in working memory and also in the rotarod test, for evaluating the motor coordination. The results showed that both hormones caused clear improvements in both tasks. However, while GH improved the cognitive capacity and, most importantly, the physical stamina, the effects of melatonin should be attributed to its antioxidant, anxiolytic, and neuroprotective properties. PMID:28050228

  10. Endothelial, renal and hepatic variables in wistar rats treated with Vancomycin

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    FELIPE R. BRUNIERA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Vancomycin (VCM is indicated in combat against Gram-positive infections, but it is not considered a first-choice drug because of its adverse effects. It is believed that oxidative stress is the primary mechanism of endothelial injury and the consequent VCM toxicity, which varies from phlebitis to nephrotoxicity. Moreover, dose recommendations, dilution, rates and types of infusion are still controversial. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of different VCM dilutions in endothelial, liver and kidney injuries by biochemical parameters and histopathological analysis. Wistar rats were randomly divided into six groups and subjected to femoral vein cannulation for drug administration. Control groups received 0.9 ml of saline and the others received VCM (10mg/Kg/day at dilutions of 5.0 and 10.0 mg/mL for 3 and 7 days. Homocysteine, hs-CRP, AST, ALT, GGT, urea, creatinine, lycopene, alpha-tocopherol, beta-carotene and retinol were analyzed. Kidney, liver and cannulated femoral vein fragments were collected.This study showed alterations in ALT which featured hepatotoxicity. However, drug dilutions were not able to show changes in other biochemical parameters. In contrast, kidney and endothelium pathological changes were observed. More studies are needed to characterize VCM induced kidney and endothelium toxicity and biochemical markers able to show such morphological modifications.

  11. Modulatory Effect of Erythrina vareigata on Experimental Hyperlipidaemia in Male Wistar Rats

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    K Mangathayaru

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Erythrina vareigata is a medium sized quick growing tree found distributed in deciduous forests throughout India. Its leaves are eaten as a pot herb and different parts of the plant have folkloric reputation as an anti inflammatory in India, China and South east Asia. Bark, wood, root and flowers are richly represented by isoflavones, pterocarpans and biphenyls. Current investigations were aimed at evaluating the hypolipidaemic activity of this popular hypolipidaemic siddha drug. Its nutritive value was estimated by standard reported methods. Ethyl acetate extract of the dried leaves were analyzed for total phenol content by Folin Ciocalteau and Titanium tetrachloride method. Its in vitro anti oxidant activity was assessed by DPPH, NO and trichloroacetic acid based reducing power method. Male wistar rats were subjected to high fat diet induced (HFD hyperlipidaemia concurrent with extract administration for 60 days. While normal control group received standard pellet diet, Positive control group was on HFD only. At the end of experimentation, blood was collected for serum estimation of total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides and atherogenic index. The extract had a high total phenol content, beneficially altered lipid parameters and reduced body weight of experimental animals. The leaves are rich in protein, minerals, vitamins and low in carbohydrate and fat. Anti oxidant activity of the polyphenols present in the extract might be mediating the observed hypoplipidaemia. This study validated the traditional medicine claims of its anti obesity effect as well as folkloric tutelage of consumption of leaves as a green vegetable.

  12. Acute and subchronic oral toxicities of Calendula officinalis extract in Wistar rats.

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    Lagarto, Alicia; Bueno, Viviana; Guerra, Isbel; Valdés, Odalys; Vega, Yamile; Torres, Leonid

    2011-05-01

    We have studied the acute and subchronic oral toxicities of Calendula officinalis extract in male and female Wistar rats. A single acute C. officinalis extract dose of 2000 mg/kg dissolved in distilled water was administered by oral gavage for acute toxicity. Subchronic doses of 50, 250 and 1000 mg/kg/day were administered in drinking water. The major toxicological endpoints examined included animal body weight, water and food intake, selected tissue weights, and histopathological examinations. In addition, we examined blood elements: hematocrit, hemoglobin concentration, erythrocyte count, total and differential leukocyte count and blood clotting time and blood chemistry: glucose, total cholesterol, urea, total proteins, alkaline phosphatase, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST). In the acute study, there were no mortality and signs of toxicity. In the subchronic study, several of the blood elements were significantly affected in males and females after 90 days; hemoglobin, erythrocytes, leukocytes and blood clotting time. For blood chemistry parameters, ALT, AST and alkaline phosphatase were affected. Histopathological examination of tissues showed slight abnormalities in hepatic parenchyma that were consistent with biochemical variations observed. These studies indicate that the acute and subchronic toxicities of C. officinalis extract are low.

  13. Photodynamic Therapy:A New Approach to Remove Embryos of the Wistar Rat

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    Mohammad Nabiuni

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Photodynamic therapy (PDT is a promising new cancer treatment strategy whichinactivates tumor cells by simultaneoulsy using light and a photosensitizer. The similarity betweentumors and newly implanted embryos is notable. Extrauterine pregnancy (EUP does not have adefinite treatment and previous therapeutic options (medical and surgical have not been effectiveor suitable. Therefore, PDT is suggested as a possible treatment for EUP.Materials and Methods: The photosensitizer, hematoporphyrin, was injected locally into theplacenta of one selected embryo from a pregnant Wistar rat (E15. Then, a laser beam wasilluminated at the same point and 48 hours later, changes in the embryo and placenta wereinvestigated. Furthermore, the integrity of the uterus was examined by macroscopic evaluationand sonographic images.Results: Sections obtained from treated and control groups demonstrated that the embryo andplacenta were damaged in the PDT group, whereas the control ones were intact. Furthermore,macroscopic observations and sonographic images during the second parturition after treatmentshowed that the uterus was intact and fertility was preserved.Conclusion: Successful ablation of the treated embryo with no clear damage to the uterus atteststo the success of this approach. The successful use of hematoporphyrin, as a first generationphotosensitizer, should be further investigated for its possible clinical applications.

  14. Genotoxic effects of Tabebuia impetiginosa (Mart. Ex DC. Standl. (Lamiales, Bignoniaceae extract in Wistar rats

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    Odilon A. Lemos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Tabebuia sp. is native to tropical rain forests throughout Central and South America. Although the biological and pharmacological effects of bark extracts have been intensely studied, little is known on the extract obtained from the flower. Herein, the genotoxic potential of a flower extract from T. impetiginosa ("ipê roxo" on the blood and liver cells of Wistar rats was evaluated. Experimental procedures involved only male animals. Graduated concentrations of the extract, viz., 100, 300 and 500 mg kg-1 of body weight, were gavage-administered and 24 h latter cells were collected and processed for analysis. With the exception of the 100 mg kg-1 dose, a significant increase in DNA damage was noted, when compared with a negative control group. Although the genotoxic potential of this extract was higher in liver cells, the response in both tissues was related to dose-dependency. Even though DNA damage can be corrected before conversion into mutations, further study is recommended to arrive at a better understanding of incurred biological effects.

  15. Genotoxic effects of Tabebuia impetiginosa (Mart. Ex DC.) Standl. (Lamiales, Bignoniaceae) extract in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemos, Odilon A; Sanches, Júlio C M; Silva, Icaro E F; Silva, Márcio L A; Vinhólis, Adriana H C; Felix, Mireille A P; Santos, Raquel A; Cecchi, Andréa O

    2012-04-01

    Tabebuia sp. is native to tropical rain forests throughout Central and South America. Although the biological and pharmacological effects of bark extracts have been intensely studied, little is known on the extract obtained from the flower. Herein, the genotoxic potential of a flower extract from T. impetiginosa ("ipê roxo") on the blood and liver cells of Wistar rats was evaluated. Experimental procedures involved only male animals. Graduated concentrations of the extract, viz., 100, 300 and 500 mg kg(-1) of body weight, were gavage-administered and 24 h latter cells were collected and processed for analysis. With the exception of the 100 mg kg(-1) dose, a significant increase in DNA damage was noted, when compared with a negative control group. Although the genotoxic potential of this extract was higher in liver cells, the response in both tissues was related to dose-dependency. Even though DNA damage can be corrected before conversion into mutations, further study is recommended to arrive at a better understanding of incurred biological effects.

  16. Hypoglycaemic and Antioxidant Activity of SPHAG - a Poly Herbal Formulation in Alloxan Induced Wistar Albino Rats

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    Thamizh Selvam N

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Management of Diabetes mellitus is one of the greatest challenges among the developing and developed countries. The use of herbal medicine is steadily growing in the management of various diseases all over the world. The present study has been taken up on a poly herbal formulation -SPHAG, a combination of aqueous extracts of plants Solanum nigrum, Premna corymbosa, Holarrhena pubescens, Alstonia scholaris and Gymnema sylvestre for its hypoglycaemic and antioxidant activity in alloxan induced diabetic Wistar albino rats. The four groups containing 6 animals in each group, like Healthy Control, Disease Control, SPHAG lower dose(250 mg/kg.b.wt. and SPHAG higher dose (500 mg/kg.b.wt. were maintained. The oral administration of SPHAG had showed significant reduction in the glucose level and HbA1C level when compared with Disease Control. Biochemical parameters comprising of liver function and renal function tests had shown improved health status in SPHAG treated groups over Disease Control group. The antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase, Glutathione peroxidase levels in blood and tissues including liver, kidney and heart were found to be decreased in the Disease control group. SPHAG treated animals showed significant improvement on the antioxidant enzyme levels and the efficacy is found to be dose dependent. Thus, the present study has demonstrated hypoglycaemic and antioxidant potential of SPHAG in the experimental animals. The synergistic contribution of major phyto-constituents of SPHAG i.e. flavonoids and phenols are expected for its biopotency and efficacy.

  17. EVALUATION OF HYPOCHOLESTERIMIC ACTIVITY OF SPHAG- A POLY HERBAL FORMULATION IN WISTAR ALBINO RATS

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    Thamizh Selvam N

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Hyperlipidemia is one of the greatest risk factors contributing to atherosclerosis and occurrence of coronary heart diseases. Hence hypolipidemic drugs are extensively used as prophylactic agents for preventing such atherosclerosis induced disorders. As synthetic drugs have lot of side effects, the focus on herbal drugs is increasing present day. SPHAG is a poly herbal formulation developed by the combination of aqueous extracts of plants Solanum nigrum, Premna corymbosa, Holarrhena pubescens, Alstonia scholaris and Gymnema sylvestre. The experiment was carried out in Wistar albino rats comprised of five groups such as Healthy Control, Disease Control, Drug Control, SPHAG Low Dose and SPHAG High Dose. The study was conducted for a period of 25 days by daily single dose of test extract through oral administration. At the end of the experiment, lipid profile, Biochemical profiles were evaluated. The study demonstrated the Hypolipidemic activity of SPHAG and the efficacy was dose dependent. The phytochemical studies showed the presence of phytoconstituents like alkaloids, flavonoids and phenols.

  18. Pharmacological Investigation of the Wound Healing Activity of Cestrum nocturnum (L.) Ointment in Wistar Albino Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagar, Hemant Kumar; Srivastava, Amit Kumar; Srivastava, Rajnish; Kurmi, Madan Lal; Chandel, Harinarayan Singh; Ranawat, Mahendra Singh

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. The present study was aimed at investigating the wound healing effect of ethanolic extract of Cestrum nocturnum (L.) leaves (EECN) using excision and incision wound model. Methods. Wistar albino rats were divided into five groups each consisting of six animals; group I (left untreated) considered as control, group II (ointment base treated) considered as negative control, group III treated with 5% (w/w) povidone iodine ointment (Intadine USP), which served as standard, group IV treated with EECN 2% (w/w) ointment, and group V treated with EECN 5% (w/w) ointment were considered as test groups. All the treatments were given once daily. The wound healing effect was assessed by percentage wound contraction, epithelialization period, and histoarchitecture studies in excision wound model while breaking strength and hydroxyproline content in the incision wound model. Result. Different concentration of EECN (2% and 5% w/w) ointment promoted the wound healing activity significantly in both the models studied. The high rate of wound contraction (P Cestrum nocturnum (EECN) leaves possesses a concentration dependent wound healing effect.

  19. Pharmacological Investigation of the Wound Healing Activity of Cestrum nocturnum (L. Ointment in Wistar Albino Rats

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    Hemant Kumar Nagar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The present study was aimed at investigating the wound healing effect of ethanolic extract of Cestrum nocturnum (L. leaves (EECN using excision and incision wound model. Methods. Wistar albino rats were divided into five groups each consisting of six animals; group I (left untreated considered as control, group II (ointment base treated considered as negative control, group III treated with 5% (w/w povidone iodine ointment (Intadine USP, which served as standard, group IV treated with EECN 2% (w/w ointment, and group V treated with EECN 5% (w/w ointment were considered as test groups. All the treatments were given once daily. The wound healing effect was assessed by percentage wound contraction, epithelialization period, and histoarchitecture studies in excision wound model while breaking strength and hydroxyproline content in the incision wound model. Result. Different concentration of EECN (2% and 5% w/w ointment promoted the wound healing activity significantly in both the models studied. The high rate of wound contraction (P<0.001, decrease in the period for epithelialization (P<0.01, high skin breaking strength (P<0.001, and elevated hydroxyproline content were observed in animal treated with EECN ointments when compared to the control and negative control group of animals. Histopathological studies of the EECN ointments treated groups also revealed the effectiveness in improved wound healing. Conclusions. Ethanolic extract of Cestrum nocturnum (EECN leaves possesses a concentration dependent wound healing effect.

  20. Annona montana fruit and leaves improve the glycemic and lipid profiles of Wistar rats.

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    Barbalho, Sandra Maria; Soares de Souza, Maricelma da Silva; dos Santos Bueno, Patrícia Cincotto; Guiguer, Elen Landgraf; Farinazzi-Machado, Flávia Maria Vasques; Araújo, Adriano Cressoni; Meneguim, Carla Omete; Pascoal Silveira, Eliane; de Souza Oliveira, Natalia; da Silva, Beatriz Clivati; Barbosa, Sara da Silva; Mendes, Claudemir Gregório; Gonçalves, Priscilla Rodrigues

    2012-10-01

    Species of the family Annonaceae has been used traditionally as a medicinal plant in tropical regions of South and North America and in Africa. Annona montana is known popularly as false graviola and originates from tropical America and can be cultivated throughout Brazil. There are no studies in the literature that associate A. montana with the metabolic profile of animals. Therefore, the purpose of this work was to assess the effects of the consumption of pulp and leaves of this plant on the metabolic profile of Wistar rats. The animals, which were treated for 40 days, were divided into two control groups--treated with water via gavage and ad libitum, respectively, and two treated groups--one treated with leaf juice and the other with pulp juice of the fruit. Glycemia, lipids, and body weight were found to decrease and high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-c) levels to increase in the animals treated with leaf juice. The group treated with pulp juice showed a reduction in lipids and augmented HDL-c. The use of A. montana may have beneficial effects in the prevention of diabetes mellitus and dyslipidemia and may thus contribute to the prevention of cardiovascular diseases.

  1. Expression of thyroglobulin and calcitonin in spontaneous thyroid gland tumors in the Han Wistar rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilling, Andrew M; Jones, Stewart A; Endersby-Wood, Helen J; McCormack, Nicola A M; Turton, John A

    2007-04-01

    Spontaneous follicular and C-cell tumors of the thyroid gland in the Han Wistar rat were examined using two morphologic procedures. Firstly, in situ hybridization (ISH) was used to localize thyroglobulin (TG) and calcitonin (CT) mRNAs. Secondly, the proteins for these markers were detected using immunohistochemistry (IHC). The aim was to study the morphology of the tumors and to examine the usefulness of TG and CT markers in the differential diagnosis of these lesions. Follicular tumors with cystic, papillary and follicular patterns showed relatively consistent expression of TG mRNA by ISH, thereby confirming the diagnostic value of this technique. However, no staining for TG markers was observed in solid lesions. In general, C-cell tumors comprised well-differentiated cells that continued to express CT mRNA and peptides even after embolic spread and metastasis. Therefore, the performance of either ISH or IHC for CT markers can be used for diagnostic confirmation. Additional features noted in C-cell tumors included the appearance of tumor emboli or metastases in association with small primary lesions (less than 5 average follicular diameters in size) and the presence of eosinophilic (amyloid-like) material showing immunopositivity for CT peptides. Finally, evidence is provided for the sequestration of TG protein by proliferating C-cells.

  2. Comparing the Behavioural Effects of Exogenous Growth Hormone and Melatonin in Young and Old Wistar Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barceló, Pere; Nicolau, Cristina; Gamundí, Antoni; Fiol, Maria A; Tresguerres, Jesús A F; Akaârir, Mourad; Rial, Rubén V

    2016-01-01

    Growth hormone (GH) and melatonin are two hormones with quite different physiological effects. Curiously, their secretion shows parallel and severe age-related reductions. This has promoted many reports for studying the therapeutic supplementation of both hormones in an attempt to avoid or delay the physical, physiological, and psychological decay observed in aged humans and in experimental animals. Interestingly, the effects of the external administration of low doses of GH and of melatonin were surprisingly similar, as both hormones caused significant improvements in the functional capabilities of aged subjects. The present report aims at discerning the eventual difference between cognitive and motor effects of the two hormones when administered to young and aged Wistar rats. The effects were tested in the radial maze, a test highly sensitive to the age-related impairments in working memory and also in the rotarod test, for evaluating the motor coordination. The results showed that both hormones caused clear improvements in both tasks. However, while GH improved the cognitive capacity and, most importantly, the physical stamina, the effects of melatonin should be attributed to its antioxidant, anxiolytic, and neuroprotective properties.

  3. Comparing the Behavioural Effects of Exogenous Growth Hormone and Melatonin in Young and Old Wistar Rats

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    Pere Barceló

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Growth hormone (GH and melatonin are two hormones with quite different physiological effects. Curiously, their secretion shows parallel and severe age-related reductions. This has promoted many reports for studying the therapeutic supplementation of both hormones in an attempt to avoid or delay the physical, physiological, and psychological decay observed in aged humans and in experimental animals. Interestingly, the effects of the external administration of low doses of GH and of melatonin were surprisingly similar, as both hormones caused significant improvements in the functional capabilities of aged subjects. The present report aims at discerning the eventual difference between cognitive and motor effects of the two hormones when administered to young and aged Wistar rats. The effects were tested in the radial maze, a test highly sensitive to the age-related impairments in working memory and also in the rotarod test, for evaluating the motor coordination. The results showed that both hormones caused clear improvements in both tasks. However, while GH improved the cognitive capacity and, most importantly, the physical stamina, the effects of melatonin should be attributed to its antioxidant, anxiolytic, and neuroprotective properties.

  4. Acute toxicity study of Vilocym Premix (herbal growth promoter for Livestockin Wistar Albino Rat

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    A.H. Ahmad

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available An experimental study with the objective of safety evaluation of Vilocym Premix, herbal growth promoter for Livestock (supplied by Ayurvet Ltd., Baddi, India, was done as per standard guidelines of OECD-423 for acute toxicity testing. Vilocym Premix is a scientifically developed combination of herbs that contains herbal ingredients namely Azadirachta indica, Curcuma longa & many more alongwith natural zeolites. The study was done in 3 males and 3 female Wistar Albino rats, which were administered an initial dose of 50 mg/kg body weight followed by dose rates of 300, 500 & 5000 mg/kg body weight of test compound. The animals were observed for signs of convulsions, tremors, circling, depression, excitement and mortality. Body weight was recorded at 0,7th and 14th day and plasma total protein, albumin; AST and ALT were measured after 3rd day of experiment. No abnormal sign of symptoms were observed in any of the animal fed with Vilocym Premix at the dose rate of 50, 300, 500 & 5000 mg/kg. No mortality was observed indicating safety of herbal premix. [Vet. World 2009; 2(3.000: 100-102

  5. ANTIANXIETY EFFECT OF ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF LEAVES OF TYLOPHORA INDICA IN WISTAR ALBINO RATS

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    Shyamjith Manikkoth

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Pathological anxiety is one of the most common mental disorders in humans. Anxiolytic drugs, mostly belonging to the benzodiazepine (BDZ group and serotonergic groups are widely used to treat anxiety. However the clinical uses of these established drugs are associated with lot of adverse effects. Therefore the development of new agent possessing anxiolytic effect with minimal or no adverse effects would be of great importance in the treatment of anxiety related disorders. Very high importance is given to the phytoconstituents by the scientific community for a new anxiolytic agent which is devoid of side effects/ minimal adverse effects. In this research work the ethanolic extract of Tylophora indica (300 mg/kg body weight was administered oral for ten days to Wistar albino rats for screening its anxiolytic effect by using Elevated Plus Maze (EPM and Light Dark Arena (LDA test. The results of our study demonstrated that the ethanolic extract of Tylophora indica has significant anxiolytic activity in EPM and LDA models of anxiety.

  6. Laser stimulation of the acupoint 'Zusanli' (ST.36) on the radiopharmaceutical biodistribution in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederico, Éric H F F; Santos, Ailton A; Sá-Caputo, Danubia C C; Neves, Rosane F; Guimarães, Carlos A S; Chang, Shyang; Bernardo-Filho, Mario

    2016-03-01

    Laser used to stimulate acupoints is called laser acupuncture (LA). It is generally believed that similar clinical responses to manual acupuncture can be achieved. Here we analysed the effects of the laser (904 nm) at the 'Zusanli' acupoint (ST.36) of the stomach meridian on the biodistribution of the radiopharmaceutical Na(99m)TcO4. Wistar rats were divided into control (CG) and experimental groups (EG). The EG were exposed daily to the laser (904 nm) at ST.36 with 1 joule/min (40 mW/cm(2)) for 1 min. The animals of the CG were not exposed to laser at all. On the 8th day after LA, the animals were sedated and Na(99m)TcO4 was administered. After 10 min, the animals were all sacrificed and the organs removed. The radioactivity was counted in each organ to calculate the percentage of radioactivity of the injected dose per gram (%ATI/ g). Comparison of the %ATI/g in EG and CG was performed by Mann-Whitney test. The %ATI/g was significantly increased in the thyroid due to the stimulation of the ST.36 by laser. It is possible to conclude that the stimulation of ST.36 does lead to biological phenomena that interfere with the metabolism of the thyroid.

  7. Postnatal growth of the ventral prostate in Wistar rats: a stereological and morphometrical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilamaior, Patrícia S L; Taboga, Sebastião R; Carvalho, Hernandes F

    2006-08-01

    Morphological and stereological analyses were used to characterize the growth kinetics of the Wistar rat ventral prostate (VP). Volume density and absolute volume of the epithelium, lumen, smooth muscle cells (SMCs), and nonmuscular stroma were determined by stereology and paired with plasma testosterone levels and different morphometric measurements. The VP shows an initial growth within the first 3 weeks, a resting phase, and the puberal growth. The puberal growth was coincident with the raise in plasma testosterone. Lumen formation occurred within the 3 postnatal weeks. After an expected increase during puberty, the lumen showed a further increase at the 12th week. The volume density of the nonmuscular stroma and of the SMCs decreased slowly postnatally. Absolute volume of the luminal compartment showed three phases of growth (weeks 1-3, 6-9, and 11-12). On the other hand, the increase in the absolute volume of the epithelium was steady up to the 8th week and then showed a marked increase up the 10th week. The increase in epithelial volume was characterized morphologically by the presence of epithelial infoldings and sprouts. The growth of the epithelium showed a 2-week delay as compared to the lumen and occurred only until the 10th week. The epithelial height was variable but could be related to the synthetic activity of the epithelium. In conclusion, the postnatal growth of the VP results from a combination of epithelial proliferation/differentiation and synthesis/accumulation of the secretory products in the lumen.

  8. Investigations of genotoxic potential of levamisole hydrochloride in bone marrow cells of Wistar rats

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    Kulić Milan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was performed under in vivo conditions on bone marrow cells of Wistar rats. The following doses of levamisole hydrochloride were tested: a therapeutic dose of 2.2 mg/kg bm, a dose of 4.4 mg/kg bm, LD50 -25% mg/kg bm, and LD50 -75% mg/kg bm. We followed the effect of levamisole hydrochloride on kinetics of the cell cycle and the appearance of structural and numeric changes in chromosomes in bone marrow cells. The therapeutic dose of levamisole of 2.2 mg/kg bm exhibited a capability to increase mitotic activity in the observed cells, thus confirming knowledge of the immunostimulative effect of this dose of the medicine under in vivo conditions. The other tested doses of levamisole in this experiment, observed in comparison with the control group, had an opposite effect, namely, they caused a reduction in the mitotic activity of bone marrow cells. All the examined doses in vivo exhibited the ability to induce numeric (aneuploid and polyploid and structural (lesions, breaks and insertions chromosomal aberrations. It can be concluded on the grounds of these findings that the examined doses have a genotoxic effect.

  9. In utero and lactational exposure to fluoxetine in Wistar rats: pregnancy outcomes and sexual development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Juliane C; Boareto, Ana C; Lourenço, Emerson L B; Zaia, Renata M; Kienast, Mariana F; Spercoski, Katherinne M; Morais, Rosana N; Martino-Andrade, Anderson J; Dalsenter, Paulo R

    2013-08-01

    This study evaluated the reproductive effects of fluoxetine exposure in utero and during lactation on pregnancy outcomes and the sexual development of offspring. Pregnant Wistar rats were treated daily with fluoxetine (0.4, 1.7 and 17 mg/kg/day) or distilled water by gavage from gestation day (GD) 7 to lactation day (LD) 21. A significant reduction in maternal body weight was observed during pregnancy and lactation in dams exposed to 17 mg/kg fluoxetine. Hormone analysis revealed an increase in progestagen and glucocorticoid metabolites on GD 15 and oestrogen and progestagen metabolites on LD 7 in dams treated with 17 mg/kg fluoxetine. Oestrogen metabolites also were increased on LD 7 in dams treated with 0.4 mg/kg fluoxetine. Besides that, an increase in the weight of the adrenal glands and a reduction in uterine weight in dams exposed to highest dose of fluoxetine were observed. Finally, pup birthweight and the viability and weaning indices also were reduced in animals exposed to 17 mg/kg fluoxetine. Overall, maternal hormonal changes were only observed at the highest dose tested, which also induced maternal and foetal toxicity. No significant changes were seen in dams or offspring exposed to therapeutic-like doses.

  10. The safety of Homnawakod herbal formula containing Aristolochia tagala Cham. in Wistar rats

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    Tripatara Pinpat

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A dried root of Aristolochia tagala Cham. (ATC is often used in Thai traditional medicine as an antipyretic, anti-inflammatory agent, muscle relaxant, appetite-enhancing agent, and analeptic. Homnawakod, an important herbal recipe, originally contains ATC in its formula, however, some Aristolochia species have been reported to cause nephrotoxicity due to aristolochic acid (AA and its derivatives, resulting in ATC removal from all formulae. Therefore, this study investigates the chemical profiles of ATC, the original (HNK+ATC and the present Homnawakod Ayurved Siriraj Herbal Formulary™ (HNK, and investigates whether they could cause nephrotoxicity or aggravate LPS-induced organ injuries in vivo. Methods HPLC and LC/MS were used for chemical profile study. Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into groups in which the rats were intragastrically administered distilled water (2 groups, ATC (10 or 30 mg/kg, HNK+ATC (540 or 1,620 mg/kg, or HNK (1,590 mg/kg for 21 days. A positive control group was administered with single dose 100 mg/kg standard AA-I intragastrically at day 1. Serum creatinine and urea were measured at baseline and at 7, 14 and 21 days of the treatment. On day 22, a model of lipopolysaccharide (LPS-induced endotoxemia was used. One-way and two-way analyses of variance were performed and a P value of less than 0.05 was considered to be significant. Results The similarity of the HPLC chromatograms of HNK+ATC and HNK could suggest that the qualities of both formulae are nearly the same in terms of chemical profile. The amount of AA-I found in ATC is 0.24%w/w. All experimental groups exhibited similar levels of serum urea at baseline and 7 and 14 days of the treatment. At 21 days, rats received AA exhibited a significant increase in serum urea, whereas the others did not exhibit such toxicity. On day 22, there were no significant changes in LPS-induced renal and liver dysfunction, or LPS-induced mean arterial

  11. Oral lipid loading test in wistar rats as a reliable method for the study of the triacylglycerol malabsorption

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    Merola, Nicola; Medrano Chávez, A.; Ros Berruezo, Gaspar Francisco

    2011-01-01

    Most of the lipid digestion is carried out by pancreatic lipase, secreted in the upper part of the intestinal lumen by pancreatic juice secretions. In this paper, we describe a new single stressless and fast method to evaluate plasma triacylglycerol levels on Wistar rats under anaesthesia and with minimal personal training. After the administration of different diet treatments, plasma triacylglycerol (TAG) levels were analyzed at 30, 60, 120, 180 minutes to characterize the lipidic gastrointe...

  12. Age related changes in NAD+ metabolism oxidative stress and Sirt1 activity in wistar rats.

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    Nady Braidy

    Full Text Available The cofactor nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+ has emerged as a key regulator of metabolism, stress resistance and longevity. Apart from its role as an important redox carrier, NAD+ also serves as the sole substrate for NAD-dependent enzymes, including poly(ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP, an important DNA nick sensor, and NAD-dependent histone deacetylases, Sirtuins which play an important role in a wide variety of processes, including senescence, apoptosis, differentiation, and aging. We examined the effect of aging on intracellular NAD+ metabolism in the whole heart, lung, liver and kidney of female wistar rats. Our results are the first to show a significant decline in intracellular NAD+ levels and NAD:NADH ratio in all organs by middle age (i.e.12 months compared to young (i.e. 3 month old rats. These changes in [NAD(H] occurred in parallel with an increase in lipid peroxidation and protein carbonyls (o- and m- tyrosine formation and decline in total antioxidant capacity in these organs. An age dependent increase in DNA damage (phosphorylated H2AX was also observed in these same organs. Decreased Sirt1 activity and increased acetylated p53 were observed in organ tissues in parallel with the drop in NAD+ and moderate over-expression of Sirt1 protein. Reduced mitochondrial activity of complex I-IV was also observed in aging animals, impacting both redox status and ATP production. The strong positive correlation observed between DNA damage associated NAD+ depletion and Sirt1 activity suggests that adequate NAD+ concentrations may be an important longevity assurance factor.

  13. Effects of immobilization and remobilization on the ankle joint in Wistar rats

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    R.I. Kunz

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A sprained ankle is a common musculoskeletal sports injury and it is often treated by immobilization of the joint. Despite the beneficial effects of this therapeutic measure, the high prevalence of residual symptoms affects the quality of life, and remobilization of the joint can reverse this situation. The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of immobilization and remobilization on the ankle joint of Wistar rats. Eighteen male rats had their right hindlimb immobilized for 15 days, and were divided into the following groups: G1, immobilized; G2, remobilized freely for 14 days; and G3, remobilized by swimming and jumping in water for 14 days, performed on alternate days, with progression of time and a series of exercises. The contralateral limb was the control. After the experimental period, the ankle joints were processed for microscopic analysis. Histomorphometry did not show any significant differences between the control and immobilized/remobilized groups and members, in terms of number of chondrocytes and thickness of the articular cartilage of the tibia and talus. Morphological analysis of animals from G1 showed significant degenerative lesions in the talus, such as exposure of the subchondral bone, flocculation, and cracks between the anterior and mid-regions of the articular cartilage and the synovial membrane. Remobilization by therapeutic exercise in water led to recovery in the articular cartilage and synovial membrane of the ankle joint when compared with free remobilization, and it was shown to be an effective therapeutic measure in the recovery of the ankle joint.

  14. Effect of Curcumin on Angiogenesis in Aortic Ring Model of the Wistar Rat

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    J Baharara

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Tumeric is a plant with both food and medical properties by which Curcumin is derived from. It has various pharmacological effects. Angiogenesis, a dynamic process of endothelial cells proliferation in order to develop new blood vessels from the previous ones, affects a wide range of physiological and pathological processes such as tumor growth and metastasis. In this study, anti angiogenic effects of Cucumin were investigated in aortic ring of Wistar rats. Methods: In this experimental study, Aortic ring was cut up in to 1 mm pieces and cultured in collagen matrix. After three days, sprouting angiogenesis were observed, and then aortic rings were treated with Curcumin at concentration of 25, 50 and 100 µg/ml. Effects of treatment in all cases were photographed and then investigated by invert microscope. Lengths of vessels were measured by Image J software. Moreover, the study data were analyzed using SPSS in significant level of P0.05.In fact, average length and number of blood vessels in experimental group 1 demonstrated no significant difference compared with control group, though in the experimental group 2 (79.45±3.2mm, (12±1.3 and 3 (38.93±1.1mm, (8±1.1 significant differences were observed (P<0.05(. Conclusion: The results proposed that the Curcumin had dose-dependent inhibitory effects on angiogenesis in rat aortic ring Therefore, it can be introduced as an appropriate candidate in order to study angiogenesis and related diseases.

  15. Fructose-Drinking Water Induced Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease and Ultrastructural Alteration of Hepatocyte Mitochondria in Male Wistar Rat

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    Norshalizah Mamikutty

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD is one of the complications of the metabolic syndrome. It encompasses a wide range of disease spectrum from simple steatosis to liver cirrhosis. Structural alteration of hepatic mitochondria might be involved in the pathogenesis of NAFLD. Aims. In the present study, we used a newly established model of fructose-induced metabolic syndrome in male Wistar rats in order to investigate the ultrastructural changes in hepatic mitochondria that occur with fructose consumption and their association with NAFLD pathogenesis. Methods. The concentration of fructose-drinking water (FDW used in this study was 20%. Six male Wistar rats were supplemented with FDW 20% for eight weeks. Body composition and metabolic parameters were measured before and after 8 weeks of FDW 20%. Histomorphology of the liver was evaluated and ultrastructural changes of mitochondria were assessed with transmission electron micrograph. Results. After 8 weeks of fructose consumption, the animals developed several features of the metabolic syndrome. Moreover, fructose consumption led to the development of macrovesicular hepatic steatosis and mitochondrial ultrastructural changes, such as increase in mitochondrial size, disruption of the cristae, and reduction of matrix density. Conclusion. We conclude that in male Wistar rat 8-week consumption of FDW 20% leads to NAFLD likely via mitochondrial structural alteration.

  16. Effect of preservation methods of oil palm sap (Elaeis guineensis) on the reproductive indices of male wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikegwu, Theophilus Maduabuchukwu; Okafor, Gabriel Ifeanyi; Ochiogu, Izuchukwu Shedrack

    2014-12-01

    Thirty male Wistar rats, split into five groups of six rats each, were administered different forms of oil palm tree (Elaeis guineensis) sap samples by gavage based on 1.5% of their weekly body weights. Group 1 which served as control received only water, group 2 received pasteurized palm sap (PPS), group 3 received market palm wine (MPW), group 4 received frozen palm sap (FPS), whereas group 5 received fresh palm sap (FrPS). Chemical composition of the sap samples was determined. Normal feed and water were fed ad libitum. After 2 months of treatment, each male rat group was allowed 7 days to mate with six female Wistar rats. Thereafter, blood and epididymal samples were collected for testosterone assay and sperm count, respectively, before they were humanely sacrificed and testicular tissues taken for testicular histology. Litter weight and size of the pups produced by the females of each group were determined at birth. The sap samples contained carbohydrate (0.01-11.71%), protein (1.56-1.95%), ash (0.22-0.35%), moisture (92.55-98.24%), and alcohol (0.26-3.50%). PPS-treated rat group had significantly (Psap, impacted negatively on the reproductive indices of male animals.

  17. Species specific behavioural patterns (digging and swimming and reaction to novel objects in wild type, Wistar, Sprague-Dawley and Brown Norway rats.

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    Rafał Stryjek

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The purpose of the present study was to analyse species-specific forms of behaviour (digging and swimming and response to novelty in laboratory rats and their wild type counterparts at a very early stage of laboratorization. Three behavioural phenomena were taken into account: burrowing, spontaneous swimming, and neophobic behaviour. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Wild-type rats and three strains of laboratory rats were involved in experiments: Warsaw-Wild-Captive-Pisula-Stryjek (WWCPS, Wistar, Sprague-Dawley, and Brown Norway rats were compared in spontaneous swimming test, while WWCPS and Wistar rats were studied in burrowing and neophobia experiments. Wild rats were found to be faster at building tunnels than Wistar rats and at constructing more complex burrow systems. The experiment on neophobia showed that Wistar rats exhibited less neophobic responses and were more often trapped. WWCPS rats showed highly neophobic behaviour and were rarely trapped in this experiment. The experiment on swimming showed that WWCPS rats showed more complex water tank related activity than their laboratory counterparts. They swam and explored under surface environment. CONCLUSIONS: The three experiments showed profound behavioural differences in quasi-natural forms of behaviour between wild type rats (WWCPS and three laboratory strains frequently used in behavioural studies.

  18. Morphometric study of injuries in the small intestine of wistar rats subjected to irradiation by cobalt 60

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    Rocha, Cristina S.C.; Oliveira, Arno H.; Reis, Renato J.; Manfrini, Francisco A.L.; Silva, Mario R.S. [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Nuclear]. E-mails: cristina_sad@yahoo.com.br; heeren@nuclear.ufmg.br; renatojulio@gmail.com; jrmanfrini@ig.com.br; mario@nuclear.ufmg.br; Mahecha, German A.B. [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Morfologia]. E-mail: mahecha@icb.ufmg.br

    2007-07-01

    In order to understand the mechanisms of intestinal injuries due to ionizing radiation, four groups of male adult Wistar rats have been whole-body irradiated by cobalt-60 gamma-rays at three doses (2.0, 4.0 and 6.0 Gy) and one dose rate (13.82 Gyh{sup -1}). Small intestine samples of the animals were taken 48h after the irradiation and immediately prepared for light microscopy, according to classical methods for histology. A large number of morphological differences were observed within the intestinal glands between the three doses used. It was observed that some of the epithelial glands alterations increased according to the dose used. Some of the alterations that can be highlighted are: the increase of the cellular and nuclear volume, basal cytoplasmatic vacuolisation, and cellular sloughed. Similar alterations were also observed in the goblet cell. The intestinal glands presented an increase of the luminal diameter. It was also observed atypical mitosis, cellular edema, and deformed nucleus in all the irradiated animals. The mitotic, apoptotic and necrotic index were calculated from intestinal gland cells. The mitotic index decreased according to the increase of the dose, but to all doses, there was an increase in relation to the control. On the other hand, the apoptotic index increased with the dose. The necrotic index presented an increase to all the doses. This rise was only significant to 2.0 and to 6.0 Gy. All of the results were significant to 2.0 and to 6.0 Gy compared to the control. This study shows a relation between dose and cellular death. (author)

  19. Differences in Monoamine Oxidase Activity in the Brain of Wistar and August Rats with High and Low Locomotor Activity: A Cytochemical Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergutina, A V; Rakhmanova, V I

    2016-06-01

    Monoamine oxidase activity was quantitatively assessed by cytochemical method in brain structures (layers III and V of the sensorimotor cortex, caudate nucleus, nucleus accumbens, hippocampal CA3 field) of rats of August line and Wistar population with high and low locomotor activity in the open fi eld test. Monoamine oxidase activity (substrate tryptamine) predominated in the nucleus accumbens of Wistar rats with high motor activity in comparison with rats with low locomotor activity. In August rats, enzyme activity (substrates tryptamine and serotonin) predominated in the hippocampus of animals with high motor activity. Comparison of August rats with low locomotor activity and Wistar rats with high motor activity (i.e. animals demonstrating maximum differences in motor function) revealed significantly higher activity of the enzyme (substrates tryptamine and serotonin) in the hippocampus of Wistar rats. The study demonstrates clear-cut morphochemical specificity of monoaminergic metabolism based on the differences in the cytochemical parameter "monoamine oxidase activity", in the studied brain structures, responsible for the formation and realization of goal-directed behavior in Wistar and August rats.

  20. Effect of quercetin against lindane induced alterations in the serum and hepatic tissue lipids in wistar rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Viswanadha Vijaya Padma; Gurusamy Lalitha; Nicholson Puthanveedu Shirony; Rathinasamy Baskaran

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess the effect of quercetin (flavonoid) against lindane induced alterations in lipid profile of wistar rats. Methods: Rats were administered orally with lindane (100 mg/kg body weight) and quercetin (10 mg/kg body weight) for 30 days. After the end of treatment period lipid profile was estimated in serum and tissue. Results: Elevated levels of serum cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipoprotein (LDL), very Low Density Lipoprotein (VLDL) and tissue triglycerides, cholesterol with concomitant decrease in serum HDL and tissue phospholipids were decreased in lindane treated rats were found to be significantly decreased in the quercetin and lindane co-treated rats. Conclusions: Our study suggests that quercetin has hypolipidemic effect and offers protection against lindane induced toxicity in liver by restoring the altered levels of lipids. The quercetin cotreatment along with lindane for 30 days reversed these biochemical alterations in lipids induced by lindane.

  1. Mandibular branch of the facial nerve in wistar rats: new experimental model to assess facial nerve regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bento, Ricardo Ferreira; Salomone, Raquel; Nascimento, Silvia Bona do; Ferreira, Ricardo Jose Rodriguez; Silva, Ciro Ferreira da; Costa, Heloisa Juliana Zabeu Rossi

    2014-07-01

    Introduction The ideal animal model for nerve regeneration studies is the object of controversy, because all models described by the literature have advantages and disadvantages. Objective To describe the histologic and functional patterns of the mandibular branch of the facial nerve of Wistar rats to create a new experimental model of facial nerve regeneration. Methods Forty-two male rats were submitted to a nerve conduction test of the mandibular branch to obtain the compound muscle action potential. Twelve of these rats had the mandibular branch surgically removed and submitted to histologic analysis (number, partial density, and axonal diameter) of the proximal and distal segments. Results There was no statistically significant difference in the functional and histologic variables studied. Conclusion These new histologic and functional standards of the mandibular branch of the facial nerve of rats establish an objective, easy, and greatly reproducible model for future facial nerve regeneration studies.

  2. [Disruption of latent inhibition in adult rats after prepubertal dopamine terminals lesions in the ventral hippocampus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loskutova, L V; Kostiunina, N V; Red'kina, A V

    2010-05-01

    Wistar rats were submitted to bilateral ventral hippocampal injection of 6-hydroxydopamine on 32nd day after birth. Latent inhibition was measured in passive or active avoidance tasks when the rats received 20 and 100 pre-exposures of conditioned stimulus. Prepubertal and adult lesioned rats showed a deficit in the latent inhibition but not in the capacity to avoidance learning in presence of the conditioned stimulus novelty. Possible mechanism of the involvement of hippocampal dopaminergic terminals in attention inhibition to irrelevant information is considered.

  3. Ranitidine treatment inducing methemoglobinemia in male Wistar rats Metemoglobinemia induzida pela ranitidina em ratos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Roberto Malfará

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Drug idiosyncrasy is an adverse event of unknown etiology that occurs in a small fraction of people taking a drug. The histamine-2 (H2-receptor antagonist ranitidine causes idiosyncratic reactions in patients. To investigate the hypothesis that ranitidine could induce hematological toxic effects, the drug was administered intraperitoneally (ip to two of six groups of 200-220 g male Wistar rats (n=6. Group I received as single dose of saline solution (NaCl, 200 µL Group II received 200 µL of NaCl, ip, at 0, 24, 48 and 72 h, Group III (controls of the vehicle received as single dose of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO, 200µL, ip, Group IV (controls of the vehicle received 200 µL of DMSO, ip, at 0, 24, 48, and 72 h, Group V received a single dose of 100 mg/kg of ranitidine in 200 µL of DMSO ip, Group VI received 50 mg/kg of ranitidine, in 200 µL of DMSO, ip, at 0, 24, 48, and 72 h. Erythrograms, leucograms were measured; percent methemoglobin content of the blood was analyzed spectophotometrically. Methemoglobinemia increased to a significant extent following ranitidine treatment, in both study groups. White blood cell and neutrophil counts showed a discrete reduction following either regime of treatment. A marginal mobilization of the neutrophil pool probably occured. Following the multiple dose regime, leukocyte counts increased, but their distribution maintenance profile remained the same. The administration of ranitidine to rats induces methemoglobinemia in the administered doses, suggesting that from a certain concentration and dosage scheme the substance can be methemeglobinemia inductor.A idiossincrasia a fármacos é um evento adverso de origem desconhecida, que acontece em poucas pessoas. É conhecido que a ranitidina, um antagonista de receptores H2, causa reações idiossincrásicas. Para investigar uma possível indução da ranitidina em relação a hemotoxicidade, o fármaco foi administrado intraperitonealmente (i.p. em dois de seis

  4. Electrophysiological, vasoactive, and gastromodulatory effects of stevia in healthy Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yesmine, Saquiba; Connolly, Kylie; Hill, Nicholas; Coulson, Fiona R; Fenning, Andrew S

    2013-07-01

    Antihypertensive and antidiabetic effects of stevia, Stevia rebaudiana (Asteraceae), have been demonstrated in several human and animal models. The current study aims to define stevia's role in modifying the electrophysiological and mechanical properties of cardiomyocytes, blood vessels, and gastrointestinal smooth muscle. Tissues from thoracic aorta, mesenteric arteries, ileum, and left ventricular papillary muscles were excised from 8-week-old healthy Wistar rats. The effects of stevia (1 × 10-9 M to 1 × 10-4 M) were measured on these tissues. Stevia's effects in the presence of verapamil, 4-AP, and L-NAME were also assessed. In cardiomyocytes, stevia attenuated the force of contraction, decreased the average peak amplitude, and shortened the repolarisation phase of action potential - repolarisation phase of action potential20 by 25 %, repolarisation phase of action potential50 by 34 %, and repolarisation phase of action potential90 by 36 %. Stevia caused relaxation of aortic tissues which was significantly potentiated in the presence of verapamil. In mesenteric arteries, incubation with L-NAME failed to block stevia-induced relaxation indicating the mechanism of action may not be fully via nitric oxide-dependent pathways. Stevia concentration-dependently reduced electrical field stimulated and carbachol-induced contractions in the isolated ileum. This study is the first to show the effectiveness of stevia in reducing cardiac action potential duration at 20 %, 50 %, and 90 % of repolarisation. Stevia also showed beneficial modulatory effects on cardiovascular and gastrointestinal tissues via calcium channel antagonism, activation of the M2 muscarinic receptor function, and enhanced nitric oxide release.

  5. Study of morbidity in orthotopic small intestine transplantation with Wistar rats: experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LEE André Dong Won

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Background - Transplantation of the small intestine is a surgical procedure currently under investigation for its possible application in the treatment of patients with short bowel syndrome, aiming at the reintroduction of an oral diet. Aim - To define the morbidity and mortality of intestinal transplantation in small animals using microsurgery. Intra and postoperative morbidity and mortality were studied in Wistar rats submitted to orthotopic intestinal allotransplantation. Material and Method - The animals were divided into three groups: group A (37 donor animals, group B (37 recipient animals, and group C (10 control animals. Group B was divided into three subgroups according to survival time. Subgroup TI consisted of animals that died during surgery or due to causes directly related to surgical intervention, subgroup T2 consisted of animals that died between the 4th and 29th postoperative day, and subgroup T3 consisted of animals that survived after 30 days. Transplanted animals were evaluated in terms of surgical technique used (vascular and intestinal anastomosis, graft quality, surgical time, and clinical parameters. The animals that died by the 29th postoperative day were submitted to autopsy and the remaining ones were sacrificed after 30 days. Result - There was a high rate of complication of a surgical nature. Early mortality rate, i.e., mortality up to the third postoperative day, was 54% with vascular anastomosis being the major cause of death. Surgical time was evaluated in a restricted and homogeneous group and showed a strong prognostic value in terms of successful transplantation. Clinical parameters such as weight loss, reduction of ingestion, reduction of motor activity and diarrhea were directly correlated with acute rejection. Conclusion - The experimented intestinal transplant is a procedure companied by considerable morbidity and mortality due to surgical complications in postoperative period, vascular anastomosis and

  6. Experimental demonstration of pathogenic potential of Anisakis physeteris and Anisakis paggiae in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, María Carmen; Valero, Adela; Navarro, María Concepción; Hierro, Ignacio; Barón, Sergio David; Martín-Sánchez, Joaquina

    2014-12-01

    Anisakis morphotype I is the principal etiologic agent of human anisakiasis, with differences in pathogenicity found between the Anisakis simplex s.s. and A. pegreffii species; however, the role of morphotype II larvae in this illness is not well understood. The purpose of this study is to verify the ability of morphotype II larvae to invade tissues via the experimental infection of Wistar rats, an animal model which simulates infection in humans. In the in vivo assay, 7.1% (4/56 L3 morphotype II) showed pathogenic potential, defined as the capacity of the larvae to cause lesions, attach to the gastrointestinal wall or penetrate it. Two of these larvae, one of A. physeteris and one of A. paggiae, penetrated the stomach wall and were found within the abdominal cavity, with the first one producing a small lesion with blood vessel breakage. The majority of the L3 larvae of morphotype II were found in the intestine (51.8%; 29/56) with the caecum being the least frequent location (8.9%; 5/56). In contrast, 44.0% (11/25) of the morphotype I larvae demonstrated pathogenic potential. Isoenzyme electrophoresis, PCR-RFLP of ITS1-5.8 s-ITS2 and PCR-sequencing of the cox2 mitochondrial gene were used to identify these larvae as A. physeteris (42.9%), A. paggiae (30.3%) and A. brevispiculata (1.8%). Although the morphotype II larvae of A. physeteris and A. paggiae have lower pathogenic potential than morphotype I larvae of A. simplex s.s. (93 and 91% lower, respectively), they may still be implicated in human anisakiasis, as they are capable of attaching to and penetrating the gastrointestinal wall of animals, demonstrating a similar pathogenicity to that of A. pegreffii. The techniques used for the identification of species reveal a great genetic heterogeneity of A. paggiae and A. physeteris, suggesting the existence of sibling species.

  7. Reduced protein oxidation in Wistar rats supplemented with marine ω3 PUFAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez, Lucía; Pazos, Manuel; Gallardo, José M; Torres, Josep L; Pérez-Jiménez, Jara; Nogués, Rosa; Romeu, Marta; Medina, Isabel

    2013-02-01

    The potential effects of various dietary eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6) ratios (1:1, 2:1, and 1:2, respectively) on protein redox states from plasma, kidney, skeletal muscle, and liver were investigated in Wistar rats. Dietary fish oil groups were compared with animals fed soybean and linseed oils, vegetable oils enriched in ω6 linoleic acid (LA; 18:2) and ω3 α-linolenic acid (ALA; 18:3), respectively. Fish oil treatments were effective at reducing the level of total fatty acids in plasma and enriching the plasmatic free fatty acid fraction and erythrocyte membranes in EPA and DHA. A proteomic approach consisting of fluorescein 5-thiosemicarbazide (FTSC) labeling of protein carbonyls, FTSC intensity visualization on 1-DE or 2-DE gels, and protein identification by MS/MS was used for the protein oxidation assessment. Albumin was found to be the most carbonylated protein in plasma for all dietary groups, and its oxidation level was significantly modulated by dietary interventions. Supplementation with an equal EPA:DHA ratio (1:1) showed the lowest oxidation score for plasma albumin, followed in increasing order of carbonylation by 1:2 proteins and cytosolic proteins from kidney and liver also indicated a protective effect on proteins for the fish oil treatments, the 1:1 ratio exhibiting the lowest protein oxidation scores. The effect of fish oil treatments at reducing carbonylation on specific proteins from plasma (albumin), skeletal muscle (actin), and liver (albumin, argininosuccinate synthetase, 3-α-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase) was remarkable. This investigation highlights the efficiency of dietary fish oil at reducing in vivo oxidative damage of proteins compared to oils enriched in the 18-carbon polyunsaturated fatty acids ω3 ALA and ω6 LA, and such antioxidant activity may differ among different fish oil sources because of variations in EPA/DHA content.

  8. Ameliorative effect of Apodytes dimidiata on cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divya, Menon Kunnathully; Lincy, Lawrence; Raghavamenon, Achuthan Chathrattil; Babu, Thekkekara Devassy

    2016-10-01

    Context Nutraceuticals possessing antioxidant potential have been used to alleviate side effects exerted by many chemotherapeutics, including cisplatin. Since Apodytes dimidiata E. Mey. Ex Arn. (Icacinaceae) shows antioxidant potential, it may possess significant chemoprotective effects. Objectives The study investigated whether A. dimidiata could attenuate cisplatin-induced renal damage. Materials and methods Nephrotoxicity was induced by cisplatin (single i.p., 16 mg/kg b wt.) in Wistar rats. Methanolic leaf extract of A. dimidiata (AMF) was administered at a dose of 250 mg/kg b. wt. orally for 5 consecutive days before/after cisplatin administration. Blood and renal parameters were analysed. Total phenolic and flavonoid content in AMF and its NO scavenging effect was determined. Results Significant protective effect of AMF on cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity was observed in pre-treated animals. The reduction of urea, creatinine and lipid peroxidation was 58.31%, 42.19% and 60%, respectively, and the increase in haemoglobin and leucocyte count was 28.25% and 42.91%, respectively. The increase calculated for GSH, GPx, SOD and catalase was 35.64%, 18.14%, 74.42% and 35.46%, respectively. Tissue architecture of kidney was almost normal in AMF treated animals. The results were comparable to the standard drug, silymarin. AMF contained high level of polyphenols and flavonoids and was found to scavenge NO radicals (IC50 121.8 μg/mL). Discussion and conclusion AMF can effectively counteract cisplatin mediated renal acute toxicity possibly by scavenging reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. Accordingly, the study suggests that AMF can ameliorate free radical-induced damage associated with chemotherapeutic drugs.

  9. Flaxseed and its contribution to body growth and brain of Wistar rats during chidhood and adolescence Linaza y su contribución al crecimiento del cuerpo y el cerebro de ratas wistar durante la infancia y la adolescencia

    OpenAIRE

    C. D. Ferreira Costa Leite; K. Calvi Lenzi de Almeida; M.ª A. Guzmán-Silva; J. Azevedo de Meneses; G. Teles Boaventura

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the effect of flaxseed upon body growth and brain of rats. Methods: Experimental phase lasted 52 days, using 42 Wistar rats which were divided into four groups: Control (CG, n = 12), 10% casein diet; Flaxseed (GL, n = 12), 10% flaxseed diet plus casein; Modified Control (GCM, n = 12), 10% casein diet with changes in lipid and fiber comparable to GL; Non-protein (GA, n = 6), diet without protein. Considering food intake, protein intake and weight variation, the Protein ...

  10. SERUM VITAMIN LEVELS IN FEMALE WISTAR RATS ADMINISTERED WITH DIFFERENT DOSES OF PARACETAMOL AND PARACETAMOL/METHIONINE – AN ACUTE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iyanda Ayobola Abolape

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Testosterone has been identified to play a role in the metabolism of paracetamol in the CD 1 mouse, resulting in differences in renal presentations of male and female mice. Moreover, alterations have been observed in the serum levels of vitamins in male Wistar rats administered with paracetamol/methionine. The aim of this study is to determine if the sex of an animal plays a role in serum vitamin presentation in the Wistar strain after paracetamol/methionine administration. This will be achieved by comparing observation made from this study with an earlier one on male Wistar rats. Moreover, comparison of presentations at the 4th & 16th hours will be carried out, so as to establish how earlier in the course of exposure to paracetamol/methionine vitamin alteration takes place. Female Wistar Rats consisting of eight rats per group were administered with different doses of paracetamol & paracetamol/methionine (5:1 ranging from 350-5000 mg/kg. Results indicate that significant alterations (p<0.05 in the levels of all the vitamins commenced as early as the 4th hour in both paracetamol & paracetamol/methionine administered groups. Moreover, significant alterations in the female rats parallel those of male rats obtained from an earlier study. Evidence from this study when compared with an earlier one indicates that sex probable plays no role on the impact of paracetamol on serum vitamins in Wistar rats.

  11. Validation of Reference Genes for RT–qPCR Analysis in Noise–Induced Hearing Loss: A Study in Wistar Rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melgar–Rojas, Pedro; Alvarado, Juan Carlos; Fuentes–Santamaría, Verónica; Gabaldón–Ull, María Cruz; Juiz, José M.

    2015-01-01

    The reverse transcriptase–quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT–qPCR) requires adequate normalization in order to ensure accurate results. The use of reference genes is the most common method to normalize RT–qPCR assays; ho